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Sample records for bacterial ferric ion

  1. Hydrogen Reduction of Ferric Ions for Use in Copper Electrowinning

    SciTech Connect

    Karl S. Noah; Debby F. Bruhn; John E. Wey; Robert S. Cherry

    2005-01-01

    The conventional copper electrowinning process uses the water hydrolysis reaction as the anodic source of electrons. However this reaction generates acid mist and requires large quantities of energy. In order to improve energy efficiency and avoid acid mist, an alternative anodic reaction of ferrous ion oxidation has been proposed. This reaction does not involve evolution of acid mist and can be carried out at a lower cell voltage than the conventional process. However, because ferrous ions are converted to ferric ions at the anode in this process, there is a need for reduction of ferric ions to ferrous ions to continue this process. The most promising method for this reduction is the use of hydrogen gas since the resulting byproduct acid can be used elsewhere in the process and, unlike other reductants, hydrogen does not introduce other species that need subsequent removal. Because the hydrogen reduction technology has undergone only preliminary lab scale testing, additional research is needed to evaluate its commercial potential. Two issues for this research are the potentially low mass transfer rate of hydrogen into the electrolyte stream because of its low solubility in water, and whether other gaseous reductants less expensive than hydrogen, such as natural gas or syngas, might work. In this study various reductants were investigated to carry out the reduction of ferric ions to ferrous ions using a simulated electrolyte solution recycled through a trickle bed reactor packed with catalyst. The gases tested as reductants were hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide, and a 50/50 mixture of H2 and CO. Nitrogen was also tested as an inert control. These gases were tested because they are constituents in either natural gas or syngas. The catalysts tested were palladium and platinum. Two gas flow rates and five electrolyte flow rates were tested. Pure hydrogen was an effective reductant of ferric ion. The rates were similar with both palladium and platinum. The ferric

  2. Complexation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide with ferric and ferrous ions.

    PubMed

    Lvovich, V; Scheeline, A

    1995-06-20

    Motivated by the observed influence of stainless steel and ferric and ferrous ions on the behavior of the peroxidase/oxidase oscillator, the mechanism and kinetics of interaction of 1,4-dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) with iron ions in 0.1 M acetic acid/sodium acetate buffer with pH 5.1 and with the solution/stainless steel interface were extensively studied. The character of a possible mutual influence of NADH/acetate buffer solution and Type 316 stainless steel has been investigated. We also suggest the mechanism of stainless steel corrosion inhibition by NADH. It was determined that fast complexation of ferric and ferrous ions with NADH occurred with rate constant kcompl = 4.0 x 10(9) +/- 0.2 x 10(9) M-1 s-1. The composition of the product complex is [Fe-(NADH)2] for both Fe2+ and Fe3+. A previously unreported complex of ferrous ion and NADH was discovered, determined, and separately investigated. Kinetic and equilibrium constants for reactions of iron ions-NADH complexation and following redox processes of the complex decomposition were determined from spectrophotometric and electrochemical experiments.

  3. Inhibitory effect of high concentrations of ferric ions on the activity of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    PubMed

    Kawabe, Yoshishige; Inoue, Chihiro; Suto, Koichi; Chida, Tadashi

    2003-01-01

    The influence of high concentrations of ferric ions on the biochemical activity of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was studied using intact cells. The specific oxidation rate of ferrous ions decreased with increasing ferric ion concentration. Lineweaver-Burk plots revealed typical competitive inhibition kinetics, because the slopes varied with the ferric ion concentration. A linear relationship between the slope and the square of the ferric ion concentration revealed that the iron-oxidizing enzyme system of A. ferrooxidans was competitively inhibited by about two molecules of ferric ion. The kinetic equation based on this inhibition model agreed with the experimental observation at a high ferric ion concentration where the bacterium is usually exposed in bioleaching and biooxidation plants.

  4. ANALYSIS OF FERRIC AND FERROUS IONS IN SOIL EXTRACTS BY ION CHROMATOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method using ion chromatography (IC) for the analysis of ferrous (Fe 2+) and ferric (Fe 3+) ions in soil extracts has been developed. This method uses an ion exchange column with detection at 520 nm after post-column derivatization. Selectivity is achieved by using an anionic...

  5. ANALYSIS OF FERRIC AND FERROUS IONS IN SOIL EXTRACTS BY ION CHROMATOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method using ion chromatography (IC) for the analysis of ferrous (Fe 2+) and ferric (Fe 3+) ions in soil extracts has been developed. This method uses an ion exchange column with detection at 520 nm after post-column derivatization. Selectivity is achieved by using an anionic...

  6. U-EXTRACTION--IMPROVEMENTS IN ELIMINATION OF Mo BY USE OF FERRIC ION

    DOEpatents

    Clark, H.M.; Duffey, D.

    1958-06-10

    An improved solvent extraction process is described whereby U may be extracted by a water immiscible organic solvent from an aqueous solution of uranyl nitrate. It has been found that Mo in the presence of phosphate ions appears to form a complex with the phosphate which extracts along with the U. This extraction of Mo may be suppressed by providing ferric ion in the solution prior to the extraction step. The ferric ion is preferably provided in the form of ferric nitrate.

  7. Effects of cupric and ferric ions on in vitro lipid peroxidation of human serum

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta, A.; Peng, Y.; Zdunek, T. )

    1991-03-15

    Transition metal ions especially ferric ions can catalytically generate free radicals by the Haber-Weiss reaction and initiate lipid peroxidation. Such processes may contribute to the mechanism of acute toxicity by transition metals. Serum pools were prepared from normal blood donors and incubated with 1mM cupric or ferric ions at 37C for 24h. Lipid peroxidation products were subsequently measured by 2-thiobarbituric acid assay as described by Yagi and the values were expressed as {mu}mol/L malonaldehyde equivalents. In another experiment, lipoproteins were coprecipitated with other proteins by 10% phosphotungstic acid/sulfuric acid and precipitates in aqueous suspension were incubated with 1 mM cupric or ferric ions. When sera were incubated, the authors observed higher concentrations of lipid peroxidation products with cupric ions compared to samples supplemented with ferric ions. The mean value for peroxidation products in control group was 2.5 {mu}mol/L. However, the effect was reversed when protein precipitates were incubated in presence of such ions. Ferric ions also caused more peroxidation of linoleic acid and phosphatidylcholine isolated from egg yolk when compared to cupric ions. Such differential behavior may be attributed to different degree of chelation of ferric and cupric ions with serum proteins.

  8. Prooxidant and antioxidant effects of Trolox on ferric ion-induced oxidation of erythrocyte membrane lipids.

    PubMed

    Ko, K M; Yick, P K; Poon, M K; Ip, S P

    1994-12-07

    The prooxidant and antioxidant actions of Trolox were examined in an in vitro system measuring ferric ion-induced oxidation of erythrocyte membrane lipids. Trolox was found to produce a concentration-dependent biphasic effect on the ferric ion-stimulated lipid peroxidation, with the mode of action being similar to those produced by reducing-agent antioxidants, such as ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione, and iron chelator, such as desferrioxamine. Phytic acid, a potent iron chelator, could suppress the prooxidant actions of Trolox and desferrioxamine, but not those of ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione. The ability of Trolox to stimulate ferric ion-catalyzed ascorbate oxidation, as similar to the action produced by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, indicates the presence of iron-chelating activity. The ensemble of results suggests the possible involvement of iron chelation in the prooxidant action of Trolox in ferric ion-stimulated lipid peroxidation reactions.

  9. Ferric ion leaching of chalcopyrites from different localities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutrizac, J. E.

    1991-12-01

    Carefully sized and characterized chalcopyrite concentrates were produced from eleven different geographical localities, and were subsequently leached in both ferric chloride-hydrochloric acid and ferric sulfate-sulfuric acid media. When the leaching rates were corrected for the amount of CuFeS2 in the particular sample, similar leaching rates (±50 pet) were observed for all eleven chalcopyrites under all experimental conditions. Furthermore, all the relatively pure chalcopyrites leached according to the same reaction and yielded >95 pet elemental sulfur as a sulfidic reaction product. In light of the current experimental observations, various reasons are offered for the order of magnitude variations in the chalcopyrite leaching rates often reported in the literature.

  10. Ferric ion leaching of chalcopyrites from different localities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutrizac, J. E.

    1982-09-01

    Carefully sized and characterized chalcopyrite concentrates were produced from eleven different geographical localities, and were subsequently leached in both ferric chloride-hydrochloric acid and ferric sulfate-sulfuric acid media. When the leaching rates were corrected for the amount of CuFeS2 in the particular sample, similar leaching rates (±50 pct) were observed for all eleven chalcopyrites under all experimental conditions. Furthermore, all the relatively pure chalcopyrites leached according to the same reaction and yielded >95 pct elemental sulfur as a sulfidic reaction product. In light of the current experimental observations, various reasons are offered for the order of magnitude variations in the chalcopyrite leaching rates often reported in the literature.

  11. Mechanistic insights into metal ion activation and operator recognition by the ferric uptake regulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Zengqin; Wang, Qing; Liu, Zhao; Zhang, Manfeng; Machado, Ana Carolina Dantas; Chiu, Tsu-Pei; Feng, Chong; Zhang, Qi; Yu, Lin; Qi, Lei; Zheng, Jiangge; Wang, Xu; Huo, Xinmei; Qi, Xiaoxuan; Li, Xiaorong; Wu, Wei; Rohs, Remo; Li, Ying; Chen, Zhongzhou

    2015-07-01

    Ferric uptake regulator (Fur) plays a key role in the iron homeostasis of prokaryotes, such as bacterial pathogens, but the molecular mechanisms and structural basis of Fur-DNA binding remain incompletely understood. Here, we report high-resolution structures of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1 Fur in four different states: apo-Fur, holo-Fur, the Fur-feoAB1 operator complex and the Fur-Pseudomonas aeruginosa Fur box complex. Apo-Fur is a transition metal ion-independent dimer whose binding induces profound conformational changes and confers DNA-binding ability. Structural characterization, mutagenesis, biochemistry and in vivo data reveal that Fur recognizes DNA by using a combination of base readout through direct contacts in the major groove and shape readout through recognition of the minor-groove electrostatic potential by lysine. The resulting conformational plasticity enables Fur binding to diverse substrates. Our results provide insights into metal ion activation and substrate recognition by Fur that suggest pathways to engineer magnetotactic bacteria and antipathogenic drugs.

  12. A turn-on fluorescent probe based on hydroxylamine oxidation for detecting ferric ion selectively in living cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Yu, Fabiao; Liu, Ping; Chen, Lingxin

    2012-05-28

    We have described a turn on fluorescent probe BOD-NHOH based on hydroxylamine oxidation for detecting intracellular ferric ions. The probe comprises a signal transducer of BODIPY dye and a Fe(3+)-response modulator of hydroxylamine. It is readily employed for assessing intracellular ferric ion levels, and confocal imaging is achieved successfully. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  13. Ferric chloride-graphite intercalation compounds as anode materials for Li-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lili; Zhu, Yongchun; Guo, Cong; Zhu, Xiaobo; Liang, Jianwen; Qian, Yitai

    2014-01-01

    Ferric chloride-graphite intercalation compounds (FeCl3 -GICs) with stage 1 and stage 2 structures were synthesized by reacting FeCl3 and expanded graphite (EG) in air in a stainless-steel autoclave. As rechargeable Li-ion batteries, these FeCl3 -GICs exhibit high capacity, excellent cycling stability, and superior rate capability, which could be attributed to their unique intercalation features. This work may enable new possibilities for the fabrication of Li-ion batteries.

  14. Ferric and cupric ions requirement for DNA single-strand breakage by H2O2.

    PubMed

    Tachon, P

    1989-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), was able to nick the replicative form of the phage fd, without the addition of a reducing agent or of a metal. This DNA single-strand breakage decreased with an increase of the ionic strength, suggesting that H2O2 reacted with traces of metal bound to DNA. When cupric of ferric ions were added, the rate of DNA single-strand breakage by H2O2 greatly increased and it was 20-30 times faster with cupric than with ferric ions. The addition of EDTA at an equimolar ratio or in excess of metal prevented partially DNA single-strand cleavage by H2O2 in the presence of ferric ions and completely when cupric ions were used. Superoxide dismutase prevented DNA single-strand breakage by H2O2 and ferric ions. On the contrary, with cupric ions and H2O2, the addition of superoxide dismutase increased the rate of DNA single-strand breakage. That superoxide dismutase was acting catalytically was shown by the loss of its effects after heat inactivation of the enzyme. The results of the present study show that besides its involvement in the Fenton reaction, H2O2 is able to reduce the metal bound to DNA, generating the superoxide anion radical or/and its protonated form, the perhydroxyl radical involved in DNA nicking. On the other hand, the ability of cuprous ions unlike ferrous ions to dismutate the superoxide radical may explain some differences observed between iron and copper in the DNA single-strand breakage by H2O2.

  15. Studying Equilibrium in the Chemical Reaction between Ferric and Iodide Ions in Solution Using a Simple and Inexpensive Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikolaychuk, Pavel Anatolyevich; Kuvaeva, Alyona Olegovna

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory experiment on the study of the chemical equilibrium based on the reaction between ferric and iodide ions in solution with the formation of ferrous ions, free iodine, and triiodide ions is developed. The total concentration of iodide and triiodide ions in the reaction mixture during the reaction is determined by the argentometric…

  16. Studying Equilibrium in the Chemical Reaction between Ferric and Iodide Ions in Solution Using a Simple and Inexpensive Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikolaychuk, Pavel Anatolyevich; Kuvaeva, Alyona Olegovna

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory experiment on the study of the chemical equilibrium based on the reaction between ferric and iodide ions in solution with the formation of ferrous ions, free iodine, and triiodide ions is developed. The total concentration of iodide and triiodide ions in the reaction mixture during the reaction is determined by the argentometric…

  17. The kinetics of the oxidation of pyrite by ferric ions and dissolved oxygen: An electrochemical study

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, P.R.; Crundwell, F.K.

    2000-01-01

    The dissolution of pyrite is important in the geochemical cycling of iron and sulphur, in the formation of acid mine drainage, and in the extraction of metals by bacterial leaching. Many researchers have studied the kinetics of dissolution, and the rate of dissolution has often been found to be half-order in ferric ions or oxygen. Previous work has not adequately explained the kinetics of dissolution of pyrite. The dissolution of pyrite is an oxidation-reduction reaction. The kinetics of the oxidation and reduction half-reactions was studied independently using electrochemical techniques of voltammetry. The kinetics of the overall reaction was studied by the electrochemical technique of potentiometry, which consisted of measuring the mixed potential of a sample of corroding pyrite in solutions of different compositions. The kinetics of the half reactions are related to the kinetics of the overall dissolution reaction by the condition that there is no accumulation of charge. This principle is used to derive expressions for the mixed potential and the rate of dissolution, which successfully describe the mixed potential measurements and the kinetics of dissolution reported in the literature. It is shown that the observations of half-order kinetics and that the oxygen in the sulphate product arises from water are both a direct consequence of the electrochemical mechanism. Thus it is concluded that the electrochemical reaction steps occurring at the mineral-solution interface control the rate of dissolution. Raman spectroscopy was used to analyze reaction products formed on the pyrite surface. The results indicated that small amounts of polysulphides form on the surface of the pyrite. However, it was also found that the mixed (corrosion) potential does not change over a 14-day leaching period. This indicates that even though polysulphide material is present on the surface, it does not influence the rate of the reactions occurring at the surface. Measurement of the

  18. Formation of Green Rust and Immobilization of Nickel in Response to Bacterial Reduction of Hydrous Ferric Oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Parmar, N.; Gorby, Yuri A.; Beveridge, Terrance J.; Ferris, F G.

    2001-04-01

    This investigation documents the formation of Green Rust (GR) and immobilization of Ni2+ in response to bacterial reduction of hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) reduction experiments provided evidence that the solid-phase partitioning of Ni2+ in GR extended from equilibrium solid-solution behavior.

  19. Bacterial Formation of As(V) and As(III) Ferric Oxyhydroxides in Acid Mine Drainage.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, G.; Juillot, F.; Lebrun, S.; Casiot, C.; Elbaz-Poulichet, F.; Bruneel, O.; Personne, J.; Leblanc, M.; Ildefonse, P.; Calas, G.

    2002-12-01

    The oxidation of dissolved Fe(II) which is often promoted by acidophilic bacteria in acid mine drainage (AMD) and some hot springs, leads to the precipitation of Fe(III) oxy-hydroxides which incorporate toxic elements within their structure or adsorb them at their surface, thus limiting their mobility. In such complex natural systems, synchrotron-based techniques as X-ray absorption spectroscopy offer the opportunity to monitor surface/solution interactions as well as redox changes affecting the mobility and toxicity of trace elements as arsenic. Spatial and seasonal variations of the (bio-) oxidation of Fe(II) and As(III), and the subsequent precipitation of As-Fe gels, were followed by XANES, XRD, and SEM along the CarnoulŠs AMD (Gard, France). Chemical and mineralogical data collected on sediments, stromatolite, and bioassay samples showed that some indigenous bacteria living in the As-rich CarnoulŠs water ([As] = up to 350 mg.l-1) play an important role in the nature and composition of the solid phases that sequester arsenic at the site. The formation of nano-crystalline and amorphous As(III) ferric oxy-hydroxides has been related to the presence of bacteria able to oxidize Fe(II) but not As(III), which are only present in winter in the upstream area. A rare ferric arsenite sulfate oxy-hydroxide mineral was discovered in this context. Other types of bacteria, occurring in the downstream area whatever the season, are able to catalyze As(III) to As(V) oxidation and, provided that enough Fe(II) oxidizes, promote the formation of amorphous As(V) rich ferric oxy-hydroxides. These bacterially mediated reactions significantly reduce the concentration of dissolved As(III), which is more toxic and mobile than As(V), and might thus be helpful for designing As-removal processes. This work was supported by the French PEVS and ACI Ecologie Quantitative Programs and the PIRAMID EC program. ?Deceased, 26 October 1999 Juillot F., Ildefonse Ph., Morin G., Calas G., De

  20. The effect of cupric and ferric ions on antioxidant properties of human serum albumi.

    PubMed

    Rezaei Behbehani, Gholamreza; Gonbadi, Katayon; Eslami, Nasrin

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of both ferric (Fe³⁺) and cupric (Cu²⁺) ions with human serum albumin (HSA) was assayed at a temperature of 27°C in aqueous solution using isothermal titration calorimetry. The association equilibrium constant and the molar enthalpy for one binding is 1.7 × 10⁵ M-1 and -31.37 kJ • M⁻¹, respectively. To obtain the binding parameters of metal ion-protein interaction over the whole range of Fe³⁺ concentrations, the extended solvation model was applied. The solvation parameters obtained from this model were attributed to the structural change of HSA. The binding parameters obtained from the extended solvation model indicate that the stability of HSA was decreased as a result of its binding with ferric ions, which cause dampening the antioxidant property of HSA. Cuperic ion increases the stability of HSA considerably, indicating that the antioxidant property of human serum albumin are increased as a result of its interaction with cupric ion.

  1. Car–Parrinello molecular dynamics in the DFT + U formalism: Structure and energetics of solvated ferrous and ferric ions

    SciTech Connect

    Sit, P H L.; Cococcioni, Matteo; Marzari, Nicola N.

    2007-09-01

    The research described in this product was performed in part in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. We implemented a rotationally-invariant Hubbard U extension to density-functional theory in the Car–Parrinello molecular dynamics framework, with the goal of bringing the accuracy of the DFT + U approach to finite-temperature simulations, especially for liquids or solids containing transition-metal ions. First, we studied the effects on the Hubbard U on the static equilibrium structure of the hexaaqua ferrous and ferric ions, and the inner-sphere reorganization energy for the electron-transfer reaction between aqueous ferrous and ferric ions. It is found that the reorganization energy is increased, mostly as a result of the Fe–O distance elongation in the hexa-aqua ferrous ion. Second, we performed a first-principles molecular dynamics study of the solvation structure of the two aqueous ferrous and ferric ions. The Hubbard term is found to change the Fe–O radial distribution function for the ferrous ion, while having a negligible effect on the aqueous ferric ion. Moreover, the frequencies of vibrations between Fe and oxygen atoms in the first-solvation shell are shown to be unaffected by the Hubbard corrections for both ferrous and ferric ions.

  2. Removal of cerium ions from aqueous solution by hydrous ferric oxide--a radiotracer study.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Som Shankar; Rao, Battula Sreenivasa

    2011-02-28

    Radiotracer technique has been used to study the removal behavior of Ce (III) ions from aqueous solutions by synthesized and well characterized hydrous ferric oxide (HFO). Adsorptive concentration (10(-4)-10(-8) mol dm(-3)), pH (ca 4.0-10.0) and temperature (303-333 K) were examined for assessing optimal conditions for removal of these ions. The uptake of Ce (III) ions, which fitted well for Freundlich and D-R isotherms, increased with increase in the temperature and no significant desorption took place in the studied temperature range. The presence of some anions/cations affected the uptake of metal ion markedly. Irradiation of hydrous ferric oxide and tungsten oxide by using a 11.1×10(9) Bq (Ra-Be) neutron source having a neutron flux of 3.9×10(6) cm(-2) s(-1) with associated γ-dose rate of 1.72 Gy/h did not influence the extent of adsorption of Ce (III) significantly. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Ferric ion as a scavenging agent in a solvent extraction process

    DOEpatents

    Bruns, Lester E.; Martin, Earl C.

    1976-01-01

    Ferric ions are added into the aqueous feed of a plutonium scrap recovery process that employs a tributyl phosphate extractant. Radiolytic degradation products of tributyl phosphate such as dibutyl phosphate form a solid precipitate with iron and are removed from the extraction stages via the waste stream. Consequently, the solvent extraction characteristics are improved, particularly in respect to minimizing the formation of nonstrippable plutonium complexes in the stripping stages. The method is expected to be also applicable to the partitioning of plutonium and uranium in a scrap recovery process.

  4. Fabrication of novel chemosensors composed of rhodamine derivative for the detection of ferric ion and mechanism studies on the interaction between sensor and ferric ion.

    PubMed

    Shi, Dongjian; Ni, Ming; Luo, Jing; Akashi, Mitsuru; Liu, Xiaoya; Chen, Mingqing

    2015-02-21

    Although many rhodamine based fluorescence sensors were reported to detect metal ions with high sensitivity and selectivity, there are very few reports available to study the mechanisms of detection and the interaction between probe and metal ions. This paper aims to detect ferric ions by novel fluorescence chemosensors and study the mechanisms in detail. A novel probe AD-MAH-RhB was designed and synthesized from rhodamine B (RhB), adamantyl (AD), ethylene diamine and maleic anhydride (MAH). AD-MAH-RhB could detect Fe(3+) in aqueous solutions. The mechanism was explored by the HSAB principle, FTIR and mass spectra. The results suggested that Fe(3+) bound with amine and oxygen atoms in AD-MAH-RhB to form a complex composed of a 2 : 1 stoichiometry of Fe(3+) and the probe. Moreover, computational simulations were employed to further investigate the detection mechanism. The calculated results showed that Fe(3+) could conjugate with AD-MAH-RhB probe to form a stable complex, which was induced by synergetic effects of the suitable space and distance of van der Waals forces. However, Hg(2+) was found to disturb this detection and form a complex with 1 : 2 stoichiometry of Hg(2+) and AD-MAH-RhB. Then, another probe, β-cyclodextrin modified polymaleic anhydride (PMAH-CD) including AD-MAH-RhB (PMAH-CD/AD-MAH-RhB) was fabricated by inclusion interaction between CD and AD. PMAH-CD@AD-MAH-RhB showed high selectivity and sensitivity to Fe(3+) in the aqueous solution by eliminating the interruption of Hg(2+) possibly due to the high hydrogen interaction among the probes to inhibit the stable form complex with Hg(2+).

  5. Ferrous and ferric ions-based high-throughput screening strategy for nitrile hydratase and amidase.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhi-Jian; Zheng, Ren-Chao; Lei, Li-Hua; Zheng, Yu-Guo; Shen, Yin-Chu

    2011-06-01

    Rapid and direct screening of nitrile-converting enzymes is of great importance in the development of industrial biocatalytic process for pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals. In this paper, a combination of ferrous and ferric ions was used to establish a novel colorimetric screening method for nitrile hydratase and amidase with α-amino nitriles and α-amino amides as substrates, respectively. Ferrous and ferric ions reacted sequentially with the cyanide dissociated spontaneously from α-amino nitrile solution, forming a characteristic deep blue precipitate. They were also sensitive to weak basicity due to the presence of amino amide, resulting in a yellow precipitate. When amino amide was further hydrolyzed to amino acid, it gave a light yellow solution. Mechanisms of color changes were further proposed. Using this method, two isolates with nitrile hydratase activity towards 2-amino-2,3-dimethyl butyronitrile, one strain capable of hydrating 2-amino-4-(hydroxymethyl phosphiny) butyronitrile and another microbe exhibiting amidase activity against 2-amino-4-methylsulfanyl butyrlamide were obtained from soil samples and culture collections of our laboratory. Versatility of this method enabled it the first direct and inexpensive high-throughput screening system for both nitrile hydratase and amidase. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Arsenic removal from high-arsenic water by enhanced coagulation with ferric ions and coarse calcite.

    PubMed

    Song, S; Lopez-Valdivieso, A; Hernandez-Campos, D J; Peng, C; Monroy-Fernandez, M G; Razo-Soto, I

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic removal from high-arsenic water in a mine drainage system has been studied through an enhanced coagulation process with ferric ions and coarse calcite (38-74 microm) in this work. The experimental results have shown that arsenic-borne coagulates produced by coagulation with ferric ions alone were very fine, so micro-filtration (membrane as filter medium) was needed to remove the coagulates from water. In the presence of coarse calcite, small arsenic-borne coagulates coated on coarse calcite surfaces, leading the settling rate of the coagulates to considerably increase. The enhanced coagulation followed by conventional filtration (filter paper as filter medium) achieved a very high arsenic removal (over 99%) from high-arsenic water (5mg/l arsenic concentration), producing a cleaned water with the residual arsenic concentration of 13 microg/l. It has been found that the mechanism by which coarse calcite enhanced the coagulation of high-arsenic water might be due to attractive electrical double layer interaction between small arsenic-borne coagulates and calcite particles, which leads to non-existence of a potential energy barrier between the heterogeneous particles.

  7. Effect of ferrous and ferric ions on copigmentation in model solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunsági-Máté, Sándor; Ortmann, Erika; Kollár, László; Szabó, Kornélia; Nikfardjam, Martin Pour

    2008-11-01

    The thermodynamics of the molecular association process between malvidin-3- O-glucoside and ellagic acid (so-called "copigmentation") was studied in model wine solutions in the presence and absence, respectively, of ferrous and ferric ions. The Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy values of the complexation process were determined by means of a spectrofluorometric method. A combination of the Job's method with the van't Hoff theory was used for data evaluation. The results show the generally exothermic character of the process. The free enthalpy changes obtained during formation of malvidin-3- O-glucoside-ellagic acid complexes increase from -17.8 kJ/mol to -40.5 kJ/mol in the presence of Fe(II) ions. The increased free enthalpy is a consequence of the drastic reduction of entropy change due to the slight "swinging" movement of the interacting malvidin and ellagic acid molecules in the complexes stabilized by the ferrous ions. These results are also supported by the findings of other authors stating that iron ions play an important role in the stabilization of color in the plant kingdom and various plant products.

  8. Effects of calcium and ferric ions on struvite precipitation: A new assessment based on quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hanlu; Shih, Kaimin

    2016-05-15

    The precipitation of struvite (MgNH4PO4·6H2O) from waste streams has attracted considerable attention due to its potential for recovering phosphorus for fertilization. As struvite is primarily acquired by means of precipitation and crystallization from aqueous solutions, it is important to evaluate the roles of common metal ions, particularly those that are commonly found in wastewater, in the struvite crystallization process. This study was performed to quantitatively evaluate the effects of calcium and ferric ions on struvite crystallization using the Rietveld refinement method, which is based on the analysis of X-ray diffraction data. The results indicate that both calcium and ferric ions significantly inhibit the formation of struvite crystals, and the effects vary under different pH conditions. There was a negative linear correlation between the struvite weight content in the precipitates and the Ca/Mg molar ratio in the initial solution. However, ferric ions were confirmed to be a more efficient inhibitor of struvite crystallization. Ca(2+) and Fe(3+) further modified the needle-like struvite into irregular shapes. An unambiguous and quantitative understanding of the effects of foreign ions on struvite crystallization will help to reliably improve the quality of struvite products recovered from wastewater and the control of struvite deposits in water and sludge piping systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of ferric ions diffusion in Fricke gel dosimeters by using inverse problem techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedelago, J.; Quiroga, A.; Valente, M.

    2014-10-01

    Diffusion of ferric ions in ferrous sulfate (Fricke) gels represents one of the main drawbacks of some radiation detectors, such as Fricke gel dosimeters. In practice, this disadvantage can be overcome by prompt dosimeter analysis, and constraining strongly the time between irradiation and analysis, implementing special dedicated protocols aimed at minimizing signal blurring due to diffusion effects. This work presents a novel analytic modeling and numerical calculation approach of diffusion coefficients in Fricke gel radiation sensitive materials. Samples are optically analyzed by means of visible light transmission measurements by capturing images with a charge-coupled device camera provided with a monochromatic filter corresponding to the XO-infused Fricke solution absorbance peak. Dose distributions in Fricke gels are suitably delivered by assessing specific initial conditions further studied by periodical sample image acquisitions. Diffusion coefficient calculations were performed using a set of computational algorithms based on inverse problem formulation. Although 1D approaches to the diffusion equation might provide estimations of the diffusion coefficient, it should be calculated in the 2D framework due to the intrinsic bi-dimensional characteristics of Fricke gel layers here considered as radiation dosimeters. Thus a suitable 2D diffusion model capable of determining diffusion coefficients was developed by fitting the obtained algorithm numerical solutions with the corresponding experimental data. Comparisons were performed by introducing an appropriate functional in order to analyze both experimental and numerical values. Solutions to the second-order diffusion equation are calculated in the framework of a dedicated method that incorporates finite element method. Moreover, optimized solutions can be attained by gradient-type minimization algorithms. Knowledge about diffusion coefficient for a Fricke gel radiation detector is helpful in accounting for

  10. Comparative impacts of iron oxide nanoparticles and ferric ions on the growth of Citrus maxima.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jing; Guo, Huiyuan; Li, Junli; Gan, Qiuliang; Wang, Yunqiang; Xing, Baoshan

    2017-02-01

    The impacts of iron oxide nanoparticles (γ-Fe2O3 NPs) and ferric ions (Fe(3+)) on plant growth and molecular responses associated with the transformation and transport of Fe(2+) were poorly understood. This study comprehensively compared and evaluated the physiological and molecular changes of Citrus maxima plants as affected by different levels of γ-Fe2O3 NPs and Fe(3+). We found that γ-Fe2O3 NPs could enter plant roots but no translocation from roots to shoots was observed. 20 mg/L γ-Fe2O3 NPs had no impact on plant growth. 50 mg/L γ-Fe2O3 NPs significantly enhanced chlorophyll content by 23.2% and root activity by 23.8% as compared with control. However, 100 mg/L γ-Fe2O3 NPs notably increased MDA formation, decreased chlorophyll content and root activity. Although Fe(3+) ions could be used by plants and promoted the synthesis of chlorophyll, they appeared to be more toxic than γ-Fe2O3 NPs, especially for 100 mg/L Fe(3+). The impacts caused by γ-Fe2O3 NPs and Fe(3+) were concentration-dependent. Physiological results showed that γ-Fe2O3 NPs at proper concentrations had the potential to be an effective iron nanofertilizer for plant growth. RT-PCR analysis showed that γ-Fe2O3 NPs had no impact on AHA gene expression. 50 mg/L γ-Fe2O3 NPs and Fe(3+) significantly increased expression levels of FRO2 gene and correspondingly had a higher ferric reductase activity compared to both control and Fe(II)-EDTA exposure, thus promoting the iron transformation and enhancing the tolerance of plants to iron deficiency. Relative levels of Nramp3 gene expression exposed to γ-Fe2O3 NPs and Fe(3+) were significantly lower than control, indicating that all γ-Fe2O3 NPs and Fe(3+) treatments could supply iron to C. maxima seedlings. Overall, plants can modify the speciation and transport of γ-Fe2O3 NPs or Fe(3+) for self-protection and development by activating many physiological and molecular processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ferric ion-assisted in situ synthesis of silver nanoplates on polydopamine-coated silk.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jing; Zhang, Huihui; Mao, Cuiping; Wang, Ying; Wang, Ling; Lu, Zhisong

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, a ferric ion (Fe(3+))-assisted in situ synthesis approach was developed to grow silver (Ag) nanoplates on the polydopamine (PDA)-coated silk without the use of additional reductants. The essential role of Fe(3+) in the formation of Ag nanoplates is revealed by comparing the morphologies of Ag nanostructures prepared on the silk-coated PDA film with/without Fe(3+) doping. Scanning electron micrographs show that high-density Ag nanoplates could be synthesized in the reaction system containing 50μg/mL FeCl3 and 50mM AgNO3. The size of the Ag nanoplate could be tuned by adjusting the reaction duration. Based on the data, a mechanism involving the Fe(3+)-selected growth of Ag atoms along the certain crystal faces was proposed to explain the fabrication process. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry indicate that the Ag nanoplates possess good crystalline structures. Raman spectra demonstrate that the nanoplates could strongly enhance the Raman scattering of the PDA molecules. The Ag nanoplate-coated silk could be utilized as a flexible substrate for the development of surface-enhanced Raman scattering biosensors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Polyethyleneimine-templated copper nanoclusters via ascorbic acid reduction approach as ferric ion sensor.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jie; Ju, Yuyun; Liu, Juanjuan; Zhang, Huige; Chen, Xingguo

    2015-01-07

    In this report we reported a facile one-pot method for synthesis of water-soluble and stable fluorescent CuNCs at room temperature, in which branched polyethyleneimine (BPEI) served as capping scaffold and ascorbic acid as reducing agent. The prepared BPEI-CuNCs exhibited excellent properties such as good water-solubility, photostability and high stability toward high ionic strength. Based on the electron transfer induced fluorescence quenching mechanism, this fluorescence probe was used for the sensitive and selective determination of ferric ions (Fe(3+)) in aqueous solution. The limit of detection was 340 nM in the linear range of 0.5-1000 μM, which was lower than the maximum level of Fe(3+) permitted in drinking water by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The method was successfully applied to the detection of Fe(3+) in tap water, Yellow River water and human urine samples with the quantitative spike recoveries ranging from 95.3% to 112.0%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. SU-E-T-516: Investigation of a Novel Radiochromic Radiation Reporting System Utilizing the Reduction of Ferric Ion

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H; Alqathami, M; Wang, J; Ibbott, G; Blencowe, A

    2015-06-15

    Purpose To introduce and characterize a new “reverse-Fricke” radiation reporting system utilizing the reduction of ferric ions (Fe{sup 3+}) to ferrous ions (Fe{sup 2+}). Methods Two formulations of the radiochromic reporting system, referred to as A and B, were prepared for investigation. Formulation-A consisted of 14 mM 1,10-phenanthroline, 42 mM ethanol, and 57 mM ammonium ferric oxalate in water. Formulation-B consisted of 27 mM 1,10-phenanthroline, 42 mM ethanol, and 28 mM ammonium ferric oxalate in water. Solutions were prepared immediately prior to irradiation with a Cobalt-60 unit with radiation doses of 0, 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 Gy. The change in optical density over the visible range of 450–650 nm was measured using a spectrophotometer immediately after irradiation. The effective atomic numbers of the formulations were calculated using Mayneord’s formula. Results Ionizing radiation energy absorbed in the solutions causes the reduction of ferric ions (Fe{sup 3+}) into ferrous ions (Fe{sup 2+}), which then forms a 1:3 red colored complex with 1,10-phenanthroline ([(C{sub 1} {sub 2}H{sub 8}N{sup 2}){sub 3}Fe]{sup 2+}) that can be measured spectrophotometrically. The absorbance spectra of the resulting complex displayed a peak maximum at 512 nm with a greater change in absorbance for Formulation-B after receiving comparable radiation doses. The change in absorbance relative to dose exhibited a linear response up to 25 Gy for both Formulation-A (R{sup 2} = 0.98) and Formulation-B (R{sup 2} = 0.97). The novel formulations were also nearly water equivalent (Zeff = 7.42) with effective atomic numbers of 7.65 and 7.52 and mass densities within 0.2% of water. Conclusion Both formulations displayed visible Fe{sup 2+} complex formation with 1,10-phenanthroline after irradiation using a Cobalt-60 source. The higher sensitivity measured for Formulation-B is attributed to the increase in 1,10-phenanthroline concentration and the increase in the 1

  14. [Effects of bromide and ferric ions on formation of tri-halomethanes during disinfection of drinking water by chlorine].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Wang, Jing; Ge, Yuan-Xin; Ma, Hong-Mei; Zhao, Jian-Fu

    2007-06-01

    Effects of bromide and ferric ions on the formation and distribution of tri-halomethanes (THMs) have been investigated. As disinfection by-product (DBP) model precursors of natural water, humic acid solutions were used and a series of experiments were conducted. The results showed that bromide in this reaction system not only contributed to the increase of brominated species, but also the total tri-halomethanes. When the concentration of Br(-) was 1.0 mg/L, the total amount of produced THMs reached to 270% of that without bromide ions. In the presence of bromide, ferric ions decreased the production of THMs at pH 6, but increased the production of THMs at pH 8, especially for the amount of tri-bromomethanes. When the concentration of Fe3+ was 5 mg/L, the amount of produced tri-bromomethanes had an increment of 54% (from 51.7 microg/L to 79.4 microg/L), and the total amount of THMs increased from 113.49 microg/L to 162.09 microg/L. Bromide ions had a significant effect on carcinogenicity risk in disinfection of drinking water by chlorine, and the co-existence of ferric ion and bromide in alkalescent environment can result in the biggest challenge on carcinogenicity risk. Under the condition of 0.2 mg/L Br(-), 5 mg/L Fe3+ and pH 6, the carcinogenicity risk increased 2.5 times than that without Br(-) and Fe3+, and much higher increment of 5.1 times appeared when pH was 8.

  15. Molecular characteristics of a fluorescent chemosensor for the recognition of ferric ion based on photoresponsive azobenzene derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Zhen; Ran, Xia; Shi, Lili; Lou, Jie; Kuang, Yanmin; Guo, Lijun

    2017-01-01

    Metal ion recognition is of great significance in biological and environmental detection. So far, there is very few research related to the ferric ion sensing based on photoresponsive azobenzene derivatives. In this work, we report a highly selective fluorescent ;turn-off; sensor for Fe3 + ions and the molecular sensing characteristics based on an azobenzene derivative, N-(3,4,5-octanoxyphenyl)-N‧-4-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)azophenyl]1,3,4-oxadiazole (AOB-t8). The binding association constant was determined to be 6.07 × 103 M- 1 in ethanol and the stoichiometry ratio of 2:2 was obtained from Job's plot and MS spectra. The AOB-t8 might be likely to form the dimer structure through the chelation of ferric ion with the azobenzene moiety. Meanwhile, it was found that the photoisomerization property of AOB-t8 was regulated by the binding with Fe3 +. With the chelation of Fe3 +, the regulated molecular rigidity and the perturbed of electronic state and molecular geometry was suggested to be responsible for the accelerated isomerization of AOB-t8 to UV irradiation and the increased fluorescence lifetime of both trans- and cis-AOB-t8-Fe(III). Moreover, the reversible sensing of AOB-t8 was successfully observed by releasing the iron ion from AOB-t8-Fe(III) with the addition of citric acid.

  16. A least-squares error minimization approach in the determination of ferric ion diffusion coefficient of Fricke-infused dosimeter gels

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, Y.J.; Huang, S.-C.; Chu, W.C.

    2005-04-01

    A least-squares error minimization approach was adopted to assess ferric ion diffusion coefficient of Fricke-agarose gels. Ferric ion diffusion process was modeled as a Gaussian-shaped degradation kernel operating on an initial concentration distribution. Diffusion coefficient was iteratively determined by minimizing the error function defined as the difference between the theoretically calculated and the experimentally measured dose distributions. A rapid MR image-based differential gel dosimetry technique that time resolves the evolution of the ferric ion diffusion process minimizes smearing of the dose distribution. Our results showed that for a Fricke-agarose gel contained 1 mM ammonium ferrous sulfate, 1% agarose, 1 mM sodium chloride, and 50 mM sulfuric acid, its ferric ion diffusion coefficient is (1.59{+-}0.28)x10{sup -2} cm{sup 2} h{sup -1} at room temperature. This value falls within the 1.00-2.00x10{sup -2} cm{sup 2} h{sup -1} range previously reported under varying gelling ingredients and concentrations. This method allows a quick, nondestructive evaluation of the ferric ion diffusion coefficient that can be used in conjunction with the in situ gel dosimetry experiment to provide a practical diffusion characterization of the dosimeter gel.

  17. Analysis of spatial diffusion of ferric ions in PVA-GTA gel dosimeters through magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrale, Maurizio; Collura, Giorgio; Gallo, Salvatore; Nici, Stefania; Tranchina, Luigi; Abbate, Boris Federico; Marineo, Sandra; Caracappa, Santo; d'Errico, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    This work focused on the analysis of the temporal diffusion of ferric ions through PVA-GTA gel dosimeters. PVA-GTA gel samples, partly exposed with 6 MV X-rays in order to create an initial steep gradient, were mapped using magnetic resonance imaging on a 7T MRI scanner for small animals. Multiple images of the gels were acquired over several hours after irradiation and were analyzed to quantitatively extract the signal profile. The spatial resolution achieved is 200 μm and this makes this technique particularly suitable for the analysis of steep gradients of ferric ion concentration. The results obtained with PVA-GTA gels were compared with those achieved with agarose gels, which is a standard dosimetric gel formulation. The analysis showed that the diffusion process is much slower (more than five times) for PVA-GTA gels than for agarose ones. Furthermore, it is noteworthy that the diffusion coefficient value obtained through MRI analysis is significantly consistent with that obtained in separate study Marini et al. (Submitted for publication) using a totally independent method such as spectrophotometry. This is a valuable result highlighting that the good dosimetric features of this gel matrix not only can be reproduced but also can be measured through independent experimental techniques based on different physical principles.

  18. Breadboard wash water renovation system. [using ferric chloride and ion exchange resins to remove soap and dissolved salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A total wash water renovation system concept was developed for removing objectionable materials from spacecraft wash water in order to make the water reusable. The breadboard model system described provides for pretreatment with ferric chloride to remove soap by chemical precipitation, carbon adsorption to remove trace dissolved organics, and ion exchange for removal of dissolved salts. The entire system was put into continuous operation and carefully monitored to assess overall efficiency and equipment maintenance problems that could be expected in actual use. In addition, the capacity of the carbon adsorbers and the ion-exchange resin was calculated and taken into consideration in the final evaluation of the system adequacy. The product water produced was well within the Tentative Wash Water Standards with regard to total organic carbon, conductivity, urea content, sodium chloride content, color, odor, and clarity.

  19. [Stabilization of Cadmium Contaminated Soils by Ferric Ion Modified Attapulgite (Fe/ATP)--Characterizations and Stabilization Mechanism].

    PubMed

    Rong, Yang; Li, Rong-bo; Zhou, Yong-li; Chen, Jing; Wang, Lin-ling; Lu, Xiao-hua

    2015-08-01

    Ferric ion modified attapulgite (Fe/ATP) was prepared by impregnation and its structure and morphology were characterized. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) was used to evaluate the effect of Cadmium( Cd) stabilization in soil with the addition of attapulgite (ATP) and Fe/ATP. The stabilization mechanism of Cd was further elucidated by comparing the morphologies and structure of ATP and Fe/ATP before and after Cd adsorption. Fe/ATP exhibited much better adsorption capacity than ATP, suggesting different adsorption mechanisms occurred between ATP and Fe/ATP. The leaching concentrations of Cd in soil decreased by 45% and 91% respectively, with the addition of wt. 20% ATP and Fe/ATP. The former was attributed to the interaction between Cd2 and --OH groups by chemical binding to form inner-sphere complexes in ATP and the attachment between Cd2+ and the defect sites in ATP framework. Whereas Cd stabilization with Fe/ATP was resulted from the fact that the active centers (--OH bonds or O- sites) on ATP could react with Fe3+ giving Fe--O--Cd-- bridges, which helped stabilize Cd in surface soil. What'more, the ferric oxides and metal hydroxides on the surface of ATP could interact with Cd, probably by the formation of cadmium ferrite. In conclusion, Fe/ATP, which can be easily prepared, holds promise as a potential low-cost and environmental friendly stabilizing agent for remediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals.

  20. Copper nanoclusters as a highly sensitive and selective fluorescence sensor for ferric ions in serum and living cells by imaging.

    PubMed

    Cao, Haiyan; Chen, Zhaohui; Zheng, Huzhi; Huang, Yuming

    2014-12-15

    A simple, one-step facile route for preparation of water soluble and fluorescent Cu nanoclusters (NCs) stabilized by tannic acid (TA) is described. The as-prepared TA capped Cu NCs (TA-Cu NCs) are characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, luminescence, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The TA-Cu NCs show luminescence properties having excitation and emission maxima at 360 nm and 430 nm, respectively, with a quantum yield of about 14%. The TA-Cu NCs are very stable even in 0.3 M NaCl, and their luminescent properties show pH independent. The fluorescence (FL) of Cu NCs is strongly quenched by Fe(3+) through an electron transfer mechanism, but not by other metal ions. Furthermore, the FL of the TA-Cu NCs shows no changes with the addition of Fe(2+) or H2O2 individually. On this basis, a facile chemosensor was developed for rapid, reliable, sensitive, and selective sensing of Fe(3+) ions with detection limit as low as 10 nM and a dynamic range from 10 nM to 10 μM. The proposed sensor was successfully used for the determination of iron contents in serum samples. Importantly, the Cu NCs-based FL probe showed long-term stability, good biocompatibility and very low cytotoxicity. It was successfully used for imaging ferric ions in living cells, suggesting the potential application of Cu NCs fluorescent probe in clinical analysis and cell imaging.

  1. Highly Sensitive and Selective Detection of Nanomolar Ferric Ions Using Dopamine Functionalized Graphene Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Dutta Chowdhury, Ankan; Doong, Ruey-An

    2016-08-17

    The good stability, low cytotoxicity, and excellent photoluminescence property of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) make them an emerging class of promising materials in various application fields ranging from sensor to drug delivery. In the present work, the dopamine-functionalized GQDs (DA-GQDs) with stably bright blue fluorescence were successfully synthesized for low level Fe(3+) ions detection. The as-synthesized GQDs are uniform in size with narrow-distributed particle size of 4.5 ± 0.6 nm and high quantum yield of 10.2%. The amide linkage of GQDs with dopamine, confirmed by using XPS and FTIR spectra, results in the specific interaction between Fe(3+) and catechol moiety of dopamine at the interfaces for highly sensitive and selective detection of Fe(3+). A linear range of 20 nM to 2 μM with a detection limit of 7.6 nM is obtained for Fe(3+) detection by DA-GQDs. The selectivity of DA-GQDs sensing probe is significantly excellent in the presence of other interfering metal ions. In addition, the reaction mechanism for Fe(3+) detection based on the complexation and oxidation of dopamine has been proposed and validated. Results obtained in this study clearly demonstrate the superiority of surface functionalized GQDs to Fe(3+) detection, which can pave an avenue for the development of high performance and robust sensing probes for detection of metal ions and other organic metabolites in environmental and biomedical applications.

  2. Complexes of polydopamine-modified clay and ferric ions as the framework for pollutant-absorbing supramolecular hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shu; Yang, Liping; Liu, Ming; Phua, Si Lei; Yee, Wu Aik; Liu, Wanshuang; Zhou, Rui; Lu, Xuehong

    2013-01-29

    Clay-based functional hydrogels were facilely prepared via a bioinspired approach. Montmorillonite (clay) was exfoliated into single layers in water and then coated with a thin layer of polydopamine (PDOPA) via in situ polymerization of dopamine under basic aqueous conditions. When a small amount of ferric salt was added into aqueous suspensions of the polydopamine-coated clay (D-clay), D-clay and Fe(3+) ions could rapidly self-assemble into three-dimensional networks through the formation of coordination bonds. Consequently, supramolecular hydrogels were formed at very low D-clay contents. Rheological measurements show that the D-clay/Fe(3+) hydrogels exhibit fairly elastic response in low stain range, and have self-healing capability upon removal of applied large stress. More importantly, the hydrogels can be used as adsorbents to effectively remove Rhodamine 6G (Rh6G), an organic pollutant, from water. UV-vis absorption spectra of the Rh6G-loaded hydrogels show bands related to π-π stacking interactions between the aromatic moieties of PDOPA and Rh6G, confirming the formation of PDOPA/Rh6G complex on the surface of D-clay.

  3. Performance evaluation of ALCAN-AASF50-ferric coated activated alumina and granular ferric hydroxide (GFH) for arsenic removal in the presence of competitive ions in an active well :Kirtland field trial - initial studies.

    SciTech Connect

    Neidel, Linnah L.; Krumhansl, James Lee; Siegel, Malcolm Dean; Khandaker, Nadim Reza

    2006-01-01

    This report documents a field trial program carried out at Well No.15 located at Kirtland Air Force Base, Albuquerque, New Mexico, to evaluate the performance of two relatively new arsenic removal media, ALCAN-AASF50 (ferric coated activated alumina) and granular ferric hydroxide (US Filter-GFH). The field trial program showed that both media were able to remove arsenate and meet the new total arsenic maximum contaminant level (MCL) in drinking water of 10 {micro}g/L. The arsenate removal capacity was defined at a breakthrough effluent concentration of 5 {micro}g/L arsenic (50% of the arsenic MCL of 10 {micro}g/L). At an influent pH of 8.1 {+-} 0.4, the arsenate removal capacity of AASF50 was 33.5 mg As(V)/L of dry media (29.9 {micro}g As(V)/g of media on a dry basis). At an influent pH of 7.2 {+-} 0.3, the arsenate removal capacity of GFH was 155 mg As(V)/L of wet media (286 {micro}g As(V)/g of media on a dry basis). Silicate, fluoride, and bicarbonate ions are removed by ALCAN AASF50. Chloride, nitrate, and sulfate ions were not removed by AASF50. The GFH media also removed silicate and bicarbonate ions; however, it did not remove fluoride, chloride, nitrate, and sulfate ions. Differences in the media performance partly reflect the variations in the feed-water pH between the 2 tests. Both the exhausted AASF50 and GFH media passed the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test with respect to arsenic and therefore could be disposed as nonhazardous waste.

  4. Enhancement by cigarette smoke extract of the radical formation in a reaction mixture of 13-hydroperoxide octadecadienoic acid and ferric ions.

    PubMed

    Iimura, Sae; Iwahashi, Hideo

    2006-04-01

    The effects of cigarette smoke extract on radical formation were examined in reaction mixtures containing 13-hydroperoxide octadecadienoic acid (13-HPODE), FeCl3, cigarette smoke extract, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), alpha-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-tert-butylnitrone (4-POBN), and phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). Cigarette smoke extract enhanced the formation of both 7-carboxyheptyl and pentyl radicals in the reaction. Ferric ions were reduced in the reaction mixture, suggesting that cigarette smoke extract enhances the formation of 7-carboxyheptyl and pentyl radicals by reducing ferric irons. Although there is a large body of evidence supporting the involvement of radicals such as the semiquinone radical, hydroxyl radical, superoxide radical, nitric oxide radicals in smoking-related diseases, the enhancement by cigarette smoke of lipid-derived radical formation, which we first report here, may be one of the other causes of smoking-related diseases.

  5. Bacterial cells enhance laser driven ion acceleration

    PubMed Central

    Dalui, Malay; Kundu, M.; Trivikram, T. Madhu; Rajeev, R.; Ray, Krishanu; Krishnamurthy, M.

    2014-01-01

    Intense laser produced plasmas generate hot electrons which in turn leads to ion acceleration. Ability to generate faster ions or hotter electrons using the same laser parameters is one of the main outstanding paradigms in the intense laser-plasma physics. Here, we present a simple, albeit, unconventional target that succeeds in generating 700 keV carbon ions where conventional targets for the same laser parameters generate at most 40 keV. A few layers of micron sized bacteria coating on a polished surface increases the laser energy coupling and generates a hotter plasma which is more effective for the ion acceleration compared to the conventional polished targets. Particle-in-cell simulations show that micro-particle coated target are much more effective in ion acceleration as seen in the experiment. We envisage that the accelerated, high-energy carbon ions can be used as a source for multiple applications. PMID:25102948

  6. Bacterial cells enhance laser driven ion acceleration.

    PubMed

    Dalui, Malay; Kundu, M; Trivikram, T Madhu; Rajeev, R; Ray, Krishanu; Krishnamurthy, M

    2014-08-08

    Intense laser produced plasmas generate hot electrons which in turn leads to ion acceleration. Ability to generate faster ions or hotter electrons using the same laser parameters is one of the main outstanding paradigms in the intense laser-plasma physics. Here, we present a simple, albeit, unconventional target that succeeds in generating 700 keV carbon ions where conventional targets for the same laser parameters generate at most 40 keV. A few layers of micron sized bacteria coating on a polished surface increases the laser energy coupling and generates a hotter plasma which is more effective for the ion acceleration compared to the conventional polished targets. Particle-in-cell simulations show that micro-particle coated target are much more effective in ion acceleration as seen in the experiment. We envisage that the accelerated, high-energy carbon ions can be used as a source for multiple applications.

  7. A novel calix[4]arene thiol functionalized silver nanoprobe for selective recognition of ferric ion with nanomolar sensitivity via DLS selectivity in human biological fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, Alok; Sutariya, Pinkesh G.; Lodha, Anand; Menon, Shobhana K.

    2013-02-01

    A high concern for human health and safety has motivated dynamic research on the potential impact of transition metal ions and their toxic effects, thus it is very challenging to design transition-metal ion detection devices that are cost-effective, rapid and applicable to the biological milieus. Driven by the need to detect trace amounts of Fe3+ from blood samples, we report a highly selective and ultrasensitive calix[4]arene modified silver nanoprobe for Fe3+ recognition at the 9.4 nM level from aqueous solution with excellent discrimination against other heavy metals and biomolecules. The assembly was characterized by TEM (transmission electron microscopy), DLS (dynamic light scattering), UV-Vis, FT-IR, ESI-MS and 1H NMR spectrometry, which demonstrate the higher binding affinity for Fe3+. The biosensor has been successfully applied to estimate the ferric ion in human blood serum as well as in human hemoglobin.A high concern for human health and safety has motivated dynamic research on the potential impact of transition metal ions and their toxic effects, thus it is very challenging to design transition-metal ion detection devices that are cost-effective, rapid and applicable to the biological milieus. Driven by the need to detect trace amounts of Fe3+ from blood samples, we report a highly selective and ultrasensitive calix[4]arene modified silver nanoprobe for Fe3+ recognition at the 9.4 nM level from aqueous solution with excellent discrimination against other heavy metals and biomolecules. The assembly was characterized by TEM (transmission electron microscopy), DLS (dynamic light scattering), UV-Vis, FT-IR, ESI-MS and 1H NMR spectrometry, which demonstrate the higher binding affinity for Fe3+. The biosensor has been successfully applied to estimate the ferric ion in human blood serum as well as in human hemoglobin. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Supplementary materials of the synthesis procedure associated with this article can be

  8. Biological regeneration of ferric (Fe3+) solution during desulphurisation of gaseous streams: effect of nutrients and support material.

    PubMed

    Mulopo, Jean; Schaefer, L

    2015-01-01

    This paper evaluates the biological regeneration of ferric Fe3+ solution during desulphurisation of gaseous streams. Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is absorbed into aqueous ferric sulphate solution and oxidised to elemental sulphur, while ferric ions Fe3+ are reduced to ferrous ions Fe2+. During the industrial regeneration of Fe3+, nutrients and trace minerals usually provided in a laboratory setup are not present and this depletion of nutrients may have a negative impact on the bacteria responsible for ferrous iron oxidation and may probably affect the oxidation rate. In this study, the effect of nutrients and trace minerals on ferrous iron oxidation have been investigated and the results showed that the presence of nutrients and trace minerals affects the efficiency of bacterial Fe2+oxidation. The scanning electron microscopy analysis of the geotextile support material was also conducted and the results showed that the iron precipitate deposits appear to play a direct role on the bacterial biofilm formation.

  9. Rigidly Tethered Bis-phosphoric Acids: Generation of Tunable Chiral Fluorescent Frameworks and Unexpected Selectivity for the Detection of Ferric Ions.

    PubMed

    Octa-Smolin, Frescilia; Mitra, Raja; Thiele, Maike; Daniliuc, Constantin G; Stegemann, Linda; Strassert, Cristian; Niemeyer, Jochen

    2017-07-26

    We describe the straightforward synthesis of a series of bis-phosphoric acids (R,R)-1 a-d, featuring two chiral 1,1'-binaphthyl-phosphoric acid units that are tethered by rigid, π-conjugated linkers. The nature of the linker has a profound influence on the properties of the bis-phosphoric acids, such as their self-association behavior and their interaction with metal ions. This led to the identification of one preferred bis-phosphoric acid (R,R)-1 d, which shows selective fluorescence quenching in the presence of ferric ions (Fe(3+) ). Thus, (R,R)-1 d could be applied for the detection of Fe(3+) , even in the presence of a variety of other metal ions. The chiral nature of the bis-phosphoric acid enables the interaction with Fe(3+) to be followed by CD spectroscopy, providing a complementary detection mode with the same probe. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Mechanism of bacterial pyrite oxidation.

    PubMed

    Silverman, M P

    1967-10-01

    The oxidation by Ferrobacillus ferrooxidans of untreated pyrite (FeS(2)) as well as HCl-pretreated pyrite (from which most of the acid-soluble iron species were removed) was studied manometrically. Oxygen uptake was linear during bacterial oxidation of untreated pyrite, whereas with HCl-pretreated pyrite both a decrease in oxygen uptake at 2 hr and nonlinear oxygen consumption were observed. Ferric sulfate added to HCl-pretreated pyrite restored approximately two-thirds of the decrease in total bacterial oxygen uptake and caused oxygen uptake to revert to nearly linear kinetics. Ferric sulfate also oxidized pyrite in the absence of bacteria and O(2); recovery of ferric and ferrous ions was in excellent agreement with the reaction Fe(2)(SO(4))(3) + FeS(2) = 3FeSO(4) + 2S, but the elemental sulfur produced was negligible. Neither H(2)S nor S(2)O(3) (2-) was a product of the reaction. It is probable that two mechanisms of bacterial pyrite oxidation operate concurrently: the direct contact mechanism which requires physical contact between bacteria and pyrite particles for biological pyrite oxidation, and the indirect contact mechanism according to which the bacteria oxidize ferrous ions to the ferric state, thereby regenerating the ferric ions required for chemical oxidation of pyrite.

  11. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  12. Inorganic particulates in removal of heavy metal toxic ions--part X: rapid and efficient removal of Hg(II) ions from aqueous solutions by hydrous ferric and hydrous tungsten oxides.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Suddhodan P; Vijaya

    2006-04-15

    A radiotracer technique has been used to study the removal of Hg(II) ions from aqueous solutions by synthesized and well-characterized hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) and hydrous tungsten oxide (HTO). Adsorptive concentration (10(-4)-10(-8) mol dm(-3)), pH (ca 4.0-10.0) and temperatures (303-333 K) were examined for assessing optimal conditions for removal of these ions. The uptake of Hg(II) ions, fitted well with the Freundlich isotherm, increased with increasing temperature. No significant desorption took place in the present temperature range. The presence of other anions and cations affected the uptake of Hg(II) markedly. Irradiation of hydrous ferric oxide and tungsten oxide by using a 11.1 x 10(9)Bq (Ra-Be) neutron source having a neutron flux of 3.9 x 10(6)cm(-2)s(-1) with the associated gamma-dose rate of 1.72 Gy h(-1) did not influence the extent of adsorption of Hg(II) significantly.

  13. Role of ferric and ferrous ions in the enhancement of the heterogeneous solar photocatalytic degradation of combined mixture of chlorophenols.

    PubMed

    Abeish, Abdulbasit M; Ang, H Ming; Znad, Hussein

    2015-01-01

    The solar photocatalytic degradation of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) was investigated individually and combined in the presence of Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions. The results revealed that both Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions enhanced the heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation. Fe3+ ions rapidly converted to Fe2+ ions as soon as the irradiation started. The intermediates formed during the degradation of 4-CP/2,4-DCP were also monitored and identified. Three main intermediates were observed, hydroquinone, phenol, and 4-chlorocatechol with traces of benzoquinone. The results support a new trend of research by utilising other cheap iron ion sources in the photocatalytic degradation.

  14. A hydrogen-ferric ion rebalance cell operating at low hydrogen concentrations for capacity restoration of iron-chromium redox flow batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Y. K.; Zhao, T. S.; Zhou, X. L.; Zou, J.; Ren, Y. X.

    2017-06-01

    To eliminate the adverse impacts of hydrogen evolution on the capacity of iron-chromium redox flow batteries (ICRFBs) during the long-term operation and ensure the safe operation of the battery, a rebalance cell that reduces the excessive Fe(III) ions at the positive electrolyte by using the hydrogen evolved from the negative electrolyte is designed, fabricated and tested. The effects of the flow field, hydrogen concentration and H2/N2 mixture gas flow rate on the performance of the hydrogen-ferric ion rebalance cell have been investigated. Results show that: i) an interdigitated flow field based rebalance cell delivers higher limiting current densities than serpentine flow field based one does; ii) the hydrogen utilization can approach 100% at low hydrogen concentrations (≤5%); iii) the apparent exchange current density of hydrogen oxidation reaction in the rebalance cell is proportional to the square root of the hydrogen concentration at the hydrogen concentration from 1.3% to 50%; iv) a continuous rebalance process is demonstrated at the current density of 60 mA cm-2 and hydrogen concentration of 2.5%. Moreover, the cost analysis shows that the rebalance cell is just approximately 1% of an ICRFB system cost.

  15. Ferric ions accumulate in the walls of metabolically inactivating Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and are reductively mobilized during reactivation.

    PubMed

    Wofford, Joshua D; Park, Jinkyu; McCormick, Sean P; Chakrabarti, Mrinmoy; Lindahl, Paul A

    2016-07-13

    Mössbauer and EPR spectra of fermenting yeast cells before and after cell wall (CW) digestion revealed that CWs accumulated iron as cells transitioned from exponential to post-exponential growth. Most CW iron was mononuclear nonheme high-spin (NHHS) Fe(III), some was diamagnetic and some was superparamagnetic. A significant portion of CW Fe was removable by EDTA. Simulations using an ordinary-differential-equations-based model suggested that cells accumulate Fe as they become metabolically inactive. When dormant Fe-loaded cells were metabolically reactivated in Fe-deficient bathophenanthroline disulfonate (BPS)-treated medium, they grew using Fe that had been mobilized from their CWs AND using trace amounts of Fe in the Fe-deficient medium. When grown in Fe-deficient medium, Fe-starved cells contained the lowest cellular Fe concentrations reported for a eukaryotic cell. During metabolic reactivation of Fe-loaded dormant cells, Fe(III) ions in the CWs of these cells were mobilized by reduction to Fe(II), followed by release from the CW and reimport into the cell. BPS short-circuited this process by chelating mobilized and released Fe(II) ions before reimport; the resulting Fe(II)(BPS)3 complex adsorbed on the cell surface. NHHS Fe(II) ions appeared transiently during mobilization, suggesting that these ions were intermediates in this process. In the presence of chelators and at high pH, metabolically inactive cells leached CW Fe; this phenomenon probably differs from metabolic mobilization. The iron regulon, as reported by Fet3p levels, was not expressed during post-exponential conditions; Fet3p was maximally expressed in exponentially growing cells. Decreased expression of the iron regulon and metabolic decline combine to promote CW Fe accumulation.

  16. Carbon quantum dots directly generated from electrochemical oxidation of graphite electrodes in alkaline alcohols and the applications for specific ferric ion detection and cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mengli; Xu, Yuanhong; Niu, Fushuang; Gooding, J Justin; Liu, Jingquan

    2016-04-25

    Carbon quantum dots (CQDs) are attracting tremendous interest owing to their low toxicity, water dispersibility, biocompatibility, optical properties and wide applicability. Herein, CQDs with an average diameter of (4.0 ± 0.2) nm and high crystallinity were produced simply from the electrochemical oxidation of a graphite electrode in alkaline alcohols. The as-formed CQDs dispersion was colourless but the dispersion gradually changed to bright yellow when stored in ambient conditions. Based on UV-Vis absorption, fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), this colour change appeared to be due to oxygenation of surface species over time. Furthermore, the CQDs were used in specific and sensitive detection of ferric ion (Fe(3+)) with broad linear ranges of 10-200 μM with a low limit of detection of 1.8 μM (S/N = 3). The application of the CQDs for Fe(3+) detection in tap water was demonstrated and the possible mechanism was also discussed. Finally, based on their good characteristics of low cytotoxicity and excellent biocompatibility, the CQDs were successfully applied to cell imaging.

  17. Direct incorporation of a ferric ion in the porphyrinogen core: tetrakis(cyclohexyl)iron porphyrinogen anion with different conformers and its reaction with iodine.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Dibyendu; Dey, Soumen; Maji, Suman; Pal, Kuntal; Sarkar, Sabyasachi

    2005-10-31

    Et(4)N[L' 'Fe(III)].3DCM (1) is directly synthesized by adding ferric chloride into a solution of a lithium salt of tetrakis(cyclohexyl)porphyrinogen (L' '). [L' '](4-) is a good chelating ligand for both Fe(III) and Fe(II) ions. It is an avid proton scavenger but not a reducing agent. 1 showed a magnetic moment (mu(eff)) of 4.3 micro(B) in the solid, which changed to 6.0 micro(B) in solution. This change in spin state is common for all iron porphrinogens. 1 showed polymorphism, and with pyridine in the lattice, it changed to Et(4)N[L' 'Fe(III)].DCM(0.5)Py(1.5) (2), possessing two different conformers. Calculation of these conformers at the density functional theory level showed the relative energies of all d orbital changes in three conformers, highlighting the influence of the disposition of a peripheral ligand. Iodine oxidation of 1 yielded [L' '(DeltaDelta)Fe(II)I][I(3).I(2)(+).I(3)(-)] (3) with the introduction of two C(alpha)-C(alpha) bonds with concomitant reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II). Its mu(eff) (5.4 mu(B)) in the solid changed to 4.8 micro(B) in solution, suggesting a high spin state (S = 2) for Fe(II).

  18. Improved wet bonding of methyl methacrylate-tri-n-butylborane resin to dentin etched with ten percent phosphoric acid in the presence of ferric ions.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Yasuhiko; Toida, Tetsuya; Nakabayashi, Nobuo

    2004-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the influence of dissolved dentinal substances in demineralized dentin on the hybridization of resin for bonding to dentin. It was hypothesized that these substances, including polyelectrolytes, significantly change the substrates, which could then be assessed by the addition of Na(+), Ca(2+), or Fe(3+) in 10% phosphoric acid. Bovine dentin specimens were etched for 10 s with a solution of 10% phosphoric acid (control) or of 22.0 mM dissolved sodium chloride (10P-Na), calcium chloride (10P-Ca), or ferric chloride (10P-Fe). The specimens were then rinsed, blot-dried, and primed three times with 5% 4-methacryloyloxyethyl trimellitate anhydride in acetone for 60 s. Methyl methacrylate-tri-n-butylborane resin was then applied. The tensile bond strength of each of the dumbbell-shaped specimens was then measured. The fractured surfaces and modified cross-sections were examined by scanning electron microscopy. The cross-sections were soaked in 6N HCl for 10 s and then in 1% sodium hypochlorite for 30 min to determine the resin content in the hybridized specimens. Shrinkage of the demineralized dentins upon drying was assessed by atomic force microscopy. The tensile bond strengths were 10.8 +/- 4.5 (control), 15.0 +/- 7.0 (10P-Na), 19.3 +/- 5.5 (10P-Ca), and 27.8 +/- 8.1 (10P-Fe) MPa. The atomic force microscopy studies showed that Fe(3+) minimized the shrinkage by drying for 10 s but Ca(2+) and Na(+) did not decrease the shrinkage the same as the control. The results support the hypothesis that the monomer permeability of wet demineralized dentin is effectively improved by dissolving ferric ions in the phosphoric acid, resulting in a greater bond strength and higher resin content in the hybridized dentin. The dissolved dentinal substances, including the polyelectrolytes, had a significant influence on the characteristics of the demineralized dentin, changing the degree of hybridization and bonding.

  19. Photocatalytic activity of ferric oxide/titanium dioxide nanocomposite films on stainless steel fabricated by anodization and ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Wei-ting; Ni, Hong-wei; Chen, Rong-sheng; Yue, Gao; Tai, Jun-kai; Wang, Zi-yang

    2013-08-01

    A simple surface treatment was used to develop photocatalytic activity for stainless steel. AISI 304 stainless steel specimens after anodization were implanted by Ti ions at an extracting voltage of 50 kV with an implantation dose of 3 × 1015 atoms·cm-2 and then annealed in air at 450°C for 2 h. The morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The microstructure was characterized by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue solution was carried out under ultraviolet light. The corrosion resistance of the stainless steel was evaluated in NaCl solution (3.5 wt%) by electrochemical polarization curves. It is found that the Ti ions depth profile resembles a Gaussian distribution in the implanted layer. The nanostructured Fe2O3/TiO2 composite film exhibits a remarkable enhancement in photocatalytic activity referenced to the mechanically polished specimen and anodized specimen. Meanwhile, the annealed Ti-implanted specimen remains good corrosion resistance.

  20. Identification and characterization of a bacterial hydrosulphide ion channel

    SciTech Connect

    Czyzewski, Bryan K.; Wang, Da-Neng

    2012-10-26

    The hydrosulphide ion (HS{sup -}) and its undissociated form, hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S), which are believed to have been critical to the origin of life on Earth, remain important in physiology and cellular signalling. As a major metabolite in anaerobic bacterial growth, hydrogen sulphide is a product of both assimilatory and dissimilatory sulphate reduction. These pathways can reduce various oxidized sulphur compounds including sulphate, sulphite and thiosulphate. The dissimilatory sulphate reduction pathway uses this molecule as the terminal electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration, in which process it produces excess amounts of H{sub 2}S. The reduction of sulphite is a key intermediate step in all sulphate reduction pathways. In Clostridium and Salmonella, an inducible sulphite reductase is directly linked to the regeneration of NAD{sup +}, which has been suggested to have a role in energy production and growth, as well as in the detoxification of sulphite. Above a certain concentration threshold, both H{sub 2}S and HS{sup -} inhibit cell growth by binding the metal centres of enzymes and cytochrome oxidase, necessitating a release mechanism for the export of this toxic metabolite from the cell. Here we report the identification of a hydrosulphide ion channel in the pathogen Clostridium difficile through a combination of genetic, biochemical and functional approaches. The HS{sup -} channel is a member of the formate/nitrite transport family, in which about 50 hydrosulphide ion channels form a third subfamily alongside those for formate (FocA) and for nitrite (NirC). The hydrosulphide ion channel is permeable to formate and nitrite as well as to HS{sup -} ions. Such polyspecificity can be explained by the conserved ion selectivity filter observed in the channel's crystal structure. The channel has a low open probability and is tightly regulated, to avoid decoupling of the membrane proton gradient.

  1. IonGAP: integrative bacterial genome analysis for Ion Torrent sequence data.

    PubMed

    Baez-Ortega, Adrian; Lorenzo-Diaz, Fabian; Hernandez, Mariano; Gonzalez-Vila, Carlos Ignacio; Roda-Garcia, Jose Luis; Colebrook, Marcos; Flores, Carlos

    2015-09-01

    We introduce IonGAP, a publicly available Web platform designed for the analysis of whole bacterial genomes using Ion Torrent sequence data. Besides assembly, it integrates a variety of comparative genomics, annotation and bacterial classification routines, based on the widely used FASTQ, BAM and SRA file formats. Benchmarking with different datasets evidenced that IonGAP is a fast, powerful and simple-to-use bioinformatics tool. By releasing this platform, we aim to translate low-cost bacterial genome analysis for microbiological prevention and control in healthcare, agroalimentary and pharmaceutical industry applications. IonGAP is hosted by the ITER's Teide-HPC supercomputer and is freely available on the Web for non-commercial use at http://iongap.hpc.iter.es. mcolesan@ull.edu.es or cflores@ull.edu.es Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Identification and characterization of a bacterial hydrosulfide ion channel

    PubMed Central

    Czyzewski, Bryan K.; Wang, Da-Neng

    2013-01-01

    Believed to have been critical to the origin of life on Earth 1, the hydrosulfide ion (HS−) and its undissociated form, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), continue to play a prominent role in physiology and cellular signaling 2. As a major metabolite in anaerobic bacterial growth, hydrogen sulfide is a product of both assimilatory and dissimilatory sulfate reduction 2–4. These pathways can reduce various oxidized sulfur compounds including sulfate, sulfite and thiosulfate. The dissimilatory sulfate reduction pathway uses this molecule as the terminal electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration, where it produces excess amounts of H2S4. The reduction of sulfite is a key intermediate step in all sulfate reduction pathways. In Clostridium and Salmonella, an inducible sulfite reductase is directly linked to the regeneration of NAD+, which has been suggested to play a role in energy production and growth, as well as in the detoxification of sulfite 3. Above a certain concentration threshold, both H2S and HS− nhibit cell growth by binding the metal centers of enzymes and cytochrome oxidase5, necessitating a release mechanism for the export of this toxic metabolite from the cell 5–9. Through a combination of genetic, biochemical and functional approaches, we have identified a hydrosulfide ion channel (HSC) in the pathogen Clostridium difficile. The HS− channel is a member of the formate-nitrite-transport (FNT) family, in which ~50 HSC genes form a third subfamily alongside those for formate (FocA) 10,11 and for nitrite (NirC) 12. In addition to HS− ions, HSC is also permeable to formate and nitrite. Such polyspecificity can be explained by the conserved ion selectivity filter observed in the HSC crystal structure. The channel has a low open probability and is tightly regulated, to avoid decoupling of the membrane proton gradient. PMID:22407320

  3. Ferric ion-specific sequestering agents. 7. Synthesis, iron-exchange kinetics, and stability constants of N-substituted, sulfonated catechoylamide analogs of enterobactin

    SciTech Connect

    Pecoraro, Vincent L.; Weit, Frederick L.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    1981-08-01

    For treatment of chronic iron overload (as occurs in Cooley's anemia), ferric ion sequestering agents with specific properties are necessary. Two analogues of enterobactin [a microbial chelating agent with the greatest stability constant known for an Fe(III) complex] are reported which exhibit: i) hydrolytic stability; ii) water solubility; iii) N-substitution to block peptidase hydrolysis. The first compound, N,N',N"- trimethyl-N,N',N"-tris(2,3-dihydroxysulfobenzoyl)1,3,5-triaminomethyl- benzene, [Me3MECAMS, 6] was prepared from the amide of trimesloyl chloride (1) and MeNH2. The resulting amide was reduced to the triamine (3) and converted in three steps to the final product 6 in 6% overall yield. The proton-dependent formation constant (log K*) for the reaction: Fe3+ + H3L6- = FeL6- + 3H+ is 4.87, which gives an equilibrium concentration of [Fe3+] at pH 7.4 of 2 x 10-27 M for 10-5 M L (6) and 10-6 M total Fe3+. The estimated formation constant (log β110) is 40. At low pH the FeL6- complex undergoes a series of three, one-proton reactions which probably gives a tris-salicylate complex formed by the carbonyl and ortho-catechol oxygen of the 2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl units (the same reaction that occurs with ferric enterobactin). After six hours in the presence of 6 mM ascorbate, Me3MECAMS (6.0 mM) removed 3.7% of the ferric ion initially sequestered by the iron storage protein, ferritin. The human iron transport protein transferrin gives up iron to Me3MECAMS with a pseudo first-order rate constant of 1.9 x 10-3min-1 (ligand concentration 2 X 10-4 M). This rate is comparable to that of enterobactin and other catechoyl amide sequestering agents, and greatly exceeds that of desferrioxamine B (Desferal®), the current drug of choice in treating iron overload. Two

  4. Ferric sulfates on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Roger G.

    1987-01-01

    Evidence is presented for the possible existence of ferric sulfato complexes and hydroxo ferric sulfate minerals in the permafrost of Mars. A sequential combination of ten unique conditions during the cooling history of Mars is suggested which is believed to have generated an environment within Martian permafrost that has stabilized Fe(3+)-SO4(2-)-bearing species. It is argued that minerals belonging to the jarosite and copiapite groups could be present in Martian regolith analyzed in the Viking XRF measurements at Chryse and Utopia, and that maghemite suspected to be coating the Viking magnet arrays is a hydrolysate of dissolved ferric sulfato complexes from exposed Martian permafrost.

  5. 21 CFR 184.1301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... GRAS § 184.1301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Ferric phosphate (ferric orthophosphate, iron (III) phosphate, Fe... ferric chloride or ferric citrate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals...

  6. The importance of reductive mechanisms for intestinal uptake of iron from ferric maltol and ferric nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA).

    PubMed

    Barrand, M A; Hider, R C; Callingham, B A

    1990-04-01

    Intestinal iron absorption is thought to proceed with iron mainly in the ferrous form, yet the novel iron complex, ferric maltol is an effective oral preparation. Although possessing a high oil: water partition coefficient, ferric maltol does not diffuse across the intestine but donates its iron to the endogenous uptake system. Reduction of the ferric iron in the gut lumen appears to precede iron uptake both from ferric maltol and from ferric nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) which is a non-penetrating iron ligand. Uptake of radiolabelled iron (59Fe) into isolated fragments of rat small intestine was inhibited by the ferrous chelator, bathophenanthroline sulphonate (BPS) and enhanced at low concentrations by the reducing agent ascorbic acid. Spectrophotometric evidence was obtained that ferrous ions are generated from these ferric complexes in the presence of ascorbic acid and other reducing agents. The rate of ferrous ion formation was independent of ferric maltol concentration at low ascorbic acid levels and decreased with increasing ferric maltol concentration at higher levels of ascorbate. Maltol has a high affinity for ferric ions and may delay reduction at higher concentrations. By contrast, a higher rate of ferrous ion generation was seen with ferric NTA and this increased with iron ligand concentration. Washings from the intestinal lumen also brought about ferrous ion formation from these ferric ligands. Gel filtration revealed these reducing factors to be of low molecular weight. The washings, however, interfered with 59Fe uptake into the isolated fragments, but when reducing fractions only from the filtered washings were used, enhanced iron uptake was seen.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. A biosensor for ferric ion.

    PubMed

    Barrero, J M; Morino-Bondi, M C; Pérez-Conde, M C; Cámara, C

    1993-11-01

    A new biosensor for monitoring iron has been developed. The active solid phase is pyoverdin, a natural fluorescent pigment biosynthesized by Pseudomonas fluorescens immobilized on controlled pore glass (CPG) and packed in a quartz flow-through cell. The biosensor is very selective for iron(III) and can be easily regenerated in about 2 min by passing 1M HCl through the cell. The optimum conditions and analytical characteristics (detection limit, precision and linear range) for the new sensor in solution (DL = 10 ng/ml) and in immobilized form (DL = 3 ng/ml) are reported. The biosensor has good stability and can be used continuously over a period for at least 3 months (over 1000 determinations). The sensor was successfully applied to determine iron in different water samples. There were no significant differences between the new method and the Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) reference method at the 95% confidence level.

  8. Mechanisms of ion-bombardment-induced DNA transfer into bacterial E. coli cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, L. D.; Sangwijit, K.; Prakrajang, K.; Phanchaisri, B.; Thongkumkoon, P.; Thopan, P.; Singkarat, S.; Anuntalabhochai, S.

    2014-05-01

    As a useful ion beam biotechnology, ion-bombardment-induced DNA transfer into bacterial Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells has been successfully operated using argon ions. In the process ion bombardment of the bacterial cells modifies the cell envelope materials to favor the exogenous DNA molecules to pass through the envelope to enter the cell. The occurrence of the DNA transfer induction was found ion energy and fluence dependent in a complex manner. At ion energy of a few keV and a few tens of keV to moderate fluences the DNA transfer could be induced by ion bombardment of the bacterial cells, while at the same ion energy but to high fluences DNA transfer could not be induced. On the other hand, when the ion energy was medium, about 10-20 keV, the DNA transfer could not be induced by ion bombardment of the cells. The complexity of the experimental results indicated a complex mechanism which should be related to the complex structure of the bacterial E. coli cell envelope. A phase diagram was proposed to interpret different mechanisms involved as functions of the ion energy and fluence.

  9. Ferric Tourmaline from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mason, B; Donnay, G; Hardie, L A

    1964-04-03

    Dark brown crystals, up to 10 mm long, occur in rhyolite at Mexquitic, San Luis Potosi, Mexico. They are short prismatic, showing {1120}, {3030}, {1011}, {0221}, with c/a 0.4521, measured with a goniometer, and distinct {1120} cleavage. With an unusual combination of cell dimensions, high density, high refractive indices, and extreme birefringence, this tourmaline falls outside the known elbaite-schorl and schorl-dravite series. A chemical analysis, recalculated on the basis of cell volume and density, gives close to the theoretical 150 atoms per cell, whether the iron is ferrous or ferric, but the physical properties indicate a ferric tourmaline.

  10. Engineering bacterial two-component system PmrA/PmrB to sense lanthanide ions.

    PubMed

    Liang, Haihua; Deng, Xin; Bosscher, Mike; Ji, Quanjiang; Jensen, Mark P; He, Chuan

    2013-02-13

    The Salmonella PmrA/PmrB two-component system uses an iron(III)-binding motif on the cell surface to sense the environmental or host ferric level and regulate PmrA-controlled gene expression. We replaced the iron(III)-binding motif with a lanthanide-binding peptide sequence that is known to selectively recognize trivalent lanthanide ions. The newly engineered two-component system (PmrA/PmrB) can effectively sense lanthanide ion and regulate gene expression in E. coli . This work not only provides the first known lanthanide-based sensing and response in live cells but also demonstrates that the PmrA/PmrB system is a suitable template for future synthetic biology efforts to construct bacteria that can sense and respond to other metal ions in remediation or sequestration.

  11. 21 CFR 184.1307 - Ferric sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1307 Ferric sulfate. (a) Ferric sulfate (iron (III) sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3 CAS... treating ferric oxide or ferric hydroxide with sulfuric acid. (b) The ingredient must be of a...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1307 - Ferric sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1307 Ferric sulfate. (a) Ferric sulfate (iron (III) sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3 CAS... treating ferric oxide or ferric hydroxide with sulfuric acid. (b) The ingredient must be of a...

  13. Metal-ion susceptibility of oral bacterial species.

    PubMed

    Youravong, N; Carlen, A; Teanpaisan, R; Dahlén, G

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of lead (Pb) on growth of bacterial species related to dental diseases in vitro. The effects of lead acetate on representative species of the oral flora were examined at 0.1-10 mmol l(-1) and compared with the effect of silver nitrate and ferrous sulfate. The minimal inhibitory concentration of lead acetate was between 0.15 and 5 mmol l(-1) for the bacterial strains tested. The minimal bactericidal concentration of lead acetate for most oral species was detected in the range of 5-10 mmol l(-1). Silver nitrate at a concentration of 1.25 mmol l(-1) was sufficient to exhibit antibacterial activity against almost all bacteria tested. Ferrous sulfate had the lowest effect. The study indicated a general antimicrobial effect of lead on oral bacterial species in the range of 0.15-10 mmol l(-1). The toxicity of silver nitrate was the highest, whereas that of ferrous sulfate was the lowest. Gram-positive species had a tendency to be less susceptible for metals than Gram-negatives. The study shows that it is possible that microbiological changes may occur in the dental plaque in children because of toxic exposure of environmental lead. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Evolution of the Ferric Reductase Domain (FRD) Superfamily: Modularity, Functional Diversification, and Signature Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuezhi; Krause, Karl-Heinz; Xenarios, Ioannis; Soldati, Thierry; Boeckmann, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    A heme-containing transmembrane ferric reductase domain (FRD) is found in bacterial and eukaryotic protein families, including ferric reductases (FRE), and NADPH oxidases (NOX). The aim of this study was to understand the phylogeny of the FRD superfamily. Bacteria contain FRD proteins consisting only of the ferric reductase domain, such as YedZ and short bFRE proteins. Full length FRE and NOX enzymes are mostly found in eukaryotic cells and all possess a dehydrogenase domain, allowing them to catalyze electron transfer from cytosolic NADPH to extracellular metal ions (FRE) or oxygen (NOX). Metazoa possess YedZ-related STEAP proteins, possibly derived from bacteria through horizontal gene transfer. Phylogenetic analyses suggests that FRE enzymes appeared early in evolution, followed by a transition towards EF-hand containing NOX enzymes (NOX5- and DUOX-like). An ancestral gene of the NOX(1-4) family probably lost the EF-hands and new regulatory mechanisms of increasing complexity evolved in this clade. Two signature motifs were identified: NOX enzymes are distinguished from FRE enzymes through a four amino acid motif spanning from transmembrane domain 3 (TM3) to TM4, and YedZ/STEAP proteins are identified by the replacement of the first canonical heme-spanning histidine by a highly conserved arginine. The FRD superfamily most likely originated in bacteria. PMID:23505460

  15. 21 CFR 184.1307 - Ferric sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....1307 Ferric sulfate. (a) Ferric sulfate (iron (III) sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3 CAS Reg. No. 10028-22-5) is a yellow substance that may be prepared by oxidizing iron (II) sulfate or by treating ferric oxide...

  16. Ferric Iron Content of Nakhlite Hydrothermal Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, L. J.; Bridges, J. C.; Gurman, S. J.

    2012-03-01

    Fe-K XANES absorption edge positions are correlated with ferric-ferrous ratios. This allows us to determine the oxidation state of the phyllosilicate (mixed ferric and ferrous) and amorphous gel (ferric) in the Lafayette nakhlite.

  17. Stochastic pumping of ions based on colored noise in bacterial channels under acidic stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, M. Lidón; Queralt-Martín, María; Alcaraz, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Fluctuation-driven ion transport can be obtained in bacterial channels with the aid of different types of colored noise including the biologically relevant Lorentzian one. Using the electrochemical rectification of the channel current as a ratchet mechanism we observe transport of ions up to their concentration gradient under conditions similar to that met in vivo, namely moderate pH gradients and asymmetrically charged lipid membranes. We find that depending on the direction of the concentration gradient the channel can pump either cations or anions from the diluted side to the concentrated one. We discuss the possible relevance of this phenomenon for the pH homeostasis of bacterial cells.Fluctuation-driven ion transport can be obtained in bacterial channels with the aid of different types of colored noise including the biologically relevant Lorentzian one. Using the electrochemical rectification of the channel current as a ratchet mechanism we observe transport of ions up to their concentration gradient under conditions similar to that met in vivo, namely moderate pH gradients and asymmetrically charged lipid membranes. We find that depending on the direction of the concentration gradient the channel can pump either cations or anions from the diluted side to the concentrated one. We discuss the possible relevance of this phenomenon for the pH homeostasis of bacterial cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr02638a

  18. Mutagenic effect of accelerated heavy ions on bacterial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boreyko, A. V.; Krasavin, E. A.

    2011-11-01

    The heavy ion accelerators of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research were used to study the regularities and mechanisms of formation of different types of mutations in prokaryote cells. The induction of direct (lac-, ton B-, col B) mutations for Esherichia coli cells and reverse his- → His+ mutations of Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus subtilis cells under the action of radiation in a wide range of linear energy transfer (LET) was studied. The regularities of formation of gene and structural (tonB trp-) mutations for Esherichia coli bacteria under the action of accelerated heavy ions were studied. It was demonstrated that the rate of gene mutations as a function of the dose under the action of Γ rays and accelerated heavy ions is described by linear-quadratic functions. For structural mutations, linear "dose-effect" dependences are typical. The quadratic character of mutagenesis dose curves is determined by the "interaction" of two independent "hitting" events in the course of SOS repair of genetic structures. The conclusion made was that gene mutations under the action of accelerated heavy ions are induced by δ electron regions of charged particle tracks. The methods of SOS chromotest, SOS lux test, and λ prophage induction were used to study the regularities of SOS response of cells under the action of radiations in a wide LET range. The following proposition was substantiated: the molecular basis for formation of gene mutations are cluster single-strand DNA breaks, and that for structural mutations, double-strand DNA breaks. It was found out that the LET dependence of the relative biological efficiency of accelerated ions is described by curves with a local maximum. It was demonstrated that the biological efficiency of ionizing radiations with different physical characteristics on cells with different genotype, estimated by the lethal action, induction of gene and deletion mutations, precision excision of transposons, is determined by the specific

  19. MinION nanopore sequencing identifies the position and structure of a bacterial antibiotic resistance island.

    PubMed

    Ashton, Philip M; Nair, Satheesh; Dallman, Tim; Rubino, Salvatore; Rabsch, Wolfgang; Mwaigwisya, Solomon; Wain, John; O'Grady, Justin

    2015-03-01

    Short-read, high-throughput sequencing technology cannot identify the chromosomal position of repetitive insertion sequences that typically flank horizontally acquired genes such as bacterial virulence genes and antibiotic resistance genes. The MinION nanopore sequencer can produce long sequencing reads on a device similar in size to a USB memory stick. Here we apply a MinION sequencer to resolve the structure and chromosomal insertion site of a composite antibiotic resistance island in Salmonella Typhi Haplotype 58. Nanopore sequencing data from a single 18-h run was used to create a scaffold for an assembly generated from short-read Illumina data. Our results demonstrate the potential of the MinION device in clinical laboratories to fully characterize the epidemic spread of bacterial pathogens.

  20. Turn-off fluorescence sensor for the detection of ferric ion in water using green synthesized N-doped carbon dots and its bio-imaging.

    PubMed

    Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel; Atchudan, Raji; Shim, Jae-Jin; Kalimuthu, Senthilkumar; Ahn, Byeong-Cheol; Lee, Yong Rok

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports turn-off fluorescence sensor for Fe(3+) ion in water using fluorescent N-doped carbon dots as a probe. A simple and efficient hydrothermal carbonization of Prunus avium fruit extract for the synthesis of fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots (N-CDs) is described. This green approach proceeds quickly and provides good quality N-CDs. The mean size of synthesized N-CDs was approximately 7nm calculated from the high-resolution transmission electron microscopic images. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the presence of -OH, -NH2, -COOH, and -CO functional groups over the surface of CDs. The N-CDs showed excellent fluorescent properties, and emitted blue fluorescence at 411nm upon excitation at 310nm. The calculated quantum yield of the synthesized N-CDs is 13% against quinine sulfate as a reference fluorophore. The synthesized N-CDs were used as a fluorescent probe towards the selective and sensitive detection of biologically important Fe(3+) ions in water by fluorescence spectroscopy and for bio-imaging of MDA-MB-231 cells. The limit of detection (LOD) and the Stern-Volmer quenching constant for the synthesized N-CDs were 0.96μM and 2.0958×10(3)M of Fe(3+) ions. The green synthesized N-CDs are efficiently used as a promising candidate for the detection of Fe(3+) ions and bio-imaging.

  1. Thiophene aldehyde-diamino uracil Schiff base: A novel fluorescent probe for detection and quantification of cupric, silver and ferric ions.

    PubMed

    Hammud, Hassan H; El Shazly, Shawky; Sonji, Ghassan; Sonji, Nada; Bouhadir, Kamal H

    2015-01-01

    A new Schiff base from the condensation of 5,6-diamino-1,3-dimethyluracil with 5-methylthiophene-2-carboxaldehyde was synthesized. The compound was characterized by spectral data (UV-Vis, IR, (1)H NMR, fluorescence, MS). Ethanolic solutions of the Schiff base exhibit a strong fluorescence emission at 385 nm (λex=341 nm), and have been employed as a "turn-off" fluorescent probe for selective detection of Ag(+), Cu(2+) and Fe(3+) ions in presence of other cations such as Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions abundant in natural water. The interaction between the tested compound and copper, silver or iron ions is associated with a significant fluorescence decrease, showing detection limits of 2.1-14.2 ppb. Under optimal conditions, the developed sensor was successfully employed to determine Ag(+), Cu(2+) and Fe(3+) ions in real samples and proved to be selective and sensitive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Ion Selectivity Mechanism in a Bacterial Pentameric Ligand-Gated Ion Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Fritsch, Sebastian M; Ivanov, Ivaylo N; Wang, Hailong; Cheng, Xiaolin

    2011-01-01

    The proton-gated ion channel from Gloeobacter violaceus (GLIC) is a prokaryotic homolog of the eukaryotic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) that responds to the binding of neurotransmitter acetylcholine and mediates fast signal transmission. Recent emergence of a high resolution crystal structure of GLIC captured in a potentially open state allowed detailed, atomic-level insight into ion conduction and selectivity mechanisms in these channels. Herein, we have examined the barriers to ion conduction and origins of ion selectivity in the GLIC channel by the construction of potential of mean force (PMF) profiles for sodium and chloride ions inside the transmembrane region. Our calculations reveal that the GLIC channel is open for a sodium ion to transport, but presents a ~10 kcal/mol free energy barrier for a chloride ion, which arises primarily from the unfavorable interactions with a ring of negatively charged glutamate residues (E-2 ) at the intracellular end and a ring of hydrophobic residues (I9 ) in the middle of the transmembrane domain. Our collective findings further suggest that the charge selection mechanism can, to a large extent, be attributed to the narrow intracellular end and a ring of glutamate residues in this position their strong negative electrostatics and ability to bind cations. By contrast, E19 at the extracellular entrance only plays a minor role in ion selectivity of GLIC. In addition to electrostatics, both ion hydration and protein dynamics are found to be crucial for ion conduction as well, which explains why a chloride ion experiences a much greater barrier than a sodium ion in the hydrophobic region of the pore.

  3. Mathematical Models of Cobalt and Iron Ions Catalyzed Microwave Bacterial Deactivation

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, Earl; Reznik, Aron; Benjamin, Ellis; Williams, Arthur L.

    2007-01-01

    Time differences for Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli survival during microwave irradiation (power 130 W) in the presence of aqueous cobalt and iron ions were investigated. Measured dependencies had “bell” shape forms with maximum bacterial viability between 1 – 2 min becoming insignificant at 3 minutes. The deactivation time for E. faecalis, S. aureus and E.coli in the presence of metal ions were smaller compared to a water control (4–5 min). Although various sensitivities to the metal ions were observed, S. aureus and E. coli and were the most sensitive for cobalt and iron, respectively. The rapid reduction of viable bacteria during microwave treatment in the presence of metal ions could be explained by increased metal ion penetration into bacteria. Additionally, microwave irradiation may have increased the kinetic energy of the metal ions resulting in lower survival rates. The proposed mathematical model for microwave heating took into account the “growth” and “death” factors of the bacteria, forming second degree polynomial functions. Good relationships were found between the proposed mathematical models and the experimental data for bacterial deactivation (coefficient of correlation 0.91 – 0.99). PMID:17911658

  4. Ion Selectivity Mechanism in a Bacterial Pentameric Ligand-Gated Ion Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Fritsch, Sebastian; Ivanov, Ivaylo; Wang, Hailong; Cheng, Xiaolin

    2010-01-01

    The proton-gated ion channel from Gloeobacter violaceus (GLIC) is a prokaryotic homolog of the eukaryotic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor that responds to the binding of neurotransmitter acetylcholine and mediates fast signal transmission. Recent emergence of a high-resolution crystal structure of GLIC captured in a potentially open state allowed detailed, atomic-level insight into ion conduction and selectivity mechanisms in these channels. Herein, we have examined the barriers to ion conduction and origins of ion selectivity in the GLIC channel by the construction of potential-of-mean-force profiles for sodium and chloride ions inside the transmembrane region. Our calculations reveal that the GLIC channel is open for a sodium ion to transport, but presents a 11 kcal/mol free energy barrier for a chloride ion. Our collective findings identify three distinct contributions to the observed preference for the permeant ions. First, there is a substantial contribution due to a ring of negatively charged glutamate residues (E-2 ) at the narrow intracellular end of the channel. The negative electrostatics of this region and the ability of the glutamate side chains to directly bind cations would strongly favor the passage of sodium ions while hindering translocation of chloride ions. Second, our results imply a significant hydrophobic contribution to selectivity linked to differences in the desolvation penalty for the sodium versus chloride ions in the central hydrophobic region of the pore. This hydrophobic contribution is evidenced by the large free energy barriers experienced by Cl in the middle of the pore for both GLIC and the E-2 A mutant. Finally, there is a distinct contribution arising from the overall negative electrostatics of the channel.

  5. Bottom-up electrochemical preparation of solid-state carbon nanodots directly from nitriles/ionic liquids using carbon-free electrodes and the applications in specific ferric ion detection and cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Niu, Fushuang; Xu, Yuanhong; Liu, Mengli; Sun, Jing; Guo, Pengran; Liu, Jingquan

    2016-03-14

    Carbon nanodots (C-dots), a new type of potential alternative to conventional semiconductor quantum dots, have attracted numerous attentions in various applications including bio-chemical sensing, cell imaging, etc., due to their chemical inertness, low toxicity and flexible functionalization. Various methods including electrochemical (EC) methods have been reported for the synthesis of C-dots. However, complex procedures and/or carbon source-containing electrodes are often required. Herein, solid-state C-dots were simply prepared by bottom-up EC carbonization of nitriles (e.g. acetonitrile) in the presence of an ionic liquid [e.g. 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIMPF6)], using carbon-free electrodes. Due to the positive charges of BMIM(+) on the C-dots, the final products presented in a precipitate form on the cathode, and the unreacted nitriles and BMIMPF6 can be easily removed by simple vacuum filtration. The as-prepared solid-state C-dots can be well dispersed in an aqueous medium with excellent photoluminescence properties. The average size of the C-dots was found to be 3.02 ± 0.12 nm as evidenced by transmission electron microscopy. Other techniques such as UV-vis spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy were applied for the characterization of the C-dots and to analyze the possible generation mechanism. These C-dots have been successfully applied in efficient cell imaging and specific ferric ion detection.

  6. Low-energy plasma immersion ion implantation to induce DNA transfer into bacterial E. coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangwijit, K.; Yu, L. D.; Sarapirom, S.; Pitakrattananukool, S.; Anuntalabhochai, S.

    2015-12-01

    Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) at low energy was for the first time applied as a novel biotechnology to induce DNA transfer into bacterial cells. Argon or nitrogen PIII at low bias voltages of 2.5, 5 and 10 kV and fluences ranging from 1 × 1012 to 1 × 1017 ions/cm2 treated cells of Escherichia coli (E. coli). Subsequently, DNA transfer was operated by mixing the PIII-treated cells with DNA. Successes in PIII-induced DNA transfer were demonstrated by marker gene expressions. The induction of DNA transfer was ion-energy, fluence and DNA-size dependent. The DNA transferred in the cells was confirmed functioning. Mechanisms of the PIII-induced DNA transfer were investigated and discussed in terms of the E. coli cell envelope anatomy. Compared with conventional ion-beam-induced DNA transfer, PIII-induced DNA transfer was simpler with lower cost but higher efficiency.

  7. Bioavailable Ferric Iron (BAFelll) Assay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    Immobilization and Magnetite Formation via Ferric Oxide Reduction by Shewanella putrefaciens 200. Environ. Sci. Technol, 34:100-106. EA...bioavailable ferric iron BET Brunauer-Emmett-Teller bgs below ground surface BTEX benzene-toluene-ethylbenzene-xylenes BrY Shewanella alga BrY CDB...reducing bacterium Shewanella alga BrY, lactate as an electron donor, and a mineral salts medium supplemented with reagents that accelerate the assay

  8. 21 CFR 73.1299 - Ferric ferrocyanide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1299 Ferric ferrocyanide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive ferric ferrocyanide is a ferric hexacyanoferrate pigment characterized by the structual... ferrocyanide. (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with ferric ferrocyanide may contain only those...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1297 Ferric chloride. (a) Ferric chloride (iron (III) chloride, FeC13, CAS Reg. No. 7705-08-0) may be prepared from iron and chlorine or from ferric oxide and hydrogen chloride. The pure material occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric chloride hexahydrate (iron...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... GRAS § 184.1297 Ferric chloride. (a) Ferric chloride (iron (III) chloride, FeC13, CAS Reg. No. 7705-08-0) may be prepared from iron and chlorine or from ferric oxide and hydrogen chloride. The pure material occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric chloride hexahydrate (iron (III) chloride...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1307 - Ferric sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1307 Ferric sulfate. (a) Ferric sulfate (iron (III) sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3 CAS Reg. No. 10028-22-5) is a yellow substance that may be prepared by oxidizing iron (II) sulfate or by treating ferric oxide or ferric hydroxide with sulfuric acid. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1307 - Ferric sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1307 Ferric sulfate. (a) Ferric sulfate (iron (III) sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3 CAS Reg. No. 10028-22-5) is a yellow substance that may be prepared by oxidizing iron (II) sulfate or by treating ferric oxide or ferric hydroxide with sulfuric acid. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity...

  13. Simultaneous determination of adenine and guanine in ruminant bacterial pellets by ion-pair HPLC.

    PubMed

    García del Moral, Pilar; Arín, María Jesús; Resines, José Antonio; Díez, María Teresa

    2005-11-05

    An ion-pair reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with gradient elution and UV detection was used to measure adenine (A) and guanine (G) in lyophilized bacterial pellets from ruminants using allopurinol as internal standard. The separation was performed on a Symmetry C18 column and the detection was monitored at 280 nm. Calibration curves were found to be linear in the concentration range from 5 to 50 mg/l with correlation coefficients (r2)>0.999. Mean recoveries of A and G standards added to bacterial samples were 102.2 and 98.2, respectively. The method proposed yielded sharp, well-resolved peaks within 25 min and was successfully applied for the determination of A and G in bacterial pellets.

  14. Plasma-based fluorine ion implantation into dental materials for inhibition of bacterial adhesion.

    PubMed

    Nurhaerani; Arita, Kenji; Shinonaga, Yukari; Nishino, Mizuho

    2006-12-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the fluorine depth profiles of pure titanium (Ti), stainless steel (SUS), and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) modified by plasma-based fluorine ion implantation and the effects of fluorine ion implantation on contact angle, fluoride ion release, and S. mutans adhesion. Fluorine-based gases used were Ar+F2 and CF4. By means of SIMS, it was found that the peak count of PMMA was the lowest while that of Ti was the highest. Then, up to one minute after Ar sputtering, the presence of fluorine and chromic fluoride could be detected by XPS in the surface and subsurface layer. As for the effects of using CF4 gas for fluorine ion implantation into SUS substrate, the results were: contact angle was significantly increased; no fluoride ion release was detected; antibacterial activity was significantly increased while initial adhesion was decreased. These findings thus indicated that plasma-based fluorine ion implantation into SUS with CF4 gas provided surface antibacterial activity which was useful in inhibiting bacterial adhesion.

  15. Analysis of bacterial communities and bacterial pathogens in a biogas plant by the combination of ethidium monoazide, PCR and Ion Torrent sequencing.

    PubMed

    Luo, Gang; Angelidaki, Irini

    2014-09-01

    The present study investigated the changes of bacterial community composition including bacterial pathogens along a biogas plant, i.e. from the influent, to the biogas reactor and to the post-digester. The effects of post-digestion temperature and time on the changes of bacterial community composition and bacterial pathogens were also studied. Microbial analysis was made by Ion Torrent sequencing of the PCR amplicons from ethidium monoazide treated samples, and ethidium monoazide was used to cleave DNA from dead cells and exclude it from PCR amplification. Both similarity and taxonomic analysis showed that the bacterial community composition in the influent was changed after anaerobic digestion. Firmicutes were dominant in all the samples, while Proteobacteria decreased in the biogas reactor compared with the influent. Variations of bacterial community composition in the biogas reactor with time were also observed. This could be attributed to varying composition of the influent. Batch experiments showed that the methane recovery from the digested residues (obtained from biogas reactor) was mainly related with post-digestion temperature. However, post-digestion time rather than temperature had a significant effect on the changes of bacterial community composition. The changes of bacterial community composition were also reflected in the changes of relative abundance of bacterial pathogens. The richness and relative abundance of bacterial pathogens were reduced after anaerobic digestion in the biogas reactor. It was found in batch experiments that bacterial pathogens showed the highest relative abundance and richness after 30 days' post-digestion. Streptococcus bovis was found in all the samples. Our results showed that special attention should be paid to the post-digestion since the increase in relative abundance of bacterial pathogens after post-digestion might reflect regrowth of bacterial pathogens and limit biosolids disposal vectors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  16. Bottom-up electrochemical preparation of solid-state carbon nanodots directly from nitriles/ionic liquids using carbon-free electrodes and the applications in specific ferric ion detection and cell imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Fushuang; Xu, Yuanhong; Liu, Mengli; Sun, Jing; Guo, Pengran; Liu, Jingquan

    2016-03-01

    Carbon nanodots (C-dots), a new type of potential alternative to conventional semiconductor quantum dots, have attracted numerous attentions in various applications including bio-chemical sensing, cell imaging, etc., due to their chemical inertness, low toxicity and flexible functionalization. Various methods including electrochemical (EC) methods have been reported for the synthesis of C-dots. However, complex procedures and/or carbon source-containing electrodes are often required. Herein, solid-state C-dots were simply prepared by bottom-up EC carbonization of nitriles (e.g. acetonitrile) in the presence of an ionic liquid [e.g. 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIMPF6)], using carbon-free electrodes. Due to the positive charges of BMIM+ on the C-dots, the final products presented in a precipitate form on the cathode, and the unreacted nitriles and BMIMPF6 can be easily removed by simple vacuum filtration. The as-prepared solid-state C-dots can be well dispersed in an aqueous medium with excellent photoluminescence properties. The average size of the C-dots was found to be 3.02 +/- 0.12 nm as evidenced by transmission electron microscopy. Other techniques such as UV-vis spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy were applied for the characterization of the C-dots and to analyze the possible generation mechanism. These C-dots have been successfully applied in efficient cell imaging and specific ferric ion detection.Carbon nanodots (C-dots), a new type of potential alternative to conventional semiconductor quantum dots, have attracted numerous attentions in various applications including bio-chemical sensing, cell imaging, etc., due to their chemical inertness, low toxicity and flexible functionalization. Various methods including electrochemical (EC) methods have been reported for the synthesis of C-dots. However, complex procedures and/or carbon source-containing electrodes are often

  17. Amendments to the theory underlying Ussing chamber data of chloride ion secretion after bacterial enterotoxin exposure.

    PubMed

    Lucas, M L

    2005-05-07

    Bacterial enterotoxins may cause life-threatening diarrhoeal fluid loss in part because they stimulate enterocytes to secrete fluid into the small intestine as well as preventing normal fluid uptake. Abnormal chloride ion secretion is believed to provide the osmotic driving force for the inappropriate fluid movement. Evidence for enhanced chloride secretion consists of isotopic flux measurements in Ussing chambers, the standard apparatus for permeation studies. Flux from the lumen of the intestine is assumed to be determined solely by absorptive processes and flux towards the lumen solely by secretory processes. Bacterial enterotoxin increased flux towards the lumen is taken as an evidence of enhanced secretion. Examination of the flux equation solutions shows that the existing theoretical treatment of the Ussing chamber consists of the super-imposition of two contradictory unidirectional models. In contrast, the present analysis shows that a measured 'unidirectional' flux contains information both about absorptive and secretory processes, regardless of which flux is measured. Reciprocity is predicted for the fluxes, as decreases in the absorptive processes will cause increases in apparent secretory flux. Data from the literature show that mucosal-to-serosal chloride ion flux in rabbit ileum after exposure to secretagogues correlates inversely and highly significantly (r=0.74, n=17, p<0.001) with increases in serosal-to-mucosal chloride ion flux. As a category of evidence, flux data do not provide conclusive evidence of enhanced chloride secretion after exposure to enterotoxins, since an apparently enhanced serosal-to-mucosal flux would also be noted after inhibition of the mucosal-to-serosal flux. As interruption of absorptive processes can be misinterpreted as enhanced secretion in the Ussing chamber, this is a serious deficiency in the evidence for direct enterotoxin enhancement of the intestinal chloride ion channel as a basis for diarrhoeal disease.

  18. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1297 Ferric chloride. (a) Ferric chloride (iron (III) chloride... hexahydrate (iron (III) chloride hexahydrate, FeC13. 6H20, CAS Reg. No. 10025-77-1) is readily formed when... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ferric chloride. 184.1297 Section 184.1297 Food...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1297 Ferric chloride. (a) Ferric chloride (iron (III) chloride... hexahydrate (iron (III) chloride hexahydrate, FeC13. 6H20, CAS Reg. No. 10025-77-1) is readily formed when... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ferric chloride. 184.1297 Section 184.1297 Food...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1297 Ferric chloride. (a) Ferric chloride (iron (III) chloride... hexahydrate (iron (III) chloride hexahydrate, FeC13. 6H20, CAS Reg. No. 10025-77-1) is readily formed when... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ferric chloride. 184.1297 Section 184.1297 Food...

  1. 21 CFR 186.1300 - Ferric oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....1300 Ferric oxide. (a) Ferric oxide (iron (III) oxide, Fe2O3, CAS Reg. No. 1309-37-1) occurs naturally as the mineral hematite. It may be prepared synthetically by heating brown iron hydroxide oxide. The... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ferric oxide. 186.1300 Section 186.1300 Food and...

  2. 21 CFR 582.5304 - Ferric pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ferric pyrophosphate. 582.5304 Section 582.5304 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5304 Ferric pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Ferric pyrophosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  3. 21 CFR 582.5301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ferric phosphate. 582.5301 Section 582.5301 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Product. Ferric phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5304 - Ferric pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ferric pyrophosphate. 582.5304 Section 582.5304 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5304 Ferric pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Ferric pyrophosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  5. 21 CFR 582.5301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ferric phosphate. 582.5301 Section 582.5301 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Product. Ferric phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ferric phosphate. 582.5301 Section 582.5301 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Product. Ferric phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  7. 21 CFR 582.5301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ferric phosphate. 582.5301 Section 582.5301 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Product. Ferric phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ferric phosphate. 582.5301 Section 582.5301 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Product. Ferric phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5304 - Ferric pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ferric pyrophosphate. 582.5304 Section 582.5304 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5304 Ferric pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Ferric pyrophosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  10. 21 CFR 582.5304 - Ferric pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ferric pyrophosphate. 582.5304 Section 582.5304 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5304 Ferric pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Ferric pyrophosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  11. Chromosomal antioxidant genes have metal ion-specific roles as determinants of bacterial metal tolerance.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Joe J; Tremaroli, Valentina; Stan, Michelle A; Chan, Catherine S; Vacchi-Suzzi, Caterina; Heyne, Belinda J; Parsek, Matthew R; Ceri, Howard; Turner, Raymond J

    2009-10-01

    Microbiological metal toxicity involves redox reactions between metal species and cellular molecules, and therefore, we hypothesized that antioxidant systems might be chromosomal determinants affecting the susceptibility of bacteria to metal toxicity. Here, survival was quantified in metal ion-exposed planktonic cultures of several Escherichia coli strains, each bearing a mutation in a gene important for redox homeostasis. This characterized approximately 250 gene-metal combinations and identified that sodA, sodB, gor, trxA, gshA, grxA and marR have distinct roles in safeguarding or sensitizing cells to different toxic metal ions (Cr(2)O(7)(2-), Co(2+), Cu(2+), Ag(+), Zn(2+), AsO(2)(-), SeO(3)(2-) or TeO(3)(2-)). To shed light on these observations, fluorescent sensors for reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reduced thiol (RSH) quantification were used to ascertain that different metal ions exert oxidative toxicity through disparate modes-of-action. These oxidative mechanisms of metal toxicity were categorized as involving ROS and thiol-disulfide chemistry together (AsO(2)(-), SeO(3)(2-)), ROS predominantly (Cu(2+), Cr(2)O(7)(2-)) or thiol-disulfide chemistry predominantly (Ag(+), Co(2+), Zn(2+), TeO(3)(2-)). Corresponding to this, promoter-luxCDABE fusions showed that toxic doses of different metal ions up- or downregulate the transcription of gene sets marking distinct pathways of cellular oxidative stress. Altogether, our findings suggest that different metal ions are lethal to cells through discrete pathways of oxidative biochemistry, and moreover, indicate that chromosomally encoded antioxidant systems may have metal ion-specific physiological roles as determinants of bacterial metal tolerance.

  12. The Ferric Mineralogy of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, James F., III

    1992-12-01

    This dissertation presents the results of new telescope observations of Mars using the technique of imaging spectroscopy. Data at high spectral resolution (lambda/delta-lambda=350) and at the best possible spatial resolution from Earth (80-150 km) were obtained from Mauna Kea Observatory during the 1988 perihelic opposition. Spectra in the 0.4-0.8 micron region reveal distinct absorption features and spectral slope changes that are characteristic of Fe^3+ bearing minerals. Poorly crystalline materials, similar perhaps to nanophase ferric minerals or palagonitelike weathering products of basaltic glass, dominate the spectral behavior of the Martian surface in the visible to near IR. Analysis of absorption-band shapes and positions and the character of the strong near-UV ferric absorption edge provides solid evidence for the detection of minor amounts (4-8%) of crystalline hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) on Mars. While there is no unique evidence in the 0.40-0.95 micron region for the existence of other ferric oxides/oxyhydroxides, Fe-rich clays, or ferric sulfates, in these new data or in previous spacecraft and telescopic data, the existence of these and other ferric-bearing phases (e.g., goethite, jarosite, ferrihydrite, feroxyhite, maghemite) cannot be unequivocally ruled out, partly because of the spectral masking effects of hematite. Different models for the formation of hematite and other ferric minerals in various terrestrial analog environments and in the current and possibly past warmer, wetter Martian climate are discussed. Images in the 0.4-1.0 micron region reveal the ``classical'' albedo features at red and green wavelengths (lambda > 0.5 microns) and show a spectrally bland surface dominated by polar ices and atmospheric condensates at blue wavelengths. A number of differnet telescopic laboratory data analysis techniques are used to show that (1) the 2%-5% deep 0.6-0.7 micron ferric absorption bands varies across the surface at the 1%-2% level, with bright

  13. A novel type bacterial flagellar motor that can use divalent cations as a coupling ion

    PubMed Central

    Imazawa, Riku; Takahashi, Yuka; Aoki, Wataru; Sano, Motohiko; Ito, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial flagellar motor is a sophisticated nanomachine embedded in the cell envelope and powered by an electrochemical gradient of H+, Na+, or K+across the cytoplasmic membrane. Here we describe a new member of the bacterial flagellar stator channel family (MotAB1 of Paenibacillus sp. TCA20 (TCA-MotAB1)) that is coupled to divalent cations (Ca2+and Mg2+). In the absence of divalent cations of alkaline earth metals, no swimming was observed in Paenibacillus sp. TCA20, which grows optimally in Ca2+-rich environments. This pattern was confirmed by swimming assays of a stator-free Bacillus subtilis mutant expressing TCA-MotAB1. Both a stator-free and major Mg2+uptake system-deleted B. subtilis mutant expressing TCA-MotAB1 complemented both growth and motility deficiency under low Mg2+conditions and exhibited [Mg2+]in identical to that of the wild-type. This is the first report of a flagellar motor that can use Ca2+and Mg2+as coupling ions. These findings will promote the understanding of the operating principles of flagellar motors and molecular mechanisms of ion selectivity. PMID:26794857

  14. Decreased bacterial growth on titanium nanoscale topographies created by ion beam assisted evaporation

    PubMed Central

    Stolzoff, Michelle; Burns, Jason E; Aslani, Arash; Tobin, Eric J; Nguyen, Congtin; De La Torre, Nicholas; Golshan, Negar H; Ziemer, Katherine S; Webster, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    Titanium is one of the most widely used materials for orthopedic implants, yet it has exhibited significant complications in the short and long term, largely resulting from poor cell–material interactions. Among these many modes of failure, bacterial infection at the site of implantation has become a greater concern with the rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Nanostructured surfaces have been found to prevent bacterial colonization on many surfaces, including nanotextured titanium. In many cases, specific nanoscale roughness values and resulting surface energies have been considered to be “bactericidal”; here, we explore the use of ion beam evaporation as a novel technique to create nanoscale topographical features that can reduce bacterial density. Specifically, we investigated the relationship between the roughness and titanium nanofeature shapes and sizes, in which smaller, more regularly spaced nanofeatures (specifically 40–50 nm tall peaks spaced ~0.25 μm apart) were found to have more effect than surfaces with high roughness values alone. PMID:28223804

  15. The Ferric Mineralogy of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, James Francis, III

    1992-01-01

    This dissertation presents new telescopic observations of Mars using the technique of imaging spectroscopy. Data at high spectral resolution (lambda/ Deltalambda = 350) and at the best possible spatial resolution (80-150 km) were obtained from Mauna Kea Observatory during the 1988 perihelic opposition. Spectra from 0.4-0.8 μm reveal distinct absorption features and slope changes that are characteristic of Fe^{3+}-bearing minerals. Poorly crystalline materials, similar to nanophase ferric minerals or palagonite-like weathering products of basaltic glass, dominate the spectral behavior of the Martian surface in the visible to near-IR. Analysis of absorption band shapes and positions and the strong near-UV ferric absorption edge provides solid evidence for the detection of minor amounts (4-8%) of crystalline hematite (alpha -Fe_2O_3) on Mars. Different models for the formation of hematite and other ferric minerals in the current and possibly past warmer, wetter Martian climate are discussed. Images in the 0.4-1.0 μm region reveal the "classical" albedo features at red and green wavelengths (lambda > 0.5 μm) and show a spectrally bland surface dominated by polar ices and atmospheric condensates at blue wavelengths. The main results are that (1) the 2-5% deep 0.6-0.7 mu m ferric absorption band varies across the surface with bright regions typically having a deeper band; (2) many dark regions and isolated bright regions are more spectrally heterogeneous than once thought; (3) 95% of the variance in Mars spectra can be modeled using two endmembers (classical bright and dark regions), and spatially coherent units within the remaining variance correlate with condensates and dark, ferric-rich materials; (4) ferric minerals have absorption features at 0.9-1.0 mum, and weak bands observed in previous Mars spectra at these wavelengths that have been ascribed entirely to Fe ^{2+} minerals may also be consistent with variations in Fe^{3+} mineralogy. The advantages of imaging

  16. Effect of negative air ions on the potential for bacterial contamination of plastic medical equipment

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In recent years there has been renewed interest in the use of air ionizers to control the spread of infection in hospitals and a number of researchers have investigated the biocidal action of ions in both air and nitrogen. By comparison, the physical action of air ions on bacterial dissemination and deposition has largely been ignored. However, there is clinical evidence that air ions might play an important role in preventing the transmission of Acinetobacter infection. Although the reasons for this are unclear, it is hypothesized that a physical effect may be responsible: the production of air ions may negatively charge items of plastic medical equipment so that they repel, rather than attract, airborne bacteria. By negatively charging both particles in the air and items of plastic equipment, the ionizers minimize electrostatic deposition on these items. In so doing they may help to interrupt the transmission of Acinetobacter infection in certain healthcare settings such as intensive care units. Methods A study was undertaken in a mechanically ventilated room under ambient conditions to accurately measure changes in surface potential exhibited by items of plastic medical equipment in the presence of negative air ions. Plastic items were suspended on nylon threads, either in free space or in contact with a table surface, and exposed to negative ions produced by an air ionizer. The charge build-up on the specimens was measured using an electric field mill while the ion concentration in the room air was recorded using a portable ion counter. Results The results of the study demonstrated that common items of equipment such as ventilator tubes rapidly developed a large negative charge (i.e. generally >-100V) in the presence of a negative air ionizer. While most items of equipment tested behaved in a similar manner to this, one item, a box from a urological collection and monitoring system (the only item made from styrene acrylonitrile), did however develop

  17. Adverse Reactions of Ferric Carboxymaltose

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Navin; Shenoy, Smita; Bairy, K L; Sarma, Yashdeep

    2014-01-01

    The author reports a 55-year-old female diagnosed of chronic kidney disease grade-5 with associated co-morbidities like type 2 diabetes mellitus, diabetic retinopathy and hypothyroidism was admitted for arteriovenous fistula construction. She was started on ferric carboxymaltose for the treatment of anaemia. She was given a test dose before administering the drug intravenously and she did not develop any reaction. The drug ferric carboxymaltose was then administered over a period of one hour. About half an hour after drug administration, the patient developed breathlessness and myalgia. After half hour of the above episode of breathlessness and myalgia she also developed vomiting (one episode). Patient was managed with oxygen therapy, IV fluids and other drugs like corticosteroids, phenaramine maleate and nalbuphine which controlled the above symptoms. PMID:25478369

  18. Leaching of Zinc Sulfide by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: Experiments with a Controlled Redox Potential Indicate No Direct Bacterial Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, T. A.; Crundwell, F. K.

    1998-01-01

    The role of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans in bacterial leaching of mineral sulfides is controversial. Much of the controversy is due to the fact that the solution conditions, especially the concentrations of ferric and ferrous ions, change during experiments. The role of the bacteria would be more easily discernible if the concentrations of ferric and ferrous ions were maintained at set values throughout the experimental period. In this paper we report results obtained by using the constant redox potential apparatus described previously (P. I. Harvey and F. K. Crundwell, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63:2586–2592, 1997). This apparatus is designed to control the redox potential in the leaching compartment of an electrolytic cell by reduction or oxidation of dissolved iron. By controlling the redox potential the apparatus maintains the concentrations of ferrous and ferric ions at their initial values. Experiments were conducted in the presence of T. ferrooxidans and under sterile conditions. Analysis of the conversion of zinc sulfide in the absence of the bacteria and analysis of the conversion of zinc sulfate in the presence of the bacteria produced the same results. This indicates that the only role of the bacteria under the conditions used is regeneration of ferric ions in solution. In this work we found no evidence that there is a direct mechanism for bacterial leaching. PMID:9758769

  19. Arsenic removal by ferric chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Hering, J.G.; Chen, P.Y.; Wilkie, J.A.; Elimelech, M.; Liang, S.

    1996-04-01

    Bench-scale studies were conducted in model freshwater systems to investigate how various parameters affected arsenic removal during coagulation with ferric chloride and arsenic adsorption onto preformed hydrous ferric oxide. Parameters included arsenic oxidation state and initial concentration, coagulant dosage or adsorbent concentration, pH, and the presence of co-occurring inorganic solutes. Comparison of coagulation and adsorption experiments and of experimental results with predictions based on surface complexation modeling demonstrated that adsorption is an important (though not the sole) mechanism governing arsenic removal during coagulation. Under comparable conditions, better removal was observed with arsenic(V) [As(V)] than with arsenic(III) [As(III)] in both coagulation and adsorption experiments. Below neutral pH values, As(III) removal-adsorption was significantly decreased in the presence of sulfate, whereas only a slight decrease in As(V) removal-adsorption was observed. At high pH, removal-adsorption of As(V) was increased in the presence of calcium. Removal of As(V) during coagulation with ferric chloride is both more efficient and less sensitive than that of As(III) to variations in source water composition.

  20. Simple molecular model for the binding of antibiotic molecules to bacterial ion channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mafé, Salvador; Ramírez, Patricio; Alcaraz, Antonio

    2003-10-01

    A molecular model aimed at explaining recent experimental data by Nestorovich et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 9789 (2002)] on the interaction of ampicillin molecules with the constriction zone in a channel of the general bacterial porin, OmpF (outer membrane protein F), is presented. The model extends T. L. Hill's theory for intermolecular interactions in a pair of binding sites [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 78, 3330 (1956)] by incorporating two binding ions and two pairs of interacting sites. The results provide new physical insights on the role of the complementary pattern of the charge distributions in the ampicillin molecule and the narrowest part of the channel pore. Charge matching of interacting sites facilitates drug binding. The dependence of the number of ampicillin binding events per second with the solution pH and salt concentration is explained qualitatively using a reduced number of fundamental concepts.

  1. Marine Bacterial and Archaeal Ion-Pumping Rhodopsins: Genetic Diversity, Physiology, and Ecology.

    PubMed

    Pinhassi, Jarone; DeLong, Edward F; Béjà, Oded; González, José M; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    The recognition of a new family of rhodopsins in marine planktonic bacteria, proton-pumping proteorhodopsin, expanded the known phylogenetic range, environmental distribution, and sequence diversity of retinylidene photoproteins. At the time of this discovery, microbial ion-pumping rhodopsins were known solely in haloarchaea inhabiting extreme hypersaline environments. Shortly thereafter, proteorhodopsins and other light-activated energy-generating rhodopsins were recognized to be widespread among marine bacteria. The ubiquity of marine rhodopsin photosystems now challenges prior understanding of the nature and contributions of "heterotrophic" bacteria to biogeochemical carbon cycling and energy fluxes. Subsequent investigations have focused on the biophysics and biochemistry of these novel microbial rhodopsins, their distribution across the tree of life, evolutionary trajectories, and functional expression in nature. Later discoveries included the identification of proteorhodopsin genes in all three domains of life, the spectral tuning of rhodopsin variants to wavelengths prevailing in the sea, variable light-activated ion-pumping specificities among bacterial rhodopsin variants, and the widespread lateral gene transfer of biosynthetic genes for bacterial rhodopsins and their associated photopigments. Heterologous expression experiments with marine rhodopsin genes (and associated retinal chromophore genes) provided early evidence that light energy harvested by rhodopsins could be harnessed to provide biochemical energy. Importantly, some studies with native marine bacteria show that rhodopsin-containing bacteria use light to enhance growth or promote survival during starvation. We infer from the distribution of rhodopsin genes in diverse genomic contexts that different marine bacteria probably use rhodopsins to support light-dependent fitness strategies somewhere between these two extremes. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Marine Bacterial and Archaeal Ion-Pumping Rhodopsins: Genetic Diversity, Physiology, and Ecology

    PubMed Central

    DeLong, Edward F.; Béjà, Oded; González, José M.; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The recognition of a new family of rhodopsins in marine planktonic bacteria, proton-pumping proteorhodopsin, expanded the known phylogenetic range, environmental distribution, and sequence diversity of retinylidene photoproteins. At the time of this discovery, microbial ion-pumping rhodopsins were known solely in haloarchaea inhabiting extreme hypersaline environments. Shortly thereafter, proteorhodopsins and other light-activated energy-generating rhodopsins were recognized to be widespread among marine bacteria. The ubiquity of marine rhodopsin photosystems now challenges prior understanding of the nature and contributions of “heterotrophic” bacteria to biogeochemical carbon cycling and energy fluxes. Subsequent investigations have focused on the biophysics and biochemistry of these novel microbial rhodopsins, their distribution across the tree of life, evolutionary trajectories, and functional expression in nature. Later discoveries included the identification of proteorhodopsin genes in all three domains of life, the spectral tuning of rhodopsin variants to wavelengths prevailing in the sea, variable light-activated ion-pumping specificities among bacterial rhodopsin variants, and the widespread lateral gene transfer of biosynthetic genes for bacterial rhodopsins and their associated photopigments. Heterologous expression experiments with marine rhodopsin genes (and associated retinal chromophore genes) provided early evidence that light energy harvested by rhodopsins could be harnessed to provide biochemical energy. Importantly, some studies with native marine bacteria show that rhodopsin-containing bacteria use light to enhance growth or promote survival during starvation. We infer from the distribution of rhodopsin genes in diverse genomic contexts that different marine bacteria probably use rhodopsins to support light-dependent fitness strategies somewhere between these two extremes. PMID:27630250

  3. Analysis of bacterial spore permeability to water and ions using Nano-Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (NanoSIMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosal, S; Fallon, S; Leighton, T; Wheeler, K; Hutcheon, I; Weber, P K

    2005-11-17

    Regulation of bacterial spore solvent and solute permeability is a fundamental feature of dormancy but is poorly understood. Here we present a new technique, nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) that allows the direct visualization and quantification of chemical gradients within spores. Using NanoSIMS, we demonstrate the penetration of water and a simple ionic salt, LiF, into the core of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) spores. The results demonstrate chemical gradients spanning the outer coat to the inner spore core that are driven by concentration-dependent ionic fluxes. Using deuterated water (D{sub 2}O), we have shown that external water is either retained or exchanged with water contained within the spore. Hydration and exchange are rapid, on a timescale of < 1 minute. Our results suggest a permeation mechanism by which short-time scale diffusion into and out of the spore can occur along hydration pathways. Additional studies are in progress to define the flux rates and mechanisms controlling these processes.

  4. Ion Channels Activated by Mechanical Forces in Bacterial and Eukaryotic Cells.

    PubMed

    Sokabe, Masahiro; Sawada, Yasuyuki; Kobayashi, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Since the first discovery of mechanosensitive ion channel (MSC) in non-sensory cells in 1984, a variety of MSCs has been identified both in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. One of the central issues concerning MSCs is to understand the molecular and biophysical mechanisms of how mechanical forces activate/open MSCs. It has been well established that prokaryotic (mostly bacterial) MSCs are activated exclusively by membrane tension. Thus the problem to be solved with prokaryotic MSCs is the mechanisms how the MSC proteins receive tensile forces from the lipid bilayer and utilize them for channel opening. On the other hand, the activation of many eukaryotic MSCs crucially depends on tension in the actin cytoskeleton. By using the actin cytoskeleton as a force sensing antenna, eukaryotic MSCs have obtained sophisticated functions such as remote force sensing and force-direction sensing, which bacterial MSCs do not have. Actin cytoskeletons also give eukaryotic MSCs an interesting and important function called "active touch sensing", by which cells can sense rigidity of their substrates. The contractile actin cytoskeleton stress fiber (SF) anchors its each end to a focal adhesion (FA) and pulls the substrate to generate substrate-rigidity-dependent stresses in the FA. It has been found that those stresses are sensed by some Ca2+-permeable MSCs existing in the vicinity of FAs, thus the MSCs work as a substrate rigidity sensor that can transduce the rigidity into intracellular Ca2+ levels. This short review, roughly constituting of two parts, deals with molecular and biophysical mechanisms underlying the MSC activation process mostly based on our recent studies; (1) structure-function in bacterial MSCs activation at the atomic level, and (2) roles of actin cytoskeletons in the activation of eukaryotic MSCs.

  5. Freestanding bacterial cellulose-graphene oxide composite membranes with high mechanical strength for selective ion permeation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Qile; Zhou, Xufeng; Deng, Wei; Zheng, Zhi; Liu, Zhaoping

    2016-09-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) based membranes have been widely applied in molecular separation based on the size exclusion effect of the nanochannels formed by stacked GO sheets. However, it’s still a challenge to prepare a freestanding GO-based membrane with high mechanical strength and structural stability which is prerequisite for separation application in aqueous solution. Here, a freestanding composite membrane based on bacterial cellulose (BC) and GO is designed and prepared. BC network provides a porous skeleton to spread GO sheets and uniformly incorporates into the GO layers, which endows the BC + GO composite membrane with well water-stability, excellent tensile strength, as well as improved toughness, guaranteeing its separation applicability in water environment. The resulting BC + GO membrane exhibits obviously discrepant permeation properties for different inorganic/organic ions with different size, and in particular, it can quickly separate ions in nano-scale from angstrom-scale. Therefore, this novel composite membrane is considered to be a promising candidate in the applications of water purification, food industry, biomedicine, and pharmaceutical and fuel separation.

  6. Freestanding bacterial cellulose-graphene oxide composite membranes with high mechanical strength for selective ion permeation

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Qile; Zhou, Xufeng; Deng, Wei; Zheng, Zhi; Liu, Zhaoping

    2016-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) based membranes have been widely applied in molecular separation based on the size exclusion effect of the nanochannels formed by stacked GO sheets. However, it’s still a challenge to prepare a freestanding GO-based membrane with high mechanical strength and structural stability which is prerequisite for separation application in aqueous solution. Here, a freestanding composite membrane based on bacterial cellulose (BC) and GO is designed and prepared. BC network provides a porous skeleton to spread GO sheets and uniformly incorporates into the GO layers, which endows the BC + GO composite membrane with well water-stability, excellent tensile strength, as well as improved toughness, guaranteeing its separation applicability in water environment. The resulting BC + GO membrane exhibits obviously discrepant permeation properties for different inorganic/organic ions with different size, and in particular, it can quickly separate ions in nano-scale from angstrom-scale. Therefore, this novel composite membrane is considered to be a promising candidate in the applications of water purification, food industry, biomedicine, and pharmaceutical and fuel separation. PMID:27615451

  7. 21 CFR 186.1300 - Ferric oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1300 Ferric oxide. (a) Ferric oxide (iron (III) oxide, Fe2O3, CAS Reg. No... iron hydroxide oxide. The product is red-brown to black trigonal crystals. (b) In accordance with § 186... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferric oxide. 186.1300 Section 186.1300 Food and...

  8. 21 CFR 186.1300 - Ferric oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1300 Ferric oxide. (a) Ferric oxide (iron (III) oxide, Fe2O3, CAS Reg. No... iron hydroxide oxide. The product is red-brown to black trigonal crystals. (b) In accordance with § 186... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ferric oxide. 186.1300 Section 186.1300 Food and...

  9. 21 CFR 186.1300 - Ferric oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1300 Ferric oxide. (a) Ferric oxide (iron (III) oxide, Fe2O3, CAS Reg. No... iron hydroxide oxide. The product is red-brown to black trigonal crystals. (b) In accordance with § 186... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ferric oxide. 186.1300 Section 186.1300 Food and...

  10. 21 CFR 186.1300 - Ferric oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1300 Ferric oxide. (a) Ferric oxide (iron (III) oxide, Fe2O3, CAS Reg. No... iron hydroxide oxide. The product is red-brown to black trigonal crystals. (b) In accordance with § 186... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ferric oxide. 186.1300 Section 186.1300 Food and...

  11. A bacterial view of the periodic table: genes and proteins for toxic inorganic ions.

    PubMed

    Silver, Simon; Phung, Le T

    2005-12-01

    Essentially all bacteria have genes for toxic metal ion resistances and these include those for Ag+, AsO2-, AsO4(3-), Cd2+ Co2+, CrO4(2-), Cu2+, Hg2+, Ni2+, Pb2+, TeO3(2-), Tl+ and Zn2+. The largest group of resistance systems functions by energy-dependent efflux of toxic ions. Fewer involve enzymatic transformations (oxidation, reduction, methylation, and demethylation) or metal-binding proteins (for example, metallothionein SmtA, chaperone CopZ and periplasmic silver binding protein SilE). Some of the efflux resistance systems are ATPases and others are chemiosmotic ion/proton exchangers. For example, Cd2+-efflux pumps of bacteria are either inner membrane P-type ATPases or three polypeptide RND chemiosmotic complexes consisting of an inner membrane pump, a periplasmic-bridging protein and an outer membrane channel. In addition to the best studied three-polypeptide chemiosmotic system, Czc (Cd2+, Zn2+, and Co2), others are known that efflux Ag+, Cu+, Ni2+, and Zn2+. Resistance to inorganic mercury, Hg2+ (and to organomercurials, such as CH3Hg+ and phenylmercury) involve a series of metal-binding and membrane transport proteins as well as the enzymes mercuric reductase and organomercurial lyase, which overall convert more toxic to less toxic forms. Arsenic resistance and metabolizing systems occur in three patterns, the widely-found ars operon that is present in most bacterial genomes and many plasmids, the more recently recognized arr genes for the periplasmic arsenate reductase that functions in anaerobic respiration as a terminal electron acceptor, and the aso genes for the periplasmic arsenite oxidase that functions as an initial electron donor in aerobic resistance to arsenite.

  12. Metal-responsive promoter DNA compaction by the ferric uptake regulator

    PubMed Central

    Roncarati, Davide; Pelliciari, Simone; Doniselli, Nicola; Maggi, Stefano; Vannini, Andrea; Valzania, Luca; Mazzei, Luca; Zambelli, Barbara; Rivetti, Claudio; Danielli, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Short-range DNA looping has been proposed to affect promoter activity in many bacterial species and operator configurations, but only few examples have been experimentally investigated in molecular detail. Here we present evidence for a metal-responsive DNA condensation mechanism controlled by the Helicobacter pylori ferric uptake regulator (Fur), an orthologue of the widespread Fur family of prokaryotic metal-dependent regulators. H. pylori Fur represses the transcription of the essential arsRS acid acclimation operon through iron-responsive oligomerization and DNA compaction, encasing the arsR transcriptional start site in a repressive macromolecular complex. A second metal-dependent regulator NikR functions as nickel-dependent anti-repressor at this promoter, antagonizing the binding of Fur to the operator elements responsible for the DNA condensation. The results allow unifying H. pylori metal ion homeostasis and acid acclimation in a mechanistically coherent model, and demonstrate, for the first time, the existence of a selective metal-responsive DNA compaction mechanism controlling bacterial transcriptional regulation. PMID:27558202

  13. 21 CFR 73.2299 - Ferric ferrocyanide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2299 Ferric ferrocyanide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive ferric ferrocyanide shall conform in identity and specifications to the... coloring externally applied cosmetics, including cosmetics applied to the area of the eye, in amounts...

  14. 21 CFR 73.2299 - Ferric ferrocyanide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2299 Ferric ferrocyanide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive ferric ferrocyanide shall conform in identity and specifications to the... coloring externally applied cosmetics, including cosmetics applied to the area of the eye, in amounts...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... orthophosphate, iron (III) phosphate, FePO4·xH2O, CAS Reg. No. 10045-86-0) is an odorless, yellowish-white to... reaction of sodium phosphate with ferric chloride or ferric citrate. (b) The ingredient meets the...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... orthophosphate, iron (III) phosphate, FePO4·xH2O, CAS Reg. No. 10045-86-0) is an odorless, yellowish-white to... reaction of sodium phosphate with ferric chloride or ferric citrate. (b) The ingredient meets the...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... orthophosphate, iron (III) phosphate, FePO4·xH2O, CAS Reg. No. 10045-86-0) is an odorless, yellowish-white to... reaction of sodium phosphate with ferric chloride or ferric citrate. (b) The ingredient meets the...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... orthophosphate, iron (III) phosphate, FePO4·xH2O, CAS Reg. No. 10045-86-0) is an odorless, yellowish-white to... reaction of sodium phosphate with ferric chloride or ferric citrate. (b) The ingredient meets the...

  19. 21 CFR 73.2299 - Ferric ferrocyanide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The color additive and any mixture prepared... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2299 Ferric ferrocyanide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive ferric ferrocyanide shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  20. 21 CFR 73.2299 - Ferric ferrocyanide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The color additive and any mixture prepared... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2299 Ferric ferrocyanide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive ferric ferrocyanide shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  1. 21 CFR 73.1299 - Ferric ferrocyanide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ferric ferrocyanide. 73.1299 Section 73.1299 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1299 Ferric ferrocyanide. (a) Identity. (1)...

  2. 21 CFR 73.1299 - Ferric ferrocyanide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ferric ferrocyanide. 73.1299 Section 73.1299 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1299 Ferric ferrocyanide. (a) Identity. (1)...

  3. Ferric sulfate montmorillonites as Mars soil analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, J. L.; Pieters, C. M.; Burns, R. G.

    1993-01-01

    Spectroscopic analyses have shown that Fe(3+)-doped smectites prepared in the laboratory exhibit important similarities to the soils on Mars. Ferrihydrite in these smectites has features in the visible to near-infrared region that resemble the energies and band-strengths of features in reflectance spectra observed for several bright regions on Mars. Ferric - sulfate - montmorillonite samples have been prepared more recently because they are a good compositional match with the surface material on Mars as measured by Viking. Reflectance spectra of montmorillonite doped with ferric sulfate in the interlayer regions include a strong 3 micron band that persists under dry conditions. This is in contrast to spectra of similarly prepared ferric-doped montmorillonites, which exhibit a relatively weaker 3 micron band under comparable dry environmental conditions. Presented here are reflectance spectra of a suite of ferric-sulfate exchanged montmorillonites prepared with variable ferric sulfate concentrations and variable pH conditions.

  4. Selective separation of ferric and non-ferric forms of human transferrin by capillary micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Paweł; Śpiewak, Klaudyna; Nowak, Julia; Brindell, Małgorzata; Woźniakiewicz, Michał; Stochel, Grażyna; Kościelniak, Paweł

    2014-05-09

    The previously published method allowing the separation of non-ferric (iron-free) and ferric (iron-saturated) forms of human serum transferrin via capillary electrophoresis has been further developed. Using a surface response methodology and a three-factorial Doehlert design we have established a new optimized running buffer composition: 50mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.5, 22.5% (v/v) methanol, 17.5mM SDS. As a result, two previously unobserved monoferric forms of protein have been separated and identified, moreover, the loss of ferric ions from transferrin during electrophoretic separation has been considerably reduced by methanol, and the method selectivity has been yet increased resulting in a total separation of proteins exerting only subtle or none difference in mass-to-charge ratio. The new method has allowed us to monitor the gradual iron saturation of transferrin by mixing the iron-free form of protein with the buffers with different concentrations of ferric ions. It revealed continuously changing contribution of monoferric forms, characterized by different affinities of two existing iron binding sites on N- and C-lobes of protein, respectively. Afterwards, the similar experiment has been conducted on-line, i.e. inside the capillary, comparing the effectiveness of two possible modes of the reactant zones mixing: diffusion mediated and electrophoretically mediated ones. Finally, the total time of separation has been decreased down to 4min, taking the advantage from a short-end injection strategy and maintaining excellent selectivity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A ZnS(4) structural zinc site in the Helicobacter pylori ferric uptake regulator.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Sylvia; Fauquant, Caroline; Lascoux, David; Schauer, Kristine; Saint-Pierre, Christine; Michaud-Soret, Isabelle

    2009-06-23

    The ferric uptake regulator, Fur, is a global bacterial transcriptional regulator using iron as a cofactor to bind to specific DNA sequences. This paper describes the biochemical characterization of the native ferric uptake regulator from Helicobacter pylori (HpFur): oligomeric state, metal content, and characterization of a structural metal-binding site. HpFur contains six cysteines with two CxxC motifs, which makes it closer to Bacillus subtilis PerR (BsPerR) than to Escherichia coli Fur (EcFur). Chemical modifications of cysteine residues using iodoacetamide followed by mass spectrometry after enzymatic digestion strongly suggest that these two CxxC motifs containing cysteines 102-105 and 142-145 are involved in zinc binding in a ZnS(4) metal site. The other two cysteines (78 and 150) are not essential for DNA binding activity and do not perturb metal binding as demonstrated with the characterization of a FurC78SC150S double mutant. Chelating agent such as EDTA disrupts the dimeric structure into monomer which did not contain zinc anymore. Reconstitution of dimer from monomer requires reduction and Zn(2+) binding. Cadmium(II) substitution allows also dimer formation from monomer, and Cd(II)-substituted FurC78SC150S mutant presents a characteristic absorption of a Cd(II)Cys(4) metal-binding site. These results establish that coordination of the zinc ion in HpFur is ZnCys(4), therefore closer to the zinc site in BsPerR than in EcFur. Furthermore, the redox state of the cysteines and the zinc binding are essential to hold the H. pylori Fur in a dimeric state.

  6. 21 CFR 73.1298 - Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Identity. (1) The color additive ferric ammonium ferrocyanide is the blue pigment obtained by oxidizing... product is filtered, washed, and dried. The pigment consists principally of ferric ammonium...

  7. 21 CFR 73.1298 - Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Identity. (1) The color additive ferric ammonium ferrocyanide is the blue pigment obtained by oxidizing... product is filtered, washed, and dried. The pigment consists principally of ferric ammonium...

  8. 21 CFR 73.1298 - Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Identity. (1) The color additive ferric ammonium ferrocyanide is the blue pigment obtained by oxidizing... product is filtered, washed, and dried. The pigment consists principally of ferric ammonium...

  9. 21 CFR 73.1298 - Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Identity. (1) The color additive ferric ammonium ferrocyanide is the blue pigment obtained by oxidizing... product is filtered, washed, and dried. The pigment consists principally of ferric ammonium...

  10. Diversity of bacterial iron mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konhauser, Kurt O.

    1998-05-01

    Bacterial cells, growing naturally in freshwater and marine environments or experimentally in culture, can precipitate a variety of authigenic iron minerals. With the vast majority of bacteria biomineralization is a two-step process: initially metals are electrostatically bound to the anionic surfaces of the cell wall and surrounding organic polymers, where they subsequently serve as nucleation sites for crystal growth. The biogenic minerals have crystal habits and chemical compositions similar to those produced by precipitation from inorganic solutions because they are governed by the same equilibrium principles that control mineralization of their inorganic counterparts. As the latter stages of mineralization are inorganically driven, the type of biomineral formed is inevitably dependent on the available counter-ions, and hence, the chemical composition of the waters in which the microorganisms are growing. In oxygenated waters, iron hydroxides are a common precipitate and can form passively through the binding of dissolved ferric species to negatively charged polymers or when soluble ferrous iron spontaneously reacts with dissolved oxygen to precipitate as ferric hydroxide on available nucleation sites (e.g. bacteria). Alternatively, the metabolic activity of Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria can induce ferric hydroxide precipitation as a secondary by-product. Ferric hydroxide may then serve as a precursor for more stable iron oxides, such as goethite and hematite via dissolution-reprecipitation or dehydration, respectively, or it may react with dissolved silica, phosphate or sulphate to form other authigenic mineral phases. Under suboxic to anoxic conditions, ferric hydroxide may be converted to magnetite, siderite, and iron sulphides through various reductive processes associated with organic matter mineralization. Under biologically controlled conditions, where mineralization is completely regulated, magnetotactic bacteria form magnetite and greigite as navigational

  11. A rotating disk study of silver dissolution with thiourea in the presence of ferric sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesic, Batric; Seal, Thom

    1990-06-01

    The rotating disk technique was used to study silver dissolution with thiourea as a function of sulfuric acid, ferric sulfate, and thiourea concentrations. The effect of many foreign ions (Mn, Cu, Co, Ca, Na, etc.) and various additives was also examined. The dissolution of silver was zero order with sulfuric acid, first order with ferric sulfate, and second order with thiourea. Among the foreign ions, copper had a dramatically negative effect. The strong oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide and manganese dioxide were also detrimental for silver dissolution. According to the temperature effect studied (5 °C to 35 °C), the activation energy was 22.6 kJ/ mole. Silver does not dissolve with thiourea in the absence of ferric ions. Sulfuric acid does not participate in the dissolution reaction. The most important parameter for silver dissolution is the ferric sulfate/thiourea ratio. In excess ferric sulfate, a solid silver-thiourea complex is formed, which precludes transfer of silver into solution. In excess thiourea, the free thiourea reacts with formed solid silver-thiourea complex, and silver goes into the solution, predominantly as the dimers of AgTU+ 3 complexes. The solid silver-thiourea complex in question was characterized by various spectroscopic, microscopic, and chemical analysis techniques. According to chemical composition, it corresponds to Ag2SO2·3TUH2O compound.

  12. Silver Sink Effect of Humic Acid on Bacterial Surface Colonization in the Presence of Silver Ions and Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bertuccio, Alex J; Tilton, Robert D

    2017-02-07

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) released from consumer products may enter the environment and possibly harm microbial communities. Prior research showed that surface-adherent AgNPs inhibit bacterial surface colonization, a precursor to biofilm formation, only when planktonic bacterial inoculum concentrations are less than a threshold level ( Wirth and co-workers, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 2016 , 467 , 17 - 27 ). This inoculum effect is due to a decrease in free silver ion concentration associated with sublethal binding to bacteria. Natural organic matter can be an additional silver sink in environmental systems. Using Pseudomonas fluorescens as a model biofilm-forming bacterium, we find significant increases in minimum bactericidal concentrations for AgNP suspensions and Ag(+) in solution when adding humic acid (HA) to bacterial suspensions. When HA is present, planktonic bacteria survive and colonize AgNP-laden glass surfaces at lower bacterial inoculum concentrations than were needed for survival and colonization in its absence. This occurs despite the observed tendency of HA to inhibit colonization on bare glass surfaces when silver is absent. Results are interpreted through equilibrium Ag(+) binding isotherms to HA and suspended bacteria. These results indicate that silver ion sinks may lessen AgNP impacts on natural microbial ecology relative to the disruption observed in pristine laboratory conditions.

  13. The dissolution of sphalerite in ferric sulfate media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutrizac, J. E.

    2006-04-01

    The dissolution of sphalerite, (Zn,Fe)S, in ferric sulfate media was investigated using closely sized fractions of crushed sphalerite crystals. Linear kinetics were observed, and the rate increased in proportion to the surface area, as the average particle size of the sphalerite decreased. The predominant reaction products are ZnSO4, FeSO4, and elemental sulfur. The leaching rate increases with increasing temperature, and the apparent activation energy is 44 kJ/mol. The relatively high apparent activation energy suggests that the rate is chemically controlled, a conclusion supported by the insensitivity of the rate of the rotation speed that was observed in complementary rotating disk experiments. The rate increases as the 0.3 to 0.4 power of the Fe(SO4)1.5 concentration, and is nearly independent of the pulp density, in the presence of a stoichiometric excess of ferric sulfate. In 0.3 M Fe(SO4)1.5 media, the rate increases with increasing acid concentrations >0.1 M H2SO4, but is insensitive to more dilute acid concentrations. In the absence of ferric ions, the rate increases rapidly with increasing H2SO4 concentrations, and relatively rapid rates are observed in solutions containing >0.5 M H2SO4. The rate decreases with increasing initial concentrations of ZnSO4, MgSO4, or FeSO4 in the ferric sulfate leaching solution, and this emphasizes the importance of maintaining the dissolved iron in a fully oxidized state in a commercial leaching operation.

  14. A mathematical model for the bacterial oxidation of a sulfide ore concentrate.

    PubMed

    Nagpal, S; Dahlstrom, D; Oolman, T

    1994-03-05

    The effect of dilution rate and feed solids concentration on the bacterial leaching of a pyrite/arsenopyrite ore concentrate was studied. A mathematical model was developed for the process based on the steady-state data collected over the range of dilution rates (20 to 110 h) and feed solids concentrations (6 to 18% w/v) studied. A modified Monod model with inhibition by arsenic was used to model bacterial ferrous ion oxidation rates. The model assumes that (i) pyrite and arsenopyrite leaching occurs solely by the action of ferric iron produced from the bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron and (ii) bacterial growth rates are proportional to ferrous ion oxidation rate. The equilibrium among the various ionic species present in the leach solution that are likely to have a significant effect on the bioleach process were included in the model. (c) 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of akaganeite-like ferric oxyhydroxides

    SciTech Connect

    Linehan, J.C.; Darab, J.G.; Matson, D.W.; Chen, X.; Amonette, J.E.

    1997-08-01

    Iron-based powders have been used as catalytic and stoichiometric reactants in a variety of organic reactions and are receiving additional attention as ion exchange materials or once-through adsorbents for clean-up of toxic or radioactive waste streams. Recent efforts have been directed toward the design of iron-based products, in particular iron sulfides, capable of performing as hydrocracking catalysts for coal liquefaction and heavy crude or resid cracking. Here the authors present structural studies of new materials having akaganeite-like structures and of their use as hydrocracking catalyst precursors. Akaganeite, {beta}-FeOOH, a natural ferric oxyhydroxide mineral, has a structure containing tunnel-like cavities in which chloride ions reside. Analogs of akaganeite in which carbonate or sulfate groups replace the chloride ions have also been synthesized. Both akaganeite and its substituted analogs are known to be precursors for active hydrocracking catalysts. The authors present powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (XAFS) data confirming the synthesis of new ferric oxyhydroxides having structures similar to akaganeite, but contain molybdate and tungstate oxy-anions. They also present a new hydrothermal method to prepare this family of materials.

  16. 21 CFR 73.2299 - Ferric ferrocyanide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2299 Ferric ferrocyanide. (a) Identity and... coloring externally applied cosmetics, including cosmetics applied to the area of the eye, in amounts...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1298 - Ferric citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Reg. No. 2338-05-8) is prepared from reaction of citric acid with ferric hydroxide. It is a compound of indefinite ratio of citric acid and iron. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable for its...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1298 - Ferric citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Reg. No. 2338-05-8) is prepared from reaction of citric acid with ferric hydroxide. It is a compound of indefinite ratio of citric acid and iron. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable for its...

  19. 21 CFR 73.1298 - Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1298 Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive ferric ammonium ferrocyanide is the blue pigment obtained by oxidizing... with smaller amounts of ferric ferrocyanide and ferric sodium ferrocyanide. (2) Color additive mixtures...

  20. Colour and stability assessment of blue ferric anthocyanin chelates in liquid pectin-stabilised model systems.

    PubMed

    Buchweitz, M; Brauch, J; Carle, R; Kammerer, D R

    2013-06-01

    The formation of blue coloured ferric anthocyanin chelates and their colour stability during storage and thermal treatment were monitored in a pH range relevant to food (3.6-5.0). Liquid model systems were composed of different types of Citrus pectins, juices (J) and the respective phenolic extracts (E) from elderberry (EB), black currant (BC), red cabbage (RC) and purple carrot (PC) in the presence of ferric ions. For EB, BC and PC, pure blue colours devoid of a violet tint were exclusively observed for the phenolic extracts and at pH values ≥ 4.5 in model systems containing high methoxylated and amidated pectins, respectively. Colour and its stability strongly depended on the amount of ferric ions and the plant source; however, colour decay could generally be described as a pseudo-first-order kinetics. Despite optimal colour hues for RC-E and RC-J, storage and heat stabilities were poor. Highest colour intensities and best stabilities were observed for model systems containing PC-E at a molar anthocyanin:ferric ion ratio of 1:2. Ascorbic and lactic acids interfered with ferric ions, thus significantly affecting blue colour evolution and stability. Colour loss strongly depended on heat exposure with activation energies ranging between 60.5 and 78.4 kJ/mol. The comprehensive evaluation of the interrelationship of pigment source, pH conditions and pectin type on chelate formation and stability demonstrated that ferric anthocyanin chelates are promising natural blue food colourants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Reaction mechanism for the ferric chloride leaching of sphalerite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, G. W.; Henein, H.; Jin, Zuo-Mei

    1985-12-01

    Reaction mechanisms for the ferric chloride leaching of sphalerite are proposed based on data obtained in leaching and dual cell experiments presented in this work and in a previous study. The results from the leaching experiments show that at low concentrations the rate is proportional to [Fe3+]T 0.5 and [Cl-]T 0.43 but at higher concentrations the reaction order with respect to both [Fe3+]T and [Cl-]T decreases. Using dual cell experiments which allow the half cell reactions to be separated, increased rates are observed when NaCl is added to the anolyte and to the catholyte. The increase in rate is attributed to a direct, anodic electrochemical reaction of Cl- with the mineral. When NaCl is added only to the catholyte, a decrease in the rate is observed due to a decrease in the E 0 of the cathode which is attributed to the formation of ferric-chloro complexes. Several possible electrochemical mechanisms and mathematical models based on the Butler-Volmer relation are delineated, and of these, one model is selected which accounts for the experimentally observed changes in reaction order for both Fe3+ and Cl-. This analysis incorporates a charge transfer process for each ion and an adsorption step for ferric and chloride ions. The inhibiting effect of Fe2+ noted by previous investigators is also accounted for through a similar model which includes back reaction kinetics for Fe2+. The proposed models successfully provide a theoretical basis for describing the role of Cl-, Fe3+, and Fe2+ as well as their interrelationship in zinc sulfide leaching reactions. Possible applications of these results to chloride leaching systems involving other sulfides or complex sulfides are considered.

  2. Hydrolysis of ferric chloride in solution

    SciTech Connect

    Lussiez, G.; Beckstead, L.

    1996-11-01

    The Detox{trademark} process uses concentrated ferric chloride and small amounts of catalysts to oxidize organic compounds. It is under consideration for oxidizing transuranic organic wastes. Although the solution is reused extensively, at some point it will reach the acceptable limit of radioactivity or maximum solubility of the radioisotopes. This solution could be cemented, but the volume would be increased substantially because of the poor compatibility of chlorides and cement. A process has been developed that recovers the chloride ions as HCl and either minimizes the volume of radioactive waste or permits recycling of the radioactive chlorides. The process involves a two-step hydrolysis at atmospheric pressure, or preferably under a slight vacuum, and relatively low temperature, about 200{degrees}C. During the first step of the process, hydrolysis occurs according to the reaction below: FeCl{sub 3 liquid} + H{sub 2}O {r_arrow} FeOCl{sub solid} + 2 HCl{sub gas} During the second step, the hot, solid, iron oxychloride is sprayed with water or placed in contact with steam, and hydrolysis proceeds to the iron oxide according to the following reaction: 2 FeOCl{sub solid} + H{sub 2}O {r_arrow} Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3 solid} + 2 HCl{sub gas}. The iron oxide, which contains radioisotopes, can then be disposed of by cementation or encapsulation. Alternately, these chlorides can be washed off of the solids and can then either be recycled or disposed of in some other way.

  3. Modification of anti-bacterial surface properties of textile polymers by vacuum arc ion source implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaev, A. G.; Yushkov, G. Yu.; Oks, E. M.; Oztarhan, A.; Akpek, A.; Hames-Kocabas, E.; Urkac, E. S.; Brown, I. G.

    2014-08-01

    Ion implantation provides an important technology for the modification of material surface properties. The vacuum arc ion source is a unique instrument for the generation of intense beams of metal ions as well as gaseous ions, including mixed metal-gas beams with controllable metal:gas ion ratio. Here we describe our exploratory work on the application of vacuum arc ion source-generated ion beams for ion implantation into polymer textile materials for modification of their biological cell compatibility surface properties. We have investigated two specific aspects of cell compatibility: (i) enhancement of the antibacterial characteristics (we chose to use Staphylococcus aureus bacteria) of ion implanted polymer textile fabric, and (ii) the "inverse" concern of enhancement of neural cell growth rate (we chose Rat B-35 neuroblastoma cells) on ion implanted polymer textile. The results of both investigations were positive, with implantation-generated antibacterial efficiency factor up to about 90%, fully comparable to alternative conventional (non-implantation) approaches and with some potentially important advantages over the conventional approach; and with enhancement of neural cell growth rate of up to a factor of 3.5 when grown on suitably implanted polymer textile material.

  4. Removal of nickel and cadmium from battery waste by a chemical method using ferric sulphate.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Umesh U; Hocheng, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The removal of nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd) from spent batteries was studied by the chemical method. A novel leaching system using ferric sulphate hydrate was introduced to dissolve heavy metals in batteries. Ni-Cd batteries are classified as hazardous waste because Ni and Cd are suspected carcinogens. More efficient technologies are required to recover metals from spent batteries to minimize capital outlay, environmental impact and to respond to increased demand. The results obtained demonstrate that optimal conditions, including pH, concentration of ferric sulphate, shaking speed and temperature for the metal removal, were 2.5, 60 g/L, 150 rpm and 30 degrees C, respectively. More than 88 (+/- 0.9) and 84 (+/- 2.8)% of nickel and cadmium were recovered, respectively. These results suggest that ferric ion oxidized Ni and Cd present in battery waste. This novel process provides a possibility for recycling waste Ni-Cd batteries in a large industrial scale.

  5. Preliminary toxicological study of ferric acetyl acetonate

    SciTech Connect

    London, J.E.; Smith, D.M.

    1983-01-01

    The calculated acute oral LD/sub 50//sup 30/ (lethal does for 50% of the animals occuring with 30 days after compound administration) values for ferric acetyl acetonate were 584 mg/kg in mice and 995 mg/kg in rats. According to classical guidelines, this compound would be considered slightly toxic in both species. Skin application studies in the rabbit demonstrated the compound to be irritating. The eye irritation study disclosed the compound to be a severe irritant causing permanent damage to the cornea (inflammation and scarring resulting in blindness). The sensitization study in the guinea pig did not show ferric acetyl acetonate to be deleterious in this regard.

  6. Understanding Nitrilotris(methylenephosphonic acid) reactions with ferric hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Rodrigo Javier; Farrell, James

    2017-05-01

    Phosphonate compounds are used in a wide variety of industrial and agricultural applications, and are commonly found in surface and ground waters. Adsorption to ferric hydroxide can have a significant effect on the transport and fate of phosphonate compounds in the environment. This research used density functional theory modeling to investigate the adsorption mechanisms of nitrilotris(methylenephosphonic acid) (NTMP) on ferric hydroxide. Standard Gibbs free energies of reaction (ΔGr(o)) and reaction activation barriers (Ea) were calculated for different possible adsorption mechanisms. Physical adsorption of NTMP to ferric hydroxide was promoted by negative charge assisted hydrogen bonding, and had ΔGr(o) ranging from -2.7 to -7.4 kcal/mol. NTMP was found to form three different types of inner sphere complexes, monodentate, bidentate mononuclear and bidentate binuclear. For the monodentate complexes, ΔGr(o) ranged from -8.0 to -13.7 kcal/mol, for the bidentate complexes ΔGr(o) ranged from -15.3 to -28.9 kcal/mol. Complexation with Ca(2+) decreased the energy for physical adsorption but increased the binding energies for mono- and bidentate complexes. Complexation with Ca(2+) also allowed formation of a tridentate ternary surface complex, whereby the Ca(2+) ion formed a bridge between three FeO(-) and three PO(-) groups. Physical adsorption had Ea = 0, but mono- and bidentate complex formation had Ea values ranging from 36 to 53 kcal/mol. Formation of tridentate ternary surface complexes involving Ca(2+) had the lowest activation barriers of 8 and 10 kcal/mol. The different activation barriers for different modes of adsorption may explain previous experimental observations of unusual kinetic behavior for adsorption and desorption of NTMP.

  7. Electrical conduction studies in ferric-doped KHSO 4 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharon, M.; Kalia, A. K.

    1980-03-01

    Direct-current conductivity of ferric-doped (138, 267, and 490 ppm) single crystals of KHSO 4 has been studied. The mechanism for the dc conduction process is discussed. It is observed that the ferric ion forms a (Fe 3+-two vacancies) complex and the enthaply for its formation is 0.09 ± 0.01 eV. It is proposed that each ferric ion removes two protons from each HSO 4 dimer. The conductivity plot shows the presence of intrinsic and extrinsic regions. It is proposed that in the intrinsic region the dimer of HSO -4 breaks reversibly to form a long-chain monomer-type structure. The conductivity in the KHSO 4 crystal is proposed to be controlled by the rotation of HSO -4 tetrahedra along the axis which contains no hydrogen atom. Isotherm calculation for the trivalent-doped system is applied to this crystal and the results are compared with Co 2+-doped KHSO 4 crystal. The distribution coefficient of ferric ion in the KHSO 4 single crystal is calculated to be 4.5 × 10 -1. Ferric ion causes tapering in the crystal growth habit of KHSO 4 and it is believed to be due to the presence of (Fe 3+-two vacancies) complex. The enthalpy values for the various other processes are as follows: enthalpy for the breakage of HSO -4 dimer ( Hi) = 1.28 ± 0.01 eV; enthalpy for the rotation of HSO -4 tetrahedron ( Hm) = 0.58 ± 0.01 eV.

  8. 21 CFR 184.1298 - Ferric citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Reg. No. 2338-05-8) is prepared from reaction of citric acid with ferric hydroxide. It is a compound of indefinite ratio of citric acid and iron. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable for its... the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act) (21 U.S.C. 350a(g)) or with regulations promulgated...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1298 - Ferric citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Reg. No. 2338-05-8) is prepared from reaction of citric acid with ferric hydroxide. It is a compound of indefinite ratio of citric acid and iron. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable for its... the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act) (21 U.S.C. 350a(g)) or with regulations promulgated...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1298 - Ferric citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... prepared from reaction of citric acid with ferric hydroxide. It is a compound of indefinite ratio of citric acid and iron. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable for its intended use. (c) In accordance... Cosmetic Act (the act) (21 U.S.C. 350a(g)) or with regulations promulgated under section 412(a)(2) of the...

  11. 21 CFR 582.5304 - Ferric pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ferric pyrophosphate. 582.5304 Section 582.5304 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  12. Putative resolution of the EEEE selectivity paradox in L-type Ca2+ and bacterial Na+ biological ion channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, I. Kh; Luchinsky, D. G.; Gibby, W. A. T.; McClintock, P. V. E.; Eisenberg, R. S.

    2016-05-01

    The highly selective permeation of ions through biological ion channels can be described and explained in terms of fluctuational dynamics under the influence of powerful electrostatic forces. Hence valence selectivity, e.g. between Ca2+ and Na+ in calcium and sodium channels, can be described in terms of ionic Coulomb blockade, which gives rise to distinct conduction bands and stop-bands as the fixed negative charge Q f at the selectivity filter of the channel is varied. This picture accounts successfully for a wide range of conduction phenomena in a diversity of ion channels. A disturbing anomaly, however, is that what appears to be the same electrostatic charge and structure (the so-called EEEE motif) seems to select Na+ conduction in bacterial channels but Ca2+ conduction in mammalian channels. As a possible resolution of this paradox it is hypothesised that an additional charged protein residue on the permeation path of the mammalian channel increases |{{Q}f}| by e, thereby altering the selectivity from Na+ to Ca2+. Experiments are proposed that will enable the hypothesis to be tested.

  13. 21 CFR 582.5306 - Ferric sodium pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ferric sodium pyrophosphate. 582.5306 Section 582.5306 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5306 Ferric sodium pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Ferric sodium pyrophosphate....

  14. Analysis of Bacterial Lipooligosaccharides by MALDI-TOF MS with Traveling Wave Ion Mobility.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Nancy J; John, Constance M; Jarvis, Gary A

    2016-07-01

    Lipooligosaccharides (LOS) are major microbial virulence factors displayed on the outer membrane of rough-type Gram-negative bacteria. These amphipathic glycolipids are comprised of two domains, a core oligosaccharide linked to a lipid A moiety. Isolated LOS samples are generally heterogeneous mixtures of glycoforms, with structural variability in both domains. Traditionally, the oligosaccharide and lipid A components of LOS have been analyzed separately following mild acid hydrolysis, although important acid-labile moieties can be cleaved. Recently, an improved method was introduced for analysis of intact LOS by MALDI-TOF MS using a thin layer matrix composed of 2,4,6-trihydroxyacetophenone (THAP) and nitrocellulose. In addition to molecular ions, the spectra show in-source "prompt" fragments arising from regiospecific cleavage between the lipid A and oligosaccharide domains. Here, we demonstrate the use of traveling wave ion mobility spectrometry (TWIMS) for IMS-MS and IMS-MS/MS analyses of intact LOS from Neisseria spp. ionized by MALDI. Using IMS, the singly charged prompt fragments for the oligosaccharide and lipid A domains of LOS were readily separated into resolved ion plumes, permitting the extraction of specific subspectra, which led to increased confidence in assigning compositions and improved detection of less abundant ions. Moreover, IMS separation of precursor ions prior to collision-induced dissociation (CID) generated time-aligned, clean MS/MS spectra devoid of fragments from interfering species. Incorporating IMS into the profiling of intact LOS by MALDI-TOF MS exploits the unique domain structure of the molecule and offers a new means of extracting more detailed information from the analysis. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  15. Analysis of Bacterial Lipooligosaccharides by MALDI-TOF MS with Traveling Wave Ion Mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Nancy J.; John, Constance M.; Jarvis, Gary A.

    2016-07-01

    Lipooligosaccharides (LOS) are major microbial virulence factors displayed on the outer membrane of rough-type Gram-negative bacteria. These amphipathic glycolipids are comprised of two domains, a core oligosaccharide linked to a lipid A moiety. Isolated LOS samples are generally heterogeneous mixtures of glycoforms, with structural variability in both domains. Traditionally, the oligosaccharide and lipid A components of LOS have been analyzed separately following mild acid hydrolysis, although important acid-labile moieties can be cleaved. Recently, an improved method was introduced for analysis of intact LOS by MALDI-TOF MS using a thin layer matrix composed of 2,4,6-trihydroxyacetophenone (THAP) and nitrocellulose. In addition to molecular ions, the spectra show in-source "prompt" fragments arising from regiospecific cleavage between the lipid A and oligosaccharide domains. Here, we demonstrate the use of traveling wave ion mobility spectrometry (TWIMS) for IMS-MS and IMS-MS/MS analyses of intact LOS from Neisseria spp. ionized by MALDI. Using IMS, the singly charged prompt fragments for the oligosaccharide and lipid A domains of LOS were readily separated into resolved ion plumes, permitting the extraction of specific subspectra, which led to increased confidence in assigning compositions and improved detection of less abundant ions. Moreover, IMS separation of precursor ions prior to collision-induced dissociation (CID) generated time-aligned, clean MS/MS spectra devoid of fragments from interfering species. Incorporating IMS into the profiling of intact LOS by MALDI-TOF MS exploits the unique domain structure of the molecule and offers a new means of extracting more detailed information from the analysis.

  16. Heteromultimerization of prokaryotic bacterial cyclic nucleotide-gated (bCNG) ion channels, members of the mechanosensitive channel of small conductance (MscS) superfamily.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, Hannah R; Heo, Yoon-Young; Elmore, Donald E; Maurer, Joshua A

    2014-12-30

    Traditionally, prokaryotic channels are thought to exist as homomultimeric assemblies, while many eukaryotic ion channels form complex heteromultimers. Here we demonstrate that bacterial cyclic nucleotide-gated channels likely form heteromultimers in vivo. Heteromultimer formation is indicated through channel modeling, pull-down assays, and real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Our observations demonstrate that prokaryotic ion channels can display complex behavior and regulation akin to that of their eukaryotic counterparts.

  17. Nonequivalence of membrane voltage and ion-gradient as driving forces for the bacterial flagellar motor at low load.

    PubMed

    Lo, Chien-Jung; Leake, Mark C; Pilizota, Teuta; Berry, Richard M

    2007-07-01

    Many bacterial species swim using flagella. The flagellar motor couples ion flow across the cytoplasmic membrane to rotation. Ion flow is driven by both a membrane potential (V(m)) and a transmembrane concentration gradient. To investigate their relation to bacterial flagellar motor function we developed a fluorescence technique to measure V(m) in single cells, using the dye tetramethyl rhodamine methyl ester. We used a convolution model to determine the relationship between fluorescence intensity in images of cells and intracellular dye concentration, and calculated V(m) using the ratio of intracellular/extracellular dye concentration. We found V(m) = -140 +/- 14 mV in Escherichia coli at external pH 7.0 (pH(ex)), decreasing to -85 +/- 10 mV at pH(ex) 5.0. We also estimated the sodium-motive force (SMF) by combining single-cell measurements of V(m) and intracellular sodium concentration. We were able to vary the SMF between -187 +/- 15 mV and -53 +/- 15 mV by varying pH(ex) in the range 7.0-5.0 and extracellular sodium concentration in the range 1-85 mM. Rotation rates for 0.35-microm- and 1-microm-diameter beads attached to Na(+)-driven chimeric flagellar motors varied linearly with V(m). For the larger beads, the two components of the SMF were equivalent, whereas for smaller beads at a given SMF, the speed increased with sodium gradient and external sodium concentration.

  18. Prolonged anti-bacterial activity of ion-complexed doxycycline for the treatment of osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Oh, Se Heang; Nam, Bo Ra; Lee, In Soo; Lee, Jin Ho

    2016-01-01

    The main purposes of the present study are the fabrication of an ion-complexed antibiotic which allows for the continuous release of the drug for sufficient periods of time without any additional matrix leading to unfavorable tissue responses, and the feasibility study of the ion-complexed antibiotic as a therapeutic system for osteomyelitis using an animal model. An ion-complexed doxycycline (icDX) as an antibiotic was prepared by simple mixing of positively charged doxycycline hyclate (DX) and negatively charged multivalent Na2HPO4 (2Na(+) HPO4(2-)) aqueous solutions. The icDX showed a controlled release of the DX up to 6 weeks. From the in vivo feasibility study using an osteomyelitis rat model, the icDX group showed a more effective therapeutic effect for the osteomyelitis, at 3 and 6 weeks, compared to the non-treated control and free DX groups. This was due to the sustained release of DX from the icDX in the osteomyelitis bone (medullary cavity) without migration. These findings suggest that the icDX may be a promising local delivery system in the clinical field for the treatment of the osteomyelitis.

  19. Dynamical scaling in ferric oxide spin glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwin, G. M.

    1995-06-01

    A stochastic relaxation model for the Mössbauer spectra of ferric oxide spin glasses was used to analyze the spectra for the mixed spinel Mg1+tFe2-2tTitO4 with composition t=0.70. The results compare favorably with previously published results on the system BaSnxTi2-xFe4O11 with compositions x=0.40 and x=0.80, and suggest empirical scaling laws for the spin-order parameter defined as q=/S and the spin correlation time τc in these ferric oxide spin glasses. It was found that the quantity τcTG versus T/TG follows a scaling curve with approximately a power-law dependence below the glass temperature. The order parameter follows a scaling curve q=1-(T/TG)β, with a value β=2.48+/-0.19.

  20. Prevention of indium intoxication by ferric dextran

    PubMed Central

    Gabbiani, G.; Selye, H.; Tuchweber, Beatriz

    1962-01-01

    Experiments on the rat indicate that intravenous administration of indium chloride produces severe hepatic necroses with fatal icterus within a few days. These actions can be prevented by the prophylactic administration of ferric dextran. This protective effect of the iron compound must be largely specific since it could not be duplicated by pretreatment with any of a large series of other agents. The possible mechanism of the protective effect is briefly discussed. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:13945982

  1. Mercuric ion reduction and resistance in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing a modified bacterial merA gene.

    PubMed Central

    Rugh, C L; Wilde, H D; Stack, N M; Thompson, D M; Summers, A O; Meagher, R B

    1996-01-01

    With global heavy metal contamination increasing, plants that can process heavy metals might provide efficient and ecologically sound approaches to sequestration and removal. Mercuric ion reductase, MerA, converts toxic Hg2+ to the less toxic, relatively inert metallic mercury (Hg0) The bacterial merA sequence is rich in CpG dinucleotides and has a highly skewed codon usage, both of which are particularly unfavorable to efficient expression in plants. We constructed a mutagenized merA sequence, merApe9, modifying the flanking region and 9% of the coding region and placing this sequence under control of plant regulatory elements. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana seeds expressing merApe9 germinated, and these seedlings grew, flowered, and set seed on medium containing HgCl2 concentrations of 25-100 microM (5-20 ppm), levels toxic to several controls. Transgenic merApe9 seedlings evolved considerable amounts of Hg0 relative to control plants. The rate of mercury evolution and the level of resistance were proportional to the steady-state mRNA level, confirming that resistance was due to expression of the MerApe9 enzyme. Plants and bacteria expressing merApe9 were also resistant to toxic levels of Au3+. These and other data suggest that there are potentially viable molecular genetic approaches to the phytoremediation of metal ion pollution. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8622910

  2. Correlation of Mass Spectrometry Identified Bacterial Biomarkers From a Fielded Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography-Ion Mobility Spectrometry Biodetector With the Microbiological Gram Stain Classification Scheme

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    BACTERIAL BIOMARKERS FROM A FIELDED PYROLYSIS-GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY- ION MOBILITY SPECTROMETRY BIODETECTOR WITH THE MICROBIOLOGICAL GRAM STAIN ...GRANT NUMBER Microbiological Gram Stain Classification Scheme__________________ Se. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Snyder, A...information that can serve as components of a biological classification scheme directly correlated to the Gram stain reaction in microorganism taxonomy. 3

  3. Nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers derived from polypyrrole coated bacterial cellulose as high-performance electrode materials for supercapacitors and Li-ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Lei, Wen; Han, Lili; Xuan, Cuijuan; ...

    2016-05-24

    Here, nitrogen-doped carbon nanofiber (NDCN) was synthesized via carbonization of polypyrrole (PPy) coated bacterial cellulose (BC) composites, where BC serves as templates as well as precursor, and PPy serves as the nitrogen source. The synthesized NDCN was employed as electrode for both supercapacitors and Li-ion batteries. The large surface area exposed to electrolyte resulting from the 3D carbon networks leads to sufficient electrode/electrolyte interface and creates shorter transport paths of electrolyte ions and Li+ ion. Besides, the three types of N dopants in NDCN improve the electronic conductivity, as well as superior electrochemical performance.

  4. Nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers derived from polypyrrole coated bacterial cellulose as high-performance electrode materials for supercapacitors and Li-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Wen; Han, Lili; Xuan, Cuijuan; Lin, Ruoqian; Liu, Hongfang; Xin, Huolin L.; Wang, Deli

    2016-05-24

    Here, nitrogen-doped carbon nanofiber (NDCN) was synthesized via carbonization of polypyrrole (PPy) coated bacterial cellulose (BC) composites, where BC serves as templates as well as precursor, and PPy serves as the nitrogen source. The synthesized NDCN was employed as electrode for both supercapacitors and Li-ion batteries. The large surface area exposed to electrolyte resulting from the 3D carbon networks leads to sufficient electrode/electrolyte interface and creates shorter transport paths of electrolyte ions and Li+ ion. Besides, the three types of N dopants in NDCN improve the electronic conductivity, as well as superior electrochemical performance.

  5. Nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers derived from polypyrrole coated bacterial cellulose as high-performance electrode materials for supercapacitors and Li-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Wen; Han, Lili; Xuan, Cuijuan; Lin, Ruoqian; Liu, Hongfang; Xin, Huolin L.; Wang, Deli

    2016-05-24

    Here, nitrogen-doped carbon nanofiber (NDCN) was synthesized via carbonization of polypyrrole (PPy) coated bacterial cellulose (BC) composites, where BC serves as templates as well as precursor, and PPy serves as the nitrogen source. The synthesized NDCN was employed as electrode for both supercapacitors and Li-ion batteries. The large surface area exposed to electrolyte resulting from the 3D carbon networks leads to sufficient electrode/electrolyte interface and creates shorter transport paths of electrolyte ions and Li+ ion. Besides, the three types of N dopants in NDCN improve the electronic conductivity, as well as superior electrochemical performance.

  6. Transcriptional regulation by Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur) in pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Troxell, Bryan; Hassan, Hosni M

    2013-01-01

    In the ancient anaerobic environment, ferrous iron (Fe(2+)) was one of the first metal cofactors. Oxygenation of the ancient world challenged bacteria to acquire the insoluble ferric iron (Fe(3+)) and later to defend against reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by the Fenton chemistry. To acquire Fe(3+), bacteria produce low-molecular weight compounds, known as siderophores, which have extremely high affinity for Fe(3+). However, during infection the host restricts iron from pathogens by producing iron- and siderophore-chelating proteins, by exporting iron from intracellular pathogen-containing compartments, and by limiting absorption of dietary iron. Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur) is a transcription factor which utilizes Fe(2+) as a corepressor and represses siderophore synthesis in pathogens. Fur, directly or indirectly, controls expression of enzymes that protect against ROS damage. Thus, the challenges of iron homeostasis and defense against ROS are addressed via Fur. Although the role of Fur as a repressor is well-documented, emerging evidence demonstrates that Fur can function as an activator. Fur activation can occur through three distinct mechanisms (1) indirectly via small RNAs, (2) binding at cis regulatory elements that enhance recruitment of the RNA polymerase holoenzyme (RNAP), and (3) functioning as an antirepressor by removing or blocking DNA binding of a repressor of transcription. In addition, Fur homologs control defense against peroxide stress (PerR) and control uptake of other metals such as zinc (Zur) and manganese (Mur) in pathogenic bacteria. Fur family members are important for virulence within bacterial pathogens since mutants of fur, perR, or zur exhibit reduced virulence within numerous animal and plant models of infection. This review focuses on the breadth of Fur regulation in pathogenic bacteria.

  7. Removal and recovery of toxic silver ion using deep-sea bacterial generated biogenic manganese oxides.

    PubMed

    Pei, Yuanjun; Chen, Xiao; Xiong, Dandan; Liao, Shuijiao; Wang, Gejiao

    2013-01-01

    Products containing silver ion (Ag(+)) are widely used, leading to a large amount of Ag(+)-containing waste. The deep-sea manganese-oxidizing bacterium Marinobacter sp. MnI7-9 efficiently oxidizes Mn(2+) to generate biogenic Mn oxide (BMO). The potential of BMO for recovering metal ions by adsorption has been investigated for some ions but not for Ag(+). The main aim of this study was to develop effective methods for adsorbing and recovering Ag using BMO produced by Marinobacter sp. MnI7-9. In addition, the adsorption mechanism was determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, specific surface area analysis, adsorption kinetics and thermodynamics. The results showed that BMO had a higher adsorption capacity for Ag(+) compared to the chemical synthesized MnO2 (CMO). The isothermal absorption curves of BMO and CMO both fit the Langmuir model well and the maximum adsorption capacities at 28°C were 8.097 mmol/g and 0.787 mmol/g, for BMO and CMO, respectively. The change in enthalpy (ΔH(θ)) for BMO was 59.69 kJ/mol indicating that it acts primarily by chemical adsorption. The change in free energy (ΔG(θ)) for BMO was negative, which suggests that the adsorption occurs spontaneously. Ag(+) adsorption by BMO was driven by entropy based on the positive ΔS(θ) values. The Ag(+) adsorption kinetics by BMO fit the pseudo-second order model and the apparent activation energy of Ea is 21.72 kJ/mol. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed that 15.29% Ag(+) adsorbed by BMO was transferred to Ag(0) and meant that redox reaction had happened during the adsorption. Desorption using nitric acid and Na2S completely recovered the Ag. The results show that BMO produced by strain MnI7-9 has potential for bioremediation and reutilization of Ag(+)-containing waste.

  8. Removal and Recovery of Toxic Silver Ion Using Deep-Sea Bacterial Generated Biogenic Manganese Oxides

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Yuanjun; Chen, Xiao; Xiong, Dandan; Liao, Shuijiao; Wang, Gejiao

    2013-01-01

    Products containing silver ion (Ag+) are widely used, leading to a large amount of Ag+-containing waste. The deep-sea manganese-oxidizing bacterium Marinobacter sp. MnI7-9 efficiently oxidizes Mn2+ to generate biogenic Mn oxide (BMO). The potential of BMO for recovering metal ions by adsorption has been investigated for some ions but not for Ag+. The main aim of this study was to develop effective methods for adsorbing and recovering Ag using BMO produced by Marinobacter sp. MnI7-9. In addition, the adsorption mechanism was determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, specific surface area analysis, adsorption kinetics and thermodynamics. The results showed that BMO had a higher adsorption capacity for Ag+ compared to the chemical synthesized MnO2 (CMO). The isothermal absorption curves of BMO and CMO both fit the Langmuir model well and the maximum adsorption capacities at 28°C were 8.097 mmol/g and 0.787 mmol/g, for BMO and CMO, respectively. The change in enthalpy (ΔHθ) for BMO was 59.69 kJ/mol indicating that it acts primarily by chemical adsorption. The change in free energy (ΔGθ) for BMO was negative, which suggests that the adsorption occurs spontaneously. Ag+ adsorption by BMO was driven by entropy based on the positive ΔSθ values. The Ag+ adsorption kinetics by BMO fit the pseudo-second order model and the apparent activation energy of Ea is 21.72 kJ/mol. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed that 15.29% Ag+ adsorbed by BMO was transferred to Ag(0) and meant that redox reaction had happened during the adsorption. Desorption using nitric acid and Na2S completely recovered the Ag. The results show that BMO produced by strain MnI7-9 has potential for bioremediation and reutilization of Ag+-containing waste. PMID:24312566

  9. Inactivation, DNA double strand break induction and their rejoining in bacterial cells irradiated with heavy ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, M.; Zimmermann, H.; Schmitz, C.

    1994-01-01

    Besides inactivation one of the major interests in our experiments is to study the primary damage in the DNA double strand breaks (DSB) after heavy ion irradiation. These damages lead not only to cell death but also under repair activities to mutations. In further experiments we have investigated the inactivation with two different strains of Deinococcus radiodurans (R1, Rec 30) and the induction of DSB as well as the rejoining of DSB in stationary cells of E. coli (strain B/r) irradiated with radiations of different quality. In the latter case irradiations were done so that the cell survival was roughly at the same level. We measured the DSB using the pulse field gelelectrophoresis which allows to separate between intact (circular) and damaged (linear) DNA. The irradiated cells were transferred to NB medium and incubated for different times to allow rejoining.

  10. Effect of Fe-chelating complexes on a novel M2FC performance with ferric chloride and ferricyanide catholytes.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kyungmi; Lee, Ilgyu; Han, Jong-In

    2012-01-01

    As an effort to better utilize the microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology, we previously proposed an innovative MFC system named M2FC consisting of ferric-based MFC part and ferrous-based fuel cell (FC) part. In this reactor, ferric ion, the catholyte in the MFC part, was efficiently regenerated by the FC part with the generation of additional electricity. When both units were operated separately, the ferric-based MFC part produced approximately 1360 mW m(-2) of power density with FeCl(3) as catholyte and Fe-citrate as anolyte. The ferrous-based FC part with FeCl(3) as catholyte and Fe-EDTA as anolyte displayed the highest power density (1500 mW m(-2)), while that with ferricyanide as catholyte and Fe-noligand as anolyte had the lowest power density (380 mW m(-2)). The types of catholytes and chelating complexes as anolyte were found to play important roles in the reduction of ferric ions and oxidation of ferrous ion. Linear sweep voltammetry results supported that the cathode electrolytes were electrically active and these agreed well with the M2FC reactor performance. These results clearly showed that ligands played critical role in the efficiency and rate for recycling iron ion and thus the M2FC performance.

  11. Absorption of iron from ferric hydroxypyranone complexes.

    PubMed

    Maxton, D G; Thompson, R P; Hider, R C

    1994-02-01

    The absorption of 59Fe from preparations of FeSO4 and the ferric hydroxypyranone complexes maltol and ethyl maltol was studied by whole-body counting in normal subjects and patients with Fe deficiency. Fe in the Fe3+ complexes was in general absorbed almost as well as Fe2+. It is concluded that the absorption of Fe3+ from hydroxypyranone complexes is much greater than that from simple Fe3+ salts; this may prove an efficient and less toxic form of Fe for the treatment of deficiency.

  12. Rapid assay for microbially reducible ferric iron in aquatic sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovely, Derek R.; Philips , Elizabeth J.P.

    1987-01-01

    The availability of ferric iron for microbial reduction as directly determined by the activity of iron-reducing organisms was compared with its availability as determined by a newly developed chemical assay for microbially reducible iron. The chemical assay was based on the reduction of poorly crystalline ferric iron by hydroxylamine under acidic conditions. There was a strong correlation between the extent to which hydroxylamine could reduce various synthetic ferric iron forms and the susceptibility of the iron to microbial reduction in an enrichment culture of iron-reducing organisms. When sediments that contained hydroxylamine-reducible ferric iron were incubated under anaerobic conditions, ferrous iron accumulated as the concentration of hydroxylamine-reducible ferric iron declined over time. Ferrous iron production stopped as soon as the hydroxylamine-reducible ferric iron was depleted. In anaerobic incubations of reduced sediments that did not contain hydroxylamine-reducible ferric iron, there was no microbial iron reduction, even though the sediments contained high concentrations of oxalate-extractable ferric iron. A correspondence between the presence of hydroxylamine-reducible ferric iron and the extent of ferric iron reduction in anaerobic incubations was observed in sediments from an aquifer and in fresh- and brackish-water sediments from the Potomac River estuary. The assay is a significant improvement over previously described procedures for the determination of hydroxylamine-reducible ferric iron because it provides a correction for the high concentrations of solid ferrous iron which may also be extracted from sediments with acid. This is a rapid, simple technique to determine whether ferric iron is available for microbial reduction.

  13. Rapid assay for microbially reducible ferric iron in aquatic sediments.

    PubMed

    Lovley, D R; Phillips, E J

    1987-07-01

    The availability of ferric iron for microbial reduction as directly determined by the activity of iron-reducing organisms was compared with its availability as determined by a newly developed chemical assay for microbially reducible iron. The chemical assay was based on the reduction of poorly crystalline ferric iron by hydroxylamine under acidic conditions. There was a strong correlation between the extent to which hydroxylamine could reduce various synthetic ferric iron forms and the susceptibility of the iron to microbial reduction in an enrichment culture of iron-reducing organisms. When sediments that contained hydroxylamine-reducible ferric iron were incubated under anaerobic conditions, ferrous iron accumulated as the concentration of hydroxylamine-reducible ferric iron declined over time. Ferrous iron production stopped as soon as the hydroxylamine-reducible ferric iron was depleted. In anaerobic incubations of reduced sediments that did not contain hydroxylamine-reducible ferric iron, there was no microbial iron reduction, even though the sediments contained high concentrations of oxalate-extractable ferric iron. A correspondence between the presence of hydroxylamine-reducible ferric iron and the extent of ferric iron reduction in anaerobic incubations was observed in sediments from an aquifer and in fresh- and brackish-water sediments from the Potomac River estuary. The assay is a significant improvement over previously described procedures for the determination of hydroxylamine-reducible ferric iron because it provides a correction for the high concentrations of solid ferrous iron which may also be extracted from sediments with acid. This is a rapid, simple technique to determine whether ferric iron is available for microbial reduction.

  14. Determination of the Molecular Structures of Ferric Enterobactin and Ferric Enantioenterobactin using Racemic Crystallography.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Timothy C; Nolan, Elizabeth M

    2017-09-28

    Enterobactin is a secondary metabolite produced by Enterobacteriaceae for acquiring iron, an essential metal nutrient. The biosynthesis and utilization of enterobactin permits many Gram-negative bacteria to thrive in environments where low soluble iron concentrations would otherwise preclude survival. Despite extensive work carried out on this celebrated molecule since its discovery over 40 years ago, the ferric enterobactin complex has eluded crystallographic structural characterization. We report the successful growth of single crystals containing ferric enterobactin using racemic crystallization, a method that involves cocrystallization of a chiral molecule with its mirror image. The structures of ferric enterobactin and ferric enantioenterobactin obtained in this work provide a definitive assignment of the stereochemistry at the metal center and reveal secondary coordination sphere interactions. The structures were employed in computational investigations of the interactions of these complexes with two enterobactin-binding proteins, which illuminate the influence of metal-centered chirality on these interactions. This work highlights the utility of small-molecule racemic crystallography for obtaining elusive structures of coordination complexes.

  15. Ferric carboxymaltose: a review of its use in iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Keating, Gillian M

    2015-01-01

    Ferric carboxymaltose (Ferinject(®), Injectafer(®)) is an intravenous iron preparation approved in numerous countries for the treatment of iron deficiency. A single high dose of ferric carboxymaltose (up to 750 mg of iron in the US and 1,000 mg of iron in the EU) can be infused in a short time frame (15 min). Consequently, fewer doses of ferric carboxymaltose may be needed to replenish iron stores compared with some other intravenous iron preparations (e.g. iron sucrose). Ferric carboxymaltose improved self-reported patient global assessment, New York Heart Association functional class and exercise capacity in patients with chronic heart failure and iron deficiency in two randomized, placebo-controlled trials (FAIR-HF and CONFIRM-HF). In other randomized controlled trials, ferric carboxymaltose replenished iron stores and corrected anaemia in various populations with iron-deficiency anaemia, including patients with chronic kidney disease, inflammatory bowel disease or heavy uterine bleeding, postpartum iron-deficiency anaemia and perioperative anaemia. Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose was generally well tolerated, with a low risk of hypersensitivity reactions. It was generally better tolerated than oral ferrous sulfate, mainly reflecting a lower incidence of gastrointestinal adverse effects. The most common laboratory abnormality seen in ferric carboxymaltose recipients was transient, asymptomatic hypophosphataemia. The higher acquisition cost of ferric carboxymaltose appeared to be offset by lower costs for other items, with the potential for cost savings. In conclusion, ferric carboxymaltose is an important option for the treatment of iron deficiency.

  16. Unambiguous identification and discovery of bacterial siderophores by direct injection 21 Tesla Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Lawrence R.; Tfaily, Malak M.; Shaw, Jared B.; Hess, Nancy J.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Koppenaal, David W.

    2017-01-01

    Under iron-limiting conditions, bacteria produce low molecular mass Fe(III) binding molecules known as siderophores to sequester the Fe(III), along with other elements, increasing their bioavailibility. Siderophores are thought to influence iron cycling and biogeochemistry in both marine and terrestrial ecosystems and hence the need for rapid, confident characterization of these compounds has increased. In this study, the type of siderophores produced by two marine bacterial species, Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 and Vibrio cyclitrophicus 1F53, were characterized using a newly developed 21T Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer (FTICR MS) with direct injection electrospray ionization. This technique allowed for the rapid detection of synechobactins from Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 as well as amphibactins from Vibrio cyclitrophicus 1F53 based on high mass accuracy and resolution allowing for observation of specific Fe isotopic peaks and fine isotopic structure enables highly confident identification of these sideropohores. When combined with molecular network analysis two new amphibactins were discovered and verified by tandem MS. These results show that high-field FTICR MS is a powerful technique that will greatly improve the ability to rapidly identify and discover metal binding species in the environment.

  17. Leaching of zinc sulfide by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: bacterial oxidation of the sulfur product layer increases the rate of zinc sulfide dissolution at high concentrations of ferrous ions.

    PubMed

    Fowler, T A; Crundwell, F K

    1999-12-01

    This paper reports the results of leaching experiments conducted with and without Thiobacillus ferrooxidans at the same conditions in solution. The extent of leaching of ZnS with bacteria is significantly higher than that without bacteria at high concentrations of ferrous ions. A porous layer of elemental sulfur is present on the surfaces of the chemically leached particles, while no sulfur is present on the surfaces of the bacterially leached particles. The analysis of the data using the shrinking-core model shows that the chemical leaching of ZnS is limited by the diffusion of ferrous ions through the sulfur product layer at high concentrations of ferrous ions. The analysis of the data shows that diffusion through the product layer does not limit the rate of dissolution when bacteria are present. This suggests that the action of T. ferrooxidans in oxidizing the sulfur formed on the particle surface is to remove the barrier to diffusion by ferrous ions.

  18. Leaching of zinc sulfide by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: Bacterial oxidation of the sulfur product layer increases the rate of zinc sulfide dissolution at high concentrations of ferrous ions

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, T.A.; Crundwell, F.K.

    1999-12-01

    This paper reports the results of leaching experiments conducted with and without Thiobacillus ferroxidans at the same conditions in solution. The extent of leaching of ZnS with Bacteria is significantly higher than that without bacteria at high concentrations of ferrous ions. A porous layer of elemental sulfur is present on the surfaces of the chemically leached particles, which no sulfur is present on the surfaces of the bacterially leached particles. The analysis of the data using the shrinking-core model shows that the chemical leaching of ZnS is limited by the diffusion of ferrous ions through the sulfur product layer at high concentrations of ferrous ions. The analysis of the data shows that diffusion through the product layer does not limit the rate of dissolution when bacteria are present. This suggests that the action of T.ferroxidans in oxidizing the sulfur formed on the particle surface is to remove the barrier to diffusion by ferrous ions.

  19. Leaching of Zinc Sulfide by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: Bacterial Oxidation of the Sulfur Product Layer Increases the Rate of Zinc Sulfide Dissolution at High Concentrations of Ferrous Ions

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, T. A.; Crundwell, F. K.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports the results of leaching experiments conducted with and without Thiobacillus ferrooxidans at the same conditions in solution. The extent of leaching of ZnS with bacteria is significantly higher than that without bacteria at high concentrations of ferrous ions. A porous layer of elemental sulfur is present on the surfaces of the chemically leached particles, while no sulfur is present on the surfaces of the bacterially leached particles. The analysis of the data using the shrinking-core model shows that the chemical leaching of ZnS is limited by the diffusion of ferrous ions through the sulfur product layer at high concentrations of ferrous ions. The analysis of the data shows that diffusion through the product layer does not limit the rate of dissolution when bacteria are present. This suggests that the action of T. ferrooxidans in oxidizing the sulfur formed on the particle surface is to remove the barrier to diffusion by ferrous ions. PMID:10583978

  20. Total gastrectomy due to ferric chloride intoxication.

    PubMed

    Menéndez, A Mesut; Abramson, Leonardo; Vera, Raúl A; Duza, Guillermo E; Palermo, Mariano

    2015-09-01

    The ferric chloride intoxication is frequently caused by accident. Its toxicity is generally underrated, which can lead to fatal evolution or irreversible consequences. In this case, the caustic condition of the substance is related to the toxic properties of iron. A 36-year-old male patient arrives by ambulance indicating sensory deterioration. He presents erosive injuries in the buccal cavity and in the oropharynx, brownish teeth and metabolic acidosis. Toxicology tests and ferritin blood dosage are requested, which show a result from 1400 mg/dl. The symptoms are interpreted as acute iron intoxication. Due to the unfavorable evolution of his condition, an abdominal and pelvic CT scan are performed, which show extensive pneumoperitoneum and free fluid in the abdominal cavity. An exploratory laparotomy, a total gastrectomy with esophagostomy and feeding jejunostomy, washing and drainage due to perforated gastric necrosis caused by caustic ingestion are performed. In our country, there is a high rate of intoxication caused by iron compounds, although it is not statistically measured. Nevertheless, the ferric chloride intoxication is extremely infrequent. The ingestion of this product leads to complications, which are associated with the iron concentration and its condition as a caustic agent. The surgical indications in the presence of intoxication caused by iron compounds are: stomach evacuation of iron, gastric necrosis, perforation or peritonitis and stenosis. Early or prophylactic gastrectomy is contraindicated. However, if complications that require immediate surgical intervention arise, there should be no hesitation and the corresponding procedure should be performed.

  1. Corrosion characteristics of ferric and austenitic stainless steels for dental magnetic attachment.

    PubMed

    Endo, K; Suzuki, M; Ohno, H

    2000-03-01

    The corrosion behaviors of four ferric stainless steels and two austenitic stainless steels were examined in a simulated physiological environment (0.9% NaCl solution) to obtain basic data for evaluating the appropriate composition of stainless steels for dental magnetic attachments. The corrosion resistance was evaluated by electrochemical techniques and the analysis of released metal ions by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The surface of the stainless steels was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The breakdown potential of ferric stainless steels increased and the total amount of released metal ions decreased linearly with increases in the sum of the Cr and Mo contents. The corrosion rate of the ferric stainless steels increased 2 to 6 times when they were galvanically coupled with noble metal alloys but decreased when coupled with commercially pure Ti. For austenitic stainless steels, the breakdown potential of high N-bearing stainless steel was approximately 500 mV higher than that of SUS316L, which is currently used as a component in dental magnetic attachments. The enriched nitrogen at the alloy/passive film interface may be effective in improving the localized corrosion resistance.

  2. Bioproduction of ferric sulfate used during heavy metals removal from sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Drogui, Patrick; Mercier, Guy; Blais, Jean-François

    2005-01-01

    Toxic metals removal from wastewater sewage sludge can be achieved through microbial processes involving Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The oxidation of ferrous ions by A. ferrooxidans, cultured in sewage sludge filtrate, was studied in both batch and continuous flow stirred tank reactors. Sewage sludge filtrate containing natural nutrients (phosphorus and nitrogen) was recovered as effluent following the dehydration of a primary and secondary sludge mixture. Batch and continuous flow stirred tank reactor tests demonstrated that A. ferrooxidans were able to grow and completely oxidize ferrous iron in a culture medium containing more than 80% (v v(-1)) sewage sludge filtrate with 10 g Fe(II) L(-1) added. Toxic levels were reached when total organic carbon in the sewage sludge filtrate exceeded 250 mg L(-1). The ferric iron solution produced in the sludge filtrate by A. ferrooxidans was used to solubilize heavy metals in primary and secondary sludge. The solubilization of Cu, Cr, and Zn yielded 71, 49, and 80%, respectively. This is comparable with the yield percentages obtained using a FeCl(3) solution. The cost of treating wastewater sewage sludge by bioproducing a ferric ion solution from sewage sludge is three times less expensive than the conventional method requiring a commercial ferric chloride solution.

  3. The fate of iron on Mars: Mechanism of oxidation of basaltic minerals to ferric-bearing assemblages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Roger G.

    1992-01-01

    Perhaps the most conspicuous indication that chemical weathering has occurred on the surface of Mars is the overall color of the red planet and the spectroscopic features that identify ferric-bearing assemblages in the martian regolith. Apparently, Fe(2+) ions in primary minerals in parent igneous rocks on the martian surface have been oxidized to ferric iron, which occurs in degradation products that now constitute the regolith. The mineralogy of the unweathered igneous rocks prior to weathering on the martian surface is reasonably well constrained, mainly as a result of petrographic studies of the SNC meteorites. However, the alteration products resulting from oxidative weathering of these rocks are less well-constrained. The topics covered include the following: primary rocks subjected to chemical weathering; dissolution processes; oxidation of dissolved Fe(2+); mechanism of polymerization of hydrous ferric oxides; terrestrial occurrences of ferromagnesian smectites; and dehydroxylated Mg-Fe smectites on Mars.

  4. The fate of iron on Mars: Mechanism of oxidation of basaltic minerals to ferric-bearing assemblages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Roger G.

    1992-01-01

    Perhaps the most conspicuous indication that chemical weathering has occurred on the surface of Mars is the overall color of the red planet and the spectroscopic features that identify ferric-bearing assemblages in the martian regolith. Apparently, Fe(2+) ions in primary minerals in parent igneous rocks on the martian surface have been oxidized to ferric iron, which occurs in degradation products that now constitute the regolith. The mineralogy of the unweathered igneous rocks prior to weathering on the martian surface is reasonably well constrained, mainly as a result of petrographic studies of the SNC meteorites. However, the alteration products resulting from oxidative weathering of these rocks are less well-constrained. The topics covered include the following: primary rocks subjected to chemical weathering; dissolution processes; oxidation of dissolved Fe(2+); mechanism of polymerization of hydrous ferric oxides; terrestrial occurrences of ferromagnesian smectites; and dehydroxylated Mg-Fe smectites on Mars.

  5. Enhancement of Fenton oxidation for removing organic matter from hypersaline solution by accelerating ferric system with hydroxylamine hydrochloride and benzoquinone.

    PubMed

    Peng, Siwei; Zhang, Weijun; He, Jie; Yang, Xiaofang; Wang, Dongsheng; Zeng, Guisheng

    2016-03-01

    Fenton oxidation is generally inhibited in the presence of a high concentration of chloride ions. This study investigated the feasibility of using benzoquinone (BQ) and hydroxylamine hydrochloride (HA) as Fenton enhancers for the removal of glycerin from saline water under ambient temperature by accelerating the ferric system. It was found that organics removal was not obviously affected by chloride ions of low concentration (less than 0.1mol/L), while the mineralization rate was strongly inhibited in the presence of a large amount of chloride ions. In addition, ferric hydrolysis-precipitation was significantly alleviated in the presence of HA and BQ, and HA was more effective in reducing ferric ions into ferrous ions than HA, while the H2O2 decomposition rate was higher in the BQ-Fenton system. Electron spin resonance analysis revealed that OH production was reduced in high salinity conditions, while it was enhanced after the addition of HA and BQ (especially HA). This study provided a possible solution to control and alleviate the inhibitory effect of chloride ions on the Fenton process for organics removal. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Synthesis and evaluation of ferric-ion specific sequestering agents

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    The synthesis of a number of polycatecholate and polyhydroxamate ligands capable of complexing Fe(III) is presented. Using a biomimetic approach, the design of these ligands was modeled on the microbial produced iron chelating agents, the siderophores. The potential use of these ligands for the chelation therapy of iron overload and plutonium decorporation is described. The synthesis of the two catechoyl derivatives of the trihydroamate siderophore, desferrioxamine B is presented. Their kinetics of iron removal from transferrin, have been measured. The results of their ability to remove Fe(III) and Pu(IV) in vivo suggest that they are promising candidates for clinical evaluation. The Fe(III) coordination chemistry of one of these ligands (DFOCAM-C) is presented. The synthesis of two trihydroxamate analogues of the siderophore, ferrichrome, is described. Using similar procedures, a linear dihydroxamate and semisynthetic tetrahydroxamate ligand were synthesized. The coordination chemistry of one ligand (TRENDROX) with Fe(III) was explored. The high dilution synthesis of a number of endocyclic polycatecholate ligands is presented. The macrocyclic structures of these ligands were confirmed by /sup 1/H-NMR, /sup 13/C-NMR and FAB-mass spectra. The synthesis of a monocapped and a bicapped tricatecholamide ligand, where the capping moiety is TREN (tris(2-aminoethyl)amine) is presented. Preliminary studies of the Fe(III) coordination chemistries of these two ligands are presented.

  7. In-tank hydrogen-ferric ion recombination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selverston, S.; Savinell, R. F.; Wainright, J. S.

    2016-08-01

    An H2sbnd Fe3+ recombination method is being developed for all-iron flow batteries. Working principles are described and a proof-of-concept in-tank reactor is demonstrated. A membrane-less galvanic reactor is characterized using potential, polarization and impedance measurements at hydrogen partial pressures ranging from 0.3 to 11.3 psig. Through a vertical reactor geometry, hydrogen recombination rates of up to 60 mA cm-2 were measured at PH2 = 4.5 psig for a reactor with a platinum loading of 3.2 mg cm-2, based on the geometric catalyzed area. This is equivalent to over 375 mA cm-2 with respect to the cross sectional area of the reactor at the waterline. This rate is sufficient that the reactor will readily fit inside the positive reservoir of a flow battery. The reactor was found to be resistant to degradation by flooding or catalyst loss.

  8. A novel ion-beam-mutation effect application in identification of gene involved in bacterial antagonism to fungal infection of ornamental crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahadtanapuk, S.; Teraarusiri, W.; Nanakorn, W.; Yu, L. D.; Thongkumkoon, P.; Anuntalabhochai, S.

    2014-05-01

    This work is on a novel application of ion beam effect on biological mutation. Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis) is a common soil bacterium with an antagonistic effect on Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. and Chrysanthemum indicum Linn. In an attempt to control fungal diseases of local crops by utilizing B. licheniformis, we carried out gene analysis of the bacterium to understand the bacterial antagonistic mechanism. The bacterial cells were bombarded to induce mutations using nitrogen ion beam. After ion bombardment, DNA analysis revealed that the modified polymorphism fragment present in the wild type was missing in a bacterial mutant which lost the antifungal activity. The fragments conserved in the wild type but lost in the mutant bacteria was identified to code for the thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) gene. The gene analysis showed that the TrxR gene from B. licheniformis had the expression of the antagonism to fungi in a synchronous time evolution with the fungus inhibition when the bacteria were co-cultivated with the fungi. The collective results indicate the TrxR gene responsible for the antagonism of bacteria B. licheniformis to fungal infection.

  9. 21 CFR 73.2298 - Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of the eye, in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The color additive... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2298 Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide. (a) Identity and specifications.The color additive ferric ammonium ferrocyanide shall conform in identify and...

  10. 21 CFR 73.2298 - Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of the eye, in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The color additive... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2298 Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide. (a) Identity and specifications.The color additive ferric ammonium ferrocyanide shall conform in identify and...

  11. 21 CFR 73.2298 - Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of the eye, in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The color additive... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2298 Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide. (a) Identity and specifications.The color additive ferric ammonium ferrocyanide shall conform in identify and...

  12. 21 CFR 73.2298 - Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of the eye, in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The color additive... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2298 Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide. (a) Identity and specifications.The color additive ferric ammonium ferrocyanide shall conform in identify and...

  13. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1025 Ferric ammonium citrate. (a) Identity. The color additive ferric ammonium citrate consists of complex chelates prepared by the interaction of... general and ophthalmic surgery subject to the following conditions: (1) The dyed suture shall conform in...

  14. 46 CFR 151.50-75 - Ferric chloride solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ferric chloride solution. 151.50-75 Section 151.50-75 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-75 Ferric chloride...

  15. 46 CFR 151.50-75 - Ferric chloride solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ferric chloride solution. 151.50-75 Section 151.50-75 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-75 Ferric chloride...

  16. 46 CFR 151.50-75 - Ferric chloride solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ferric chloride solution. 151.50-75 Section 151.50-75 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-75 Ferric chloride...

  17. 46 CFR 151.50-75 - Ferric chloride solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ferric chloride solution. 151.50-75 Section 151.50-75 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-75 Ferric chloride...

  18. 46 CFR 151.50-75 - Ferric chloride solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ferric chloride solution. 151.50-75 Section 151.50-75 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-75 Ferric chloride...

  19. Transmission measurements (4000-400 cm(exp -1), 2.5-25 microns) of crystalline ferric oxides and ferric oxyhydroxides: Implications for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roush, Ted L.; Bell, James F., III; Morris, Richard V.

    1994-01-01

    Transmission spectra of three ferric oxides (two alpha-Fe2O3 samples and one gamma-Fe2O3 sample) and two ferric oxyhydroxides (alpha-FeOOH and gamma-FeOOH) were measured. This preliminary study has demonstrated that crystalline ferric oxides and ferric oxyhydroxides exhibit complex spectral features at thermal wavelengths. Some of these features suggest that thermal infrared observations of Mars can provide significant insight into the ferric mineralogy of that planet. The results of this study suggest that emissivity spectra of crystalline ferric oxides and ferric oxyhydroxides may prove quite important for the interpretation of thermal infrared spectral observations of Mars.

  20. Soluble microbial products decrease pyrite oxidation by ferric iron at pH < 2.

    PubMed

    Yacob, Tesfayohanes; Pandey, Sachin; Silverstein, Joann; Rajaram, Harihar

    2013-08-06

    Research on microbial activity in acid mine drainage (AMD) has focused on transformations of iron and sulfur. However, carbon cycling, including formation of soluble microbial products (SMP) from cell growth and decay, is an important biogeochemical component of the AMD environment. Experiments were conducted to study the interaction of SMP with soluble ferric iron in acidic conditions, particularly the formation of complexes that inhibit its effectiveness as the primary oxidant of pyrite during AMD generation. The rate of pyrite oxidation by ferric iron in sterile suspensions at pH 1.8 was reduced by 87% in the presence of SMP produced from autoclaved cells at a ratio of 0.3 mg DOC per mg total soluble ferric iron. Inhibition of pyrite oxidation by SMP was shown to be comparable to, but weaker than, the effect of a chelating synthetic siderophore, DFAM. Two computational models incorporating SMP complexation were fitted to experimental results. Results suggest that bacterially produced organic matter can play a role in slowing pyrite oxidation.

  1. Metal-on-metal bearings in total hip arthroplasties: Influence of cobalt and chromium ions on bacterial growth and biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Hosman, Anton H; van der Mei, Henny C; Bulstra, Sjoerd K; Busscher, Henk J; Neut, Daniëlle

    2009-03-01

    Metal-on-metal (MOM) bearings involving cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloys in total hip arthroplasties are becoming more and more popular due to their low wear. Consequences of corrosion products of Co-Cr alloys are for the most part unclear, and the influence of cobalt and chromium ions on biofilm formation has never been studied. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate how Co-Cr ions affect bacterial growth, biofilm formation, and architecture. A collection of clinically isolated and commercially available bacterial strains were exposed to Co-Cr concentrations as found in serum and above as found in adjacent tissue. Planktonic growth of bacteria was inhibited by concentrations of 200,000/93,000 microg/L Co-Cr. Co-Cr concentrations up to 20/9.3 microg/L as reported to occur in serum revealed no consistent influence on biofilm formation, but higher concentrations of 200,000/93,000 microg/L significantly reduced Staphylococcus aureus and CNS biofilm formation. As indicated by confocal laser scanning microscopy, no dead bacteria were encountered in the biofilms, and the metal ion concentrations used must be classified as growth-inhibiting and not bactericidal. Long-term clinical data on infection rates for Co-Cr MOM-bearings are not yet available, but the current results suggest that Co-Cr ions may yield these prostheses less prone to biofilm formation and subsequent infection. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Microscale speciation of arsenic and iron in ferric-based sorbents subjected to simulated landfill conditions

    PubMed Central

    Root, Robert A.; Fathordoobadi, Sahar; Alday, Fernando; Ela, Wendell; Chorover, Jon

    2013-01-01

    During treatment for potable use, water utilities generate arsenic-bearing ferric wastes that are subsequently dispatched to landfills. The biogeochemical weathering of these residuals in mature landfills affects the potential mobilization of sorbed arsenic species via desorption from solids subjected to phase transformations driven by abundant organic matter and bacterial activity. Such processes are not simulated with the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) currently used to characterize hazard. To examine the effect of sulfate on As retention in landfill leachate, columns of As(V) loaded amorphous ferric hydroxide were reacted biotically at two leachate sulfate concentrations (0.064 mM and 2.1 mM). After 300 d, ferric sorbents were reductively dissolved. Arsenic released to porewaters was partially co-precipitated in mixed-valent secondary iron phases whose speciation was dependent on sulfate concentration. As and Fe XAS showed that, in the low sulfate column, 75–81% of As(V) was reduced to As(III), and 53–68% of the Fe(III) sorbent was transformed, dominantly to siderite and green rust. In the high sulfate column, Fe(III) solids were reduced principally to FeS(am), whereas As(V) was reduced to a polymeric sulfide with local atomic structure of realgar. Multi-energy micro-X-ray fluorescence (ME-μXRF) imaging at Fe and As K-edges showed that As formed surface complexes with ferrihydrite > siderite > green rust in the low sulfate column; while discrete realgar-like phases formed in the high sulfate systems. Results indicate that landfill sulfur chemistry exerts strong control over the potential mobilization of As from ferric sorbent residuals by controlling secondary As and Fe sulfide co-precipitate formation. PMID:24102155

  3. Microscale speciation of arsenic and iron in ferric-based sorbents subjected to simulated landfill conditions.

    PubMed

    Root, Robert A; Fathordoobadi, Sahar; Alday, Fernando; Ela, Wendell; Chorover, Jon

    2013-11-19

    During treatment for potable use, water utilities generate arsenic-bearing ferric wastes that are subsequently dispatched to landfills. The biogeochemical weathering of these residuals in mature landfills affects the potential mobilization of sorbed arsenic species via desorption from solids subjected to phase transformations driven by abundant organic matter and bacterial activity. Such processes are not simulated with the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) currently used to characterize hazard. To examine the effect of sulfate on As retention in landfill leachate, columns of As(V) loaded amorphous ferric hydroxide were reacted biotically at two leachate sulfate concentrations (0.064 mM and 2.1 mM). After 300 days, ferric sorbents were reductively dissolved. Arsenic released to porewaters was partially coprecipitated in mixed-valent secondary iron phases whose speciation was dependent on sulfate concentration. As and Fe XAS showed that, in the low sulfate column, 75-81% of As(V) was reduced to As(III), and 53-68% of the Fe(III) sorbent was transformed, dominantly to siderite and green rust. In the high sulfate column, Fe(III) solids were reduced principally to FeS(am), whereas As(V) was reduced to a polymeric sulfide with local atomic structure of realgar. Multienergy micro-X-ray fluorescence (ME-μXRF) imaging at Fe and As K-edges showed that As formed surface complexes with ferrihydrite > siderite > green rust in the low sulfate column; while discrete realgar-like phases formed in the high sulfate systems. Results indicate that landfill sulfur chemistry exerts strong control over the potential mobilization of As from ferric sorbent residuals by controlling secondary As and Fe sulfide coprecipitate formation.

  4. The ferric enterobactin transporter Fep is required for persistent Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium infection.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Toni A; Moreland, Sarah M; Andrews-Polymenis, Helene; Detweiler, Corrella S

    2013-11-01

    Most bacterial pathogens require iron to grow and colonize host tissues. The Gram-negative bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium causes a natural systemic infection of mice that models acute and chronic human typhoid fever. S. Typhimurium resides in tissues within cells of the monocyte lineage, which limit pathogen access to iron, a mechanism of nutritional immunity. The primary ferric iron import system encoded by Salmonella is the siderophore ABC transporter FepBDGC. The Fep system has a known role in acute infection, but it is unclear whether ferric iron uptake or the ferric iron binding siderophores enterobactin and salmochelin are required for persistent infection. We defined the role of the Fep iron transporter and siderophores in the replication of Salmonella in macrophages and in mice that develop acute followed by persistent infections. Replication of wild-type and iron transporter mutant Salmonella strains was quantified in cultured macrophages, fecal pellets, and host tissues in mixed- and single-infection experiments. We show that deletion of fepB attenuated Salmonella replication and colonization within macrophages and mice. Additionally, the genes required to produce and transport enterobactin and salmochelin across the outer membrane receptors, fepA and iroN, are needed for colonization of all tissues examined. However, salmochelin appears to be more important than enterobactin in the colonization of the spleen and liver, both sites of dissemination. Thus, the FepBDGC ferric iron transporter and the siderophores enterobactin and salmochelin are required by Salmonella to evade nutritional immunity in macrophages and cause persistent infection in mice.

  5. Enhanced Electrochemical Performance of Layered Lithium-Rich Cathode Materials by Constructing Spinel-Structure Skin and Ferric Oxide Islands.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shi; Zheng, Yu; Lu, Yun; Su, Yuefeng; Bao, Liying; Li, Ning; Li, Yitong; Wang, Jing; Chen, Renjie; Wu, Feng

    2017-03-15

    Layered lithium-rich cathode materials have been considered as competitive candidates for advanced lithium-ion batteries because they are environmentally benign, high capacity (more than 250 mAh·g(-1)), and low cost. However, they still suffer from poor rate capability and modest cycling performance. To address these issues, we have proposed and constructed a spinel-structure skin and ferric oxide islands on the surface of layered lithium-rich cathode materials through a facile wet chemical method. During the surface modification, Li ions in the surface area of pristine particles could be partially extracted by H(+), along with the depositing process of ferric hydrogen. After calcination, the surface structure transformed to spinel structure, and ferric hydrogen was oxidized to ferric oxide. The as-designed surface structure was verified by EDX, HRTEM, XPS, and CV. The experimental results demonstrated that the rate performance and capacity retentions were significantly enhanced after such surface modification. The modified sample displayed a high discharge capacity of 166 mAh·g(-1) at a current density of 1250 mA·g(-1) and much more stable capacity retention of 84.0% after 50 cycles at 0.1C rate in contrast to 60.6% for pristine material. Our surface modification strategy, which combines the advantages of spinel structure and chemically inert ferric oxide nanoparticles, has been shown to be effective for realizing the layered lithium-rich cathodes with surface construction of fast ion diffusing capability as well as robust electrolyte corroding durability.

  6. Natural and ion-exchanged illite clays reduce bacterial burden and inflammation in cutaneous meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in mice

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Caitlin C.; Kilbourne, Jacquelyn

    2016-01-01

    Discoveries associated with antibacterial activity of hydrated clays necessitate assessments of in vivo efficacy, practical use and safety. Surface properties of clays can lead to variations in the composition and abundance of bound compounds or ions, thus affecting antibacterial activity. Since exchangeable metal ions released from the clay surface are responsible for in vitro antibacterial activity, we evaluated the in vivo antibacterial efficacy of four natural clays (one illite clay, two montmorillonite clays and one kaolinite clay) and three ion-exchanged, antibacterial clays against superficial, cutaneous meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in mice. Superficial, cutaneous wounds on the back of SKH1-Elite mice were generated and subsequently infected with MRSA. Following twice daily applications of a hydrated clay poultice to infected wounds for 7 days, we observed significant differences in the in vivo antibacterial efficacy between different types of clays. The natural and ion-exchanged illite clays performed best, as measured by bacterial load, inflammatory response and gross wound morphology with significant decreases in bacterial viability and dermatitis. Topical application of kaolinite clay was the least effective, resulting in the lowest decrease in bacterial load and exhibiting severe dermatitis. These data suggest that specific types of clays may offer a complementary and integrative strategy for topically treating MRSA and other cutaneous infections. However, since natural clays exhibit in vitro antibacterial variability and vary vastly in surface chemistries, adsorptive/absorptive characteristics and structural composition, the properties and characteristics of illite clays could aid in the development of standardized and customized aluminosilicates for topical infections. PMID:26508716

  7. Fibrous materials on polyhydroxybutyrate and ferric iron (III)-based porphyrins basis: physical-chemical and antibacterial properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olkhov, A.; Lobanov, A.; Staroverova, O.; Tyubaeva, P.; Zykova, A.; Pantyukhov, P.; Popov, A.; Iordanskii, A.

    2017-02-01

    Ferric iron (III)-based complexes with porphyrins are the homogenous catalysts of auto-oxidation of several biogenic substances. The most perspective carrier for functional low-molecular substances is the polymer fibers with nano-dimensional parameters. Application of natural polymers, poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate) or polylactic acid for instance, makes possible to develop fiber and matrice systems to solve ecological problem in biomedicine The aim of the article is to obtain fibrous material on poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate) and ferric iron (III)-based porphyrins basis and to examine its physical-chemical and antibacterial properties. The work is focused on possibility to apply such material to biomedical purposes. Microphotographs of obtained material showed that addition of 1% wt. ferric iron (III)-based porphyrins to PHB led to increased average diameter and disappeared spindly structures in comparison with initial PHB. Biological tests of nonwoven fabrics showed that fibers, containing ferric iron (III)-based tetraphenylporphyrins, were active in relation to bacterial test-cultures. It was found that materials on polymer and metal complexes with porphyrins basis can be applied to production of decontamination equipment in relation to pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms.

  8. Potential role for extracellular glutathione-dependent ferric reductase in utilization of environmental and host ferric compounds by Histoplasma capsulatum.

    PubMed

    Timmerman, M M; Woods, J P

    2001-12-01

    The mammalian host specifically limits iron during Histoplasma capsulatum infection, and fungal acquisition of iron is essential for productive infection. H. capsulatum expresses several iron acquisition mechanisms under iron-limited conditions in vitro. These components include hydroxamate siderophores, extracellular glutathione-dependent ferric reductase enzyme, extracellular nonproteinaceous ferric reductant(s), and cell surface ferric reducing agent(s). We examined the relationship between these mechanisms and a potential role for the extracellular ferric reductase in utilization of environmental and host ferric compounds through the production of free, soluble Fe(II). Siderophores and ferric reducing agents were coproduced under conditions of iron limitation. The H. capsulatum siderophore dimerum acid and the structurally similar basidiomycete siderophore rhodotorulic acid acted as substrates for the ferric reductase, and rhodotorulic acid removed Fe(III) bound by transferrin. The mammalian Fe(III)-binding compounds hemin and transferrin served both as substrates for the ferric reductase and as iron sources for yeast-phase growth at neutral pH. In the case of transferrin, there was a correlation between the level of iron saturation and efficacy for both of these functions. Our data are not consistent with an entirely pH-dependent mechanism of iron acquisition from transferrin, as has been suggested to occur in the macrophage phagolysosome. The foreign siderophore ferrioxamine B also acted as a substrate for the ferric reductase, while the foreign siderophore ferrichrome did not. Both ferrioxamine and ferrichrome served as iron sources for yeast- and mold-phase growth, the latter presumably by some other acquisition mechanism(s).

  9. Potential Role for Extracellular Glutathione-Dependent Ferric Reductase in Utilization of Environmental and Host Ferric Compounds by Histoplasma capsulatum

    PubMed Central

    Timmerman, Michelle M.; Woods, Jon P.

    2001-01-01

    The mammalian host specifically limits iron during Histoplasma capsulatum infection, and fungal acquisition of iron is essential for productive infection. H. capsulatum expresses several iron acquisition mechanisms under iron-limited conditions in vitro. These components include hydroxamate siderophores, extracellular glutathione-dependent ferric reductase enzyme, extracellular nonproteinaceous ferric reductant(s), and cell surface ferric reducing agent(s). We examined the relationship between these mechanisms and a potential role for the extracellular ferric reductase in utilization of environmental and host ferric compounds through the production of free, soluble Fe(II). Siderophores and ferric reducing agents were coproduced under conditions of iron limitation. The H. capsulatum siderophore dimerum acid and the structurally similar basidiomycete siderophore rhodotorulic acid acted as substrates for the ferric reductase, and rhodotorulic acid removed Fe(III) bound by transferrin. The mammalian Fe(III)-binding compounds hemin and transferrin served both as substrates for the ferric reductase and as iron sources for yeast-phase growth at neutral pH. In the case of transferrin, there was a correlation between the level of iron saturation and efficacy for both of these functions. Our data are not consistent with an entirely pH-dependent mechanism of iron acquisition from transferrin, as has been suggested to occur in the macrophage phagolysosome. The foreign siderophore ferrioxamine B also acted as a substrate for the ferric reductase, while the foreign siderophore ferrichrome did not. Both ferrioxamine and ferrichrome served as iron sources for yeast- and mold-phase growth, the latter presumably by some other acquisition mechanism(s). PMID:11705947

  10. Fe-heme conformations in ferric myoglobin.

    PubMed

    Della Longa, S; Pin, S; Cortès, R; Soldatov, A V; Alpert, B

    1998-12-01

    X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra of ferric myoglobin from horse heart have been acquired as a function of pH (between 5.3 and 11.3). At pH = 11.3 temperature-dependent spectra (between 20 and 293 K) have been collected as well. Experimental data solve three main conformations of the Fe-heme: the first, at low pH, is related to high-spin aquomet-myoglobin (Mb+OH2). The other two, at pH 11.3, are related to hydroxymet-myoglobin (Mb+OH-), and are in thermal equilibrium, corresponding to high- and low-spin Mb+OH-. The structure of the three Fe-heme conformations has been assigned according to spin-resolved multiple scattering simulations and fitting of the XANES data. The chemical transition between Mb+OH2 and high-spin Mb+OH-, and the spin transition of Mb+OH-, are accompanied by changes of the Fe coordination sphere due to its movement toward the heme plane, coupled to an increase of the axial asymmetry.

  11. 21 CFR 73.2298 - Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2298 Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide. (a... ferrocyanide is safe for use in coloring externally applied cosmetics, including cosmetics applied to the area...

  12. Organic functionalisation of graphene catalysed by ferric perchlorate.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; He, Junpo

    2014-12-25

    We have developed a method to prepare covalently functionalised graphene using ferric perchlorate as the catalyst. The resulting functionalised graphene was characterised by Raman spectroscopy, TGA, XPS, AFM, and dispersibility tests in organic or aqueous media.

  13. 21 CFR 184.1296 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... granules or as a brownish-yellowish powder. (2) Ferric ammonium citrate (iron (III) ammonium citrate, CAS... granules, as a powder, or as transparent green crystals. (b) The ingredients meet the specifications of the...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1296 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... brown or garnet red scales or granules or as a brownish-yellowish powder. (2) Ferric ammonium citrate... occurs as thin transparent green scales, as granules, as a powder, or as transparent green crystals. (b...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1296 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... brown or garnet red scales or granules or as a brownish-yellowish powder. (2) Ferric ammonium citrate... occurs as thin transparent green scales, as granules, as a powder, or as transparent green crystals. (b...

  16. Ferric and cupric reductase activities by iron-limited cells of the green alga Chlorella kessleri: quantification via oxygen electrode.

    PubMed

    Weger, Harold G; Walker, Crystal N; Fink, Michael B

    2007-10-01

    The colorimetric Fe2+ indicators bathophenanthroline disulfonic acid (BPDS) and 3-(2-pyridyl)-5,6-bis(4-phenylsulfonic acid)-1,2,4-triazine (FZ) are routinely used to assay for plasma membrane ferric reductase activity in iron-limited algal cells and also in roots from iron-limited plants. Ferric reductase assays using these colorimetric indicators must take into account the fact that Fe3+ chelators (e.g. ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) can also in general bind Fe2+ and may therefore compete with the colorimetric Fe2+ indicators, leading to the potential for underestimation of the ferric reduction rate. Conversely, the presence of BPDS or FZ may also facilitate the reduction of Fe3+ chelates, potentially leading to overestimation of ferric reduction rates. Last, both BPDS and FZ have non-negligible affinities for Fe3+ in addition to their well-known affinities for Fe2+; this leads to potential difficulties in ascertaining whether free and/or chelated Fe3+ are potential substrates for the ferric reductase. Similar issues arise when assaying for cupric reductase activity using the colorimetric Cu+ indicator bathocuproinedisulfonic acid (BCDS). In this paper, we describe an oxygen-electrode-based assay (conducted in darkness) for both ferric and cupric reductase activities that does not use colorimetric indicators. Using this assay system, we show that the plasma membrane metal reductase activity of iron-limited cells of the green alga Chlorella kessleri reduced complexed Fe3+ (i.e. Fe3+ chelates) but did not reduce free (non-chelated) Fe3+, and also reduced free Cu2+ to Cu+, but did not reduce Cu2+ that was part of Cu2+ chelates. We suggest that the potential for reduction of free Fe3+ cannot be adequately assayed using colorimetric assays. As well, the BPDS-based assay system consistently yielded similar estimates of ferric reductase activity compared with the O2-electrode-based assays at relatively low Fe3+ concentration, but higher estimates at higher Fe3

  17. Hydrogen and Ferric Iron in Mars Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyar, Melinda D.

    2004-01-01

    Knowledge of oxygen and hydrogen fugacity is of paramount importance in constraining phase equilibria and crystallization processes of melts, as well as understanding the partitioning of elements between the cope and silicate portions of terrestrial planets. H and Fe(3+) must both be analyzed in order to reconstruct hydrogen and oxygen fugacities on Mars. To date, SIMS data have elucidated D/H and H contents of hydrous phases in SNC meteorites, but until now anhydrous martian minerals have not been systematically examined for trace hydrogen. Ferric iron has been quantified using XANES in many martian phases, but integrated studies of both Fe(3+) and H on the same spots are really needed to address the H budget. Finally, the effects of shock on both Fe(3+) and H in hydrous and anhydrous phases must be quantified. Thus, the overall goal of this research was to understand the oxygen and hydrogen fugacities under which martian samples crystallized. In this research one-year project, we approached this problem by 1) characterizing Fe(3+) and H contents of SNC meteorites using both bulk (Mossbauer spectroscopy and uranium extraction, respectively) and microscale (synchrotron micro-XANES and SIMS) methods; 2) relating Fe(3+) and H contents of martian minerals to their oxygen and hydrogen fugacities through analysis of experimentally equilibrated phases (for pyroxene) and through study of volcanic rocks in which the oxygen and hydrogen fugacities can be independently constrained (for feldspar); and 3) studying the effects of shock processes on Fe(3+) and H contents of the phases of interest. Results have been used to assess quantitatively the distribution of H and Fe(3+) among phases in the martian interior, which will better constrain the geodynamic processes of the interior, as well as the overall hydrogen and water budgets on Mars. There were no inventions funded by this research.

  18. Viewing the Valence Electronic Structure of Ferric and Ferrous Hexacyanide in Solution from the Fe and Cyanide Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kunnus, Kristjan; Zhang, Wenkai; Delcey, Mickaël G; Pinjari, Rahul V; Miedema, Piter S; Schreck, Simon; Quevedo, Wilson; Schröder, Henning; Föhlisch, Alexander; Gaffney, Kelly J; Lundberg, Marcus; Odelius, Michael; Wernet, Philippe

    2016-07-28

    The valence-excited states of ferric and ferrous hexacyanide ions in aqueous solution were mapped by resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) at the Fe L2,3 and N K edges. Probing of both the central Fe and the ligand N atoms enabled identification of the metal- and ligand-centered excited states, as well as ligand-to-metal and metal-to-ligand charge-transfer excited states. Ab initio calculations utilizing the RASPT2 method were used to simulate the Fe L2,3-edge RIXS spectra and enabled quantification of the covalencies of both occupied and empty orbitals of π and σ symmetry. We found that π back-donation in the ferric complex is smaller than that in the ferrous complex. This is evidenced by the relative amounts of Fe 3d character in the nominally 2π CN(-) molecular orbital of 7% and 9% in ferric and ferrous hexacyanide, respectively. Utilizing the direct sensitivity of Fe L3-edge RIXS to the Fe 3d character in the occupied molecular orbitals, we also found that the donation interactions are dominated by σ bonding. The latter was found to be stronger in the ferric complex, with an Fe 3d contribution to the nominally 5σ CN(-) molecular orbitals of 29% compared to 20% in the ferrous complex. These results are consistent with the notion that a higher charge at the central metal atom increases donation and decreases back-donation.

  19. Enhancing phosphorus release from waste activated sludge containing ferric or aluminum phosphates by EDTA addition during anaerobic fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jinte; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Lin; Li, Yongmei

    2017-03-01

    The effect of ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) addition on phosphorus release from biosolids and phosphate precipitates during anaerobic fermentation was investigated. Meanwhile, the impact of EDTA addition on the anaerobic fermentation process was revealed. The results indicate that EDTA addition significantly enhanced the release of phosphorus from biosolids, ferric phosphate precipitate and aluminum phosphate precipitate during anaerobic fermentation, which is attributed to the complexation of metal ions and damage of cell membrane caused by EDTA. With the optimal EDTA addition of 19.5 mM (0.41 gEDTA/gSS), phosphorus release efficiency from biosolids was 82%, which was much higher than that (40%) without EDTA addition. Meanwhile, with 19.5 mM EDTA addition, almost all the phosphorus in ferric phosphate precipitate was released, while only 57% of phosphorus in aluminum phosphate precipitate was released. This indicates that phosphorus in ferric phosphate precipitate was much easier to be released than that in aluminum phosphate precipitate during anaerobic fermentation of sludge. In addition, proper EDTA addition facilitated the production of soluble total organic carbon and volatile fatty acids, as well as solid reduction during sludge fermentation, although methane production could be inhibited. Therefore, EDTA addition can be used as an alternative method for recovering phosphorus from waste activated sludge containing ferric or aluminum precipitates, as well as recovery of soluble carbon source.

  20. The effect of uranium on bacterial viability and cell surface morphology using atomic force microscopy in the presence of bicarbonate ions.

    PubMed

    Sepulveda-Medina, Paola; Katsenovich, Yelena; Musaramthota, Vishal; Lee, Michelle; Lee, Brady; Dua, Rupak; Lagos, Leonel

    2015-06-01

    Past disposal practices at nuclear production facilities have led to the release of liquid waste into the environment creating multiple radionuclide plumes. Microorganisms are known for the ability to interact with radionuclides and impact their mobility in soils and sediments. Gram-positive Arthrobacter sp. are one of the most common bacterial groups in soils and are found in large numbers in subsurface environments contaminated with radionuclides. This study experimentally analyzed changes on the bacteria surface at the nanoscale level after uranium exposure and evaluated the effect of aqueous bicarbonate ions on U(VI) toxicity of a low uranium-tolerant Arthrobacter oxydans strain G968 by investigating changes in adhesion forces and cell dimensions via atomic force microscopy (AFM). Experiments were extended to assess cell viability by the Live/Dead BacLight Bacterial Viability Kit (Molecular Probes) and quantitatively illustrate the effect of uranium exposure in the presence of varying concentrations of bicarbonate ions. AFM and viability studies showed that samples containing bicarbonate were able to withstand uranium toxicity and remained viable. Samples containing no bicarbonate exhibited deformed surfaces and a low height profile, which, in conjunction with viability studies, indicated that the cells were not viable. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. All rights reserved.

  1. Kinetics of iron acquisition from ferric siderophores by Paracoccus denitrificans

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, R.J.; Weimar, W.R. )

    1990-05-01

    The kinetics of iron accumulation by iron-starved Paracoccus denitrificans during the first 2 min of exposure to 55Fe-labeled ferric siderophore chelates is described. Iron is acquired from the ferric chelate of the natural siderophore L-parabactin in a process exhibiting biphastic kinetics by Lineweaver-Burk analysis. The kinetic data for 1 microM less than (Fe L-parabactin) less than 10 microM fit a regression line which suggests a low-affinity system (Km = 3.9 +/- 1.2 microM, Vmax = 494 pg-atoms of 55Fe min-1 mg of protein-1), whereas the data for 0.1 microM less than or equal to (Fe L-parabactin) less than or equal to 1 microM fit another line consistent with a high-affinity system (Km = 0.24 +/- 0.06 microM, Vmax = 108 pg-atoms of 55Fe min-1 mg of protein-1). The Km of the high-affinity uptake is comparable to the binding affinity we had previously reported for the purified ferric L-parabactin receptor protein in the outer membrane. In marked contrast, ferric D-parabactin data fit a single regression line corresponding to a simple Michaelis-Menten process with comparatively low affinity (Km = 3.1 +/- 0.9 microM, Vmax = 125 pg-atoms of 55Fe min-1 mg of protein-1). Other catecholamide siderophores with an intact oxazoline ring derived from L-threonine (L-homoparabactin, L-agrobactin, and L-vibriobactin) also exhibit biphasic kinetics with a high-affinity component similar to ferric L-parabactin. Circular dichroism confirmed that these ferric chelates, like ferric L-parabactin, exist as the lambda enantiomers.

  2. High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) of nanophase ferric oxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, D. C.; Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Lauer, H. V., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Iron oxide minerals are the prime candidates for Fe(III) signatures in remotely sensed Martian surface spectra. Magnetic, Mossbauer, and reflectance spectroscopy have been carried out in the laboratory in order to understand the mineralogical nature of Martian analog ferric oxide minerals of submicron or nanometer size range. Out of the iron oxide minerals studied, nanometer sized ferric oxides are promising candidates for possible Martian spectral analogs. 'Nanophase ferric oxide (np-Ox)' is a generic term for ferric oxide/oxihydroxide particles having nanoscale (less than 10 nm) particle dimensions. Ferrihydrite, superparamagnetic particles of hematite, maghemite and goethite, and nanometer sized particles of inherently paramagnetic lepidocrocite are all examples of nanophase ferric oxides. np-Ox particles in general do not give X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns with well defined peaks and would often be classified as X-ray amorphous. Therefore, different np-Oxs preparations should be characterized using a more sensitive technique e.g., high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The purpose of this study is to report the particle size, morphology and crystalline order, of five np-Ox samples by HRTEM imaging and electron diffraction (ED).

  3. Shifts of subgingival bacterial population after nonsurgical and pharmacological therapy of localized aggressive periodontitis, followed for 1 year by Ion Torrent PGM platform.

    PubMed

    Campisciano, Giuseppina; Toschetti, Annamaria; Comar, Manola; Taranto, Rosanna Di; Berton, Federico; Stacchi, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    The possibility of targeting the hypervariable region V3 of the 16S rRNA gene using Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) could provide a complete analysis of subgingival plaque samples, potentially able to identify microbiological species missed by culture-based methods. A 16-year-old female smoker patient, affected by localized aggressive periodontitis, underwent a full-mouth disinfection protocol and was inserted in a 3-month recall program. Microbiological samples were collected at baseline and at 30, 100, 365 days follow-up and analyzed by Ion Torrent PGM. Capnocytophaga, Fusobacterium, Prevotella, and Treponema were the most represented pathogens at baseline. Nonsurgical treatment and systemic antibiotics drastically lowered the anaerobic species, and their presence remained limited after 100 days, while a consistent recolonization by anaerobic bacteria was detected at 365 days. The patient showed a general improvement of periodontal conditions. Differently from polymerase chain reaction and other microarray techniques, Ion Torrent performs a quantitative analysis of the microbiota, irrespective of the searched species. An accurate definition of the shifts of the bacterial community might help periodontal researchers for a better understanding of the impact of different treatment approaches or in intercepting nonresponsive conditions.

  4. Distinct interactions of Na{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} ions with the selectivity filter of the bacterial sodium channel Na{sub V}Ab

    SciTech Connect

    Ke, Song; Zangerl, Eva-Maria; Stary-Weinzinger, Anna

    2013-01-25

    Highlights: ► Ca{sup 2+} translocates slowly in the filter, due to lack of “loose” knock-on mechanism. ► Identification of a high affinity binding site in Na{sub V}Ab selectivity filter. ► Changes of EEEE locus triggered by electrostatic interactions with Ca{sup 2+} ions. -- Abstract: Rapid and selective ion transport is essential for the generation and regulation of electrical signaling pathways in living organisms. In this study, we use molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations to investigate how the bacterial sodium channel Na{sub V}Ab (Arcobacter butzleri) differentiates between Na{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} ions. Multiple nanosecond molecular dynamics simulations revealed distinct binding patterns for these two cations in the selectivity filter and suggested a high affinity calcium binding site formed by backbone atoms of residues Leu-176 and Thr-175 (S{sub CEN}) in the sodium channel selectivity filter.

  5. Quantitative determination of ion distributions in bacterial lipopolysaccharide membranes by grazing-incidence X-ray fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Schneck, Emanuel; Schubert, Thomas; Konovalov, Oleg V.; Quinn, Bonnie E.; Gutsmann, Thomas; Brandenburg, Klaus; Oliveira, Rafael G.; Pink, David A.; Tanaka, Motomu

    2010-01-01

    A model of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria was created by the deposition of a monolayer of purified rough mutant lipopolysaccharides at an air/water interface. The density profiles of monovalent (K+) and divalent (Ca2+) cations normal to the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) monolayers were investigated using grazing-incidence X-ray fluorescence. In the absence of Ca2+, a K+ concentration peak was found in the negatively charged LPS headgroup region. With the addition of CaCl2, Ca2+ ions almost completely displaced K+ ions from the headgroup region. By integrating the experimentally reconstructed excess ion density profiles, we obtained an accurate measurement of the effective charge density of LPS monolayers. The experimental findings were compared to the results of Monte Carlo simulations based on a coarse-grained minimal model of LPS molecules and showed excellent agreement. PMID:20442333

  6. A two-state model for the dynamics of the pyrophosphate ion release in bacterial RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Da, Lin-Tai; Pardo Avila, Fátima; Wang, Dong; Huang, Xuhui

    2013-04-01

    The dynamics of the PPi release during the transcription elongation of bacterial RNA polymerase and its effects on the Trigger Loop (TL) opening motion are still elusive. Here, we built a Markov State Model (MSM) from extensive all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the mechanism of the PPi release. Our MSM has identified a simple two-state mechanism for the PPi release instead of a more complex four-state mechanism observed in RNA polymerase II (Pol II). We observed that the PPi release in bacterial RNA polymerase occurs at sub-microsecond timescale, which is ∼3-fold faster than that in Pol II. After escaping from the active site, the (Mg-PPi)(2-) group passes through a single elongated metastable region where several positively charged residues on the secondary channel provide favorable interactions. Surprisingly, we found that the PPi release is not coupled with the TL unfolding but correlates tightly with the side-chain rotation of the TL residue R1239. Our work sheds light on the dynamics underlying the transcription elongation of the bacterial RNA polymerase.

  7. Box-Behnken experimental design for chromium(VI) ions removal by bacterial cellulose-magnetite composites.

    PubMed

    Stoica-Guzun, Anicuta; Stroescu, Marta; Jinga, Sorin Ion; Mihalache, Nicoleta; Botez, Adriana; Matei, Cristian; Berger, Daniela; Damian, Celina Maria; Ionita, Valentin

    2016-10-01

    In this study bacterial cellulose-magnetite composites were synthesised for the removal of chromium(VI) from aqueous solutions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the bacterial cellulose-magnetite composites and to reveal the uniform dispersion of nanomagnetite in the BC matrix. Magnetic properties were also measured to confirm the magnetite immobilization on bacterial cellulose membrane. The effects of initial Cr(VI) concentration, solution pH and solid/liquid ratio upon chromium removal were examined using the statistical Box-Behnken Design. Because of the possibility of magnetite dissolution during chromium(VI) adsorption, the degree of iron leaching was also analysed in the same conditions as Cr(VI) adsorption. From the factors affecting chromium(VI) adsorption the most important was solution pH. The highest Cr(VI) removal efficiency was observed at pH 4, accompanied by the lowest iron leaching in the solution. The adsorption experiments also indicated that the adsorption process of chromium(VI) is well described by Freundlich adsorption model. Our results proved that the BC-magnetite composites could be used for an efficient removal of chromium(VI) from diluted solutions with a minimum magnetite dissolution during operation.

  8. Construction techniques for adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators using ferric ammonium alum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Grant W.; Timbie, Peter T.

    1999-07-01

    We describe techniques used to fabricate the cold stage of an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator that uses the paramagnetic salt ferric ammonium alum. We discuss the design of a leak-tight housing for the salt as well as a technique for growing ferric ammonium alum crystals that results in a housing filled with >98% refrigerant. These techniques have proven to be reliable in creating robust single-stage refrigerators. Similar techniques can be used for the second stage of a dual-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator.

  9. Comparison of bacterial genome assembly software for MinION data and their applicability to medical microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Martin; Reuter, Sandra; Tracey, Alan; Quail, Michael A.; Parkhill, Julian; Peacock, Sharon J.

    2016-01-01

    Translating the Oxford Nanopore MinION sequencing technology into medical microbiology requires on-going analysis that keeps pace with technological improvements to the instrument and release of associated analysis software. Here, we use a multidrug-resistant Enterobacter kobei isolate as a model organism to compare open source software for the assembly of genome data, and relate this to the time taken to generate actionable information. Three software tools (PBcR, Canu and miniasm) were used to assemble MinION data and a fourth (SPAdes) was used to combine MinION and Illumina data to produce a hybrid assembly. All four had a similar number of contigs and were more contiguous than the assembly using Illumina data alone, with SPAdes producing a single chromosomal contig. Evaluation of the four assemblies to represent the genome structure revealed a single large inversion in the SPAdes assembly, which also incorrectly integrated a plasmid into the chromosomal contig. Almost 50 %, 80 % and 90 % of MinION pass reads were generated in the first 6, 9 and 12 h, respectively. Using data from the first 6 h alone led to a less accurate, fragmented assembly, but data from the first 9 or 12 h generated similar assemblies to that from 48 h sequencing. Assemblies were generated in 2 h using Canu, indicating that going from isolate to assembled data is possible in less than 48 h. MinION data identified that genes responsible for resistance were carried by two plasmids encoding resistance to carbapenem and to sulphonamides, rifampicin and aminoglycosides, respectively. PMID:28348876

  10. Precision and sensitivity of the measurement of 15N enrichment in D-alanine from bacterial cell walls using positive/negative ion mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tunlid, A.; Odham, G.; Findlay, R. H.; White, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Sensitive detection of cellular components from specific groups of microbes can be utilized as 'signatures' in the examination of microbial consortia from soils, sediments or biofilms. Utilizing capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and stereospecific derivatizing agents, D-alanine, a component localized in the prokaryotic (bacterial) cell wall, can be detected reproducibly. Enrichments of D-[15N]alanine determined in E. coli grown with [15N]ammonia can be determined with precision at 1.0 atom%. Chemical ionization with methane gas and the detection of negative ions (M - HF)- and (M - F or M + H - HF)- formed from the heptafluorobutyryl D-2 butanol ester of D-alanine allowed as little as 8 pg (90 fmol) to be detected reproducibly. This method can be utilized to define the metabolic activity in terms of 15N incorporation at the level of 10(3)-10(4) cells, as a function of the 15N-14N ratio.

  11. Precision and sensitivity of the measurement of 15N enrichment in D-alanine from bacterial cell walls using positive/negative ion mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tunlid, A.; Odham, G.; Findlay, R. H.; White, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Sensitive detection of cellular components from specific groups of microbes can be utilized as 'signatures' in the examination of microbial consortia from soils, sediments or biofilms. Utilizing capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and stereospecific derivatizing agents, D-alanine, a component localized in the prokaryotic (bacterial) cell wall, can be detected reproducibly. Enrichments of D-[15N]alanine determined in E. coli grown with [15N]ammonia can be determined with precision at 1.0 atom%. Chemical ionization with methane gas and the detection of negative ions (M - HF)- and (M - F or M + H - HF)- formed from the heptafluorobutyryl D-2 butanol ester of D-alanine allowed as little as 8 pg (90 fmol) to be detected reproducibly. This method can be utilized to define the metabolic activity in terms of 15N incorporation at the level of 10(3)-10(4) cells, as a function of the 15N-14N ratio.

  12. Enhanced dark hydrogen fermentation by addition of ferric oxide nanoparticles using Enterobacter aerogenes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Richen; Cheng, Jun; Ding, Lingkan; Song, Wenlu; Liu, Min; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2016-05-01

    Ferric oxide nanoparticles (FONPs) were used to facilitate dark hydrogen fermentation using Enterobacter aerogenes. The hydrogen yield of glucose increased from 164.5±2.29 to 192.4±1.14mL/g when FONPs concentration increased from 0 to 200mg/L. SEM images of E. aerogenes demonstrated the existence of bacterial nanowire among cells, suggesting FONPs served as electron conduits to enhance electron transfer. TEM showed cellular internalization of FONPs, indicating hydrogenase synthesis and activity was potentially promoted due to the released iron element. When further increasing FONPs concentration to 400mg/L, the hydrogen yield of glucose decreased to 147.2±2.54mL/g. Soluble metabolic products revealed FONPs enhanced acetate pathway of hydrogen production, but weakened ethanol pathway. This shift of metabolic pathways allowed more nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide for reducing proton to hydrogen.

  13. A functional ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein in the fish pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis.

    PubMed

    Almarza, Oscar; Valderrama, Katherine; Ayala, Manuel; Segovia, Cristopher; Santander, Javier

    2016-03-01

    Piscirickettsia salmonis, a Gram-negative fastidious facultative intracellular pathogen, is the causative agent of the salmonid rickettsial septicemia (SRS). The P. salmonis iron acquisition mechanisms and its molecular regulation are unknown. Iron is an essential element for bacterial pathogenesis. Typically, genes that encode for the iron acquisition machinery are regulated by the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein. P. salmonis fur sequence database reveals a diversity of fur genes without functional verification. Due to the fastidious nature of this bacterium, we evaluated the functionality of P. salmonis fur in the Salmonella Δfur heterologous system. Although P. salmonis fur gene strongly differed from the common Fur sequences, it restored the regulatory mechanisms of iron acquisition in Salmonella. We concluded that P. salmonis LF-89 has a conserved functional Fur protein, which reinforces the importance of iron during fish infection. [Int Microbiol 2016; 49-55].

  14. Bacillus anthracis inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase in action: the first bacterial series of structures of phosphate ion-, substrate-, and product-bound complexes.

    PubMed

    Makowska-Grzyska, Magdalena; Kim, Youngchang; Wu, Ruiying; Wilton, Rosemarie; Gollapalli, Deviprasad R; Wang, Ximi K; Zhang, Rongguang; Jedrzejczak, Robert; Mack, Jamey C; Maltseva, Natalia; Mulligan, Rory; Binkowski, T Andrew; Gornicki, Piotr; Kuhn, Misty L; Anderson, Wayne F; Hedstrom, Lizbeth; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2012-08-07

    Inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) catalyzes the first unique step of the GMP branch of the purine nucleotide biosynthetic pathway. This enzyme is found in organisms of all three kingdoms. IMPDH inhibitors have broad clinical applications in cancer treatment, as antiviral drugs and as immunosuppressants, and have also displayed antibiotic activity. We have determined three crystal structures of Bacillus anthracis IMPDH, in a phosphate ion-bound (termed "apo") form and in complex with its substrate, inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP), and product, xanthosine 5'-monophosphate (XMP). This is the first example of a bacterial IMPDH in more than one state from the same organism. Furthermore, for the first time for a prokaryotic enzyme, the entire active site flap, containing the conserved Arg-Tyr dyad, is clearly visible in the structure of the apoenzyme. Kinetic parameters for the enzymatic reaction were also determined, and the inhibitory effect of XMP and mycophenolic acid (MPA) has been studied. In addition, the inhibitory potential of two known Cryptosporidium parvum IMPDH inhibitors was examined for the B. anthracis enzyme and compared with those of three bacterial IMPDHs from Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium perfringens, and Vibrio cholerae. The structures contribute to the characterization of the active site and design of inhibitors that specifically target B. anthracis and other microbial IMPDH enzymes.

  15. ESTCP DEMONSTRATION OF A BIOAVAILABLE FERRIC IRON TEST KIT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioavailable ferric iron (BAFeIII) is used by iron-reducing bacteria as an electron acceptor during the oxidation of various organic contaminants such as vinyl chloride and benzene. Quantification of BAFeIII is important with respect to characterizing candidate natural attenuati...

  16. DEMONSTRATION OF A BIOAVAILABLE FERRIC IRON TEST KIT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioavailable ferric iron (BAFeIII) is used by iron-reducing bacteria as an electron acceptor during the oxidation of various organic contaminants such as vinyl chloride and benzene. Quantification of BAFeIII is important with respect to characterizing candidate natural attenuati...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1296 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE... brown or garnet red scales or granules or as a brownish-yellowish powder. (2) Ferric ammonium citrate... occurs as thin transparent green scales, as granules, as a powder, or as transparent green crystals....

  18. 21 CFR 184.1296 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE... brown or garnet red scales or granules or as a brownish-yellowish powder. (2) Ferric ammonium citrate... occurs as thin transparent green scales, as granules, as a powder, or as transparent green crystals....

  19. The Effect of Ferric Chloride on Superficial Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Nouri, Saeed; Sharif, Mohammad Reza; Sahba, Sare

    2015-01-01

    Background: Controlling superficial bleeding, despite all the progress in surgical science, is still a challenge in some settings. Objectives: This study assesses the hemostatic effects of ferric chloride and compares it with the standard method (suturing technique) to control superficial bleeding. Materials and Methods: In this animal model study, 60 male Wistar rats were used. An incision, 2 cm long and 0.5 cm deep was made on rat skin and the hemostasis time was recorded using ferric chloride at different concentrations (5%, 10%, 15%, 25%, and 50%) and then using a control (i.e. control of bleeding by suturing). The skin tissue was examined for pathological changes. Finally, the obtained data were entered into SPSS (ver. 16) and analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, and Wilcoxon signed ranks test. Results: The hemostasis time for the ferric chloride concentration group was significantly less than for the control group (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Ferric chloride may be an effective hemostatic agent to control superficial bleeding in rats. PMID:25825694

  20. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 73.1025 Section 73.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF... general and ophthalmic surgery subject to the following conditions: (1) The dyed suture shall conform...

  1. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 73.1025 Section 73.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF... general and ophthalmic surgery subject to the following conditions: (1) The dyed suture shall conform...

  2. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 73.1025 Section 73.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF... general and ophthalmic surgery subject to the following conditions: (1) The dyed suture shall conform...

  3. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 73.1025 Section 73.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF... general and ophthalmic surgery subject to the following conditions: (1) The dyed suture shall conform...

  4. What ferric oxide/oxyhydroxide phases are present on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Richard V.

    1988-01-01

    The weathering history of Mars can be deduced largely from the mineralogy and distribution of ferric oxide/oxyhydroxide phases. As discussed, some insights can be gained through spectrophotometric remote sensing, but absolute determinations must depend on direct laboratory analysis of returned Martian samples.

  5. Use of Ferric Sulfate to Control Hepatic Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Nouri, Saeed; Sharif, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Controlling parenchymal hemorrhage, especially in liver parenchyma, despite all the progress in surgical science, is still one of the challenges surgeons face. Therefore, search for an effective method to control hepatic bleeding is an important research priority. Objectives: This study attempted to determine the haemostatic effect of ferric sulfate and compare it with the standard method (suturing technique). Materials and Methods: In this animal model study, 60 male Wistar rats were used. An incision (2 cm in length and 1/2 cm in depth) was made on each rat’s liver and the hemostasis time was measured using ferric sulfate with different concentrations (5%, 10%, 15%, 25%, and 50%) and then using simple suturing. The liver tissue was assessed for pathological changes. Results: In all the groups, complete hemostasis occurred. Hemostasis times of different concentrations of ferric sulfate were significantly less than those of the control group (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Ferric sulfate was effective in controlling hepatic bleeding in rats. PMID:25825702

  6. 21 CFR 582.5306 - Ferric sodium pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ferric sodium pyrophosphate. 582.5306 Section 582.5306 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients...

  7. 21 CFR 582.5306 - Ferric sodium pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ferric sodium pyrophosphate. 582.5306 Section 582.5306 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5306 - Ferric sodium pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ferric sodium pyrophosphate. 582.5306 Section 582.5306 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5306 - Ferric sodium pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ferric sodium pyrophosphate. 582.5306 Section 582.5306 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients...

  10. ESTCP DEMONSTRATION OF A BIOAVAILABLE FERRIC IRON TEST KIT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioavailable ferric iron (BAFeIII) is used by iron-reducing bacteria as an electron acceptor during the oxidation of various organic contaminants such as vinyl chloride and benzene. Quantification of BAFeIII is important with respect to characterizing candidate natural attenuati...

  11. DEMONSTRATION OF A BIOAVAILABLE FERRIC IRON TEST KIT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioavailable ferric iron (BAFeIII) is used by iron-reducing bacteria as an electron acceptor during the oxidation of various organic contaminants such as vinyl chloride and benzene. Quantification of BAFeIII is important with respect to characterizing candidate natural attenuati...

  12. Red blood cells mediate the onset of thrombosis in the ferric chloride murine model.

    PubMed

    Barr, Justin D; Chauhan, Anil K; Schaeffer, Gilbert V; Hansen, Jessica K; Motto, David G

    2013-05-02

    Application of ferric chloride (FeCl(3)) to exposed blood vessels is widely used to initiate thrombosis in laboratory mice. Because the mechanisms by which FeCl(3) induces endothelial injury and subsequent thrombus formation are little understood, we used scanning electron and brightfield intravital microscopy to visualize endothelial damage and thrombus formation occurring in situ. Contrary to generally accepted belief, FeCl(3) does not result in appreciable subendothelial exposure within the time frame of thrombosis. Furthermore, the first cells to adhere to FeCl(3)-treated endothelial surfaces are red blood cells (RBCs) rather than platelets. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy demonstrated that ferric ions predominantly localize to endothelial-associated RBCs and RBC-derived structures rather than to the endothelium. With continuing time points, RBC-derived structures rapidly recruit platelets, resulting in large complexes that subsequently enlarge and coalesce, quickly covering the endothelial surface. Further studies demonstrated that neither von Willebrand factor nor platelet glycoprotein Ib-α receptor (GPIb-α) is required for RBCs to adhere to the endothelium, and that deficiency of GPIb-α greatly abrogated the recruitment of platelets to the endothelial-associated RBC material. These findings illuminate the mechanisms of FeCl(3)-mediated thrombosis and reveal a previously unrecognized ability of RBCs to participate in thrombosis by mediating platelet adhesion to the intact endothelial surface.

  13. Red blood cells mediate the onset of thrombosis in the ferric chloride murine model

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Justin D.; Chauhan, Anil K.; Schaeffer, Gilbert V.; Hansen, Jessica K.

    2013-01-01

    Application of ferric chloride (FeCl3) to exposed blood vessels is widely used to initiate thrombosis in laboratory mice. Because the mechanisms by which FeCl3 induces endothelial injury and subsequent thrombus formation are little understood, we used scanning electron and brightfield intravital microscopy to visualize endothelial damage and thrombus formation occurring in situ. Contrary to generally accepted belief, FeCl3 does not result in appreciable subendothelial exposure within the time frame of thrombosis. Furthermore, the first cells to adhere to FeCl3-treated endothelial surfaces are red blood cells (RBCs) rather than platelets. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy demonstrated that ferric ions predominantly localize to endothelial-associated RBCs and RBC-derived structures rather than to the endothelium. With continuing time points, RBC-derived structures rapidly recruit platelets, resulting in large complexes that subsequently enlarge and coalesce, quickly covering the endothelial surface. Further studies demonstrated that neither von Willebrand factor nor platelet glycoprotein Ib-α receptor (GPIb-α) is required for RBCs to adhere to the endothelium, and that deficiency of GPIb-α greatly abrogated the recruitment of platelets to the endothelial-associated RBC material. These findings illuminate the mechanisms of FeCl3-mediated thrombosis and reveal a previously unrecognized ability of RBCs to participate in thrombosis by mediating platelet adhesion to the intact endothelial surface. PMID:23343833

  14. Bioleaching of copper from waste printed circuit boards by bacterial consortium enriched from acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yun; Wu, Pingxiao; Zhu, Nengwu; Zhang, Ting; Liu, Wen; Wu, Jinhua; Li, Ping

    2010-12-15

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the solubility of copper in waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) by bacterial consortium enriched from natural acid mine drainage, and to determine optimum conditions of bioleaching copper from PCBs. The results indicated that the extraction of copper was mainly accomplished indirectly through oxidation by ferric ions generated from ferrous ion oxidation bacteria. The initial pH and Fe(2+) concentration played an important role in copper extraction and precipitate formation. The leaching rate of copper was generally higher at lower PCB powder dosage. Moreover, a two-step process was extremely necessary for bacterial growth and obtaining an appropriate Fe(2+) oxidation rate; a suitable time when 6.25 g/L of Fe(2+) remained in the solution was suggested for adding PCB powder. The maximum leaching rate of copper was achieved 95% after 5 days under the conditions of initial pH 1.5, 9 g/L of initial Fe(2+), and 20 g/L of PCB powder. All findings demonstrated that copper could be efficiently solubilized from waste PCBs by using bacterial consortium, and the leaching period was shortened remarkably from about 12 days to 5 days.

  15. Contact Killing of Bacteria on Copper Is Suppressed if Bacterial-Metal Contact Is Prevented and Is Induced on Iron by Copper Ions

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, Salima; Hans, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria are rapidly killed on copper surfaces, and copper ions released from the surface have been proposed to play a major role in the killing process. However, it has remained unclear whether contact of the bacteria with the copper surface is also an important factor. Using laser interference lithography, we engineered copper surfaces which were covered with a grid of an inert polymer which prevented contact of the bacteria with the surface. Using Enterococcus hirae as a model organism, we showed that the release of ionic copper from these modified surfaces was not significantly reduced. In contrast, killing of bacteria was strongly attenuated. When E. hirae cells were exposed to a solid iron surface, the loss of cell viability was the same as on glass. However, exposing cells to iron in the presence of 4 mM CuSO4 led to complete killing in 100 min. These experiments suggest that contact killing proceeds by a mechanism whereby the metal-bacterial contact damages the cell envelope, which, in turn, makes the cells susceptible to further damage by copper ions. PMID:23396344

  16. Mechanosensitive behavior of bacterial cyclic nucleotide gated (bCNG) ion channels: Insights into the mechanism of channel gating in the mechanosensitive channel of small conductance superfamily.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, Hannah R; Elmore, Donald E; Maurer, Joshua A

    2012-01-20

    We have recently identified and characterized the bacterial cyclic nucleotide gated (bCNG) subfamily of the larger mechanosensitive channel of small conductance (MscS) superfamily of ion channels. The channel domain of bCNG channels exhibits significant sequence homology to the mechanosensitive subfamily of MscS in the regions that have previously been used as a hallmark for channels that gate in response to mechanical stress. However, we have previously demonstrated that three of these channels are unable to rescue Escherichiacoli from osmotic downshock. Here, we examine an additional nine bCNG homologues and further demonstrate that the full-length bCNG channels are unable to rescue E. coli from hypoosmotic stress. However, limited mechanosensation is restored upon removal of the cyclic nucleotide binding domain. This indicates that the C-terminal domain of the MscS superfamily can drive channel gating and further highlight the ability of a superfamily of ion channels to be gated by multiple stimuli.

  17. Two Bifunctional Enzymes with Ferric Reduction Ability Play Complementary Roles during Magnetosome Synthesis in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chan; Meng, Xia; Li, Ningxiao; Wang, Wei; Sun, Yuan; Jiang, Wei; Guan, Guohua

    2013-01-01

    The bacterial strain Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1 does not produce siderophores, but it absorbs a large amount of ferric iron and synthesizes magnetosomes. We demonstrated previously the presence of six types of ferric reductase isozymes (termed FeR1 through FeR6) in MSR-1. Of these isozymes, FeR5 was the most abundant and FeR6 showed the highest ferric reductase activity. In the present study, we cloned the fer5 and fer6 genes from MSR-1 and expressed them separately in Escherichia coli. FeR5 and FeR6 were shown to be bifunctional enzymes through analysis of amino acid sequence homologies, structural predictions (using data from GenBank), and detection of enzyme activities. FeR5 is a thioredoxin reductase and FeR6 is a flavin reductase, in addition to being ferric reductases. To elucidate the functions of the enzymes, we constructed two single-gene-deletion mutant strains (Δfer5 and Δfer6 mutants) and a double-gene-deletion mutant strain (Δfer5 Δfer6 [Δfer5+6] mutant) along with its complemented strains (C5 and C6). An evaluation of phenotypic and physiological properties did not reveal significant differences between the wild-type and single-gene-deletion strains, whereas the double-gene-deletion strain showed reduced iron absorption and no magnetosome synthesis. Complementation of the double-gene-deletion strain using either fer5 or fer6 resulted in the partial recovery of magnetosome synthesis. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of fer5 and fer6 transcriptional levels in the wild-type and complemented strains demonstrated consistent transcription of the two genes and confirmed that FeR5 and FeR6 are bifunctional enzymes that play complementary roles during the process of magnetosome synthesis in MSR-1. PMID:23243303

  18. Correlation of mass spectrometry identified bacterial biomarkers from a fielded pyrolysis-gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry biodetector with the microbiological gram stain classification scheme.

    PubMed

    Snyder, A Peter; Dworzanski, Jacek P; Tripathi, Ashish; Maswadeh, Waleed M; Wick, Charles H

    2004-11-01

    A pyrolysis-gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (Py-GC-IMS) briefcase system has been shown to detect and classify deliberately released bioaerosols in outdoor field scenarios. The bioaerosols included Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, MS-2 coliphage virus, and ovalbumin protein species. However, the origin and structural identities of the pyrolysate peaks in the GC-IMS data space, their microbiological information content, and taxonomic importance with respect to biodetection have not been determined. The present work interrogates the identities of the peaks by inserting a time-of-flight mass spectrometry system in parallel with the IMS detector through a Tee connection in the GC module. Biological substances producing ion mobility peaks from the pyrolysis of microorganisms were identified by their GC retention time, matching of their electron ionization mass spectra with authentic standards, and the National Institutes for Standards and Technology mass spectral database. Strong signals from 2-pyridinecarboxamide were identified in Bacillus samples including Bacillus anthracis, and its origin was traced to the cell wall peptidoglycan macromolecule. 3-Hydroxymyristic acid is a component of lipopolysaccharides in the cell walls of Gram-negative organisms. The Gram-negative Escherichia coli organism showed significant amounts of 3-hydroxymyristic acid derivatives and degradation products in Py-GC-MS analyses. Some of the fatty acid derivatives were observed in very low abundance in the ion mobility spectra, and the higher boiling lipid species were absent. Evidence is presented that the Py-GC-ambient temperature and pressure-IMS system generates and detects bacterial biochemical information that can serve as components of a biological classification scheme directly correlated to the Gram stain reaction in microorganism taxonomy.

  19. Room temperature synthesis of hydrated nickel(III) oxide and study of its effect on Cr(VI) ions removal and bacterial culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Sayan; Bhattacharjee, Swarupananda; Bose, Raj Shekhar; Ghosh, Chandan Kr.

    2015-06-01

    Cr(VI) ion is a toxic inorganic affluent that causes carcinogenic effects on the human body. Another problem that requires immediate attention is the fouling of water borne metal surface by micro-organisms. The present study aims to suggest the synthesis of Ni2O3·H2O nanoparticles and to investigate its heavy metal adsorption capacity and bacteriotoxicity in order to address the current global problems. Stable Ni2O3·H2O nanoparticles having various particle sizes were synthesized using active halogenation of nickel(II) precursor at different temperatures. Phase purity was investigated by X-ray diffraction technique. Due to high surface area, surface heterogeneity and surface polarity, they show excellent adsorption affinity (up to 73.9 % removal capacity) of heavy metal ions like Cr(VI). Adsorption isotherms (Freundlich and Langmuir) are plotted for them. Kinetics of the adsorption process reveals it to be pseudo-first-order kinetic in nature. They are also found to be fairly toxic to bacterial subcultures. Maximum value of the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were found to be ~0.54 and 0.58 mg/l for particles synthesized at 70 °C. It was observed that Cr(VI) adsorption highly depends on the surface heterogeneity, while the bactericidal effect depends on the size of the nanoparticles so-prepared. Hence, the prepared particles could be used as a potential material for Cr(VI) ion removal and as an antifouling agent.

  20. 40 CFR 415.380 - Applicability; description of the ferric chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ferric chloride production subcategory. 415.380 Section 415.380 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Ferric Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.380 Applicability; description of the ferric chloride production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges and to...

  1. 40 CFR 415.380 - Applicability; description of the ferric chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ferric chloride production subcategory. 415.380 Section 415.380 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Ferric Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.380 Applicability; description of the ferric chloride production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges and to...

  2. 40 CFR 415.380 - Applicability; description of the ferric chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ferric chloride production subcategory. 415.380 Section 415.380 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Ferric Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.380 Applicability; description of the ferric chloride production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges and to...

  3. 40 CFR 415.380 - Applicability; description of the ferric chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ferric chloride production subcategory. 415.380 Section 415.380 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Ferric Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.380 Applicability; description of the ferric chloride production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges and to...

  4. 40 CFR 415.380 - Applicability; description of the ferric chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ferric chloride production subcategory. 415.380 Section 415.380 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Ferric Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.380 Applicability; description of the ferric chloride production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges and to...

  5. 40 CFR 180.1191 - Ferric phosphate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ferric phosphate; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1191 Ferric phosphate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An..., ferric phosphate (FePO4, CAS No. 11045-86-0) in or on all food commodities. ...

  6. 40 CFR 180.1191 - Ferric phosphate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ferric phosphate; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1191 Ferric phosphate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An..., ferric phosphate (FePO4, CAS No. 11045-86-0) in or on all food commodities. ...

  7. 40 CFR 180.1191 - Ferric phosphate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ferric phosphate; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1191 Ferric phosphate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An..., ferric phosphate (FePO4, CAS No. 11045-86-0) in or on all food commodities. ...

  8. 40 CFR 180.1191 - Ferric phosphate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ferric phosphate; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1191 Ferric phosphate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An..., ferric phosphate (FePO4, CAS No. 11045-86-0) in or on all food commodities. ...

  9. 40 CFR 180.1191 - Ferric phosphate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ferric phosphate; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1191 Ferric phosphate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An..., ferric phosphate (FePO4, CAS No. 11045-86-0) in or on all food commodities. ...

  10. Bioavailability of iron from ferric choline citrate and a ferric copper cobalt choline citrate complex for young pigs.

    PubMed

    Miller, E R; Parsons, M J; Ullrey, D E; Ku, P K

    1981-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the bioavailability for young pigs of Fe from ferric choline citrate or from a commercial mixture of Fe, Cu and Co choline citrate salts. Relative biological value of Fe from either source with a standard of 100 for FeSO4 x 7H20 was about 140 by both hemoglobin regeneration and Fe retention methods.

  11. [Obtaining of bacterial bioluminescent strain Protobacterium phosphoreum B7071 (lux+) for the determination of zinc ion concentration].

    PubMed

    Gruzina, T G; Dybkova, S N; Chekhovskaia, T P; Vember, V V; Zadorozhniaia, A M; Ul'berg, Z R

    2006-01-01

    The transconjugate containing hybrid plasmid (Te(R)Zn(R)lux+) was obtained using the conjugation method on Pseudomonasfragi T2(5) (Te(R)ZnR) strain and bioluminescent strain Protobacterium phosphoreum B7071 (lux+). The expression regulation of lux-genes on the obtained plasmid is carried out by promotor-operational area conjointly with zinc resistance genes. The cells of the obtained genetically modified bacteria have the ability to specific induced luminescence, which is a respond to zinc ions' presence in the measuring medium. It was shown that the cells' bioluminescence intensity of trans-conjugate is linearly dependent on zinc ions' concentration within the range of 1-100 microM, that provides the opportunity of using biosensor as a strain for qualitative and quantitative detection of the metal. The low sensitivity limit of this method is 0.5 microM for the metal. Besides having high sensitivity, the developed lux-biosensor is highly specified.

  12. The substitution of Fe2+ ions by Ni2+ ions in green rust one compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refait, Ph.; Drissi, H.; Marie, Y.; Génin, J.-M. R.

    1994-12-01

    The oxidation of Fe(OH)2 in the presence of Cl- or CO{3/2-} ions leads, in the first stage of the reaction, to chloride-containing green rust one (GR1), 3Fe(OH)2· Fe(OH)2Cl· nH2O, or carbonate-containing GR1, 4Fe(OH)2·Fe2(OH)4CO3·nH2O, respectively. These GR1 compounds give the ferric oxyhydroxides by further oxidation. If a hydroxide Ni x Fe1- x (OH)2 is initially precipitated, the reaction leads to a nickelous-ferric compound isomorphous to the ferrous-ferric GR1, but stable with respect to the oxidizing action of air. Similarly, the oxidation of a nickelous-ferrous hydroxide, in the presence of excess OH- ions, leads to a nickelous-ferric GR1, a layered hydroxide with anionic interlayers made of OH- ions and water molecules. The Mössbauer spectra of these nickelousferric GR1 display two ferric doublets, D0 with IS=0.34 mm/s and QS=0.45 mm/s and D1 with IS=0.36 mm/s and QS=0.86 mm/s. The existence of a ferrous-ferric GR1 incorporating OH- ions, a compound never observed so far, is strongly suspected.

  13. Authigenic vivianite in Potomac River sediments: control by ferric oxy-hydroxides.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hearn, P.P.; Parkhurst, D.L.; Callender, E.

    1983-01-01

    Sand-size aggregates of vivianite crystals occur in the uppermost sediments of the Potomac River estuary immediately downstream from the outfall of a sewage treatment plant at the southernmost boundary of the District of Columbia, USA. They are most abundant in a small area of coarse sand (dredge spoil) which contrasts with the adjacent, much finer sediments. The sewage outfall supplies both reducing conditions and abundant phosphate. Analyses and calculations indicate that the pore waters in all the adjacent sediments are supersaturated with respect to vivianite. Its concentration in the coarse sand is attributed to the absence there of amorphous ferric oxyhydroxides, which are present in the finer sediments and preferentially absorb the phosphate ion. -H.R.B.

  14. Ferric sulphate catalysed esterification of free fatty acids in waste cooking oil.

    PubMed

    Gan, Suyin; Ng, Hoon Kiat; Ooi, Chun Weng; Motala, Nafisa Osman; Ismail, Mohd Anas Farhan

    2010-10-01

    In this work, the esterification of free fatty acids (FFA) in waste cooking oil catalysed by ferric sulphate was studied as a pre-treatment step for biodiesel production. The effects of reaction time, methanol to oil ratio, catalyst concentration and temperature on the conversion of FFA were investigated on a laboratory scale. The results showed that the conversion of FFA reached equilibrium after an hour, and was positively dependent on the methanol to oil molar ratio and temperature. An optimum catalyst concentration of 2 wt.% gave maximum FFA conversion of 59.2%. For catalyst loadings of 2 wt.% and below, this catalysed esterification was proposed to follow a pseudo-homogeneous pathway akin to mineral acid-catalysed esterification, driven by the H(+) ions produced through the hydrolysis of metal complex [Fe(H(2)O)(6)](3+) (aq).

  15. Bacterial degradation of aromatic pollutants: a paradigm of metabolic versatility.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Eduardo

    2004-09-01

    Although most organisms have detoxification abilities (i.e mineralization, transformation and/or immobilization of pollutants), microorganisms, particularly bacteria, play a crucial role in biogeochemical cycles and in sustainable development of the biosphere. Next to glucosyl residues, the benzene ring is the most widely distributed unit of chemical structure in nature, and many of the aromatic compounds are major environmental pollutants. Bacteria have developed strategies for obtaining energy from virtually every compound under oxic or anoxic conditions (using alternative final electron acceptors such as nitrate, sulfate, and ferric ions). Clusters of genes coding for the catabolism of aromatic compounds are usually found in mobile genetic elements, such as transposons and plasmids, which facilitate their horizontal gene transfer and, therefore, the rapid adaptation of microorganisms to new pollutants. A successful strategy for in situ bioremediation has been the combination, in a single bacterial strain or in a syntrophic bacterial consortium, of different degrading abilities with genetic traits that provide selective advantages in a given environment. The advent of high-throughput methods for DNA sequencing and analysis of gene expression (genomics) and function (proteomics), as well as advances in modelling microbial metabolism in silico, provide a global, rational approach to unravel the largely unexplored potentials of microorganisms in biotechnological processes thereby facilitating sustainable development.

  16. Ferric saponite and serpentine in the nakhlite martian meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, L. J.; Bridges, J. C.; Gurman, S. J.

    2014-07-01

    Transmission electron microscopy and Fe-K X-ray absorption spectroscopy have been used to determine structure and ferric content of the secondary phase mineral assemblages in the nakhlite martian meteorites, NWA 998, Lafayette, Nakhla, GV, Y 000593, Y 000749, MIL 03346, NWA 817, and NWA 5790. The secondary phases are a rapidly cooled, metastable assemblage that has preserved Mg# and Ca fractionation related to distance from the fluid source, for most of the nakhlites, though one, NWA 5790, appears not to have experienced a fluid pathway. All nine nakhlite samples have also been analysed with scanning electron microscopy, electron probe micro analysis, Bright Field high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and selected area electron diffraction. By measuring the energy position of the Fe-K XANES 1s → 3d pre-edge transition centroid we calculate the ferric content of the minerals within the nakhlite meteorites. The crystalline phyllosilicates and amorphous silicate of the hydrothermal deposits filling the olivine fractures are found to have variable Fe3+/ΣFe values ranging from 0.4 to 0.9. In Lafayette, the central silicate gel parts of the veins are more ferric than the phyllosilicates around it, showing that the fluid became increasingly oxidised. The mesostasis of Lafayette and NWA 817 also have phyllosilicate, which have a higher ferric content than the olivine fracture deposits, with Fe3+/ΣFe values of up to 1.0. Further study, via TEM analyses, reveal the Lafayette and NWA 817 olivine phyllosilicates to have 2:1 T-O-T lattice structure with a the d001-spacing of 0.96 nm, whereas the Lafayette mesostasis phyllosilicates have 1:1 T-O structure with d001-spacings of 0.7 nm. Based on our analyses, the phyllosilicate found within the Lafayette olivine fractures is trioctahedral ferric saponite (Ca0.2K0.1)∑0.3(Mg2.6Fe2+1.3Fe3+1.7Mn0.1)∑5.7[(Si6.7AlIV0.9Fe3+0.4)∑8.0O20](OH)4·nH2O, and that found in the mesostasis fractures is an Fe

  17. Combination of cupric ion with hydroxylamine and hydrogen peroxide for the control of bacterial biofilms on RO membranes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Jin; Kim, Hyung-Eun; Lee, Changha

    2017-03-01

    Combinations of Cu(II) with hydroxylamine (HA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (i.e., Cu(II)/HA, Cu(II)/H2O2, and Cu(II)/HA/H2O2 systems) were investigated for the control of P. aeruginosa biofilms on reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. These Cu(II)-based disinfection systems effectively inactivated P. aeruginosa cells, exhibiting different behaviors depending on the state of bacterial cells (planktonic or biofilm) and the condition of biofilm growth and treatment (normal or pressurized condition). The Cu(II)/HA and Cu(II)/HA/H2O2 systems were the most effective reagents for the inactivation of planktonic cells. However, these systems were not effective in inactivating cells in biofilms on the RO membranes possibly due to the interactions of Cu(I) with extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), where biofilms were grown and treated in center for disease control (CDC) reactors. Different from the results using CDC reactors, in a pressurized cross-flow RO filtration unit, the Cu(II)/HA/H2O2 treatment significantly inactivated biofilm cells formed on the RO membranes, successfully recovering the permeate flux reduced by the biofouling. The pretreatment of feed solutions by Cu(II)/HA and Cu(II)/HA/H2O2 systems (applied before the biofilm formation) effectively mitigated the permeate flux decline by preventing the biofilm growth on the RO membranes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Iron(III) complexation by Vanchrobactin, a siderophore of the bacterial fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Emilia; Brandariz, Isabel; Jiménez, Carlos; Soengas, Raquel G

    2011-05-01

    The bacterial fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum serotype O2 strain RV22 produces the mono catecholate siderophore Vanchrobactin (Vb) under conditions of iron deficiency. Vb contains two potential bidentate coordination sites: catecholate and salicylate groups. The iron(III) coordination properties of Vb is investigated in aqueous solutions using spectrophotometric and potentiometric methods. The stepwise equilibrium constants (log K) for successive addition of Vb dianion to a ferric ion are 19.9; 13.3, and 9.5, respectively, for an overall association constant of 42.7. Based on the previous results, we estimated the equilibrium concentration of free iron(III) under physiological conditions for pH 7.4 solution containing 10(-6) M total iron and 10(-5) M total Vb as pFe = 20 (=-log[Fe(3+)]). The Vb model compounds catechol (Cat) and 2,4-dihydroxy-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)benzamide (Dhb) have also been examined, and the obtained results show that the interaction of the whole system of Vb that contains the ferric-chelating groups of both Dhb and Cat, is synergically greater than the separate parts; i.e. Vb is the best chelating agent either in acid or basic media. In summary, bacteria employing Vb-mediated iron transport thus are able to compete effectively for iron with other microorganisms within which they live.

  19. Applicability of two-dimensional surface model in bacterial biosorption system: an advanced approach in bioremediation of metal ions.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Vishal

    2017-09-27

    The surface of Bacillus VMSDCM (accession no. HQ108109) has been characterized at various pH values of the experimental solution. The boundary values of conditional parameter were used to develop a mathematical six lumped stochastic model for studying the surface chemistry of the bacterium cells. The results of the model were statistically analyzed to understand the strength of the proposed model. The simulation of the model was performed in Turbo C++ interface. The convergence values of the model were recorded and all the asymptotic points were neglected. The optimum values of model were reiterated to identify the intermittent values of maximum number of active sites, concentration of hydrides and hydroxides of calcium and magnesium and difference between the theoretical and experimental count of active sites. The values of zeta potential indicated towards the ionization of negatively charged surface functional groups at higher values of pH. The results of the present investigation revealed the fact that changes in the values of conditional parameter (pH) may create a drift in design parameters of a batch or continuous column reactor, fabricated for biosorption-cum-bioaccumulation of metal ions (Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)) across liquid phase.

  20. Enhanced bioaccumulation of heavy metal ions by bacterial cells due to surface display of short metal binding peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Kotrba, P.; Ruml, T.; Doleckova, L.; Lorenzo, V. de

    1999-03-01

    Metal binding peptides of sequences Gly-His-His-Pro-His-Gly (named HP) and Gly-Cys-Gly-Cys-Pro-Cys-Gly-Cys-Gly (named CP) were genetically engineered into LamB protein and expressed in Escherichia coli. The Cd{sup 2+}-to-HP and Cd{sup 2+}-to-CP stoichiometries of peptides were 1:1 and 3:1, respectively. Hybrid LamB proteins were found to be properly folded in the outer membrane of E. coli. Isolated cell envelopes of E. coli bearing newly added metal binding peptides showed an up to 1.8-fold increase in Cd{sup 2+} binding capacity. The bioaccumulation of Cd{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, and Zn{sup 2+} by E. coli was evaluated. Surface display of CP multiplied the ability of E. coli to bind Cd{sup 2+} from growth medium fourfold. Display of HP peptide did not contribute to an increase in the accumulation of Cu{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+}. However, Cu{sup 2+} ceased contribution of HP for Cd{sup 2+} accumulation, probably due to the strong binding of Cu{sup 2+} to HP. Thus, considering the cooperation of cell structures with inserted peptides, the relative affinities of metal binding peptide and, for example, the cell wall to metal ion should be taken into account in the rational design of peptide sequences possessing specificity for a particular metal.

  1. Bacterial biofilm-community selection during autohydrogenotrophic reduction of nitrate and perchlorate in ion-exchange brine.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Chang Hoon; Oh, Hyangkyun; Ki, Dongwon; Van Ginkel, Steven W; Rittmann, Bruce E; Park, Joonhong

    2009-01-01

    Three hydrogen-based membrane biofilm reactors (MBfR) biologically reduced nitrate and perchlorate in a synthetic ion-exchange (IX) brine. Inocula from different natural saline environments were employed to initiate the three MBfRs. Under high-salinity (3%) conditions, bioreduction of nitrate and perchlorate occurred simultaneously, and the three MBfRs from the different inocula exhibited similar removal fluxes for nitrate and perchlorate. Clone libraries were generated from samples of the biofilms in the three MBfRs and compared to those of their inocula. When H(2) was the sole exogenous electron donor under high-salinity conditions, MBfR-driven community shifts were observed with a similar pattern regardless of inoculum. The following 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis showed the presence of novel perchlorate-reducing bacteria in the salt-tolerant mBfR communities. These findings suggest that autohydrogenotrophic and high-salinity conditions provided strong selective pressure for novel perchlorate-reducing populations in the mBfRs.

  2. Paracoccidioides spp. ferrous and ferric iron assimilation pathways

    PubMed Central

    Bailão, Elisa Flávia L. C.; Lima, Patrícia de Sousa; Silva-Bailão, Mirelle G.; Bailão, Alexandre M.; Fernandes, Gabriel da Rocha; Kosman, Daniel J.; Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Iron is an essential micronutrient for almost all organisms, including fungi. Usually, fungi can uptake iron through receptor-mediated internalization of a siderophore or heme, and/or reductive iron assimilation (RIA). Traditionally, the RIA pathway consists of ferric reductases (Fres), ferroxidase (Fet3) and a high-affinity iron permease (Ftr1). Paracoccidioides spp. genomes do not present an Ftr1 homolog. However, this fungus expresses zinc regulated transporter homologs (Zrts), members of the ZIP family of membrane transporters that are able in some organisms to transport zinc and iron. A 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC)-overlay assay indicates that both Pb01 and Pb18 express a ferric reductase activity; however, 59Fe uptake assays indicate that only in Pb18 is this activity coupled to a reductase-dependent iron uptake pathway. In addition, Zrts are up-regulated in iron deprivation, as indicated by RNAseq and qRT-PCR using Pb01 transcripts. RNAseq strategy also demonstrated that transcripts related to siderophore uptake and biosynthesis are up-regulated in iron-deprived condition. The data suggest that the fungus could use both a non-classical RIA, comprising ferric reductases and Fe/Zn permeases (Zrts), and siderophore uptake pathways under iron-limited conditions. The study of iron metabolism reveals novel surface molecules that could function as accessible targets for drugs to block iron uptake and, consequently, inhibit pathogen's proliferation. PMID:26441843

  3. Superoxide-mediated dissolution of amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide in seawater.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Manabu; Rose, Andrew L; Waite, T David; Omura, Tatsuo

    2006-02-01

    We have investigated the kinetics of superoxide-mediated dissolution of amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide (AFO) in seawater by spectrophotometrically examining the rate of formation of a ferrous-ferrozine complex (Fe(II)(FZ)3) with particular attention given to the effect of aging and iron concentration on the rate of superoxide-mediated dissolution of AFO. The production rates of Fe(II)(FZ)3 decreased with aging of AFO for iron concentrations from 50 to 500 nM, indicating that changes to the chemical and physical properties of AFO affected the reactivity of inorganic ferric iron species with superoxide. A kinetic model developed by assuming that Fe(II)' formation is preceded by the thermal dissolution of AFO provided a good description of the Fe(II)(FZ)3 production rates over time. First-order rate constants for Fe(II)' formation were found to depend on the total iron concentration, suggesting that superoxide-mediated Fe(II) reduction is affected not only by the rate of thermal dissolution of AFO but also by the rate of AFO precipitation. The reported high rates of superoxide production by both photochemical and biotic pathways in aquatic systems coupled with the ability of superoxide to dissolve freshly formed ferric oxides suggest that this process may have a significant impact on the biogeochemical cycling of iron, especially if organisms have an affinity for ferrous iron.

  4. Magnetotactic bacteria form magnetite from a phosphate-rich ferric hydroxide via nanometric ferric (oxyhydr)oxide intermediates

    PubMed Central

    Baumgartner, Jens; Morin, Guillaume; Menguy, Nicolas; Perez Gonzalez, Teresa; Widdrat, Marc; Cosmidis, Julie; Faivre, Damien

    2013-01-01

    The iron oxide mineral magnetite (Fe3O4) is produced by various organisms to exploit magnetic and mechanical properties. Magnetotactic bacteria have become one of the best model organisms for studying magnetite biomineralization, as their genomes are sequenced and tools are available for their genetic manipulation. However, the chemical route by which magnetite is formed intracellularly within the so-called magnetosomes has remained a matter of debate. Here we used X-ray absorption spectroscopy at cryogenic temperatures and transmission electron microscopic imaging techniques to chemically characterize and spatially resolve the mechanism of biomineralization in those microorganisms. We show that magnetite forms through phase transformation from a highly disordered phosphate-rich ferric hydroxide phase, consistent with prokaryotic ferritins, via transient nanometric ferric (oxyhydr)oxide intermediates within the magnetosome organelle. This pathway remarkably resembles recent results on synthetic magnetite formation and bears a high similarity to suggested mineralization mechanisms in higher organisms. PMID:23980143

  5. Magnetotactic bacteria form magnetite from a phosphate-rich ferric hydroxide via nanometric ferric (oxyhydr)oxide intermediates.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Jens; Morin, Guillaume; Menguy, Nicolas; Perez Gonzalez, Teresa; Widdrat, Marc; Cosmidis, Julie; Faivre, Damien

    2013-09-10

    The iron oxide mineral magnetite (Fe3O4) is produced by various organisms to exploit magnetic and mechanical properties. Magnetotactic bacteria have become one of the best model organisms for studying magnetite biomineralization, as their genomes are sequenced and tools are available for their genetic manipulation. However, the chemical route by which magnetite is formed intracellularly within the so-called magnetosomes has remained a matter of debate. Here we used X-ray absorption spectroscopy at cryogenic temperatures and transmission electron microscopic imaging techniques to chemically characterize and spatially resolve the mechanism of biomineralization in those microorganisms. We show that magnetite forms through phase transformation from a highly disordered phosphate-rich ferric hydroxide phase, consistent with prokaryotic ferritins, via transient nanometric ferric (oxyhydr)oxide intermediates within the magnetosome organelle. This pathway remarkably resembles recent results on synthetic magnetite formation and bears a high similarity to suggested mineralization mechanisms in higher organisms.

  6. Pros and Cons of Ion-Torrent Next Generation Sequencing versus Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism T-RFLP for Studying the Rumen Bacterial Community

    PubMed Central

    de la Fuente, Gabriel; Belanche, Alejandro; Girwood, Susan E.; Pinloche, Eric; Wilkinson, Toby; Newbold, C. Jamie

    2014-01-01

    The development of next generation sequencing has challenged the use of other molecular fingerprinting methods used to study microbial diversity. We analysed the bacterial diversity in the rumen of defaunated sheep following the introduction of different protozoal populations, using both next generation sequencing (NGS: Ion Torrent PGM) and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). Although absolute number differed, there was a high correlation between NGS and T-RFLP in terms of richness and diversity with R values of 0.836 and 0.781 for richness and Shannon-Wiener index, respectively. Dendrograms for both datasets were also highly correlated (Mantel test = 0.742). Eighteen OTUs and ten genera were significantly impacted by the addition of rumen protozoa, with an increase in the relative abundance of Prevotella, Bacteroides and Ruminobacter, related to an increase in free ammonia levels in the rumen. Our findings suggest that classic fingerprinting methods are still valuable tools to study microbial diversity and structure in complex environments but that NGS techniques now provide cost effect alternatives that provide a far greater level of information on the individual members of the microbial population. PMID:25051490

  7. Analysis of S-adenosylmethionine and related sulfur metabolites in bacterial isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (BAA-47) by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization coupled to a hybrid linear quadrupole ion trap and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cataldi, Tommaso R I; Bianco, Giuliana; Abate, Salvatore; Mattia, Daniela

    2009-11-01

    A comprehensive and highly selective method for detecting in bacterial supernatants a modified sulfur nucleoside, S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM), and its metabolites, i.e., S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), adenosine (Ado), 5'-deoxy-5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA), adenine (Ade), S-adenosyl-methioninamine (dcSAM), homocysteine (Hcy) and methionine (Met), was developed. The method is based on reversed-phase liquid chromatography with positive electrospray ionization (ESI+) coupled to a hybrid linear quadrupole ion trap (LTQ) and 7-T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICRMS). A gradient elution was employed with a binary solvent of 0.05 M ammonium formate at pH 4 and acetonitrile. The assay involves a simultaneous cleanup of cell-free bacterial broths by solid-phase extraction and trace enrichment of metabolites with a 50-fold concentration factor by using immobilized phenylboronic and anion-exchange cartridges. While the quantitative determination of SAM was performed using stable-isotope-labeled SAM-d3 as an internal standard, in the case of Met and Ade, Met-13C and Ade-15N2 were employed as isotope-labeled internal standards, respectively. This method enabled the identification of SAM and its metabolites in cell-free culture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa grown in Davis minimal broth (formulation without sulphur organic compounds), with routine sub-ppm mass accuracies (-0.27 +/- 0.68 ppm). The resulting contents of S(C)S(S)-SAM, S(S)-dcSAM, MTA, Ado and Met in the free-cell supernatant of P. aeruginosa was 56.4 +/- 2.1 nM, 32.2 +/- 2.2 nM, 0.91 +/- 0.10 nM, 19.6 +/- 1.2 nM and 1.93 +/- 0.02 microM (mean +/- SD, n = 4 extractions), respectively. We report also the baseline separation (Rs > or = 1.5) of both diastereoisomeric forms of SAM (S(C)S(S) and S(C)R(S)) and dcSAM (S(S) and R(S)), which can be very useful to establish the relationship between the biologically active versus the inactive species, S(C)S(S)/S(C)R(S) and S(S)/R(S) of SAM and dc

  8. Baseline toxicity and ion-trapping models to describe the pH-dependence of bacterial toxicity of pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Baumer, Andreas; Bittermann, Kai; Klüver, Nils; Escher, Beate I

    2017-07-19

    In numerous studies on the toxicity of ionisable organic chemicals, it has been shown that the toxicity was typically higher, when larger fractions of the neutral species were present. This observation was explained in some cases by slower uptake of charged species. In other cases it was suggested that the neutral species has intrinsically higher toxicity than the charged species or is alone responsible for the toxicity. However, even permanently charged and organic chemicals with multiple acid and base functional groups and zwitterions are toxic. We set out to reconcile the divergent views and to compare the various existing models for describing the pH-dependence of toxicity with the goal to derive one model that is valid independent of the type and number of charges on the molecule. To achieve this goal we measured the cytotoxicity of 18 acidic, 15 basic and 9 multiprotic/zwitterionic pharmaceuticals at pH 5.5 to pH 9 with the bioluminescence inhibition test using Aliivibrio fischeri (Microtox assay). This assay is useful for an evaluation of various models to describe pH-dependent toxicity because the majority of chemicals act as baseline toxicants in this 30 min cytotoxicity assay. Therefore baseline toxicity with constant membrane concentrations of the sum of all chemical species of approximately 200 mmol kglip(-1) served for the validation of the suitability of the various tested models. We confirmed that most tested pharmaceuticals acted as baseline toxicants in this assay at all examined pH values, when toxicity was modeled with a mixture model of concentration addition between the neutral species and all charged species. An ion trapping model, that assumes that the membrane permeability of charged species is kinetically limited, improved model predictions for some pharmaceuticals and pH values. However, neither unhindered uptake nor no uptake of the charged species were ideal models; the reality lies presumably between the two limiting cases with a slower

  9. Organic matter mineralization with reduction of ferric iron in anaerobic sediments.

    PubMed

    Lovley, D R; Phillips, E J

    1986-04-01

    The potential for ferric iron reduction with fermentable substrates, fermentation products, and complex organic matter as electron donors was investigated with sediments from freshwater and brackish water sites in the Potomac River Estuary. In enrichments with glucose and hematite, iron reduction was a minor pathway for electron flow, and fermentation products accumulated. The substitution of amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide for hematite in glucose enrichments increased iron reduction 50-fold because the fermentation products could also be metabolized with concomitant iron reduction. Acetate, hydrogen, propionate, butyrate, ethanol, methanol, and trimethylamine stimulated the reduction of amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide in enrichments inoculated with sediments but not in uninoculated or heat-killed controls. The addition of ferric iron inhibited methane production in sediments. The degree of inhibition of methane production by various forms of ferric iron was related to the effectiveness of these ferric compounds as electron acceptors for the metabolism of acetate. The addition of acetate or hydrogen relieved the inhibition of methane production by ferric iron. The decrease of electron equivalents proceeding to methane in sediments supplemented with amorphous ferric oxyhydroxides was compensated for by a corresponding increase of electron equivalents in ferrous iron. These results indicate that iron reduction can outcompete methanogenic food chains for sediment organic matter. Thus, when amorphous ferric oxyhydroxides are available in anaerobic sediments, the transfer of electrons from organic matter to ferric iron can be a major pathway for organic matter decomposition.

  10. Organic matter mineralization with reduction of ferric iron in anaerobic sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Lovley, D.R.; Phillips, E.J.P.

    1986-04-01

    The potential for ferric iron reduction with fermentable substrates, fermentation products, and complex organic matter as electron donors was investigated with sediments from freshwater and brackish water sites in the Potomac River Estuary. In enrichments with glucose and hematite, iron reduction was a minor pathway for electron flow, and fermentation products accumulated. The substitution of amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide for hematite in glucose enrichments increased iron reduction 50-fold because the fermentation products could also be metabolized with concomitant iron reduction. Acetate, hydrogen, propionate, butyrate, ethanol, methanol, and trimethylamine stimulated the reduction of amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide in enrichments inoculated with sediments but not in uninoculated or heat-killed controls. The addition of ferric iron inhibited methane production in sediments. The degree of inhibition of methane production by various forms of ferric iron was related to the effectiveness of these ferric compounds as electron acceptors for the metabolism of acetate. The addition of acetate or hydrogen relieved the inhibition of methane production by ferric iron. The decrease of electron equivalents proceeding to methane in sediments supplemented with amorphous ferric oxyhydroxides was compensated for by a corresponding increase of electron equivalents in ferrous iron. These results indicate that iron reduction can out compete methanogenic food chains for sediment organic matter. Thus, when amorphous ferric oxyhydroxides are available in anaerobic sediments, the transfer of electrons from organic matter to ferric iron can be a major pathway for organic matter decomposition.

  11. Ferric Citrate Controls Phosphorus and Delivers Iron in Patients on Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Sika, Mohammed; Koury, Mark J.; Chuang, Peale; Schulman, Gerald; Smith, Mark T.; Whittier, Frederick C.; Linfert, Douglas R.; Galphin, Claude M.; Athreya, Balaji P.; Nossuli, A. Kaldun Kaldun; Chang, Ingrid J.; Blumenthal, Samuel S.; Manley, John; Zeig, Steven; Kant, Kotagal S.; Olivero, Juan Jose; Greene, Tom; Dwyer, Jamie P.

    2015-01-01

    Patients on dialysis require phosphorus binders to prevent hyperphosphatemia and are iron deficient. We studied ferric citrate as a phosphorus binder and iron source. In this sequential, randomized trial, 441 subjects on dialysis were randomized to ferric citrate or active control in a 52-week active control period followed by a 4-week placebo control period, in which subjects on ferric citrate who completed the active control period were rerandomized to ferric citrate or placebo. The primary analysis compared the mean change in phosphorus between ferric citrate and placebo during the placebo control period. A sequential gatekeeping strategy controlled study-wise type 1 error for serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, and intravenous iron and erythropoietin-stimulating agent usage as prespecified secondary outcomes in the active control period. Ferric citrate controlled phosphorus compared with placebo, with a mean treatment difference of −2.2±0.2 mg/dl (mean±SEM) (P<0.001). Active control period phosphorus was similar between ferric citrate and active control, with comparable safety profiles. Subjects on ferric citrate achieved higher mean iron parameters (ferritin=899±488 ng/ml [mean±SD]; transferrin saturation=39%±17%) versus subjects on active control (ferritin=628±367 ng/ml [mean±SD]; transferrin saturation=30%±12%; P<0.001 for both). Subjects on ferric citrate received less intravenous elemental iron (median=12.95 mg/wk ferric citrate; 26.88 mg/wk active control; P<0.001) and less erythropoietin-stimulating agent (median epoetin-equivalent units per week: 5306 units/wk ferric citrate; 6951 units/wk active control; P=0.04). Hemoglobin levels were statistically higher on ferric citrate. Thus, ferric citrate is an efficacious and safe phosphate binder that increases iron stores and reduces intravenous iron and erythropoietin-stimulating agent use while maintaining hemoglobin. PMID:25060056

  12. Ferric citrate controls phosphorus and delivers iron in patients on dialysis.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Julia B; Sika, Mohammed; Koury, Mark J; Chuang, Peale; Schulman, Gerald; Smith, Mark T; Whittier, Frederick C; Linfert, Douglas R; Galphin, Claude M; Athreya, Balaji P; Nossuli, A Kaldun Kaldun; Chang, Ingrid J; Blumenthal, Samuel S; Manley, John; Zeig, Steven; Kant, Kotagal S; Olivero, Juan Jose; Greene, Tom; Dwyer, Jamie P

    2015-02-01

    Patients on dialysis require phosphorus binders to prevent hyperphosphatemia and are iron deficient. We studied ferric citrate as a phosphorus binder and iron source. In this sequential, randomized trial, 441 subjects on dialysis were randomized to ferric citrate or active control in a 52-week active control period followed by a 4-week placebo control period, in which subjects on ferric citrate who completed the active control period were rerandomized to ferric citrate or placebo. The primary analysis compared the mean change in phosphorus between ferric citrate and placebo during the placebo control period. A sequential gatekeeping strategy controlled study-wise type 1 error for serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, and intravenous iron and erythropoietin-stimulating agent usage as prespecified secondary outcomes in the active control period. Ferric citrate controlled phosphorus compared with placebo, with a mean treatment difference of -2.2±0.2 mg/dl (mean±SEM) (P<0.001). Active control period phosphorus was similar between ferric citrate and active control, with comparable safety profiles. Subjects on ferric citrate achieved higher mean iron parameters (ferritin=899±488 ng/ml [mean±SD]; transferrin saturation=39%±17%) versus subjects on active control (ferritin=628±367 ng/ml [mean±SD]; transferrin saturation=30%±12%; P<0.001 for both). Subjects on ferric citrate received less intravenous elemental iron (median=12.95 mg/wk ferric citrate; 26.88 mg/wk active control; P<0.001) and less erythropoietin-stimulating agent (median epoetin-equivalent units per week: 5306 units/wk ferric citrate; 6951 units/wk active control; P=0.04). Hemoglobin levels were statistically higher on ferric citrate. Thus, ferric citrate is an efficacious and safe phosphate binder that increases iron stores and reduces intravenous iron and erythropoietin-stimulating agent use while maintaining hemoglobin. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  13. In vitro assessments on bacterial adhesion and corrosion performance of TiN coating on Ti6Al4V titanium alloy synthesized by multi-arc ion plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Naiming; Huang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiangyu; Fan, Ailan; Qin, Lin; Tang, Bin

    2012-07-01

    TiN coating was synthesized on Ti6Al4V titanium alloy surface by multi-arc ion plating (MIP) technique. Surface morphology, cross sectional microstructure, elemental distributions and phase compositions of the obtained coating were analyzed by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM), optical microscope (OM), glow discharge optical emission spectroscope (GDOES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Bacterial adhesion and corrosion performance of Ti6Al4V and the TiN coating were assessed via in vitro bacterial adhesion tests and corrosion experiments, respectively. The results indicated that continuous and compact coating which was built up by pure TiN with a typical columnar crystal structure has reached a thickness of 1.5 μm. This TiN coating could significantly reduce the bacterial adhesion and enhance the corrosion resistance of Ti6Al4V substrate.

  14. Dioxygen Binding to Protonated Heme in the Gas Phase, an Intermediate Between Ferric and Ferrous Heme.

    PubMed

    Shafizadeh, Niloufar; Soorkia, Satchin; Grégoire, Gilles; Broquier, Michel; Crestoni, Maria-Elisa; Soep, Benoît

    2017-09-27

    With a view to characterizing the influence of the electronic structure of the Fe atom on the nature of its bond with dioxygen (O2 ) in heme compounds, a study of the UV/Vis action spectra and binding energies of heme-O2 molecules has been undertaken in the gas phase. The binding reaction of protonated ferrous heme [Fe(II) -hemeH](+) with O2 has been studied in the gas phase by determining the equilibrium of complexed [Fe(II) -hemeH(O2 )](+) with uncomplexed protonated heme in an ion trap at controlled temperatures. The binding energy of O2 to the Fe atom of protonated ferrous heme was obtained from a van't Hoff plot. Surprisingly, this energy (1540±170 cm(-1) , 18.4±2 kJ mol(-1) ) is intermediate between those of ferric heme and ferrous heme. This result is interpreted in terms of a delocalization of the positive charge over the porphyrin cycle, such that the Fe atom bears a fractional positive charge. The resulting electron distribution on the Fe atom differs notably from that of a purely low-spin ferrous heme [Fe(II) -heme(O2 )] complex, as deduced from its absorption spectrum. It also differs from that of ferric heme [Fe(III) -heme(O2 )](+) , as evidenced by the absorption spectra. Protonated heme creates a specific bond that cannot accommodate strong σ donation. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Thermodynamic modeling of ferric phosphate precipitation for phosphorus removal and recovery from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Ding, Lili; Ren, Hongqiang; Guo, Zhitao; Tan, Jing

    2010-04-15

    Phosphorus removal and recovery by ferric phosphate (FePO(4) x 2 H(2)O) precipitation has been considered as an effective technology. In the present study, we examined chemical precipitation thermodynamic modeling of the PHREEQC program for phosphorus removal and recovery from wastewater. The objective of this research was to employ thermodynamic modeling to evaluate the effect of solution factors on FePO(4) x 2 H(2)O precipitation. In order to provide comparison, with the evaluation of thermodynamic modeling, the case study of phosphate removal from anaerobic supernatant was studied. The results indicated that the saturation-index (SI) of FePO(4) x 2 H(2)O followed a polynomial function of pH, and the solution pH influenced the ion activities of ferric iron salts and phosphate. The SI of FePO(4) x 2 H(2)O increased with a logarithmic function of Fe(3+):PO(4)(3-) molar ratio (Fe/P) and initial PO(4)(3-) concentration, respectively. Furthermore, the SI of FePO(4) x 2 H(2)O decreased with a logarithmic function of alkalinity and ionic strength, respectively. With an increase in temperature, the SI at pH 6.0 and 9.0 decreased with a linear function, and the SI at pH 4.0 followed a polynomial function. For the case study of phosphate removal from anaerobic supernatant, the phosphate removal trend at different pH and Fe/P was closer to the predictions of thermodynamic modeling. The results indicated that the thermodynamic modeling of FePO(4) x 2 H(2)O precipitation could be utilized to predict the technology parameters for phosphorus removal and recovery.

  16. Some problems of bacterial mineralization and sedimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozanov, Alexei Y.

    2003-01-01

    Owing to the latest investigations in bacterial paleontology and geomicrobiology a number of minerals known to be formed with the participation of micro-organisms increases continuously. 12 - 15 years ago we know nearly 20 minerals: carbonates (calcite, aragonite, monohydrocalcite), phosphates (dalite, francolite, struvite, vivianite, and some other), sulfates (jarosite), ferric oxides (magnetite, ferrohydrite), sulfides (pyrite, hydrotroilite, sphalerite, wurtzite, and some others) (Lowernstan, Weiner, 1989). Now their number is several times greater. Quartz cristobalite, pyrolusite, silicates (including layer ones), and feldspars are of special interest (Geomicrobiology..., 1997; Tazaki et al., 1997; Geptner et al., 1997; Bacterial paleontology, 2002).

  17. Corynebactin and a Serine Trilactone Based Analogue-Chirality and Molecular Modeling of ferric Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Bluhm, Martin E.; Hay, Benjamin P.; Kim, Sangoo S.; Dertz, Emily A.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2002-09-14

    The chirality of ferric siderophore complexes is a determinant for their cellular recognition and transport. Corynebactin (first isolated from a Gram-positive bacterium) contains L-threonine, unlike the closely related enterobactin, which contains L-serine. Also unlike enterobactin, ferric corynebactin is preferentially L at the iron center. Experimental (circular dichroism spectra and synthesis of a corynebactin/enterobactin hybrid) and theoretical (MM3 and density functional theory calculations) results explain ferric corynebactin's properties.

  18. Beta transmutations in apatites with ferric iron as an electron acceptor - implication for nuclear waste form development.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ge; Zhang, Zelong; Wang, Jianwei

    2017-09-27

    with the minor structure distortions. Increased stability with favorable energetics and structural distortion by incorporating ferric ion is significant with respect without variable valence ions. The results confirm the structural and compositional adaptability of apatites upon beta transmutations. The study suggests that apatite-structured materials could be promising nuclear waste forms to mitigate the beta decay induced instability, by incorporating variable valence cations such as ferric iron in the structure. The study demonstrates a methodology which evaluates the structural stability of waste forms incorporating fission products undergoing beta decay.

  19. Solubility products of amorphous ferric arsenate and crystalline scorodite (FeAsO 4 · 2H 2O) and their application to arsenic behavior in buried mine tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langmuir, Donald; Mahoney, John; Rowson, John

    2006-06-01

    Published solubility data for amorphous ferric arsenate and scorodite have been reevaluated using the geochemical code PHREEQC with a modified thermodynamic database for the arsenic species. Solubility product calculations have emphasized measurements obtained under conditions of congruent dissolution of ferric arsenate (pH < 3), and have taken into account ion activity coefficients, and ferric hydroxide, ferric sulfate, and ferric arsenate complexes which have association constants of 10 4.04 (FeH 2AsO 42+), 10 9.86 (FeHAsO 4+), and 10 18.9 (FeAsO 4). Derived solubility products of amorphous ferric arsenate and crystalline scorodite (as log Ksp) are -23.0 ± 0.3 and -25.83 ± 0.07, respectively, at 25 °C and 1 bar pressure. In an application of the solubility results, acid raffinate solutions (molar Fe/As = 3.6) from the JEB uranium mill at McClean Lake in northern Saskatchewan were neutralized with lime to pH 2-8. Poorly crystalline scorodite precipitated below pH 3, removing perhaps 98% of the As(V) from solution, with ferric oxyhydroxide (FO) phases precipitated starting between pH 2 and 3. Between pH 2.18 and 7.37, the apparent log Ksp of ferric arsenate decreased from -22.80 to -24.67, while that of FO (as Fe(OH) 3) increased from -39.49 to -33.5. Adsorption of As(V) by FO can also explain the decrease in the small amounts of As(V)(aq) that remain in solution above pH 2-3. The same general As(V) behavior is observed in the pore waters of neutralized tailings buried for 5 yr at depths of up to 32 m in the JEB tailings management facility (TMF), where arsenic in the pore water decreases to 1-2 mg/L with increasing age and depth. In the TMF, average apparent log Ksp values for ferric arsenate and ferric hydroxide are -25.74 ± 0.88 and -37.03 ± 0.58, respectively. In the laboratory tests and in the TMF, the increasing crystallinity of scorodite and the amorphous character of the coexisting FO phase increases the stability field of scorodite relative to that of

  20. Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia.

    PubMed

    Friedrisch, João Ricardo; Cançado, Rodolfo Delfini

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional iron deficiency anemia is the most common deficiency disorder, affecting more than two billion people worldwide. Oral iron supplementation is usually the first choice for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia, but in many conditions, oral iron is less than ideal mainly because of gastrointestinal adverse events and the long course needed to treat the disease and replenish body iron stores. Intravenous iron compounds consist of an iron oxyhydroxide core, which is surrounded by a carbohydrate shell made of polymers such as dextran, sucrose or gluconate. The first iron product for intravenous use was the high molecular weight iron dextran. However, dextran-containing intravenous iron preparations are associated with an elevated risk of anaphylactic reactions, which made physicians reluctant to use intravenous iron for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia over many years. Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose is a stable complex with the advantage of being non-dextran-containing and a very low immunogenic potential and therefore not predisposed to anaphylactic reactions. Its properties permit the administration of large doses (15mg/kg; maximum of 1000mg/infusion) in a single and rapid session (15-minute infusion) without the requirement of a test dose. The purpose of this review is to discuss some pertinent issues in relation to the history, pharmacology, administration, efficacy, and safety profile of ferric carboxymaltose in the treatment of patients with iron deficiency anemia.

  1. Ferric chloride graphite intercalation compounds prepared from graphite fluoride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh

    1994-01-01

    The reaction between graphite fluoride and ferric chloride was observed in the temperature range of 300 to 400 C. The graphite fluorides used for this reaction have an sp3 electronic structure and are electrical insulators. They can be made by fluorinating either carbon fibers or powder having various degrees of graphitization. Reaction is fast and spontaneous and can occur in the presence of air. The ferric chloride does not have to be predried. The products have an sp2 electronic structure and are electrical conductors. They contain first stage FeCl3 intercalated graphite. Some of the products contain FeCl2*2H2O, others contain FeF3 in concentrations that depend on the intercalation condition. The graphite intercalated compounds (GIC) deintercalated slowly in air at room temperature, but deintercalated quickly and completely at 370 C. Deintercalation is accompanied by the disappearing of iron halides and the formation of rust (hematite) distributed unevenly on the fiber surface. When heated to 400 C in pure N2 (99.99 vol %), this new GIC deintercalates without losing its molecular structure. However, when the compounds are heated to 800 C in quartz tube, they lost most of its halogen atoms and formed iron oxides (other than hematite), distributed evenly in or on the fiber. This iron-oxide-covered fiber may be useful in making carbon-fiber/ceramic-matrix composites with strong bonding at the fiber-ceramic interface.

  2. The dissolution of galena in ferric chloride media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutrizac, J. E.

    1986-01-01

    The dissolution of galena (PbS) in ferric chloride-hydrochloric acid media has been investigated over the temperature range 28 to 95 °C and for alkali chloride concentrations from 0 to 4.0 M. Rapid parabolic kinetics were observed under all conditions, together with predominantly (>95 pet) elemental sulfur formation. The leaching rate decreased slightly with increasing FeCl3 concentrations in the range 0.1 to 2.0 M, and was essentially independent of the concentration of the FeCl2 reaction product. The rate was relatively insensitive to HCl concentrations <3.0 M, but increased systematically with increasing concentrations of alkali or alkaline earth chlorides. Most significantly, the leaching rate decreased sharply and linearly with increasing initial concentrations of PbCl2 in the ferric chloride leaching media containing either 0.0 or 3.0 M NaCl. Although the apparent activation energy was in the range 40 to 45 kJ/mol (˜10 kcal/mol), this value was reduced to 16 kJ/mol (3.5 kcal/mol) when the influence of the solubility of lead chloride on the reaction rate was taken into consideration. The experimental results are consistent with rate control by the outward diffusion of the PbCl2 reaction product through the solution trapped in pores in the constantly thickening elemental sulfur layer formed on the surface of the galena.

  3. Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia

    PubMed Central

    Friedrisch, João Ricardo; Cançado, Rodolfo Delfini

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional iron deficiency anemia is the most common deficiency disorder, affecting more than two billion people worldwide. Oral iron supplementation is usually the first choice for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia, but in many conditions, oral iron is less than ideal mainly because of gastrointestinal adverse events and the long course needed to treat the disease and replenish body iron stores. Intravenous iron compounds consist of an iron oxyhydroxide core, which is surrounded by a carbohydrate shell made of polymers such as dextran, sucrose or gluconate. The first iron product for intravenous use was the high molecular weight iron dextran. However, dextran-containing intravenous iron preparations are associated with an elevated risk of anaphylactic reactions, which made physicians reluctant to use intravenous iron for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia over many years. Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose is a stable complex with the advantage of being non-dextran-containing and a very low immunogenic potential and therefore not predisposed to anaphylactic reactions. Its properties permit the administration of large doses (15 mg/kg; maximum of 1000 mg/infusion) in a single and rapid session (15-minute infusion) without the requirement of a test dose. The purpose of this review is to discuss some pertinent issues in relation to the history, pharmacology, administration, efficacy, and safety profile of ferric carboxymaltose in the treatment of patients with iron deficiency anemia. PMID:26670403

  4. Functional characterization of the chloroplast ferric chelate oxidoreductase enzyme.

    PubMed

    Solti, Adám; Müller, Brigitta; Czech, Viktória; Sárvári, Éva; Fodor, Ferenc

    2014-05-01

    Iron (Fe) has an essential role in the biosynthesis of chlorophylls and redox cofactors, and thus chloroplast iron uptake is a process of special importance. The chloroplast ferric chelate oxidoreductase (cFRO) has a crucial role in this process but it is poorly characterized. To study the localization and mechanism of action of cFRO, sugar beet (Beta vulgaris cv Orbis) chloroplast envelope fractions were isolated by gradient ultracentrifugation, and their purity was tested by western blotting against different marker proteins. The ferric chelate reductase (FCR) activity of envelope fractions was studied in the presence of NAD(P)H (reductants) and FAD coenzymes. Reduction of Fe(III)-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid was monitored spectrophotometrically by the Fe(II)-bathophenanthroline disulfonate complex formation. FCR activity, that is production of free Fe(II) for Fe uptake, showed biphasic saturation kinetics, and was clearly associated only to chloroplast inner envelope (cIE) vesicles. The reaction rate was > 2.5 times higher with NADPH than with NADH, which indicates the natural coenzyme preference of cFRO activity and its dependence on photosynthesis. FCR activity of cIE vesicles isolated from Fe-deficient plants also showed clear biphasic kinetics, where the KM of the low affinity component was elevated, and thus this component was down-regulated.

  5. The mechanism of bacterial action in the leaching of pyrite by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. An electrochemical study

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, P.R.; Fowler, T.A.; Crundwell, F.K.

    1999-08-01

    In many of the experiments reported in the literature on the leaching of pyrite by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, the concentrations of ferric and ferrous ions in the presence of bacteria differ significantly from experiments conducted in their absence. In addition, these concentrations change throughout the course of the experiment. This makes it difficult to determine whether the presence of bacteria increases the rate of leaching above that for chemical leaching at the same solution conditions. The authors have designed an experimental apparatus to overcome this problem. This apparatus controls the redox potential in one compartment of an electrolytic cell by manipulating the current to the cell. In this manner, the concentrations of ferrous and ferric ions are maintained at their initial values for the duration of the experiment. Two types of experiments are reported in this paper. In the first, pyrite electrodes were exposed to solutions of the same bulk conditions in the presence and absence of bacteria, and their mixed potentials were determined. In the second, particulate pyrite was leached with and without bacteria to determine the effect that bacteria have on the rate of leaching. The mixed potential of bacterially dissolved pyrite decreases as microcolonies and biofilms form on the surface of pyrite electrode over a 14 day period. On the other hand, the mixed potential of chemically dissolved pyrite is constant over the same period. The results of the leaching experiments show that Thiobacillus ferrooxidans enhances the rate of leaching above that found in the absence of bacteria at the same conditions in solution. An electrochemical model of pyrite dissolution is derived that describes the mixed potential and the kinetics of pyrite leaching. This analysis indicates that the decrease in mixed potential and the increase in the leaching rate in the presence of bacteria are due to an increase in the pH at the surface.

  6. The regulatory role of ferric uptake regulator (Fur) during anaerobic respiration of Shewanella piezotolerans WP3.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin-Wei; He, Ying; Xu, Jun; Xiao, Xiang; Wang, Feng-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Ferric uptake regulator (Fur) is a global regulator that controls bacterial iron homeostasis. In this study, a fur deletion mutant of the deep-sea bacterium Shewanella piezotolerans WP3 was constructed. Physiological studies revealed that the growth rate of this mutant under aerobic conditions was only slightly lower than that of wild type (WT), but severe growth defects were observed under anaerobic conditions when different electron acceptors (EAs) were provided. Comparative transcriptomic analysis demonstrated that Fur is involved not only in classical iron homeostasis but also in anaerobic respiration. Fur exerted pleiotropic effects on the regulation of anaerobic respiration by controlling anaerobic electron transport, the heme biosynthesis system, and the cytochrome c maturation system. Biochemical assays demonstrated that levels of c-type cytochromes were lower in the fur mutant, consistent with the transcriptional profiling. Transcriptomic analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed a primary regulation network for Fur in WP3. These results suggest that Fur may act as a sensor for anoxic conditions to trigger and influence the anaerobic respiratory system.

  7. The Regulatory Role of Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur) during Anaerobic Respiration of Shewanella piezotolerans WP3

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xin-Wei; He, Ying; Xu, Jun; Xiao, Xiang; Wang, Feng-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Ferric uptake regulator (Fur) is a global regulator that controls bacterial iron homeostasis. In this study, a fur deletion mutant of the deep-sea bacterium Shewanella piezotolerans WP3 was constructed. Physiological studies revealed that the growth rate of this mutant under aerobic conditions was only slightly lower than that of wild type (WT), but severe growth defects were observed under anaerobic conditions when different electron acceptors (EAs) were provided. Comparative transcriptomic analysis demonstrated that Fur is involved not only in classical iron homeostasis but also in anaerobic respiration. Fur exerted pleiotropic effects on the regulation of anaerobic respiration by controlling anaerobic electron transport, the heme biosynthesis system, and the cytochrome c maturation system. Biochemical assays demonstrated that levels of c-type cytochromes were lower in the fur mutant, consistent with the transcriptional profiling. Transcriptomic analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed a primary regulation network for Fur in WP3. These results suggest that Fur may act as a sensor for anoxic conditions to trigger and influence the anaerobic respiratory system. PMID:24124499

  8. Comparison of ferric sulfate, formocresol, and a combination of ferric sulfate/formocresol in primary tooth vital pulpotomies: a retrospective radiographic survey.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Spence; Walker, Jerry

    2002-01-01

    Studies have suggested that formocresol has toxic and carcinogenic potential. A search for an alternative medicament for primary tooth pulpotomies has led to ferric sulfate as a possible alternative. A retrospective study was done in a multipractitioner IHS (Indian Health Service) clinic. Radiographic success or failure was determined for 202 primary tooth pulpotomies performed with either formocresol, ferric sulfate, or a combination procedure of formocresol and ferric sulfate. The post-operative period for the pulpotomies ranged from one month to thirty-six plus months. There was no statistical difference in radiographic failure rates between formocresol, ferric sulfate, or the combination procedure when results were analyzed regardless of post-op period. However, when post-op periods were considered, formocresol performed better at > 36 months and the combination procedure showed significantly more failures at > 36 months.

  9. Ferric Uptake Regulator and Its Role in the Pathogenesis of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Estevan A.; Szelestey, Blake R.; Newsom, David E.; White, Peter; Mason, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a commensal microorganism of the human nasopharynx, and yet is also an opportunistic pathogen of the upper and lower respiratory tracts. Host microenvironments influence gene expression patterns, likely critical for NTHi persistence. The host sequesters iron as a mechanism to control microbial growth, and yet iron limitation influences gene expression and subsequent production of proteins involved in iron homeostasis. Careful regulation of iron uptake, via the ferric uptake regulator Fur, is essential in multiple bacteria, including NTHi. We hypothesized therefore that Fur contributes to iron homeostasis in NTHi, is critical for bacterial persistence, and likely regulates expression of virulence factors. Toward this end, fur was deleted in the prototypic NTHi clinical isolate, 86-028NP, and we assessed gene expression regulated by Fur. As expected, expression of the majority of genes that encode proteins with predicted roles in iron utilization was repressed by Fur. However, 14 Fur-regulated genes encode proteins with no known function, and yet may contribute to iron utilization or other biological functions. In a mammalian model of human otitis media, we determined that Fur was critical for bacterial persistence, indicating an important role for Fur-mediated iron homeostasis in disease progression. These data provide a profile of genes regulated by Fur in NTHi and likely identify additional regulatory pathways involved in iron utilization. Identification of such pathways will increase our understanding of how this pathogen can persist within host microenvironments, as a common commensal and, importantly, as a pathogen with significant clinical impact. PMID:23381990

  10. Ferric and cobaltous hydroacid complexes for forward osmosis (FO) processes.

    PubMed

    Ge, Qingchun; Fu, Fengjiang; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2014-07-01

    Cupric and ferric hydroacid complexes have proven their advantages as draw solutes in forward osmosis in terms of high water fluxes, negligible reverse solute fluxes and easy recovery (Ge and Chung, 2013. Hydroacid complexes: A new class of draw solutes to promote forward osmosis (FO) processes. Chemical Communications 49, 8471-8473.). In this study, cobaltous hydroacid complexes were explored as draw solutes and compared with the ferric hydroacid complex to study the factors influencing their FO performance. The solutions of the cobaltous complexes produce high osmotic pressures due to the presence of abundant hydrophilic groups. These solutes are able to dissociate and form a multi-charged anion and Na(+) cations in water. In addition, these complexes have expanded structures which lead to negligible reverse solute fluxes and provide relatively easy approaches in regeneration. These characteristics make the newly synthesized cobaltous complexes appropriate as draw solutes. The FO performance of the cobaltous and ferric-citric acid (Fe-CA) complexes were evaluated respectively through cellulose acetate membranes, thin-film composite membranes fabricated on polyethersulfone supports (referred as TFC-PES), and polybenzimidazole and PES dual-layer (referred as PBI/PES) hollow fiber membranes. Under the conditions of DI water as the feed and facing the support layer of TFC-PES FO membranes (PRO mode), draw solutions at 2.0 M produced relatively high water fluxes of 39-48 LMH (L m(-2) hr(-1)) with negligible reverse solute fluxes. A water flux of 17.4 LMH was achieved when model seawater of 3.5 wt.% NaCl replaced DI water as the feed and 2.0 M Fe-CA as the draw solution under the same conditions. The performance of these hydroacid complexes surpasses those of the synthetic draw solutes developed in recent years. This observation, along with the relatively easy regeneration, makes these complexes very promising as a novel class of draw solutes. Copyright © 2014

  11. An update on iron acquisition by Legionella pneumophila: new pathways for siderophore uptake and ferric iron reduction.

    PubMed

    Cianciotto, Nicholas P

    2015-01-01

    Iron acquisition is critical for the growth and pathogenesis of Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease. L. pneumophila utilizes two main modes of iron assimilation, namely ferrous iron uptake via the FeoB system and ferric iron acquisition through the action of the siderophore legiobactin. This review highlights recent studies concerning the mechanism of legiobactin assimilation, the impact of c-type cytochromes on siderophore production, the importance of legiobactin in lung infection and a newfound role for a bacterial pyomelanin in iron acquisition. These data demonstrate that key aspects of L. pneumophila iron acquisition are significantly distinct from those of long-studied, 'model' organisms. Indeed, L. pneumophila may represent a new paradigm for a variety of other intracellular parasites, pathogens and under-studied bacteria.

  12. An update on iron acquisition by Legionella pneumophila: new pathways for siderophore uptake and ferric iron reduction

    PubMed Central

    Cianciotto, Nicholas P

    2015-01-01

    Iron acquisition is critical for the growth and pathogenesis of Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires’ disease. L. pneumophila utilizes two main modes of iron assimilation, namely ferrous iron uptake via the FeoB system and ferric iron acquisition through the action of the siderophore legiobactin. This review highlights recent studies concerning the mechanism of legiobactin assimilation, the impact of c-type cytochromes on siderophore production, the importance of legiobactin in lung infection and a newfound role for a bacterial pyomelanin in iron acquisition. These data demonstrate that key aspects of L. pneumophila iron acquisition are significantly distinct from those of long-studied, ‘model’ organisms. Indeed, L. pneumophila may represent a new paradigm for a variety of other intracellular parasites, pathogens and under-studied bacteria. PMID:26000653

  13. Functional analysis of the ferric uptake requlator gene, fur, in Xanthomonas vesicatoria

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Iron is essential for the growth and survival of many organisms. Intracellular iron homeostasis must be maintained for cell survival and protection against iron toxicity. The ferric uptake regulator protein (Fur) regulates the high-affinity ferric uptake system in many bacteria. To investigate the f...

  14. QTL analysis of ferric reductase activity in the model legume lotus japonicus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Physiological and molecular studies have demonstrated that iron accumulation from the soil into Strategy I plants can be limited by ferric reductase activity. An initial study of Lotus japonicus ecotypes Miyakojima MG-20 and Gifu B-129 identified significant leaf chlorosis and ferric reductase activ...

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Geobacter pelophilus Strain Dfr2, a Ferric Iron-Reducing Bacterium.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, Tomo; Koike, Hideaki; Morita, Tomotake; Sato, Yuya; Habe, Hiroshi; Hori, Tomoyuki

    2017-06-15

    Here, we report a draft genome sequence of Geobacter pelophilus strain Dfr2, a ferric iron-reducing bacterium. This genome information will further our understanding of the mechanisms underlying electron transfer from microorganisms to ferric iron oxides. Copyright © 2017 Aoyagi et al.

  16. Transformation of organo-ferric peat colloids by a heterotrophic bacterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleinikova, Olga V.; Shirokova, Liudmila S.; Gérard, Emmanuele; Drozdova, Olga Yu.; Lapitskiy, Sergey A.; Bychkov, Andrey Yu.; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.

    2017-05-01

    Bacterial mineralization of allochthonous (soil) dissolved organic matter (DOM) in boreal waters governs the CO2 flux from the lakes and rivers to the atmosphere, which is one of the main factor of carbon balance in high latitudes. However, the fate of colloidal trace element (TE) during bacterial processing of DOM remains poorly constrained. We separated monoculture of Pseudomonas saponiphila from a boreal creek and allowed it to react with boreal Fe-rich peat leachate of approximate colloidal (3 kDa-0.45 μm) composition C1000Fe12Al3.3Mg2Ca3.7P1.2Mn0.1Ba0.5 in nutrient-free media. The total net decrease of Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) concentration over 4 day of exposure was within 5% of the initial value, whereas the low molecular weight fraction of Corg (LMW<3 kDa) yielded a 16%-decrease due to long-term bio-uptake or coagulation. There was a relative depletion in Fe over Corg of 0.45 μm, colloidal and LMW fraction in the course of peat leachate interaction with P. saponiphila. Al, Mn, Ni, Cu, Ga, REEs, Y, U were mostly affected by bacterial presence and exhibited essentially the adsorption at the cell surface over first hours of reaction, in contrast to Fe, Ti, Zr, and Nb that showed both short-term adsorption and long-term removal by physical coagulation/coprecipitation with Fe hydroxide. The low molecular weight fraction (LMW<3 kDa) of most TE was a factor of 2-5 less affected by microbial presence via adsorption or removal than the high molecular weight (HMW) colloidal fractions (<0.45 μm and <50 kDa). The climate change-induced acceleration of heterotrophic bacterial activity in boreal and subarctic waters may lead to preferential removal of Fe over DOC from conventionally dissolved fraction and the decrease of the proportion of LMW < 3 kDa fraction and the increase of HMW colloids. Enhanced heterotrophic mineralization of organo-ferric colloids under climate warming scenario may compensate for on-going ;browning; of surface waters.

  17. Ferric oxide quantum dots in stable phosphate glass system and their magneto-optical study

    SciTech Connect

    Garaje, Sunil N.; Apte, Sanjay K.; Kumar, Ganpathy; Panmand, Rajendra P.; Naik, Sonali D.; Mahajan, Satish M.; Chand, Ramesh; Kale, Bharat B.

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: We report synthesis of ferric oxide embedded low melting phosphate glass nanocomposite and also the effect of ferric oxide nanoparticles (NCs) content on the optical and magneto-optical properties of the glasses. Faraday rotation of the glass nanocomposites was measured and showed variation in Verdet constant with concentration of ferric oxide. Interestingly, the host glass itself showed fairly good Verdet constant (11.5°/T cm) and there is a threefold enhancement in the Verdet constant of ferric oxide quantum dot-glass nanocomposite. Highlights: ► We synthesize ferric oxide embedded low melting stable phosphate glass nanocomposite. ► Glasses doped with 0.25 and 2% ferric oxide show particle size in the range of 4–12 nm. ► The host phosphate glass itself shows fairly good Verdet constant (11.5°/T cm). ► Glasses doped with 0.25% ferric oxide show high Verdet constant (30.525°/T cm). ► The as synthesis glasses may have potential application in magneto optical devices. -- Abstract: Herein, we report the synthesis of ferric oxide embedded low melting phosphate glass nanocomposite and also the effect of ferric oxide nanoparticles content on the optical and magneto-optical properties of the glasses. The optical study clearly showed red shift in optical cut off with increasing ferric oxide concentration. The band gap of the host glass was observed to be 3.48 eV and it shifted to 3.14 eV after doping with ferric oxide. The glasses doped with 0.25 and 2% ferric oxide showed particle size of 4–6 nm and 8–12 nm, respectively. Faraday rotation of the glass nanocomposites was measured and showed variation in the Verdet constant as per increasing concentration of ferric oxide. Interestingly, the host glass itself showed fairly good Verdet constant (11.5°/T cm) and threefold enhancement was observed in the Verdet constant of ferric oxide quantum dot-glass nanocomposite.

  18. [Ferric iron absorption in deltar p f F xoo, a gene deletion mutant of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, assayed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry].

    PubMed

    Sun, Lei; Wu, Mao-Sen; He, Chen-Yang

    2010-04-01

    The ferric iron absorption is one of the most important limiting factors of bacterial growth of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. It has been previously speculated that r p f F xoo might be involved in the ferric iron metabolism of the pathogen. In the present study, deltar p f F xoo, a gene deletion mutant, was generated from the wild-type strain PXO99A of Xoo through the homologous recombination, and Fe content was assayed using flame atomic absorption in PXO99A and deltar p f F xoo. The results indicated that the recovery was 99.7% and the relative standard deviation was 1.89 under optimized AAS operating conditions. The increase in Fe absorption in PXO99A and deltar p f F xoo was observed with the increasing time. However, the ferric content of deltar p f F xoo was significantly lower than that of PXO99A (P < 0.05). It is suggested that r p f F xoo is involved in iron metabolism in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

  19. Cell-cell signalling promotes ferric iron uptake in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola that contribute to its virulence and growth inside rice.

    PubMed

    Rai, Rikky; Javvadi, Sreegowrinadh; Chatterjee, Subhadeep

    2015-05-01

    Cell-cell communication mediated by diffusible signal factor (DSF) plays an important role in virulence of several Xanthomonas group of plant pathogens. In the bacterial pathogen of rice, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, DSF is required for virulence and in planta growth. In order to understand the role of DSF in promoting in planta growth and virulence, we have characterized the DSF deficient mutant of X. oryzae pv. oryzicola. Mutant analysis by expression analysis, radiolabelled iron uptake studies and growth under low-iron conditions indicated that DSF positively regulates ferric iron uptake. Further, the DSF deficient mutant of X. oryzae pv. oryzicola exhibited a reduced capacity to use ferric form of iron for growth under low-iron conditions. Exogenous iron supplementation in the rice leaves rescued the in planta growth deficiency of the DSF deficient mutant. These data suggest that DSF promotes in planta growth of X. oryzae pv. oryzicola by positively regulating functions involved in ferric iron uptake which is important for its virulence. Our results also indicate that requirement of iron uptake strategies to utilize either Fe(3+) or Fe(2+) form of iron for colonization may vary substantially among closely related members of the Xanthomonas group of plant pathogens. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Ferric human neuroglobin scavenges superoxide to form oxy adduct.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Taku; Hafsi, Leila; Masuda, Eri; Tsujino, Hirofumi; Uno, Tadayuki

    2014-01-01

    Neuroglobin (Ngb) is the third member of the vertebrate globin family, and the structure was solved as a typical globin fold with a b-type heme. Although it has been proposed that Ngb could be involved in neuroprotection against oxidative stress, the protective mechanism has not been fully identified yet. In order to clarify functions under hypoxic condition, in this study, we focused on the scavenger activity of human Ngb (hNgb) against superoxide. The activity of hNgb for superoxide was evaluated to be 7.4 µM for IC50, the half maximal inhibitory concentration. The result indicates that hNgb can be an anti-oxidant, and the value was almost the same as that of ascorbic acid. In addition, we characterized oxidation states of a heme iron in superoxide-treated hNgb with spectroscopic measurements. Superoxide-treated hNgb in the ferric form was readily converted to the oxygenated ferrous form, and the result suggested that ferric hNgb could scavenge superoxide by change of an oxidation state in a heme iron. Moreover, mutational experiments were performed, and the each variant mutated at 46 and 55 positions suggested a disulfide bond between Cys46 and Cys55 could be essential to be sensors for oxidative stress with the direct binding of superoxide. As a consequence, we concluded that redox changes of the heme iron and the disulfide bond could regulate neuroprotective functions of hNgb, and it suggests that hNgb can afford protection against hypoxic and ischemic stress in the brain.

  1. Current Progress of Capacitive Deionization for Removal of Pollutant Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaikwad, Mahendra S.; Balomajumder, Chandrajit

    2016-08-01

    A mini review of a recently developing water purification technology capacitive deionization (CDI) applied for removal of pollutant ions is provided. The current progress of CDI for removal of different pollutant ions such as arsenic, fluoride, boron, phosphate, lithium, copper, cadmium, ferric, and nitrate ions is presented. This paper aims at motivating new research opportunities in capacitive deionization technology for removal of pollutant ions from polluted water.

  2. Low-temperature carbonization and more effective degradation of carbohydrates induced by ferric trichloride.

    PubMed

    Xia, Juan; Song, Le Xin; Dang, Zheng

    2012-07-05

    The present work is devoted to an attempt to understand the effect of an inorganic salt such as ferric trichloride (FeCl(3)) on the carbonization and degradation of carbohydrates such as β-cyclodextrin (CD), amylose, and cellulose. Our data revealed two important observations. First, the presence of FeCl(3) led to the occurrence of a low carbonization temperature of 373 K. This is a rare phenomenon, in which carbonization improvement is present even if a small amount of FeCl(3) was added. Experimental results had provided evidence for the fact that a redox process was started during the low-temperature carbonization of β-CD, causing the reduction of FeCl(3) to ferrous chloride (FeCl(2)) by carbon materials formed in the carbonization process in air. However, the reduction process of FeCl(3) produced the in situ composite nanomaterial of Fe-FeCl(2) combination in nitrogen. Second, a molecule-ion interaction emerged between FeCl(3) and the carbohydrates in aqueous solution, resulting in a more effective degradation of the carbohydrates. Moreover, our results demonstrated that FeCl(3) played the role of a catalyst during the degradation of the carbohydrates in solution. We believe that the current work not only has a significant potential application in disposal of waste carbohydrates but also could be helpful in many fields such as environmental protection, biomass energy development, and inorganic composite nanomaterials.

  3. Glutathione-dependent extracellular ferric reductase activities in dimorphic zoopathogenic fungi

    PubMed Central

    Zarnowski, Robert; Woods, Jon P.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, extracellular glutathione-dependent ferric reductase (GSH-FeR) activities in different dimorphic zoopathogenic fungal species were characterized. Supernatants from Blastomyces dermatitidis, Histoplasma capsulatum, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Sporothrix schenckii strains grown in their yeast form were able to reduce iron enzymically with glutathione as a cofactor. Some variations in the level of reduction were noted amongst the strains. This activity was stable in acidic, neutral and slightly alkaline environments and was inhibited when trivalent aluminium and gallium ions were present. Using zymography, single bands of GSH-FeRs with apparent molecular masses varying from 430 to 460 kDa were identified in all strains. The same molecular mass range was determined by size exclusion chromatography. These data demonstrate that dimorphic zoopathogenic fungi produce and secrete a family of similar GSH-FeRs that may be involved in the acquisition and utilization of iron. Siderophore production by these and other fungi has sometimes been considered to provide a full explanation of iron acquisition in these organisms. Our work reveals an additional common mechanism that may be biologically and pathogenically important. Furthermore, while some characteristics of these enzymes such as extracellular location, cofactor utilization and large size are not individually unique, when considered together and shared across a range of fungi, they represent an important novel physiological feature. PMID:16000713

  4. Degradation of the Ferric Chelate of EDTA by a Pure Culture of an Agrobacterium sp

    PubMed Central

    Lauff, John J.; Steele, D. Bernie; Coogan, Louise A.; Breitfeller, James M.

    1990-01-01

    A pure culture of an Agrobacterium sp. (deposited as ATCC 55002) that mineralizes the ferric chelate of EDTA (ferric-EDTA) was isolated by selective enrichment from a treatment facility receiving industrial waste containing ferric-EDTA. The isolate grew on ferric-EDTA as the sole carbon source at concentrations exceeding 100 mM. As the degradation proceeded, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and an unidentified metabolite(s) were produced; the pH increased, and iron was precipitated from solution. The maximum rate of degradation observed with sodium ferric-EDTA as the substrate was 24 mM/day. At a substrate concentration of 35 mM, 90% of the substrate was degraded in 3 days and 70% of the associated chemical oxygen demand was removed from solution. Less than 15% of the carbon initially present was incorporated into the cell mass. Significant growth of this strain was not observed with uncomplexed EDTA as the sole carbon source at comparable concentrations; however, the ferric chelate of propylenediaminetetraacetic acid (ferric-PDTA) did support growth. PMID:16348340

  5. Degradation of the Ferric Chelate of EDTA by a Pure Culture of an Agrobacterium sp.

    PubMed

    Lauff, J J; Steele, D B; Coogan, L A; Breitfeller, J M

    1990-11-01

    A pure culture of an Agrobacterium sp. (deposited as ATCC 55002) that mineralizes the ferric chelate of EDTA (ferric-EDTA) was isolated by selective enrichment from a treatment facility receiving industrial waste containing ferric-EDTA. The isolate grew on ferric-EDTA as the sole carbon source at concentrations exceeding 100 mM. As the degradation proceeded, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and an unidentified metabolite(s) were produced; the pH increased, and iron was precipitated from solution. The maximum rate of degradation observed with sodium ferric-EDTA as the substrate was 24 mM/day. At a substrate concentration of 35 mM, 90% of the substrate was degraded in 3 days and 70% of the associated chemical oxygen demand was removed from solution. Less than 15% of the carbon initially present was incorporated into the cell mass. Significant growth of this strain was not observed with uncomplexed EDTA as the sole carbon source at comparable concentrations; however, the ferric chelate of propylenediaminetetraacetic acid (ferric-PDTA) did support growth.

  6. The Fungal Pathogen Candida glabrata Does Not Depend on Surface Ferric Reductases for Iron Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Gerwien, Franziska; Safyan, Abu; Wisgott, Stephanie; Brunke, Sascha; Kasper, Lydia; Hube, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    Iron acquisition is a crucial virulence determinant for many bacteria and fungi, including the opportunistic fungal pathogens Candida albicans and C. glabrata. While the diverse strategies used by C. albicans for obtaining iron from the host are well-described, much less is known about the acquisition of this micronutrient from host sources by C. glabrata – a distant relative of C. albicans with closer evolutionary ties to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which nonetheless causes severe clinical symptoms in humans. Here we show that C. glabrata is much more restricted than C. albicans in using host iron sources, lacking, for example, the ability to grow on transferrin and hemin/hemoglobin. Instead, C. glabrata is able to use ferritin and non-protein-bound iron (FeCl3) as iron sources in a pH-dependent manner. As in other fungal pathogens, iron-dependent growth requires the reductive high affinity (HA) iron uptake system. Typically highly conserved, this uptake mechanism normally relies on initial ferric reduction by cell-surface ferric reductases. The C. glabrata genome contains only three such putative ferric reductases, which were found to be dispensable for iron-dependent growth. In addition and in contrast to C. albicans and S. cerevisiae, we also detected no surface ferric reductase activity in C. glabrata. Instead, extracellular ferric reduction was found in this and the two other fungal species, which was largely dependent on an excreted low-molecular weight, non-protein ferric reductant. We therefore propose an iron acquisition strategy of C. glabrata which differs from other pathogenic fungi, such as C. albicans, in that it depends on a limited set of host iron sources and that it lacks the need for surface ferric reductases. Extracellular ferric reduction by a secreted molecule possibly compensates for the loss of surface ferric reductase activity in the HA iron uptake system. PMID:28642757

  7. Ferric citrate decreases ruminal hydrogen sulphide concentrations in feedlot cattle fed diets high in sulphate.

    PubMed

    Drewnoski, Mary E; Doane, Perry; Hansen, Stephanie L

    2014-01-28

    Dissimilatory reduction of sulphate by sulphate-reducing bacteria in the rumen produces sulphide, which can lead to a build-up of the toxic gas hydrogen sulphide (H2S) in the rumen when increased concentrations of sulphate are consumed by ruminants. We hypothesised that adding ferric Fe would competitively inhibit ruminal sulphate reduction. The effects of five concentrations and two sources (ferric citrate or ferric ammonium citrate) of ferric Fe were examined in vitro (n 6 per treatment). Rumen fluid was collected from a steer that was adapted to a high-concentrate, high-sulphate diet (0·51 % S). The addition of either source of ferric Fe decreased (P< 0·01) H2S concentrations without affecting gas production (P= 0·38), fluid pH (P= 0·80) or in vitro DM digestibility (P= 0·38) after a 24 h incubation. An in vivo experiment was conducted using eight ruminally fistulated steers (543 (sem 12) kg) in a replicated Latin square with four periods and four treatments. The treatments included a high-concentrate, high-sulphate control diet (0·46 % S) or the control diet plus ferric ammonium citrate at concentrations of 200, 300 or 400 mg Fe/kg diet DM. The inclusion of ferric Fe did not affect DM intake (P= 0·21). There was a linear (P< 0·01) decrease in the concentration of ruminal H2S as the addition of ferric Fe concentrations increased. Ferric citrate appears to be an effective way to decrease ruminal H2S concentrations, which could allow producers to safely increase the inclusion of ethanol co-products.

  8. Growth, spectroscopic and physicochemical properties of bis mercury ferric chloride tetra thiocyanate: A nonlinear optical crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, V.; Shihabuddeen Syed, A.; Jagannathan, K.; Rajarajan, K.

    2013-05-01

    Single crystal of bis mercury ferric chloride tetra thiocyanate [Hg2FeCl3(SCN)4; (MFCTC)] was grown from ethanol-water (3:1) mixed solvent using slow evaporation solvent technique (SEST) for the first time. The cell parameters of the grown crystal were confirmed by single crystal XRD. The coordination of transition metal ions with the SCN ligand is well-identified using FT-IR spectral analysis. The chemical composition of MFCTC was confirmed using CHNS elemental test. The ESR spectral profile of MFCTC was recorded from 298 K to 110 K, which strongly suggests the incorporation of Fe3+ ion and its environment with respect to SCN ligand. The HPLC chromatogram of MFCTC highlights the purity of the compound. The UV-Vis-NIR studies revealed the ultra violet cut-off wavelength of MFCTC in ethanol as 338 nm. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss of the sample were studied as a function of frequency and temperature. The TGA-DTA and DSC thermal analysis show that the sample is thermally stable up to 234.31 °C, which is comparatively far better than the thermal stability of Hg3CdCl2(SCN)6; (171.3 °C) and other metal-organic coordination complex crystals such as CdHg(SCN)4 (198.5 °C), Hg(N2H4CS)4Mn(SCN)4 (199.06 °C) and Hg(N2H4CS)4Zn(SCN)4 (185 °C). The SHG conversion efficiency of MFCTC is found to be higher than KDP.

  9. Arsenic Adsorption Equilibrium Concentration and Adsorption Rate of Activated Carbon Coated with Ferric-Aluminum Hydroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Sugita, H.; Oguma, T.; Hara, J.; Takahashi, S.

    2015-12-01

    In some areas of developing countries, ground or well water contaminated with arsenic has been reluctantly used as drinking water. It is highly desirable that effective and inexpensive arsenic removal agents should be developed and provided to reduce the potential health risk. Previous studies demonstrated that activated carbon coated with ferric-aluminum hydroxides (Fe-Al-C) has high adsorptive potential for removal of arsenic. In this study, a series of experiments using Fe-Al-C were carried to discuss adsorption equilibrium time, adsorption equilibrium concentration and adsorption rate of arsenic for Fe-Al-C. Fe-Al-C used in this study was provided by Astec Co., Ltd. Powder reagent of disodium hydrogen arsenate heptahydrate was dissolved into ion-exchanged water. The solution was then further diluted with ion-exchanged water to be 1 and 10 mg/L as arsenic concentration. The pH of the solution was adjusted to be around 7 by adding HCl and/or NaOH. The solution was used as artificial arsenic contaminated water in two types of experiments (arsenic adsorption equilibrium and arsenic adsorption rate tests). The results of the arsenic equilibrium tests were showed that a time period of about 3 days to reach apparent adsorption equilibrium for arsenic. The apparent adsorption equilibrium concentration and adsorbed amount of arsenic on Fe-Al-C adsorbent could be estimated by application of various adsorption isotherms, but the distribution coefficient of arsenic between solid and liquid varies with experimental conditions such as initial concentration of arsenic and addition concentration of adsorbent. An adsorption rate equation that takes into account the reduction in the number of effective adsorption sites on the adsorbent caused by the arsenic adsorption reaction was derived based on the data obtained from the arsenic adsorption rate tests.

  10. [Sorption characteristics of tea waste modified by hydrated ferric oxide toward Pb(II) in water].

    PubMed

    Wan, Shun-Li; Xue, Yao; Ma, Zhao-Zhao; Liu, Guo-Bin; Yu, Yan-Xia; Ma, Ming-Hai

    2014-10-01

    Hydrated ferric oxide was successfully impregnated onto tea waste by precipitation to obtain a new sorbent named HFO-TW, the adsorption characteristics of which toward Pb(II) in aqueous solution was investigated by evaluating the effects of pH value, contact time, coexisting ion, temperature, and initial concentration of Pb(II). The Pb(II) sorption onto HFO-TW was pH- dependent, and the higher pH value was more helpful for Pb(II) adsorption onto HFO-TW in the pH range of 2.5-7. Lead sorption speed was quick and could reach equilibrium within 100 min, and the kinetics curve could be fitted well by both pseudo-first and pseudo-second models. The related coefficient was 98.8%. HFO-TW exhibited highly selective lead retention and the adsorption capacity of Pb(II) onto HFO-TW was declined by only 12.1 mg · g(-1) and 8.1 mg · g(-1) in the presence of competing Ca(II), Mg(II) at 50 times of the target ion. In addition, Pb(II) sorption onto HFO-TW could be described satisfactorily by Langmuir model, and the maximal sorption capacity calculated by Langmuir equation was 89.43 mg · g(-1), which was much higher than the unmodified tea waste and other bio-sorbents. All the results validated that HFO-TW was a promising sorbent for removal of lead from waters.

  11. Bacterial Vaginosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... STD on Facebook Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Bacterial Vaginosis – CDC Fact Sheet Language: English (US) Españ ...

  12. Mössbauer and infrared spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for the characterization of ferric tannates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaén, Juan A.; Navarro, César

    2009-07-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Mössbauer spectroscopy are use for the characterization and qualitative analysis of hydrolysable and condensed tannates. The two classes of tannates may be differentiated from the characteristic IR pattern. Mössbauer proof that a mixture of mono- and bis-type ferric tannate complexes, and an iron(II)-tannin complex are obtained from the interaction of hydrolysable tannins (tannic acid and chestnut tannin) and condensed tannins (mimosa and quebracho) with a ferric nitrate solution. At pH 7, a partially hydrolyzed ferric tannate complex was also obtained.

  13. Ferric carboxymaltose: a review of its use in iron-deficiency anaemia.

    PubMed

    Lyseng-Williamson, Katherine A; Keating, Gillian M

    2009-01-01

    Ferric carboxymaltose (Ferinject(R)), a novel iron complex that consists of a ferric hydroxide core stabilized by a carbohydrate shell, allows for controlled delivery of iron to target tissues. Administered intravenously, it is effective in the treatment of iron-deficiency anaemia, delivering a replenishment dose of up to 1000 mg of iron during a minimum administration time of ferric carboxymaltose rapidly improves haemoglobin levels and replenishes depleted iron stores in various populations of patients with iron-deficiency anaemia, including those with inflammatory bowel disease, heavy uterine bleeding, postpartum iron-deficiency anaemia or chronic kidney disease. It was well tolerated in clinical trials. Ferric carboxymaltose is, therefore, an effective option in the treatment of iron-deficiency anaemia in patients for whom oral iron preparations are ineffective or cannot be administered. Ferric carboxymaltose is a macromolecular ferric hydroxide carbohydrate complex, which allows for controlled delivery of iron within the cells of the reticuloendothelial system and subsequent delivery to the iron-binding proteins ferritin and transferrin, with minimal risk of release of large amounts of ionic iron in the serum. Intravenous administration of ferric carboxymaltose results in transient elevations in serum iron, serum ferritin and transferrin saturation, and, ultimately, in the correction of haemoglobin levels and replenishment of depleted iron stores. The total iron concentration in the serum increased rapidly in a dose-dependent manner after intravenous administration of ferric carboxymaltose. Ferric carboxymaltose is rapidly cleared from the circulation and is distributed primarily to the bone marrow ( approximately 80%) and also to the liver and spleen. Repeated weekly administration of ferric carboxymaltose does not result in accumulation of transferrin iron in

  14. Bacterial Sialidase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Data shows that elevated sialidase in bacterial vaginosis patients correlates to premature births in women. Bacterial sialidase also plays a significant role in the unusual colonization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients. Crystals of Salmonella sialidase have been reproduced and are used for studying the inhibitor-enzyme complexes. These inhibitors may also be used to inhibit a trans-sialidase of Trypanosome cruzi, a very similar enzyme to bacterial sialidase, therefore preventing T. cruzi infection, the causitive agent of Chagas' disease. The Center for Macromolecular Crystallography suggests that inhibitors of bacterial sialidases can be used as prophylactic drugs to prevent bacterial infections in these critical cases.

  15. Bacterial Sialidase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Data shows that elevated sialidase in bacterial vaginosis patients correlates to premature births in women. Bacterial sialidase also plays a significant role in the unusual colonization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients. Crystals of Salmonella sialidase have been reproduced and are used for studying the inhibitor-enzyme complexes. These inhibitors may also be used to inhibit a trans-sialidase of Trypanosome cruzi, a very similar enzyme to bacterial sialidase, therefore preventing T. cruzi infection, the causitive agent of Chagas' disease. The Center for Macromolecular Crystallography suggests that inhibitors of bacterial sialidases can be used as prophylactic drugs to prevent bacterial infections in these critical cases.

  16. Distribution of ferric iron in larval lampreys, Petromyzon marinus L.

    PubMed

    Hall, S J; Youson, J H

    1988-01-01

    The distribution and abundance of ferric iron in larval lampreys (Petromyzon marinus L.) were investigated using light microscopy and the Prussian blue stain. Animals from various watersheds contained different concentrations of iron, although the sites of deposition were the same for all animals. A major portion of iron is within adipose tissue, while the liver, and cartilage contain predominantly low to trace amounts of iron, respectively. Iron is associated with fibrous connective tissue in several places in the body, and this association may have particular significance in the inner ear. Iron is also located in cells of the meninges. The presence of iron in the epithelial cells of the posterior intestine may reflect elimination of the metal through the extrusion of iron-loaded cells into the intestinal lumen. Iron within mucous cells of the epidermis, suggest elimination of iron during mucous secretion. Iron-loaded cells of bipolar shape are also present in the epidermis, but are particularly prominent around the branchiopore. Low concentrations of iron are observed within in melanin-containing macrophages (melano-macrophages) in regions of iron absorption, erythrophagocytosis, and haemopoiesis. High levels of iron in the epithelia and lumina of pronephric tubules are concomitant with degeneration of this organ. These data are evidence of the wide spread distribution of iron in lamprey tissues and additional evidence for the potential value of lampreys for the study of iron metabolism in vertebrates.

  17. Exfoliation of Hexagonal Boron Nitride via Ferric Chloride Intercalation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-cheh; Hurst, Janet; Santiago, Diana; Rogers, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    Sodium fluoride (NaF) was used as an activation agent to successfully intercalate ferric chloride (FeCl3) into hexagonal boron nitride (hBN). This reaction caused the hBN mass to increase by approx.100 percent, the lattice parameter c to decrease from 6.6585 to between 6.6565 and 6.6569 ?, the x-ray diffraction (XRD) (002) peak to widen from 0.01deg to 0.05deg of the full width half maximum value, the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum's broad band (1277/cm peak) to change shape, and new FTIR bands to emerge at 3700 to 2700 and 1600/cm. This indicates hBN's structural and chemical properties are significantly changed. The intercalated product was hygroscopic and interacted with moisture in the air to cause further structural and chemical changes (from XRD and FTIR). During a 24-h hold at room temperature in air with 100 percent relative humidity, the mass increased another 141 percent. The intercalated product, hydrated or not, can be heated to 750 C in air to cause exfoliation. Exfoliation becomes significant after two intercalation-air heating cycles, when 20-nm nanosheets are commonly found. Structural and chemical changes indicated by XRD and FTIR data were nearly reversed after the product was placed in hydrochloric acid (HCl), resulting in purified, exfoliated, thin hBN products.

  18. Ferric chloride based downstream process for microalgae based biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yeong Hwan; Sung, Mina; Kim, Bohwa; Oh, You-Kwan; Kim, Dong Yeon; Han, Jong-In

    2015-04-01

    In this study, ferric chloride (FeCl3) was used to integrate downstream processes (harvesting, lipid extraction, and esterification). At concentration of 200 mg/L and at pH 3, FeCl3 exhibited an expected degree of coagulation and an increase in cell density of ten times (170 mg/10 mL). An iron-mediated oxidation reaction, Fenton-like reaction, was used to extract lipid from the harvested biomass, and efficiency of 80% was obtained with 0.5% H2O2 at 90 °C. The iron compound was also employed in the esterification step, and converted free fatty acids to fatty acid methyl esters under acidic conditions; thus, the fatal problem of saponification during esterification with alkaline catalysts was avoided, and esterification efficiency over 90% was obtained. This study clearly showed that FeCl3 in the harvesting process is beneficial in all downstream steps and have a potential to greatly reduce the production cost of microalgae-originated biodiesel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dietary bioavailability of Cu adsorbed to colloidal hydrous ferric oxide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cain, Daniel J.; Croteau, Marie-Noële; Fuller, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    The dietary bioavailability of copper (Cu) adsorbed to synthetic colloidal hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) was evaluated from the assimilation of 65Cu by two benthic grazers, a gastropod and a larval mayfly. HFO was synthesized, labeled with 65Cu to achieve a Cu/Fe ratio comparable to that determined in naturally formed HFO, and then aged. The labeled colloids were mixed with a food source (the diatom Nitzschia palea) to yield dietary 65Cu concentrations ranging from 211 to 2204 nmol/g (dry weight). Animals were pulse fed the contaminated diet and assimilation of 65Cu from HFO was determined following 1–3 days of depuration. Mass transfer of 65Cu from HFO to the diatom was less than 1%, indicating that HFO was the source of 65Cu to the grazers. Estimates of assimilation efficiency indicated that the majority of Cu ingested as HFO was assimilated (values >70%), implying that colloidal HFO potentially represents a source of dietary Cu to benthic grazers, especially where there is active formation and infiltration of these particles into benthic substrates.

  20. Iron fortification of flour with a complex ferric orthophosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Hallberg, L.; Rossander-Hulthen, L.; Gramatkovski, E.

    1989-07-01

    The unexpectedly low bioavailability in humans of elemental iron powder prompted us to search for other Fe compounds suitable for Fe fortification of flour that fulfill the two requirements of insolubility in water (due to high water content of flour) and good bioavailability in humans. Systematic studies of compatibility, solubility, and bioavailability led to this study of a microcrystalline complex ferric orthophosphate (CFOP), Fe/sub 3/H/sub 8/(NH/sub 4/)-(PO/sub 4/)6.6H/sub 2/O, a well-defined compound. This compound was labeled with /sup 59/Fe, and the native Fe in meals was labeled with /sup 55/FeCl3. The ratio of absorbed /sup 59/Fe to absorbed /sup 55/Fe is a direct measure of the fraction of CFOP that joins the nonheme Fe pool and that is made potentially available for absorption. The relative bioavailability of CFOP varied from 30% to 60% when labeled wheat rolls were served with different meals. The CFOP meets practical requirements of an Fe fortificant for flour well, with regard to both compatibility and bioavailability in humans.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of redox-active ferric nontronite

    DOE PAGES

    Ilgen, A. G.; Kukkadapu, R. K.; Dunphy, D. R.; ...

    2017-07-12

    Heterogeneous redox reactions on clay mineral surfaces control mobility and bioavailability of redox-sensitive nutrients and contaminants. Iron (Fe) residing in clay mineral structures can either catalyze or directly participate in redox reactions; but, chemical controls over its reactivity are not fully understood. In our previous work we demonstrated that converting a minor portion of Fe(III) to Fe(II) (partial reduction) in the octahedral sheet of natural Fe-rich clay mineral nontronite (NAu-1) activates its surface, making it redox-active. In this study we produced and characterized synthetic ferric nontronite (SIP), highlighting structural and chemical similarities and differences between this synthetic nontronite and itsmore » natural counterpart NAu-1, and probed whether mineral surface is redox-active by reacting it with arsenic As(III) under oxic and anoxic conditions. Here, we demonstrate that synthetic nontronite SIP undergoes the same activation as natural nontronite NAu-1 following the partial reduction treatment. Similar to NAu-1, SIP oxidized As(III) to As(V) under both oxic (catalytic pathway) and anoxic (direct oxidation) conditions. The similar reactivity trends observed for synthetic nontronite and its natural counterpart make SIP an appropriate analog for laboratory studies. The development of chemically pure analogs for ubiquitous soil minerals will allow for systematic research of the fundamental properties of these minerals.« less

  2. Toxicity of ferric chloride sludge to aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Sotero-Santos, Rosana B; Rocha, Odete; Povinelli, Jurandyr

    2007-06-01

    Iron-rich sludge from a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) was investigated regarding its toxicity to aquatic organisms and physical and chemical composition. In addition, the water quality of the receiving stream near the DWTP was evaluated. Experiments were carried out in August 1998, February 1999 and May 1999. Acute toxicity tests were carried out on a cladoceran (Daphnia similis), a midge (Chironomus xanthus) and a fish (Hyphessobrycon eques). Chronic tests were conducted only on D. similis. Acute sludge toxicity was not detected using any of the aquatic organisms, but chronic effects were observed upon the fecundity of D. similis. Although there were relatively few sample dates, the results suggested that the DWTP sludge had a negative effect on the receiving body as here was increased suspended matter, turbidity, conductivity, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and hardness in the water downstream of the DWTP effluent discharge. The ferric chloride sludge also exhibited high heavy metal concentrations revealing a further potential for pollution and harmful chronic effects on the aquatic biota when the sludge is disposed of without previous treatment.

  3. Total X-ray scattering, EXAFS, and Mössbauer spectroscopy analyses of amorphous ferric arsenate and amorphous ferric phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikutta, Christian; Schröder, Christian; Marc Michel, F.

    2014-09-01

    Amorphous ferric arsenate (AFA, FeAsO4·xH2O) is an important As precipitate in a range of oxic As-rich environments, especially acidic sulfide-bearing mine wastes. Its structure has been proposed to consist of small polymers of single corner-sharing FeO6 octahedra (rFe-Fe ∼3.6 Å) to which arsenate is attached as a monodentate binuclear 2C complex ('chain model'). Here, we analyzed the structure of AFA and analogously prepared amorphous ferric phosphates (AFP, FePO4·xH2O) by a combination of high-energy total X-ray scattering, Fe K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. Pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of total X-ray scattering data revealed that the coherently scattering domain size of AFA and AFP is about 8 Å. The PDFs of AFA lacked Fe-Fe pair correlations at r ∼3.6 Å indicative of single corner-sharing FeO6 octahedra, which strongly supports a local scorodite (FeAsO4·2H2O) structure. Likewise, the PDFs and Fe K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure data of AFP were consistent with a local strengite (FePO4·2H2O) structure of isolated FeO6 octahedra being corner-linked to PO4 tetrahedra (rFe-P = 3.25(1) Å). Mössbauer spectroscopy analyses of AFA and AFP indicated a strong superparamagnetism. While AFA only showed a weak onset of magnetic hyperfine splitting at 5 K, magnetic ordering of AFP was completely absent at this temperature. Mössbauer spectroscopy may thus offer a convenient way to identify and quantify AFA and AFP in mineral mixtures containing poorly crystalline Fe(III)-oxyhydroxides. In summary, our results imply a close structural relationship between AFA and AFP and suggest that these amorphous materials serve as templates for the formation of scorodite and strengite (phosphosiderite) in strongly acidic low-temperature environments.

  4. The Campylobacter jejuni Ferric Uptake Regulator Promotes Acid Survival and Cross-Protection against Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Askoura, Momen; Sarvan, Sabina; Couture, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a prevalent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. The mechanisms by which C. jejuni survives stomach acidity remain undefined. In the present study, we demonstrated that the C. jejuni ferric uptake regulator (Fur) plays an important role in C. jejuni acid survival and acid-induced cross-protection against oxidative stress. A C. jejuni Δfur mutant was more sensitive to acid than the wild-type strain. Profiling of the acid stimulon of the C. jejuni Δfur mutant allowed us to uncover Fur-regulated genes under acidic conditions. In particular, Fur was found to upregulate genes involved in flagellar and cell envelope biogenesis upon acid stress, and mutants with deletions of these genes were found to be defective in surviving acid stress. Interestingly, prior acid exposure of C. jejuni cross-protected against oxidative stress in a catalase (KatA)- and Fur-dependent manner. Western blotting and reverse transcription-quantitative PCR revealed increased expression of KatA upon acid stress. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) demonstrated that the binding affinity between Fur and the katA promoter is reduced in vitro under conditions of low pH, rationalizing the higher levels of expression of katA under acidic conditions. Strikingly, the Δfur mutant exhibited reduced virulence in both human epithelial cells and the Galleria mellonella infection model. Altogether, this is the first study showing that, in addition to its role in iron metabolism, Fur is an important regulator of C. jejuni acid responses and this function cross-protects against oxidative stress. Moreover, our results clearly demonstrate Fur's important role in C. jejuni pathogenesis. PMID:26883589

  5. Utilization of iron-catecholamine complexes involving ferric reductase activity in Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed Central

    Coulanges, V; Andre, P; Ziegler, O; Buchheit, L; Vidon, D J

    1997-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a ubiquitous potentially pathogenic organism requiring iron for growth and virulence. Although it does not produce siderophores, L. monocytogenes is able to obtain iron by using either exogenous siderophores produced by various microorganisms or natural catechol compounds widespread in the environment. In the presence of tropolone, an iron-chelating agent, growth of L. monocytogenes is completely inhibited. However, the growth inhibition can be relieved by the addition of dopamine or norepinephrine under their different isomeric forms, while the catecholamine derivatives 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglycol and normetanephrine did not relieve the inhibitory effect of tropolone. Preincubation of L. monocytogenes with chlorpromazine and yohimbine did not antagonize the growth-promoting effect of catecholamines in iron-complexed medium. In addition, norepinephrine stimulated the growth-promoting effect induced by human transferrin in iron-limited medium. Furthermore, dopamine and norepinephrine allowed 55Fe uptake by iron-deprived bacterial cells. The uptake of iron was energy dependent, as indicated by inhibition of 55Fe uptake at 0 degrees C as well as by preincubating the bacteria with KCN. Inhibition of 55Fe uptake by L. monocytogenes was also observed in the presence of Pt(II). Moreover, when assessed by a whole-cell ferric reductase assay, reductase activity of L. monocytogenes was inhibited by Pt(II). These data demonstrate that dopamine and norepinephrine can function as siderophore-like compounds in L. monocytogenes owing to their ortho-diphenol function and that catecholamine-mediated iron acquisition does not involve specific catecholamine receptors but acts through a cell-bound ferrireductase activity. PMID:9199450

  6. Ferrous versus ferric oral iron formulations for the treatment of iron deficiency: a clinical overview.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Palacios

    2012-01-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia represents a major public health problem, particularly in infants, young children, pregnant women, and females with heavy menses. Oral iron supplementation is a cheap, safe, and effective means of increasing haemoglobin levels and restoring iron stores to prevent and correct iron deficiency. Many preparations are available, varying widely in dosage, formulation (quick or prolonged release), and chemical state (ferrous or ferric form). The debate over the advantages of ferrous versus ferric formulations is ongoing. In this literature review, the tolerability and efficacy of ferrous versus ferric iron formulations are evaluated. We focused on studies comparing ferrous sulphate preparations with ferric iron polymaltose complex preparations, the two predominant forms of iron used. Current data show that slow-release ferrous sulphate preparations remain the established and standard treatment of iron deficiency, irrespective of the indication, given their good bioavailability, efficacy, and acceptable tolerability demonstrated in several large clinical studies.

  7. Nanometer-Scale Measurements of Ferrous-Ferric Ratios in Chondritic Cronstedtite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zega, T. J.; Garvie, L. A. J.; Buseck, P. R.

    2002-01-01

    We have determined the ferrous-ferric ratio in chondritic cronstedtite at the nanometer scale using electron energy-loss spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  8. Granulation and ferric oxides loading enable biochar derived from cotton stalk to remove phosphate from water.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jing; Li, Nan; Li, Lei; An, Jing-Kun; Zhao, Lin; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2015-02-01

    Granulation of biochar powder followed by immobilization of ferric oxides on the macroporous granular biochar (Bg-FO-1) substantially enhanced phosphate removal from water. BET analysis confirmed that both granulation and ferric oxides loading can increase the surface areas and pore volumes effectively. Bg-FO-1 was proven to be a favorable adsorbent for phosphate. The phosphate adsorption capacity was substantially increased from 0 mg/g of raw biochar powder to 0.963 mg/g (Bg-FO-1). When the ferric oxides loading was prior to granulation, the adsorption capacity was decreased by 59-0.399 mg/g, possibly due to the decrease of micropore and mesopore area as well as the overlaying of binders to the activated sites produced by ferric oxides.

  9. Method of treating inflammatory diseases using a radiolabeled ferric hydroxide calloid

    DOEpatents

    Atcher, Robert W.; Hines, John J.

    1992-01-01

    A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints.

  10. [Arsenic (V) removal from drinking water by ferric salt and aluminum salt coagulation/microfiltration process].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-bo; Wu, Shui-bo; Gu, Ping

    2007-10-01

    Two lab-scale coagulation/microfiltration membrane reactors were used to compare the arsenic removal from drinking water by ferric salt and aluminum salt coagulation/microfiltration process. FeCl3 and Al2(SO4)3 were appointed as the coagulants. The results show that the arsenic removal efficiency of the two processes are almost equal. Arsenic concentration can be lowered from about 100 microg/L to below 10 microg/L and the lowest is 1.68 microg x L(-1). All of the turbidity of the treated water is less than 0.1 NTU. The concentrations of ferric, aluminum and SO4(2-) of the treated water are entirely satisfied the standard of drinking water. After treated by ferric salt process, pH value of the treated water is increased about 0.5. However, aluminum salt process does not change pH of the drinking water. The concentration ratio of the ferric salt process is 1,791 which is about 2.54 times of the aluminum salt process. Arsenic concentration of the sludge of ferric salt process is also higher greatly than that of the aluminum salt process. Therefore, the volume of the sludge produced by the ferric salt process is smaller than that of the aluminum salt process when equal amount of drinking water was treated. Accordingly, ferric salt process should be used when only high concentration arsenic existed in drinking water. On the other hand, fluoride also can be removed simultaneously while arsenic was removed by aluminum salt process. The amount of coagulant needed is the amount of coagulant required to remove fluoride separately. Fluoride can not be removed from drinking water by the ferric salt process. It was concluded that aluminum salt process should be used to remove arsenic and fluoride simultaneously from high arsenic and high fluoride coexisted drinking water.

  11. Oxygen isotope fractionation in ferric oxide-water systems: Low temperature synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Huiming; Koch, Paul L.

    1999-03-01

    The magnitude and temperature-sensitivity of oxygen isotope fractionation in ferric oxide-water systems remain uncertain. In this study, three different synthetic methods are used to investigate the temperature dependence of the fractionation between water and hematite, akaganeite, and goethite at near-surface temperatures. Our results reveal two similarities among these ferric oxide-water systems. First, the fractionation of oxygen isotopes between water and ferric oxide is small (i.e., ferric oxide-water fractionation factors [α] are very close to 1.000). Second, these α values are relatively insensitive to change in temperature ( T). Hematite-water has a slightly higher α value and a greater temperature sensitivity than goethite-water at surface temperatures. While the issue requires further study, we speculate that differences in the washing and drying protocols applied to final precipitates may be one of the factors that have contributed to the discrepancies among published α- T curves. Owing to the rapid exchange of oxygen among the various hydrolytic Fe(III) species and ambient water, oxygen isotope equilibrium is probably attained between water and the ferric oxide gels and poorly-ordered ferrihydrite that are the initial precipitates in nearly all natural settings. Aging experiments suggest that isotopic compositions carried by ferric oxide gels and ferrihydrite are almost entirely erased by later exchange with ambient water during the maturation processes leading to formation of either hematite or goethite. These results suggest that dissolution and reprecipitation occur in the supposedly "solid-state transformation" from ferrihydrite to hematite. Thus the δ 18O value of natural crystalline ferric oxides may provide a record of the long-term average δ 18O value of local surface water, rather than that of the water from which the solid ferric oxide first formed.

  12. Dissolution behaviour of ferric pyrophosphate and its mixtures with soluble pyrophosphates: Potential strategy for increasing iron bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Tian, Tian; Blanco, Elena; Smoukov, Stoyan K; Velev, Orlin D; Velikov, Krassimir P

    2016-10-01

    Ferric pyrophosphate (FePP) is a widely used iron source in food fortification and in nutritional supplements, due to its white colour, that is very uncommon for insoluble Fe salts. Although its dissolution is an important determinant of Fe adsorption in human body, the solubility characteristics of FePP are complex and not well understood. This report is a study on the solubility of FePP as a function of pH and excess of pyrophosphate ions. FePP powder is sparingly soluble in the pH range of 3-6 but slightly soluble at pH<2 and pH>8. In the presence of pyrophosphate ions the solubility of FePP strongly increases at pH 5-8.5 due to formation a soluble complex between Fe(III) and pyrophosphate ions, which leads to an 8-10-fold increase in the total ionic iron concentration. This finding is beneficial for enhancing iron bioavailability, which important for the design of fortified food, beverages, and nutraceutical products.

  13. Ferric gluconate reduces epoetin requirements in hemodialysis patients with elevated ferritin.

    PubMed

    Kapoian, Toros; O'Mara, Neeta B; Singh, Ajay K; Moran, John; Rizkala, Adel R; Geronemus, Robert; Kopelman, Robert C; Dahl, Naomi V; Coyne, Daniel W

    2008-02-01

    The Dialysis Patients Response to IV Iron with Elevated Ferritin (DRIVE) study demonstrated the efficacy of intravenous ferric gluconate to improve hemoglobin levels in anemic hemodialysis patients who were receiving adequate epoetin doses and who had ferritin levels between 500 and 1200 ng/ml and transferrin saturation (TSAT) < or = 25%. The DRIVE-II study reported here was a 6-wk observational extension designed to investigate how ferric gluconate impacted epoetin dosage after DRIVE. During DRIVE-II, treating nephrologists and anemia managers adjusted doses of epoetin and intravenous iron as clinically indicated. By the end of observation, patients in the ferric gluconate group required significantly less epoetin than their DRIVE dose (mean change of -7527 +/- 18,021 IU/wk, P = 0.003), whereas the epoetin dose essentially did not change for patients in the control group (mean change of 649 +/- 19,987 IU/wk, P = 0.809). Mean hemoglobin, TSAT, and serum ferritin levels remained higher in the ferric gluconate group than in the control group (P = 0.062, P < 0.001, and P = 0.014, respectively). Over the entire 12-wk study period (DRIVE plus DRIVE-II), the control group experienced significantly more serious adverse events than the ferric gluconate group (incidence rate ratio = 1.73, P = 0.041). In conclusion, ferric gluconate maintains hemoglobin and allows lower epoetin doses in anemic hemodialysis patients with low TSAT and ferritin levels up to 1200 ng/ml.

  14. Ferric Reduction Is a Potential Iron Acquisition Mechanism for Histoplasma capsulatum

    PubMed Central

    Timmerman, Michelle M.; Woods, Jon P.

    1999-01-01

    For the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum, and for other microbial pathogens, iron is an essential nutrient. Iron sequestration in response to infection is a demonstrated host defense mechanism; thus, iron acquisition may be considered an important pathogenic determinant. H. capsulatum is known to secrete Fe(III)-binding hydroxamate siderophores, which is one common microbial process for acquiring iron. Here, we report H. capsulatum ferric reduction activities in whole yeast cells and in both high- and low-molecular-weight fractions of culture supernatants. Each of these activities was induced or derepressed by growth under iron-limiting conditions, a phenomenon often associated with specific iron acquisition mechanisms. The high-molecular-weight culture supernatant activity was enhanced by the addition of reduced glutathione, was proteinase K sensitive and heat labile, and could utilize ferric chloride, ferric citrate, and human holotransferrin as substrates. The low-molecular-weight culture supernatant activity was resistant to proteinase K digestion. These results are consistent with the expression by H. capsulatum of both enzymatic ferric reductase and nonproteinaceous ferric reductant, both of which are regulated by iron availability. Such components could be involved in fungal acquisition of iron from inorganic or organic ferric salts, from H. capsulatum hydroxamate siderophores, or from host Fe(III)-binding proteins, such as transferrin. PMID:10569756

  15. Evidence-based assessment: evaluation of the formocresol versus ferric sulfate primary molar pulpotomy.

    PubMed

    Loh, Alex; O'Hoy, Polly; Tran, Xuan; Charles, Rachael; Hughes, Andrew; Kubo, Kotaro; Messer, Louise Brearley

    2004-01-01

    Formocresol and ferric sulfate were evaluated as pulpotomy medicaments using evidence-based dentistry principles. Formocresol has been challenged as a potential carcinogen and mutagen, leading to consideration of ferric sulfate. The PICOT statement was: (P) In human carious primary molars with reversible coronal pulpitis, (I) does a pulpotomy performed with ferric sulfate, (C) compared with formocresol, (O) result in dinical/radiographic success, (T) in time periods up to exfoliation? Relevant papers (N=894) were identified from databases and inclusion criteria were applied; 94 papers remained (randomized clinical trials [RCTs]=7; clinical trials [CTs]=28; case-control studies=14; opinions, cohort, and cross-sectional studies=4; reviews=22; irretrievable papers=19). Three RCTs and 10 CTs (total teeth: formocresol=753; ferric sulfate=90) were meta-analyzed; 1 RCT and 1 CT were tested for homogeneity (odds ratios; 95% confidence intervals); 3 RCTs and 10 CTs were examined by student's t test. Clinical data indicated ferric sulfate was significantly more successful than formocresol (OR=1.95; CI=1.01-3.80). Radiographic data indicated no difference between medicaments (OR=0.90; CI=0.58-1.39). Medicaments did not differ with t-tests of clinical (P>.10) and radiographic (P>.50) data. This evidence-based assessment concluded that, in human carious primary molars with reversible coronal pulpitis, pulpotomies performed with either formocresol or ferric sulfate are likely to have similar clinical/radiographic success.

  16. Structural studies of ion permeation and Ca2+ blockage of a bacterial channel mimicking the cyclic nucleotide-gated channel pore

    PubMed Central

    Derebe, Mehabaw G.; Zeng, Weizhong; Li, Yang; Alam, Amer; Jiang, Youxing

    2011-01-01

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels play an essential role in the visual and olfactory sensory systems and are ubiquitous in eukaryotes. Details of their underlying ion selectivity properties are still not fully understood and are a matter of debate in the absence of high-resolution structures. To reveal the structural mechanism of ion selectivity in CNG channels, particularly their Ca2+ blockage property, we engineered a set of mimics of CNG channel pores for both structural and functional analysis. The mimics faithfully represent the CNG channels they are modeled after, permeate Na+ and K+ equally well, and exhibit the same Ca2+ blockage and permeation properties. Their high-resolution structures reveal a hitherto unseen selectivity filter architecture comprising three contiguous ion binding sites in which Na+ and K+ bind with different ion-ligand geometries. Our structural analysis reveals that the conserved acidic residue in the filter is essential for Ca2+ binding but not through direct ion chelation as in the currently accepted view. Furthermore, structural insight from our CNG mimics allows us to pinpoint equivalent interactions in CNG channels through structure-based mutagenesis that have previously not been predicted using NaK or K+ channel models. PMID:21187429

  17. Comparing polyaluminum chloride and ferric chloride for antimony removal.

    PubMed

    Kang, Meea; Kamei, Tasuku; Magara, Yasumoto

    2003-10-01

    Antimony has been one of the contaminants required to be regulated, however, only limited information has been collected to date regarding antimony removal by polyaluminium chloride (PACl) and ferric chloride (FC). Accordingly, the possible use of coagulation by PACl or FC for antimony removal was investigated. Jar tests were used to determine the effects of solution pH, coagulant dosage, and pre-chlorination on the removal of various antimony species. Although high-efficiency antimony removal by aluminum coagulation has been expected because antimony is similar to arsenic in that both antimony and arsenic are a kind of metalloid in group V of the periodic chart, this study indicated: (1) removal density (arsenic or antimony removed per mg coagulant) for antimony by PACl was about one forty-fifth as low as observed for As(V); (2) although the removal of both Sb(III) and Sb(V) by coagulation with FC was much higher than that of PACl, a high coagulant dose of 10.5mg of FeL(-1) at optimal pH of 5.0 was still not sufficient to meet the standard antimony level of 2 microg as SbL(-1) for drinking water when around 6 microg as SbL(-1) were initially present. Consequently, investigation of a more appropriate treatment process is necessary to develop economical Sb reduction; (3) although previous studies concluded that As(V) is more effectively removed than As(III), this study showed that the removal of Sb(III) by coagulation with FC was much more pronounced than that of Sb(V); (4) oxidation of Sb(III) with chlorine decreased the ability of FC to remove antimony. Accordingly, natural water containing Sb(III) under anoxic condition should be coagulated without pre-oxidation.

  18. [Study of infrared spectra of polyaluminum ferric chloride].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin-hua; Zhou, Li-yun; Tang, Min

    2002-02-01

    Mid-IR spectra of polyaluminum ferric chloride (PAFC) with different Al/Fe molar ratio were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Some vibration bands were assigned. In the range of Al/Fe molar ratio < 3:7 and > 6:4, the delta bending vibration frequencies at 850-880 cm-1 of [formula: see text] and 930-970 cm-1 of [formula: see text] in PAFC vs Al/Fe molar ratio are linearly relalional. It shows that Fe(III) and Al(III) were taken place each other in [formula: see text] and [formula: see text], and these were the evidences for the presence of [formula: see text]. When Al/Fe molar ratio was close, [formula: see text] and [formula: see text] Al bulk bending vibration bands at 680 cm-1 and 625 cm-1 respectively became an overlapped and broad band at 640 cm-1. Correspondingly, the [formula: see text] and [formula: see text] delta bending vibration bands were weak markedly or even disappear. And these were the evidences for the presence of co-aggragation of Fe(III) and Al(III) hydroxyl polymers (Aluminous ferrihydrite). Intensity and frequency change of H-OH delta vibrations bands at 1,610-1,630 cm-1 vs Al/Fe molar ratio show: the amounts of coordinating water in Al-Fe hydroxyl co-aggragation compounds of PAFC are the highest and no longer change, as well as, the force of banding of coordinating water with center atoms is increasing when Al/Fe molar ratio > 6:4. These suggested that there are species structural Al-Fe hydroxyl co-aggragatin compounds and this is one of the causes that stability of PAFC solution can be keeped for a long time.

  19. Controlled formation of magnetite crystal by partial oxidation of ferrous hydroxide in the presence of recombinant magnetotactic bacterial protein Mms6.

    PubMed

    Amemiya, Yosuke; Arakaki, Atsushi; Staniland, Sarah S; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Matsunaga, Tadashi

    2007-12-01

    Mms6 is a small acidic protein that is tightly associated with bacterial magnetite in Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1. This protein has previously shown iron binding activity, allowing it to generate uniform magnetic crystals by co-precipitation of ferrous and ferric ions. Here, magnetite crystals were formed by the partial oxidation of ferrous hydroxide in the presence and absence of Mms6. The crystals synthesised were systematically characterised according to their sizes and morphologies using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Mms6-mediated synthesis of magnetite by this methods produced crystals of a uniform size and narrow size distribution with a cubo-octahedral morphology, similar to bacterial magnetite observed in M. magneticum AMB-1. The crystals formed in the absence of Mms6 were octahedral, larger with an increased size distribution. Protein quantification analysis of Mms6 in the synthesised particles indicated tight association of this protein onto the crystal. Furthermore, high affinities to iron ions and a highly charged electrostatic quality suggest that the protein acts as a template for the nucleus formation and/or acts as a growth regulator by recognising crystal faces. The method introduced in this study presents an alternative route for controlling the size and shape of magnetite crystals without the use of organic solvent and high temperatures.

  20. Concentration of MS2 phage in river water by a combined ferric colloid adsorption and foam separation-based method, with MS2 phage leaching from ferric colloid.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Takumi; Nishiyama, Masateru; Kono, Tomoya

    2016-08-01

    The concentration of MS2 phage as a model RNA virus in river water using a combined ferric colloid adsorption and foam separation-based method was examined. The MS2 phage concentrations were determined by the plaque-forming unit (PFU) method and reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis. When ferric colloid adsorption was performed prior to foam separation, MS2 phage was effectively removed from river water and concentrated in the generated foam within 7 min. The removal efficiency was >99% at the optimum iron and casein concentrations of 5 mg-Fe/L and 10 mg/L, respectively. Furthermore, based on the analysis of the collected ferric colloid dissolved using deferoxamine, the MS2 concentration in the colloid-dissolved solution was 190-fold higher than that found in raw water according to RT-qPCR analysis. This is a novel method for concentrating RNA viruses to facilitate their detection in river water using coagulation and foam separation combined with chelate dissolution of ferric flocs. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthesis and phase transformations involving scorodite, ferric arsenate and arsenical ferrihydrite: Implications for arsenic mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paktunc, Dogan; Dutrizac, John; Gertsman, Valery

    2008-06-01

    Scorodite, ferric arsenate and arsenical ferrihydrite are important arsenic carriers occurring in a wide range of environments and are also common precipitates used by metallurgical industries to control arsenic in effluents. Solubility and stability of these compounds are controversial because of the complexities in their identification and characterization in heterogeneous media. To provide insights into the formation of scorodite, ferric arsenate and ferrihydrite, series of synthesis experiments were carried out at 70 °C and pH 1, 2, 3 and 4.5 from 0.2 M Fe(SO 4) 1.5 solutions also containing 0.02-0.2 M Na 2HAsO 4. The precipitates were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption fine structure techniques. Ferric arsenate, characterized by two broad diffuse peaks on the XRD pattern and having the structural formula of FeAsO 4·4-7H 2O, is a precursor to scorodite formation. As defined by As XAFS and Fe XAFS, the local structure of ferric arsenate is profoundly different than that of scorodite. It is postulated that the ferric arsenate structure is made of single chains of corner-sharing Fe(O,OH) 6 octahedra with bridging arsenate tetrahedra alternating along the chains. Scorodite was precipitated from solutions with Fe/As molar ratios of 1 over the pH range of 1-4.5. The pH strongly controls the kinetics of scorodite formation and its transformation from ferric arsenate. The scorodite crystallite size increased from 7 to 33 nm by ripening and aggregation. Precipitates, resulting from continuous synthesis at pH 4.5 from solutions having Fe/As molar ratios ranging from 1 to 4 and resembling the compounds referred to as ferric arsenate, arsenical ferrihydrite and As-rich hydrous ferric oxide in the literature, represent variable mixtures of ferric arsenate and ferrihydrite. When the Fe/As ratio increases, the proportion of ferrihydrite increases at the expense of ferric arsenate. Arsenate adsorption appears to retard

  2. Synthesis and phase transformations involving scorodite, ferric arsenate and arsenical ferrihydrite: Implications for arsenic mobility

    SciTech Connect

    Paktunc, D.; Dutrizac, J.; Gertsman, V.

    2008-07-07

    Scorodite, ferric arsenate and arsenical ferrihydrite are important arsenic carriers occurring in a wide range of environments and are also common precipitates used by metallurgical industries to control arsenic in effluents. Solubility and stability of these compounds are controversial because of the complexities in their identification and characterization in heterogeneous media. To provide insights into the formation of scorodite, ferric arsenate and ferrihydrite, series of synthesis experiments were carried out at 70 C and pH 1, 2, 3 and 4.5 from 0.2 M Fe(SO{sub 4}){sub 1.5} solutions also containing 0.02--0.2 M Na{sub 2}HAsO{sub 4}. The precipitates were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption fine structure techniques. Ferric arsenate, characterized by two broad diffuse peaks on the XRD pattern and having the structural formula of FeAsO{sub 4}{center_dot}4-7H{sub 2}O, is a precursor to scorodite formation. As defined by As XAFS, the local structure of ferric arsenate is profoundly different than that of scorodite. It is postulated that the ferric arsenate structure is made of single chains of corner-sharing Fe(O,OH){sub 6} octahedra with bridging arsenate tetrahedra alternating along the chains. Scorodite was precipitated from solutions with Fe/As molar ratios of 1 over the pH range of 1--4.5. The pH strongly controls the kinetics of scorodite formation and its transformation from ferric arsenate. The scorodite crystallite size increased from 7 to 33 nm by ripening and aggregation. Precipitates, resulting from continuous synthesis at pH 4.5 from solutions having Fe/As molar ratios ranging from 1 to 4 and resembling the compounds referred to as ferric arsenate, arsenical ferrihydrite and As-rich hydrous ferric oxide in the literature, represent variable mixtures of ferric arsenate and ferrihydrite. When the Fe/As ratio increases, the proportion of ferrihydrite increases at the expense of ferric arsenate

  3. Protection by alpha G-rutin, a water-soluble antioxidant flavonoid, against renal damage in mice treated with ferric nitrilotriacetate.

    PubMed

    Shimoi, K; Shen, B; Toyokuni, S; Mochizuki, R; Furugori, M; Kinae, N

    1997-05-01

    The protective effect of alpha G-Rutin against ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA)-induced renal damage was studied in male ICR mice. Fe-NTA induces renal lipid peroxidation, leading to a high incidence of renal cell carcinoma in rodents. Administration of alpha G-Rutin (50 mumol as rutin/kg) by gastric intubation 30 min after i.p. injection of Fe-NTA (7 mg Fe/kg) most effectively suppressed renal lipid peroxidation. Repeated i.p. injection of Fe-NTA (2 mg Fe/kg/day for the first 3 days and 3 mg Fe /kg/day for 12 days, 5 days a week) causes subacute nephrotoxicity as revealed by induction of karyomegalic cells in renal proximal tubules. A protective effect was observed in mice given alpha G-Rutin 30 min after each Fe-NTA treatment. To elucidate the mechanism of protection by alpha G-Rutin, the pharmacokinetics and hydroxyl radical-scavenging effect of alpha G-Rutin were investigated by HPLC analysis and by electron spin resonance (ESR) spin trapping with 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO), respectively. When mice were given alpha G-Rutin (50 mumol as rutin/kg) by gastric intubation, rapid absorption into the circulation was observed. The plasma concentration of alpha G-Rutin reached the highest level 30 min after oral administration and then decreased to the control level within 60 min, alpha G-Rutin inhibited the formation of DMPO-OH in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, chelating activity of alpha G-Rutin to ferric ions was shown by spectrophotometric analysis. These results suggest that absorbed alpha G-Rutin works as an antioxidant in vivo either by scavenging reactive oxygen species or by chelating ferric ions and this serves to prevent oxidative renal damage in mice treated with Fe-NTA.

  4. Rates of hydrous ferric oxide crystallization and the influence on coprecipitated arsenate.

    PubMed

    Ford, Robert G

    2002-06-01

    Arsenate coprecipitated with hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) was stabilized against dissolution during transformation of HFO to more crystalline iron (hydr)oxides. The rate of arsenate stabilization approximately coincided with the rate of HFO transformation at pH 6 and 40 degrees C. Comparison of extraction data and X-ray diffraction results confirmed that hematite and goethite were the primary transformation products. HFO transformation was significantly retarded at or above an arsenate solid loading of 29 455 mg As/kg HFO. However, HFO transformation proceeded at a significant rate for arsenate solid loadings of 4208 and 8416 mg As/kg HFO. At a solid loading of 8416 mg As/kg HFO, XRD results suggested arsenate primarily partitioned to hematite. Comparison of HFO transformation rates observed in this research to rates obtained from the literature at pH 6 and temperatures ranging from 24 to 70 degrees C suggests that arsenate stabilization could be realized in oxic environments with a significantfraction of iron (hydr)oxides. While this process has not been documented in natural systems, the predicted half-life for transformation of an arsenic-bearing HFO is approximately 300 days at 25 degrees C at solid loading < 8415 mg As/kg HFO. The projected time frame for arsenate stabilization indicates this process should be considered during development of conceptual and analytical models describing arsenic fate and transport in oxic systems containing reactive iron (hydr)oxides. The likelihood of this process would depend on the chemical dynamics of the soil or sediment system relative to iron (hydr)oxide precipitation-dissolution reactions and the potential retarding/competing influence of ions such as silicate and organic matter.

  5. Structure and regulon of Campylobacter jejuni ferric uptake regulator Fur define apo-Fur regulation.

    PubMed

    Butcher, James; Sarvan, Sabina; Brunzelle, Joseph S; Couture, Jean-François; Stintzi, Alain

    2012-06-19

    The full regulatory potential of the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) family of proteins remains undefined despite over 20 years of study. We report herein an integrated approach that combines both genome-wide technologies and structural studies to define the role of Fur in Campylobacter jejuni (Cj). CjFur ChIP-chip assays identified 95 genomic loci bound by CjFur associated with functions as diverse as iron acquisition, flagellar biogenesis, and non-iron ion transport. Comparative analysis with transcriptomic data revealed that CjFur regulation extends beyond solely repression and also includes both gene activation and iron-independent regulation. Computational analysis revealed the presence of an elongated holo-Fur repression motif along with a divergent holo-Fur activation motif. This diversity of CjFur DNA-binding elements is supported by the crystal structure of CjFur, which revealed a unique conformation of its DNA-binding domain and the absence of metal in the regulatory site. Strikingly, our results indicate that the apo-CjFur structure retains the canonical V-shaped dimer reminiscent of previously characterized holo-Fur proteins enabling DNA interaction. This conformation stems from a structurally unique hinge domain that is poised to further contribute to CjFur's regulatory functions by modulating the orientation of the DNA-binding domain upon binding of iron. The unique features of the CjFur crystal structure rationalize the binding sequence diversity that was uncovered during ChIP-chip analysis and defines apo-Fur regulation.

  6. Cost-Minimization Analysis Favours Intravenous Ferric Carboxymaltose over Ferric Sucrose for the Ambulatory Treatment of Severe Iron Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Calvet, Xavier; Ruíz, Miquel Àngel; Dosal, Angelina; Moreno, Laura; López, Maria; Figuerola, Ariadna; Suarez, David; Miquel, Mireia; Villoria, Albert; Gené, Emili

    2012-01-01

    Objective Intravenous iron is widely used to treat iron deficiency in day-care units. Ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) allows administration of larger iron doses than iron sucrose (IS) in each infusion (1000 mg vs. 200 mg). As FCM reduces the number of infusions required but is more expensive, we performed a cost-minimization analysis to compare the cost impact of the two drugs. Materials and Methods The number of infusions and the iron dose of 111 consecutive patients who received intravenous iron at a gastrointestinal diseases day-care unit from 8/2007 to 7/2008 were retrospectively obtained. Costs of intravenous iron drugs were obtained from the Spanish regulatory agencies. The accounting department of the Hospital determined hospital direct and indirect costs for outpatient iron infusion. Non-hospital direct costs were calculated on the basis of patient interviews. In the pharmacoeconomic model, base case mean costs per patient were calculated for administering 1000 mg of iron per infusion using FCM or 200 mg using IS. Sensitivity analysis and Monte Carlo simulation were performed. Results Under baseline assumptions, the estimated cost of iron infusion per patient and year was €304 for IS and €274 for FCM, a difference of €30 in favour of FCM. Adding non-hospital direct costs to the model increased the difference to €67 (€354 for IS vs. €287 for FCM). A Monte Carlo simulation taking into account non-hospital direct costs favoured the use of FCM in 97% of simulations. Conclusion In this pharmacoeconomic analysis, FCM infusion reduced the costs of iron infusion at a gastrointestinal day-care unit. PMID:23029129

  7. Effect of natural dissolved organic carbon on phosphate removal by ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate treatment of wetland waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qualls, Robert G.; Sherwood, Lindsay J.; Richardson, Curtis J.

    2009-09-01

    The use of wetlands for the removal of excess N and P has become widespread. Some sensitive P-limited ecosystems, however, may require additional reductions in the concentration of P entering the system. It has been proposed that the treatment of wetlands through addition of ferric chloride or aluminum sulfate can augment the natural P removal mechanisms. However, high concentrations of natural dissolved organic matter may interfere with the removal of P by metal addition. We evaluated the doses of ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate necessary to reduce total P concentrations below 0.32 μM (10 μg/L) in water from the Northern Everglades, and we determined the effect of various concentrations (21, 38, and 60 mg/L) of natural dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on the removal of PO4 and total P. High concentrations of natural DOC inhibited both the short-term removal of PO4 and the longer-term removal of total P from the water column. Similar results were observed using 15 μM citric acid in an experiment to determine whether citric acid could effectively mimic the inhibition of phosphorus removal associated with natural DOC. Stoichiometry of these experiments indicates that the mechanism of natural DOC interference was not complexation of the metal ions by the DOC; we hypothesize that it could be adsorption to the terminal hydroxyl groups on a polynuclear Fe or Al colloid, effectively blocking the adsorption sites from a phosphate molecule. Also, the ability of citric acid to mimic the inhibitory effects also suggests that the results of the study are broadly applicable to wetland and other waters with high natural organic acid concentrations.

  8. Induction of hepatic and renal metallothionein synthesis by ferric nitrilotriacetate in mice: the role of MT as an antioxidant

    SciTech Connect

    Min, Kyong-Son . E-mail: min@nutr.kobegakuin.ac.jp; Morishita, Fumio; Tetsuchikawahara, Noriko; Onosaka, Satomi

    2005-04-01

    Metallothionein (MT) demonstrates strong antioxidant properties, yet the physiological relevance of its antioxidant action is not clear. Injection of mice with ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA) caused a dose-dependent increase in hepatic and renal MT. Fe-NTA caused a greater increase in hepatic and renal MT concentration (2.5- and 4-fold) compared with FeCl{sub 3} at the same dose of ferric ion. MT mRNA levels were markedly elevated in both of tissues. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values in both tissues reached a maximum after 2-4 h. The MT concentrations were significantly increased after 2-4 h in liver and after 8-16 h in kidneys. Plasma concentrations of cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF{alpha} were elevated by 4 h; IL-6 levels were 24 times higher after Fe-NTA than that after injection of FeCl{sub 3}. Pretreatment of mice with ZnSO{sub 4} attenuated nephrotoxicity induced by Fe-NTA after 2 h, but was not effective 4 h after injection. After a Fe-NTA injection, a loss of Cd-binding properties of preinduced MT was observed only in kidneys of Zn-pretreated mice but not in liver. Treatment with BSO, glutathione (GSH) depletor, intensified a loss of its Cd-binding properties after a Fe-NTA injection. These results indicate that induction of MT synthesis may result from reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by Fe-NTA, and MT may act in vivo as a complementary antioxidant.

  9. Bacterial Vaginosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Bacterial Vaginosis Page Content Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common vaginal infection in ... in harmful bacteria. The actual organism responsible for vaginosis hasn’t been clearly identified. BV is uncommon ...

  10. Assimilation of metal ions bound to porphyrins or porphyrin-peptides by vibrio vulnificus, a human pathogen inhabiting estuarine and marine environments.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, Shin-ichi; Sasaki, Tomoko; Kaku, Nahoko; Inoue, Takaharu; Uozumi, Natsuki; Maehara, Yoko; Nakao, Hiroshi

    2010-03-01

    Vibrio vulnificus, a ubiquitous microorganism in aquatic environments, causes serious septicemia to the immunocompromised host. In addition to protoheme, this species can utilize Fe-TCPP [ferric tetrakis (4-carboxyphenyl) porphine] as an iron source. In the present study, heme c bound covalently to the protein in cytochrome c, as well as the Fe-TCPP complex formed with a nanopeptide with a high affinity, was found to be useful iron sources for V. vulnificus. This bacterium was also revealed to use Zn-TCPP as a single zinc source. However, other metalloporphyrins such as Mn-TCPP and Pt-TCPP delayed the bacterial growth in the broth containing Fe-TCPP, suggesting interference in the iron assimilation. These results indicate that V. vulnificus may acquire metal ions from both free and peptide-bound metalloporphyrins.

  11. Perianth bottom-specific blue color development in Tulip cv. Murasakizuisho requires ferric ions.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Kazuaki; Miki, Naoko; Nakajima, Noriyuki; Momonoi, Kazumi; Kato, Chiharu; Yoshida, Kumi

    2007-02-01

    The entire flower of Tulipa gesneriana cv. Murasakizuisho is purple, except the bottom, which is blue. To elucidate the mechanism of the different color development in the same petal, we prepared protoplasts from the purple and blue epidermal regions and measured the flavonoid composition by HPLC, the vacuolar pH by a proton-selective microelectrode, and element contents by the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) method. Chemical analyses revealed that the anthocyanin and flavonol compositions in both purple and blue colored protoplasts were the same; delphinidin 3-O-rutinoside (1) and major three flavonol glycosides, manghaslin (2), rutin (3) and mauritianin (4). The vacuolar pH values of the purple and blue protoplasts were 5.5 and 5.6, respectively, without any significant difference. However, the Fe(3+) content in the blue protoplast was approximately 9.5 mM, which was 25 times higher than that in the purple protoplasts. We could reproduce the purple solution by mixing 1 with two equimolar concentrations of flavonol with lambda(vismax) = 539 nm, which was identical to that of the purple protoplasts. Furthermore, addition of Fe(3+) to the mixture of 1-4 gave the blue solution with lambda(vismax) = 615 nm identical to that of the blue protoplasts. We have established that Fe(3+) is essential for blue color development in the tulip.

  12. An integrated process for microalgae harvesting and cell disruption by the use of ferric ions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Yeon; Oh, You-Kwan; Park, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Bohwa; Choi, Sun-A; Han, Jong-In

    2015-09-01

    In this study, a simultaneous process of harvesting biomass and extracting crude bio-oil was attempted from wet microalgae biomass using FeCl3 and Fe2(SO4)3 as both coagulant and cell-disrupting agent. A culture solution of Chlorella sp. KR-1 was firstly concentrated to 20 g/L and then proceeded for cell disruption with the addition of H2O2. Optimal dosage were 560 and 1060 mg/L for FeCl3 and Fe2(SO4)3, showing harvesting efficiencies of more than 99%. Optimal extraction conditions were identified via the response surface method (RSM), and the extraction yield was almost the same at 120 °C for both iron salts but FAME compositions after transesterification was found to be quite different. Given iron salts were a reference coagulant in water treatment in general and microalgae harvesting in particular, the present approach of using it for harvesting and oil-extraction in a simultaneous manner can serve as a practical route for the microalgae-derived biodiesel production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ferritin Protein Nanocage Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Tosha, Takehiko; Behera, Rabindra K.; Ng, Ho-Leung; Bhattasali, Onita; Alber, Tom; Theil, Elizabeth C.

    2012-01-01

    Ferritin protein nanocages, self-assembled from four-α-helix bundle subunits, use Fe2+ and oxygen to synthesize encapsulated, ferric oxide minerals. Ferritin minerals are iron concentrates stored for cell growth. Ferritins are also antioxidants, scavenging Fenton chemistry reactants. Channels for iron entry and exit consist of helical hairpin segments surrounding the 3-fold symmetry axes of the ferritin nanocages. We now report structural differences caused by amino acid substitutions in the Fe2+ ion entry and exit channels and at the cytoplasmic pores, from high resolution (1.3–1.8 Å) protein crystal structures of the eukaryotic model ferritin, frog M. Mutations that eliminate conserved ionic or hydrophobic interactions between Arg-72 and Asp-122 and between Leu-110 and Leu-134 increase flexibility in the ion channels, cytoplasmic pores, and/or the N-terminal extensions of the helix bundles. Decreased ion binding in the channels and changes in ordered water are also observed. Protein structural changes coincide with increased Fe2+ exit from dissolved, ferric minerals inside ferritin protein cages; Fe2+ exit from ferritin cages depends on a complex, surface-limited process to reduce and dissolve the ferric mineral. High concentrations of bovine serum albumin or lysozyme (protein crowders) to mimic the cytoplasm restored Fe2+ exit in the variants to wild type. The data suggest that fluctuations in pore structure control gating. The newly identified role of the ferritin subunit N-terminal extensions in gating Fe2+ exit from the cytoplasmic pores strengthens the structural and functional analogies between ferritin ion channels in the water-soluble protein assembly and membrane protein ion channels gated by cytoplasmic N-terminal peptides. PMID:22362775

  14. Surface characterization of three marine bacterial strains by Fourier transform IR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry, correlation with adhesion on stainless steel surfaces.

    PubMed

    Pradier, C M; Rubio, C; Poleunis, C; Bertrand, P; Marcus, P; Compère, C

    2005-05-19

    Adhesion of bacterial strains on solid substrates is likely related to the properties of the outer shell of the micro-organisms. Aiming at a better understanding and control of the biofilm formation in seawater, the surface chemical composition of three marine bacterial strains was investigated by combining Fourier transform IR spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The D41 strain surface showed evidence of proteins, as deduced from the NH2 and NCO XPS and ToF-SIMS fingerprints; this strain was found to adhere to stainless steel, glass, or Teflon surfaces in a much higher quantity (2 orders of magnitude) than the two other ones, DA and D01. The latter are either enriched in COOH or sulfates, and this makes them more hydrophilic and less adherent to all substrates. Correlations with physicochemical properties and adhesion seem to demonstrate the role of the external layer composition, in particular the role of proteins more than that of hydrophobicity, on their adhesion abilities.

  15. Electronic Properties of Ferric Chloride Intercalated Graphite Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, Robert E., Jr.

    This dissertation reports electronic transport measurements on ferric chloride (FeCl_3) graphite intercalation compounds (GIC's). The c-axis conductivity is measured as a function of temperature from 1K to 293K in various stages of FeCl _3 acceptor GIC's and there are marked changes in the behavior of the conductivity as a function of stage. An attempt is made to explain these results on the basis of current theories of c-axis conduction in GIC's, notably the various hopping mechanisms assisted by phonons and impurities in parallel with band conduction. The in-plane resistivity of various stages of FeCl_3 GIC's at temperatures from 1K to 293K is measured and it is found that the absolute conductivity is enhanced from that of highly-oriented pyrolytic graphite and that the temperature behavior is metal-like and stage dependent. The hall effect and magnetoresistance of the samples are measured at low and high applied magnetic fields (up to 20T) and at various fixed point temperatures (1K, 4K, 77K, and 293K). Besides qualitative features obtained from these measurements such as the sign of the predominant carrier and the shape of the fermi surface, the Lorentz -Drude Single Carrier Model is used to obtain the carrier densities and mobilities as a function of stage. Shubnikov-deHaas (SdH) oscillations are observed in the samples at high field and at various temperatures from 1K to about 30K. The data are used to determine the effective carrier masses, relaxation times, and mobilities for some stages. DeHaas-VanAlphen oscillations are also observed in the AC susceptibility in independently measured samples. The frequencies observed are comparable to those observed in the SdH measurements but in the cases of both types of measurements, frequencies which are present in some samples are not found in others. The data is in good agreement with previous preliminary measurements by other investigators. ftn*All degree requirements completed in 1993, but degree will be granted

  16. Cyanide binding to ferrous and ferric microperoxidase-11.

    PubMed

    Ascenzi, Paolo; Sbardella, Diego; Santucci, Roberto; Coletta, Massimo

    2016-07-01

    Microperoxidase-11 (MP11) is an undecapeptide derived from horse heart cytochrome c (cytc). MP11 is characterized by a covalently linked solvent-exposed heme group, the heme-Fe atom being axially coordinated by a histidyl residue. Here, the reactions of ferrous and ferric MP11 (MP11-Fe(II) and MP11-Fe(III), respectively) with cyanide have been investigated from the kinetic and thermodynamic viewpoints, at pH 7.0 and 20.0 °C. Values of the second-order rate constant for cyanide binding to MP11-Fe(II) and MP11-Fe(III) are 4.5 M(-1) s(-1) and 8.9 × 10(3) M(-1) s(-1), respectively. Values of the first-order rate constant for cyanide dissociation from ligated MP11-Fe(II) and MP11-Fe(III) are 1.8 × 10(-1) s(-1) and 1.5 × 10(-3) s(-1), respectively. Values of the dissociation equilibrium constant for cyanide binding to MP11-Fe(II) and MP11-Fe(III) are 3.7 × 10(-2) and 1.7 × 10(-7) M, respectively, matching very well with those calculated from kinetic parameters so that no intermediate species seem to be involved in the ligand-binding process. The pH-dependence of cyanide binding to MP11-Fe(III) indicates that CN(-) is the only binding species. Present results have been analyzed in parallel with those of several heme-proteins, suggesting that (1) the ligand accessibility to the metal center and cyanide ionization may modulate the formation of heme-Fe-cyanide complexes, and (2) the general polarity of the heme pocket and/or hydrogen bonding of the heme-bound ligand may affect cyanide exit from the protein matrix. Microperoxidase-11 (MP11) is an undecapeptide derived from horse heart cytochrome c. Penta-coordinated MP11 displays a very high reactivity towards cyanide, whereas the reactivity of hexa-coordinated horse heart cytochrome c is very low.

  17. Quantitative determination of cesium binding to ferric hexacyanoferrate: Prussian blue.

    PubMed

    Faustino, Patrick J; Yang, Yongsheng; Progar, Joseph J; Brownell, Charles R; Sadrieh, Nakissa; May, Joan C; Leutzinger, Eldon; Place, David A; Duffy, Eric P; Houn, Florence; Loewke, Sally A; Mecozzi, Vincent J; Ellison, Christopher D; Khan, Mansoor A; Hussain, Ajaz S; Lyon, Robbe C

    2008-05-12

    Ferric hexacyanoferrate (Fe4III[FeII(CN)6]3), also known as insoluble Prussian blue (PB) is the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of the drug product, Radiogardase. Radiogardase is the first FDA approved medical countermeasure for the treatment of internal contamination with radioactive cesium (Cs) or thallium in the event of a major radiological incident such as a "dirty bomb". A number of pre-clinical and clinical studies have evaluated the use of PB as an investigational decorporation agent to enhance the excretion of metal cations. There are few sources of published in vitro data that detail the binding capacity of cesium to insoluble PB under various chemical and physical conditions. The study objective was to determine the in vitro binding capacity of PB APIs and drug products by evaluating certain chemical and physical factors such as medium pH, particle size, and storage conditions (temperature). In vitro experimental conditions ranged from pH 1 to 9, to cover the range of pH levels that PB may encounter in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in humans. Measurements of cesium binding were made between 1 and 24h, to cover gastric and intestinal tract residence time using a validated atomic emission spectroscopy (AES) method. The results indicated that pH, exposure time, storage temperature (affecting moisture content) and particle size play significant roles in the cesium binding to both the PB API and the drug product. The lowest cesium binding was observed at gastric pH of 1 and 2, whereas the highest cesium binding was observed at physiological pH of 7.5. It was observed that dry storage conditions resulted in a loss of moisture from PB, which had a significant negative effect on the PB cesium binding capacity at time intervals consistent with gastric residence. Differences were also observed in the binding capacity of PB with different particle sizes. Significant batch to batch differences were also observed in the binding capacity of some PB API and

  18. A method to buffer the concentrations of free Zn and Cd ions using a cation exchange resin in bacterial toxicity studies

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, B.; McGrath, S.P.

    1995-12-01

    The chemical form or species of metal present in a growth system is crucial to the toxicity of that metal. A growth medium is described in which the free metal concentration of either Zn or Cd is known. A method using a cation exchange resin as a buffer to maintain free metal ion concentrations during microbial growth is discussed. Using a buffered system, free concentrations of 3.4 {micro}g Cd L{sup {minus}1} and 57 {micro}g Zn L{sup {minus}1} reduced the growth rate of a sensitive isolate of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar trifolii. The results demonstrate that to assess the true toxicity of Cd and Zn, the free ion concentration must be considered and that small free concentrations must be buffered.

  19. Reflectance spectroscopy of ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonites as Mars soil analog materials.

    PubMed

    Bishop, J L; Pieters, C M; Burns, R G; Edwards, J O; Mancinelli, R L; Fröschl, H

    1995-09-01

    Spectroscopic analyses have shown that smectites enhanced in the laboratory with additional ferric species exhibit important similarities to those of the soils on Mars. Ferrihydrite in these chemically treated smectites has features in the visible to near-infrared region that resemble the energies and band strengths of features in reflectance spectra observed for several bright regions on Mars. New samples have been prepared with sulfate as well, because S was found by Viking to be a major component in the surface material on Mars. A suite of ferrihydrite-bearing and ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonites, prepared with variable Fe3+ and S concentrations and variable pH conditions, has been analyzed using reflectance spectroscopy in the visible and infrared regions, Mössbauer spectroscopy at room temperature and 4 K, differential thermal analysis, and X-ray diffraction. These analyses support the formation of ferrihydrite of variable crystallinity in the ferrihydrite-bearing montmorillonites and a combination of schwertmannite and ferrihydrite in the ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonites. Small quantities of poorly crystalline or nanophase forms of other ferric materials may also be present in these samples. The chemical formation conditions of the ferrihydrite-bearing and ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonites influence the character of the low temperature Mössbauer sextets and the visible reflectance spectra. An absorption minimum is observed at 0.88-0.89 micrometers in spectra of the ferric sulfate-bearing samples, and at 0.89-0.92 micrometers in spectra of the ferrihydrate-bearing montmorillonites. Mössbauer spectra of the ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonites indicate variable concentrations of ferrihydrite and schwertmannite in the interlaminar spaces and along grain surfaces. Dehydration under reduced atmospheric pressure conditions induces a greater effect on the adsorbed and interlayer water in ferrihydrite-bearing montmorillonite than on the

  20. Reflectance spectroscopy of ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonites as Mars soil analog materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, J. L.; Pieters, C. M.; Burns, R. G.; Edwards, J. O.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Froschl, H.

    1995-01-01

    Spectroscopic analyses have shown that smectites enhanced in the laboratory with additional ferric species exhibit important similarities to those of the soils on Mars. Ferrihydrite in these chemically treated smectites has features in the visible to near-infrared region that resemble the energies and band strengths of features in reflectance spectra observed for several bright regions on Mars. New samples have been prepared with sulfate as well, because S was found by Viking to be a major component in the surface material on Mars. A suite of ferrihydrite-bearing and ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonites, prepared with variable Fe3+ and S concentrations and variable pH conditions, has been analyzed using reflectance spectroscopy in the visible and infrared regions, Mossbauer spectroscopy at room temperature and 4 K, differential thermal analysis, and X-ray diffraction. These analyses support the formation of ferrihydrite of variable crystallinity in the ferrihydrite-bearing montmorillonites and a combination of schwertmannite and ferrihydrite in the ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonites. Small quantities of poorly crystalline or nanophase forms of other ferric materials may also be present in these samples. The chemical formation conditions of the ferrihydrite-bearing and ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonites influence the character of the low temperature Mossbauer sextets and the visible reflectance spectra. An absorption minimum is observed at 0.88-0.89 micrometers in spectra of the ferric sulfate-bearing samples, and at 0.89-0.92 micrometers in spectra of the ferrihydrate-bearing montmorillonites. Mossbauer spectra of the ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonites indicate variable concentrations of ferrihydrite and schwertmannite in the interlaminar spaces and along grain surfaces. Dehydration under reduced atmospheric pressure conditions induces a greater effect on the adsorbed and interlayer water in ferrihydrite-bearing montmorillonite than on the water

  1. Reflectance spectroscopy of ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonites as Mars soil analog materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, J. L.; Pieters, C. M.; Burns, R. G.; Edwards, J. O.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Froschl, H.

    1995-01-01

    Spectroscopic analyses have shown that smectites enhanced in the laboratory with additional ferric species exhibit important similarities to those of the soils on Mars. Ferrihydrite in these chemically treated smectites has features in the visible to near-infrared region that resemble the energies and band strengths of features in reflectance spectra observed for several bright regions on Mars. New samples have been prepared with sulfate as well, because S was found by Viking to be a major component in the surface material on Mars. A suite of ferrihydrite-bearing and ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonites, prepared with variable Fe3+ and S concentrations and variable pH conditions, has been analyzed using reflectance spectroscopy in the visible and infrared regions, Mossbauer spectroscopy at room temperature and 4 K, differential thermal analysis, and X-ray diffraction. These analyses support the formation of ferrihydrite of variable crystallinity in the ferrihydrite-bearing montmorillonites and a combination of schwertmannite and ferrihydrite in the ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonites. Small quantities of poorly crystalline or nanophase forms of other ferric materials may also be present in these samples. The chemical formation conditions of the ferrihydrite-bearing and ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonites influence the character of the low temperature Mossbauer sextets and the visible reflectance spectra. An absorption minimum is observed at 0.88-0.89 micrometers in spectra of the ferric sulfate-bearing samples, and at 0.89-0.92 micrometers in spectra of the ferrihydrate-bearing montmorillonites. Mossbauer spectra of the ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonites indicate variable concentrations of ferrihydrite and schwertmannite in the interlaminar spaces and along grain surfaces. Dehydration under reduced atmospheric pressure conditions induces a greater effect on the adsorbed and interlayer water in ferrihydrite-bearing montmorillonite than on the water

  2. A spin crossover ferrous complex with ordered magnetic ferric anions.

    PubMed

    Roubeau, Olivier; Evangelisti, Marco; Natividad, Eva

    2012-08-07

    The first tetrahaloferrate spin crossover compound, [Fe(Metz)(6)](FeBr(4))(2) (Metz = 1-methyltetrazole), is reported. The FeBr(4)(-) ions form ferromagnetically coupled 1D stacks and exhibit an antiferromagnetic order at 2.2 K, which coexists with the gradual spin crossover centred at 165 K.

  3. Evaluation of Ferric and Ferrous Iron Therapies in Women with Iron Deficiency Anaemia

    PubMed Central

    Berber, Ilhami; Erkurt, Mehmet Ali; Aydogdu, Ismet; Kuku, Irfan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Different ferric and ferrous iron preparations can be used as oral iron supplements. Our aim was to compare the effects of oral ferric and ferrous iron therapies in women with iron deficiency anaemia. Methods. The present study included 104 women diagnosed with iron deficiency anaemia after evaluation. In the evaluations performed to detect the aetiology underlying the iron deficiency anaemia, it was found and treated. After the detection of the iron deficiency anaemia aetiology and treatment of the underlying aetiology, the ferric group consisted of 30 patients treated with oral ferric protein succinylate tablets (2 × 40 mg elemental iron/day), and the second group consisted of 34 patients treated with oral ferrous glycine sulphate tablets (2 × 40 mg elemental iron/day) for three months. In all patients, the following laboratory evaluations were performed before beginning treatment and after treatment. Results. The mean haemoglobin and haematocrit increases were 0.95 g/dL and 2.62% in the ferric group, while they were 2.25 g/dL and 5.91% in the ferrous group, respectively. A significant difference was found between the groups regarding the increase in haemoglobin and haematocrit values (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Data are submitted on the good tolerability, higher efficacy, and lower cost of the ferrous preparation used in our study. PMID:25006339

  4. Synthesis and characterization of γ-ferric oxide nanoparticles and their effect on Solanum lycopersicum.

    PubMed

    Pavani, Tambur; Rao, K Venkateswara; Chakra, Ch Shilpa; Prabhu, Y T

    2016-05-01

    γ-Ferric oxide nanoparticles are synthesized through modern and facile ayurvedic route followed by normal and special purification steps, which are both cost-effective and eco-friendly. These synthesized γ-ferric oxide nanoparticles were applied on Solanum lycopersicum to search the effect on chlorophyll content. This process involves multiple filtration and calcination steps. The synthesized samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), and particle size analysis (PSA) to identify the purification step's influence on the structural, optical, morphological, magnetic, and particle size properties of ferric oxide nanoparticles (γ-phase). X-ray diffraction has revealed that ferric oxide nanoparticles have rhombohedral structure of α-phase (hematite) in initial purification process later transformed into cubic structure γ-phase (maghemite). UV-vis spectroscopy analysis has clearly shown that by repetitive purification steps, λmax has increased from 230 to 340 nm. TEM result has an intercorrelation with XRD results. γ-Ferric oxide nanoparticles were tested on Solanum lycopersicum (tomato seeds). The changes in the contents of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and total carotene were studied using spectral measurements at two different dosages-0.5 and 2 M. As a result, at 0.5-M concentration, magnetic nanoparticles exhibit fruitful results by increasing the crop yield and being more resistant to chlorosis.

  5. Interaction of nanoparticles of ferric oxide with brain nerve terminals and blood platelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, Tatiana; Krisanova, Natalia; Sivko, Roman; Borisov, Arseniy

    2012-07-01

    Nanoparticles of ferric oxide are the components of Lunar and Martian soil simulants. The observations suggest that exposure to Lunar soli simulant can be deleterious to human physiology and the components of lunar soil may be internalized by lung epithelium and may overcome the blood-brain barrier. The study focused on the effects of nanoparticles of ferric oxide on the functional state of rat brain nerve terminals (synaptosomes) and rabbit blood platelets. Using photon correlation spectroscopy, we demonstrated the binding of nanoparticles of ferric oxide with nerve terminals and platelets. Nanoparticles did not depolarize the plasma membrane of nerve terminals and platelets that was shown by fluorimetry with potential-sensitive fluorescent dye rhodamine 6G. Using pH-sensitive fluorescent dye acridine orange, we revealed that the acidification of synaptic vesicles of nerve terminals and secretory granules of platelets did not change in the presence of nanoparticles. The initial velocity of uptake of excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate was not influenced by nanoparticles of ferric oxide, whereas glutamate binding to nerve terminals was altered. Thus, it was suggested that nanoparticles of ferric oxide might disturb glutamate transport in the mammalian CNS.

  6. Ferric carboxymaltose in patients with restless legs syndrome and nonanemic iron deficiency: A randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Trenkwalder, Claudia; Winkelmann, Juliane; Oertel, Wolfgang; Virgin, Garth; Roubert, Bernard; Mezzacasa, Anna

    2017-06-23

    Compromised iron status is important in restless legs syndrome pathophysiology. We compared the efficacy and tolerability of ferric carboxymaltose (single intravenous dose) versus placebo for restless legs syndrome treatment in iron-deficient nonanemic patients. Patients with moderate to severe restless legs syndrome and serum ferritin < 75 μg/L (or serum ferritin 75-300 μg/L and transferrin saturation < 20%) were randomized to ferric carboxymaltose (1000 mg iron) or placebo. Mean change difference between ferric carboxymaltose and placebo in International Restless Legs Syndrome Severity Scale score from baseline to week 4 was the primary end point; week 12 was a secondary end point. Ferric carboxymaltose treatment (n = 59) led to nonsignificant improvement over placebo (n = 51) in International Restless Legs Syndrome Severity Scale score at week 4 (difference [95% confidence interval], -2.5 [-5.93 to 1.02], P = 0.163), reaching significance by week 12 (-4.66 [-8.59 to -0.73], P = 0.021). In patients who responded to treatment, ferric carboxymaltose may require more time to stabilize restless legs syndrome than previously assumed. © 2017 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  7. Radiographic success of ferric sulfate and formocresol pulpotomies in relation to early exfoliation.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Kaaren G; Packham, Brett

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the radiographic findings with formocresol and ferric sulfate pulpotomies in relation to early tooth loss. Vital pulpotomies with either ferric sulfate or formocresol, performed by faculty members between 1992 and 2002 at The University of Iowa, were evaluated retrospectively. Radiographic criteria were established to assess success or failure of the treated tooth. This was then correlated with time of tooth loss and space management. Eighty-five molars, followed between 6 to 61 months, met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 15 (43%) teeth treated with ferric sulfate, 23 (56%) treated with formocresol, and 5 (55%) treated with a combination of ferric sulfate and formocresol remained free of any radiographic pathology. Overall, 13% of the pulpotomized teeth were prematurely lost due to abscess formation and in need of space management. Regardless of the treatment type, internal root resorption was the most common cause of premature exfoliation. Both ferric sulfate and formocresol pulpotomies can lead to premature exfoliation of primary teeth, with the subsequent need for orthodontic space maintenance. Therefore, radiographic criteria should be taken into consideration when evaluating pulpotomized teeth at recall visits.

  8. Clinical and radiographic evaluation of pulpotomies in primary molars with formocresol, glutaraldehyde and ferric sulphate.

    PubMed

    Havale, Raghavendra; Anegundi, Rajesh T; Indushekar, Kr; Sudha, P

    2013-03-01

    This in vivo study aimed to assess and compare the relative clinical and radiographic success of formocresol, glutaraldehyde and ferric sulphate as medicaments following pulpotomies in primary molars at three-monthly intervals over one year. The study was carried out on 90 primary molars in 54 children aged from 3 to 9 years. Selected teeth were equally distributed and randomly assigned to formocresol, glutaraldehyde and ferric sulphate pulpotomy medicament groups (30 in each group). The teeth were then evaluated clinically and radiographically at three-monthly intervals over one year. The resulting data were tabulated and statistically analysed using the chi-square test. After one year, the clinical success rate was 100% with glutaraldehyde, 96.7% with ferric sulphate, and 86.7% with formocresol. The radiological success rate gradually decreased over the year in all pulpotomy medicament groups. Radiological success rates in formocresol, glutaraldehyde, and ferric sulphate groups were 56.7%, 83.3%, and 63.3%, respectively. Two per cent glutaraldehyde may be recommended as a more effective alternative to formocresol and ferric sulphate as a pulpotomy medicament.

  9. A Versatile Strategy for Production of Membrane Proteins with Diverse Topologies: Application to Investigation of Bacterial Homologues of Human Divalent Metal Ion and Nucleoside Transporters.

    PubMed

    Ma, Cheng; Hao, Zhenyu; Huysmans, Gerard; Lesiuk, Amelia; Bullough, Per; Wang, Yingying; Bartlam, Mark; Phillips, Simon E; Young, James D; Goldman, Adrian; Baldwin, Stephen A; Postis, Vincent L G

    2015-01-01

    Membrane proteins play key roles in many biological processes, from acquisition of nutrients to neurotransmission, and are targets for more than 50% of current therapeutic drugs. However, their investigation is hampered by difficulties in their production and purification on a scale suitable for structural studies. In particular, the nature and location of affinity tags introduced for the purification of recombinant membrane proteins can greatly influence their expression levels by affecting their membrane insertion. The extent of such effects typically depends on the transmembrane topologies of the proteins, which for proteins of unknown structure are usually uncertain. For example, attachment of oligohistidine tags to the periplasmic termini of membrane proteins often interferes with folding and drastically impairs expression in Escherichia coli. To circumvent this problem we have employed a novel strategy to enable the rapid production of constructs bearing a range of different affinity tags compatible with either cytoplasmic or periplasmic attachment. Tags include conventional oligohistidine tags compatible with cytoplasmic attachment and, for attachment to proteins with a periplasmic terminus, either tandem Strep-tag II sequences or oligohistidine tags fused to maltose binding protein and a signal sequence. Inclusion of cleavage sites for TEV or HRV-3C protease enables tag removal prior to crystallisation trials or a second step of purification. Together with the use of bioinformatic approaches to identify members of membrane protein families with topologies favourable to cytoplasmic tagging, this has enabled us to express and purify multiple bacterial membrane transporters. To illustrate this strategy, we describe here its use to purify bacterial homologues of human membrane proteins from the Nramp and ZIP families of divalent metal cation transporters and from the concentrative nucleoside transporter family. The proteins are expressed in E. coli in a

  10. Bacterial endophthalmitis.

    PubMed

    Durand, Marlene L

    2009-07-01

    Endophthalmitis refers to bacterial or fungal infection of the vitreous and/or aqueous humors of the eye. Bacterial endophthalmitis occurs most commonly after eye surgery or penetrating ocular trauma (exogenous endophthalmitis), but may also occur from hematogenous seeding during bacteremia (endogenous endophthalmitis). The presentation is usually acute, with eye pain and decreased vision. In exogenous endophthalmitis, infection is confined to the eye. There is no fever and minimal, if any, peripheral leukocytosis. Treatment includes direct injection of antibiotics into the vitreous, and vitrectomy in more severe cases. Systemic antibiotics are indicated in endogenous endophthalmitis; their role in exogenous endophthalmitis is controversial. Visual outcome depends on the virulence of the bacterial pathogen and the speed with which treatment is given. Acute bacterial endophthalmitis is a medical emergency, because delay in treatment may result in vision loss.

  11. [Bacterial vaginosis].

    PubMed

    Ostaszewska-Puchalska, Iwona; Zdrodowska-Stefanow, Bozena; Puciło, Katarzyna

    2004-09-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is one of the most common lower genital tract infections among women of childbearing age. This paper is a survey of literature data concerning epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical and laboratory diagnostic criteria of this clinical syndrome.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of Ferric Pyrophosphate Citrate, a Novel Iron Salt, Administered Intravenously to Healthy Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Raymond D; Swinkels, Dorine W; Ikizler, T Alp; Gupta, Ajay

    2017-03-01

    Ferric pyrophosphate citrate (Triferic) is a water-soluble iron salt that is administered via dialysate to maintain iron balance and hemoglobin in hemodialysis patients. This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, single-, ascending-dose study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and safety of intravenous ferric pyrophosphate citrate in 48 healthy iron-replete subjects (drug, n = 36; placebo, n = 12). Single doses of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, or 10 mg of ferric pyrophosphate citrate or placebo were administered over 4 hours, and single doses of 15 or 20 mg of ferric pyrophosphate citrate or placebo were administered over 12 hours via intravenous infusion. Serum total iron (sFetot ), transferrin-bound iron (TBI), hepcidin-25, and biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation were determined using validated assays. Marked diurnal variation in sFetot was observed in placebo-treated subjects. Concentrations of sFetot and TBI increased rapidly after drug administration, with maximum serum concentrations (Cmax ) reached at the end of infusion. Increases in baseline-corrected Cmax and area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to the time of the last quantifiable concentration (AUC0-t ) were dose proportional up to 100% transferrin saturation. Iron was rapidly cleared (apparent terminal phase half-life 1.2-2 hours). No significant changes from baseline in serum hepcidin-25 concentration were observed at end of infusion for any dose. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation were unaffected. Intravenous doses of ferric pyrophosphate citrate were well tolerated. These results demonstrate that intravenous ferric pyrophosphate citrate is rapidly bound to transferrin and cleared from the circulation without increasing serum hepcidin levels or biomarkers of oxidative stress or inflammation. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  13. Investigations of Ferric Heme Cyanide Photodissociation in Myoglobin and Horseradish Peroxidase

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Weiqiao; Sun, Yuhan; Benabbas, Abdelkrim; Champion, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    The photodissociation of cyanide from ferric myoglobin (MbCN) and horseradish peroxidase (HRPCN) has been definitively observed. This has implications for the interpretation of ultrafast IR (Helbing et al. Biophys. J. 2004, 87, 1881–1891) and optical (Gruia et al. Biophys. J. 2008, 94, 2252–2268) studies that had previously suggested the Fe-CN bond was photostable in MbCN. The photolysis of ferric MbCN takes place with a quantum yield of ~75% and the resonance Raman spectrum of the photoproduct observed in steady-state experiments as a function of laser power and sample spinning rate is identical to that of ferric Mb (metMb). The data are quantitatively analyzed using a simple model where cyanide is photodissociated and, although geminate rebinding with a rate kBA ≈ (3.6 ps)−1 is the dominant process, some CN− exits from the distal heme pocket and is replaced by water. Using independently determined values for the CN− association rate, we find that the CN− escape rate from the ferric myoglobin pocket to the solution at 293 K is kout ≈ 1–2 × 107 s−1. This value is very similar to, but slightly larger than, the histidine gated escape rate of CO from Mb (1.1×107 s−1) under the same conditions. The analysis leads to an escape probability kout/(kout+kBA) ~ 10−4, which is unobservable in most time domain kinetic measurements. However, the photolysis is surprisingly easy to detect in Mb using cw resonance Raman measurements. This is due to the anomalously slow CN− bimolecular association rate (170 M−1s−1), which arises from the need for water to exchange at the ferric heme binding site of Mb. In contrast, ferric HRP does not have a heme bound water molecule and its CN− bimolecular association rate is larger by ~103 making the CN− photolysis more difficult to observe. PMID:23472676

  14. Sequence diversity and enzyme activity of ferric-chelate reductase LeFRO1 in tomato.

    PubMed

    Kong, Danyu; Chen, Chunlin; Wu, Huilan; Li, Ye; Li, Junming; Ling, Hong-Qing

    2013-11-20

    Ferric-chelate reductase which functions in the reduction of ferric to ferrous iron on root surface is a critical protein for iron homeostasis in strategy I plants. LeFRO1 is a major ferric-chelate reductase involved in iron uptake in tomato. To identify the natural variations of LeFRO1 and to assess their effect on the ferric-chelate reductase activity, we cloned the coding sequences of LeFRO1 from 16 tomato varieties collected from different regions, and detected three types of LeFRO1 (LeFRO1(MM), LeFRO1(Ailsa) and LeFRO1(Monita)) with five amino acid variations at the positions 21, 24, 112, 195 and 582. Enzyme activity assay revealed that the three types of LeFRO1 possessed different ferric-chelate reductase activity (LeFRO1(Ailsa) > LeFRO1(MM) > LeFRO1(Monita)). The 112th amino acid residue Ala of LeFRO1 is critical for maintaining the high activity of ferric-chelate reductase, because modification of this amino acid resulted in a significant reduction of enzyme activity. Further, we showed that the combination of the amino acid residue Ile at the site 24 with Lys at the site 582 played a positive role in the enzyme activity of LeFRO1. In conclusion, the findings are helpful to understand the natural adaptation mechanisms of plants to iron-limiting stress, and may provide new knowledge to select and manipulate LeFRO1 for improving the iron deficiency tolerance in tomato.

  15. Pharmacokinetics of Ferric Pyrophosphate Citrate, a Novel Iron Salt, Administered Intravenously to Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Swinkels, Dorine W.; Ikizler, T. Alp; Gupta, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Ferric pyrophosphate citrate (Triferic) is a water‐soluble iron salt that is administered via dialysate to maintain iron balance and hemoglobin in hemodialysis patients. This double‐blind, randomized, placebo‐controlled, single‐, ascending‐dose study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and safety of intravenous ferric pyrophosphate citrate in 48 healthy iron‐replete subjects (drug, n = 36; placebo, n = 12). Single doses of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, or 10 mg of ferric pyrophosphate citrate or placebo were administered over 4 hours, and single doses of 15 or 20 mg of ferric pyrophosphate citrate or placebo were administered over 12 hours via intravenous infusion. Serum total iron (sFetot), transferrin‐bound iron (TBI), hepcidin‐25, and biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation were determined using validated assays. Marked diurnal variation in sFetot was observed in placebo‐treated subjects. Concentrations of sFetot and TBI increased rapidly after drug administration, with maximum serum concentrations (Cmax) reached at the end of infusion. Increases in baseline‐corrected Cmax and area under the concentration‐time curve from 0 to the time of the last quantifiable concentration (AUC0‐t) were dose proportional up to 100% transferrin saturation. Iron was rapidly cleared (apparent terminal phase half‐life 1.2‐2 hours). No significant changes from baseline in serum hepcidin‐25 concentration were observed at end of infusion for any dose. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation were unaffected. Intravenous doses of ferric pyrophosphate citrate were well tolerated. These results demonstrate that intravenous ferric pyrophosphate citrate is rapidly bound to transferrin and cleared from the circulation without increasing serum hepcidin levels or biomarkers of oxidative stress or inflammation. PMID:27557937

  16. DBAR investigation on films of polypyrrole incorporated polyvinylalcohol doped with ferric chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, Blaise; Baraker, B. M.; Hammannavar, P. B.; Bhajantri, R. F.; Ranganath, M. R.; Hurkadli, M.; Ravindrachary, V.

    2015-06-01

    Flexible films of pyrrole(Py) sorbed, ferric chloride (FeCl3) doped polyvinylalcohol(PVA) were prepared by solution casting. The films were characterized by XRD, UV-Visible spectrometry, Thermal Analysis (DSC, DTA/TGA), FTIR and electrical measurements. In this paper, the results of Doppler Broadening of Annihilation Radiation (DBAR) spectra in the doping range, from 4 wt% up to 18 wt%, are discussed. The XRD and DSC scans complement the DBAR results. The computed S- parameter and W -parameter reflect changes in the degree of crystallinity and the average crystallite size, respectively, of polypyrrole(PPy) incorporated PVA samples doped with ferric chloride.

  17. Microbial reduction of ferric iron oxyhydroxides as a way for remediation of grey forest soils heavily polluted with toxic metals by infiltration of acid mine drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, Plamen; Groudev, Stoyan; Spasova, Irena; Nicolova, Marina

    2015-04-01

    The abandoned uranium mine Curilo is a permanent source of acid mine drainage (AMD) which steadily contaminated grey forest soils in the area. As a result, the soil pH was highly acidic and the concentration of copper, lead, arsenic, and uranium in the topsoil was higher than the relevant Maximum Admissible Concentration (MAC) for soils. The leaching test revealed that approximately half of each pollutant was presented as a reducible fraction as well as the ferric iron in horizon A was presented mainly as minerals with amorphous structure. So, the approach for remediation of the AMD-affected soils was based on the process of redoxolysis carried out by iron-reducing bacteria. Ferric iron hydroxides reduction and the heavy metals released into soil solutions was studied in the dependence on the source of organic (fresh or silage hay) which was used for growth and activity of soil microflora, initial soil pH (3.65; 4.2; and 5.1), and the ion content of irrigation solutions. The combination of limestone (2.0 g/ kg soil), silage addition (at rate of 45 g dry weight/ kg soil) in the beginning and reiterated at 6 month since the start of soil remediation, and periodical soil irrigation with slightly acidic solutions containing CaCl2 was sufficient the content of lead and arsenic in horizon A to be decreased to concentrations similar to the relevant MAC. The reducible, exchangeable, and carbonate mobile fractions were phases from which the pollutants was leached during the applied soil remediation. It determined the higher reduction of the pollutants bioavailability also as well as the process of ferric iron reduction was combined with neutralization of the soil acidity to pH (H2O) 6.2.

  18. Study of arsenic(III) and arsenic(V) removal from waters using ferric hydroxide supported on silica gel prepared at low pH.

    PubMed

    Ciftçi, Tülin Deniz; Yayayürük, Onur; Henden, Emür

    2011-01-01

    Removal of As(III) and As(V) species using ferric hydroxide supported on silica gel was studied. Laboratory reagent quality silica gel was used as to avoid uncertainties that may be caused by impurities. Ferric hydroxide precipitation was realized at various pH values and a relatively low pH 6.0 was chosen because, at this pH, the highest arsenic removal capacity and removal efficiency were obtained and clear supernatant solution was observed. It was also shown by arsenic speciation analysis at trace level that As(III) is adsorbed onto ferric hydroxide partly without oxidation to As(V); this has been a controversial point in the literature. The effects on arsenic removal of some parameters such as pH, flow rate and matrix ions were investigated. In the batch method, initial pH change of the solution did not significantly affect the arsenic removal efficiencies for As(III) and As(V) in the pH range of 3.1-9.7. This was attributed to the decreases of the initial pH values to around 5 at equilibrium. The column capacities of 1.32 mg As(III)/g sorbent and 1.21 mg As(V)/g sorbent were found for initial concentration of 1.00 mg/L arsenic. Batch capacities were 16.2 mg As(III)/g sorbent and 17.7 mg As(V)/g sorbent for initial arsenic concentration of 100 mg/L. The method was applied successfully to the removal of As(III) and As(V) from drinking water, geothermal water and mineral water.

  19. Direct inhibition by nitric oxide of the transcriptional ferric uptake regulation protein via nitrosylation of the iron

    PubMed Central

    D'Autréaux, Benoît; Touati, Danièle; Bersch, Beate; Latour, Jean-Marc; Michaud-Soret, Isabelle

    2002-01-01

    Ferric uptake regulation protein (Fur) is a bacterial global regulator that uses iron as a cofactor to bind to specific DNA sequences. The function of Fur is not limited to iron homeostasis. A wide variety of genes involved in various mechanisms such as oxidative and acid stresses are under Fur control. Flavohemoglobin (Hmp) is an NO-detoxifying enzyme induced by NO and nitrosothiol compounds. Fur recently was found to regulate hmp in Salmonella typhimurium, and in Escherichia coli, the iron-chelating agent 2,2′-dipyridyl induces hmp expression. We now establish direct inhibition of E. coli Fur activity by NO. By using chromosomal Fur-regulated lacZ reporter fusion in E. coli, Fur activity is switched off by NO at micromolar concentration. In vitro Fur DNA-binding activity, as measured by protection of restriction site in aerobactin promoter, is directly sensitive to NO. NO reacts with FeII in purified FeFur protein to form a S = 1/2 low-spin FeFur–NO complex with a g = 2.03 EPR signal. Appearance of the same EPR signal in NO-treated cells links nitrosylation of the iron with Fur inhibition. The nitrosylated Fur protein is still a dimer and is stable in anaerobiosis but slowly decays in air. This inhibition probably arises from a conformational switch, leading to an inactive dimeric protein. These data establish a link between control of iron metabolism and the response to NO effects. PMID:12475930

  20. The effect of uranium on bacterial viability and cell surface morphology using atomic force microscopy in the presence of bicarbonate ions

    SciTech Connect

    Sepulveda-Medina, Paola; Katsenovich, Yelena; Musaramthota, Vishal; Lee, Michelle; Lee, Brady; Dua, Rupak; Lagos, Leonel

    2015-06-01

    Nuclear production facilities during the Cold War have caused liquid waste to leak and soak into the ground creating multiple radionuclide plumes. The Arthrobacter bacteria are one of the most common groups in soils and are found in large numbers in subsurface environments contaminated with radionuclides. This study experimentally analyzed changes on the bacteria surface after uranium exposure and evaluated the effect of bicarbonate ions on U(VI) toxicity of a less uranium tolerant Arthrobacter strain, G968, by investigating changes in adhesion forces and cells dimensions via atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM and viability studies showed that samples containing bicarbonate are able to acclimate and withstand uranium toxicity. Samples containing no bicarbonate exhibited deformed surfaces and a low height profile, which might be an indication that the cells are not alive.

  1. Bacterial rheotaxis.

    PubMed

    Marcos; Fu, Henry C; Powers, Thomas R; Stocker, Roman

    2012-03-27

    The motility of organisms is often directed in response to environmental stimuli. Rheotaxis is the directed movement resulting from fluid velocity gradients, long studied in fish, aquatic invertebrates, and spermatozoa. Using carefully controlled microfluidic flows, we show that rheotaxis also occurs in bacteria. Excellent quantitative agreement between experiments with Bacillus subtilis and a mathematical model reveals that bacterial rheotaxis is a purely physical phenomenon, in contrast to fish rheotaxis but in the same way as sperm rheotaxis. This previously unrecognized bacterial taxis results from a subtle interplay between velocity gradients and the helical shape of flagella, which together generate a torque that alters a bacterium's swimming direction. Because this torque is independent of the presence of a nearby surface, bacterial rheotaxis is not limited to the immediate neighborhood of liquid-solid interfaces, but also takes place in the bulk fluid. We predict that rheotaxis occurs in a wide range of bacterial habitats, from the natural environment to the human body, and can interfere with chemotaxis, suggesting that the fitness benefit conferred by bacterial motility may be sharply reduced in some hydrodynamic conditions.

  2. Bacterial vaginosis.

    PubMed

    Weaver, C H; Mengel, M B

    1988-08-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (nonspecific vaginitis) is a polymicrobial, superficial vaginal infection caused by an increase in anaerobic organisms and a concomitant decrease in lactobacilli. Gardnerella vaginalis, once thought to be the sole etiologic agent, is probably one of several endogenous members of the vaginal flora that overgrow in women with bacterial vaginosis. Whether the growth of anaerobes or a primary decrease in lactobacilli is the initial pathogenic event remains unclear. Epidemiological studies have revealed that current or previous infections caused by Trichomonas organisms, increased sexual activity, and intrauterine device use are risk factors for this condition. Studies have indicated that bacterial vaginosis, previously thought to be a benign illness, is associated with some morbidity in pregnant women. Symptoms remain unreliable in the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. Diagnostic efficacy is best achieved by utilizing clinical signs. Assessment of cure is best accomplished by Gram stain, not clinical criteria. Metronidazole, 500 mg orally for seven days, remains the treatment of choice; however, a 2-g single dose of metronidazole represents a reasonable alternative if cost and compliance issues predominate in a clinical situation. Although a recent study supports the contention that treatment of the male sexual partner of women with bacterial vaginosis is effective, a general recommendation cannot be made with confidence on the issue of sexual partner treatment until other supporting work is done.

  3. Bacterial conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Most cases of conjunctivitis in adults are probably due to viral infection, but children are more likely to develop bacterial conjunctivitis than they are viral forms. The main bacterial pathogens are Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae in adults and children, and Moraxella catarrhalis in children. Contact lens wearers may be more likely to develop gram-negative infections. Bacterial keratitis occurs in up to 30 per 100,000 contact lens wearers. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of empirical treatment in adults and children with suspected bacterial conjunctivitis? What are the effects of treatment in adults and children with bacteriologically confirmed bacterial conjunctivitis? What are the effects of treatment in adults and children with clinically confirmed gonococcal conjunctivitis? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to July 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 44 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: ocular decongestants, oral antibiotics, parenteral antibiotics, saline, topical antibiotics, and warm compresses. PMID:22348418

  4. Bacterial conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Epling, John

    2012-02-20

    Most cases of conjunctivitis in adults are probably due to viral infection, but children are more likely to develop bacterial conjunctivitis than they are viral forms. The main bacterial pathogens are Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae in adults and children, and Moraxella catarrhalis in children. Contact lens wearers may be more likely to develop gram-negative infections. Bacterial keratitis occurs in up to 30 per 100,000 contact lens wearers. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of empirical treatment in adults and children with suspected bacterial conjunctivitis? What are the effects of treatment in adults and children with bacteriologically confirmed bacterial conjunctivitis? What are the effects of treatment in adults and children with clinically confirmed gonococcal conjunctivitis? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to July 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 44 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: ocular decongestants, oral antibiotics, parenteral antibiotics, saline, topical antibiotics, and warm compresses.

  5. Bacterial rheotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Marcos; Fu, Henry C.; Powers, Thomas R.; Stocker, Roman

    2012-01-01

    The motility of organisms is often directed in response to environmental stimuli. Rheotaxis is the directed movement resulting from fluid velocity gradients, long studied in fish, aquatic invertebrates, and spermatozoa. Using carefully controlled microfluidic flows, we show that rheotaxis also occurs in bacteria. Excellent quantitative agreement between experiments with Bacillus subtilis and a mathematical model reveals that bacterial rheotaxis is a purely physical phenomenon, in contrast to fish rheotaxis but in the same way as sperm rheotaxis. This previously unrecognized bacterial taxis results from a subtle interplay between velocity gradients and the helical shape of flagella, which together generate a torque that alters a bacterium's swimming direction. Because this torque is independent of the presence of a nearby surface, bacterial rheotaxis is not limited to the immediate neighborhood of liquid–solid interfaces, but also takes place in the bulk fluid. We predict that rheotaxis occurs in a wide range of bacterial habitats, from the natural environment to the human body, and can interfere with chemotaxis, suggesting that the fitness benefit conferred by bacterial motility may be sharply reduced in some hydrodynamic conditions. PMID:22411815

  6. Effects of metal ions on disinfection byproduct formation during chlorination of natural organic matter and surrogates.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu; Yang, Hong-wei; Liu, Shi-ting; Tang, Shun; Wang, Xiao-mao; Xie, Yuefeng F

    2016-02-01

    The effects of calcium, cupric, ferrous and ferric ions on the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) were investigated using natural organic matter (NOM), small molecular weight NOM surrogates and natural water samples. The results showed that the effects were greatly dependent on the disinfection byproduct (DBP) precursor structure and molecular weight, and metal ions species. While using NOM as precursors, addition of 4.00 mM calcium ions increased the formation of THMs, dihaloacetic acids (DHAAs) and trihaloacetic acids (THAAs) by 24-47%, 51-61% and 15-25%, respectively. Addition of cupric ions at 0.02 mM increased the formation of THMs and DHAAs by 74-83% and 90-100%, respectively, but decreased the formation of THAAs by 26-27%. Similar effect was not observed when 0.04 mM ferrous or ferric ions were added. The effects of calcium and cupric ions on DBP formation were generally more evident for the NOM surrogates than that for NOM. The primary catalytic effect of calcium ions was due to complexation and less sensitive to molecular structure or weight, while that of cupric ions was attributed to redox reactions and greatly dependent on molecular structure. Both ferric and ferrous iron had substantial effects on the DBP formation of surrogates (citric acid and catechol in particular), which implied that the catalytic effects of ferric and ferrous iron mainly depended on molecular weight. The catalytic effect of cupric ions was also observed on natural water samples, while the effects of calcium, ferrous and ferric ions on natural water samples were not evident. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ion-Ion Neutralization.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-31

    Accession No. 3. Recipient’s Catalog Number FGL -TR-82 -0202 b- /- 4. Title (and Subtitle) 5. Type of Report & Period Covered ION-ION NEUTRALIZATION Final...few years under the terms of the grant has been the detailed study of binary ion-ion neutralization reactions involving ions of atmospheric...2TT, England. 1. INTRODUCTION Binary positive-ion negative-ion mutual neutralization viz: A+ + B->C + D (1) can be an important loss process for

  8. Binding of heavy metal ions in aggregates of microbial cells, EPS and biogenic iron minerals measured in-situ using metal- and glycoconjugates-specific fluorophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Likai; Guo, Yuan; Byrne, James M.; Zeitvogel, Fabian; Schmid, Gregor; Ingino, Pablo; Li, Jianli; Neu, Thomas R.; Swanner, Elizabeth D.; Kappler, Andreas; Obst, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Aggregates consisting of bacterial cells, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and Fe(III) minerals formed by Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria are common at bulk or microscale chemical interfaces where Fe cycling occurs. The high sorption capacity and binding capacity of cells, EPS, and minerals controls the mobility and fate of heavy metals. However, it remains unclear to which of these component(s) the metals will bind in complex aggregates. To clarify this question, the present study focuses on 3D mapping of heavy metals sorbed to cells, glycoconjugates that comprise the majority of EPS constituents, and Fe(III) mineral aggregates formed by the phototrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria Rhodobacter ferrooxidans SW2 using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) in combination with metal- and glycoconjugates-specific fluorophores. The present study evaluated the influence of glycoconjugates, microbial cell surfaces, and (biogenic) Fe(III) minerals, and the availability of ferrous and ferric iron on heavy metal sorption. Analyses in this study provide detailed knowledge on the spatial distribution of metal ions in the aggregates at the sub-μm scale, which is essential to understand the underlying mechanisms of microbe-mineral-metal interactions. The heavy metals (Au3+, Cd2+, Cr3+, CrO42-, Cu2+, Hg2+, Ni2+, Pd2+, tributyltin (TBT) and Zn2+) were found mainly sorbed to cell surfaces, present within the glycoconjugates matrix, and bound to the mineral surfaces, but not incorporated into the biogenic Fe(III) minerals. Statistical analysis revealed that all ten heavy metals tested showed relatively similar sorption behavior that was affected by the presence of sorbed ferrous and ferric iron. Results in this study showed that in addition to the mineral surfaces, both bacterial cell surfaces and the glycoconjugates provided most of sorption sites for heavy metals. Simultaneously, ferrous and ferric iron ions competed with the heavy metals for sorption sites on the organic

  9. Martian weathering/alteration scenarios from spectral studies of ferric and ferrous minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, James F., III; Adams, John B.; Morris, Richard V.

    1992-01-01

    We review the major aspects of our current knowledge of martian ferric and ferrous mineralogy based on the available ground-based telescopic and spacecraft data. What we know and what we don't know are used to constrain various weathering/alteration models and to identify key future measurements and techniques that can distinguish between these models.

  10. ELECTRODE MEASUREMENT OF REDOX POTENTIAL IN ANAEROBIC FERRIC/FERROUS CHLORIDE SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The behaviour of two inert redox electrodes (Pt and wax-impregnated graphite) was investigated in anaerobic ferrous and ferric chloride solutions in order to establish if these electrodes respond to the Fe3+/Fe2+ couple in a Nernstian manner. A new method fo...

  11. TRANSFORMATION AND MOBILIZATION OF ARSENIC ADSORBED ON GRANULAR FERRIC HYDROXIDE UNDER BIO-REDUCTIVE CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biotic and abiotic reduction of arsenic (V) and iron (III) influences the partioning of arsenic (As) between the solid and aqueous phases in soils, sediments and wastes. In this study, laboratory experiments on arsenic adsorbed on granular ferric hydroxide (GFH) was performed to ...

  12. Critical conditions for ferric chloride-induced flocculation of freshwater algae.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Nicholas B; Gloe, Lindsey M; Brady, Patrick V; Hewson, John C; Grillet, Anne M; Hankins, Matthew G; Pohl, Phillip I

    2012-02-01

    The effects of algae concentration, ferric chloride dose, and pH on the flocculation efficiency of the freshwater algae Chlorella zofingiensis can be understood by considering the nature of the electrostatic charges on the algae and precipitate surfaces. Two critical conditions are identified which, when met, result in flocculation efficiencies in excess of 90% for freshwater algae. First, a minimum concentration of ferric chloride is required to overcome the electrostatic stabilization of the algae and promote bridging of algae cells by hydroxide precipitates. At low algae concentrations, the minimum amount of ferric chloride required increases linearly with algae concentration, characteristic of flocculation primarily through electrostatic bridging by hydroxide precipitates. At higher algae concentrations, the minimum required concentration of ferric chloride for flocculation is independent of algae concentration, suggesting a change in the primary flocculation mechanism from bridging to sweep flocculation. Second, the algae must have a negative surface charge. Experiments and surface complexation modeling show that the surface charge of C. zofingiensis is negative above a pH of 4.0 ± 0.3 which agrees well with the minimum pH required for effective flocculation. These critical flocculation criteria can be extended to other freshwater algae to design effective flocculation systems.

  13. THE QUANTUM YIELD OF OXYGEN PRODUCTION BY CHLOROPLASTS SUSPENDED IN SOLUTIONS CONTAINING FERRIC OXALATE

    PubMed Central

    French, C. S.; Rabideau, G. S.

    1945-01-01

    1. The quantum yield of oxygen liberation by spinach and Tradescantia chloroplasts suspended in solutions containing ferric oxalate and potassium ferricyanide varied from 0.013 to 0.080. 2. It was concluded that the nature of this oxygen liberation reaction is not fundamentally different from the formation of oxygen in normal photosynthesis, with respect to its light efficiency. PMID:19873423

  14. ELECTRODE MEASUREMENT OF REDOX POTENTIAL IN ANAEROBIC FERRIC/FERROUS CHLORIDE SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The behaviour of two inert redox electrodes (Pt and wax-impregnated graphite) was investigated in anaerobic ferrous and ferric chloride solutions in order to establish if these electrodes respond to the Fe3+/Fe2+ couple in a Nernstian manner. A new method fo...

  15. Preparation of ferric-activated sludge-based adsorbent from biological sludge for tetracycline removal.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin; Xu, Guoren; Yu, Huarong; Zhang, Zhao

    2016-07-01

    Ferric activation was novelly used to produce sludge-based adsorbent (SBA) from biological sludge through pyrolysis, and the adsorbents were applied to remove tetracycline from aqueous solution. The pyrolysis temperature and mass ratio (activator/dried sludge) greatly influenced the surface area and pore characteristics of SBA. Ferric activation could promote the porous structure development of adsorbents, and the optimum preparation conditions were pyrolysis temperature 750°C and mass ratio (activator/dried sludge) 0.5. In batch experiments, ferric-activated SBA showed a higher adsorption capacity for tetracycline than non-activated SBA, because the enhanced mesoporous structure favored the diffusion of tetracycline into the pores, the iron oxides and oxygen-containing functional groups in the adsorbents captured tetracycline by surface complexation. The results indicate that ferric activation is an effective approach for preparing adsorbents from biological sludge to remove tetracycline, providing a potential option for waste resource recovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. TRANSFORMATION AND MOBILIZATION OF ARSENIC ADSORBED ON GRANULAR FERRIC HYDROXIDE UNDER BIO-REDUCTIVE CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biotic and abiotic reduction of arsenic (V) and iron (III) influences the partioning of arsenic (As) between the solid and aqueous phases in soils, sediments and wastes. In this study, laboratory experiments on arsenic adsorbed on granular ferric hydroxide (GFH) was performed to ...

  17. RATES OF HYDROUS FERRIC OXIDE CRYSTALLIZATION AND THE INFLUENCE ON COPRECIPITATED ARSENATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenate coprecipitated with hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) was stabilized against dissolution during transformation of HFO to more crystalline iron (hydr)oxides. The rate of arsenate stabilization approximately coincided with the rate of HFO transformation at pH 6 and 40 ?C. Compa...

  18. RATES OF HYDROUS FERRIC OXIDE CRYSTALLIZATION AND THE INFLUENCE ON COPRECIPITATED ARSENATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenate coprecipitated with hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) was stabilized against dissolution during transformation of HFO to more crystalline iron (hydr)oxides. The rate of arsenate stabilization approximately coincided with the rate of HFO transformation at pH 6 and 40 ?C. Compa...

  19. Effects of natural zeolite and ferric oxide to electromagnetic and reflection loss properties of polyurethane nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gultom, G.; Wirjosentono, B.; Ginting, M.; Sebayang, K.

    2017-07-01

    Microwave-absorptive polymeric composite materials are becoming important to protect interference of any communication systems due to increasing use of microwave-inducing devices. In this work, the microwave-absorptive polyurethane nanocomposites were prepared using natural zeolites of Sarulla North Sumatra and commercial ferric oxide as fillers. Weight ratios of the polyurethane to natural zeolite and ferric oxide were varied (90%:6%:4%; 80%:12%:8%; 70%:24%:6%) by weight. The fillers were prepared using ball milling technique and characterized for their particle size distributions using Particle Size Analyzer. The nanocomposites, prepared using in-situ reaction of polyethylene glycol, toluene diisocyanate and fillers. The complex permittivity (ε’and ε”) and complex permeability (μ’ and μ”) as electromagnetic properties were calculated using NRW method after collecting real and imaginary S parameter using Vector Network Analyzer measurement at X band frequency. Results show ratio of the fillers will affect the permeability, permittivity and reflection loss of the materials. The best reflection loss was shown -40.588 dB (>99 % absorption) at ratio for polyurethane : nanozeolite : ferric oxide (80%:12%:8%) by weight observed at 10.92 GHz. According to the measurement and calculation was shown the polyurethane filled with natural nanozeolite and ferric oxide is a good electromagnetic wave attenuation material.

  20. 40 CFR 180.1302 - Sodium Ferric Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1302 Section 180.1302 Protection of... Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of sodium ferric EDTA in or on all food commodities when applied as...

  1. 40 CFR 180.1302 - Sodium Ferric Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1302 Section 180.1302 Protection of... Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of sodium ferric EDTA in or on all food commodities when applied as...

  2. 40 CFR 180.1302 - Sodium Ferric Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1302 Section 180.1302 Protection of... Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of sodium ferric EDTA in or on all food commodities when applied as...

  3. 40 CFR 180.1302 - Sodium Ferric Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1302 Section 180.1302 Protection of... Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of sodium ferric EDTA in or on all food commodities when applied as...

  4. Efficacy and safety of ferric chloride in controlling hepatic bleeding; an animal model study.

    PubMed

    Nouri, Saeed; Sharif, Mohammad Reza

    2014-06-01

    Controlling parenchymal hemorrhage especially in liver parenchyma, despite all the progress in surgical science, is still one of the challenges surgeons face saving patients' lives and there is a research challenge among researchers in this field to introduce a more effective method. This study attempts to determine the haemostatic effect of ferric chloride and compare it with that of the standard method (suturing technique) in controlling bleeding from liver parenchymal tissue. In this animal model study 60 male Wistar rats were used. An incision, two centimeters (cm) long and half a cm deep, was made on each rat's liver and the hemostasis time was measured once using ferric chloride with different concentrations (5%, 10%, 15%, 25% and 50%) and then using the control method (i.e. controlling bleeding by suturing). The liver tissue was examined for pathological changes. The hemostasis time of ferric chloride concentration groups was significantly less than that of the control group (P value < 0.001). The pathologic examination showed the highest frequency of low grade inflammation based on the defined pathological grading. Ferric chloride is an effective haemostatic agent in controlling liver parenchymal tissue hemorrhage in an animal model.

  5. Ferric reductase activity and PsFRO1 sequence variation in pisum sps

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Physiological studies in pea (Pisum sativum) suggest that the reduction of iron (Fe) is the rate-limiting physiological process in Fe acquisition by dicotyledonous plants. Previous molecular work suggests that ferric reductase activity is regulated at both the transcriptional and post-translational ...

  6. In vitro toxicity of formocresol, ferric sulphate, and grey MTA on human periodontal ligament fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Al-Haj Ali, S N; Al-Jundi, S H; Ditto, D J

    2015-02-01

    This was to assess and compare the in vitro toxicity of formocresol, ferric sulphate and MTA on cultured human periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts. PDL cells were obtained from sound first permanent molars and cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium. PDL cells were subjected to different concentrations of formocresol, ferric sulphate, and grey MTA for 24, 48, and 72 h at 37 °C. Cells that were not exposed to the tested materials served as the negative control. In vitro toxicity was assessed using MTT assay. Statistical analysis of data was accomplished using ANOVA and Tukey statistical tests (p<0.05). The overall toxicity ranking of the tested materials was as follows: formocresol>ferric sulphate>grey MTA. Only grey MTA had comparable cell viability to the negative control, the other tested materials were significantly inferior at the three exposure periods (p<0.05). Regarding the viability of PDL fibroblasts, MTA stands as the most promising substitute to formocresol. However, considering MTA's unavailability and high price in Jordan, ferric sulphate may be the best alternative to formocresol in pulpotomy of primary teeth.

  7. Oxidation of calprotectin by hypochlorous acid prevents chelation of essential metal ions and allows bacterial growth: Relevance to infections in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Magon, Nicholas J; Turner, Rufus; Gearry, Richard B; Hampton, Mark B; Sly, Peter D; Kettle, Anthony J

    2015-09-01

    Calprotectin provides nutritional immunity by sequestering manganese and zinc ions. It is abundant in the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis but fails to prevent their recurrent infections. Calprotectin is a major protein of neutrophils and composed of two monomers, S100A8 and S100A9. We show that the ability of calprotectin to limit growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa is exquisitely sensitive to oxidation by hypochlorous acid. The N-terminal cysteine residue on S100A9 was highly susceptible to oxidation which resulted in cross-linking of the protein monomers. The N-terminal methionine of S100A8 was also readily oxidized by hypochlorous acid, forming both the methionine sulfoxide and the unique product dehydromethionine. Isolated human neutrophils formed these modifications on calprotectin when their myeloperoxidase generated hypochlorous acid. Up to 90% of the N-terminal amine on S100A8 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from young children with cystic fibrosis was oxidized. Oxidized calprotectin was higher in children with cystic fibrosis compared to disease controls, and further elevated in those patients with infections. Our data suggest that oxidative stress associated with inflammation in cystic fibrosis will stop metal sequestration by calprotectin. Consequently, strategies aimed at blocking extracellular myeloperoxidase activity should enable calprotectin to provide nutritional immunity within the airways.

  8. Multiple enzymatic digestions and ion mobility separation improve quantification of bacterial ribosomal proteins by data independent acquisition liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dator, Romel P; Gaston, Kirk W; Limbach, Patrick A

    2014-05-06

    Mass spectrometry-based quantification of ribosomal proteins (r-proteins) associated with mature ribosomes and ribosome assembly complexes is typically accomplished by relative quantification strategies. These strategies provide information on the relative stoichiometry of proteins within the complex compared to a wild-type strain. Here we have evaluated the applicability of a label-free approach, enhanced liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS(E)), for absolute "ribosome-centric" quantification of r-proteins in Escherichia coli mature ribosomes. Because the information obtained in this experiment is related to the number of peptides identified per protein, experimental conditions that allow accurate and reproducible quantification of r-proteins were found. Using an additional dimension of gas-phase separation through ion mobility and the use of multiple endoproteinase digestion significantly improved quantification of proteins associated with mature ribosomes. The actively translating ribosomes (polysomes) contain amounts of proteins consistent with their known stoichiometry within the complex. These measurements exhibited technical and biological reproducibilities at %CV less than 15% and 35%, respectively. The improved LC-MS(E) approach described here can be used to characterize in vivo ribosome assembly complexes captured during ribosome biogenesis and assembly under different perturbations (e.g., antibiotics, deletion mutants of assembly factors, oxidative stress, nutrient deprivation). Quantitative analysis of these captured complexes will provide information relating to the interplay and dynamics of how these perturbations interfere with the assembly process.

  9. Enterobactin Protonation and Iron Release: Structural Characterization of the Salicylate Coordination Shift in Ferric Enterobactin

    PubMed Central

    Abergel, Rebecca J.; Warner, Jeffrey A.; Shuh, David K.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2011-01-01

    The siderophore enterobactin (Ent) is produced by many species of enteric bacteria to mediate iron uptake. This iron scavenger can be reincorporated by the bacteria as the ferric complex [FeIII(Ent)]3- and is subsequently hydrolyzed by an esterase to facilitate intracellular iron release. Recent literature reports on altered protein recognition and binding of modified enterobactin increase the significance of understanding the structural features and solution chemistry of ferric enterobactin. The structure of the neutral protonated ferric enterobactin complex [FeIII(H3Ent)]0 has been the source of some controversy and confusion in the literature. To demonstrate the proposed change of coordination from the tris-catecholate [FeIII(Ent)]3- to the tris-salicylate [FeIII(H3Ent)]0 upon protonation, the coordination chemistry of two new model compounds N,N’,N”-tris[2-(hydroxybenzoyl)carbonyl]cyclotriseryl trilactone (SERSAM) and N,N’,N”-tris[2-hydroxy,3-methoxy(benzoyl)carbonyl]cyclotriseryl trilactone (SER(3M)SAM) was examined in solution and solid state. Both SERSAM and SER(3M)SAM form tris-salicylate ferric complexes with spectroscopic and solution thermodynamic properties (with log β110 values of 39 and 38 respectively) similar to those of [FeIII(H3Ent)]0. The fits of EXAFS spectra of the model ferric complexes and the two forms of ferric enterobactin provided bond distances and disorder factors in the metal coordination sphere for both coordination modes. The protonated [FeIII(H3Ent)]0 complex (dFe-O = 1.98 Å, σ2stat(O) = 0.00351(10) Å2) exhibits a shorter average Fe-O bond length but a much higher static Debye-Waller factor for the first oxygen-shell than the catecholate [FeIII(Ent)]3- complex (dFe-O = 2.00 Å, σ2stat(O) = 0.00067(14) Å2). 1H NMR spectroscopy was used to monitor the amide bond rotation between the catecholate and salicylate geometries using the gallic complexes of enterobactin; [GaIII(Ent)]3- and [GaIII(H3Ent)]0. The ferric salicylate

  10. Thermodynamics and kinetics of aqueous ferric phosphate complex formation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelmy, R.B.; Patel, R.C.; Matijevic, E.

    1985-09-25

    The equilibria and kinetics of complexation of iron(III) with phosphoric acid (at pH < 2) were studied at 25 and 50/sup 0/C at ionic strength ..mu.. = 2.5 M by using spectrophotometric and stopped-flow techniques. The results are consistent with the formation of two complexes, FeH/sub 2/PO/sub 4//sup 2 +/ and Fe(H/sub 2/PO/sub 4/)/sub 2//sup +/. The second species could only be detected by the analysis of kinetic data. The equilibrium constants, extinction coefficients, rate constants, and activation parameters for the formation of these complexes are given. A mechanism is proposed to account for the observed hydrogen ion dependency of the apparent forward rate constants. 35 references, 8 figures, 6 tables.

  11. Magnetic phases in lunar fines - Metallic Fe or ferric oxides.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, F.-D.; Manatt, S. L.; Chan, S. I.

    1973-01-01

    The ferromagnetic resonance observed for the Apollo 11 and 12 lunar fines is characterized by an asymmetric lineshape with a narrower appearance on the high field side. This asymmetry together with an anisotropy energy which varies from +640 to +500 G over the temperature range of 80 to 298 K indicate that the ferromagnetic resonance arises from metallic Fe having the body-centered cubic structure and not from hematite, magnetite or other Fe(3+) ions in magnetite-like phases. The g-value, the lineshape asymmetry, and the temperature dependence of the linewidth for the Apollo 14 and 15 fines as reported by other workers are found to be essentially similar to those observed for the Apollo 11 and 12 fines.

  12. Magnetic phases in lunar fines - Metallic Fe or ferric oxides.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, F.-D.; Manatt, S. L.; Chan, S. I.

    1973-01-01

    The ferromagnetic resonance observed for the Apollo 11 and 12 lunar fines is characterized by an asymmetric lineshape with a narrower appearance on the high field side. This asymmetry together with an anisotropy energy which varies from +640 to +500 G over the temperature range of 80 to 298 K indicate that the ferromagnetic resonance arises from metallic Fe having the body-centered cubic structure and not from hematite, magnetite or other Fe(3+) ions in magnetite-like phases. The g-value, the lineshape asymmetry, and the temperature dependence of the linewidth for the Apollo 14 and 15 fines as reported by other workers are found to be essentially similar to those observed for the Apollo 11 and 12 fines.

  13. Microbial acquisition of iron from ferric iron bearing minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Hersman, L.E.; Sposito, G.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Iron is a universal requirement for all life forms. Although the fourth most abundant element in the geosphere, iron is virtually insoluble at physiological pH in oxidizing environments, existing mainly as very insoluble oxides and hydroxides. Currently it is not understood how iron is solubilized and made available for biological use. This research project addressed this topic by conducting a series of experiments that utilized techniques from both soil microbiology and mineral surface geochemistry. Microbiological analysis consisted of the examination of metabolic and physiological responses to mineral iron supplements. At the same time mineral surfaces were examined for structural changes brought about by microbially mediated dissolution. The results of these experiments demonstrated that (1) bacterial siderophores were able to promote the dissolution of iron oxides, (2) that strict aerobic microorganisms may use anaerobic processes to promote iron oxide dissolution, and (3) that it is possible to image the surface of iron oxides undergoing microbial dissolution.

  14. Visible Wavelength Spectroscopy of Ferric Minerals: A Key Tool for Identification of Ancient Martian Aqueous Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murchie, Scott L.; Bell, J. F., III; Morris, Richard V.

    2000-01-01

    The mineralogic signatures of past aqueous alteration of a basaltic Martian crust may include iron oxides and oxyhydroxides, zeolites, carbonates, phyllosilicates, and silica. The identities, relative abundances, and crystallinities of the phases formed in a particular environment depend on physicochemical conditions. At one extreme, hot spring environments may be characterized by smectite-chlorite to talc-kaolinite silicate assemblages, plus crystalline ferric oxides dominated by hematite. However, most environments, including cold springs, pedogenic layers, and ponded surface water, are expected to deposit iron oxides and oxyhydroxides, carbonates, and smectite-dominated phyllosilicates. A substantial fraction of the ferric iron is expected to occur in nanophase form, with the exact mineralogy strongly influenced by Eh-pH conditions. Detection of these phases has been an objective of a large body of terrestrial telescopic, Mars orbital, and landed spectral investigations and in situ compositional measurements. However, clear identifications of many of these phases is lacking. Neither carbonate nor silica has been unequivocally detected by any method. Although phyllosilicates may occur near the limit of detection by remote sensing, in general they appear to occur in only poorly crystalline form. In contrast, compelling evidence for ferric iron minerals has been gathered by recent telescopic investigations, the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP), and the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) on the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS). These data yield two crucial findings: (1) In the global, high spatial resolution TES data set, highly crystalline ferric iron (as coarse-grained 'gray' hematite) has been recognized but with only very limited spatial occurrence and (2) Low-resolution telescopic reflectance spectroscopy, very limited orbital reflectance spectroscopy, and landed multispectral imaging provide strong indications that at least two broad classes of ferric iron minerals

  15. Safe administration of iron sucrose in a patient with a previous hypersensitivity reaction to ferric gluconate.

    PubMed

    Sane, Radhika; Baribeault, David; Rosenberg, Carol L

    2007-04-01

    A 67-year-old woman with iron deficiency anemia required parenteral iron therapy and was treated with intravenous ferric gluconate. She tolerated the first dose, but after the second dose, she developed a tingling feeling all over her body, along with swelling in her hands and feet, and a rash with hives over most of her body. It was thought that she had likely experienced a hypersensitivity reaction to ferric gluconate. The decision was made to continue therapy; however, two modifications were made. The patient was given dexamethasone, diphenhydramine, and ibuprofen 1 hour before administering the third dose, and the infusion time was prolonged by 1 hour. Approximately 45 minutes after the infusion was completed, the patient developed hives on her arms and legs. At the patient's next clinic visit, it was decided that continuation of parenteral iron repletion was necessary, and the decision was made to attempt a challenge with iron sucrose. The patient was given dexamethasone 8 mg to be taken the night before and the morning of treatment. She successfully completed the iron repletion therapy with iron sucrose. Three parenteral iron products are available in the United States: iron dextran, sodium ferric gluconate complex, and iron sucrose. Iron dextran, the oldest of these products, carries the highest risk for hypersensitivity reactions. Available data suggest that either iron sucrose or ferric gluconate can be safely administered to patients with known hypersensitivity to iron dextran. Our patient's experience implies that it may be possible to safely administer iron sucrose to a patient with hypersensitivity to ferric gluconate. This finding has clinical implications and warrants confirmation in a larger population.

  16. Visible Wavelength Spectroscopy of Ferric Minerals: A Key Tool for Identification of Ancient Martian Aqueous Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murchie, Scott L.; Bell, J. F., III; Morris, Richard V.

    2000-01-01

    The mineralogic signatures of past aqueous alteration of a basaltic Martian crust may include iron oxides and oxyhydroxides, zeolites, carbonates, phyllosilicates, and silica. The identities, relative abundances, and crystallinities of the phases formed in a particular environment depend on physicochemical conditions. At one extreme, hot spring environments may be characterized by smectite-chlorite to talc-kaolinite silicate assemblages, plus crystalline ferric oxides dominated by hematite. However, most environments, including cold springs, pedogenic layers, and ponded surface water, are expected to deposit iron oxides and oxyhydroxides, carbonates, and smectite-dominated phyllosilicates. A substantial fraction of the ferric iron is expected to occur in nanophase form, with the exact mineralogy strongly influenced by Eh-pH conditions. Detection of these phases has been an objective of a large body of terrestrial telescopic, Mars orbital, and landed spectral investigations and in situ compositional measurements. However, clear identifications of many of these phases is lacking. Neither carbonate nor silica has been unequivocally detected by any method. Although phyllosilicates may occur near the limit of detection by remote sensing, in general they appear to occur in only poorly crystalline form. In contrast, compelling evidence for ferric iron minerals has been gathered by recent telescopic investigations, the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP), and the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) on the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS). These data yield two crucial findings: (1) In the global, high spatial resolution TES data set, highly crystalline ferric iron (as coarse-grained 'gray' hematite) has been recognized but with only very limited spatial occurrence and (2) Low-resolution telescopic reflectance spectroscopy, very limited orbital reflectance spectroscopy, and landed multispectral imaging provide strong indications that at least two broad classes of ferric iron minerals

  17. Bacterial Tracheitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nears (News) Vaccination 101: Make Sure Kids Are Up to Date Additional Content Medical News Bacterial Tracheitis By Rajeev ... News HealthDay Vaccination 101: Make Sure Kids Are Up to Date MONDAY, Aug. 28, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- As the ...

  18. The Differential Effects of Anesthetics on Bacterial Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, Matthew; Koutsogiannaki, Sophia; Schaefers, Matthew; Babazada, Hasan; Liu, Renyu; Yuki, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    Volatile anesthetics have been in clinical use for a long period of time and are considered to be promiscuous by presumably interacting with several ion channels in the central nervous system to produce anesthesia. Because ion channels and their existing evolutionary analogues, ion transporters, are very important in various organisms, it is possible that volatile anesthetics may affect some bacteria. In this study, we hypothesized that volatile anesthetics could affect bacterial behaviors. We evaluated the impact of anesthetics on bacterial growth, motility (swimming and gliding) and biofilm formation of four common bacterial pathogens in vitro. We found that commonly used volatile anesthetics isoflurane and sevoflurane affected bacterial motility and biofilm formation without any effect on growth of the common bacterial pathogens studied here. Using available Escherichia coli gene deletion mutants of ion transporters and in silico molecular docking, we suggested that these altered behaviors might be at least partly via the interaction of volatile anesthetics with ion transporters. PMID:28099463

  19. Mid-infrared and near-infrared spectroscopic study of selected magnesium carbonate minerals containing ferric iron-Implications for the geosequestration of greenhouse gases.

    PubMed

    Frost, Ray L; Reddy, B Jagannadha; Bahfenne, Silmarilly; Graham, Jessica

    2009-04-01

    The proposal to remove greenhouse gases by pumping liquefied CO(2) several kilometres below the ground implies that many carbonate containing minerals will be formed. Among these minerals brugnatellite and coalingite are probable. Two ferric ion bearing minerals brugnatellite and coalingite with a hydrotalcite-like structure have been characterised by a combination of infrared and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. The infrared spectra of the OH stretching region are characterised by OH and water stretching vibrations. Both the first and second fundamental overtones of these bands are observed in the NIR spectra in the 7030-7235 cm(-1) and 10,490-10,570 cm(-1) regions. Intense (CO(3))(2-) symmetric and antisymmetric stretching vibrations support the concept that the carbonate ion is distorted. The position of the water bending vibration indicates the water is strongly hydrogen bonded in the mineral structure. Split NIR bands at around 8675 and 11,100 cm(-1) indicate that some replacement of magnesium ions by ferrous ions in the mineral structure has occurred. Near-infrared spectroscopy is ideal for the assessment of the formation of carbonate minerals.

  20. Bacterial cryotomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Grant

    2009-03-01

    Electron cryotomography (ECT) is an emerging technique that allows thin samples such as small cells, viruses, or tissue sections to be imaged in 3-D in a near-native, ``frozen-hydrated'' state to molecular (˜4 nm) resolution. Thus ECT fills a critical gap between light microscopy and higher resolution structural techniques like X-ray crystallography and NMR. In a combination of technology development and biological application, during the past few years our lab has been studying bacterial ultrastructure through ECT of intact, plunge-frozen cells. We have now collected over a thousand tomograms of more than ten different species. This work has revealed the surprising complexity of the bacterial cytoskeleton as well as the architectures of several important ``supramolecular'' complexes including the chemoreceptor array, the flagellar motor, and the cell wall peptidoglycan. Example results highlighting both the potential and limitations of this technology will be shown.

  1. Analyses of Ferrous and Ferric State in DynabiTab Using Mössbauer Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jae Cheong; Choi, Sang Mu

    2017-01-01

    Antianemic medicament ferrous gluconate, ferrous fumarate, and a Dynabi tablet with a basic iron bearing ingredient were studied with the use of Mössbauer spectroscopy. Room temperature spectra of ferrous gluconate gave clear evidence that the two phases of iron were present: ferrous (Fe2+) as a major one with a contribution at and above 91 a.u.% and ferric (Fe3+) whose contribution was found to be ~9 a.u.%. In the case of ferrous fumarate, a single phase was measured corresponding to ferrous (Fe2+) state. A Dynabi tablet consists of ferrous fumarate and ferrous fumarate. The ferric phase in ferrous gluconate is able to be reached about ~3.6 a.u.% in a tablet. PMID:28487740

  2. Flocculation properties of several microalgae and a cyanobacterium species during ferric chloride, chitosan and alkaline flocculation.

    PubMed

    Lama, Sanjaya; Muylaert, Koenraad; Karki, Tika Bahadur; Foubert, Imogen; Henderson, Rita K; Vandamme, Dries

    2016-11-01

    Flocculation holds great potential as a low-cost harvesting method for microalgae biomass production. Three flocculation methods (ferric chloride, chitosan, and alkaline flocculation) were compared in this study for the harvesting of 9 different freshwater and marine microalgae and one cyanobacterium species. Ferric chloride resulted in a separation efficiency greater than 90% with a concentration factor (CF) higher than 10 for all species. Chitosan flocculation worked generally very well for freshwater microalgae, but not for marine species. Alkaline flocculation was most efficient for harvesting of Nannochloropsis, Chlamydomonas and Chlorella sp. The concentration factor was highly variable between microalgae species. Generally, minimum flocculant dosages were highly variable across species, which shows that flocculation may be a good harvesting method for some species but not for others. This study shows that microalgae and cyanobacteria species should not be selected solely based on their productivity but also on their potential for low-cost separation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Using Crystal Structure Groups to Understand Mössbauer parameters of Ferric Sulfates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knutson, J.; Dyar, M. D.; Sklute, E. C.; Lane, M. D.; Bishop, J. L.

    2008-12-01

    A Mössbauer doublet assigned to ferric sulfate (Fe3D2) was identified in Paso Robles, Mars, spectra by Morris et al. (2006), who noted that its parameters are not diagnostic of any specific mineral because a number of different sulfates with varying parageneses might be responsible for this doublet. Work by Lane et al. (2008) used a multi-instrument approach based on Fe3+ sulfate spectra acquired with VNIR and midinfrared reflectance, mid-infrared emission and Mössbauer spectrometers to narrow down the possible ferric sulfate phases present at Paso Robles to ferricopiapite possibly mixed with other ferric sulfates such as butlerite, parabutlerite, fibroferrite, or metahomanite. Thus, we explore here the crystal-chemical rationale behind these interpretations of the Mössbauer results, using similarities and difference among mineral structures to explore which phases might have similar coordination polyhedra around the Fe atoms in sulfates. Work by Hawthorne et al. (2000) organizes the sulfate minerals into groups with analogous crystal structures. Mössbauer doublets assigned to ferric sulfates ubiquitously have isomer shifts (IS) of 0.40-53 mm/s so that IS is non-diagnostic. However, quadrupole splitting of doublets in these mineral groups has a wide range (0-1.4 mm/s) and the variation can be systematically correlated with different structure types. Members of the hydration series Fe2(SO4)3 · n H2O, which includes quenstedtite, coquimbite, paracoquimbite, kornelite, and lausenite have Mössbauer spectra that closely resemble singlets because of their near-zero QS. These minerals share structures involving finite clusters of sulfate tetrahedral and Fe octahedral or chains of depolymerized clusters, and all mineral species with these structures share similar Mössbauer parameters. At the other extreme, ferric sulfates with structures based on infinite sheets (hydrotalcite, alunite, jarosite), tend to have large electric field gradients at the nucleus of the Fe3

  4. Analyses of Ferrous and Ferric State in DynabiTab Using Mössbauer Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Uhm, Young Rang; Lim, Jae Cheong; Choi, Sang Mu

    2017-01-01

    Antianemic medicament ferrous gluconate, ferrous fumarate, and a Dynabi tablet with a basic iron bearing ingredient were studied with the use of Mössbauer spectroscopy. Room temperature spectra of ferrous gluconate gave clear evidence that the two phases of iron were present: ferrous (Fe(2+)) as a major one with a contribution at and above 91 a.u.% and ferric (Fe(3+)) whose contribution was found to be ~9 a.u.%. In the case of ferrous fumarate, a single phase was measured corresponding to ferrous (Fe(2+)) state. A Dynabi tablet consists of ferrous fumarate and ferrous fumarate. The ferric phase in ferrous gluconate is able to be reached about ~3.6 a.u.% in a tablet.

  5. Functional Analysis of the Ferric Uptake Regulator Gene fur in Xanthomonas vesicatoria.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huiqin; Dong, Chunling; Zhao, Tingchang; Han, Jucai; Wang, Tieling; Wen, Xiangzhen; Huang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Iron is essential for the growth and survival of many organisms. Intracellular iron homeostasis must be maintained for cell survival and protection against iron toxicity. The ferric uptake regulator protein (Fur) regulates the high-affinity ferric uptake system in many bacteria. To investigate the function of the fur gene in Xanthomonas vesicatoria (Xv), we generated a fur mutant strain, fur-m, by site-directed mutagenesis. Whereas siderophore production increased in the Xv fur mutant, extracellular polysaccharide production, biofilm formation, swimming ability and quorum sensing signals were all significantly decreased. The fur mutant also had significantly reduced virulence in tomato leaves. The above-mentioned phenotypes significantly recovered when the Xv fur mutation allele was complemented with a wild-type fur gene. Thus, Fur either negatively or positively regulates multiple important physiological functions in Xv.

  6. Surface and textural heterogeneity of fresh hydrous ferric oxides in water and in the dry state

    SciTech Connect

    Bottero, J.Y.; Arnaud, M.; Villieras, F.; Michot, L.J.; Donato, P.; Francois, M. . Groupe de Recherche sur l'Eau et les Solides Divises)

    1993-08-01

    Fresh hydrous ferric oxides (HFO) are formed by precipitation of Fe[sup 3+] solution or ferric polycations initially formed at very acidic pH at different neutralization ratios n = 2 and 2.5 at pH 6.5 the precipitates are particles with a positive surface charge. The IEP and the surface charge measured in NaCl electrolyte vary with n. But in all cases IEP or ZPSE are lower than 8.3. The adsorption of sodium dodecane sulfonate molecules at 20 C allows us to compare the different samples formed by precipitation from n = 0, n = 2, and n = 2.5 solutions and named' n = 0, n = 2, and n = 2.5. Using the two-dimensional adsorption on heterogeneous surfaces theory of Case's group, it is possible to compare the different solids relatively to the affinity of surfactants for the surfaces.

  7. Functional Analysis of the Ferric Uptake Regulator Gene fur in Xanthomonas vesicatoria

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huiqin; Dong, Chunling; Zhao, Tingchang; Han, Jucai; Wang, Tieling; Wen, Xiangzhen; Huang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Iron is essential for the growth and survival of many organisms. Intracellular iron homeostasis must be maintained for cell survival and protection against iron toxicity. The ferric uptake regulator protein (Fur) regulates the high-affinity ferric uptake system in many bacteria. To investigate the function of the fur gene in Xanthomonas vesicatoria (Xv), we generated a fur mutant strain, fur-m, by site-directed mutagenesis. Whereas siderophore production increased in the Xv fur mutant, extracellular polysaccharide production, biofilm formation, swimming ability and quorum sensing signals were all significantly decreased. The fur mutant also had significantly reduced virulence in tomato leaves. The above-mentioned phenotypes significantly recovered when the Xv fur mutation allele was complemented with a wild-type fur gene. Thus, Fur either negatively or positively regulates multiple important physiological functions in Xv. PMID:26910324

  8. Structure of Hemoglobin M Boston, a Variant with a Five-Coordinated Ferric Heme

    PubMed Central

    Pulsinelli, P. D.; Perutz, M. F.; Nagel, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    X-ray analysis of the natural valency hybrid α2+M Bostonβ2deoxy shows that the ferric iron atoms in the abnormal α subunits are bonded to the phenolate side chains of the tyrosines that have replaced the distal histidines; the iron atoms are displaced to the distal side of the porphyrin ring and are not bonded to the proximal histidines. The resulting changes in tertiary structure of the α subunits stabilize the hemoglobin tetramer in the quaternary deoxy structure, which lowers the oxygen affinity of the normal β subunits and causes cyanosis. The strength of the bond from the ferric iron to the phenolate oxygen appears to be the main factor responsible for the many abnormal properties of hemoglobin M Boston. Images PMID:4521212

  9. Repeat radiation synovectomy with dysprosium 165-ferric hydroxide macroaggregates in rheumatoid knees unresponsive to initial injection

    SciTech Connect

    Vella, M.; Zuckerman, J.D.; Shortkroff, S.; Venkatesan, P.; Sledge, C.B.

    1988-06-01

    Because of failure to fully respond to an initial intraarticular injection of dysprosium 165-ferric hydroxide macroaggregates, 17 patients with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis underwent repeat radiation synovectomy using this agent. Of the 13 patients who were evaluated 1 year later, 54% (7 knees) had good results, 31% (4 knees) had fair results, and 15% (2 knees) had poor results. The initial lack of significant benefit from radiation synovectomy did not appear to preclude a favorable response to a second injection.

  10. The Helicobacter pylori Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur) is Essential for Growth Under Sodium Chloride Stress

    PubMed Central

    Gancz, Hanan; Merrell, D. Scott

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological data and animal models indicate that Helicobacter pylori and dietary NaCl have a synergistic ill effect on gastric maladies. Here we show that the Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur), which is a crucial regulatory factor required for H. pylori colonization, is essential for growth in the presence of high NaCl concentrations. Moreover, we demonstrate that the transcriptional response induced by sodium chloride stress exhibits similarities to that seen under iron depletion. PMID:21538253

  11. The determination of ferric iron in plants by HPLC using the microbial iron chelator desferrioxamine E.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Victoria; Winkelmann, Günther

    2005-02-01

    Common methods for plant iron determination are based on atomic absorption spectroscopy, radioactive measurements or extraction with subsequent spectrophotometry. However, accuracy is often a problem due to background, contamination and interfering compounds. We here describe a novel method for the easy determination of ferric iron in plants by chelation with a highly effective microbial siderophore and separation by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). After addition of colourless desferrioxamine E (DFE) to plant fluids, the soluble iron is trapped as a brown-red ferrioxamine E (FoxE) complex which is subsequently separated by HPLC on a reversed phase column. The formed FoxE complex can be identified due to its ligand-to-metal charge transfer band at 435 nm. Alternatively, elution of both, DFE and FoxE can be followed as separate peaks at 220 nm wavelength with characteristic retention times. The extraordinarily high stability constant of DFE with ferric iron of K = 10(32) enables extraction of iron from a variety of ferrous and ferric iron compounds and allows quantitation after separation by HPLC without interference by coloured by-products. Thus, iron bound to protein, amino acids, citrate and other organic acid ligands and even insoluble ferric hydroxides and phosphates can be solubilized in the presence desferrioxamine E. The "Ferrioxamine E method" can be applied to all kinds of plant fluids (apoplasmic, xylem, phloem, intracellular) either at physiological pH or even at acid pH values. The FoxE complex is stable down to pH 1 allowing protein removal by perchloric acid treatment and HPLC separation in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid containing eluents.

  12. Cost and Performance Report for Bioavailable Ferric Iron (BAFeIII) Assay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    Talbot. 2000. Zinc Immobilization and Magnetite Formation via Ferric Oxide Reduction by Shewanella putrefaciens 200. Environ. Sci. Technol, 34...Emmett-Teller bgs Below ground surface BTEX Benzene-toluene-ethylbenzene-xylenes BrY Shewanella alga BrY CDB Citrate dithionite bicarbonate...that contains the lyophilized iron-reducing bacterium Shewanella alga BrY, lactate as an electron donor, and a mineral salts medium supplemented with

  13. Phosphorous removal in batch systems using ferric chloride in the presence of activated sludges.

    PubMed

    Caravelli, Alejandro H; Contreras, Edgardo M; Zaritzky, Noemí E

    2010-05-15

    The objectives of this work were: (a) to analyze the effect of alkalinity, pH and initial Fe:P molar ratio (Fe(0):P(0)) on the precipitation of orthophosphate using ferric chloride in the presence of activated sludge in order to represent conditions of simultaneous precipitation, and in exhausted wastewater to simulate conditions of post-precipitation, (b) to compare the experimental results with predictions obtained from a chemical equilibrium model, and (c) to propose a mechanistic model to determine the dose of coagulant required to achieve a given orthophosphate removal degree at constant pH. Results showed that the presence of biomass did not affect the orthophosphate precipitation; however, addition of ferric chloride caused a drop of pH to values not compatible with the normal activity of activated sludges. For this reason, the wastewater was supplemented with NaHCO(3); when 1gL(-1) NaHCO(3) was added, orthophosphate removals higher than 97% and pH above 6.2 were obtained using Fe(0):P(0)=1.9. Precipitation assays at constant pH showed that Fe(III) hydrolysis and FePO(4) precipitation reaction compete with each other. Calculations using a chemical equilibrium model (CHEAQS) predicted that ferric phosphate precipitation should not take place if pH is higher than about 7.8. However, experimental results showed that ferric phosphate precipitation occurred even at pH 9. For this reason, a mechanistic model was proposed to predict orthophosphate concentrations as a function of Fe(0):P(0) at constant pH. The model can be applied to calculate the minimum Fe(III) concentration required to achieve a given discharge limit for orthophosphate as a function of its initial concentration and pH.

  14. Ferric sulphate and formocresol in pulpotomy of primary molars: long term follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Ibricevic, H; Al-Jame, Q

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of ferric sulphate (FS) to that of the full strength of formocresol (Buckley's formula) (FC) as pulpotomy agents in primary human molar teeth 42-48 months after treatment. This was to assess the succeeding premolar teeth for decalcification, abnormal morphology or any other defect. Seventy children, ranging in age from 3 to 6 years, mean 4.3 years, were treated for pulpotomy of primary molars. Ferric sulphate 15.5% solution (applied for 15 seconds for 84 teeth) and formocresol solution (5 minutes procedure for next the 80 teeth) were used as pulpotomy agents. In both groups, pulp stumps were covered with zinc oxide eugenol paste. Permanent restorations were, in most cases, stainless steel crowns and in some of them amalgams. Follow-up clinical assessments were every 3 months and the radiographic follow-up time was 6, 20 and 42-48 months after treatment. The differences were statistically analyzed using the Chi square test. These revealed 96.4% clinical success rate in the FS and 97.5% in the FC groups. Radiographic success rate in the FS group was 92.0%, while 94.6% in the FC group. No statistical significant differences were found between the radiographic assessment of the two pulpotomy agents. Ferric sulphate showed similar clinical and radiographic success rate as a pulpotomy agent for primary molar teeth after long term evaluation period, compared with formocresol. Ferric sulphate, because of its lower toxicity, may become a replacement for formocresol in primary molar teeth.

  15. Evaluation of formocresol versus ferric sulphate primary molar pulpotomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Peng, L; Ye, L; Guo, X; Tan, H; Zhou, X; Wang, C; Li, R

    2007-10-01

    To present a systematic review of the effects of formocresol and ferric sulphate when used as medicaments in pulpotomized primary molar teeth. The study list was obtained by using MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE and SCI search. Only those papers which met the inclusion criteria were accepted. The quality of studies used for meta-analysis was assessed by a series of validity criteria according to Jadad's scale. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed. Eleven clinical studies comprising four randomized-clinical trials (RCTs), four controlled clinical trials (CCTs) and three retrospective studies were included. The results of the meta-analysis of six prospective clinical trials suggested that the two popular pulpotomy medicaments were not significantly different in terms of clinical outcomes, radiographic findings, prevalence of apical and furcal destruction, internal root resorption or pulp canal obliteration. The relative risk (RR) value and 95% CI for those parameters were 0.72 (0.43-1.23), 0.87 (0.59-1.30), 0.67 (0.27-1.66), 1.77 (0.56-5.58) and 1.41 (0.63-3.15), respectively. The overall clinical and radiographic success rates based on the data of treatments with ferric sulphate from the 11 studies included ranged from 78% to 100% (mean 91.6 +/- 8.15%) and from 42% to 97% (mean 73.5 +/- 18.40%), respectively. In primary molar teeth with exposure of vital pulps by caries or trauma, pulpotomies performed with either formocresol or ferric sulphate have similar clinical and radiographic success. Ferric sulphate may be recommended as a suitable replacement for formocresol.

  16. Specific TonB-ExbB-ExbD energy transduction systems required for ferric enterobactin acquisition in Campylobacter

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Ximin; Xu, Fuzhou; Lin, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Ferric enterobactin (FeEnt) acquisition plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of Campylobacter, the leading bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis in industrialized countries. In Campylobacter, the surface-exposed receptor, CfrA or CfrB, functions as a “gatekeeper” for initial binding of FeEnt. Subsequent transport across the outer membrane is energized by TonB-ExbB-ExbD energy transduction systems. Although there are up to three TonB-ExbB-ExbD systems in Campylobacter, the cognate components of TonB-ExbB-ExbD for FeEnt acquisition are still largely unknown. In this study, we addressed this issue using complementary molecular approaches including: comparative genomic analysis, random transposon mutagenesis, and site-directed mutagenesis in two representative C. jejuni strains, NCTC 11168 and 81-176. We demonstrated that CfrB could interact with either TonB2 or TonB3 for efficient Ent-mediated iron acquisition. However, TonB3 is a dominant player in CfrA-dependent pathway. The ExbB2 and ExbD2 components were essential for both CfrA- and CfrB-dependent FeEnt acquisition. Sequences analysis identified potential TonB boxes in CfrA and CfrB, and the corresponding binding sites in TonB. In conclusion, these findings reveal identities of specific TonB-ExbB-ExbD energy transduction components required for FeEnt acquisition, and provide insights into the complex molecular interactions of FeEnt acquisition systems in Campylobacter. PMID:23905838

  17. Specific TonB-ExbB-ExbD energy transduction systems required for ferric enterobactin acquisition in Campylobacter.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ximin; Xu, Fuzhou; Lin, Jun

    2013-10-01

    Ferric enterobactin (FeEnt) acquisition plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of Campylobacter, the leading bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis in industrialized countries. In Campylobacter, the surface-exposed receptor, CfrA or CfrB, functions as a 'gatekeeper' for initial binding of FeEnt. Subsequent transport across the outer membrane is energized by TonB-ExbB-ExbD energy transduction systems. Although there are up to three TonB-ExbB-ExbD systems in Campylobacter, the cognate components of TonB-ExbB-ExbD for FeEnt acquisition are still largely unknown. In this study, we addressed this issue using complementary molecular approaches: comparative genomic analysis, random transposon mutagenesis and site-directed mutagenesis in two representative C. jejuni strains, NCTC 11168 and 81-176. We demonstrated that CfrB could interact with either TonB2 or TonB3 for efficient Ent-mediated iron acquisition. However, TonB3 is a dominant player in the CfrA-dependent pathway. The ExbB2 and ExbD2 components were essential for both CfrA- and CfrB-dependent FeEnt acquisition. Sequences analysis identified potential TonB boxes in CfrA and CfrB, and the corresponding binding sites in TonB. In conclusion, these findings identify specific TonB-ExbB-ExbD energy transduction components required for FeEnt acquisition, and provide insights into the complex molecular interactions of FeEnt acquisition systems in Campylobacter. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Experimental determination of the phase boundary between kornelite and pentahydrated ferric sulfate at 0.1MPa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kong, W.G.; Wang, A.; Chou, I.-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Recent findings of various ferric sulfates on Mars emphasize the importance of understanding the fundamental properties of ferric sulfates at temperatures relevant to that of Martian surface. In this study, the phase boundary between kornelite (Fe2(SO4)3.7H2O) and pentahydrated ferric sulfate (Fe2(SO4)3.5H2O) was experimentally determined using the humidity-buffer technique together with gravimetric measurements and Raman spectroscopy at 0.1MPa in the 36-56??C temperature range. Through the thermodynamic analysis of our experimental data, the enthalpy change (-290.8??0.3kJ/mol) and the Gibbs free energy change (-238.82??0.02kJ/mol) for each water molecule of crystallization in the rehydration of pentahydrated ferric sulfate to kornelite were obtained. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  19. Potential of Alginate Encapsulated Ferric Saccharate Microemulsions to Ameliorate Iron Deficiency in Mice.

    PubMed

    Mukhija, Kimmi; Singhal, Kirti; Angmo, Stanzin; Yadav, Kamalendra; Yadav, Hariom; Sandhir, Rajat; Singhal, Nitin Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the most prominent mineral deficiencies around the world, which especially affects large population of women and children. Development of new technologies to combat iron deficiency is on high demand. Therefore, we developed alginate microcapsule with encapsulated iron that had better oral iron bioavailability. Microcapsules containing iron with varying ratios of sodium alginate ferric(III)-saccharide were prepared using emulsification method. In vitro studies with Caco-2 cells suggested that newly synthesized microemulsions had better iron bioavailability as compared to commercially available iron dextran formulations. Ferrozine in vitro assay showed that alginate-encapsulated ferric galactose microemulsion (AFGM) had highest iron bioavailability in comparison to other four ferric saccharate microemulsions, namely AFGlM, AFMM, AFSM, and AFFM synthesized in our laboratory. Mice studies also suggested that AFGM showed higher iron absorption as indicated by increased serum iron, hemoglobin, and other hematopoietic measures with almost no toxicity at tested doses. Development of iron-loaded microemulsions leads to higher bioavailability of iron and can provide alternative strategies to treat iron deficiency.

  20. Highly covalent ferric-thiolate bonds exhibit surprisingly low mechanical stability.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Peng; Li, Hongbin

    2011-05-04

    Depending on their nature, different chemical bonds show vastly different stability with covalent bonds being the most stable ones that rupture at forces above nanonewton. Studies have revealed that ferric-thiolate bonds are highly covalent and are conceived to be of high mechanical stability. Here, we used single molecule force spectroscopy techniques to directly determine the mechanical strength of such highly covalent ferric-thiolate bonds in rubredoxin. We observed that the ferric-thiolate bond ruptures at surprisingly low forces of ∼200 pN, significantly lower than that of typical covalent bonds, such as C-Si, S-S, and Au-thiolate bonds, which typically ruptures at >1.5 nN. And the mechanical strength of Fe-thiolate bonds is observed to correlate with the covalency of the bonds. Our results indicated that highly covalent Fe-thiolate bonds are mechanically labile and display features that clearly distinguish themselves from typical covalent bonds. Our study not only opens new avenues to investigating this important class of chemical bonds, but may also shed new lights on our understanding of the chemical nature of these metal thiolate bonds.

  1. A combined treatment of landfill leachate using calcium oxide, ferric chloride and clinoptilolite.

    PubMed

    Orescanin, Visnja; Ruk, Damir; Kollar, Robert; Mikelic, Ivanka Lovrencic; Nad, Karlo; Mikulic, Nenad

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was development of appropriate procedure for treatment of landfill leachate taken from old sanitary landfill Piskornica (Koprivnica, Croatia). Due to complex nature of the effluent a combined treatment approach was applied. Samples were treated with calcium oxide followed by ferric chloride and finally with clinoptilolite. The optimum amount of treating agents and contact time were determined. Application of calcium oxide (25 g/L, 20 min. contact time) resulted in the reduction of color, turbidity, suspended solids and ammonia for 94.50%, 96.55%, 95.66% and 21.60%, respectively, while the removal efficiency of Cr (VI), Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb was 75.00%, 95.34%, 56.52%, 78.72%, 73.02% and 100.00%, respectively. After addition of ferric chloride (570 mg Fe(3+)/L, 20 min. contact time) removal efficiency of color, turbidity, suspended solids and ammonia increased to 96.04%, 99.27%, 98.61%, and 43.20%, respectively. Removal of ammonia (81.60%) increased significantly after final adsorption onto clinoptilolite (25 g/L, 4 h contact time). Removal of COD after successive treatment with calcium oxide, ferric chloride and clinoptilolite was 64.70%, 77.40% and 81.00%, respectively.

  2. Graphene oxide/ferric hydroxide composites for efficient arsenate removal from drinking water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Dwivedi, Vineet; Chi, Chunyan; Wu, Jishan

    2010-10-15

    A series of novel composites based on graphene oxide (GO) cross-linked with ferric hydroxide was developed for effective removal of arsenate from contaminated drinking water. GO, which was used as a supporting matrix here, was firstly treated with ferrous sulfate. Then, the ferrous compound cross-linked with GO was in situ oxidized to ferric compound by hydrogen peroxide, followed by treating with ammonium hydroxide. The morphology and composition of the composites were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The ferric hydroxide was found to be homogenously impregnated onto GO sheets in amorphous form. These composites were evaluated as absorbents for arsenate removal from contaminated drinking water. For the water with arsenate concentration at 51.14 ppm, more than 95% of arsenate was absorbed by composite GO-Fe-5 with an absorption capacity of 23.78 mg arsenate/g of composite. Effective arsenate removal occurred in a wide range of pH from 4 to 9. However, the efficiency of arsenate removal was decreased when pH was increased to higher than 8.

  3. Low temperature aqueous ferric sulfate solutions on the surface of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevrier, Vincent F.; Altheide, Travis S.

    2008-11-01

    We have studied the low-temperature properties of ferric sulfate Fe2(SO4)3 solutions as a model for potential liquid brines on the surface of Mars. Geochemical modeling demonstrates that concentrated ferric sulfate brines form through sulphur-rich acidic evaporation processes in cold oxidizing environments. Experiments and thermodynamic calculations show that the Fe2(SO4)3 eutectic temperature is 205 +/- 1 K for 48 +/- 2 wt% concentration. As a result of low water activity, these solutions exhibit evaporation rates ranging from 0.42 mm h-1 (29.1 wt%) to 0.03 mm h-1 (58.2 wt%), thus down to 20 times lower than pure water. The combination of extremely low eutectic temperature and evaporation rates allow subsurface liquids to be stable at high latitudes, where the majority of gullies and viscous flow features are located. Therefore, we conclude that episodic releases of highly concentrated ferric sulfate brines are a potential agent for the formation of recent and present-day gullies on Mars.

  4. Genetic and Physiologic Characterization of Ferric/Cupric Reductase Constitutive Mutants of Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Nyhus, Karin J.; Jacobson, Eric S.

    1999-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic yeast that causes meningitis in immunocompromised patients. Because iron acquisition is critical for growth of a pathogen in a host, we studied the regulation of the ferric reductase and ferrous uptake system of this organism. We isolated 18 mutants, representing four independent loci, with dysregulated ferric reductase. The mutant strains had >10-fold higher than wild-type WT reductase activity in the presence of iron. Two of the strains also had >7-fold higher than WT iron uptake in the presence of iron but were not markedly iron sensitive. Both were sensitive to the oxidative stresses associated with superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. One strain exhibited only 23% of the WT level of iron uptake in the absence of iron and grew poorly without iron supplementation of the medium, phenotypes consistent with an iron transport deficiency; it was sensitive to superoxide but not to hydrogen peroxide. The fourth strain had high reductase activity but normal iron uptake; it was not very sensitive to oxidative stress. We also demonstrated that the ferric reductase was regulated by copper and could act as a cupric reductase. Sensitivity to oxidants may be related to iron acquisition by a variety of mechanisms and may model the interaction of the yeast with the immune system. PMID:10225895

  5. Ferric coagulant recovered from coagulation sludge and its recycle in chemically enhanced primary treatment.

    PubMed

    Xu, G R; Yan, Z C; Wang, N; Li, G B

    2009-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to study the feasibility of ferric coagulant recovery from chemical sludge and its recycle in chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) to make the process more cost-effective, as well as reduce sludge volume. The optimum conditions and efficiency of the acidification for ferric coagulant recovery from coagulation sludge were investigated. Experimental results showed that the recovered coagulants can be used in CEPT and the pollutants removal efficiency is similar to that of fresh coagulant, and for some aspects the effect of recovered coagulants is better than that of fresh ones, such as turbidity removal. Although some substances will be enriched during recycle, they have little effect on treated wastewater quality. Acidification condition also had significant influence on reduction of sludge volume. The efficiency of coagulant recovery had a linear relationship with sludge reduction. Experiments verify that it would be a sustainable and cost-effective way to recover ferric coagulant from coagulation sludge in water treatment and chemical wastewater treatment, and then recycle it to CEPT, as well as reduce sludge volume.

  6. Carbonated ferric green rust as a new material for efficient phosphate removal.

    PubMed

    Barthélémy, K; Naille, S; Despas, C; Ruby, C; Mallet, M

    2012-10-15

    Phosphate uptake from aqueous solutions by a recently discovered ferric oxyhydroxide is investigated. Carbonated ferric green rust {GR(CO(3)(2-))*} is prepared by varying two synthesis parameters, which are (1) the aging period after the ferrous-ferric green rust {GR(CO(3)(2-))} synthesis step and (2) the rate of the hydrogen peroxide addition to oxidize GR(CO(3)(2-)) into GR(CO(3)(2-))*. These two parameters permit the control of the size, morphology and cristallinity of the synthesized particles. As prepared GR* samples are then evaluated, in batch experiments, as possible low-cost efficient phosphate removal materials. Firstly, kinetic experiments reveal that a fast sorption step initially occurs and equilibrium is reached at ~500 min. The adsorption kinetics data at pH=7 can be adequately fitted to a pseudo-second order model. Secondly, the Freundlich model provides the best correlation and effectively describes phosphate sorption isotherms for all GR(CO(3)(2-))* samples synthesized. Finally, the phosphate adsorption capacity decreases when pH increases. The highest adsorption capacity is 64.8 mg g(-1) at pH=4 and corresponds to the GR(CO(3)(2-))* sample displaying the smallest and least crystallized particles thus reflecting the importance of the synthesis conditions. Overall, all sorption capacities are higher than the main iron oxide minerals, making GR(CO(3)(2-))* a potentially attractive phosphate adsorbent.

  7. Evidence of pulpotomy in primary teeth comparing MTA, calcium hydroxide, ferric sulphate, and electrosurgery with formocresol.

    PubMed

    Stringhini Junior, E; Vitcel, M E B; Oliveira, L B

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the scientific evidence of pulpotomy in primary teeth comparing mineral troxide aggregate (MTA), calcium hydroxide, ferric sulphate, and electrosurgery with formocresol. A systematic search using key words was conducted using seven databases up to December 10, 2013. Clinical articles in English, Portuguese and Spanish were selected, which were in accordance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria and the research objective of comparing whether pulpotomy performed with formocresol in primary teeth is more effective than other medicaments or techniques. Out of the 12,515 publication initially identified, 30 clinical articles were included in the systematic review and analysed by four meta-analyses. The success rate of MTA (94.6 %) was higher than that of formocresol (87.4 %), with a statistically significant difference (OR = 0.39; 95 % CI = 0.25-0.62). Formocresol pulpotomy success was not statistically different from ferric sulphate or electrosurgery. MTA was clinically and radiographically superior to formocresol for pulpotomy of primary teeth. The other alternatives to formocresol such as electrosurgery and ferric sulphate can be used instead of formocresol since they showed success similar to formocresol. In addition, there is no evidence to support calcium hydroxide for pulpotomies in primary teeth.

  8. [Bacterial vaginosis].

    PubMed

    Jesús De La Calle, Iría; Jesús De La Calle, M Antonia

    2009-11-28

    Bacterial vaginosis is a widely spread health problem with multiple connotations. It has been the subject of many studies and work during decades and it still remains a polemic entity, with contradictory finding. The polymicrobian etiology, unsolved epidemiology, obstetrico-gynecological complications and high recurrence rate following treatment, make this infection a target for researchers. It is not an inflammatory process -yet an immune response exists. In this disorder, vaginal discharge increases, and it is associated with a high risk of developing sexually transmitted diseases.

  9. Bactericidal properties of hydrogen peroxide and copper or iron-containing complex ions in relation to leukocyte function.

    PubMed

    Elzanowska, H; Wolcott, R G; Hannum, D M; Hurst, J K

    1995-03-01

    Various combinations of hydrogen peroxide, reductant (ascorbic acid and superoxide ion), and copper or iron salts and their coordination complexes were examined to determine their cytotoxicity toward several bacteria with diverse metabolic capabilities and cell envelope structures. Four sets of bactericidal conditions were identified, comprising: (1) high concentration levels (5-100 mM) of H2O2 in the absence of exogenous metal ions and reductant; (2) ferrous or ferric coordination complexes plus enzymatically generated O2.- and H2O2 at relatively low steady-state concentration levels; (3) cupric ion plus low concentration levels of H2O2 (1 microM-1 mM) and ascorbate (10 microM-4 mM); (4) cuprous ion (or cupric ion plus ascorbate) in the absence of O2 and H2O2. Rates of losses in viabilities increased proportionately with increases in the concentration of H2O2 in metal-free environments and with each of the components in the Cu2+/ascorbate/H2O2 bactericidal assay system. Oxidant levels required for equivalent killing increased with increasing cell densities of the bacterial suspensions over the range investigated (2 x 10(7)-2 x 10(9) cfu/ml). Other experimental conditions or other combinations of reagents, most notably Fe3+/ascorbate/H2O2 systems, did not generate bactericidal environments. The patterns of response of the three organisms tested, Streptococcus lactis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were similar, suggesting common bactericidal mechanisms. However, preliminary evidence suggests that the lethal lesions caused by the various bactericidal conditions are distinct: As discussed, each of the four bactericidal conditions could conceivably be attained within the phagosomes of leukocytes, although none has as yet been identified.

  10. The effect of ascorbic acid and ferric ammonium citrate on iron uptake and storage in lens epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Goralska, M; Harned, J; Fleisher, L N; McGahan, M C

    1998-06-01

    Ferritin is the major intracellular iron storage protein which has been shown to protect cells against oxidative damage. Recent reports that an inherited abnormality in human ferritin synthesis is associated with early bilateral cataracts underscore the importance of understanding ferritin synthesis and iron storage in lens epithelial cells. We previously demonstrated that ascorbic acid greatly increases de novo synthesis of ferritin in lens epithelial cells. The objectives of the present study were to determine: (1) the effects of ascorbic acid and ferric ammonium citrate on iron uptake by canine lens epithelial cells from iron bound to transferrin and from ferric chloride and (2) the incorporation of this element into ferritin. Iron uptake by lens epithelial cells from 59ferric chloride was 20 times higher than from 59iron-transferrin and iron deposition into ferritin was 8-fold higher when 59ferric chloride was the source. Ascorbic acid had a stimulatory effect on iron uptake from transferrin and on incorporation of this element into ferritin. The ascorbic acid-induced increase of iron uptake required de novo protein synthesis but not specifically de novo ferritin biosynthesis. Although ferritin is not directly involved in iron uptake, the level of ferritin protein could control the pool of intracellular iron. The present results indicate that iron homeostasis in lens epithelial cells is affected mainly by changes in apoferritin synthesis, which is greatly stimulated by ascorbic acid, rather than by altering the rate of protein degradation, which is very slow in these cells under all circumstances. Ferric ammonium citrate activates iron uptake from transferrin in a wide range of cell lines by generation of free radicals. Ferric ammonium citrate also increased iron uptake from Tf in lens epithelial cells. Ferric ammonium citrate treated cells incorporated 5 times more iron and deposited 2 times more iron into ferritin than control cells. Increased incorporation

  11. Hydrous ferric oxide precipitation in the presence of nonmetabolizing bacteria: Constraints on the mechanism of a biotic effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rancourt, Denis G.; Thibault, Pierre-Jean; Mavrocordatos, Denis; Lamarche, Gilles

    2005-02-01

    We have used room temperature and cryogenic 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (pXRD), mineral magnetometry, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), to study the synthetic precipitation of hydrous ferric oxides (HFOs) prepared either in the absence (abiotic, a-HFO) or presence (biotic, b-HFO) of nonmetabolizing bacterial cells ( Bacillus subtilis or Bacillus licheniformis, ˜10 8 cells/mL) and under otherwise identical chemical conditions, starting from Fe(II) (10 -2, 10 -3, or 10 -4 mol/L) under open oxic conditions and at different pH (6-9). We have also performed the first Mössbauer spectroscopy measurements of bacterial cell wall ( Bacillus subtilis) surface complexed Fe, where Fe(III) (10 -3.5-10 -4.5 mol/L) was added to a fixed concentration of cells (˜10 8 cells/mL) under open oxic conditions and at various pH (2.5-4.3). We find that non-metabolic bacterial cell wall surface complexation of Fe is not passive in that it affects Fe speciation in at least two ways: (1) it can reduce Fe(III) to sorbed-Fe 2+ by a proposed steric and charge transfer effect and (2) it stabilizes Fe(II) as sorbed-Fe 2+ against ambient oxidation. The cell wall sorption of Fe occurs in a manner that is not compatible with incorporation into the HFO structure (different coordination environment and stabilization of the ferrous state) and the cell wall-sorbed Fe is not chemically bonded to the HFO particle when they coexist (the sorbed Fe is not magnetically polarized by the HFO particle in its magnetically ordered state). This invalidates the concept that sorption is the first step in a heterogeneous nucleation of HFO onto bacterial cell walls. Both the a-HFOs and the b-HFOs are predominantly varieties of ferrihydrite (Fh), often containing admixtures of nanophase lepidocrocite (nLp), yet they show significant abiotic/biotic differences: Biotic Fh has less intraparticle (including surface region) atomic order (Mössbauer quadrupole splitting), smaller primary

  12. Over or under: hydride attack at the metal versus the coordinated nitrosyl ligand in ferric nitrosyl porphyrins.

    PubMed

    Abucayon, E G; Khade, R L; Powell, D R; Shaw, M J; Zhang, Y; Richter-Addo, G B

    2016-11-15

    Hydride attack at a ferric heme-NO to give an Fe-HNO intermediate is a key step in the global N-cycle. We demonstrate differential reactivity when six- and five-coordinate ferric heme-NO models react with hydride. Although Fe-HNO formation is thermodynamically favored from this reaction, Fe-H formation is kinetically favored for the 5C case.

  13. Protein-mediated adhesion of the dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacterium Shewanella alga BrY to hydrous ferric oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Caccavo, F. Jr.

    1999-11-01

    The rate and extent of bacterial Fe(III) mineral reduction are governed by molecular-scale interactions between the bacterial cell surface and the mineral surface. These interactions are poorly understood. This study examined the role of surface proteins in the adhesion of Shewanella alga BrY to hydrous ferric oxide (HFO). Enzymatic degradation of cell surface polysaccharides had no effect on cell adhesion to HFO. The proteolytic enzymes Streptomyces griseus protease and chymotrypsin inhibited the adhesion of S. alga BrY cells to HFO through catalytic degradation of surface proteins. Trypsin inhibited S. alga BrY adhesion solely through surface-coating effects. Protease and chymotrypsin also mediated desorption of adhered S. alga BrY cells from HFO while trypsin did not mediate cell desorption. Protease removed a single peptide band that represented a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 50 kDa. Chymotrypsin removed two peptide bands that represented proteins with apparent molecular masses of 60 and 31 kDa. These proteins represent putative HGO adhesion molecules. A. alga BrY adhesion was inhibited by up to 46% when cells were cultured at sub-MICs of chloramphenicol, suggesting that protein synthesis is necessary for adhesion. Proteins extracted from the surface of S. alga BrY cells inhibited adhesion to HFO by up to 41%. A number of these proteins bound specifically to HFO, suggesting that a complex system of surface proteins mediates S. alga BrY adhesion to HFO.

  14. Protein-Mediated Adhesion of the Dissimilatory Fe(III)-Reducing Bacterium Shewanella alga BrY to Hydrous Ferric Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Caccavo, Frank

    1999-01-01

    The rate and extent of bacterial Fe(III) mineral reduction are governed by molecular-scale interactions between the bacterial cell surface and the mineral surface. These interactions are poorly understood. This study examined the role of surface proteins in the adhesion of Shewanella alga BrY to hydrous ferric oxide (HFO). Enzymatic degradation of cell surface polysaccharides had no effect on cell adhesion to HFO. The proteolytic enzymes Streptomyces griseus protease and chymotrypsin inhibited the adhesion of S. alga BrY cells to HFO through catalytic degradation of surface proteins. Trypsin inhibited S. alga BrY adhesion solely through surface-coating effects. Protease and chymotrypsin also mediated desorption of adhered S. alga BrY cells from HFO while trypsin did not mediate cell desorption. Protease removed a single peptide band that represented a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 50 kDa. Chymotrypsin removed two peptide bands that represented proteins with apparent molecular masses of 60 and 31 kDa. These proteins represent putative HFO adhesion molecules. S. alga BrY adhesion was inhibited by up to 46% when cells were cultured at sub-MICs of chloramphenicol, suggesting that protein synthesis is necessary for adhesion. Proteins extracted from the surface of S. alga BrY cells inhibited adhesion to HFO by up to 41%. A number of these proteins bound specifically to HFO, suggesting that a complex system of surface proteins mediates S. alga BrY adhesion to HFO. PMID:10543817

  15. Azo Reductase Activity of Intact Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cells Is Dependent on the Fre1p Component of Plasma Membrane Ferric Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Ramalho, Patrícia A.; Paiva, Sandra; Cavaco-Paulo, A.; Casal, Margarida; Cardoso, M. Helena; Ramalho, M. Teresa

    2005-01-01

    Unspecific bacterial reduction of azo dyes is a process widely studied in correlation with the biological treatment of colored wastewaters, but the enzyme system associated with this bacterial capability has never been positively identified. Several ascomycete yeast strains display similar decolorizing behaviors. The yeast-mediated process requires an alternative carbon and energy source and is independent of previous exposure to the dyes. When substrate dyes are polar, their reduction is extracellular, strongly suggesting the involvement of an externally directed plasma membrane redox system. The present work demonstrates that, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the ferric reductase system participates in the extracellular reduction of azo dyes. The S. cerevisiae Δfre1 and Δfre1 Δfre2 mutant strains, but not the Δfre2 strain, showed much-reduced decolorizing capabilities. The FRE1 gene complemented the phenotype of S. cerevisiae Δfre1 cells, restoring the ability to grow in medium without externally added iron and to decolorize the dye, following a pattern similar to the one observed in the wild-type strain. These results suggest that under the conditions tested, Fre1p is a major component of the azo reductase activity. PMID:16000801

  16. Bacterial ferrous iron transport: the Feo system.

    PubMed

    Lau, Cheryl K Y; Krewulak, Karla D; Vogel, Hans J

    2016-03-01

    To maintain iron homeostasis within the cell, bacteria have evolved various types of iron acquisition systems. Ferric iron (Fe(3+)) is the dominant species in an oxygenated environment, while ferrous iron (Fe(2+)) is more abundant under anaerobic conditions or at low pH. For organisms that must combat oxygen limitation for their everyday survival, pathways for the uptake of ferrous iron are essential. Several bacterial ferrous iron transport systems have been described; however, only the Feo system appears to be widely distributed and is exclusively dedicated to the transport of iron. In recent years, many studies have explored the role of the FeoB and FeoA proteins in ferrous iron transport and their contribution toward bacterial virulence. The three-dimensional structures for the Feo proteins have recently been determined and provide insight into the molecular details of the transport system. A highly select group of bacteria also express the FeoC protein from the same operon. This review will provide a comprehensive look at the structural and functional aspects of the Feo system. In addition, bioinformatics analyses of the feo operon and the Feo proteins have been performed to complement our understanding of this ubiquitous bacterial uptake system, providing a new outlook for future studies. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Reduction of costs for anemia-management drugs associated with the use of ferric citrate

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Anila; Peterson, Leif E

    2014-01-01

    Background Ferric citrate is a novel phosphate binder which has the potential to reduce usage of erythropoietin-stimulating agents (ESAs) and intravenous (IV) iron used for anemia management during hemodialysis (HD) among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Currently, the potential health care cost savings on a national scale due to the use of ferric citrate in ESRD are undetermined. Methods Per-patient-per-year costs of ESAs (Epogen® and Aranesp® [Amgen Inc., CA, USA]) and IV iron (Venofer® [American Regent, Inc., NY, USA] and Ferrlecit® [Sanofi US, Bridgewater, NJ, USA]) were based on RED BOOK™ (Truven Health Analytics New York, NY, USA) costs combined with the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) base rate and actual usage in 2011 for the four drugs. The annual number of outpatients undergoing HD in the US was based on frequencies reported by the USRDS (United States Renal Data System). Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis was performed to determine total annual costs and cost reduction based on ferric citrate usage. Results Total annual cost of ESAs and IV iron for anemia management in ESRD determined by Monte Carlo analysis assuming CMS base rate value was 5.127 (3.664–6.260) billion USD. For actual utilization in 2011, total annual cost of ESAs and IV iron was 3.981 (2.780–4.930) billion USD. If ferric citrate usage reduced ESA utilization by 20% and IV iron by 40%, then total cost would be reduced by 21.2% to 4.038 (2.868–4.914) billion USD for the CMS base rate, and by 21.8% to 3.111 (2.148–3.845) billion USD, based on 2011 actual utilization. Conclusion It is likely that US health care costs for anemia-management drugs associated with ESRD among HD patients can be reduced by using ferric citrate as a phosphate binder. PMID:24899820

  18. Bacterial Hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauga, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria predate plants and animals by billions of years. Today, they are the world's smallest cells, yet they represent the bulk of the world's biomass and the main reservoir of nutrients for higher organisms. Most bacteria can move on their own, and the majority of motile bacteria are able to swim in viscous fluids using slender helical appendages called flagella. Low-Reynolds number hydrodynamics is at the heart of the ability of flagella to generate propulsion at the micrometer scale. In fact, fluid dynamic forces impact many aspects of bacteriology, ranging from the ability of cells to reorient and search their surroundings to their interactions within mechanically and chemically complex environments. Using hydrodynamics as an organizing framework, I review the biomechanics of bacterial motility and look ahead to future challenges.

  19. Bacterial vaginosis.

    PubMed

    Priestley, C J; Kinghorn, G R

    1996-09-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is an alteration of the vaginal flora, where the normally predominant lactobacilli are replaced by a cocktail of organisms including Gardnerella vaginalis and anaerobes. It presents with a grey, homogenous, offensive vaginal discharge that has a raised pH. However, around half the women with this condition are asymptomatic. Diagnosis is best made by microscopic examination of a Gram-stained smear of vaginal secretions. Treatment is with metronidazole or clindamycin. The indications for treatment of asymptomatic BV are not clear, but women should probably be treated before any invasive gynaecological procedure, including intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) insertion. BV during pregnancy is associated with preterm labour, although a causal effect is not proven; studies are in progress to determine whether treatment of BV will improve the outcome of these pregnancies.

  20. Bacterial Actins.

    PubMed

    Izoré, Thierry; van den Ent, Fusinita

    2017-01-01

    A diverse set of protein polymers, structurally related to actin filaments contributes to the organization of bacterial cells as cytomotive or cytoskeletal filaments. This chapter describes actin homologs encoded by bacterial chromosomes. MamK filaments, unique to magnetotactic bacteria, help establishing magnetic biological compasses by interacting with magnetosomes. Magnetosomes are intracellular membrane invaginations containing biomineralized crystals of iron oxide that are positioned by MamK along the long-axis of the cell. FtsA is widespread across bacteria and it is one of the earliest components of the divisome to arrive at midcell, where it anchors the cell division machinery to the membrane. FtsA binds directly to FtsZ filaments and to the membrane through its C-terminus. FtsA shows altered domain architecture when compared to the canonical actin fold. FtsA's subdomain 1C replaces subdomain 1B of other members of the actin family and is located on the opposite side of the molecule. Nevertheless, when FtsA assembles into protofilaments, the protofilament structure is preserved, as subdomain 1C replaces subdomain IB of the following subunit in a canonical actin filament. MreB has an essential role in shape-maintenance of most rod-shaped bacteria. Unusually, MreB filaments assemble from two protofilaments in a flat and antiparallel arrangement. This non-polar architecture implies that both MreB filament ends are structurally identical. MreB filaments bind directly to membranes where they interact with both cytosolic and membrane proteins, thereby forming a key component of the elongasome. MreB filaments in cells are short and dynamic, moving around the long axis of rod-shaped cells, sensing curvature of the membrane and being implicated in peptidoglycan synthesis.