Science.gov

Sample records for bacterial growth curve

  1. The Bacterial Growth Curve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulton, Richard J. L.

    1991-01-01

    A procedure that allows students to view an entire bacterial growth curve during a two- to three-hour student laboratory period is described. Observations of the lag phase, logarithmic phase, maximum stationary phase, and phase of decline are possible. A nonpathogenic, marine bacterium is used in the investigation. (KR)

  2. Curved microchannels and bacterial streamers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusconi, Roberto; Lecuyer, Sigolene; Guglielmini, Laura; Stone, Howard

    2010-03-01

    Bacterial biofilms are commonly identified as microbial communities attached to a surface and encased in a self-secreted extracellular matrix. Due to their increased resistance to antimicrobial agents, biofilms have an enormous impact on health and medicine (e.g., wound healing, implant-associated infections, disease transmission). On the other hand, they constitute a major component of the stream ecosystem by increasing transport of nutrients and retention of suspended particles. In this talk, we present an experimental study of bacterial biofilm development in a microfluidic device. In particular, we show the formation of filamentous structures, or streamers, in curved channels and how these suspended biofilms are linked to the underlying hydrodynamics.

  3. Bacterial streamers in curved microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusconi, Roberto; Lecuyer, Sigolene; Guglielmini, Laura; Stone, Howard

    2009-11-01

    Biofilms, generally identified as microbial communities embedded in a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances, are involved in a wide variety of health-related problems ranging from implant-associated infections to disease transmissions and dental plaque. The usual picture of these bacterial films is that they grow and develop on surfaces. However, suspended biofilm structures, or streamers, have been found in natural environments (e.g., rivers, acid mines, hydrothermal hot springs) and are always suggested to stem from a turbulent flow. We report the formation of bacterial streamers in curved microfluidic channels. By using confocal laser microscopy we are able to directly image and characterize the spatial and temporal evolution of these filamentous structures. Such streamers, which always connect the inner corners of opposite sides of the channel, are always located in the middle plane. Numerical simulations of the flow provide evidences for an underlying hydrodynamic mechanism behind the formation of the streamers.

  4. Phenotypic signatures arising from unbalanced bacterial growth.

    PubMed

    Tan, Cheemeng; Smith, Robert Phillip; Tsai, Ming-Chi; Schwartz, Russell; You, Lingchong

    2014-08-01

    Fluctuations in the growth rate of a bacterial culture during unbalanced growth are generally considered undesirable in quantitative studies of bacterial physiology. Under well-controlled experimental conditions, however, these fluctuations are not random but instead reflect the interplay between intra-cellular networks underlying bacterial growth and the growth environment. Therefore, these fluctuations could be considered quantitative phenotypes of the bacteria under a specific growth condition. Here, we present a method to identify "phenotypic signatures" by time-frequency analysis of unbalanced growth curves measured with high temporal resolution. The signatures are then applied to differentiate amongst different bacterial strains or the same strain under different growth conditions, and to identify the essential architecture of the gene network underlying the observed growth dynamics. Our method has implications for both basic understanding of bacterial physiology and for the classification of bacterial strains.

  5. Phenotypic Signatures Arising from Unbalanced Bacterial Growth

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Cheemeng; Smith, Robert Phillip; Tsai, Ming-Chi; Schwartz, Russell; You, Lingchong

    2014-01-01

    Fluctuations in the growth rate of a bacterial culture during unbalanced growth are generally considered undesirable in quantitative studies of bacterial physiology. Under well-controlled experimental conditions, however, these fluctuations are not random but instead reflect the interplay between intra-cellular networks underlying bacterial growth and the growth environment. Therefore, these fluctuations could be considered quantitative phenotypes of the bacteria under a specific growth condition. Here, we present a method to identify “phenotypic signatures” by time-frequency analysis of unbalanced growth curves measured with high temporal resolution. The signatures are then applied to differentiate amongst different bacterial strains or the same strain under different growth conditions, and to identify the essential architecture of the gene network underlying the observed growth dynamics. Our method has implications for both basic understanding of bacterial physiology and for the classification of bacterial strains. PMID:25101949

  6. Nonlinear Growth Curves in Developmental Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimm, Kevin J.; Ram, Nilam; Hamagami, Fumiaki

    2011-01-01

    Developmentalists are often interested in understanding change processes, and growth models are the most common analytic tool for examining such processes. Nonlinear growth curves are especially valuable to developmentalists because the defining characteristics of the growth process such as initial levels, rates of change during growth spurts, and…

  7. Electromagnetism of Bacterial Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ainiwaer, Ailiyasi

    2011-10-01

    There has been increasing concern from the public about personal health due to the significant rise in the daily use of electrical devices such as cell phones, radios, computers, GPS, video games and television. All of these devices create electromagnetic (EM) fields, which are simply magnetic and electric fields surrounding the appliances that simultaneously affect the human bio-system. Although these can affect the human system, obstacles can easily shield or weaken the electrical fields; however, magnetic fields cannot be weakened and can pass through walls, human bodies and most other objects. The present study was conducted to examine the possible effects of bacteria when exposed to magnetic fields. The results indicate that a strong causal relationship is not clear, since different magnetic fields affect the bacteria differently, with some causing an increase in bacterial cells, and others causing a decrease in the same cells. This phenomenon has yet to be explained, but the current study attempts to offer a mathematical explanation for this occurrence. The researchers added cultures to the magnetic fields to examine any effects to ion transportation. Researchers discovered ions such as potassium and sodium are affected by the magnetic field. A formula is presented in the analysis section to explain this effect.

  8. Growth Curves for Girls with Turner Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bertapelli, Fabio; Barros-Filho, Antonio de Azevedo; Antonio, Maria Ângela Reis de Góes Monteiro; Barbeta, Camila Justino de Oliveira; de Lemos-Marini, Sofia Helena Valente

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to review the growth curves for Turner syndrome, evaluate the methodological and statistical quality, and suggest potential growth curves for clinical practice guidelines. The search was carried out in the databases Medline and Embase. Of 1006 references identified, 15 were included. Studies constructed curves for weight, height, weight/height, body mass index, head circumference, height velocity, leg length, and sitting height. The sample ranged between 47 and 1,565 (total = 6,273) girls aged 0 to 24 y, born between 1950 and 2006. The number of measures ranged from 580 to 9,011 (total = 28,915). Most studies showed strengths such as sample size, exclusion of the use of growth hormone and androgen, and analysis of confounding variables. However, the growth curves were restricted to height, lack of information about selection bias, limited distributional properties, and smoothing aspects. In conclusion, we observe the need to construct an international growth reference for girls with Turner syndrome, in order to provide support for clinical practice guidelines. PMID:24949463

  9. Growth curve analyses in selected duck lines.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, K; Vinyard, B; Akbar, M K; Shafer, D J; Turk, C M

    2001-12-01

    1. Growth patterns of male ducks from 4 lines (lines A, B, C and D) selected for market weight were analysed and compared to growth patterns of ducks in the respective line 7 generations earlier. Growth curves were analysed using procedures derived from the Weibull sigmoidal function and the linear-linear relative growth rate model and simple allometry. 2. The ducks were fed ad libitum under 24-h lighting throughout the experiment. At weekly intervals from the time of hatch through 70 d of age, 16 ducks from each line were killed to determine body, carcase, breast-muscle, leg and thigh-muscle, and abdominal fat weights. 3. Line A was the heaviest line, followed by line B, line C and line D. However, body weight, carcase weight and breast-muscle weight at 49 d of age were not significantly different between lines A and B. After 7 generations of selection, the breast-muscle yield was increased to >19% and the abdominal fat percent was reduced to <1.4% in all lines. 4. The Weibull growth curve analysis of body weight showed an increase in the asymptotes during selection, while the age of the inflection point remained constant in all lines (21.3 to 26.0 d). For breast-muscle growth, ducks reached the inflection point 12.8 to 14.3 d later than for body weight. Between line A and line B, asymptotes for body weight, asymptotes for breast-muscle weight and allometric growth coefficients of breast muscle and leg and thigh muscles from 14 to 49 d were not significantly different. 5. The relative growth rate model discriminated body and breast-muscle growth patterns of line A and line B. The initial decline in the relative body growth rate was less and the time to reach the transition was longer in line A than line B. On the other hand, the initial decline in the relative breast-muscle growth rate was greater in line A than line B. PMID:11811908

  10. Plant growth-promoting bacterial endophytes.

    PubMed

    Santoyo, Gustavo; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel; Orozco-Mosqueda, Ma del Carmen; Glick, Bernard R

    2016-02-01

    Bacterial endophytes ubiquitously colonize the internal tissues of plants, being found in nearly every plant worldwide. Some endophytes are able to promote the growth of plants. For those strains the mechanisms of plant growth-promotion known to be employed by bacterial endophytes are similar to the mechanisms used by rhizospheric bacteria, e.g., the acquisition of resources needed for plant growth and modulation of plant growth and development. Similar to rhizospheric plant growth-promoting bacteria, endophytic plant growth-promoting bacteria can act to facilitate plant growth in agriculture, horticulture and silviculture as well as in strategies for environmental cleanup (i.e., phytoremediation). Genome comparisons between bacterial endophytes and the genomes of rhizospheric plant growth-promoting bacteria are starting to unveil potential genetic factors involved in an endophytic lifestyle, which should facilitate a better understanding of the functioning of bacterial endophytes.

  11. Curved tails in polymerization-based bacterial motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutenberg, Andrew D.; Grant, Martin

    2001-08-01

    The curved actin ``comet-tail'' of the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes is a visually striking signature of actin polymerization-based motility. Similar actin tails are associated with Shigella flexneri, spotted-fever Rickettsiae, the Vaccinia virus, and vesicles and microspheres in related in vitro systems. We show that the torque required to produce the curvature in the tail can arise from randomly placed actin filaments pushing the bacterium or particle. We find that the curvature magnitude determines the number of actively pushing filaments, independent of viscosity and of the molecular details of force generation. The variation of the curvature with time can be used to infer the dynamics of actin filaments at the bacterial surface.

  12. Bacterial Colonization of Particles: Growth and Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Grossart, Hans-Peter; Kiørboe, Thomas; Tang, Kam; Ploug, Helle

    2003-01-01

    Marine particles in the ocean are exposed to diverse bacterial communities, and colonization and growth of attached bacteria are important processes in the degradation and transformation of the particles. In an earlier study, we showed that the initial colonization of model particles by individual bacterial strains isolated from marine aggregates was a function of attachment and detachment. In the present study, we have investigated how this colonization process was further affected by growth and interspecific interactions among the bacteria. Long-term incubation experiments showed that growth dominated over attachment and detachment after a few hours in controlling the bacterial population density on agar particles. In the absence of grazing mortality, this growth led to an equilibrium population density consistent with the theoretical limit due to oxygen diffusion. Interspecific interaction experiments showed that the presence of some bacterial strains (“residents”) on the agar particles either increased or decreased the colonization rate of other strains (“newcomers”). Comparison between an antibiotic-producing strain and its antibiotic-free mutant showed no inhibitory effect on the newcomers due to antibiotic production. On the contrary, hydrolytic activity of the antibiotic-producing strain appeared to benefit the newcomers and enhance their colonization rate. These results show that growth- and species-specific interactions have to be taken into account to adequately describe bacterial colonization of marine particles. Changes in colonization pattern due to such small-scale processes may have profound effects on the transformation and fluxes of particulate matter in the ocean. PMID:12788756

  13. Bacterial colonization of particles: growth and interactions.

    PubMed

    Grossart, Hans-Peter; Kiørboe, Thomas; Tang, Kam; Ploug, Helle

    2003-06-01

    Marine particles in the ocean are exposed to diverse bacterial communities, and colonization and growth of attached bacteria are important processes in the degradation and transformation of the particles. In an earlier study, we showed that the initial colonization of model particles by individual bacterial strains isolated from marine aggregates was a function of attachment and detachment. In the present study, we have investigated how this colonization process was further affected by growth and interspecific interactions among the bacteria. Long-term incubation experiments showed that growth dominated over attachment and detachment after a few hours in controlling the bacterial population density on agar particles. In the absence of grazing mortality, this growth led to an equilibrium population density consistent with the theoretical limit due to oxygen diffusion. Interspecific interaction experiments showed that the presence of some bacterial strains ("residents") on the agar particles either increased or decreased the colonization rate of other strains ("newcomers"). Comparison between an antibiotic-producing strain and its antibiotic-free mutant showed no inhibitory effect on the newcomers due to antibiotic production. On the contrary, hydrolytic activity of the antibiotic-producing strain appeared to benefit the newcomers and enhance their colonization rate. These results show that growth- and species-specific interactions have to be taken into account to adequately describe bacterial colonization of marine particles. Changes in colonization pattern due to such small-scale processes may have profound effects on the transformation and fluxes of particulate matter in the ocean.

  14. Modeling growth curves to track growing obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our purpose was to examine the relationship between total physical activity (PA) and PA at various intensity levels with insulin resistance at increasing waist circumference and skinfold thickness levels. Being able to describe growth appropriately and succinctly is important in many nutrition and p...

  15. Combining growth curves when a longitudinal study switches measurement tools

    PubMed Central

    Oleson, Jacob J.; Cavanaugh, Joseph E.; Tomblin, J. Bruce; Walker, Elizabeth; Dunn, Camille

    2014-01-01

    When longitudinal studies are performed to investigate the growth of traits in children, the measurement tool being used to quantify the trait may need to change as the subjects age throughout the study. Changing the measurement tool at some point in the longitudinal study makes the analysis of that growth challenging which, in turn, makes it difficult to determine what other factors influence the growth rate. We developed a Bayesian hierarchical modeling framework that relates the growth curves per individual for each of the different measurement tools and allows for covariates to influence the shapes of the curves by borrowing strength across curves. The method is motivated by and demonstrated by speech perception outcome measurements of children who were implanted with cochlear implants. Researchers are interested in assessing the impact of age at implantation, and comparing the growth rates of children who are implanted under the age of two versus those implanted between the ages of two and four. PMID:24821002

  16. Growth-dependent bacterial susceptibility to ribosome-targeting antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Greulich, Philip; Scott, Matthew; Evans, Martin R; Allen, Rosalind J

    2015-03-01

    Bacterial growth environment strongly influences the efficacy of antibiotic treatment, with slow growth often being associated with decreased susceptibility. Yet in many cases, the connection between antibiotic susceptibility and pathogen physiology remains unclear. We show that for ribosome-targeting antibiotics acting on Escherichia coli, a complex interplay exists between physiology and antibiotic action; for some antibiotics within this class, faster growth indeed increases susceptibility, but for other antibiotics, the opposite is true. Remarkably, these observations can be explained by a simple mathematical model that combines drug transport and binding with physiological constraints. Our model reveals that growth-dependent susceptibility is controlled by a single parameter characterizing the ‘reversibility’ of ribosome-targeting antibiotic transport and binding. This parameter provides a spectrum classification of antibiotic growth-dependent efficacy that appears to correspond at its extremes to existing binary classification schemes. In these limits, the model predicts universal, parameter-free limiting forms for growth inhibition curves. The model also leads to nontrivial predictions for the drug susceptibility of a translation mutant strain of E. coli, which we verify experimentally. Drug action and bacterial metabolism are mechanistically complex; nevertheless, this study illustrates how coarse-grained models can be used to integrate pathogen physiology into drug design and treatment strategies.

  17. Growth-dependent bacterial susceptibility to ribosome-targeting antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Greulich, Philip; Scott, Matthew; Evans, Martin R; Allen, Rosalind J

    2015-03-19

    Bacterial growth environment strongly influences the efficacy of antibiotic treatment, with slow growth often being associated with decreased susceptibility. Yet in many cases, the connection between antibiotic susceptibility and pathogen physiology remains unclear. We show that for ribosome-targeting antibiotics acting on Escherichia coli, a complex interplay exists between physiology and antibiotic action; for some antibiotics within this class, faster growth indeed increases susceptibility, but for other antibiotics, the opposite is true. Remarkably, these observations can be explained by a simple mathematical model that combines drug transport and binding with physiological constraints. Our model reveals that growth-dependent susceptibility is controlled by a single parameter characterizing the 'reversibility' of ribosome-targeting antibiotic transport and binding. This parameter provides a spectrum classification of antibiotic growth-dependent efficacy that appears to correspond at its extremes to existing binary classification schemes. In these limits, the model predicts universal, parameter-free limiting forms for growth inhibition curves. The model also leads to non-trivial predictions for the drug susceptibility of a translation mutant strain of E. coli, which we verify experimentally. Drug action and bacterial metabolism are mechanistically complex; nevertheless, this study illustrates how coarse-grained models can be used to integrate pathogen physiology into drug design and treatment strategies.

  18. BGFit: management and automated fitting of biological growth curves

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Existing tools to model cell growth curves do not offer a flexible integrative approach to manage large datasets and automatically estimate parameters. Due to the increase of experimental time-series from microbiology and oncology, the need for a software that allows researchers to easily organize experimental data and simultaneously extract relevant parameters in an efficient way is crucial. Results BGFit provides a web-based unified platform, where a rich set of dynamic models can be fitted to experimental time-series data, further allowing to efficiently manage the results in a structured and hierarchical way. The data managing system allows to organize projects, experiments and measurements data and also to define teams with different editing and viewing permission. Several dynamic and algebraic models are already implemented, such as polynomial regression, Gompertz, Baranyi, Logistic and Live Cell Fraction models and the user can add easily new models thus expanding current ones. Conclusions BGFit allows users to easily manage their data and models in an integrated way, even if they are not familiar with databases or existing computational tools for parameter estimation. BGFit is designed with a flexible architecture that focus on extensibility and leverages free software with existing tools and methods, allowing to compare and evaluate different data modeling techniques. The application is described in the context of bacterial and tumor cells growth data fitting, but it is also applicable to any type of two-dimensional data, e.g. physical chemistry and macroeconomic time series, being fully scalable to high number of projects, data and model complexity. PMID:24067087

  19. Visualization of Growth Curve Data from Phenotype MicroarrayExperiments

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, Janet S.; Joyner, Dominique C.; Borglin, Sharon E.; Hazen, Terry C.; Arkin, Adam P.; Bethel, E. Wes

    2007-04-19

    Phenotype microarrays provide a technology to simultaneouslysurvey the response of an organism to nearly 2,000 substrates, includingcarbon, nitrogen and potassium sources; varying pH; varying saltconcentrations; and antibiotics. In order to more quickly and easily viewand compare the large number of growth curves produced by phenotypemicroarray experiments, we have developed software to produce and displaycolor images, each of which corresponds to a set of 96 growth curves.Using color images to represent growth curves data has proven to be avaluable way to assess experiment quality, compare replicates, facilitatecomparison of the responses of different organisms, and identifysignificant phenotypes. The color images are linked to traditional plotsof growth versus time, as well as to information about the experiment,organism, and substrate. In order to share and view information and dataproject-wide, all information, plots, and data are accessible using onlya Web browser.

  20. Interactions of cosmic rays in the atmosphere: growth curves revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Obermeier, A.; Boyle, P.; Müller, D.; Hörandel, J.

    2013-12-01

    Measurements of cosmic-ray abundances on balloons are affected by interactions in the residual atmosphere above the balloon. Corrections for such interactions are particularly important for observations of rare secondary particles such as boron, antiprotons, and positrons. These corrections either can be calculated if the relevant cross sections in the atmosphere are known or may be empirically determined by extrapolation of the 'growth curves', i.e., the individual particle intensities as functions of atmospheric depth. The growth-curve technique is particularly attractive for long-duration balloon flights where the periodic daily altitude variations permit rather precise determinations of the corresponding particle intensity variations. We determine growth curves for nuclei from boron (Z = 5) to iron (Z = 26) using data from the 2006 Arctic balloon flight of the TRACER detector for cosmic-ray nuclei, and we compare the growth curves with predictions from published cross section values. In general, good agreement is observed. We then study the boron/carbon abundance ratio and derive a simple and energy-independent correction term for this ratio. We emphasize that the growth-curve technique can be developed further to provide highly accurate tests of published interaction cross section values.

  1. Bacterial Growth in Mixed Cultures on Dissolved Organic Carbon from Humic and Clear Waters

    PubMed Central

    Tranvik, Lars J.; Höfle, Manfred G.

    1987-01-01

    Interactions between bacterial assemblages and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from different sources were investigated. Mixed batch cultures were set up with water from a humic and a clear-water lake by a 1:20 dilution of the bacterial assemblage (1.0 μm of prefiltered lake water) with natural medium (sterile filtered lake water) in all four possible combinations of the two waters and their bacterial assemblages. Bacterial numbers and biomass, DOC, thymidine incorporation, ATP, and uptake of glucose and phenol were followed in these cultures. Growth curves and exponential growth rates were similar in all cultures, regardless of inoculum or medium. However, bacterial biomass produced was double in cultures based on water from the humic lake. The fraction of DOC consumed by heterotrophic bacteria during growth was in the same range, 15 to 22% of the total DOC pool, in all cultures. Bacterial growth efficiency, calculated from bacterial biomass produced and DOC consumed, was in the order of 20%. Glucose uptake reached a peak during exponential growth in all cultures. Phenol uptake was insignificant in the cultures based on the clear-water medium, but occurred in humic medium cultures after exponential growth. The similarity in the carbon budgets of all cultures indicated that the source of the bacterial assemblage did not have a significant effect on the overall carbon flux. However, fluxes of specific organic compounds differed, as reflected by glucose and phenol uptake, depending on the nature of the DOC and the bacterial assemblage. PMID:16347296

  2. R-Curve Instability Calculations Of Crack Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orange, Thomas W.

    1989-01-01

    Report discusses use of instability method of calculation and R-curve mathematical models to analyze growth of cracks in fracture-mechanics specimens. In case of single material and structure, such analysis sometimes simple enough to be done on pocket calculator. Where microcomputer or larger computer available, comprehensive program includes libraries of driving-force equations for various configurations and R-curve mathematical models for different materials. Author concludes instability method simple and effective and model equations studied all viable in sense at lease one of them should fit almost any applicable set of crack-growth data. Method and models constitute powerful mathematical tools for analysis of fractures.

  3. Latent Growth Curves within Developmental Structural Equation Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArdle, J. J.; Epstein, David

    1987-01-01

    Uses structural equation modeling to combine traditional ideas from repeated-measures ANOVA with some traditional ideas from longitudinal factor analysis. The model describes a latent growth curve model that permits the estimation of parameters representing individual and group dynamics. (Author/RH)

  4. The Multigroup Multilevel Categorical Latent Growth Curve Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Lai-Fa

    2010-01-01

    Longitudinal data describe developmental patterns and enable predictions of individual changes beyond sampled time points. Major methodological issues in longitudinal data include modeling random effects, subject effects, growth curve parameters, and autoregressive residuals. This study embedded the longitudinal model within a multigroup…

  5. Mediation Analysis in a Latent Growth Curve Modeling Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Soest, Tilmann; Hagtvet, Knut A.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents several longitudinal mediation models in the framework of latent growth curve modeling and provides a detailed account of how such models can be constructed. Logical and statistical challenges that might arise when such analyses are conducted are also discussed. Specifically, we discuss how the initial status (intercept) and…

  6. Sensitivity of Fit Indices to Misspecification in Growth Curve Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Wei; West, Stephen G.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the sensitivity of fit indices to model misspecification in within-individual covariance structure, between-individual covariance structure, and marginal mean structure in growth curve models. Five commonly used fit indices were examined, including the likelihood ratio test statistic, root mean square error of…

  7. Predicting Change in Postpartum Depression: An Individual Growth Curve Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Trey

    Recently, methodologists interested in examining problems associated with measuring change have suggested that developmental researchers should focus upon assessing change at both intra-individual and inter-individual levels. This study used an application of individual growth curve analysis to the problem of maternal postpartum depression.…

  8. Twelve Frequently Asked Questions about Growth Curve Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Patrick J.; Obeidat, Khawla; Losardo, Diane

    2010-01-01

    Longitudinal data analysis has long played a significant role in empirical research within the developmental sciences. The past decade has given rise to a host of new and exciting analytic methods for studying between-person differences in within-person change. These methods are broadly organized under the term "growth curve models." The…

  9. Diagnostics of Robust Growth Curve Modeling Using Student's "t" Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tong, Xin; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2012-01-01

    Growth curve models with different types of distributions of random effects and of intraindividual measurement errors for robust analysis are compared. After demonstrating the influence of distribution specification on parameter estimation, 3 methods for diagnosing the distributions for both random effects and intraindividual measurement errors…

  10. Analysis of growth curves of fowl. III. Geese.

    PubMed

    Knízetová, H; Hyánek, J; Veselský, A

    1994-07-01

    1. Growth curves of two lines (S,D) and their reciprocal hybrids (in total,. n = 344) were evaluated by the Richards function. Geese were weighed at 7 d intervals to the ninth week, and then at 92, 154, 192 and 217 d of age. Food and water were supplied ad libitum. 2. The accuracy of curve fit measured by the coefficient of determination (R2) for different genetic groups ranged from 0.9840 to 0.9918. The highest percentage deviations between observed and estimated live weights were recorded at hatching (on average 15.1%), while at the others points of curve they were significantly lower (from 0.6 to 6.8%). 3. The geese are characterised by an early maturing rate. The peak of the absolute growth rate (the inflection point of the curve) occurred at 18.7 to 23.5 d of age (t+). The degree of maturity at a slaughter age of 63 d (u63 = y63/A) ranged from 0.69 to 0.76. Fitting the inflection point at the beginning of the linear growth phase significantly affects the maturing rate (k) and the ratio between the inflection (y+) and the asymptotic (A) weights. The values of these correlated parameters were very low (y+/A = 0.233 to 0.294, k = 0.0281 to 0.0373 ln theta/d). 4. The live weights of geese from 28 d of age and the parameters of the Richards function were significantly higher (P < 0.05, P < 0.01) in th sire line (S) than in the dam line (D). A low negative heterosis was observed at all points of the growth curves (-0.01 to -9.7%). The results indicated the effect of sex-linked growth genes. 5. The phenotypic correlations between parameters of the Richards function within genetic groups are discussed. PMID:7953778

  11. Initial Status in Growth Curve Modeling for Randomized Trials

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Chih-Ping; Chi, Felicia; Weisner, Constance; Pentz, MaryAnn; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2010-01-01

    The growth curve modeling (GCM) technique has been widely adopted in longitudinal studies to investigate progression over time. The simplest growth profile involves two growth factors, initial status (intercept) and growth trajectory (slope). Conventionally, all repeated measures of outcome are included as components of the growth profile, and the first measure is used to reflect the initial status. Selection of the initial status, however, can greatly influence study findings, especially for randomized trials. In this article, we propose an alternative GCM approach involving only post-intervention measures in the growth profile and treating the first wave after intervention as the initial status. We discuss and empirically illustrate how choices of initial status may influence study conclusions in addressing research questions in randomized trials using two longitudinal studies. Data from two randomized trials are used to illustrate that the alternative GCM approach proposed in this article offers better model fitting and more meaningful results. PMID:21572585

  12. Bayesian Inference and Application of Robust Growth Curve Models Using Student's "t" Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Lai, Keke; Lu, Zhenqiu; Tong, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Despite the widespread popularity of growth curve analysis, few studies have investigated robust growth curve models. In this article, the "t" distribution is applied to model heavy-tailed data and contaminated normal data with outliers for growth curve analysis. The derived robust growth curve models are estimated through Bayesian…

  13. Curves of growth for van der Waals broadened spectral lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, C.

    1980-01-01

    Curves of growth are evaluated for a spectral line broadened by the van der Waals interactions during collisions. The growth of the equivalent widths of such lines is shown to be dependent on the product of the perturber density and the 6/10 power of the van der Waals potential coefficient. When the parameter is small, the widths grow as the 1/2 power of the optical depth as they do for the Voigt profile: but when the parameter is large, they grow as 2/3 power and, hence, faster than the Voigt profile. An approximate analytical expression for the computed growth characteristics is given.

  14. Menaquinone analogs inhibit growth of bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Schlievert, Patrick M; Merriman, Joseph A; Salgado-Pabón, Wilmara; Mueller, Elizabeth A; Spaulding, Adam R; Vu, Bao G; Chuang-Smith, Olivia N; Kohler, Petra L; Kirby, John R

    2013-11-01

    Gram-positive bacteria cause serious human illnesses through combinations of cell surface and secreted virulence factors. We initiated studies with four of these organisms to develop novel topical antibacterial agents that interfere with growth and exotoxin production, focusing on menaquinone analogs. Menadione, 1,4-naphthoquinone, and coenzymes Q1 to Q3 but not menaquinone, phylloquinone, or coenzyme Q10 inhibited the growth and to a greater extent exotoxin production of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus anthracis, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Streptococcus agalactiae at concentrations of 10 to 200 μg/ml. Coenzyme Q1 reduced the ability of S. aureus to cause toxic shock syndrome in a rabbit model, inhibited the growth of four Gram-negative bacteria, and synergized with another antimicrobial agent, glycerol monolaurate, to inhibit S. aureus growth. The staphylococcal two-component system SrrA/B was shown to be an antibacterial target of coenzyme Q1. We hypothesize that menaquinone analogs both induce toxic reactive oxygen species and affect bacterial plasma membranes and biosynthetic machinery to interfere with two-component systems, respiration, and macromolecular synthesis. These compounds represent a novel class of potential topical therapeutic agents.

  15. Synergy of fresh and accumulated organic matter to bacterial growth.

    PubMed

    Farjalla, Vinicius F; Marinho, Claudio C; Faria, Bias M; Amado, André M; Esteves, Francisco de A; Bozelli, Reinaldo L; Giroldo, Danilo

    2009-05-01

    The main goal of this research was to evaluate whether the mixture of fresh labile dissolved organic matter (DOM) and accumulated refractory DOM influences bacterial production, respiration, and growth efficiency (BGE) in aquatic ecosystems. Bacterial batch cultures were set up using DOM leached from aquatic macrophytes as the fresh DOM pool and DOM accumulated from a tropical humic lagoon. Two sets of experiments were performed and bacterial growth was followed in cultures composed of each carbon substrate (first experiment) and by carbon substrates combined (second experiment), with and without the addition of nitrogen and phosphorus. In both experiments, bacterial production, respiration, and BGE were always higher in cultures with N and P additions, indicating a consistent inorganic nutrient limitation. Bacterial production, respiration, and BGE were higher in cultures set up with leachate DOM than in cultures set up with humic DOM, indicating that the quality of the organic matter pool influenced the bacterial growth. Bacterial production and respiration were higher in the mixture of substrates (second experiment) than expected by bacterial production and respiration in single substrate cultures (first experiment). We suggest that the differences in the concentration of some compounds between DOM sources, the co-metabolism on carbon compound decomposition, and the higher diversity of molecules possibly support a greater bacterial diversity which might explain the higher bacterial growth observed. Finally, our results indicate that the mixture of fresh labile and accumulated refractory DOM that naturally occurs in aquatic ecosystems could accelerate the bacterial growth and bacterial DOM removal. PMID:18985269

  16. Analysis of growth curves of fowl. II. Ducks.

    PubMed

    Knízetová, H; Hyánek, J; Kníze, B; Procházková, H

    1991-12-01

    1. Growth curves of nine selected lines and one random-bred control population (in total, n = 1070) were evaluated by the Richards function. The ducks were weighed at 7-d intervals and, after the tenth week, every second week (up to 18 weeks). Food and water were supplied ad libitum. 2. The predicted curves closely fitted the weight data points (R2 = 0.9991-0.9997). 3. The ducks are characterized by early maturity rate. The peak of the absolute growth rate (the inflection point of the curve) occurred at 24.1-27.6 d of age (t+). A higher ratio of the inflection to the asymptotic weights (y+/A = 0.380-0.424) was found in comparison to those from the Gompertz-type function of growth (y+/A = 0.368). 4. In the selected lines the degree of maturity at a slaughter age of 7 weeks (u7 = y7/A) ranged from 0.784 to 0.835 for males and from 0.819 to 0.889 for females. 5. Ducks within the non-selected control line had a significantly lower maturing rate than the selected lines. 6. Sexual dimorphism was recorded for all growth parameters analysed. Females have faster maturation rate than males (higher values of y+/A, u7, k and a shorter auto-acceleration phase of growth). 7. High interline differences were found for body weight (A, y+, y7) and for absolute growth rate (v, v+) and smaller ones for parameters of the maturation rate (y+/A, u7, k and t+). 8. The intragroup phenotype correlation between growth parameters and the use of weight data only up to 7 weeks of age for the estimation of parameters of the Richards function are discussed. PMID:1786569

  17. Coupled effects of chemotaxis and growth on traveling bacterial waves.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhifeng; Bouwer, Edward J; Hilpert, Markus

    2014-08-01

    Traveling bacterial waves are capable of improving contaminant remediation in the subsurface. It is fairly well understood how bacterial chemotaxis and growth separately affect the formation and propagation of such waves. However, their interaction is not well understood. We therefore perform a modeling study to investigate the coupled effects of chemotaxis and growth on bacterial migration, and examine their effects on contaminant remediation. We study the waves by using different initial electron acceptor concentrations for different bacteria and substrate systems. Three types of traveling waves can occur: a chemotactic wave due to the biased movement of chemotactic bacteria resulting from metabolism-generated substrate concentration gradients; a growth/decay/motility wave due to a dynamic equilibrium between bacterial growth, decay and random motility; and an integrated wave due to the interaction between bacterial chemotaxis and growth. Chemotaxis hardly enhances the bacterial propagation if it is too weak to form a chemotactic wave or its wave speed is less than half of the growth/decay/motility wave speed. However, chemotaxis significantly accelerates bacterial propagation once its wave speed exceeds the growth/decay/motility wave speed. When convection occurs, it speeds up the growth/decay/motility wave but slows down or even eliminates the chemotactic wave due to the dispersion. Bacterial survival proves particularly important for bacterial propagation. Therefore we develop a conceptual model to estimate the speed of growth/decay/motility waves.

  18. Bacterial strategies for growth on aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    George, Kevin W; Hay, Anthony G

    2011-01-01

    Although the biodegradation of aromatic compounds has been studied for over 40 years, there is still much to learn about the strategies bacteria employ for growth on novel substrates. Elucidation of these strategies is crucial for predicting the environmental fate of aromatic pollutants and will provide a framework for the development of engineered bacteria and degradation pathways. In this chapter, we provide an overview of studies that have advanced our knowledge of bacterial adaptation to aromatic compounds. We have divided these strategies into three broad categories: (1) recruitment of catabolic genes, (2) expression of "repair" or detoxification proteins, and (3) direct alteration of enzymatic properties. Specific examples from the literature are discussed, with an eye toward the molecular mechanisms that underlie each strategy.

  19. Logistic growth curve of chickens: heritability of parameters.

    PubMed

    Grossman, M; Bohren, B B

    1985-01-01

    Parameters of the logistic function of growth, fit to individual body weight curves of two randombred control populations of each sex of chickens from hatching to 45 weeks of age, were evaluated. Growth-rate constant and age at the infection point in the curve were estimated by the method of sample quantiles from individual weekly body weights of 225 males and 281 females of the Rhode Island Red (RIR) line, and 164 males and 239 females of the White Leghorn (WL) line. Heritability estimates, based on correlation among full-sibs, of growth rate constant were 0.18 +/- 0.32 in males and 0.29 +/- 0.29 in females of the RIR line, and 0.41 +/- 0.40 in males and 0.46 +/- 0.32 in females of the WL line. Estimates of heritability of age at the inflection point were 0.36 +/- 0.44 in males and 0.42 +/- 0.32 in females of the RIR line, and 0.46 +/- 0.41 in males and 0.50 +/- 0.28 in females of the WL line. Observed variation for each trait probably does not provide evidence for heritable differences. No genetic correlations were evident among growth-rate constant, age at the point of inflection, and initial or maximum weight. According to these results, it does not appear that selection for growth-rate constant or age at the point of inflection will change the shape of the growth curve of these populations genetically. Moreover, correlated genetic change in initial or maximum weight would not be expected. PMID:4086789

  20. Analysis of growth curves of fowl. I. Chickens.

    PubMed

    Knízetová, H; Hyánek, J; Kníze, B; Roubícek, J

    1991-12-01

    1. The Richards function was used to describe the growth curves (n = 989) of 9 broiler lines. Chickens were fed ad libitum and body weight was recorded every second week from hatching to 26 weeks of age. 2. The accuracy of curve fit measured by the coefficient of determination (R2) was better for males than for females (0.9986-0.9995 vs 0.9972-0.9988, respectively). 3. The estimation of the asymptotic final weight (A) for different lines enabled the degree of maturity (ut = yt/A) to be determined at any fixed point of the curve. At the age of 7 weeks this had a value of 0.318-0.369 for cockerels and 0.325-0.377 for pullets and represented the slaughter maturity of individual lines. The ratio of inflection/asymptotic weight (y+/A = 0.370-0.388) indicated that in some cases chicken growth can be described approximately by the Gompertz function (y+/A = 0.368). 4. It was found that the age at the inflection point of curves (t+ 48.2-55.7 d for cockerels and t+ = 47.8-52.8 d for pullets) roughly corresponds to the slaughter age of the chickens. 5. The interline differences in the parameters of maturation rate for weight (y+/A, k, t+, u7) are low in comparison with the differences in body weight (A, y+, y7) and absolute growth rate (v, v+). 6. The intragroup phenotypic correlation among growth parameters and the importance of the mathematical models are discussed. PMID:1786568

  1. Theory of hydrokinetic clearance of bacteria from the urinary bladder. I. Effect of variations in bacterial growth rate.

    PubMed

    Mackintosh, I P; Hammond, B J; Watson, B W; O'Grady, F

    1975-05-01

    If the bladder is regularly emptied in appropriate circumstances the concentration of bacteria in successively voided samples progressively falls. By making a number of assumptions about conditions of bacterial growth in the bladder the way in which this washout of bacteria will occur can be predicted. Such predictions give a form of washout curve which differs significantly from that commonly encountered in patients. The shape of the predicted washout curve is affected by the form of the bacterial growth curve but this influence is not sufficient to account for the observed difference between patients and predictions.

  2. Theory of hydrokinetic clearance of bacteria from the urinary bladder. I. Effect of variations in bacterial growth rate.

    PubMed

    Mackintosh, I P; Hammond, B J; Watson, B W; O'Grady, F

    1975-05-01

    If the bladder is regularly emptied in appropriate circumstances the concentration of bacteria in successively voided samples progressively falls. By making a number of assumptions about conditions of bacterial growth in the bladder the way in which this washout of bacteria will occur can be predicted. Such predictions give a form of washout curve which differs significantly from that commonly encountered in patients. The shape of the predicted washout curve is affected by the form of the bacterial growth curve but this influence is not sufficient to account for the observed difference between patients and predictions. PMID:1120639

  3. A brief history of bacterial growth physiology

    PubMed Central

    Schaechter, Moselio

    2015-01-01

    Arguably, microbial physiology started when Leeuwenhoek became fascinated by observing a Vorticella beating its cilia, my point being that almost any observation of microbes has a physiological component. With the advent of modern microbiology in the mid-19th century, the field became recognizably distinctive with such discoveries as anaerobiosis, fermentation as a biological phenomenon, and the nutritional requirements of microbes. Soon came the discoveries of Winogradsky and his followers of the chemical changes in the environment that result from microbial activities. Later, during the first half of the 20th century, microbial physiology became the basis for much of the elucidation of central metabolism. Bacterial physiology then became a handmaiden of molecular biology and was greatly influenced by the discovery of cellular regulatory mechanisms. Microbial growth, which had come of age with the early work of Hershey, Monod, and others, was later pursued by studies on a whole cell level by what became known as the “Copenhagen School.” During this time, the exploration of physiological activities became coupled to modern inquiries into the structure of the bacterial cell. Recent years have seen the development of a further phase in microbial physiology, one seeking a deeper quantitative understanding of phenomena on a whole cell level. This pursuit is exemplified by the emergence of systems biology, which is made possible by the development of technologies that permit the gathering of information in huge amounts. As has been true through history, the research into microbial physiology continues to be guided by the development of new methods of analysis. Some of these developments may well afford the possibility of making stunning breakthroughs. PMID:25954250

  4. Practical application of generic growth theory and the significance of the growth curve parameters.

    PubMed

    Pruitt, K M; DeMuth, R E; Turner, M E

    1979-03-01

    The generic growth curve is developed by plausibility arguments based on simple growth models. Parameters of the generic curve include the maximum size, maximum specific growth rate, and a dimensionless velocity constant which can be related to metabolic efficiency in the case of nutrient-limited growth. Parameter estimates are obtained from estimates of the size and time at the point of inflection, the size and time at any other arbitrarily selected point, and the maximum size. Parameter estimates thus obtained and used as initial estimates in nonlinear least squares analysis often give rapid convergence to a minimum error mean square. [For the growth of Escherichia coli K-12 in liquid medium, the generic curve could be simplified to a form containing only three parameters: the maximum specific growth rate, the maximum size, and the time required to reach maximum size. When the bacteria were inhibited by the addition of increasing amounts of the lactoperoxidase antimicrobial factor, there was no significant change in viable counts or maximum specific growth rate, but the time required to reach maximum growth increased linearly with increasing amounts of added antimicrobial factor.] Analysis of growth in terms of the generic growth curve can be a powerful technique for finding relationships which may not be apparent from qualitative consideration of the data. PMID:378773

  5. Comparative Study of Bacterial Growth in Magnet Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Derek; Masood, Samina

    It has been shown that magnetic fields affect bacterial growth. A comparative study of growth rates for gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria with different types of magnetic fields is done. Special focus is placed upon growth within liquid media, and the effect of magnetic fields relative to the chosen growth medium is considered.

  6. Incorporating Student Mobility in Achievement Growth Modeling: A Cross-Classified Multiple Membership Growth Curve Model.

    PubMed

    Grady, Matthew W; Beretvas, S Natasha

    2010-05-28

    Multiple membership random effects models (MMREMs) have been developed for use in situations where individuals are members of multiple higher level organizational units. Despite their availability and the frequency with which multiple membership structures are encountered, no studies have extended the MMREM approach to hierarchical growth curve modeling (GCM). This study introduces a cross-classified multiple membership growth curve model (CCMM-GCM) for modeling, for example, academic achievement trajectories in the presence of student mobility. Real data are used to demonstrate and compare growth curve model estimates using the CCMM-GCM and a conventional GCM that ignores student mobility. Results indicate that the CCMM-GCM represents a promising option for modeling growth for multiple membership data structures.

  7. Multiscale study of bacterial growth: Experiments and model to understand the impact of gas exchange on global growth.

    PubMed

    Lalanne-Aulet, David; Piacentini, Adalberto; Guillot, Pierre; Marchal, Philippe; Moreau, Gilles; Colin, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Using a millifluidics and macroscale setup, we study quantitatively the impact of gas exchange on bacterial growth. In millifluidic environments, the permeability of the incubator materials allows an unlimited oxygen supply by diffusion. Moreover, the efficiency of diffusion at small scales makes the supply instantaneous in comparison with the cell division time. In hermetic closed vials, the amount of available oxygen is low. The growth curve has the same trend but is quantitatively different from the millifluidic situation. The analysis of all the data allows us to write a quantitative modeling enabling us to capture the entire growth process.

  8. Parent involvement and science achievement: A latent growth curve analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Ursula Yvette

    This study examined science achievement growth across elementary and middle school and parent school involvement using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Kindergarten Class of 1998--1999 (ECLS-K). The ECLS-K is a nationally representative kindergarten cohort of students from public and private schools who attended full-day or half-day kindergarten class in 1998--1999. The present study's sample (N = 8,070) was based on students that had a sampling weight available from the public-use data file. Students were assessed in science achievement at third, fifth, and eighth grades and parents of the students were surveyed at the same time points. Analyses using latent growth curve modeling with time invariant and varying covariates in an SEM framework revealed a positive relationship between science achievement and parent involvement at eighth grade. Furthermore, there were gender and racial/ethnic differences in parents' school involvement as a predictor of science achievement. Findings indicated that students with lower initial science achievement scores had a faster rate of growth across time. The achievement gap between low and high achievers in earth, space and life sciences lessened from elementary to middle school. Parents' involvement with school usually tapers off after elementary school, but due to parent school involvement being a significant predictor of eighth grade science achievement, later school involvement may need to be supported and better implemented in secondary schooling.

  9. Complementarity among plant growth promoting traits in rhizospheric bacterial communities promotes plant growth.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mangal; Awasthi, Ashutosh; Soni, Sumit K; Singh, Rakshapal; Verma, Rajesh K; Kalra, Alok

    2015-10-27

    An assessment of roles of rhizospheric microbial diversity in plant growth is helpful in understanding plant-microbe interactions. Using random combinations of rhizospheric bacterial species at different richness levels, we analysed the contribution of species richness, compositions, interactions and identity on soil microbial respiration and plant biomass. We showed that bacterial inoculation in plant rhizosphere enhanced microbial respiration and plant biomass with complementary relationships among bacterial species. Plant growth was found to increase linearly with inoculation of rhizospheric bacterial communities with increasing levels of species or plant growth promoting trait diversity. However, inoculation of diverse bacterial communities having single plant growth promoting trait, i.e., nitrogen fixation could not enhance plant growth over inoculation of single bacteria. Our results indicate that bacterial diversity in rhizosphere affect ecosystem functioning through complementary relationship among plant growth promoting traits and may play significant roles in delivering microbial services to plants.

  10. Complementarity among plant growth promoting traits in rhizospheric bacterial communities promotes plant growth

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mangal; Awasthi, Ashutosh; Soni, Sumit K.; Singh, Rakshapal; Verma, Rajesh K.; Kalra, Alok

    2015-01-01

    An assessment of roles of rhizospheric microbial diversity in plant growth is helpful in understanding plant-microbe interactions. Using random combinations of rhizospheric bacterial species at different richness levels, we analysed the contribution of species richness, compositions, interactions and identity on soil microbial respiration and plant biomass. We showed that bacterial inoculation in plant rhizosphere enhanced microbial respiration and plant biomass with complementary relationships among bacterial species. Plant growth was found to increase linearly with inoculation of rhizospheric bacterial communities with increasing levels of species or plant growth promoting trait diversity. However, inoculation of diverse bacterial communities having single plant growth promoting trait, i.e., nitrogen fixation could not enhance plant growth over inoculation of single bacteria. Our results indicate that bacterial diversity in rhizosphere affect ecosystem functioning through complementary relationship among plant growth promoting traits and may play significant roles in delivering microbial services to plants. PMID:26503744

  11. Catecholamines and in vitro growth of pathogenic bacteria: enhancement of growth varies greatly among bacterial species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belay, Tesfaye; Aviles, Hernan; Vance, Monique; Fountain, Kimberly; Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of catecholamines on in vitro growth of a range of bacterial species, including anaerobes. Bacteria tested included: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Bacteriodes fragilis, Shigella boydii, Shigella sonnie, Enterobacter Sp, and Salmonella choleraesuis. The results of the current study indicated that supplementation of bacterial cultures in minimal medium with norepinephrine or epinephrine did not result in increased growth of bacteria. Positive controls involving treatment of Escherichia coli with catecholamines did result in increased growth of that bacterial species. The results of the present study extend previous observations that showed differential capability of catecholamines to enhance bacterial growth in vitro.

  12. Economic growth and energy regulation in the environmental Kuznets curve.

    PubMed

    Lorente, Daniel Balsalobre; Álvarez-Herranz, Agustín

    2016-08-01

    This study establishes the existence of a pattern of behavior, between economic growth and environmental degradation, consistent with the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis for 17 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries between 1990 and 2012. Based on this EKC pattern, it shows that energy regulation measures help reduce per capita greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. To validate this hypothesis, we also add the explanatory variables: renewable energy promotion, energy innovation processes, and the suppression effect of income level on the contribution of renewable energy sources to total energy consumption. It aims to be a tool for decision-making regarding energy policy. This paper provides a two-stage econometric analysis of instrumental variables with the aim of correcting the existence of endogeneity in the variable GDP per capita, verifying that the instrumental variables used in this research are appropriate for our aim. To this end, it first makes a methodological contribution before incorporating additional variables associated with environmental air pollution into the EKC hypothesis and showing how they positively affect the explanation of the correction in the GHG emission levels. This study concludes that air pollution will not disappear on its own as economic growth increases. Therefore, it is necessary to promote energy regulation measures to reduce environmental pollution. PMID:27164892

  13. Economic growth and energy regulation in the environmental Kuznets curve.

    PubMed

    Lorente, Daniel Balsalobre; Álvarez-Herranz, Agustín

    2016-08-01

    This study establishes the existence of a pattern of behavior, between economic growth and environmental degradation, consistent with the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis for 17 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries between 1990 and 2012. Based on this EKC pattern, it shows that energy regulation measures help reduce per capita greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. To validate this hypothesis, we also add the explanatory variables: renewable energy promotion, energy innovation processes, and the suppression effect of income level on the contribution of renewable energy sources to total energy consumption. It aims to be a tool for decision-making regarding energy policy. This paper provides a two-stage econometric analysis of instrumental variables with the aim of correcting the existence of endogeneity in the variable GDP per capita, verifying that the instrumental variables used in this research are appropriate for our aim. To this end, it first makes a methodological contribution before incorporating additional variables associated with environmental air pollution into the EKC hypothesis and showing how they positively affect the explanation of the correction in the GHG emission levels. This study concludes that air pollution will not disappear on its own as economic growth increases. Therefore, it is necessary to promote energy regulation measures to reduce environmental pollution.

  14. Can we estimate bacterial growth rates from ribosomal RNA content?

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, P.F.

    1995-12-31

    Several studies have demonstrated a strong relationship between the quantity of RNA in bacterial cells and their growth rate under laboratory conditions. It may be possible to use this relationship to provide information on the activity of natural bacterial communities, and in particular on growth rate. However, if this approach is to provide reliably interpretable information, the relationship between RNA content and growth rate must be well-understood. In particular, a requisite of such applications is that the relationship must be universal among bacteria, or alternately that the relationship can be determined and measured for specific bacterial taxa. The RNA-growth rate relationship has not been used to evaluate bacterial growth in field studies, although RNA content has been measured in single cells and in bulk extracts of field samples taken from coastal environments. These measurements have been treated as probable indicators of bacterial activity, but have not yet been interpreted as estimators of growth rate. The primary obstacle to such interpretations is a lack of information on biological and environmental factors that affect the RNA-growth rate relationship. In this paper, the available data on the RNA-growth rate relationship in bacteria will be reviewed, including hypotheses regarding the regulation of RNA synthesis and degradation as a function of growth rate and environmental factors; i.e. the basic mechanisms for maintaining RNA content in proportion to growth rate. An assessment of the published laboratory and field data, the current status of this research area, and some of the remaining questions will be presented.

  15. The Biasing Effects of Unmodeled ARMA Time Series Processes on Latent Growth Curve Model Estimates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivo, Stephen; Fan, Xitao; Witta, Lea

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the robustness of estimated growth curve models when there is stationary autocorrelation among manifest variable errors. The results suggest that when, in practice, growth curve models are fitted to longitudinal data, alternative rival hypotheses to consider would include growth models that also specify…

  16. Monodisperse Emulsion Drop Microenvironments for Bacterial Biofilm Growth.

    PubMed

    Chang, Connie B; Wilking, James N; Kim, Shin-Hyun; Shum, Ho Cheung; Weitz, David A

    2015-08-26

    In this work, microfluidic technology is used to rapidly create hundreds of thousands of monodisperse double and triple emulsion drops that serve as 3D microenvironments for the containment and growth of bacterial biofilms. The size of these drops, with diameters from tens to hundreds of micrometers, makes them amenable to rapid manipulation and analysis. This is demonstrated by using microscopy to visualize cellular differentiation of Bacillus subtilis biofilm communities within each drop and the bacterial biofilm microstructure. Biofilm growth is explored upon specific interfaces in double and triple emulsions and upon negative and positive radii of curvature. Biofilm attachment of matrix and flagella mutants is studied as well as biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This is the first demonstration of biofilms grown in microscale emulsion drops, which serve as both templates and containers for biofilm growth and attachment. These microenvironments have the potential to transform existing high-throughput screening methods for bacterial biofilms.

  17. Biological Consequences and Advantages of Asymmetric Bacterial Growth

    PubMed Central

    Kysela, David T.; Brown, Pamela J.B.; Huang, Kerwyn Casey; Brun, Yves V.

    2014-01-01

    Asymmetries in cell growth and division occur in eukaryotes and prokaryotes alike. Even seemingly simple and morphologically symmetric cell division processes belie inherent underlying asymmetries in the composition of the resulting daughter cells. We consider the types of asymmetry that arise in various bacterial cell growth and division processes, which include both conditionally activated mechanisms and constitutive, hardwired aspects of bacterial life histories. Although asymmetry disposes some cells to the deleterious effects of aging, it may also benefit populations by efficiently purging accumulated damage and rejuvenating newborn cells. Asymmetries may also generate phenotypic variation required for successful exploitation of variable environments, even when extrinsic changes outpace the capacity of cells to sense and respond to challenges. We propose specific experimental approaches to further develop our understanding of the prevalence and the ultimate importance of asymmetric bacterial growth. PMID:23808335

  18. Monodisperse Emulsion Drop Microenvironments for Bacterial Biofilm Growth.

    PubMed

    Chang, Connie B; Wilking, James N; Kim, Shin-Hyun; Shum, Ho Cheung; Weitz, David A

    2015-08-26

    In this work, microfluidic technology is used to rapidly create hundreds of thousands of monodisperse double and triple emulsion drops that serve as 3D microenvironments for the containment and growth of bacterial biofilms. The size of these drops, with diameters from tens to hundreds of micrometers, makes them amenable to rapid manipulation and analysis. This is demonstrated by using microscopy to visualize cellular differentiation of Bacillus subtilis biofilm communities within each drop and the bacterial biofilm microstructure. Biofilm growth is explored upon specific interfaces in double and triple emulsions and upon negative and positive radii of curvature. Biofilm attachment of matrix and flagella mutants is studied as well as biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This is the first demonstration of biofilms grown in microscale emulsion drops, which serve as both templates and containers for biofilm growth and attachment. These microenvironments have the potential to transform existing high-throughput screening methods for bacterial biofilms. PMID:25959709

  19. Integrated Kinetic and Probabilistic Modeling of the Growth Potential of Bacterial Populations

    PubMed Central

    George, S. M.; Métris, A.

    2015-01-01

    When bacteria are exposed to osmotic stress, some cells recover and grow, while others die or are unculturable. This leads to a viable count growth curve where the cell number decreases before the onset of the exponential growth phase. From such curves, it is impossible to estimate what proportion of the initial cells generates the growth because it leads to an ill-conditioned numerical problem. Here, we applied a combination of experimental and statistical methods, based on optical density measurements, to infer both the probability of growth and the maximum specific growth rate of the culture. We quantified the growth potential of a bacterial population as a quantity composed from the probability of growth and the “suitability” of the growing subpopulation to the new environment. We found that, for all three laboratory media studied, the probability of growth decreased while the “work to be done” by the growing subpopulation (defined as the negative logarithm of their suitability parameter) increased with NaCl concentration. The results suggest that the effect of medium on the probability of growth could be described by a simple shift parameter, a differential NaCl concentration that can be accounted for by the change in the medium composition. Finally, we highlighted the need for further understanding of the effect of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine on metabolism. PMID:25747002

  20. Integrated kinetic and probabilistic modeling of the growth potential of bacterial populations.

    PubMed

    George, S M; Métris, A; Baranyi, J

    2015-05-01

    When bacteria are exposed to osmotic stress, some cells recover and grow, while others die or are unculturable. This leads to a viable count growth curve where the cell number decreases before the onset of the exponential growth phase. From such curves, it is impossible to estimate what proportion of the initial cells generates the growth because it leads to an ill-conditioned numerical problem. Here, we applied a combination of experimental and statistical methods, based on optical density measurements, to infer both the probability of growth and the maximum specific growth rate of the culture. We quantified the growth potential of a bacterial population as a quantity composed from the probability of growth and the "suitability" of the growing subpopulation to the new environment. We found that, for all three laboratory media studied, the probability of growth decreased while the "work to be done" by the growing subpopulation (defined as the negative logarithm of their suitability parameter) increased with NaCl concentration. The results suggest that the effect of medium on the probability of growth could be described by a simple shift parameter, a differential NaCl concentration that can be accounted for by the change in the medium composition. Finally, we highlighted the need for further understanding of the effect of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine on metabolism.

  1. Crack growth measured on flat and curved surfaces at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orange, T. W.; Sullivan, T. L.

    1967-01-01

    Multiple element continuity gage measures plane stress crack growth plus surface crack growth under plane strain conditions. The gage measures flat and curved surfaces and operates at cryogenic temperatures.

  2. Morphomechanics of bacterial biofilms undergoing anisotropic differential growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cheng; Li, Bo; Huang, Xiao; Ni, Yong; Feng, Xi-Qiao

    2016-10-01

    Growing bacterial biofilms exhibit a number of surface morphologies, e.g., concentric wrinkles, radial ridges, and labyrinthine networks, depending on their physiological status and nutrient access. We explore the mechanisms underlying the emergence of these greatly different morphologies. Ginzburg-Landau kinetic method and Fourier spectral method are integrated to simulate the morphological evolution of bacterial biofilms. It is shown that the morphological instability of biofilms is triggered by the stresses induced by anisotropic and heterogeneous bacterial expansion, and involves the competition between membrane energy and bending energy. Local interfacial delamination further enriches the morphologies of biofilms. Phase diagrams are established to reveal how the anisotropy and spatial heterogeneity of growth modulate the surface patterns. The mechanics of three-dimensional microbial morphogenesis may also underpin self-organization in other development systems and provide a potential strategy for engineering microscopic structures from bacterial aggregates.

  3. Bacterial growth laws reflect the evolutionary importance of energy efficiency.

    PubMed

    Maitra, Arijit; Dill, Ken A

    2015-01-13

    We are interested in the balance of energy and protein synthesis in bacterial growth. How has evolution optimized this balance? We describe an analytical model that leverages extensive literature data on growth laws to infer the underlying fitness landscape and to draw inferences about what evolution has optimized in Escherichia coli. Is E. coli optimized for growth speed, energy efficiency, or some other property? Experimental data show that at its replication speed limit, E. coli produces about four mass equivalents of nonribosomal proteins for every mass equivalent of ribosomes. This ratio can be explained if the cell's fitness function is the the energy efficiency of cells under fast growth conditions, indicating a tradeoff between the high energy costs of ribosomes under fast growth and the high energy costs of turning over nonribosomal proteins under slow growth. This model gives insight into some of the complex nonlinear relationships between energy utilization and ribosomal and nonribosomal production as a function of cell growth conditions.

  4. Using Design-Based Latent Growth Curve Modeling with Cluster-Level Predictor to Address Dependency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Jiun-Yu; Kwok, Oi-Man; Willson, Victor L.

    2014-01-01

    The authors compared the effects of using the true Multilevel Latent Growth Curve Model (MLGCM) with single-level regular and design-based Latent Growth Curve Models (LGCM) with or without the higher-level predictor on various criterion variables for multilevel longitudinal data. They found that random effect estimates were biased when the…

  5. The Role of Coding Time in Estimating and Interpreting Growth Curve Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesanz, Jeremy C.; Deeb-Sossa, Natalia; Papadakis, Alison A.; Bollen, Kenneth A.; Curran, Patrick J.

    2004-01-01

    The coding of time in growth curve models has important implications for the interpretation of the resulting model that are sometimes not transparent. The authors develop a general framework that includes predictors of growth curve components to illustrate how parameter estimates and their standard errors are exactly determined as a function of…

  6. Evaluating the Power of Latent Growth Curve Models to Detect Individual Differences in Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertzog, Christopher; von Oertzen, Timo; Ghisletta, Paolo; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the statistical power of single-indicator latent growth curve models to detect individual differences in change (variances of latent slopes) as a function of sample size, number of longitudinal measurement occasions, and growth curve reliability. We recommend the 2 degree-of-freedom generalized test assessing loss of fit when both…

  7. The Effects of Autocorrelation on the Curve-of-Factors Growth Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Daniel L.; Beretvas, S. Natasha; Pituch, Keenan A.

    2011-01-01

    This simulation study examined the performance of the curve-of-factors model (COFM) when autocorrelation and growth processes were present in the first-level factor structure. In addition to the standard curve-of factors growth model, 2 new models were examined: one COFM that included a first-order autoregressive autocorrelation parameter, and a…

  8. Cooperative Bacterial Growth Dynamics Predict the Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemova, Tatiana; Gerardin, Ylaine; Hsin-Jung Li, Sophia; Gore, Jeff

    2011-03-01

    Since the discovery of penicillin, antibiotics have been our primary weapon against bacterial infections. Unfortunately, bacteria can gain resistance to penicillin by acquiring the gene that encodes beta-lactamase, which inactivates the antibiotic. However, mutations in this gene are necessary to degrade the modern antibiotic cefotaxime. Understanding the conditions that favor the spread of these mutations is a challenge. Here we show that bacterial growth in beta-lactam antibiotics is cooperative and that the nature of this growth determines the conditions in which resistance evolves. Quantitative analysis of the growth dynamics predicts a peak in selection at very low antibiotic concentrations; competition between strains confirms this prediction. We also find significant selection at higher antibiotic concentrations, close to the minimum inhibitory concentrations of the strains. Our results argue that an understanding of the evolutionary forces that lead to antibiotic resistance requires a quantitative understanding of the evolution of cooperation in bacteria.

  9. A Multilevel Latent Growth Curve Approach to Predicting Student Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Kilchan; Goldschmidt, Pete

    2012-01-01

    Value-added models and growth-based accountability aim to evaluate school's performance based on student growth in learning. The current focus is on linking the results from value-added models to the ones from growth-based accountability systems including Adequate Yearly Progress decisions mandated by No Child Left Behind. We present a new…

  10. Effect of DSS on Bacterial Growth in Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Hlinková, J; Svobodová, H; Brachtlová, T; Gardlík, R

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is an idiopathic autoimmune disorder that is mainly divided into ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Probiotics are known for their beneficial effect and used as a treatment option in different gastrointestinal problems. The aim of our study was to find suitable bacterial vectors for gene therapy of inflammatory bowel disease. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL7207 and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 were investigated as potential vectors. Our results show that the growth of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 was inhibited in the majority of samples collected from dextran sodium sulphate-treated animals compared with control growth in phosphate-buffered saline. The growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL7207 in all investigated samples was enhanced or unaffected in comparison with phosphate-buffered saline; however, it did not reach the growth rates of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917. Dextran sodium sulphate treatment had a stimulating effect on the growth of both strains in homogenates of distant small intestine and proximal colon samples. The gastrointestinal tract contents and tissue homogenates did not inhibit growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL7207 in comparison with the negative control, and provided more suitable environment for growth compared to Escherichia coli Nissle 1917. We therefore conclude that Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL7207 is a more suitable candidate for a potential bacterial vector, even though it has no known probiotic properties. PMID:27085009

  11. Microcoupon Assay Of Adhesion And Growth Of Bacterial Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Koenig, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Microbiological assay technique facilitates determination of some characteristics of sessile bacteria like those that attach to and coat interior walls of water-purification systems. Biofilms cause sickness and interfere with purification process. Technique enables direct measurement of rate of attachment of bacterial cells, their metabolism, and effects of chemicals on them. Used to quantify effects of both bactericides and growth-stimulating agents and in place of older standard plate-count and tube-dilution techniques.

  12. Growing Growth curves using PROC MIXED and PROC NLMIXED

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Being able to describe growth appropriately and succinctly is important in many contexts, including biology, epidemiology, and statistics. Various approaches are used varying from differential equations, deterministic modeling, and statistical approaches like regression. Often, with epidemiologic da...

  13. Squeezing Interval Change From Ordinal Panel Data: Latent Growth Curves With Ordinal Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehta, Paras D.; Neale, Michael C.; Flay, Brian R.

    2004-01-01

    A didactic on latent growth curve modeling for ordinal outcomes is presented. The conceptual aspects of modeling growth with ordinal variables and the notion of threshold invariance are illustrated graphically using a hypothetical example. The ordinal growth model is described in terms of 3 nested models: (a) multivariate normality of the…

  14. Beyond growth: novel functions for bacterial cell wall hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Wyckoff, Timna J; Taylor, Jennifer A; Salama, Nina R

    2012-11-01

    The peptidoglycan cell wall maintains turgor pressure and cell shape of most bacteria. Cell wall hydrolases are essential, together with synthases, for growth and daughter cell separation. Recent work in diverse organisms has uncovered new cell wall hydrolases that act autonomously or on neighboring cells to modulate invasion of prey cells, cell shape, innate immune detection, intercellular communication, and competitor lysis. The hydrolases involved in these processes catalyze the cleavage of bonds throughout the sugar and peptide moities of peptidoglycan. Phenotypes associated with these diverse hydrolases reveal new functions of the bacterial cell wall beyond growth and division.

  15. A new growth curve model for biological growth: some inferential studies on the growth of Cirrhinus mrigala.

    PubMed

    Bhowmick, Amiya Ranjan; Bhattacharya, Sabyasachi

    2014-08-01

    Growth of living organisms is a fundamental biological process. It depicts the physiological development of the species related to the environment. Mathematical development of growth curve models has a long history since its birth. We propose a mathematical model to describe the evolution of relative growth rate as a function of time based on a real life experiment on a major Indian Carp Cirrhinus mrigala. We establish that the proposed model is able to describe the fish growth dynamics more accurately for our experimental data than some existing models e.g. logistic, Gompertz, exponential. Approximate expressions of the points of inflection and the time of achieving the maximum relative growth rate are derived. We study, in detail, the existence of a nonlinear least squares estimator of the model parameters and their consistency properties. Test-statistics is developed to study the equality of points of inflection and equality of the amount of time necessary to achieve the maximum relative growth rate for a species at two different locations. Using the theory of variance stabilizing transformations, we propose a new test statistic to test the effect of the decay parameter for the proposed growth law. The testing procedure is found to be more sensitive in comparison with the test based on nonlinear least squares estimates. Our proposed model provides a general framework to model growth in other disciplines as well. PMID:24933474

  16. A new growth curve model for biological growth: some inferential studies on the growth of Cirrhinus mrigala.

    PubMed

    Bhowmick, Amiya Ranjan; Bhattacharya, Sabyasachi

    2014-08-01

    Growth of living organisms is a fundamental biological process. It depicts the physiological development of the species related to the environment. Mathematical development of growth curve models has a long history since its birth. We propose a mathematical model to describe the evolution of relative growth rate as a function of time based on a real life experiment on a major Indian Carp Cirrhinus mrigala. We establish that the proposed model is able to describe the fish growth dynamics more accurately for our experimental data than some existing models e.g. logistic, Gompertz, exponential. Approximate expressions of the points of inflection and the time of achieving the maximum relative growth rate are derived. We study, in detail, the existence of a nonlinear least squares estimator of the model parameters and their consistency properties. Test-statistics is developed to study the equality of points of inflection and equality of the amount of time necessary to achieve the maximum relative growth rate for a species at two different locations. Using the theory of variance stabilizing transformations, we propose a new test statistic to test the effect of the decay parameter for the proposed growth law. The testing procedure is found to be more sensitive in comparison with the test based on nonlinear least squares estimates. Our proposed model provides a general framework to model growth in other disciplines as well.

  17. Parent Involvement and Science Achievement: A Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ursula Yvette

    2011-01-01

    This study examined science achievement growth across elementary and middle school and parent school involvement using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K). The ECLS-K is a nationally representative kindergarten cohort of students from public and private schools who attended full-day or half-day…

  18. Mycobacterium massiliense Induces Macrophage Extracellular Traps with Facilitating Bacterial Growth

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Yina; Na, Yirang; Kim, Bum-Joon; Seok, Seung Hyeok

    2016-01-01

    Human neutrophils have been known to release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), antimicrobial DNA structures capable of capturing and killing microbes. Recently, a similar phenomenon has been reported in macrophages infected with various pathogens. However, a role for macrophages extracellular traps (METs) in host defense responses against Mycobacterium massiliense (M. mass) has yet to be described. In this study, we show that M. mass, a rapid growing mycobacterium (RGM), also induces the release of METs from PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells. Intriguingly, this process is not dependent on NADPH oxidase activity, which regulates NET formation. Instead, M. mass-induced MET formation partially depends on calcium influx and requires phagocytosis of high bacterial load. The METs consist of a DNA backbone embedded with microbicidal proteins such as histone, MPO and elastase. Released METs entrap M. mass and prevent their dissemination, but do not have bactericidal activity. Instead, they result in enhanced bacterial growth. In this regard, METs were considered to provide interaction of M. mass with cells and an environment for bacterial aggregation, which may facilitate mycobacterial survival and growth. In conclusion, our results demonstrate METs as an innate defense response against M. mass infection, and suggest that extracellular traps play a multifaceted role in the interplay between host and bacteria. PMID:27191593

  19. Understanding the Scalability of Bayesian Network Inference Using Clique Tree Growth Curves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mengshoel, Ole J.

    2010-01-01

    One of the main approaches to performing computation in Bayesian networks (BNs) is clique tree clustering and propagation. The clique tree approach consists of propagation in a clique tree compiled from a Bayesian network, and while it was introduced in the 1980s, there is still a lack of understanding of how clique tree computation time depends on variations in BN size and structure. In this article, we improve this understanding by developing an approach to characterizing clique tree growth as a function of parameters that can be computed in polynomial time from BNs, specifically: (i) the ratio of the number of a BN s non-root nodes to the number of root nodes, and (ii) the expected number of moral edges in their moral graphs. Analytically, we partition the set of cliques in a clique tree into different sets, and introduce a growth curve for the total size of each set. For the special case of bipartite BNs, there are two sets and two growth curves, a mixed clique growth curve and a root clique growth curve. In experiments, where random bipartite BNs generated using the BPART algorithm are studied, we systematically increase the out-degree of the root nodes in bipartite Bayesian networks, by increasing the number of leaf nodes. Surprisingly, root clique growth is well-approximated by Gompertz growth curves, an S-shaped family of curves that has previously been used to describe growth processes in biology, medicine, and neuroscience. We believe that this research improves the understanding of the scaling behavior of clique tree clustering for a certain class of Bayesian networks; presents an aid for trade-off studies of clique tree clustering using growth curves; and ultimately provides a foundation for benchmarking and developing improved BN inference and machine learning algorithms.

  20. Bacterial growth laws reflect the evolutionary importance of energy efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Maitra, Arijit; Dill, Ken A.

    2015-01-01

    We are interested in the balance of energy and protein synthesis in bacterial growth. How has evolution optimized this balance? We describe an analytical model that leverages extensive literature data on growth laws to infer the underlying fitness landscape and to draw inferences about what evolution has optimized in Escherichia coli. Is E. coli optimized for growth speed, energy efficiency, or some other property? Experimental data show that at its replication speed limit, E. coli produces about four mass equivalents of nonribosomal proteins for every mass equivalent of ribosomes. This ratio can be explained if the cell’s fitness function is the the energy efficiency of cells under fast growth conditions, indicating a tradeoff between the high energy costs of ribosomes under fast growth and the high energy costs of turning over nonribosomal proteins under slow growth. This model gives insight into some of the complex nonlinear relationships between energy utilization and ribosomal and nonribosomal production as a function of cell growth conditions. PMID:25548180

  1. [Children with obesity and declining linear growth curve: Cushing's disease?].

    PubMed

    van Wezel, Esther M; van Santen, Hanneke M; van Furth, Wouter R; Reneman, Liesbeth; Bisschop, Peter H; van Trotsenburg, A S Paul

    2012-01-01

    We describe two children who presented with extreme weight gain and failure to grow in height, and who were both diagnosed with Cushing's disease. Following preoperative metyrapone treatment, both children successfully underwent curative transsphenoidal surgery. While obesity is a common and increasing problem in childhood, Cushing's disease is rare. The combination of weight gain and growth failure in a child is an alarming sign in which underlying endocrine disease must be ruled out.

  2. Toxin-antitoxin systems in bacterial growth arrest and persistence.

    PubMed

    Page, Rebecca; Peti, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial persister cells constitute a subpopulation of genetically identical, metabolically slow-growing cells that are highly tolerant of antibiotics and other environmental stresses. Recent studies have demonstrated that gene loci known as toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules play a central role in the persister state. Under normal growth conditions, antitoxins potently inhibit the activities of the toxins. In contrast, under conditions of stress, the antitoxins are selectively degraded, freeing the toxins to inhibit essential cellular processes, such as DNA replication and protein translation. This inhibition results in rapid growth arrest. In this Review, we highlight recent discoveries of these multifaceted TA systems with a focus on the newly uncovered mechanisms, especially conditional cooperativity, that are used to regulate cell growth and persistence. We also discuss the potential for targeting TA systems for antimicrobial drug discovery.

  3. On growth and flow: bacterial biofilms in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durham, William; Leombruni, Alberto; Tranzer, Olivier; Stocker, Roman

    2011-11-01

    Bacterial biofilms often occur in porous media, where they play pivotal roles in medicine, industry and the environment. Though flow is ubiquitous in porous media, its effects on biofilm growth have been largely ignored. Using patterned microfluidic devices that simulate unconsolidated soil, we find that the structure of Escherichia coli biofilms undergoes a self-organization mediated by the interaction of growth and flow. Intriguingly, we find that biofilm productivity peaks at intermediate flow rates, when the biofilm is irrigated by a minimum number of preferential flow channels. At larger and smaller flow rates, fluid flows more uniformly through the matrix, but productivity drops due to removal by shear and reduced nutrient transport, respectively. These dynamics are correctly predicted by a simple network model. The observed tradeoff between growth and flow may have important consequences on biofilm-mediated processes such as biochemical cycling, antibiotic resistance and water filtration.

  4. Bacterial growth, detachment and cell size control on polyethylene terephthalate surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liyun; Fan, Daming; Chen, Wei; Terentjev, Eugene M.

    2015-01-01

    In medicine and food industry, bacterial colonisation on surfaces is a common cause of infections and severe illnesses. However, the detailed quantitative information about the dynamics and the mechanisms involved in bacterial proliferation on solid substrates is still lacking. In this study we investigated the adhesion and detachment, the individual growth and colonisation, and the cell size control of Escherichia coli (E. coli) MG1655 on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surfaces. The results show that the bacterial growth curve on PET exhibits the distinct lag and log phases, but the generation time is more than twice longer than in bulk medium. Single cells in the lag phase are more likely to detach than clustered ones in the log phase; clustered bacteria in micro-colonies have stronger adhesive bonds with surfaces and their neighbours with the progressing colonisation. We show that the cell size is under the density-dependent pathway control: when the adherent cells are at low density, the culture medium is responsible for coordinating cell division and cell size; when the clustered cells are at high population density, we demonstrate that the effect of quorum sensing causes the cell size decrease as the cell density on surfaces increases. PMID:26464114

  5. Bacterial growth, detachment and cell size control on polyethylene terephthalate surfaces.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liyun; Fan, Daming; Chen, Wei; Terentjev, Eugene M

    2015-10-14

    In medicine and food industry, bacterial colonisation on surfaces is a common cause of infections and severe illnesses. However, the detailed quantitative information about the dynamics and the mechanisms involved in bacterial proliferation on solid substrates is still lacking. In this study we investigated the adhesion and detachment, the individual growth and colonisation, and the cell size control of Escherichia coli (E. coli) MG1655 on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surfaces. The results show that the bacterial growth curve on PET exhibits the distinct lag and log phases, but the generation time is more than twice longer than in bulk medium. Single cells in the lag phase are more likely to detach than clustered ones in the log phase; clustered bacteria in micro-colonies have stronger adhesive bonds with surfaces and their neighbours with the progressing colonisation. We show that the cell size is under the density-dependent pathway control: when the adherent cells are at low density, the culture medium is responsible for coordinating cell division and cell size; when the clustered cells are at high population density, we demonstrate that the effect of quorum sensing causes the cell size decrease as the cell density on surfaces increases.

  6. Bacterial Spring Constant in Log-Phase Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Deepti; Nanda, H.; Nath, R.; Chitnis, D. S.; Ganesan, V.

    2011-07-01

    Atomic Force Microscopy is a powerful tool in studying bacterial systems too. The turgor pressure studies on well known systems like E-coli and Staphylococcus revealed a fascinating fact that the numbers are in tens of atmosphere depending upon the microbial activity. Hence there is no way that one can destroy them by physical means. This is due to the robust nature of the cell wall. Understanding the cell wall structure requires an estimate of spring constant of the cell wall membrane and its variation upon activity. Here we present an experimental estimate of the spring constant of the cell wall (˜10-2 N/m) using force curve measurements on bacteria using an AFM tip. This has a bearing on measuring turgor pressure of bacterium.

  7. Body temperatures in dinosaurs: what can growth curves tell us?

    PubMed

    Griebeler, Eva Maria

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the body temperature (BT) of seven dinosaurs Gillooly, Alleen, and Charnov (2006) used an equation that predicts BT from the body mass and maximum growth rate (MGR) with the latter preserved in ontogenetic growth trajectories (BT-equation). The results of these authors evidence inertial homeothermy in Dinosauria and suggest that, due to overheating, the maximum body size in Dinosauria was ultimately limited by BT. In this paper, I revisit this hypothesis of Gillooly, Alleen, and Charnov (2006). I first studied whether BTs derived from the BT-equation of today's crocodiles, birds and mammals are consistent with core temperatures of animals. Second, I applied the BT-equation to a larger number of dinosaurs than Gillooly, Alleen, and Charnov (2006) did. In particular, I estimated BT of Archaeopteryx (from two MGRs), ornithischians (two), theropods (three), prosauropods (three), and sauropods (nine). For extant species, the BT value estimated from the BT-equation was a poor estimate of an animal's core temperature. For birds, BT was always strongly overestimated and for crocodiles underestimated; for mammals the accuracy of BT was moderate. I argue that taxon-specific differences in the scaling of MGR (intercept and exponent of the regression line, log-log-transformed) and in the parameterization of the Arrhenius model both used in the BT-equation as well as ecological and evolutionary adaptations of species cause these inaccuracies. Irrespective of the found inaccuracy of BTs estimated from the BT-equation and contrary to the results of Gillooly, Alleen, and Charnov (2006) I found no increase in BT with increasing body mass across all dinosaurs (Sauropodomorpha, Sauropoda) studied. This observation questions that, due to overheating, the maximum size in Dinosauria was ultimately limited by BT. However, the general high inaccuracy of dinosaurian BTs derived from the BT-equation makes a reliable test of whether body size in dinosaurs was ultimately limited

  8. Modeling bacterial population growth from stochastic single-cell dynamics.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Antonio A; Molina, Ignacio; Theodoropoulos, Constantinos

    2014-09-01

    A few bacterial cells may be sufficient to produce a food-borne illness outbreak, provided that they are capable of adapting and proliferating on a food matrix. This is why any quantitative health risk assessment policy must incorporate methods to accurately predict the growth of bacterial populations from a small number of pathogens. In this aim, mathematical models have become a powerful tool. Unfortunately, at low cell concentrations, standard deterministic models fail to predict the fate of the population, essentially because the heterogeneity between individuals becomes relevant. In this work, a stochastic differential equation (SDE) model is proposed to describe variability within single-cell growth and division and to simulate population growth from a given initial number of individuals. We provide evidence of the model ability to explain the observed distributions of times to division, including the lag time produced by the adaptation to the environment, by comparing model predictions with experiments from the literature for Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua, and Salmonella enterica. The model is shown to accurately predict experimental growth population dynamics for both small and large microbial populations. The use of stochastic models for the estimation of parameters to successfully fit experimental data is a particularly challenging problem. For instance, if Monte Carlo methods are employed to model the required distributions of times to division, the parameter estimation problem can become numerically intractable. We overcame this limitation by converting the stochastic description to a partial differential equation (backward Kolmogorov) instead, which relates to the distribution of division times. Contrary to previous stochastic formulations based on random parameters, the present model is capable of explaining the variability observed in populations that result from the growth of a small number of initial cells as well as the lack of it compared to

  9. Parent Involvement and Science Achievement: A Cross-Classified Multilevel Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ursula Y.; Hull, Darrell M.

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined science achievement growth at Grades 3, 5, and 8 and parent school involvement at the same time points using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999. Data were analyzed using cross-classified multilevel latent growth curve modeling with time invariant and varying covariates. School-based…

  10. Exploring Gains in Reading and Mathematics Achievement among Regular and Exceptional Students Using Growth Curve Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Tacksoo; Davison, Mark L.; Long, Jeffrey D.; Chan, Chi-Keung; Heistad, David

    2013-01-01

    Using four-wave longitudinal reading and mathematics data (4th to 7th grades) from a large urban school district, growth curve modeling was used as a tool for examining three research questions: Are achievement gaps closing in reading and mathematics? What are the associations between prior-achievement and growth across the reading and mathematics…

  11. Teaching the Microbial Growth Curve Concept Using Microalgal Cultures and Flow Cytometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forget, Nathalie; Belzile, Claude; Rioux, Pierre; Nozais, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The microbial growth curve is widely studied within microbiology classes and bacteria are usually the microbial model used. Here, we describe a novel laboratory protocol involving flow cytometry to assess the growth dynamics of the unicellular microalgae "Isochrysis galbana." The algal model represents an appropriate alternative to bacteria…

  12. Development of Oral Reading Fluency in Children with Speech or Language Impairments: A Growth Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Petscher, Yaacov; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Catts, Hugh W.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study used piece-wise growth curve analyses to examine growth patterns in oral reading fluency for 1,991 students with speech impairments (SI) or language impairments (LI) from first through third grade. The main finding of this study was that a diagnosis of SI or LI can have a detrimental and persistent effect on early reading…

  13. Effect of bacterial growth stage on resistance to chlorine disinfection.

    PubMed

    Cherchi, C; Gu, A Z

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms and factors that affect microbial resistance to chlorine disinfection have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the impact of the cell growth stage on chlorine disinfection efficiency. Specifically, we evaluated the impact of the growth stage on chlorination resistance by comparing the inactivation efficiencies of two indicator bacterial strains (Escherichia coli K12 and Escherichia coli O157:H7) obtained from various growth phases, using Chick-Watson kinetic parameters. For both E. coli strains (K12 and O157:H7), the inactivation rate constants are the lowest at stationary phase (0.19 and 0.32) compared to those at initial lag (0.54 and 0.76) and exponential growth phase (0.63 and 0.69), respectively. These results suggested that the abundance of resistant subpopulations increases at stressed stationary conditions and E. coli cells obtained from the stationary growth phase exhibited more resistance and lower inactivation efficiency compared to those from the lag and exponential phases. This implies that microbes in wastewater treatment process with varying solids retention times (SRTs, which indicate growth rates) may show different extents of chlorine resistance. Comparison of the coefficient of dilution (n) values in both E. coli strains for the various growth phases suggest that cells seem to be more sensitive to disinfectant concentration at the stationary-lag phase than that at the exponential stage. Comparing the two E. coli strains, higher inactivation rates were observed for the pathogenic O157:H7 than for K12 at different stages of growth. The strain-to-strain variability in survivability to chlorine exposure has to be considered when selecting indicator microorganisms for water quality monitoring. PMID:22053451

  14. Oral iron acutely elevates bacterial growth in human serum.

    PubMed

    Cross, James H; Bradbury, Richard S; Fulford, Anthony J; Jallow, Amadou T; Wegmüller, Rita; Prentice, Andrew M; Cerami, Carla

    2015-11-23

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutrient deficiency worldwide and routine supplementation is standard policy for pregnant mothers and children in most low-income countries. However, iron lies at the center of host-pathogen competition for nutritional resources and recent trials of iron administration in African and Asian children have resulted in significant excesses of serious adverse events including hospitalizations and deaths. Increased rates of malaria, respiratory infections, severe diarrhea and febrile illnesses of unknown origin have all been reported, but the mechanisms are unclear. We here investigated the ex vivo growth characteristics of exemplar sentinel bacteria in adult sera collected before and 4 h after oral supplementation with 2 mg/kg iron as ferrous sulfate. Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (all gram-negative bacteria) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (gram-positive) showed markedly elevated growth in serum collected after iron supplementation. Growth rates were very strongly correlated with transferrin saturation (p < 0.0001 in all cases). Growth of Staphylococcus aureus, which preferentially scavenges heme iron, was unaffected. These data suggest that even modest oral supplements with highly soluble (non-physiological) iron, as typically used in low-income settings, could promote bacteremia by accelerating early phase bacterial growth prior to the induction of immune defenses.

  15. Oral iron acutely elevates bacterial growth in human serum

    PubMed Central

    Cross, James H.; Bradbury, Richard S.; Fulford, Anthony J.; Jallow, Amadou T.; Wegmüller, Rita; Prentice, Andrew M.; Cerami, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutrient deficiency worldwide and routine supplementation is standard policy for pregnant mothers and children in most low-income countries. However, iron lies at the center of host-pathogen competition for nutritional resources and recent trials of iron administration in African and Asian children have resulted in significant excesses of serious adverse events including hospitalizations and deaths. Increased rates of malaria, respiratory infections, severe diarrhea and febrile illnesses of unknown origin have all been reported, but the mechanisms are unclear. We here investigated the ex vivo growth characteristics of exemplar sentinel bacteria in adult sera collected before and 4 h after oral supplementation with 2 mg/kg iron as ferrous sulfate. Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (all gram-negative bacteria) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (gram-positive) showed markedly elevated growth in serum collected after iron supplementation. Growth rates were very strongly correlated with transferrin saturation (p < 0.0001 in all cases). Growth of Staphylococcus aureus, which preferentially scavenges heme iron, was unaffected. These data suggest that even modest oral supplements with highly soluble (non-physiological) iron, as typically used in low-income settings, could promote bacteremia by accelerating early phase bacterial growth prior to the induction of immune defenses. PMID:26593732

  16. Oral iron acutely elevates bacterial growth in human serum.

    PubMed

    Cross, James H; Bradbury, Richard S; Fulford, Anthony J; Jallow, Amadou T; Wegmüller, Rita; Prentice, Andrew M; Cerami, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutrient deficiency worldwide and routine supplementation is standard policy for pregnant mothers and children in most low-income countries. However, iron lies at the center of host-pathogen competition for nutritional resources and recent trials of iron administration in African and Asian children have resulted in significant excesses of serious adverse events including hospitalizations and deaths. Increased rates of malaria, respiratory infections, severe diarrhea and febrile illnesses of unknown origin have all been reported, but the mechanisms are unclear. We here investigated the ex vivo growth characteristics of exemplar sentinel bacteria in adult sera collected before and 4 h after oral supplementation with 2 mg/kg iron as ferrous sulfate. Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (all gram-negative bacteria) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (gram-positive) showed markedly elevated growth in serum collected after iron supplementation. Growth rates were very strongly correlated with transferrin saturation (p < 0.0001 in all cases). Growth of Staphylococcus aureus, which preferentially scavenges heme iron, was unaffected. These data suggest that even modest oral supplements with highly soluble (non-physiological) iron, as typically used in low-income settings, could promote bacteremia by accelerating early phase bacterial growth prior to the induction of immune defenses. PMID:26593732

  17. Bacterial peptidoglycan-derived molecules activate Candida albicans hyphal growth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Xu, Xiao-Li

    2008-01-01

    Serum strongly induces the yeast-to-hypha growth transition in the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, playing an important role in infection. However, identity of the serum inducer(s) and its sensor remain poorly defined. We used NMR to analyze the chromatographic serum fractionations enriched for the hypha-inducing activity and found structures resembling subunits of bacterial peptidoglycan (PGN). We then confirmed that several purified and synthetic muramyl dipeptides (MDPs), subunits of PGN, can indeed strongly promote C. albicans hyphal growth. Taking cue from the recognition of MDPs by the mammalian bacterial sensor Nod2 using its leucine-rich-repeat (LRR) domain, we discovered that MDPs activate the adenylyl cyclase Cyr1 by binding to its LRR domain. The cAMP/PKA signaling pathway is well known to control hyphal morphogenesis and other infection-related traits. Given the abundance of PGN at the large intestinal epithelial surface, a natural habitat and invasion site for C. albcians, our findings have important implications in the mechanisms of infection by this pathogen. PMID:19704871

  18. Bacterial peptidoglycan-derived molecules activate Candida albicans hyphal growth

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiao-Li

    2008-01-01

    Serum strongly induces the yeast-to-hypha growth transition in the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, playing an important role in infection. However, identity of the serum inducer(s) and its sensor remain poorly defined. We used NMR to analyze the chromatographic serum fractionations enriched for the hypha-inducing activity and found structures resembling subunits of bacterial peptidoglycan (PGN). We then confirmed that several purified and synthetic muramyl dipeptides (MDPs), subunits of PGN, can indeed strongly promote C. albicans hyphal growth. Taking cue from the recognition of MDPs by the mammalian bacterial sensor Nod2 using its leucine-rich-repeat (LRR) domain, we discovered that MDPs activate the adenylyl cyclase Cyr1 by binding to its LRR domain. The cAMP/PKA signaling pathway is well known to control hyphal morphogenesis and other infection-related traits. Given the abundance of PGN at the large intestinal epithelial surface, a natural habitat and invasion site for C. albcians, our findings have important implications in the mechanisms of infection by this pathogen. PMID:19704871

  19. Lactic acid bacterial extract as a biogenic mineral growth modifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borah, Ballav M.; Singh, Atul K.; Ramesh, Aiyagari; Das, Gopal

    2009-04-01

    The formation of minerals and mechanisms by which bacteria could control their formation in natural habitats is now of current interest for material scientists to have an insight of the mechanism of in vivo mineralization, as well as to seek industrial and technological applications. Crystalline uniform structures of calcium and barium minerals formed micron-sized building blocks when synthesized in the presence of an organic matrix consisting of secreted protein extracts from three different lactic acid bacteria (LAB) viz.: Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC 1325, Lactobacillus acidophilus NRRL B4495 and Pediococcus acidilactici CFR K7. LABs are not known to form organic matrix in biological materialization processes. The influence of these bacterial extracts on the crystallization behavior was investigated in details to test the basic coordination behavior of the acidic protein. In this report, varied architecture of the mineral crystals obtained in presence of high molecular weight protein extracts of three different LAB strains has been discussed. The role of native form of high molecular weight bacterial protein extracts in the generation of nucleation centers for crystal growth was clearly established. A model for the formation of organic matrix-cation complex and the subsequent events leading to crystal growth is proposed.

  20. Medium-dependent control of the bacterial growth rate.

    PubMed

    Ehrenberg, Måns; Bremer, Hans; Dennis, Patrick P

    2013-04-01

    By combining results from previous studies of nutritional up-shifts we here re-investigate how bacteria adapt to different nutritional environments by adjusting their macromolecular composition for optimal growth. We demonstrate that, in contrast to a commonly held view the macromolecular composition of bacteria does not depend on the growth rate as an independent variable, but on three factors: (i) the genetic background (i.e. the strain used), (ii) the physiological history of the bacteria used for inoculation of a given growth medium, and (iii) the kind of nutrients in the growth medium. These factors determine the ribosome concentration and the average rate of protein synthesis per ribosome, and thus the growth rate. Immediately after a nutritional up-shift, the average number of ribosomes in the bacterial population increases exponentially with time at a rate which eventually is attained as the final post-shift growth rate of all cell components. After a nutritional up-shift from one minimal medium to another minimal medium of higher nutritional quality, ribosome and RNA polymerase syntheses are co-regulated and immediately increase by the same factor equal to the increase in the final growth rate. However, after an up-shift from a minimal medium to a medium containing all 20 amino acids, RNA polymerase and ribosome syntheses are no longer coregulated; a smaller rate of synthesis of RNA polymerase is compensated by a gradual increase in the fraction of free RNA polymerase, possibly due to a gradual saturation of mRNA promoters. We have also analyzed data from a recent publication, in which it was concluded that the macromolecular composition in terms of RNA/protein and RNA/DNA ratios is solely determined by the effector molecule ppGpp. Our analysis indicates that this is true only in special cases and that, in general, medium adaptation also depends on factors other than ppGpp.

  1. Engineered cerium oxide nanoparticles: Effects on bacterial growth and viability

    SciTech Connect

    Pelletier, Dale A; Suresh, Anil K; Holton, Gregory A; McKeown, Catherine K; Wang, Wei; Gu, Baohua; Mortensen, Ninell P; Allison, David P; Joy, David Charles; Allison, Martin R; Brown, Steven D; Phelps, Tommy Joe; Doktycz, Mitchel John

    2010-01-01

    Interest in engineered nanostructures has risen in recent years due to their use in energy conservation strategies and biomedicine. To ensure prudent development and use of nanomaterials, the fate and effects of such engineered structures on the environment should be understood. Interactions of nanomaterials with environmental microorganisms are inevitable, but the general consequences of such interactions remain unclear. Further, standardized methods for assessing such interactions are lacking. Therefore, we have initiated a multianalytical approach to understand the interactions of synthesized nanoparticles with bacterial systems. These efforts are focused initially on cerium oxide nanoparticles and model bacteria in order to evaluate characterization procedures and the possible fate of such materials in the environment. In this study the effects of cerium oxide nanoparticles on the growth and viability of Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Shewanella oneidensis, a metal-reducing bacteria, and Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis were examined relative to particle size, growth media, pH, and dosage. A hydrothermal based synthesis procedure was used to prepare cerium oxide nanoparticles of defined sizes in order to eliminate complications originating from the use of organic solvents and surfactants. Bactericidal effects were determined by minimum inhibitory concentration, colony forming units, disc diffusion tests and Live/Dead assays. In growth inhibition experiments involving E. coli and B. subtilis, a clear strain and size-dependent inhibition was observed. S. oneidensis appeared to be unaffected by the cerium oxide nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy along with microarray-based transcriptional profiling have been used to understand the response mechanism of the bacteria. The use of multiple analytical approaches adds confidence to toxicity assessments while the use of different bacterial systems highlights the potential wide-ranging effects of

  2. Human fetal weight and placental weight growth curves. A mathematical analysis from a population at sea level.

    PubMed

    Bonds, D R; Mwape, B; Kumar, S; Gabbe, S G

    1984-01-01

    A mathematical analysis of human fetal and placental growth curves was made on data collected prospectively from a population at sea level. Both the fetal and placental growth curves can best be described by a form of the logistic equation inhibited growth model. The fetal growth rate reaches its maximum approximately 4 weeks after the placental growth rate has reached its maximum. Growth rate constants were calculated for several populations at various altitudes. PMID:6733167

  3. Effect of a metal alloy fuel catalyst on bacterial growth.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Ruma; Koerting, Claudia; Suib, Steven L; Best, Michael H; Berlin, Alvin J

    2005-11-01

    Many microorganisms have been demonstrated to utilize petroleum fuel products to fulfill their nutritional requirement for carbon. As a result, the ability of these microbes to degrade fuel has both a deleterious affect as well as beneficial applications. This study focused on the undesired ability of bacteria to grow on fuel and the potential for some metal alloys to inhibit this biodegradation. The objective of this study was to review the pattern of growth of two reference strains of petroleum-degrading bacteria, Pseudomonas oleovorans and Rhodococcus rhodocrous, in a specific hydrocarbon environment in the presence of a commercially available alloy. The alloy formulated and supplied by Advanced Power Systems International Inc. (APSI) is sold for fuel reformulation and other purposes. The components of the alloy used in the study were antimony, tin, lead, and mercury formulated as pellets. Surface characterization also showed the presence of tin oxide and lead amalgam phases. Hydrocarbon used for the study was primarily 87-octane gasoline. The growth of the bacteria in the water and mineral-supplemented gasoline mixture over 6-8 weeks was monitored by the viable plate count method. While an initial increase in bacteria occurred in the first week, overall bacterial growth was found to be suppressed in the presence of the alloy. Results also indicate that the alloy surface characteristics that convey the catalytic activity may also contribute to the observed antibacterial activity. PMID:16262333

  4. Bacterial growth and killing in chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis fluids.

    PubMed Central

    Verbrugh, H A; Keane, W F; Conroy, W E; Peterson, P K

    1984-01-01

    We determined the ability of Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli to survive and grow in peritoneal dialysis fluids from patients undergoing chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Staphylococci did not survive in commercially available dialysis solutions but grew readily in peritoneal effluents obtained from patients after the dialysis dwell time. The number of CFU doubled 6 and 13 times in 24 h for S. epidermidis and S. aureus, respectively. E. coli grew well in both the pre- and postdialysis peritoneal fluid. Peritoneal macrophages as well as peripheral blood leukocytes inhibited bacterial growth in peritoneal dialysis fluid. However, 10(6) phagocytes per ml were minimally required to obtain a bacteriostatic effect. The addition of serum to peritoneal dialysis fluid increased the antibacterial activity of macrophages and blood leukocytes. The capacity of the aminoglycoside antibiotic tobramycin to reduce bacterial CFU in peritoneal dialysis fluid was only 10% of its bactericidal capacity in standard Mueller-Hinton brush. Peritoneal dialysis fluid had no effect on the antibacterial activity of imipenem. PMID:6386844

  5. Bacterial actin and tubulin homologs in cell growth and division.

    PubMed

    Busiek, Kimberly K; Margolin, William

    2015-03-16

    In contrast to the elaborate cytoskeletal machines harbored by eukaryotic cells, such as mitotic spindles, cytoskeletal structures detectable by typical negative stain electron microscopy are generally absent from bacterial cells. As a result, for decades it was thought that bacteria lacked cytoskeletal machines. Revolutions in genomics and fluorescence microscopy have confirmed the existence not only of smaller-scale cytoskeletal structures in bacteria, but also of widespread functional homologs of eukaryotic cytoskeletal proteins. The presence of actin, tubulin, and intermediate filament homologs in these relatively simple cells suggests that primitive cytoskeletons first arose in bacteria. In bacteria such as Escherichia coli, homologs of tubulin and actin directly interact with each other and are crucial for coordinating cell growth and division. The function and direct interactions between these proteins will be the focus of this review.

  6. Effects of Low-Level Deuterium Enrichment on Bacterial Growth

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xueshu; Zubarev, Roman A.

    2014-01-01

    Using very precise (±0.05%) measurements of the growth parameters for bacteria E. coli grown on minimal media, we aimed to determine the lowest deuterium concentration at which the adverse effects that are prominent at higher enrichments start to become noticeable. Such a threshold was found at 0.5% D, a surprisingly high value, while the ultralow deuterium concentrations (≤0.25% D) showed signs of the opposite trend. Bacterial adaptation for 400 generations in isotopically different environment confirmed preference for ultralow (≤0.25% D) enrichment. This effect appears to be similar to those described in sporadic but multiple earlier reports. Possible explanations include hormesis and isotopic resonance phenomena, with the latter explanation being favored. PMID:25033078

  7. Growth curve analysis of placental and fetal growth influenced by adjacent fetal sex status under crowded uterine conditions in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intrauterine position and sex of adjacent fetuses in litter bearing species have been implicated in physiological and behavioral differences in males and females. Our objective was to establish growth curves for fetal and placental weight gain as influenced by sex status of flanking fetuses under cr...

  8. Identifying Longitudinal Growth Trajectories of Learning Domains in Problem-Based Learning: A Latent Growth Curve Modeling Approach Using SEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimmers, Paul F.; Lee, Ming

    2015-01-01

    To determine the direction and extent to which medical student scores (as observed by small-group tutors) on four problem-based-learning-related domains change over nine consecutive blocks during a two-year period (Domains: Problem Solving/Use of Information/Group Process/Professionalism). Latent growth curve modeling is used to analyze…

  9. Longitudinal Changes in Physical Fitness Performance in Youth: A Multilevel Latent Growth Curve Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chee Keng John; Pyun, Do Young; Liu, Woon Chia; Lim, Boon San Coral; Li, Fuzhong

    2013-01-01

    Using a multilevel latent growth curve modeling (LGCM) approach, this study examined longitudinal change in levels of physical fitness performance over time (i.e. four years) in young adolescents aged from 12-13 years. The sample consisted of 6622 students from 138 secondary schools in Singapore. Initial analyses found between-school variation on…

  10. Ignoring Individual Differences in Times of Assessment in Growth Curve Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulombe, Patrick; Selig, James P.; Delaney, Harold D.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers often collect longitudinal data to model change over time in a phenomenon of interest. Inevitably, there will be some variation across individuals in specific time intervals between assessments. In this simulation study of growth curve modeling, we investigate how ignoring individual differences in time points when modeling change over…

  11. Career Maturity Growth Curve and Sex-Role Stereotypes of Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yon, Kyu Jin; Choi, Wonseok; Goh, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the career maturity growth curve of Korean Adolescents from 4th grade to 12th grade. The participants consisted of 3,241 male and 3,029 female students from the Korea Youth Panel Survey, a nationwide longitudinal study of South Korean adolescents. The present study explored the shape of the career maturity…

  12. Examining the Earnings Trajectories of Community College Students Using a Piecewise Growth Curve Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaggars, Shanna Smith; Xu, Di

    2016-01-01

    Policymakers have become increasingly concerned with measuring--and holding colleges accountable for--students' labor market outcomes. In this article we introduce a piecewise growth curve approach to analyzing community college students' labor market outcomes, and we discuss how this approach differs from two popular econometric approaches:…

  13. Gender and Marital Satisfaction Early in Marriage: A Growth Curve Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurdek, Lawrence A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess differences between husbands and wives (N= 526 couples at the first assessment) on (a) growth curves over the first 4 years of marriage for psychological distress, marriage-specific appraisals, spousal interactions, social support, and marital satisfaction; (b) the strength of intraspouse links and…

  14. Aptitude-Treatment Interaction Effects on Explicit Rule Learning: A Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwu, Fenfang; Pan, Wei; Sun, Shuyan

    2014-01-01

    Finding the match between individuals and educational treatments is the aim of both educators and the aptitude-treatment interaction research paradigm. Using the latent growth curve analysis, the present study investigates the interaction between the type of explicit instructional approaches (deductive vs. explicit-inductive) and the level of…

  15. Accuracy of Estimates and Statistical Power for Testing Meditation in Latent Growth Curve Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheong, JeeWon

    2011-01-01

    The latent growth curve modeling (LGCM) approach has been increasingly utilized to investigate longitudinal mediation. However, little is known about the accuracy of the estimates and statistical power when mediation is evaluated in the LGCM framework. A simulation study was conducted to address these issues under various conditions including…

  16. Investigation of Mediational Processes Using Parallel Process Latent Growth Curve Modeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheong, JeeWon; MacKinnon, David P.; Khoo, Siek Toon

    2003-01-01

    Investigated a method to evaluate mediational processes using latent growth curve modeling and tested it with empirical data from a longitudinal steroid use prevention program focusing on 1,506 high school football players over 4 years. Findings suggest the usefulness of the approach. (SLD)

  17. Bacterial Growth Phase Influences Methylmercury Production by the Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Abir; Brooks, Scott C; Miller, Carrie L; Mosher, Jennifer J; Yin, Xiangping Lisa; Drake, Meghan M

    2011-01-01

    The effect of bacterial growth phase is an aspect of mercury (Hg) methylation that previous studies have not investigated in detail. Here we consider the effect of growth phase (mid-log, late-log and late stationary phase) on Hg methylation by the known methylator Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132. We tested the addition of Hg alone (chloride-complex), Hg with Suwannee River natural organic matter (SRNOM) (unequilibrated), and Hg equilibrated with SRNOM on monomethylmercury (MMHg) production by ND132 over a growth curve in pyruvate-fumarate media. This NOM did not affect MMHg production even under very low Hg:SRNOM ratios, where Hg binding is predicted to be dominated by high energy sites. Adding Hg or Hg-NOM to growing cultures 24h before sampling (late addition) resulted in {approx}2x greater net fraction of Hg methylated than for comparably aged cultures exposed to Hg from the initial culture inoculation (early addition). Mid- and late-log phase cultures produced similar amounts of MMHg, but late stationary phase cultures (both under early and late Hg addition conditions) produced up to {approx}3x more MMHg, indicating the potential importance of growth phase in studies of MMHg production.

  18. Bacterial growth phase influences methylmercury production by the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Abir; Brooks, Scott C; Miller, Carrie L; Mosher, Jennifer J; Yin, Xiangping L; Drake, Meghan M

    2011-09-01

    The effect of bacterial growth phase is an aspect of mercury (Hg) methylation that previous studies have not investigated in detail. Here we consider the effect of growth phase (mid-log, late-log and late stationary phase) on Hg methylation by the known methylator Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132. We tested the addition of Hg alone (chloride-complex), Hg with Suwannee River natural organic matter (SRNOM) (unequilibrated), and Hg equilibrated with SRNOM on monomethylmercury (MMHg) production by ND132 over a growth curve in pyruvate-fumarate media. This NOM did not affect MMHg production even under very low Hg:SRNOM ratios, where Hg binding is predicted to be dominated by high energy sites. Adding Hg or Hg-NOM to growing cultures 24 h before sampling (late addition) resulted in ~2× greater net fraction of Hg methylated than for comparably aged cultures exposed to Hg from the initial culture inoculation (early addition). Mid- and late-log phase cultures produced similar amounts of MMHg, but late stationary phase cultures (both under early and late Hg addition conditions) produced up to ~3× more MMHg, indicating the potential importance of growth phase in studies of MMHg production.

  19. Bacterial Growth Phase Influences Methylmercury Production by the Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Abir; Brooks, Scott C; Miller, Carrie L; Mosher, Jennifer J; Yin, Xiangping Lisa; Drake, Meghan M

    2011-01-01

    The effect of bacterial growth phase is an aspect of mercury (Hg) methylation that previous studies have not investigated in detail. Here we consider the effect of growth phase (mid-log, late-log and late stationary phase) on Hg methylation by the known methylator Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132. We tested the addition of Hg alone (chloride-complex), Hg with Suwannee River natural organic matter (SRNOM) (unequilibrated), and Hg equilibrated with SRNOM on monomethylmercury (MMHg) production by ND132 over a growth curve in pyruvate fumarate media. This NOM did not affect MMHg production even under very low Hg: SRNOM ratios, where Hg binding is predicted to be dominated by high energy sites. Adding Hg or Hg NOM to growing cultures 24 h before sampling (late addition) resulted in ~2 greater net fraction of Hg methylated than for comparably aged cultures exposed to Hg from the initial culture inoculation (early addition). Mid-and late-log phase cultures produced similar amounts of MMHg, but late stationary phase cultures (both under early and late Hg addition conditions) produced up to ~3 more MMHg, indicating the potential importance of growth phase in studies of MMHg production.

  20. Energetics of bacterial growth: balance of anabolic and catabolic reactions.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, J B; Cook, G M

    1995-01-01

    Biomass formation represents one of the most basic aspects of bacterial metabolism. While there is an abundance of information concerning individual reactions that result in cell duplication, there has been surprisingly little information on the bioenergetics of growth. For many years, it was assumed that biomass production (anabolism) was proportional to the amount of ATP which could be derived from energy-yielding pathways (catabolism), but later work showed that the ATP yield (YATP) was not necessarily a constant. Continuous-culture experiments indicated that bacteria utilized ATP for metabolic reactions that were not directly related to growth (maintenance functions). Mathematical derivations showed that maintenance energy appeared to be a growth rate-independent function of the cell mass and time. Later work, however, showed that maintenance energy alone could not account for all the variations in yield. Because only some of the discrepancy could be explained by the secretion of metabolites (overflow metabolism) or the diversion of catabolism to metabolic pathways which produced less ATP, it appeared that energy-excess cultures had mechanisms of spilling energy. Bacteria have the potential to spill excess ATP in futile enzyme cycles, but there has been little proof that such cycles are significant. Recent work indicated that bacteria can also use futile cycles of potassium, ammonia, and protons through the cell membrane to dissipate ATP either directly or indirectly. The utility of energy spilling in bacteria has been a curiosity. The deprivation of energy from potential competitors is at best a teleological explanation that cannot be easily supported by standard theories of natural selection. The priming of intracellular intermediates for future growth or protection of cells from potentially toxic end products (e.g., methylglyoxal) seems a more plausible explanation. PMID:7708012

  1. Bacterial locomotion, adsorption and growth over chemically patterned surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalali, Maryam; Molaei, Mehdi; Sheng, Jian

    2013-11-01

    Complex dynamic interactions between bacteria and chemically patched interface that mimics the heterogeneous energy landscape of a real-life interfacial environment are studied in the paper. We explore effects of these spatially varying chemical patches on bacterial locomotion, adsorption, biofilm formation and the film growth rate. Using micro-fabrication and soft-lithography, we have fabricated PDMS microfluidic channels with a solid substrate covered by micro-scale chemical patches. Arrays of 2D geometries of characteristic scales varying from 10 to 50 μm are transferred onto a glass substrate by soft-lithography. The substrate is functionalized to generate alternating hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions and bonded with the channel. The 3D swimming characteristics near these surfaces, such as swimming velocity, linear and angular dispersions, are measured in-situ using 3D digital holographic microscopy. The observations are used to examine the mechanisms involved in adsorption and desorption of swimming bacteria onto the substrate. Long-term experiments are conducted to quantify the growth rate and structures of colony. A correlation between various length scales of the substrate and bacteria motility are observed.

  2. Understanding the Scalability of Bayesian Network Inference using Clique Tree Growth Curves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mengshoel, Ole Jakob

    2009-01-01

    Bayesian networks (BNs) are used to represent and efficiently compute with multi-variate probability distributions in a wide range of disciplines. One of the main approaches to perform computation in BNs is clique tree clustering and propagation. In this approach, BN computation consists of propagation in a clique tree compiled from a Bayesian network. There is a lack of understanding of how clique tree computation time, and BN computation time in more general, depends on variations in BN size and structure. On the one hand, complexity results tell us that many interesting BN queries are NP-hard or worse to answer, and it is not hard to find application BNs where the clique tree approach in practice cannot be used. On the other hand, it is well-known that tree-structured BNs can be used to answer probabilistic queries in polynomial time. In this article, we develop an approach to characterizing clique tree growth as a function of parameters that can be computed in polynomial time from BNs, specifically: (i) the ratio of the number of a BN's non-root nodes to the number of root nodes, or (ii) the expected number of moral edges in their moral graphs. Our approach is based on combining analytical and experimental results. Analytically, we partition the set of cliques in a clique tree into different sets, and introduce a growth curve for each set. For the special case of bipartite BNs, we consequently have two growth curves, a mixed clique growth curve and a root clique growth curve. In experiments, we systematically increase the degree of the root nodes in bipartite Bayesian networks, and find that root clique growth is well-approximated by Gompertz growth curves. It is believed that this research improves the understanding of the scaling behavior of clique tree clustering, provides a foundation for benchmarking and developing improved BN inference and machine learning algorithms, and presents an aid for analytical trade-off studies of clique tree clustering using

  3. Using growth curves to forecast regional resource recovery: approaches, analytics and consistency tests.

    PubMed

    Sorrell, Steve; Speirs, Jamie

    2014-01-13

    There is growing concern about the depletion of hydrocarbon resources and the risk of near-term peaks in production. These concerns hinge upon contested estimates of the recoverable resources of different regions and the associated forecasts of regional production. Beginning with Hubbert, an influential group of analysts have used growth curves both to estimate recoverable resources and to forecast future production. Despite widespread use, these 'curve-fitting' techniques remain a focus of misunderstanding and dispute. The aim of this paper is to classify and explain these techniques and to identify both their relative suitability in different circumstances and the expected level of confidence in their results. The paper develops a mathematical framework that maps curve-fitting techniques onto the available data for conventional oil and highlights the critical importance of the so-called 'reserve growth'. It then summarizes the historical origins, contemporary application and strengths and weaknesses of each group of curve-fitting techniques and uses illustrative data from a number of oil-producing regions to explore the extent to which these techniques provide consistent estimates of recoverable resources. The paper argues that the applicability of curve-fitting techniques is more limited than adherents claim, the confidence bounds on the results are wider than commonly assumed and the techniques have a tendency to underestimate recoverable resources.

  4. Re-Evaluating Sexual Violence Prevention Through Bystander Education: A Latent Growth Curve Approach.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Jessica; Janulis, Patrick

    2016-10-01

    Recently, there has been a call for more advanced analytic techniques in violence against women research, particularly in community interventions that use longitudinal designs. The current study re-evaluates experimental evaluation data from a sexual violence bystander intervention program. Using an exploratory latent growth curve approach, we were able to model the longitudinal growth trajectories of individual participants over the course of the entire study. Although the results largely confirm the original evaluation findings, the latent growth curve approach better fits the demands of "messy" data (e.g., missing data, varying number of time points per participant, and unequal time spacing within and between participants) that are frequently obtained during a community-based intervention. The benefits of modern statistical techniques to practitioners and researchers in the field of sexual violence prevention, and violence against women more generally, are further discussed.

  5. Multilevel models for repeated measures research designs in psychophysiology: an introduction to growth curve modeling.

    PubMed

    Kristjansson, Sean D; Kircher, John C; Webb, Andrea K

    2007-09-01

    Psychophysiologists often use repeated measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA) and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) to analyze data collected in repeated measures research designs. ANOVA and MANOVA are nomothetic approaches that focus on group means. Newer multilevel modeling techniques are more informative than ANOVA because they characterize both group-level (nomothetic) and individual-level (idiographic) effects, yielding a more complete understanding of the phenomena under study. This article was written as an introduction to growth curve modeling for applied researchers. A growth model is defined that can be used in place of RMANOVAs and MANOVAs for single-group and mixed repeated measures designs. The model is expanded to test and control for the effects of baseline levels of physiological activity on stimulus-specific responses. Practical, conceptual, and statistical advantages of growth curve modeling are discussed. PMID:17596179

  6. Characterization of commercial and biological growth curves in the Segureña sheep breed.

    PubMed

    Lupi, T M; Nogales, S; León, J M; Barba, C; Delgado, J V

    2015-08-01

    Non-linear models were analysed to describe both the biological and commercial growth curves of the Segureña sheep, one of the most important Spanish breeds. We evaluated Brody, von Bertalanffy, Verhulst, logistic and Gompertz models, using historical data from the National Association of Segureña Sheep Breeders (ANCOS). These records were collected between 2000 and 2013, from a total of 129 610 weight observations ranging from birth to adulthood. The aim of this research was to establish the mathematical behaviour of body development throughout this breed's commercial life (birth to slaughter) and biological life (birth to adulthood); comparison between both slopes gives important information regarding the best time for slaughter, informs dietary advice according to animals' needs, permits economical predictions of productions and, by using the curve parameters as selection criteria, enables improvements in growth characteristics of the breed. Models were fitted according to the non-linear regression procedure of statistical package SPSS version19. Model parameters were estimated using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. Candidate models were compared using the determinative coefficient, mean square error, number of iterations, Akaike information coefficient and biological coherence of the estimated parameters. The von Bertalanffy and logistic models were found to be best suited to the biological and commercial growth curves, respectively, for both sexes. The Brody equation was found to be unsuitable for studying the commercial growth curve. Differences between the parameters in both sexes indicate a strong impact of sexual dimorphism on growth. This can emphasize the value of the highest growth rate for females, indicating that they reach maturity earlier.

  7. Investigation of growth processes in bacterial colonies by the LASCA technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulianova, O. V.; Rebeza, O. S.; Ulyanov, S. S.

    2016-01-01

    The method of analysis of the temporal and spatial contrasts of speckle fields formed during the coherent scattering of radiation in bacterial colonies has been adapted to monitor the growth and structure of bacterial colonies by the example of E. coli. A noticeable change in the spatial structures of colonies during their growth has been demonstrated.

  8. Beyond Thermal Performance Curves: Modeling Time-Dependent Effects of Thermal Stress on Ectotherm Growth Rates.

    PubMed

    Kingsolver, Joel G; Woods, H Arthur

    2016-03-01

    Thermal performance curves have been widely used to model the ecological responses of ectotherms to variable thermal environments and climate change. Such models ignore the effects of time dependence-the temporal pattern and duration of temperature exposure-on performance. We developed and solved a simple mathematical model for growth rate of ectotherms, combining thermal performance curves for ingestion rate with the temporal dynamics of gene expression and protein production in response to high temperatures to predict temporal patterns of growth rate in constant and diurnally fluctuating temperatures. We used the model to explore the effects of heat shock proteins on larval growth rates of Manduca sexta. The model correctly captures two empirical patterns for larval growth rate: first, maximal growth rate and optimal temperature decline with increasing duration of temperature exposure; second, mean growth rates decline with time in diurnally fluctuating temperatures at higher mean temperatures. These qualitative results apply broadly to cases where proteins or other molecules produced in response to high temperatures reduce growth rates. We discuss some of the critical assumptions and predictions of the model and suggest potential extensions and alternatives. Incorporating time-dependent effects will be essential for making more realistic predictions about the physiological and ecological consequences of temperature fluctuations and climate change. PMID:26913942

  9. Growth curves for Turkish Girls with Turner Syndrome: Results of the Turkish Turner Syndrome Study Group

    PubMed Central

    Darendeliler, Feyza; Yeşilkaya, Ediz; Bereket, Abdullah; Baş, Firdevs; Bundak, Rüveyde; Sarı, Erkan; Küçükemre Aydın, Banu; Darcan, Şükran; Dündar, Bumin; Büyükinan, Muammer; Kara, Cengiz; Mazıcıoğlu, Mümtaz M.; Adal, Erdal; Akıncı, Ayşehan; Atabek, Mehmet Emre; Demirel, Fatma; Çelik, Nurullah; Özkan, Behzat; Özhan, Bayram; Orbak, Zerrin; Ersoy, Betül; Doğan, Murat; Ataş, Ali; Turan, Serap; Gökşen, Damla; Tarım, Ömer; Yüksel, Bilgin; Ercan, Oya; Hatun, Şükrü; Şimşek, Enver; Ökten, Ayşenur; Abacı, Ayhan; Döneray, Hakan; Özbek, Mehmet Nuri; Keskin, Mehmet; Önal, Hasan; Akyürek, Nesibe; Bulan, Kezban; Tepe, Derya; Emeksiz, Hamdi Cihan; Demir, Korcan; Kızılay, Deniz; Topaloğlu, Ali Kemal; Eren, Erdal; Özen, Samim; Demirbilek, Hüseyin; Abalı, Saygın; Akın, Leyla; Eklioğlu, Beray Selver; Kaba, Sultan; Anık, Ahmet; Baş, Serpil; Ünüvar, Tolga; Sağlam, Halil; Bolu, Semih; Özgen, Tolga; Doğan, Durmuş; Çakır, Esra Deniz; Şen, Yaşar; Andıran, Nesibe; Çizmecioğlu, Filiz; Evliyaoğlu, Olcay; Karagüzel, Gülay; Pirgon, Özgür; Çatlı, Gönül; Can, Hatice Dilek; Gürbüz, Fatih; Binay, Çiğdem; Baş, Veysel Nijat; Sağlam, Celal; Gül, Davut; Polat, Adem; Açıkel, Cengizhan; Cinaz, Peyami

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Children with Turner syndrome (TS) have a specific growth pattern that is quite different from that of healthy children. Many countries have population-specific growth charts for TS. Considering national and ethnic differences, we undertook this multicenter collaborative study to construct growth charts and reference values for height, weight and body mass index (BMI) from 3 years of age to adulthood for spontaneous growth of Turkish girls with TS. Methods: Cross-sectional height and weight data of 842 patients with TS, younger than 18 years of age and before starting any therapy, were evaluated. Results: The data were processed to calculate the 3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th and 97th percentile values for defined ages and to construct growth curves for height-for-age, weight-for-age and BMI-for-age of girls with TS. The growth pattern of TS girls in this series resembled the growth pattern of TS girls in other reports, but there were differences in height between our series and the others. Conclusion: This study provides disease-specific growth charts for Turkish girls with TS. These disease-specific national growth charts will serve to improve the evaluation of growth and its management with growth-promoting therapeutic agents in TS patients. PMID:26831551

  10. A growth model for primary cancer (II). New rules, progress curves and morphology transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jr, S. C. Ferreira; Martins, M. L.; Vilela, M. J.

    1999-10-01

    In the present paper we extend the analysis of another model recently proposed to simulate the growth of carcinoma “in situ”, which includes cell proliferation, motility and death, as well as chemotactic interactions among cells. The tumour patterns generated by two distinct growth rules are characterised by its gyration radius, surface roughness, total number of cancer cells, and number of cells on tumour periphery. Our results indicate that very distinct morphological patterns follow Gompertz growth curves and their gyration radii increase linearly in time and scale, in the asymptotic limit, as a square root of the total number of tumour cells. In contrast, these distinct tumour patterns exhibit different scaling laws for their surfaces. Thus, some biological features of malignant behaviour seem to influence particularly the structure of the tumour border, while its gyration radius and progress curve are described by more robust functions. Finally, for both rules used, morphology transitions as well as a transient behaviour up to the onset of the phase of rapid growth in the Gompertz curves are observed.

  11. Estimation of the growth curve and heritability of the growth rate for giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) cubs.

    PubMed

    Che, T D; Wang, C D; Jin, L; Wei, M; Wu, K; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, H M; Li, D S

    2015-03-27

    Giant panda cubs have a low survival rate during the newborn and early growth stages. However, the growth and developmental parameters of giant panda cubs during the early lactation stage (from birth to 6 months) are not well known. We examined the growth and development of giant panda cubs by the Chapman growth curve model and estimated the heritability of the maximum growth rate at the early lactation stage. We found that 83 giant panda cubs reached their maximum growth rate at approximately 75-120 days after birth. The body weight of cubs at 75 days was 4285.99 g. Furthermore, we estimated that the heritability of the maximum growth rate was moderate (h(2) = 0.38). Our study describes the growth and development of giant panda cubs at the early lactation stage and provides valuable growth benchmarks. We anticipate that our results will be a starting point for more detailed research on increasing the survival rate of giant panda cubs. Feeding programs for giant panda cubs need further improvement.

  12. Estimation of the growth curve and heritability of the growth rate for giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) cubs.

    PubMed

    Che, T D; Wang, C D; Jin, L; Wei, M; Wu, K; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, H M; Li, D S

    2015-01-01

    Giant panda cubs have a low survival rate during the newborn and early growth stages. However, the growth and developmental parameters of giant panda cubs during the early lactation stage (from birth to 6 months) are not well known. We examined the growth and development of giant panda cubs by the Chapman growth curve model and estimated the heritability of the maximum growth rate at the early lactation stage. We found that 83 giant panda cubs reached their maximum growth rate at approximately 75-120 days after birth. The body weight of cubs at 75 days was 4285.99 g. Furthermore, we estimated that the heritability of the maximum growth rate was moderate (h(2) = 0.38). Our study describes the growth and development of giant panda cubs at the early lactation stage and provides valuable growth benchmarks. We anticipate that our results will be a starting point for more detailed research on increasing the survival rate of giant panda cubs. Feeding programs for giant panda cubs need further improvement. PMID:25867378

  13. Evaluation of fatigue-crack growth rates by polynomial curve fitting. [Ti alloy plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, K. B.; Feddersen, C. E.

    1973-01-01

    Fundamental characterization of the constant-amplitude fatigue crack propagation is achieved by an analysis of the rate of change of crack length with change in number of applied loading cycles, defining the rate values such that they are consistent with the basic assumption of smoothness and continuity in the fatigue crack growth process. The technique used to satisfy the analytical conditions and minimize the effects of local material anomalies and experimental errors is that of fitting a smooth curve to the entire set of basic data by least square regression. This yields a well-behaved function relating the number of cycles to the crack length. By taking the first derivative of the function, the crack growth rate is obtained for each point. The class of curve fitting functions used in the analysis is the polynomial of degree n.

  14. A growth curve model of learning acquisition among cognitively normal older adults.

    PubMed

    Jones, Richard N; Rosenberg, Adrienne L; Morris, John N; Allaire, Jason C; McCoy, Karin J M; Marsiske, Michael; Kleinman, Ken P; Rebok, George W; Malloy, Paul F

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to model recall and learning on the Auditory Verbal Learning Test using latent growth curve techniques. Participants were older adults recruited for the ACTIVE cognitive intervention pilot. A series of nested models revealed that an approximately logarithmic growth curve model provided optimal fit to the data. Although recall and learning factors were statistically uncorrelated, a fitted multivariate model suggested that initial recall was significantly associated with demographic characteristics but unrelated to health factors and cognitive abilities. Individual differences in learning were related to race/ethnicity, speed of processing, verbal knowledge, and global cognitive function level. These results suggest that failing to recognize initial recall and learning as distinct constructs clouds the interpretation of supraspan memory tasks.

  15. A GROWTH CURVE MODEL OF LEARNING ACQUISITION AMONG COGNITIVELY NORMAL OLDER ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Richard N.; Rosenberg, Adrienne L.; Morris, John N.; Allaire, Jason C.; McCoy, Karin J. M.; Marsiske, Michael; Kleinman, Ken P.; Rebok, George W.; Malloy, Paul F.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to model recall and learning on the Auditory Verbal Learning Test using latent growth curve techniques. Participants were older adults recruited for the ACTIVE cognitive intervention pilot. A series of nested models revealed that an approximately logarithmic growth curve model provided optimal fit to the data. Although recall and learning factors were statistically uncorrelated, a fitted multivariate model suggested that initial recall was significantly associated with demographic characteristics but unrelated to health factors and cognitive abilities. Individual differences in learning were related to race/ethnicity, speed of processing, verbal knowledge, and global cognitive function level. These results suggest that failing to recognize initial recall and learning as distinct constructs clouds the interpretation of supraspan memory tasks. PMID:16036723

  16. Modeling of Scale-Dependent Bacterial Growth by Chemical Kinetics Approach

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Haydee; Cruz, José-Manuel; Ayala, Guadalupe; Rivera, Marco; Buhse, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We applied the so-called chemical kinetics approach to complex bacterial growth patterns that were dependent on the liquid-surface-area-to-volume ratio (SA/V) of the bacterial cultures. The kinetic modeling was based on current experimental knowledge in terms of autocatalytic bacterial growth, its inhibition by the metabolite CO2, and the relief of inhibition through the physical escape of the inhibitor. The model quantitatively reproduces kinetic data of SA/V-dependent bacterial growth and can discriminate between differences in the growth dynamics of enteropathogenic E. coli, E. coli  JM83, and Salmonella typhimurium on one hand and Vibrio cholerae on the other hand. Furthermore, the data fitting procedures allowed predictions about the velocities of the involved key processes and the potential behavior in an open-flow bacterial chemostat, revealing an oscillatory approach to the stationary states. PMID:25105169

  17. Modeling of scale-dependent bacterial growth by chemical kinetics approach.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Haydee; Sánchez, Joaquín; Cruz, José-Manuel; Ayala, Guadalupe; Rivera, Marco; Buhse, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We applied the so-called chemical kinetics approach to complex bacterial growth patterns that were dependent on the liquid-surface-area-to-volume ratio (SA/V) of the bacterial cultures. The kinetic modeling was based on current experimental knowledge in terms of autocatalytic bacterial growth, its inhibition by the metabolite CO2, and the relief of inhibition through the physical escape of the inhibitor. The model quantitatively reproduces kinetic data of SA/V-dependent bacterial growth and can discriminate between differences in the growth dynamics of enteropathogenic E. coli, E. coli JM83, and Salmonella typhimurium on one hand and Vibrio cholerae on the other hand. Furthermore, the data fitting procedures allowed predictions about the velocities of the involved key processes and the potential behavior in an open-flow bacterial chemostat, revealing an oscillatory approach to the stationary states.

  18. Research note: Influence of body weight selection on the growth curve of turkeys.

    PubMed

    Anthony, N B; Emmerson, D A; Nestor, K E

    1991-01-01

    The growth curve of a population of turkeys selected for increased 16 wk BW (Line F) and a randombred control population (RBC2) was determined. It was concluded that the Gompertz equation best described the growth pattern of Lines F and RBC2 regardless of sex. Line F had higher BW at hatching, BW and slope at point of inflection (POI), and asymptotic BW than Line RBC2. Age at POI and asymptote were achieved later for Line RBC2 than for Line F. Male turkeys had higher BW and age at POI and BW and age at asymptote than females. Slope at POI was greater for females than for males. PMID:2017414

  19. Divergent selection for shape of growth curve in Japanese quail. 1. Responses in growth parameters and food conversion.

    PubMed

    Hyánková, L; Knízetová, H; Dĕdková, L; Hort, J

    2001-12-01

    1. HG and LG quail lines selected for high and low relative weight gain between 11 and 28 d of age (RG11-28), respectively, and an unselected C line were compared. Mature body weight of both selected lines was held at that of the C line. Progeny of generation 6 were used for analysis. 2. Divergent selection for RG11-28 brought about opposite changes in the growth rates shortly after hatching. 3. Parameters of the Richards function were used to describe the growth curve. The largest differences between HG and LG lines occurred in age (t+) and body weight (y+) at the inflection point of the growth curve (on average for both sexes 28% and 20%, respectively). For HG quail, the parameter t+ was 5 d later than that for LG quail (18.6 vs 14.1 d for males and 20.6 vs 15.6 d for females, respectively), and consequently the parameter y+ was greater (90.3 vs 84.0 g for males and 104.5 vs 96.1 g for females, respectively). The shape of the growth curve expressed by the y+/A ratio was substantialy different for HG and LG quail (44.8% vs 39.6% for males and 43.5% vs 36.8% for females, respectively). 4. The food/gain ratios for the fattening period (3 to 35 d of age) were 3.21, 3.47 and 3.34 for the HG, LG and C lines, respectively. The HG quail started to utilise food more efficiently than the LG quail as early as 10 to 14 d, that is, at the age when their relative growth rate first became greater. 5. The relative deviations of the HG and LG lines from the C line are discussed. PMID:11811909

  20. Growth Curve Models for the Analysis of Phenotype Arrays for a Systems Biology Overview of Yersinia pestis

    SciTech Connect

    Fodor, I K; Holtz-Morris, A E; McCutchen-Maloney, S L

    2005-09-08

    The Phenotype MicroArray technology of Biolog, Inc. (Hayward, CA) measures the respiration of cells as a function of time in thousands of microwells simultaneously, and thus provides a high-throughput means of studying cellular phenotypes. The microwells contain compounds involved in a number of biochemical pathways, as well as chemicals that test the sensitivity of cells against antibiotics and stress. While the PM experimental workflow is completely automated, statistical methods to analyze and interpret the data are lagging behind. To take full advantage of the technology, it is essential to develop efficient analytical methods to quantify the information in the complex datasets resulting from PM experiments. We propose the use of statistical growth-curve models to rigorously quantify observed differences in PM experiments, in the context of the growth and metabolism of Yersinia pestis cells grown under different physiological conditions. The information from PM experiments complement genomic and proteomic results and can be used to identify gene function and in drug development. Successful coupling of phenomics results with genomics and proteomics will lead to an unprecedented ability to characterize bacterial function at a systems biology level.

  1. Progress curve analysis of qRT-PCR reactions using the logistic growth equation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meile; Udhe-Stone, Claudia; Goudar, Chetan T

    2011-01-01

    We present an alternate approach for analyzing data from real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) experiments by fitting individual fluorescence vs. cycle number (F vs. C) curves to the logistic growth equation. The best fit parameters determined by nonlinear least squares were used to compute the second derivative of the logistic equation and the cycle threshold, C(t), was determined from the maximum value of the second derivative. This C(t) value was subsequently used to determine ΔΔC(t) and the amplification efficiency, E(n), thereby completing the analysis on a qRT-PCR data set. The robustness of the logistic approach was verified by testing ~600 F vs. C curves using both new and previously published data sets. In most cases, comparisons were made between the logistic estimates and those from the standard curve and comparative C(t) methods. Deviations between the logistic and standard curve method ranged between 3-10% for C(t) estimates, 2-10% for ΔΔC(t) estimates, and 1-11% for E(n) estimates. The correlations between C(t) estimates from the logistic and standard curve methods were very high, often >0.95. When compared with five other established methods of qRT-PCR data analysis to predict initial concentrations of two genes encompassing a total of 500 F vs. C curves, the logistic estimates were of comparable accuracy. This reliable performance of the logistic approach comes without the need to construct standard curves which can be a laborious undertaking. Also, no a priori assumptions for E(n) are necessary while some other methods assume equal E(n) values for the reference and target genes, an assumption that is not universally valid. In addition, by accurately describing the data in the plateau region of the F vs. C curve, the logistic method overcomes the limitations of the sigmoidal curve fitting method. The streamlined nature of the logistic approach makes it ideal for complete automation on a variety of computing

  2. Effects of nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide on bacterial growth.

    PubMed Central

    Mancinelli, R L; McKay, C P

    1983-01-01

    The effects of low concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on actively dividing cultures of Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Micrococcus roseus, Serratia marcescens, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus circulans, Bacillus megaterium, and Bacillus cereus were studied. Fresh cultures of each organism were incubated for 24 h at 25 degrees C on both nutrient agar and mineral salts glucose agar plates under atmospheres containing various low concentrations of NO in air (0 to 1.9 ppm [0 to 2.0 micrograms/g of air]), NO2 in air (0 to 5.5 ppm [0 to 8.8 micrograms/g of air]), or NO and NO2 in air. Bacteria grown under air only were used as controls. After incubation, the colonies that developed on the plates were counted. None of the bacteria tested was affected by NO or NO2 at the indicated concentrations while growing on nutrient agar. Serratia marcescens, B. circulans, B. subtilis, B. megaterium, and B. cereus grown on mineral salts glucose agar were not significantly affected by NO or NO2. Low concentrations (0 to 1.9 ppm) of NO were bacteriostatic to log-phase cultures of M. roseus, M. luteus, and Staphylococcus aureus grown on mineral salts glucose agar. Bacteriostatic activity over a 24-h interval was maximal at an initial NO concentration of 1 ppm. Appreciable amounts of NO2 were produced in 24 h at initial NO concentrations greater than 1 ppm. These results suggest that NO2 may reduce the bacteriostatic activity of NO. Low concentrations (0 to 5.5 ppm) of NO2 in air did not affect any of the bacteria tested. At these low concentrations, NO affected bacterial growth, although NO2, NO2-, and NO3- did not. In addition, it was determined that the bacteriostatic activity observed in this study was not due to an increase in the acidity of the medium. PMID:6351744

  3. Effect of flow and active mixing on bacterial growth in a colon-like geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremer, Jonas; Segota, Igor; Arnoldini, Markus; Groisman, Alex; Hwa, Terence

    The large intestine harbors bacteria from hundreds of species, with bacterial densities reaching up to 1012 cells per gram. Many different factors influence bacterial growth dynamics and thus bacterial density and microbiota composition. One dominant force is flow which can in principle lead to a washout of bacteria from the proximal colon. Active mixing by Contractions of the colonic wall together with bacterial growth might counteract such flow-forces and allow high bacterial densities to occur. As a step towards understanding bacterial growth in the presence of mixing and flow, we constructed an in-vitro setup where controlled wall-deformations of a channel emulate Contractions. We investigate growth along the channel under a steady nutrient inflow. In the limits of no or very frequent Contractions, the device behaves like a plug-flow reactor and a chemostat respectively. Depending on mixing and flow, we observe varying spatial gradients in bacterial density along the channel. Active mixing by deformations of the channel wall is shown to be crucial in maintaining a steady-state bacterial population in the presence of flow. The growth-dynamics is quantitatively captured by a simple mathematical model, with the effect of mixing described by an effective diffusion term.

  4. Saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea, Cactaceae) age-height relationships and growth: the development of a general growth curve.

    PubMed

    Drezner, Taly Dawn

    2003-06-01

    Because the growth rate of saguaros varies across different environments, past studies on saguaro population structure required extensive data collection (often over many decades) followed by site-specific analysis to estimate age at the sampled locale. However, when height-growth data from different populations are compared, the overall shape of the growth curves is similar. In this study, a formula was developed to establish saguaro age-height relationships (using stepwise regression) that can be applied to any saguaro population and only requires a site-specific factor to adjust the curve to the local growth rate. This adjustment factor can be established more efficiently and requires less data than the full analyses required for previous studies. Saguaro National Park East (SNP-E) was used as the baseline factor, set to 1.0. Results yielded a factor of 0.743 for SNP West. When the formula was applied to 10-yr interval data from Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument (OPCNM) in Arizona, USA, this location had a factor of 0.617 (relative to SNP-E). With this formula and relatively little field sampling, the age of any individual saguaro (whether the individual was sampled or not) in any population can be estimated. PMID:21659186

  5. Polymer film deposition on agar using a dielectric barrier discharge jet and its bacterial growth inhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, T.-C.; Cho, J.; Mcintyre, K.; Jo, Y.-K.; Staack, D.

    2012-08-01

    Polymer film deposition on agar in ambient air was achieved using the helium dielectric barrier discharge jet (DBD jet) fed with polymer precursors, and the bacterial growth inhibition due to the deposited film was observed. The DBD jet with precursor addition was more efficient at sterilization than a helium-only DBD jet. On the areas where polymer films cover the agar the bacterial growth was significantly inhibited. The inhibition efficacy showed dependence on the film thickness. The DBD jet without precursor also created a modified agar layer, which may slow the growth of some bacterial strains.

  6. Growth curve by Gompertz nonlinear regression model in female and males in tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum).

    PubMed

    De Mello, Fernanda; Oliveira, Carlos A L; Ribeiro, Ricardo P; Resende, Emiko K; Povh, Jayme A; Fornari, Darci C; Barreto, Rogério V; McManus, Concepta; Streit, Danilo

    2015-01-01

    Was evaluated the pattern of growth among females and males of tambaqui by Gompertz nonlinear regression model. Five traits of economic importance were measured on 145 animals during the three years, totaling 981 morphometric data analyzed. Different curves were adjusted between males and females for body weight, height and head length and only one curve was adjusted to the width and body length. The asymptotic weight (a) and relative growth rate to maturity (k) were different between sexes in animals with ± 5 kg; slaughter weight practiced by a specific niche market, very profitable. However, there was no difference between males and females up to ± 2 kg; slaughter weight established to supply the bigger consumer market. Females showed weight greater than males (± 280 g), which are more suitable for fish farming purposes defined for the niche market to larger animals. In general, males had lower maximum growth rate (8.66 g / day) than females (9.34 g / day), however, reached faster than females, 476 and 486 days growth rate, respectively. The height and length body are the traits that contributed most to the weight at 516 days (P <0.001).

  7. Growth curve by Gompertz nonlinear regression model in female and males in tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum).

    PubMed

    De Mello, Fernanda; Oliveira, Carlos A L; Ribeiro, Ricardo P; Resende, Emiko K; Povh, Jayme A; Fornari, Darci C; Barreto, Rogério V; McManus, Concepta; Streit, Danilo

    2015-01-01

    Was evaluated the pattern of growth among females and males of tambaqui by Gompertz nonlinear regression model. Five traits of economic importance were measured on 145 animals during the three years, totaling 981 morphometric data analyzed. Different curves were adjusted between males and females for body weight, height and head length and only one curve was adjusted to the width and body length. The asymptotic weight (a) and relative growth rate to maturity (k) were different between sexes in animals with ± 5 kg; slaughter weight practiced by a specific niche market, very profitable. However, there was no difference between males and females up to ± 2 kg; slaughter weight established to supply the bigger consumer market. Females showed weight greater than males (± 280 g), which are more suitable for fish farming purposes defined for the niche market to larger animals. In general, males had lower maximum growth rate (8.66 g / day) than females (9.34 g / day), however, reached faster than females, 476 and 486 days growth rate, respectively. The height and length body are the traits that contributed most to the weight at 516 days (P <0.001). PMID:26628036

  8. Multi-Trait GWAS and New Candidate Genes Annotation for Growth Curve Parameters in Brahman Cattle.

    PubMed

    Crispim, Aline Camporez; Kelly, Matthew John; Guimarães, Simone Eliza Facioni; Fonseca e Silva, Fabyano; Fortes, Marina Rufino Salinas; Wenceslau, Raphael Rocha; Moore, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the genetic architecture of beef cattle growth cannot be limited simply to the genome-wide association study (GWAS) for body weight at any specific ages, but should be extended to a more general purpose by considering the whole growth trajectory over time using a growth curve approach. For such an approach, the parameters that are used to describe growth curves were treated as phenotypes under a GWAS model. Data from 1,255 Brahman cattle that were weighed at birth, 6, 12, 15, 18, and 24 months of age were analyzed. Parameter estimates, such as mature weight (A) and maturity rate (K) from nonlinear models are utilized as substitutes for the original body weights for the GWAS analysis. We chose the best nonlinear model to describe the weight-age data, and the estimated parameters were used as phenotypes in a multi-trait GWAS. Our aims were to identify and characterize associated SNP markers to indicate SNP-derived candidate genes and annotate their function as related to growth processes in beef cattle. The Brody model presented the best goodness of fit, and the heritability values for the parameter estimates for mature weight (A) and maturity rate (K) were 0.23 and 0.32, respectively, proving that these traits can be a feasible alternative when the objective is to change the shape of growth curves within genetic improvement programs. The genetic correlation between A and K was -0.84, indicating that animals with lower mature body weights reached that weight at younger ages. One hundred and sixty seven (167) and two hundred and sixty two (262) significant SNPs were associated with A and K, respectively. The annotated genes closest to the most significant SNPs for A had direct biological functions related to muscle development (RAB28), myogenic induction (BTG1), fetal growth (IL2), and body weights (APEX2); K genes were functionally associated with body weight, body height, average daily gain (TMEM18), and skeletal muscle development (SMN1). Candidate

  9. Multi-Trait GWAS and New Candidate Genes Annotation for Growth Curve Parameters in Brahman Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Crispim, Aline Camporez; Kelly, Matthew John; Guimarães, Simone Eliza Facioni; e Silva, Fabyano Fonseca; Fortes, Marina Rufino Salinas; Wenceslau, Raphael Rocha; Moore, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the genetic architecture of beef cattle growth cannot be limited simply to the genome-wide association study (GWAS) for body weight at any specific ages, but should be extended to a more general purpose by considering the whole growth trajectory over time using a growth curve approach. For such an approach, the parameters that are used to describe growth curves were treated as phenotypes under a GWAS model. Data from 1,255 Brahman cattle that were weighed at birth, 6, 12, 15, 18, and 24 months of age were analyzed. Parameter estimates, such as mature weight (A) and maturity rate (K) from nonlinear models are utilized as substitutes for the original body weights for the GWAS analysis. We chose the best nonlinear model to describe the weight-age data, and the estimated parameters were used as phenotypes in a multi-trait GWAS. Our aims were to identify and characterize associated SNP markers to indicate SNP-derived candidate genes and annotate their function as related to growth processes in beef cattle. The Brody model presented the best goodness of fit, and the heritability values for the parameter estimates for mature weight (A) and maturity rate (K) were 0.23 and 0.32, respectively, proving that these traits can be a feasible alternative when the objective is to change the shape of growth curves within genetic improvement programs. The genetic correlation between A and K was -0.84, indicating that animals with lower mature body weights reached that weight at younger ages. One hundred and sixty seven (167) and two hundred and sixty two (262) significant SNPs were associated with A and K, respectively. The annotated genes closest to the most significant SNPs for A had direct biological functions related to muscle development (RAB28), myogenic induction (BTG1), fetal growth (IL2), and body weights (APEX2); K genes were functionally associated with body weight, body height, average daily gain (TMEM18), and skeletal muscle development (SMN1). Candidate

  10. Longitudinal Growth Curves of Brain Function Underlying Inhibitory Control through Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Foran, William; Velanova, Katerina; Luna, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies suggest that developmental improvements in inhibitory control are primarily supported by changes in prefrontal executive function. However, studies are contradictory with respect to how activation in prefrontal regions changes with age, and they have yet to analyze longitudinal data using growth curve modeling, which allows characterization of dynamic processes of developmental change, individual differences in growth trajectories, and variables that predict any interindividual variability in trajectories. In this study, we present growth curves modeled from longitudinal fMRI data collected over 302 visits (across ages 9 to 26 years) from 123 human participants. Brain regions within circuits known to support motor response control, executive control, and error processing (i.e., aspects of inhibitory control) were investigated. Findings revealed distinct developmental trajectories for regions within each circuit and indicated that a hierarchical pattern of maturation of brain activation supports the gradual emergence of adult-like inhibitory control. Mean growth curves of activation in motor response control regions revealed no changes with age, although interindividual variability decreased with development, indicating equifinality with maturity. Activation in certain executive control regions decreased with age until adolescence, and variability was stable across development. Error-processing activation in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex showed continued increases into adulthood and no significant interindividual variability across development, and was uniquely associated with task performance. These findings provide evidence that continued maturation of error-processing abilities supports the protracted development of inhibitory control over adolescence, while motor response control regions provide early-maturing foundational capacities and suggest that some executive control regions may buttress immature networks as error processing

  11. Genetic parameters of traits associated with the growth curve in Segureña sheep.

    PubMed

    Lupi, T M; León, J M; Nogales, S; Barba, C; Delgado, J V

    2016-05-01

    This paper studies the genetic importance of growth curve parameters and their relevance as selection criteria in breeding programmes of Segureño sheep. Logistic and Verhulst growth functions were chosen for their best fit to BW/age in this breed; the first showed the best general fit and the second the best individual fit. Live weights of 41 330 individuals from the historical archives of the National Association of Segureña Sheep Breeders were used in the analysis. The progeny of 1464 rams and 27 048 ewes were used to study the genetic and phenotypic parameters of growth curve parameters and derived traits. Reproductive management in the population consists in controlled natural mating inside every herd, with a minimum of 15% of the females fertilized by artificial insemination with fresh semen; with the purpose being the herd genetic connections, all herd genealogies are screened with DNA markers. Estimates of growth curve parameters from birth to 80 days were obtained for each individual and each function by the non-linear regression procedure using IBM SPSS statistics (version 21) with the Levenberg-Marquart estimation method. (Co)variance components and genetic parameters were estimated by using the REML/Animal model methodology. The heritability of mature weight was estimated as 0.41±0.042 and 0.38±0.021 with the logistic and Verhulst models, respectively, and the heritability of other parameters ranged from 0.41 to 0.62 and 0.37 to 0.61, with the models, respectively. A negative genetic correlation between mature weight and rate of maturing was found. PMID:26696444

  12. Incorporating Student Mobility in Achievement Growth Modeling: A Cross-Classified Multiple Membership Growth Curve Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, Matthew W.; Beretvas, S. Natasha

    2010-01-01

    Multiple membership random effects models (MMREMs) have been developed for use in situations where individuals are members of multiple higher level organizational units. Despite their availability and the frequency with which multiple membership structures are encountered, no studies have extended the MMREM approach to hierarchical growth curve…

  13. Effect of Vibration on Bacterial Growth and Antibiotic Resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juergensmeyer, Elizabeth A.; Juergensmeyer, Margaret A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this research grant was to provide a fundamental, systematic investigation of the effects of oscillatory acceleration on bacterial proliferation and their responses to antibiotics in a liquid medium.

  14. The papain inhibitor (SPI) of Streptomyces mobaraensis inhibits bacterial cysteine proteases and is an antagonist of bacterial growth.

    PubMed

    Zindel, Stephan; Kaman, Wendy E; Fröls, Sabrina; Pfeifer, Felicitas; Peters, Anna; Hays, John P; Fuchsbauer, Hans-Lothar

    2013-07-01

    A novel papain inhibitory protein (SPI) from Streptomyces mobaraensis was studied to measure its inhibitory effect on bacterial cysteine protease activity (Staphylococcus aureus SspB) and culture supernatants (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Bacillus anthracis). Further, growth of Bacillus anthracis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Vibrio cholerae was completely inhibited by 10 μM SPI. At this concentration of SPI, no cytotoxicity was observed. We conclude that SPI inhibits bacterial virulence factors and has the potential to become a novel therapeutic treatment against a range of unrelated pathogenic bacteria.

  15. Effect of lag time distribution on the lag phase of bacterial growth - a Monte Carlo analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study is to use Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the effect of lag time distribution of individual bacterial cells incubated under isothermal conditions on the development of lag phase. The growth of bacterial cells of the same initial concentration and mean lag phase durati...

  16. What is Growth? Concurrent determination of a bacterial population's many shades of growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Guillaume; Kussell, Edo

    2013-03-01

    One of the most exciting developments in the study of the physics of microbial life is the ability to precisely monitor stochastic variations of gene expression in individual cells. A fundamental question is whether these variations improve the long-term ability of a population to adapt to new environments. While variations in gene expression in bacteria are easily measured through the use of reporter systems such as green fluorescent proteins and its variants, precise determination of a cell's growth rate, and how it is influenced by its immediate environment, remains challenging. Here, we show that many conflicting and ambiguous definitions of bacterial growth can actually be used interchangeably in E. coli. Indeed, by monitoring small populations of E. coli bacteria inside a microfluidic device, we show that seemingly independent measurements of growth (elongation rate and the average division time, for instance) agree very precisely with one another. We combine these definitions with the population's length and age distribution to very precisely quantify the influence of temperature variations on a population's growth rate. We conclude by using coalescence theory to describe the evolution of a population's genetic structure over time.

  17. Genetic (co)variances and breeding value estimation of Gompertz growth curve parameters in Finnish Yorkshire boars, gilts and barrows.

    PubMed

    Koivula, M; Sevón-Aimonen, M-L; Strandén, I; Matilainen, K; Serenius, T; Stalder, K J; Mäntysaari, E A

    2008-06-01

    This paper's objectives were to estimate the genetic (co)variance components of the Gompertz growth curve parameters and to evaluate the relationship of estimated breeding values (EBV) based on average daily gain (ADG) and Gompertz growth curves. Finnish Yorkshire central test station performance data was obtained from the Faba Breeding (Vantaa, Finland). The final data set included 121,488 weight records from 10,111 pigs. Heritability estimates for the Gompertz growth parameters mature weight (alpha), logarithm of mature weight to birth weight ratio (beta) and maturation rate (kappa) were 0.44, 0.55 and 0.31, respectively. Genotypic and phenotypic correlations between the growth curve parameters were high and mainly negative. The only positive relationship was found between alpha and beta. Pearson and Spearman rank correlation coefficients between EBV for ADG and daily gain calculated from Gompertz growth curves were 0.79. The Spearman rank correlation between the sire EBV for ADG and Gompertz growth curve parameter-based ADG for all sires with at least 15 progeny was 0.86. Growth curves differ significantly between individuals and this information could be utilized for selection purposes when improving growth rate in pigs.

  18. Direct evidences on bacterial growth pattern regulating pyrene degradation pathway and genotypic dioxygenase expression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Baowei; Huang, Jinyin; Yuan, Ke; Lin, Li; Wang, Xiaowei; Yang, Lihua; Luan, Tiangang

    2016-04-15

    Pyrene degradation by Mycobacterium sp. strain A1-PYR was investigated in the presence of nutrient broth, phenanthrene and fluoranthene, respectively. Fast bacterial growth in the nutrient broth considerably enhanced pyrene degradation rate, whereas degradation efficiency per cell was substantially decreased. The addition of nutrient broth could not alter the transcription levels of all dioxygenase genotypes. In the PAH-only substrates, bacterial growth completely relied on biological conversion of PAHs into the effective carbon sources, which led to a higher degradation efficiency of pyrene per cell than the case of nutrient broth. Significant correlations were only observed between nidA-related dioxygenase expression and pyrene degradation or bacterial growth. The highest pyrene degradation rate in the presence of phenanthrene was consistent with the highest transcription level of nidA and 4,5-pyrenediol as the sole initial metabolite. This study reveals that bacterial growth requirement can invigorate degradation of PAHs by regulating metabolic pathway and genotypic enzyme expression.

  19. PEROXOTITANATE- AND MONOSODIUM METAL-TITANATE COMPOUNDS AS INHIBITORS OF BACTERIAL GROWTH

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.

    2011-01-19

    Sodium titanates are ion-exchange materials that effectively bind a variety of metal ions over a wide pH range. Sodium titanates alone have no known adverse biological effects but metal-exchanged titanates (or metal titanates) can deliver metal ions to mammalian cells to alter cell processes in vitro. In this work, we test a hypothesis that metal-titanate compounds inhibit bacterial growth; demonstration of this principle is one prerequisite to developing metal-based, titanate-delivered antibacterial agents. Focusing initially on oral diseases, we exposed five species of oral bacteria to titanates for 24 h, with or without loading of Au(III), Pd(II), Pt(II), and Pt(IV), and measuring bacterial growth in planktonic assays through increases in optical density. In each experiment, bacterial growth was compared with control cultures of titanates or bacteria alone. We observed no suppression of bacterial growth by the sodium titanates alone, but significant (p < 0.05, two-sided t-tests) suppression was observed with metal-titanate compounds, particularly Au(III)-titanates, but with other metal titanates as well. Growth inhibition ranged from 15 to 100% depending on the metal ion and bacterial species involved. Furthermore, in specific cases, the titanates inhibited bacterial growth 5- to 375-fold versus metal ions alone, suggesting that titanates enhanced metal-bacteria interactions. This work supports further development of metal titanates as a novel class of antibacterials.

  20. Determination of the Critical Concentration of Neutrophils Required to Block Bacterial Growth in Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongmei; Karlin, Arthur; Loike, John D.; Silverstein, Samuel C.

    2004-01-01

    We showed previously that the competition between bacterial killing by neutrophils and bacterial growth in stirred serum-containing suspensions could be modeled as the competition between a first-order reaction (bacterial growth) and a second-order reaction (bacterial killing by neutrophils). The model provided a useful parameter, the critical neutrophil concentration (CNC), below which bacterial concentration increased and above which it decreased, independent of the initial bacterial concentration. We report here that this model applies to neutrophil killing of bacteria in three-dimensional fibrin matrices and in rabbit dermis. We measured killing of 103–108 colony forming units/ml Staphylococcus epidermidis by 105–108 human neutrophils/ml in fibrin gels. The CNC was ∼4 × 106 neutrophils/ml gel in the presence of normal serum and ∼1.6 × 107 neutrophils/ml gel in the presence of C5-deficient serum. Application of our model to published data of others on killing of ∼5 × 107 to 2 × 108 E. coli/ml rabbit dermis yielded CNCs from ∼4 × 106 to ∼8 × 106 neutrophils/ml dermis. Thus, in disparate tissues and tissuelike environments, our model fits the kinetics of bacterial killing and gives similar lower limits (CNCs) to the neutrophil concentration required to control bacterial growth. PMID:15353554

  1. Control of bacterial adhesion and growth on honeycomb-like patterned surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yang, Meng; Ding, Yonghui; Ge, Xiang; Leng, Yang

    2015-11-01

    It is a great challenge to construct a persistent bacteria-resistant surface even though it has been demonstrated that several surface features might be used to control bacterial behavior, including surface topography. In this study, we develop micro-scale honeycomb-like patterns of different sizes (0.5-10 μm) as well as a flat area as the control on a single platform to evaluate the bacterial adhesion and growth. Bacteria strains, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with two distinct shapes (rod and sphere) are cultured on the platforms, with the patterned surface-up and surface-down in the culture medium. The results demonstrate that the 1 μm patterns remarkably reduce bacterial adhesion and growth while suppressing bacterial colonization when compared to the flat surface. The selective adhesion of the bacterial cells on the patterns reveals that the bacterial adhesion is cooperatively mediated by maximizing the cell-substrate contact area and minimizing the cell deformation, from a thermodynamic point of view. Moreover, study of bacterial behaviors on the surface-up vs. surface-down samples shows that gravity does not apparently affect the spatial distribution of the adherent cells although it indeed facilitates bacterial adhesion. Furthermore, the experimental results suggest that two major factors, i.e. the availability of energetically favorable adhesion sites and the physical confinements, contribute to the anti-bacterial nature of the honeycomb-like patterns.

  2. The combination of different carbon sources enhances bacterial growth efficiency in aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Fonte, Ellen S; Amado, André M; Meirelles-Pereira, Frederico; Esteves, Francisco A; Rosado, Alexandre S; Farjalla, Vinicius F

    2013-11-01

    The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) pool is composed of several organic carbon compounds from different carbon sources. Each of these sources may support different bacterial growth rates, but few studies have specifically analyzed the effects of the combination of different carbon sources on bacterial metabolism. In this study, we evaluated the response of several metabolic parameters, including bacterial biomass production (BP), bacterial respiration (BR), bacterial growth efficiency (BGE), and bacterial community structure, on the presence of three DOC sources alone and in combination. We hypothesized that the mixture of different DOC sources would increase the efficiency of carbon use by bacteria (BGE). We established a full-factorial substitutive design (seven treatments) in which the effects of the number and identity of DOC sources on bacterial metabolism were evaluated. We calculated the expected metabolic rates of the combined DOC treatments based on the single-DOC treatments and observed a positive interaction on BP, a negative interaction on BR, and, consequently, a positive interaction on BGE for the combinations. The bacterial community composition appeared to have a minor impact on differences in bacterial metabolism among the treatments. Our data indicate that mixtures of DOC sources result in a more efficient biological use of carbon. This study provides strong evidence that the mixture of different DOC sources is a key factor affecting the role of bacteria in the carbon flux of aquatic ecosystems. PMID:23963223

  3. Control of bacterial adhesion and growth on honeycomb-like patterned surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yang, Meng; Ding, Yonghui; Ge, Xiang; Leng, Yang

    2015-11-01

    It is a great challenge to construct a persistent bacteria-resistant surface even though it has been demonstrated that several surface features might be used to control bacterial behavior, including surface topography. In this study, we develop micro-scale honeycomb-like patterns of different sizes (0.5-10 μm) as well as a flat area as the control on a single platform to evaluate the bacterial adhesion and growth. Bacteria strains, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with two distinct shapes (rod and sphere) are cultured on the platforms, with the patterned surface-up and surface-down in the culture medium. The results demonstrate that the 1 μm patterns remarkably reduce bacterial adhesion and growth while suppressing bacterial colonization when compared to the flat surface. The selective adhesion of the bacterial cells on the patterns reveals that the bacterial adhesion is cooperatively mediated by maximizing the cell-substrate contact area and minimizing the cell deformation, from a thermodynamic point of view. Moreover, study of bacterial behaviors on the surface-up vs. surface-down samples shows that gravity does not apparently affect the spatial distribution of the adherent cells although it indeed facilitates bacterial adhesion. Furthermore, the experimental results suggest that two major factors, i.e. the availability of energetically favorable adhesion sites and the physical confinements, contribute to the anti-bacterial nature of the honeycomb-like patterns. PMID:26302067

  4. Logistic growth curve of chickens: a comparison of techniques to estimate parameters.

    PubMed

    Grossman, M; Bohren, B B; Anderson, V L

    1985-01-01

    Parameters of a mathematical function of growth, fit to the body weight curve of two randombred control populations of each sex of chickens from hatching through 45 weeks of age, were estimated. The logistic function was chosen from among growth formulae that express rate of gain as a function of weight at a given time and gain to be made. Two logistic parameters, growth-rate constant and age at the point of inflection, were estimated by the methods of sample quantiles and nonlinear regression from weekly mean body weights of 225 males and 281 females of the Rhode Island Red (RIR) line, and 164 males and 239 females of the White Leghorn (WL) line. Males had a larger growth-rate constant than females of the same line. The RIR line had a larger rate constant than the WL line, for each sex. Age at the point of inflection was similar for males and females in the RIR line, but smaller for males than females in the WL line. Sample quantiles yielded larger, less precise estimates of the growth-rate constant than nonlinear regression. Estimates of age at the point of inflection were usually smaller using sample quantiles. PMID:4056375

  5. Description of the growth curve for Angus pasture-fed cows under extensive systems.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, V; Ravagnolo, O

    2015-09-01

    Growth curves are useful for describing the sigmoid shape of an animal's weight pattern over time. The purpose of the present study was to describe, for the first time, a complete growth curve for pasture-fed Angus cows in Uruguay and to analyze the major fixed effects that affect the estimation of mature cow weight (CW). A total of 22,743 records from 5,284 cows belonging to 73 herds were used in the statistical analysis. Five nonlinear models (Brody, Gompertz, Von Bertalanffy, logistic, and Richards) and a 3-knot cubic spline function were fitted to model weight change across age. Body weights were recorded at birth, weaning, and 18 mo and as an adult (at 2.3-3.6, 3.6-4.6, 4.6 to 5.6, 5.6 to 6.6, and 6.6 to 8.1 yr). After preliminary analyses, the fixed effects included in the model to estimate CW were BCS, herd, year and month of measurement, and age of dam. The herd and BCS were the major significant sources of variation. The Richards model had the lowest values for Akaike information criterion, Bayesian information criterion, and -2 log likelihood, with the asymptotic weight being 542 kg. The spline function was the model that fitted the data most closely to the observed weights followed by the Richards function. The Richards model gave better predictions of weights from birth to maturity than the other 4 nonlinear models, because these functions were shown to over- or underestimate weights at different ages in this beef cattle data set. The predicted curve showed that cows reach mature CW after 5 yr of age, which is the age commonly assumed as adult weight in beef cattle. Results form this analysis allowed the estimation of CW and rate of maturing and to take knowledge of the shape of growth curve for Angus females in Uruguay under extensive conditions, helping breeders to take selection decisions. In this way, breeders can optimize the management and efficiency for each production system.

  6. Changes in the Bacterial Community of Soybean Rhizospheres during Growth in the Field

    PubMed Central

    Sugiyama, Akifumi; Ueda, Yoshikatsu; Zushi, Takahiro; Takase, Hisabumi; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2014-01-01

    Highly diverse communities of bacteria inhabiting soybean rhizospheres play pivotal roles in plant growth and crop production; however, little is known about the changes that occur in these communities during growth. We used both culture-dependent physiological profiling and culture independent DNA-based approaches to characterize the bacterial communities of the soybean rhizosphere during growth in the field. The physiological properties of the bacterial communities were analyzed by a community-level substrate utilization assay with BioLog Eco plates, and the composition of the communities was assessed by gene pyrosequencing. Higher metabolic capabilities were found in rhizosphere soil than in bulk soil during all stages of the BioLog assay. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that differences between the bacterial communities of rhizosphere and bulk soils at the phylum level; i.e., Proteobacteria were increased, while Acidobacteria and Firmicutes were decreased in rhizosphere soil during growth. Analysis of operational taxonomic units showed that the bacterial communities of the rhizosphere changed significantly during growth, with a higher abundance of potential plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, including Bacillus, Bradyrhizobium, and Rhizobium, in a stage-specific manner. These findings demonstrated that rhizosphere bacterial communities were changed during soybean growth in the field. PMID:24955843

  7. Changes in the bacterial community of soybean rhizospheres during growth in the field.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Akifumi; Ueda, Yoshikatsu; Zushi, Takahiro; Takase, Hisabumi; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2014-01-01

    Highly diverse communities of bacteria inhabiting soybean rhizospheres play pivotal roles in plant growth and crop production; however, little is known about the changes that occur in these communities during growth. We used both culture-dependent physiological profiling and culture independent DNA-based approaches to characterize the bacterial communities of the soybean rhizosphere during growth in the field. The physiological properties of the bacterial communities were analyzed by a community-level substrate utilization assay with BioLog Eco plates, and the composition of the communities was assessed by gene pyrosequencing. Higher metabolic capabilities were found in rhizosphere soil than in bulk soil during all stages of the BioLog assay. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that differences between the bacterial communities of rhizosphere and bulk soils at the phylum level; i.e., Proteobacteria were increased, while Acidobacteria and Firmicutes were decreased in rhizosphere soil during growth. Analysis of operational taxonomic units showed that the bacterial communities of the rhizosphere changed significantly during growth, with a higher abundance of potential plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, including Bacillus, Bradyrhizobium, and Rhizobium, in a stage-specific manner. These findings demonstrated that rhizosphere bacterial communities were changed during soybean growth in the field.

  8. Electrospun polystyrene fiber diameter influencing bacterial attachment, proliferation, and growth.

    PubMed

    Abrigo, Martina; Kingshott, Peter; McArthur, Sally L

    2015-04-15

    Electrospun materials have been widely investigated in the past few decades as candidates for tissue engineering applications. However, there is little available data on the mechanisms of interaction of bacteria with electrospun wound dressings of different morphology and surface chemistry. This knowledge could allow the development of effective devices against bacterial infections in chronic wounds. In this paper, the interactions of three bacterial species (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus) with electrospun polystyrene meshes were investigated. Bacterial response to meshes with different fiber diameters was assessed through a combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal microscopy. Experiments included attachment studies in liquid medium but also directly onto agar plates; the latter was aimed at mimicking a chronic wound environment. Fiber diameter was shown to affect the ability of bacteria to proliferate within the fibrous networks, depending on cell size and shape. The highest proliferation rates occurred when fiber diameter was close to the bacterial size. Nanofibers were found to induce conformational changes of rod shaped bacteria, limiting the colonization process and inducing cell death. The data suggest that simply tuning the morphological properties of electrospun fibers may be one strategy used to control biofilm formation within wound dressings.

  9. Determining Cloud Parameters with the Curve-Of-Growth: Application Eta Car

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vieira, G. L.; Gull, T. R.; Bruhweiler, F.; Nielsen, K. E.; Verner, E. M.

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated the NUV part of the Eta Car spectrum, using data with high spatial and high spectral resolving power obtained with the HST/STIS under the Treasury Program. The NUV spectrum of Eta Car Shows a great contribution of absorption features from neutral and singly ionized elements along the line-of-sight. A large number of velocity systems have been observed. The two most prominent, with Doppler shifts corresponding to -146 and -513 km/s respectively, are shown to be useful for investigations of the gaseous environments responsible for the absorption. The -146 and the -513 km/s velocity systems display different characteristics regarding the ionization state and spectral line width, which suggest that they originate at different distances from the central object. We have investigated the absorption structures before the spectroscopic minimum, occurring during the summer of 2003, with a standard curve-of-growth. We have independently derived the column density and the b-value for the Fe II (-146 km/s) and Ti II (-513 km/s) velocity systems. The excitation temperature has been determined for the -146 km/s velocity system using the photo-ionization code \\textsc(cloudy). The -146 km/s velocity structure shows noticeable variation over the spectroscopic minimum. The sudden appearance and disappearance of Ti II and V II are astonishing. We have made an attempt to analyze these variations with the curve-of-growth method and will present preliminary results.

  10. Applying Biometric Growth Curve Models to Developmental Synchronies in Cognitive Development: The Louisville Twin Study.

    PubMed

    Finkel, Deborah; Davis, Deborah Winders; Turkheimer, Eric; Dickens, William T

    2015-11-01

    Biometric latent growth curve models were applied to data from the LTS in order to replicate and extend Wilson's (Child Dev 54:298-316, 1983) findings. Assessments of cognitive development were available from 8 measurement occasions covering the period 4-15 years for 1032 individuals. Latent growth curve models were fit to percent correct for 7 subscales: information, similarities, arithmetic, vocabulary, comprehension, picture completion, and block design. Models were fit separately to WPPSI (ages 4-6 years) and WISC-R (ages 7-15). Results indicated the expected increases in heritability in younger childhood, and plateaus in heritability as children reached age 10 years. Heritability of change, per se (slope estimates), varied dramatically across domains. Significant genetic influences on slope parameters that were independent of initial levels of performance were found for only information and picture completion subscales. Thus evidence for both genetic continuity and genetic innovation in the development of cognitive abilities in childhood were found. PMID:26392369

  11. Applying Biometric Growth Curve Models to Developmental Synchronies in Cognitive Development: The Louisville Twin Study.

    PubMed

    Finkel, Deborah; Davis, Deborah Winders; Turkheimer, Eric; Dickens, William T

    2015-11-01

    Biometric latent growth curve models were applied to data from the LTS in order to replicate and extend Wilson's (Child Dev 54:298-316, 1983) findings. Assessments of cognitive development were available from 8 measurement occasions covering the period 4-15 years for 1032 individuals. Latent growth curve models were fit to percent correct for 7 subscales: information, similarities, arithmetic, vocabulary, comprehension, picture completion, and block design. Models were fit separately to WPPSI (ages 4-6 years) and WISC-R (ages 7-15). Results indicated the expected increases in heritability in younger childhood, and plateaus in heritability as children reached age 10 years. Heritability of change, per se (slope estimates), varied dramatically across domains. Significant genetic influences on slope parameters that were independent of initial levels of performance were found for only information and picture completion subscales. Thus evidence for both genetic continuity and genetic innovation in the development of cognitive abilities in childhood were found.

  12. Selecting a linear mixed model for longitudinal data: repeated measures analysis of variance, covariance pattern model, and growth curve approaches.

    PubMed

    Liu, Siwei; Rovine, Michael J; Molenaar, Peter C M

    2012-03-01

    With increasing popularity, growth curve modeling is more and more often considered as the 1st choice for analyzing longitudinal data. Although the growth curve approach is often a good choice, other modeling strategies may more directly answer questions of interest. It is common to see researchers fit growth curve models without considering alterative modeling strategies. In this article we compare 3 approaches for analyzing longitudinal data: repeated measures analysis of variance, covariance pattern models, and growth curve models. As all are members of the general linear mixed model family, they represent somewhat different assumptions about the way individuals change. These assumptions result in different patterns of covariation among the residuals around the fixed effects. In this article, we first indicate the kinds of data that are appropriately modeled by each and use real data examples to demonstrate possible problems associated with the blanket selection of the growth curve model. We then present a simulation that indicates the utility of Akaike information criterion and Bayesian information criterion in the selection of a proper residual covariance structure. The results cast doubt on the popular practice of automatically using growth curve modeling for longitudinal data without comparing the fit of different models. Finally, we provide some practical advice for assessing mean changes in the presence of correlated data.

  13. Growth curve changes associated with long-term selection for body weight in Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Marks, H L

    1978-06-01

    Four quail lines were utilized to investigate growth patterns in quail. Three of these lines (P, T and S) had previously undergone long-term selection for high 4-week body weight, while line C was maintained as a nonselected control. Quail progeny from generation 37 and 38 breeders were fed diets containing 28% and 20% protein. Within each trial, the diet/line treatments were replicated 3 times with 12 quail per subclass. Body weight measurements suggested that the growth of all lines was best approximated by the logistic growth curve model. When fed a 28% protein diet the age at maximum growth (point of inflection) of selected lines was 4 to 6 days earlier than the corresponding age of controls. Similar rates of gain after 4 weeks of age between selected and control lines suggested that mechanisms influenced by selection for 4-week body weight in quail operate only during the period prior to the age at selection with little or no residual effect. PMID:680578

  14. Analyzing Exercise Behaviors during the College Years: Results from Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wittman, Werner

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze changes in the predictors of physical activity behavior among college students. The Theory of Planned Behavior served as its theoretical framework. Methods: Among an initial sample of 417 college students, 195 participants completed a validated questionnaire measuring attitudes, subjective norms, perceived control, intentions and self-reported physical activity, at the beginning and end of each of 3 college semesters. Latent growth curve modeling analyses were conducted to examine the relationships between the trajectories of changes in PA, intentions, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived control. Results: Good fit indices supported the validity of the proposed longitudinal model (CFI > .97, RMSEA < .05). Changes in perceived control (γ = 0.57) were significantly linked with changes in intentions (p < .05). Perceived control (γ = 0.28) and intention growth (γ = 0.36) predicted behavior changes (p < .05). No gender differences were observed on attitudes, subjective norms and perceived control (p > .10). However, girls tend to have higher growth parameters on intentions and physical activity (p < .05). In summary, intentions and physical activity has significantly increased over 3 college semesters (growth parameters significant at p < .05). Conclusions: This study demonstrated that attitudes and perceived control are key determinants regarding the intentions of being active. On a longer term perspective, future physical activity interventions should focus on the enhancement of students’ perceived control. Such educational context should help in promoting the adoption of an active lifestyle during college. PMID:27124179

  15. Growth curves in short supply: a descriptive study of the availability and utility of growth curve data in adolescents with eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Healthy body weight (HBW) determination affects multiple aspects of eating disorder (ED) treatment. For example, it can inform patients and providers as to when return of menses (ROM), an objective determinant of health, can occur. Growth curves (GCs) are sensitive indicators of health in youth and when up to date provide critical information regarding normal and expected trajectories of growth. Although not widely recommended as a first line tool for HBW calculation, a GC guides providers selecting a HBW that is individualized to each patient. The primary aim of this paper was to assess availability and feasibility of utilizing GC data for HBW prediction in adolescents referred for an ED assessment. We also sought to determine how this calculation compared to the standardized HBW calculation that uses mean body mass index (BMI) for age and how each of these numbers compared to the actual weight at ROM. Methods A retrospective chart review was completed on outpatients assessed for EDs between January 2004 and December 2006. A total of 102 patients met inclusion criteria. Demographic information, GC data, HBW predictions, and menstrual history were analyzed. A comparison of predicted HBWs using the aforementioned calculations and weight at ROM was performed using t-test analyses. Results Eighty-one patients (79.4%) had GC data available at assessment although HBW prediction was possible in only 24 patients (23.8%) due to poor GC completion. Of those 24 patients, 9 had ROM data available; no significant difference between our predicted HBW and the weight at ROM was found in these patients. In cases where HBW predictions could be compared using GC data and the BMI method, we found the GC calculation to be overall superior. Conclusions We found overall rates of GC completion to be very low in our patients, which in turn limited the feasibility of relying on a GC for HBW calculation in ED patients. When complete, GCs provide accurate HBWs for most patients

  16. The effect of temperature and bacterial growth phase on protein extraction by means of electroporation.

    PubMed

    Haberl-Meglič, Saša; Levičnik, Eva; Luengo, Elisa; Raso, Javier; Miklavčič, Damijan

    2016-12-01

    Different chemical and physical methods are used for extraction of proteins from bacteria, which are used in variety of fields. But on a large scale, many methods have severe drawbacks. Recently, extraction by means of electroporation showed a great potential to quickly obtain proteins from bacteria. Since many parameters are affecting the yield of extracted proteins, our aim was to investigate the effect of temperature and bacterial growth phase on the yield of extracted proteins. At the same time bacterial viability was tested. Our results showed that the temperature has a great effect on protein extraction, the best temperature post treatment being 4°C. No effect on bacterial viability was observed for all temperatures tested. Also bacterial growth phase did not affect the yield of extracted proteins or bacterial viability. Nevertheless, further experiments may need to be performed to confirm this observation, since only one incubation temperature (4°C) and one incubation time before and after electroporation (0.5 and 1h) were tested for bacterial growth phase. Based on our results we conclude that temperature is a key element for bacterial membrane to stay in a permeabilized state, so more proteins flow out of bacteria into surrounding media. PMID:27561651

  17. Moral Disengagement, Anticipated Social Outcomes and Adolescents' Alcohol Use: Parallel Latent Growth Curve Analyses.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Catherine A; Bussey, Kay

    2015-10-01

    Moral disengagement is a social cognitive process that has been extensively applied to transgressive behaviors, including delinquency, aggression and illicit substance use. However, there has been limited research on moral disengagement as it relates to underage drinking. The current study aimed to examine moral disengagement contextualized to underage drinking and its longitudinal relationship to alcohol use. Moreover, the social context in which adolescent alcohol use typically occurs was also considered, with a specific emphasis on the social sanctions, or social outcomes, that adolescents anticipate receiving from friends for their alcohol use. Adolescents were assessed across three time-points, 8 months apart. The longitudinal sample consisted of 382 (46% female) underage drinkers (12-16 years at T1). Parallel latent growth curve analysis was used to examine the bi-directional influence of initial moral disengagement, anticipated social outcomes, and alcohol use on subsequent growth in moral disengagement, anticipated social outcomes and alcohol use. The interrelation of initial scores and growth curves was also assessed. The findings revealed that, in the binary parallel analyses, initial moral disengagement and anticipated social outcomes both significantly predicted changes in alcohol use across time. Moreover, initial anticipated social outcomes predicted changes in moral disengagement. These findings were not consistently found when all three process analyses were included in a single model. The results emphasize the impact of social context on moral disengagement and suggest that by targeting adolescents' propensity to justify or excuse their drinking, as well as the social outcomes adolescents anticipate for being drunk, it may be possible to reduce their underage drinking. PMID:26318080

  18. Moral Disengagement, Anticipated Social Outcomes and Adolescents' Alcohol Use: Parallel Latent Growth Curve Analyses.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Catherine A; Bussey, Kay

    2015-10-01

    Moral disengagement is a social cognitive process that has been extensively applied to transgressive behaviors, including delinquency, aggression and illicit substance use. However, there has been limited research on moral disengagement as it relates to underage drinking. The current study aimed to examine moral disengagement contextualized to underage drinking and its longitudinal relationship to alcohol use. Moreover, the social context in which adolescent alcohol use typically occurs was also considered, with a specific emphasis on the social sanctions, or social outcomes, that adolescents anticipate receiving from friends for their alcohol use. Adolescents were assessed across three time-points, 8 months apart. The longitudinal sample consisted of 382 (46% female) underage drinkers (12-16 years at T1). Parallel latent growth curve analysis was used to examine the bi-directional influence of initial moral disengagement, anticipated social outcomes, and alcohol use on subsequent growth in moral disengagement, anticipated social outcomes and alcohol use. The interrelation of initial scores and growth curves was also assessed. The findings revealed that, in the binary parallel analyses, initial moral disengagement and anticipated social outcomes both significantly predicted changes in alcohol use across time. Moreover, initial anticipated social outcomes predicted changes in moral disengagement. These findings were not consistently found when all three process analyses were included in a single model. The results emphasize the impact of social context on moral disengagement and suggest that by targeting adolescents' propensity to justify or excuse their drinking, as well as the social outcomes adolescents anticipate for being drunk, it may be possible to reduce their underage drinking.

  19. The essential features and modes of bacterial polar growth.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Todd A; Zupan, John R; Zambryski, Patricia C

    2015-06-01

    Polar growth represents a surprising departure from the canonical dispersed cell growth model. However, we know relatively little of the underlying mechanisms governing polar growth or the requisite suite of factors that direct polar growth. Underscoring how classic doctrine can be turned on its head, the peptidoglycan layer of polar-growing bacteria features unusual crosslinks and in some species the quintessential cell division proteins FtsA and FtsZ are recruited to the growing poles. Remarkably, numerous medically important pathogens utilize polar growth, accentuating the need for intensive research in this area. Here we review models of polar growth in bacteria based on recent research in the Actinomycetales and Rhizobiales, with emphasis on Mycobacterium and Agrobacterium species.

  20. Essays on the predictability of oil shocks and yield curves for real-time output growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlton, Amelie B.

    This dissertation is a collection of three essays that revisits the long-standing puzzle of the apparently disproportionate effect of oil prices in the economy by examining output growth predictability with real-time data. Each study of the predictive content of oil shocks is from a different perspective by using newly developed real-time datasets, which allows for replicating the economic environment faced by policymakers in real time. The first study extends the conventional set of models of output growth determination by investigating predictability of models that incorporate various functional forms of oil prices and real-time data. The results are supportive of the relationship of GDP and oil in the context of Granger causality with real-time data. In the second essay, I use oil shocks to predict the economy is changing direction earlier than would be predicted by solely using initial GDP releases. The model provides compelling evidence of negative GDP growth predictability in response to oil price shocks, which could shorten the "recognition lag" for successful implementation of discretionary counter-cyclical policies. In the third essay, I evaluate short-horizon output growth predictability using real-time data for different sample periods. I find strong evidence of predictability at the one-quarter and four-quarter horizon for the United States. The major result of the paper is that we reject the null hypothesis of no predictability against an alternative hypothesis of predictability with oil shocks that include yield curves in the forecasting regression. This relationship suggests the combination of monetary policy and oil shocks are important for subsequent GDP growth.

  1. Estimating Gompertz Growth Curves from Marine Mammal Strandings in the Presence of Missing Data.

    PubMed

    Shotwell, Mary; McFee, Wayne; Slate, Elizabeth H

    2010-01-01

    Stranded bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) off the coast of South Carolina (SC) provide data essential for population health assessment. Of the 598 bottlenose dolphin strandings in SC from 1993 to 2007, 91 were of sufficient body condition to obtain organ weights. Of these 91 animals, only 52 were brought back to the laboratory for total body weight measurements. Because it is more feasible to transport smaller animals to the laboratory setting for necropsy procedures, a selection bias is present in that data for larger animals are often missing. Regression and propensity score multiple imputation methods are utilized to account for missing data needed to compute growth. Fitted Gompertz growth curves for SC animals with and without adjustment for missing data are compared to those found from the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. South Carolina animals display a trend in lower asymptotic mean total body weights and faster growth rates compared to the Gulf of Mexico population. The differences generally increased in magnitude after imputation methods. South Carolina females were originally estimated to reach larger maximum sizes than Gulf of Mexico females, but after imputation this relationship reversed. The findings suggest selection bias should be accounted for in sampling stranded dolphins.

  2. Development of oral reading fluency in children with speech or language impairments: A growth curve analysis

    PubMed Central

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Petscher, Yaacov; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Catts, Hugh W.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study used piece-wise growth curve analyses to examine growth patterns in oral reading fluency for students diagnosed with speech (SI) or language impairments (LI) from first through third grade (N = 1,991). The main finding of this study was that a diagnosis of SI or LI can have a detrimental effect on early reading skills and these problems can be persistent. The results indicate differences between subgroups in growth trajectories that were evident in first grade. These differences were associated with a students’ speech or language status. A large proportion of students with SI or LI did not meet grade-level reading fluency benchmarks. Overall students with SI showed better performance than students with LI. Reading fluency performance was negatively related to the persistence of the SI or LI; the lowest performing students were those originally identified with SI or LI whose diagnosis changed to a learning disability. The results underscore the need to identify, monitor, and address reading fluency difficulties early among students with SI or LI. PMID:18625782

  3. Estimating Gompertz Growth Curves from Marine Mammal Strandings in the Presence of Missing Data

    PubMed Central

    Shotwell, Mary; McFee, Wayne; Slate, Elizabeth H.

    2012-01-01

    Stranded bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) off the coast of South Carolina (SC) provide data essential for population health assessment. Of the 598 bottlenose dolphin strandings in SC from 1993 to 2007, 91 were of sufficient body condition to obtain organ weights. Of these 91 animals, only 52 were brought back to the laboratory for total body weight measurements. Because it is more feasible to transport smaller animals to the laboratory setting for necropsy procedures, a selection bias is present in that data for larger animals are often missing. Regression and propensity score multiple imputation methods are utilized to account for missing data needed to compute growth. Fitted Gompertz growth curves for SC animals with and without adjustment for missing data are compared to those found from the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. South Carolina animals display a trend in lower asymptotic mean total body weights and faster growth rates compared to the Gulf of Mexico population. The differences generally increased in magnitude after imputation methods. South Carolina females were originally estimated to reach larger maximum sizes than Gulf of Mexico females, but after imputation this relationship reversed. The findings suggest selection bias should be accounted for in sampling stranded dolphins. PMID:24812444

  4. Control of bacterial growth by temperature and organic matter in the Western Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchman, David L.; Malmstrom, Rex R.; Cottrell, Matthew T.

    2005-12-01

    Temperature is thought to have a disproportionate role in controlling bacterial growth in perennially cold waters like the Western Arctic Ocean. One impact of temperature is that bacteria in cold waters may require more dissolved organic material (DOM) in order to approach growth rates observed at higher temperatures (the Wiebe-Pomeroy hypothesis). To explore these issues, this study examined the effect of DOM additions and temperatures shifts on bacterial assemblages during short (2 h) and long (up to 10 days) incubations. We found that the temperature response for bacterial assemblages in the Western Arctic was similar to that observed in temperate waters; the Q10 values for leucine and thymidine incorporation were 3.1±2.6 and 1.9±0.56, respectively, not significantly different from values observed in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. In contrast to what would be predicted from the Wiebe-Pomeroy hypothesis, the impact of DOM additions on leucine incorporation either was the same or greater at higher, not lower temperatures. Increasing the incubation temperature did stimulate leucine incorporation more quickly than did DOM additions, but DOM seems as important as temperature in controlling bacterial growth. Leucine incorporation rates per cell (an index of community growth rates) observed in these experiments varied greatly and approached rates observed in waters warmer by 25 °C. These results suggest that the role of temperature in controlling bacterial growth in the Western Arctic is similar to that in low-latitude ocean.

  5. Differentiation of bacterial colonies and temporal growth patterns using hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrübeoglu, Mehrube; Buck, Gregory W.; Livingston, Daniel W.

    2014-09-01

    Detection and identification of bacteria are important for health and safety. Hyperspectral imaging offers the potential to capture unique spectral patterns and spatial information from bacteria which can then be used to detect and differentiate bacterial species. Here, hyperspectral imaging has been used to characterize different bacterial colonies and investigate their growth over time. Six bacterial species (Pseudomonas fluorescens, Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes) were grown on tryptic soy agar plates. Hyperspectral data were acquired immediately after, 24 hours after, and 96 hours after incubation. Spectral signatures from bacterial colonies demonstrated repeatable measurements for five out of six species. Spatial variations as well as changes in spectral signatures were observed across temporal measurements within and among species at multiple wavelengths due to strengthening or weakening reflectance signals from growing bacterial colonies based on their pigmentation. Between-class differences and within-class similarities were the most prominent in hyperspectral data collected 96 hours after incubation.

  6. Inhibition of bacterial growth by iron oxide nanoparticles with and without attached drug: Have we conquered the antibiotic resistance problem?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armijo, Leisha M.; Jain, Priyanka; Malagodi, Angelina; Fornelli, F. Zuly; Hayat, Allison; Rivera, Antonio C.; French, Michael; Smyth, Hugh D. C.; Osiński, Marek

    2015-03-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is among the top three leading causative opportunistic human pathogens, possessing one of the largest bacterial genomes and an exceptionally large proportion of regulatory genes therein. It has been known for more than a decade that the size and complexity of the P. aeruginosa genome is responsible for the adaptability and resilience of the bacteria to include its ability to resist many disinfectants and antibiotics. We have investigated the susceptibility of P. aeruginosa bacterial biofilms to iron oxide (magnetite) nanoparticles (NPs) with and without attached drug (tobramycin). We also characterized the susceptibility of zero-valent iron NPs, which are known to inactivate microbes. The particles, having an average diameter of 16 nm were capped with natural alginate, thus doubling the hydrodynamic size. Nanoparticle-drug conjugates were produced via cross-linking drug and alginate functional groups. Drug conjugates were investigated in the interest of determining dosage, during these dosage-curve experiments, NPs unbound to drug were tested in cultures as a negative control. Surprisingly, we found that the iron oxide NPs inhibited bacterial growth, and thus, biofilm formation without the addition of antibiotic drug. The inhibitory dosages of iron oxide NPs were investigated and the minimum inhibitory concentrations are presented. These findings suggest that NP-drug conjugates may overcome the antibiotic drug resistance common in P. aeruginosa infections.

  7. Optimal study design with identical power: an application of power equivalence to latent growth curve models.

    PubMed

    von Oertzen, Timo; Brandmaier, Andreas M

    2013-06-01

    Structural equation models have become a broadly applied data-analytic framework. Among them, latent growth curve models have become a standard method in longitudinal research. However, researchers often rely solely on rules of thumb about statistical power in their study designs. The theory of power equivalence provides an analytical answer to the question of how design factors, for example, the number of observed indicators and the number of time points assessed in repeated measures, trade off against each other while holding the power for likelihood-ratio tests on the latent structure constant. In this article, we present applications of power-equivalent transformations on a model with data from a previously published study on cognitive aging, and highlight consequences of participant attrition on power.

  8. A Markovian Growth Dynamics on Rooted Binary Trees Evolving According to the Gompertz Curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landim, C.; Portugal, R. D.; Svaiter, B. F.

    2012-08-01

    Inspired by biological dynamics, we consider a growth Markov process taking values on the space of rooted binary trees, similar to the Aldous-Shields (Probab. Theory Relat. Fields 79(4):509-542, 1988) model. Fix n≥1 and β>0. We start at time 0 with the tree composed of a root only. At any time, each node with no descendants, independently from the other nodes, produces two successors at rate β( n- k)/ n, where k is the distance from the node to the root. Denote by Z n ( t) the number of nodes with no descendants at time t and let T n = β -1 nln( n/ln4)+(ln2)/(2 β). We prove that 2- n Z n ( T n + nτ), τ∈ℝ, converges to the Gompertz curve exp(-(ln2) e - βτ ). We also prove a central limit theorem for the martingale associated to Z n ( t).

  9. Estimation of median growth curves for children up two years old based on biresponse local linear estimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamidah, Nur; Rifada, Marisa

    2016-03-01

    There is significant of the coeficient correlation between weight and height of the children. Therefore, the simultaneous model estimation is better than partial single response approach. In this study we investigate the pattern of sex difference in growth curve of children from birth up to two years of age in Surabaya, Indonesia based on biresponse model. The data was collected in a longitudinal representative sample of the Surabaya population of healthy children that consists of two response variables i.e. weight (kg) and height (cm). While a predictor variable is age (month). Based on generalized cross validation criterion, the modeling result based on biresponse model by using local linear estimator for boy and girl growth curve gives optimal bandwidth i.e 1.41 and 1.56 and the determination coefficient (R2) i.e. 99.99% and 99.98%,.respectively. Both boy and girl curves satisfy the goodness of fit criterion i.e..the determination coefficient tends to one. Also, there is difference pattern of growth curve between boy and girl. The boy median growth curves is higher than those of girl curve.

  10. Development of an integrated optical analyzer for characterization of growth dynamics of bacterial colonies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Huisung; Bai, Nan; Bhunia, Arun K; King, Galen B; Hirleman, E Daniel; Bae, Euiwon

    2013-12-01

    In order to understand the biophysics behind collective behavior of a bacterial colony, a confocal displacement meter was used to measure the profiles of the bacterial colonies, together with a custom built optical density circuits. The system delivered essential information related to the quantitative growth dynamics (height, diameter, aspect ratio, optical density) of the bacterial colony. For example, the aspect ratio of S. aureus was approximately two times higher than that of E. coli O157 : H7, while the OD of S. aureus was approximately 1/3 higher than that of E. coli O157 : H7.

  11. Mode of growth of bacterial pathogens in chronic polymicrobial human osteomyelitis.

    PubMed Central

    Marrie, T J; Costerton, J W

    1985-01-01

    Direct examination of material from two cases of persistent (2 and 60 years) osteomyelitis by morphological and culture techniques showed that the pathogens comprised several bacterial species whose cells grew predominantly in discrete exopolysaccharide-enclosed microcolonies made up of a single bacterial morphotype. Bacterial microcolonies were seen between tissue elements in infected connective tissue, and the microcolonies adherent to bone surfaces coalesced to form extensive biofilms that occluded the surfaces of dead bone in sequestrae. Decalcification techniques were required to examine the interior of infected bone, but recognizable remnants were associated with very large amounts of fibrous, ruthenium red-stained material. All bacterial growth in these persistent infections occurred within an intercellular matrix, and some elements of this matrix, which was fibrous in transmission electron microscopy and amorphous in scanning electron microscopy, were associated with the surfaces of bacterial cells in a manner that suggested their production by these organisms. All of the implications of this microcolony mode of bacterial growth in osteomyelitis, and in other chronic bacterial diseases, have yet to be determined. Images PMID:4066923

  12. Bacterial Growth on Distant Naphthalene Diffusing through Water, Air, and Water-Saturated and Nonsaturated Porous Media

    PubMed Central

    Harms, H.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of substrate diffusion on bacterial growth was investigated. Crystalline naphthalene was supplied as the substrate at various distances in the range of centimeters from naphthalene-degrading organisms separated from the substrate by agar-solidified mineral medium. Within 2 weeks, the cells grew to final numbers which were negatively correlated with the distance from the substrate. A mathematical model that combined (i) Monod growth kinetics extended by a term for culture maintenance and (ii) substrate diffusion could explain the observed growth curves. The model could also predict growth on naphthalene that was separated from the bacteria by air. In addition, the bacteria were grown on distant naphthalene that had to diffuse to the cells through water-saturated and unsaturated porous media. The growth of the bacteria could be used to calculate the effective diffusivity of naphthalene in the three-phase system. Diffusion of naphthalene in the pore space containing 80% air was roughly 1 order of magnitude faster than in medium containing only 20% air because of the high Henry's law coefficient of naphthalene. It is proposed that the effective diffusivities of the substrates and the spatial distribution of substrates and bacteria are the main determinants of final cell numbers and, consequently, final degradation rates. PMID:16535349

  13. Bacterial growth on a superhydrophobic surface containing silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinonen, S.; Nikkanen, J.-P.; Laakso, J.; Raulio, M.; Priha, O.; Levänen, E.

    2013-12-01

    The antibacterial effect of silver can be exploited in the food and beverage industry and medicinal applications to reduce biofouling of surfaces. Very small amount of silver ions are enough to destructively affect the metabolism of bacteria. Moreover, superhydrophobic properties could reduce bacterial adhesion to the surface. In this study we fabricated superhydrophobic surfaces that contained nanosized silver particles. The superhydrophobic surfaces were manufactured onto stainless steel as combination of ceramic nanotopography and hydrophobication by fluorosilane. Silver nanoparticles were precipitated onto the surface by a chemical method. The dissolution of silver from the surface was tested in an aqueous environment under pH values of 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and 13. The pH value was adjusted with nitric acid and ammonia. It was found that dissolution rate of silver increased as the pH of the solution altered from the pH of de-ionized water to lower and higher pH values but dissolution occurred also in de-ionized water. The antimicrobial potential of this coating was investigated using bacterial strains isolated from the brewery equipment surfaces. The results showed that the number of bacteria adhering onto steel surface was significantly reduced (88%) on the superhydrophobic silver containing coating.

  14. Shaping the Growth Behaviour of Biofilms Initiated from Bacterial Aggregates.

    PubMed

    Melaugh, Gavin; Hutchison, Jaime; Kragh, Kasper Nørskov; Irie, Yasuhiko; Roberts, Aled; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Diggle, Stephen P; Gordon, Vernita D; Allen, Rosalind J

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are usually assumed to originate from individual cells deposited on a surface. However, many biofilm-forming bacteria tend to aggregate in the planktonic phase so that it is possible that many natural and infectious biofilms originate wholly or partially from pre-formed cell aggregates. Here, we use agent-based computer simulations to investigate the role of pre-formed aggregates in biofilm development. Focusing on the initial shape the aggregate forms on the surface, we find that the degree of spreading of an aggregate on a surface can play an important role in determining its eventual fate during biofilm development. Specifically, initially spread aggregates perform better when competition with surrounding unaggregated bacterial cells is low, while initially rounded aggregates perform better when competition with surrounding unaggregated cells is high. These contrasting outcomes are governed by a trade-off between aggregate surface area and height. Our results provide new insight into biofilm formation and development, and reveal new factors that may be at play in the social evolution of biofilm communities. PMID:26934187

  15. Shaping the Growth Behaviour of Biofilms Initiated from Bacterial Aggregates.

    PubMed

    Melaugh, Gavin; Hutchison, Jaime; Kragh, Kasper Nørskov; Irie, Yasuhiko; Roberts, Aled; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Diggle, Stephen P; Gordon, Vernita D; Allen, Rosalind J

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are usually assumed to originate from individual cells deposited on a surface. However, many biofilm-forming bacteria tend to aggregate in the planktonic phase so that it is possible that many natural and infectious biofilms originate wholly or partially from pre-formed cell aggregates. Here, we use agent-based computer simulations to investigate the role of pre-formed aggregates in biofilm development. Focusing on the initial shape the aggregate forms on the surface, we find that the degree of spreading of an aggregate on a surface can play an important role in determining its eventual fate during biofilm development. Specifically, initially spread aggregates perform better when competition with surrounding unaggregated bacterial cells is low, while initially rounded aggregates perform better when competition with surrounding unaggregated cells is high. These contrasting outcomes are governed by a trade-off between aggregate surface area and height. Our results provide new insight into biofilm formation and development, and reveal new factors that may be at play in the social evolution of biofilm communities.

  16. Shaping the Growth Behaviour of Biofilms Initiated from Bacterial Aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Melaugh, Gavin; Hutchison, Jaime; Kragh, Kasper Nørskov; Irie, Yasuhiko; Roberts, Aled; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Diggle, Stephen P.; Gordon, Vernita D.; Allen, Rosalind J.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are usually assumed to originate from individual cells deposited on a surface. However, many biofilm-forming bacteria tend to aggregate in the planktonic phase so that it is possible that many natural and infectious biofilms originate wholly or partially from pre-formed cell aggregates. Here, we use agent-based computer simulations to investigate the role of pre-formed aggregates in biofilm development. Focusing on the initial shape the aggregate forms on the surface, we find that the degree of spreading of an aggregate on a surface can play an important role in determining its eventual fate during biofilm development. Specifically, initially spread aggregates perform better when competition with surrounding unaggregated bacterial cells is low, while initially rounded aggregates perform better when competition with surrounding unaggregated cells is high. These contrasting outcomes are governed by a trade-off between aggregate surface area and height. Our results provide new insight into biofilm formation and development, and reveal new factors that may be at play in the social evolution of biofilm communities. PMID:26934187

  17. Theoretical and Experimental Study of Bacterial Colony Growth in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Xinxian; Mugler, Andrew; Nemenman, Ilya

    2014-03-01

    Bacterial cells growing in liquid culture have been well studied and modeled. However, in nature, bacteria often grow as biofilms or colonies in physically structured habitats. A comprehensive model for population growth in such conditions has not yet been developed. Based on the well-established theory for bacterial growth in liquid culture, we develop a model for colony growth in 3D in which a homogeneous colony of cells locally consume a diffusing nutrient. We predict that colony growth is initially exponential, as in liquid culture, but quickly slows to sub-exponential after nutrient is locally depleted. This prediction is consistent with our experiments performed with E. coli in soft agar. Our model provides a baseline to which studies of complex growth process, such as such as spatially and phenotypically heterogeneous colonies, must be compared.

  18. Morphology, Growth, and Size Limit of Bacterial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hongyuan; Sun, Sean X.

    2010-07-01

    Bacterial cells utilize a living peptidoglycan network (PG) to separate the cell interior from the surroundings. The shape of the cell is controlled by PG synthesis and cytoskeletal proteins that form bundles and filaments underneath the cell wall. The PG layer also resists turgor pressure and protects the cell from osmotic shock. We argue that mechanical influences alter the chemical equilibrium of the reversible PG assembly and determine the cell shape and cell size. Using a mechanochemical approach, we show that the cell shape can be regarded as a steady state of a growing network under the influence of turgor pressure and mechanical stress. Using simple elastic models, we predict the size of common spherical and rodlike bacteria. The influence of cytoskeletal bundles such as crescentin and MreB are discussed within the context of our model.

  19. Trajectories of Change in Obesity among Tehranian Families: Multilevel Latent Growth Curve Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Akbarzadeh, Mahdi; Mahjub, Hossein; Soltanian, Ali Reza; Daneshpour, Maryam; Morris, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the trajectories of change in obesity within and between Tehranian families, who participated in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS). Methods. This study is a family-based longitudinal design, in four waves. A total of 14761 individuals, within 3980 families, were selected. Three anthropometric measurements, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and a body shape index (ABSI), were recorded. Multilevel latent growth curve modeling (MLGCM) approach was used for evaluating the change trajectories in obesity within and between the families. Results. The mean age of the subjects in the present study was 33.28 ± 19.01 (range 3–89 years) and 50.1% were male. Obesity was significantly increased (P < 0.001). Individuals with more fat become obese slower, whereas families with more fat become obese faster (P < 0.001). The initial value and growth rate of WC and ABSI were greater in men than in women, while this result is contrary to BMI (P < 0.001). Conclusions. Our findings demonstrated that there is an alarming increase in the obesity trend in Tehranian families. The important role of the family in the prevention of obesity is highlighted, underlining the need for public health programs, as family centered educations to lifestyle modification, which can address this emerging crisis. PMID:27042349

  20. Optimization of a new mathematical model for bacterial growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research is to optimize a new mathematical equation as a primary model to describe the growth of bacteria under constant temperature conditions. An optimization algorithm was used in combination with a numerical (Runge-Kutta) method to solve the differential form of the new gr...

  1. High-throughput quantitative analysis with cell growth kinetic curves for low copy number mutant cells.

    PubMed

    Xing, James Z; Gabos, Stephan; Huang, Biao; Pan, Tianhong; Huang, Min; Chen, Jie

    2012-10-01

    The mutation rate in cells induced by environmental genotoxic hazards is very low and difficult to detect using traditional cell counting assays. The established genetic toxicity tests currently recognized by regulatory authorities, such as conventional Ames and hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl-transferase (HPRT) assays, are not well suited for higher-throughput screening as they require large amounts of test compounds and are very time consuming. In this study, we developed a novel cell-based assay for quantitative analysis of low numbers of cell copies with HPRT mutation induced by an environmental mutagen. The HPRT gene mutant cells induced by the mutagen were selected by 6-thioguanine (6-TG) and the cell's kinetic growth curve monitored by a real-time cell electronic sensor (RT-CES) system. When a threshold is set at a certain cell index (CI) level, samples with different initial mutant cell copies take different amounts of time in order for their growth (or CI accumulation) to cross this threshold. The more cells that are initially seeded in the test well, the faster the cell accumulation and therefore the shorter the time required to cross this threshold. Therefore, the culture time period required to cross the threshold of each sample corresponds to the original number of cells in the sample. A mutant cell growth time threshold (MT) value of each sample can be calculated to predict the number of original mutant cells. For mutagenesis determination, the RT-CES assay displayed an equal sensitivity (p > 0.05) and coefficients of variation values with good correlation to conventional HPRT mutagenic assays. Most importantly, the RT-CES mutation assay has a higher throughput than conventional cellular assays.

  2. Conditional quantile regression models of melanoma tumor growth curves for assessing treatment effect in small sample studies.

    PubMed

    Revzin, Ella; Majumdar, Dibyen; Bassett, Gilbert W

    2014-12-20

    Tumor growth curves provide a simple way to understand how tumors change over time. The traditional approach to fitting such curves to empirical data has been to estimate conditional mean regression functions, which describe the average effect of covariates on growth. However, this method ignores the possibility that tumor growth dynamics are different for different quantiles of the possible distribution of growth patterns. Furthermore, typical individual preclinical cancer drug study designs have very small sample sizes and can have lower power to detect a statistically significant difference in tumor volume between treatment groups. In our work, we begin to address these issues by combining several independent small sample studies of an experimental cancer treatment with differing study designs to construct quantile tumor growth curves. For modeling, we use a Penalized Fixed Effects Quantile Regression with added study effects to control for study differences. We demonstrate this approach using data from a series of small sample studies that investigated the effect of a naturally derived biological peptide, P28, on tumor volumes in mice grafted with human melanoma cells. We find a statistically significant quantile treatment effect on tumor volume trajectories and baseline values. In particular, the experimental treatment and a corresponding conventional chemotherapy had different effects on tumor growth by quantile. The conventional treatment, Dacarbazine (DTIC), tended to inhibit growth for smaller quantiles, while the experimental treatment P28 produced slower rates of growth in the upper quantiles, especially in the 95th quantile. PMID:25231497

  3. Volatile Emissions from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Mirror Bacterial Growth and Enable Distinction of Different Strains

    PubMed Central

    Trefz, Phillip; Koehler, Heike; Klepik, Klaus; Moebius, Petra; Reinhold, Petra; Schubert, Jochen K.; Miekisch, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    Control of paratuberculosis in livestock is hampered by the low sensitivity of established direct and indirect diagnostic methods. Like other bacteria, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) emits volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Differences of VOC patterns in breath and feces of infected and not infected animals were described in first pilot experiments but detailed information on potential marker substances is missing. This study was intended to look for characteristic volatile substances in the headspace of cultures of different MAP strains and to find out how the emission of VOCs was affected by density of bacterial growth. One laboratory adapted and four field strains, three of MAP C-type and one MAP S-type were cultivated on Herrold’s egg yolk medium in dilutions of 10-0, 10-2, 10-4 and 10-6. Volatile substances were pre-concentrated from the headspace over the MAP cultures by means of Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME), thermally desorbed from the SPME fibers and separated and identified by means of GC-MS. Out of the large number of compounds found in the headspace over MAP cultures, 34 volatile marker substances could be identified as potential biomarkers for growth and metabolic activity. All five MAP strains could clearly be distinguished from blank culture media by means of emission patterns based on these 34 substances. In addition, patterns of volatiles emitted by the reference strain were significantly different from the field strains. Headspace concentrations of 2-ethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, 3-methylfuran, 2-pentylfuran, ethyl acetate, 1-methyl-1-H-pyrrole and dimethyldisulfide varied with density of bacterial growth. Analysis of VOCs emitted from mycobacterial cultures can be used to identify bacterial growth and, in addition, to differentiate between different bacterial strains. VOC emission patterns may be used to approximate bacterial growth density. In a perspective volatile marker substances could be used to diagnose MAP

  4. Supplemental oxygen attenuates the increase in wound bacterial growth during simulated aeromedical evacuation in goats

    PubMed Central

    Earnest, Ryan E.; Sonnier, Dennis I.; Makley, Amy T.; Campion, Eric M.; Wenke, Joseph C.; Bailey, Stephanie R.; Dorlac, Warren C.; Lentsch, Alex B.; Pritts, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Bacterial growth in soft tissue and open fractures is a known risk factor for tissue loss and complications in contaminated musculoskeletal wounds. Current care for battlefield casualties with soft tissue and musculoskeletal wounds includes tactical and strategic aeromedical evacuation (AE). This exposes patients to a hypobaric, hypoxic environment. In the present study, we sought to determine whether exposure to AE alters bacterial growth in contaminated complex musculoskeletal wounds and whether supplemental oxygen had any effect on wound infections during simulated AE. Methods A caprine model of a contaminated complex musculoskeletal wound was employed. Complex musculoskeletal wounds were created and inoculated with bioluminescent Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Goats were divided into three experimental groups: ground control, simulated aeromedical evacuation (AE), and simulated AE with supplemental oxygen (AE+O2). Simulated AE was induced in a hypobaric chamber pressurized to 8800 feet for 7 hours. Bacterial luminescence was measured using a photon counting camera at three timepoints: preflight (20 hours post surgery), postflight (7 hours from preflight and 27 hours post-surgery), and necropsy (24 hours from preflight and 44 hours post surgery). Results There was a significant increase in bacterial growth in the AE group compared to the ground control group measured postflight and at necropsy. Simulated AE induced hypoxia with oxygen saturation less than 93%. Supplemental oxygen corrected the hypoxia and significantly reduced bacterial growth in wounds at necropsy. Conclusions Hypoxia induced during simulated AE enhances bacterial growth in complex musculoskeletal wounds which can be prevented with the application of supplemental oxygen to the host. PMID:22743376

  5. Choice of bacterial growth medium alters the transcriptome and phenotype of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Blair, Jessica M A; Richmond, Grace E; Bailey, Andrew M; Ivens, Al; Piddock, Laura J V

    2013-01-01

    The type of bacterial culture medium is an important consideration during design of any experimental protocol. The aim of this study was to understand the impact of medium choice on bacterial gene expression and physiology by comparing the transcriptome of Salmonella enterica SL1344 after growth in the widely used LB broth or the rationally designed MOPS minimal medium. Transcriptomics showed that after growth in MOPS minimal media, compared to LB, there was increased expression of 42 genes involved in amino acid synthesis and 23 genes coding for ABC transporters. Seven flagellar genes had decreased expression after growth in MOPS minimal medium and this correlated with a decreased motility. In both MOPS minimal medium and MEM expression of genes from SPI-2 was increased and the adhesion of S. Typhimurium to intestinal epithelial cells was higher compared to the levels after growth in LB. However, SL1344 invasion was not significantly altered by growth in either MOPs minimal media or MEM. Expression of SPI-2 was also measured using chromosomal GFP reporter fusions followed by flow cytometry which showed, for the first time, that the reduction in SPI-2 transcript after growth in different media related to a reduction in the proportion of the bacterial population expressing SPI-2. These data highlight the profound differences in the global transcriptome after in vitro growth in different media and show that choice of medium should be considered carefully during experimental design, particularly when virulence related phenotypes are being measured.

  6. Development of a restricted state space stochastic differential equation model for bacterial growth in rich media.

    PubMed

    Møller, Jan Kloppenborg; Bergmann, Kirsten Riber; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Madsen, Henrik

    2012-07-21

    In the present study, bacterial growth in a rich media is analysed in a Stochastic Differential Equation (SDE) framework. It is demonstrated that the SDE formulation and smoothened state estimates provide a systematic framework for data driven model improvements, using random walk hidden states. Bacterial growth is limited by the available substrate and the inclusion of diffusion must obey this natural restriction. By inclusion of a modified logistic diffusion term it is possible to introduce a diffusion term flexible enough to capture both the growth phase and the stationary phase, while concentration is restricted to the natural state space (substrate and bacteria non-negative). The case considered is the growth of Salmonella and Enterococcus in a rich media. It is found that a hidden state is necessary to capture the lag phase of growth, and that a flexible logistic diffusion term is needed to capture the random behaviour of the growth model. Further, it is concluded that the Monod effect is not needed to capture the dynamics of bacterial growth in the data presented.

  7. Effects of nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide on bacterial growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mancinelli, R. L.; Mckay, C. P.

    1983-01-01

    While it is generally thought that the bactericidal effects of NO and NO2 derive from their reaction with water to form nitrous and nitric acids (Shank et al., 1962), this appears to be true only at high concentrations. The data presented here suggest that at low NO and NO2 concentrations, acids are not present in high enough concentrations to act as toxic agents. Reference is made to a study by Grant et al. (1979), which found that exposing acid forest soil to 1 ppm of NO2 did not cause the soil pH to drop. The results presented here show that at low concentrations of NO and NO2, the NO is bacteriostatic for some organisms and not for others, whereas NO2 may protect some bacteria from the inhibitory effects of NO. Since it has been shown that bacteria can divide while airborne (Dimmick et al., 1979), the present results suggest that NO at the low concentrations found in the atmosphere can select for resistant bacteria in the air and affect the viable airborne bacterial population.

  8. Metabolism, cell growth and the bacterial cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jue D; Levin, Petra A

    2009-11-01

    Adaptation to fluctuations in nutrient availability is a fact of life for single-celled organisms in the 'wild'. A decade ago our understanding of how bacteria adjust cell cycle parameters to accommodate changes in nutrient availability stemmed almost entirely from elegant physiological studies completed in the 1960s. In this Opinion article we summarize recent groundbreaking work in this area and discuss potential mechanisms by which nutrient availability and metabolic status are coordinated with cell growth, chromosome replication and cell division.

  9. Preventing bacterial growth on implanted device with an interfacial metallic film and penetrating X-rays.

    PubMed

    An, Jincui; Sun, An; Qiao, Yong; Zhang, Peipei; Su, Ming

    2015-02-01

    Device-related infections have been a big problem for a long time. This paper describes a new method to inhibit bacterial growth on implanted device with tissue-penetrating X-ray radiation, where a thin metallic film deposited on the device is used as a radio-sensitizing film for bacterial inhibition. At a given dose of X-ray, the bacterial viability decreases as the thickness of metal film (bismuth) increases. The bacterial viability decreases with X-ray dose increases. At X-ray dose of 2.5 Gy, 98% of bacteria on 10 nm thick bismuth film are killed; while it is only 25% of bacteria are killed on the bare petri dish. The same dose of X-ray kills 8% fibroblast cells that are within a short distance from bismuth film (4 mm). These results suggest that penetrating X-rays can kill bacteria on bismuth thin film deposited on surface of implant device efficiently.

  10. Effects of fluoride on bacterial growth and its gene/protein expression.

    PubMed

    Ma, Haili; Wu, Xiaohu; Yang, Meng; Wang, Jianmei; Wang, Jinming; Wang, Jundong

    2014-04-01

    To determine the effects of fluoride on bacterial growth, as well as upon its gene/protein expression, we grew Escherichia coli expressing GFPuv (E. coli-GFPuv) in Luria Bertani medium at different concentrations of NaF, 0, 0.1 mM, 1 mM, 10 mM and 100 mM. Results showed that E. coli-pGFPuv growth and expression of mRNA and protein of GFPuv were increased at 0.1 and 1 mM, but were inhibited at 10 and 100 mM, which demonstrated that fluoride has a classic rise/fall response of inducing E. coli-GFPuv growth and gene and protein expression of GFPuv at 1 mM. Our observation suggests that the effect of fluoride on bacterial growth may be from regulation of mRNA expression.

  11. Effect of topical and systemic antibiotics on bacterial growth kinesis in generalized peritonitis in man.

    PubMed

    Krukowski, Z H; Al-Sayer, H M; Reid, T M; Matheson, N A

    1987-04-01

    Quantitative bacteriology in peritoneal exudate was studied in 40 patients with generalized peritonitis of small intestinal, appendicular or colonic origin. Bacterial growth kinesis was measured in 28 of the patients. Systemic antibiotics given before operation resulted in a significant reduction in both the concentration and growth rate of viable bacteria in the peritoneal fluid. Lavage of the peritoneal cavity with saline resulted in a further reduction in growth rate in patients given pre-operative systemic antibiotics by an effect attributable to simple dilution. In contrast, peritoneal lavage with tetracycline (1 mg/ml) resulted in complete inhibition of bacterial growth in the residual peritoneal fluid. These observations support the policy of giving systemic antibiotics to patients with generalized peritonitis as soon as the diagnosis has been made and provide bacteriological evidence for the value of peroperative antibiotic peritoneal lavage.

  12. Differential growth responses of soil bacterial taxa to carbon substrates of varying chemical recalcitrance.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, Katherine C; Karaoz, Ulas; Hanson, China A; Santee, Clark A; Bradford, Mark A; Treseder, Kathleen K; Wallenstein, Matthew D; Brodie, Eoin L

    2011-01-01

    Soils are immensely diverse microbial habitats with thousands of co-existing bacterial, archaeal, and fungal species. Across broad spatial scales, factors such as pH and soil moisture appear to determine the diversity and structure of soil bacterial communities. Within any one site however, bacterial taxon diversity is high and factors maintaining this diversity are poorly resolved. Candidate factors include organic substrate availability and chemical recalcitrance, and given that they appear to structure bacterial communities at the phylum level, we examine whether these factors might structure bacterial communities at finer levels of taxonomic resolution. Analyzing 16S rRNA gene composition of nucleotide analog-labeled DNA by PhyloChip microarrays, we compare relative growth rates on organic substrates of increasing chemical recalcitrance of >2,200 bacterial taxa across 43 divisions/phyla. Taxa that increase in relative abundance with labile organic substrates (i.e., glycine, sucrose) are numerous (>500), phylogenetically clustered, and occur predominantly in two phyla (Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria) including orders Actinomycetales, Enterobacteriales, Burkholderiales, Rhodocyclales, Alteromonadales, and Pseudomonadales. Taxa increasing in relative abundance with more chemically recalcitrant substrates (i.e., cellulose, lignin, or tannin-protein) are fewer (168) but more phylogenetically dispersed, occurring across eight phyla and including Clostridiales, Sphingomonadalaes, Desulfovibrionales. Just over 6% of detected taxa, including many Burkholderiales increase in relative abundance with both labile and chemically recalcitrant substrates. Estimates of median rRNA copy number per genome of responding taxa demonstrate that these patterns are broadly consistent with bacterial growth strategies. Taken together, these data suggest that changes in availability of intrinsically labile substrates may result in predictable shifts in soil bacterial composition.

  13. Differential Growth Responses of Soil Bacterial Taxa to Carbon Substrates of Varying Chemical Recalcitrance

    PubMed Central

    Goldfarb, Katherine C.; Karaoz, Ulas; Hanson, China A.; Santee, Clark A.; Bradford, Mark A.; Treseder, Kathleen K.; Wallenstein, Matthew D.; Brodie, Eoin L.

    2011-01-01

    Soils are immensely diverse microbial habitats with thousands of co-existing bacterial, archaeal, and fungal species. Across broad spatial scales, factors such as pH and soil moisture appear to determine the diversity and structure of soil bacterial communities. Within any one site however, bacterial taxon diversity is high and factors maintaining this diversity are poorly resolved. Candidate factors include organic substrate availability and chemical recalcitrance, and given that they appear to structure bacterial communities at the phylum level, we examine whether these factors might structure bacterial communities at finer levels of taxonomic resolution. Analyzing 16S rRNA gene composition of nucleotide analog-labeled DNA by PhyloChip microarrays, we compare relative growth rates on organic substrates of increasing chemical recalcitrance of >2,200 bacterial taxa across 43 divisions/phyla. Taxa that increase in relative abundance with labile organic substrates (i.e., glycine, sucrose) are numerous (>500), phylogenetically clustered, and occur predominantly in two phyla (Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria) including orders Actinomycetales, Enterobacteriales, Burkholderiales, Rhodocyclales, Alteromonadales, and Pseudomonadales. Taxa increasing in relative abundance with more chemically recalcitrant substrates (i.e., cellulose, lignin, or tannin–protein) are fewer (168) but more phylogenetically dispersed, occurring across eight phyla and including Clostridiales, Sphingomonadalaes, Desulfovibrionales. Just over 6% of detected taxa, including many Burkholderiales increase in relative abundance with both labile and chemically recalcitrant substrates. Estimates of median rRNA copy number per genome of responding taxa demonstrate that these patterns are broadly consistent with bacterial growth strategies. Taken together, these data suggest that changes in availability of intrinsically labile substrates may result in predictable shifts in soil bacterial composition

  14. Differential growth responses of soil bacterial taxa to carbon substrates of varying chemical recalcitrance

    SciTech Connect

    Goldfarb, K.C.; Karaoz, U.; Hanson, C.A.; Santee, C.A.; Bradford, M.A.; Treseder, K.K.; Wallenstein, M.D.; Brodie, E.L.

    2011-04-18

    Soils are immensely diverse microbial habitats with thousands of co-existing bacterial, archaeal, and fungal species. Across broad spatial scales, factors such as pH and soil moisture appear to determine the diversity and structure of soil bacterial communities. Within any one site however, bacterial taxon diversity is high and factors maintaining this diversity are poorly resolved. Candidate factors include organic substrate availability and chemical recalcitrance, and given that they appear to structure bacterial communities at the phylum level, we examine whether these factors might structure bacterial communities at finer levels of taxonomic resolution. Analyzing 16S rRNA gene composition of nucleotide analog-labeled DNA by PhyloChip microarrays, we compare relative growth rates on organic substrates of increasing chemical recalcitrance of >2,200 bacterial taxa across 43 divisions/phyla. Taxa that increase in relative abundance with labile organic substrates (i.e., glycine, sucrose) are numerous (>500), phylogenetically clustered, and occur predominantly in two phyla (Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria) including orders Actinomycetales, Enterobacteriales, Burkholderiales, Rhodocyclales, Alteromonadales, and Pseudomonadales. Taxa increasing in relative abundance with more chemically recalcitrant substrates (i.e., cellulose, lignin, or tannin-protein) are fewer (168) but more phylogenetically dispersed, occurring across eight phyla and including Clostridiales, Sphingomonadalaes, Desulfovibrionales. Just over 6% of detected taxa, including many Burkholderiales increase in relative abundance with both labile and chemically recalcitrant substrates. Estimates of median rRNA copy number per genome of responding taxa demonstrate that these patterns are broadly consistent with bacterial growth strategies. Taken together, these data suggest that changes in availability of intrinsically labile substrates may result in predictable shifts in soil bacterial composition.

  15. A new method to compare statistical tree growth curves: the PL-GMANOVA model and its application with dendrochronological data.

    PubMed

    Ricker, Martin; Peña Ramírez, Víctor M; von Rosen, Dietrich

    2014-01-01

    Growth curves are monotonically increasing functions that measure repeatedly the same subjects over time. The classical growth curve model in the statistical literature is the Generalized Multivariate Analysis of Variance (GMANOVA) model. In order to model the tree trunk radius (r) over time (t) of trees on different sites, GMANOVA is combined here with the adapted PL regression model Q = A · T+E, where for b ≠ 0 : Q = Ei[-b · r]-Ei[-b · r1] and for b = 0 : Q  = Ln[r/r1], A =  initial relative growth to be estimated, T = t-t1, and E is an error term for each tree and time point. Furthermore, Ei[-b · r]  = ∫(Exp[-b · r]/r)dr, b = -1/TPR, with TPR being the turning point radius in a sigmoid curve, and r1 at t1 is an estimated calibrating time-radius point. Advantages of the approach are that growth rates can be compared among growth curves with different turning point radiuses and different starting points, hidden outliers are easily detectable, the method is statistically robust, and heteroscedasticity of the residuals among time points is allowed. The model was implemented with dendrochronological data of 235 Pinus montezumae trees on ten Mexican volcano sites to calculate comparison intervals for the estimated initial relative growth A. One site (at the Popocatépetl volcano) stood out, with A being 3.9 times the value of the site with the slowest-growing trees. Calculating variance components for the initial relative growth, 34% of the growth variation was found among sites, 31% among trees, and 35% over time. Without the Popocatépetl site, the numbers changed to 7%, 42%, and 51%. Further explanation of differences in growth would need to focus on factors that vary within sites and over time.

  16. A New Method to Compare Statistical Tree Growth Curves: The PL-GMANOVA Model and Its Application with Dendrochronological Data

    PubMed Central

    Ricker, Martin; Peña Ramírez, Víctor M.; von Rosen, Dietrich

    2014-01-01

    Growth curves are monotonically increasing functions that measure repeatedly the same subjects over time. The classical growth curve model in the statistical literature is the Generalized Multivariate Analysis of Variance (GMANOVA) model. In order to model the tree trunk radius (r) over time (t) of trees on different sites, GMANOVA is combined here with the adapted PL regression model Q = A·T+E, where for and for , A =  initial relative growth to be estimated, , and E is an error term for each tree and time point. Furthermore, Ei[–b·r]  = , , with TPR being the turning point radius in a sigmoid curve, and at is an estimated calibrating time-radius point. Advantages of the approach are that growth rates can be compared among growth curves with different turning point radiuses and different starting points, hidden outliers are easily detectable, the method is statistically robust, and heteroscedasticity of the residuals among time points is allowed. The model was implemented with dendrochronological data of 235 Pinus montezumae trees on ten Mexican volcano sites to calculate comparison intervals for the estimated initial relative growth . One site (at the Popocatépetl volcano) stood out, with being 3.9 times the value of the site with the slowest-growing trees. Calculating variance components for the initial relative growth, 34% of the growth variation was found among sites, 31% among trees, and 35% over time. Without the Popocatépetl site, the numbers changed to 7%, 42%, and 51%. Further explanation of differences in growth would need to focus on factors that vary within sites and over time. PMID:25402427

  17. A new method to compare statistical tree growth curves: the PL-GMANOVA model and its application with dendrochronological data.

    PubMed

    Ricker, Martin; Peña Ramírez, Víctor M; von Rosen, Dietrich

    2014-01-01

    Growth curves are monotonically increasing functions that measure repeatedly the same subjects over time. The classical growth curve model in the statistical literature is the Generalized Multivariate Analysis of Variance (GMANOVA) model. In order to model the tree trunk radius (r) over time (t) of trees on different sites, GMANOVA is combined here with the adapted PL regression model Q = A · T+E, where for b ≠ 0 : Q = Ei[-b · r]-Ei[-b · r1] and for b = 0 : Q  = Ln[r/r1], A =  initial relative growth to be estimated, T = t-t1, and E is an error term for each tree and time point. Furthermore, Ei[-b · r]  = ∫(Exp[-b · r]/r)dr, b = -1/TPR, with TPR being the turning point radius in a sigmoid curve, and r1 at t1 is an estimated calibrating time-radius point. Advantages of the approach are that growth rates can be compared among growth curves with different turning point radiuses and different starting points, hidden outliers are easily detectable, the method is statistically robust, and heteroscedasticity of the residuals among time points is allowed. The model was implemented with dendrochronological data of 235 Pinus montezumae trees on ten Mexican volcano sites to calculate comparison intervals for the estimated initial relative growth A. One site (at the Popocatépetl volcano) stood out, with A being 3.9 times the value of the site with the slowest-growing trees. Calculating variance components for the initial relative growth, 34% of the growth variation was found among sites, 31% among trees, and 35% over time. Without the Popocatépetl site, the numbers changed to 7%, 42%, and 51%. Further explanation of differences in growth would need to focus on factors that vary within sites and over time. PMID:25402427

  18. Cell Wall Nonlinear Elasticity and Growth Dynamics: How Do Bacterial Cells Regulate Pressure and Growth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yi

    In my thesis, I study intact and bulging Escherichia coli cells using atomic force microscopy to separate the contributions of the cell wall and turgor pressure to the overall cell stiffness. I find strong evidence of power--law stress--stiffening in the E. coli cell wall, with an exponent of 1.22±0.12, such that the wall is significantly stiffer in intact cells (E = 23±8 MPa and 49±20 MPa in the axial and circumferential directions) than in unpressurized sacculi. These measurements also indicate that the turgor pressure in living cells E. coli is 29±3 kPa. The nonlinearity in cell elasticity serves as a plausible mechanism to balance the mechanical protection and tension measurement sensitivity of the cell envelope. I also study the growth dynamics of the Bacillus subtilis cell wall to help understand the mechanism of the spatiotemporal order of inserting new cell wall material. High density fluorescent markers are used to label the entire cell surface to capture the morphological changes of the cell surface at sub-cellular to diffraction-limited spatial resolution and sub-minute temporal resolution. This approach reveals that rod-shaped chaining B. subtilis cells grow and twist in a highly heterogeneous fashion both spatially and temporally. Regions of high growth and twisting activity have a typical length scale of 5 μm, and last for 10-40 minutes. Motivated by the quantification of the cell wall growth dynamics, two microscopy and image analysis techniques are developed and applied to broader applications beyond resolving bacterial growth. To resolve densely distributed quantum dots, we present a fast and efficient image analysis algorithm, namely Spatial Covariance Reconstruction (SCORE) microscopy that takes into account the blinking statistics of the fluorescence emitters. We achieve sub-diffraction lateral resolution of 100 nm from 5 to 7 seconds of imaging, which is at least an order of magnitude faster than single-particle localization based methods

  19. Estimates of bacterial growth from changes in uptake rates and biomass.

    PubMed Central

    Kirchman, D; Ducklow, H; Mitchell, R

    1982-01-01

    Rates of nucleic acid synthesis have been used to examine microbiol growth in natural waters. These rates are calculated from the incorporation of [3H]adenine and [3H]thymidine for RNA and DNA syntheses, respectively. Several additional biochemical parameters must be measured or taken from the literature to estimate growth rates from the incorporation of the tritiated compounds. We propose a simple method of estimating a conversion factor which obviates measuring these biochemical parameters. The change in bacterial abundance and incorporation rates of [3H]thymidine was measured in samples from three environments. The incorporation of exogenous [3H]thymidine was closely coupled with growth and cell division as estimated from the increase in bacterial biomass. Analysis of the changes in incorporation rates and initial bacterial abundance yielded a conversion factor for calculating bacterial production rates from incorporation rates. Furthermore, the growth rate of only those bacteria incorporating the compound can be estimated. The data analysis and experimental design can be used to estimate the proportion of nondividing cells and to examine changes in cell volumes. PMID:6760812

  20. Dynamic Metabolic Modeling of Denitrifying Bacterial Growth: The Cybernetic Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Hyun-Seob; Liu, Chongxuan

    2015-06-29

    Denitrification is a multistage reduction process converting nitrate ultimately to nitrogen gas, carried out mostly by facultative bacteria. Modeling of the denitrification process is challenging due to the complex metabolic regulation that modulates sequential formation and consumption of a series of nitrogen oxide intermediates, which serve as the final electron acceptors for denitrifying bacteria. In this work, we examined the effectiveness and accuracy of the cybernetic modeling framework in simulating the growth dynamics of denitrifying bacteria in comparison with kinetic models. In four different case studies using the literature data, we successfully simulated diauxic and triauxic growth patterns observed in anoxic and aerobic conditions, only by tuning two or three parameters. In order to understand the regulatory structure of the cybernetic model, we systematically analyzed the effect of cybernetic control variables on simulation accuracy. The results showed that the consideration of both enzyme synthesis and activity control through u- and v-variables is necessary and relevant and that uvariables are of greater importance in comparison to v-variables. In contrast, simple kinetic models were unable to accurately capture dynamic metabolic shifts across alternative electron acceptors, unless an inhibition term was additionally incorporated. Therefore, the denitrification process represents a reasonable example highlighting the criticality of considering dynamic regulation for successful metabolic modeling.

  1. Volatiles of bacterial antagonists inhibit mycelial growth of the plant pathogen Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Kai, Marco; Effmert, Uta; Berg, Gabriele; Piechulla, Birgit

    2007-05-01

    Bacterial antagonists are bacteria that negatively affect the growth of other organisms. Many antagonists inhibit the growth of fungi by various mechanisms, e.g., secretion of lytic enzymes, siderophores and antibiotics. Such inhibition of fungal growth may indirectly support plant growth. Here, we demonstrate that small organic volatile compounds (VOCs) emitted from bacterial antagonists negatively influence the mycelial growth of the soil-borne phytopathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani Kühn. Strong inhibitions (99-80%) under the test conditions were observed with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia R3089, Serratia plymuthica HRO-C48, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila P69, Serratia odorifera 4Rx13, Pseudomonas trivialis 3Re2-7, S. plymuthica 3Re4-18 and Bacillus subtilis B2g. Pseudomonas fluorescens L13-6-12 and Burkholderia cepacia 1S18 achieved 30% growth reduction. The VOC profiles of these antagonists, obtained through headspace collection and analysis on GC-MS, show different compositions and complexities ranging from 1 to almost 30 compounds. Most volatiles are species-specific, but overlapping volatile patterns were found for Serratia spp. and Pseudomonas spp. Many of the bacterial VOCs could not be identified for lack of match with mass-spectra of volatiles in the databases. PMID:17180381

  2. Perceived social support and academic achievement: cross-lagged panel and bivariate growth curve analyses.

    PubMed

    Mackinnon, Sean P

    2012-04-01

    As students transition to post-secondary education, they experience considerable stress and declines in academic performance. Perceived social support is thought to improve academic achievement by reducing stress. Longitudinal designs with three or more waves are needed in this area because they permit stronger causal inferences and help disentangle the direction of relationships. This study uses a cross-lagged panel and a bivariate growth curve analysis with a three-wave longitudinal design. Participants include 10,445 students (56% female; 12.6% born outside of Canada) transitioning to post-secondary education from ages 15-19. Self-report measures of academic achievement and a generalized measure of perceived social support were used. An increase in average relative standing in academic achievement predicted an increase in average relative standing on perceived social support 2 years later, but the reverse was not true. High levels of perceived social support at age 15 did not protect against declines in academic achievement over time. In sum, perceived social support appears to have no bearing on adolescents' future academic performance, despite commonly held assumptions of its importance.

  3. [In vitro study over statins effects on cellular growth curves and its reversibility with mevalonate].

    PubMed

    Millan Núñez-Cortés, Jesús; Alvarez Rodriguez, Ysmael; Alvarez Novés, Granada; Recarte Garcia-Andrade, Carlos; Alvarez-Sala Walther, Luis

    2014-01-01

    HMG-CoA-Reductase inhibitors, also known as statins, are currently the most powerful cholesterol-lowering drugs available on the market. Clinical trials and experimental evidence suggest that statins have heavy anti-atherosclerotic effects. These are in part consequence of lipid lowering but also result from pleiotropic actions of the drugs. These so-called pleiotropic properties affect various aspects of cell function, inflammation, coagulation, and vasomotor activity. These effects are mediated either indirectly through LDL-c reduction or via a direct effect on cellular functions. Although many of the pleiotropic properties of statins may be a class effect, some may be unique to certain agents and account for differences in their pharmacological activity. So, although statins typically have similar effects on LDL-c levels, differences in chemical structure and pharmacokinetic profile can lead to variations in pleiotropic effects. In this paper we analize the in vitro effects of different statins over different cell lines from cells implicated in atherosclerotic process: endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and vascular muscular cells. In relation with our results we can proof that the effects of different dosis of different statins provides singular effects over growth curves of different cellular lines, a despite of a class-dependent effects. So, pleiotropic effects and its reversibility with mevalonate are different according with the molecule and the dosis. PMID:24126321

  4. Enhancing the Psychological Well-Being of Elderly Individuals through Tai Chi Exercise: A Latent Growth Curve Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Fuzhong; Duncan, Terry E.; Duncan, Susan C.; McAuley, Edward; Chaumeton, Nigel R.; Harmer, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether a Tai Chi exercise program enhanced the psychological well-being of 98 elderly individuals. Analyzed repeated measures data about participants using latent growth curve analysis. Results indicate the beneficial effects of participation in the Tai Chi program. Discusses implications related to the exercise-psychological health…

  5. Self-Esteem Trajectories among Ethnic Minority Adolescents: A Growth Curve Analysis of the Patterns and Predictors of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Melissa L.; Way, Niobe

    2005-01-01

    The current study presents a growth curve analysis of self-esteem among Black, Latino, and Asian American high school students. A series of hierarchical linear models were used to examine patterns and predictors of change in self-esteem over time. Results revealed an average increase in self-esteem with age. Although boys and girls experienced…

  6. Differential School Effects among Low, Middle, and High Social Class Composition Schools: A Multiple Group, Multilevel Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palardy, Gregory J.

    2008-01-01

    This study uses large-scale survey data and a multiple group, multilevel latent growth curve model to examine differential school effects between low, middle, and high social class composition public schools. The results show that the effects of school inputs and school practices on learning differ across the 3 subpopulations. Moreover, student…

  7. Examining the Earnings Trajectories of Community College Students Using a Piecewise Growth Curve Modeling Approach. A CAPSEE Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaggars, Shanna Smith; Xu, Di

    2015-01-01

    Policymakers have become increasingly concerned with measuring--and holding colleges accountable for--students' labor market outcomes. In this paper we introduce a piecewise growth curve approach to analyzing community college students' labor market outcomes, and we discuss how this approach differs from Mincerian and fixed-effects approaches. Our…

  8. Exploring the Different Trajectories of Analytical Thinking Ability Factors: An Application of the Second-Order Growth Curve Factor Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saengprom, Narumon; Erawan, Waraporn; Damrongpanit, Suntonrapot; Sakulku, Jaruwan

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were 1) Compare analytical thinking ability by testing the same sets of students 5 times 2) Develop and verify whether analytical thinking ability of students corresponds to second-order growth curve factors model. Samples were 1,093 eighth-grade students. The results revealed that 1) Analytical thinking ability scores…

  9. Modeling Latent Growth Curves With Incomplete Data Using Different Types of Structural Equation Modeling and Multilevel Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer, Emilio; Hamagami, Fumiaki; McArdle, John J.

    2004-01-01

    This article offers different examples of how to fit latent growth curve (LGC) models to longitudinal data using a variety of different software programs (i.e., LISREL, Mx, Mplus, AMOS, SAS). The article shows how the same model can be fitted using both structural equation modeling and multilevel software, with nearly identical results, even in…

  10. Lubricating bacteria model for the growth of bacterial colonies exposed to ultraviolet radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Shengli; Zhang Lei; Liang Run; Zhang Erhu; Liu Yachao; Zhao Shumin

    2005-11-01

    In this paper, we study the morphological transition of bacterial colonies exposed to ultraviolet radiation by modifying the bacteria model proposed by Delprato et al. Our model considers four factors: the lubricant fluid generated by bacterial colonies, a chemotaxis initiated by the ultraviolet radiation, the intensity of the ultraviolet radiation, and the bacteria's two-stage destruction rate with given radiation intensities. Using this modified model, we simulate the ringlike pattern formation of the bacterial colony exposed to uniform ultraviolet radiation. The following is shown. (1) Without the UV radiation the colony forms a disklike pattern and reaches a constant front velocity. (2) After the radiation is switched on, the bacterial population migrates to the edge of the colony and forms a ringlike pattern. As the intensity of the UV radiation is increased the ring forms faster and the outer velocity of the colony decreases. (3) For higher radiation intensities the total population decreases, while for lower intensities the total population increases initially at a small rate and then decreases. (4) After the UV radiation is switched off, the bacterial population grows both outward as well as into the inner region, and the colony's outer front velocity recovers to a constant value. All these results agree well with the experimental observations [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 158102 (2001)]. Along with the chemotaxis, we find that lubricant fluid and the two-stage destruction rate are critical to the dynamics of the growth of the bacterial colony when exposed to UV radiation, and these were not previously considered.

  11. Primordial soup was edible: abiotically produced Miller-Urey mixture supports bacterial growth

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xueshu; Backman, Daniel; Lebedev, Albert T.; Artaev, Viatcheslav B.; Jiang, Liying; Ilag, Leopold L.; Zubarev, Roman A.

    2015-01-01

    Sixty years after the seminal Miller-Urey experiment that abiotically produced a mixture of racemized amino acids, we provide a definite proof that this primordial soup, when properly cooked, was edible for primitive organisms. Direct admixture of even small amounts of Miller-Urey mixture strongly inhibits E. coli bacteria growth due to the toxicity of abundant components, such as cyanides. However, these toxic compounds are both volatile and extremely reactive, while bacteria are highly capable of adaptation. Consequently, after bacterial adaptation to a mixture of the two most abundant abiotic amino acids, glycine and racemized alanine, dried and reconstituted MU soup was found to support bacterial growth and even accelerate it compared to a simple mixture of the two amino acids. Therefore, primordial Miller-Urey soup was perfectly suitable as a growth media for early life forms. PMID:26412575

  12. Quantitative spectral light scattering polarimetry for monitoring fractal growth pattern of Bacillus thuringiensis bacterial colonies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Paromita; Soni, Jalpa; Ghosh, Nirmalya; Sengupta, Tapas K.

    2013-02-01

    It is of considerable current interest to develop various methods which help to understand and quantify the cellular association in growing bacterial colonies and is also important in terms of detection and identification of a bacterial species. A novel approach is used here to probe the morphological structural changes occurring during the growth of the bacterial colony of Bacillus thuringiensis under different environmental conditions (in normal nutrient agar, in presence of glucose - acting as additional nutrient and additional 3mM arsenate as additional toxic material). This approach combines the quantitative Mueller matrix polarimetry to extract intrinsic polarization properties and inverse analysis of the polarization preserving part of the light scattering spectra to determine the fractal parameter H (Hurst exponent) using Born approximation. Interesting differences are observed in the intrinsic polarization parameters and also in the Hurst exponent, which is a measurement of the fractality of a pattern formed by bacteria while growing as a colony. These findings are further confirmed with optical microscopic studies of the same sample and the results indicate a very strong and distinct dependence on the environmental conditions during growth, which can be exploited to quantify different bacterial species and their growth patterns.

  13. REVERSAL OF d-CYCLOSERINE INHIBITION OF BACTERIAL GROWTH BY ALANINE

    PubMed Central

    Zygmunt, Walter A.

    1962-01-01

    Zygmunt, Walter A. (Mead Johnson & Co., Evansville, Ind.). Reversal of d-cycloserine inhibition of bacterial growth by alanine. J. Bacteriol. 84:154–156. 1962.—Reversal of the antibacterial activity of d-4-amino-3-isoxazolidone by alanine in bacterial cultures actively growing on chemically defined media was compared in cultures requiring exogenous alanine and those capable of its synthesis. dl-Alanine was the most effective reversal agent in Pediococcus cerevisiae, an alanine-requiring organism, and d-alanine was effective in Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, organisms synthesizing alanine. With all three cultures, l-alanine was the least effective reversal agent. PMID:16561951

  14. [Influence of granulated bacterial preparation complex action on the growth and yield of barley].

    PubMed

    Skorokhod, I O; Tserkovniak, L S; Kurdysh, I K; Plotnikov, V V; Gyl'chuk, V G; Korniĭchuk, O V

    2012-01-01

    The influence of granulated bacterial preparation of complex action on the growth and yield of barley (H. distichum L.) has been studied. The treatment of barley seeds by this preparation has been established to have a very significant effect on the mass of 1000 grains, grain natural weight and to increase the yield of plants, but to different degree. Consequently, the interaction of certain barley varieties with bacteria-components of the preparation is rather specific. It has been displayed that the treatment of grains of different barley varieties by the bacterial preparation takes a very significant influence on the function of microbial associations in the rhizosphere.

  15. Culturable bacterial endophytes isolated from Mangrove tree (Rhizophora apiculata Blume) enhance seedling growth in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Deivanai, Subramanian; Bindusara, Amitraghata Santhanam; Prabhakaran, Guruswamy; Bhore, Subhash Janardhan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Endophytic bacteria do have several potential applications in medicine and in other various sectors of biotechnology including agriculture. Bacterial endophytes need to be explored for their potential applications in agricultural biotechnology. One of the potential applications of bacterial endophytes in agricultural is to enhance the growth of the agricultural crops. Hence, this study was undertaken to explore the plant growth promoting potential application of bacterial endophytes. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the effect of endophytic bacteria from mangrove tree (Rhizophora apiculata Blume) for their efficacy in promoting seedling growth in rice. Materials and Methods: Eight endophytic bacterial isolates (EBIs) isolated from twig and petiole tissues of the mangrove were identified based on their 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene sequence homology. Separately, surface sterilized paddy seeds were treated with cell-free broth and cell suspension of the EBIs. Rice seedlings were analyzed by various bioassays and data was recorded. Results: The gene sequences of the isolates were closely related to two genera namely, Bacillus and Pantoea. Inoculation of EBIs from R. apiculata with rice seeds resulted in accelerated root and shoot growth with significant increase in chlorophyll content. Among the isolates, Pantoea ananatis (1MSE1) and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (3MPE1) had shown predominance of activity. Endophytic invasion was recognized by the non-host by rapid accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and was counteracted by the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid peroxide. The results demonstrated that EBIs from mangrove tree can increase the fitness of the rice seedlings under controlled conditions. Conclusion: These research findings could be useful to enhance the seedling growth and could serve as foundation in further research on enhancing the growth of the rice crop using endophytic bacteria. PMID

  16. GROWTH AND METABOLISM OF INDIVIDUAL BACTERIAL CELLS UTILIZING NANOSIMS

    SciTech Connect

    NEALSON, H. K.

    2007-08-03

    This work involved the use of the Nano-SIMS Instrument at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, in an effort to utilize this unique tool for experiments in Biology. The work consisted primarily of experiments to measure in real time, C and N fixation in cyanobacteria. The work revealed a number of the difficulties in using the nano-SIMS approach with biological material, but with collaboration from a number of individuals at USC and LLNL, major progress was made. The collaborators from LLNL were from the Chemistry Group (Dr. Peter Weber), and the Biology Group (Dr. Jennifer Pett-Ridge). In addition, there were a number of other scientists involved from LLNL. The USC group consisted of Dr. K.H. Nealson, the PI on the grant, Dr. R. Popa, a postdoctoral fellow and research associate at USC, Professor Douglas Capone, and Juliet Finze, a graduate student in biology. Two major experiments were done, both of which yielded new and exciting data. (1) We studied nitrogen and carbon fixation in Anabaena, demonstrating that fixation ofN occurred rapidly in the heterocysts, and that the fixed N was transported rapidly and completely to the vegetative cells. C fixation occurred in the vegetative cells, with labeled C remaining in these cells in support of their growth and metabolism. This work was accepted in the ISME Journal (Nature Publication), and published last month. (2) We studied nitrogen and carbon fixation in Trichodesmium, a non-heterocystous cyanobacterium that also fixes nitrogen. Interestingly, the nitrogen fixation was confined to regions within the filaments that seem to be identical to the so-called cyanophycaen granules. The fixed N is then transported to other parts of the cyanobacterium, as judged by movement of the heavy N throughout the filaments. On the basis of these very exciting results, we have applied for funding from the NSF to continue the collaboration with LLNL. The results of both studies were presented in the summer of 2007 at the Gordon Research

  17. Spatial Patterning of Newly-Inserted Material during Bacterial Cell Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ursell, Tristan

    2012-02-01

    In the life cycle of a bacterium, rudimentary microscopy demonstrates that cell growth and elongation are essential characteristics of cellular reproduction. The peptidoglycan cell wall is the main load-bearing structure that determines both cell shape and overall size. However, simple imaging of cellular growth gives no indication of the spatial patterning nor mechanism by which material is being incorporated into the pre-existing cell wall. We employ a combination of high-resolution pulse-chase fluorescence microscopy, 3D computational microscopy, and detailed mechanistic simulations to explore how spatial patterning results in uniform growth and maintenance of cell shape. We show that growth is happening in discrete bursts randomly distributed over the cell surface, with a well-defined mean size and average rate. We further use these techniques to explore the effects of division and cell wall disrupting antibiotics, like cephalexin and A22, respectively, on the patterning of cell wall growth in E. coli. Finally, we explore the spatial correlation between presence of the bacterial actin-like cytoskeletal protein, MreB, and local cell wall growth. Together these techniques form a powerful method for exploring the detailed dynamics and involvement of antibiotics and cell wall-associated proteins in bacterial cell growth.[4pt] In collaboration with Kerwyn Huang, Stanford University.

  18. Application of Direct Current Potential Drop for the J-integral vs. Crack Growth Resistance Curve Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xiang; Nanstad, Randy K; Sokolov, Mikhail A

    2014-01-01

    The direct current potential drop (DCPD) technique has been applied to derive the J-integral vs. crack growth resistance curve (J-R curve) for fracture toughness characterization of structural materials. The test matrix covered three materials including type 316LN stainless steels, Ni-based alloy 617, and one ferritic-martensitic steel, three specimen configurations including standard compact, single edge bending, and disk-shaped compact specimens, and temperatures ranging from 20 C to 650 C. When compared with baseline J-R curves derived from the ASTM normalization method, the original J-R curves from the DCPD technique yielded much smaller Jq values due to the influence of crack blunting, plastic deformation, etc. on potential drop. To counter these effects, a new procedure for adjusting DCPD J-R curves was proposed. After applying the new adjustment procedure, the average difference in Jq between the DCPD technique and the normalization method was only 5.2% and the difference in tearing modulus was 7.4%. The promising result demonstrates the applicability of the DCPD technique for the J-R curve characterization especially in extreme environments, such as elevated temperatures, where the conventional elastic unloading compliance method faces considerable challenges.

  19. Diamagnetic levitation enhances growth of liquid bacterial cultures by increasing oxygen availability.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, Camelia E; Larkin, Oliver J; Anthony, Paul; Davey, Michael R; Eaves, Laurence; Rees, Catherine E D; Hill, Richard J A

    2011-03-01

    Diamagnetic levitation is a technique that uses a strong, spatially varying magnetic field to reproduce aspects of weightlessness, on the Earth. We used a superconducting magnet to levitate growing bacterial cultures for up to 18 h, to determine the effect of diamagnetic levitation on all phases of the bacterial growth cycle. We find that diamagnetic levitation increases the rate of population growth in a liquid culture and reduces the sedimentation rate of the cells. Further experiments and microarray gene analysis show that the increase in growth rate is owing to enhanced oxygen availability. We also demonstrate that the magnetic field that levitates the cells also induces convective stirring in the liquid. We present a simple theoretical model, showing how the paramagnetic force on dissolved oxygen can cause convection during the aerobic phases of bacterial growth. We propose that this convection enhances oxygen availability by transporting oxygen around the liquid culture. Since this process results from the strong magnetic field, it is not present in other weightless environments, e.g. in Earth orbit. Hence, these results are of significance and timely to researchers considering the use of diamagnetic levitation to explore effects of weightlessness on living organisms and on physical phenomena. PMID:20667843

  20. The effects of a low-intensity red laser on bacterial growth, filamentation and plasmid DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roos, C.; Santos, J. N.; Guimarães, O. R.; Geller, M.; Paoli, F.; Fonseca, A. S.

    2013-07-01

    Exposure of nonphotosynthesizing microorganisms to light could increase cell division in cultures, a phenomenon denominated as biostimulation. However, data concerning the importance of the genetic characteristics of cells on this effect are as yet scarce. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of a low-intensity red laser on the growth, filamentation and plasmids in Escherichia coli cells proficient and deficient in DNA repair. E. coli cultures were exposed to a laser (658 nm, 10 mW, 1 and 8 J cm-2) to study bacterial growth and filamentation. Also, bacterial cultures hosting pBSK plasmids were exposed to the laser to study DNA topological forms from the electrophoretic profile in agarose gels. Data indicate the low-intensity red laser: (i) had no effect on the growth of E. coli wild type and exonuclease III deficient cells; (ii) induced bacterial filamentation, (iii) led to no alteration in the electrophoretic profile of plasmids from exonuclease III deficient cells, but plasmids from wild type cells were altered. A low-intensity red laser at the low fluences used in phototherapy has no effect on growth, but induces filamentation and alters the topological forms of plasmid DNA in E. coli cultures depending on the DNA repair mechanisms.

  1. Diamagnetic levitation enhances growth of liquid bacterial cultures by increasing oxygen availability

    PubMed Central

    Dijkstra, Camelia E.; Larkin, Oliver J.; Anthony, Paul; Davey, Michael R.; Eaves, Laurence; Rees, Catherine E. D.; Hill, Richard J. A.

    2011-01-01

    Diamagnetic levitation is a technique that uses a strong, spatially varying magnetic field to reproduce aspects of weightlessness, on the Earth. We used a superconducting magnet to levitate growing bacterial cultures for up to 18 h, to determine the effect of diamagnetic levitation on all phases of the bacterial growth cycle. We find that diamagnetic levitation increases the rate of population growth in a liquid culture and reduces the sedimentation rate of the cells. Further experiments and microarray gene analysis show that the increase in growth rate is owing to enhanced oxygen availability. We also demonstrate that the magnetic field that levitates the cells also induces convective stirring in the liquid. We present a simple theoretical model, showing how the paramagnetic force on dissolved oxygen can cause convection during the aerobic phases of bacterial growth. We propose that this convection enhances oxygen availability by transporting oxygen around the liquid culture. Since this process results from the strong magnetic field, it is not present in other weightless environments, e.g. in Earth orbit. Hence, these results are of significance and timely to researchers considering the use of diamagnetic levitation to explore effects of weightlessness on living organisms and on physical phenomena. PMID:20667843

  2. Monitoring bacterial growth using tunable resistive pulse sensing with a pore-based technique.

    PubMed

    Yu, Allen C S; Loo, Jacky F C; Yu, Samuel; Kong, S K; Chan, Ting-Fung

    2014-01-01

    A novel bacterial growth monitoring method using a tunable resistive pulse sensor (TRPS) system is introduced in this study for accurate and sensitive measurement of cell size and cell concentration simultaneously. Two model bacterial strains, Bacillus subtilis str.168 (BSU168) and Escherichia coli str.DH5α (DH5α), were chosen for benchmarking the growth-monitoring performance of the system. Results showed that the technique of TRPS is sensitive and accurate relative to widely used methods, with a lower detection limit of cell concentration measurement of 5 × 10⁵ cells/ml; at the same time, the mean coefficient of variation from TRPS was within 2 %. The growth of BSU168 and DH5α in liquid cultures was studied by TRPS, optical density (OD), and colony plating. Compared to OD measurement, TRPS-measured concentration correlates better with colony plating (R = 0.85 vs. R = 0.72), which is often regarded as the gold standard of cell concentration determination. General agreement was also observed by comparing TRPS-derived cell volume measurements and those determined from microscopy. We have demonstrated that TRPS is a reliable method for bacterial growth monitoring, where the study of both cell volume and cell concentration are needed to provide further details about the physical aspects of cell dynamics in real time. PMID:24287933

  3. Blue Laser Inhibits Bacterial Growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Natanael Teixeira Alves; Santos, Marcos Ferracioli; Gomes, Rosana Caetano; Brandino, Hugo Evangelista; Martinez, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of blue laser on bacterial growth of the main species that usually colonize cutaneous ulcers, as well as its effect over time following irradiation. Background data: The use of blue laser has been described as an adjuvant therapeutic method to inhibit bacterial growth, but there is no consensus about the best parameters to be used. Methods: Strains of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 were suspended in saline solution at a concentration of 1.5×103 colony forming units (CFU)/mL. Next, 300 μL of this suspension was transferred to a microtitulation plate and exposed to a single blue laser irradiation (450 nm) at fluences of 0 (control), 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 J/cm2. Each suspension was spread over the surface of a Petri plate before being incubated at 37°C, and counts of CFU were determined after 24 and 48 h. Results: Blue laser inhibited the growth of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa at fluences >6 J/cm2. On the other hand, E. coli was inhibited at all fluences tested, except at 24 J/cm2. Conclusions: Blue laser light was capable of inhibiting bacterial growth at low fluences over time, thus presenting no time-dependent effect. PMID:25954830

  4. Effects of Benzalkonium Chloride on Planktonic Growth and Biofilm Formation by Animal Bacterial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Azizollah; Hemati, Majid; Shabanpour, Ziba; Habibian Dehkordi, Saeed; Bahadoran, Shahab; Lotfalian, Sharareh; Khubani, Shahin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Resistance toward quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) is widespread among a diverse range of microorganisms and is facilitated by several mechanisms such as biofilm formation. Objectives: In this study, the effects of benzalkonium chloride on planktonic growth and biofilm formation by some field isolates of animal bacterial pathogens were investigated. Materials and Methods: Forty clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Salmonella serotypes, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae (10 isolates of each) were examined for effects of benzalkonium chloride on biofilm formation and planktonic growth using microtiter plates. For all the examined strains in the presence of benzalkonium chloride, biofilm development and planktonic growth were affected at the same concentrations of disinfectant. Results: The means of strains growth increase after the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) were significant in all the bacteria (except for E. coli in 1/32 and S. agalactiae in of 1/8 MIC). Biofilm formation increased with decrease of antiseptics concentration; a significant increase was found in all the samples. The most turbidity related to S. aureus and the least to Salmonella. Conclusions: Bacterial resistance against quaternary ammonium compounds is increasing which can increase the bacterial biofilm formation. PMID:25793094

  5. Chemical interference with iron transport systems to suppress bacterial growth of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Bin; Zhang, Liang; Li, Nan; Han, Junlong; Zhang, Jing; Sun, Xuesong; He, Qing-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient for the growth of most bacteria. To obtain iron, bacteria have developed specific iron-transport systems located on the membrane surface to uptake iron and iron complexes such as ferrichrome. Interference with the iron-acquisition systems should be therefore an efficient strategy to suppress bacterial growth and infection. Based on the chemical similarity of iron and ruthenium, we used a Ru(II) complex R-825 to compete with ferrichrome for the ferrichrome-transport pathway in Streptococcus pneumoniae. R-825 inhibited the bacterial growth of S. pneumoniae and stimulated the expression of PiuA, the iron-binding protein in the ferrichrome-uptake system on the cell surface. R-825 treatment decreased the cellular content of iron, accompanying with the increase of Ru(II) level in the bacterium. When the piuA gene (SPD_0915) was deleted in the bacterium, the mutant strain became resistant to R-825 treatment, with decreased content of Ru(II). Addition of ferrichrome can rescue the bacterial growth that was suppressed by R-825. Fluorescence spectral quenching showed that R-825 can bind with PiuA in a similar pattern to the ferrichrome-PiuA interaction in vitro. These observations demonstrated that Ru(II) complex R-825 can compete with ferrichrome for the ferrichrome-transport system to enter S. pneumoniae, reduce the cellular iron supply, and thus suppress the bacterial growth. This finding suggests a novel antimicrobial approach by interfering with iron-uptake pathways, which is different from the mechanisms used by current antibiotics.

  6. Chemical Interference with Iron Transport Systems to Suppress Bacterial Growth of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liang; Li, Nan; Han, Junlong; Zhang, Jing; Sun, Xuesong; He, Qing-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient for the growth of most bacteria. To obtain iron, bacteria have developed specific iron-transport systems located on the membrane surface to uptake iron and iron complexes such as ferrichrome. Interference with the iron-acquisition systems should be therefore an efficient strategy to suppress bacterial growth and infection. Based on the chemical similarity of iron and ruthenium, we used a Ru(II) complex R-825 to compete with ferrichrome for the ferrichrome-transport pathway in Streptococcus pneumoniae. R-825 inhibited the bacterial growth of S. pneumoniae and stimulated the expression of PiuA, the iron-binding protein in the ferrichrome-uptake system on the cell surface. R-825 treatment decreased the cellular content of iron, accompanying with the increase of Ru(II) level in the bacterium. When the piuA gene (SPD_0915) was deleted in the bacterium, the mutant strain became resistant to R-825 treatment, with decreased content of Ru(II). Addition of ferrichrome can rescue the bacterial growth that was suppressed by R-825. Fluorescence spectral quenching showed that R-825 can bind with PiuA in a similar pattern to the ferrichrome-PiuA interaction in vitro. These observations demonstrated that Ru(II) complex R-825 can compete with ferrichrome for the ferrichrome-transport system to enter S. pneumoniae, reduce the cellular iron supply, and thus suppress the bacterial growth. This finding suggests a novel antimicrobial approach by interfering with iron-uptake pathways, which is different from the mechanisms used by current antibiotics. PMID:25170896

  7. Bacterial population in intestines of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) under different growth stages.

    PubMed

    Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Klanchui, Amornpan; Chaiyapechara, Sage; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal bacterial communities in aquaculture have been drawn to attention due to potential benefit to their hosts. To identify core intestinal bacteria in the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon), bacterial populations of disease-free shrimp were characterized from intestines of four developmental stages (15-day-old post larvae (PL15), 1- (J1), 2- (J2), and 3-month-old (J3) juveniles) using pyrosequencing, real-time PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approaches. A total of 25,121 pyrosequencing reads (reading length = 442±24 bases) were obtained, which were categorized by barcode for PL15 (7,045 sequences), J1 (3,055 sequences), J2 (13,130 sequences) and J3 (1,890 sequences). Bacteria in the phyla Bacteroides, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were found in intestines at all four growth stages. There were 88, 14, 27, and 20 bacterial genera associated with the intestinal tract of PL15, J1, J2 and J3, respectively. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that Proteobacteria (class Gammaproteobacteria) was a dominant bacteria group with a relative abundance of 89% for PL15 and 99% for J1, J2 and J3. Real-time PCR assay also confirmed that Gammaproteobacteria had the highest relative abundance in intestines from all growth stages. Intestinal bacterial communities from the three juvenile stages were more similar to each other than that of the PL shrimp based on PCA analyses of pyrosequencing results and their DGGE profiles. This study provides descriptive bacterial communities associated to the black tiger shrimp intestines during these growth development stages in rearing facilities.

  8. Spatial and Temporal Features of the Growth of a Bacterial Species Colonizing the Zebrafish Gut

    PubMed Central

    Jemielita, Matthew; Taormina, Michael J.; Burns, Adam R.; Hampton, Jennifer S.; Rolig, Annah S.; Guillemin, Karen

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The vertebrate intestine is home to microbial ecosystems that play key roles in host development and health. Little is known about the spatial and temporal dynamics of these microbial communities, limiting our understanding of fundamental properties, such as their mechanisms of growth, propagation, and persistence. To address this, we inoculated initially germ-free zebrafish larvae with fluorescently labeled strains of an Aeromonas species, representing an abundant genus in the zebrafish gut. Using light sheet fluorescence microscopy to obtain three-dimensional images spanning the gut, we quantified the entire bacterial load, as founding populations grew from tens to tens of thousands of cells over several hours. The data yield the first ever measurements of the growth kinetics of a microbial species inside a live vertebrate intestine and show dynamics that robustly fit a logistic growth model. Intriguingly, bacteria were nonuniformly distributed throughout the gut, and bacterial aggregates showed considerably higher growth rates than did discrete individuals. The form of aggregate growth indicates intrinsically higher division rates for clustered bacteria, rather than surface-mediated agglomeration onto clusters. Thus, the spatial organization of gut bacteria both relative to the host and to each other impacts overall growth kinetics, suggesting that spatial characterizations will be an important input to predictive models of host-associated microbial community assembly. PMID:25516613

  9. Allochthonous carbon is a major regulator to bacterial growth and community composition in subarctic freshwaters

    PubMed Central

    Roiha, Toni; Peura, Sari; Cusson, Mathieu; Rautio, Milla

    2016-01-01

    In the subarctic region, climate warming and permafrost thaw are leading to emergence of ponds and to an increase in mobility of catchment carbon. As carbon of terrestrial origin is increasing in subarctic freshwaters the resource pool supporting their microbial communities and metabolism is changing, with consequences to overall aquatic productivity. By sampling different subarctic water bodies for a one complete year we show how terrestrial and algal carbon compounds vary in a range of freshwaters and how differential organic carbon quality is linked to bacterial metabolism and community composition. We show that terrestrial drainage and associated nutrients supported higher bacterial growth in ponds and river mouths that were influenced by fresh terrestrial carbon than in large lakes with carbon from algal production. Bacterial diversity, however, was lower at sites influenced by terrestrial carbon inputs. Bacterial community composition was highly variable among different water bodies and especially influenced by concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), fulvic acids, proteins and nutrients. Furthermore, a distinct preference was found for terrestrial vs. algal carbon among certain bacterial tribes. The results highlight the contribution of the numerous ponds to cycling of terrestrial carbon in the changing subarctic and arctic regions. PMID:27686416

  10. Allochthonous carbon is a major regulator to bacterial growth and community composition in subarctic freshwaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roiha, Toni; Peura, Sari; Cusson, Mathieu; Rautio, Milla

    2016-09-01

    In the subarctic region, climate warming and permafrost thaw are leading to emergence of ponds and to an increase in mobility of catchment carbon. As carbon of terrestrial origin is increasing in subarctic freshwaters the resource pool supporting their microbial communities and metabolism is changing, with consequences to overall aquatic productivity. By sampling different subarctic water bodies for a one complete year we show how terrestrial and algal carbon compounds vary in a range of freshwaters and how differential organic carbon quality is linked to bacterial metabolism and community composition. We show that terrestrial drainage and associated nutrients supported higher bacterial growth in ponds and river mouths that were influenced by fresh terrestrial carbon than in large lakes with carbon from algal production. Bacterial diversity, however, was lower at sites influenced by terrestrial carbon inputs. Bacterial community composition was highly variable among different water bodies and especially influenced by concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), fulvic acids, proteins and nutrients. Furthermore, a distinct preference was found for terrestrial vs. algal carbon among certain bacterial tribes. The results highlight the contribution of the numerous ponds to cycling of terrestrial carbon in the changing subarctic and arctic regions.

  11. Rapid Determination of Bacterial Abundance, Biovolume, Morphology, and Growth by Neural Network-Based Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Blackburn, Nicholas; Hagström, Åke; Wikner, Johan; Cuadros-Hansson, Rocio; Bjørnsen, Peter Koefoed

    1998-01-01

    Annual bacterial plankton dynamics at several depths and locations in the Baltic Sea were studied by image analysis. Individual bacteria were classified by using an artificial neural network which also effectively identified nonbacterial objects. Cell counts and frequencies of dividing cells were determined, and the data obtained agreed well with visual observations and previously published values. Cell volumes were measured accurately by comparison with bead standards. The survey included 690 images from a total of 138 samples. Each image contained approximately 200 bacteria. The images were analyzed automatically at a rate of 100 images per h. Bacterial abundance exhibited coherent patterns with time and depth, and there were distinct subsurface peaks in the summer months. Four distinct morphological classes were resolved by the image analyzer, and the dynamics of each could be visualized. The bacterial growth rates estimated from frequencies of dividing cells were different from the bacterial growth rates estimated by the thymidine incorporation method. With minor modifications, the image analysis technique described here can be used to analyze other planktonic classes. PMID:9726867

  12. Btcd, a mouse protein that binds to curved DNA, can substitute in Escherichia coli for H-NS, a bacterial nucleoid protein.

    PubMed Central

    Timchenko, T; Bailone, A; Devoret, R

    1996-01-01

    In an Escherichia coli mutant devoid of H-NS, a bacterial nucleoid protein, mouse protein Btcd was able to substitute for H-NS in two tested functions. It restored cell motility and repression of the expression of the bgl operon. Btcd1, a mutant Btcd protein deleted of its zinc finger and thus having reduced DNA binding, failed to substitute for H-NS. Mouse protein Btcd was shown to repress the bgl operon at the level of transcription initiation and to bind preferentially to a curved DNA fragment encompassing the bgl promoter. These effects of Btcd on bacterial gene transcription can be accounted for by the binding of Btcd or H-NS to a curved DNA sequence near a promoter. A few mammalian proteins have been shown to substitute for their Escherichia prototypes involved in DNA and RNA transactions. The efficiency of Btcd protein in substituting for H-NS in Escherichia suggests its possible involvement in regulating gene expression in mouse cells. Images PMID:8670903

  13. Pressure vessel and piping codes. Technical basis for revised reference crack growth rate curves for pressure boundary steels in LWR environment

    SciTech Connect

    Bamford, W.H.

    1980-11-01

    Since the inception of the pressure vessel and piping codes the reference fatigue crack growth rate curves have been contained in Appendix A of Sect. XI. The curves have been designed to be applicable to carbon and low alloy pressure vessel steels exposed to either air or light water reactor coolant environments. Data obtained over the past several years have shown a different behavior of these steels in the light water reactor environment than that predicted by the present reference curve. A revised set of reference curves has been formulated, incorporating a new curve shape as well as a dependency of growth rate on R ratio (minimum load/maximum load). This work provides the background and justification for such a revision, details the methodology used to develop the revised curves, and includes an evalution of the adequacy and impact of the revised curves as compared with the single curve which they replace. 24 references.

  14. Effect of adding phosphate to drinking water on bacterial growth in slightly and highly corroded pipes.

    PubMed

    Appenzeller, B M; Batté, M; Mathieu, L; Block, J C; Lahoussine, V; Cavard, J; Gatel, D

    2001-03-01

    The effect of phosphate addition in drinking water was tested under static conditions as batch tests and under dynamic conditions using continuously fed reactors. Phosphate supplements in batch tests from 0.1 to 2 mg P-PO4 L(-1) did not show any relationship between bacterial growth and phosphate concentration. Dynamic tests in slightly corroded reactor (stainless steel) treated at 1 mg P-PO4 L(-1) showed only a moderate improvement in the growth of microorganisms. On the contrary, phosphate treatment applied to the highly corroded reactor (unlined cast iron) led to an immediate, drastic drop in iron oxide release and bacterial production. Phosphate uptake by the reactor wall was less than 14% with the stainless-steel reactor and 70-90% with the corroded cast iron reactor. Moreover, about 5% of the phosphate associated to corroded iron pipe walls was released for 20 days after the end of treatment.

  15. Illumination of growth, division and secretion by metabolic labeling of the bacterial cell surface

    PubMed Central

    Siegrist, M. Sloan; Swarts, Benjamin M.; Fox, Douglas M.; Lim, Shion An; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2015-01-01

    The cell surface is the essential interface between a bacterium and its surroundings. Composed primarily of molecules that are not directly genetically encoded, this highly dynamic structure accommodates the basic cellular processes of growth and division as well as the transport of molecules between the cytoplasm and the extracellular milieu. In this review, we describe aspects of bacterial growth, division and secretion that have recently been uncovered by metabolic labeling of the cell envelope. Metabolite derivatives can be used to label a variety of macromolecules, from proteins to non-genetically-encoded glycans and lipids. The embedded metabolite enables precise tracking in time and space, and the versatility of newer chemoselective detection methods offers the ability to execute multiple experiments concurrently. In addition to reviewing the discoveries enabled by metabolic labeling of the bacterial cell envelope, we also discuss the potential of these techniques for translational applications. Finally, we offer some guidelines for implementing this emerging technology. PMID:25725012

  16. Bacterial growth: global effects on gene expression, growth feedback and proteome partition.

    PubMed

    Klumpp, Stefan; Hwa, Terence

    2014-08-01

    The function of endogenous as well as synthetic genetic circuits is generically coupled to the physiological state of the cell. For exponentially growing bacteria, a key characteristic of the state of the cell is the growth rate and thus gene expression is often growth-rate dependent. Here we review recent results on growth-rate dependent gene expression. We distinguish different types of growth-rate dependencies by the mechanisms of regulation involved and the presence or absence of an effect of the gene product on growth. The latter can lead to growth feedback, feedback mediated by changes of the global state of the cell. Moreover, we discuss how growth rate dependence can be used as a guide to study the molecular implementation of physiological regulation.

  17. In-depth characterization of wastewater bacterial community in response to algal growth using pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jangho; Lee, Juyoun; Lee, Tae Kwon; Woo, Sung-Geun; Baek, Gyu Seok; Park, Joonhong

    2013-10-28

    Microalgae have been regarded as a natural resource for sustainable materials and fuels, as well as for removal of nutrients and micropollutants from wastewater, and their interaction with bacteria in wastewater is a critical factor to consider because of the microbial diversity and complexity in a variety of wastewater conditions. Despite their importance, very little is known about the ecological interactions between algae and bacteria in a wastewater environment. In this study, we characterized the wastewater bacterial community in response to the growth of a Selenastrum gracile UTEX 325 population in a real municipal wastewater environment. The Roche 454 GS-FLX Titanium pyrosequencing technique was used for indepth analysis of amplicons of 16S rRNA genes from different conditions in each reactor, with and without the algal population. The algal growth reduced the bacterial diversity and affected the bacterial community structure in the wastewater. The following in-depth analysis of the deep-sequenced amplicons showed that the algal growth selectively stimulated Sphingobacteria class members, especially the Sediminibacterium genus population, in the municipal wastewater environment. PMID:23867704

  18. Bacterial growth rates are influenced by cellular characteristics of individual species when immersed in electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Tessaro, Lucas W E; Murugan, Nirosha J; Persinger, Michael A

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) have negative effects on the rate of growth of bacteria. In the present study, two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative species were exposed to six magnetic field conditions in broth cultures. Three variations of the 'Thomas' pulsed frequency-modulated pattern; a strong-static "puck" magnet upwards of 5000G in intensity; a pair of these magnets rotating opposite one another at ∼30rpm; and finally a strong dynamic magnetic field generator termed the 'Resonator' with an average intensity of 250μT were used. Growth rate was discerned by optical density (OD) measurements every hour at 600nm. ELF-EMF conditions significantly affected the rates of growth of the bacterial cultures, while the two static magnetic field conditions were not statistically significant. Most interestingly, the 'Resonator' dynamic magnetic field increased the rates of growth of three species (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli), while slowing the growth of one (Serratia marcescens). We suggest that these effects are due to individual biophysical characteristics of the bacterial species.

  19. Evaluation of toxic effects of several carboxylic acids on bacterial growth by toxicodynamic modelling

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Effects of organic acids on microbial fermentation are commonly tested in investigations about metabolic behaviour of bacteria. However, they typically provide only descriptive information without modelling the influence of acid concentrations on bacterial kinetics. Results We developed and applied a mathematical model (secondary model) to capture the toxicological effects of those chemicals on kinetic parameters that define the growth of bacteria in batch cultures. Thus, dose-response kinetics were performed with different bacteria (Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Carnobacterium pisicola, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Listonella anguillarum) exposed at increasing concentrations of individual carboxylic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, butyric and lactic). In all bioassays the acids affected the maximum bacterial load (Xm) and the maximum growth rate (vm) but only in specific cases the lag phase (λ) was modified. Significance of the parameters was always high and in all fermentations the toxicodynamic equation was statistically consistent and had good predictability. The differences between D and L-lactic acid effects were significant for the growth of E. coli, L. mesenteroides and C. piscicola. In addition, a global parameter (EC50,τ) was used to compare toxic effects and provided a realistic characterization of antimicrobial agents using a single value. Conclusions The effect of several organic acids on the growth of different bacteria was accurately studied and perfectly characterized by a bivariate equation which combines the basis of dose-response theory with microbial growth kinetics (secondary model). The toxicity of carboxylic acids was lower with the increase of the molecular weight of these chemicals. PMID:22118421

  20. Inhibitory Effects of Synthetic Peptides Containing Bovine Lactoferrin C-lobe Sequence on Bacterial Growth

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Woan-Sub; Ohashi, Midori; Shimazaki, Kei-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Lactoferrin is a glycoprotein with various biological effects, with antibacterial activity being one of the first effects reported. This glycoprotein suppresses bacterial growth through bacteriostatic or bactericidal action. It also stimulates the growth of certain kinds of bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria. In this study, Asn-Leu-Asn-Arg was selected and chemically synthesized based on the partial sequences of bovine lactoferrin tryptic fragments. Synthetic Asn-Leu-Asn-Arg suppressed the growth of Pseudomonas fluorescens, P. syringae and Escherichia coli. P. fluorescens is a major psychrotrophic bacteria found in raw and pasteurized milk, which decreases milk quality. P. syringae is a harmful infectious bacterium that damages plants. However, synthetic Asn-Leu-Asn-Arg did not inhibit the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus. It is expected that this synthetic peptide would be the first peptide sequence from the bovine lactoferrin C-lobe that shows antibacterial activity.

  1. Inhibitory Effects of Synthetic Peptides Containing Bovine Lactoferrin C-lobe Sequence on Bacterial Growth

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Woan-Sub; Ohashi, Midori; Shimazaki, Kei-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Lactoferrin is a glycoprotein with various biological effects, with antibacterial activity being one of the first effects reported. This glycoprotein suppresses bacterial growth through bacteriostatic or bactericidal action. It also stimulates the growth of certain kinds of bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria. In this study, Asn-Leu-Asn-Arg was selected and chemically synthesized based on the partial sequences of bovine lactoferrin tryptic fragments. Synthetic Asn-Leu-Asn-Arg suppressed the growth of Pseudomonas fluorescens, P. syringae and Escherichia coli. P. fluorescens is a major psychrotrophic bacteria found in raw and pasteurized milk, which decreases milk quality. P. syringae is a harmful infectious bacterium that damages plants. However, synthetic Asn-Leu-Asn-Arg did not inhibit the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus. It is expected that this synthetic peptide would be the first peptide sequence from the bovine lactoferrin C-lobe that shows antibacterial activity. PMID:27621684

  2. Inhibitory Effects of Synthetic Peptides Containing Bovine Lactoferrin C-lobe Sequence on Bacterial Growth.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woan-Sub; Ohashi, Midori; Shimazaki, Kei-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    Lactoferrin is a glycoprotein with various biological effects, with antibacterial activity being one of the first effects reported. This glycoprotein suppresses bacterial growth through bacteriostatic or bactericidal action. It also stimulates the growth of certain kinds of bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria. In this study, Asn-Leu-Asn-Arg was selected and chemically synthesized based on the partial sequences of bovine lactoferrin tryptic fragments. Synthetic Asn-Leu-Asn-Arg suppressed the growth of Pseudomonas fluorescens, P. syringae and Escherichia coli. P. fluorescens is a major psychrotrophic bacteria found in raw and pasteurized milk, which decreases milk quality. P. syringae is a harmful infectious bacterium that damages plants. However, synthetic Asn-Leu-Asn-Arg did not inhibit the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus. It is expected that this synthetic peptide would be the first peptide sequence from the bovine lactoferrin C-lobe that shows antibacterial activity.

  3. Inhibitory Effects of Synthetic Peptides Containing Bovine Lactoferrin C-lobe Sequence on Bacterial Growth.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woan-Sub; Ohashi, Midori; Shimazaki, Kei-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    Lactoferrin is a glycoprotein with various biological effects, with antibacterial activity being one of the first effects reported. This glycoprotein suppresses bacterial growth through bacteriostatic or bactericidal action. It also stimulates the growth of certain kinds of bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria. In this study, Asn-Leu-Asn-Arg was selected and chemically synthesized based on the partial sequences of bovine lactoferrin tryptic fragments. Synthetic Asn-Leu-Asn-Arg suppressed the growth of Pseudomonas fluorescens, P. syringae and Escherichia coli. P. fluorescens is a major psychrotrophic bacteria found in raw and pasteurized milk, which decreases milk quality. P. syringae is a harmful infectious bacterium that damages plants. However, synthetic Asn-Leu-Asn-Arg did not inhibit the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus. It is expected that this synthetic peptide would be the first peptide sequence from the bovine lactoferrin C-lobe that shows antibacterial activity. PMID:27621684

  4. [Effects of growth years of Paeonia lactiflora on bacterial community in rhizosphere soil and paeoniflorin content].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiao-Feng; Peng, San-Mei; Wang, Bo-Lin; Ding, Zhi-Shan

    2014-08-01

    To explore the relationship between microecological environment and Paeonia lactiflora the effects of growth years of P. lactillora on rhizosphere bacterial communities were studied by PCR-DGGE and the paeoniflorin content determined by HPLC. Results showed that the soil pH increased with growing years of P. lactillora. In the fourth year, soil pH and enzyme activity reached the highest level, while organic matter content was the lowest. The bacterial diversity had a positive correlation with growing years varied from 3.38 to 3.61. Sequencing results demonstrated that Gammaproteobacteria, llphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacte- ria and Firmicutes were predominant bacteria kinds in the soil of P. lactillora. Gammaproteobacteria was only detected in the bulk soil, while llphaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria G1l, Actinobacteria were only in the rhizosphere soil and the bacterial community among different growing years were similar except few species. HLPC results showed that paeoniflorin content was 3.26%, 3.30%, 3.36%, 3.41% separately from one to four-year-old P. lactiflora with an upward trend. The correlation analysis indicated that the paeoniflorin content had a positive correlation with soil pH and bacterial diversity, conversely, had a negative correlation with organic matter con- tent. During the growth years the rhizosphere bacterial diversity increased without changes of predominant bacteria and the paeoniflorin content increased without significant differences while its production increased significantly, which was different from the plants showing replanting diseases. This is in line with the farming practice choosing 4-year-old P. lactllora, but not the 1-3 year old one. In addition, the accumulation of paeoniflorin is closely related to soil pH, organic matter content and bacteria diversity, confirming that the geoherblism of P. lactiflora is closely related with microbial environment in the soil. PMID:25423827

  5. [Effects of growth years of Paeonia lactiflora on bacterial community in rhizosphere soil and paeoniflorin content].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiao-Feng; Peng, San-Mei; Wang, Bo-Lin; Ding, Zhi-Shan

    2014-08-01

    To explore the relationship between microecological environment and Paeonia lactiflora the effects of growth years of P. lactillora on rhizosphere bacterial communities were studied by PCR-DGGE and the paeoniflorin content determined by HPLC. Results showed that the soil pH increased with growing years of P. lactillora. In the fourth year, soil pH and enzyme activity reached the highest level, while organic matter content was the lowest. The bacterial diversity had a positive correlation with growing years varied from 3.38 to 3.61. Sequencing results demonstrated that Gammaproteobacteria, llphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacte- ria and Firmicutes were predominant bacteria kinds in the soil of P. lactillora. Gammaproteobacteria was only detected in the bulk soil, while llphaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria G1l, Actinobacteria were only in the rhizosphere soil and the bacterial community among different growing years were similar except few species. HLPC results showed that paeoniflorin content was 3.26%, 3.30%, 3.36%, 3.41% separately from one to four-year-old P. lactiflora with an upward trend. The correlation analysis indicated that the paeoniflorin content had a positive correlation with soil pH and bacterial diversity, conversely, had a negative correlation with organic matter con- tent. During the growth years the rhizosphere bacterial diversity increased without changes of predominant bacteria and the paeoniflorin content increased without significant differences while its production increased significantly, which was different from the plants showing replanting diseases. This is in line with the farming practice choosing 4-year-old P. lactllora, but not the 1-3 year old one. In addition, the accumulation of paeoniflorin is closely related to soil pH, organic matter content and bacteria diversity, confirming that the geoherblism of P. lactiflora is closely related with microbial environment in the soil. PMID:25507549

  6. Effects of viral enrichment on bacterial production, respiration and growth efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonilla-Findji, O.; Rochelle-Newall, E.; Weinbauer, M. G.; Gattuso, J.-P.

    2003-04-01

    Viruses are the most common biological agents in the sea. They can influence many ecological processes such as nutrient and carbon cycling, particle size distribution, algal bloom control, species diversity and gene transfer. As they are mainly bacteriophages they not only influence bacterial abundances but also potentially, the bacterial respiration and production, as has been suggested in by Fuhrman’s model in 1992 and a few recent experimental studies. Through their lytic action viruses can influence biogeochemical cycles and so affect the functioning of the whole marine ecosystem. In order to explore this hypothesis and provide some quantitative data we: (1) studied the effects of viruses on bacterial respiration (BR), production (BP) and growth efficiency (BGE) and (2) investigated whether these effects change over time. A viral enrichment experiment was performed in April and May 2002, where the bacterial community isolated from the Bay of Villefranche was exposed to three treatments: Vo (no viral addition), Vm (enrichment of 1-1.5 fold inactivated viruses) and V+ (enrichment of 1-1.5 fold active viruses). No virally induced effects on bacterial metabolism were observed in April but in May after 24 h of incubation, BR was stimulated by ca. 39% in V+ compared to Vo and by 20% relative to Vm. In the presence of active viruses, BP was repressed by ca. 40% compared to Vo and BGE was reduced by 48%. In May, viruses increased the total bacterial carbon demand (17% in V+ compared to Vo, and by 11% relative to Vm). Our results suggest that viruses seem to induce a shift in the specific role of bacterioplankton by reducing the carbon flow to the higher trophic levels and by stimulating the DOM ‡ bacteria ‡ CO2, N, P, Fe pathway.

  7. Assessment of the extent of bacterial growth in reverse osmosis system for improving drinking water quality.

    PubMed

    Park, Se-keun; Hu, Jiang Yong

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to assess reverse osmosis (RO) treatment efficacy of drinking water in terms of biological stability in the distribution system. Two flat-sheet RO membranes were used in this study. Experiments were designed to investigate the growth of biofilm and bulk phase bacteria for the RO-treated water flowing through a model distribution system under controlled conditions without disinfectants. RO membranes improved the water quality of drinking water in terms of inorganic, organic and bacterial contents. Organic matter including the fraction available for microbes was efficiently removed by the RO membranes tested. More than 99% of bacterial cells in the tap water was retained by the RO membranes, leaving <50 cells/mL in the permeate water. In spite of the low nutrient contents and few cells in the RO permeates, monitoring of the model distribution systems receiving the RO permeates showed that remarkable biofilm accumulation and bulk cell growth occurred in the RO permeate water. In quasi-steady state, the total cell numbers in the biofilm and bulk water were of order 10(3) cells/cm(2) and 10(3) cells/mL, respectively, which were about 2 orders of magnitude lower than those grown in the tap water produced from conventional water treatment. The culturable heterotrophic bacteria constituted a significant part of the total cells (20.7-32.1% in biofilms and 21.3-46.3% in bulk waters). Biofilm maximum density and production rate were of the order 10(4) cells/cm(2) and 10(2) cells/cm(2)/day, respectively. The specific cell growth rate of bacteria in the biofilms was found to be much lower than those in the bulk waters (0.04-0.05 day(-1) versus 0.28-0.36 day(-1)). The overall specific cell growth rate which indicates the growth potential in the whole system was calculated as 0.07-0.08 day(-1), representing a doubling time of 9.1-10.1 days. These observations can be indicative of possibilities for bacterial growth in the RO permeate water with easily

  8. Effects of two different application methods of Burkholderia ambifaria MCI 7 on plant growth and rhizospheric bacterial diversity.

    PubMed

    Ciccillo, Fabio; Fiore, Alessia; Bevivino, Annamaria; Dalmastri, Claudia; Tabacchioni, Silvia; Chiarini, Luigi

    2002-04-01

    In order to acquire a better understanding of the effects of the different delivery modes of bacterial inoculants on plant growth and on the community structure of rhizosphere bacterial populations, Burkholderia ambifaria MCI 7 (formerly B. cepacia MCI 7) was inoculated into the rhizosphere of maize plants by either seed adhesion or incorporation into soil. Plant growth was evaluated at different inoculum concentrations. The community structure of rhizosphere bacterial populations was evaluated by analysing the restriction patterns of the DNA coding for 16S rRNA amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (ARDRA) of 745 bacterial isolates. A number of diversity indices (richness, Shannon diversity, evenness and mean genetic distance) were calculated for each bacterial population isolated from control and treated plants according to the concept of the r/K strategy. Moreover, the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) method was applied to estimate the genetic differences among the various bacterial populations. Our results showed that the method of application can be an essential element in determining the effects of the inoculant on plant growth. In fact, when applied as a maize seed treatment, B. ambifaria MCI 7 promoted plant growth significantly; on the contrary, when incorporated into soil, the same strain reduced plant growth markedly. As far as the bacterial community structure is concerned, B. ambifaria MCI 7 affected the indigenous microflora of treated plants according to the application method: seed treatment brought about an abrupt decrease in bacterial diversity, whereas incorporation into soil increased bacterial diversity. Moreover, changes in bacterial diversity were limited to r-strategist bacteria. In conclusion, B. ambifaria MCI 7 can act as both a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium and a deleterious rhizobacterium depending on the inoculation method. PMID:12010130

  9. Wheat and Rice Growth Stages and Fertilization Regimes Alter Soil Bacterial Community Structure, But Not Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jichen; Xue, Chao; Song, Yang; Wang, Lei; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining soil fertility and the microbial communities that determine fertility is critical to sustainable agricultural strategies, and the use of different organic fertilizer (OF) regimes represents an important practice in attempts to preserve soil quality. However, little is known about the dynamic response of bacterial communities to fertilization regimes across crop growth stages. In this study, we examined microbial community structure and diversity across eight representative growth stages of wheat-rice rotation under four different fertilization treatments: no nitrogen fertilizer (NNF), chemical fertilizer (CF), organic–inorganic mixed fertilizer (OIMF), and OF. Quantitative PCR (QPCR) and high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments revealed that growth stage as the best predictor of bacterial community abundance and structure. Additionally, bacterial community compositions differed between wheat and rice rotations. Relative to soils under wheat rotation, soils under rice rotation contained higher relative abundances (RA) of anaerobic and mesophilic microbes and lower RA of aerophilic microbes. With respect to fertilization regime, NNF plots had a higher abundance of nitrogen–fixing Cyanobacteria. OIMF had a lower abundance of ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota compared with CF. Application of chemical fertilizers (CF and OIMF treatments) significantly increased the abundance of some generally oligotrophic bacteria such those belonging to the Acidobacteria, while more copiotrophic of the phylum Proteobacteria increased with OF application. A high correlation coefficient was found when comparing RA of Acidobacteria based upon QPCR vs. sequence analysis, yet poor correlations were found for the α- and β- Proteobacteria, highlighting the caution required when interpreting these molecular data. In total, crop, fertilization scheme and plant developmental stage all influenced soil microbial community structure, but not total levels of

  10. Wheat and Rice Growth Stages and Fertilization Regimes Alter Soil Bacterial Community Structure, But Not Diversity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jichen; Xue, Chao; Song, Yang; Wang, Lei; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining soil fertility and the microbial communities that determine fertility is critical to sustainable agricultural strategies, and the use of different organic fertilizer (OF) regimes represents an important practice in attempts to preserve soil quality. However, little is known about the dynamic response of bacterial communities to fertilization regimes across crop growth stages. In this study, we examined microbial community structure and diversity across eight representative growth stages of wheat-rice rotation under four different fertilization treatments: no nitrogen fertilizer (NNF), chemical fertilizer (CF), organic-inorganic mixed fertilizer (OIMF), and OF. Quantitative PCR (QPCR) and high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments revealed that growth stage as the best predictor of bacterial community abundance and structure. Additionally, bacterial community compositions differed between wheat and rice rotations. Relative to soils under wheat rotation, soils under rice rotation contained higher relative abundances (RA) of anaerobic and mesophilic microbes and lower RA of aerophilic microbes. With respect to fertilization regime, NNF plots had a higher abundance of nitrogen-fixing Cyanobacteria. OIMF had a lower abundance of ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota compared with CF. Application of chemical fertilizers (CF and OIMF treatments) significantly increased the abundance of some generally oligotrophic bacteria such those belonging to the Acidobacteria, while more copiotrophic of the phylum Proteobacteria increased with OF application. A high correlation coefficient was found when comparing RA of Acidobacteria based upon QPCR vs. sequence analysis, yet poor correlations were found for the α- and β- Proteobacteria, highlighting the caution required when interpreting these molecular data. In total, crop, fertilization scheme and plant developmental stage all influenced soil microbial community structure, but not total levels of alpha

  11. Impact of ZnO and Ag Nanoparticles on Bacterial Growth and Viability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, M. S.; Digiovanni, K. A.

    2007-12-01

    Hundreds of consumer products containing nanomaterials are currently available in the U.S., including computers, clothing, cosmetics, sports equipment, medical devices and product packaging. Metallic nanoparticles can be embedded in or coated on product surfaces to provide antimicrobial, deodorizing, and stain- resistant properties. Although these products have the potential to provide significant benefit to the user, the impact of these products on the environment remains largely unknown. The purpose of this project is to study the effect of metallic nanoparticles released to the environment on bacterial growth and viability. Inhibition of bacterial growth was tested by adding doses of suspended ZnO and Ag nanoparticles into luria broth prior to inoculation of Escherichia coli cells. ZnO particles (approximately 40 nm) were obtained commercially and Ag particles (12-14 nm) were fabricated by reduction of silver nitrate with sodium borohydride. Toxicity assays were performed to test the viability of E. coli cells exposed to both ZnO and Ag nanoparticles using the LIVE/DEAD BacLight bacterial viability kit (Invitrogen). Live cells stain green whereas cells with compromised membranes that are considered dead or dying stain red. Cells were first grown, stained, and exposed to varying doses of metallic nanoparticles, and then bacterial viability was measured hourly using fluorescence microscopy. Results indicate that both ZnO and Ag nanoparticles inhibit the growth of E. coli in liquid media. Preliminary results from toxicity assays confirm the toxic effect of ZnO and Ag nanoparticles on active cell cultures. Calculated death rates resulting from analyses of toxicity studies will be presented.

  12. Wheat and Rice Growth Stages and Fertilization Regimes Alter Soil Bacterial Community Structure, But Not Diversity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jichen; Xue, Chao; Song, Yang; Wang, Lei; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining soil fertility and the microbial communities that determine fertility is critical to sustainable agricultural strategies, and the use of different organic fertilizer (OF) regimes represents an important practice in attempts to preserve soil quality. However, little is known about the dynamic response of bacterial communities to fertilization regimes across crop growth stages. In this study, we examined microbial community structure and diversity across eight representative growth stages of wheat-rice rotation under four different fertilization treatments: no nitrogen fertilizer (NNF), chemical fertilizer (CF), organic-inorganic mixed fertilizer (OIMF), and OF. Quantitative PCR (QPCR) and high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments revealed that growth stage as the best predictor of bacterial community abundance and structure. Additionally, bacterial community compositions differed between wheat and rice rotations. Relative to soils under wheat rotation, soils under rice rotation contained higher relative abundances (RA) of anaerobic and mesophilic microbes and lower RA of aerophilic microbes. With respect to fertilization regime, NNF plots had a higher abundance of nitrogen-fixing Cyanobacteria. OIMF had a lower abundance of ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota compared with CF. Application of chemical fertilizers (CF and OIMF treatments) significantly increased the abundance of some generally oligotrophic bacteria such those belonging to the Acidobacteria, while more copiotrophic of the phylum Proteobacteria increased with OF application. A high correlation coefficient was found when comparing RA of Acidobacteria based upon QPCR vs. sequence analysis, yet poor correlations were found for the α- and β- Proteobacteria, highlighting the caution required when interpreting these molecular data. In total, crop, fertilization scheme and plant developmental stage all influenced soil microbial community structure, but not total levels of alpha

  13. Bacterial growth efficiency in a tropical estuary: seasonal variability subsidized by allochthonous carbon.

    PubMed

    Pradeep Ram, A S; Nair, Shanta; Chandramohan, D

    2007-05-01

    Bacterial growth efficiency (BGE) is a key factor in understanding bacterial influence on carbon flow in aquatic ecosystems. We report intra-annual variability in BGE, and bacteria-mediated carbon flow in the tropical Mandovi and Zuari estuaries (southwest India) and the adjoining coastal waters (Arabian Sea). BGE ranged from 3% to 61% and showed clear temporal variability with significantly (ANOVA, p < 0.01) higher values in the estuaries (mean, 28 +/- 14%) than coastal waters (mean, 12 +/- 6%). The greater variability of BGE in the estuaries than coastal waters suggest some systematic response to nutrient composition and the variability of dissolved organic matter pools, as BGE was governed by bacterial secondary production (BP). Monsoonal rains and its accompanied changes brought significant variability in BGE and bacterial productivity/primary productivity (BP/PP) ratio when compared to nonmonsoon seasons in the estuaries and coastal waters. High BP/PP ratio (>1) together with high carbon flux through bacteria (>100% of primary productivity) in the estuarine and coastal waters suggests that bacterioplankton consumed dissolved organic carbon in excess of the amount produced in situ by phytoplankton of this region, which led to the mismatch between primary production of carbon and amount of carbon consumed by bacteria. Despite the two systems being subsidized by allochthonous inputs, the low BGE in the coastal waters may be attributable to the nature and time interval in the supply of allochthonous carbon. PMID:17356948

  14. Characteristics of bacterial and fungal growth in plastic bottled beverages under a consuming condition model.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Maiko; Ohnishi, Takahiro; Araki, Emiko; Kanda, Takashi; Tomita, Atsuko; Ozawa, Kazuhiro; Goto, Keiichi; Sugiyama, Kanji; Konuma, Hirotaka; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko

    2014-01-01

    Microbial contamination in unfinished beverages can occur when drinking directly from the bottle. Various microorganisms, including foodborne pathogens, are able to grow in these beverages at room temperature or in a refrigerator. In this study, we elucidated the characteristics of microorganism growth in bottled beverages under consuming condition models. Furthermore, we provide insight into the safety of partially consumed bottled beverages with respect to food hygiene. We inoculated microorganisms, including foodborne pathogens, into various plastic bottled beverages and analysed the dynamic growth of microorganisms as well as bacterial toxin production in the beverages. Eight bottled beverage types were tested in this study, namely green tea, apple juice drink, tomato juice, carbonated drink, sport drink, coffee with milk, isotonic water and mineral water, and in these beverages several microorganism types were used: nine bacteria including three toxin producers, three yeasts, and five moulds. Following inoculation, the bottles were incubated at 35°C for 48 h for bacteria, 25°C for 48 h for yeasts, and 25°C for 28 days for moulds. During the incubation period, the number of bacteria and yeasts and visible changes in mould-growth were determined over time. Our results indicated that combinations of the beverage types and microorganism species correlated with the degree of growth. Regarding factors that affect the growth and toxin-productivity of microorganisms in beverages, it is speculated that the pH, static/shaking culture, temperature, additives, or ingredients, such as carbon dioxide or organic matter (especially of plant origin), may be important for microorganism growth in beverages. Our results suggest that various types of unfinished beverages have microorganism growth and can include food borne pathogens and bacterial toxins. Therefore, our results indicate that in terms of food hygiene it is necessary to consume beverages immediately after opening

  15. Growth of 48 built environment bacterial isolates on board the International Space Station (ISS)

    PubMed Central

    Neches, Russell Y.; Lang, Jenna M.; Brown, Wendy E.; Severance, Mark; Cavalier, Darlene

    2016-01-01

    Background. While significant attention has been paid to the potential risk of pathogenic microbes aboard crewed spacecraft, the non-pathogenic microbes in these habitats have received less consideration. Preliminary work has demonstrated that the interior of the International Space Station (ISS) has a microbial community resembling those of built environments on Earth. Here we report the results of sending 48 bacterial strains, collected from built environments on Earth, for a growth experiment on the ISS. This project was a component of Project MERCCURI (Microbial Ecology Research Combining Citizen and University Researchers on ISS). Results. Of the 48 strains sent to the ISS, 45 of them showed similar growth in space and on Earth using a relative growth measurement adapted for microgravity. The vast majority of species tested in this experiment have also been found in culture-independent surveys of the ISS. Only one bacterial strain showed significantly different growth in space. Bacillus safensis JPL-MERTA-8-2 grew 60% better in space than on Earth. Conclusions. The majority of bacteria tested were not affected by conditions aboard the ISS in this experiment (e.g., microgravity, cosmic radiation). Further work on Bacillus safensis could lead to interesting insights on why this strain grew so much better in space. PMID:27019789

  16. Molecular Mechanisms of Enhanced Bacterial Growth on Hexadecane with Red Clay.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaejoon; Jang, In-Ae; Ahn, Sungeun; Shin, Bora; Kim, Jisun; Park, Chulwoo; Jee, Seung Cheol; Sung, Jung-Suk; Park, Woojun

    2015-11-01

    Red clay was previously used to enhance bioremediation of diesel-contaminated soil. It was speculated that the enhanced degradation of diesel was due to increased bacterial growth. In this study, we selected Acinetobacter oleivorans DR1, a soil-borne degrader of diesel and alkanes, as a model bacterium and performed transcriptional analysis using RNA sequencing to investigate the cellular response during hexadecane utilization and the mechanism by which red clay promotes hexadecane degradation. We confirmed that red clay promotes the growth of A. oleivorans DR1 on hexadecane, a major component of diesel, as a sole carbon source. Addition of red clay to hexadecane-utilizing DR1 cells highly upregulated β-oxidation, while genes related to alkane oxidation were highly expressed with and without red clay. Red clay also upregulated genes related to oxidative stress defense, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutaredoxin genes, suggesting that red clay supports the response of DR1 cells to oxidative stress generated during hexadecane utilization. Increased membrane fluidity in the presence of red clay was confirmed by fatty acid methyl ester analysis at different growth phases, suggesting that enhanced growth on hexadecane could be due to increased uptake of hexadecane coupled with upregulation of downstream metabolism and oxidative stress defense. The monitoring of the bacterial community in soil with red clay for a year revealed that red clay stabilized the community structure.

  17. [Effects of bamboo charcoal on the growth of Trifolium repens and soil bacterial community structure].

    PubMed

    Li, Song-Hao; He, Dong-Hua; Shen, Qiu-Lan; Xu, Qiu-Fang

    2014-08-01

    The effects of addition rates (0, 3% and 9%) and particle sizes (0.05, 0.05-1.0 and 1.0-2.0 mm) of bamboo charcoal on the growth of Trifolium repens and soil microbial community structure were investigated. The results showed that bamboo charcoal addition greatly promoted the early growth of T. repens, with the 9% charcoal addition rate being slightly better than the 3% charcoal addition rate. The effects of different particle sizes of bamboo charcoal on the growth of T. repens were not different significantly. Growth promotion declined with time during 120 days after sowing, and disappeared completely after 5 months. DGGE analysis of the bacterial 16S rDNA V3 fragment indicated that bamboo charcoal altered the soil bacterial community structure. The amount and Shannon diversity index of bacteria in the bamboo charcoal addition treatments increased compared with CK. The quantitative analysis showed that the amount of bacteria in the treatment with bamboo charcoal of fine particle (D < 0.05 mm) at the 9% addition rate was significantly higher than in the other treatments. The fine bamboo charcoal had a great effect on soil bacteria amount compared with the charcoal of other sizes at the same addition rate.

  18. Control of bacterial biofilm growth on surfaces by nanostructural mechanics and geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, A. K.; Hochbaum, A. I.; Kim, Philseok; Aizenberg, J.

    2011-12-01

    Surface-associated communities of bacteria, called biofilms, pervade natural and anthropogenic environments. Mature biofilms are resistant to a wide range of antimicrobial treatments and therefore pose persistent pathogenic threats. The use of surface chemistry to inhibit biofilm growth has been found to only transiently affect initial attachment. In this work, we investigate the tunable effects of physical surface properties, including high-aspect-ratio (HAR) surface nanostructure arrays recently reported to induce long-range spontaneous spatial patterning of bacteria on the surface. The functional parameters and length scale regimes that control such artificial patterning for the rod-shaped pathogenic species Pseudomonas aeruginosa are elucidated through a combinatorial approach. We further report a crossover regime of biofilm growth on a HAR nanostructured surface versus the nanostructure effective stiffness. When the 'softness' of the hair-like nanoarray is increased beyond a threshold value, biofilm growth is inhibited as compared to a flat control surface. This result is consistent with the mechanoselective adhesion of bacteria to surfaces. Therefore by combining nanoarray-induced bacterial patterning and modulating the effective stiffness of the nanoarray—thus mimicking an extremely compliant flat surface—bacterial mechanoselective adhesion can be exploited to control and inhibit biofilm growth.

  19. Growth of 48 built environment bacterial isolates on board the International Space Station (ISS).

    PubMed

    Coil, David A; Neches, Russell Y; Lang, Jenna M; Brown, Wendy E; Severance, Mark; Cavalier, Darlene; Eisen, Jonathan A

    2016-01-01

    Background. While significant attention has been paid to the potential risk of pathogenic microbes aboard crewed spacecraft, the non-pathogenic microbes in these habitats have received less consideration. Preliminary work has demonstrated that the interior of the International Space Station (ISS) has a microbial community resembling those of built environments on Earth. Here we report the results of sending 48 bacterial strains, collected from built environments on Earth, for a growth experiment on the ISS. This project was a component of Project MERCCURI (Microbial Ecology Research Combining Citizen and University Researchers on ISS). Results. Of the 48 strains sent to the ISS, 45 of them showed similar growth in space and on Earth using a relative growth measurement adapted for microgravity. The vast majority of species tested in this experiment have also been found in culture-independent surveys of the ISS. Only one bacterial strain showed significantly different growth in space. Bacillus safensis JPL-MERTA-8-2 grew 60% better in space than on Earth. Conclusions. The majority of bacteria tested were not affected by conditions aboard the ISS in this experiment (e.g., microgravity, cosmic radiation). Further work on Bacillus safensis could lead to interesting insights on why this strain grew so much better in space. PMID:27019789

  20. Association of Growth Substrates and Bacterial Genera with Benzo[a]pyrene Mineralization in Contaminated Soil

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Maiysha D.; Rodgers-Vieira, Elyse A.; Hu, Jing; Aitken, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) that is not known to be a bacterial growth substrate. Organisms capable of cometabolizing BaP in complex field-contaminated systems have not previously been identified. We evaluated BaP mineralization by a bacterial community from a bioreactor treating PAH-contaminated soil during coincubation with or after pre-enrichment on various PAHs as growth substrates. Pyrosequence libraries of 16S rRNA genes were used to identify bacteria that were enriched on the added growth substrate as a means of associating specific organisms with BaP mineralization. Coincubating the bioreactor-treated soil with naphthalene, phenanthrene, or pyrene inhibited BaP mineralization, whereas pre-enriching the soil on the same three PAHs enhanced BaP mineralization. Combined, these results suggest that bacteria in the bioreactor community that are capable of growing on naphthalene, phenanthrene, and/or pyrene can metabolize BaP, with coincubation competitively inhibiting BaP metabolism. Anthracene, fluoranthene, and benz[a]anthracene had little effect on BaP mineralization compared to incubations without an added growth substrate under either coincubation or pre-enrichment conditions. Substantial increases in relative abundance after pre-enrichment with phenanthrene, naphthalene, or pyrene, but not the other PAHs, suggest that members of the genera Cupriavidus and Luteimonas may have been associated with BaP mineralization. PMID:25469077

  1. Analysis of bacterial growth by UV/Vis spectroscopy and laser reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña-Gomar, Mary Carmen; Viramontes-Gamboa, Gonzalo; Peña-Gomar, Grethel; Ortiz Gutiérrez, Mauricio; Hernández Ramírez, Mariano

    2012-10-01

    This work presents a preliminary study on an experimental analysis of the lactobacillus bacterial growth in liquid medium with and without the presence of silver nanoparticles. The study aims to quantify the bactericidal effect of nanoparticles. Quantification of bacterial growth at different times was analyzed by spectroscopy UV/visible and laser reflectometry near the critical angle. From these two techniques the best results were obtained by spectroscopy, showing that as the concentration of silver nanoparticles increases, it inhibits the growth of bacteria, it only grows 63% of the population. Regarding Laser Reflectometry, the variation of reflectance near the critical angle is measured in real time. The observed results at short times are reasonable, since they indicate a gradual growth of the bacteria and the stabilization stage of the population. But at long time, the observed results show abrupt changes caused by temperature effects. The bacteria were isolated from samples taken from commercial yougurth, and cultured in MRS broth at pH 6.5, and controlled with citric acid and constant temperature of 32 °C. Separately, silver nanoparticles were synthesized at 3 °C from aqueous solutions of 1.0 mM silver nitrate and chemically reduced with sodium borohydride to 2.0 mM, with magnetic stirring.

  2. Growth of 48 built environment bacterial isolates on board the International Space Station (ISS).

    PubMed

    Coil, David A; Neches, Russell Y; Lang, Jenna M; Brown, Wendy E; Severance, Mark; Cavalier, Darlene; Eisen, Jonathan A

    2016-01-01

    Background. While significant attention has been paid to the potential risk of pathogenic microbes aboard crewed spacecraft, the non-pathogenic microbes in these habitats have received less consideration. Preliminary work has demonstrated that the interior of the International Space Station (ISS) has a microbial community resembling those of built environments on Earth. Here we report the results of sending 48 bacterial strains, collected from built environments on Earth, for a growth experiment on the ISS. This project was a component of Project MERCCURI (Microbial Ecology Research Combining Citizen and University Researchers on ISS). Results. Of the 48 strains sent to the ISS, 45 of them showed similar growth in space and on Earth using a relative growth measurement adapted for microgravity. The vast majority of species tested in this experiment have also been found in culture-independent surveys of the ISS. Only one bacterial strain showed significantly different growth in space. Bacillus safensis JPL-MERTA-8-2 grew 60% better in space than on Earth. Conclusions. The majority of bacteria tested were not affected by conditions aboard the ISS in this experiment (e.g., microgravity, cosmic radiation). Further work on Bacillus safensis could lead to interesting insights on why this strain grew so much better in space.

  3. Trophosome of the Deep-Sea Tubeworm Riftia pachyptila Inhibits Bacterial Growth.

    PubMed

    Klose, Julia; Aistleitner, Karin; Horn, Matthias; Krenn, Liselotte; Dirsch, Verena; Zehl, Martin; Bright, Monika

    2016-01-01

    The giant tubeworm Riftia pachyptila lives in symbiosis with the chemoautotrophic gammaproteobacterium Cand. Endoriftia persephone. Symbionts are released back into the environment upon host death in high-pressure experiments, while microbial fouling is not involved in trophosome degradation. Therefore, we examined the antimicrobial effect of the tubeworm's trophosome and skin. The growth of all four tested Gram-positive, but only of one of the tested Gram-negative bacterial strains was inhibited by freshly fixed and degrading trophosome (incubated up to ten days at either warm or cold temperature), while no effect on Saccharomyces cerevisiae was observed. The skin did not show antimicrobial effects. A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of the ethanol supernatant of fixed trophosomes lead to the tentative identification of the phospholipids 1-palmitoleyl-2-lyso-phosphatidylethanolamine, 2-palmitoleyl-1-lyso-phosphatidylethanolamine and the free fatty acids palmitoleic, palmitic and oleic acid, which are known to have an antimicrobial effect. As a result of tissue autolysis, the abundance of the free fatty acids increased with longer incubation time of trophosome samples. This correlated with an increasing growth inhibition of Bacillus subtilis and Listeria welshimeri, but not of the other bacterial strains. Therefore, the free fatty acids produced upon host degradation could be the cause of inhibition of at least these two bacterial strains.

  4. Inhibition of Bacterial Growth and Biofilm Production by Constituents from Hypericum spp

    PubMed Central

    Sarkisian, S.A.; Janssen, M.J.; Matta, H.; Henry, G.E.; LaPlante, K.L.; Rowley, D.C.

    2011-01-01

    Biofilm embedded bacterial pathogens such as Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii are difficult to eradicate and are major sources of bacterial infections. New drugs are needed to combat these pathogens. Hypericum is a plant genus that contains species known to have antimicrobial properties. However, the specific constituents responsible for the antimicrobial properties are not entirely known, nor have most compounds been tested as inhibitors of biofilm development. The investigation presented here tested seven secondary metabolites isolated from the species Hypericum densiflorum, Hypericumellipticum, Hypericum prolificum and Hypericum punctatum as inhibitors of bacterial growth and biofilm production. Assays were conducted against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcusaureus, clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Acinetobacter baumannii. Five of the seven compounds demonstrated growth inhibition against the Gram-positive bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 1.95 μg/mL to 7.81 μg/mL. Four of the secondary metabolites inhibited biofilm production by certain Gram-positive strains at sub-MIC concentrations. PMID:22170780

  5. Measuring the stiffness of bacterial cells from growth rates in hydrogels of tunable elasticity

    PubMed Central

    Tuson, Hannah H.; Auer, George K.; Renner, Lars D.; Hasebe, Mariko; Tropini, Carolina; Salick, Max; Crone, Wendy C.; Gopinathan, Ajay; Huang, Kerwyn Casey; Weibel, Douglas B.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Although bacterial cells are known to experience large forces from osmotic pressure differences and their local microenvironment, quantitative measurements of the mechanical properties of growing bacterial cells have been limited. We provide an experimental approach and theoretical framework for measuring the mechanical properties of live bacteria. We encapsulated bacteria in agarose with a user-defined stiffness, measured the growth rate of individual cells, and fit data to a thin-shell mechanical model to extract the effective longitudinal Young's modulus of the cell envelope of Escherichia coli (50–150 MPa), Bacillus subtilis (100–200 MPa), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (100–200 MPa). Our data provide estimates of cell wall stiffness similar to values obtained via the more labor-intensive technique of atomic force microscopy. To address physiological perturbations that produce changes in cellular mechanical properties, we tested the effect of A22-induced MreB depolymerization on the stiffness of E. coli. The effective longitudinal Young's modulus was not significantly affected by A22 treatment at short time scales, supporting a model in which the interactions between MreB and the cell wall persist on the same time scale as growth. Our technique therefore enables the rapid determination of how changes in genotype and biochemistry affect the mechanical properties of the bacterial envelope. PMID:22548341

  6. Trophosome of the Deep-Sea Tubeworm Riftia pachyptila Inhibits Bacterial Growth

    PubMed Central

    Klose, Julia; Aistleitner, Karin; Horn, Matthias; Krenn, Liselotte; Dirsch, Verena; Zehl, Martin; Bright, Monika

    2016-01-01

    The giant tubeworm Riftia pachyptila lives in symbiosis with the chemoautotrophic gammaproteobacterium Cand. Endoriftia persephone. Symbionts are released back into the environment upon host death in high-pressure experiments, while microbial fouling is not involved in trophosome degradation. Therefore, we examined the antimicrobial effect of the tubeworm’s trophosome and skin. The growth of all four tested Gram-positive, but only of one of the tested Gram-negative bacterial strains was inhibited by freshly fixed and degrading trophosome (incubated up to ten days at either warm or cold temperature), while no effect on Saccharomyces cerevisiae was observed. The skin did not show antimicrobial effects. A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of the ethanol supernatant of fixed trophosomes lead to the tentative identification of the phospholipids 1-palmitoleyl-2-lyso-phosphatidylethanolamine, 2-palmitoleyl-1-lyso-phosphatidylethanolamine and the free fatty acids palmitoleic, palmitic and oleic acid, which are known to have an antimicrobial effect. As a result of tissue autolysis, the abundance of the free fatty acids increased with longer incubation time of trophosome samples. This correlated with an increasing growth inhibition of Bacillus subtilis and Listeria welshimeri, but not of the other bacterial strains. Therefore, the free fatty acids produced upon host degradation could be the cause of inhibition of at least these two bacterial strains. PMID:26730960

  7. Trophosome of the Deep-Sea Tubeworm Riftia pachyptila Inhibits Bacterial Growth.

    PubMed

    Klose, Julia; Aistleitner, Karin; Horn, Matthias; Krenn, Liselotte; Dirsch, Verena; Zehl, Martin; Bright, Monika

    2016-01-01

    The giant tubeworm Riftia pachyptila lives in symbiosis with the chemoautotrophic gammaproteobacterium Cand. Endoriftia persephone. Symbionts are released back into the environment upon host death in high-pressure experiments, while microbial fouling is not involved in trophosome degradation. Therefore, we examined the antimicrobial effect of the tubeworm's trophosome and skin. The growth of all four tested Gram-positive, but only of one of the tested Gram-negative bacterial strains was inhibited by freshly fixed and degrading trophosome (incubated up to ten days at either warm or cold temperature), while no effect on Saccharomyces cerevisiae was observed. The skin did not show antimicrobial effects. A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of the ethanol supernatant of fixed trophosomes lead to the tentative identification of the phospholipids 1-palmitoleyl-2-lyso-phosphatidylethanolamine, 2-palmitoleyl-1-lyso-phosphatidylethanolamine and the free fatty acids palmitoleic, palmitic and oleic acid, which are known to have an antimicrobial effect. As a result of tissue autolysis, the abundance of the free fatty acids increased with longer incubation time of trophosome samples. This correlated with an increasing growth inhibition of Bacillus subtilis and Listeria welshimeri, but not of the other bacterial strains. Therefore, the free fatty acids produced upon host degradation could be the cause of inhibition of at least these two bacterial strains. PMID:26730960

  8. Associated bacterial flora, growth, and toxicity of cultured benthic dinoflagellates Ostreopsis lenticularis and Gambierdiscus toxicus.

    PubMed

    Tosteson, T R; Ballantine, D L; Tosteson, C G; Hensley, V; Bardales, A T

    1989-01-01

    The growth, toxicity, and associated bacterial flora of 10 clonal cultures of the toxic benthic dinoflagellates Ostreopsis lenticularis and Gambierdiscus toxicus isolated from the coastal waters of southwest Puerto Rico have been examined. Clonal cultures of O. lenticularis grew more rapidly and at broader temperature ranges than those of G. toxicus. All five Ostreopsis clones were toxic, while only one of the five Gambierdiscus clones was poisonous. The degree of toxicity among poisonous clones was highly variable. The number of associated bacterial genera and their frequency of occurrence were quite variable among clones of both dinoflagellate genera. Bacterial isolates represented six genera (Nocardia, Pseudomonas, Vibrio, Aeromonas, Flavobacterium, and Moraxella) in addition to coryneform bacteria. Extracts of dinoflagellate-associated bacteria grown in pure culture were not toxic. Gambierdiscus clones were characterized by the frequent presence of Pseudomonas spp. (four of five clones) and the absence of coryneforms. In O. lenticularis, only one of five clones showed the presence of Pseudomonas spp., and Moraxella sp. was absent altogether. Detailed analyses of toxicity and associated microflora in a selected Ostreopsis clone, repeatedly cultivated (four times) over a period of 160 days, showed that peak cell toxicities developed in the late static and early negative culture growth phases. Peak Ostreopsis cell toxicities in the stationary phase of culture growth were correlated with significant increases in the percent total bacteria directly associated with these cells. Changes in the quantity of bacteria directly associated with microalgal cell surfaces and extracellular matrices during culture growth may be related to variability and degree of toxicity in these laboratory-cultured benthic dinoflagellates. PMID:2705766

  9. Analytic derivation of bacterial growth laws from a simple model of intracellular chemical dynamics.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Parth Pratim; Jain, Sanjay

    2016-09-01

    Experiments have found that the growth rate and certain other macroscopic properties of bacterial cells in steady-state cultures depend upon the medium in a surprisingly simple manner; these dependencies are referred to as 'growth laws'. Here we construct a dynamical model of interacting intracellular populations to understand some of the growth laws. The model has only three population variables: an amino acid pool, a pool of enzymes that transport an external nutrient and produce the amino acids, and ribosomes that catalyze their own and the enzymes' production from the amino acids. We assume that the cell allocates its resources between the enzyme sector and the ribosomal sector to maximize its growth rate. We show that the empirical growth laws follow from this assumption and derive analytic expressions for the phenomenological parameters in terms of the more basic model parameters. Interestingly, the maximization of the growth rate of the cell as a whole implies that the cell allocates resources to the enzyme and ribosomal sectors in inverse proportion to their respective 'efficiencies'. The work introduces a mathematical scheme in which the cellular growth rate can be explicitly determined and shows that two large parameters, the number of amino acid residues per enzyme and per ribosome, are useful for making approximations. PMID:27167220

  10. Effect of media components on cell growth and bacterial cellulose production from Acetobacter aceti MTCC 2623.

    PubMed

    Dayal, Manmeet Singh; Goswami, Navendu; Sahai, Anshuman; Jain, Vibhor; Mathur, Garima; Mathur, Ashwani

    2013-04-15

    Acetobacter aceti MTCC 2623 was studied as an alternative microbial source for bacterial cellulose (BC) production. Effect of media components on cell growth rate, BC production and cellulose characteristics were studied. FTIR results showed significant variations in cellulose characteristics produced by A. aceti in different media. Results have shown the role of fermentation time on crystallinity ratio of BC in different media. Further, effect of six different media components on cell growth and BC production was studied using fractional factorial design. Citric acid was found to be the most significant media component for cell growth rate (95% confidence level, R(2)=0.95). However, direct role of these parameters on cellulose production was not established (p-value>0.05).

  11. Continuous monitoring of bacterial biofilm growth using uncoated Thickness-Shear Mode resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, P.; Resa, P.; Durán, C.; Maestre, J. R.; Mateo, M.; Elvira, L.

    2012-12-01

    Quartz Crystal Microbalances (QCM) were used to nondestructively monitor in real time the microbial growth of the bacteria Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) in a liquid broth. QCM, sometimes referred to as Thickness-Shear Mode (TSM) resonators, are highly sensitive sensors not only able to measure very small mass, but also non-gravimetric contributions of viscoelastic media. These devices can be used as biosensors for bacterial detection and are employed in many applications including their use in the food industry, water and environment monitoring, pharmaceutical sciences and clinical diagnosis. In this work, three strains of S. epidermidis (which differ in the ability to produce biofilm) have been continuously monitored using an array of piezoelectric TSM resonators, at 37 °C in a selective culturing media. Microbial growth was followed by measuring the changes in the crystal resonant frequency and bandwidth at several harmonics. It was shown that microbial growth can be monitored in real time using multichannel and multiparametric QCM sensors.

  12. Cationic Pillararenes Potently Inhibit Biofilm Formation without Affecting Bacterial Growth and Viability.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Roymon; Naugolny, Alissa; Feldman, Mark; Herzog, Ido M; Fridman, Micha; Cohen, Yoram

    2016-01-27

    It is estimated that up to 80% of bacterial infections are accompanied by biofilm formation. Since bacteria in biofilms are less susceptible to antibiotics than are bacteria in the planktonic state, biofilm-associated infections pose a major health threat, and there is a pressing need for antibiofilm agents. Here we report that water-soluble cationic pillararenes differing in the quaternary ammonium groups efficiently inhibited the formation of biofilms by clinically important Gram-positive pathogens. Biofilm inhibition did not result from antimicrobial activity; thus, the compounds should not inhibit growth of natural bacterial flora. Moreover, none of the cationic pillararenes caused detectable membrane damage to red blood cells or toxicity to human cells in culture. The results indicate that cationic pillararenes have potential for use in medical applications in which biofilm formation is a problem. PMID:26745311

  13. Scaling laws governing stochastic growth and division of single bacterial cells.

    PubMed

    Iyer-Biswas, Srividya; Wright, Charles S; Henry, Jonathan T; Lo, Klevin; Burov, Stanislav; Lin, Yihan; Crooks, Gavin E; Crosson, Sean; Dinner, Aaron R; Scherer, Norbert F

    2014-11-11

    Uncovering the quantitative laws that govern the growth and division of single cells remains a major challenge. Using a unique combination of technologies that yields unprecedented statistical precision, we find that the sizes of individual Caulobacter crescentus cells increase exponentially in time. We also establish that they divide upon reaching a critical multiple (≈ 1.8) of their initial sizes, rather than an absolute size. We show that when the temperature is varied, the growth and division timescales scale proportionally with each other over the physiological temperature range. Strikingly, the cell-size and division-time distributions can both be rescaled by their mean values such that the condition-specific distributions collapse to universal curves. We account for these observations with a minimal stochastic model that is based on an autocatalytic cycle. It predicts the scalings, as well as specific functional forms for the universal curves. Our experimental and theoretical analysis reveals a simple physical principle governing these complex biological processes: a single temperature-dependent scale of cellular time governs the stochastic dynamics of growth and division in balanced growth conditions. PMID:25349411

  14. Thermal design and turbidity sensor for autonomous bacterial growth measurements in spaceflight.

    PubMed

    van Benthem, Roel; Krooneman, Janneke; de Grave, Wubbo; Hammenga-Dorenbos, Hilma

    2009-04-01

    For application of biological air filters in manned spacecraft, research on bacterial growth is carried out under microgravity conditions. For the BIOFILTER experiment, flown in 2005 on FOTON M2, eight turbidity sensors to measure the growth rate of the bacterium Xanthobacter autotrophicus GJ10 were used. Also thermal management provisions were implemented to control the internal temperature. The design and performance of the BIOFILTER equipment as well as results of the biological ground reference experiments performed in 2006 are discussed. High-performance thermal (vacuum) insulation (lambda= 0.7 mW/mK) and phase change material were implemented, keeping the BIOFILTER internal temperature below 16 degrees C during the 4-day integration period between transport and launch. After launch, in microgravity, the growth of X. autotrophicus GJ10 was successfully triggered by a temperature increase by using an internal heater to 26 degrees C. Although the operation of the sensor electronics was not fully satisfying, the bacterial growth was measured with the sensors, revealing growth rates between 0.046 and 0.077 h(-1) in microgravity, that is, approximately 1.5-2.5 times slower than routinely measured on Earth under optimal laboratory conditions. For the ground-reference experiments the equipment box, containing the eight sensors, was placed on a random positioning machine performing random rotations at 0.5 degrees /min (settling compensation) and 90 degrees /min (microgravity simulation) while the environment was controlled, accurately repeating the BIOFILTER internal temperature profile. Despite the rotation speed differences, growth rates of 0.115 h(-1) were confirmed by both the ground reference experiments. Biological interpretation of the measurements is, however, compromised owing to poor mixing and other unknown physical and biological phenomena that need to be addressed for further space experiments using these kinds of systems. PMID:19426313

  15. Autotrophic Growth of Bacterial and Archaeal Ammonia Oxidizers in Freshwater Sediment Microcosms Incubated at Different Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yucheng; Ke, Xiubin; Hernández, Marcela; Wang, Baozhan; Dumont, Marc G.; Jia, Zhongjun

    2013-01-01

    Both bacteria and archaea potentially contribute to ammonia oxidation, but their roles in freshwater sediments are still poorly understood. Seasonal differences in the relative activities of these groups might exist, since cultivated archaeal ammonia oxidizers have higher temperature optima than their bacterial counterparts. In this study, sediment collected from eutrophic freshwater Lake Taihu (China) was incubated at different temperatures (4°C, 15°C, 25°C, and 37°C) for up to 8 weeks. We examined the active bacterial and archaeal ammonia oxidizers in these sediment microcosms by using combined stable isotope probing (SIP) and molecular community analysis. The results showed that accumulation of nitrate in microcosms correlated negatively with temperature, although ammonium depletion was the same, which might have been related to enhanced activity of other nitrogen transformation processes. Incubation at different temperatures significantly changed the microbial community composition, as revealed by 454 pyrosequencing targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes. After 8 weeks of incubation, [13C]bicarbonate labeling of bacterial amoA genes, which encode the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A, and an observed increase in copy numbers indicated the activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in all microcosms. Nitrosomonas sp. strain Is79A3 and Nitrosomonas communis lineages dominated the heavy fraction of CsCl gradients at low and high temperatures, respectively, indicating a niche differentiation of active bacterial ammonia oxidizers along the temperature gradient. The 13C labeling of ammonia-oxidizing archaea in microcosms incubated at 4 to 25°C was minor. In contrast, significant 13C labeling of Nitrososphaera-like archaea and changes in the abundance and composition of archaeal amoA genes were observed at 37°C, implicating autotrophic growth of ammonia-oxidizing archaea under warmer conditions. PMID:23455342

  16. Individual growth detection of bacterial species in an in vitro oral polymicrobial biofilm model.

    PubMed

    Tabenski, L; Maisch, T; Santarelli, F; Hiller, K-A; Schmalz, G

    2014-11-01

    Most in vitro studies on the antibacterial effects of antiseptics have used planktonic bacteria in monocultures. However, this study design does not reflect the in vivo situation in oral cavities harboring different bacterial species that live in symbiotic relationships in biofilms. The aim of this study was to establish a simple in vitro polymicrobial model consisting of only three bacterial strains of different phases of oral biofilm formation to simulate in vivo oral conditions. Therefore, we studied the biofilm formation of Actinomyces naeslundii (An), Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn), and Enterococcus faecalis (Ef) on 96-well tissue culture plates under static anaerobic conditions using artificial saliva according to the method established by Pratten et al. that was supplemented with 1 g l(-1) sucrose. Growth was separately determined for each bacterial strain after incubation periods of up to 72 h by means of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and live/dead staining. Presence of an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) was visualized by Concanavalin A staining. Increasing incubation times of up to 72 h showed adhesion and propagation of the bacterial strains with artificial saliva formulation. An and Ef had significantly higher growth rates than Fn. Live/dead staining showed a median of 49.9 % (range 46.0-53.0 %) of living bacteria after 72 h of incubation, and 3D fluorescence microscopy showed a three-dimensional structure containing EPS. An in vitro oral polymicrobial biofilm model was established to better simulate oral conditions and had the advantage of providing the well-controlled experimental conditions of in vitro testing.

  17. Plant Growth Promotion and Suppression of Bacterial Leaf Blight in Rice by Inoculated Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Yasmin, Sumera; Zaka, Abha; Imran, Asma; Zahid, Muhammad Awais; Yousaf, Sumaira; Rasul, Ghulam; Arif, Muhammad; Mirza, Muhammad Sajjad

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential of rice rhizosphere associated antagonistic bacteria for growth promotion and disease suppression of bacterial leaf blight (BLB). A total of 811 rhizospheric bacteria were isolated and screened against 3 prevalent strains of BLB pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) of which five antagonistic bacteria, i.e., Pseudomonas spp. E227, E233, Rh323, Serratia sp. Rh269 and Bacillus sp. Rh219 showed antagonistic potential (zone of inhibition 1-19 mm). Production of siderophores was found to be the common biocontrol determinant and all the strains solubilized inorganic phosphate (82-116 μg mL-1) and produced indole acetic acid (0.48-1.85 mg L-1) in vitro. All antagonistic bacteria were non-pathogenic to rice, and their co-inoculation significantly improved plant health in terms of reduced diseased leaf area (80%), improved shoot length (31%), root length (41%) and plant dry weight (60%) as compared to infected control plants. Furthermore, under pathogen pressure, bacterial inoculation resulted in increased activity of defense related enzymes including phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and polyphenol oxidase, along with 86% increase in peroxidase and 53% increase in catalase enzyme activities in plants inoculated with Pseudomonas sp. Rh323 as well as co-inoculated plants. Bacterial strains showed good colonization potential in the rice rhizosphere up to 21 days after seed inoculation. Application of bacterial consortia in the field resulted in an increase of 31% in grain yield and 10% in straw yield over non-inoculated plots. Although, yield increase was statistically non-significant but was accomplished with overall saving of 20% chemical fertilizers. The study showed that Pseudomonas sp. Rh323 can be used to develop dual-purpose inoculum which can serve not only to suppress BLB but also to promote plant growth in rice. PMID:27532545

  18. Bacterial Respiration and Growth Rates Affect the Feeding Preferences, Brood Size and Lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Li; Yan, Xiaomei; Ye, Chenglong; Zhao, Haiyan; Chen, Xiaoyun; Hu, Feng; Li, Huixin

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria serve as live food and nutrients for bacterial-feeding nematodes (BFNs) in soils, and influence nematodes behavior and physiology through their metabolism. Five bacterial taxa (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens JX1, Variovorax sp. JX14, Bacillus megaterium JX15, Pseudomonas fluorescens Y1 and Escherichia coli OP50) and the typical BFN Caenorhabditis elegans were selected to study the effects of bacterial respiration and growth rates on the feeding preferences, brood size and lifespan of nematodes. P. fluorescens Y1 and E. coli OP50 were found to be more active, with high respiration and rapid growth, whereas B. amyloliquefaciens JX1 and B. megaterium JX15 were inactive. The nematode C. elegans preferred active P. fluorescens Y1 and E. coli OP50 obviously. Furthermore, worms that fed on these two active bacteria produced more offspring but had shorter lifespan, while inactive and less preferred bacteria had increased nematodes lifespan and decreased the brood size. Based on these results, we propose that the bacterial activity may influence the behavior and life traits of C. elegans in the following ways: (1) active bacteria reproduce rapidly and emit high levels of CO2 attracting C. elegans; (2) these active bacteria use more resources in the nematodes’ gut to sustain their survival and reproduction, thereby reducing the worm's lifespan; (3) inactive bacteria may provide less food for worms than active bacteria, thus increasing nematodes lifespan but decreasing their fertility. Nematodes generally require a balance between their preferred foods and beneficial foods, only preferred food may not be beneficial for nematodes. PMID:26222828

  19. Plant Growth Promotion and Suppression of Bacterial Leaf Blight in Rice by Inoculated Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Zaka, Abha; Imran, Asma; Zahid, Muhammad Awais; Yousaf, Sumaira; Rasul, Ghulam; Arif, Muhammad; Mirza, Muhammad Sajjad

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential of rice rhizosphere associated antagonistic bacteria for growth promotion and disease suppression of bacterial leaf blight (BLB). A total of 811 rhizospheric bacteria were isolated and screened against 3 prevalent strains of BLB pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) of which five antagonistic bacteria, i.e., Pseudomonas spp. E227, E233, Rh323, Serratia sp. Rh269 and Bacillus sp. Rh219 showed antagonistic potential (zone of inhibition 1–19 mm). Production of siderophores was found to be the common biocontrol determinant and all the strains solubilized inorganic phosphate (82–116 μg mL-1) and produced indole acetic acid (0.48–1.85 mg L-1) in vitro. All antagonistic bacteria were non-pathogenic to rice, and their co-inoculation significantly improved plant health in terms of reduced diseased leaf area (80%), improved shoot length (31%), root length (41%) and plant dry weight (60%) as compared to infected control plants. Furthermore, under pathogen pressure, bacterial inoculation resulted in increased activity of defense related enzymes including phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and polyphenol oxidase, along with 86% increase in peroxidase and 53% increase in catalase enzyme activities in plants inoculated with Pseudomonas sp. Rh323 as well as co-inoculated plants. Bacterial strains showed good colonization potential in the rice rhizosphere up to 21 days after seed inoculation. Application of bacterial consortia in the field resulted in an increase of 31% in grain yield and 10% in straw yield over non-inoculated plots. Although, yield increase was statistically non-significant but was accomplished with overall saving of 20% chemical fertilizers. The study showed that Pseudomonas sp. Rh323 can be used to develop dual-purpose inoculum which can serve not only to suppress BLB but also to promote plant growth in rice. PMID:27532545

  20. DNA thermodynamic stability and supercoil dynamics determine the gene expression program during the bacterial growth cycle.

    PubMed

    Sobetzko, Patrick; Glinkowska, Monika; Travers, Andrew; Muskhelishvili, Georgi

    2013-07-01

    The chromosomal DNA polymer constituting the cellular genetic material is primarily a device for coding information. Whilst the gene sequences comprise the digital (discontinuous) linear code, physiological alterations of the DNA superhelical density generate in addition analog (continuous) three-dimensional information essential for regulation of both chromosome compaction and gene expression. Insight into the relationship between the DNA analog information and the digital linear code is of fundamental importance for understanding genetic regulation. Our previous study in the model organism Escherichia coli suggested that the chromosomal gene order and a spatiotemporal gradient of DNA superhelicity associated with DNA replication determine the growth phase-dependent gene transcription. In this study we reveal a general gradient of DNA thermodynamic stability correlated with the polarity of chromosomal replication and manifest in the spatiotemporal pattern of gene transcription during the bacterial growth cycle. Furthermore, by integrating the physical and dynamic features of the transcribed sequences with their functional content we identify spatiotemporal domains of gene expression encompassing different functions. We thus provide both an insight into the organisational principle of the bacterial growth program and a novel holistic methodology for exploring chromosomal dynamics.

  1. Carboxyl-modified single-walled carbon nanotubes negatively affect bacterial growth and denitrification activity

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiong; Su, Yinglong; Chen, Yinguang; Wan, Rui; Li, Mu; Wei, Yuanyuan; Huang, Haining

    2014-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have been used in a wide range of fields, and the surface modification via carboxyl functionalization can further improve their physicochemical properties. However, whether carboxyl-modified SWNT poses potential risks to microbial denitrification after its release into the environment remains unknown. Here we present the possible effects of carboxyl-modified SWNT on the growth and denitrification activity of Paracoccus denitrificans (a model denitrifying bacterium). It was found that carboxyl-modified SWNT were present both outside and inside the bacteria, and thus induced bacterial growth inhibition at the concentrations of 10 and 50 mg/L. After 24 h of exposure, the final nitrate concentration in the presence of 50 mg/L carboxyl-modified SWNT was 21-fold higher than that in its absence, indicating that nitrate reduction was substantially suppressed by carboxyl-modified SWNT. The transcriptional profiling revealed that carboxyl-modified SWNT led to the transcriptional activation of the genes encoding ribonucleotide reductase in response to DNA damage and also decreased the gene expressions involved in glucose metabolism and energy production, which was an important reason for bacterial growth inhibition. Moreover, carboxyl-modified SWNT caused the significant down-regulation and lower activity of nitrate reductase, which was consistent with the decreased efficiency of nitrate reduction. PMID:25008009

  2. Carboxyl-modified single-walled carbon nanotubes negatively affect bacterial growth and denitrification activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiong; Su, Yinglong; Chen, Yinguang; Wan, Rui; Li, Mu; Wei, Yuanyuan; Huang, Haining

    2014-07-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have been used in a wide range of fields, and the surface modification via carboxyl functionalization can further improve their physicochemical properties. However, whether carboxyl-modified SWNT poses potential risks to microbial denitrification after its release into the environment remains unknown. Here we present the possible effects of carboxyl-modified SWNT on the growth and denitrification activity of Paracoccus denitrificans (a model denitrifying bacterium). It was found that carboxyl-modified SWNT were present both outside and inside the bacteria, and thus induced bacterial growth inhibition at the concentrations of 10 and 50 mg/L. After 24 h of exposure, the final nitrate concentration in the presence of 50 mg/L carboxyl-modified SWNT was 21-fold higher than that in its absence, indicating that nitrate reduction was substantially suppressed by carboxyl-modified SWNT. The transcriptional profiling revealed that carboxyl-modified SWNT led to the transcriptional activation of the genes encoding ribonucleotide reductase in response to DNA damage and also decreased the gene expressions involved in glucose metabolism and energy production, which was an important reason for bacterial growth inhibition. Moreover, carboxyl-modified SWNT caused the significant down-regulation and lower activity of nitrate reductase, which was consistent with the decreased efficiency of nitrate reduction.

  3. Simulations of bacterial growth in the shallow subsurface on planets with tenuous atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, A.; Bochnowski, A.; Kronyak, R.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric pressure is an important unknown parameter, which can affect potential habitability of an earth-like planet. It has been suggested that low pressure by itself can inhibit growth of terrestrial microbes on the surface of Mars however the exact mechanisms for such inhibition was never explained. We performed laboratory simulations of the survival and replication of E. Coli in the Martian simulation chamber. E. Coli was introduced into JSC-Mars-1A soil samples saturated with ~30% of H2O by weight with necessary amounts of nutrients and maintained at soil temperatures of 16-20 C - to ensure that neither water content, nutrients nor temperatures would impede bacterial growth. Several experimental runs were performed with atmospheric pressures as low as 17 mbars. We discovered that E.Coli (a non-extremophilic terrestrial microorganism) could grow within 1 cm from the planetary surface even if the atmospheric pressures are Martian-like. We conclude that low atmospheric pressure by itself is not inhibiting for bacterial growth on earth-like planets with tenuous atmospheres.

  4. Effects of body weight at, and lighting regimen and growth curve to, 20 weeks on laying performance in broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Gous, R M; Cherry, P

    2004-08-01

    1. A total of 4000 Ross broiler breeders were reared to a 20-week target body weight of 1.55, 2.16 (standard), 2.50 or 2.84 kg, using either a convex or concave growth curve. Each treatment group was either exposed to a conventional broiler breeder lighting regimen, with a series of weekly one-hour increments in photoperiod from 8h at 19 weeks to a 16-h maximum, or maintained from 4d on a 17-h photoperiod. 2. Each 100 g increment in body weight at 20 weeks was associated with a significant increase of 0.55 kg in cumulative food intake, and a 1.5-d advance in sexual maturity. However, leaner body weights at 20 weeks resulted in smaller body weight gains between 20 and 60 weeks (-2.4 g/d/kg body weight at 20 weeks), and an increased production of double-yolked eggs. Neither egg production nor mean egg weight was affected by 20-week body weight. 3. Birds fed to produce more rapid early growth had higher feed intakes to 20 weeks, but reached sexual maturity 7 d later than birds permitted accelerated growth from 15 weeks. Growth curve did not influence body weight gain in lay, egg production or mean egg weight. 4. Birds maintained on 17-h photoperiods reached sexual maturity 27 d later, produced 7 fewer eggs to 60 weeks, and had a mean egg weight 1.2 g heavier than birds photostimulated at 19 weeks. Lighting treatment did not affect food intake to 20 weeks, the proportion of double-yolked eggs or body weight gain between 20 and 60 weeks. 5. Birds fed to have a faster growth early in the rearing phase and maintained on 17-h photoperiods produced 11 fewer eggs than those fed to have accelerated growth at the end of the rearing phase, yet there was only one egg difference between the growth-curve groups for the conventionally lighted birds, which was not significant. 6. The earlier sexual maturity of the conventionally lighted birds compared with those maintained on 17-h photoperiods either indicates that broiler breeders require an increment in photoperiod to stimulate

  5. Growth against entropy in bacterial metabolism: the phenotypic trade-off behind empirical growth rate distributions in E. coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Martino, Daniele; Capuani, Fabrizio; De Martino, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    The solution space of genome-scale models of cellular metabolism provides a map between physically viable flux configurations and cellular metabolic phenotypes described, at the most basic level, by the corresponding growth rates. By sampling the solution space of E. coli's metabolic network, we show that empirical growth rate distributions recently obtained in experiments at single-cell resolution can be explained in terms of a trade-off between the higher fitness of fast-growing phenotypes and the higher entropy of slow-growing ones. Based on this, we propose a minimal model for the evolution of a large bacterial population that captures this trade-off. The scaling relationships observed in experiments encode, in such frameworks, for the same distance from the maximum achievable growth rate, the same degree of growth rate maximization, and/or the same rate of phenotypic change. Being grounded on genome-scale metabolic network reconstructions, these results allow for multiple implications and extensions in spite of the underlying conceptual simplicity.

  6. Multivariate curve resolution of rapid-scan FTIR difference spectra of quinone photoreduction in bacterial photosynthetic membranes.

    PubMed

    Blanchet, L; Mezzetti, A; Ruckebusch, C; Huvenne, J-P; de Juan, A

    2007-03-01

    Photosynthetic reaction centres and membranes are systems of particular interest and are often taken as models to investigate the molecular mechanisms of selected bioenergetic reactions. In this work, a multivariate curve resolution by alternating least squares procedure is detailed for resolution of time-resolved difference FTIR spectra probing the evolution of quinone reduction in photosynthetic membranes from Rhodobacter sphaeroides under photoexcitation. For this purpose, different data sets were acquired in the same time range and spectroscopic domain under slightly different experimental conditions. To enable resolution and provide meaningful results the different data sets were arranged in an augmented matrix. This strategy enabled recovery of three different species despite rank-deficiency conditions. It also results in better definition (identity and evolution) of the contributions. From the resolved spectra, the species have been attributed to: 1. the formation of ubiquinol, more precisely the disappearance of Q/appearance of QH(2); 2. conformational change of the protein in the surrounding biological medium; 3. oxidation of diaminodurene, a redox mediator. Because, moreover, results obtained from augmented data sets strategies enable quantitative and qualitative interpretation of concentration profiles, other effects, for example the consequence of repeated light excitation of the same sample, choice of illumination power, or the number of spectra accumulated could be compared and discussed.

  7. Estimation of bacterial growth rates from turbidimetric and viable count data.

    PubMed

    Dalgaard, P; Ross, T; Kamperman, L; Neumeyer, K; McMeekin, T A

    1994-11-01

    The relationship between maximum specific growth rates (mu max) determined from viable counts and turbidimetric measurements for a range of bacterial species is examined in order to assess the potential of turbidimetric methods in predictive microbiology. Two methods for the estimation of mu max from turbidimetric data are presented. One is based on absorbance and the other on transmittance measurements. Both are compared to estimates obtained by viable count methods. Calibration factors, a function to correct the non-linearity of absorbance measurements, and variance stabilising transformations for corrected absorbance measurements and for viable count data, are determined. It is concluded that turbidimetric measurements may be used reliably for estimation of mu max.

  8. Study on Growth Curves of Longissimus dorsi Muscle Area, Backfat Thickness and Body Conformation for Hanwoo (Korean Native) Cows

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J. H.; Oh, S.-H.; Lee, Y. M.; Kim, Y. S.; Son, H. J.; Jeong, D. J.; Whitley, N. C.; Kim, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the parameters of Gompertz growth curves with the measurements of body conformation, real-time ultrasound longissimus dorsi muscle area (LMA) and backfat thickness (BFT) in Hanwoo cows. The Hanwoo cows (n = 3,373) were born in 97 Hanwoo commercial farms in the 17 cities or counties of Gyeongbuk province, Korea, between 2000 and 2007. A total of 5,504 ultrasound measurements were collected for the cows at the age of 13 to 165 months in 2007 and 2008. Wither height (HW), rump height (HR), the horizontal distance between the top of the hips (WH), and girth of chest (GC) were also measured. Analysis of variance was conducted to investigate variables affecting LMA and BFT. The effect of farm nested in location was included in the statistical model, as well as the effects of HW, HR, WH, and GC as covariates. All of the effects were significant in the analysis of variance for LMA and BFT (p<0.01), except for the HR effect for LMA. The two ultrasound measures and the four body conformation traits were fitted to a Gompertz growth curve function to estimate parameters. Upper asymptotic weights were estimated as 54.0 cm2, 7.67 mm, 125.6 cm, 126.4 cm, 29.3 cm, and 184.1 cm, for LMA, BFT, HW, HR, WH, and GC, respectively. Results of ultrasound measurements showed that Hanwoo cows had smaller LMA and greater BFT than other western cattle breeds, suggesting that care must be taken to select for thick BFT rather than an increase of only beef yield. More ultrasound records per cow are needed to get accurate estimates of growth curve, which, thus, helps producers select animals with high accuracy. PMID:25178367

  9. Growth and location of bacterial colonies within dairy foods using microscopy techniques: a review

    PubMed Central

    Hickey, Cian D.; Sheehan, Jeremiah J.; Wilkinson, Martin G.; Auty, Mark A. E.

    2015-01-01

    The growth, location, and distribution of bacterial colonies in dairy products are important factors for the ripening and flavor development of cheeses, yogurts, and soured creams. Starter, non-starter, spoilage, and pathogenic bacteria all become entrapped in the developing casein matrix of dairy foods. In order to visualize these bacterial colonies and the environments surrounding them, microscopy techniques are used. The use of various microscopy methods allow for the rapid detection, enumeration, and distribution of starter, non-starter and pathogenic bacteria in dairy foods. Confocal laser scanning microscopy is extensively utilized to identify bacteria location via the use of fluorescent dyes. Further study is needed in relation to the development of micro- gradients and localized ripening parameters in dairy products due to the location of bacteria at the protein–fat interface. Development in the area of bacterial discrimination using microscopy techniques and fluorescent dyes/tags is needed as the benefits of rapidly identifying spoilage/pathogenic bacteria early in product manufacture would be of huge benefit in relation to both safety and financial concerns. PMID:25741328

  10. Zinc-Triggered Hydrogelation of Self-assembled Small Molecules to Inhibit Bacterial Growth

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chao; Cai, Yanbin; Ren, Chunhua; Gao, Jie; Hao, Jihui

    2015-01-01

    There is a significant need to develop antibacterial materials that could be applied locally and directly to the places surrounded by large amount of bacteria, in order to address the problems of bacterial antibiotic-resistance or irreversible biofilm formation. Hydrogels are thought to be suitable candidates due to their versatile applications in biomedical field. Among them, small molecular hydrogels have been paid lots of attention because they are easy to design and fabricate and often sensitive to external stimuli. Meanwhile, the antibacterial activity of metal ions are attracting more and more attention because resistance to them are not yet found within bacteria. We therefore designed the zinc ion binding peptide of Nap-GFFYGGGHGRGD, who can self-assemble into hydrogels after binds Zn2+ and inhibit the growth of bacteria due to the excellent antibacterial activity of Zn2+. Upon the addition of zinc ions, solutions containing Nap-GFFYGGGHGRGD transformed into supramolecular hydrogels composed of network of long nano-fibers. Bacterial tests revealed an antibacterial effect of the zinc triggered hydrogels on E. coli. The studied small molecular hydrogel shows great potential in locally addressing bacterial infections. PMID:25583430

  11. Zinc-Triggered Hydrogelation of Self-assembled Small Molecules to Inhibit Bacterial Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chao; Cai, Yanbin; Ren, Chunhua; Gao, Jie; Hao, Jihui

    2015-01-01

    There is a significant need to develop antibacterial materials that could be applied locally and directly to the places surrounded by large amount of bacteria, in order to address the problems of bacterial antibiotic-resistance or irreversible biofilm formation. Hydrogels are thought to be suitable candidates due to their versatile applications in biomedical field. Among them, small molecular hydrogels have been paid lots of attention because they are easy to design and fabricate and often sensitive to external stimuli. Meanwhile, the antibacterial activity of metal ions are attracting more and more attention because resistance to them are not yet found within bacteria. We therefore designed the zinc ion binding peptide of Nap-GFFYGGGHGRGD, who can self-assemble into hydrogels after binds Zn2+ and inhibit the growth of bacteria due to the excellent antibacterial activity of Zn2+. Upon the addition of zinc ions, solutions containing Nap-GFFYGGGHGRGD transformed into supramolecular hydrogels composed of network of long nano-fibers. Bacterial tests revealed an antibacterial effect of the zinc triggered hydrogels on E. coli. The studied small molecular hydrogel shows great potential in locally addressing bacterial infections.

  12. The Mammalian Neuroendocrine Hormone Norepinephrine Supplies Iron for Bacterial Growth in the Presence of Transferrin or Lactoferrin

    PubMed Central

    Freestone, Primrose P. E.; Lyte, Mark; Neal, Christopher P.; Maggs, Anthony F.; Haigh, Richard D.; Williams, Peter H.

    2000-01-01

    Norepinephrine stimulates the growth of a range of bacterial species in nutritionally poor SAPI minimal salts medium containing 30% serum. Addition of size-fractionated serum components to SAPI medium indicated that transferrin was required for norepinephrine stimulation of growth of Escherichia coli. Since bacteriostasis by serum is primarily due to the iron-withholding capacity of transferrin, we considered the possibility that norepinephrine can overcome this effect by supplying transferrin-bound iron for growth. Incubation with concentrations of norepinephrine that stimulated bacterial growth in serum-SAPI medium resulted in loss of bound iron from iron-saturated transferrin, as indicated by the appearance of monoferric and apo- isoforms upon electrophoresis in denaturing gels. Norepinephrine also caused the loss of iron from lactoferrin. The pharmacologically inactive metabolite norepinephrine 3-O-sulfate, by contrast, did not result in iron loss from transferrin or lactoferrin and did not stimulate bacterial growth in serum-SAPI medium. Norepinephrine formed stable complexes with transferrin, lactoferrin, and serum albumin. Norepinephrine-transferrin and norepinephrine-lactoferrin complexes, but not norepinephrine-apotransferrin or norepinephrine-albumin complexes, stimulated bacterial growth in serum-SAPI medium in the absence of additional norepinephrine. Norepinephrine-stimulated growth in medium containing 55Fe complexed with transferrin or lactoferrin resulted in uptake of radioactivity by bacterial cells. Moreover, norepinephrine-stimulated growth in medium containing [3H]norepinephrine indicated concomitant uptake of norepinephrine. In each case, addition of excess iron did not affect growth but significantly reduced levels of radioactivity (55Fe or 3H) associated with bacterial cells. A role for catecholamine-mediated iron supply in the pathophysiology of infectious diseases is proposed. PMID:11029429

  13. Functional properties of peanut fractions on the growth of probiotics and foodborne bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Peng, Mengfei; Bitsko, Elizabeth; Biswas, Debabrata

    2015-03-01

    Various compounds found in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) have been shown to provide multiple benefits to human health and may influence the growth of a broad range of gut bacteria. In this study, we investigated the effects of peanut white kernel and peanut skin on 3 strains of Lactobacillus and 3 major foodborne enteric bacterial pathogens. Significant (P < 0.05) growth stimulation of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus was observed in the presence of 0.5% peanut flour (PF) made from peanut white kernel, whereas 0.5% peanut skin extract (PSE) exerted the inhibitory effect on the growth of these beneficial microbes. We also found that within 72 h, PF inhibited growth of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC), while PSE significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited Listeria monocytogenes but promoted the growth of both EHEC and Salmonella Typhimurium. The cell adhesion and invasion abilities of 3 pathogens to the host cells were also significantly (P < 0.05) reduced by 0.5% PF and 0.5% PSE. These results suggest that peanut white kernel might assist in improving human gut flora as well as reducing EHEC, whereas the beneficial effects of peanut skins require further research and investigation.

  14. Cloning of human epidermal growth factor as a bacterial secretory protein, its properties and mutagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Engler, D.A.; Matsunami, R.K.; Campion, S.R.; Foote, R.S.; Mural, R.J.; Larimer, F.W.; Stevens, A.; Niyogi, S.K.

    1987-05-01

    A chimeric gene, containing the DNA coding for the human epidermal growth factor (EGF) and that for the signal peptide of E. coli alkaline phosphatase, was constructed by the annealing and subsequent ligation of appropriate DNA oligonucleotides synthesized in an automated DNA synthesizer. The gene was then cloned into a bacterial plasmid under the transcriptional control of the E. coli trp-lac (tac) promoter, and then transformed into E. coli. Following induction with isopropylthiogalactoside, the secretion of EGF into the E. coli periplasmic space and some into the growth medium was confirmed by its specific binding to the EGF receptor and stimulation of the EGF receptor tyrosine kinase activity. The size and physicochemical properties of the purified protein mimicked those of authentic human EGF. Studies of structure/function relationships by specific alterations of targeted amino acid residues in the EGF molecule have been initiated by utilizing site-directed mutagenesis.

  15. Asynchrony in the growth and motility responses to environmental changes by individual bacterial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Umehara, Senkei; Hattori, Akihiro; Inoue, Ippei; Yasuda, Kenji . E-mail: yasuda.bmi@tmd.ac.jp

    2007-05-04

    Knowing how individual cells respond to environmental changes helps one understand phenotypic diversity in a bacterial cell population, so we simultaneously monitored the growth and motility of isolated motile Escherichia coli cells over several generations by using a method called on-chip single-cell cultivation. Starved cells quickly stopped growing but remained motile for several hours before gradually becoming immotile. When nutrients were restored the cells soon resumed their growth and proliferation but remained immotile for up to six generations. A flagella visualization assay suggested that deflagellation underlies the observed loss of motility. This set of results demonstrates that single-cell transgenerational study under well-characterized environmental conditions can provide information that will help us understand distinct functions within individual cells.

  16. Symbiotic hollow fiber membrane photobioreactor for microalgal growth and bacterial wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Vu, Linh T K; Loh, Kai-Chee

    2016-11-01

    A hollow fiber membrane photobioreactor (HFMP) for microalgal growth and bacterial wastewater treatment was developed. C. vulgaris culture was circulated through one side of the HFMP and P. putida culture was circulated through the other. A symbiotic relationship was demonstrated as reflected by the photo-autotrophic growth of C. vulgaris using CO2 provided by P. putida and biodegradation of 500mg/L glucose by P. putida utilizing photosynthetic O2 produced by C. vulgaris. Performance of the HFMP was significantly enhanced when the microalgal culture was circulated through the lumen side of the HFMP: the average percentage of glucose degraded per 8-h cycle was as high as 98% and microalgal biomass productivity was increased by 69% compared to the reversed orientation. Enhanced glucose biodegradation was achieved in an HFMP packed with more fibers indicating the easy scalability of the HFMP for increased wastewater treatment efficiency. PMID:27497087

  17. Application of a Microcomputer-Based System to Control and Monitor Bacterial Growth

    PubMed Central

    Titus, Jeffrey A.; Luli, Gregory W.; Dekleva, Michael L.; Strohl, William R.

    1984-01-01

    A modular microcomputer-based system was developed to control and monitor various modes of bacterial growth. The control system was composed of an Apple II Plus microcomputer with 64-kilobyte random-access memory; a Cyborg ISAAC model 91A multichannel analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converter; paired MRR-1 pH, pO2, and foam control units; and in-house-designed relay, servo control, and turbidimetry systems. To demonstrate the flexibility of the system, we grew bacteria under various computer-controlled and monitored modes of growth, including batch, turbidostat, and chemostat systems. The Apple-ISAAC system was programmed in Labsoft BASIC (extended Applesoft) with an average control program using ca. 6 to 8 kilobytes of memory and up to 30 kilobytes for datum arrays. This modular microcomputer-based control system was easily coupled to laboratory scale fermentors for a variety of fermentations. PMID:16346462

  18. Application of a microcomputer-based system to control and monitor bacterial growth.

    PubMed

    Titus, J A; Luli, G W; Dekleva, M L; Strohl, W R

    1984-02-01

    A modular microcomputer-based system was developed to control and monitor various modes of bacterial growth. The control system was composed of an Apple II Plus microcomputer with 64-kilobyte random-access memory; a Cyborg ISAAC model 91A multichannel analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converter; paired MRR-1 pH, pO(2), and foam control units; and in-house-designed relay, servo control, and turbidimetry systems. To demonstrate the flexibility of the system, we grew bacteria under various computer-controlled and monitored modes of growth, including batch, turbidostat, and chemostat systems. The Apple-ISAAC system was programmed in Labsoft BASIC (extended Applesoft) with an average control program using ca. 6 to 8 kilobytes of memory and up to 30 kilobytes for datum arrays. This modular microcomputer-based control system was easily coupled to laboratory scale fermentors for a variety of fermentations. PMID:16346462

  19. Biodegradation during contaminant transport in porous media: 4. Impact of microbial lag and bacterial cell growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandrin, Susannah K.; Jordan, Fiona L.; Maier, Raina M.; Brusseau, Mark L.

    2001-08-01

    Miscible-displacement experiments were conducted to examine the impact of microbial lag and bacterial cell growth on the transport of salicylate, a model hydrocarbon compound. The impacts of these processes were examined separately, as well as jointly, to determine their relative effects on biodegradation dynamics. For each experiment, a column was packed with porous medium that was first inoculated with bacteria that contained the NAH plasmid encoding genes for the degradation of naphthalene and salicylate, and then subjected to a step input of salicylate solution. The transport behavior of salicylate was non-steady for all cases examined, and was clearly influenced by a delay (lag) in the onset of biodegradation. This microbial lag, which was consistent with the results of batch experiments, is attributed to the induction and synthesis of the enzymes required for biodegradation of salicylate. The effect of microbial lag on salicylate transport was eliminated by exposing the column to two successive pulses of salicylate, thereby allowing the cells to acclimate to the carbon source during the first pulse. Elimination of microbial lag effects allowed the impact of bacterial growth on salicylate transport to be quantified, which was accomplished by determining a cell mass balance. Conversely, the impact of microbial lag was further investigated by performing a similar double-pulse experiment under no-growth conditions. Significant cell elution was observed and quantified for all conditions/systems. The results of these experiments allowed us to differentiate the effects associated with microbial lag and growth, two coupled processes whose impacts on the biodegradation and transport of contaminants can be difficult to distinguish.

  20. Alcohol, intestinal bacterial growth, intestinal permeability to endotoxin, and medical consequences: summary of a symposium.

    PubMed

    Purohit, Vishnudutt; Bode, J Christian; Bode, Christiane; Brenner, David A; Choudhry, Mashkoor A; Hamilton, Frank; Kang, Y James; Keshavarzian, Ali; Rao, Radhakrishna; Sartor, R Balfour; Swanson, Christine; Turner, Jerrold R

    2008-08-01

    This report is a summary of the symposium on Alcohol, Intestinal Bacterial Growth, Intestinal Permeability to Endotoxin, and Medical Consequences, organized by National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Dietary Supplements, and National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases of National Institutes of Health in Rockville, Maryland, October 11, 2006. Alcohol exposure can promote the growth of Gram-negative bacteria in the intestine, which may result in accumulation of endotoxin. In addition, alcohol metabolism by Gram-negative bacteria and intestinal epithelial cells can result in accumulation of acetaldehyde, which in turn can increase intestinal permeability to endotoxin by increasing tyrosine phosphorylation of tight junction and adherens junction proteins. Alcohol-induced generation of nitric oxide may also contribute to increased permeability to endotoxin by reacting with tubulin, which may cause damage to microtubule cytoskeleton and subsequent disruption of intestinal barrier function. Increased intestinal permeability can lead to increased transfer of endotoxin from the intestine to the liver and general circulation where endotoxin may trigger inflammatory changes in the liver and other organs. Alcohol may also increase intestinal permeability to peptidoglycan, which can initiate inflammatory response in liver and other organs. In addition, acute alcohol exposure may potentiate the effect of burn injury on intestinal bacterial growth and permeability. Decreasing the number of Gram-negative bacteria in the intestine can result in decreased production of endotoxin as well as acetaldehyde which is expected to decrease intestinal permeability to endotoxin. In addition, intestinal permeability may be preserved by administering epidermal growth factor, l-glutamine, oats supplementation, or zinc, thereby preventing the transfer of endotoxin to the general circulation. Thus reducing the number of intestinal Gram-negative bacteria

  1. Effect of humic substance photodegradation on bacterial growth and respiration in lake water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anesio, A.M.; Graneli, W.; Aiken, G.R.; Kieber, D.J.; Mopper, K.

    2005-01-01

    This study addresses how humic substance (HS) chemical composition and photoreactivity affect bacterial growth, respiration, and growth efficiency (BGE) in lake water. Aqueous solutions of HSs from diverse aquatic environments representing different dissolved organic matter sources (autochthonous and allochthonous) were exposed to artificial solar UV radiation. These solutions were added to lake water passed through a 0.7-??m-pore-size filter (containing grazer-free lake bacteria) followed by dark incubation for 5, 43, and 65 h. For the 5-h incubation, several irradiated HSs inhibited bacterial carbon production (BCP) and this inhibition was highly correlated with H 2O2 photoproduction. The H2O2 decayed in the dark, and after 43 h, nearly all irradiated HSs enhanced BCP (average 39% increase relative to nonirradiated controls, standard error = 7.5%, n = 16). UV exposure of HSs also increased bacterial respiration (by ???18%, standard error = 5%, n = 4), but less than BCP, resulting in an average increase in BGE of 32% (standard error = 10%, n = 4). Photoenhancement of BCP did not correlate to HS bulk properties (i.e., elemental and chemical composition). However, when the photoenhancement of BCP was normalized to absorbance, several trends with HS origin and extraction method emerged. Absorbance-normalized hydrophilic acid and humic acid samples showed greater enhancement of BCP than hydrophobic acid and fulvic acid samples. Furthermore, absorbance-normalized autochthonous samples showed ???10-fold greater enhancement of BCP than allochthonous-dominated samples, indicating that the former are more efficient photoproducers of biological substrates. Copyright ?? 2005, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Sweet scents from good bacteria: Case studies on bacterial volatile compounds for plant growth and immunity.

    PubMed

    Chung, Joon-hui; Song, Geun Cheol; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2016-04-01

    Beneficial bacteria produce diverse chemical compounds that affect the behavior of other organisms including plants. Bacterial volatile compounds (BVCs) contribute to triggering plant immunity and promoting plant growth. Previous studies investigated changes in plant physiology caused by in vitro application of the identified volatile compounds or the BVC-emitting bacteria. This review collates new information on BVC-mediated plant-bacteria airborne interactions, addresses unresolved questions about the biological relevance of BVCs, and summarizes data on recently identified BVCs that improve plant growth or protection. Recent explorations of bacterial metabolic engineering to alter BVC production using heterologous or endogenous genes are introduced. Molecular genetic approaches can expand the BVC repertoire of beneficial bacteria to target additional beneficial effects, or simply boost the production level of naturally occurring BVCs. The effects of direct BVC application in soil are reviewed and evaluated for potential large-scale field and agricultural applications. Our review of recent BVC data indicates that BVCs have great potential to serve as effective biostimulants and bioprotectants even under open-field conditions.

  3. Inhibition of Pseudogymnoascus destructans growth from conidia and mycelial extension by bacterially produced volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Cornelison, Christopher T; Gabriel, Kyle T; Barlament, Courtney; Crow, Sidney A

    2014-02-01

    The recently identified causative agent of white-nose syndrome (WNS), Pseudogymnoascus destructans, has been implicated in the mortality of an estimated 5.5 million North American bats since its initial documentation in 2006 (Frick et al. in Science 329:679-682, 2010). In an effort to identify potential biological and chemical control options for WNS, 6 previously described bacterially produced volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were screened for anti-P. destructans activity. The compounds include decanal; 2-ethyl-1-hexanol; nonanal; benzothiazole; benzaldehyde; andN,N-dimethyloctylamine. P. destructans conidia and mycelial plugs were exposed to the VOCs in a closed air space at 15 and 4 °C and then evaluated for growth inhibition. All VOCs inhibited growth from conidia as well as inhibiting radial mycelial extension, with the greatest effect at 4 °C. Studies of the ecology of fungistatic soils and the natural abundance of the fungistatic VOCs present in these environments suggest a synergistic activity of select VOCs may occur. The evaluation of formulations of two or three VOCs at equivalent concentrations was supportive of synergistic activity in several cases. The identification of bacterially produced VOCs with anti-P. destructans activity indicates disease-suppressive and fungistatic soils as a potentially significant reservoir of biological and chemical control options for WNS and provides wildlife management personnel with tools to combat this devastating disease. PMID:24190516

  4. Bacterial diversity in five Icelandic geothermal waters: temperature and sinter growth rate effects.

    PubMed

    Tobler, Dominique J; Benning, Liane G

    2011-07-01

    The microbial ecology associated with siliceous sinters was studied in five geochemically diverse Icelandic geothermal systems. Bacterial 16S rRNA clone libraries were constructed from water-saturated precipitates from each site resulting in a total of 342 bacterial clone sequences and 43 species level phylotypes. In near-neutral, saline (2.6-4.7% salinity) geothermal waters where sinter growth varied between 10 and ~300 kg year(-1) m(-2), 16S rRNA gene analyses revealed very low (no OTUs could be detected) to medium (9 OTUs) microbial activity. The most dominant phylotypes found in these waters belong to marine genera of the Proteobacteria. In contrast, in alkaline (pH = 9-10), meteoric geothermal waters with temperature = 66-96°C and <1-20 kg year(-1)m(-2) sinter growth, extensive biofilms (a total of 34 OTUs) were observed within the waters and these were dominated by members of the class Aquificae (mostly related to Thermocrinis), Deinococci (Thermus species) as well as Proteobacteria. The observed phylogenetic diversity (i.e., number and composition of detected OTUs) is argued to be related to the physico-chemical regime prevalent in the studied geothermal waters; alkaliphilic thermophilic microbial communities with phylotypes related to heterotrophic and autotrophic microorganisms developed in alkaline high temperature waters, whereas halophilic mesophilic communities dominated coastal geothermal waters.

  5. Restriction of bacterial growth by inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis by using monofluoromethylornithine, difluoromethylarginine and dicyclohexylammonium sulphate.

    PubMed Central

    Bitonti, A J; McCann, P P; Sjoerdsma, A

    1982-01-01

    Bacterial growth was measurably slowed by a combination of drugs which inhibit polyamine-biosynthetic enzymes. Addition of DL-alpha-monofluoromethylornithine, which was shown to inactivate irreversibly ornithine decarboxylase extracted from Escherichia coli (Ki = 0.36 mM) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Ki = 0.30 mM), DL-alpha-difluoromethylarginine and dicyclohexylammonium sulphate to cultures of E. coli or P. aeruginosa resulted in a 40 and 70% increase in generation times (decreased growth rates) respectively, which was completely reversed by the addition of 0.1 mM-putrescine plus 0.1 mM-spermidine to the medium. Decreased intracellular polyamine concentrations correlated with increased generation times; putrescine concentration was decreased by 70% in E. coli and 80% in P. aeruginosa, while spermidine concentration was decreased by 50% in E. coli and 95% in P. aeruginosa. Subsequent investigation of the inactivation of the ornithine decarboxylase by monofluoromethylornithine indicated that it was active-site directed, as the normal substrate ornithine slowed the rate of inhibition. Specific interference with polyamine biosynthesis may be a viable approach to control of some bacterial infections. PMID:6818954

  6. Growth performance and carcase quality in broiler chickens fed on bacterial protein grown on natural gas.

    PubMed

    Øverland, M; Schøyen, H F; Skrede, A

    2010-10-01

    1. The effects of increasing concentrations (0, 40, 80 or 120 g/kg) of bacterial protein meal (BPM) and bacterial protein autolysate (BPA) grown on natural gas on growth performance and carcase quality in broiler chickens were examined. 2. Adding BPM to diets reduced feed intake and improved gain: feed from 0 to 21 d and overall to 35 d, but did not significantly affect weight gain compared to the soybean meal based control diet. 3. Increasing concentrations of BPA significantly reduced growth rate, feed intake, gain: feed, carcase weight and dressing percentage, but significantly increased carcase dry matter, fat and energy content. 4. Adding BPM to diets had no effect on viscosity of diets and jejunal digesta, and minor effects on litter quality, whereas BPA increased the viscosity of diets and jejunal digesta, improved litter quality at 21 d, but decreased litter quality at 32 d. 5. To conclude, broiler chickens performed better on a BPM product with intact proteins than on an autolysate with ruptured cell walls and a high content of free amino acids and low molecular-weight peptides.

  7. Kinetics of substrate utilization and bacterial growth of crude oil degraded by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Talaiekhozani, Amirreza; Jafarzadeh, Nematollah; Fulazzaky, Mohamad Ali; Talaie, Mohammad Reza; Beheshti, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    Pollution associated with crude oil (CO) extraction degrades the quality of waters, threatens drinking water sources and may ham air quality. The systems biology approach aims at learning the kinetics of substrate utilization and bacterial growth for a biological process for which very limited knowledge is available. This study uses the Pseudomonas aeruginosa to degrade CO and determines the kinetic parameters of substrate utilization and bacterial growth modeled from a completely mixed batch reactor. The ability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa can remove 91 % of the total petroleum hydrocarbons and 83 % of the aromatic compounds from oily environment. The value k of 9.31 g of substrate g(-1) of microorganism d(-1) could be far higher than the value k obtained for petrochemical wastewater treatment and that for municipal wastewater treatment. The production of new cells of using CO as the sole carbon and energy source can exceed 2(3) of the existing cells per day. The kinetic parameters are verified to contribute to improving the biological removal of CO from oily environment. PMID:26413306

  8. Growth curve analyses of the relationship between early maternal age and children's mathematics and reading performance.

    PubMed

    Torres, D Diego

    2015-03-01

    Regarding the methods used to examine the early maternal age-child academic outcomes relationship, the extant literature has tended to examine change using statistical analyses that fail to appreciate that individuals vary in their rates of growth. Of the one study I have been able to find that employs a true growth model to estimate this relationship, the authors only controlled for characteristics of the maternal household after family formation; confounding background factors of mothers that might select them into early childbearing, a possible source of bias, were ignored. The authors' findings nonetheless suggested an inverse relationship between early maternal age, i.e., a first birth between the ages of 13 and 17, and Canadian adolescents' mean math performance at age 10. Early maternal age was not related to the linear slope of age. To elucidate whether the early maternal age-child academic outcomes association, treated in a growth context, is consistent with this finding, the present study built on it using US data and explored children's mathematics and reading trajectories from age 5 on. Its unique contribution is that it further explicitly controlled for maternal background factors and employed a three-level growth model with repeated measures of children nested within their mothers. Though the strength of the relationship varied between mean initial academic performance and mean academic growth, results confirmed that early maternal age was negatively related to children's mathematics and reading achievement, net of post-teen first birth child-specific and maternal household factors. Once maternal background factors were included, there was no statistically significant relationship between early maternal age and either children's mean initial mathematics and reading scores or their mean mathematics and reading growth.

  9. CURVED WALLS: GRAIN GROWTH, SETTLING, AND COMPOSITION PATTERNS IN T TAURI DISK DUST SUBLIMATION FRONTS

    SciTech Connect

    McClure, M. K.; Calvet, N.; Hartmann, L.; Ingleby, L.; D'Alessio, P.; Espaillat, C.; Sargent, B.; Watson, D. M.; Hernández, J. E-mail: ncalvet@umich.edu E-mail: lingleby@umich.edu E-mail: cespaillat@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: dmw@pas.rochester.edu

    2013-10-01

    The dust sublimation walls of disks around T Tauri stars represent a directly observable cross-section through the disk atmosphere and midplane. Their emission properties can probe the grain size distribution and composition of the innermost regions of the disk, where terrestrial planets form. Here we calculate the inner dust sublimation wall properties for four classical T Tauri stars with a narrow range of spectral types and inclination angles and a wide range of mass accretion rates to determine the extent to which the walls are radially curved. Best fits to the near- and mid-IR excesses are found for curved, two-layer walls in which the lower layer contains larger, hotter, amorphous pyroxene grains with Mg/(Mg+Fe) = 0.6 and the upper layer contains submicron, cooler, mixed amorphous olivine and forsterite grains. As the mass accretion rates decrease from 10{sup –8} to 10{sup –10} M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, the maximum grain size in the lower layer decreases from ∼3 to 0.5 μm. We attribute this to a decrease in fragmentation and turbulent support for micron-sized grains with decreasing viscous heating. The atmosphere of these disks is depleted of dust with dust-gas mass ratios 1 × 10{sup –4} of the interstellar medium (ISM) value, while the midplane is enhanced to eight times the ISM value. For all accretion rates, the wall contributes at least half of the flux in the optically thin 10 μm silicate feature. Finally, we find evidence for an iron gradient in the disk, suggestive of that found in our solar system.

  10. Red and infrared laser therapy inhibits in vitro growth of major bacterial species that commonly colonize skin ulcers.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Natanael Teixeira Alves; Gomes, Rosana Caetano; Santos, Marcos Ferracioli; Brandino, Hugo Evangelista; Martinez, Roberto; de Jesus Guirro, Rinaldo Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is used in chronic wounds due to its healing effects. However, bacterial species may colonize these wounds and the optimal parameters for effective bacterial inhibition are not clear. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of LLLT on bacterial growth in vitro. Bacterial strains including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were suspended in saline solution at a concentration of 10(3) cells/ml and exposed to laser irradiation at wavelengths of 660, 830, and 904 nm at fluences of 0 (control), 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 J/cm(2). An aliquot of the irradiated suspension was spread on the surface of petri plates and incubated at 37 °C for quantification of colony-forming unit after 24, 48, and 72 h. Laser irradiation inhibited the growth of S. aureus at all wavelengths and fluences higher than 12 J/cm(2), showing a strong correlation between increase in fluence and bacterial inhibition. However, for P. aeruginosa, LLLT inhibited growth at all wavelengths only at a fluence of 24 J/cm(2). E. coli had similar growth inhibition at a wavelength of 830 nm at fluences of 3, 6, 12, and 24 J/cm(2). At wavelengths of 660 and 904 nm, growth inhibition was only observed at fluences of 12 and 18 J/cm(2), respectively. LLLT inhibited bacterial growth at all wavelengths, for a maximum of 72 h after irradiation, indicating a correlation between bacterial species, fluence, and wavelength.

  11. Pump-free gradient-based micro-device enables quantitative and high-throughput bacterial growth inhibition analysis.

    PubMed

    Ran, Min; Wang, Ying; Wang, Sida; Luo, Chunxiong

    2015-08-01

    Antibiotic susceptibility testing is very important in antibiotic therapy. Traditional methods to determine antibiotic susceptibility include disk diffusion and broth dilution. However, these tests are always labor intensive, time-consuming, and need large amounts of reagents. In this paper, we demonstrated a novel pump-free micro-device that enables quantitative and high-throughput bacterial growth inhibition analysis. This device consists of a series of wells and diffusion-based antibiotic gradient channels. The wells serve as antibiotic sources and buffer sinks, and we could easily observe the bacterial growth in the gradient channels .The design of the multi-wells is adapted to the commercialized multi-channel pipette, which makes it very convenient for loading reagents into the wells. For each assay, only about 20 μL antibiotic solution is needed. As a demonstration, we used both fluorescence images and dark-field images to quantify the bacterial growth inhibition effect under different antibiotics. The quantitative data of bacterial growth inhibition under different antibiotics can be obtained within 3 to 4 h. Considering the simple operation process and the high-throughput and quantitative result this device can offer, it has great potential to be widely used in clinics and may be useful for the study of the kinetics of bacterial growth.

  12. Bacterial growth in the cold: Evidence for an enhanced substrate requirement

    SciTech Connect

    Wiebe, W.J.; Sheldon, W.M. Jr.; Pomeroy, L.R. )

    1992-01-01

    Growth responses and biovolume changes for four facultatively psychrophilic bacterial isolates from Conception Bay, Newfoundland, and the Arctic Ocean were examined at temperatures from {minus}1.5 to 35C, with substrate concentrations of 0.15, 1.5, and 1,500 mg of proteose peptone-yeast extract per liter. For two cultures, growth in 0.1, 1.0, and 1,000 mg of proline per liter was also examined. At 10 to 15C and above, growth rates showed no marked effect of substrate concentration, while at {minus}1.5 and 0C, there was an increasing requirement for organic nutrients, with generation times in low-nutrient media that were two to three times longer than in high-nutrient media. Biovolume showed a clear dependence on substrate concentration and quality; the largest cells were in the highest-nutrient media. Biovolume was also affected by temperature; the largest cells were found at the lowest temperatures. These data have implications for both food web structure and carbon flow in cold waters and for the effects of global climate change, since the change in growth rate is most dramatic at the lowest temperatures.

  13. The Tzs protein and exogenous cytokinin affect virulence gene expression and bacterial growth of Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hau-Hsuan; Yang, Fong-Jhih; Cheng, Tun-Fang; Chen, Yi-Chun; Lee, Ying-Ling; Tsai, Yun-Long; Lai, Erh-Min

    2013-09-01

    The soil phytopathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes crown gall disease in a wide range of plant species. The neoplastic growth at the infection sites is caused by transferring, integrating, and expressing transfer DNA (T-DNA) from A. tumefaciens into plant cells. A trans-zeatin synthesizing (tzs) gene is located in the nopaline-type tumor-inducing plasmid and causes trans-zeatin production in A. tumefaciens. Similar to known virulence (Vir) proteins that are induced by the vir gene inducer acetosyringone (AS) at acidic pH 5.5, Tzs protein is highly induced by AS under this growth condition but also constitutively expressed and moderately upregulated by AS at neutral pH 7.0. We found that the promoter activities and protein levels of several AS-induced vir genes increased in the tzs deletion mutant, a mutant with decreased tumorigenesis and transient transformation efficiencies, in Arabidopsis roots. During AS induction and infection of Arabidopsis roots, the tzs deletion mutant conferred impaired growth, which could be rescued by genetic complementation and supplementing exogenous cytokinin. Exogenous cytokinin also repressed vir promoter activities and Vir protein accumulation in both the wild-type and tzs mutant bacteria with AS induction. Thus, the tzs gene or its product, cytokinin, may be involved in regulating AS-induced vir gene expression and, therefore, affect bacterial growth and virulence during A. tumefaciens infection. PMID:23593941

  14. The Tzs protein and exogenous cytokinin affect virulence gene expression and bacterial growth of Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hau-Hsuan; Yang, Fong-Jhih; Cheng, Tun-Fang; Chen, Yi-Chun; Lee, Ying-Ling; Tsai, Yun-Long; Lai, Erh-Min

    2013-09-01

    The soil phytopathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes crown gall disease in a wide range of plant species. The neoplastic growth at the infection sites is caused by transferring, integrating, and expressing transfer DNA (T-DNA) from A. tumefaciens into plant cells. A trans-zeatin synthesizing (tzs) gene is located in the nopaline-type tumor-inducing plasmid and causes trans-zeatin production in A. tumefaciens. Similar to known virulence (Vir) proteins that are induced by the vir gene inducer acetosyringone (AS) at acidic pH 5.5, Tzs protein is highly induced by AS under this growth condition but also constitutively expressed and moderately upregulated by AS at neutral pH 7.0. We found that the promoter activities and protein levels of several AS-induced vir genes increased in the tzs deletion mutant, a mutant with decreased tumorigenesis and transient transformation efficiencies, in Arabidopsis roots. During AS induction and infection of Arabidopsis roots, the tzs deletion mutant conferred impaired growth, which could be rescued by genetic complementation and supplementing exogenous cytokinin. Exogenous cytokinin also repressed vir promoter activities and Vir protein accumulation in both the wild-type and tzs mutant bacteria with AS induction. Thus, the tzs gene or its product, cytokinin, may be involved in regulating AS-induced vir gene expression and, therefore, affect bacterial growth and virulence during A. tumefaciens infection.

  15. Silver-decorated orthorhombic nanotubes of lithium vanadium oxide: an impeder of bacterial growth and biofilm.

    PubMed

    Diggikar, Rahul S; Patil, Rajendra H; Kale, Sheetal B; Thombre, Dipalee K; Gade, Wasudeo N; Kulkarni, Milind V; Kale, Bharat B

    2013-09-01

    Reoccurrence of infectious diseases and ability of pathogens to resist antibacterial action has raised enormous challenges which may possibly be confronted by nanotechnology routes. In the present study, uniformly embedded silver nanoparticles in orthorhombic nanotubes of lithium vanadium oxide (LiV2O5/Ag) were explored as an impeder of bacterial growth and biofilm. The LiV2O5/Ag nanocomposites have impeded growth of Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis NCIM 2063 and Gram-negative Escherichia coli NCIM 2931 at 60 to 120 μg/mL. It also impeded the biofilm in Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCIM 2948 at 12.5 to 25 μg/mL. Impedance in the growth and biofilm occurs primarily by direct action of the nanocomposites on the cell surfaces of test organisms as revealed by surface perturbation in scanning electron microscopy. As the metabolic growth and biofilm formation phenomena of pathogens play a central role in progression of pathogenesis, LiV2O5/Ag nanocomposite-based approach is likely to curb the menace of reoccurrence of infectious diseases. Thus, LiV2O5/Ag nanocomposites can be viewed as a promising candidate in biofabrication of biomedical materials.

  16. Combining prebiotics with probiotic bacteria can enhance bacterial growth and secretion of bacteriocins.

    PubMed

    Pranckutė, Raminta; Kaunietis, Arnoldas; Kuisienė, Nomeda; Čitavičius, Donaldas J

    2016-08-01

    There is a growing interest in supporting human health by using prebiotics, such as oligosaccharides, and beneficial bacteria, also called probiotics. Combining these two components we can develop synbiotics. In order to create successful combination of synbiotic it is very important to evaluate the influence of prebiotic oligosaccharides to probiotic bacteria and their behavior, such as growth and secretion of health related biomolecules, including bacteriocins. In this study seven type strains of probiotic bacteria (five Lactobacillus sp. and two Lactococcus sp.) and two Lactobacillus sp. strains, isolated from probiotic yoghurt, were cultivated with various commercially available and extracted oligosaccharides (OS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of these OS on type and isolated bacterial strains growth and antibacterial activity. Obtained results suggest that combination of certain OS with probiotic strains may considerably improve their growth and/or antibacterial activity. We also determined the antibacterial activity spectrum of investigated strains with combination of OS against common food borne pathogens. Results of this work show that prebiotic OS can be useful for modulating probiotic bacteria growth, antibacterial activity and even specificity of this activity. PMID:27181578

  17. Bacterial endophyte Sphingomonas sp. LK11 produces gibberellins and IAA and promotes tomato plant growth.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Waqas, Muhammad; Kang, Sang-Mo; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Hussain, Javid; Al-Rawahi, Ahmed; Al-Khiziri, Salima; Ullah, Ihsan; Ali, Liaqat; Jung, Hee-Young; Lee, In-Jung

    2014-08-01

    Plant growth promoting endophytic bacteria have been identified as potential growth regulators of crops. Endophytic bacterium, Sphingomonas sp. LK11, was isolated from the leaves of Tephrosia apollinea. The pure culture of Sphingomonas sp. LK11 was subjected to advance chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques to extract and isolate gibberellins (GAs). Deuterated standards of [17, 17-(2)H2]-GA4, [17, 17-(2)H2]-GA9 and [17, 17-(2)H2]-GA20 were used to quantify the bacterial GAs. The analysis of the culture broth of Sphingomonas sp. LK11 revealed the existence of physiologically active gibberellins (GA4: 2.97 ± 0.11 ng/ml) and inactive GA9 (0.98 ± 0.15 ng/ml) and GA20 (2.41 ± 0.23). The endophyte also produced indole acetic acid (11.23 ± 0.93 μM/ml). Tomato plants inoculated with endophytic Sphingomonas sp. LK11 showed significantly increased growth attributes (shoot length, chlorophyll contents, shoot, and root dry weights) compared to the control. This indicated that such phyto-hormones-producing strains could help in increasing crop growth. PMID:24994010

  18. High-pressure, high-temperature bioreactor for comparing effects of hyperbaric and hydrostatic pressure on bacterial growth.

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, C M; Schuppenhauer, M R; Clark, D S

    1992-01-01

    We describe a high-pressure reactor system suitable for simultaneous hyperbaric and hydrostatic pressurization of bacterial cultures at elevated temperatures. For the deep-sea thermophile ES4, the growth rate at 500 atm (1 atm = 101.29 kPa) and 95 degrees C under hydrostatic pressure was ca. three times the growth rate under hyperbaric pressure and ca. 40% higher than the growth rate at 35 atm. PMID:1622255

  19. Stool consistency is strongly associated with gut microbiota richness and composition, enterotypes and bacterial growth rates

    PubMed Central

    Vandeputte, Doris; Falony, Gwen; Vieira-Silva, Sara; Tito, Raul Y; Joossens, Marie; Raes, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Objective The assessment of potentially confounding factors affecting colon microbiota composition is essential to the identification of robust microbiome based disease markers. Here, we investigate the link between gut microbiota variation and stool consistency using Bristol Stool Scale classification, which reflects faecal water content and activity, and is considered a proxy for intestinal colon transit time. Design Through 16S rDNA Illumina profiling of faecal samples of 53 healthy women, we evaluated associations between microbiome richness, Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio, enterotypes, and genus abundance with self-reported, Bristol Stool Scale-based stool consistency. Each sample’s microbiota growth potential was calculated to test whether transit time acts as a selective force on gut bacterial growth rates. Results Stool consistency strongly correlates with all known major microbiome markers. It is negatively correlated with species richness, positively associated to the Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio, and linked to Akkermansia and Methanobrevibacter abundance. Enterotypes are distinctly distributed over the BSS-scores. Based on the correlations between microbiota growth potential and stool consistency scores within both enterotypes, we hypothesise that accelerated transit contributes to colon ecosystem differentiation. While shorter transit times can be linked to increased abundance of fast growing species in Ruminococcaceae-Bacteroides samples, hinting to a washout avoidance strategy of faster replication, this trend is absent in Prevotella-enterotyped individuals. Within this enterotype adherence to host tissue therefore appears to be a more likely bacterial strategy to cope with washout. Conclusions The strength of the associations between stool consistency and species richness, enterotypes and community composition emphasises the crucial importance of stool consistency assessment in gut metagenome-wide association studies. PMID:26069274

  20. Effects of Assimilable Organic Carbon and Free Chlorine on Bacterial Growth in Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tingting; Kong, Weiwen; He, Xiaoqing; Jin, Yi; Zhang, Bolin

    2015-01-01

    Assimilable organic carbon (AOC) is one of the most important factors affecting the re-growth of microorganisms in drinking water. High AOC concentrations result in biological instability, but disinfection kills microbes to ensure the safety of drinking water. Free chlorine is an important oxidizing agent used during the disinfection process. Therefore, we explored the combined effects of AOC and free chlorine on bacterial growth in drinking water using flow cytometry (FCM). The initial AOC concentration was 168 μg.L-1 in all water samples. Without free chlorine, the concentrations of intact bacteria increased but the level of AOC decreased. The addition of sodium hypochlorite caused an increase and fluctuation in AOC due to the oxidation of organic carbon. The concentrations of intact bacteria decreased from 1.1×105 cells.mL-1 to 2.6×104 cells.mL-1 at an initial free chlorine dose of 0.6 mg.L-1 to 4.8×104 cells.mL-1 at an initial free chlorine dose of 0.3 mg.L-1 due to free chlorine originating from sodium hypochlorite. Additionally, free chlorine might be more obviously affected AOC concentrations than microbial growth did. These results suggested that AOC and free chlorine might have combined effects on microbial growth. In this study, our results showed concentrations determined by FCM were higher than those by HPC, which indicated that some E. coli detected by FCM might not be detected using HPC in drinking water. The level of free chlorine might restrain the consumption of AOC by inhibiting the growth of E. coli; on the other hand, chlorination might increase the level of AOC, thereby increase the potential for microbial growth in the drinking water network. PMID:26034988

  1. Effects of assimilable organic carbon and free chlorine on bacterial growth in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaolu; Wang, Jingqi; Liu, Tingting; Kong, Weiwen; He, Xiaoqing; Jin, Yi; Zhang, Bolin

    2015-01-01

    Assimilable organic carbon (AOC) is one of the most important factors affecting the re-growth of microorganisms in drinking water. High AOC concentrations result in biological instability, but disinfection kills microbes to ensure the safety of drinking water. Free chlorine is an important oxidizing agent used during the disinfection process. Therefore, we explored the combined effects of AOC and free chlorine on bacterial growth in drinking water using flow cytometry (FCM). The initial AOC concentration was 168 μg.L(-1) in all water samples. Without free chlorine, the concentrations of intact bacteria increased but the level of AOC decreased. The addition of sodium hypochlorite caused an increase and fluctuation in AOC due to the oxidation of organic carbon. The concentrations of intact bacteria decreased from 1.1 × 10(5) cells.mL(-1) to 2.6 × 10(4) cells.mL(-1) at an initial free chlorine dose of 0.6 mg.L(-1) to 4.8 × 10(4) cells.mL(-1) at an initial free chlorine dose of 0.3 mg.L(-1) due to free chlorine originating from sodium hypochlorite. Additionally, free chlorine might be more obviously affected AOC concentrations than microbial growth did. These results suggested that AOC and free chlorine might have combined effects on microbial growth. In this study, our results showed concentrations determined by FCM were higher than those by HPC, which indicated that some E. coli detected by FCM might not be detected using HPC in drinking water. The level of free chlorine might restrain the consumption of AOC by inhibiting the growth of E. coli; on the other hand, chlorination might increase the level of AOC, thereby increase the potential for microbial growth in the drinking water network.

  2. Mining the phytomicrobiome to understand how bacterial coinoculations enhance plant growth

    PubMed Central

    Maymon, Maskit; Martínez-Hidalgo, Pilar; Tran, Stephen S.; Ice, Tyler; Craemer, Karena; Anbarchian, Teni; Sung, Tiffany; Hwang, Lin H.; Chou, Minxia; Fujishige, Nancy A.; Villella, William; Ventosa, Jérôme; Sikorski, Johannes; Sanders, Erin R.; Faull, Kym F.; Hirsch, Ann M.

    2015-01-01

    In previous work, we showed that coinoculating Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 128C53 and Bacillus simplex 30N-5 onto Pisum sativum L. roots resulted in better nodulation and increased plant growth. We now expand this research to include another alpha-rhizobial species as well as a beta-rhizobium, Burkholderia tuberum STM678. We first determined whether the rhizobia were compatible with B. simplex 30N-5 by cross-streaking experiments, and then Medicago truncatula and Melilotus alba were coinoculated with B. simplex 30N-5 and Sinorhizobium (Ensifer) meliloti to determine the effects on plant growth. Similarly, B. simplex 30N-5 and Bu. tuberum STM678 were coinoculated onto Macroptilium atropurpureum. The exact mechanisms whereby coinoculation results in increased plant growth are incompletely understood, but the synthesis of phytohormones and siderophores, the improved solubilization of inorganic nutrients, and the production of antimicrobial compounds are likely possibilities. Because B. simplex 30N-5 is not widely recognized as a Plant Growth Promoting Bacterial (PGPB) species, after sequencing its genome, we searched for genes proposed to promote plant growth, and then compared these sequences with those from several well studied PGPB species. In addition to genes involved in phytohormone synthesis, we detected genes important for the production of volatiles, polyamines, and antimicrobial peptides as well as genes for such plant growth-promoting traits as phosphate solubilization and siderophore production. Experimental evidence is presented to show that some of these traits, such as polyamine synthesis, are functional in B. simplex 30N-5, whereas others, e.g., auxin production, are not. PMID:26442090

  3. Growth curves for school children from Kuching, Sarawak: a methodological development.

    PubMed

    Bong, Yii Bonn; Shariff, Asma Ahmad; Mohamed, Abdul Majid; Merican, Amir Feisal

    2015-03-01

    In this article, the authors propose reference curves for height and weight for school children in the Kuching area, Sarawak. The school children were from primary to secondary schools (aged 6.5 to 17 years old) and comprised both genders. Anthropometric measurements and demographic information for 3081 school-aged children were collected (1440 boys and 1641 girls). Fitted line plots and percentiles for height and weight (3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 97th percentiles) were obtained. The height of school boys and school girls were almost similar at the start of their school-going age. For school girls, height and weight values stabilized when they reached 16 or 17 years old but kept increasing for school boys. School boys were taller than school girls as they entered adolescence. Height differences between school boys and school girls became significantly wider as they grew older. Chinese school children were taller and heavier than those of other ethnic groups.

  4. Analysis of a Stochastic Model for Bacterial Growth and the Lognormality of the Cell-Size Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Ken; Wakita, Jun-ichi

    2016-07-01

    This paper theoretically analyzes a phenomenological stochastic model for bacterial growth. This model comprises cell division and the linear growth of cells, where growth rates and cell cycles are drawn from lognormal distributions. We find that the cell size is expressed as a sum of independent lognormal variables. We show numerically that the quality of the lognormal approximation greatly depends on the distributions of the growth rate and cell cycle. Furthermore, we show that actual parameters of the growth rate and cell cycle take values that give a good lognormal approximation; thus, the experimental cell-size distribution is in good agreement with a lognormal distribution.

  5. The Terminal Oxidase Cytochrome bd Promotes Sulfide-resistant Bacterial Respiration and Growth.

    PubMed

    Forte, Elena; Borisov, Vitaliy B; Falabella, Micol; Colaço, Henrique G; Tinajero-Trejo, Mariana; Poole, Robert K; Vicente, João B; Sarti, Paolo; Giuffrè, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) impairs mitochondrial respiration by potently inhibiting the heme-copper cytochrome c oxidase. Since many prokaryotes, including Escherichia (E.) coli, generate H2S and encounter high H2S levels particularly in the human gut, herein we tested whether bacteria can sustain sulfide-resistant O2-dependent respiration. E. coli has three respiratory oxidases, the cyanide-sensitive heme-copper bo3 enzyme and two bd oxidases much less sensitive to cyanide. Working on the isolated enzymes, we found that, whereas the bo3 oxidase is inhibited by sulfide with half-maximal inhibitory concentration IC50 = 1.1 ± 0.1 μM, under identical experimental conditions both bd oxidases are insensitive to sulfide up to 58 μM. In E. coli respiratory mutants, both O2-consumption and aerobic growth proved to be severely impaired by sulfide when respiration was sustained by the bo3 oxidase alone, but unaffected by ≤200 μM sulfide when either bd enzyme acted as the only terminal oxidase. Accordingly, wild-type E. coli showed sulfide-insensitive respiration and growth under conditions favouring the expression of bd oxidases. In all tested conditions, cyanide mimicked the functional effect of sulfide on bacterial respiration. We conclude that bd oxidases promote sulfide-resistant O2-consumption and growth in E. coli and possibly other bacteria. The impact of this discovery is discussed. PMID:27030302

  6. The Terminal Oxidase Cytochrome bd Promotes Sulfide-resistant Bacterial Respiration and Growth

    PubMed Central

    Forte, Elena; Borisov, Vitaliy B.; Falabella, Micol; Colaço, Henrique G.; Tinajero-Trejo, Mariana; Poole, Robert K.; Vicente, João B.; Sarti, Paolo; Giuffrè, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) impairs mitochondrial respiration by potently inhibiting the heme-copper cytochrome c oxidase. Since many prokaryotes, including Escherichia (E.) coli, generate H2S and encounter high H2S levels particularly in the human gut, herein we tested whether bacteria can sustain sulfide-resistant O2-dependent respiration. E. coli has three respiratory oxidases, the cyanide-sensitive heme-copper bo3 enzyme and two bd oxidases much less sensitive to cyanide. Working on the isolated enzymes, we found that, whereas the bo3 oxidase is inhibited by sulfide with half-maximal inhibitory concentration IC50 = 1.1 ± 0.1 μM, under identical experimental conditions both bd oxidases are insensitive to sulfide up to 58 μM. In E. coli respiratory mutants, both O2-consumption and aerobic growth proved to be severely impaired by sulfide when respiration was sustained by the bo3 oxidase alone, but unaffected by ≤200 μM sulfide when either bd enzyme acted as the only terminal oxidase. Accordingly, wild-type E. coli showed sulfide-insensitive respiration and growth under conditions favouring the expression of bd oxidases. In all tested conditions, cyanide mimicked the functional effect of sulfide on bacterial respiration. We conclude that bd oxidases promote sulfide-resistant O2-consumption and growth in E. coli and possibly other bacteria. The impact of this discovery is discussed. PMID:27030302

  7. Response of the bacterial symbiont Holospora caryophila to different growth conditions of its host.

    PubMed

    Castelli, Michele; Lanzoni, Olivia; Fokin, Sergei I; Schrallhammer, Martina; Petroni, Giulio

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies on bacterial symbionts of ciliates have shown that some symbionts can be maintained relatively well under standard laboratory conditions whereas others are frequently lost, especially when the host is cultivated at a high division rate. In this study, the variation in infection level by the endosymbiont Holospora caryophila within its host population Paramecium octaurelia was investigated in response to three alimentary treatments and a subsequent starvation phase. The response of the ciliates was determined as a nearly exponential growth rate with different slopes in each treatment, proportional to the amount of food received. The initial infection level was higher than 90%. After 24 days of exponential host's growth, the prevalence remained stable at approximately 90% in all treatments, even after a subsequent starvation phase of 20 days. However, at intermediate time-points in both the feeding and the starvation phase, fluctuations in the presence of the intracellular bacteria were observed. These results show that H. caryophila is able to maintain its infection under the tested range of host growth conditions, also due to the possibility of an effective re-infection in case of partial loss. PMID:25635695

  8. Hydroxyapatite bioactivated bacterial cellulose promotes osteoblast growth and the formation of bone nodules

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the feasibility of bacterial cellulose (BC) scaffold to support osteoblast growth and bone formation. BC was produced by culturing Acetobacter xylinum supplemented with hydroxyapatite (HA) to form BC membranes (without HA) and BC/HA membranes. Membranes were subjected to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis to determine surface element composition. The membranes were further used to evaluate osteoblast growth, alkaline phosphatase activity and bone nodule formation. BC was free of calcium and phosphate. However, XPS analysis revealed the presence of both calcium (10%) and phosphate (10%) at the surface of the BC/HA membrane. Osteoblast culture showed that BC alone was non-toxic and could sustain osteoblast adhesion. Furthermore, osteoblast adhesion and growth were significantly (p ≤0.05) increased on BC/HA membranes as compared to BC alone. Both BC and BC/HA membranes improved osteoconductivity, as confirmed by the level of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity that increased from 2.5 mM with BC alone to 5.3 mM with BC/HA. BC/HA membranes also showed greater nodule formation and mineralization than the BC membrane alone. This was confirmed by Alizarin red staining (ARS) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). This work demonstrates that both BC and BC/HA may be useful in bone tissue engineering. PMID:23174338

  9. Changes in bacterial flora of Japanese cabbage during growth and potential source of flora.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Hidemi; Sera, Kaori

    2011-04-01

    Bacterial flora of cabbage were identified and enumerated during various stages of growth, and the potential sources of contamination in the field were determined. Bacterial counts increased from below the level of detection (2.4 log CFU/g) on seeds to 2.5 to 5.7 log CFU/g on seedlings. After transplanting, the counts of mesophilic aerobic bacteria on leaves decreased and then increased to 5.7 log CFU/g on outer leaves, 5.0 log CFU/g on middle leaves, and 3.0 log CFU/g on inner leaves at the harvesting stage. Counts of coliforms were below the level of detection during the growing period of the leaves. Bacteria isolated from cabbage seeds, seedlings, and leaves were soilborne organisms such as Bacillus, Curtobacterium, and Delftia and phytopathogenic organisms such as Pseudomonas, Pantoea, and Stenotrophomonas. These bacteria were found frequently in seeding machines, potting soil mix, soil, agricultural water, pesticide solutions mixed with the agricultural water, liquid fertilizers, and chemical fertilizers. Contamination from these environmental sites occurred throughout the cabbage growing period rather than only at the harvesting stage. These results indicate that use of clean water for irrigation and for mixing with pesticides and amendments from seeding to the harvesting stage is an important part of a good agricultural practices program for cabbage in Japan. PMID:21477482

  10. Label-free interdigitated microelectrode based biosensors for bacterial biofilm growth monitoring using Petri dishes.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Jacobo; Becerro, Sheila; Arana, Sergio

    2014-05-01

    Impedance microbiology (IM) is a known technique that has been applied during the last decades to detect the presence of microorganisms in real samples in different fields: food industry, healthcare, environment, etc. Bacterial biofilms however have not been so far studied despite the fact that they are the most common microbiological formation and that they present resistance to antimicrobial agents. In situ early detection of bacterial biofilm is still a challenge nowadays that causes huge impact in many different scenarios. The ability to detect biofilm generation early will allow better and more efficient treatments preventing high costs and important problems. In this work a new performance of this technique with interdigitated microelectrode sensors (IDE) is proposed. A specific culturing setup where the sensors have been integrated in Petri Dishes has been developed. From the results it can be highlighted that low frequencies are more sensitive for detection than higher ones. The results achieved record variations of approximately 40% in the equivalent serial resistance after 10h of culture. Electrical models have been successfully simulated to find the electrical behavior of the development of biofilms. Variations in both the capacitance and resistance were recorded during the growth of the microbes.

  11. Label-free interdigitated microelectrode based biosensors for bacterial biofilm growth monitoring using Petri dishes.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Jacobo; Becerro, Sheila; Arana, Sergio

    2014-05-01

    Impedance microbiology (IM) is a known technique that has been applied during the last decades to detect the presence of microorganisms in real samples in different fields: food industry, healthcare, environment, etc. Bacterial biofilms however have not been so far studied despite the fact that they are the most common microbiological formation and that they present resistance to antimicrobial agents. In situ early detection of bacterial biofilm is still a challenge nowadays that causes huge impact in many different scenarios. The ability to detect biofilm generation early will allow better and more efficient treatments preventing high costs and important problems. In this work a new performance of this technique with interdigitated microelectrode sensors (IDE) is proposed. A specific culturing setup where the sensors have been integrated in Petri Dishes has been developed. From the results it can be highlighted that low frequencies are more sensitive for detection than higher ones. The results achieved record variations of approximately 40% in the equivalent serial resistance after 10h of culture. Electrical models have been successfully simulated to find the electrical behavior of the development of biofilms. Variations in both the capacitance and resistance were recorded during the growth of the microbes. PMID:24632516

  12. Sevoflurane Contamination: Water Accumulation in Sevoflurane Vaporizers Can Allow Bacterial Growth in the Vaporizer.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Arthur W

    2016-06-15

    Sevoflurane vaporizers (GE Tec 7) were difficult to fill with "slow flow" and a need to "burp." Evaluation of the bottle of sevoflurane (AbbVie Ultane) demonstrated a contaminant. Four of the facilities' 13 sevoflurane vaporizers had the contaminant. Unopened sevoflurane bottles did not have evidence of contamination. The contaminant was found to be water at pH 6.0 growing Staphylococcus epidermidis. Gas chromatography revealed the production of multiple metabolites of sevoflurane, including primarily urea and 1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione (83% and 9.6% of volatiles) in addition to multiple other organic molecules. Sevoflurane contains water that can accumulate in vaporizers allowing bacterial growth.

  13. Molecular mechanisms for the evolution of bacterial morphologies and growth modes

    PubMed Central

    Randich, Amelia M.; Brun, Yves V.

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria exhibit a rich diversity of morphologies. Within this diversity, there is a uniformity of shape for each species that is replicated faithfully each generation, suggesting that bacterial shape is as selectable as any other biochemical adaptation. We describe the spatiotemporal mechanisms that target peptidoglycan synthesis to different subcellular zones to generate the rod-shape of model organisms Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. We then demonstrate, using the related genera Caulobacter and Asticcacaulis as examples, how the modularity of the core components of the peptidoglycan synthesis machinery permits repositioning of the machinery to achieve different growth modes and morphologies. Finally, we highlight cases in which the mechanisms that underlie morphological evolution are beginning to be understood, and how they depend upon the expansion and diversification of the core components of the peptidoglycan synthesis machinery. PMID:26106381

  14. Unique presentations of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor-induced papulopustular eruption related to bacterial superinfection.

    PubMed

    Wiznia, Lauren Elyse; Choi, Jennifer Nam

    2013-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors have been reported to induce numerous cutaneous side effects, the most notable of which is a papulopustular eruption on the face, scalp, and central chest. The typical presentation consists of inflamed papules, often with pustules, favoring a seborrheic distribution. The pustules of the EGFR inhibitor-induced papulopustular eruption are commonly sterile but bacterial superinfection is not uncommon. We report two unique presentations of the papulopustular eruption that were found to be associated with Staphylococcus aureus superinfection. One patient presented with an abrupt onset of nearly confluent red plaques on the cheeks, forehead, chin, and neck, with innumerable studded pinpoint pustules. The other patient had a long-standing untreated papulopustular eruption on the scalp, which resulted in widespread erythema, large thick plaques of serous crust, pustular exudate, and associated alopecia. Both patients quickly resolved with non-tetracycline oral antibiotics combined with topical steroid treatment. PMID:23552005

  15. Altering the growth conditions of Gluconacetobacter xylinus to maximize the yield of bacterial cellulose.

    PubMed

    Ruka, Dianne R; Simon, George P; Dean, Katherine M

    2012-06-20

    An extensive matrix of different growth conditions including media, incubation time, inoculum volume, surface area and media volume were investigated in order to maximize the yield of bacterial cellulose produced by Gluconacetobacter xylinus, which will be used as reinforcement material to produce fully biodegradable composites. Crystallinity was shown to be controllable depending on the media and conditions employed. Samples with significant difference in crystallinity in a range from 50% to 95% were produced. Through experimental design, the yield of cellulose was maximized; primarily this involved reactor surface area design, optimized media and the use of mannitol being the highest cellulose-producing carbon source. Increasing the volume of the media did achieve a higher cellulose yield, however this increase was not found to be cost or time effective.

  16. Self-Esteem and Delinquency Revisited (Again): A Test of Kaplan's Self-Derogation Theory of Delinquency Using Latent Growth Curve Modeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, W. Alex

    2001-01-01

    Studied the relationship between self-esteem and delinquency using latent growth curve modeling. Analyses of panel data for 2,213 adolescent boys from the Youth in Transition Study supported Kaplan's self-derogation theory of delinquency (H. Kaplan, 1978) by showing that delinquency was positively associated with growth in self-esteem among…

  17. Rapid estimation of depositional ages of eolian dune sands using a portable OSL reader and polymineralic coarse grain standardized luminescence growth curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munyikwa, K.; Brown, S.

    2011-12-01

    Two developments in luminescence dating studies over the last few years have the potential to contribute significantly to the abbreviation of the usually lengthy and laborious dating protocols, at least for reconnaissance exercises. One of these developments has been the introduction of portable optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) readers that can be used to perform measurements in the field. Apart from portability, an additional advantage for some of the portable systems is the ability to make luminescence measurements directly on bulk polymineralic samples, negating the need for lengthy mineral separation procedures. The second development stems from studies which have looked at the use of standardized luminescence growth curves for paleodose estimation. These studies have shown that normalized growth curves constructed using different samples from the same region are generally similar for doses below about 50 Gy and can be used to reliably approximate equivalent doses by simply obtaining a measurement of the normalized natural signal. The use of such standardized growth curves shortens the dating procedure significantly because it eliminates the need for constructing individual growth curves for each sample, which is the practice in regular OSL dating. In this study we merge these two recent developments by using a portable OSL reader developed by the Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre (SUERC) to prepare standardized growth curves for quartz and feldspar from polymineralic sands from postglacial eolian dunes in Alberta, Canada. To differentiate the signal yielded by the feldspar from that given out by the quartz grains, we stimulate the bulk sample by first using IRSL followed by post-IR blue OSL stimulation. For the growth curve, artificial doses of 5, 20, 15, 25, 30, 40, 50, 70 and 100 Gy are administered on aliquots of the bulk samples using a Cs-137 irradiation source. A test dose of 4 Gy is used for the normalization of all aliquots

  18. Gender and Facebook motives as predictors of specific types of Facebook use: A latent growth curve analysis in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Frison, Eline; Eggermont, Steven

    2016-10-01

    Despite increasing evidence that specific types of Facebook use (i.e., active private, active public, and passive Facebook use) are differently related to adolescents' well-being, little is known how these types function over the course of adolescence and whether gender and Facebook motives may predict the initial level and changes in these types over time. To address these gaps, Flemish adolescents (ages 12-19) were questioned at three different time points, with six months in between (NTime1 = 1866). Latent growth curve models revealed that active private Facebook use increased over the course of adolescence, whereas public Facebook use decreased. Passive Facebook use, however, remained stable. In addition, gender and Facebook motives were related to initial levels of specific types of Facebook use, and predictive of dynamic change in specific types of Facebook use over time. The discussion focuses on the understanding and implications of these findings. PMID:27585534

  19. Short- and Mid-Term Effects of Violent Victimization on Delinquency: A Multilevel Growth-Curve Modeling Approach.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young S; Lo, Celia C

    2016-10-01

    The present study investigates how adolescents' experiences of violent victimization exert short- and mid-term effects on their involvement in delinquency. The study compares and contrasts delinquency trajectories of youths whose experiences of violent victimization differ. A multilevel growth-curve modeling approach is applied to analyze data from five waves of the National Youth Survey. The results show that, although delinquency involvement increases as youths experience violent victimization, delinquency trajectories differ with the type of violent victimization, specifically, parental versus non-parental victimization. Violent victimization by parents produced a sharp initial decline in delinquency (short-term effect) followed by a rapid acceleration (mid-term effect). In turn, non-parental violence showed a stable trend over time. The findings have important implications for prevention and treatment services.

  20. Longitudinal Relationships Between Productive Activities and Functional Health in Later Years: A Multivariate Latent Growth Curve Modeling Approach.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eunhee; Tang, Fengyan; Kim, Sung-Geun; Turk, Phillip

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the longitudinal relationships between functional health in later years and three types of productive activities: volunteering, full-time, and part-time work. Using the data from five waves (2000-2008) of the Health and Retirement Study, we applied multivariate latent growth curve modeling to examine the longitudinal relationships among individuals 50 or over. Functional health was measured by limitations in activities of daily living. Individuals who volunteered, worked either full time or part time exhibited a slower decline in functional health than nonparticipants. Significant associations were also found between initial functional health and longitudinal changes in productive activity participation. This study provides additional support for the benefits of productive activities later in life; engagement in volunteering and employment are indeed associated with better functional health in middle and old age. PMID:27461262

  1. Gender and Facebook motives as predictors of specific types of Facebook use: A latent growth curve analysis in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Frison, Eline; Eggermont, Steven

    2016-10-01

    Despite increasing evidence that specific types of Facebook use (i.e., active private, active public, and passive Facebook use) are differently related to adolescents' well-being, little is known how these types function over the course of adolescence and whether gender and Facebook motives may predict the initial level and changes in these types over time. To address these gaps, Flemish adolescents (ages 12-19) were questioned at three different time points, with six months in between (NTime1 = 1866). Latent growth curve models revealed that active private Facebook use increased over the course of adolescence, whereas public Facebook use decreased. Passive Facebook use, however, remained stable. In addition, gender and Facebook motives were related to initial levels of specific types of Facebook use, and predictive of dynamic change in specific types of Facebook use over time. The discussion focuses on the understanding and implications of these findings.

  2. The effect of physical activity on depression in adolescence and emerging adulthood: a growth-curve analysis.

    PubMed

    McPhie, Meghan L; Rawana, Jennine S

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the influence of physical activity on the trajectory of depression from adolescence through emerging adulthood (EA). Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Waves I to IV), latent growth curve modeling was performed to assess how physical activity and gender influenced depression across adolescence and EA. Higher levels of physical activity in mid-adolescence were associated with lower levels of depression during mid-adolescence and slower inclines and declines in depression over time. Boys had lower levels of depression in mid-adolescence and slower inclines and declines in depression over time compared to girls. Findings provide evidence that current theories on understanding depression and mental health prevention programs may be enhanced by the inclusion of physical activity.

  3. Short- and Mid-Term Effects of Violent Victimization on Delinquency: A Multilevel Growth-Curve Modeling Approach.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young S; Lo, Celia C

    2016-10-01

    The present study investigates how adolescents' experiences of violent victimization exert short- and mid-term effects on their involvement in delinquency. The study compares and contrasts delinquency trajectories of youths whose experiences of violent victimization differ. A multilevel growth-curve modeling approach is applied to analyze data from five waves of the National Youth Survey. The results show that, although delinquency involvement increases as youths experience violent victimization, delinquency trajectories differ with the type of violent victimization, specifically, parental versus non-parental victimization. Violent victimization by parents produced a sharp initial decline in delinquency (short-term effect) followed by a rapid acceleration (mid-term effect). In turn, non-parental violence showed a stable trend over time. The findings have important implications for prevention and treatment services. PMID:25888502

  4. A Latent Growth Curve Analysis of Early and Increasing Peer Victimization as Predictors of Mental Health Across Elementary School

    PubMed Central

    Rudolph, Karen D.; Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Hessel, Elenda T.; Schmidt, Jennifer D.

    2011-01-01

    Peer victimization has been implicated as a traumatic stressor that compromises children’s long-term mental health, yet a dearth of prospective research specifically demonstrates lasting effects of early victimization. This research examined whether early (2nd grade) victimization and increasing (2nd – 5th grade) victimization independently predicted depressive symptoms and aggressive behavior (overt and relational) in 5th grade. Participants included 433 children (238 girls, 195 boys). Children reported on peer victimization and depressive symptoms; teachers reported on peer victimization and aggressive behavior. Latent growth curve analysis revealed that both early and increasing victimization made unique contributions to subsequent depressive symptoms and aggressive behavior. Relational aggression was particularly likely to follow victimization in girls. PMID:21229448

  5. Response of leaf endophytic bacterial community to elevated CO2 at different growth stages of rice plant

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Gaidi; Zhang, Huayong; Lin, Xiangui; Zhu, Jianguo; Jia, Zhongjun

    2015-01-01

    Plant endophytic bacteria play an important role in plant growth and health. In the context of climate change, the response of plant endophytic bacterial communities to elevated CO2 at different rice growing stages is poorly understood. Using 454 pyrosequencing, we investigated the response of leaf endophytic bacterial communities to elevated CO2 (eCO2) at the tillering, filling, and maturity stages of the rice plant under different nitrogen fertilization conditions [low nitrogen fertilization (LN) and high nitrogen fertilization (HN)]. The results revealed that the leaf endophytic bacterial community was dominated by Gammaproteobacteria-affiliated families, such as Enterobacteriaceae and Xanthomonadaceae, which represent 28.7–86.8% and 2.14–42.6% of the total sequence reads, respectively, at all tested growth stages. The difference in the bacterial community structure between the different growth stages was greater than the difference resulting from the CO2 and nitrogen fertilization treatments. The eCO2 effect on the bacterial communities differed greatly under different nitrogen application conditions and at different growth stages. Specifically, eCO2 revealed a significant effect on the community structure under both LN and HN levels at the tillering stage; however, the significant effect of eCO2 was only observed under HN, rather than under the LN condition at the filling stage; no significant effect of eCO2 on the community structure at both the LN and HN fertilization levels was found at the maturity stage. These results provide useful insights into the response of leaf endophytic bacterial communities to elevated CO2 across rice growth stages. PMID:26379635

  6. Using Reactive Transport Modeling to Understand Changes in Electrical Conductivity Associated with Bacterial Growth and Respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regberg, A. B.; Singha, K.; Picardal, F.; Brantley, S. L.

    2011-12-01

    Previous research has linked measured changes in the bulk electrical conductivity (σb) of water-saturated sediments to the respiration and growth of anaerobic bacteria. If the mechanism causing this signal is understood and characterized it could be used to identify and monitor zones of bacterial activity in the subsurface. The 1-D reactive transport model PHREEQC was used to understand σb signals by modeling chemical gradients within two column reactors and corresponding changes in effluent chemistry. The flow-through column reactors were packed with Fe(III)-bearing sediment from Oyster, VA and inoculated with an environmental consortia of microorganisms. Influent in the first reactor was amended with 1mM Na-acetate to encourage the growth of iron-reducing bacteria. Influent in the second reactor was amended with 0.1mM Na-Acetate and 2mM NaNO3 to encourage the growth of nitrate-reducing bacteria. While effluent concentrations of acetate, Fe(II), NO3-, NO2-, and NH4+ remained at steady state, we measured a 3-fold increase (0.055 S/m - 0.2 S/m) in σb in the iron-reducing column and a 10-fold increase in σb (0.07 S/m - 0.8 S/m) in the nitrate-reducing column over 198 days. The ionic strength in both reactors remained constant through time indicating that the measured increases in σb were not caused by changing effluent concentrations. PHREEQC successfully matched the measured changes in effluent concentrations for both columns when the reaction database was modified in the following manner. For the iron-reducing column, kinetic expressions governing the rate of iron reduction, the rate of bacterial growth, and the production of methane were added to the reaction database. Additionally, surface adsorption and cation exchange reactions were added so that the model was consistent with measured effluent chemistry. For the nitrate-reducing column, kinetic expressions governing nitrate reduction and bacterial growth were added to the reaction database. Additionally

  7. A computational exploration of bacterial metabolic diversity identifying metabolic interactions and growth-efficient strain communities

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Metabolic interactions involve the exchange of metabolic products among microbial species. Most microbes live in communities and usually rely on metabolic interactions to increase their supply for nutrients and better exploit a given environment. Constraint-based models have successfully analyzed cellular metabolism and described genotype-phenotype relations. However, there are only a few studies of genome-scale multi-species interactions. Based on genome-scale approaches, we present a graph-theoretic approach together with a metabolic model in order to explore the metabolic variability among bacterial strains and identify and describe metabolically interacting strain communities in a batch culture consisting of two or more strains. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach to the bacterium E. coli across different single-carbon-source conditions. Results A different diversity graph is constructed for each growth condition. The graph-theoretic properties of the constructed graphs reflect the inherent high metabolic redundancy of the cell to single-gene knockouts, reveal mutant-hubs of unique metabolic capabilities regarding by-production, demonstrate consistent metabolic behaviors across conditions and show an evolutionary difficulty towards the establishment of polymorphism, while suggesting that communities consisting of strains specifically adapted to a given condition are more likely to evolve. We reveal several strain communities of improved growth relative to corresponding monocultures, even though strain communities are not modeled to operate towards a collective goal, such as the community growth and we identify the range of metabolites that are exchanged in these batch co-cultures. Conclusions This study provides a genome-scale description of the metabolic variability regarding by-production among E. coli strains under different conditions and shows how metabolic differences can be used to identify metabolically interacting strain

  8. Simultaneous Assessment of Acidogenesis-Mitigation and Specific Bacterial Growth-Inhibition by Dentifrices.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Sarah; Latimer, Joe; Sreenivasan, Prem K; McBain, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Dentifrices can augment oral hygiene by inactivating bacteria and at sub-lethal concentrations may affect bacterial metabolism, potentially inhibiting acidogenesis, the main cause of caries. Reported herein is the development of a rapid method to simultaneously measure group-specific bactericidal and acidogenesis-mitigation effects of dentifrices on oral bacteria. Saliva was incubated aerobically and anaerobically in Tryptone Soya Broth, Wilkins-Chalgren Broth with mucin, or artificial saliva and was exposed to dentifrices containing triclosan/copolymer (TD); sodium fluoride (FD); stannous fluoride and zinc lactate (SFD1); or stannous fluoride, zinc lactate and stannous chloride (SFD2). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined turbidometrically whilst group-specific minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) were assessed using growth media and conditions selective for total aerobes, total anaerobes, streptococci and Gram-negative anaerobes. Minimum acid neutralization concentration (MNC) was defined as the lowest concentration of dentifrice at which acidification was inhibited. Differences between MIC and MNC were calculated and normalized with respect to MIC to derive the combined inhibitory and neutralizing capacity (CINC), a cumulative measure of acidogenesis-mitigation and growth inhibition. The overall rank order for growth inhibition potency (MIC) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions was: TD> SFD2> SFD1> FD. Acidogenesis-mitigation (MNC) was ordered; TD> FD> SFD2> SFD1. CINC was ordered TD> FD> SFD2> SFD1 aerobically and TD> FD> SFD1> SFD2 anaerobically. With respect to group-specific bactericidal activity, TD generally exhibited the greatest potency, particularly against total aerobes, total anaerobes and streptococci. This approach enables the rapid simultaneous evaluation of acidity mitigation, growth inhibition and specific antimicrobial activity by dentifrices. PMID:26882309

  9. Simultaneous Assessment of Acidogenesis-Mitigation and Specific Bacterial Growth-Inhibition by Dentifrices.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Sarah; Latimer, Joe; Sreenivasan, Prem K; McBain, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Dentifrices can augment oral hygiene by inactivating bacteria and at sub-lethal concentrations may affect bacterial metabolism, potentially inhibiting acidogenesis, the main cause of caries. Reported herein is the development of a rapid method to simultaneously measure group-specific bactericidal and acidogenesis-mitigation effects of dentifrices on oral bacteria. Saliva was incubated aerobically and anaerobically in Tryptone Soya Broth, Wilkins-Chalgren Broth with mucin, or artificial saliva and was exposed to dentifrices containing triclosan/copolymer (TD); sodium fluoride (FD); stannous fluoride and zinc lactate (SFD1); or stannous fluoride, zinc lactate and stannous chloride (SFD2). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined turbidometrically whilst group-specific minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) were assessed using growth media and conditions selective for total aerobes, total anaerobes, streptococci and Gram-negative anaerobes. Minimum acid neutralization concentration (MNC) was defined as the lowest concentration of dentifrice at which acidification was inhibited. Differences between MIC and MNC were calculated and normalized with respect to MIC to derive the combined inhibitory and neutralizing capacity (CINC), a cumulative measure of acidogenesis-mitigation and growth inhibition. The overall rank order for growth inhibition potency (MIC) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions was: TD> SFD2> SFD1> FD. Acidogenesis-mitigation (MNC) was ordered; TD> FD> SFD2> SFD1. CINC was ordered TD> FD> SFD2> SFD1 aerobically and TD> FD> SFD1> SFD2 anaerobically. With respect to group-specific bactericidal activity, TD generally exhibited the greatest potency, particularly against total aerobes, total anaerobes and streptococci. This approach enables the rapid simultaneous evaluation of acidity mitigation, growth inhibition and specific antimicrobial activity by dentifrices.

  10. Simultaneous Assessment of Acidogenesis-Mitigation and Specific Bacterial Growth-Inhibition by Dentifrices

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Sarah; Latimer, Joe; Sreenivasan, Prem K.; McBain, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Dentifrices can augment oral hygiene by inactivating bacteria and at sub-lethal concentrations may affect bacterial metabolism, potentially inhibiting acidogenesis, the main cause of caries. Reported herein is the development of a rapid method to simultaneously measure group-specific bactericidal and acidogenesis-mitigation effects of dentifrices on oral bacteria. Saliva was incubated aerobically and anaerobically in Tryptone Soya Broth, Wilkins-Chalgren Broth with mucin, or artificial saliva and was exposed to dentifrices containing triclosan/copolymer (TD); sodium fluoride (FD); stannous fluoride and zinc lactate (SFD1); or stannous fluoride, zinc lactate and stannous chloride (SFD2). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined turbidometrically whilst group-specific minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) were assessed using growth media and conditions selective for total aerobes, total anaerobes, streptococci and Gram-negative anaerobes. Minimum acid neutralization concentration (MNC) was defined as the lowest concentration of dentifrice at which acidification was inhibited. Differences between MIC and MNC were calculated and normalized with respect to MIC to derive the combined inhibitory and neutralizing capacity (CINC), a cumulative measure of acidogenesis-mitigation and growth inhibition. The overall rank order for growth inhibition potency (MIC) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions was: TD> SFD2> SFD1> FD. Acidogenesis-mitigation (MNC) was ordered; TD> FD> SFD2> SFD1. CINC was ordered TD> FD> SFD2> SFD1 aerobically and TD> FD> SFD1> SFD2 anaerobically. With respect to group-specific bactericidal activity, TD generally exhibited the greatest potency, particularly against total aerobes, total anaerobes and streptococci. This approach enables the rapid simultaneous evaluation of acidity mitigation, growth inhibition and specific antimicrobial activity by dentifrices. PMID:26882309

  11. Bacterial Standing Stock, Activity, and Carbon Production during Formation and Growth of Sea Ice in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica †

    PubMed Central

    Grossmann, Sönnke; Dieckmann, Gerhard S.

    1994-01-01

    Bacterial response to formation and growth of sea ice was investigated during autumn in the northeastern Weddell Sea. Changes in standing stock, activity, and carbon production of bacteria were determined in successive stages of ice development. During initial ice formation, concentrations of bacterial cells, in the order of 1 × 108 to 3 × 108 liter-1, were not enhanced within the ice matrix. This suggests that physical enrichment of bacteria by ice crystals is not effective. Due to low concentrations of phytoplankton in the water column during freezing, incorporation of bacteria into newly formed ice via attachment to algal cells or aggregates was not recorded in this study. As soon as the ice had formed, the general metabolic activity of bacterial populations was strongly suppressed. Furthermore, the ratio of [3H]leucine incorporation into proteins to [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA changed during ice growth. In thick pack ice, bacterial activity recovered and growth rates up to 0.6 day-1 indicated actively dividing populations. However, biomass-specific utilization of organic compounds remained lower than in open water. Bacterial concentrations of up to 2.8 × 109 cells liter-1 along with considerably enlarged cell volumes accumulated within thick pack ice, suggesting reduced mortality rates of bacteria within the small brine pores. In the course of ice development, bacterial carbon production increased from about 0.01 to 0.4 μg of C liter-1 h-1. In thick ice, bacterial secondary production exceeded primary production of microalgae. PMID:16349347

  12. Amelioration of high salinity stress damage by plant growth-promoting bacterial endophytes that contain ACC deaminase.

    PubMed

    Ali, Shimaila; Charles, Trevor C; Glick, Bernard R

    2014-07-01

    Plant growth and productivity is negatively affected by soil salinity. However, it is predicted that plant growth-promoting bacterial (PGPB) endophytes that contain 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase (E.C. 4.1.99.4) can facilitate plant growth and development in the presence of a number of different stresses. In present study, the ability of ACC deaminase containing PGPB endophytes Pseudomonas fluorescens YsS6, Pseudomonas migulae 8R6, and their ACC deaminase deficient mutants to promote tomato plant growth in the absence of salt and under two different levels of salt stress (165 mM and 185 mM) was assessed. It was evidence that wild-type bacterial endophytes (P. fluorescens YsS6 and P. migulae 8R6) promoted tomato plant growth significantly even in the absence of stress (salinity). Plants pretreated with wild-type ACC deaminase containing endophytic strains were healthier and grew to a much larger size under high salinity stress compared to plants pretreated with the ACC deaminase deficient mutants or no bacterial treatment (control). The plants pretreated with ACC deaminase containing bacterial endophytes exhibit higher fresh and dry biomass, higher chlorophyll contents, and a greater number of flowers and buds than the other treatments. Since the only difference between wild-type and mutant bacterial endophytes was ACC deaminase activity, it is concluded that this enzyme is directly responsible for the different behavior of tomato plants in response to salt stress. The use of PGPB endophytes with ACC deaminase activity has the potential to facilitate plant growth on land that is not normally suitable for the majority of crops due to their high salt contents.

  13. Nanoscale imaging of the growth and division of bacterial cells on planar substrates with the atomic force microscope.

    PubMed

    Van Der Hofstadt, M; Hüttener, M; Juárez, A; Gomila, G

    2015-07-01

    With the use of the atomic force microscope (AFM), the Nanomicrobiology field has advanced drastically. Due to the complexity of imaging living bacterial processes in their natural growing environments, improvements have come to a standstill. Here we show the in situ nanoscale imaging of the growth and division of single bacterial cells on planar substrates with the atomic force microscope. To achieve this, we minimized the lateral shear forces responsible for the detachment of weakly adsorbed bacteria on planar substrates with the use of the so called dynamic jumping mode with very soft cantilever probes. With this approach, gentle imaging conditions can be maintained for long periods of time, enabling the continuous imaging of the bacterial cell growth and division, even on planar substrates. Present results offer the possibility to observe living processes of untrapped bacteria weakly attached to planar substrates.

  14. Production of fungal and bacterial growth modulating secondary metabolites is widespread among mycorrhiza-associated streptomycetes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies on mycorrhiza associated bacteria suggest that bacterial-fungal interactions play important roles during mycorrhiza formation and affect plant health. We surveyed Streptomyces Actinobacteria, known as antibiotic producers and antagonists of fungi, from Norway spruce mycorrhizas with predominantly Piloderma species as the fungal partner. Results Fifteen Streptomyces isolates exhibited substantial variation in inhibition of tested mycorrhizal and plant pathogenic fungi (Amanita muscaria, Fusarium oxysporum, Hebeloma cylindrosporum, Heterobasidion abietinum, Heterobasidion annosum, Laccaria bicolor, Piloderma croceum). The growth of the mycorrhiza-forming fungus Laccaria bicolor was stimulated by some of the streptomycetes, and Piloderma croceum was only moderately affected. Bacteria responded to the streptomycetes differently than the fungi. For instance the strain Streptomyces sp. AcM11, which inhibited most tested fungi, was less inhibitory to bacteria than other tested streptomycetes. The determined patterns of Streptomyces-microbe interactions were associated with distinct patterns of secondary metabolite production. Notably, potentially novel metabolites were produced by strains that were less antagonistic to fungi. Most of the identified metabolites were antibiotics (e.g. cycloheximide, actiphenol) and siderophores (e.g. ferulic acid, desferroxiamines). Plant disease resistance was activated by a single streptomycete strain only. Conclusions Mycorrhiza associated streptomycetes appear to have an important role in inhibiting the growth of fungi and bacteria. Additionally, our study indicates that the Streptomyces strains, which are not general antagonists of fungi, may produce still un-described metabolites. PMID:22852578

  15. An Ancient Bacterial Signaling Pathway Regulates Chloroplast Function to Influence Growth and Development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sugliani, Matteo; Abdelkefi, Hela; Ke, Hang; Bouveret, Emmanuelle; Robaglia, Christophe; Caffarri, Stefano; Field, Ben

    2016-03-01

    The chloroplast originated from the endosymbiosis of an ancient photosynthetic bacterium by a eukaryotic cell. Remarkably, the chloroplast has retained elements of a bacterial stress response pathway that is mediated by the signaling nucleotides guanosine penta- and tetraphosphate (ppGpp). However, an understanding of the mechanism and outcomes of ppGpp signaling in the photosynthetic eukaryotes has remained elusive. Using the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, we show that ppGpp is a potent regulator of chloroplast gene expression in vivo that directly reduces the quantity of chloroplast transcripts and chloroplast-encoded proteins. We then go on to demonstrate that the antagonistic functions of different plant RelA SpoT homologs together modulate ppGpp levels to regulate chloroplast function and show that they are required for optimal plant growth, chloroplast volume, and chloroplast breakdown during dark-induced and developmental senescence. Therefore, our results show that ppGpp signaling is not only linked to stress responses in plants but is also an important mediator of cooperation between the chloroplast and the nucleocytoplasmic compartment during plant growth and development.

  16. Effective inhibition of bacterial respiration and growth by CuO microspheres composed of thin nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Wahab, Rizwan; Khan, Shams Tabrez; Dwivedi, Sourabh; Ahamed, Maqusood; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A

    2013-11-01

    This study describes the synthesis, characterization and biocidal potential of copper oxide micro-spheres composed of thin sheets (CuOMSs-Ths). Microscopic observations of synthesized CuOMSs-Ths revealed the clusters of thin sheets arranged in small flower like micro-spheres. Diameter of each micro-sphere was determined in the range of 2-3 μm, whereas the size of each sheet was ∼ 80 nm. These micro-flowers like nanostructures were synthesized using copper nitrate hexahydrate and sodium hydroxide via solution process. The CuOMSs-Ths exhibited a broad-spectrum anti-bacterial activity involving significant growth inhibition of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus. The IC50 values of these engineered NPs against E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and M. luteus were determined to be 195, 200, 131 and 184 μg/ml, respectively. Also, the respiration of Gram+ ve organisms (M. luteus and S. aureus) was inhibited significantly (p value < 0.005) at relatively lower concentrations of 12.5 and 50 μg/ml, respectively, as compared to the Gram- ve bacteria (E. coli and P. aeruginosa), where the growth inhibition occurred at a much greater concentration of 100 μg/ml. The results explicitly demonstrated anti-microbial activity of CuOMSs-Ths with a higher level of toxicity against the Gram+ ve vis-a-vis Gram- ve bacteria.

  17. A new model for the spectral induced polarization signature of bacterial growth in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revil, A.; Atekwana, E.; Zhang, C.; Jardani, A.; Smith, S.

    2012-09-01

    The complex conductivity of porous materials and colloidal suspensions comprises two components: an in-phase conductivity associated with electromigration of the charge carriers and a quadrature conductivity associated with the reversible storage of the charges at some polarization length scales. We developed a quantitative model to investigate the frequency domain induced polarization response of suspensions of bacteria and bacteria growth in porous media. Induced polarization of bacteria (α polarization) is related to the properties of the electrical double layer of the bacteria. Surface conductivity and α polarization are due to the Stern layer of counterions occurring in a brush of polymers coating the surface of the bacteria. These phenomena can be related to their cation exchange capacity. The mobility of the counterions in this Stern layer is found to be very small (4.7 × 10-10 m2 s-1 V-1 at 25°C). This implies a very low relaxation frequency for the αpolarization of the bacteria cells (typically around 0.1-5 Hz), in agreement with experimental observations. This new model can be coupled to reactive transport modeling codes in which the evolution of bacterial populations are usually described by Monod kinetics. We show that the growth rate and endogenous decay coefficients of bacteria in a porous sand can be inferred nonintrusively from time-lapse frequency domain induced polarization data.

  18. Effective inhibition of bacterial respiration and growth by CuO microspheres composed of thin nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Wahab, Rizwan; Khan, Shams Tabrez; Dwivedi, Sourabh; Ahamed, Maqusood; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A

    2013-11-01

    This study describes the synthesis, characterization and biocidal potential of copper oxide micro-spheres composed of thin sheets (CuOMSs-Ths). Microscopic observations of synthesized CuOMSs-Ths revealed the clusters of thin sheets arranged in small flower like micro-spheres. Diameter of each micro-sphere was determined in the range of 2-3 μm, whereas the size of each sheet was ∼ 80 nm. These micro-flowers like nanostructures were synthesized using copper nitrate hexahydrate and sodium hydroxide via solution process. The CuOMSs-Ths exhibited a broad-spectrum anti-bacterial activity involving significant growth inhibition of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus. The IC50 values of these engineered NPs against E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and M. luteus were determined to be 195, 200, 131 and 184 μg/ml, respectively. Also, the respiration of Gram+ ve organisms (M. luteus and S. aureus) was inhibited significantly (p value < 0.005) at relatively lower concentrations of 12.5 and 50 μg/ml, respectively, as compared to the Gram- ve bacteria (E. coli and P. aeruginosa), where the growth inhibition occurred at a much greater concentration of 100 μg/ml. The results explicitly demonstrated anti-microbial activity of CuOMSs-Ths with a higher level of toxicity against the Gram+ ve vis-a-vis Gram- ve bacteria. PMID:23816782

  19. Are leaf glandular trichomes of oregano hospitable habitats for bacterial growth?

    PubMed

    Karamanoli, K; Thalassinos, G; Karpouzas, D; Bosabalidis, A M; Vokou, D; Constantinidou, H-I

    2012-05-01

    Phyllospheric bacteria were isolated from microsites around essential-oil-containing glands of two oregano (Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum) lines. These bacteria, 20 isolates in total, were subjected to bioassays to examine their growth potential in the presence of essential oils at different concentrations. Although there were qualitative and quantitative differences in the essential oil composition between the two oregano lines, no differences were recorded in their antibacterial activity. In disk diffusion bioassays, four of the isolated strains could grow almost unrestrained in the presence of oregano oil, another five proved very sensitive, and the remaining 11 showed intermediate sensitivity. The strain least inhibited by oregano essential oil was further identified by complete16s rRNA gene sequencing as Pseudomonas putida. It was capable of forming biofilms even in the presence of oregano oil at high concentrations. Resistance of P. putida to oregano oil was further elaborated by microwell dilution bioassays, and its topology on oregano leaves was studied by electron microscopy. When inoculated on intact oregano plants, P. putida was able not only to colonize sites adjacent to essential oil-containing glands, but even to grow intracellularly. This is the first time that such prolific bacterial growth inside the glands has been visually observed. Results of this study further revealed that several bacteria can be established on oregano leaves, suggesting that these bacteria have attributes that allow them to tolerate or benefit from oregano secondary metabolites.

  20. Rainbow trout resistance to bacterial cold-water disease is moderately heritable and is not adversely correlated with growth.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, J T; Vallejo, R L; Palti, Y; Leeds, T D; Rexroad, C E; Welch, T J; Wiens, G D; Ducrocq, V

    2009-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the heritabilities for and genetic correlations among resistance to bacterial cold-water disease and growth traits in a population of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Bacterial cold-water disease, a chronic disease of rainbow trout, is caused by Flavobacterium psychrophilum. This bacterium also causes acute losses in young fish, known as rainbow trout fry syndrome. Selective breeding for increased disease resistance is a promising strategy that has not been widely used in aquaculture. At the same time, improving growth performance is critical for efficient production. At the National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture, reducing the negative impact of diseases on rainbow trout culture and improving growth performance are primary objectives. In 2005, when fish averaged 2.4 g, 71 full-sib families were challenged with F. psychrophilum and evaluated for 21 d. Overall survival was 29.3% and family rates of survival varied from 1.5 to 72.5%. Heritability of postchallenge survival, an indicator of disease resistance, was estimated to be 0.35 +/- 0.09. Body weights at 9 and 12 mo posthatch and growth rate from 9 to 12 mo were evaluated on siblings of the fish in the disease challenge study. Growth traits were moderately heritable, from 0.32 for growth rate to 0.61 for 12-mo BW. Genetic and phenotypic correlations between growth traits and resistance to bacterial cold-water disease were not different from zero. These results suggest that genetic improvement can be made simultaneously for growth and bacterial cold-water disease resistance in rainbow trout by using selective breeding.

  1. BIODEGRADATION DURING CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT IN POROUS MEDIA. 4. IMPACT OF MICROBIAL LAG AND BACTERIAL CELL GROWTH. (R825415)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Miscible-displacement experiments were conducted to examine the impact of microbial lag and bacterial cell growth on the transport of salicylate, a model hydrocarbon compound. The impacts of these processes were examined separately, as well as jointly, to dete...

  2. Bacterial and fungal growth for monitoring the impact of wildfire combined or not with different soil stabilization treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreiro, Ana; Baath, Erland; Díaz-Raviña, Montserrat

    2015-04-01

    Soil stabilization techniques are rapidly gaining acceptance as efficient tool for reducing post-fire erosion. However, despite its interest, information concerning their impact on soil biota is scarce. We examined, under field conditions, the bacterial and fungal medium-term responses in a hillslope area located in Laza (NW Spain) affected by a high severity wildfire with the following treatments established by triplicate (4 x 20 m plots): unburnt control soil, burnt control soil, burnt soil with rye seeding and burnt soil with straw mulch. The bacterial and fungal growth, as well as respiration, were measured 4 years after fire and application of treatments using leucine incorporation for bacterial growth and acetate-in-ergosterol incorporation for fungal growth. The results showed that soil respiration and fungal biomass were negatively affected by fire, in the top layer (0-5 cm), while bacterial and fungal growth was stimulated. These microbial changes induced by fire were associated with modifications in organic matter (50% reduction in C content) and soil pH (increase of 0.5-0.9 units). Thus, the results suggested that under acid environment (pH in water 3.5) post-fire conditions might have favoured both microbial groups, which is supported by the fact that estimated bacterial and fungal growth were positive and significant correlated with soil pH (range of 3.5-4.5). This contrast with the well-known reported investigations showing that bacteria rather than fungi proliferation occurred after prescribed fire or wildfire; it should be noticed, however, that soils with a higher pH than that in the present study were used. Our data also indicated that bacterial and fungal communities were not significantly affected by seeding and mulching treatments. The results highlighted the importance of pre-fire soil pH as key factor in determining the microbial response after fire. Acknowledgements. A. Barreiro is recipient of FPU grant from Spanish Ministry of Education

  3. Ice formation and growth shape bacterial community structure in Baltic Sea drift ice.

    PubMed

    Eronen-Rasimus, Eeva; Lyra, Christina; Rintala, Janne-Markus; Jürgens, Klaus; Ikonen, Vilma; Kaartokallio, Hermanni

    2015-02-01

    Drift ice, open water and under-ice water bacterial communities covering several developmental stages from open water to thick ice were studied in the northern Baltic Sea. The bacterial communities were assessed with 16S rRNA gene terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism and cloning, together with bacterial abundance and production measurements. In the early stages, open water and pancake ice were dominated by Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria, which are common bacterial groups in Baltic Sea wintertime surface waters. The pancake ice bacterial communities were similar to the open-water communities, suggesting that the parent water determines the sea-ice bacterial community in the early stages of sea-ice formation. In consolidated young and thick ice, the bacterial communities were significantly different from water bacterial communities as well as from each other, indicating community development in Baltic Sea drift ice along with ice-type changes. The thick ice was dominated by typical sea-ice genera from classes Flavobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, similar to those in polar sea-ice bacterial communities. Since the thick ice bacterial community was remarkably different from that of the parent seawater, results indicate that thick ice bacterial communities were recruited from the rarer members of the seawater bacterial community.

  4. N-acetyl-L-cysteine affects growth, extracellular polysaccharide production, and bacterial biofilm formation on solid surfaces.

    PubMed

    Olofsson, Ann-Cathrin; Hermansson, Malte; Elwing, Hans

    2003-08-01

    N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) is used in medical treatment of patients with chronic bronchitis. The positive effects of NAC treatment have primarily been attributed to the mucus-dissolving properties of NAC, as well as its ability to decrease biofilm formation, which reduces bacterial infections. Our results suggest that NAC also may be an interesting candidate for use as an agent to reduce and prevent biofilm formation on stainless steel surfaces in environments typical of paper mill plants. Using 10 different bacterial strains isolated from a paper mill, we found that the mode of action of NAC is chemical, as well as biological, in the case of bacterial adhesion to stainless steel surfaces. The initial adhesion of bacteria is dependent on the wettability of the substratum. NAC was shown to bind to stainless steel, increasing the wettability of the surface. Moreover, NAC decreased bacterial adhesion and even detached bacteria that were adhering to stainless steel surfaces. Growth of various bacteria, as monocultures or in a multispecies community, was inhibited at different concentrations of NAC. We also found that there was no detectable degradation of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) by NAC, indicating that NAC reduced the production of EPS, in most bacteria tested, even at concentrations at which growth was not affected. Altogether, the presence of NAC changes the texture of the biofilm formed and makes NAC an interesting candidate for use as a general inhibitor of formation of bacterial biofilms on stainless steel surfaces. PMID:12902275

  5. N-acetyl-L-cysteine affects growth, extracellular polysaccharide production, and bacterial biofilm formation on solid surfaces.

    PubMed

    Olofsson, Ann-Cathrin; Hermansson, Malte; Elwing, Hans

    2003-08-01

    N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) is used in medical treatment of patients with chronic bronchitis. The positive effects of NAC treatment have primarily been attributed to the mucus-dissolving properties of NAC, as well as its ability to decrease biofilm formation, which reduces bacterial infections. Our results suggest that NAC also may be an interesting candidate for use as an agent to reduce and prevent biofilm formation on stainless steel surfaces in environments typical of paper mill plants. Using 10 different bacterial strains isolated from a paper mill, we found that the mode of action of NAC is chemical, as well as biological, in the case of bacterial adhesion to stainless steel surfaces. The initial adhesion of bacteria is dependent on the wettability of the substratum. NAC was shown to bind to stainless steel, increasing the wettability of the surface. Moreover, NAC decreased bacterial adhesion and even detached bacteria that were adhering to stainless steel surfaces. Growth of various bacteria, as monocultures or in a multispecies community, was inhibited at different concentrations of NAC. We also found that there was no detectable degradation of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) by NAC, indicating that NAC reduced the production of EPS, in most bacteria tested, even at concentrations at which growth was not affected. Altogether, the presence of NAC changes the texture of the biofilm formed and makes NAC an interesting candidate for use as a general inhibitor of formation of bacterial biofilms on stainless steel surfaces.

  6. Illustration of year-to-year variation in wheat spectral profile crop growth curves. [Kansas, Oklahoma, North Dakota and South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, P.; Jones, C. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Data previously compiled on the year to year variability of spectral profile crop growth parameters for spring and winter wheat in Kansas, Oklahoma, and the Dakotas were used with a profile model to develop graphs illustrating spectral profile crop growth curves for a number of years and a number of spring and winter wheat segments. These curves show the apparent variability in spectral profiles for wheat from one year to another within the same segment and from one segment to another within the same year.

  7. Custom fabrication of biomass containment devices using 3-D printing enables bacterial growth analyses with complex insoluble substrates

    DOE PAGES

    Nelson, Cassandra E.; Beri, Nina R.; Gardner, Jeffrey G.

    2016-09-21

    Physiological studies of recalcitrant polysaccharide degradation are challenging for several reasons, one of which is the difficulty in obtaining a reproducibly accurate real-time measurement of bacterial growth using insoluble substrates. Current methods suffer from several problems including (i) high background noise due to the insoluble material interspersed with cells, (ii) high consumable and reagent cost and (iii) significant time delay between sampling and data acquisition. A customizable substrate and cell separation device would provide an option to study bacterial growth using optical density measurements. To test this hypothesis we used 3-D printing to create biomass containment devices that allow interactionmore » between insoluble substrates and microbial cells but do not interfere with spectrophotometer measurements. Evaluation of materials available for 3-D printing indicated that UV-cured acrylic plastic was the best material, being superior to nylon or stainless steel when examined for heat tolerance, reactivity, and ability to be sterilized. Cost analysis of the 3-D printed devices indicated they are a competitive way to quantitate bacterial growth compared to viable cell counting or protein measurements, and experimental conditions were scalable over a 100-fold range. The presence of the devices did not alter growth phenotypes when using either soluble substrates or insoluble substrates. Furthermore, we applied biomass containment to characterize growth of Cellvibrio japonicus on authentic lignocellulose (non-pretreated corn stover), and found physiological evidence that xylan is a significant nutritional source despite an abundance of cellulose present.« less

  8. Indoor Heating Drives Water Bacterial Growth and Community Metabolic Profile Changes in Building Tap Pipes during the Winter Season.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Han; Chen, Sheng-Nan; Huang, Ting-Lin; Shang, Pan-Lu; Yang, Xiao; Ma, Wei-Xing

    2015-10-27

    The growth of the bacterial community harbored in indoor drinking water taps is regulated by external environmental factors, such as indoor temperature. However, the effect of indoor heating on bacterial regrowth associated with indoor drinking water taps is poorly understood. In the present work, flow cytometry and community-level sole-carbon-source utilization techniques were combined to explore the effects of indoor heating on water bacterial cell concentrations and community carbon metabolic profiles in building tap pipes during the winter season. The results showed that the temperature of water stagnated overnight ("before") in the indoor water pipes was 15-17 °C, and the water temperature decreased to 4-6 °C after flushing for 10 min ("flushed"). The highest bacterial cell number was observed in water stagnated overnight, and was 5-11 times higher than that of flushed water. Meanwhile, a significantly higher bacterial community metabolic activity (AWCD590nm) was also found in overnight stagnation water samples. The significant "flushed" and "taps" values indicated that the AWCD590nm, and bacterial cell number varied among the taps within the flushed group (p < 0.01). Heatmap fingerprints and principle component analyses (PCA) revealed a significant discrimination bacterial community functional metabolic profiles in the water stagnated overnight and flushed water. Serine, threonine, glucose-phosphate, ketobutyric acid, phenylethylamine, glycerol, putrescine were significantly used by "before" water samples. The results suggested that water stagnated at higher temperature should be treated before drinking because of bacterial regrowth. The data from this work provides useful information on reasonable utilization of drinking water after stagnation in indoor pipes during indoor heating periods.

  9. Indoor Heating Drives Water Bacterial Growth and Community Metabolic Profile Changes in Building Tap Pipes during the Winter Season.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Han; Chen, Sheng-Nan; Huang, Ting-Lin; Shang, Pan-Lu; Yang, Xiao; Ma, Wei-Xing

    2015-10-01

    The growth of the bacterial community harbored in indoor drinking water taps is regulated by external environmental factors, such as indoor temperature. However, the effect of indoor heating on bacterial regrowth associated with indoor drinking water taps is poorly understood. In the present work, flow cytometry and community-level sole-carbon-source utilization techniques were combined to explore the effects of indoor heating on water bacterial cell concentrations and community carbon metabolic profiles in building tap pipes during the winter season. The results showed that the temperature of water stagnated overnight ("before") in the indoor water pipes was 15-17 °C, and the water temperature decreased to 4-6 °C after flushing for 10 min ("flushed"). The highest bacterial cell number was observed in water stagnated overnight, and was 5-11 times higher than that of flushed water. Meanwhile, a significantly higher bacterial community metabolic activity (AWCD590nm) was also found in overnight stagnation water samples. The significant "flushed" and "taps" values indicated that the AWCD590nm, and bacterial cell number varied among the taps within the flushed group (p < 0.01). Heatmap fingerprints and principle component analyses (PCA) revealed a significant discrimination bacterial community functional metabolic profiles in the water stagnated overnight and flushed water. Serine, threonine, glucose-phosphate, ketobutyric acid, phenylethylamine, glycerol, putrescine were significantly used by "before" water samples. The results suggested that water stagnated at higher temperature should be treated before drinking because of bacterial regrowth. The data from this work provides useful information on reasonable utilization of drinking water after stagnation in indoor pipes during indoor heating periods. PMID:26516885

  10. Indoor Heating Drives Water Bacterial Growth and Community Metabolic Profile Changes in Building Tap Pipes during the Winter Season

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai-Han; Chen, Sheng-Nan; Huang, Ting-Lin; Shang, Pan-Lu; Yang, Xiao; Ma, Wei-Xing

    2015-01-01

    The growth of the bacterial community harbored in indoor drinking water taps is regulated by external environmental factors, such as indoor temperature. However, the effect of indoor heating on bacterial regrowth associated with indoor drinking water taps is poorly understood. In the present work, flow cytometry and community-level sole-carbon-source utilization techniques were combined to explore the effects of indoor heating on water bacterial cell concentrations and community carbon metabolic profiles in building tap pipes during the winter season. The results showed that the temperature of water stagnated overnight (“before”) in the indoor water pipes was 15–17 °C, and the water temperature decreased to 4–6 °C after flushing for 10 min (“flushed”). The highest bacterial cell number was observed in water stagnated overnight, and was 5–11 times higher than that of flushed water. Meanwhile, a significantly higher bacterial community metabolic activity (AWCD590nm) was also found in overnight stagnation water samples. The significant “flushed” and “taps” values indicated that the AWCD590nm, and bacterial cell number varied among the taps within the flushed group (p < 0.01). Heatmap fingerprints and principle component analyses (PCA) revealed a significant discrimination bacterial community functional metabolic profiles in the water stagnated overnight and flushed water. Serine, threonine, glucose-phosphate, ketobutyric acid, phenylethylamine, glycerol, putrescine were significantly used by “before” water samples. The results suggested that water stagnated at higher temperature should be treated before drinking because of bacterial regrowth. The data from this work provides useful information on reasonable utilization of drinking water after stagnation in indoor pipes during indoor heating periods. PMID:26516885

  11. Contrasting short-term antibiotic effects on respiration and bacterial growth compromises the validity of the selective respiratory inhibition technique to distinguish fungi and bacteria.

    PubMed

    Rousk, Johannes; Demoling, Louise Aldén; Bååth, Erland

    2009-07-01

    The selective inhibition (SI) technique has been widely used to resolve fungal and bacterial biomass. By studying bacterial growth (leucine/thymidine incorporation) and respiration simultaneously, this study demonstrates that the inhibitors the SI technique is based on do not efficiently or specifically resolve fungal and bacterial contributions to respiration. At concentrations that completely inhibited bacterial growth, the bactericide streptomycin had no influence on the SI technique's respiration measurement, and complete inhibition of bacterial growth using oxytetracycline resulted in marginal respiration reductions. The fungicides captan and benomyl severely inhibited non-target bacterial growth. Cycloheximide did not reduce bacterial growth at moderate concentrations, but the cycloheximide respiration reduction was no higher in a soil with more fungal biomass, casting doubt on its ability to discriminate fungal respiration contribution. Conclusions regarding bacteria and fungi based on the SI technique using these inhibitors are thus compromised. The inhibition of glucose-activated respiration by the bactericide bronopol appeared to correlate with bacterial growth inhibition, however. Bronopol, combined with growth-based techniques, could aid development of a new framework to resolve decomposer ecology in soil.

  12. Ex vivo-growth response of porcine small intestinal bacterial communities to pharmacological doses of dietary zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Starke, Ingo C; Zentek, Jürgen; Vahjen, Wilfried

    2013-01-01

    Piglets were fed diets containing 57 (low) or 2425 (high) mg zinc from analytical grade zinc oxide (ZnO) ·kg(-1) feed. Digesta samples from the stomach and jejuna of 32, 39, 46 and 53 d old animals (n = 6 per group) were incubated in media containing 80, 40, 20 and 0 µg·mL(-1) soluble zinc from ZnO. Turbidity was recorded for 16 h and growth parameters were calculated. Additionally, DNA extracts of selected samples were analyzed via qPCR for different bacterial groups. Samples from animals fed the low dietary zinc concentration always showed highest rate of growth and lowest lag times in media without added zinc. However, media supplemented with zinc displayed highest growth rates and lowest lag time in the high dietary zinc group. Specific growth rates and lag time showed significant differences on day 32 and 39 of age, but rarely on days 46 and 53 of age. Bacterial growth in digesta samples from the high dietary zinc group was less influenced by zinc and recovered growth more rapidly than in the low dietary zinc group. Specific growth rates and bacterial cell numbers from qPCR results showed that lactobacilli were most susceptible to zinc, while bifidobacteria, enterobacteria and enterococci exhibited increased growth rates in samples of animals from the high dietary zinc treatment. No treatment related differences were observed for clostridial cluster IV and the Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas cluster. The diversity of enterobacteria after incubation was always higher in the high dietary zinc treatment or in medium supplemented with 80 µg·mL(-1) soluble ZnO. This study has shown that a pharmacological dosage of ZnO leads to a reduced ex vivo-bacterial growth rate of bacteria from the stomach and jejunum of weaned piglets. In view of the rapid bacterial adaptation to dietary zinc, the administration of ZnO in feeds for weaned piglets might only be beneficial in a short period after weaning.

  13. Bacterial Colonies in Solid Media and Foods: A Review on Their Growth and Interactions with the Micro-Environment.

    PubMed

    Jeanson, Sophie; Floury, Juliane; Gagnaire, Valérie; Lortal, Sylvie; Thierry, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria, either indigenous or added, are immobilized in solid foods where they grow as colonies. Since the 80's, relatively few research groups have explored the implications of bacteria growing as colonies and mostly focused on pathogens in large colonies on agar/gelatine media. It is only recently that high resolution imaging techniques and biophysical characterization techniques increased the understanding of the growth of bacterial colonies, for different sizes of colonies, at the microscopic level and even down to the molecular level. This review covers the studies on bacterial colony growth in agar or gelatine media mimicking the food environment and in model cheese. The following conclusions have been brought to light. Firstly, under unfavorable conditions, mimicking food conditions, the immobilization of bacteria always constrains their growth in comparison with planktonic growth and increases the sensibility of bacteria to environmental stresses. Secondly, the spatial distribution describes both the distance between colonies and the size of the colonies as a function of the initial level of population. By studying the literature, we concluded that there systematically exists a threshold that distinguishes micro-colonies (radius < 100-200 μm) from macro-colonies (radius >200 μm). Micro-colonies growth resembles planktonic growth and no pH microgradients could be observed. Macro-colonies growth is slower than planktonic growth and pH microgradients could be observed in and around them due to diffusion limitations which occur around, but also inside the macro-colonies. Diffusion limitations of milk proteins have been demonstrated in a model cheese around and in the bacterial colonies. In conclusion, the impact of immobilization is predominant for macro-colonies in comparison with micro-colonies. However, the interaction between the colonies and the food matrix itself remains to be further investigated at the microscopic scale.

  14. Bacterial Colonies in Solid Media and Foods: A Review on Their Growth and Interactions with the Micro-Environment

    PubMed Central

    Jeanson, Sophie; Floury, Juliane; Gagnaire, Valérie; Lortal, Sylvie; Thierry, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria, either indigenous or added, are immobilized in solid foods where they grow as colonies. Since the 80's, relatively few research groups have explored the implications of bacteria growing as colonies and mostly focused on pathogens in large colonies on agar/gelatine media. It is only recently that high resolution imaging techniques and biophysical characterization techniques increased the understanding of the growth of bacterial colonies, for different sizes of colonies, at the microscopic level and even down to the molecular level. This review covers the studies on bacterial colony growth in agar or gelatine media mimicking the food environment and in model cheese. The following conclusions have been brought to light. Firstly, under unfavorable conditions, mimicking food conditions, the immobilization of bacteria always constrains their growth in comparison with planktonic growth and increases the sensibility of bacteria to environmental stresses. Secondly, the spatial distribution describes both the distance between colonies and the size of the colonies as a function of the initial level of population. By studying the literature, we concluded that there systematically exists a threshold that distinguishes micro-colonies (radius < 100–200 μm) from macro-colonies (radius >200 μm). Micro-colonies growth resembles planktonic growth and no pH microgradients could be observed. Macro-colonies growth is slower than planktonic growth and pH microgradients could be observed in and around them due to diffusion limitations which occur around, but also inside the macro-colonies. Diffusion limitations of milk proteins have been demonstrated in a model cheese around and in the bacterial colonies. In conclusion, the impact of immobilization is predominant for macro-colonies in comparison with micro-colonies. However, the interaction between the colonies and the food matrix itself remains to be further investigated at the microscopic scale. PMID:26648910

  15. Development of skin conductance orienting, habituation, and reorienting from ages 3 to 8 years: a longitudinal latent growth curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Dawson, Michael E; Venables, Peter H; Mednick, Sarnoff A

    2007-11-01

    Little is known about the development of the skin conductance orienting response (SCOR) in childhood. This longitudinal study examines the effects of age on initial SCOR, habituation, and reorienting. Skin conductance responses to nonsignal auditory stimuli were recorded from 200 male and female children at five different time points (ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 years). Longitudinal latent growth curve analyses were used to determine the trajectory of each SCOR measure during this period. Results indicated that (a) initial SCOR is present at age 3, increases thereafter to peak at age 6, and then levels off, (b) habituation is absent at age 3, but becomes apparent at age 4 years and increases thereafter with increasing age, (c) SC reorienting is absent from ages 3 to 8, and (d) boys and girls do not exhibit different developmental trajectories. Results suggest that from age 3 to 8 years, the transition from the functionally immature to mature neural network underlying orienting and habituation is a continuous process and may be related to children's cognitive development during this period.

  16. Latent growth curve analysis of fear during a speech task before and after treatment for social phobia.

    PubMed

    Price, Matthew; Anderson, Page L

    2011-11-01

    Models of social phobia highlight the importance of anticipatory anxiety in the experience of fear during a social situation. Anticipatory anxiety has been shown to be highly correlated with performance anxiety for a variety of social situations. A few studies show that average ratings of anxiety during the anticipation and performance phases of a social situation decline following treatment. Evidence also suggests that the point of confrontation with the feared stimulus is the peak level of fear. No study to date has evaluated the pattern of anxious responding across the anticipation, confrontation, and performance phases before and after treatment, which is the focus of the current study. Socially phobic individuals (N = 51) completed a behavioral avoidance task before and after two types of manualized cognitive behavioral therapy, and gave ratings of fear during the anticipation and performance phases. Results from latent growth curve analysis were the same for the two treatments and suggested that before treatment, anxiety sharply increased during the anticipation phase, was highly elevated at the confrontation, and gradually increased during the performance phase. After treatment, anxiety increased during the anticipation phase, although at a much slower rate than at pretreatment, peaked at confrontation, and declined during the performance phase. The findings suggest that anticipatory experiences are critical to the experience of fear for public speaking and should be incorporated into exposures. PMID:21907972

  17. Latent growth curve analyses of emotional support for informal caregivers of vulnerable persons with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Mary M; Robinson, Allysha C; Nguyen, Trang Q; Knowlton, Amy R

    2015-01-01

    People living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) have growing rates of morbidity and need for informal care, especially among drug-using PLHIV. Informal caregivers, or persons providing unpaid emotional or instrumental support, have protective effects on the health and well-being of PLHIV. Research suggests that social support, including care recipients' reciprocity of emotional support, is important to sustained caregiving. This study examined HIV caregivers' perceived emotional support over time from their current or former injection drug-using care recipients. Data were from baseline, 6-month, and 12-month follow-up of the BEACON study. Latent growth curve analysis showed a decline in reciprocated emotional support reports over time, particularly among caregivers themselves HIV seropositive or currently substance using. Researchers should develop interventions to strengthen the caregiving relationship by promoting reciprocity of emotional support, with implications for sustaining caregiving to vulnerable PLHIV and improving their health outcomes. Interventions should especially target dyads in which caregivers are also HIV positive or using substances.

  18. In vitro evaluation of Pseudomonas bacterial isolates from rice phylloplane for biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani and plant growth promoting traits.

    PubMed

    Akter, Shamima; Kadir, Jugah; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Saud, Halimi Mohd

    2016-07-01

    The ability for biocontrol and plant growth promotion of three Pseudomonas bacterial isolates namely Pseudomonas fluorescens (UMB20), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (KMB25) and Pseudomonas asplenii (BMB42) obtained from rice plants was investigated. Fungal growth inhibition by the isolates ranged from 86.85 to 93.15% in volatile and 100% in diffusible metabolites test. Among the isolates, BMB42 showed fungal growth inhibition significantly in the volatile metabolite test. Isolates UMB20 and BMB42 were able to synthesis chitinase with chitinolytic indices of 13.66 and 13.50, respectively. In case of -1,3-glucanase, all the isolates showed activity to produce this enzyme at varied levels and isolate KMB25 showed significantly highest activity (53.53 ppm). Among the three isolates, KMB25 showed positive response to protease production and all of them were negative to pectinase and lipase and positive to the production of siderophore, and HCN, and were able to solubilize tricalcium phosphate. All the three bacterial isolates were capable of forming biofilm at different levels. Above results suggest that phylloplane Pseudomonas bacterial isolates have potential for antifungal activities and plant growth promotion. PMID:27498507

  19. Predicting bacterial growth in raw, salted, and cooked chicken breast fillets during storage.

    PubMed

    Galarz, Liane Aldrighi; Fonseca, Gustavo Graciano; Prentice, Carlos

    2016-09-01

    Growth curves were evaluated for aerobic mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria, Pseudomonas spp. and Staphylococcus spp., grown in raw, salted, and cooked chicken breast at 2, 4, 7, 10, 15, and 20 ℃, respectively, using the modified Gompertz and modified logistic models. Shelf life was determined based on microbiological counts and sensory analysis. Temperature increase reduced the shelf life, which varied from 10 to 26 days at 2 ℃, from nine to 21 days at 4 ℃, from six to 12 days at 7 ℃, from four to eight days at 10 ℃, from two to four days at 15 ℃, and from one to two days at 20 ℃. In most cases, cooked chicken breast showed the highest microbial count, followed by raw breast and lastly salted breast. The data obtained here were useful for the generation of mathematical models and parameters. The models presented high correlation and can be used for predictive purposes in the poultry meat supply chain.

  20. Modeling C-Curves for the Growth Rate of Widmanstätten and Bainitic Ferrite in Fe-C Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leach, Lindsay; Hillert, Mats; Borgenstam, Annika

    2016-01-01

    When Zener formulated his maximum growth rate criterion for predicting the coarseness of various metallographic objects, he simplified the growth rate equations and predicted that the optimum coarseness should be twice the critical value for which all the driving force would be absorbed by interfacial energy. It is now emphasized that a composition dependence of the diffusion coefficient has a considerable influence and can result in a ratio much larger than two. Various approximations have now been removed from the growth rate equation. When applied to acicular ferrite in the Fe-C system, a C-curve for the growth rate is obtained that resembles the unusually wide C-curve obtained experimentally when information on Widmanstätten ferrite and bainite is combined. It is not necessary to explain that shape as a combination of separate curves for Widmanstätten ferrite and bainite. The main reason for the wide C-curve is the direct effect of the composition dependence of the diffusivity of carbon in austenite.

  1. A Growth Curve Analysis of the Joint Influences of Parenting Affect, Child Characteristics and Deviant Peers on Adolescent Illicit Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pires, Paulo; Jenkins, Jennifer M.

    2007-01-01

    This study purports that parental rejection and warmth are critical to the development of adolescent drug use, and investigates a model that also considers children's vulnerability and deviant peer affiliations. It tests mediation through the proximal risk factor of deviant peers. Poisson growth curve modeling was used to examine participants from…

  2. Growth curves of crossbred cows sired by Hereford, Angus, Belgian Blue, Brahman, Boran, and Tuli bulls, and the fraction of mature weight and height at puberty

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth curves of females to determine if mature size and relative rates of maturing amongst breeds differed. Body weight and hip height data were fit to the nonlinear function: BW = f(t) = A – Bek(age) where A is an estimate of mature BW and k determi...

  3. Longitudinal Examination of Procrastination and Anxiety, and Their Relation to Self-Efficacy for Self- Regulated Learning: Latent Growth Curve Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerdelen, Sündüs; McCaffrey, Adam; Klassen, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the longitudinal association between students' anxiety and procrastination and the relation of self-efficacy for self-regulation to these constructs. Latent Growth Curve Modeling was used to analyze data gathered from 182 undergraduate students (134 female, 48 male) at 4 times during a semester. Our results showed that…

  4. The Impact of Salient Role Stress on Trajectories of Health in Late Life among Survivors of a Seven-Year Panel Study: Analyses of Individual Growth Curves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Benjamin A.; Krause, Neal

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is twofold: 1) to model changes in health over time among older adults; and 2) to assess the degree to which stress arising in salient social roles accounts for individual variation in these changes. Individual growth curve analyses using Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) software were employed with longitudinal data…

  5. Gut Commensal E. coli Proteins Activate Host Satiety Pathways following Nutrient-Induced Bacterial Growth.

    PubMed

    Breton, Jonathan; Tennoune, Naouel; Lucas, Nicolas; Francois, Marie; Legrand, Romain; Jacquemot, Justine; Goichon, Alexis; Guérin, Charlène; Peltier, Johann; Pestel-Caron, Martine; Chan, Philippe; Vaudry, David; do Rego, Jean-Claude; Liénard, Fabienne; Pénicaud, Luc; Fioramonti, Xavier; Ebenezer, Ivor S; Hökfelt, Tomas; Déchelotte, Pierre; Fetissov, Sergueï O

    2016-02-01

    The composition of gut microbiota has been associated with host metabolic phenotypes, but it is not known if gut bacteria may influence host appetite. Here we show that regular nutrient provision stabilizes exponential growth of E. coli, with the stationary phase occurring 20 min after nutrient supply accompanied by bacterial proteome changes, suggesting involvement of bacterial proteins in host satiety. Indeed, intestinal infusions of E. coli stationary phase proteins increased plasma PYY and their intraperitoneal injections suppressed acutely food intake and activated c-Fos in hypothalamic POMC neurons, while their repeated administrations reduced meal size. ClpB, a bacterial protein mimetic of α-MSH, was upregulated in the E. coli stationary phase, was detected in plasma proportional to ClpB DNA in feces, and stimulated firing rate of hypothalamic POMC neurons. Thus, these data show that bacterial proteins produced after nutrient-induced E. coli growth may signal meal termination. Furthermore, continuous exposure to E. coli proteins may influence long-term meal pattern. PMID:26621107

  6. Treatment of “Bacterial Cystitis” in Fully Automatic Mechanical Models Simulating Conditions of Bacterial Growth in the Urinary Bladder

    PubMed Central

    O'Grady, F.; Mackintosh, I. P.; Greenwood, D.; Watson, B. W.

    1973-01-01

    Two fully automatic models are described in which growing cultures can be continuously diluted and periodically discharged producing conditions of growth resembling those of the infected urinary bladder. Both models generate a continuous record of the opacity of the growing culture and the second model also generates a record of the Eh. The effect of adding ampicillin to a sensitive strain of Escherichia coli growing in these conditions is described and the relation of the results to human therapy is discussed. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:4577943

  7. Listeria monocytogenes virulence factor Listeriolysin O favors bacterial growth in co-culture with the ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis, causes protozoan encystment and promotes bacterial survival inside cysts

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The gram-positive pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes is widely spread in the nature. L. monocytogenes was reported to be isolated from soil, water, sewage and sludge. Listeriolysin O (LLO) is a L. monocytogenes major virulence factor. In the course of infection in mammals, LLO is required for intracellular survival and apoptosis induction in lymphocytes. In this study, we explored the potential of LLO to promote interactions between L. monocytogenes and the ubiquitous inhabitant of natural ecosystems bacteriovorous free-living ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis. Results Wild type L. monocytogenes reduced T. pyriformis trophozoite counts and stimulated encystment. The effects were observed starting from 48 h of co-incubation. On the day 14, trophozoites were eliminated from the co-culture while about 5 × 104 cells/ml remained in the axenic T. pyriformis culture. The deficient in the LLO-encoding hly gene L. monocytogenes strain failed to cause mortality among protozoa and to trigger protozoan encystment. Replenishment of the hly gene in the mutant strain restored toxicity towards protozoa and induction of protozoan encystment. The saprophytic non-haemolytic species L. innocua transformed with the LLO-expressing plasmid caused extensive mortality and encystment in ciliates. During the first week of co-incubation, LLO-producing L. monocytogenes demonstrated higher growth rates in association with T. pyriformis than the LLO-deficient isogenic strain. At latter stages of co-incubation bacterial counts were similar for both strains. T. pyriformis cysts infected with wild type L. monocytogenes caused listerial infection in guinea pigs upon ocular and oral inoculation. The infection was proved by bacterial plating from the internal organs. Conclusions The L. monocytogenes virulence factor LLO promotes bacterial survival and growth in the presence of bacteriovorous ciliate T. pyriformis. LLO is responsible for L. monocytogenes toxicity for protozoa and

  8. Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure on Bacterial Growth on Human Ossicles Explanted from Cholesteatoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ostwald, Jürgen; Lindner, Tobias; Zautner, Andreas Erich; Arndt, Kathleen; Pau, Hans Wilhelm; Podbielski, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Background High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment can eliminate cholesteatoma cells from explanted human ossicles prior to re-insertion. We analyzed the effects of HHP treatment on the microbial flora on ossicles and on the planktonic and biofilm states of selected isolates. Methodology Twenty-six ossicles were explanted from cholesteatoma patients. Five ossicles were directly analyzed for microbial growth without further treatment. Fifteen ossicles were cut into two pieces. One piece was exposed to HHP of 350 MPa for 10 minutes. Both the treated and untreated (control) pieces were then assessed semi-quantitatively. Three ossicles were cut into two pieces and exposed to identical pressure conditions with or without the addition of one of two different combinations of antibiotics to the medium. Differential effects of 10-minute in vitro exposure of planktonic and biofilm bacteria to pressures of 100 MPa, 250 MPa, 400 MPa and 540 MPa in isotonic and hypotonic media were analyzed using two patient isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Neisseria subflava. Bacterial cell inactivation and biofilm destruction were assessed by colony counting and electron microscopy. Principal Findings A variety of microorganisms were isolated from the ossicles. Irrespective of the medium, HHP treatment at 350 MPa for 10 minutes led to satisfying but incomplete inactivation especially of Gram-negative bacteria. The addition of antibiotics increased the efficacy of elimination. A comparison of HHP treatment of planktonic and biofilm cells showed that the effects of HPP were reduced by about one decadic logarithmic unit when HPP was applied to biofilms. High hydrostatic pressure conditions that are suitable to inactivate cholesteatoma cells fail to completely sterilize ossicles even if antibiotics are added. As a result of the reduced microbial load and the viability loss of surviving bacteria, however, there is a lower risk of re-infection after re-insertion. PMID:22291908

  9. Mycelium-Like Networks Increase Bacterial Dispersal, Growth, and Biodegradation in a Model Ecosystem at Various Water Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Worrich, Anja; König, Sara; Miltner, Anja; Banitz, Thomas; Centler, Florian; Frank, Karin; Thullner, Martin; Harms, Hauke; Wick, Lukas Y.

    2016-01-01

    Fungal mycelia serve as effective dispersal networks for bacteria in water-unsaturated environments, thereby allowing bacteria to maintain important functions, such as biodegradation. However, poor knowledge exists on the effects of dispersal networks at various osmotic (Ψo) and matric (Ψm) potentials, which contribute to the water potential mainly in terrestrial soil environments. Here we studied the effects of artificial mycelium-like dispersal networks on bacterial dispersal dynamics and subsequent effects on growth and benzoate biodegradation at ΔΨo and ΔΨm values between 0 and −1.5 MPa. In a multiple-microcosm approach, we used a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged derivative of the soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida KT2440 as a model organism and sodium benzoate as a representative of polar aromatic contaminants. We found that decreasing ΔΨo and ΔΨm values slowed bacterial dispersal in the system, leading to decelerated growth and benzoate degradation. In contrast, dispersal networks facilitated bacterial movement at ΔΨo and ΔΨm values between 0 and −0.5 MPa and thus improved the absolute biodegradation performance by up to 52 and 119% for ΔΨo and ΔΨm, respectively. This strong functional interrelationship was further emphasized by a high positive correlation between population dispersal, population growth, and degradation. We propose that dispersal networks may sustain the functionality of microbial ecosystems at low osmotic and matric potentials. PMID:26944849

  10. Mycelium-Like Networks Increase Bacterial Dispersal, Growth, and Biodegradation in a Model Ecosystem at Various Water Potentials.

    PubMed

    Worrich, Anja; König, Sara; Miltner, Anja; Banitz, Thomas; Centler, Florian; Frank, Karin; Thullner, Martin; Harms, Hauke; Kästner, Matthias; Wick, Lukas Y

    2016-05-15

    Fungal mycelia serve as effective dispersal networks for bacteria in water-unsaturated environments, thereby allowing bacteria to maintain important functions, such as biodegradation. However, poor knowledge exists on the effects of dispersal networks at various osmotic (Ψo) and matric (Ψm) potentials, which contribute to the water potential mainly in terrestrial soil environments. Here we studied the effects of artificial mycelium-like dispersal networks on bacterial dispersal dynamics and subsequent effects on growth and benzoate biodegradation at ΔΨo and ΔΨm values between 0 and -1.5 MPa. In a multiple-microcosm approach, we used a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged derivative of the soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida KT2440 as a model organism and sodium benzoate as a representative of polar aromatic contaminants. We found that decreasing ΔΨo and ΔΨm values slowed bacterial dispersal in the system, leading to decelerated growth and benzoate degradation. In contrast, dispersal networks facilitated bacterial movement at ΔΨo and ΔΨm values between 0 and -0.5 MPa and thus improved the absolute biodegradation performance by up to 52 and 119% for ΔΨo and ΔΨm, respectively. This strong functional interrelationship was further emphasized by a high positive correlation between population dispersal, population growth, and degradation. We propose that dispersal networks may sustain the functionality of microbial ecosystems at low osmotic and matric potentials. PMID:26944849

  11. Latent Growth-Curve Analysis Reveals That Worsening Parkinson’s Disease Quality of Life Is Driven by Depression

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jacob D.; Marsiske, Michael; Okun, Michael S.; Bowers, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Objective Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder resulting in a wide variety of symptoms. The current study examined the influence of apathy, depression and motor symptoms on quality of life (QoL) in PD patients. Information was drawn from an 18-month period. Method Participants (N = 397) were assessed for apathy (Apathy Scale; Starkstein et al., 1992), depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II; Beck, Steer, Ball & Ranieri, 1996), motor severity (Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale, Part III; UPDRS; Fahn, Elton & Committee, 1987), and QoL (Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire-39; Jenkinson, Fitzpatrick, Peto, Greenhall, & Hyman,1997) at 3 time points: an initial clinical evaluation (baseline), a 6-month follow-up, and an 18-month follow-up. Latent growth-curve models were used to determine the influence of apathy, depression, and motor symptoms on QoL trajectories. Results Greater difficulties with QoL at baseline showed the strongest relationship to more severe depression symptoms, followed by more severe motor symptoms, younger age, and less education (all p values < .001). Worsening of QoL over the 18-month period was only predicted by a worsening of depression (p = .003). The relationship between QoL and depression symptoms remained significant in a subsample of nondepressed PD patients. Conclusion Overall, findings from the current study suggest that self-reported QoL among PD patients is primarily related to depression. Future efforts to improving clinical care of PD patients may benefit by focusing on improving psychosocial adjustment or treatments targeting depression. PMID:25365564

  12. Severity of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Child Language Functioning Through Age Seven Years: A Longitudinal Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bandstra, Emmalee S.; Vogel, April L.; Morrow, Connie E.; Xue, Lihua; Anthony, James C.

    2009-01-01

    The current study estimates the longitudinal effects of severity of prenatal cocaine exposure on language functioning in an urban sample of full-term African-American children (200 cocaine-exposed, 176 noncocaine-exposed) through age 7 years. The Miami Prenatal Cocaine Study sample was enrolled prospectively at birth, with documentation of prenatal drug exposure status through maternal interview and toxicology assays of maternal and infant urine and infant meconium. Language functioning was measured at ages 3 and 5 years using the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals–Preschool (CELF-P) and at age 7 years using the Core Language Domain of the NEPSY: A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment. Longitudinal latent growth curve analyses were used to examine two components of language functioning, a more stable aptitude for language performance and a time-varying trajectory of language development, across the three time points and their relationship to varying levels of prenatal cocaine exposure. Severity of prenatal cocaine exposure was characterized using a latent construct combining maternal self-report of cocaine use during pregnancy by trimesters and maternal and infant bioassays, allowing all available information to be taken into account. The association between severity of exposure and language functioning was examined within a model including factors for fetal growth, gestational age, and IQ as intercorrelated response variables and child’s age, gender, and prenatal alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana exposure as covariates. Results indicated that greater severity of prenatal cocaine exposure was associated with greater deficits within the more stable aptitude for language performance (D = −0.071, 95% CI = −0.133, −0.009; p = 0.026). There was no relationship between severity of prenatal cocaine exposure and the time-varying trajectory of language development. The observed cocaine-associated deficit was independent of multiple alternative

  13. A Model to Explain Plant Growth Promotion Traits: A Multivariate Analysis of 2,211 Bacterial Isolates

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Pedro Beschoren; Granada, Camille E.; Ambrosini, Adriana; Moreira, Fernanda; de Souza, Rocheli; dos Passos, João Frederico M.; Arruda, Letícia; Passaglia, Luciane M. P.

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting bacteria can greatly assist sustainable farming by improving plant health and biomass while reducing fertilizer use. The plant-microorganism-environment interaction is an open and complex system, and despite the active research in the area, patterns in root ecology are elusive. Here, we simultaneously analyzed the plant growth-promoting bacteria datasets from seven independent studies that shared a methodology for bioprospection and phenotype screening. The soil richness of the isolate's origin was classified by a Principal Component Analysis. A Categorical Principal Component Analysis was used to classify the soil richness according to isolate's indolic compound production, siderophores production and phosphate solubilization abilities, and bacterial genera composition. Multiple patterns and relationships were found and verified with nonparametric hypothesis testing. Including niche colonization in the analysis, we proposed a model to explain the expression of bacterial plant growth-promoting traits according to the soil nutritional status. Our model shows that plants favor interaction with growth hormone producers under rich nutrient conditions but favor nutrient solubilizers under poor conditions. We also performed several comparisons among the different genera, highlighting interesting ecological interactions and limitations. Our model could be used to direct plant growth-promoting bacteria bioprospection and metagenomic sampling. PMID:25542031

  14. Lipocalin 2 Imparts Selective Pressure on Bacterial Growth in the Bladder and Is Elevated in Women with Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Steigedal, Magnus; Marstad, Anne; Haug, Markus; Damås, Jan K.; Strong, Roland K.; Roberts, Pacita L.; Himpsl, Stephanie D.; Stapleton, Ann; Hooton, Thomas M.; Mobley, Harry L. T.; Hawn, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    Competition for iron is a critical component of successful bacterial infections, but the underlying in vivo mechanisms are poorly understood. We have previously demonstrated that lipocalin 2 (LCN2) is an innate immunity protein that binds to bacterial siderophores and starves them for iron, thus representing a novel host defense mechanism to infection. In the present study we show that LCN2 is secreted by the urinary tract mucosa and protects against urinary tract infection (UTI). We found that LCN2 was expressed in the bladder, ureters, and kidneys of mice subject to UTI. LCN2 was protective with higher bacterial numbers retrieved from bladders of Lcn2-deficient mice than from wild-type mice infected with the LCN2-sensitive Escherichia coli strain H9049. Uropathogenic E. coli mutants in siderophore receptors for salmochelin, aerobactin, or yersiniabactin displayed reduced fitness in wild-type mice, but not in mice deficient of LCN2, demonstrating that LCN2 imparts a selective pressure on bacterial growth in the bladder. In a human cohort of women with recurrent E. coli UTIs, urine LCN2 levels were associated with UTI episodes and with levels of bacteriuria. The number of siderophore systems was associated with increasing bacteriuria during cystitis. Our data demonstrate that LCN2 is secreted by the urinary tract mucosa in response to uropathogenic E. coli challenge and acts in innate immune defenses as a colonization barrier that pathogens must overcome to establish infection. PMID:25398327

  15. Root ethylene signalling is involved in Miscanthus sinensis growth promotion by the bacterial endophyte Herbaspirillum frisingense GSF30(T).

    PubMed

    Straub, Daniel; Yang, Huaiyu; Liu, Yan; Tsap, Tatsiana; Ludewig, Uwe

    2013-11-01

    The bacterial endophyte Herbaspirillum frisingense GSF30(T) is a colonizer of several grasses grown in temperate climates, including the highly nitrogen-efficient perennial energy grass Miscanthus. Inoculation of Miscanthus sinensis seedlings with H. frisingense promoted root and shoot growth but had only a minor impact on nutrient concentrations. The bacterium affected the root architecture and increased fine-root structures. Although H. frisingense has the genetic requirements to fix nitrogen, only minor changes in nitrogen concentrations were observed. Herbaspirillum agglomerates were identified primarily in the root apoplast but also in the shoots. The short-term (3h) and long-term (3 weeks) transcriptomic responses of the plant to bacterial inoculation revealed that H. frisingense induced rapid changes in plant hormone signalling, most prominent in jasmonate signalling. Ethylene signalling pathways were also affected and persisted after 3 weeks in the root. Growth stimulation of the root by the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane 1-carboxylic acid was dose dependent and was affected by H. frisingense inoculation. Minor changes in the proteome were identified after 3 weeks. This study suggests that H. frisingense improves plant growth by modulating plant hormone signalling pathways and provides a framework to understand the beneficial effects of diazotrophic plant-growth-promoting bacteria, such as H. frisingense, on the biomass grass Miscanthus.

  16. Bacterial growth efficiency in a partly eutrophicated bay of South China Sea: Implication for anthropogenic impacts and potential hypoxia events.

    PubMed

    Song, Xing-Yu; Liu, Hua-Xue; Zhong, Yu; Tan, Ye-Hui; Qin, Geng; Li, Kai-Zhi; Shen, Ping-Ping; Huang, Liang-Min; Wang, You-Shao

    2015-10-01

    Bacterial metabolism plays a dual role [bacterial production (BP) and bacterial respiration (BR)] in the aquatic ecosystem and potentially leads to hypoxia in the coastal eutrophic area. Bacterial growth efficiency (BGE) is an important index showing the contribution of bacterial metabolism to marine biological production and carbon budget in the pelagic ecosystem. In this study, the spatial and seasonal variety as well as diurnal variation dynamics of BGE and associated ecological characteristics were investigated in a partly eutrophicated subtropical bay (the Daya Bay) located in the northern South China Sea. Furthermore, the relationship between bacterial metabolism and potential hypoxia event was analyzed. The average BGE was 0.14 and 0.22 in summer and winter, respectively, which was lower than the mean value ever reported in other coastal and estuarine waters. The diurnal variations of BGE and BP were widely fluctuated in the Daya Bay, with approximately 3-8 fold variation of BP and 2-3 fold variation of BR in different seasons, suggesting the importance of short-term ecological dynamics on evaluating the long-term ecological processes in the coastal waters. BR was the predominant contributor to the bacterial carbon demand; however, the variation of BGE was controlled by BP in both seasons. BGE was always high in the near-shore waters with higher eutrophic level and more active BP and BR. The bacterial metabolism could deplete dissolved oxygen (DO) in the Daya bay within about 9 days when the water body was enclosed and photosynthesis was prohibited. Therefore, low DO concentration and potential hypoxia was more likely to be found in the near-shore waters of the Daya Bay in summer, since the water was stratified and enclosed with poor water exchange capacity in this area. While in winter, hypoxia seldom occurred due to vertical mixing throughout the water column. Further biological-physical coupling research is recommended to find out the detailed formation

  17. Effects of Eyjafjallajökull Volcanic Ash on Innate Immune System Responses and Bacterial Growth in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Powers, Linda S.; Borcherding, Jennifer A.; Caraballo, Juan C.; Mudunkotuwa, Imali; Peate, David W.; Walters, Katherine; Thompson, Jay M.; Grassian, Vicki H.; Gudmundsson, Gunnar; Comellas, Alejandro P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: On 20 March 2010, the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull erupted for the first time in 190 years. Despite many epidemiological reports showing effects of volcanic ash on the respiratory system, there are limited data evaluating cellular mechanisms involved in the response to ash. Epidemiological studies have observed an increase in respiratory infections in subjects and populations exposed to volcanic eruptions. Methods: We physicochemically characterized volcanic ash, finding various sizes of particles, as well as the presence of several transition metals, including iron. We examined the effect of Eyjafjallajökull ash on primary rat alveolar epithelial cells and human airway epithelial cells (20–100 µg/cm2), primary rat and human alveolar macrophages (5–20 µg/cm2), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1) growth (3 µg/104 bacteria). Results: Volcanic ash had minimal effect on alveolar and airway epithelial cell integrity. In alveolar macrophages, volcanic ash disrupted pathogen-killing and inflammatory responses. In in vitro bacterial growth models, volcanic ash increased bacterial replication and decreased bacterial killing by antimicrobial peptides. Conclusions: These results provide potential biological plausibility for epidemiological data that show an association between air pollution exposure and the development of respiratory infections. These data suggest that volcanic ash exposure, while not seriously compromising lung cell function, may be able to impair innate immunity responses in exposed individuals. PMID:23478268

  18. Population Dynamics of a Salmonella Lytic Phage and Its Host: Implications of the Host Bacterial Growth Rate in Modelling

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Sílvio B.; Carvalho, Carla; Azeredo, Joana; Ferreira, Eugénio C.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence and impact of bacteriophages in the ecology of bacterial communities coupled with their ability to control pathogens turn essential to understand and predict the dynamics between phage and bacteria populations. To achieve this knowledge it is essential to develop mathematical models able to explain and simulate the population dynamics of phage and bacteria. We have developed an unstructured mathematical model using delay-differential equations to predict the interactions between a broad-host-range Salmonella phage and its pathogenic host. The model takes into consideration the main biological parameters that rule phage-bacteria interactions likewise the adsorption rate, latent period, burst size, bacterial growth rate, and substrate uptake rate, among others. The experimental validation of the model was performed with data from phage-interaction studies in a 5 L bioreactor. The key and innovative aspect of the model was the introduction of variations in the latent period and adsorption rate values that are considered as constants in previous developed models. By modelling the latent period as a normal distribution of values and the adsorption rate as a function of the bacterial growth rate it was possible to accurately predict the behaviour of the phage-bacteria population. The model was shown to predict simulated data with a good agreement with the experimental observations and explains how a lytic phage and its host bacteria are able to coexist. PMID:25051248

  19. Growth promotion and colonization of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) cv. Alamo by bacterial endophyte Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Switchgrass is one of the most promising bioenergy crop candidates for the US. It gives relatively high biomass yield and can grow on marginal lands. However, its yields vary from year to year and from location to location. Thus it is imperative to develop a low input and sustainable switchgrass feedstock production system. One of the most feasible ways to increase biomass yields is to harness benefits of microbial endophytes. Results We demonstrate that one of the most studied plant growth promoting bacterial endophytes, Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN, is able to colonize and significantly promote growth of switchgrass cv. Alamo under in vitro, growth chamber, and greenhouse conditions. In several in vitro experiments, the average fresh weight of PsJN-inoculated plants was approximately 50% higher than non-inoculated plants. When one-month-old seedlings were grown in a growth chamber for 30 days, the PsJN-inoculated Alamo plants had significantly higher shoot and root biomass compared to controls. Biomass yield (dry weight) averaged from five experiments was 54.1% higher in the inoculated treatment compared to non-inoculated control. Similar results were obtained in greenhouse experiments with transplants grown in 4-gallon pots for two months. The inoculated plants exhibited more early tillers and persistent growth vigor with 48.6% higher biomass than controls. We also found that PsJN could significantly promote growth of switchgrass cv. Alamo under sub-optimal conditions. However, PsJN-mediated growth promotion in switchgrass is genotype specific. Conclusions Our results show B. phytofirmans strain PsJN significantly promotes growth of switchgrass cv. Alamo under different conditions, especially in the early growth stages leading to enhanced production of tillers. This phenomenon may benefit switchgrass establishment in the first year. Moreover, PsJN significantly stimulated growth of switchgrass cv. Alamo under sub-optimal conditions

  20. [Qualitative and quantitative determination of bacterial populations in an aquatic environment. 7. Development of bacterial growth on raw materials exposed to potable water].

    PubMed

    Dott, W; Schoenen, D

    1985-05-01

    Refined steel plates coated with different materials that contained available organic compounds led to a microbial growth on the surface. Even plastics and bitumen which were used in the sphere of drinking water showed after an exposure time of three months up to 192 ml slime per square meter. The number of viable bacteria within the Aufwuchs was in the range of 10(7) cfu/ml. The production of slime increased with time. The relation of carbohydrate and protein content significantly changed from 2 at the beginning to 30 after 12 months of incubation the bitumen coating test plates. This indicates an increase synthesis of carbohydrate containing extracellular polymeric substances during the late phase of growth. The bacteria isolated from the Aufwuchs mainly belonged to the genera Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Acinetobacter, Caulobacter, sheated bacteria and other gramnegative physiologically nonreactiv roads. During exposure of the plates the relation changed within the bacterial communities of the main groups. Comparing the bacteria communities of inlet and outflow water it became evident that the later one was influenced by bacteria of the Aufwuchs. PMID:4024773

  1. Bacterial Growth Kinetics under a Novel Flexible Methacrylate Dressing Serving as a Drug Delivery Vehicle for Antiseptics

    PubMed Central

    Forstner, Christina; Leitgeb, Johannes; Schuster, Rupert; Dosch, Verena; Kramer, Axel; Cutting, Keith F.; Leaper, David J.; Assadian, Ojan

    2013-01-01

    A flexible methacrylate powder dressing (Altrazeal®) transforms into a wound contour conforming matrix once in contact with wound exudate. We hypothesised that it may also serve as a drug delivery vehicle for antiseptics. The antimicrobial efficacy and influence on bacterial growth kinetics in combination with three antiseptics was investigated in an in vitro porcine wound model. Standardized in vitro wounds were contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA; ATCC 33591) and divided into six groups: no dressing (negative control), methacrylate dressing alone, and combinations with application of 0.02% Polyhexamethylene Biguanide (PHMB), 0.4% PHMB, 0.1% PHMB + 0.1% betaine, 7.7 mg/mL Povidone-iodine (PVP-iodine), and 0.1% Octenidine-dihydrochloride (OCT) + 2% phenoxyethanol. Bacterial load per gram tissue was measured over five days. The highest reduction was observed with PVP-iodine at 24 h to log10 1.43 cfu/g, followed by OCT at 48 h to log10 2.41 cfu/g. Whilst 0.02% PHMB resulted in a stable bacterial load over 120 h to log10 4.00 cfu/g over 120 h, 0.1% PHMB + 0.1% betaine inhibited growth during the first 48 h, with slightly increasing bacterial numbers up to log10 5.38 cfu/g at 120 h. These results indicate that this flexible methacrylate dressing can be loaded with various antiseptics serving as drug delivery system. Depending on the selected combination, an individually shaped and controlled antibacterial effect may be achieved using the same type of wound dressing. PMID:23698780

  2. Bacterial growth kinetics under a novel flexible methacrylate dressing serving as a drug delivery vehicle for antiseptics.

    PubMed

    Forstner, Christina; Leitgeb, Johannes; Schuster, Rupert; Dosch, Verena; Kramer, Axel; Cutting, Keith F; Leaper, David J; Assadian, Ojan

    2013-01-01

    A flexible methacrylate powder dressing (Altrazeal®) transforms into a wound contour conforming matrix once in contact with wound exudate. We hypothesised that it may also serve as a drug delivery vehicle for antiseptics. The antimicrobial efficacy and influence on bacterial growth kinetics in combination with three antiseptics was investigated in an in vitro porcine wound model. Standardized in vitro wounds were contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA; ATCC 33591) and divided into six groups: no dressing (negative control), methacrylate dressing alone, and combinations with application of 0.02% Polyhexamethylene Biguanide (PHMB), 0.4% PHMB, 0.1% PHMB + 0.1% betaine, 7.7 mg/mL Povidone-iodine (PVP-iodine), and 0.1% Octenidine-dihydrochloride (OCT) + 2% phenoxyethanol. Bacterial load per gram tissue was measured over five days. The highest reduction was observed with PVP-iodine at 24 h to log10 1.43 cfu/g, followed by OCT at 48 h to log10 2.41 cfu/g. Whilst 0.02% PHMB resulted in a stable bacterial load over 120 h to log10 4.00 cfu/g over 120 h, 0.1% PHMB + 0.1% betaine inhibited growth during the first 48 h, with slightly increasing bacterial numbers up to log10 5.38 cfu/g at 120 h. These results indicate that this flexible methacrylate dressing can be loaded with various antiseptics serving as drug delivery system. Depending on the selected combination, an individually shaped and controlled antibacterial effect may be achieved using the same type of wound dressing.

  3. Heterotic and maternal effects on body weight and the parameters of a logistic growth curve of LL and SS rats and their F1 offspring.

    PubMed

    Kasser, T G; Mabry, J W; Benyshek, L L; Campion, D J; Martin, R J

    1983-01-01

    Differences in growth curve parameters were evaluated on two growth strains of rats and their reciprocal crosses. Least squares analysis indicated differences (p less than .05) in asymptotic weight, age and weight at the inflection point, the rate parameter, and absolute growth rate. Significant paternal, maternal, and sex influences were evident for each of the four derived traits. Positive significant heterosis was exhibited for each of the parameters of the growth function. Analysis of least square means of body weight also indicated significant differences at all ages from 4 to 15 weeks. Significant line of sire, line of dam and sex effects were expressed for each week body weight was recorded. Although negative, significant heterosis was expressed for body weight at weeks 5 and 6. There was a tendency for heterosis in all other weekly body weight measurements to be positive. PMID:6642246

  4. Effects of interactions of auxin-producing bacteria and bacterial-feeding nematodes on regulation of peanut growths.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li; Xu, Wensi; Jiang, Ying; Hu, Feng; Li, Huixin

    2015-01-01

    The influences of an IAA (indole-3-acetic acid)-producing bacterium (Bacillus megaterium) and two bacterial-feeding nematodes (Cephalobus sp. or Mesorhabditis sp.) on the growth of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. cv. Haihua 1) after various durations of time were investigated in natural soils. The addition of bacteria and nematodes and incubation time all significantly affected plant growth, plant root growth, plant nutrient concentrations, soil nutrient concentrations, soil microorganisms and soil auxin concentration. The addition of nematodes caused greater increases in these indices than those of bacteria, while the addition of the combination of bacteria and nematodes caused further increases. After 42-day growth, the increases in soil respiration differed between the additions of two kinds of nematodes because of differences in their life strategies. The effects of the bacteria and nematodes on the nutrient and hormone concentrations were responsible for the increases in plant growth. These results indicate the potential for promoting plant growth via the addition of nematodes and bacteria to soil.

  5. Potential Bacillus probiotics enhance bacterial numbers, water quality and growth during early development of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    PubMed

    Nimrat, Subuntith; Suksawat, Sunisa; Boonthai, Traimat; Vuthiphandchai, Verapong

    2012-10-12

    Epidemics of epizootics and occurrence of multiresistant antibiotics of pathogenic bacteria in aquaculture have put forward a development of effective probiotics for the sustainable culture. This study examined the effectiveness of forms of mixed Bacillus probiotics (probiotic A and probiotic B) and mode of probiotic administration on growth, bacterial numbers and water quality during rearing of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in two separated experiments: (1) larval stages and (2) postlarval (PL) stages. Forms of Bacillus probiotics and modes of probiotic administration did not affect growth and survival of larval to PL shrimp. The compositions of Bacillus species in probiotic A and probiotic B did not affect growth and survival of larvae. However, postlarvae treated with probiotic B exhibited higher (P<0.05) growth than probiotic A and controls, indicating Bacillus probiotic composition affects the growth of PL shrimp. Total heterotrophic bacteria and Bacillus numbers in larval and PL shrimp or culture water of the treated groups were higher (P<0.05) than in controls. Levels of pH, ammonia and nitrite of the treated shrimp were significantly decreased, compared to the controls. Microencapsulated Bacillus probiotic was effective for rearing of PL L. vannamei. This investigation showed that administration of mixed Bacillus probiotics significantly improved growth and survival of PL shrimp, increased beneficial bacteria in shrimp and culture water and enhanced water quality for the levels of pH, ammonia and nitrite of culture water.

  6. Appropriate Fe (II) Addition Significantly Enhances Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (Anammox) Activity through Improving the Bacterial Growth Rate

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiwen; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2015-01-01

    The application of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process is often limited by the slow growth rate of Anammox bacteria. As the essential substrate element that required for culturing Anammox sludge, Fe (II) is expected to affect Anammox bacterial growth. This work systematically studied the effects of Fe (II) addition on Anammox activity based on the kinetic analysis of specific growth rate using data from batch tests with an enriched Anammox sludge at different dosing levels. Results clearly demonstrated that appropriate Fe (II) dosing (i.e., 0.09 mM) significantly enhanced the specific Anammox growth rate up to 0.172 d−1 compared to 0.118 d−1 at regular Fe (II) level (0.03 mM). The relationship between Fe (II) concentration and specific Anammox growth rate was found to be well described by typical substrate inhibition kinetics, which was integrated into currently well-established Anammox model to describe the enhanced Anammox growth with Fe (II) addition. The validity of the integrated Anammox model was verified using long-term experimental data from three independent Anammox reactors with different Fe (II) dosing levels. This Fe (II)-based approach could be potentially implemented to enhance the process rate for possible mainstream application of Anammox technology, in order for an energy autarchic wastewater treatment. PMID:25644239

  7. Appropriate Fe (II) Addition Significantly Enhances Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (Anammox) Activity through Improving the Bacterial Growth Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yiwen; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2015-02-01

    The application of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process is often limited by the slow growth rate of Anammox bacteria. As the essential substrate element that required for culturing Anammox sludge, Fe (II) is expected to affect Anammox bacterial growth. This work systematically studied the effects of Fe (II) addition on Anammox activity based on the kinetic analysis of specific growth rate using data from batch tests with an enriched Anammox sludge at different dosing levels. Results clearly demonstrated that appropriate Fe (II) dosing (i.e., 0.09 mM) significantly enhanced the specific Anammox growth rate up to 0.172 d-1 compared to 0.118 d-1 at regular Fe (II) level (0.03 mM). The relationship between Fe (II) concentration and specific Anammox growth rate was found to be well described by typical substrate inhibition kinetics, which was integrated into currently well-established Anammox model to describe the enhanced Anammox growth with Fe (II) addition. The validity of the integrated Anammox model was verified using long-term experimental data from three independent Anammox reactors with different Fe (II) dosing levels. This Fe (II)-based approach could be potentially implemented to enhance the process rate for possible mainstream application of Anammox technology, in order for an energy autarchic wastewater treatment.

  8. Appropriate Fe (II) addition significantly enhances anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) activity through improving the bacterial growth rate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiwen; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2015-01-01

    The application of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process is often limited by the slow growth rate of Anammox bacteria. As the essential substrate element that required for culturing Anammox sludge, Fe (II) is expected to affect Anammox bacterial growth. This work systematically studied the effects of Fe (II) addition on Anammox activity based on the kinetic analysis of specific growth rate using data from batch tests with an enriched Anammox sludge at different dosing levels. Results clearly demonstrated that appropriate Fe (II) dosing (i.e., 0.09 mM) significantly enhanced the specific Anammox growth rate up to 0.172 d(-1) compared to 0.118 d(-1) at regular Fe (II) level (0.03 mM). The relationship between Fe (II) concentration and specific Anammox growth rate was found to be well described by typical substrate inhibition kinetics, which was integrated into currently well-established Anammox model to describe the enhanced Anammox growth with Fe (II) addition. The validity of the integrated Anammox model was verified using long-term experimental data from three independent Anammox reactors with different Fe (II) dosing levels. This Fe (II)-based approach could be potentially implemented to enhance the process rate for possible mainstream application of Anammox technology, in order for an energy autarchic wastewater treatment. PMID:25644239

  9. CONSEQUENCES OF PROTIST-STIMULATED BACTERIAL PRODUCTION FOR ESTIMATING PROTIST GROWTH EFFICIENCIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The trophic link between bacteria and bacterivorous protists is a complex interaction that involves feedback of inorganic nutrients and growth substrates that are immediately available for prey growth. These interactions were examined in the laboratory and in incubations of conce...

  10. Addition of Selenium Nanoparticles to Electrospun Silk Scaffold Improves the Mammalian Cell Activity While Reducing Bacterial Growth.

    PubMed

    Chung, Stanley; Ercan, Batur; Roy, Amit K; Webster, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    Silk possesses many beneficial wound healing properties, and electrospun scaffolds are especially applicable for skin applications, due to their smaller interstices and higher surface areas. However, purified silk promotes microbial growth. Selenium nanoparticles have shown excellent antibacterial properties and are a novel antimicrobial chemistry. Here, electrospun silk scaffolds were doped with selenium nanoparticles to impart antibacterial properties to the silk scaffolds. Results showed significantly improved bacterial inhibition and mild improvement in human dermal fibroblast metabolic activity. These results suggest that the addition of selenium nanoparticles to electrospun silk is a promising approach to improve wound healing with reduced infection, without relying on antibiotics. PMID:27471473

  11. In vitro bacterial growth and in vivo ruminal microbiota populations associated with bloat in steers grazing wheat forage.

    PubMed

    Min, B R; Pinchak, W E; Anderson, R C; Hume, M E

    2006-10-01

    The role of ruminal bacteria in the frothy bloat complex common to cattle grazing winter wheat has not been previously determined. Two experiments, one in vitro and another in vivo, were designed to elucidate the effects of fresh wheat forage on bacterial growth, biofilm complexes, rumen fermentation end products, rumen bacterial diversity, and bloat potential. In Exp. 1, 6 strains of ruminal bacteria (Streptococcus bovis strain 26, Prevotella ruminicola strain 23, Eubacterium ruminantium B1C23, Ruminococcus albus SY3, Fibrobacter succinogenes ssp. S85, and Ruminococcus flavefaciens C94) were used in vitro to determine the effect of soluble plant protein from winter wheat forage on specific bacterial growth rate, biofilm complexes, VFA, and ruminal H2 and CH4 in mono or coculture with Methanobrevibacter smithii. The specific growth rate in plant protein medium containing soluble plant protein (3.27% nitrogen) was measured during a 24-h incubation at 39 degrees C in Hungate tubes under a CO2 gas phase. A monoculture of M. smithii was grown similarly, except under H2:CO2 (1:1), in a basal methanogen growth medium supplemented likewise with soluble plant protein. In Exp. 2, 6 ruminally cannulated steers grazing wheat forage were used to evaluate the influence of bloat on the production of biofilm complexes, ruminal microbial biodiversity patterns, and ruminal fluid protein fractions. In Exp. 1, cultures of R. albus (P < 0.01) and R. flavefaciens (P < 0.05) produced the most H2 among strains and resulted in greater (P < 0.01) CH4 production when cocultured with M. smithii than other coculture combinations. Cultures of S. bovis and E. ruminantium + M. smithii produced the most biofilm mass among strains. In Exp. 2, when diets changed from bermudagrass hay to wheat forage, biofilm production increased (P < 0.01). Biofilm production, concentrations of whole ruminal content (P < 0.01), and cheesecloth filtrate protein fractions (P < 0.05) in the ruminal fluid were greater

  12. Addition of Selenium Nanoparticles to Electrospun Silk Scaffold Improves the Mammalian Cell Activity While Reducing Bacterial Growth

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Stanley; Ercan, Batur; Roy, Amit K.; Webster, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Silk possesses many beneficial wound healing properties, and electrospun scaffolds are especially applicable for skin applications, due to their smaller interstices and higher surface areas. However, purified silk promotes microbial growth. Selenium nanoparticles have shown excellent antibacterial properties and are a novel antimicrobial chemistry. Here, electrospun silk scaffolds were doped with selenium nanoparticles to impart antibacterial properties to the silk scaffolds. Results showed significantly improved bacterial inhibition and mild improvement in human dermal fibroblast metabolic activity. These results suggest that the addition of selenium nanoparticles to electrospun silk is a promising approach to improve wound healing with reduced infection, without relying on antibiotics. PMID:27471473

  13. Evaluation of free-stall mattress bedding treatments to reduce mastitis bacterial growth

    SciTech Connect

    Kristula, M.A.; Dou, Z.; Toth, J.D.; Smith, B.I.; Harvey, N.; Sabo, M.

    2008-05-15

    Bacterial counts were compared in free-stall mattresses and teat ends exposed to 5 treatments in a factorial study design on 1 dairy farm. Mattresses in five 30-cow groups were subjected to 1 of 5 bedding treatments every other day: 0.5 kg of hydrated limestone, 120 mL of commercial acidic conditioner, 1 kg of coal fly ash, 1 kg of kiln-dried wood shavings, and control (no bedding). Counts of coliforms, Klebsiella spp., Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus spp. were lowest on mattresses bedded with lime. Mattresses bedded with the commercial acidic conditioner had the next lowest counts for coliforms, Klebsiella spp., and Streptococcus spp. Wood shavings and the no-bedding control had the highest counts for coliform and Klebsiella spp. Compared with wood shavings or control, fly ash reduced the counts of coliforms, whereas for the other 3 bacterial groups, the reduction was not always significant. Streptococcus spp. counts were greatest in the control group and did not differ among the shavings and fly ash groups. Teat swab results indicated that hydrated lime was the only bedding treatment that significantly decreased the counts of both coliforms and Klebsiella spp. There were no differences in Streptococcus spp. numbers on the teats between any of the bedding treatments. Bacterial populations grew steadily on mattresses and were generally higher at 36 to 48 h than at 12 to 24 h, whereas bacterial populations on teats grew rapidly by 12 h and then remained constant. Hydrated lime was the only treatment that significantly reduced bacterial counts on both mattresses and teat ends, but it caused some skin irritation.

  14. Evaluation of free-stall mattress bedding treatments to reduce mastitis bacterial growth.

    PubMed

    Kristula, M A; Dou, Z; Toth, J D; Smith, B I; Harvey, N; Sabo, M

    2008-05-01

    Bacterial counts were compared in free-stall mattresses and teat ends exposed to 5 treatments in a factorial study design on 1 dairy farm. Mattresses in five 30-cow groups were subjected to 1 of 5 bedding treatments every other day: 0.5 kg of hydrated limestone, 120 mL of commercial acidic conditioner, 1 kg of coal fly ash, 1 kg of kiln-dried wood shavings, and control (no bedding). Counts of coliforms, Klebsiella spp., Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus spp. were lowest on mattresses bedded with lime. Mattresses bedded with the commercial acidic conditioner had the next lowest counts for coliforms, Klebsiella spp., and Streptococcus spp. Wood shavings and the no-bedding control had the highest counts for coliform and Klebsiella spp. Compared with wood shavings or control, fly ash reduced the counts of coliforms, whereas for the other 3 bacterial groups, the reduction was not always significant. Streptococcus spp. counts were greatest in the control group and did not differ among the shavings and fly ash groups. Teat swab results indicated that hydrated lime was the only bedding treatment that significantly decreased the counts of both coliforms and Klebsiella spp. There were no differences in Streptococcus spp. numbers on the teats between any of the bedding treatments. Bacterial populations grew steadily on mattresses and were generally higher at 36 to 48 h than at 12 to 24 h, whereas bacterial populations on teats grew rapidly by 12 h and then remained constant. Hydrated lime was the only treatment that significantly reduced bacterial counts on both mattresses and teat ends, but it caused some skin irritation. PMID:18420619

  15. Transcriptome Analysis of Liangshan Pig Muscle Development at the Growth Curve Inflection Point and Asymptotic Stages Using Digital Gene Expression Profiling.

    PubMed

    Shen, Linyuan; Luo, Jia; Du, Jingjing; Liu, Chendong; Wu, Xiaoqian; Pu, Qiang; Fu, Yuhua; Tang, Qianzi; Liu, Yuanrui; Li, Qiang; Yang, Runlin; Li, Xuewei; Tang, Guoqing; Jiang, Yanzhi; Li, Mingzhou; Zhang, Shunhua; Zhu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Animal growth curves can provide essential information for animal breeders to optimize feeding and management strategies. However, the genetic mechanism underlying the phenotypic differentiation between the inflection point and asymptotic stages of the growth curve is not well characterized. Here, we employed Liangshan pigs in stages of growth at the inflection point (under inflection point: UIP) and the two asymptotic stages (before the inflection point: BIP, after the inflection point: AIP) as models to survey global gene expression in the longissimus dorsi muscle using digital gene expression (DGE) tag profiling. We found Liangshan pigs reached maximum growth rate (UIP) at 163.6 days of age and a weight of 134.6 kg. The DGE libraries generated 117 million reads of 5.89 gigabases in length. 21,331, 20,996 and 20,139 expressed transcripts were identified BIP, UIP and AIP, respectively. Among them, we identified 757 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between BIP and UIP, and 271 DEGs between AIP and UIP. An enrichment analysis of DEGs proved the immune system was strengthened in the AIP stage. Energy metabolism rate, global transcriptional activity and bone development intensity were highest UIP. Meat from Liangshan pigs had the highest intramuscular fat content and most favorable fatty acid composition in the AIP. Three hundred eighty (27.70%) specific expression genes were highly enriched in QTL regions for growth and meat quality traits. This study completed a comprehensive analysis of diverse genetic mechanisms underlying the inflection point and asymptotic stages of growth. Our findings will serve as an important resource in the understanding of animal growth and development in indigenous pig breeds. PMID:26292092

  16. Transcriptome Analysis of Liangshan Pig Muscle Development at the Growth Curve Inflection Point and Asymptotic Stages Using Digital Gene Expression Profiling.

    PubMed

    Shen, Linyuan; Luo, Jia; Du, Jingjing; Liu, Chendong; Wu, Xiaoqian; Pu, Qiang; Fu, Yuhua; Tang, Qianzi; Liu, Yuanrui; Li, Qiang; Yang, Runlin; Li, Xuewei; Tang, Guoqing; Jiang, Yanzhi; Li, Mingzhou; Zhang, Shunhua; Zhu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Animal growth curves can provide essential information for animal breeders to optimize feeding and management strategies. However, the genetic mechanism underlying the phenotypic differentiation between the inflection point and asymptotic stages of the growth curve is not well characterized. Here, we employed Liangshan pigs in stages of growth at the inflection point (under inflection point: UIP) and the two asymptotic stages (before the inflection point: BIP, after the inflection point: AIP) as models to survey global gene expression in the longissimus dorsi muscle using digital gene expression (DGE) tag profiling. We found Liangshan pigs reached maximum growth rate (UIP) at 163.6 days of age and a weight of 134.6 kg. The DGE libraries generated 117 million reads of 5.89 gigabases in length. 21,331, 20,996 and 20,139 expressed transcripts were identified BIP, UIP and AIP, respectively. Among them, we identified 757 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between BIP and UIP, and 271 DEGs between AIP and UIP. An enrichment analysis of DEGs proved the immune system was strengthened in the AIP stage. Energy metabolism rate, global transcriptional activity and bone development intensity were highest UIP. Meat from Liangshan pigs had the highest intramuscular fat content and most favorable fatty acid composition in the AIP. Three hundred eighty (27.70%) specific expression genes were highly enriched in QTL regions for growth and meat quality traits. This study completed a comprehensive analysis of diverse genetic mechanisms underlying the inflection point and asymptotic stages of growth. Our findings will serve as an important resource in the understanding of animal growth and development in indigenous pig breeds.

  17. Effects of chemical and biological pesticides on plant growth parameters and rhizospheric bacterial community structure in Vigna radiata.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sunil; Gupta, Rashi; Sharma, Shilpi

    2015-06-30

    With increasing application of pesticides in agriculture, their non-target effects on soil microbial communities are critical to soil health maintenance. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of chemical pesticides (chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin) and a biological pesticide (azadirachtin) on growth parameters and the rhizospheric bacterial community of Vigna radiata. Qualitative and quantitative analysis by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and q-PCR, respectively, of the 16S rRNA gene and transcript were performed to study the impact of these pesticides on the resident and active rhizospheric bacterial community. While plant parameters were not affected significantly by the pesticides, a shift in the bacterial community structure was observed with an adverse effect on the abundance of 16S rRNA gene and transcripts. Chlorpyrifos showed almost complete degradation toward the end of the experiment. These non-target impacts on soil ecosystems and the fact that the effects of the biopesticide mimic those of chemical pesticides raise serious concerns regarding their application in agriculture. PMID:25791643

  18. Effects of chemical and biological pesticides on plant growth parameters and rhizospheric bacterial community structure in Vigna radiata.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sunil; Gupta, Rashi; Sharma, Shilpi

    2015-06-30

    With increasing application of pesticides in agriculture, their non-target effects on soil microbial communities are critical to soil health maintenance. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of chemical pesticides (chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin) and a biological pesticide (azadirachtin) on growth parameters and the rhizospheric bacterial community of Vigna radiata. Qualitative and quantitative analysis by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and q-PCR, respectively, of the 16S rRNA gene and transcript were performed to study the impact of these pesticides on the resident and active rhizospheric bacterial community. While plant parameters were not affected significantly by the pesticides, a shift in the bacterial community structure was observed with an adverse effect on the abundance of 16S rRNA gene and transcripts. Chlorpyrifos showed almost complete degradation toward the end of the experiment. These non-target impacts on soil ecosystems and the fact that the effects of the biopesticide mimic those of chemical pesticides raise serious concerns regarding their application in agriculture.

  19. Plant growth promotion potential is equally represented in diverse grapevine root-associated bacterial communities from different biopedoclimatic environments.

    PubMed

    Marasco, Ramona; Rolli, Eleonora; Fusi, Marco; Cherif, Ameur; Abou-Hadid, Ayman; El-Bahairy, Usama; Borin, Sara; Sorlini, Claudia; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    Plant-associated bacteria provide important services to host plants. Environmental factors such as cultivar type and pedoclimatic conditions contribute to shape their diversity. However, whether these environmental factors may influence the plant growth promoting (PGP) potential of the root-associated bacteria is not widely understood. To address this issue, the diversity and PGP potential of the bacterial assemblage associated with the grapevine root system of different cultivars in three Mediterranean environments along a macrotransect identifying an aridity gradient were assessed by culture-dependent and independent approaches. According to 16S rRNA gene PCR-DGGE, the structure of endosphere and rhizosphere bacterial communities was highly diverse (P = 0.03) and was associated with a cultivar/latitudinal/climatic effect. Despite being diverse, the bacterial communities associated with Egyptian grapevines shared a higher similarity with the Tunisian grapevines than those cultivated in North Italy. A similar distribution, according to the cultivar/latitude/aridity gradients, was observed for the cultivable bacteria. Many isolates (23%) presented in vitro multiple stress resistance capabilities and PGP activities, the most frequent being auxin synthesis (82%), insoluble phosphate solubilisation (61%), and ammonia production (70%). The comparable numbers and types of potential PGP traits among the three different environmental settings indicate a strong functional homeostasis of beneficial bacteria associated with grape root. PMID:23878810

  20. Synthesis of fluorescent D-amino acids (FDAAs) and their use for probing peptidoglycan synthesis and bacterial growth in situ

    PubMed Central

    Kuru, Erkin; Tekkam, Srinivas; Hall, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescent D-amino acids (FDAAs) are efficiently incorporated into the peptidoglycan of diverse bacterial species at the sites of active peptidoglycan biosynthesis, allowing specific and covalent probing of bacterial growth with minimal perturbation. Here, we provide a protocol for the synthesis of four FDAAs emitting light in blue, green or red and for their use in peptidoglycan labeling of live bacteria. Our modular synthesis protocol gives easy access to a library of different FDAAs made with commercially available fluorophores. FDAAs can be synthesized in a typical chemistry laboratory in 2–3 days. The simple labeling procedure involves addition of the FDAAs to the bacterial sample for the desired labeling duration and stopping further label incorporation by fixation or by washing away excess dye. We discuss several scenarios for the use of these labels including short or long labeling durations, and the combination of different labels in pure culture or complex environmental samples. Depending on the experiment, FDAA labeling can take as little as 30 s for a rapidly growing species such as Escherichia coli. PMID:25474031

  1. Plant Growth Promotion Potential Is Equally Represented in Diverse Grapevine Root-Associated Bacterial Communities from Different Biopedoclimatic Environments

    PubMed Central

    Fusi, Marco; Cherif, Ameur; Abou-Hadid, Ayman; El-Bahairy, Usama; Sorlini, Claudia; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    Plant-associated bacteria provide important services to host plants. Environmental factors such as cultivar type and pedoclimatic conditions contribute to shape their diversity. However, whether these environmental factors may influence the plant growth promoting (PGP) potential of the root-associated bacteria is not widely understood. To address this issue, the diversity and PGP potential of the bacterial assemblage associated with the grapevine root system of different cultivars in three Mediterranean environments along a macrotransect identifying an aridity gradient were assessed by culture-dependent and independent approaches. According to 16S rRNA gene PCR-DGGE, the structure of endosphere and rhizosphere bacterial communities was highly diverse (P = 0.03) and was associated with a cultivar/latitudinal/climatic effect. Despite being diverse, the bacterial communities associated with Egyptian grapevines shared a higher similarity with the Tunisian grapevines than those cultivated in North Italy. A similar distribution, according to the cultivar/latitude/aridity gradients, was observed for the cultivable bacteria. Many isolates (23%) presented in vitro multiple stress resistance capabilities and PGP activities, the most frequent being auxin synthesis (82%), insoluble phosphate solubilisation (61%), and ammonia production (70%). The comparable numbers and types of potential PGP traits among the three different environmental settings indicate a strong functional homeostasis of beneficial bacteria associated with grape root. PMID:23878810

  2. Effects of monofunctional platinum agents on bacterial growth: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Timothy C; Alexander, Sarah M; Lin, Wei; Lippard, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the novel and potent monofunctional platinum(II) agent phenanthriplatin on Escherichia coli and bacteriophage λ lysogens is reported. E. coli filamentation was observed by light microscopy when cells were grown in the presence of phenanthriplatin, cis-[Pt(NH3)2(Am)Cl](+) where Am is phenanthridine. Treatment of lysogenic bacteria with this compound resulted in lysis and the production of viral particles, as indicated by plaque formation in a bacterial lawn. The results obtained with phenanthriplatin are contextualized by comparison with those obtained using cisplatin as well as other, less active, monofunctional compounds such as [Pt(NH3)3Cl](+) and cis-[Pt(NH3)2(py)Cl](+), where py is pyridine. The ability of phenanthriplatin to induce bacterial filamentation and initiate lysis in lysogenic bacteria corroborates the hypothesis that the biological activity of this complex is mediated by its interaction with DNA. PMID:24364388

  3. Characterization of culturable bacterial endophytes and their capacity to promote plant growth from plants grown using organic or conventional practices.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ye; DeBolt, Seth; Dreyer, Jamin; Scott, Delia; Williams, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Plants have a diverse internal microbial biota that has been shown to have an important influence on a range of plant health attributes. Although these endophytes have been found to be widely occurring, few studies have correlated agricultural production practices with endophyte community structure and function. One agricultural system that focuses on preserving and enhancing soil microbial abundance and biodiversity is organic farming, and numerous studies have shown that organically managed system have increased microbial community characteristics. Herein, the diversity and specificity of culturable bacterial endophytes were evaluated in four vegetable crops: corn, tomato, melon, and pepper grown under organic or conventional practices. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from surface-sterilized shoot, root, and seed tissues and sequence identified. A total of 336 bacterial isolates were identified, and grouped into 32 species and five phyla. Among these, 239 isolates were from organically grown plants and 97 from those grown conventionally. Although a diverse range of bacteria were documented, 186 were from the Phylum Firmicutes, representing 55% of all isolates. Using the Shannon diversity index, we observed a gradation of diversity in tissues, with shoots and roots having a similar value, and seeds having the least diversity. Importantly, endophytic microbial species abundance and diversity was significantly higher in the organically grown plants compared to those grown using conventional practices, potentially indicating that organic management practices may increase endophyte presence and diversity. The impact that these endophytes could have on plant growth and yield was evaluated by reintroducing them into tomato plants in a greenhouse environment. Of the bacterial isolates tested, 61% were found to promote tomato plant growth and 50-64% were shown to enhance biomass accumulation, illustrating their potential agroecosystem application.

  4. Characterization of culturable bacterial endophytes and their capacity to promote plant growth from plants grown using organic or conventional practices

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Ye; DeBolt, Seth; Dreyer, Jamin; Scott, Delia; Williams, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Plants have a diverse internal microbial biota that has been shown to have an important influence on a range of plant health attributes. Although these endophytes have been found to be widely occurring, few studies have correlated agricultural production practices with endophyte community structure and function. One agricultural system that focuses on preserving and enhancing soil microbial abundance and biodiversity is organic farming, and numerous studies have shown that organically managed system have increased microbial community characteristics. Herein, the diversity and specificity of culturable bacterial endophytes were evaluated in four vegetable crops: corn, tomato, melon, and pepper grown under organic or conventional practices. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from surface-sterilized shoot, root, and seed tissues and sequence identified. A total of 336 bacterial isolates were identified, and grouped into 32 species and five phyla. Among these, 239 isolates were from organically grown plants and 97 from those grown conventionally. Although a diverse range of bacteria were documented, 186 were from the Phylum Firmicutes, representing 55% of all isolates. Using the Shannon diversity index, we observed a gradation of diversity in tissues, with shoots and roots having a similar value, and seeds having the least diversity. Importantly, endophytic microbial species abundance and diversity was significantly higher in the organically grown plants compared to those grown using conventional practices, potentially indicating that organic management practices may increase endophyte presence and diversity. The impact that these endophytes could have on plant growth and yield was evaluated by reintroducing them into tomato plants in a greenhouse environment. Of the bacterial isolates tested, 61% were found to promote tomato plant growth and 50–64% were shown to enhance biomass accumulation, illustrating their potential agroecosystem application. PMID:26217348

  5. Elevated guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate level inhibits bacterial growth and interferes with FtsZ assembly.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Takayoshi; Iida, Ken-Ichiro; Shiota, Susumu; Nakayama, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Shin-Ichi

    2015-12-01

    FtsZ, a protein essential for prokaryotic cell division, forms a ring structure known as the Z-ring at the division site. FtsZ has a GTP binding site and is assembled into linear structures in a GTP-dependent manner in vitro. We assessed whether guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate (ppGpp), a global regulator of gene expression in starved bacteria, affects cell division in Salmonella Paratyphi A. Elevation of intracellular ppGpp levels by using the relA expression vector induced repression of bacterial growth and incorrect FtsZ assembly. We found that FtsZ forms helical structures in the presence of ppGpp by using the GTP binding site; however, ppGpp levels required to form helical structures were at least 20-fold higher than the required GTP levels in vitro. Furthermore, once formed, helical structures did not change to the straight form even after GTP addition. Our data indicate that elevation of the ppGpp level leads to inhibition of bacterial growth and interferes with FtsZ assembly.

  6. Anthocyanin incorporated dental copolymer: bacterial growth inhibition, mechanical properties, and compound release rates and stability by (1)h NMR.

    PubMed

    Hrynash, Halyna; Pilly, Vinay Kumar; Mankovskaia, Alexandra; Xiong, Yaoyang; Nogueira Filho, Getulio; Bresciani, Eduardo; Lévesque, Céline Marie; Prakki, Anuradha

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate bacterial growth inhibition, mechanical properties, and compound release rate and stability of copolymers incorporated with anthocyanin (ACY; Vaccinium macrocarpon). Methods. Resin samples were prepared (Bis-GMA/TEGDMA at 70/30 mol%) and incorporated with 2 w/w% of either ACY or chlorhexidine (CHX), except for the control group. Samples were individually immersed in a bacterial culture (Streptococcus mutans) for 24 h. Cell viability (n = 3) was assessed by counting the number of colony forming units on replica agar plates. Flexural strength (FS) and elastic modulus (E) were tested on a universal testing machine (n = 8). Compound release and chemical stability were evaluated by UV spectrophotometry and (1)H NMR (n = 3). Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test ( α = 0.05). Results. Both compounds inhibited S. mutans growth, with CHX being most effective (P < 0.05). Control resin had the lowest FS and E values, followed by ACY and CHX, with statistical difference between control and CHX groups for both mechanical properties (P < 0.05). The 24 h compound release rates were ACY: 1.33 μg/mL and CHX: 1.92 μg/mL. (1)H NMR spectra suggests that both compounds remained stable after being released in water. Conclusion. The present findings indicate that anthocyanins might be used as a natural antibacterial agent in resin based materials.

  7. FACTORS LIMITING BACTERIAL GROWTH : III. CELL SIZE AND "PHYSIOLOGIC YOUTH" IN BACTERIUM COLI CULTURES.

    PubMed

    Hershey, A D; Bronfenbrenner, J

    1938-07-20

    1. Measurements of the rate of oxygen uptake per cell in transplants of Bacterium coli from cultures of this organism in different phases of growth have given results in essential agreement with the observations of others. 2. Correlations of viable count, centrifugable nitrogen, and turbidity, with oxygen consumption, indicate that the increased metabolism during the early portion of the growth period is quantitatively referable to increased average size of cells. 3. Indirect evidence has suggested that the initial rate of growth of transplants is not related to the phase of growth of the parent culture.

  8. Combinative effects of a bacterial type-III effector and a biocontrol bacterium on rice growth and disease resistance.

    PubMed

    Ren, Haiying; Gu, Ganyu; Long, Juying; Yin, Qian; Wu, Tingquan; Song, Tao; Zhang, Shujian; Chen, Zhiyi; Dong, Hansong

    2006-12-01

    Expression of HpaG(Xoo), a bacterial type-III effector, in transgenic plants induces disease resistance. Resistance also can be elicited by biocontrol bacteria. In both cases, plant growth is often promoted. Here we address whether biocontrol bacteria and HpaG(Xoo) can act together to provide better results in crop improvement. We studied effects of Pseudomonas cepacia on the rice variety R109 and the hpaG(Xoo)-expressing rice line HER1. Compared to R109, HER1 showed increased growth, grain yield, and defense responses toward diseases and salinity stress. Colonization of roots by P. cepacia caused 20% and 13% increase, in contrast to controls, in root growth of R109 and HER1. Growth of leaves and stems also increased in R109 but that of HER1 was inhibited. When P. cepacia colonization was subsequent to plant inoculation with Rhizoctonia solani, a pathogen that causes sheath blight, the disease was less severe than controls in both R109 and HER1; HER1, nevertheless, was more resistant, suggesting that P. cepacia and HpaG(Xoo) cooperate in inducing disease resistance. Several genes that critically regulate growth and defense behaved differentially in HER1 and R109 while responding to P. cepacia. In R109 leaves, the OsARF1 gene, which regulates plant growth, was expressed in consistence with growth promotion by P. cepacia. Inversely, OsARF1 expression was coincident with inhibition in growth of HER1 leaves. In both plants, the expression of OsEXP1, which encodes an expansin protein involved in plant growth,was concomitant with growth promotion in leaves instead of roots,in response to P. cepacia . We also studied OsMAPK, a gene that encodes a mitogen-activated protein kinase and controls defense responses toward salinity and infection by pathogens in rice. In response to P. cepacia, an early expression of OsMAPK was coincident with R109 resistance to the disease, while HER1 expressed the gene similarly whether P. cepacia was present or not. Evidently, P. cepacia and G

  9. Noninvasive quantitative measurement of bacterial growth in porous media under unsaturated-flow conditions.

    PubMed

    Yarwood, R R; Rockhold, M L; Niemet, M R; Selker, J S; Bottomley, P J

    2002-07-01

    Glucose-dependent growth of the luxCDABE reporter bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens HK44 was monitored noninvasively in quartz sand under unsaturated-flow conditions within a 45- by 56- by 1-cm two-dimensional light transmission chamber. The spatial and temporal development of growth were mapped daily over 7 days by quantifying salicylate-induced bioluminescence. A nonlinear model relating the rate of increase in light emission after salicylate exposure to microbial density successfully predicted growth over 4 orders of magnitude (r(2) = 0.95). Total model-predicted growth agreed with growth calculated from the mass balance of the system by using previously established growth parameters of HK44 (predicted, 1.2 x 10(12) cells; calculated, 1.7 x 10(12) cells). Colonization expanded in all directions from the inoculation region, including upward migration against the liquid flow. Both the daily rate of expansion of the colonized zone and the population density of the first day's growth in each newly colonized region remained relatively constant throughout the experiment. Nonetheless, substantial growth continued to occur on subsequent days in the older regions of the colonized zone. The proportion of daily potential growth that remained within the chamber declined progressively between days 2 and 7 (from 97 to 13%). A densely populated, anoxic region developed in the interior of the colonized zone even though the sand was unsaturated and fresh growth medium continued to flow through the colonized zone. These data illustrate the potential of a light transmission chamber, bioluminescent bacteria, and sensitive digital camera technology to noninvasively study real-time hydrology-microbiology interactions associated with unsaturated flow in porous media.

  10. Noninvasive Quantitative Measurement of Bacterial Growth in Porous Media Under Unsaturated-Flow Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Yarwood, Rocky; Rockhold, Mark L. ); Niemet, Mike; Selker, John S.; Bottomley, Peter J.

    2002-07-01

    Glucose-dependent growth of the luxCDABE reporter bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens HK44 was monitored noninvasively in quartz sand under unsaturated-flow conditions within a 45- by 56- by 1-cm two-dimensional light transmission chamber. The spatial and temporal development of growth were mapped daily over 7 days by quantifying salicylate-induced bioluminescence. A nonlinear model relating the rate of increase in light emission after salicylate exposure to microbial density successfully predicted growth over 4 orders of magnitude (r{sup 2}=0.95). Total model-predicted growth agreed with growth calculated from the mass balance of the system by using previously determined growth parameters of HK44 (predicted, 1.2 x 10{sup 12} cells; calculated, 1.7 x 10{sup 12} cells). Colonization expanded in all directions from the inoculation region, including upward migration against the liquid flow. Both the daily rate of expansion of the colonized zone and the population density of the first day's growth in each newly colonized region remained relatively constant throughout the experiment. Nonetheless, substantial growth continued to occur on subsequent days in the older regions of the colonized zone. The proportion of daily potential growth that remained within the chamber declined progressively between days 2 and 7 (from 97 to 13%). A densely populated, anoxic region developed in the interior of the colonized zone even though the sand was unsaturated and fresh growth medium continued to flow through the colonized zone. These data illustrate the potential of a light transmission chamber, bioluminescent bacteria, and sensitive digital camera technology to noninvasively study real-time hydrology-microbiology interactions associated with unsaturated flow in porous media.

  11. The importance of growth kinetic analysis in determining bacterial susceptibility against antibiotics and silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Theophel, Karsten; Schacht, Veronika J; Schlüter, Michael; Schnell, Sylvia; Stingu, Catalina-Suzana; Schaumann, Reiner; Bunge, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Routine antibiotics susceptibility testing still relies on standardized cultivation-based analyses, including measurement of inhibition zones in conventional agar diffusion tests and endpoint turbidity-based measurements. Here, we demonstrate that common off-line monitoring and endpoint determination after 18-24 h could be insufficient for reliable growth-dependent evaluation of antibiotic susceptibility. Different minimal inhibitory concentrations were obtained in 20- and 48 h microdilution plate tests using an Enterococcus faecium clinical isolate (strain UKI-MB07) as a model organism. Hence, we used an on-line kinetic assay for simultaneous cultivation and time-resolved growth analysis in a 96-well format instead of off-line susceptibility testing. Growth of the Enterococcus test organism was delayed up to 30 h in the presence of 0.25 μg mL(-1) of vancomycin and 8 μg mL(-1) of fosfomycin, after which pronounced growth was observed. Despite the delayed onset of growth, treatment with fosfomycin, daptomycin, fusidic acid, cefoxitin, or gentamicin resulted in higher maximum growth rates and/or higher final optical density values compared with antibiotic-free controls, indicating that growth stimulation and hormetic effects may occur with extended exposure to sublethal antibiotic concentrations. Whereas neither maximum growth rate nor final cell density correlated with antibiotic concentration, the lag phase duration for some antibiotics was a more meaningful indicator of dose-dependent growth inhibition. Our results also reveal that non-temporal growth profiles are only of limited value for cultivation-based antimicrobial silver nanoparticle susceptibility testing. The exposure to Ag(0) nanoparticles led to plasma membrane damage in a concentration-dependent manner and induced oxidative stress in Enterococcus faecium UKI-MB07, as shown by intracellular ROS accumulation. PMID:25426104

  12. Noninvasive Quantitative Measurement of Bacterial Growth in Porous Media under Unsaturated-Flow Conditions †

    PubMed Central

    Yarwood, R. R.; Rockhold, M. L.; Niemet, M. R.; Selker, J. S.; Bottomley, P. J.

    2002-01-01

    Glucose-dependent growth of the luxCDABE reporter bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens HK44 was monitored noninvasively in quartz sand under unsaturated-flow conditions within a 45- by 56- by 1-cm two-dimensional light transmission chamber. The spatial and temporal development of growth were mapped daily over 7 days by quantifying salicylate-induced bioluminescence. A nonlinear model relating the rate of increase in light emission after salicylate exposure to microbial density successfully predicted growth over 4 orders of magnitude (r2 = 0.95). Total model-predicted growth agreed with growth calculated from the mass balance of the system by using previously established growth parameters of HK44 (predicted, 1.2 × 1012 cells; calculated, 1.7 × 1012 cells). Colonization expanded in all directions from the inoculation region, including upward migration against the liquid flow. Both the daily rate of expansion of the colonized zone and the population density of the first day's growth in each newly colonized region remained relatively constant throughout the experiment. Nonetheless, substantial growth continued to occur on subsequent days in the older regions of the colonized zone. The proportion of daily potential growth that remained within the chamber declined progressively between days 2 and 7 (from 97 to 13%). A densely populated, anoxic region developed in the interior of the colonized zone even though the sand was unsaturated and fresh growth medium continued to flow through the colonized zone. These data illustrate the potential of a light transmission chamber, bioluminescent bacteria, and sensitive digital camera technology to noninvasively study real-time hydrology-microbiology interactions associated with unsaturated flow in porous media. PMID:12089048

  13. The importance of growth kinetic analysis in determining bacterial susceptibility against antibiotics and silver nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Theophel, Karsten; Schacht, Veronika J.; Schlüter, Michael; Schnell, Sylvia; Stingu, Catalina-Suzana; Schaumann, Reiner; Bunge, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Routine antibiotics susceptibility testing still relies on standardized cultivation-based analyses, including measurement of inhibition zones in conventional agar diffusion tests and endpoint turbidity-based measurements. Here, we demonstrate that common off-line monitoring and endpoint determination after 18–24 h could be insufficient for reliable growth-dependent evaluation of antibiotic susceptibility. Different minimal inhibitory concentrations were obtained in 20- and 48 h microdilution plate tests using an Enterococcus faecium clinical isolate (strain UKI-MB07) as a model organism. Hence, we used an on-line kinetic assay for simultaneous cultivation and time-resolved growth analysis in a 96-well format instead of off-line susceptibility testing. Growth of the Enterococcus test organism was delayed up to 30 h in the presence of 0.25 μg mL-1 of vancomycin and 8 μg mL-1 of fosfomycin, after which pronounced growth was observed. Despite the delayed onset of growth, treatment with fosfomycin, daptomycin, fusidic acid, cefoxitin, or gentamicin resulted in higher maximum growth rates and/or higher final optical density values compared with antibiotic-free controls, indicating that growth stimulation and hormetic effects may occur with extended exposure to sublethal antibiotic concentrations. Whereas neither maximum growth rate nor final cell density correlated with antibiotic concentration, the lag phase duration for some antibiotics was a more meaningful indicator of dose-dependent growth inhibition. Our results also reveal that non-temporal growth profiles are only of limited value for cultivation-based antimicrobial silver nanoparticle susceptibility testing. The exposure to Ag(0) nanoparticles led to plasma membrane damage in a concentration-dependent manner and induced oxidative stress in Enterococcus faecium UKI-MB07, as shown by intracellular ROS accumulation. PMID:25426104

  14. Correlation between PLD repair capacity and the survival curve of human fibroblasts in exponential growth phase: analysis in terms of several parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Fertil, B.; Deschavanne, P.J.; Debieu, D.; Malaise, E.P.

    1988-10-01

    Published data on the in vitro radiosensitivity of 46 nontransformed fibroblasts of different genetic origins studied in plateau phase with immediate or delayed plating were used to investigate to what extent potentially lethal damage repair capacity is related to intrinsic radiosensitivity (i.e., irradiated in exponential growth phase). While most of the survival curve analysis is conducted in terms of D0, Dq, and the mean inactivation dose D, some of the data are also discussed in terms of the linear-quadratic model parameter alpha. Using D it is shown that: (i) the radiosensitivity of human fibroblasts in exponential growth phase does not significantly differ from that of plateau-phase fibroblasts with immediate plating; (ii) the radiosensitivity of plateau-phase cells with delayed plating is correlated to the radiosensitivity of cells with immediate plating: the more radioresistant the cell strain in exponential growth phase, the higher its repair capacity; (iii) the repair capacity of the cell strains is related to their genetic origin. In conclusion, we suggest that the survival curve of growing cells depends on the repair capacity of the cells.

  15. Growth inhibition of bacterial fish pathogens and quorum-sensing blocking by bacteria recovered from chilean salmonid farms.

    PubMed

    Fuente, Mery de la; Miranda, Claudio D; Jopia, Paz; González-Rocha, Gerardo; Guiliani, Nicolás; Sossa, Katherine; Urrutia, Homero

    2015-06-01

    The main goal of this study was to find bacterial isolates with the ability to inhibit the growth of the fish pathogens Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio anguillarum, and Flavobacterium psychrophilum and to inhibit the blockage of the quorum-sensing (QS) system. A total of 80 gram-negative strains isolated from various freshwater Chilean salmonid farms were studied. We determined that 10 strains belonging to the genus Pseudomonas inhibited at least one of the assayed fish pathogens. Of these, nine strains were able to produce siderophores and two strains were able to inhibit the growth of all assayed pathogenic species. When the 80 strains were examined for QS-blocking activity, only the strains Pseudomonas sp. FF16 and Raoultella planticola R5B1 were identified as QS blockers. When the QS-blocker strains were analyzed for their ability to produce homoserine lactone (HSL) molecules, thin-layer chromatography analysis showed that both strains were able to produce C6-HSL- and C8-HSL-type molecules. Strain R5B1 did not show growth inhibition properties, but strain FF16 also led to inhibition of growth in A. hydrophila and F. psychrophilum as well as to siderophore production. Pseudomonas sp. FF16 exhibited potentially useful antagonistic properties and could be a probiotic candidate for the salmon farming industry.

  16. Effects of properties of metal-contaminated soils on bacterial bioluminescence activity, seed germination, and root and shoot growth.

    PubMed

    Kang, Il-Mo; Kong, In Chul

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of several factors (metal contents and soil properties) on bacterial bioluminescence activity, seed germination and root/shoot growth of Lactuca in metal-contaminated soils. Each bioassay showed different sensitivities to extractants of soil samples. Average sensitivities of the bioassay were in the following order: root growth > bioluminescence ≥ shoot growth ≥ seed germination. Both total and weak acid-extracted metal contents showed no observable correlations with the activity of any bioassays (r(2) < 0.279). However, reasonable correlations were observed between the bioluminescence activity and organics (r(2) = 0.7198) as well as between root growth and CEC (r(2) = 0.6676). Effects of soils were difficult to generalize since they were dependent on many factors, such as soil properties, metal contents, and the organism used in each test. Nonetheless, these results indicated that a battery of bioassays is an effective strategy for assessment of contaminated soils. Furthermore, specific soil factors were shown to more influence on soil toxicity, depending on the type of bioassay.

  17. Modeling Change in Effort across a Low-Stakes Testing Session: A Latent Growth Curve Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Carol L.; Finney, Sara J.

    2016-01-01

    We examined change in test-taking effort over the course of a three-hour, five test, low-stakes testing session. Latent growth modeling results indicated that change in test-taking effort was well-represented by a piecewise growth form, wherein effort increased from test 1 to test 4 and then decreased from test 4 to test 5. There was significant…

  18. [A survey on weight and height of children (1 month-7 years) and plotting of growth curves (1 month-18 years) in Taiwan, 1987-1988].

    PubMed

    Hsiao, R L; Miau, T S; Lu, C C; Tsai, C H; Lin, M T; Wu, C C; Lin, M H; Lin, S P; Lin, W H; Liu, C T

    1990-01-01

    From July 1987 to December 1988, 19,625 children in Taiwan were measured for their body weights and heights. They were 9,564 boys and 10,061 girls and were seen either in a well baby clinic of a large community hospital or in the local kindergartens. We divided these children into 64 groups according to their sex and ages. The mean values and standard deviation of body weight and height were tried to correlate with those from children of school age reported for 1987 by the Ministry of Education. Furthermore, body weight and height growth curves were drawn for these children, aged from 1 month to 18 years.

  19. Consideration of probability of bacterial growth for Jovian planets and their satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, D. M.; Berkman, R. M.; Divine, N.

    1974-01-01

    Environmental parameters affecting growth of bacteria are compared with current atmospheric models for Jupiter and Saturn, and with the available physical data for their satellites. Different zones of relative probability of growth are identified for Jupiter and Saturn. Of the more than two dozen satellites, only the largest (Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, and Titan) are found to be interesting biologically. Titan's atmosphere may produce a substantial greenhouse effect providing increased surface temperatures. Models predicting a dense atmosphere are compatible with microbial growth for a range of pressures at Titan's surface. For Titan's surface the probability of growth would be enhanced if: (1) the surface is entirely or partially liquid; (2) volcanism is present; or (3) access to internal heat sources is significant.

  20. PRODUCTION OF PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING SUBSTANCES IN BACTERIAL ISOLATES FROM THE SEAGRASS RHIZOSPHERE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plants and rhizosphere bacteria have evolved chemical signals that enable their mutual growth. These relationships have been well investigated with agriculturally important plants, but not in seagrasses, which are important to the stability of estuaries. Seagrasses are rooted in ...

  1. The ability of Salmonella to enter mammalian cells is affected by bacterial growth state.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, C A; Falkow, S

    1990-01-01

    We have examined the effect of different growth conditions on the ability of Salmonella to interact with Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Two growth conditions that affect the expression of Salmonella adherence and invasiveness have been identified. First, bacteria lose their invasiveness in the stationary phase of growth. Second, bacteria growing in oxygen-limited growth conditions are induced for adherence and invasiveness, whereas those growing aerobically are relatively nonadherent and noninvasive. Salmonella from cultures aerated with gas mixtures containing 0% or 1% oxygen were 6- to 70-fold more adherent and invasive than those from cultures aerated with a gas mixture containing 20% oxygen. The Salmonella typhimurium oxrA gene that is required for the anaerobic induction of many proteins is not involved in the regulation of Salmonella invasiveness. We speculate that oxygen limitation might be an environmental cue that triggers the expression of Salmonella invasiveness within the intestinal lumen and other tissues. Images PMID:2349239

  2. Effects of space flight and mixing on bacterial growth in low volume cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kacena, M. A.; Manfredi, B.; Todd, P.

    1999-01-01

    Previous investigations have shown that liquid suspension bacterial cultures grow to higher cell concentrations in spaceflight than on Earth. None of these studies included ground-control experiments designed to evaluate the fluid effects potentially responsible for the reported increases. Therefore, the emphasis of this research was to both confirm differences in final cell concentration between 1g and microgravity cultures, and to examine the effects of mixing as a partial explanation for this difference. Flight experiments were performed in the Fluid Processing Apparatus (FPA), aboard Space Shuttle Missions STS-63 and STS-69, with simultaneous 1g static and agitated controls. Additional static 1g, agitated, and clino-rotated controls were performed in 9-ml culture tubes. This research revealed that both E. coli and B. subtilis samples cultured in space flight grew to higher final cell densities (120-345% increase) than simultaneous static 1g controls. The final cell concentration of E. coli cells cultured under agitation was 43% higher than in static 1g cultures and was 102% higher with clino-rotation. However, for B. subtilis cultures grown while being agitated on a shaker or clino-rotated, the final cell concentrations were nearly identical to those of the simultaneous static 1g controls. Therefore, these data suggest that the unique fluid quiescence in the microgravity environment (lack of sedimentation, creating unique transfer of nutrients and waste products), was responsible for the enhanced bacterial proliferation reported in this and other studies.

  3. Pharmaceuticals suppress algal growth and microbial respiration and alter bacterial communities in stream biofilms.

    PubMed

    Rosi-Marshall, Emma J; Kincaid, Dustin W; Bechtold, Heather A; Royer, Todd V; Rojas, Miguel; Kelly, John J

    2013-04-01

    Pharmaceutical and personal care products are ubiquitous in surface waters but their effects on aquatic biofilms and associated ecosystem properties are not well understood. We measured in situ responses of stream biofilms to six common pharmaceutical compounds (caffeine, cimetidine, ciprofloxacin, diphenhydramine, metformin, ranitidine, and a mixture of each) by deploying pharmaceutical-diffusing substrates in streams in Indiana, Maryland, and New York. Results were consistent across seasons and geographic locations. On average, algal biomass was suppressed by 22%, 4%, 22%, and 18% relative to controls by caffeine, ciprofloxacin, diphenhydramine, and the mixed treatment, respectively. Biofilm respiration was significantly suppressed by caffeine (53%), cimetidine (51%), ciprofloxacin (91%), diphenhydramine (63%), and the mixed treatment (40%). In autumn in New York, photosynthesis was also significantly suppressed by diphenhydramine (99%) and the mixed treatment (88%). Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes was used to examine the effects of caffeine and diphenhydramine on biofilm bacterial community composition at the three sites. Relative to the controls, diphenhydramine exposure significantly altered bacterial community composition and resulted in significant relative increases in Pseudomonas sp. and decreases in Flavobacterium sp. in all three streams. These ubiquitous pharmaceuticals, alone or in combination, influenced stream biofilms, which could have consequences for higher trophic levels and important ecosystem processes.

  4. The role of the hok/sok locus in bacterial response to stressful growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Chukwudi, Chinwe U; Good, Liam

    2015-02-01

    The hok/sok locus is renowned for its plasmid stabilization effect via post-segregational killing of plasmid-free daughter cells. However, the function(s) of the chromosome-encoded loci, which are more abundant in pathogenic strains of a broad range of enteric bacteria, are yet to be understood. Also, the frequent occurrence of this toxin/antitoxin addiction system in multi-drug resistance plasmids suggests additional roles. In this study, the effects of the hok/sok locus on the growth of bacteria in stressful growth-limiting conditions such as high temperature and antibiotic burden were investigated using hok/sok plasmids. The results showed that the hok/sok locus prolonged the lag phase of host cell cultures, thereby enabling the cells to adapt, respond to the stress and eventually thrive in these growth-limiting conditions by increasing the growth rate at exponential phase. The hok/sok locus also enhanced the survival and growth of cells in low cell density cultures irrespective of unfavourable growth conditions, and may complement existing or defective SOS mechanism. In addition to the plasmid stabilization function, these effects would enhance the ability of pathogenic bacteria to establish infections and propagate the antibiotic resistance elements carried on these plasmids, thereby contributing to the virulence of such bacteria.

  5. Generality of the growth kinetics of the average individual cell in different bacterial populations.

    PubMed Central

    Trueba, F J; Neijssel, O M; Woldringh, C L

    1982-01-01

    The kinetics of growth of all the cells in a population is reflected in the shape of the size distribution of the population. To ascertain whether the kinetics of growth of the average individual cell is similar for different strains or growth conditions, we compared the shape of normalized size distributions obtained from steady-state populations. Significant differences in the size distributions were found, but these could be ascribed either to the precision achieved at division or to a constriction period which is long relative to the total cell cycle time. The remaining difference is quite small. Thus, without establishing the pattern itself, it is concluded that the basic course of growth is very similar for the various Escherichia coli strains examined and probably also for other rod-shaped bacteria. The effects of differences in culture technique (batch or chemostat culture), growth rate, and differences among strains were not found to influence the shape of the size distributions and hence the growth kinetics in a direct manner; small differences were found, but only when the precision at division or the fraction of constricted cells (long constriction period) were different as well. PMID:6804435

  6. The bacterial genotoxin colibactin promotes colon tumor growth by modifying the tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Dalmasso, Guillaume; Cougnoux, Antony; Delmas, Julien; Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette; Bonnet, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The gut microbiota is suspected to promote colorectal cancer (CRC). Escherichia coli are more frequently found in CCR biopsies than in healthy mucosa; furthermore, the majority of mucosa-associated E. coli isolated from CCR harbors the pks genomic island (pks+ E. coli) that is responsible for the synthesis of colibactin, a genotoxic compound. We have recently reported that transient contact of a few malignant cells with colibactin-producing E. coli increases tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model. Growth is sustained by cellular senescence that is accompanied by the production of growth factors. We demonstrated that cellular senescence is a consequence of the pks+ E. coli-induced alteration of p53 SUMOylation, an essential post-translational modification in eukaryotic cells. The underlying mechanisms for this process involve the induction of miR-20a-5p expression, which targets SENP1, a key protein in the regulation of the SUMOylation process. These results are consistent with the expression of SENP1, miR-20a-5p and growth factors that are observed in a CRC mouse model and in human CCR biopsies colonized by pks+ E. coli. Overall, the data reveal a new paradigm for carcinogenesis in which pks+ E. coli infection induces cellular senescence characterized by the production of growth factors that promote the proliferation of uninfected cells and, subsequently, tumor growth. PMID:25483338

  7. Growth kinetics of a diesel-degrading bacterial strain from petroleum-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Dahalan, S F A; Yunus, I; Johari, W L W; Shukor, M Y; Halmi, M I E; Shamaan, N A; Syed, M A

    2014-03-01

    A diesel-degrading bacterium was isolated from a diesel-contaminated site in Selangor, Malaysia. The isolate was tentatively identified as Acinetobacter sp. strain DRY12 based on partial 16S rDNA molecular phylogeny and Biolog GN microplate panels and Microlog database. Optimum growth occurred from 3 to 5% diesel and the strain was able to tolerate as high as 8% diesel. The optimal pH that supported growth of the bacterium was between pH 7.5 to 8.0. The isolate exhibited optimal growth in between 30 and 35 degrees C. The best nitrogen source was potassium nitrate (between 0.6 and 0.9% (w/v)) followed by ammonium chloride, sodium nitrite and ammonium sulphate in descending order. An almost complete removal of diesel components was seen from the reduction in hydrocarbon peaks observed using Solid Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography analysis after 10 days of incubation. The best growth kinetic model to fit experimental data was the Haldane model of substrate inhibiting growth with a correlation coefficient value of 0.97. The maximum growth rate- micromax was 0.039 hr(-1) while the saturation constant or half velocity constant Ks and inhibition constant Ki, were 0.387% and 4.46%, respectively. MATH assays showed that 75% of the bacterium was found in the hexadecane phase indicating that the bacterium was hydrophobic. The characteristics of this bacterium make it useful for bioremediation works in the Tropics.

  8. Growth kinetics of a diesel-degrading bacterial strain from petroleum-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Dahalan, S F A; Yunus, I; Johari, W L W; Shukor, M Y; Halmi, M I E; Shamaan, N A; Syed, M A

    2014-03-01

    A diesel-degrading bacterium was isolated from a diesel-contaminated site in Selangor, Malaysia. The isolate was tentatively identified as Acinetobacter sp. strain DRY12 based on partial 16S rDNA molecular phylogeny and Biolog GN microplate panels and Microlog database. Optimum growth occurred from 3 to 5% diesel and the strain was able to tolerate as high as 8% diesel. The optimal pH that supported growth of the bacterium was between pH 7.5 to 8.0. The isolate exhibited optimal growth in between 30 and 35 degrees C. The best nitrogen source was potassium nitrate (between 0.6 and 0.9% (w/v)) followed by ammonium chloride, sodium nitrite and ammonium sulphate in descending order. An almost complete removal of diesel components was seen from the reduction in hydrocarbon peaks observed using Solid Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography analysis after 10 days of incubation. The best growth kinetic model to fit experimental data was the Haldane model of substrate inhibiting growth with a correlation coefficient value of 0.97. The maximum growth rate- micromax was 0.039 hr(-1) while the saturation constant or half velocity constant Ks and inhibition constant Ki, were 0.387% and 4.46%, respectively. MATH assays showed that 75% of the bacterium was found in the hexadecane phase indicating that the bacterium was hydrophobic. The characteristics of this bacterium make it useful for bioremediation works in the Tropics. PMID:24665769

  9. Comparative analysis of quantitative trait loci for body weight, growth rate and growth curve parameters from 3 to 72 weeks of age in female chickens of a broiler–layer cross

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Comparisons of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for growth and parameters of growth curves assist in understanding the genetics and ultimately the physiology of growth. Records of body weight at 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 weeks of age and growth rate between successive age intervals of about 500 F2 female chickens of the Roslin broiler-layer cross were available for analysis. These data were analysed to detect and compare QTL for body weight, growth rate and parameters of the Gompertz growth function. Results Over 50 QTL were identified for body weight at specific ages and most were also detected in the nearest preceding and/or subsequent growth stage. The sum of the significant and suggestive additive effects for bodyweight at specific ages accounted for 23-43% of the phenotypic variation. A single QTL for body weight on chromosome 4 at 48 weeks of age had the largest additive effect (550.4 ± 68.0 g, 11.5% of the phenotypic variation) and a QTL at a similar position accounted 14.5% of the phenotypic variation at 12 weeks of age. Age specific QTL for growth rate were detected suggesting that there are specific genes that affect developmental processes during the different stages of growth. Relatively few QTL influencing Gompertz growth curve parameters were detected and overlapped with loci affecting growth rate. Dominance effects were generally not significant but from 12 weeks of age they exceeded the additive effect in a few cases. No evidence for epistatic QTL pairs was found. Conclusions The results confirm the location for body weight and body weight gain during growth that were identified in previous studies and were consistent with QTL for the parameters of the Gompertz growth function. Chromosome 4 explained a relatively large proportion of the observed growth variation across the different ages, and also harboured most of the detected QTL for Gompertz parameters, confirming its importance in controlling growth. Very few QTL were detected

  10. Hierarchical Bayesian analysis to incorporate age uncertainty in growth curve analysis and estimates of age from length: Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus) carcasses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwarz, L.K.; Runge, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    Age estimation of individuals is often an integral part of species management research, and a number of ageestimation techniques are commonly employed. Often, the error in these techniques is not quantified or accounted for in other analyses, particularly in growth curve models used to describe physiological responses to environment and human impacts. Also, noninvasive, quick, and inexpensive methods to estimate age are needed. This research aims to provide two Bayesian methods to (i) incorporate age uncertainty into an age-length Schnute growth model and (ii) produce a method from the growth model to estimate age from length. The methods are then employed for Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus) carcasses. After quantifying the uncertainty in the aging technique (counts of ear bone growth layers), we fit age-length data to the Schnute growth model separately by sex and season. Independent prior information about population age structure and the results of the Schnute model are then combined to estimate age from length. Results describing the age-length relationship agree with our understanding of manatee biology. The new methods allow us to estimate age, with quantified uncertainty, for 98% of collected carcasses: 36% from ear bones, 62% from length.

  11. Stimulated bacterial growth under elevated p CO₂: results from an off-shore mesocosm study.

    PubMed

    Endres, Sonja; Galgani, Luisa; Riebesell, Ulf; Schulz, Kai-Georg; Engel, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Marine bacteria are the main consumers of freshly produced organic matter. Many enzymatic processes involved in the bacterial digestion of organic compounds were shown to be pH sensitive in previous studies. Due to the continuous rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration, seawater pH is presently decreasing at a rate unprecedented during the last 300 million years but the consequences for microbial physiology, organic matter cycling and marine biogeochemistry are still unresolved. We studied the effects of elevated seawater pCO2 on a natural plankton community during a large-scale mesocosm study in a Norwegian fjord. Nine Kiel Off-Shore Mesocosms for Future Ocean Simulations (KOSMOS) were adjusted to different pCO2 levels ranging initially from ca. 280 to 3000 µatm and sampled every second day for 34 days. The first phytoplankton bloom developed around day 5. On day 14, inorganic nutrients were added to the enclosed, nutrient-poor waters to stimulate a second phytoplankton bloom, which occurred around day 20. Our results indicate that marine bacteria benefit directly and indirectly from decreasing seawater pH. During the first phytoplankton bloom, 5-10% more transparent exopolymer particles were formed in the high pCO2 mesocosms. Simultaneously, the efficiency of the protein-degrading enzyme leucine aminopeptidase increased with decreasing pH resulting in up to three times higher values in the highest pCO2/lowest pH mesocosm compared to the controls. In general, total and cell-specific aminopeptidase activities were elevated under low pH conditions. The combination of enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of organic matter and increased availability of gel particles as substrate supported up to 28% higher bacterial abundance in the high pCO2 treatments. We conclude that ocean acidification has the potential to stimulate the bacterial community and facilitate the microbial recycling of freshly produced organic matter, thus strengthening the role of the microbial loop in the

  12. A possible mechanism of action of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strain Bacillus pumilus WP8 via regulation of soil bacterial community structure.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yijun; Shen, Min; Wang, Huanli; Zhao, Qingxin

    2013-01-01

    According to the traditional view, establishment and maintenance of critical population densities in the rhizosphere was the premise of PGPR to exert growth-promoting effects. In light of the facts that soil bacterial community structures can be changed by some PGPR strains including Bacillus pumilus WP8, we hypothesize that regulation of soil bacterial community structure is one of the plant growth-promoting mechanisms of B. pumilus WP8, rather than depending on high-density cells in soil. In this study, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was performed to evaluate the relationship between changes in soil bacterial community structure and growth-promoting effect on the seedling growth of fava beans (Vicia faba L.) during three successive cultivations. We found that B. pumilus WP8 lacks capacity to reproduce in large enough numbers to survive in bulk soil more than 40 days, yet the bacterial community structures were gradually influenced by inoculation of WP8, especially on dominant populations. Despite WP8 being short-lived, it confers the ability of steadily promoting fava bean seedling growth on soil during the whole growing period for at least 90 days. Pseudomonas chlororaphis RA6, another tested PGPR strain, exists in large numbers for at least 60 days but less than 90 days, whilst giving rise to slight influence on bacterial community structure. In addition, along with the extinction of RA6 cells in bulk soils, the effect of growth promotion disappeared simultaneously. Furthermore, the increment of soil catalase activity from WP8 treatment implied the ability to stimulate soil microbial activity, which may be the reason why the dominant population changed and increased as time passed. Our study suggests that regulation of treated soil bacterial community structure may be another possible action mechanism.

  13. A possible mechanism of action of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strain Bacillus pumilus WP8 via regulation of soil bacterial community structure.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yijun; Shen, Min; Wang, Huanli; Zhao, Qingxin

    2013-01-01

    According to the traditional view, establishment and maintenance of critical population densities in the rhizosphere was the premise of PGPR to exert growth-promoting effects. In light of the facts that soil bacterial community structures can be changed by some PGPR strains including Bacillus pumilus WP8, we hypothesize that regulation of soil bacterial community structure is one of the plant growth-promoting mechanisms of B. pumilus WP8, rather than depending on high-density cells in soil. In this study, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was performed to evaluate the relationship between changes in soil bacterial community structure and growth-promoting effect on the seedling growth of fava beans (Vicia faba L.) during three successive cultivations. We found that B. pumilus WP8 lacks capacity to reproduce in large enough numbers to survive in bulk soil more than 40 days, yet the bacterial community structures were gradually influenced by inoculation of WP8, especially on dominant populations. Despite WP8 being short-lived, it confers the ability of steadily promoting fava bean seedling growth on soil during the whole growing period for at least 90 days. Pseudomonas chlororaphis RA6, another tested PGPR strain, exists in large numbers for at least 60 days but less than 90 days, whilst giving rise to slight influence on bacterial community structure. In addition, along with the extinction of RA6 cells in bulk soils, the effect of growth promotion disappeared simultaneously. Furthermore, the increment of soil catalase activity from WP8 treatment implied the ability to stimulate soil microbial activity, which may be the reason why the dominant population changed and increased as time passed. Our study suggests that regulation of treated soil bacterial community structure may be another possible action mechanism. PMID:24005176

  14. Modeling Life-Span Growth Curves of Cognition using Longitudinal Data with Multiple Samples and Changing Scales of Measurement

    PubMed Central

    McArdle, John J.; Grimm, Kevin; Hamagami, Fumiaki; Bowles, Ryan; Meredith, William

    2010-01-01

    This research uses multiple-sample longitudinal data from different test batteries to examine propositions about changes in constructs over the lifespan. The data come from three classic studies on intellectual abilities where, in combination, N=441 persons are repeatedly measures as many as 16 times over 70 years. Cognitive constructs of Vocabulary and Memory were measured using eight different age-appropriate intelligence test batteries, and we explore possible linkage of these scales using Item Response Theory (IRT). We simultaneously estimate the parameters of both IRT and Latent Curve Models (LCM) based on a joint model likelihood approach (i.e., NLMIXED and WINBUGS). Group differences are included in the model to examine potential inter-individual differences in levels and change. The resulting Longitudinal IRT (LIRT) analyses leads to a few new methodological suggestions for dealing with repeated constructs based on changing measurements in developmental studies. PMID:19485625

  15. Effect of autochthonous bacteriocin-producing Lactococcus lactis on bacterial population dynamics and growth of halotolerant bacteria in Brazilian charqui.

    PubMed

    Biscola, Vanessa; Abriouel, Hikmate; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov; Capuano, Verena Sant'Anna Cabral; Gálvez, Antonio; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo

    2014-12-01

    Charqui is a fermented, salted and sun-dried meat product, widely consumed in Brazil and exported to several countries. Growth of microorganisms in this product is unlikely due to reduced Aw, but halophilic and halotolerant bacteria may grow and cause spoilage. Charqui is a good source of lactic acid bacteria able to produce antimicrobial bacteriocins. In this study, an autochthonous bacteriocinogenic strain (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis 69), isolated from charqui, was added to the meat used for charqui manufacture and evaluated for its capability to prevent the growth of spoilage bacteria during storage up to 45 days. The influence of L. lactis 69 on the bacterial diversity during the manufacturing of the product was also studied, using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). L. lactis 69 did not affect the counts and diversity of lactic acid bacteria during manufacturing and storage, but influenced negatively the populations of halotolerant microorganisms, reducing the spoilage potential. The majority of tested virulence genes was absent, evidencing the safety and potential technological application of this strain as an additional hurdle to inhibit undesirable microbial growth in this and similar fermented meat products.

  16. Statistical optimization of medium components and physicochemical parameters to simultaneously enhance bacterial growth and esterase production by Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Mazzucotelli, Cintia Anabela; Moreira, María del Rosario; Ansorena, María Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is a genus extensively studied because of its high potential for biotechnological application, principally in biocontrol techniques. However, the optimization of esterase production by this strain has been scarcely studied. The aim of this work was to select and optimize the physicochemical and nutritional parameters that significantly influence the growth and esterase production of B. thuringiensis. To this purpose, 6 nutritional factors and 2 physicochemical parameters were evaluated using a Plackett-Burman design. Significant variables were optimized using a Box-Behnken design and through the desirability function to select the levels of the variables that simultaneously maximize microbial growth and esterase production. The optimum conditions resulting from simultaneous optimization of the responses under study were found to be 1 g/L glucose, 15 g/L peptone, and 3.25 g/L NaCl. Under these optimal conditions, it was possible to achieve a 2.5 log CFU/mL increase in bacterial growth and a 113-fold increase in esterase productivity, compared with minimal medium without agitation.

  17. Diversity and distribution of the endophytic bacterial community at different stages of Eucalyptus growth.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Paulo Sérgio Balbino; de Oliveira, Marcelo Nagem Valério; Delvaux, Júlio César; de Jesus, Guilherme Luiz; Borges, Arnaldo Chaer; Tótola, Marcos Rogério; Neves, Júlio César Lima; Costa, Maurício Dutra

    2016-06-01

    The relationships between plants and endophytic bacteria significantly contribute to plant health and yield. However, the microbial diversity in leaves of Eucalyptus spp. is still poorly characterized. Here, we investigated the endophytic diversity in leaves of hybrid Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla (Eucalyptus "urograndis") by using culture-independent and culture-dependent approaches, to better understand their ecology in leaves at different stages of Eucalyptus development, including bacteria with N2 fixation potential. Firmicutes, Proteobacteria (classes alpha-, beta- and gamma-) and Actinobacteria were identified in the Eucalyptus "urograndis" endophytic bacterial community. Within this community, the species Novosphingobium barchaimii, Rhizobium grahamii, Stenotrophomonas panacihumi, Paenibacillus terrigena, P. darwinianus and Terrabacter lapilli represent the first report these bacteria as endophytes. The diversity of the total endophytic bacteria was higher in the leaves from the 'field' (the Shannon-Wiener index, 2.99), followed by the indices obtained in the 'clonal garden' (2.78), the 'recently out from under shade (2.68), 'under shade' (2.63) and 'plants for dispatch' (2.51). In contrast, for diazotrophic bacteria, the highest means of these indices were obtained from the leaves of plants in the 'under shade' (2.56), 'recently out from under shade (2.52)' and 'field' stages (2.54). The distribution of the endophytic bacterial species in Eucalyptus was distinct and specific to the development stages under study, and many of the species had the potential for nitrogen fixation, raising the question of whether these bacteria could contribute to overall nitrogen metabolism of Eucalyptus. PMID:27010209

  18. Diversity and distribution of the endophytic bacterial community at different stages of Eucalyptus growth.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Paulo Sérgio Balbino; de Oliveira, Marcelo Nagem Valério; Delvaux, Júlio César; de Jesus, Guilherme Luiz; Borges, Arnaldo Chaer; Tótola, Marcos Rogério; Neves, Júlio César Lima; Costa, Maurício Dutra

    2016-06-01

    The relationships between plants and endophytic bacteria significantly contribute to plant health and yield. However, the microbial diversity in leaves of Eucalyptus spp. is still poorly characterized. Here, we investigated the endophytic diversity in leaves of hybrid Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla (Eucalyptus "urograndis") by using culture-independent and culture-dependent approaches, to better understand their ecology in leaves at different stages of Eucalyptus development, including bacteria with N2 fixation potential. Firmicutes, Proteobacteria (classes alpha-, beta- and gamma-) and Actinobacteria were identified in the Eucalyptus "urograndis" endophytic bacterial community. Within this community, the species Novosphingobium barchaimii, Rhizobium grahamii, Stenotrophomonas panacihumi, Paenibacillus terrigena, P. darwinianus and Terrabacter lapilli represent the first report these bacteria as endophytes. The diversity of the total endophytic bacteria was higher in the leaves from the 'field' (the Shannon-Wiener index, 2.99), followed by the indices obtained in the 'clonal garden' (2.78), the 'recently out from under shade (2.68), 'under shade' (2.63) and 'plants for dispatch' (2.51). In contrast, for diazotrophic bacteria, the highest means of these indices were obtained from the leaves of plants in the 'under shade' (2.56), 'recently out from under shade (2.52)' and 'field' stages (2.54). The distribution of the endophytic bacterial species in Eucalyptus was distinct and specific to the development stages under study, and many of the species had the potential for nitrogen fixation, raising the question of whether these bacteria could contribute to overall nitrogen metabolism of Eucalyptus.

  19. Superoxide anions produced by Streptococcus pyogenes group A-stimulated keratinocytes are responsible for cellular necrosis and bacterial growth inhibition.

    PubMed

    Regnier, Elodie; Grange, Philippe A; Ollagnier, Guillaume; Crickx, Etienne; Elie, Laetitia; Chouzenoux, Sandrine; Weill, Bernard; Plainvert, Céline; Poyart, Claire; Batteux, Frédéric; Dupin, Nicolas

    2016-02-01

    Gram-positive Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus or GAS) is a major skin pathogen and interacts with keratinocytes in cutaneous tissues. GAS can cause diverse suppurative and inflammatory infections, such as cellulitis, a common acute bacterial dermo-hypodermitis with a high morbidity. Bacterial isolation yields from the lesions are low despite the strong local inflammation observed, raising numerous questions about the pathogenesis of the infection. Using an in vitro model of GAS-infected keratinocytes, we show that the major ROS produced is the superoxide anion ([Formula: see text]), and that its production is time- and dose-dependent. Using specific modulators of ROS production, we show that [Formula: see text] is mainly synthesized by the cytoplasmic NADPH oxidase. Superoxide anion production leads to keratinocyte necrosis but incomplete inhibition of GAS growth, suggesting that GAS may be partially resistant to the oxidative burst. In conclusion, GAS-stimulated keratinocytes are able to develop an innate immune response based on the production of ROS. This local immune response limits GAS development and induces keratinocyte cell death, resulting in the skin lesions observed in patients with cellulitis.

  20. Career Education: An Application of Latent Growth Curve Modelling to Career Information-Seeking Behaviour of School Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shevlin, Mark; Millar, Rob

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study applied the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) in an attempt to predict longitudinal growth of career exploratory behaviour in school pupils. The importance of information for making considered career decisions is indicated in theories of career development and choice, career education programmes, and concepts of career…

  1. A Growth Curve Analysis of Literacy Performance among Second-Grade, Spanish-Speaking, English-Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutiierrez, Gabriel; Vanderwood, Mike L.

    2013-01-01

    The literacy growth of 260 second-grade English learners (ELs) with varying degrees of English language proficiency (e.g., Beginning, Early Intermediate, Intermediate, Early Advanced and Advanced English language proficiency) was assessed with English literacy skill assessments. Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills measures were…

  2. Analysis of the relationship between economic growth and industrial pollution in Zaozhuang, China-based on the hypothesis of the environmental Kuznets curve.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Hui; Wang, Wei-Liang; Lu, Shao-Yong; Wang, Yu-Fan; Ren, Zongming

    2016-08-01

    In Zaozhuang, economic development affects the discharge amount of industrial wastewater, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N). To reveal the trend of water environmental quality related to the economy in Zaozhuang, this paper simulated the relationships between industrial wastewater discharge, COD, NH3-N load, and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita for Zaozhuang (2002-2012) using environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) models. The results showed that the added value of industrial GDP, the per capita GDP, and wastewater emission had average annual growth rates of 16.62, 16.19, and 17.89 %, respectively, from 2002 to 2012, while COD and NH3-N emission in 2012, compared with 2002, showed average annual decreases of 10.70 and 31.12 %, respectively. The export of EKC models revealed that industrial wastewater discharge had a typical inverted-U-shaped relationship with per capita GDP. However, both COD and NH3-N showed the binding curve of the left side of the "U" curve and left side U-shaped curve. The economy in Zaozhuang had been at the "fast-growing" stage, with low environmental pollution according to the industrial pollution level. In recent years, Zaozhuang has abated these heavy-pollution industries emphatically, so pollutants have been greatly reduced. Thus, Zaozhuang industrial wastewater treatment has been quite effective, with water quality improved significantly. The EKC models provided scientific evidence for estimating industrial wastewater discharge, COD, and NH3-N load as well as their changeable trends for Zaozhuang from an economic perspective.

  3. Bacterial manganese reduction and growth with manganese oxide as the sole electron acceptor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Charles R.; Nealson, Kenneth H.

    1988-01-01

    Microbes that couple growth to the reduction of manganese could play an important role in the biogeochemistry of certain anaerobic environments. Such a bacterium, Alteromonas putrefaciens MR-1, couples its growth to the reduction of manganese oxides only under anaerobic conditions. The characteristics of this reduction are consistent with a biological, and not an indirect chemical, reduction of manganese, which suggest that this bacterium uses manganic oxide as a terminal electron acceptor. It can also utilize a large number of other compounds as terminal electron acceptors; this versatility could provide a distinct advantage in environments where electron-acceptor concentrations may vary.

  4. Brief report: Examining children's disruptive behavior in the wake of trauma - A two-piece growth curve model before and after a school shooting.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yue; Shonkoff, Eleanor T; Barnett, Elizabeth; Wen, C K Fred; Miller, Kimberly A; Eddy, J Mark

    2015-10-01

    School shootings may have serious negative impacts on children years after the event. Previous research suggests that children exposed to traumatic events experience heightened fear, anxiety, and feelings of vulnerability, but little research has examined potential aggressive and disruptive behavioral reactions. Utilizing a longitudinal dataset in which a local school shooting occurred during the course of data collection, this study sought to investigate whether the trajectory of disruptive behaviors was affected by the shooting. A two-piece growth curve model was used to examine the trajectory of disruptive behaviors during the pre-shooting years (i.e., piece one) and post-shooting years (i.e., piece two). Results indicated that the two-piece growth curve model fit the data better than the one-piece model and that the school shooting precipitated a faster decline in aggressive behaviors. This study demonstrated a novel approach to examining effects of an unexpected traumatic event on behavioral trajectories using an existing longitudinal data set. PMID:26298676

  5. A New Method for Re-Analyzing Evaluation Bias: Piecewise Growth Curve Modeling Reveals an Asymmetry in the Evaluation of Pro and Con Arguments

    PubMed Central

    Jirschitzka, Jens; Kimmerle, Joachim; Cress, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    In four studies we tested a new methodological approach to the investigation of evaluation bias. The usage of piecewise growth curve modeling allowed for investigation into the impact of people’s attitudes on their persuasiveness ratings of pro- and con-arguments, measured over the whole range of the arguments’ polarity from an extreme con to an extreme pro position. Moreover, this method provided the opportunity to test specific hypotheses about the course of the evaluation bias within certain polarity ranges. We conducted two field studies with users of an existing online information portal (Studies 1a and 2a) as participants, and two Internet laboratory studies with mostly student participants (Studies 1b and 2b). In each of these studies we presented pro- and con-arguments, either for the topic of MOOCs (massive open online courses, Studies 1a and 1b) or for the topic of M-learning (mobile learning, Studies 2a and 2b). Our results indicate that using piecewise growth curve models is more appropriate than simpler approaches. An important finding of our studies was an asymmetry of the evaluation bias toward pro- or con-arguments: the evaluation bias appeared over the whole polarity range of pro-arguments and increased with more and more extreme polarity. This clear-cut result pattern appeared only on the pro-argument side. For the con-arguments, in contrast, the evaluation bias did not feature such a systematic picture. PMID:26840219

  6. A New Method for Re-Analyzing Evaluation Bias: Piecewise Growth Curve Modeling Reveals an Asymmetry in the Evaluation of Pro and Con Arguments.

    PubMed

    Jirschitzka, Jens; Kimmerle, Joachim; Cress, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    In four studies we tested a new methodological approach to the investigation of evaluation bias. The usage of piecewise growth curve modeling allowed for investigation into the impact of people's attitudes on their persuasiveness ratings of pro- and con-arguments, measured over the whole range of the arguments' polarity from an extreme con to an extreme pro position. Moreover, this method provided the opportunity to test specific hypotheses about the course of the evaluation bias within certain polarity ranges. We conducted two field studies with users of an existing online information portal (Studies 1a and 2a) as participants, and two Internet laboratory studies with mostly student participants (Studies 1b and 2b). In each of these studies we presented pro- and con-arguments, either for the topic of MOOCs (massive open online courses, Studies 1a and 1b) or for the topic of M-learning (mobile learning, Studies 2a and 2b). Our results indicate that using piecewise growth curve models is more appropriate than simpler approaches. An important finding of our studies was an asymmetry of the evaluation bias toward pro- or con-arguments: the evaluation bias appeared over the whole polarity range of pro-arguments and increased with more and more extreme polarity. This clear-cut result pattern appeared only on the pro-argument side. For the con-arguments, in contrast, the evaluation bias did not feature such a systematic picture. PMID:26840219

  7. Brief Report: Examining children’s disruptive behavior in the wake of trauma - A two-piece growth curve model before and after a school shooting

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yue; Shonkoff, Eleanor T.; Barnett, Elizabeth; Wen, CK Fred; Miller, Kimberly A.; Eddy, J. Mark

    2015-01-01

    School shootings may have serious negative impacts on children years after the event. Previous research suggests that children exposed to traumatic events experience heightened fear, anxiety, and feelings of vulnerability, but little research has examined potential aggressive and disruptive behavioral reactions. Utilizing a longitudinal dataset in which a local school shooting occurred during the course of data collection, this study sought to investigate whether the trajectory of disruptive behaviors was affected by the shooting. A two-piece growth curve model was used to examine the trajectory of disruptive behaviors during the pre-shooting years (i.e., piece one) and post-shooting years (i.e., piece two). Results indicated that the two-piece growth curve model fit the data better than the one-piece model and that the school shooting precipitated a faster decline in aggressive behaviors. This study demonstrated a novel approach to examining effects of an unexpected traumatic event on behavioral trajectories using an existing longitudinal data set. PMID:26298676

  8. Brief report: Examining children's disruptive behavior in the wake of trauma - A two-piece growth curve model before and after a school shooting.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yue; Shonkoff, Eleanor T; Barnett, Elizabeth; Wen, C K Fred; Miller, Kimberly A; Eddy, J Mark

    2015-10-01

    School shootings may have serious negative impacts on children years after the event. Previous research suggests that children exposed to traumatic events experience heightened fear, anxiety, and feelings of vulnerability, but little research has examined potential aggressive and disruptive behavioral reactions. Utilizing a longitudinal dataset in which a local school shooting occurred during the course of data collection, this study sought to investigate whether the trajectory of disruptive behaviors was affected by the shooting. A two-piece growth curve model was used to examine the trajectory of disruptive behaviors during the pre-shooting years (i.e., piece one) and post-shooting years (i.e., piece two). Results indicated that the two-piece growth curve model fit the data better than the one-piece model and that the school shooting precipitated a faster decline in aggressive behaviors. This study demonstrated a novel approach to examining effects of an unexpected traumatic event on behavioral trajectories using an existing longitudinal data set.

  9. A New Method for Re-Analyzing Evaluation Bias: Piecewise Growth Curve Modeling Reveals an Asymmetry in the Evaluation of Pro and Con Arguments.

    PubMed

    Jirschitzka, Jens; Kimmerle, Joachim; Cress, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    In four studies we tested a new methodological approach to the investigation of evaluation bias. The usage of piecewise growth curve modeling allowed for investigation into the impact of people's attitudes on their persuasiveness ratings of pro- and con-arguments, measured over the whole range of the arguments' polarity from an extreme con to an extreme pro position. Moreover, this method provided the opportunity to test specific hypotheses about the course of the evaluation bias