Sample records for bacterial overgrowth sibo

  1. Small bowel bacterial overgrowth

    MedlinePlus

    Overgrowth - intestinal bacteria; Bacterial overgrowth - intestine; Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth; SIBO ... intestine does not have a high number of bacteria. Excess bacteria in the small intestine may use ...

  2. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bures, Jan; Cyrany, Jiri; Kohoutova, Darina; Förstl, Miroslav; Rejchrt, Stanislav; Kvetina, Jaroslav; Vorisek, Viktor; Kopacova, Marcela

    2010-01-01

    Human intestinal microbiota create a complex polymicrobial ecology. This is characterised by its high population density, wide diversity and complexity of interaction. Any dysbalance of this complex intestinal microbiome, both qualitative and quantitative, might have serious health consequence for a macro-organism, including small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome (SIBO). SIBO is defined as an increase in the number and/or alteration in the type of bacteria in the upper gastrointestinal tract. There are several endogenous defence mechanisms for preventing bacterial overgrowth: gastric acid secretion, intestinal motility, intact ileo-caecal valve, immunoglobulins within intestinal secretion and bacteriostatic properties of pancreatic and biliary secretion. Aetiology of SIBO is usually complex, associated with disorders of protective antibacterial mechanisms (e.g. achlorhydria, pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, immunodeficiency syndromes), anatomical abnormalities (e.g. small intestinal obstruction, diverticula, fistulae, surgical blind loop, previous ileo-caecal resections) and/or motility disorders (e.g. scleroderma, autonomic neuropathy in diabetes mellitus, post-radiation enteropathy, small intestinal pseudo-obstruction). In some patients more than one factor may be involved. Symptoms related to SIBO are bloating, diarrhoea, malabsorption, weight loss and malnutrition. The gold standard for diagnosing SIBO is still microbial investigation of jejunal aspirates. Non-invasive hydrogen and methane breath tests are most commonly used for the diagnosis of SIBO using glucose or lactulose. Therapy for SIBO must be complex, addressing all causes, symptoms and complications, and fully individualised. It should include treatment of the underlying disease, nutritional support and cyclical gastro-intestinal selective antibiotics. Prognosis is usually serious, determined mostly by the underlying disease that led to SIBO. PMID:20572300

  3. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis: Prevalence of Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth in Chronic Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ayesha; Shanahan, Erin; Macdonald, Graeme A; Fletcher, Linda; Ghasemi, Pegah; Morrison, Mark; Jones, Mike; Holtmann, Gerald

    2017-11-01

    The authors conducted a meta-analysis of the prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) and controls. Using the search terms "small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO)" and "chronic liver disease (CLD)" or "cirrhosis," 19 case-control studies were identified. Utilizing breath tests, the prevalence of SIBO in CLD was 35.80% (95% CI, 32.60-39.10) compared with 8.0% (95% CI, 5.70-11.00) in controls. Using culture techniques, the prevalence was 68.31% (95% CI, 59.62-76.00) in CLD patients as compared with 7.94% (95% CI, 3.44-12.73) in controls. No difference between cirrhotic and noncirrhotic patients was found. SIBO is significantly more frequent in CLD patients as compared with controls. The association of SIBO and CLD was not confined to patients with advanced CLD, suggesting that SIBO is not a consequence of advanced liver disease but may play a role in the progression of CLD. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  4. Diagnosis and management of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth.

    PubMed

    Bohm, Matthew; Siwiec, Robert M; Wo, John M

    2013-06-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) can result from failure of the gastric acid barrier, failure of small intestinal motility, anatomic alterations, or impairment of systemic and local immunity. The current accepted criteria for the diagnosis of SIBO is the presence of coliform bacteria isolated from the proximal jejunum with >10(5) colony-forming units/mL. A major concern with luminal aspiration is that it is only one random sampling of the small intestine and may not always be representative of the underlying microbiota. A new approach to examine the underlying microbiota uses rapid molecular sequencing, but its clinical utilization is still under active investigation. Clinical manifestations of SIBO are variable and include bloating, flatulence, abdominal distention, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. Severe cases may present with nutrition deficiencies due to malabsorption of micro- and macronutrients. The current management strategies for SIBO center on identifying and correcting underlying causes, addressing nutrition deficiencies, and judicious utilization of antibiotics to treat symptomatic SIBO.

  5. Methane production and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in children living in a slum.

    PubMed

    Mello, Carolina Santos; Tahan, Soraia; Melli, Lígia Cristina F L; Rodrigues, Mirian Silva do Carmo; de Mello, Ricardo Martin Pereira; Scaletsky, Isabel Cristina Affonso; de Morais, Mauro Batista

    2012-11-07

    To analyze small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in school-aged children and the relationship between hydrogen and methane production in breath tests. This transversal study included 85 children residing in a slum and 43 children from a private school, all aged between 6 and 10 years, in Osasco, Brazil. For characterization of the groups, data regarding the socioeconomic status and basic housing sanitary conditions were collected. Anthropometric data was obtained in children from both groups. All children completed the hydrogen (H(2)) and methane (CH(4)) breath test in order to assess small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). SIBO was diagnosed when there was an increase in H(2) ≥ 20 ppm or CH(4) ≥ 10 ppm with regard to the fasting value until 60 min after lactulose ingestion. Children from the slum group had worse living conditions and lower nutritional indices than children from the private school. SIBO was found in 30.9% (26/84) of the children from the slum group and in 2.4% (1/41) from the private school group (P = 0.0007). Greater hydrogen production in the small intestine was observed in children from the slum group when compared to children from the private school (P = 0.007). A higher concentration of hydrogen in the small intestine (P < 0.001) and in the colon (P < 0.001) was observed among the children from the slum group with SIBO when compared to children from the slum group without SIBO. Methane production was observed in 63.1% (53/84) of the children from the slum group and in 19.5% (8/41) of the children from the private school group (P < 0.0001). Methane production was observed in 38/58 (65.5%) of the children without SIBO and in 15/26 (57.7%) of the children with SIBO from the slum. Colonic production of hydrogen was lower in methane-producing children (P = 0.017). Children who live in inadequate environmental conditions are at risk of bacterial overgrowth and methane production. Hydrogen is a substrate for methane production in the colon.

  6. Methane production and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in children living in a slum

    PubMed Central

    Mello, Carolina Santos; Tahan, Soraia; Melli, Lígia Cristina FL; Rodrigues, Mirian Silva do Carmo; de Mello, Ricardo Martin Pereira; Scaletsky, Isabel Cristina Affonso; de Morais, Mauro Batista

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To analyze small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in school-aged children and the relationship between hydrogen and methane production in breath tests. METHODS: This transversal study included 85 children residing in a slum and 43 children from a private school, all aged between 6 and 10 years, in Osasco, Brazil. For characterization of the groups, data regarding the socioeconomic status and basic housing sanitary conditions were collected. Anthropometric data was obtained in children from both groups. All children completed the hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4) breath test in order to assess small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). SIBO was diagnosed when there was an increase in H2 ≥ 20 ppm or CH4 ≥ 10 ppm with regard to the fasting value until 60 min after lactulose ingestion. RESULTS: Children from the slum group had worse living conditions and lower nutritional indices than children from the private school. SIBO was found in 30.9% (26/84) of the children from the slum group and in 2.4% (1/41) from the private school group (P = 0.0007). Greater hydrogen production in the small intestine was observed in children from the slum group when compared to children from the private school (P = 0.007). A higher concentration of hydrogen in the small intestine (P < 0.001) and in the colon (P < 0.001) was observed among the children from the slum group with SIBO when compared to children from the slum group without SIBO. Methane production was observed in 63.1% (53/84) of the children from the slum group and in 19.5% (8/41) of the children from the private school group (P < 0.0001). Methane production was observed in 38/58 (65.5%) of the children without SIBO and in 15/26 (57.7%) of the children with SIBO from the slum. Colonic production of hydrogen was lower in methane-producing children (P = 0.017). CONCLUSION: Children who live in inadequate environmental conditions are at risk of bacterial overgrowth and methane production. Hydrogen is a substrate for

  7. What tests should you use to assess small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in systemic sclerosis?

    PubMed

    Braun-Moscovici, Yolanda; Braun, Marius; Khanna, Dinesh; Balbir-Gurman, Alexandra; Furst, Daniel E

    2015-01-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) plays a major role in the pathogenesis of malabsorption in SSc patients and is a source of great morbidity and even mortality, in those patients. This manuscript reviews which tests are valid and should be used in SSc when evaluating SIBO. We performed systematic literature searches in PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane library from 1966 up to November 2014 for English language, published articles examining bacterial overgrowth in SSc (e.g. malabsorption tests, breath tests, xylose test, etc). Articles obtained from these searches were reviewed for additional references. The validity of the tests was evaluated according to the OMERACT principles of truth, discrimination and feasibility. From a total of 65 titles, 22 articles were reviewed and 20 were ultimately extracted to examine the validity of tests for GI morphology, bacterial overgrowth and malabsorption in SSc. Only 1 test (hydrogen and methane breath tests) is fully validated. Four tests are partially validated, including jejunal cultures, xylose, lactulose tests, and 72 hours fecal fat test. Only 1 of a total of 5 GI tests of bacterial overgrowth (see above) is fully validated in SSc. For clinical trials, fully validated tests are preferred, although some investigators use partially validated tests (4 tests). Further validation of GI tests in SSc is needed.

  8. Gastrointestinal complaints in runners are not due to small intestinal bacterial overgrowth

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal complaints are common among long distance runners. We hypothesised that small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is present in long distance runners frequently afflicted with gastrointestinal complaints. Findings Seven long distance runners (5 female, mean age 29.1 years) with gastrointestinal complaints during and immediately after exercise without known gastrointestinal diseases performed Glucose hydrogen breath tests for detection of SIBO one week after a lactose hydrogen breath test checking for lactose intolerance. The most frequent symptoms were diarrhea (5/7, 71%) and flatulence (6/7, 86%). The study was conducted at a laboratory. In none of the subjects a pathological hydrogen production was observed after the intake of glucose. Only in one athlete a pathological hydrogen production was measured after the intake of lactose suggesting lactose intolerance. Conclusions Gastrointestinal disorders in the examined long distance runners were not associated with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. PMID:21794099

  9. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in irritable bowel syndrome: are there any predictors?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is a condition in which excessive levels of bacteria, mainly the colonic-type species are present in the small intestine. Recent data suggest that SIBO may contribute to the pathophysiology of Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The purpose of this study was to identify potential predictors of SIBO in patients with IBS. Methods Adults with IBS based on Rome II criteria who had predominance of bloating and flatulence underwent a glucose breath test (GBT) to determine the presence of SIBO. Breath samples were obtained at baseline and at 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 minutes after ingestion of 50 g of glucose dissolved in 150 mL of water. Results of the glucose breath test, which measures hydrogen and methane levels in the breath, were considered positive for SIBO if 1) the hydrogen or methane peak was >20 ppm when the baseline was <10 ppm, or 2) the hydrogen or methane peak increased by 12 ppm when baseline was ≥10 ppm. Results Ninety-eight patients were identified who underwent a GBT (mean age, 49 y; 78% female). Thirty-five patients (36%) had a positive GBT result suggestive of SIBO. A positive GBT result was more likely in patients >55 years of age (odds ratio [OR], 3.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-9.0) and in females (OR, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.1-14.5). Hydrogen was detected more frequently in patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS (OR, 8; 95% CI, 1.4-45), and methane was the main gas detected in patients with constipation-predominant IBS (OR, 8; 95% CI, 1.3-44). There was no significant correlation between the presence of SIBO and the predominant bowel pattern or concurrent use of tegaserod, proton pump inhibitors, or opiate analgesics. Conclusions Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth was present in a sizeable percentage of patients with IBS with predominance of bloating and flatulence. Older age and female sex were predictors of SIBO in patients with IBS. Identification of possible predictors of SIBO in patients with

  10. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in irritable bowel syndrome: are there any predictors?

    PubMed

    Reddymasu, Savio C; Sostarich, Sandra; McCallum, Richard W

    2010-02-22

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is a condition in which excessive levels of bacteria, mainly the colonic-type species are present in the small intestine. Recent data suggest that SIBO may contribute to the pathophysiology of Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The purpose of this study was to identify potential predictors of SIBO in patients with IBS. Adults with IBS based on Rome II criteria who had predominance of bloating and flatulence underwent a glucose breath test (GBT) to determine the presence of SIBO. Breath samples were obtained at baseline and at 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 minutes after ingestion of 50 g of glucose dissolved in 150 mL of water. Results of the glucose breath test, which measures hydrogen and methane levels in the breath, were considered positive for SIBO if 1) the hydrogen or methane peak was >20 ppm when the baseline was <10 ppm, or 2) the hydrogen or methane peak increased by 12 ppm when baseline was >or=10 ppm. Ninety-eight patients were identified who underwent a GBT (mean age, 49 y; 78% female). Thirty-five patients (36%) had a positive GBT result suggestive of SIBO. A positive GBT result was more likely in patients >55 years of age (odds ratio [OR], 3.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-9.0) and in females (OR, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.1-14.5). Hydrogen was detected more frequently in patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS (OR, 8; 95% CI, 1.4-45), and methane was the main gas detected in patients with constipation-predominant IBS (OR, 8; 95% CI, 1.3-44). There was no significant correlation between the presence of SIBO and the predominant bowel pattern or concurrent use of tegaserod, proton pump inhibitors, or opiate analgesics. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth was present in a sizeable percentage of patients with IBS with predominance of bloating and flatulence. Older age and female sex were predictors of SIBO in patients with IBS. Identification of possible predictors of SIBO in patients with IBS could aid in the development of

  11. Bacterial overgrowth and methane production in children with encopresis.

    PubMed

    Leiby, Alycia; Mehta, Devendra; Gopalareddy, Vani; Jackson-Walker, Susan; Horvath, Karoly

    2010-05-01

    To assess the prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and methane production in children with encopresis. Radiographic fecal impaction (FI) scores were assessed in children with secondary, retentive encopresis and compared with the breath test results. Breath tests with hypoosmotic lactulose solution were performed in both the study patients (n = 50) and gastrointestinal control subjects (n = 39) groups. The FI scores were significantly higher in the patients with encopresis who were methane producers (P < .01). SIBO was diagnosed in 21 of 50 (42%) patients with encopresis and 9 of 39 (23%) of control subjects (P = .06). Methane was produced in 56% of the patients with encopresis versus 23.1% of the control subjects in the gastrointestinal group (P < .01). Fasting methane level was elevated in 48% versus 10.3 %, respectively (P < .01). Children with FI and encopresis had a higher prevalence of SIBO, elevated basal methane levels, and higher methane production. Methane production was associated with more severe colonic impaction. Further study is needed to determine whether methane production is a primary or secondary factor in the pathogenesis of SIBO and encopresis.

  12. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in inactive Crohn's disease: influence of thiopurine and biological treatment.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Montes, Cristina; Ortiz, Vicente; Bastida, Guillermo; Rodríguez, Ester; Yago, María; Beltrán, Belén; Aguas, Mariam; Iborra, Marisa; Garrigues, Vicente; Ponce, Julio; Nos, Pilar

    2014-10-14

    To investigate the influence of thiopurines and biological drugs on the presence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) in patients with inactive Crohn's disease (CD). This was a prospective study in patients with CD in remission and without corticosteroid treatment, included consecutively from 2004 to 2010. SIBO was investigated using the hydrogen glucose breath test. One hundred and seven patients with CD in remission were included. Almost 58% of patients used maintenance immunosuppressant therapy and 19.6% used biological therapy. The prevalence of SIBO was 16.8%. No association was observed between SIBO and the use of thiopurine Immunosuppressant (12/62 patients), administration of biological drugs (2/21 patients), or with double treatment with an anti-tumor necrosis factor drugs plus thiopurine (1/13 patients). Half of the patients had symptoms that were suggestive of SIBO, though meteorism was the only symptom that was significantly associated with the presence of SIBO on univariate analysis (P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of meteorism and a fistulizing pattern were associated with the presence of SIBO (P < 0.05). Immunosuppressants and/or biological drugs do not induce SIBO in inactive CD. Fistulizing disease pattern and meteorism are associated with SIBO.

  13. Microscopic colitis and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth--diagnosis behind the irritable bowel syndrome?

    PubMed

    Stoicescu, Adriana; Andrei, M; Becheanu, G; Stoicescu, M; Nicolaie, T; Diculescu, M

    2012-01-01

    Some patients previously diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) may develop microscopic colitis or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). To estimate the prevalence of microscopic colitis and SIBO in patients with IBS, to evaluate the symptoms and the efficacy of treatment. We examined patients with IBS admitted in our clinic during a three-year period. We identified patients with microscopic colitis by performing total colonoscopy with multiple biopsies from normal intestinal mucosa and those with SIBO by performing a H2-breath test with glucose. We compared the symptoms and the effectiveness of the treatment. Out of the 132 patients initially diagnosed with IBS 3% (n=4) had microscopic colitis and 43.9% (n=58) had SIBO. Diarrhea was the main symptom in patients with microscopic colitis and SIBO (p=0.041), while abdominal pain, abdominal bloating and flatulence were prominent in IBS patients (p=0.042; p=0.039; p=0.048). Specific treatment with rifaximin in SIBO patients negativated H2-breath test in 70.9% cases. Patients suspected to have irritable bowel syndrome should be evaluated for microscopic colitis and SIBO. The proper diagnosis and the specific treatment may cure some difficult cases of the so called "irritable bowel syndrome".

  14. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in inactive Crohn’s disease: Influence of thiopurine and biological treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Montes, Cristina; Ortiz, Vicente; Bastida, Guillermo; Rodríguez, Ester; Yago, María; Beltrán, Belén; Aguas, Mariam; Iborra, Marisa; Garrigues, Vicente; Ponce, Julio; Nos, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the influence of thiopurines and biological drugs on the presence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) in patients with inactive Crohn’s disease (CD). METHODS: This was a prospective study in patients with CD in remission and without corticosteroid treatment, included consecutively from 2004 to 2010. SIBO was investigated using the hydrogen glucose breath test. RESULTS: One hundred and seven patients with CD in remission were included. Almost 58% of patients used maintenance immunosuppressant therapy and 19.6% used biological therapy. The prevalence of SIBO was 16.8%. No association was observed between SIBO and the use of thiopurine Immunosuppressant (12/62 patients), administration of biological drugs (2/21 patients), or with double treatment with an anti-tumor necrosis factor drugs plus thiopurine (1/13 patients). Half of the patients had symptoms that were suggestive of SIBO, though meteorism was the only symptom that was significantly associated with the presence of SIBO on univariate analysis (P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of meteorism and a fistulizing pattern were associated with the presence of SIBO (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Immunosuppressants and/or biological drugs do not induce SIBO in inactive CD. Fistulizing disease pattern and meteorism are associated with SIBO. PMID:25320539

  15. The impact of alcohol consumption and cholecystectomy on small intestinal bacterial overgrowth.

    PubMed

    Gabbard, Scott L; Lacy, Brian E; Levine, Gary M; Crowell, Michael D

    2014-03-01

    The etiology of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is diverse and frequently multi-factorial. SIBO is thought to result from structural changes of the gastrointestinal tract, disordered peristalsis of the stomach and/or small intestine, or a disruption of the normal mucosal defenses of the small intestine. Alcoholics are reported to have higher rates of SIBO, as diagnosed by jejunal aspirate; however, no data are available on the association between moderate alcohol consumption and SIBO. To evaluate the association between moderate alcohol consumption and SIBO and identify risk factors for SIBO using the lactulose breath test (LBT). A retrospective chart review was completed for 210 consecutive patients who underwent the LBT between 2008 and 2010. We reviewed demographic data, including age, race, body mass index, alcohol and tobacco history, medication use, comorbid medical conditions, and history of abdominal surgery. The study included 196 patients (68 % female; mean age 55 years), 93 of whom had a positive LBT (47.4 %). Of those patients who consumed a moderate amount of alcohol, 58 % had a positive LBT, compared to 38.9 % of abstainers (P = 0.008). Those with a history of cholecystectomy had significantly lower rates of a positive LBT than those who had not (33.3 vs. 51.7 % respectively; P = 0.031). Neither proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use nor tobacco use was associated with a positive LBT. In this retrospective review, moderate alcohol consumption was a strong risk factor for SIBO. Cholecystectomy appeared to be protective against SIBO. Neither PPI use nor tobacco use was associated with an increased risk of SIBO.

  16. Bacterial Overgrowth and Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Unifying Hypothesis or a Spurious Consequence of Proton Pump Inhibitors?

    PubMed Central

    Spiegel, Brennan M.R.; Chey, William D.; Chang, Lin

    2010-01-01

    Some studies indicate that small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), as measured by hydrogen breath tests (HBT), is more prevalent in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) vs. matched controls without IBS. Although the data are conflicting, this observation has led to the hypothesis that SIBO may be a primary cause of IBS. Yet, it remains unclear whether SIBO is truly fundamental to the pathophysiology of IBS, or is instead a mere epiphenomenon or bystander of something else altogether. We hypothesize that SIBO might be a byproduct of the disproportionate use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in IBS, as follows: (1) IBS patients are more likely than controls to receive PPI therapy; (2) PPI therapy may promote varying forms of SIBO by eliminating gastric acid; and (3) existing studies linking SIBO to IBS have not adjusted for or excluded the use of PPI therapy. When linked together, these premises form the basis for a simple and testable hypothesis: the relationship between SIBO and IBS may be confounded by PPIs. Our article explores these premises, lays out the argument supporting this “PPI hypothesis,” discusses potential implications, and outlines next steps to further investigate this possibility. PMID:19086951

  17. Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth and Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Bridge between Functional Organic Dichotomy.

    PubMed

    Ghoshal, Uday C; Shukla, Ratnakar; Ghoshal, Ujjala

    2017-03-15

    The pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), once thought to be largely psychogenic in origin, is now understood to be multifactorial. One of the reasons for this paradigm shift is the realization that gut dysbiosis, including small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), causes IBS symptoms. Between 4% and 78% of patients with IBS and 1% and 40% of controls have SIBO; such wide variations in prevalence might result from population differences, IBS diagnostic criteria, and, most importantly, methods to diagnose SIBO. Although quantitative jejunal aspirate culture is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of SIBO, noninvasive hydrogen breath tests have been popular. Although the glucose hydrogen breath test is highly specific, its sensitivity is low; in contrast, the early-peak criteria in the lactulose hydrogen breath test are highly nonspecific. Female gender, older age, diarrhea-predominant IBS, bloating and flatulence, proton pump inhibitor and narcotic intake, and low hemoglobin are associated with SIBO among IBS patients. Several therapeutic trials targeting gut microbes using antibiotics and probiotics have further demonstrated that not all symptoms in patients with IBS originate in the brain but rather in the gut, providing support for the micro-organic basis of IBS. A recent proof-of-concept study showing the high frequency of symptom improvement in patients with IBS with SIBO further supports this hypothesis.

  18. Prevalence of Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth among Chronic Pancreatitis Patients: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, Simon; Sidani, Sacha

    2016-01-01

    Background. Patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) exhibit numerous risk factors for the development of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). Objective. To determine the prevalence of SIBO in patients with CP. Methods. Prospective, single-centre case-control study conducted between January and September 2013. Inclusion criteria were age 18 to 75 years and clinical and radiological diagnosis of CP. Exclusion criteria included history of gastric, pancreatic, or intestinal surgery or significant clinical gastroparesis. SIBO was detected using a standard lactulose breath test (LBT). A healthy control group also underwent LBT. Results. Thirty-one patients and 40 controls were included. The patient group was significantly older (53.8 versus 38.7 years; P < 0.01). The proportion of positive LBTs was significantly higher in CP patients (38.7 versus 2.5%: P < 0.01). A trend toward a higher proportion of positive LBTs in women compared with men was observed (66.6 versus 27.3%; P = 0.056). The subgroups with positive and negative LBTs were comparable in demographic and clinical characteristics, use of opiates, pancreatic enzymes replacement therapy (PERT), and severity of symptoms. Conclusion. The prevalence of SIBO detected using LBT was high among patients with CP. There was no association between clinical features and the risk for SIBO. PMID:27446865

  19. Prevalence of Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth among Chronic Pancreatitis Patients: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Therrien, Amelie; Bouchard, Simon; Sidani, Sacha; Bouin, Mickael

    2016-01-01

    Background. Patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) exhibit numerous risk factors for the development of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). Objective. To determine the prevalence of SIBO in patients with CP. Methods. Prospective, single-centre case-control study conducted between January and September 2013. Inclusion criteria were age 18 to 75 years and clinical and radiological diagnosis of CP. Exclusion criteria included history of gastric, pancreatic, or intestinal surgery or significant clinical gastroparesis. SIBO was detected using a standard lactulose breath test (LBT). A healthy control group also underwent LBT. Results. Thirty-one patients and 40 controls were included. The patient group was significantly older (53.8 versus 38.7 years; P < 0.01). The proportion of positive LBTs was significantly higher in CP patients (38.7 versus 2.5%: P < 0.01). A trend toward a higher proportion of positive LBTs in women compared with men was observed (66.6 versus 27.3%; P = 0.056). The subgroups with positive and negative LBTs were comparable in demographic and clinical characteristics, use of opiates, pancreatic enzymes replacement therapy (PERT), and severity of symptoms. Conclusion. The prevalence of SIBO detected using LBT was high among patients with CP. There was no association between clinical features and the risk for SIBO.

  20. Post-infectious IBS, tropical sprue and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: the missing link.

    PubMed

    Ghoshal, Uday C; Gwee, Kok-Ann

    2017-07-01

    Evidence is emerging that IBS, a hitherto enigmatic disorder thought to be predominantly related to psychological factors, has a microorganic basis in a subset of patients with the disease. Post-infectious IBS (PI-IBS), commonly of the diarrhoea-predominant subtype (defined as new development of IBS following acute infectious diarrhoea), is one such condition known to occur in up to 10-30% individuals after acute gastroenteritis. However, following acute infectious gastroenteritis, patients can also develop post-infectious malabsorption syndrome (PI-MAS), popularly known as tropical sprue. As no study on PI-IBS has rigorously excluded tropical sprue by appropriate investigations, including small intestinal biopsy, the frequency of tropical sprue among patients with PI-IBS is not known. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) has been suggested to be associated with IBS in general, and in particular diarrhoea-predominant IBS, including PI-IBS. SIBO is also known to be associated with tropical sprue. As both IBS, particularly the subset probably associated with SIBO, and tropical sprue improve with antibiotic treatment, we provide evidence and an explanatory model to support a link among these disorders.

  1. The prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in non-surgical patients with chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI).

    PubMed

    Ní Chonchubhair, Hazel M; Bashir, Yasir; Dobson, Mark; Ryan, Barbara M; Duggan, Sinead N; Conlon, Kevin C

    2018-02-24

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is a condition characterised by symptoms similar to pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) in chronic pancreatitis patients. SIBO is thought to complicate chronic pancreatitis in up to 92% of cases; however, studies are heterogeneous and protocols non-standardised. SIBO may be determined by measuring lung air-expiration of either hydrogen or methane which are by-products of small bowel bacterial fermentation of intraluminal substrates such as carbohydrates. We evaluated the prevalence of SIBO among a defined cohort of non-surgical chronic pancreatitics with mild to severe PEI compared with matched healthy controls. Thirty-five patients and 31 age-, gender- and smoking status-matched healthy controls were evaluated for SIBO by means of a fasting glucose hydrogen breath test (GHBT). The relationship between SIBO and clinical symptoms in chronic pancreatitis was evaluated. SIBO was present in 15% of chronic pancreatitis patients, while no healthy controls tested positive (P = 0.029). SIBO was more prevalent in those taking pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT) (P = 0.016), with proton pump inhibitor use (PPI) (P = 0.022) and in those with alcohol aetiology (P = 0.023). Patients with concurrent diabetes were more often SIBO-positive and this was statistically significant (P = 0.009). There were no statistically significant differences in reported symptoms between patients with and without SIBO, with the exception of 'weight loss', with patients reporting weight loss more likely to have SIBO (P = 0.047). The prevalence of SIBO in this study was almost 15% and consistent with other studies of SIBO in non-surgical chronic pancreatitis patients. These data support the testing of patients with clinically-relevant PEI unresolved by adequate doses of PERT, particularly in those patients with concurrent diabetes. SIBO can be easily diagnosed therefore allowing more specific and more targeted symptom

  2. Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth May Increase the Likelihood of Lactose and Sorbitol but not Fructose Intolerance False Positive Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Perets, Tsachi Tsadok; Hamouda, Dalal; Layfer, Olga; Ashorov, Olga; Boltin, Doron; Levy, Sigal; Niv, Yaron; Dickman, Ram

    2017-08-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is defined as a bacterial count of more than 10 5 colony-forming units per milliliter in duodenal aspirate. It shares many symptoms with carbohydrate intolerance, which makes the clinical distinction of the disorders difficult. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between a positive carbohydrate breath test and the presence of SIBO suggested by a positive lactulose hydrogen breath test. The electronic database of the gastroenterology laboratory of a tertiary medical center was searched for all patients clinically tested for SIBO in 2012-2013 for whom previous results for lactose, fructose, and/or sorbitol breath test were available. The correlation between positive findings for carbohydrate intolerance and for SIBO was statistically analyzed. The study group included 349 patients, 231 female and 118 male, of mean age 53±19 years. All had symptoms of abdominal bloating and gas. There was a statistically significant difference in rates of a positive breath test for lactose and sorbitol at ≤90 minutes between patients who were positive and negative for SIBO [χ 2 (1)=12.8, p <0.01 and χ 2 (1)=9.5, p <0.01 respectively]. Findings for fructose were not significant. There was no effect of age or gender. SIBO may represent an important reversible cause of carbohydrate intolerance. It may be especially prudent to exclude SIBO patients with an early peak (≤90 minutes) in H 2 excretion. © 2017 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  3. Glucose hydrogen breath test for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in children with abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Korterink, Judith J; Benninga, Marc A; van Wering, Herbert M; Deckers-Kocken, Judith M

    2015-04-01

    A potential link between small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders (AP-FGID) has been suggested by symptom similarities and by the reported prevalence of SIBO in children with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional AP. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of SIBO using the glucose hydrogen breath test (GHBT), in a cohort of Dutch children with AP-FGID fulfilling the Rome III criteria, and to identify potential predictors. Children ages 6 to 18 years with AP-FGID fulfilling the Rome III criteria were included. All of the children underwent a GHBT. SIBO was diagnosed if the fasting breath hydrogen concentration was ≥20 ppm or an increase in H2 levels of ≥12 ppm above the baseline value was measured after ingestion of glucose. Gastrointestinal symptoms were collected using a standardised AP questionnaire. A total of 161 Dutch children with AP-FGID were enrolled. Twenty-three patients (14.3%) were diagnosed as having SIBO, as assessed by GHBT; 78% of the children diagnosed as having SIBO had fasting hydrogen levels ≥20 ppm. IBS was significantly more found in children with SIBO compared with children without SIBO (P = 0.001). An altered defecation pattern (ie, change in frequency or form of stool) (P = 0.013), loss of appetite (P = 0.007), and belching (P = 0.023) were significantly more found in children with SIBO compared with those without SIBO. SIBO is present in 14.3% of children presenting with AP-FGID. IBS, altered defecation pattern, loss of appetite, and belching were predictors for SIBO in children with AP-FGID.

  4. Subclinical atherosclerosis is linked to small intestinal bacterial overgrowth via vitamin K2-dependent mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Ponziani, Francesca Romana; Pompili, Maurizio; Di Stasio, Enrico; Zocco, Maria Assunta; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Flore, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    AIM To assess the rate of matrix Gla-protein carboxylation in patients with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and to decipher its association with subclinical atherosclerosis. METHODS Patients with suspected SIBO who presented with a low risk for cardiovascular disease and showed no evidence of atherosclerotic plaques were included in the study. A glucose breath test was performed in order to confirm the diagnosis of SIBO and vascular assessment was carried out by ultrasound examination. Plasma levels of the inactive form of MGP (dephosphorylated-uncarboxylated matrix Gla-protein) were quantified by ELISA and vitamin K2 intake was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. RESULTS Thirty-nine patients were included in the study. SIBO was confirmed in 12/39 (30.8%) patients who also presented with a higher concentration of dephosphorylated-uncarboxylated matrix Gla-protein (9.5 μg/L vs 4.2 μg/L; P = 0.004). Arterial stiffness was elevated in the SIBO group (pulse-wave velocity 10.25 m/s vs 7.68 m/s; P = 0.002) and this phenomenon was observed to correlate linearly with the levels of dephosphorylated-uncarboxylated matrix Gla-protein (β = 0.220, R2 = 0.366, P = 0.03). Carotid intima-media thickness and arterial calcifications were not observed to be significantly elevated as compared to controls. CONCLUSION SIBO is associated with reduced matrix Gla-protein activation as well as arterial stiffening. Both these observations are regarded as important indicators of subclinical atherosclerosis. Hence, screening for SIBO, intestinal decontamination and supplementation with vitamin K2 has the potential to be incorporated into clinical practice as additional preventive measures. PMID:28275304

  5. Subclinical atherosclerosis is linked to small intestinal bacterial overgrowth via vitamin K2-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ponziani, Francesca Romana; Pompili, Maurizio; Di Stasio, Enrico; Zocco, Maria Assunta; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Flore, Roberto

    2017-02-21

    To assess the rate of matrix Gla-protein carboxylation in patients with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and to decipher its association with subclinical atherosclerosis. Patients with suspected SIBO who presented with a low risk for cardiovascular disease and showed no evidence of atherosclerotic plaques were included in the study. A glucose breath test was performed in order to confirm the diagnosis of SIBO and vascular assessment was carried out by ultrasound examination. Plasma levels of the inactive form of MGP (dephosphorylated-uncarboxylated matrix Gla-protein) were quantified by ELISA and vitamin K2 intake was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Thirty-nine patients were included in the study. SIBO was confirmed in 12/39 (30.8%) patients who also presented with a higher concentration of dephosphorylated-uncarboxylated matrix Gla-protein (9.5 μg/L vs 4.2 μg/L; P = 0.004). Arterial stiffness was elevated in the SIBO group (pulse-wave velocity 10.25 m/s vs 7.68 m/s; P = 0.002) and this phenomenon was observed to correlate linearly with the levels of dephosphorylated-uncarboxylated matrix Gla-protein (β = 0.220, R 2 = 0.366, P = 0.03). Carotid intima-media thickness and arterial calcifications were not observed to be significantly elevated as compared to controls. SIBO is associated with reduced matrix Gla-protein activation as well as arterial stiffening. Both these observations are regarded as important indicators of subclinical atherosclerosis. Hence, screening for SIBO, intestinal decontamination and supplementation with vitamin K2 has the potential to be incorporated into clinical practice as additional preventive measures.

  6. Short article: Risk of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth with chronic use of proton pump inhibitors in children.

    PubMed

    Cares, Kristen; Al-Ansari, Namir; Macha, Suhasini; Zoubi, Najeeb; Zaghloul, Hazim; Thomas, Ron; Lalinsky, Patricia; El-Baba, Mohammad

    2017-04-01

    Some theorize that prolonged use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) may increase the risk of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). Chronic acid suppression and resultant hypochlorhydria may lead to an altered intraluminal environment, which, in turn, may promote the growth of bacteria in the small intestine. A handful of studies measured the risk of SIBO in adults taking PPIs and obtained mixed results; however, this risk has not been exclusively measured in children. This study aimed to measure the risk of SIBO in children taking PPI versus those not taking PPI. This was a prospective cohort study. Evaluation of SIBO was performed using the glucose hydrogen breath test. Patients younger than 18 years of age taking a PPI longer than 6 months were compared with healthy control participants. After ingestion of glucose substrate, breath samples were obtained every 15 min for 2 h. An increase in breath hydrogen or methane above 12 ppm was considered diagnostic of SIBO. Overall, 83 participants were tested, of whom 56 were taking PPIs. SIBO was detected in five (8.9%) of the 56 participants taking PPI versus one (3.7%) of the 27 participants in the control group (P=0.359), with a relative risk of 2.4 (95% confidence interval: 0.29-19.6). To our knowledge, this is the first study in the English literature measuring the risk of SIBO in children taking PPIs. Our results indicate a potential risk of SIBO in chronic PPI users; however, this is not statistically significant. This is an important finding as PPIs are readily prescribed for children and are often taken longer than 6 months' duration.

  7. Herbal Therapy Is Equivalent to Rifaximin for the Treatment of Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Chedid, Victor; Dhalla, Sameer; Clarke, John O.; Roland, Bani Chander; Dunbar, Kerry B.; Koh, Joyce; Justino, Edmundo; Tomakin, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Patients with small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) have chronic intestinal and extraintestinal symptomatology which adversely affects their quality of life. Present treatment of SIBO is limited to oral antibiotics with variable success. A growing number of patients are interested in using complementary and alternative therapies for their gastrointestinal health. The objective was to determine the remission rate of SIBO using either the antibiotic rifaximin or herbals in a tertiary care referral gastroenterology practice. Design: One hundred and four patients who tested positive for newly diagnosed SIBO by lactulose breath testing (LBT) were offered either rifaximin 1200 mg daily vs herbal therapy for 4 weeks with repeat LBT post-treatment. Results: Three hundred ninety-six patients underwent LBT for suspected SIBO, of which 251 (63.4%) were positive 165 underwent treatment and 104 had a follow-up LBT. Of the 37 patients who received herbal therapy, 17 (46%) had a negative follow-up LBT compared to 23/67 (34%) of rifaximin users (P=.24). The odds ratio of having a negative LBT after taking herbal therapy as compared to rifaximin was 1.85 (CI=0.77-4.41, P=.17) once adjusted for age, gender, SIBO risk factors and IBS status. Fourteen of the 44 (31.8%) rifaximin non-responders were offered herbal rescue therapy, with 8 of the 14 (57.1%) having a negative LBT after completing the rescue herbal therapy, while 10 non-responders were offered triple antibiotics with 6 responding (60%, P=.89). Adverse effects were reported among the rifaximin treated arm including 1 case of anaphylaxis, 2 cases of hives, 2 cases of diarrhea and 1 case of Clostridium difficile. Only one case of diarrhea was reported in the herbal therapy arm, which did not reach statistical significance (P=.22). Conclusion: SIBO is widely prevalent in a tertiary referral gastroenterology practice. Herbal therapies are at least as effective as rifaximin for resolution of SIBO by LBT. Herbals

  8. Herbal therapy is equivalent to rifaximin for the treatment of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth.

    PubMed

    Chedid, Victor; Dhalla, Sameer; Clarke, John O; Roland, Bani Chander; Dunbar, Kerry B; Koh, Joyce; Justino, Edmundo; Tomakin, Eric; Mullin, Gerard E

    2014-05-01

    Patients with small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) have chronic intestinal and extraintestinal symptomatology which adversely affects their quality of life. Present treatment of SIBO is limited to oral antibiotics with variable success. A growing number of patients are interested in using complementary and alternative therapies for their gastrointestinal health. The objective was to determine the remission rate of SIBO using either the antibiotic rifaximin or herbals in a tertiary care referral gastroenterology practice. One hundred and four patients who tested positive for newly diagnosed SIBO by lactulose breath testing (LBT) were offered either rifaximin 1200 mg daily vs herbal therapy for 4 weeks with repeat LBT post-treatment. Three hundred ninety-six patients underwent LBT for suspected SIBO, of which 251 (63.4%) were positive 165 underwent treatment and 104 had a follow-up LBT. Of the 37 patients who received herbal therapy, 17 (46%) had a negative follow-up LBT compared to 23/67 (34%) of rifaximin users (P=.24). The odds ratio of having a negative LBT after taking herbal therapy as compared to rifaximin was 1.85 (CI=0.77-4.41, P=.17) once adjusted for age, gender, SIBO risk factors and IBS status. Fourteen of the 44 (31.8%) rifaximin non-responders were offered herbal rescue therapy, with 8 of the 14 (57.1%) having a negative LBT after completing the rescue herbal therapy, while 10 non-responders were offered triple antibiotics with 6 responding (60%, P=.89). Adverse effects were reported among the rifaximin treated arm including 1 case of anaphylaxis, 2 cases of hives, 2 cases of diarrhea and 1 case of Clostridium difficile. Only one case of diarrhea was reported in the herbal therapy arm, which did not reach statistical significance (P=.22). SIBO is widely prevalent in a tertiary referral gastroenterology practice. Herbal therapies are at least as effective as rifaximin for resolution of SIBO by LBT. Herbals also appear to be as effective as triple

  9. Elevated methane levels in small intestinal bacterial overgrowth suggests delayed small bowel and colonic transit.

    PubMed

    Suri, Jaspreet; Kataria, Rahul; Malik, Zubair; Parkman, Henry P; Schey, Ron

    2018-05-01

    Limited research exists regarding the relationship between small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), small bowel transit (SBT), and colonic transit (CT). Furthermore, symptom analysis is limited between the subtypes of SIBO: hydrogen producing (H-SIBO) and methane producing (M-SIBO). The primary aims of this study are to: compare the SBT and CT in patients with a positive lactulose breath test (LBT) to those with a normal study; compare the SBT and CT among patients with H-SIBO or M-SIBO; compare the severity of symptoms in patients with a positive LBT to those with a normal study; compare the severity of symptoms among patients with H-SIBO or M-SIBO.A retrospective review was performed for 89 patients who underwent a LBT and whole gut transit scintigraphy (WGTS) between 2014 and 2016. Seventy-eight patients were included. WGTS evaluated gastric emptying, SBT (normal ≥40% radiotracer bolus accumulated at the ileocecal valve at 6 hours), and CT (normal geometric center of colonic activity = 1.6-7.0 at 24 hours, 4.0-7.0 at 48 hours, 6.2-7.0 at 72 hours; elevated geometric center indicates increased transit). We also had patients complete a pretest symptom survey to evaluate nausea, bloating, constipation, diarrhea, belching, and flatulence.A total of 78 patients (69 females, 9 males, mean age of 48 years, mean BMI of 25.9) were evaluated. Forty-seven patients had a positive LBT (H-SIBO 66%, M-SIBO 34%). Comparison of SBT among patients with a positive LBT to normal LBT revealed no significant difference (62.1% vs 58.6%, P = .63). The mean accumulated radiotracer was higher for H-SIBO compared to M-SIBO (71.5% vs 44.1%; P < .05). For CT, all SIBO patients had no significant difference in geometric centers of colonic activity at 24, 48, and 72 hours when compared to the normal group. When subtyping, H-SIBO had significantly higher geometric centers compared to the M-SIBO group at 24 hours (4.4 vs 3.1, P < .001), 48 hours (5.2 vs 3

  10. Lubiprostone Accelerates Intestinal Transit and Alleviates Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth in Patients With Chronic Constipation.

    PubMed

    Sarosiek, Irene; Bashashati, Mohammad; Alvarez, Alicia; Hall, Mark; Shankar, Nagasri; Gomez, Yvette; McCallum, Richard W; Sarosiek, Jerzy

    2016-09-01

    Lubiprostone is an effective treatment for chronic constipation (CC). The mechanism of action of lubiprostone is through increasing fluid secretion and lubrication of the intestinal lumen. The effects of lubiprostone on gastrointestinal transit and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) have not been adequately explored. The current study was designed to investigate whether lubiprostone (1) alters gastrointestinal transit and (2) affects SIBO in patients with constipation. A total of 29 female patients (mean age = 39 years; range: 19-64) with CC received 2 weeks of lubiprostone (24mcg b.i.d., P.O.). Stool consistency based on Bristol stool scale and the frequency of bowel movements (BMs) were recorded. Gastric emptying time, small bowel transit time, colon transit time (CTT), combined small and large bowel transit time (SLBTT) and whole gut transit time were measured using wireless motility capsule. The SIBO status was assessed by the lactulose breath test. Data were analyzed using Wilcoxon rank, Mann-Whitney U, Spearman׳s rank correlation and Chi-square tests. Lubiprostone significantly softened the stool and increased the frequency of BM from median of 2 to 4times per week. The CTT and SLBTT were significantly shorter in responders to lubiprostone (i.e., those with ≥ 2 times increase in the number of their weekly BM) compared with nonresponders. The higher frequency of BM after treatment was significantly correlated with the acceleration of CTT, SLBTT and whole gut transit time. In all, 17 out of 25 (68%) patients, who were tested for SIBO at baseline, were positive. In addition, 7 out of 17 (41%) SIBO-positive patients became SIBO-negative after lubiprostone treatment (P < 0.05). In CC, lubiprostone improves the frequency of BMs, softens the stool, accelerates intestinal transit and decreases accompanying SIBO. The improvement of SIBO could be explained by the cleansing effect of increased intestinal fluid and mucus combined with enhanced intestinal

  11. Rifaximin for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in patients without irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Boltin, Doron; Perets, Tsachi Tsadok; Shporn, Einav; Aizic, Shoshana; Levy, Sigal; Niv, Yaron; Dickman, Ram

    2014-10-17

    Rifaximin is a minimally absorbed antibiotic with high luminal activity, used to treat various gastrointestinal diseases. Although rifaximin has been proposed as first line treatment for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), few data are available regarding its efficacy in non-IBS subjects. We aimed to assess the ability of rifaximin to normalize lactulose-H2 breath tests in non-IBS subjects with symptoms suggestive of SIBO. Consecutive non-IBS patients presenting with bloating and flatulence were prospectively recruited and submitted to lactulose-H2 breath testing (LBT). Patients who had a positive result were offered rifaximin 1200 mg daily for 10 days. Breath testing was repeated two weeks after treatment completion in all patients in order to assess for response. A total of 19 patients with a positive result received rifaximin and repeated the breath test (7 (36.8%) males, age 56.5 ± 17.6 years). The mean peak hydrogen excretion was 13.7 ± 2.8 and 10.3 ± 7.3 ppm at baseline and following rifaximin treatment, respectively (t = 1.98, p = 0.06). LBT normalized in 8/19 (42.1%) subjects. No patients reported symptom resolution. No adverse events were reported. Strengths include the study's prospective design. Limitations include the small sample size and open label design. Rifaximin was not effective in normalizing LBT in our cohort of non-IBS subjects with symptoms suggestive of SIBO.

  12. Outcome of breath tests in adult patients with suspected small intestinal bacterial overgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Mattsson, Johanna; Minaya, Maria Teresa; Monegro, Milka; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Lewis, Suzanne K.; Green, Peter HR; Stenberg, Reidun

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to investigate breath test outcomes in patients with suspected SIBO and indicative symptoms of SIBO, diagnosed by breath testing. Background: Breath testing is used to detect small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) by measuring hydrogen and methane produced by intestinal bacteria. Methods: This retrospective cross sectional study included 311 patients with gastrointestinal symptoms who underwent the breath test for evaluation of SIBO at Celiac Disease Center at Columbia University, New York, in 2014-2015. The patients were divided into two groups based on the physician’s choice: lactulose breath test group (72%) and glucose breath test group (28%). Among them, 38% had a history of celiac disease or non-celiac gluten sensitivity. Results: In total, 46% had a positive breath test: 18% were positive for methane, 24 % positive for hydrogen and 4% positive for both gases (p=0.014). Also, 50% had a positive lactulose breath result and 37% had a positive glucose breath result (p=0.036). The most common symptom for performing the breath test was bloating and the only clinical symptom that significantly showed a positive glucose breath test was increased gas (p=0.028). Conclusion: Lactulose breath test was more often positive than glucose breath test. Positivity for hydrogen was more common than methane. Bloating was the most frequently perceived symptom of the patients undergoing the breath test but the only statistically significant clinical symptom for a positive glucose breath test was increased gas. Furthermore, the results showed that there was no significant association between positive breath test result and gender, age, non-celiac gluten sensitivity or celiac disease. PMID:29118931

  13. In vitro activity of rifaximin against isolates from patients with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth.

    PubMed

    Pistiki, Aikaterini; Galani, Irene; Pyleris, Emmanouel; Barbatzas, Charalambos; Pimentel, Mark; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J

    2014-03-01

    Rifaximin, a non-absorbable rifamycin derivative, has published clinical efficacy in the alleviation of symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is associated with the pathogenesis of IBS. This study describes for the first time the antimicrobial effect of rifaximin against SIBO micro-organisms from humans. Fluid was aspirated from the third part of the duodenum from 567 consecutive patients; quantitative cultures diagnosed SIBO in 117 patients (20.6%). A total of 170 aerobic micro-organisms were isolated and the in vitro efficacy of rifaximin was studied by (i) minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) testing by a microdilution technique and (ii) time-kill assays using bile to simulate the small intestinal environment. At a breakpoint of 32 μg/mL, rifaximin inhibited in vitro 85.4% of Escherichia coli, 43.6% of Klebsiella spp., 34.8% of Enterobacter spp., 54.5% of other Enterobacteriaceae spp., 82.6% of non-Enterobacteriaceae Gram-negative spp., 100% of Enterococcus faecalis, 100% of Enterococcus faecium and 100% of Staphylococcus aureus. For the time-kill assays, 11 E. coli, 15 non-E. coli Gram-negative enterobacteria and three E. faecalis isolates were studied. Rifaximin produced a >3 log10 decrease in the starting inoculum against most of the tested isolates at 500 μg/mL after 24h of growth. The results indicate that rifaximin has a potent effect on specific small bowel flora associated with SIBO. This conclusion should be regarded in light of the considerable time-kill effect at concentrations lower than those achieved in the bowel lumen after administration of conventional doses in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  14. Systematic review with meta-analysis: rifaximin is effective and safe for the treatment of small intestine bacterial overgrowth.

    PubMed

    Gatta, L; Scarpignato, C

    2017-03-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is a heterogeneous syndrome, characterised by an increased number and/or abnormal type of bacteria in the small bowel. Over the past decades, rifaximin has gained popularity for this indication despite its use is not evidence based. To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarise evidence about the efficacy and safety of rifaximin to eradicate SIBO in adult patients. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CCRCT, Scopus and Web of Science were searched from inception to March 16, 2015 for RCTs and observational studies. Furthermore, abstract books of major European, American and Asian gastroenterological meetings were also examined. Thirty-two studies involving 1331 patients were included. The overall eradication rate according to intention-to-treat analysis was 70.8% (95% CI: 61.4-78.2; I 2 = 89.4%) and to per protocol analysis 72.9% (95% CI: 65.5-79.8; I 2 = 87.5%). Meta-regression identified three covariates (drug dose, study design and co-therapy) independently associated with an increased eradication rate. The overall rate of adverse events was 4.6% (95% CI: 2.3-7.5; I 2 = 63.6%). In the subset of studies (n= 10) allowing the analysis, improvement or resolution of symptoms in patients with eradicated SIBO was found to be 67.7% (95% CI: 44.7-86.9; I 2 = 91.3%). Rifaximin treatment seems to be effective and safe for the treatment of SIBO. However, the quality of the available studies is generally poor. Well-designed RCTs are needed to substantiate these findings and to establish the optimal regimen. © 2017 The Authors. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth as an uncommon cause of false positive lactose hydrogen breath test among patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome in Asia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yilin; Xiong, Lishou; Gong, Xiaorong; Li, Weimin; Zhang, Xiangsong; Chen, Minhu

    2015-06-01

    It has been reported that small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) may lead to false positive diagnoses of lactose malabsorption (LM) in irritable bowel syndrome patients. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of SIBO on lactose hydrogen breath test (HBT) results in these patients. Diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome patients with abnormal lactose HBTs ingested a test meal containing (99m) Tc and lactose. The location of the test meal and the breath levels of hydrogen were recorded simultaneously by scintigraphic scanning and lactose HBT, respectively. The increase in hydrogen concentration was not considered to be caused by SIBO if ≥ 10% of (99m) Tc accumulated in the cecal region at the time or before of abnormal lactose HBT. LM was present in 84% (31/37) of irritable bowel syndrome patients. Twenty of these patients agreed to measurement of oro-cecal transit time. Only three patients (15%) with abnormal lactose HBT might have had SIBO. The median oro-cecal transit time between LM and lactose intolerance patients were 75 min and 45 min, respectively (Z=2.545, P=0.011). Most of irritable bowel syndrome patients with an abnormal lactose HBT had LM. SIBO had little impact on the interpretation of lactose HBTs. The patients with lactose intolerance had faster small intestinal transit than LM patients. © 2014 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. A study of the methodological and clinical validity of the combined lactulose hydrogen breath test with scintigraphic oro-cecal transit test for diagnosing small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in IBS patients.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J; Zheng, X; Chu, H; Zhao, J; Cong, Y; Fried, M; Fox, M; Dai, N

    2014-06-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) may be a cause of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); however, current investigations have important limitations. We aimed to identify clinically relevant diagnostic criteria for SIBO based on lactulose hydrogen breath test (LHBT) alone and combined with scintigraphic measurement of oro-cecal transit (SOCT). Results of LHBT/SOCT investigation from 89 IBS patients and 13 healthy volunteers were included in a systematic analysis of six published criteria for SIBO diagnosis. Clinical relevance of competing criteria was determined by assessing (i) prevalence of SIBO in IBS patients and healthy volunteers (ii) if SIBO diagnosis predicted improvement in IBS symptoms in a prospective, pilot therapeutic trial of a non-absorbable antibiotic (rifaximin 600 mg b.d.) in IBS patients. Reproducibility of SIBO diagnosis by combined LHBT/SOCT was near perfect. A ≥5 ppm H2 increase prior to appearance of cecal contrast was detected in more IBS patients than healthy volunteers (35/89 vs 1/13; p = 0.026), but not for other diagnostic criteria. IBS patients with SIBO, compared to those without SIBO, reported significantly greater improvement in abdominal symptoms following rifaximin therapy (p < 0.002 overall IBS symptom severity). This improvement was most marked in D-IBS patients in whom all symptoms improved, including stool frequency and consistency (all p < 0.004). Combined LHBT/SOCT testing using a H2 5 ppm cutoff may identify a subgroup of IBS patients with SIBO. Pilot data examining the clinical response to rifaximin suggest that this subset of IBS patients may benefit more than those with a normal test. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The Role of Intestinal Bacteria Overgrowth in Obesity-Related Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ferolla, Silvia M.; Armiliato, Geyza N. A.; Couto, Cláudia A.; Ferrari, Teresa C. A.

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease worldwide. It is a progressive disorder involving a spectrum of conditions that include pure steatosis without inflammation, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis and cirrhosis. The key factor in the pathophysiology of NAFLD is insulin resistance that determines lipid accumulation in the hepatocytes, which may be followed by lipid peroxidation, production of reactive oxygen species and consequent inflammation. Recent studies suggest that the characteristics of the gut microbiota are altered in NAFLD, and also, that small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) contributes to the pathogenesis of this condition. This review presents the chief findings from all the controlled studies that evaluated SIBO, gut permeability and endotoxemia in human NAFLD. We also discuss the possible mechanisms involving SIBO, lipid accumulation and development of NASH. The understanding of these mechanisms may allow the development of new targets for NASH treatment in the future. PMID:25479248

  18. Effects of long-term PPI treatment on producing bowel symptoms and SIBO.

    PubMed

    Compare, Debora; Pica, Loredana; Rocco, Alba; De Giorgi, Francesco; Cuomo, Rosario; Sarnelli, Giovanni; Romano, Marco; Nardone, Gerardo

    2011-04-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), including erosive reflux disease and non-erosive reflux disease (NERD), is a chronic disease with a significant negative effect on quality of life. State-of-the-art treatment involves proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). However, relapse of symptoms occurs in the majority of the patients who require recurrent or continuous therapy. Although PPIs are well tolerated, little information is available about gastrointestinal side effects. To evaluate the effects of long-term PPI treatment on development of bowel symptoms and/or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). Patients with NERD not complaining of bowel symptoms were selected by upper endoscopy, 24-h pH-metry and a structured questionnaire concerning severity and frequency of bloating, flatulence, abdominal pain, diarrhoea and constipation. Patients were treated with esomeprazole 20 mg bid for 6 months. Prior to and after 8 weeks and 6 months of therapy, patients received the structured questionnaire and underwent evaluation of SIBO by glucose hydrogen breath test (GHBT). Forty-two patients with NERD were selected out of 554 eligible patients. After 8 weeks of PPI treatment, patients complained of bloating, flatulence, abdominal pain and diarrhoea in 43%, 17%, 7% and 2%, respectively. After 6 months, the incidence of bowel symptoms further increased and GHBT was found positive in 11/42 (26%) patients. By a post hoc analysis, a significant (P < 0·05) percentage of patients (8/42) met Rome III criteria for irritable bowel syndrome. Prolonged PPI treatment may produce bowel symptoms and SIBO; therefore, the strategy of step-down or on-demand PPI therapy should be encouraged in GERD. © 2010 The Authors. European Journal of Clinical Investigation © 2010 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  19. Probable interaction between warfarin and rifaximin in a patient treated for small intestine bacterial overgrowth.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Justin Thomas; Hartig, Christine; Sonbol, Eyman; Lang, Megan

    2011-05-01

    To report a case in which the anticoagulant effects of warfarin were attenuated during concomitant administration of rifaximin, possibly through induction of CYP3A4 following increased absorption of rifaximin in a patient with small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). A 49-year-old African American female had received effective anticoagulant therapy for 5 months with a target international normalized ratio (INR) of 2.0-3.5 on a warfarin regimen of 7.5 mg daily. Five days following initiation of rifaximin 400 mg 3 times daily to treat SIBO, her INR had fallen to 1.2 and remained suppressed throughout the duration of her rifaximin regimen despite incremental warfarin dosage increases (highest dose, 15 mg/day for 2 days, followed by 11.25 mg/day). Twelve days after completion of the rifaximin treatment course, the INR was supratherapeutic at 4.2, requiring titration to her baseline warfarin dosage to achieve an INR within the target range. Similar results were obtained following rechallenge with rifaximin. Rifaximin has been shown in vitro to induce the CYP3A4 enzyme for which the R-isomer of warfarin is a known substrate. The lack of in vivo CYP3A4 induction with rifaximin in other patient populations has repeatedly been attributed to its minimal oral bioavailability, while a recent study found that patients with SIBO had a clinically significant increase in intestinal permeability. In this patient population it is plausible that rifaximin bioavailability increases enough to induce CYP3A4, leading to clinically significant reductions in the bioavailability of CYP3A4 substrates, including R-warfarin. An objective causality assessment of this case revealed that a warfarin-rifaximin interaction was probable. No other drug dosages were altered during the timeframe in question, and the patient had an impeccable medication adherence history; we therefore ruled out these potential etiologies. To our knowledge, an interaction between warfarin and rifaximin has not been

  20. Efficacy of antibiotherapy for treating flatus incontinence associated with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: A pilot randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Melchior, Chloé; Gourcerol, Guillaume; Bridoux, Valérie; Ducrotté, Philippe; Quinton, Jean-François; Leroi, Anne-Marie

    2017-01-01

    An increase in intestinal gas production due to small intestinal bowel overgrowth (SIBO) is a contributing factor for flatus incontinence. The aims of our study were to assess the efficacy of metronidazole in a select population of patients with flatus incontinence associated with SIBO and to compare its efficacy with that of a combination of simethicone and activated charcoal (SC; Carbosylane) in randomized experimental arms. Adult patients suffering from flatus incontinence associated with SIBO diagnosed by a glucose breath test were enrolled in the study. They were given metronidazole or Carbosylane (SC) for 10 days. The reduction in the mean daily number of gas leakages reported in a 3-day diary before and at the end of the treatment was used as the primary endpoint. Of 52 consecutive subjects with flatus incontinence, 23 (44%) had SIBO, 16 (33%) of whom were included in and completed the study. The relative reduction in flatus incontinence episodes was significantly higher in the metronidazole than in the SC group (66.8±34.8% vs. 25±50%, P = 0.03), decreasing by more than 50% in 7 (87.5%) of the subjects in the metronidazole group compared with only 1 (12.5%) in the SC group (odds ratio 1.9, 95% confidence interval 0.9-56.9, P = 0.06). Our results show a promising trend indicating that metronidazole might significantly improve flatus incontinence associated with SIBO and might be more successful in treating flatus incontinence than gas absorbents.

  1. Reduced interstitial cells of Cajal and increased intraepithelial lymphocytes are associated with development of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in post-infectious IBS mouse model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Binrui; Zhu, Shuwen; Du, Lijun; He, Huiqin; Kim, John J; Dai, Ning

    2017-10-01

    Intestinal dysmotility and immune activation are likely involved in the pathogenesis of small intestinal bacteria overgrowth (SIBO) in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We aimed at investigating the role of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and intestinal inflammation in the development of SIBO using a post-infectious IBS (PI-IBS) mouse model. NIH mice were randomly infected with Trichinella spiralis. Visceral sensitivity and stool pattern were assessed at 8-weeks post-infection (PI). Intestinal bacteria counts from jejunum and ileum were measured by quantitative real-time PCR to evaluate the presence of SIBO. ICC density, intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) counts, and intestinal cytokine levels (IL1-β, IL-6, toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4), IL-10) in the ileum were examined. PI-IBS mice demonstrated increased visceral sensitivity compared with the control group. One-third of the PI-IBS mice developed SIBO (SIBO+/PI-IBS) and was more likely to have abnormal stool form compared with SIBO negative PI-IBS (SIBO-/PI-IBS) mice but without difference in visceral sensitivity. SIBO+/PI-IBS mice had decreased ICC density and increased IELs counts in the ileum compared with SIBO-/PI-IBS mice. No difference in inflammatory cytokine expression levels were detected among the groups except for increased TLR-4 in PI-IBS mice compared with the control group. Development of SIBO in PI-IBS mice was associated with reduced ICC density and increased IELs counts in the ileum. Our findings support the role of intestinal dysmotility and inflammation in the pathogenesis of SIBO in IBS and may provide potential therapeutic targets.

  2. Efficacy of antibiotherapy for treating flatus incontinence associated with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: A pilot randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Melchior, Chloé; Gourcerol, Guillaume; Bridoux, Valérie; Ducrotté, Philippe; Quinton, Jean-François; Leroi, Anne-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Aim An increase in intestinal gas production due to small intestinal bowel overgrowth (SIBO) is a contributing factor for flatus incontinence. The aims of our study were to assess the efficacy of metronidazole in a select population of patients with flatus incontinence associated with SIBO and to compare its efficacy with that of a combination of simethicone and activated charcoal (SC; Carbosylane) in randomized experimental arms. Methods Adult patients suffering from flatus incontinence associated with SIBO diagnosed by a glucose breath test were enrolled in the study. They were given metronidazole or Carbosylane (SC) for 10 days. The reduction in the mean daily number of gas leakages reported in a 3-day diary before and at the end of the treatment was used as the primary endpoint. Results Of 52 consecutive subjects with flatus incontinence, 23 (44%) had SIBO, 16 (33%) of whom were included in and completed the study. The relative reduction in flatus incontinence episodes was significantly higher in the metronidazole than in the SC group (66.8±34.8% vs. 25±50%, P = 0.03), decreasing by more than 50% in 7 (87.5%) of the subjects in the metronidazole group compared with only 1 (12.5%) in the SC group (odds ratio 1.9, 95% confidence interval 0.9–56.9, P = 0.06). Conclusion Our results show a promising trend indicating that metronidazole might significantly improve flatus incontinence associated with SIBO and might be more successful in treating flatus incontinence than gas absorbents. PMID:28763464

  3. Duodenal bacterial overgrowth during treatment in outpatients with omeprazole.

    PubMed Central

    Fried, M; Siegrist, H; Frei, R; Froehlich, F; Duroux, P; Thorens, J; Blum, A; Bille, J; Gonvers, J J; Gyr, K

    1994-01-01

    The extent of duodenal bacterial overgrowth during the pronounced inhibition of acid secretion that occurs with omeprazole treatment is unknown. The bacterial content of duodenal juice of patients treated with omeprazole was therefore examined in a controlled prospective study. Duodenal juice was obtained under sterile conditions during diagnostic upper endoscopy. Aspirates were plated quantitatively for anaerobic and aerobic organisms. Twenty five outpatients with peptic ulcer disease were investigated after a 5.7 (0.5) weeks (mean (SEM)) treatment course with 20 mg (nine patients) or 40 mg (16 patients). The control group consisted of 15 outpatients referred for diagnostic endoscopy without prior antisecretory treatment. No patient in the control group had duodenal bacterial overgrowth. In the omeprazole group bacterial overgrowth (> or = 10(5) cfu/ml) was found in 14 (56%) patients (p = 0.0003). The number of bacteria (log10) in duodenal juice in patients treated with omeprazole was distinctly higher (median 5.7; range < 2-8.7) when compared with the control group (median < 2; range < 2-5.0; p = 0.0004). As well as orally derived bacteria, faecal type bacteria were found in seven of 14 and anaerobic bacteria in three of 14 patients. Bacterial overgrowth was similar with the two doses of omeprazole. These results indicate that duodenal bacterial overgrowth of both oral and faecal type bacteria occurs often in ambulatory patients treated with omeprazole. Further studies are needed to determine the clinical significance of these findings, particularly in high risk groups during long term treatment with omeprazole. PMID:8307444

  4. [Clinical features of irritable bowel syndrome with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and a preliminary study of effectiveness of Rifaximin].

    PubMed

    Liu, Z J; Wei, H; Duan, L P; Zhu, S W; Zhang, L; Wang, K

    2016-06-28

    To investigate the prevalence and clinical features of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) in diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) patients detected by hydrogen and methane in lactulose breath test (LBT), and to study the effects of rifaximin in IBS-D patients. Consecutive patients with IBS-D who met Rome Ⅲ criteria, and gender- and age-matched healthy volunteers were enrolled from March 2015 to January 2016 in Peking University Third Hospital. All the ISB-D patients underwent LBT to detect the prevalence of SIBO. The clinical and LBT features of IBS with SIBO (IBS-P group) and without SIBO (IBS-N group) were analyzed. The effects of rifaximin therapy (0.4 g, twice per day for 4 weeks) in IBS-D patients were evaluated by comparing changes in clinical features and LBT results after treatment. (1) Eighty-four IBS-D patients and 22 healthy controls were enrolled. The prevalence of SIBO in IBS-D patients was 41.67% (35/84), with 27 (77.14%) only hydrogen-positive, 5 (14.29%) methane-positive, and 3 (8.57%) both methane- and hydrogen-positive. (2) The body mass index (BMI) in the IBS-P group was lower than in the IBS-N group [(21.61±0.57) vs (23.44±0.54) kg/m(2,) P<0.05], the maximum stool frequency was also less than in the IBS-N group [(3.85±0.23) vs (4.88±0.35) times/day, P<0.05]. (3) No significant difference was found in oro-cecal transit time (OCTT) among IBS-P, IBS-N and healthy controls. The hydrogen concentration in small intestinal and colonic sections in breath of the IBS-P group was higher than that of both healthy controls and the IBS-N group, while methane concentration in small intestinal and colonic sections (160 min) was higher than that of the IBS-N group (all P<0.05). (4) There was no linear relationship between mean hydrogen and methane concentrations in LBT among the IBS-P, the IBS-N and healthy control groups (all r<0.35, P>0.05). (5) Totally 13 IBS-P patients received rifaximin therapy, in whom the symptoms of

  5. Low-Dose Nocturnal Tegaserod or Erythromycin Delays Symptom Recurrence After Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Based on Presumed Bacterial Overgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Walter; Lezcano, Sheila; Sun-Chuan, Dai; Low, Kimberly; Yang, Janet

    2009-01-01

    Our group previously demonstrated a deficiency of migrating motor complexes in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). Based on disturbed fasting motility, we tested whether low-dose nocturnal erythromycin or tegaserod can prevent the recurrence of IBS symptoms after successful antibiotic treatment. Methods: 203 patient charts were reviewed to find IBS patients with SIBO, and treatment cycles were assessed to identify subjects with clinical and breath test resolution. The charts of those who met the inclusion criteria were reviewed to determine the method of prevention of symptom recurrence and the length of remission. The two preventive agents used were erythromycin (50 mg) or tegaserod (2–6 mg) orally at bedtime. Results: 64 patients met the inclusion criteria. Subjects receiving no prevention (n=6) after successful antibiotic treatment experienced symptom recurrence after 59.7±47.4 days. Prevention using erythromycin (n=42) demonstrated 138.5±132.2 symptom-free days (P=.08 vs no prevention) compared to 241.6±162.2 days with tegaserod (n=16; P=.003 vs no prevention; P=.004 vs erythromycin). Switching from erythromycin to tegaserod (n=20) extended resolution from 105.8±73.3 days to 199.7±162.9 days (P=.04). Changing from no therapy to erythromycin or tegaserod (n=6) extended recurrence from 41.0±44.8 days to 195.6±153.5 days (P=.06). Conclusion: Tegaserod significantly prevents the recurrence of IBS symptoms after antibiotic treatment compared to erythromycin or no prevention. PMID:20574504

  6. Comparison of two shampoos as sole treatment for canine bacterial overgrowth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Viaud, S; Maynard, L; Sanquer, A

    2012-06-30

    Two antibacterial shampoos for the treatment of canine bacterial overgrowth syndrome (BOGS) were compared in a prospective controlled clinical trial. Forty dogs with clinical signs (pruritus, erythema and excoriations without pustules and/or collarettes) and cytological findings compatible with bacterial overgrowth were treated twice weekly with 3 per cent chlorhexidine shampoo (3 per cent CHX) or 2.5 per cent benzoyl peroxide shampoo (2.5 per cent BPO) and evaluated every two weeks for up to six weeks until cytological cure. Pruritus, erythema, greasy seborrhoea, malodour, excoriations, secondary hair loss, lichenification, hyperpigmentation and lesion extent were each scored on a 0 to 3 severity scale and combined to calculate an aggregate score. Among the 34 dogs with good compliance to treatment, reduction of cocci counts of at least 90 per cent was recorded in 11 of 18 dogs after 3 per cent CHX and nine of 16 dogs after 2.5 per cent BPO, with no significant difference between the two products (P=0.98). Lesion score was significantly reduced in both groups (63.48 (34.45)) per cent with 3 per cent CHX v 54.45 (33.61) per cent with 2.5 per cent BPO, P=0.36) and time to cytological cure was not significantly different between groups (P=0.13), at the end of the treatment. In the present study, 3 per cent CHX and 2.5 per cent BPO were similarly effective in the treatment of canine BOGS.

  7. Short- and long-term effects of a lactose-restricted diet and probiotics in children with chronic abdominal pain: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Ockeloen, L E; Deckers-Kocken, J M

    2012-05-01

    To determine the short- and long-term effect of treatment in children with chronic abdominal pain (CAP). A database with the results of H(2) breath test of children with CAP was created. All children with an abnormal test result were included and classified as small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) or lactose intolerant (LTI). SIBO was treated with probiotics and LTI with a lactose-restricted diet. CAP was evaluated 5 months and 15 months after the test. 37 children (41%) were included. 17 LTI children (94%) improved after 5 months and 11 children (61%) after 15 months (P<0.05). Seven SIBO children improved after 5 months and 4 children after 15 months. In the combination group all 4 children improved after 5 months and 3 children after 15 months. Children with CAP caused by LTI or SIBO had less CAP after 5 months. This positive effect persists only in half of the children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. What are the effects of proton pump inhibitors on the small intestine?

    PubMed Central

    Fujimori, Shunji

    2015-01-01

    Generally, proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) have great benefit for patients with acid related disease with less frequently occurring side effects. According to a recent report, PPIs provoke dysbiosis of the small intestinal bacterial flora, exacerbating nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced small intestinal injury. Several meta-analyses and systematic reviews have reported that patients treated with PPIs, as well as post-gastrectomy patients, have a higher frequency of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) compared to patients who lack the aforementioned conditions. Furthermore, there is insufficient evidence that these conditions induce Clostridium difficile infection. At this time, PPI-induced dysbiosis is considered a type of SIBO. It now seems likely that intestinal bacterial flora influence many diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes mellitus, obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and autoimmune diseases. When attempting to control intestinal bacterial flora with probiotics, prebiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation, etc., the influence of acid suppression therapy, especially PPIs, should not be overlooked. PMID:26078557

  9. What are the effects of proton pump inhibitors on the small intestine?

    PubMed

    Fujimori, Shunji

    2015-06-14

    Generally, proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) have great benefit for patients with acid related disease with less frequently occurring side effects. According to a recent report, PPIs provoke dysbiosis of the small intestinal bacterial flora, exacerbating nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced small intestinal injury. Several meta-analyses and systematic reviews have reported that patients treated with PPIs, as well as post-gastrectomy patients, have a higher frequency of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) compared to patients who lack the aforementioned conditions. Furthermore, there is insufficient evidence that these conditions induce Clostridium difficile infection. At this time, PPI-induced dysbiosis is considered a type of SIBO. It now seems likely that intestinal bacterial flora influence many diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes mellitus, obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and autoimmune diseases. When attempting to control intestinal bacterial flora with probiotics, prebiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation, etc., the influence of acid suppression therapy, especially PPIs, should not be overlooked.

  10. Ascorbic acid suppresses endotoxemia and NF-κB signaling cascade in alcoholic liver fibrosis in guinea pigs: A mechanistic approach

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Abhilash, P.A.; Harikrishnan, R.; Indira, M., E-mail: indiramadambath@gmail.com

    Alcohol consumption increases the small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and intestinal permeability of endotoxin. The endotoxin mediated inflammatory signaling plays a major role in alcoholic liver fibrosis. We evaluated the effect of ascorbic acid (AA), silymarin and alcohol abstention on the alcohol induced endotoxemia and NF-κB activation cascade pathway in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Guinea pigs were administered ethanol at a daily dose of 4 g/kg b.wt for 90 days. After 90 days, ethanol administration was stopped. The ethanol treated animals were divided into abstention, silymarin (250 mg/kg b.wt) and AA (250 mg/kg b.wt) supplemented groups and maintained for 30more » days. The SIBO, intestinal permeability and endotoxin were significantly increased in the ethanol group. The mRNA expressions of intestinal proteins claudin, occludin and zona occludens-1 were significantly decreased in ethanol group. The mRNA levels of inflammatory receptors, activity of IKKβ and the protein expressions of phospho-IκBα, NF-κB, TNF-α, TGF-β{sub 1} and IL-6 were also altered in ethanol group. The expressions of fibrosis markers α-SMA, α{sub 1} (I) collagen and sirius red staining in the liver revealed the induction of fibrosis. But the supplementation of AA could induce greater reduction of ethanol induced SIBO, intestinal barrier defects, NF-κB activation and liver fibrosis than silymarin. The possible mechanism may be the inhibitory effect of AA on SIBO, intestinal barrier defect and IKKβ, which decreased the activation of NF-κB and synthesis of cytokines. This might have led to suppression of HSCs activation and liver fibrosis. - Highlights: • Alcohol increases intestinal bacterial overgrowth and permeability of endotoxin. • Endotoxin mediated inflammation plays a major role in alcoholic liver fibrosis. • Ascorbic acid reduces endotoxemia, NF-κB activation and proinflammatory cytokines. • AA's action is by inhibition of SIBO, IKKβ and alteration

  11. Characterization of naturally developing small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in 16 German shepherd dogs.

    PubMed

    Willard, M D; Simpson, R B; Fossum, T W; Cohen, N D; Delles, E K; Kolp, D L; Carey, D P; Reinhart, G A

    1994-04-15

    Sixteen German Shepherd Dogs were found, via quantitative microbial culture of intestinal fluid samples, to have small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (IBO) over an 11-month period. All dogs were deficient in serum IgA. Consistent clinical signs suggestive of an alimentary tract disorder were not observed. Serum cobalamin determinations were not helpful in detecting IBO. Serum folate concentrations had variable sensitivity and specificity for detecting dogs from which we could culture > or = 1 x 10(5) bacterial/ml from intestinal fluid samples in the nonfed state. Histologic and intestinal mucosal cytologic examinations were not useful in detecting IBO. Substantial within-dog and between-dog variation was found in the numbers and species of bacteria in the intestines. The difficulty in diagnosing IBO, the variability in organisms found in individual dogs on repeated sampling, the likelihood that intestinal fluid microbial cultures failed to diagnose IBO in some dogs, and the potential of IBO to be clinically inapparent were the most important findings in this study.

  12. Small Bowel Bacterial Overgrowth Associated with Persistence of Abdominal Symptoms in Children Treated with a Proton Pump Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Sieczkowska, Agnieszka; Landowski, Piotr; Zagozdzon, Pawel; Kaminska, Barbara; Lifschitz, Carlos

    2015-05-01

    Small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SBBO) was diagnosed in 22.5% of 40 children treated for 3 months with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI). Compared with those without SBBO, children with SBBO had higher frequency of abdominal pain, bloating, eructation, and flatulence. Patients with gastrointestinal symptoms after PPI treatment should be evaluated for SBBO rather than empirically prolonging PPI therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Hunger and microbiology: is a low gastric acid-induced bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine a contributor to malnutrition in developing countries?

    PubMed

    Sarker, Shafiqul A; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Brüssow, Harald

    2017-09-01

    Underproduction of hydrochloric acid into the stomach is frequently encountered in subjects from developing countries. We explore the hypothesis that hypochlorhydria compromises the gastric barrier and favours bacterial overgrowth in the proximal parts of the small intestine where nutrient absorption takes place. Food calories are thus deviated into bacterial metabolism. In addition to an adequate caloric supply, correcting hypochlorhydria might be needed to decrease childhood malnutrition. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Rifaximin: The Revolutionary Antibiotic Approach for Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Sioulas, Athanasios D; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J

    2015-01-01

    A large number of clinical studies using breath testing and a smaller number of studies using quantitative cultures of the upper small intestine established a link between irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). A series of 12 studies both prospective and retrospective in design in a population of patients with SIBO without IBS showed that the non-absorbable antibiotic rifaximin can eradicate SIBO as proved through decrease of the exhaled hydrogen and methane in breath tests. The efficacy of rifaximin was superior over the comparator treatment in most of these studies. Based on these findings, short course rifaximin was tested in various concentrations in eight open-label trials in patients with IBS and proven SIBO by breath test. Similar efficacy of rifaximin was shown in SIBO eradication; this was accompanied by improvement of the global score for IBS symptoms. Finally, five double-blind randomized clinical trials were conducted in patients with IBS; four were placebo-controlled. The larger trials were TARGET 1 and TARGET 2 studies testing rifaximin at a regimen of 550 mg tid for 14 days. All trials showed a significant superiority of rifaximin over comparator for the improvement of global symptoms of IBS and bloating. Although the aforementioned results render rifaximin a revolutionary therapeutic approach for IBS, several concerns on induction of antimicrobial resistant flora remain.

  15. Overgrowth.

    PubMed

    Verge, Charles F; Mowat, David

    2010-06-01

    Overgrowth presenting at birth requires blood glucose monitoring while a cause is sought. Among older children presenting with tall stature, common causes such as familial tall stature and simple obesity must be distinguished from rarer endocrine and genetic causes. Several genetic overgrowth syndromes carry increased risk of malignancy and regular screening is recommended. The use of high-dose oestrogen or testosterone in an attempt to limit final stature has limited efficacy and carries a significant risk of side effects. Endocrine and genetic assessment ought to be considered for cases of unexplained overgrowth.

  16. Breath hydrogen and methane are associated with intestinal symptoms in patients with chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Bum; Paik, Chang-Nyol; Sung, Hea Jung; Chung, Woo Chul; Lee, Kang-Moon; Yang, Jin-Mo; Choi, Myung-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial overgrowth might be associated with chronic pancreatitis. This study was to evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) in patients with chronic pancreatitis. 36 patients with chronic pancreatitis and 49 healthy controls undergoing the hydrogen (H2)-methane (CH4) lactulose breath test (LBT) were reviewed. The LBT positivity (+) indicating the presence of SIBO, gas types, bowel symptom questionnaire, laboratory and radiologic results were surveyed. The LBT+ was (1) an increase in the breath H2 (≥20 ppm) or CH4 (≥10 ppm) over the baseline or (2) a baseline H2 (≥20 ppm) or CH4 (≥10 ppm) within 90 min after lactulose load. LBT+ was significantly higher in the patients (17/36) than in controls (13/49) (47.2% vs. 26.5%, P < 0.05). During LBT, the H2 levels between 0 and 105 min were significantly higher in patients than in controls. Among LBT+ patients, 11 (64.7%), 1 (5.9%), 5 (29.4%) were in the LBT (H2)+, (CH4)+, (mixed)+ groups, respectively. The LBT+ group had significantly higher scores of flatus than those of the LBT- group. Considering the subtypes of LBT, the LBT (mixed)+ group had higher symptom scores of significance or tendency in hard stool, strain, urgency, and flatus than LBT- group The laboratory and radiologic features were not significantly different between LBT+ and LBT- groups. SIBO is common in patients in chronic pancreatitis. Especially, excretions of mixed H2 and CH4 appear to be related with deterioration of intestinal symptoms. Copyright © 2015 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Malassezia spp. overgrowth in allergic cats.

    PubMed

    Ordeix, Laura; Galeotti, Franca; Scarampella, Fabia; Dedola, Carla; Bardagí, Mar; Romano, Erica; Fondati, Alessandra

    2007-10-01

    A series of 18 allergic cats with multifocal Malassezia spp. overgrowth is reported: atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 16, an adverse food reaction in another and one was euthanized 2 months after diagnosis of Malassezia overgrowth. All the cats were otherwise healthy and those tested (16 out of 18) for feline leukaemia or feline immunodeficiency virus infections were all negative. At dermatological examination, multifocal alopecia, erythema, crusting and greasy adherent brownish scales were variably distributed on all cats. Cytological examination revealed Malassezia spp. overgrowth with/without bacterial infection in facial skin (n = 11), ventral neck (n = 6), abdomen (n = 6), ear canal (n = 4), chin (n = 2), ear pinnae (n = 2), interdigital (n = 1) and claw folds skin (n = 1). Moreover, in two cats Malassezia pachydermatis was isolated in fungal cultures from lesional skin. Azoles therapy alone was prescribed in seven, azoles and antibacterial therapy in eight and azoles with both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory therapy in three of the cats. After 3-4 weeks of treatment, substantial reduction of pruritus and skin lesions was observed in all 11 cats treated with a combined therapy and in five of seven treated solely with azoles. Malassezia spp. overgrowth may represent a secondary cutaneous problem in allergic cats particularly in those presented for dermatological examination displaying greasy adherent brownish scales. The favourable response to treatment with antifungal treatments alone suggests that, as in dogs, Malassezia spp. may be partly responsible for both pruritus and cutaneous lesions in allergic cats.

  18. Pathogenesis of tropical sprue: A pilot study of antroduodenal manometry, duodenocaecal transit time & fat-induced ileal brake

    PubMed Central

    Ghoshal, Uday C.; Kumar, Sunil; Misra, Asha; Choudhuri, Gourdas

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) due to ileal brake-induced hypomotility may cause tropical sprue (TS). We evaluated effect of infusion of fat or placebo in duodenum randomly in patients with TS and healthy controls on antroduodenal manometry (ADM) and mediators of ileal brake, and duodenocaecal transit time (DCTT). Methods: ADM and DCTT (lactulose hydrogen breath test, HBT) were evaluated with placebo and fat in eight controls and 13 patients with TS (diagnostic criteria: tests showing malabsorption of two unrelated substances, abnormal duodenal histology, absence of other causes, response to antibiotics and folate). Results: Patients with TS (6 had SIBO by glucose HBT) were similar in age and gender with controls. After fat infusion, proximal gut motility index (MI) was reduced compared to fasting state in TS, and DCTT was longer in TS than controls (200 min, 120-380 vs. 130, 70-160, P=0.001), though comparable after placebo (70 min, 30-140 vs. 60, 40-90). TS patients had higher PYY and neurotensin than controls after fat infusion. DCTT after fat infusion correlated with plasma level of PYY in TS but not in controls. Post-fat PYY and neurotensin levels were higher in TS with lower BMI (<16 kg/m2) than those with higher BMI. Parameters of ileal brake (post-fat DCTT, PYY and neurotensin) were higher in patients with than without SIBO. Interpretation & conclusions: Fat infusion reduced proximal gut MI, increased DCTT, PYY, and neurotensin among patients with TS. Malabsorbed fat might cause exaggerated ileal brake reducing gut motility, promoting SIBO and bacterial colonization and malabsorption in TS. PMID:23481053

  19. Overgrowth.

    PubMed

    Ambler, Geoffrey

    2002-09-01

    The predominant influences on fetal growth are maternal and placental factors. Post-natal growth is regulated by a complex interaction between genetic, environmental and hormonal influences. The role of the growth hormone insulin-like growth factor (GH-IGF) system is explored, including the emerging role of IGF-2 in fetal growth. Increasing understanding of the genetics of overgrowth and short stature syndromes is contributing greatly to basic understanding of growth regulation. A range of prenatal overgrowth syndromes is discussed, including those associated with neonatal hyperinsulinism and hypoglycaemia.Post-natal overgrowth may be caused by a diverse range of normal variant conditions, endocrine disorders, chromosomal abnormalities and other genetic syndromes. An approach to diagnosis is presented and major conditions discussed in detail. Sex-steroid therapy for height limitation continues to be a controversial area with uncertainty about height prediction, benefits achieved and possible long-term side-effects.

  20. Overgrowth syndromes with vascular anomalies.

    PubMed

    Blei, Francine

    2015-04-01

    Overgrowth syndromes with vascular anomalies encompass entities with a vascular anomaly as the predominant feature vs those syndromes with predominant somatic overgrowth and a vascular anomaly as a more minor component. The focus of this article is to categorize these syndromes phenotypically, including updated clinical criteria, radiologic features, evaluation, management issues, pathophysiology, and genetic information. A literature review was conducted in PubMed using key words "overgrowth syndromes and vascular anomalies" as well as specific literature reviews for each entity and supportive genetic information (e.g., somatic mosaicism). Additional searches in OMIM and Gene Reviews were conducted for each syndrome. Disease entities were categorized by predominant clinical features, known genetic information, and putative affected signaling pathway. Overgrowth syndromes with vascular anomalies are a heterogeneous group of disorders, often with variable clinical expression, due to germline or somatic mutations. Overgrowth can be focal (e.g., macrocephaly) or generalized, often asymmetrically (and/or mosaically) distributed. All germ layers may be affected, and the abnormalities may be progressive. Patients with overgrowth syndromes may be at an increased risk for malignancies. Practitioners should be attentive to patients having syndromes with overgrowth and vascular defects. These patients require proactive evaluation, referral to appropriate specialists, and in some cases, early monitoring for potential malignancies. Progress in identifying vascular anomaly-related overgrowth syndromes and their genetic etiology has been robust in the past decade and is contributing to genetically based prenatal diagnosis and new therapies targeting the putative causative genetic mutations. Copyright © 2015 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Ciećko-Michalska, Irena; Szczepanek, Małgorzata; Słowik, Agnieszka; Mach, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy can be a serious complication of acute liver failure and chronic liver diseases, predominantly liver cirrhosis. Hyperammonemia plays the most important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The brain-blood barrier disturbances, changes in neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, GABA-ergic or benzodiazepine pathway abnormalities, manganese neurotoxicity, brain energetic disturbances, and brain blood flow abnormalities are considered to be involved in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. The influence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) on the induction of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is recently emphasized. The aim of this paper is to present the current views on the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:23316223

  2. Prevalence of abnormal lactose breath hydrogen tests in children with functional abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Garg, Neha; Basu, Srikanta; Singh, Preeti; Kumar, Ruchika; Sharma, Lokesh; Kumar, Praveen

    2017-05-01

    The study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of abnormal lactose breath hydrogen test in children with non-organic chronic abdominal pain. Children with chronic abdominal pain were examined and investigated for organic causes. All children without a known organic cause underwent lactose and glucose breath hydrogen test. After a standard dose of 2 g/kg of lactose to a maximum of 50 g, hydrogen in breath was measured at 15 min intervals for 3 h. A rise of 20 ppm above baseline was considered suggestive of lactose malabsorption. Of 108 children screened, organic causes were found in 46 children. Sixty-two patients without any organic cause underwent hydrogen breath test. Lactose hydrogen breath test (HBT) was positive in 36 of 62 (58%), while 11 (17%) had positive HBT with glucose suggestive of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). Twenty out of 34 (59%) improved on lactose free diet while 8 out of 11 (72%) children of SIBO improved on antibiotics. Lactose malabsorption was seen in 58% of children with non-organic chronic abdominal pain.

  3. Additional Value of CH4 Measurement in a Combined 13C/H2 Lactose Malabsorption Breath Test: A Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Houben, Els; De Preter, Vicky; Billen, Jaak; Van Ranst, Marc; Verbeke, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The lactose hydrogen breath test is a commonly used, non-invasive method for the detection of lactose malabsorption and is based on an abnormal increase in breath hydrogen (H2) excretion after an oral dose of lactose. We use a combined 13C/H2 lactose breath test that measures breath 13CO2 as a measure of lactose digestion in addition to H2 and that has a better sensitivity and specificity than the standard test. The present retrospective study evaluated the results of 1051 13C/H2 lactose breath tests to assess the impact on the diagnostic accuracy of measuring breath CH4 in addition to H2 and 13CO2. Based on the 13C/H2 breath test, 314 patients were diagnosed with lactase deficiency, 138 with lactose malabsorption or small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), and 599 with normal lactose digestion. Additional measurement of CH4 further improved the accuracy of the test as 16% subjects with normal lactose digestion and no H2-excretion were found to excrete CH4. These subjects should have been classified as subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. In conclusion, measuring CH4-concentrations has an added value to the 13C/H2 breath test to identify methanogenic subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. PMID:26371034

  4. Correlation between chronic treatment with proton pump inhibitors and bacterial overgrowth in the stomach: any possible beneficial role for selected lactobacilli?

    PubMed

    Del Piano, Mario; Pagliarulo, Michela; Tari, Roberto; Carmagnola, Stefania; Balzarini, Marco; Lorenzini, Paola; Pane, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The inhibition of physiological gastric acid secretion induced by proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), the most widely used drugs in the world, may cause a significant bacterial overgrowth in the gastrointestinal tract as a side effect. This study was undertaken firstly to correlate PPI intake with concentration of specific bacterial groups in the stomach as well as possible Helicobacter pylori infection, and secondly to assess the efficacy of the 4 lactobacilli L. rhamnosus LR06 (DSM 21981), L. pentosus LPS01 (DSM 21980), L. plantarum LP01 (LMG P-21021), and L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii LDD01 (DSM 22106) in the restoration of a physiological gastric barrier. Total bacteria, sulphite-reducing bacteria (SRB), total coliforms, and total lactobacilli were quantified in samples of gastric juice from 29 subjects taking PPIs for at least 3 months compared with 36 control subjects. The presence of H. pylori was also assessed.The subjects treated with PPIs with a concentration of total bacteria in the gastric juice higher than 10(5) cells/mL were selected for an intervention study with the 4 lactobacilli L. rhamnosus LR06, L. pentosus LPS01, L. plantarum LP01, and L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii LDD01. After 15 days of supplementation, the same bacterial groups were quantified to compare these values with the baseline. No significant correlation was found between the presence of H. pylori and PPI intake. The baseline quantification of bacterial groups (log10 CFU/mL of gastric juice, PPI group vs. control) showed: total bacteria 8.35 versus 3.95 (P<0.001); total coliforms 4.98 versus 2.35 (P<0.001); SRB 5.71 versus 2.28 (P=0.065); and total lactobacilli 3.85 versus 2.20 (P=0.005). After 15 days of treatment with the 4 lactobacilli, the quantification of bacterial groups gave the following results: total bacteria 7.91 versus 8.35 at time zero (P=0.002); total coliforms 4.21 versus 4.98 at time zero (P<0.001); SRB 4.94 versus 5.71 at baseline (P=0.060); and total

  5. Effects of Daikenchuto on Abdominal Bloating Accompanied by Chronic Constipation: A Prospective, Single-Center Randomized Open Trial.

    PubMed

    Yuki, Mika; Komazawa, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Yoshiya; Kusunoki, Maho; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Nakashima, Sayaka; Uno, Goichi; Ikuma, Isao; Shizuku, Toshihiro; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2015-12-01

    Daikenchuto (DKT), a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, is widely used for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of DKT for abdominal bloating in patients with chronic constipation. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of DKT for the treatment of abdominal bloating. After discontinuing as-needed use of laxatives, 10 patients received oral DKT for 14 days (15 g/d). To evaluate small intestinal bacteria overgrowth (SIBO), a glucose breath test was performed before and after treatment with DKT. Before beginning the treatment, 4 patients (40%) had a diagnosis of SIBO based on a positive glucose breath test result. In both the SIBO and non-SIBO groups, bowel movement frequency and stool form remained unchanged after DKT treatment. For all patients, median total Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rating Scale score and the median Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rating Scale indigestion and constipation subscales were significantly decreased, whereas the median visual analog score for decreased abdominal bloating was significantly increased. Improvements of those symptoms were the same in both the SIBO and non-SIBO groups, indicating that DKT does not have effects on small intestine bacteria. No serious side effects were reported. DKT treatment improved quality of life for patients with chronic constipation regardless of the presence of SIBO and showed no effects on small intestine bacteria. UMIN Clinical Trial Registry identifier: UMIN000008070.

  6. Review article: potential mechanisms of action of rifaximin in the management of irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, M

    2016-01-01

    The role of gut microbiota in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is supported by various lines of evidence, including differences in mucosal and faecal microbiota between patients with IBS and healthy individuals, development of post-infectious IBS, and the efficacy of some probiotics and nonsystemic antibiotics (e.g. rifaximin). To review the literature regarding the role of rifaximin in IBS and its potential mechanism(s) of action. A literature search was conducted using the terms 'rifaximin', 'irritable bowel syndrome' and 'mechanism of action'. Rifaximin was approved in 2015 for the treatment of IBS with diarrhoea. In contrast to other currently available IBS therapies that require daily administration to maintain efficacy, 2-week rifaximin treatment achieved symptom improvement that persisted ≥12 weeks post-treatment. The mechanisms of action of rifaximin, therefore, may extend beyond direct bactericidal effects. Data suggest that rifaximin may decrease host proinflammatory responses to bacterial products in patients with IBS. In some cases, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) may play a role in the clinical symptoms of IBS. Because of the high level of solubility of rifaximin in the small intestine, rifaximin may reset microbial diversity in this environment. Consistent with this hypothesis, rifaximin has antibiotic efficacy against isolates derived from patients with SIBO. Resetting microbial diversity via rifaximin use may lead to a decrease in bacterial fermentation and a reduction in the clinical symptoms of IBS. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Hydrogen and Methane-Based Breath Testing in Gastrointestinal Disorders: The North American Consensus

    PubMed Central

    Rezaie, Ali; Buresi, Michelle; Lembo, Anthony; Lin, Henry; McCallum, Richard; Rao, Satish; Schmulson, Max; Valdovinos, Miguel; Zakko, Salam; Pimentel, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Breath tests (BTs) are important for the diagnosis of carbohydrate maldigestion syndromes and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). However, standardization is lacking regarding indications for testing, test methodology and interpretation of results. A consensus meeting of experts was convened to develop guidelines for clinicians and research. Methods: Pre-meeting survey questions encompassing five domains; indications, preparation, performance, interpretation of results, and knowledge gaps, were sent to 17 clinician-scientists, and 10 attended a live meeting. Using an evidence-based approach, 28 statements were finalized and voted on anonymously by a working group of specialists. Results: Consensus was reached on 26 statements encompassing all five domains. Consensus doses for lactulose, glucose, fructose and lactose BT were 10, 75, 25 and 25 g, respectively. Glucose and lactulose BTs remain the least invasive alternatives to diagnose SIBO. BT is useful in the diagnosis of carbohydrate maldigestion, methane-associated constipation, and evaluation of bloating/gas but not in the assessment of oro-cecal transit. A rise in hydrogen of ≥20 p.p.m. by 90 min during glucose or lactulose BT for SIBO was considered positive. Methane levels ≥10 p.p.m. was considered methane-positive. SIBO should be excluded prior to BT for carbohydrate malabsorption to avoid false positives. A rise in hydrogen of ≥20 p.p.m. from baseline during BT was considered positive for maldigestion. Conclusions: BT is a useful, inexpensive, simple and safe diagnostic test in the evaluation of common gastroenterology problems. These consensus statements should help to standardize the indications, preparation, performance and interpretation of BT in clinical practice and research. PMID:28323273

  8. Hydrogen and Methane-Based Breath Testing in Gastrointestinal Disorders: The North American Consensus.

    PubMed

    Rezaie, Ali; Buresi, Michelle; Lembo, Anthony; Lin, Henry; McCallum, Richard; Rao, Satish; Schmulson, Max; Valdovinos, Miguel; Zakko, Salam; Pimentel, Mark

    2017-05-01

    Breath tests (BTs) are important for the diagnosis of carbohydrate maldigestion syndromes and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). However, standardization is lacking regarding indications for testing, test methodology and interpretation of results. A consensus meeting of experts was convened to develop guidelines for clinicians and research. Pre-meeting survey questions encompassing five domains; indications, preparation, performance, interpretation of results, and knowledge gaps, were sent to 17 clinician-scientists, and 10 attended a live meeting. Using an evidence-based approach, 28 statements were finalized and voted on anonymously by a working group of specialists. Consensus was reached on 26 statements encompassing all five domains. Consensus doses for lactulose, glucose, fructose and lactose BT were 10, 75, 25 and 25 g, respectively. Glucose and lactulose BTs remain the least invasive alternatives to diagnose SIBO. BT is useful in the diagnosis of carbohydrate maldigestion, methane-associated constipation, and evaluation of bloating/gas but not in the assessment of oro-cecal transit. A rise in hydrogen of ≥20 p.p.m. by 90 min during glucose or lactulose BT for SIBO was considered positive. Methane levels ≥10 p.p.m. was considered methane-positive. SIBO should be excluded prior to BT for carbohydrate malabsorption to avoid false positives. A rise in hydrogen of ≥20 p.p.m. from baseline during BT was considered positive for maldigestion. BT is a useful, inexpensive, simple and safe diagnostic test in the evaluation of common gastroenterology problems. These consensus statements should help to standardize the indications, preparation, performance and interpretation of BT in clinical practice and research.

  9. Autophagy regulates tissue overgrowth in a context-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Pérez, E; Das, G; Bergmann, A; Baehrecke, E H

    2015-06-01

    Autophagy is a catabolic process that has been implicated both as a tumor suppressor and in tumor progression. Here, we investigate this dichotomy in cancer biology by studying the influence of altered autophagy in Drosophila models of tissue overgrowth. We find that the impact of altered autophagy depends on both genotype and cell type. As previously observed in mammals, decreased autophagy suppresses Ras-induced eye epithelial overgrowth. In contrast, autophagy restricts epithelial overgrowth in a Notch-dependent eye model. Even though decreased autophagy did not influence Hippo pathway-triggered overgrowth, activation of autophagy strongly suppresses this eye epithelial overgrowth. Surprisingly, activation of autophagy enhanced Hippo pathway-driven overgrowth in glia cells. These results indicate that autophagy has different influences on tissue growth in distinct contexts, and highlight the importance of understanding the influence of autophagy on growth to augment a rationale therapeutic strategy.

  10. Diamond heteroepitaxial lateral overgrowth

    DOE PAGES

    Tang, Y. -H.; Bi, B.; Golding, B.

    2015-02-24

    A method of diamond heteroepitaxial lateral overgrowth is demonstrated which utilizes a photolithographic metal mask to pattern a thin (001) epitaxial diamond surface. Significant structural improvement was found, with a threading dislocation density reduced by two orders of magnitude at the top surface of a thick overgrown diamond layer. In the initial stage of overgrowth, a reduction of diamond Raman linewidth in the overgrown area was also realized. Thermally-induced stress and internal stress were determined by Raman spectroscopy of adhering and delaminated diamond films. As a result, the internal stress is found to decrease as sample thickness increases.

  11. Generalized overgrowth syndromes with prenatal onset.

    PubMed

    Yachelevich, Naomi

    2015-04-01

    Children with generalized overgrowth syndromes are large at birth, or have excessive postnatal growth. Many of these syndromes are associated with an increase in neoplasia. Consideration of the possibility of overgrowth syndrome in a pediatric patient who presents with increased growth parameters, variable malformations and neurodevelopmental phenotype, and distinctive features, is important for medical management, reproductive counseling, and tumor surveillance for some of the disorders. This review describes the clinical features and surveillance recommendations for the common generalized overgrowth syndromes the pediatrician may encounter. It also provides a glimpse into advances of recent years in understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for the disrupted growth regulation in these disorders. Copyright © 2015 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Delayed small intestinal transit in patients with long-standing type 1 diabetes mellitus: investigation of the relationships with clinical features, gastric emptying, psychological distress, and nutritional parameters.

    PubMed

    Faria, Mariza; Pavin, Elizabeth João; Parisi, Maria Cândida Ribeiro; Lorena, Sônia Letícia Silva; Brunetto, Sérgio Quirino; Ramos, Celso Dario; Pavan, Célia Regina; Mesquita, Maria Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    Studies on small intestinal transit in type 1 diabetes mellitus have reported contradictory results. This study assessed the orocecal transit time (OCTT) in a group of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and its relationships with gastrointestinal symptoms, glycemic control, chronic complications of diabetes, anthropometric indices, gastric emptying, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), and psychological distress. Twenty-eight patients with long-standing (>10 years) type 1 diabetes mellitus (22 women, six men; mean age, 39 ± 9 years) participated in the study. The lactulose hydrogen breath test was used to determine OCTT and the occurrence of SIBO. The presence of anxiety and depression was assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale. Gastric emptying was measured by scintigraphy. Anthropometric indices included body mass index, percentage body fat, midarm circumference, and arm muscle area. There was a statistically significant increase in OCTT values in diabetes patients (79 ± 41 min) in comparison with controls (54 ± 17 min) (P=0.01). Individual analysis showed that OCTT was above the upper limit (mean+2 SD) in 30.8% of patients. All anthropometric parameters were significantly decreased (P<0.05) in patients with prolonged OCTT in comparison with those with normal OCTT. In contrast, there was no statistically significant association between prolonged OCTT and gastrointestinal symptoms, peripheral neuropathy, diabetic retinopathy, glycated hemoglobin, delayed gastric emptying, SIBO, anxiety, or depression. Small bowel transit may be delayed in about one-third of patients with long-standing type 1 diabetes mellitus. This abnormality seems to have a negative effect on nutritional status in these patients.

  13. A Clinical Evaluation of Gingival Overgrowth in Children on Antiepileptic Drug Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Saroj; Thomas, Abi M; Pandian, Jeyraj

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Gingival overgrowth, a well-known side effect of chronic phenytoin therapy has also been known to be caused by other anti epileptic drugs (AED’s). Various factors like plaque, gingival inflammation, and periodontal health have been postulated to effect gingival overgrowth. Aim To identify the AED having an effect on gingival overgrowth and to study the factors affecting it. Materials and Methods Three groups of 30 children each on monotherapy of phenytoin, sodium valproate, and carbamazepine were longitudinally followed for six months. Their oral and epileptic health status was assessed and were monitored for change in plaque levels, gingival inflammation, probing depth and the status of gingival overgrowth at baseline, at the end of 3 months and finally at the end of 6 months. The data was recorded and statistically analysed. Results Phenytoin caused gingival overgrowth in a significant number of children (53.6%) within 3 months. Sodium valproate also led to gingival overgrowth, but not upto statistically significant levels. Patients on carbamazepine did not show any signs of gingival overgrowth. Gingival overgrowth is seen more on buccal side, in the anterior segment and in the lower arch. No correlation could be found between, either plaque level, or gingival inflammation with gingival overgrowth. Probing depth could be positively correlated with gingival overgrowth. Conclusion Phenytoin is the drug, which can be chiefly implicated for causing gingival overgrowth. Sodium valproate carries the potential for gingival overgrowth, although only up to clinically insignificant levels in 6 months. Carbamazepine can be considered a safe drug in children in relation to gingival overgrowth. PMID:26894172

  14. A Clinical Evaluation of Gingival Overgrowth in Children on Antiepileptic Drug Therapy.

    PubMed

    Suneja, Bharat; Chopra, Saroj; Thomas, Abi M; Pandian, Jeyraj

    2016-01-01

    Gingival overgrowth, a well-known side effect of chronic phenytoin therapy has also been known to be caused by other anti epileptic drugs (AED's). Various factors like plaque, gingival inflammation, and periodontal health have been postulated to effect gingival overgrowth. To identify the AED having an effect on gingival overgrowth and to study the factors affecting it. Three groups of 30 children each on monotherapy of phenytoin, sodium valproate, and carbamazepine were longitudinally followed for six months. Their oral and epileptic health status was assessed and were monitored for change in plaque levels, gingival inflammation, probing depth and the status of gingival overgrowth at baseline, at the end of 3 months and finally at the end of 6 months. The data was recorded and statistically analysed. Phenytoin caused gingival overgrowth in a significant number of children (53.6%) within 3 months. Sodium valproate also led to gingival overgrowth, but not upto statistically significant levels. Patients on carbamazepine did not show any signs of gingival overgrowth. Gingival overgrowth is seen more on buccal side, in the anterior segment and in the lower arch. No correlation could be found between, either plaque level, or gingival inflammation with gingival overgrowth. Probing depth could be positively correlated with gingival overgrowth. Phenytoin is the drug, which can be chiefly implicated for causing gingival overgrowth. Sodium valproate carries the potential for gingival overgrowth, although only up to clinically insignificant levels in 6 months. Carbamazepine can be considered a safe drug in children in relation to gingival overgrowth.

  15. Prevention of Phenytoin-Induced Gingival Overgrowth by Lovastatin in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Assaggaf, Mohammad A.; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Sume, Siddika S.; Trackman, Philip C.

    2016-01-01

    Drug-induced gingival overgrowth is caused by the antiseizure medication phenytoin, calcium channel blockers, and ciclosporin. Characteristics of these drug-induced gingival overgrowth lesions differ. We evaluate the ability of a mouse model to mimic human phenytoin-induced gingival overgrowth and assess the ability of a drug to prevent its development. Lovastatin was chosen based on previous analyses of tissue-specific regulation of CCN2 production in human gingival fibroblasts and the known roles of CCN2 in promoting fibrosis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Data indicate that anterior gingival tissue overgrowth occurred in phenytoin-treated mice based on gross tissue observations and histomorphometry of tissue sections. Molecular markers of epithelial plasticity and fibrosis were regulated by phenytoin in gingival epithelial tissues and in connective tissues similar to that seen in humans. Lovastatin attenuated epithelial gingival tissue growth in phenytoin-treated mice and altered the expressions of markers for epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Data indicate that phenytoin-induced gingival overgrowth in mice mimics molecular aspects of human gingival overgrowth and that lovastatin normalizes the tissue morphology and the expression of the molecular markers studied. Data are consistent with characterization of phenytoin-induced human gingival overgrowth in vivo and in vitro characteristics of cultured human gingival epithelial and connective tissue cells. Findings suggest that statins may serve to prevent or attenuate phenytoin-induced human gingival overgrowth, although specific human studies are required. PMID:25843680

  16. Chronic Inflammatory Gingival Overgrowths: Laser Gingivectomy & Gingivoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, B Shiva; T, Ramadevi; S, Neetha M; Reddy, P Sunil Kumar; Saritha, G; Reddy, J Muralinath

    2013-01-01

    It is quite common to note chronic inflammatory Gingival overgrowths during and/or post orthodontic treatment. Sometimes the overgrowths may even potentially complicate and/or interrupt orthodontic treatment. With the introduction of soft tissue lasers these problems can now be addressed more easily. Amongst many LASERS now available in Dentistry DIODE LASERS seem to be most ideal for orthodontic soft tissue applications. As newer treatments herald into minimally invasive techniques, DIODE LASERS are becoming more promising both in patient satisfaction and dentist satisfaction. How to cite this article: Shankar BS, Ramadevi T, Neetha M S, Reddy P S K, Saritha G, Reddy J M. Chronic Inflammatory Gingival Overgrowths: Laser Gingivectomy & Gingivoplasty. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(1):83-87. PMID:24155582

  17. Double-blind randomized controlled trial of rifaximin for persistent symptoms in patients with celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Chang, Matthew S; Minaya, Maria T; Cheng, Jianfeng; Connor, Bradley A; Lewis, Suzanne K; Green, Peter H R

    2011-10-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is one cause of a poor response to a gluten-free diet (GFD) and persistent symptoms in celiac disease. Rifaximin has been reported to improve symptoms in non-controlled trials. To determine the effect of rifaximin on gastrointestinal symptoms and lactulose-hydrogen breath tests in patients with poorly responsive celiac disease. A single-center, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial of patients with biopsy-proven celiac disease and persistent gastrointestinal symptoms despite a GFD was conducted. Patients were randomized to placebo (n = 25) or rifaximin (n = 25) 1,200 mg daily for 10 days. They completed the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) and underwent lactulose-hydrogen breath tests at weeks 0, 2, and 12. An abnormal breath test was defined as: (1) a rise in hydrogen of ≥20 parts per million (ppm) within 100 min, or (2) two peaks ≥20 ppm over baseline. GSRS scores were unaffected by treatment with rifaximin, regardless of baseline breath tests. In a multivariable regression model, the duration of patients' gastrointestinal symptoms significantly predicted their overall GSRS scores (estimate 0.029, p < 0.006). According to criteria 1 and 2, respectively, SIBO was present in 55 and 8% of patients at baseline, intermittently present in 28 and 20% given placebo, and 28 and 12% given rifaximin. There was no difference in the prevalence of SIBO between placebo and treatment groups at weeks 2 and 12. Rifaximin does not improve patients' reporting of gastrointestinal symptoms and hydrogen breath tests do not reliably identify who will respond to antibiotic therapy.

  18. New insights in IBS-like disorders: Pandora's box has been opened; a review.

    PubMed

    Borghini, Raffaele; Donato, Giuseppe; Alvaro, Domenico; Picarelli, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The most complained gastrointestinal symptoms are chronic diarrhea, bloating and abdominal pain. Once malignancies and inflammatory bowel diseases are excluded, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and the so called "IBS-like disorders" should be taken into account. The relationship between IBS as defined by Rome IV criteria and these clinical conditions is sometimes obscure, since many IBS patients identify food as a possible trigger for their symptoms. Here, we discuss IBS and the most common IBS-like disorders (celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs), lactose intolerance, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), α-amylase/trypsin inhibitor (ATIs), nickel allergic contact mucositis), focusing on epidemiologic, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects. Given the lack of specificity of symptoms, clinical investigation will be facilitated by awareness of these disorders as well as new specific diagnostic tools.

  19. Genetic syndromes associated with overgrowth in childhood

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Overgrowth syndromes comprise a diverse group of conditions with unique clinical, behavioral and molecular genetic features. While considerable overlap in presentation sometimes exists, advances in identification of the precise etiology of specific overgrowth disorders continue to improve clinicians' ability to make an accurate diagnosis. Among them, this paper introduces two classic genetic overgrowth syndromes: Sotos syndrome and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Historically, the diagnosis was based entirely on clinical findings. However, it is now understood that Sotos syndrome is caused by a variety of molecular genetic alterations resulting in haploinsufficiency of the NSD1 gene at chromosome 5q35 and that Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome is caused by heterogeneous abnormalities in the imprinting of a number of growth regulatory genes within chromosome 11p15 in the majority of cases. Interestingly, the 11p15 imprinting region is also associated with Russell-Silver syndrome which is a typical growth retardation syndrome. Opposite epigenetic alterations in 11p15 result in opposite clinical features shown in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and Russell-Silver syndrome. Although the exact functions of the causing genes have not yet been completely understood, these overgrowth syndromes can be good models to clarify the complex basis of human growth and help to develop better-directed therapies in the future. PMID:24904861

  20. Matrix metalloproteinase-3 gene polymorphism in renal transplant patients with gingival overgrowth.

    PubMed

    Drozdzik, A; Kurzawski, M; Lener, A; Kozak, M; Banach, J; Drozdzik, M

    2010-02-01

    Gingival enlargement frequently occurs in transplant patients receiving immunosuppressive drugs. It was hypothesized that gingival enlargement associated with cyclosporine use results from reduced degradation of extracellular matrix in the gingiva. Matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) is involved in biodegradation of the extracellular matrix, and its inhibition may contribute to an abnormal accumulation of fibronectin and proteoglycans, which are MMP-3 substrates. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an association exists between MMP-3 genotypes and gingival enlargement in kidney transplant patients medicated with cyclosporine A. Sixty-four unrelated kidney transplant patients suffering from gingival overgrowth, as well as 111 control transplant patients without gingival overgrowth, were enrolled in the study. Gingival overgrowth was assessed 6 mo after transplantation. During the post-transplant period all patients were given cyclosporine A as a principal immunosuppressive agent. MMP-3 polymorphism was determined using a PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. In kidney transplant patients suffering from gingival overgrowth the mean gingival overgrowth score was 1.35 +/- 0.57, whereas in control subjects the mean gingival overgrowth score was 0.0. The distribution of MMP-3-1178A/dupA alleles among all kidney transplant patients, as well as in the two study subgroups, did not differ significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The frequency of the MMP-3-1171A/A genotype (28.1% for gingival overgrowth vs. 26.1% for controls) and of the MMP-3-1171dupA/dupA genotype (32.8% for gingival overgrowth vs. 22.5% for controls) was similar for both study groups. The risk of gingival overgrowth was lowest among patients carrying the MMP-3-1171A/dupA genotype (odds ratio 0.52), but this did not differ markedly from the other genotypes. No association between MMP-3 gene polymorphism and gingival overgrowth was revealed in kidney transplant patients

  1. Cyclosporine A: Novel concepts in its role in drug-induced gingival overgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Ponnaiyan, Deepa; Jegadeesan, Visakan

    2015-01-01

    Cyclosporine is a selective immunosuppressant that has a variety of applications in medical practice. Like phenytoin and the calcium channel blockers, the drug is associated with gingival overgrowth. This review considers the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and unwanted effects of cyclosporine, in particular the action of the drug on the gingival tissues. In addition, elucidates the current concepts in mechanisms of cyclosporine-induced gingival overgrowth. Clinical and cell culture studies suggest that the mechanism of gingival overgrowth is a result of the interaction between the drug and its metabolites with susceptible gingival fibroblasts. Plaque-induced gingival inflammation appears to enhance this interaction. However, understanding of the pathogenesis of gingival overgrowth is incomplete at best. Hence, it would be pertinent to identify and explore possible risk factors relating to both prevalence and severity of drug-induced gingival overgrowth. Newer molecular approaches are needed to clearly establish the pathogenesis of gingival overgrowth and to provide novel information for the design of future preventive and therapeutic modalities. PMID:26759584

  2. Cyclosporine A: Novel concepts in its role in drug-induced gingival overgrowth.

    PubMed

    Ponnaiyan, Deepa; Jegadeesan, Visakan

    2015-01-01

    Cyclosporine is a selective immunosuppressant that has a variety of applications in medical practice. Like phenytoin and the calcium channel blockers, the drug is associated with gingival overgrowth. This review considers the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and unwanted effects of cyclosporine, in particular the action of the drug on the gingival tissues. In addition, elucidates the current concepts in mechanisms of cyclosporine-induced gingival overgrowth. Clinical and cell culture studies suggest that the mechanism of gingival overgrowth is a result of the interaction between the drug and its metabolites with susceptible gingival fibroblasts. Plaque-induced gingival inflammation appears to enhance this interaction. However, understanding of the pathogenesis of gingival overgrowth is incomplete at best. Hence, it would be pertinent to identify and explore possible risk factors relating to both prevalence and severity of drug-induced gingival overgrowth. Newer molecular approaches are needed to clearly establish the pathogenesis of gingival overgrowth and to provide novel information for the design of future preventive and therapeutic modalities.

  3. Bowel symptoms in patients that receive proton pump inhibitors. Results of a multicenter survey in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Schmulson, M J; Frati-Munari, A C

    2018-04-17

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been associated with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), which increases with prolonged PPI use, and SIBO has been associated with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The aim of the present study was to study the prevalence of bowel symptoms in patients treated with PPIs in Mexico. Gastroenterologists in 36 cities surveyed patients treated with PPIs, utilizing an ad hoc questionnaire to determine the presence of bowel symptoms and IBS. Two hundred and fifteen physicians interviewed 1,851 patients. PPI indications were gastritis (48.8%), gastroesophageal reflux (38.5%), peptic ulcer (6.2%), and others (6.5%). A total of 77.5% of the patients received treatment for ≤6 months and 11.9% for ≥1 year. Symptoms were reported in 92.3% of the patients: abnormal bowel habits (90%), bloating (82%), abdominal pain (63%), flatulence (58%), and abdominal discomfort (53%). A total of 67.5% of the patients fit the Rome III criteria for IBS. Symptoms presented in 55.9% of the patients before PPI intake and in 44.1% of the patients after PPI use (P<.005). Constipation (63.8%) predominated in the former, and diarrhea (56.5%) in the latter (P<.0001). The treatments prescribed for managing those symptoms were antispasmodics, antibiotics, prokinetics, and antiflatulents, but patients stated greater satisfaction with antibiotics (mainly rifaximin) (P<.0001). The association of PPIs with bowel symptoms and IBS is frequent in Mexico. Diarrhea and bloating predominate, and antibiotics produce the greatest treatment satisfaction, suggesting that SIBO or dysbiosis is the cause of the PPI-related bowel symptoms. However, that remains to be confirmed. Copyright © 2018 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  4. Subvalvular Pannus Overgrowth after Mosaic Bioprosthesis Implantation in the Aortic Position.

    PubMed

    Hirota, Masanori; Isomura, Tadashi; Yoshida, Minoru; Katsumata, Chieko; Ito, Fusahiko; Watanabe, Masazumi

    2016-01-01

    Although pannus overgrowth by itself was not the pathology of structural valve deterioration (SVD), it might be related to reoperation for SVD of the bioprostheses. We retrospectively reviewed patients undergoing reoperation for SVD after implantation of the third-generation Mosaic aortic bioprosthesis and macroscopic appearance of the explanted valves was examined to detect the presence of pannus. There were 10 patients and the age for the initial aortic valve replacement was 72 ± 10 years old. The duration of durability was 9.9 ± 2.0 years. Deteriorated valve presented stenosis (valvular area of 0.96 ± 0.20 cm(2); pressure gradient of 60 ± 23 mmHg). Coexisting regurgitant flow was detected in two cases. Macroscopically, subvalvular pannus overgrowth was detected in 8 cases (80%). The proportion of overgrowth from the annulus was almost even and pannus overgrowth created subvalvular membrane, which restricted the area especially for each commissure. In contrast, opening and mobility of each leaflet was not severely limited and pannus overgrowth would restrict the area, especially for each commissure. In other two cases with regurgitation, tear of the leaflet on the stent strut was detected and mild calcification of each leaflet restricted opening. In patients with the Mosaic aortic bioprosthesis, pannus overgrowth was the major cause for reoperation.

  5. Redefining the functional roles of the gastrointestinal migrating motor complex and motilin in small bacterial overgrowth and hunger signaling.

    PubMed

    Deloose, Eveline; Tack, Jan

    2016-02-15

    During the fasting state the upper gastrointestinal tract exhibits a specific periodic migrating contraction pattern that is known as the migrating motor complex (MMC). Three different phases can be distinguished during the MMC. Phase III of the MMC is the most active of the three and can start either in the stomach or small intestine. Historically this pattern was designated to be the housekeeper of the gut since disturbances in the pattern were associated with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth; however, its role in the involvement of hunger sensations was already hinted in the beginning of the 20th century by both Cannon (Cannon W, Washburn A. Am J Physiol 29: 441-454, 1912) and Carlson (Carlson A. The Control of Hunger in Health and Disease. Chicago, IL: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1916). The discovery of motilin in 1973 shed more light on the control mechanisms of the MMC. Motilin plasma levels fluctuate together with the phases of the MMC and induce phase III contractions with a gastric onset. Recent research suggests that these motilin-induced phase III contractions signal hunger in healthy subjects and that this system is disturbed in morbidly obese patients. This minireview describes the functions of the MMC in the gut and its regulatory role in controlling hunger sensations. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Subvalvular Pannus Overgrowth after Mosaic Bioprosthesis Implantation in the Aortic Position

    PubMed Central

    Isomura, Tadashi; Yoshida, Minoru; Katsumata, Chieko; Ito, Fusahiko; Watanabe, Masazumi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Although pannus overgrowth by itself was not the pathology of structural valve deterioration (SVD), it might be related to reoperation for SVD of the bioprostheses. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed patients undergoing reoperation for SVD after implantation of the third-generation Mosaic aortic bioprosthesis and macroscopic appearance of the explanted valves was examined to detect the presence of pannus. Results: There were 10 patients and the age for the initial aortic valve replacement was 72 ± 10 years old. The duration of durability was 9.9 ± 2.0 years. Deteriorated valve presented stenosis (valvular area of 0.96 ± 0.20 cm2; pressure gradient of 60 ± 23 mmHg). Coexisting regurgitant flow was detected in two cases. Macroscopically, subvalvular pannus overgrowth was detected in 8 cases (80%). The proportion of overgrowth from the annulus was almost even and pannus overgrowth created subvalvular membrane, which restricted the area especially for each commissure. In contrast, opening and mobility of each leaflet was not severely limited and pannus overgrowth would restrict the area, especially for each commissure. In other two cases with regurgitation, tear of the leaflet on the stent strut was detected and mild calcification of each leaflet restricted opening. Conclusion: In patients with the Mosaic aortic bioprosthesis, pannus overgrowth was the major cause for reoperation. PMID:26633541

  7. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial on probiotics in small bowel bacterial overgrowth in children treated with omeprazole.

    PubMed

    Hegar, Badriul; Hutapea, Esther I; Advani, Najid; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SBBO) in children treated with omeprazole, and to test whether probiotics influence the incidence. A double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was performed in 70 children treated orally during four weeks with 20mg omeprazole per day. Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011 (1.9×10(9) cfu) and Lactobacillus acidophilus R0052 (0.1×10(9) cfu) were simultaneously given daily to 36 subjects (probiotic group), while 34 subjects received placebo (placebo group). The diagnosis of SBBO was based on the development of suggestive symptoms, in combination with a positive glucose breath test. After one month of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment, 30% (21/70) had a positive breath test suggesting SBBO; of these 62% were symptomatic. Five children developed SBBO-like symptoms, but had a negative breath test; and 44 (63%) were symptom free and had a negative breath test. There was no difference in the incidence of positive breath tests in the probiotic versus the placebo group (33% vs 26.5%; p=0.13). Since symptoms suggesting SBBO developed in 26% of PPI-treated children, and since the glucose breath test was abnormal in 72% of these, this side-effect should be more frequently considered. The probiotic tested did not decrease the risk to develop SBBO. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Faecal microbiota transplantation in patients with Clostridium difficile and significant comorbidities as well as in patients with new indications: A case series.

    PubMed

    Lahtinen, Perttu; Mattila, Eero; Anttila, Veli-Jukka; Tillonen, Jyrki; Teittinen, Matti; Nevalainen, Pasi; Salminen, Seppo; Satokari, Reetta; Arkkila, Perttu

    2017-10-21

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is effective in recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI). Knowledge of the safety and efficacy of FMT treatment in immune deficient patients is scarce. FMT has been suggested as a potential method for an increasing number of new indications besides rCDI. Among our FMT-treated rCDI patients, we reviewed those with major comorbidities: two human immunodeficiency virus patients, six haemodialysis patients, two kidney transplant patients, two liver transplant patients and a patient with chronic lymphatic leukaemia. We also reviewed those treated with FMT for indications other than rCDI: Salmonella carriage (two patients), trimethylaminuria (two patients), small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO; one patient), and lymphocytic colitis (one patient), as well as a common variable immunodeficiency patient with chronic norovirus infection and ESBL-producing Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) carriage. Of the thirteen rCDI patients treated with FMT, eleven cleared the CDI. The observed adverse events were not directly attributable to FMT. Concerning the special indications, both Salmonellas and ESBL-producing E. coli were eradicated. One trimethylaminuria patient and one SIBO-patient reported a reduction of symptoms. Three patients did not experience a benefit from FMT: chronic norovirus, lymphocytic colitis and the other fish malodour syndrome. There were no reported side effects in this group. FMT appeared to be safe and effective for immunocompromised patients with rCDI. FMT showed promise for the eradication of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, but further research is warranted.

  9. Gingival overgrowth in Pompe disease: a case report.

    PubMed

    de Gijt, J Pieter; van Capelle, Carine I; Oosterhuis, J Wolter; van der Ploeg, Ans T; van der Wal, Karel G H

    2011-08-01

    Pompe disease, or glycogen storage disease type 2, is a rare inheritable metabolic disease caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme acid α-glucosidase. Patients with the classic infantile form of Pompe disease present with symptoms during the first 3 months after birth, and most will die within their first year. Recently, enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with recombinant human α-glucosidase became commercially available for Pompe disease. This is a case report of an 8-year-old girl with the infantile form of Pompe disease who is one of the longest survivors through ERT. The patient was tetraplegic when she started ERT. At age 3 years, she developed massive gingival overgrowth and could not close her mouth, prompting a reduction of the gingival overgrowth surgically. We expected that massive accumulation of glycogen would explain the gingival overgrowth. However, histopathology of the gingiva tissue showed marked glycogen accumulation in smooth muscle cells of the arteries, but the glycogen content in fibroblasts did not exceed that of control individuals. Further, there was an increase of immature collagen in the connective tissue, and signs of a mild chronic inflammation. We concluded that glycogen storage is not a direct causative factor of gingival overgrowth in our patient. Chronic inflammation, dryness of the gingiva, or even the minimal glycogen accumulation in the fibroblasts may have played a role. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. On the Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Drug-Induced Gingival Overgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Rámiz, Albert; Brunet-LLobet, Lluís; Lahor-Soler, Eduard; Miranda-Rius, Jaume

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Gingival overgrowth has been linked to multiple factors such as adverse drug effects, inflammation, neoplastic processes, and hereditary gingival fibromatosis. Drug-induced gingival overgrowth is a well-established adverse event. In early stages, this gingival enlargement is usually located in the area of the interdental papilla. Histologically, there is an increase in the different components of the extracellular matrix. Objective: The aim of this manuscript is to describe and analyze the different cellular and molecular agents involved in the pathogenesis of Drug-induced gingival overgrowth. Method: A literature search of the MEDLINE/PubMed database was conducted to identify the mechanisms involved in the process of drug-induced gingival overgrowth, with the assistance of a research librarian. We present several causal hypotheses and discuss the advances in the understanding of the mechanisms that trigger this gingival alteration. Results: In vitro studies have revealed phenotypic cellular changes in keratinocytes and fibroblasts and an increase of the extracellular matrix with collagen and glycosaminoglycans. Drug-induced gingival overgrowth confirms the key role of collagenase and integrins, membrane receptors present in the fibroblasts, due to their involvement in the catabolism of collagen. The three drug categories implicated: calcineuron inhibitors (immunosuppressant drugs), calcium channel blocking agents and anticonvulsant drugs appear to present a multifactorial pathogenesis with a common molecular action: the blockage of the cell membrane in the Ca2+/Na+ ion flow. The alteration of the uptake of cellular folic acid, which depends on the regulated channels of active cationic transport and on passive diffusion, results in a dysfunctional degradation of the connective tissue. Certain intermediate molecules such as cytokines and prostaglandins play a role in this pathological mechanism. The concomitant inflammatory factor encourages the

  11. Microbiota, gastrointestinal infections, low-grade inflammation, and antibiotic therapy in irritable bowel syndrome: an evidence-based review.

    PubMed

    Schmulson, M; Bielsa, M V; Carmona-Sánchez, R; Hernández, A; López-Colombo, A; López Vidal, Y; Peláez-Luna, M; Remes-Troche, J M; Tamayo, J L; Valdovinos, M A

    2014-01-01

    Post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) prevalence, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), altered microbiota, low-grade inflammation, and antibiotic therapy in IBS are all controversial issues. To conduct an evidence-based review of these factors. A review of the literature was carried out up to July 2012, with the inclusion of additional articles as far as August 2013, all of which were analyzed through the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (OCEBM) system. 1.There is greater SIBO probability in IBS when breath tests are performed, but prevalence varies widely (2-84%). 2.The gut microbiota in individuals with IBS is different from that in healthy subjects, but a common characteristic present in all the patients has not been established. 3.The incidence and prevalence of PI-IBS varies from 9-10% and 3-17%, respectively, and the latter decreases over time. Bacterial etiology is the most frequent but post-viral and parasitic cases have been reported. 4.A sub-group of patients has increased enterochromaffin cells, intraepithelial lymphocytes, and mast cells in the intestinal mucosa, but no differences between PI-IBS and non-PI-IBS have been determined. 5.Methanogenic microbiota has been associated with IBS with constipation. 6.Rifaximin at doses of 400mg TID/10days or 550mg TID/14days is effective treatment for the majority of overall symptoms and abdominal bloating in IBS. Retreatment effectiveness appears to be similar to that of the first cycle. Further studies are required to determine the nature of the gut microbiota in IBS and the differences in low-grade inflammation between PI-IBS and non-PI-IBS. Rifaximin has shown itself to be effective treatment for IBS, regardless of prior factors. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  12. Customized Versus Population Approach for Evaluation of Fetal Overgrowth

    PubMed Central

    COSTANTINE, Maged M.; MELE, Lisa; LANDON, Mark B.; SPONG, Catherine Y.; RAMIN, Susan M.; CASEY, Brian; WAPNER, Ronald J.; VARNER, Michael W.; ROUSE, Dwight J.; THORP, John M.; SCISCIONE, Anthony; CATALANO, Patrick; CARITIS, Steve N.; SOROKIN, Yoram; PEACEMAN, Alan M.; TOLOSA, Jorge E.; ANDERSON, Garland D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the ability of customized versus normalized population fetal growth norms in identifying neonates at risk for adverse perinatal outcomes (APOs) associated with fetal overgrowth and gestational diabetes (GDM). Study Design Secondary analysis of a multicenter treatment trial of mild GDM. The primary outcome was a composite of neonatal outcomes associated with fetal overgrowth and GDM. Birthweight percentiles were calculated using ethnicity- & gender-specific population norms and customized norms (Gardosi). Results 203 (9.8%) and 288 (13.8%) neonates were LGA by population (LGApop) and customized (LGAcust) norms, respectively. Both LGApop and LGAcust were associated with the primary outcome and neonatal hyperinsulinemia, while neither was associated with hypoglycemia or hyperbilirubinemia. The ability of customized and population birthweight percentiles for predicting APOs were poor (receiver operating characteristic area under the curve <0.6 for 6 out of 8 APOs). Conclusion Neither customized nor normalized-population norms better identify neonates at risk of APOs related to fetal overgrowth and GDM. PMID:23147078

  13. CLOVES syndrome: review of a PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS).

    PubMed

    Martinez-Lopez, A; Blasco-Morente, G; Perez-Lopez, I; Herrera-Garcia, J D; Luque-Valenzuela, M; Sanchez-Cano, D; Lopez-Gutierrez, J C; Ruiz-Villaverde, R; Tercedor-Sanchez, J

    2017-01-01

    Overgrowth syndromes are characterized by global or localized disproportionate growth associated with other anomalies, including vascular malformations and neurological and/or visceral disorders. CLOVES (Congenital Lipomatous asymmetric Overgrowth of the trunk with lymphatic, capillary, venous, and combined-type Vascular malformations, Epidermal naevi, Scoliosis/Skeletal and spinal anomalies) is an overgrowth syndrome caused by mosaic activating mutation in gene PIK3CA, which gives rise to abnormal PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway activation. These mutations are responsible for the clinical manifestations of the syndrome, which include low- and high-flow vascular malformations, thoracic lipomatous hyperplasia, asymmetric growth, and visceral and neurological disorders. These common anomalies are illustrated with figures from two personal cases. Identification of the clinical and genetic characteristics of CLOVES syndrome is crucial for the differential diagnosis with other overgrowth syndromes, such as Proteus or Klippel-Trenaunay (K-T) syndromes, and for the therapeutic management of the different anomalies. In this context, a new entity comprising different syndromes with phenotypic mutations in PIK3CA has been proposed, designated PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS), with the aim of facilitating clinical management and establishing appropriate genetic study criteria. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Bacterial infections and hepatic encephalopathy in liver cirrhosis-prophylaxis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Piotrowski, Damian; Boroń-Kaczmarska, Anna

    2017-09-01

    Infections are common among patients with liver cirrhosis. They occur more often in cirrhotic patient groups than in the general population and result in higher mortality. One reason for this phenomenon is bacterial translocation from the intestinal lumen that occurs as a consequence of intestinal bacterial overgrowth, increased permeability and decreased motility. The most common infections in cirrhotic patients are spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and urinary tract infections, followed by pneumonia, skin and soft tissue infections. Intestinal bacterial overgrowth is also responsible for hyperammonemia, which leads to hepatic encephalopathy. All of these complications make this group of patients at high risk for mortality. The role of antibiotics in liver cirrhosis is to treat and in some cases to prevent the development of infectious complications. Based on our current knowledge, antibiotic prophylaxis should be administered to patients with gastrointestinal hemorrhage, low ascitic fluid protein concentration combined with liver or renal failure, and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis as a secondary prophylaxis, as well as after hepatic encephalopathy episodes (also as a secondary prophylaxis). In some cases, the use of non-antibiotic prophylaxis can also be considered. Current knowledge of the treatment of infections allows the choice of a preferred antibiotic for empiric therapy depending on the infection location and whether the source of the disease is nosocomial or community-acquired. Copyright © 2017 Medical University of Bialystok. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Possible Potential Therapeutic Targets for Drug Induced Gingival Overgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

    2013-01-01

    Gingival overgrowth is a side effect of certain medications. The most fibrotic drug-induced lesions develop in response to therapy with phenytoin, the least fibrotic lesions are caused by cyclosporin A, and the intermediate fibrosis occurs in nifedipine-induced gingival overgrowth. Fibrosis is one of the largest groups of diseases for which there is no therapy but is believed to occur because of a persistent tissue repair program. During connective tissue repair, activated gingival fibroblasts synthesize and remodel newly created extracellular matrix. Proteins such as transforming growth factor (TGF), endothelin-1 (ET-1), angiotensin II (Ang II), connective tissue growth factor (CCN2/CTGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) appear to act in a network that contributes to the development of gingival fibrosis. Since inflammation is the prerequisite for gingival overgrowth, mast cells and its protease enzymes also play a vital role in the pathogenesis of gingival fibrosis. Drugs targeting these proteins are currently under consideration as antifibrotic treatments. This review summarizes recent observations concerning the contribution of TGF-β, CTGF, IGF, PDGF, ET-1, Ang II, and mast cell chymase and tryptase enzymes to fibroblast activation in gingival fibrosis and the potential utility of agents blocking these proteins in affecting the outcome of drug-induced gingival overgrowth. PMID:23690667

  16. A new overgrowth syndrome is due to mutations in RNF125.

    PubMed

    Tenorio, Jair; Mansilla, Alicia; Valencia, María; Martínez-Glez, Víctor; Romanelli, Valeria; Arias, Pedro; Castrejón, Nerea; Poletta, Fernando; Guillén-Navarro, Encarna; Gordo, Gema; Mansilla, Elena; García-Santiago, Fé; González-Casado, Isabel; Vallespín, Elena; Palomares, María; Mori, María A; Santos-Simarro, Fernando; García-Miñaur, Sixto; Fernández, Luis; Mena, Rocío; Benito-Sanz, Sara; del Pozo, Ángela; Silla, Juan Carlos; Ibañez, Kristina; López-Granados, Eduardo; Martín-Trujillo, Alex; Montaner, David; Heath, Karen E; Campos-Barros, Ángel; Dopazo, Joaquín; Nevado, Julián; Monk, David; Ruiz-Pérez, Víctor L; Lapunzina, Pablo

    2014-12-01

    Overgrowth syndromes (OGS) are a group of disorders in which all parameters of growth and physical development are above the mean for age and sex. We evaluated a series of 270 families from the Spanish Overgrowth Syndrome Registry with no known OGS. We identified one de novo deletion and three missense mutations in RNF125 in six patients from four families with overgrowth, macrocephaly, intellectual disability, mild hydrocephaly, hypoglycemia, and inflammatory diseases resembling Sjögren syndrome. RNF125 encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase and is a novel gene of OGS. Our studies of the RNF125 pathway point to upregulation of RIG-I-IPS1-MDA5 and/or disruption of the PI3K-AKT and interferon signaling pathways as the putative final effectors. © 2014 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  17. Lack of pathogenic mutations in SOS1 gene in phenytoin-induced gingival overgrowth patients.

    PubMed

    Margiotti, Katia; Pascolini, Giulia; Consoli, Federica; Guida, Valentina; Di Bonaventura, Carlo; Giallonardo, Anna Teresa; Pizzuti, Antonio; De Luca, Alessandro

    2017-08-01

    Gingival overgrowth is a side effect associated with some distinct classes of drugs, such as anticonvulsants, immunosuppressants, and calcium channel blockers. One of the main drugs associated with gingival overgrowth is the antiepileptic phenytoin, which affects gingival tissues by altering extracellular matrix metabolism. It has been shown that mutation of human SOS1 gene is responsible for a rare hereditary gingival fibromatosis type 1, a benign gingival overgrowth. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the possible contribution of SOS1 mutation to gingival overgrowth-related phenotype. We selected and screened for mutations a group of 24 epileptic patients who experienced significant gingival overgrowth following phenytoin therapy. Mutation scanning was carried out by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the entire coding region of the SOS1 gene. Novel identified variants were analyzed in-silico by using Alamut Visual mutation interpretation software, and comparison with normal control group was done. Mutation scanning of the entire coding sequence of SOS1 gene identified seven intronic variants and one new exonic substitution (c.138G>A). The seven common intronic variants were not considered to be of pathogenic importance. The exonic substitution c.138G>A was found to be absent in 100 ethnically matched normal control chromosomes, but was not expected to have functional significance based on prediction bioinformatics tools. This study represents the first mutation analysis of the SOS1 gene in phenytoin-induced gingival overgrowth epileptic patients. Present results suggest that obvious pathogenic mutations in the SOS1 gene do not represent a common mechanism underlying phenytoin-induced gingival overgrowth in epileptic patients; other mechanisms are likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of this drug-induced phenotype. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pannus overgrowth after mitral valve replacement with a Carpentier-Edwards pericardial bioprosthesis.

    PubMed

    Oda, Takeshi; Kato, Seiya; Tayama, Eiki; Fukunaga, Shuji; Akashi, Hidetoshi; Aoyagi, Shigeaki

    2009-01-01

    A Carpentier-Edwards pericardial (CEP) bioprosthesis was explanted from an 81-year-old woman due to nonstructural dysfunction 9 years after mitral valve replacement. The nonstructural dysfunction produced severe regurgitation in the mitral position. During the surgery, excessive pannus overgrowth was seen on the left ventricular side of the CEP bioprosthesis. Pannus overgrowth was prominent on one leaflet. That leaflet was stiff and shortened due to the excessive overgrowth of pannus. In this patient, the distortion of one leaflet was the main reason for transvalvular leakage of the CEP bioprosthesis in the mitral position. A new CEP bioprosthesis was implanted in the mitral position. Pathological analysis revealed fibrotic pannus with a small amount of cellular material over the leaflets of the resected CEP valve. This change was marked on the distorted leaflet.

  19. Early Generalized Overgrowth in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Prevalence Rates, Gender Effects, and Clinical Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Daniel J.; Chang, Joseph; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although early head and body overgrowth have been well-documented in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), their prevalence and significance remain unclear. It is also unclear whether overgrowth affects males and females differentially, and whether it is associated with clinical outcomes later in life. Method To evaluate prevalence of somatic overgrowth, gender effects, and associations with clinical outcomes, head circumference, height, and weight measurements were collected retrospectively between birth and 2 years of age in toddlers with ASD (n=200) and typically developing (TD; n=147) community controls. Symptom severity, verbal, and nonverbal functioning were assessed at 4 years. Results Abnormalities in somatic growth in infants with ASD were consistent with early generalized overgrowth (EGO). Boys but not girls with ASD were larger and exhibited an increased rate of extreme EGO compared to community controls (18.0% versus 3.4%). Presence of a larger body at birth and postnatal overgrowth were associated independently with poorer social, verbal, and nonverbal skills at 4 years. Conclusion Although early growth abnormalities in ASD are less common than previously thought, their presence is predictive of lower social, verbal, and nonverbal skills at 4 years, suggesting that they may constitute a biomarker for identifying toddlers with ASD at risk for less-optimal outcomes. The results highlight that the search for mechanisms underlying atypical brain development in ASD should consider factors responsible for both neural and non-neural tissue development during prenatal and early postnatal periods, and can be informed by the finding that early overgrowth may be more readily observed in males than females with ASD. PMID:25245350

  20. Phenytoin-induced severe gingival overgrowth in a child

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rakesh; Singh, Rajeev Kumar; Verma, Nidhi; Verma, Umesh Pratap

    2014-01-01

    Gingival enlargement or overgrowth (GO) is a common complication of the anticonvulsant drug phenytoin (PHT). GO is evident in almost half of the patients receiving PHT therapy. PHT-induced gingival overgrowth (PGO) is more common in children than in adults and affects both males and females equally. PGO may vary from mild to severe and does not seem to be dose dependant. It is supposed that PHT and its metabolites cause a direct effect on the periodontal tissues; however, poor oral hygiene may contribute to the severity of gingival inflammation in patients with PGO. Management of PGO includes meticulous oral hygiene practice to reduce inflammation and surgical excision of the overgrown tissue, known as gingivectomy. We present a case of PHT-induced severe GO in a 10-year-old boy and discuss the clinical features, aetiology, pathogenesis and management of PGO. PMID:25053668

  1. Genetics Home Reference: DNMT3A overgrowth syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... eyes (narrowed palpebral fissures). Additionally, the upper front teeth are often larger than normal. Intellectual disability in DNMT3A overgrowth syndrome ranges from mild to severe. Individuals may have features of autism spectrum disorder , which are characterized by impaired communication ...

  2. Drug-induced gingival overgrowth: The nemesis of gingiva unravelled.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Vipin; Bansal, Chhaya

    2013-03-01

    Drug-induced gingival overgrowth or enlargement manifests as abnormal growth of the gingiva due to an adverse drug reaction (ADR) in patients treated with anticonvulsants, immunosuppressants, and calcium channel blockers. As gingival enlargement develops, it affects the normal oral hygiene practice and may interfere with masticatory functions. It gradually becomes a source of pain and the condition often leads to disfiguration. Within the group of patients that develop this unwanted effect, there appears to be variability in the extent and severity of the gingival changes. It would seem pertinent to identify and explore possible risk factors and relating them with the treatment plan. This article throws light on respective drugs and their association with gingival overgrowth and approaches to treatment based on current knowledge and investigative observations.

  3. Prenatal findings and the genetic diagnosis of fetal overgrowth disorders: Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome, Sotos syndrome, and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Ping

    2012-06-01

    With the advent of prenatal sonography, fetal overgrowth can be easily detected. Prenatal-onset overgrowth can be secondary to normal variants of familial tall stature, familial rapid maturation, diabetic macrosomia, and congenital nesidioblastosis, or prenatal-onset overgrowth can be primary due to pathological overgrowth disorders. This article provides a comprehensive review of the prenatal findings and the genetic diagnosis of some of the pathological prenatal-onset overgrowth disorders, such as Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome, Sotos syndrome, and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS): diagnostic and testing eligibility criteria, differential diagnosis, and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Keppler-Noreuil, Kim M; Rios, Jonathan J; Parker, Victoria E R; Semple, Robert K; Lindhurst, Marjorie J; Sapp, Julie C; Alomari, Ahmad; Ezaki, Marybeth; Dobyns, William; Biesecker, Leslie G

    2015-02-01

    Somatic activating mutations in the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/AKT/mTOR pathway underlie heterogeneous segmental overgrowth phenotypes. Because of the extreme differences among patients, we sought to characterize the phenotypic spectrum associated with different genotypes and mutation burdens, including a better understanding of associated complications and natural history. Historically, the clinical diagnoses in patients with PIK3CA activating mutations have included Fibroadipose hyperplasia or Overgrowth (FAO), Hemihyperplasia Multiple Lipomatosis (HHML), Congenital Lipomatous Overgrowth, Vascular Malformations, Epidermal Nevi, Scoliosis/Skeletal and Spinal (CLOVES) syndrome, macrodactyly, Fibroadipose Infiltrating Lipomatosis, and the related megalencephaly syndromes, Megalencephaly-Capillary Malformation (MCAP or M-CM) and Dysplastic Megalencephaly (DMEG). A workshop was convened at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to discuss and develop a consensus document regarding diagnosis and treatment of patients with PIK3CA-associated somatic overgrowth disorders. Participants in the workshop included a group of researchers from several institutions who have been studying these disorders and have published their findings, as well as representatives from patient-advocacy and support groups. The umbrella term of "PIK3CA-Related Overgrowth Spectrum (PROS)" was agreed upon to encompass both the known and emerging clinical entities associated with somatic PIK3CA mutations including, macrodactyly, FAO, HHML, CLOVES, and related megalencephaly conditions. Key clinical diagnostic features and criteria for testing were proposed, and testing approaches summarized. Preliminary recommendations for a uniform approach to assessment of overgrowth and molecular diagnostic testing were determined. Future areas to address include the surgical management of overgrowth tissue and vascular anomalies, the optimal approach to thrombosis risk, and the testing of potential

  5. PIK3CA-Related Overgrowth Spectrum (PROS): Diagnostic and Testing Eligibility Criteria, Differential Diagnosis, and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Keppler-Noreuil, Kim M.; Rios, Jonathan J.; Parker, Victoria E.R.; Semple, Robert K.; Lindhurst, Marjorie J.; Sapp, Julie C.; Alomari, Ahmad; Ezaki, Marybeth; Dobyns, William; Biesecker, Leslie G.

    2015-01-01

    Somatic activating mutations in the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/AKT/mTOR pathway underlie heterogeneous segmental overgrowth phenotypes. Because of the extreme differences among patients, we sought to characterize the phenotypic spectrum associated with different genotypes and mutation burdens, including a better understanding of associated complications and natural history. Historically, the clinical diagnoses in patients with PIK3CA activating mutations have included Fibroadipose hyperplasia or Overgrowth (FAO), Hemihyperplasia Multiple Lipomatosis (HHML), Congenital Lipomatous Overgrowth, Vascular Malformations, Epidermal Nevi, Scoliosis/Skeletal and Spinal (CLOVES) syndrome, macrodactyly, Fibroadipose Infiltrating Lipomatosis, and the related megalencephaly syndromes, Megalencephaly-Capillary Malformation (MCAP or M-CM) and Dysplastic Megalencephaly (DMEG). A workshop was convened at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to discuss and develop a consensus document regarding diagnosis and treatment of patients with PIK3CA-associated somatic overgrowth disorders. Participants in the workshop included a group of researchers from several institutions who have been studying these disorders and have published their findings, as well as representatives from patient-advocacy and support groups. The umbrella term of “PIK3CA-Related Overgrowth Spectrum (PROS)” was agreed upon to encompass both the known and emerging clinical entities associated with somatic PIK3CA mutations including, macrodactyly, FAO, HHML, CLOVES, and related megalencephaly conditions. Key clinical diagnostic features and criteria for testing were proposed, and testing approaches summarized. Preliminary recommendations for a uniform approach to assessment of overgrowth and molecular diagnostic testing were determined. Future areas to address include the surgical management of overgrowth tissue and vascular anomalies, the optimal approach to thrombosis risk, and the testing of potential

  6. Nifedipine-induced gingival overgrowth in rats: brief review and experimental study.

    PubMed

    Fu, E; Nieh, S; Hsiao, C T; Hsieh, Y D; Wikesjö, U M; Shen, E C

    1998-07-01

    The first case report of gingival overgrowth induced by nifedipine (NIF), a calcium-beta blocker, was in 1984. However, the association between gingival alterations and the drug therapy of sodium diphenyl hydantoinate was initially described in 1939. The purpose of the experimental study was to examine the effect of NIF on gingival morphology in an animal model. Forty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups. Animals in each group daily received NIF in dimethyl sulfoxide by gastric feeding at a dosage of 0 (control), 30, or 50 mg/kg body weight for 9 weeks. Gingival gross morphology was assessed tri-weekly from stone models obtained from the mandibular incisal region. Animals were sacrificed at the end of study and tissue blocks were processed for histopathologic and histometric evaluation. Histometric analysis was performed at 5 selected tissue levels. Macro- and microscopic significantly increased gingival dimensions were demonstrated in NIF-treated animals compared to control. Although a fibrovascular tissue was observed in the tooth-gingiva interface for both NIF-treated and control animals, it was thicker and appeared earlier in NIF-treated animals. The results of the present study suggest that gingival overgrowth can be induced by NIF in rats and that the gingival overgrowth appears dose dependent.

  7. [The range of antagonistic effects of Lactobacillus bacterial strains on etiologic agents of bacterial vaginosis].

    PubMed

    Strus, M; Malinowska, M

    1999-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis is caused by uncontrolled sequential overgrowth of some anaerobic bacteria: Gardnerella vaginalis, Prevotella bivia, Bacteroides spp., Peptostreptococcus spp., Mobiluncus sp. usually occurring in stable numbers in the bacterial flora of healthy women. On the other hand, different species of bacteria belonging to the genus Lactobacillus, most frequently L. plantarum, L. rhamnosus and L. acidophilus, form a group of aerobic bacteria dominating in the same environment. The diversity and density of their populations depend on the age and health conditions. Thanks to their antagonistic and adherence properties bacteria of the genus Lactobacillus can maintain a positive balance role in this ecosystem. The aim of this study was to assess the antagonistic properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from the vagina of healthy women against most common agents of bacterial vaginosis. It was found that nearly all of the tested Lactobacillus strains exerted distinct antagonistic activity against anaerobic bacteria: Gardnerella vaginalis, Prevotella bivia and Peptostreptococcus anaerobius and quite a number also against Gram-negative rods, while only some of them were able to inhibit Gram-positive aerobic cocci as Enterococcus faecalis or Staphylococcus aureus.

  8. Effects of Rifaximin on Transit, Permeability, Fecal Microbiome, and Organic Acid Excretion in Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Andrés; Camilleri, Michael; Shin, Andrea; Linker Nord, Sara; O'Neill, Jessica; Gray, Amber V; Lueke, Alan J; Donato, Leslie J; Burton, Duane D; Szarka, Lawrence A; Zinsmeister, Alan R; Golden, Pamela L; Fodor, Anthony

    2016-05-26

    Rifaximin relieves irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms, bloating, abdominal pain, and loose or watery stools. Our objective was to investigate digestive functions in rifaximin-treated IBS patients. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study, we compared the effects of rifaximin, 550 mg t.i.d., and placebo for 14 days in nonconstipated IBS and no evidence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). All subjects completed baseline and on-treatment evaluation of colonic transit by scintigraphy, mucosal permeability by lactulose-mannitol excretion, and fecal microbiome, bile acids, and short chain fatty acids measured on random stool sample. Overall comparison of primary response measures between treatment groups was assessed using intention-to-treat analysis of covariance (ANCOVA, with baseline value as covariate). There were no significant effects of treatment on bowel symptoms, small bowel or colonic permeability, or colonic transit at 24 h. Rifaximin was associated with acceleration of ascending colon emptying (14.9±2.6 h placebo; 6.9±0.9 h rifaximin; P=0.033) and overall colonic transit at 48 h (geometric center 4.0±0.3 h placebo; 4.7±0.2 h rifaximin; P=0.046); however, rifaximin did not significantly alter total fecal bile acids per g of stool or proportion of individual bile acids or acetate, propionate, or butyrate in stool. Microbiome studies showed strong associations within subjects, modest associations with time across subjects, and a small but significant association of microbial richness with treatment arm (rifaximin vs. treatment). In nonconstipated IBS without documented SIBO, rifaximin treatment is associated with acceleration of colonic transit and changes in microbial richness; the mechanism for reported symptomatic benefit requires further investigation.

  9. Determination of rifaximin treatment period according to lactulose breath test values in nonconstipated irritable bowel syndrome subjects.

    PubMed

    Bae, Suhyun; Lee, Kwang Jae; Kim, Young-Sang; Kim, Kyu-Nam

    2015-06-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) can partly explain irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and rifaximin has been observed to improve abdominal symptoms in nonconstipated IBS patients. However, there are few reports on the association of the rifaximin treatment periods with the results of a lactulose breath test (LBT). Therefore, we performed a retrospective review of patient charts to investigate the relation between the rifaximin treatment periods with LBT results in nonconstipated IBS patients. We also evaluated the time to achieve a symptomatic improvement in the IBS patients as compared to the changes in the LBT. We reviewed the charts for patients who showed IBS symptoms with documented positive results for LBT during their initial visit and who had a follow-up LBT after treatment with rifaximin. The LBT values were compared to the subjects' symptom scores. A total of 102 subjects had a follow-up LBT to assess LBT normalization. The subjects were divided into groups according to treatment periods of 4 weeks (n = 36), 8 weeks (n = 43), and 12 weeks (n = 23). The groups with a longer treatment exhibited an increase in the hydrogen gas value at 90 min and its sum during 90 min at the initial LBT. There were significant differences in hydrogen gas value at 90 min and in its sum during 90 min at the initial LBT between the groups treated for 4 and 12 weeks. The most significant treatment response was observed during the first 4 weeks for all treatment groups. Symptomatic improvement occurred earlier than LBT normalization in the treatment period over 4 weeks. The results indicate that different rifaximin treatment periods are needed in accordance with LBT levels to effectively eradicate SIBO.

  10. Aciduric Strains of Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Isolated from Human Feces, Have Strong Adhesion and Aggregation Properties.

    PubMed

    Klopper, Kyle B; Deane, Shelly M; Dicks, Leon M T

    2018-03-01

    Human feces were streaked onto MRS Agar adjusted to pH 2.5, 3.0, and 6.4, respectively, and medium supplemented with 1.0% (w/v) bile salts. Two aciduric strains, identified as Lactobacillus reuteri HFI-LD5 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus HFI-K2 (based on 16S rDNA and recA sequences), were non-hemolytic and did not hydrolyze mucin. The surface of Lactobacillus reuteri HFI-LD5 cells has a weak negative charge, whereas Lactobacillus rhamnosus HFI-K2 has acidic and basic properties, and produces exopolysaccharides (EPS). None of the strains produce bacteriocins. Both strains are resistant to several antibiotics, including sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and sulphonamides. The ability of Lactobacillus reuteri HFI-LD5 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus HFI-K2 to grow at pH 2.5 suggests that they will survive passage through the stomach. EPS production may assist in binding to intestinal mucus, especially in the small intestinal tract, protect epithelial cells, and stimulate the immune system. Lactobacillus reuteri HFI-LD5 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus HFI-K2 may be used as probiotics, especially in the treatment of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO).

  11. The importance of prenatal 3-dimensional sonography in a case of a segmental overgrowth syndrome with unclear chromosomal microarray results.

    PubMed

    Asoglu, Mehmet Resit; Higgs, Amanda; Esin, Sertac; Kaplan, Julie; Turan, Sifa

    2018-06-01

    PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum, caused by mosaic mutations in the PIK3CA gene, is associated with regional or generalized asymmetric overgrowth of the body or a body part in addition to other clinical findings. Three-dimensional ultrasonography (3-D US) has the capability to display structural abnormalities in soft tissues or other organs, thereby facilitating identification of segmental overgrowth lesions. We present a case suspected of having a segmental overgrowth disorder based on 3-D US, whose chromosomal microarray result was abnormal, but apparently was not the cause of the majority of the fetus's clinical features. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Anesthesia in a 12 year old boy with somatic overgrowth secondary to pericentric inversion of chromosome 12.

    PubMed

    Wong, Tina B; Rowell, Jonathan C; Waldhausen, John H T; Parisi, Melissa A; Jonmarker, Christer

    2013-03-01

    The management of a splenectomy in a boy with an unusual form of somatic overgrowth is presented. Except for a moderately difficult airway, no unusual reactions to anesthesia and surgery were encountered. Possible anesthetic implications of different somatic overgrowth syndromes in children are presented. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Mitral stenosis due to pannus overgrowth after rigid ring annuloplasty.

    PubMed

    Oda, Takeshi; Kato, Seiya; Tayama, Eiki; Fukunaga, Shuji; Akashi, Hidetoshi; Aoyagi, Shigeaki

    2010-03-01

    Although mitral stenosis (MS) due to pannus overgrowth after mitral valve repair for rheumatic mitral regurgitation (MR) is not uncommon, it is extremely rare in relation to non-rheumatic mitral regurgitation. Whilst it has been suggested that the rigid annuloplasty ring induces pannus overgrowth in the same manner as the flexible ring, to date only in cases using the flexible ring has pannus formation been confirmed by a pathological examination after redo surgery. The case is described of a woman who had undergone mitral valve repair using a 28 mm rigid ring three years previously because of non-rheumatic MR, and subsequently suffered from MS due to pannus formation over the annuloplasty ring. To the present authors' knowledge, this is the first report of MS due to pannus formation after mitral valve repair using a rigid annuloplasty ring to treat non-rheumatic MR documented at reoperation.

  14. 'Overgrowth' mutants in barley and wheat: new alleles and phenotypes of the 'Green Revolution' DELLA gene.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Peter Michael; Harding, Carol Anne

    2013-04-01

    A suppressor screen using dwarf mutants of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) led to the isolation of 'overgrowth' derivatives, which retained the original dwarfing gene but grew at a faster rate because of a new mutation. The new mutations were in the Slender1 (Sln1) gene (11/13 cases), which encodes the DELLA protein central to gibberellin (GA) signalling, showed 100% genetic linkage to Sln1 (1/13), or were in the Spindly1 (Spy1) gene (1/13), which encodes another protein involved in GA signalling. The overgrowth mutants were characterized by increased GA signalling, although the extent still depended on the background GA biosynthesis capacity, GA receptor function, and DELLA activity. A comparison between two GA responses, α-amylase production and leaf growth rate, revealed degrees of specificity for both the overgrowth allele and the GA response under consideration. Many overgrowth mutants were also isolated in a dwarf line of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and 19 new alleles were identified in the Rht-B1 gene, one of the 'Green Revolution' semi-dwarfing genes and the orthologue of Sln1. The sites of amino acid substitutions in the DELLA proteins of both species provide insight into DELLA function, and included examples where identical but independent substitutions were observed. In both species, the starting lines were too dwarfed to be directly useful in breeding programmes, but new overgrowth derivatives with semidwarf heights have now been characterized. The variation they exhibit in GA-influenced traits identifies novel alleles with perfect markers that are of potential use in breeding.

  15. Cleaved-edge-overgrowth nanogap electrodes.

    PubMed

    Luber, Sebastian M; Bichler, Max; Abstreiter, Gerhard; Tornow, Marc

    2011-02-11

    We present a method to fabricate multiple metal nanogap electrodes of tailored width and distance in parallel, on the cleaved plane of a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. The three-dimensional patterned structures are obtained by a combination of molecular-beam-epitaxial regrowth on a crystal facet, using the cleaved-edge-overgrowth (CEO) method, and subsequent wet selective etching and metallization steps. SEM and AFM studies reveal smooth and co-planar electrodes of width and distance of the order of 10 nm. Preliminary electrical characterization indicates electrical gap insulation in the 100 MΩ range with kΩ lead resistance. We propose our methodology to realize multiple electrode geometries that would allow investigation of the electrical conductivity of complex nanoscale objects such as branched organic molecules.

  16. Endochondral gigantism: a newly recognized skeletal dysplasia with pre- and postnatal overgrowth and endocrine abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Heinrich; Kammer, Birgit; Grasser, Monika; Enders, Angelika; Rost, Imma; Kiess, Wieland

    2007-08-15

    We report on a 3-year-old male, born at 34 weeks of gestation, with marked pre- and postnatal overgrowth, birth weight of 6,600 g, length of 61 cm, and head circumference of 38.5 cm. A striking phenotype was recorded at birth, which became more evident during the follow-up period. He had macrobrachycephaly, facial abnormalities, small thoracic cage, long trunk, deformed spine, rhizomelia, large hands and feets, absent subcutaneous fat, small umbilical hernia, inguinal hernias, and large joints with mild contractures. Hypoglycemic episodes and obstructive apnea complicated the neonatal period. During follow-up, overgrowth continued with a height of 146 cm (+11.65 SDS) and a weight of 39 kg (BMI 18.3 kg/m(2)) at 3.5 years. Endocrinological work-up disclosed extremely low levels of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factors, and insulin. What makes our patient unique is the association of marked prenatal overgrowth; unusual phenotype; skeletal dysplasia caused by accelerated endochondral ossification resulting in cartilage hyperplasia of the skull base and spine, and postnatal gigantism; and complete absence of subcutaneous fat. Other well-known overgrowth syndromes were excluded. We hypothesize that autocrine/paracrine growth factors could be the cause of excessive endochondral ossification. Alternately, activating mutations in transcription factors involved in both growth and endocrine/metabolic homeostasis could be responsible for this unusual phenotype. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Surgical management of gingival overgrowth associated with Cowden sydrome: a case report and current understanding.

    PubMed

    Feitosa, Daniela da Silva; Santamaria, Mauro Pedrine; Casati, Márcio Zaffalon; Sallum, Enilson Antonio; Nociti Júnior, Francisco Humberto; de Toledo, Sérgio

    2011-05-01

    Cowden syndrome, also known as multiple hamartoma syndrome, is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by multiple hamartomas and a high risk of development of malignancy. Oral findings, such as papillomatous lesions and fibromas, are common features; however, a periodontal phenotype has not been reported previously. Therefore, this report presents a case of gingival overgrowth associated with Cowden syndrome, its successful surgical management, and the 12-month follow-up results. Additionally, we discuss the implications for clinicians. A 23-year-old woman was referred to the Department of Periodontics, Piracicaba Dental School, presenting with generalized gingival overgrowth. A detailed dental and medical history and clinical examination confirmed the systemic diagnosis of Cowden syndrome. Histology, radiographs, and clinical data document the entire clinical approach and follow-up. Clinically, there were minor signs of recurrence of gingival overgrowth in a 12-month period after gingivectomy; however, papular lesions reappeared in keratinized gingiva immediately after healing. No signs of bone loss related to the systemic condition were observed radiographically. Histologically, a dense connective tissue with a moderate chronic inflammatory infiltrate and epithelial acanthosis, which is characteristic of gingival hyperplasia, were demonstrated. Gingival overgrowth may occur as an oral phenotype related to Cowden syndrome and can be successfully treated by means of external bevel gingivectomy, followed by regular maintenance therapy, contributing to the patient's well-being, both functionally and esthetically.

  18. SacB-SacR gene cassette as the negative selection marker to suppress Agrobacterium overgrowth in Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Agrobacterium overgrowth is a common problem in Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation. To suppress the Agrobacterium overgrowth, various antibiotics have been used during plant tissue culture steps. The antibiotics are expensive and may adversely affect plant cell differentiation and reduce ...

  19. The dual oxidase gene BdDuox regulates the intestinal bacterial community homeostasis of Bactrocera dorsalis

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Zhichao; Wang, Ailin; Li, Yushan; Cai, Zhaohui; Lemaitre, Bruno; Zhang, Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    The guts of metazoans are in permanent contact with the microbial realm that includes beneficial symbionts, nonsymbionts, food-borne microbes and life-threatening pathogens. However, little is known concerning how host immunity affects gut bacterial community. Here, we analyze the role of a dual oxidase gene (BdDuox) in regulating the intestinal bacterial community homeostasis of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis. The results showed that knockdown of BdDuox led to an increased bacterial load, and to a decrease in the relative abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Leuconostocaceae bacterial symbionts in the gut. The resulting dysbiosis, in turn, stimulates an immune response by activating BdDuox and promoting reactive oxygen species (ROS) production that regulates the composition and structure of the gut bacterial community to normal status by repressing the overgrowth of minor pathobionts. Our results suggest that BdDuox plays a pivotal role in regulating the homeostasis of the gut bacterial community in B. dorsalis. PMID:26565723

  20. Peri-implant bony overgrowth as a cause of revision surgery in auditory osseointegrated implantation.

    PubMed

    Tompkins, Jared J; Petersen, Dana K; Sharbel, Daniel D; McKinnon, Brian J; MacDonald, C Bruce

    2016-07-01

    Implantation of auditory osseointegrated implants, also known as bone-anchored hearing systems (BAHS), represents a surgical option for select pediatric patients aged 5 years or older with hearing loss. Functional indications in this patient population include conductive or mixed hearing loss. Common complications of implantation include skin infections, chronic skin irritation, hypertrophic skin overgrowth, and loose abutments. In a case series of 15 pediatric patients, we discovered an unexpectedly high skin-related complication rate requiring surgical revision of 53%. During revision surgery, we discovered 5 patients who exhibited significant bony overgrowth at the abutment site, a complication infrequently noted in past literature. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Testing Brain Overgrowth and Synaptic Models of Autism Using NPCs and Neurons from Patient-Derived iPS Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-13-1-0415 TITLE: Testing Brain Overgrowth and Synaptic Models of Autism Using NPCs and Neurons from...REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 15 Sept 2013 – 14 Sept 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Testing Brain Overgrowth and Synaptic Models of Autism Using...STATEMENT Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Autism and autism spectrum disorders (ASD

  2. Non-oral dopaminergic therapies for Parkinson’s disease: current treatments and the future

    PubMed Central

    Ray Chaudhuri, K; Qamar, Mubasher A; Rajah, Thadshani; Loehrer, Philipp; Sauerbier, Anna; Odin, Per; Jenner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract has now been recognized to affect all stages of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The consequences lead to problems with absorption of oral medication, erratic treatment response, as well as silent aspiration, which is one of the key risk factors in developing pneumonia. The issue is further complicated by other gut abnormalities, such as small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and an altered gut microbiota, which occur in PD with variable frequency. Clinically, these gastrointestinal abnormalities might be associated with symptoms such as nausea, early-morning “off”, and frequent motor and non-motor fluctuations. Therefore, non-oral therapies that avoid the gastrointestinal system seem a rational option to overcome the problems of oral therapies in PD. Hence, several non-oral strategies have now been actively investigated and developed. The transdermal rotigotine patch, infusion therapies with apomorphine, intrajejunal levodopa, and the apomorphine pen strategy are currently in clinical use with a few others in development. In this review, we discuss and summarize the most recent developments in this field with a focus on non-oral dopaminergic strategies (excluding surgical interventions such as deep brain stimulation) in development or to be licensed for management of PD. PMID:28725704

  3. Testing Brain Overgrowth and Synaptic Models of Autism Using NPCs and Neurons From Patient Derived iPS Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0414 TITLE: Testing Brain Overgrowth and Synaptic Models of Autism Using NPCs and Neurons From Patient-Derived iPS...3. DATES COVERED 15 Sep 2013 - 14 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Testing Brain Overgrowth and Synaptic Models of Autism Using NPCs and Neurons From...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Autism and autism spectrum disorders (ASD

  4. Mutations in the DNA methyltransferase gene DNMT3A cause an overgrowth syndrome with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Tatton-Brown, Katrina; Seal, Sheila; Ruark, Elise; Harmer, Jenny; Ramsay, Emma; Del Vecchio Duarte, Silvana; Zachariou, Anna; Hanks, Sandra; O'Brien, Eleanor; Aksglaede, Lise; Baralle, Diana; Dabir, Tabib; Gener, Blanca; Goudie, David; Homfray, Tessa; Kumar, Ajith; Pilz, Daniela T; Selicorni, Angelo; Temple, I Karen; Van Maldergem, Lionel; Yachelevich, Naomi; van Montfort, Robert; Rahman, Nazneen

    2014-04-01

    Overgrowth disorders are a heterogeneous group of conditions characterized by increased growth parameters and other variable clinical features such as intellectual disability and facial dysmorphism. To identify new causes of human overgrowth, we performed exome sequencing in ten proband-parent trios and detected two de novo DNMT3A mutations. We identified 11 additional de novo mutations by sequencing DNMT3A in a further 142 individuals with overgrowth. The mutations alter residues in functional DNMT3A domains, and protein modeling suggests that they interfere with domain-domain interactions and histone binding. Similar mutations were not present in 1,000 UK population controls (13/152 cases versus 0/1,000 controls; P < 0.0001). Mutation carriers had a distinctive facial appearance, intellectual disability and greater height. DNMT3A encodes a DNA methyltransferase essential for establishing methylation during embryogenesis and is commonly somatically mutated in acute myeloid leukemia. Thus, DNMT3A joins an emerging group of epigenetic DNA- and histone-modifying genes associated with both developmental growth disorders and hematological malignancies.

  5. Mutations in the DNA methyltransferase gene, DNMT3A, cause an overgrowth syndrome with intellectual disability

    PubMed Central

    Tatton-Brown, Katrina; Seal, Sheila; Ruark, Elise; Harmer, Jenny; Ramsay, Emma; del Vecchio Duarte, Silvana; Zachariou, Anna; Hanks, Sandra; O’Brien, Eleanor; Aksglaede, Lise; Baralle, Diana; Dabir, Tabib; Gener, Blanca; Goudie, David; Homfray, Tessa; Kumar, Ajith; Pilz, Daniela T; Selicorni, Angelo; Temple, I Karen; Van Maldergem, Lionel; Yachelevich, Naomi; van Montfort, Robert; Rahman, Nazneen

    2014-01-01

    Overgrowth disorders are a heterogeneous group of conditions characterised by increased growth parameters and variable other clinical features, such as intellectual disability and facial dysmorphism1. To identify novel causes of human overgrowth we performed exome sequencing in 10 proband-parent trios and detected two de novo DNMT3A mutations. We identified 11 additional de novo mutations through DNMT3A sequencing of a further 142 individuals with overgrowth. The mutations were all located in functional DNMT3A domains and protein modelling suggests they interfere with domain-domain interactions and histone binding. No similar mutations were present in 1000 UK population controls (13/152 vs 0/1000; P<0.0001). Mutation carriers had a distinctive facial appearance, intellectual disability and increased height. DNMT3A encodes a key methyltransferase essential for establishing the methylation imprint in embryogenesis and is commonly somatically mutated in acute myeloid leukaemia2-4. Thus DNMT3A joins an emerging group of epigenetic DNA and histone modifying genes associated with both developmental growth disorders and haematological malignancies5. PMID:24614070

  6. [Use of probiotics in bacterial vaginosis].

    PubMed

    Mur Pérez, A M; Mateo Segura, Z; Ramírez Domínguez, N; Vela Condón, P

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a change in the vaginal microbiota due to bacterial overgrowth of normal microorganisms, which produces symptoms of vaginal discomfort, increased malodorous vaginal discharge, etc. Although they been seen to improve recurrence rates in clinical practice, the role of probiotics is questioned in these situations. A literature review on BV is presented in order to evaluate the effectiveness of using probiotics as adjuvant therapy in BV. PubMed, Cochrane and SCOPUS review of the last 5 years publications using probiotics to treat women diagnosed with BV. An analysis was performed on the 10 items that refer to the use of probiotics in addition to antibiotic treatments. All items conclude that the use of probiotics is beneficial in cases of BV in addition to conventional treatments. However, the conclusions are not categorical due to there being a wide variety of studies and probiotics used. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Early Generalized Overgrowth in Boys With Autism

    PubMed Central

    Chawarska, Katarzyna; Campbell, Daniel; Chen, Lisha; Shic, Frederick; Klin, Ami; Chang, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Context Multiple studies have reported an overgrowth in head circumference (HC) in the first year of life in autism. However, it is unclear whether this phenomenon is independent of overall body growth and whether it is associated with specific social or cognitive features. Objectives To examine the trajectory of early HC growth in autism compared with control groups; to assess whether HC growth in autism is independent of height and weight growth during infancy; and to examine HC growth from birth to 24 months in relationship to social, verbal, cognitive, and adaptive functioning levels. Design Retrospective study. Setting A specialized university-based clinic. Participants Boys diagnosed as having autistic disorder (n=64), pervasive developmental disorder–not otherwise specified (n=34), global developmental delay (n=13), and other developmental problems (n=18) and typically developing boys (n=55). Main Outcome Measures Age-related changes in HC, height, and weight between birth and age 24 months; measures of social, verbal, and cognitive functioning at age 2 years. Results Compared with typically developing controls, boys with autism were significantly longer by age 4.8 months, had a larger HC by age 9.5 months, and weighed more by age 11.4 months (P=.05 for all). None of the other clinical groups showed a similar overgrowth pattern. Boys with autism who were in the top 10% of overall physical size in infancy exhibited greater severity of social deficits (P=.009) and lower adaptive functioning (P=.03). Conclusions Boys with autism experienced accelerated HC growth in the first year of life. However, this phenomenon reflected a generalized process affecting other morphologic features, including height and weight. The study highlights the importance of studying factors that influence not only neuronal development but also skeletal growth in autism. PMID:21969460

  8. Clinical and subclinical effects of power brushing following experimental induction of biofilm overgrowth in subjects representing a spectrum of periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Aspiras, Marcelo B; Barros, Silvana P; Moss, Kevin L; Barrow, David A; Phillips, Sherrill T; Mendoza, Luis; de Jager, Marko; Ward, Marilyn; Offenbacher, Steven

    2013-12-01

    Investigate short-term effects of power brushing following experimental induction of biofilm overgrowth in periodontal disease states. Overall, 175 subjects representing each of five biofilm-gingival interface (BGI) periodontal groups were enrolled in a single-blind, randomized study. After stent-induced biofilm overgrowth for 21 days subjects received either a manual or a power toothbrush to use during a 4 weeks resolution phase. At baseline and during induction and resolution, standard clinical parameters were measured. Subclinical parameters included multikine analysis of 13 salivary biomarkers and 16s Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM) probe analysis of subgingival plaque samples. All groups exhibited significantly greater reductions in bleeding on probing (BOP) (p = 0.002), gingival index (GI) (p = 0.0007), pocket depth (PD) (p = 0.04) and plaque index (p = 0.001) with power brushing compared to manual. When BGI groups were combined to form a shallow PD (PD ≤ 3 mm) and a deep PD group (PD > 4 mm) power brushing reduced BOP and GI in subjects with both pocket depths. Power brushing significantly reduced IL-1β levels at resolution while changes in bacterial levels showed non-significant trends between both brushing modalities. Short-term changes in select clinical parameters and subclinical salivary biomarkers may be useful in assessing efficacy of power brushing interventions in a spectrum of periodontal disease states. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Silver-nanoparticle-coated biliary stent inhibits bacterial adhesion in bacterial cholangitis in swine.

    PubMed

    Wen, Wei; Ma, Li-Mei; He, Wei; Tang, Xiao-Wei; Zhang, Yin; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Li; Fan, Zhi-Ning

    2016-02-01

    One of the major limitations of biliary stents is the stent occlusion, which is closely related to the over-growth of bacteria. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of a novel silver-nanoparticle-coated polyurethane (Ag/PU) stent in bacterial cholangitis model in swine. Ag/PU was designed by coating silver nanoparticles on polyurethane (PU) stent. Twenty-four healthy pigs with bacterial cholangitis using Ag/PU and PU stents were randomly divided into an Ag/PU stent group (n=12) and a PU stent group (n=12), respectively. The stents were inserted by standard endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Laboratory assay was performed for white blood cell (WBC) count, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) at baseline time, 8 hours, 1, 2, 3, and 7 days after stent placements. The segment of bile duct containing the stent was examined histologically ex vivo. Implanted biliary stents were examined by a scan electron microscope. The amount of silver release was also measured in vitro. The number of inflammatory cells and level of ALT, IL-1beta and TNF-alpha were significantly lower in the Ag/PU stent group than in the PU stent group. Hyperplasia of the mucosa was more severe in the PU stent group than in the Ag/PU stent group. In contrast to the biofilm of bacteria on the PU stent, fewer bacteria adhered to the Ag/PU stent. PU biliary stents modified with silver nanoparticles are able to alleviate the inflammation of pigs with bacterial cholangitis. Silver-nanoparticle-coated stents are resistant to bacterial adhesion.

  10. Effect of quartz overgrowth precipitation on the multiscale porosity of sandstone: A (U)SANS and imaging analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Anovitz, Lawrence M.; Cole, David R.; Jackson, Andrew J.; ...

    2015-06-01

    We have performed a series of experiments to understand the effects of quartz overgrowths on nanometer to centimeter scale pore structures of sandstones. Blocks from two samples of St. Peter Sandstone with different initial porosities (5.8 and 18.3%) were reacted from 3 days to 7.5 months at 100 and 200 °C in aqueous solutions supersaturated with respect to quartz by reaction with amorphous silica. Porosity in the resultant samples was analyzed using small and ultrasmall angle neutron scattering and scanning electron microscope/backscattered electron (SEM/BSE)-based image-scale processing techniques.Significant changes were observed in the multiscale pore structures. By three days much ofmore » the overgrowth in the low-porosity sample dissolved away. The reason for this is uncertain, but the overgrowths can be clearly distinguished from the original core grains in the BSE images. At longer times the larger pores are observed to fill with plate-like precipitates. As with the unreacted sandstones, porosity is a step function of size. Grain boundaries are typically fractal, but no evidence of mass fractal or fuzzy interface behavior was observed suggesting a structural difference between chemical and clastic sediments. After the initial loss of the overgrowths, image scale porosity (>~1 cm) decreases with time. Submicron porosity (typically ~25% of the total) is relatively constant or slightly decreasing in absolute terms, but the percent change is significant. Fractal dimensions decrease at larger scales, and increase at smaller scales with increased precipitation.« less

  11. Nanoair-bridged lateral overgrowth of GaN on ordered nanoporous GaN template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. D.; Zang, K. Y.; Chua, S. J.; Tripathy, S.; Chen, P.; Fonstad, C. G.

    2005-12-01

    We report the growth of high-quality GaN epilayers on an ordered nanoporous GaN template by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The nanopores in GaN template were created by inductively coupled plasma etching using anodic aluminum oxide film as an etch mask. The average pore diameter and interpore distance is about 65 and 110nm, respectively. Subsequent overgrowth of GaN first begins at the GaN crystallite surface between the pores, and then air-bridge-mediated lateral overgrowth leads to the formation of the continuous layer. Microphotoluminescence and micro-Raman measurements show improved optical properties and significant strain relaxation in the overgrown layer when compared to GaN layer of same thickness simultaneously grown on sapphire without any template. Similar to conventional epitaxial lateral overgrown GaN, such overgrown GaN on a nanopatterned surface would also serve as a template for the growth of ultraviolet-visible light-emitting III-nitride devices.

  12. Intestinal REG3 Lectins Protect Against Alcoholic Steatohepatitis by Reducing Mucosa-Associated Microbiota and Preventing Bacterial Translocation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lirui; Fouts, Derrick E.; Stärkel, Peter; Hartmann, Phillipp; Chen, Peng; Llorente, Cristina; DePew, Jessica; Moncera, Kelvin; Ho, Samuel B.; Brenner, David A.; Hooper, Lora V.; Schnabl, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Summary Approximately half of all deaths from liver cirrhosis, the 10th leading cause of mortality in the United States, are related to alcohol use. Chronic alcohol consumption is accompanied by intestinal dysbiosis and bacterial overgrowth, yet little is known about the factors that alter the microbial composition or their contribution to liver disease. We previously associated chronic alcohol consumption with lower intestinal levels of the antimicrobial-regenerating islet-derived (REG)-3 lectins. Here, we demonstrate that intestinal deficiency in REG3B or REG3G increases numbers of mucosa-associated bacteria and enhances bacterial translocation to the mesenteric lymph nodes and liver, promoting the progression of ethanol-induced fatty liver disease toward steatohepatitis. Overexpression of Reg3g in intestinal epithelial cells restricts bacterial colonization of mucosal surfaces, reduces bacterial translocation, and protects mice from alcohol-induced steatohepatitis. Thus, alcohol appears to impair control of the mucosa-associated microbiota, and subsequent breach of the mucosal barrier facilitates progression of alcoholic liver disease. PMID:26867181

  13. Characterization of global loss of imprinting in fetal overgrowth syndrome induced by assisted reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhiyuan; Hagen, Darren E.; Elsik, Christine G.; Ji, Tieming; Morris, Collin James; Moon, Laura Emily; Rivera, Rocío Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Embryos generated with the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) can develop overgrowth syndromes. In ruminants, the condition is referred to as large offspring syndrome (LOS) and exhibits variable phenotypic abnormalities including overgrowth, enlarged tongue, and abdominal wall defects. These characteristics recapitulate those observed in the human loss-of-imprinting (LOI) overgrowth syndrome Beckwith–Wiedemann (BWS). We have recently shown LOI at the KCNQ1 locus in LOS, the most common epimutation in BWS. Although the first case of ART-induced LOS was reported in 1995, studies have not yet determined the extent of LOI in this condition. Here, we determined allele-specific expression of imprinted genes previously identified in human and/or mouse in day ∼105 Bos taurus indicus × Bos taurus taurus F1 hybrid control and LOS fetuses using RNAseq. Our analysis allowed us to determine the monoallelic expression of 20 genes in tissues of control fetuses. LOS fetuses displayed variable LOI compared with controls. Biallelic expression of imprinted genes in LOS was associated with tissue-specific hypomethylation of the normally methylated parental allele. In addition, a positive correlation was observed between body weight and the number of biallelically expressed imprinted genes in LOS fetuses. Furthermore, not only was there loss of allele-specific expression of imprinted genes in LOS, but also differential transcript amounts of these genes between control and overgrown fetuses. In summary, we characterized previously unidentified imprinted genes in bovines and identified misregulation of imprinting at multiple loci in LOS. We concluded that LOS is a multilocus LOI syndrome, as is BWS. PMID:25825726

  14. Characterization of global loss of imprinting in fetal overgrowth syndrome induced by assisted reproduction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiyuan; Hagen, Darren E; Elsik, Christine G; Ji, Tieming; Morris, Collin James; Moon, Laura Emily; Rivera, Rocío Melissa

    2015-04-14

    Embryos generated with the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) can develop overgrowth syndromes. In ruminants, the condition is referred to as large offspring syndrome (LOS) and exhibits variable phenotypic abnormalities including overgrowth, enlarged tongue, and abdominal wall defects. These characteristics recapitulate those observed in the human loss-of-imprinting (LOI) overgrowth syndrome Beckwith-Wiedemann (BWS). We have recently shown LOI at the KCNQ1 locus in LOS, the most common epimutation in BWS. Although the first case of ART-induced LOS was reported in 1995, studies have not yet determined the extent of LOI in this condition. Here, we determined allele-specific expression of imprinted genes previously identified in human and/or mouse in day ∼105 Bos taurus indicus × Bos taurus taurus F1 hybrid control and LOS fetuses using RNAseq. Our analysis allowed us to determine the monoallelic expression of 20 genes in tissues of control fetuses. LOS fetuses displayed variable LOI compared with controls. Biallelic expression of imprinted genes in LOS was associated with tissue-specific hypomethylation of the normally methylated parental allele. In addition, a positive correlation was observed between body weight and the number of biallelically expressed imprinted genes in LOS fetuses. Furthermore, not only was there loss of allele-specific expression of imprinted genes in LOS, but also differential transcript amounts of these genes between control and overgrown fetuses. In summary, we characterized previously unidentified imprinted genes in bovines and identified misregulation of imprinting at multiple loci in LOS. We concluded that LOS is a multilocus LOI syndrome, as is BWS.

  15. COMPARED TO WHAT? EARLY BRAIN OVERGROWTH IN AUTISM AND THE PERILS OF POPULATION NORMS

    PubMed Central

    Raznahan, Armin; Wallace, Gregory L; Antezana, Ligia; Greenstein, Dede; Lenroot, Rhoshel; Thurm, Audrey; Gozzi, Marta; Spence, Sarah; Martin, Alex; Swedo, Susan E; Giedd, Jay N

    2013-01-01

    Background Early brain overgrowth (EBO) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is amongst the best-replicated biological associations in psychiatry. Most positive reports have compared head circumference (HC) in ASD (an excellent proxy for early brain size) with well-known reference norms. We sought to reappraise evidence for the EBO hypothesis given (i) the recent proliferation of longitudinal HC studies in ASD, and (ii) emerging reports that several of the reference norms used to define EBO in ASD may be biased towards detecting HC overgrowth in contemporary samples of healthy children. Methods (1)Systematic review of all published HC studies in children with ASD. (2)Comparison of 330 longitudinally gathered HC measures between birth and 18 months from male children with autism(n=35) and typically developing controls(n=22). Results In systematic review, comparisons with locally recruited controls were significantly less likely to identify EBO in ASD than norm-based studies(p<0.006). Through systematic review and analysis of new data we replicate seminal reports of EBO in ASD relative to classical HC norms, but show that this overgrowth relative to norms is mimicked by patterns of HC growth age in a large contemporary community-based sample of US children(n~75,000). Controlling for known HC norm biases leaves inconsistent support for a subtle, later-emerging and sub-group specific pattern of EBO in clinically-ascertained ASD vs. community controls. Conclusions The best-replicated aspects of EBO reflect generalizable HC norm biases rather than disease-specific biomarkers. The potential HC norm biases we detail are not specific to ASD research, but apply throughout clinical and academic medicine. PMID:23706681

  16. Immunohistochemical Analysis of the Role Connective Tissue Growth Factor in Drug-induced Gingival Overgrowth in Response to Phenytoin, Cyclosporine, and Nifedipine

    PubMed Central

    Anand, A. J.; Gopalakrishnan, Sivaram; Karthikeyan, R.; Mishra, Debasish; Mohapatra, Shreeyam

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate for the presence of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in drug (phenytoin, cyclosporine, and nifedipine)-induced gingival overgrowth (DIGO) and to compare it with healthy controls in the absence of overgrowth. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five patients were chosen for the study and segregated into study (25) and control groups (10). The study group consisted of phenytoin-induced (10), cyclosporine-induced (10), and nifedipine-induced (5) gingival overgrowth. After completing necessary medical evaluations, biopsy was done. The tissue samples were fixed in 10% formalin and then immunohistochemically evaluated for the presence of CTGF. The statistical analysis of the values was done using statistical package SPSS PC+ (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 4.01). Results: The outcome of immunohistochemistry shows that DIGO samples express more CTGF than control group and phenytoin expresses more CTGF followed by nifedipine and cyclosporine. Conclusion: The study shows that there is an increase in the levels of CTGF in patients with DIGO in comparison to the control group without any gingival overgrowth. In the study, we compared the levels of CTGF in DIGO induced by three most commonly used drugs phenytoin, cyclosporine, and nifedipine. By comparing the levels of CTGF, we find that cyclosporine induces the production of least amount of CTGF. Therefore, it might be a more viable drug choice with reduced side effects. PMID:29629324

  17. Surgical trauma induces overgrowth in lower limb gigantism: regulation with use of rapamycin is promising.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Rohan Sebastian; Harrison, William David; Graham, Kenneth; Nayagam, Durai

    2018-01-04

    We describe an unclassified overgrowth syndrome characterised by unregulated growth of dermal fibroblasts in the lower limbs of a 35-year-old woman. A PIK3CA gene mutation resulted in lower limb gigantism. Below the waist, she weighed 117 kg with each leg measuring over 100 cm in circumference. Her total adiposity was 50% accounted for by her legs mainly. Liposuction and surgical debulking were performed to reduce the size of the limbs but had exacerbated the overgrowth in her lower limbs. Systemic sepsis from an infected foot ulcer necessitated treatment by an above-knee amputation. Postoperatively, the stump increased in size by 19 kg. A trial of rapamycin to reverse the growth of the stump has shown promise. We discuss the clinical and genetic features of this previously unclassified disorder and the orthopaedic considerations involved. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Mechanism of drug-induced gingival overgrowth revisited: a unifying hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Brown, RS; Arany, PR

    2015-01-01

    Drug-induced gingival overgrowth (DIGO) is a disfiguring side effect of anti-convulsants, calcineurin inhibitors, and calcium channel blocking agents. A unifying hypothesis has been constructed which begins with cation flux inhibition induced by all three of these drug categories. Decreased cation influx of folic acid active transport within gingival fibroblasts leads to decreased cellular folate uptake, which in turn leads to changes in matrix metalloproteinases metabolism and the failure to activate collagenase. Decreased availability of activated collagenase results in decreased degradation of accumulated connective tissue which presents as DIGO. Studies supporting this hypothesis are discussed. PMID:24893951

  19. A novel aromatic oil compound inhibits microbial overgrowth on feet: a case study.

    PubMed

    Misner, Bill D

    2007-07-13

    Athlete's Foot (Tinea pedis) is a form of ringworm associated with highly contagious yeast-fungi colonies, although they look like bacteria. Foot bacteria overgrowth produces a harmless pungent odor, however, uncontrolled proliferation of yeast-fungi produces small vesicles, fissures, scaling, and maceration with eroded areas between the toes and the plantar surface of the foot, resulting in intense itching, blisters, and cracking. Painful microbial foot infection may prevent athletic participation. Keeping the feet clean and dry with the toenails trimmed reduces the incidence of skin disease of the feet. Wearing sandals in locker and shower rooms prevents intimate contact with the infecting organisms and alleviates most foot-sensitive infections. Enclosing feet in socks and shoes generates a moisture-rich environment that stimulates overgrowth of pungent both aerobic bacteria and infectious yeast-fungi. Suppression of microbial growth may be accomplished by exposing the feet to air to enhance evaporation to reduce moistures' growth-stimulating effect and is often neglected. There is an association between yeast-fungi overgrowths and disabling foot infections. Potent agents virtually exterminate some microbial growth, but the inevitable presence of infection under the nails predicts future infection. Topical antibiotics present a potent approach with the ideal agent being one that removes moisture producing antibacterial-antifungal activity. Severe infection may require costly prescription drugs, salves, and repeated treatment. A 63-y female volunteered to enclose feet in shoes and socks for 48 hours. Aerobic bacteria and yeast-fungi counts were determined by swab sample incubation technique (1) after 48-hours feet enclosure, (2) after washing feet, and (3) after 8-hours socks-shoes exposure to a aromatic oil powder-compound consisting of arrowroot, baking soda, basil oil, tea tree oil, sage oil, and clove oil. Application of this novel compound to the external

  20. A novel aromatic oil compound inhibits microbial overgrowth on feet: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Misner, Bill D

    2007-01-01

    Background Athlete's Foot (Tinea pedis) is a form of ringworm associated with highly contagious yeast-fungi colonies, although they look like bacteria. Foot bacteria overgrowth produces a harmless pungent odor, however, uncontrolled proliferation of yeast-fungi produces small vesicles, fissures, scaling, and maceration with eroded areas between the toes and the plantar surface of the foot, resulting in intense itching, blisters, and cracking. Painful microbial foot infection may prevent athletic participation. Keeping the feet clean and dry with the toenails trimmed reduces the incidence of skin disease of the feet. Wearing sandals in locker and shower rooms prevents intimate contact with the infecting organisms and alleviates most foot-sensitive infections. Enclosing feet in socks and shoes generates a moisture-rich environment that stimulates overgrowth of pungent both aerobic bacteria and infectious yeast-fungi. Suppression of microbial growth may be accomplished by exposing the feet to air to enhance evaporation to reduce moistures' growth-stimulating effect and is often neglected. There is an association between yeast-fungi overgrowths and disabling foot infections. Potent agents virtually exterminate some microbial growth, but the inevitable presence of infection under the nails predicts future infection. Topical antibiotics present a potent approach with the ideal agent being one that removes moisture producing antibacterial-antifungal activity. Severe infection may require costly prescription drugs, salves, and repeated treatment. Methods A 63-y female volunteered to enclose feet in shoes and socks for 48 hours. Aerobic bacteria and yeast-fungi counts were determined by swab sample incubation technique (1) after 48-hours feet enclosure, (2) after washing feet, and (3) after 8-hours socks-shoes exposure to a aromatic oil powder-compound consisting of arrowroot, baking soda, basil oil, tea tree oil, sage oil, and clove oil. Conclusion Application of this

  1. Stress engineering of high-quality single crystal diamond by heteroepitaxial lateral overgrowth

    DOE PAGES

    Tang, Y. -H.; Golding, B.

    2016-02-02

    Here, we describe a method for lateral overgrowth of low-stress single crystal diamond by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The process is initiated by deposition of a thin (550 nm) (001) diamond layer on Ir-buffered a-plane sapphire. The diamond is partially masked by periodic thermally evaporated Au stripes using photolithography. Lateral overgrowth of the Au occurs with extremely effective filtering of threading dislocations. Thermal stress resulting from mismatch of the low thermal expansion diamond and the sapphire substrate is largely accommodated by the ductile Au layer. The stress state of the diamond is investigated by Raman spectroscopy for two thicknesses: atmore » 10 μm where the film has just overgrown the Au mask and at 180 μm where the film thickness greatly exceeds the scale of the masking. For the 10-μm film, the Raman linewidth shows spatial oscillations with the period of the Au stripes with a factor of 2 to 3 reduction relative to the unmasked region. In a 180-μm thick diamond film, the overall surface stress was extremely low, 0.00 ± 0.16 GPa, obtained from the Raman shift averaged over the 7.5mm diameter of the crystal at its surface. We conclude that the metal mask protects the overgrown diamond layer from substrate-induced thermal stress and cracking. Lastly, it is also responsible for low internal stress by reducing dislocation density by several orders of magnitude.« less

  2. Overgrowth of fungi (endolithic hypermycosis) associated with multifocal to diffuse distinct amorphous dark discoloration of corals in the Indo-Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, Thierry M.; Aeby, G.S.; Stanton, F.G.; Fenner, D.

    2008-01-01

    Coral disease surveys in American Samoa and Hawai‘i revealed colonies with a distinct dark discoloration affecting 20–60% of the colony surface (Fig. 1a). In some cases, tissue loss with algal infiltration was present within discolored areas. On microscopy, these lesions had marked overgrowth of the coral skeleton and tissues with septate branching structures that stained positive with Grocott’s Methenamine Silver (fungal hyphae) accompanied by necrosis and fragmentation of coral tissues (Fig. 1b). We have observed this condition grossly and microscopically in Pavona varians, Psammocora nierstraszi, and Montipora sp. in American Samoa and in Pavona maldivensis and P. varians in Hawai‘i. This condition resembles Dark Spots Disease from the Caribbean (Solano et al. 1993) that also shows endolithic hypermycosis (Galloway et al. 2007), suggesting that the association between dark discoloration of corals and overgrowth of endolithic fungi may be common (Western Atlantic, Indo-Pacific). Based on gross and microscopic morphology, tissue atrophy may precede overgrowth of endolithic fungi, but this awaits confirmation through systematic studies that monitor the development of lesions over time (pathogenesis). Using standardized terminology (Work and Aeby 2006) to describe lesions facilitates regional comparisons of coral disease.

  3. Antibiotics for treating bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    McDonald, H; Brocklehurst, P; Parsons, J; Vigneswaran, R

    2003-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis is an imbalance of the normal vaginal flora with an overgrowth of anaerobic bacteria and a lack of the normal lactobacillary flora. Bacterial vaginosis during pregnancy has been associated with poor perinatal outcome and, in particular, preterm birth. Identification and treatment may reduce the risk of preterm birth and its consequences. To assess the effects of antibiotic treatment of bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register (September 2002). Randomized trials comparing antibiotic treatment with placebo or no treatment, or comparing two or more antibiotic regimens in pregnant women with bacterial vaginosis. Two reviewers assessed trials and extracted data independently. Study authors were contacted for additional information. Ten trials involving 4249 women were included; all were of good quality. Antibiotic therapy was effective at eradicating bacterial vaginosis during pregnancy (odds ratio (OR) 0.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.18 to 0.24, eight trials of 3825 women). Treatment did not significantly reduce the risk of preterm birth before 37 weeks (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.10, eight trials of 4062 women), 34 weeks (OR 1.20, 95% CI 0.69 to 2.07, five trials of 851 women), or 32 weeks (OR 1.08, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.68, three trials of 3080 women). However, antibiotic treatment did significantly decrease the risk of preterm prelabour rupture of membranes (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.67, three trials of 562 women). In women with a previous preterm birth, treatment did not affect the risk of subsequent preterm birth (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.59 to 1.17, five trials of 622 women) but it did decrease the risk of preterm prelabour rupture of membranes (OR 0.14, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.38, two trials of 114 women) and low birthweight (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.75, five trials of 622 women). Antibiotic treatment can eradicate bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy. However, the current evidence does not

  4. Association of sexually transmitted infections, Candida species, gram-positive flora and perianal flora with bacterial vaginosis.

    PubMed

    Vahidnia, Ali; Tuin, Hellen; Bliekendaal, Harry; Spaargaren, Joke

    2015-10-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is characterised by depletion of the normal Lactobacillus spp. and overgrowth of commensal anaerobic bacteria. We investigated the composition of vaginal microbiota and their association with BV in women of reproductive age. Vaginal samples from 1197 women were analysed, whereby n=451 patients had normal flora and n=614 were diagnosed with BV, the remaining patients were diagnosed with having either intermediate flora (n=42) or dysbacteriosis (n=90). The reported results show that pathogens are associated with BV. This knowledge will further expand our understanding of events leading to BV, which may lead to more effective prevention and treatment strategies.

  5. Rifaximin Modulates the Vaginal Microbiome and Metabolome in Women Affected by Bacterial Vaginosis

    PubMed Central

    Picone, Gianfranco; Cruciani, Federica; Brigidi, Patrizia; Calanni, Fiorella; Donders, Gilbert; Capozzi, Francesco; Vitali, Beatrice

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common vaginal disorder characterized by the decrease of lactobacilli and overgrowth of Gardnerella vaginalis and resident anaerobic vaginal bacteria. In the present work, the effects of rifaximin vaginal tablets on vaginal microbiota and metabolome of women affected by BV were investigated by combining quantitative PCR and a metabolomic approach based on 1H nuclear magnetic resonance. To highlight the general trends of the bacterial communities and metabolomic profiles in response to the antibiotic/placebo therapy, a multivariate statistical strategy was set up based on the trajectories traced by vaginal samples in a principal component analysis space. Our data demonstrated the efficacy of rifaximin in restoring a health-like condition in terms of both bacterial communities and metabolomic features. In particular, rifaximin treatment was significantly associated with an increase in the lactobacillus/BV-related bacteria ratio, as well as with an increase in lactic acid concentration and a decrease of a pool of metabolites typically produced by BV-related bacteria (acetic acid, succinate, short-chain fatty acids, and biogenic amines). Among the tested dosages of rifaximin (100 and 25 mg for 5 days and 100 mg for 2 days), 25 mg for 5 days was found to be the most effective. PMID:24709255

  6. Loss of the Drosophila cell polarity regulator Scribbled promotes epithelial tissue overgrowth and cooperation with oncogenic Ras-Raf through impaired Hippo pathway signaling

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Epithelial neoplasias are associated with alterations in cell polarity and excessive cell proliferation, yet how these neoplastic properties are related to one another is still poorly understood. The study of Drosophila genes that function as neoplastic tumor suppressors by regulating both of these properties has significant potential to clarify this relationship. Results Here we show in Drosophila that loss of Scribbled (Scrib), a cell polarity regulator and neoplastic tumor suppressor, results in impaired Hippo pathway signaling in the epithelial tissues of both the eye and wing imaginal disc. scrib mutant tissue overgrowth, but not the loss of cell polarity, is dependent upon defective Hippo signaling and can be rescued by knockdown of either the TEAD/TEF family transcription factor Scalloped or the transcriptional coactivator Yorkie in the eye disc, or reducing levels of Yorkie in the wing disc. Furthermore, loss of Scrib sensitizes tissue to transformation by oncogenic Ras-Raf signaling, and Yorkie-Scalloped activity is required to promote this cooperative tumor overgrowth. The inhibition of Hippo signaling in scrib mutant eye disc clones is not dependent upon JNK activity, but can be significantly rescued by reducing aPKC kinase activity, and ectopic aPKC activity is sufficient to impair Hippo signaling in the eye disc, even when JNK signaling is blocked. In contrast, warts mutant overgrowth does not require aPKC activity. Moreover, reducing endogenous levels of aPKC or increasing Scrib or Lethal giant larvae levels does not promote increased Hippo signaling, suggesting that aPKC activity is not normally rate limiting for Hippo pathway activity. Epistasis experiments suggest that Hippo pathway inhibition in scrib mutants occurs, at least in part, downstream or in parallel to both the Expanded and Fat arms of Hippo pathway regulation. Conclusions Loss of Scrib promotes Yorkie/Scalloped-dependent epithelial tissue overgrowth, and this is also

  7. Self-ordering of a Ge island single layer induced by Si overgrowth.

    PubMed

    Capellini, G; De Seta, M; Evangelisti, F; Zinovyev, V A; Vastola, G; Montalenti, F; Miglio, Leo

    2006-03-17

    We provide a direct experimental proof and the related modeling of the role played by Si overgrowth in promoting the lateral ordering of Ge islands grown by chemical vapor deposition on Si(001). The deposition of silicon induces a shape transformation, from domes to truncated pyramids with a larger base, generating an array of closely spaced interacting islands. By modeling, we show that the resulting gradient in the chemical potential across the island should be the driving force for a selective flow of both Ge and Si atoms at the surface and, in turn, to a real motion of the dots, favoring the lateral order.

  8. Antibiotics for treating bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    McDonald, H M; Brocklehurst, P; Gordon, A

    2007-01-24

    Bacterial vaginosis is an imbalance of the normal vaginal flora with an overgrowth of anaerobic bacteria and a lack of the normal lactobacillary flora. Bacterial vaginosis during pregnancy has been associated with poor perinatal outcome and, in particular, preterm birth (PTB). Identification and treatment may reduce the risk of PTB and its consequences. To assess the effects of antibiotic treatment of bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (May 2006). Randomized trials comparing antibiotic treatment with placebo or no treatment, or comparing two or more antibiotic regimens in pregnant women with bacterial vaginosis or intermediate vaginal flora. Two review authors assessed trials and extracted data independently. We contacted study authors for additional information. We included fifteen trials of good quality, involving 5888 women. Antibiotic therapy was effective at eradicating bacterial vaginosis during pregnancy (Peto odds ratio (OR) 0.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15 to 0.20; 10 trials, 4357 women). Treatment did not reduce the risk of PTB before 37 weeks (Peto OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.06; 15 trials, 5888 women), or the risk of preterm prelabour rupture of membranes (PPROM) (Peto OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.28; four trials, 2579 women). However, treatment before 20 weeks' gestation may reduce the risk of preterm birth less than 37 weeks (Peto OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.84; five trials, 2387 women). In women with a previous PTB, treatment did not affect the risk of subsequent PTB (Peto OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.59 to 1.17, five trials of 622); however, it may decrease the risk of PPROM (Peto OR 0.14, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.38) and low birthweight (Peto OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.75)(two trials, 114 women). In women with abnormal vaginal flora (intermediate flora or bacterial vaginosis) treatment may reduce the risk of PTB before 37 weeks (Peto OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.81; two trials, 894 women

  9. Antibiotics for treating bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    McDonald, H; Brocklehurst, P; Parsons, J

    2005-01-25

    Bacterial vaginosis is an imbalance of the normal vaginal flora with an overgrowth of anaerobic bacteria and a lack of the normal lactobacillary flora. Bacterial vaginosis during pregnancy has been associated with poor perinatal outcome and, in particular, preterm birth. Identification and treatment may reduce the risk of preterm birth and its consequences. To assess the effects of antibiotic treatment of bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register (May 2004). Randomized trials comparing antibiotic treatment with placebo or no treatment, or comparing two or more antibiotic regimens in pregnant women with bacterial vaginosis or intermediate vaginal flora. Two reviewers assessed trials and extracted data independently. We contacted study authors for additional information. Thirteen trials involving 5300 women were included; all were of good quality. Antibiotic therapy was effective at eradicating bacterial vaginosis during pregnancy (odds ratio (OR) 0.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.19 to 0.24, nine trials of 3895 women). Treatment was not significant in reducing the risk of preterm birth before 37 weeks (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.03, thirteen trials of 5300 women, and there was significant heterogeneity between trials, p-value 0.002), preterm birth before 34 weeks (OR 1.22, 95% CI 0.67 to 2.19, five trials of 851 women), preterm birth before 32 weeks (OR 1.14, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.70, four trials of 3565 women), or the risk of preterm prelabour rupture of membranes (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.28, four trials of 2579 women). In women with a previous preterm birth, treatment did not affect the risk of subsequent preterm birth (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.59 to 1.17, five trials of 622 women, with significant heterogeneity between these trials); however, it may decrease the risk of preterm prelabour rupture of membranes (OR 0.14, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.38, two trials of 114 women, and low birthweight (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.13 to

  10. Epitaxial lateral overgrowth of GaAs: effect of doping on LPE growth behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zytkiewicz, Z. R.; Dobosz, D.; Pawlowska, M.

    1999-05-01

    Results of epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) of GaAs on (001) GaAs substrates by liquid phase epitaxy are reported. We show that by introducing Si, Sn or Te impurities to the Ga-As solution the vertical growth rate is reduced while the lateral growth rate is significantly enhanced, which leads to a growth habit modification. Furthermore, the impurity incorporation into the growing layer is different on the upper and side surfaces of the ELO, reflecting the fundamental differences between the lateral and vertical growth modes. This phenomenon can be applied for studying the temporal development of ELO layers.

  11. Choline prevents fetal overgrowth and normalizes placental fatty acid and glucose metabolism in a mouse model of maternal obesity.

    PubMed

    Nam, Juha; Greenwald, Esther; Jack-Roberts, Chauntelle; Ajeeb, Tamara T; Malysheva, Olga V; Caudill, Marie A; Axen, Kathleen; Saxena, Anjana; Semernina, Ekaterina; Nanobashvili, Khatia; Jiang, Xinyin

    2017-11-01

    Maternal obesity increases placental transport of macronutrients, resulting in fetal overgrowth and obesity later in life. Choline participates in fatty acid metabolism, serves as a methyl donor and influences growth signaling, which may modify placental macronutrient homeostasis and affect fetal growth. Using a mouse model of maternal obesity, we assessed the effect of maternal choline supplementation on preventing fetal overgrowth and restoring placental macronutrient homeostasis. C57BL/6J mice were fed either a high-fat (HF, 60% kcal from fat) diet or a normal (NF, 10% kcal from fat) diet with a drinking supply of either 25 mM choline chloride or control purified water, respectively, beginning 4 weeks prior to mating until gestational day 12.5. Fetal and placental weight, metabolites and gene expression were measured. HF feeding significantly (P<.05) increased placental and fetal weight in the HF-control (HFCO) versus NF-control (NFCO) animals, whereas the HF choline-supplemented (HFCS) group effectively normalized placental and fetal weight to the levels of the NFCO group. Compared to HFCO, the HFCS group had lower (P<.05) glucose transporter 1 and fatty acid transport protein 1 expression as well as lower accumulation of glycogen in the placenta. The HFCS group also had lower (P<.05) placental 4E-binding protein 1 and ribosomal protein s6 phosphorylation, which are indicators of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 activation favoring macronutrient anabolism. In summary, our results suggest that maternal choline supplementation prevented fetal overgrowth in obese mice at midgestation and improved biomarkers of placental macronutrient homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Microbiota and the gut-liver axis: Bacterial translocation, inflammation and infection in cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Giannelli, Valerio; Di Gregorio, Vincenza; Iebba, Valerio; Giusto, Michela; Schippa, Serena; Merli, Manuela; Thalheimer, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Liver disease is associated with qualitative and quantitative changes in the intestinal microbiota. In cirrhotic patients the alteration in gut microbiota is characterized by an overgrowth of potentially pathogenic bacteria (i.e., gram negative species) and a decrease in autochthonous familiae. Here we summarize the available literature on the risk of gut dysbiosis in liver cirrhosis and its clinical consequences. We therefore described the features of the complex interaction between gut microbiota and cirrhotic host, the so called “gut-liver axis”, with a particular attention to the acquired risk of bacterial translocation, systemic inflammation and the relationship with systemic infections in the cirrhotic patient. Such knowledge might help to develop novel and innovative strategies for the prevention and therapy of gut dysbiosis and its complication in liver cirrhosis. PMID:25492994

  13. Increased placental nutrient transport in a novel mouse model of maternal obesity with fetal overgrowth.

    PubMed

    Rosario, Fredrick J; Kanai, Yoshikatsu; Powell, Theresa L; Jansson, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    To identify possible mechanisms linking obesity in pregnancy to increased fetal adiposity and growth, a unique mouse model of maternal obesity associated with fetal overgrowth was developed, and the hypothesis that maternal obesity causes up-regulation of placental nutrient transporter expression and activity was tested. C57BL/6J female mice were fed a control (C) or a high-fat/high-sugar (HF/HS) pelleted diet supplemented by ad libitum access to sucrose (20%) solution, mated, and studied at embryonic day 18.5. HF/HS diet increased maternal fat mass by 2.2-fold (P < 0.01) and resulted in glucose intolerance with normal fasting glucose. Maternal circulating insulin, leptin, and cholesterol were increased (P < 0.05) whereas total and high-molecular-weight adiponectin was decreased (P < 0.05). HF/HS diet increased fetal weight (+18%, P = 0.0005). In trophoblast plasma membranes (TPM) isolated from placentas of HF/HS-fed animals, protein expression of glucose transporter (GLUT) 1 and 3, sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter (SNAT) 2, and large neutral amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) was increased. TPM System A and L amino acid transporter activity was increased in the HF/HS group. Up-regulation of specific placental nutrient transporter isoforms may constitute a mechanism underlying fetal overgrowth in maternal obesity. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  14. Comparative study of aural microflora in healthy cats, allergic cats and cats with systemic disease.

    PubMed

    Pressanti, Charline; Drouet, Clémence; Cadiergues, Marie-Christine

    2014-12-01

    Twenty healthy cats (group 1) with clinically normal ears, 15 cats with systemic disease (group 2) and 15 allergic cats (group 3) were included in a prospective study. The experimental unit was the ear. A clinical score was established for each ear canal after otoscopic examination. Microbial population was assessed on cytological examination of smears performed with the cotton-tipped applicator smear technique. Fungal population was significantly more prominent in allergic cats (P <0.001) and in diseased cats compared with healthy cats (P <0.02). Bacterial population was significantly higher in allergic cats than in healthy cats (P <0.001) and cats suffering from systemic disease (P <0.001). Bacterial overgrowth was also higher in cats with systemic disease than healthy cats. In cats from group 2, only fungal overgrowth was associated with otitis severity. In group 3, only bacterial overgrowth was associated with otitis severity. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.

  15. Lateral overgrowth of diamond film on stripes patterned Ir/HPHT-diamond substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan-Feng; Chang, Xiaohui; Liu, Zhangcheng; Liu, Zongchen; Fu, Jiao; Zhao, Dan; Shao, Guoqing; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Shaopeng; Liang, Yan; Zhu, Tianfei; Wang, Wei; Wang, Hong-Xing

    2018-05-01

    Epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) of diamond films on patterned Ir/(0 0 1)HPHT-diamond substrates have been carried out by microwave plasma CVD system. Ir/(0 0 1)HPHT-diamond substrates are fabricated by photolithographic and magnetron sputtering technique. The morphology of the as grown ELO diamond film is characterized by optical microscopy and scanning electronic microscopy. The quality and stress of the ELO diamond film are investigated by surface etching pit density and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Two ultraviolet photodetectors are fabricated on ELO diamond area and non-ELO diamond area prepared on same substrate, and that one on ELO diamond area indicates better photoelectric properties. All results indicate quality of ELO diamond film is improved.

  16. Testing Brain Overgrowth and Synaptic Models of Autism Using NPCs and Neurons from Patient-Derived IPS Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-13-1-0415 TITLE: Testing Brain Overgrowth and Synaptic Models of Autism Using NPC’s and Neurons from Patient-Derived IPS...Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Autism and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are complex...impaired social interaction, and limited and repetitive interests and behavior. Recent studies have led to two major hypotheses for autism

  17. GaN microrod sidewall epitaxial lateral overgrowth on a close-packed microrod template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jincheng; Xiao, Ming; Zhang, Jinfeng; Hao, Yue

    2018-05-01

    We demonstrate a GaN growth method using microrod sidewall epitaxial lateral overgrowth (MSELO) on a close-packed microrod template by a nonlithographic technique. The density and distribution of threading dislocations were determined by the density and distribution of microrods and the nucleation model. MSELO exhibited two different nucleation models determined by the direction and degree of substrate misorientation and the sidewall curvature: one-sidewall and three-sidewall nucleation, predicting the dislocation density values. As a result, the threading dislocation density was markedly decreased from 2 × 109 to 5 × 107 cm‑2 with a small coalescence thickness of ∼2 µm for the close-packed 3000 nm microrod sample.

  18. Clinical case report of long-term follow-up in type-2 diabetes patient with severe chronic periodontitis and nifedipine-induced gingival overgrowth.

    PubMed

    Shibukawa, Yoshihiro; Fujinami, Koushu; Yamashita, Shuichiro

    2012-01-01

    In this case report, we describe the clinical course over a 14-year follow-up in a 47-year-old diabetes patient with severe chronic periodontitis and nifedipine-induced gingival overgrowth. The patient had a history of hypertension for over 5 years and uncontrolled type 2 diabetes. Overgrown gingiva was observed in most of the teeth and was marked in the upper and lower anterior teeth. A probing pocket depth of ≥ 4 mm and bleeding on probing (BOP) were observed in 94 and 90% of sites examined, respectively. At baseline, his hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was 8.5%. The patient received periodontal and diabetic treatment simultaneously. Medication was changed from nifedipine chloride to an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. After initial therapy and subsequent periodontal surgery, gingival overgrowth disappeared and probing depth and BOP showed a significant improvement. No recurrence was observed during supportive periodontal therapy (SPT). The HbA1c level improved from 8.5 to 6.3% after periodontal treatment, subsequently remaining at a good level during SPT over 10 years. This study demonstrated that periodontal treatment, withdrawal of medication and control of diabetes can result in remarkable improvements in type 2 diabetes patients with chronic periodontitis and nifedipine-induced gingival overgrowth. These results suggest that comprehensive periodontal treatment in combination with treatment for diabetes mellitus can exert a positive influence on blood glucose levels and periodontal condition in diabetic patients.

  19. Mutations in the PP2A regulatory subunit B family genes PPP2R5B, PPP2R5C and PPP2R5D cause human overgrowth.

    PubMed

    Loveday, Chey; Tatton-Brown, Katrina; Clarke, Matthew; Westwood, Isaac; Renwick, Anthony; Ramsay, Emma; Nemeth, Andrea; Campbell, Jennifer; Joss, Shelagh; Gardner, McKinlay; Zachariou, Anna; Elliott, Anna; Ruark, Elise; van Montfort, Rob; Rahman, Nazneen

    2015-09-01

    Overgrowth syndromes comprise a group of heterogeneous disorders characterised by excessive growth parameters, often in association with intellectual disability. To identify new causes of human overgrowth, we have been undertaking trio-based exome sequencing studies in overgrowth patients and their unaffected parents. Prioritisation of functionally relevant genes with multiple unique de novo mutations revealed four mutations in protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) regulatory subunit B family genes protein phosphatase 2, regulatory Subunit B', beta (PPP2R5B); protein phosphatase 2, regulatory Subunit B', gamma (PPP2R5C); and protein phosphatase 2, regulatory Subunit B', delta (PPP2R5D). This observation in 3 related genes in 111 individuals with a similar phenotype is greatly in excess of the expected number, as determined from gene-specific de novo mutation rates (P = 1.43 × 10(-10)). Analysis of exome-sequencing data from a follow-up series of overgrowth probands identified a further pathogenic mutation, bringing the total number of affected individuals to 5. Heterozygotes shared similar phenotypic features including increased height, increased head circumference and intellectual disability. The mutations clustered within a region of nine amino acid residues in the aligned protein sequences (P = 1.6 × 10(-5)). We mapped the mutations onto the crystal structure of the PP2A holoenzyme complex to predict their molecular and functional consequences. These studies suggest that the mutations may affect substrate binding, thus perturbing the ability of PP2A to dephosphorylate particular protein substrates. PP2A is a major negative regulator of v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 (AKT). Thus, our data further expand the list of genes encoding components of the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signalling cascade that are disrupted in human overgrowth conditions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. Covered biliary stents with proximal bare stent extension for the palliation of malignant biliary disease: can we reduce tumour overgrowth rate?

    PubMed

    Krokidis, Miltiadis; Hatzidakis, Adam

    2017-08-01

    Covered biliary stents have shown significant effectiveness in the palliative management of patients with malignant biliary disease due to prevention of tumour ingrowth. However, stent dysfunction may still occur due to growth of tumour at the borders of the covered stent (tumour overgrowth). The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a bare extension in the prevention of tumour overgrowth when covered stents are used in the palliative treatment of malignant biliary strictures. This is a prospective, single arm, cohort study. Twenty-two patients with inoperable malignant biliary strictures in the distal common bile duct (Bismuth I-II) and life expectancy more than 6 months were included in the study. The combination of a fully covered biliary stent and a bare proximal and distal extension was used in all cases. All patients were followed-up until death. Primary patency, survival, complication rates and dysfunction cause were assessed. Mean survival was 263.7 days (median 255, SD: 77.6). Mean patency was 240 days (median: 237, SD: 87). The primary patency rate at 3, 6 and 12 months was 90%, 86% and 86% respectively. Tumour inor overgrowth did not occur in any of the patients. Dysfunction due to sludge formation occurred in three cases; all three were treated with bilioplasty. The combined use of a covered biliary stent and a bare extension appears to be a very effective tool in the palliation of malignant biliary disease, offering long-term patency for patients with inoperable malignant distal common bile duct strictures and increasing the quality of life of such patients.

  1. NSD1 Mutations Are the Major Cause of Sotos Syndrome and Occur in Some Cases of Weaver Syndrome but Are Rare in Other Overgrowth Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Jenny; Hanks, Sandra; Temple, I. Karen; Davies, Sally; Murray, Alexandra; Upadhyaya, Meena; Tomkins, Susan; Hughes, Helen E.; Cole, Trevor R. P.; Rahman, Nazneen

    2003-01-01

    Sotos syndrome is a childhood overgrowth syndrome characterized by a distinctive facial appearance, height and head circumference >97th percentile, advanced bone age, and developmental delay. Weaver syndrome is characterized by the same criteria but has its own distinctive facial gestalt. Recently, a 2.2-Mb chromosome 5q35 microdeletion, encompassing NSD1, was reported as the major cause of Sotos syndrome, with intragenic NSD1 mutations identified in a minority of cases. We evaluated 75 patients with childhood overgrowth, for intragenic mutations and large deletions of NSD1. The series was phenotypically scored into four groups, prior to the molecular analyses: the phenotype in group 1 (n=37) was typical of Sotos syndrome; the phenotype in group 2 (n=13) was Sotos-like but with some atypical features; patients in group 3 (n=7) had Weaver syndrome, and patients in group 4 (n=18) had an overgrowth condition that was neither Sotos nor Weaver syndrome. We detected three deletions and 32 mutations (13 frameshift, 8 nonsense, 2 splice-site, and 9 missense) that are likely to impair NSD1 functions. The truncating mutations were spread throughout NSD1, but there was evidence of clustering of missense mutations in highly conserved functional domains between exons 13 and 23. There was a strong correlation between presence of an NSD1 alteration and clinical phenotype, in that 28 of 37 (76%) patients in group 1 had NSD1 mutations or deletions, whereas none of the patients in group 4 had abnormalities of NSD1. Three patients with Weaver syndrome had NSD1 mutations, all between amino acids 2142 and 2184. We conclude that intragenic mutations of NSD1 are the major cause of Sotos syndrome and account for some Weaver syndrome cases but rarely occur in other childhood overgrowth phenotypes. PMID:12464997

  2. Breath tests and irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Satya Vati; Malik, Aastha

    2014-01-01

    Breath tests are non-invasive tests and can detect H2 and CH4 gases which are produced by bacterial fermentation of unabsorbed intestinal carbohydrate and are excreted in the breath. These tests are used in the diagnosis of carbohydrate malabsorption, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and for measuring the orocecal transit time. Malabsorption of carbohydrates is a key trigger of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-type symptoms such as diarrhea and/or constipation, bloating, excess flatulence, headaches and lack of energy. Abdominal bloating is a common nonspecific symptom which can negatively impact quality of life. It may reflect dietary imbalance, such as excess fiber intake, or may be a manifestation of IBS. However, bloating may also represent small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Patients with persistent symptoms of abdominal bloating and distension despite dietary interventions should be referred for H2 breath testing to determine the presence or absence of bacterial overgrowth. If bacterial overgrowth is identified, patients are typically treated with antibiotics. Evaluation of IBS generally includes testing of other disorders that cause similar symptoms. Carbohydrate malabsorption (lactose, fructose, sorbitol) can cause abdominal fullness, bloating, nausea, abdominal pain, flatulence, and diarrhea, which are similar to the symptoms of IBS. However, it is unclear if these digestive disorders contribute to or cause the symptoms of IBS. Research studies show that a proper diagnosis and effective dietary intervention significantly reduces the severity and frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms in IBS. Thus, diagnosis of malabsorption of these carbohydrates in IBS using a breath test is very important to guide the clinician in the proper treatment of IBS patients. PMID:24976698

  3. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase deficiency leads to dysbiosis and bacterial translocation in the newborn intestine.

    PubMed

    Fawley, Jason; Koehler, Shannon; Cabrera, Susan; Lam, Vy; Fredrich, Katherine; Hessner, Martin; Salzman, Nita; Gourlay, David

    2017-10-01

    Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) has been shown to help maintain intestinal homeostasis. Decreased expression of IAP has been linked with pediatric intestinal diseases associated with bacterial overgrowth and subsequent inflammation. We hypothesize that the absence of IAP leads to dysbiosis, with increased inflammation and permeability of the newborn intestine. Sprague-Dawley heterozygote IAP cross-matches were bred. Pups were dam fed ad lib and euthanized at weaning. The microbiotas of terminal ileum (TI) and colon was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) of subphylum-specific bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA. RT-PCR was performed on TI for inflammatory cytokines. Intestinal permeability was quantified by fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran permeability and bacterial translocation by qRT-PCR for bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA in mesenteric lymph nodes. Statistical analysis was done by chi-square analysis. All three genotypes had similar concentrations of bacteria in the TI and colon. However, IAP knockout (IAP-KO) had significantly decreased diversity of bacterial species in their colonic stool compared with heterozygous and wild-type (WT). IAP-KO pups had a nonstatistically significant 3.9-fold increased inducible nitric oxide synthase messenger RNA expression compared with WT (IAP-KO, 3.92 ± 1.36; WT, 1.0 ± 0.27; P = 0.03). IAP-KO also had significantly increased bacterial translocation to mesenteric lymph nodes occurred in IAP-KO (IAP-KO, 7625 RFU/g ± 3469; WT, 4957 RFU/g ± 1552; P = 0.04). Furthermore, IAP-KO had increased permeability (IAP-KO, 0.297 mg/mL ± 0.2; WT, 0.189 mg/mL ± 0.15 P = 0.07), but was not statistically significant. Deficiency of IAP in the newborn intestine is associated with dysbiosis and increased inflammation, permeability, and bacterial translocation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The etiology of pectus carinatum involves overgrowth of costal cartilage and undergrowth of ribs.

    PubMed

    Park, Chul Hwan; Kim, Tae Hoon; Haam, Seok Jin; Jeon, Inhwan; Lee, Sungsoo

    2014-08-01

    We compared the length of costal cartilage and rib between patients with symmetric pectus carinatum and controls without anterior chest wall protrusion, using a 3-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) to evaluate whether the overgrowth of costal cartilage exists in patients with pectus carinatum. Twenty-six patients with symmetric pectus carinatum and matched twenty-six controls without chest wall protrusion were enrolled. We measured the full lengths of the 4th-6th ribs and costal cartilages using 3-D volume rendering CT images and the curved multiplanar reformatted (MPR) techniques. The lengths of ribs and costal cartilages, the summation of rib and costal cartilage lengths, and the costal index [length of cartilage/length of rib * 100 (%)] were compared between the patients group and the control group at 4th-6th levels. The lengths of costal cartilage in patient group were significantly longer than those of control group at 4th, 5th and 6th rib level. The lengths of ribs in patient group were significantly shorter than those of control group at 4th, 5th and 6th rib level. The summations of rib and costal cartilage lengths were not longer in patients group than in control group. The costal indices were significantly larger in patients group than in control groups at 4th, 5th and 6th rib level. In patients with symmetric pectus carinatum, the lengths of costal cartilage were longer but the lengths of rib were shorter than those of controls. These findings may supports that the overgrowth of costal cartilage was not the only factor responsible for pectus carinatum. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Magnesium aminoclay enhances lipid production of mixotrophic Chlorella sp. KR-1 while reducing bacterial populations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bohwa; Praveenkumar, Ramasamy; Lee, Jiye; Nam, Bora; Kim, Dong-Myung; Lee, Kyubock; Lee, Young-Chul; Oh, You-Kwan

    2016-11-01

    Improving lipid productivity and preventing overgrowth of contaminating bacteria are critical issues relevant to the commercialization of the mixotrophic microalgae cultivation process. In this paper, we report the use of magnesium aminoclay (MgAC) nanoparticles for enhanced lipid production from oleaginous Chlorella sp. KR-1 with simultaneous control of KR-1-associated bacterial growth in mixotrophic cultures with glucose as the model substrate. Addition of 0.01-0.1g/L MgAC promoted microalgal biomass production better than the MgAC-less control, via differential biocidal effects on microalgal and bacterial cells (the latter being more sensitive to MgAC's bio-toxicity than the former). The inhibition effect of MgAC on co-existing bacteria was, as based on density-gradient-gel-electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, largely dosage-dependent and species-specific. MgAC also, by inducing an oxidative stress environment, increased both the cell size and lipid content of KR-1, resulting in a considerable, ∼25% improvement of mixotrophic algal lipid productivity (to ∼410mgFAME/L/d) compared with the untreated control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Counteracting wetland overgrowth increases breeding and staging bird abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehikoinen, Petteri; Lehikoinen, Aleksi; Mikkola-Roos, Markku; Jaatinen, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Human actions have led to loss and degradation of wetlands, impairing their suitability as habitat especially for waterbirds. Such negative effects may be mitigated through habitat management. To date scientific evidence regarding the impacts of these actions remains scarce. We studied guild specific abundances of breeding and staging birds in response to habitat management on 15 Finnish wetlands. In this study management actions comprised several means of vegetation removal to thwart overgrowth. Management cost efficiency was assessed by examining the association between site-specific costs and bird abundances. Several bird guilds exhibited positive connections with both habitat management as well as with invested funds. Most importantly, however, red-listed species and species with special conservation concern as outlined by the EU showed positive correlations with management actions, underlining the conservation value of wetland management. The results suggest that grazing was especially efficient in restoring overgrown wetlands. As a whole this study makes it clear that wetland habitat management constitutes a feasible conservation tool. The marked association between invested funds and bird abundance may prove to be a valuable tool for decision makers when balancing costs and impact of conservation measures against one another.

  7. Changes in Composition of the Gut Bacterial Microbiome after Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection in a Pediatric Heart Transplant Patient.

    PubMed

    Flannigan, Kyle L; Rajbar, Taylor; Moffat, Andrew; McKenzie, Leanna S; Dicke, Frank; Rioux, Kevin; Workentine, Matthew L; Louie, Thomas J; Hirota, Simon A; Greenway, Steven C

    2017-01-01

    The microbiome is increasingly recognized as an important influence on human health and many of the comorbidities that affect patients after solid organ transplantation (SOT) have been shown to involve changes in gut bacterial populations. Thus, microbiome changes in an individual patient may have important health implications after SOT but this area remains understudied. We describe changes in the composition of the fecal microbiome from a pediatric heart transplant recipient before and >2.5 years after he underwent repeated fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). With both documented episodes of CDI, there was marked loss of bacterial diversity with overgrowth of Proteobacteria (>98.9% of phyla identified) associated with symptomatic colitis that was corrected after FMT. We hypothesize that a second CDI occurring after FMT was related to incomplete restoration of normal bowel flora post-FMT with relative deficiencies of the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes and the families Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae . Following the second FMT, there was a gradual shift in gut bacterial composition coincident with the recipient developing lymphonodular hyperplasia of the colon and painless hematochezia that resolved with discontinuation of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). This case documents dynamic changes in the bacterial microbiome after FMT and suggests that MMF may influence the gut microbiome with consequences for the patient.

  8. [Improvement of intestinal function in cystic fibrosis patients using probiotics].

    PubMed

    Infante Pina, D; Redecillas Ferreiro, S; Torrent Vernetta, A; Segarra Cantón, O; Maldonado Smith, M; Gartner Tizziano, L; Hidalgo Albert, E

    2008-12-01

    In some cases, cystic fibrosis may include intestinal inflammation and bacterial overgrowth. Probiotics are considered as immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and microbiotic regulator substances. The aim of our study is to determine the prevalence of bacterial overgrowth in cystic fibrosis patients and try to improve the intestinal function with the administration of probiotics. We examined 20 patients with cystic fibrosis (mean age 10.33, range 5 to 17 years). The expired hydrogen test with a 2 g/kg of 20% dextrose overload was performed on 10 patients. After the test, Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG 10(11) CFU was administered twice daily for four weeks. Faecal near infrared spectroscopy (FENIR) of water, fat, nitrogen and sugar content in faeces was performed before and after probiotics administration. Five patients (50%) showed bacterial overgrowth. We obtained a positive correlation between the hydrogen test and steatorrhea (R = 0.57) and sugar in faeces (R = 0.52). The FENIR results pre-treatment vs post-treatment were: fat 6.2 g +/- 3.3 g vs. 4.9 g +/- 2.1 g (p < 0.05), sugar 6.7 +/- g 3.6 g vs. 5 g +/- 2.6 g (p < 0.05) and nitrogen 0.87 g +/- 0.27 g vs. 0.91 g +/- 0.14 g (NS) respectively. Thirteen patients (81.25%) had improved stool appearance and intestinal comfort and nine (56.25%) decreased the number of daily stools. Probiotics improved not only clinical but also biochemical intestinal function in cystic fibrosis patients. These could be given as a regular treatment in this type of patients and in those with bacterial overgrowth.

  9. Effects of experimental overgrowth on survival and change in the turf assemblage of a giant kelp forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miles, A.K.; Meslow, E.C.

    1990-01-01

    Crustose coralline algae were the prevalent cover among sessile organisms that paved or grew near the substratum, and also the most commonly overgrown species in a giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera (L.) C.A. Agardh forest located off San Nicolas Island, California. Giant kelp was the largest and most conspicuous species that overgrew large patches of the substrata; overgrowth among turf organisms also appeared common. To determine the effects of giant kelp holdfasts on crustose coralline algae and other turf organisms,'artificial holdfasts' were placed on 0.125-m2 plots for 5, 8 and 12 months. In these treatments, 50?57% of the crustose coralline algae survived. Because these algae also recruited while covered, the total cover (survivorship plus recruitment) differed by only 7?26% from that sampled at the start of the study. The decline of these algae in control plots was similar to that in the treatment plots mostly because of overgrowth by sessile invertebrates. Bryozoans increased markedly on the control plots, whereas 0?12% survived in the treatment plots. Bryozoans and sponges also recruited under the artificial holdfasts. Some arborescent turf algae survived in the 5- and 8-month treatments; articulated coralline algae survived better than did foliose algae. High survival recruitment of crustose coralline algae while overgrown contributed to their prevalence in benthic communities.

  10. De novo nonsense and frameshift variants of TCF20 in individuals with intellectual disability and postnatal overgrowth.

    PubMed

    Schäfgen, Johanna; Cremer, Kirsten; Becker, Jessica; Wieland, Thomas; Zink, Alexander M; Kim, Sarah; Windheuser, Isabelle C; Kreiß, Martina; Aretz, Stefan; Strom, Tim M; Wieczorek, Dagmar; Engels, Hartmut

    2016-12-01

    Recently, germline variants of the transcriptional co-regulator gene TCF20 have been implicated in the aetiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, the knowledge about the associated clinical picture remains fragmentary. In this study, two individuals with de novo TCF20 sequence variants were identified in a cohort of 313 individuals with intellectual disability of unknown aetiology, which was analysed by whole exome sequencing using a child-parent trio design. Both detected variants - one nonsense and one frameshift variant - were truncating. A comprehensive clinical characterisation of the patients yielded mild intellectual disability, postnatal tall stature and macrocephaly, obesity and muscular hypotonia as common clinical signs while ASD was only present in one proband. The present report begins to establish the clinical picture of individuals with de novo nonsense and frameshift variants of TCF20 which includes features such as proportionate overgrowth and muscular hypotonia. Furthermore, intellectual disability/developmental delay seems to be fully penetrant amongst known individuals with de novo nonsense and frameshift variants of TCF20, whereas ASD is shown to be incompletely penetrant. The transcriptional co-regulator gene TCF20 is hereby added to the growing number of genes implicated in the aetiology of both ASD and intellectual disability. Furthermore, such de novo variants of TCF20 may represent a novel differential diagnosis in the overgrowth syndrome spectrum.

  11. The relation between oral Candida load and bacterial microbiome profiles in Dutch older adults.

    PubMed

    Kraneveld, Eefje A; Buijs, Mark J; Bonder, Marc J; Visser, Marjolein; Keijser, Bart J F; Crielaard, Wim; Zaura, Egija

    2012-01-01

    Currently there are no evidence-based ecological measures for prevention of overgrowth and subsequent infection by fungi in the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to increase our knowledge on fungal-bacterial ecological interactions. Salivary Candida abundance of 82 Dutch adults aged 58-80 years was established relative to the bacterial load by quantitative PCR analysis of the Internal Transcribed (ITS) region (Candida) and 16S rDNA gene (bacteria). The salivary microbiome was assessed using barcoded pyrosequencing of the bacterial hypervariable regions V5-V7 of 16S rDNA. Sequencing data was preprocessed by denoising and chimera removal, clustered in Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) and assigned to taxonomy. Both OTU-based (PCA, diversity statistics) and phylogeny-based analyses (UniFrac, PCoA) were performed. Saliva of Dutch older adults contained 0-4 × 10(8) CFU/mL Candida with a median Candida load of 0.06%. With increased Candida load the diversity of the salivary microbiome decreased significantly (p<0.001). Increase in the Candida load correlated positively with class Bacilli, and negatively with class Fusobacteria, Flavobacteria, and Bacteroidia. Microbiomes with high Candida load were less diverse and had a distinct microbial composition towards dominance by saccharolytic and acidogenic bacteria--streptococci. The control of the acidification of the oral environment may be a potential preventive measure for Candida outgrowth that should be evaluated in longitudinal clinical intervention trials.

  12. The Relation between Oral Candida Load and Bacterial Microbiome Profiles in Dutch Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kraneveld, Eefje A.; Buijs, Mark J.; Bonder, Marc J.; Visser, Marjolein; Keijser, Bart J. F.; Crielaard, Wim; Zaura, Egija

    2012-01-01

    Currently there are no evidence-based ecological measures for prevention of overgrowth and subsequent infection by fungi in the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to increase our knowledge on fungal–bacterial ecological interactions. Salivary Candida abundance of 82 Dutch adults aged 58–80 years was established relative to the bacterial load by quantitative PCR analysis of the Internal Transcribed (ITS) region (Candida) and 16S rDNA gene (bacteria). The salivary microbiome was assessed using barcoded pyrosequencing of the bacterial hypervariable regions V5–V7 of 16S rDNA. Sequencing data was preprocessed by denoising and chimera removal, clustered in Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) and assigned to taxonomy. Both OTU-based (PCA, diversity statistics) and phylogeny-based analyses (UniFrac, PCoA) were performed. Saliva of Dutch older adults contained 0–4 × 108 CFU/mL Candida with a median Candida load of 0.06%. With increased Candida load the diversity of the salivary microbiome decreased significantly (p<0.001). Increase in the Candida load correlated positively with class Bacilli, and negatively with class Fusobacteria, Flavobacteria, and Bacteroidia. Microbiomes with high Candida load were less diverse and had a distinct microbial composition towards dominance by saccharolytic and acidogenic bacteria - streptococci. The control of the acidification of the oral environment may be a potential preventive measure for Candida outgrowth that should be evaluated in longitudinal clinical intervention trials. PMID:22900048

  13. Antibiotics for treating bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Helen Margaret; Brocklehurst, Peter; Gordon, Adrienne

    2014-01-01

    Background Bacterial vaginosis is an imbalance of the normal vaginal flora with an overgrowth of anaerobic bacteria and a lack of the normal lactobacillary flora. Bacterial vaginosis during pregnancy has been associated with poor perinatal outcome and, in particular, preterm birth (PTB). Identification and treatment may reduce the risk of PTB and its consequences. Objectives To assess the effects of antibiotic treatment of bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (May 2006). We updated this search on 18 November 2010 and added the results to the awaiting classification section. Selection criteria Randomized trials comparing antibiotic treatment with placebo or no treatment, or comparing two or more antibiotic regimens in pregnant women with bacterial vaginosis or intermediate vaginal flora. Data collection and analysis Two review authors assessed trials and extracted data independently. We contacted study authors for additional information. Main results We included fifteen trials of good quality, involving 5888 women. Antibiotic therapy was effective at eradicating bacterial vaginosis during pregnancy (Peto odds ratio (OR) 0.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15 to 0.20; 10 trials, 4357 women). Treatment did not reduce the risk of PTB before 37 weeks (Peto OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.06; 15 trials, 5888 women), or the risk of preterm prelabour rupture of membranes (PPROM) (Peto OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.28; four trials, 2579 women). However, treatment before 20 weeks’ gestation may reduce the risk of preterm birth less than 37 weeks (Peto OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.95; five trials, 2387 women). In women with a previous PTB, treatment did not affect the risk of subsequent PTB (Peto OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.59 to 1.17, five trials of 622); however, it may decrease the risk of PPROM (Peto OR 0.14, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.38) and low birthweight (Peto OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.75)(two trials, 114

  14. Cartilaginous metaplasia and overgrowth of neurocranium skull after X-irradiation in utero.

    PubMed

    Schmahl, W; Meyer, I; Kriegel, H; Tempel, K H

    1979-01-01

    Prenatal X-irradiation of mice in the late organogenesis stage either with a fractionated or a single exposure dose (3 X 160 R or 200 R) leads to remarkable, previously undescribed malformations of the skull. These malformations range from mild hyperostotic nodule formation in about 90% of the offspring to excessive formation of desmal bony tissues, which extend deep into the forebrain and are thus only detectable in histological sections. Metaplastic and hyperplastic formation of cartilage in all the neurocranial regions is observed in about 10% of the offspring. The pathogenesis of these overgrowth phenomena is presumably related to a growth disturbance of both the mesenchymal skull primordium and the brain. While malformation of the latter leads to a decrease of intracranial pressure and consequently to altered growth activity of the skull sutures, the reparative and proliferative capacities of the mesenchyme are also stimulated, in a hyperplastic direction, by X-irradiation.

  15. Bacterial Contamination of Boar Semen and its Relationship to Sperm Quality Preserved in Commercial Extender Containing Gentamicin Sulfate.

    PubMed

    Gączarzewicz, D; Udała, J; Piasecka, M; Błaszczyk, B; Stankiewicz, T

    2016-09-01

    This study was designed to determine the degree and type of bacterial contamination in boar semen (79 ejaculates from Large White and Landrace boars) and its consequences for sperm quality during storage (27 extended semen samples, 16°C for five days) under practical conditions of artificial insemination (AI). The results revealed the presence of aerobic bacteria in 99% of the ejaculates (from 80 to 370 ×106 colony-forming units/mL). Most of the ejaculates contained two or three bacterial contaminants, while the Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Pseudomonas bacterial genera were most frequently isolated. Also detected were Enterobacter spp., Bacillus spp., Proteus spp., Escherichia coli, P. fluorescens, and P. aeruginosa. In general, the growth of certain bacterial types isolated prior to semen processing (Enterobacter spp., E. coli, P. fluorescens, and P. aeruginosa) was not discovered on different days of storage, but fluctuations (with a tendency towards increases) were found in the frequencies of Bacillus spp., Pseudomonas spp., and Staphylococcus spp. isolates up to the end of storage. Semen preserved for five days exhibited decreases in sperm motility and increases in the average number of total aerobic bacteria; this was associated with sperm agglutination, plasma membrane disruption, and acrosome damage. We inferred that, due to the different degrees and types of bacterial contaminants in the boar ejaculates, the inhibitory activity of some antimicrobial agents used in swine extenders (such as gentamicin sulfate) may be limited. Because such agents can contribute to the overgrowth of certain aerobic bacteria and a reduction in the quality of stored semen, procedures with high standards of hygiene and microbiological control should be used when processing boar semen.

  16. Electronic Properties of Grain Boundaries in GaAs: A Study of Oriented Bicrystals Prepared by Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-10

    overgrowth from a spoke 90 pattern of radial stripe openings at 1 intervals on an Si0 2 coated (110) surface. Bright regions are GaAs and dark regions are Si0...the dark current for such an ideal device is given by Idark - Io[exp(eVbi/AokT) - 1] , (11-l) where Io is a proportionality constant describing the...recombination and leakage currents which contribute to an increased dark current. The value of Voc is determined by the built-in junction barrier height and the

  17. Drug-Induced Gingival Overgrowth: The Genetic Dimension

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Noronha Shyam Curtis; Chavan, Rahul; Moon, Ninad Joshirao; Nalla, Srinivas; Mali, Jaydeepchandra; Prajapati, Anchal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Currently, the etiology of drug-induced gingival overgrowth is not entirely understood but is clearly multifactorial. Phenytoin, one of the common drugs implicated in gingival enlargement, is metabolized mainly by cytochrome P450 (CYP)2C9 and partly by CYP2C19. The CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 genes are polymorphically expressed and most of the variants result in decreased metabolism of the respective substrates. Aims: The present study was undertaken to investigate the influence of the CYP2C9*2 and *3 variant genotypes on phenytoin hydroxylation in subjects diagnosed with epilepsy from South India, thus establishing the genetic polymorphisms leading to its defective hydroxylation process. Materials and Methods: Fifteen epileptic subjects, age 9 to 60 years were included in the study. Among the study subjects, 8 were males and 7 were females. Genomic DNA was extracted from patients’ blood using Phenol-chloroform method and genotyping was done for CYP2C9 using customized TaqMan genotyping assays on a real time thermocycler, by allelic discrimination method. The genetic polymorphisms *1, *2 and *3 on CYP2C9 were selected based on their function and respective allele frequencies in Asian subcontinent among the Asian populations. Results: CYP2C9*1*2 and CYP2C9*3/*3 were identified with equal frequency in the study population. There were seven subjects with CYP2C9*1/*2 genotype (heterozygous mutant), one subject with CYP2C9*1/*1 (wild type) and seven study subjects with CYP2C9*3/*3 (homozygous mutant). Conclusion: The results obtained in the present study will be helpful in the medical prescription purposes of phenytoin, and a more personalized patient approach with its administration can be advocated. PMID:25317394

  18. Drug-induced gingival overgrowth: the genetic dimension.

    PubMed

    Charles, Noronha Shyam Curtis; Chavan, Rahul; Moon, Ninad Joshirao; Nalla, Srinivas; Mali, Jaydeepchandra; Prajapati, Anchal

    2014-09-01

    Currently, the etiology of drug-induced gingival overgrowth is not entirely understood but is clearly multifactorial. Phenytoin, one of the common drugs implicated in gingival enlargement, is metabolized mainly by cytochrome P450 (CYP)2C9 and partly by CYP2C19. The CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 genes are polymorphically expressed and most of the variants result in decreased metabolism of the respective substrates. The present study was undertaken to investigate the influence of the CYP2C9*2 and *3 variant genotypes on phenytoin hydroxylation in subjects diagnosed with epilepsy from South India, thus establishing the genetic polymorphisms leading to its defective hydroxylation process. Fifteen epileptic subjects, age 9 to 60 years were included in the study. Among the study subjects, 8 were males and 7 were females. Genomic DNA was extracted from patients' blood using Phenol-chloroform method and genotyping was done for CYP2C9 using customized TaqMan genotyping assays on a real time thermocycler, by allelic discrimination method. The genetic polymorphisms *1, *2 and *3 on CYP2C9 were selected based on their function and respective allele frequencies in Asian subcontinent among the Asian populations. CYP2C9*1*2 and CYP2C9*3/*3 were identified with equal frequency in the study population. There were seven subjects with CYP2C9*1/*2 genotype (heterozygous mutant), one subject with CYP2C9*1/*1 (wild type) and seven study subjects with CYP2C9*3/*3 (homozygous mutant). The results obtained in the present study will be helpful in the medical prescription purposes of phenytoin, and a more personalized patient approach with its administration can be advocated.

  19. Deletion of 8.5 Mb, including the FMR1 gene, in a male with the fragile X syndrome phenotype and overgrowth.

    PubMed

    Parvari, R; Mumm, S; Galil, A; Manor, E; Bar-David, Y; Carmi, R

    1999-04-02

    A four-year-old boy with severe psychomotor retardation, facial appearance consistent with the fragile X syndrome, hypotonia, and overgrowth was found to have a deletion including the fragile X gene (FMR1). The breakpoints of the deletion were established between CDR1 and sWXD2905 (approximately 200 kb apart) at Xq27.1 (centromeric) and between DXS8318 (612-1078L) and DXS7847 (576-291L) (approximately 250 kb apart) at Xq28, about 500 kb telomeric to the FMR1 gene. The total length of the deletion is approximately 8.5 Mb. The propositus's mother, who was found to be a carrier of the deletion, showed very mild mental impairment. Except for mental retardation, which is a common finding in all cases reported with similar deletions of chromosome Xq, this patient had generalized overgrowth, exceeding the 97th centile for height and weight. Obesity and increased growth parameters have been reported in other patients with deletions either overlapping or within a distance of 0.5 Mb from the deletion in the present patient. Thus, it is suggested that a deletion of the 8-Mb fragment centromeric to the FMR1 gene might have an effect on growth.

  20. Intragastric nitrites, nitrosamines, and bacterial overgrowth during cimetidine treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Stockbrugger, R W; Cotton, P B; Eugenides, N; Bartholomew, B A; Hill, M J; Walters, C L

    1982-01-01

    A six week course of cimetidine (1 g/day) healed peptic ulcers in 20 of 23 patients (14 with duodenal ulcer, nine with gastric ulcer). Reduction of basal acid output by 73% and peak acid output by 36% led to a rise in concentrations of intragastric aerobic bacteria and nitrate-reducing bacteria. While the mean intragastric concentration of nitrate was unchanged by treatment, there were statistically significant rises in nitrite and N-nitrosamine concentrations. The conversion from nitrates to nitrites was closely related to the occurrence of nitrate-reducing bacteria. In three patients the intragastric milieu had returned to normal two months after cimetidine treatment had been discontinued. Mean nitrite and N-nitrosamine concentrations did not return to pre-treatment levels in the group of eight patients who remained on maintenance cimetidine (0.4 g at night-time) for three months after the full dose treatment. This study shows that cimetidine treatment can create an intragastric milieu resembling that of atrophic gastritis. Large scale and long-term studies are necessary to establish whether these findings have any clinical significance. PMID:7173716

  1. [Influence of proton pump inhibitors on intestinal fermentative profile: a case-control study].

    PubMed

    Senderovky, Melisa; Lasa, Juan; Dima, Guillermo; Peralta, Daniel; Argüello, Mariano; Soifer, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Proton pump inhibitors could have an impact on the results of breath tests performed in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. This impact could be due to the development of small intestine bacterial overgrowth. To compare the prevalence of fermentative profile alterations of irritable bowel syndrome patients exposed and not-exposed to proton pump inhibitor therapy. Subjects with irritable bowel syndrome were enrolled. A validated questionnaire assessing symptom severity as well as proton pump inhibitor treatment was delivered. A lactulose breath test was undertaken by each enrolled subject. Fermentative profile (area under the curve of hydrogen excretion/time) was compared between proton pump inhibitors consumers and non-consumers. Furthermore, small intestine bacterial overgrowth prevalence was compared. Two hundred and twenty five patients were enrolled. No significant differences were found on the fermentative profile between groups [AUC mediana 3,776 (rango 2,124-5,571) vs 4,347 (rango 2,038-5,481), P = 0.3]. Small intestine bacterial overgrowth prevalence was similar as well [33% vs 27.5%]. These differences remained non-significant after adjusting for proton pump inhibitor dose and treatment time. Surprisingly, symptom score was significantly higher in those patients under proton pump inhibitor therapy [28.5 (23-26) vs 23 (15-29), P = 0.01]. Proton pump inhibitors have no significant influence on lactulose breath tests, regardless of the dosage and time of administration.

  2. PREVALENCE OF BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS AMONG SEXUALLY ACTIVE WOMEN ATTENDING THE CDC CENTRAL CLINIC TIKO, SOUTH WEST REGION, CAMEROON.

    PubMed

    Achondou, Akomoneh Elvis; Fumoloh, Foche Francis; Aseneck, Aseneck Christian; Awah, Abong Ralph; Utokoro, Ajonina Marcelus

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a polymicrobial, superficial vaginal infection involving a reduction in the amount of hydrogen peroxide-producing Lactobacillus and overgrowth of anaerobic bacteria. Common symptoms include increased fishy smelling vaginal discharge which is usually white or gray in color. Burning with urination may occur and itching is uncommon. Risk factors include douching, new or multiple sex partners, antibiotics, and use of intrauterine device among others. This cross-sectional study assessed the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis among sexually active women aged 15-45 years. Vaginal swabs were obtained with the use of sterile swab sticks which were later smeared on clean glass slides and then Gram stained. The stained smears were observed for bacterial morphotypes with the X100 oil immersion objective and the Nugent scoring system was used to determine BV. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) version 17.0 and were considered significant at p < 0.05. A total of 100 women participated in the study with the overall prevalence of BV rated 38%. The prevalence of BV with respect to associated factors was also investigated and it was observed that BV was more prevalent in the age groups 20-25 (48.1%) and 25-29 (44.4%), those who had attained only primary education (60.5%), married women, (68.4%), pregnant women (71.0%), and women who practiced vaginal douching, (97.4%). However, no statistical significant difference was observed in the prevalence between these parameters (P > 0.05). Conclusively, the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in our study population is 38% and highest among women aged between 25 and 34 years, pregnant women, married women, less educated women and women who practiced poor vaginal hygiene.

  3. Intestinal Dysbiosis and Biotin Deprivation Induce Alopecia through Overgrowth of Lactobacillus murinus in Mice.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Atsushi; Mikami, Yohei; Miyamoto, Kentaro; Kamada, Nobuhiko; Sato, Toshiro; Mizuno, Shinta; Naganuma, Makoto; Teratani, Toshiaki; Aoki, Ryo; Fukuda, Shinji; Suda, Wataru; Hattori, Masahira; Amagai, Masayuki; Ohyama, Manabu; Kanai, Takanori

    2017-08-15

    Metabolism by the gut microbiota affects host physiology beyond the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we find that antibiotic-induced dysbiosis, in particular, overgrowth of Lactobacillus murinus (L. murinus), impaired gut metabolic function and led to the development of alopecia. While deprivation of dietary biotin per se did not affect skin physiology, its simultaneous treatment with vancomycin resulted in hair loss in specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice. Vancomycin treatment induced the accumulation of L. murinus in the gut, which consumes residual biotin and depletes available biotin in the gut. Consistently, L. murinus induced alopecia when monocolonized in germ-free mice fed a biotin-deficient diet. Supplementation of biotin can reverse established alopecia symptoms in the SPF condition, indicating that L. murinus plays a central role in the induction of hair loss via a biotin-dependent manner. Collectively, our results indicate that luminal metabolic alterations associated with gut dysbiosis and dietary modifications can compromise skin physiology. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Heat resistive dielectric multi-layer micro-mirror array in epitaxial lateral overgrowth gallium nitride.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chen-Yang; Ku, Hao-Min; Liao, Wei-Tsai; Chao, Chu-Li; Tsay, Jenq-Dar; Chao, Shiuh

    2009-03-30

    Ta2O5 / SiO2 dielectric multi-layer micro-mirror array (MMA) with 3mm mirror size and 6mm array period was fabricated on c-plane sapphire substrate. The MMA was subjected to 1200 degrees C high temperature annealing and remained intact with high reflectance in contrast to the continuous multi-layer for which the layers have undergone severe damage by 1200 degrees C annealing. Epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) of gallium nitride (GaN) was applied to the MMA that was deposited on both sapphire and sapphire with 2:56 mm GaN template. The MMA was fully embedded in the ELO GaN and remained intact. The result implies that our MMA is compatible to the high temperature growth environment of GaN and the MMA could be incorporated into the structure of the micro-LED array as a one to one micro backlight reflector, or as the patterned structure on the large area LED for controlling the output light.

  5. Local electronic and optical behaviors of a-plane GaN grown via epitaxial lateral overgrowth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, J. C.; Kasliwal, V.; Baski, A. A.; Ni, X.; Özgür, Ü.; Morkoç, H.

    2007-01-01

    Conductive atomic force microscopy and near-field optical microscopy (NSOM) were used to study the morphology, conduction, and optical properties of a-plane GaN films grown via epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The AFM images for the coalesced ELO films show undulations, where the window regions appear as depressions with a high density of surface pits. At reverse bias below 12V, very low uniform conduction (2pA) is seen in the window regions. Above 20V, a lower-quality sample shows localized sites inside the window regions with significant leakage, indicating a correlation between the presence of surface pits and leakage sites. Room temperature NSOM studies explicitly showed enhanced optical quality in the wing regions of the overgrown GaN due to a reduced density of dislocations, with the wings and the windows clearly discernible from near-field photoluminescence mapping.

  6. Cyclosporin A-induced gingival overgrowth in the rat: a histological, ultrastructural and histomorphometric evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ayanoglou, C M; Lesty, C

    1999-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to further study cyclosporin A (CsA)-induced gingival overgrowth. Thirty mg/kg/d of vehicle or CsA solutions were given orally to 6-wk-old male Sprague-Dawley rats. After 4, 9, 14 and 19 wk 2 control and 2 experimental rats were anaesthetized, tissues fixed by intracardiac perfusion of fixative solution and jaws processed for Epon inclusion. Histological and ultrastructural studies conducted in a gingival portion (free gingiva) revealed the presence of hyalinization areas and of multinucleated cells (MCs) containing collagen fibrils (connective tissue), of amorphous areas and disorders of keratinization (epithelia). Histomorphometric evaluation indicated that in the CsA rats the mean cross-sectional area of the free gingiva was 2.52-fold increased compared to the controls. The connective tissue comprised 41.43% of this area (instead of 31.49% in controls). Additional histomorphometric evaluation was performed in 3 groups of free gingival portions: control (C group), CsA-non-respondent (CsA-nR) and CsA-respondent (CsA-R). The cross-sectional gingival areas studied were slightly lower than the mean area of all the control sites previously defined (groups C and CsA-nR) or showed the higher degrees of enlargement (CsA-R). In the CsA-R group the mean cross-sectioned area of the vessel profiles was increased and the number of fibroblast profiles decreased. In the CsA-nR group the number of vessel profiles and that of MCs profiles were increased. In the epithelia of the CsA-R group were increased (a) keratinized epithelia: thickness; thickness of the inner and of the outer compartments; surface area of spinous cell profiles; (b) oral gingival epithelium: number of cell layers (inner compartment); (c) oral sulcular epithelium: surface area of granular cell profiles; (d) junctional epithelium: thickness; number of cell layers. These results indicate that (a) the CsA induced modifications are not limited to enlarged gingiva (b) the

  7. Current concepts and future strategies in the antimicrobial therapy of emerging Gram-positive spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Marco; Maraolo, Alberto Enrico; Gentile, Ivan; Borgia, Guglielmo; Leone, Sebastiano; Sansone, Pasquale; Passavanti, Maria Beatrice; Aurilio, Caterina; Pace, Maria Caterina

    2017-10-28

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is the most common infection in end-stage liver disease patients. SBP is defined as an ascitic fluid infection with a polymorphonuclear leucocyte count ≥ 250/mm 3 without an evident intra-abdominal surgically treatable source. Several mechanisms contribute to SBP occurrence, including translocation of gut bacteria and their products, reduced intestinal motility provoking bacterial overgrowth, alteration of the gut's barrier function and local immune responses. Historically, Gram-negative enteric bacteria have been the main causative agents of SBP, thereby guiding the empirical therapeutic choice. However, over the last decade, a worryingly increasing prevalence of Gram-positive and multi-drug resistant (MDR) SBP has been seen. Recently, the microbiological spectrum of SBP seems to have changed in Europe due to a high prevalence of Gram-positive bacteria (48%-62%). The overall proportion of MDR bacteria is up to 22%-73% of cases. Consequently, empirical therapy based on third-generation cephalosporins or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, can no longer be considered the standard of care, as these drugs are associated with poor outcomes. The aim of this review is to describe, with an epidemiological focus, the evidence behind this rise in Gram-positive and MDR SBP from 2000 to present, and illustrate potential targeted therapeutic strategies. An appropriate treatment protocol should include daptomycin plus ceftaroline and meropenem, with prompt stepdown to a narrower spectrum when cultures and sensitivity data are available in order to reduce both cost and potential antibiotic resistance development.

  8. Molecular and Functional Characterization of Three Different Postzygotic Mutations in PIK3CA-Related Overgrowth Spectrum (PROS) Patients: Effects on PI3K/AKT/mTOR Signaling and Sensitivity to PIK3 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Forte, Giovanna; Bagnulo, Rosanna; Stella, Alessandro; Lastella, Patrizia; Cutrone, Mario; Benedicenti, Francesco; Susca, Francesco C.; Patruno, Margherita; Varvara, Dora; Germani, Aldo; Chessa, Luciana; Laforgia, Nicola; Tenconi, Romano; Simone, Cristiano; Resta, Nicoletta

    2015-01-01

    Background PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS) include a group of disorders that affect only the terminal portion of a limb, such as type I macrodactyly, and conditions like fibroadipose overgrowth (FAO), megalencephaly-capillary malformation (MCAP) syndrome, congenital lipomatous asymmetric overgrowth of the trunk, lymphatic, capillary, venous, and combined-type vascular malformations, epidermal nevi, skeletal and spinal anomalies (CLOVES) syndrome and Hemihyperplasia Multiple Lipomatosis (HHML). Heterozygous postzygotic PIK3CA mutations are frequently identified in these syndromes, while timing and tissue specificity of the mutational event are likely responsible for the extreme phenotypic variability observed. Methods We carried out a combination of Sanger sequencing and targeted deep sequencing of genes involved in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in three patients (1 MCAP and 2 FAO) to identify causative mutations, and performed immunoblot analyses to assay the phosphorylation status of AKT and P70S6K in affected dermal fibroblasts. In addition, we evaluated their ability to grow in the absence of serum and their response to the PI3K inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002 in vitro. Results and Conclusion Our data indicate that patients’ cells showed constitutive activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. Of note, PI3K pharmacological blockade resulted in a significant reduction of the proliferation rate in culture, suggesting that inhibition of PI3K might prove beneficial in future therapies for PROS patients. PMID:25915946

  9. A Deep Nasopharyngeal Swab Versus Nonendoscopic Bronchoalveolar Lavage for Isolation of Bacterial Pathogens from Preweaned Calves With Respiratory Disease.

    PubMed

    Van Driessche, L; Valgaeren, B R; Gille, L; Boyen, F; Ducatelle, R; Haesebrouck, F; Deprez, P; Pardon, B

    2017-05-01

    Nonendoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a practical alternative for a deep nasopharyngeal swab (DNS) to sample the airways of a large number of calves in a short period of time. The extent of commensal overgrowth and agreement of BAL with DNS culture results in preweaned calves are unknown. To compare commensal overgrowth and bacterial culture results between DNS and BAL samples. A total of 183 preweaned calves (144 with bovine respiratory disease and 39 healthy animals). Cross-sectional study. Deep nasopharyngeal swab and BAL samples were taken from each calf and cultured to detect Pasteurellaceae and Mycoplasma bovis. Agreement and associations between culture results of DNS and BAL samples were determined by kappa statistics and logistic regression. Bronchoalveolar lavage samples were less often polymicrobial, more frequently negative and yielded more pure cultures compared to DNS, leading to a clinically interpretable culture result in 79.2% of the cases compared to only in 31.2% of the DNS samples. Isolation rates were lower in healthy animals, but not different between DNS and BAL samples. Only Histophilus somni was more likely to be isolated from BAL samples. In clinical cases, a polymicrobial DNS culture result did not increase the probability of a polymicrobial BAL result by ≥30%, nor did it influence the probability of a negative culture. A significant herd effect was noted for all observed relationships. Nonendoscopic BAL samples are far less overgrown by bacteria compared to DNS samples under the conditions of this study, facilitating clinical interpretation and resulting in a higher return on investment in bacteriologic culturing. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  10. Intestinal manipulation affects mucosal antimicrobial defense in a mouse model of postoperative ileus

    PubMed Central

    Hieggelke, Lena; Schneiker, Bianca; Lysson, Mariola; Stoffels, Burkhard; Nuding, Sabine; Wehkamp, Jan; Kikhney, Judith; Moter, Annette; Kalff, Joerg C.

    2018-01-01

    Aim To explore the effects of abdominal surgery and interleukin-1 signaling on antimicrobial defense in a model of postoperative ileus. Methods C57BL/6 and Interleukin-1 receptor type I (IL-1R1) deficient mice underwent intestinal manipulation to induce POI. Expression of mucosal IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-1R1 and several antimicrobial peptides and enzymes were measured by quantitative PCR or ELISA, western blotting or immunohistochemistry. Bacterial overgrowth was determined by fluorescent in-situ hybridization and counting of jejunal luminal bacteria. Translocation of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria into the intestinal wall, mesenteric lymph nodes, liver and spleen was determined by counting bacterial colonies on agar plates 48h after plating of tissue homogenates. Antimicrobial activity against E. coli and B. vulgatus was analyzed in total and cationic fractions of small bowel mucosal tissue homogenates by a flow cytometry-based bacterial depolarization assay. Results Jejunal bacterial overgrowth was detected 24h after surgery. At the same time point, but not in the early phase 3h after surgery, bacterial translocation into the liver and mesenteric lymph nodes was observed. Increased antimicrobial activity against E. coli was induced within early phase of POI. Basal antimicrobial peptide and enzyme gene expression was higher in the ileal compared to the jejunal mucosa. The expression of lysozyme 1, cryptdin 1, cryptdin 4 and mucin 2 were reduced 24h after surgery in the ileal mucosa and mucin 2 was also reduced in the jejunum. Postoperative IL-1α and IL-1β were increased in the postoperative mucosa. Deficiency of IL-1R1 affected the expression of antimicrobial peptides during homeostasis and POI. Conclusion Small bowel antimicrobial capacity is disturbed during POI which is accompanied by bacterial overgrowth and translocation. IL-1R1 is partially involved in the gene expression of mucosal antimicrobial peptides. Altered small bowel antimicrobial activity may

  11. First genomic insights into members of a candidate bacterial phylum responsible for wastewater bulking

    PubMed Central

    Ohashi, Akiko; Parks, Donovan H.; Yamauchi, Toshihiro; Tyson, Gene W.

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous cells belonging to the candidate bacterial phylum KSB3 were previously identified as the causative agent of fatal filament overgrowth (bulking) in a high-rate industrial anaerobic wastewater treatment bioreactor. Here, we obtained near complete genomes from two KSB3 populations in the bioreactor, including the dominant bulking filament, using differential coverage binning of metagenomic data. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with 16S rRNA-targeted probes specific for the two populations confirmed that both are filamentous organisms. Genome-based metabolic reconstruction and microscopic observation of the KSB3 filaments in the presence of sugar gradients indicate that both filament types are Gram-negative, strictly anaerobic fermenters capable of non-flagellar based gliding motility, and have a strikingly large number of sensory and response regulator genes. We propose that the KSB3 filaments are highly sensitive to their surroundings and that cellular processes, including those causing bulking, are controlled by external stimuli. The obtained genomes lay the foundation for a more detailed understanding of environmental cues used by KSB3 filaments, which may lead to more robust treatment options to prevent bulking. PMID:25650158

  12. Antibiotics for treating bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Brocklehurst, Peter; Gordon, Adrienne; Heatley, Emer; Milan, Stephen J

    2013-01-31

    Bacterial vaginosis is an imbalance of the normal vaginal flora with an overgrowth of anaerobic bacteria and a lack of the normal lactobacillary flora. Women may have symptoms of a characteristic vaginal discharge but are often asymptomatic. Bacterial vaginosis during pregnancy has been associated with poor perinatal outcomes and, in particular, preterm birth (PTB). Identification and treatment may reduce the risk of PTB and its consequences. To assess the effects of antibiotic treatment of bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 May 2012), searched cited references from retrieved articles and reviewed abstracts, letters to the editor and editorials. Randomised trials comparing antibiotic treatment with placebo or no treatment, or comparing two or more antibiotic regimens in pregnant women with bacterial vaginosis or intermediate vaginal flora whether symptomatic or asymptomatic and detected through screening. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, trial quality and extracted data. We contacted study authors for additional information. We included 21 trials of good quality, involving 7847 women diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis or intermediate vaginal flora.Antibiotic therapy was shown to be effective at eradicating bacterial vaginosis during pregnancy (average risk ratio (RR) 0.42; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.31 to 0.56; 10 trials, 4403 women; random-effects, T² = 0.19, I² = 91%). Antibiotic treatment also reduced the risk of late miscarriage (RR 0.20; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.76; two trials, 1270 women, fixed-effect, I² = 0%).Treatment did not reduce the risk of PTB before 37 weeks (average RR 0.88; 95% CI 0.71 to 1.09; 13 trials, 6491 women; random-effects, T² = 0.06, I² = 48%), or the risk of preterm prelabour rupture of membranes (RR 0.74; 95% CI 0.30 to 1.84; two trials, 493 women). It did increase the risk of side-effects sufficient to stop or change treatment

  13. Learning about Crohn's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... blocks the body's inflammation process. Antibiotics to treat bacterial overgrowth in the intestine or before surgery. Anti-diarrhea medications and fluid replacements. Nutrition supplements may be recommended especially for children whose growth has been slowed. For some patients, this nutrition ...

  14. Carbohydrate maldigestion induces necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a major gastrointestinal disorder in preterm infants. Key risk factors for NEC are enteral feeding and microbial colonization. Maldigestion of carbohydrate secondary to immature digestive function has been suspected to cause bacterial overgrowth and NEC. We investi...

  15. Systematic review with meta-analysis: rifaximin for the prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Goel, A; Rahim, U; Nguyen, L H; Stave, C; Nguyen, M H

    2017-12-01

    The primary and secondary prevention of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is recommended in high-risk patients with cirrhosis. Several studies evaluating the efficacy of rifaximin for SBP prophylaxis have yielded conflicting results. Rifaximin has the potential advantage of preventing bacterial overgrowth and translocation without the systemic side effects of broad-spectrum antibiotics. To evaluate the efficacy of rifaximin in the primary and secondary prevention of SBP. A literature search using five databases was performed to identify studies on the association between rifaximin and SBP. We performed two meta-analyses: (1) rifaximin compared to systemic antibiotics and (2) rifaximin compared to no antibiotics. Random-effect modelling was conducted to determine overall pooled estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Five studies with 555 patients (295 rifaximin, 260 systemic antibiotics) compared rifaximin with systemic antibiotics. The pooled odds ratio (OR) for SBP was 0.45 (95% CI 0.16-1.27; P = .13) in patients receiving rifaximin and strengthened on sensitivity analysis (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.19-0.76, P = .01). In the analysis comparing rifaximin with no antibiotics, there were five studies with 784 patients (186 rifaximin, 598 no antibiotics). The OR for SBP was 0.34 (95% CI 0.11-0.99; P < .05) in patients receiving rifaximin. In subgroup analysis, rifaximin reduced the risk of SBP by 47% compared to no antibiotics for primary prophylaxis and by 74% compared to systemic antibiotics for secondary prophylaxis. Rifaximin may be effective in preventing SBP in patients with cirrhosis and ascites compared to systemically absorbed antibiotics and compared to placebo. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Local Inflammation Alters MMP-2 and MMP-9 Gelatinase Expression Associated with the Severity of Nifedipine-Induced Gingival Overgrowth: a Rat Model Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Wu-Li; Wu, Cheng-Hai; Yang, Jun; Tang, Min; Chen, Long-Jie; Zhao, Shou-Liang

    2015-08-01

    Nifedipine-induced gingival overgrowth (NIGO) is characterized by cell proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) component accumulation in gingival connective tissues, with varying degrees of inflammation and fibrosis. Impaired collagen and ECM homeostasis may be among the underlying molecular mechanisms that lead to the fibrotic changes that occur in drug-induced gingival overgrowth (DIGO). Because matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play vital roles in regulating collagen and ECM metabolism, many studies have been performed to reveal the relationship between MMPs and DIGO. It is thought that the gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9, both type IV collagenases, are involved in the development of tissue inflammation and organ fibrosis. However, the few studies regarding gelatinase expression in DIGO are controversial. Recent studies have demonstrated the inhibitory effect of cyclosporine A (CsA) on gelatinase expression and/or activity; however, similar changes have yet to be detected in Nif-treated gingival tissues. In this study, we verified that Nif treatment could lead to gingival overgrowth in rats and that gingival inflammation played a pro-proliferative role in NIGO development. Additionally, we examined the temporal expression of gelatinases on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 30, and 40 during NIGO development. The aim was to investigate whether MMP-2 and MMP-9 played significant roles in regulating NIGO development and progression. MMP-2 gene expression was not altered by Nif treatment alone but was significantly inhibited by Nif treatment for 30 days in the presence of local inflammation. However, no significant alterations in MMP-2 protein expression were detected in the Nif-treated gingival tissue, regardless of the presence or absence of local inflammation. Moreover, Nif treatment could lead to transient and significant increases in MMP-9 gene and protein expression levels in the presence of local inflammation. In particular, active MMP-9 expression increased significantly

  17. Upper and lower respiratory tract microbiota in horses: bacterial communities associated with health and mild asthma (inflammatory airway disease) and effects of dexamethasone.

    PubMed

    Bond, Stephanie L; Timsit, Edouard; Workentine, Matthew; Alexander, Trevor; Léguillette, Renaud

    2017-08-23

    The microbial composition of the equine respiratory tract, and differences due to mild equine asthma (also called Inflammatory Airway Disease (IAD)) have not been reported. The primary treatment for control of IAD in horses are corticosteroids. The objectives were to characterize the upper and lower respiratory tract microbiota associated with respiratory health and IAD, and to investigate the effects of dexamethasone on these bacterial communities using high throughput sequencing. The respiratory microbiota of horses was dominated by four major phyla, Proteobacteria (43.85%), Actinobacteria (21.63%), Firmicutes (16.82%), and Bacteroidetes (13.24%). Fifty genera had a relative abundance > 0.1%, with Sphingomonas and Pantoea being the most abundant. The upper and lower respiratory tract microbiota differed in healthy horses, with a decrease in richness in the lower airways, and 2 OTUs that differed in abundance. There was a separation between bacterial communities in the lower respiratory tract of healthy and IAD horses; 6 OTUs in the tracheal community had different abundance with disease status, with Streptococcus being increased in IAD horses. Treatment with dexamethasone had an effect on the lower respiratory tract microbiota of both heathy and IAD horses, with 8 OTUs increasing in abundance (including Streptococcus) and 1 OTU decreasing. The lower respiratory tract microbiota differed between healthy and IAD horses. Further research on the role of Streptococcus in IAD is warranted. Dexamethasone treatment affected the lower respiratory tract microbiota, which suggests that control of bacterial overgrowth in IAD horses treated with dexamethasone could be part of the treatment strategy.

  18. Pallister Killian syndrome: unusual significant postnatal overgrowth in a girl with otherwise typical presentation.

    PubMed

    Frković, Sanda Huljev; Durisević, Ivana Tonković; Trcić, Ruzica Lasan; Sarnavka, Vladimir; Gornik, Kristina Crkvenac; Muzinić, Dubravka; Letica, Ljiljana; Barić, Ivo; Begović, Davor

    2010-03-01

    Pallister Killian syndrome (PKS) is a rare genetic disorder caused by tetrasomy of the short arm of chromosome 12, revealed usually in mosaic distribution of an extra i (12) (p10) chromosome in fibroblasts. The syndrome presents with a recognizable pattern of findings including pigmentary skin changes, coarse face, high forehead, sparse anterior scalp hair, hypertelorism, seizures and progressive psychomotor developmental delay. It was first described independently by Pallister in 1977 and by Killian and Teschler-Nikola in 1981. We report a case of 21 month old girl with PKS and significant overgrowth. Cytogenetic analysis was performed using the GTG banding technique. The karyotype of cultured lymphocytes was normal. The karyotype from skin fibroblasts was established as mosaic tetrasomy of 12p 47,XX,+i (12) (p10)/46,XX. The origin of the extra marker chromosome was determinated by fluorescence in situ hybridization with chromosome 12 specific DNA probes confirming that supernumerary marker is chromosome i (12p) in 68% of cells. Despite the excessive postnatal growth we found low serum growth hormone levels and reduced response to pharmacological stimulation test. This is also the first report of a postnatal patient in our country.

  19. Serum IgE and IgG responses to food antigens in normal and atopic dogs, and dogs with gastrointestinal disease.

    PubMed

    Foster, A P; Knowles, T G; Moore, A Hotston; Cousins, P D G; Day, M J; Hall, E J

    2003-05-12

    In human food allergy, with or without concurrent atopy, there may be significant increases in serum allergen-specific IgE. Serological methods have been tried but are not currently recommended for diagnosis of suspected food allergy in dogs. The aim of this study was to investigate humoral immune responses to food antigens in dogs. Serum IgG and IgE antibodies specific for food antigens were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using polyclonal anti-dog IgG and IgE reagents. Antigens tested were beef, chicken, pork, lamb, chicken, turkey, white fish, whole egg, wheat, soybean, barley, rice, maize corn, potato, yeast and cow's milk. Three groups were examined: normal dogs, dogs with atopic dermatitis (AD); and dogs with one of four types of gastrointestinal (GI) disease: small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), food-responsive disease, and infectious diarrhoea. Statistically significant differences in food-specific antibodies were not detected between the GI subgroups. There were statistically significant differences in the IgE concentration between the normal dogs, and dogs with atopic or GI disease, for all of the antigens tested. There were statistically significant differences in the average IgG concentrations between the normal dogs, and dogs with atopic or GI disease, for all of the antigens tested, except egg and yeast. The relationship of antigen responses for pooled data was analysed using principle component analysis and cluster plots. Some clustering of variables was apparent for both IgE and IgG. For example, all dogs (normal and diseased) made a similar IgG antibody response to chicken and turkey. Compared with other groups, atopic dogs had more food allergen-specific IgE and this would be consistent with a Th(2) humoral response to food antigens. Dogs with GI disease had more food allergen-specific IgG compared with the other groups. This may reflect increased antigen exposure due to increased

  20. Effects of octreotide and a-tocopherol on bacterial translocation in experimental intestinal obstruction: a microbiological, light and electronmicroscopical study.

    PubMed

    Reis, E; Kama, N A; Coskun, T; Korkusuz, P; Ors, U; Aksoy, M; Kulaçoglu, S

    1997-01-01

    Bacterial translocation induced by intestinal obstruction is suggested to be due to increased intestinal luminal volume, leading to intestinal overgrowth with certain enteric microorganisms and intestinal mucosal damage. If this suggestion is true, maintenance of intestinal mucosal integrity by a cytoprotective agent, a-tocopherol, and inhibition of gastrointestinal secretions by octreotide should decrease the incidence of bacterial translocation and extent of mucosal injury due to intestinal obstruction. Complete intestinal obstruction was created in the distal ileum of male Wistar Albino rats by a single 3-0 silk suture. The animals received subcutaneous injections of 1 ml of physiologic saline (group 1) (PS 24) and 1 ml of saline containing octreotide acetate (100 micrograms/kg) (group 2) (OC 24), at 0, 12 and 24 hours of obstruction. In group 3 (PS 48) and group 4 (OC 48), the rats were treated with subcutaneous physiologic saline (1 ml) and octreotide acetate (100 micrograms/kg), respectively, beginning at the time of obstruction and every 12 hours for 48 hours. The rats in group 5 (Toc 24), were pretreated with intramuscular a-tocopherol 500 mg/kg on day 1 and 8, and underwent laparotomy on day 9. A third dose of a-tocopherol was injected at the time of obstruction on day 9 and no treatment was given thereafter. We tested the incidence of bacterial translocation in systemic organs and circulation and evaluated the histopathological changes in all groups. Treatment with octreotide acetate was found to be ineffective in reducing the incidence of translocation, with no histopathological improvement. Mucosal damage scores, on the other hand, in the a-tocopherol group were statistically less than those in the octreotide and control groups (p < 0.05). Additionally, a-tocopherol treatment decreased the incidence of organ invasion with translocating bacteria, although this difference did not reach statistical significance. Octreotide acetate treatment in complete

  1. Lactoferricin/verbascoside topical emulsion: a possible alternative treatment for atopic dermatitis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Biasibetti, Elena; Bruni, Natascia; Bigliati, Mauro; Capucchio, Maria Teresa

    2017-08-28

    Atopic dermatitis affects 3-15% of the general dog population and it has been diagnosed by veterinarians up to 58% of dogs affected with skin disease. It is usually a life-long pathology which can be controlled, but it can be seldom cured. The present investigation describes a case study in which lactoferricin and verbascoside are part of a formulation to obtain a dermatological lotion for canine dermatitis treatment. The study was an open-label trial design of two-week treatment. Thirty-eight dogs (23 females and 15 males), with atopic dermatitis and secondary bacterial or yeast overgrowth have been included. During treatment period the total clinical score progressively decreased associated with an improvement in clinical signs. No adverse effects were reported in any of the treated dogs. The present research suggests that daily applications of tested emulsion are effective in reducing bacterial overgrowth and clinical signs in skin folds and atopic dermatitis.

  2. Lubiprostone ameliorates the cystic fibrosis mouse intestinal phenotype.

    PubMed

    De Lisle, Robert C; Mueller, Racquel; Roach, Eileen

    2010-09-15

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CFTR gene that impair the function of CFTR, a cAMP-regulated anion channel. In the small intestine loss of CFTR function creates a dehydrated, acidic luminal environment which is believed to cause an accumulation of mucus, a phenotype characteristic of CF. CF mice have small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, an altered innate immune response, and impaired intestinal transit. We investigated whether lubiprostone, which can activate the CLC2 Cl- channel, would improve the intestinal phenotype in CF mice. Cftr(tm1UNC) (CF) and wildtype (WT) littermate mice on the C57BL/6J background were used. Lubiprostone (10 μg/kg-day) was administered by gavage for two weeks. Mucus accumulation was estimated from crypt lumen widths in periodic acid-Schiff base, Alcian blue stained sections. Luminal bacterial load was measured by qPCR for the bacterial 16S gene. Gastric emptying and small intestinal transit in fasted mice were assessed using gavaged rhodamine dextran. Gene expression was evaluated by Affymetrix Mouse430 2.0 microarray and qRT-PCR. Crypt width in control CF mice was 700% that of WT mice (P < 0.001). Lubiprostone did not affect WT crypt width but, unexpectedly, increased CF crypt width 22% (P = 0.001). Lubiprostone increased bacterial load in WT mice to 490% of WT control levels (P = 0.008). Conversely, lubiprostone decreased bacterial overgrowth in CF mice by 60% (P = 0.005). Lubiprostone increased gastric emptying at 20 min postgavage in both WT (P < 0.001) and CF mice (P < 0.001). Lubiprostone enhanced small intestinal transit in WT mice (P = 0.024) but not in CF mice (P = 0.377). Among other innate immune markers, expression of mast cell genes was elevated 4-to 40-fold in the CF intestine as compared to WT, and lubiprostone treatment of CF mice decreased expression to WT control levels. These results indicate that lubiprostone has some benefits for the CF intestinal phenotype, especially on bacterial overgrowth

  3. Lubiprostone ameliorates the cystic fibrosis mouse intestinal phenotype

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CFTR gene that impair the function of CFTR, a cAMP-regulated anion channel. In the small intestine loss of CFTR function creates a dehydrated, acidic luminal environment which is believed to cause an accumulation of mucus, a phenotype characteristic of CF. CF mice have small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, an altered innate immune response, and impaired intestinal transit. We investigated whether lubiprostone, which can activate the CLC2 Cl- channel, would improve the intestinal phenotype in CF mice. Methods Cftrtm1UNC (CF) and wildtype (WT) littermate mice on the C57BL/6J background were used. Lubiprostone (10 μg/kg-day) was administered by gavage for two weeks. Mucus accumulation was estimated from crypt lumen widths in periodic acid-Schiff base, Alcian blue stained sections. Luminal bacterial load was measured by qPCR for the bacterial 16S gene. Gastric emptying and small intestinal transit in fasted mice were assessed using gavaged rhodamine dextran. Gene expression was evaluated by Affymetrix Mouse430 2.0 microarray and qRT-PCR. Results Crypt width in control CF mice was 700% that of WT mice (P < 0.001). Lubiprostone did not affect WT crypt width but, unexpectedly, increased CF crypt width 22% (P = 0.001). Lubiprostone increased bacterial load in WT mice to 490% of WT control levels (P = 0.008). Conversely, lubiprostone decreased bacterial overgrowth in CF mice by 60% (P = 0.005). Lubiprostone increased gastric emptying at 20 min postgavage in both WT (P < 0.001) and CF mice (P < 0.001). Lubiprostone enhanced small intestinal transit in WT mice (P = 0.024) but not in CF mice (P = 0.377). Among other innate immune markers, expression of mast cell genes was elevated 4-to 40-fold in the CF intestine as compared to WT, and lubiprostone treatment of CF mice decreased expression to WT control levels. Conclusions These results indicate that lubiprostone has some benefits for the CF intestinal phenotype

  4. Cervical Mullerian adenosarcoma with heterologous sarcomatous overgrowth: a fourth case and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Patrelli, Tito Silvio; Gizzo, Salvatore; Di Gangi, Stefania; Guidi, Giorgia; Rondinelli, Mario; Nardelli, Giovanni Battista

    2011-06-11

    Uterine sarcomas are relatively rare tumors that account for approximately 1-3% of female genital tract malignancies and between 4-9% of uterine cancers. Less than 8% of all cases are Mullerian adenosarcoma, a distinctive uterine neoplasm characterized by a benign, but occasionally atypical, epithelial and a malignant, usually low-grade, stromal component, both of which should be integral and neoplastic constituents of the tumor. Mullerian adenosarcoma with sarcomatous overgrowth (MASO) is a very aggressive variant, associated with post-operative recurrence, metastases, even when diagnosed in early stage. We present a fourth MASO case derived from uterine cervix in a 72-year-old woman with metrorrhagia and a polypoid mass protruding through the cervical ostium. Total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, systematic pelvic lymph node dissection, omental biopsy and appendectomy were performed. Surgery treatment was associated with adjuvant whole-pelvis radiation (45 Gy) and adjuvant chemotherapy (cisplatin/ifosfamide). After nine months of follow up, the patient was free of tumor. The rarity of MASO of the cervix involves a management difficult. Most authors recommend total abdominal hysterectomy, usually accompanied by bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. There is no common agreement on staging by lymphadenectomy during primary surgery and adjuvant chemo-radio therapy.

  5. Bacterial prostatitis.

    PubMed

    Gill, Bradley C; Shoskes, Daniel A

    2016-02-01

    The review provides the infectious disease community with a urologic perspective on bacterial prostatitis. Specifically, the article briefly reviews the categorization of prostatitis by type and provides a distillation of new findings published on bacterial prostatitis over the past year. It also highlights key points from the established literature. Cross-sectional prostate imaging is becoming more common and may lead to more incidental diagnoses of acute bacterial prostatitis. As drug resistance remains problematic in this condition, the reemergence of older antibiotics such as fosfomycin, has proven beneficial. With regard to chronic bacterial prostatitis, no clear clinical risk factors emerged in a large epidemiological study. However, bacterial biofilm formation has been associated with more severe cases. Surgery has a limited role in bacterial prostatitis and should be reserved for draining of a prostatic abscess or the removal of infected prostatic stones. Prostatitis remains a common and bothersome clinical condition. Antibiotic therapy remains the basis of treatment for both acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis. Further research into improving prostatitis treatment is indicated.

  6. Acute myeloid leukemia-associated DNMT3A p.Arg882His mutation in a patient with Tatton-Brown-Rahman overgrowth syndrome as a constitutional mutation.

    PubMed

    Kosaki, Rika; Terashima, Hiroshi; Kubota, Masaya; Kosaki, Kenjiro

    2017-01-01

    DNA methylation plays a critical role in both embryonic development and tumorigenesis and is mediated through various DNA methyltransferases. Constitutional mutations in the de novo DNA methyltransferase DNMT3A cause a recently identified Tatton-Brown-Rahman overgrowth syndrome (TBRS). Somatically acquired mutations in DNMT3A are causally associated with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and p.Arg882His represents the most prevalent hotspot. So far, no patients with TBRS have been reported to have subsequently developed AML. Here, we report a live birth and the survival of a female with the TBRS phenotype who had a heterozygous constitutional DNMT3A mutation at the AML somatic mutation hotspot p.Arg882His in her DNA from peripheral blood and buccal tissue. Her characteristic features at birth included hypotonia, narrow palpebral fissures, ventricular septal defect, umbilical hernia, sacral cyst, Chiari type I anomaly. At the age of 6 years, she exhibited overgrowth (> 3 SD) and round face and intellectual disability. This report represents the first documentation of the same variant (DNMT3A p.Arg882His) as both the constitutional mutation associated with TBRS and the somatic mutation hotspot of AML. The observation neither confirms nor denies the notion that mutations responsible for TBRS and those for AML might share the same mode of action. Larger data sets are required to determine whether TBRS patients with constitutional DNMT3A mutations are at an increased risk for AML. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Bacterial Sialidase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Data shows that elevated sialidase in bacterial vaginosis patients correlates to premature births in women. Bacterial sialidase also plays a significant role in the unusual colonization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients. Crystals of Salmonella sialidase have been reproduced and are used for studying the inhibitor-enzyme complexes. These inhibitors may also be used to inhibit a trans-sialidase of Trypanosome cruzi, a very similar enzyme to bacterial sialidase, therefore preventing T. cruzi infection, the causitive agent of Chagas' disease. The Center for Macromolecular Crystallography suggests that inhibitors of bacterial sialidases can be used as prophylactic drugs to prevent bacterial infections in these critical cases.

  8. The effect of E coli virulence on bacterial translocation and systemic sepsis in the neonatal rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Jackson, R J; Smith, S D; Wadowsky, R M; DePudyt, L; Rowe, M I

    1991-04-01

    In the surgical neonate, three factors that promote bacterial translocation and systemic infection are: (1) intestinal bacterial colonization and overgrowth; (2) compromised host defenses; and (3) disruption of the mucosal epithelial barrier. The newborn rabbit provides an excellent model to study these factors. Like the human, there is early closure of the gut mucosa to macromolecules, and nutrition can be maintained by breast or formula feeding. This study examines translocation and systemic sepsis after colonization with virulent K1 and avirulent K100 strains of Escherichia coli. New Zealand white rabbit pups (2 to 5 days old) were studied. The gastrointestinal tracts of 12 were colonized with K1 E coli; 14 were colonized with K100 E coli; 12 control animals were not inoculated. Mesenteric lymph node (MLN), liver, spleen, and colon homogenate were cultured 72 hours postinoculation. No bacteria were isolated from the colons of all but one control animal. Translocation or systemic sepsis did not occur. Translocation to the MLN was significantly increased (P less than .03) in K1 (50%) and K100 (36%) groups compared with controls (0%). Translocation to liver and spleen (systemic sepsis) was significantly increased (P less than .03) in K1 animals (67%) compared with K100 (0%) or controls (0%). Colonization by both strains of E coli led to translocation to the MLN, but only K1 E coli caused systemic sepsis. This suggests that although colonization by E coli in the newborn leads to translocation to the MLN, progression to systemic sepsis is the result of characteristics of the bacteria and/or neonatal host responses.

  9. The innovative potential of Lactobacillus rhamnosus LR06, Lactobacillus pentosus LPS01, Lactobacillus plantarum LP01, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii Subsp. delbrueckii LDD01 to restore the "gastric barrier effect" in patients chronically treated with PPI: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Del Piano, Mario; Anderloni, Andrea; Balzarini, Marco; Ballarè, Marco; Carmagnola, Stefania; Montino, Franco; Orsello, Marco; Pagliarulo, Michela; Tari, Roberto; Soattini, Liliana; Sforza, Filomena; Mogna, Luca; Mogna, Giovanni

    2012-10-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a very widespread condition. In Europe, it is estimated that about 175 million people suffer from this disease and have to chronically take drugs to increase gastric pH. The proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) such as omeprazole, lansoprazole, and esomeprazole are the most widely used drug typology in this regard. However, the inhibition of normal gastric acid secretion has important side effects, the most important being bacterial overgrowth in the stomach and duodenum with a concentration of >10⁵ viable cells/mL. As a major consequence of this, many harmful or even pathogenic bacteria contained in some foods could survive the gastric transit and colonize either the stomach itself, the duodenum, or the gut, where they could establish acute and even chronic infections with unavoidable consequences for the host's health. In other words, the "gastric barrier effect" is strongly reduced or even disrupted. To date, there are no real strategies to deal with this widespread, although still relatively little known, problem. The aim of this study was to confirm the gastric bacterial overgrowth in long-term PPI consumers and to assess the efficacy of some probiotic bacteria, belonging to both genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, in the reduction of gastric and duodenal bacterial overgrowth, therefore partially restoring the gastric barrier effect against foodborne pathogenic bacteria. For this purpose, probiotics with a strong demonstrated inhibitory activity on gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, were tested in a human intervention trial involving a total of 30 subjects treated with PPIs for either 3 to 12 consecutive months (short-term) or >12 consecutive months (long-term). An additional 10 subjects not taking PPIs were enrolled and used as a control group representing the general population. Four selected probiotics Probiotical SpA (Novara, Italy), namely Lactobacillus rhamnosus LR06 (DSM 21981), Lactobacillus pentosus

  10. Decreased microbiota diversity associated with urinary tract infection in a trial of bacterial interference.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, Deborah; McCue, Tyler; Mapes, Abigail C; Ajami, Nadim J; Petrosino, Joseph F; Ramig, Robert F; Trautner, Barbara W

    2015-09-01

    Patients with long-term indwelling catheters are at high risk of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI). We hypothesized that colonizing the bladder with a benign Escherichia coli strain (E. coli HU2117, a derivative of E. coli 83972) would prevent CAUTI in older, catheterized adults. Adults with chronic, indwelling urinary catheters received study catheters that had been pre-coated with E. coli HU2117. We monitored the cultivatable organisms in the bladder for 28 days or until loss of E. coli HU2117. Urine from 4 subjects was collected longitudinally for 16S rRNA gene profiling. Eight of the ten subjects (average age 70.9 years) became colonized with E. coli HU2117, with a mean duration of 57.7 days (median: 28.5, range 0-266). All subjects also remained colonized by uropathogens. Five subjects suffered invasive UTI, 3 febrile UTI and 2 urosepsis/bacteremia, all associated with overgrowth of a urinary pathogen. Colonization with E. coli HU2117 did not impact bacterial bladder diversity, but subjects who developed infections had less diverse bladder microbiota. Colonization with E. coli HU2117 did not prevent bladder colonization or subsequent invasive disease by uropathogens. Microbial diversity may play a protective role against invasive infection of the catheterized bladder. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00554996 http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00554996. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Cryopreservation studies of an artificial co-culture between the cobalamin-requiring green alga Lobomonas rostrata and the bacterium Mesorhizobium loti.

    PubMed

    Ridley, Christian J A; Day, John G; Smith, Alison G

    2018-01-01

    Algal-bacterial co-cultures, rather than cultures of algae alone, are regarded as having the potential to enhance productivity and stability in industrial algal cultivation. As with other inocula in biotechnology, to avoid loss of production strains, it is important to develop preservation methods for the long-term storage of these cultures, and one of the most commonly used approaches is cryopreservation. However, whilst there are many reports of cryopreserved xenic algal cultures, little work has been reported on the intentional preservation of both algae and beneficial bacteria in xenic cultures. Instead, studies have focused on the development of methods to conserve the algal strain(s) present, or to avoid overgrowth of bacteria in xenic isolates during the post-thaw recovery phase. Here, we have established a co-cryopreservation method for the long-term storage of both partners in a unialgal-bacterial co-culture. This is an artificial model mutualism between the alga Lobomonas rostrata and the bacterium Mesorhizobium loti , which provides vitamin B 12 (cobalamin) to the alga in return for photosynthate. Using a Planer Kryo 360 controlled-rate cooler, post-thaw viability (PTV) values of 72% were obtained for the co-culture, compared to 91% for the axenic alga. The cultures were successfully revived after 6 months storage in liquid nitrogen, and continued to exhibit mutualism. Furthermore, the alga could be cryopreserved with non-symbiotic bacteria, without bacterial overgrowth occurring. It was also possible to use less controllable passive freezer chambers to cryopreserve the co-cultures, although the PTV was lower. Finally, we demonstrated that an optimised cryopreservation method may be used to prevent the overgrowth potential of non-symbiotic, adventitious bacteria in both axenic and co-cultures of L. rostrata after thawing.

  12. Probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum 299v Does Not Counteract Unfavorable Phytohemagglutinin-Induced Changes in the Rat Intestinal Microbiota ▿

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Gabriele; Wildner, Jessica; Schonewille, Arjan; Rademaker, Jan L. W.; van der Meer, Roelof; Snel, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    Application of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) in weaning feed has been suggested to stimulate intestinal epithelium maturation. In this study, PHA strongly affected the fecal bacterial population structure of rats. Escherichia coli overgrowth was not prevented by probiotic mannose-adhering Lactobacillus plantarum 299v. Therefore, use of PHA in weaning feed deserves careful evaluation. PMID:18606805

  13. The glucose breath test: a diagnostic test for small bowel stricture(s) in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Mishkin, Daniel; Boston, Francis M; Blank, David; Yalovsky, Morty; Mishkin, Seymour

    2002-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether an indirect noninvasive indicator of proximal bacterial overgrowth, the glucose breath test, was of diagnostic value in inflammatory bowel disease. Twenty four of 71 Crohn's disease patients tested had a positive glucose breath test. No statistical conclusions could be drawn between the Crohn's disease activity index and glucose breath test status. Of patients with radiologic evidence of small bowel stricture(s), 96.0% had a positive glucose breath test, while only one of 46 negative glucose breath test patients had a stricture. The positive and negative predictive values for a positive glucose breath test as an indicator of stricture formation were 96.0% and 97.8%, respectively. This correlation was not altered in Crohn's disease patients with fistulae or status postresection of the terminal ileum. The data in ulcerative colitis were nondiagnostic. In conclusion, the glucose breath test appears to be an accurate noninvasive inexpensive diagnostic test for small bowel stricture(s) and secondary bacterial overgrowth in Crohn's disease.

  14. [Bacterial meningitis].

    PubMed

    Brouwer, M C; van de Beek, D

    2012-05-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a severe disease which affects 35.000 Europeans each year and has a mortality rate of about 20%. During the past 25 years the epidemiology of bacterial meningitis has changed significantly due to the implementation of vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningtidis group C and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Due to these vaccines, meningitis is now predominantly a disease occurring in adults, caused especially by Streptococcus pneumoniae, while it was formerly a child disease which was largely caused by Haemophilus influenzae. Bacterial meningitis is often difficult to recognize since the classical presentation with neck stiffness, reduced awareness and fever occurs in less than half of the patients. The only way to diagnose or exclude bacterial meningitis is by performing low-threshold cerebrospinal fluid examination with a suspicion of bacterial meningitis. The treatment consists of the prescription of antibiotics and dexamethasone.

  15. Down-regulation of transforming growth factor beta-2 expression is associated with the reduction of cyclosporin induced gingival overgrowth in rats treated with roxithromycin: an experimental study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Gingival overgrowth (GO) is a common side effect of the chronic use of cyclosporine (CsA), an immunosuppressant widely used to prevent rejection in transplant patients. Recent studies have reported elevated levels of specific cytokines in gingival overgrowth tissue, particularly TGF-beta, suggesting that this growth factor plays a role in the accumulation of extracellular matrix materials. The effectiveness of azithromycin, a macrolide antibiotic, in the regression of this undesirable side effect has also been demonstrated. Methods In this study, we created an experimental model for assessing the therapeutic effect of roxithromycin in GO and the expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta2) through immunohistochemistry. We used four groups of rats totaling 32 individuals. GO was induced during five weeks and drug treatment was given on the 6th week as follows: group 1 received saline; group 2 received CsA and was treated with saline on the 6th week; group 3 received CsA and, on the 6th week, ampicilin; and group 4 received CsA during 5 weeks and, on the 6th week, was treated with roxithromycin. Results The results demonstrated that roxithromycin treatment was effective in reducing cyclosporine-induced GO in rats. Both epithelial and connective tissue showed a decrease in thickness and a significant reduction in TGF-beta2 expression, with a lower number of fibroblasts, reduction in fibrotic areas and decrease in inflammatory infiltrate. Conclusion The present data suggest that the down-regulation of TGF-beta2 expression may be an important mechanism of action by which roxithromycin inhibits GO. PMID:19995419

  16. Regulation of antibacterial defense in the small intestine by the nuclear bile acid receptor.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Takeshi; Moschetta, Antonio; Lee, Youn-Kyoung; Peng, Li; Zhao, Guixiang; Downes, Michael; Yu, Ruth T; Shelton, John M; Richardson, James A; Repa, Joyce J; Mangelsdorf, David J; Kliewer, Steven A

    2006-03-07

    Obstruction of bile flow results in bacterial proliferation and mucosal injury in the small intestine that can lead to the translocation of bacteria across the epithelial barrier and systemic infection. These adverse effects of biliary obstruction can be inhibited by administration of bile acids. Here we show that the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a nuclear receptor for bile acids, induces genes involved in enteroprotection and inhibits bacterial overgrowth and mucosal injury in ileum caused by bile duct ligation. Mice lacking FXR have increased ileal levels of bacteria and a compromised epithelial barrier. These findings reveal a central role for FXR in protecting the distal small intestine from bacterial invasion and suggest that FXR agonists may prevent epithelial deterioration and bacterial translocation in patients with impaired bile flow.

  17. Propionibacterium acnes CAMP Factor and Host Acid Sphingomyelinase Contribute to Bacterial Virulence: Potential Targets for Inflammatory Acne Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Nakatsuji, Teruaki; Tang, De-chu C.; Zhang, Liangfang; Gallo, Richard L.; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Background In the progression of acne vulgaris, the disruption of follicular epithelia by an over-growth of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) permits the bacteria to spread and become in contact with various skin and immune cells. Methodology/Principal Findings We have demonstrated in the present study that the Christie, Atkins, Munch-Peterson (CAMP) factor of P. acnes is a secretory protein with co-hemolytic activity with sphingomyelinase that can confer cytotoxicity to HaCaT keratinocytes and RAW264.7 macrophages. The CAMP factor from bacteria and acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) from the host cells were simultaneously present in the culture supernatant only when the cells were co-cultured with P. acnes. Either anti-CAMP factor serum or desipramine, a selective ASMase inhibitor, significantly abrogated the P. acnes-induced cell death of HaCaT and RAW264.7 cells. Intradermal injection of ICR mouse ears with live P. acnes induced considerable ear inflammation, macrophage infiltration, and an increase in cellular soluble ASMase. Suppression of ASMase by systemic treatment with desipramine significantly reduced inflammatory reaction induced by intradermal injection with P. acnes, suggesting the contribution of host ASMase in P. acnes-induced inflammatory reaction in vivo. Vaccination of mice with CAMP factor elicited a protective immunity against P. acnes-induced ear inflammation, indicating the involvement of CAMP factor in P. acnes-induced inflammation. Most notably, suppression of both bacterial CAMP factor and host ASMase using vaccination and specific antibody injection, respectively, cooperatively alleviated P. acnes-induced inflammation. Conclusions/Significance These findings envision a novel infectious mechanism by which P. acnes CAMP factor may hijack host ASMase to amplify bacterial virulence to degrade and invade host cells. This work has identified both CAMP factor and ASMase as potential molecular targets for the development of drugs and vaccines against

  18. Composition of the Vaginal Microbiota in Women of Reproductive Age – Sensitive and Specific Molecular Diagnosis of Bacterial Vaginosis Is Possible?

    PubMed Central

    Shipitsyna, Elena; Roos, Annika; Datcu, Raluca; Hallén, Anders; Fredlund, Hans; Jensen, Jørgen S.; Engstrand, Lars; Unemo, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common vaginal disorder, characterized by depletion of the normal lactobacillus-dominant microbiota and overgrowth of commensal anaerobic bacteria. This study aimed to investigate the composition of the vaginal microbiota in women of reproductive age (healthy women and women with BV), with the view of developing molecular criteria for BV diagnosis. Materials and Methods Vaginal samples from 163 women (79 control, 73 BV and 11 intermediate (Lactobacillary grade II flora) cases) were analyzed using 454 pyrosequencing of the hypervariable regions V3–V4 of the 16S rRNA gene and 16 quantitative bacterial species/genus-specific real-time PCR assays. Sensitivities and specificities of potential BV markers were computed using the Amsel criteria as reference standard for BV. The use of quantitative thresholds for prediction of BV, determined for both relative abundance measured with 454 pyrosequencing and bacterial load measured with qPCR, was evaluated. Results Relative to the healthy women, the BV patients had in their vaginal microbiota significantly higher prevalence, loads and relative abundances of the majority of BV associated bacteria. However, only Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, Eggerthella, Prevotella, BVAB2 and Megasphaera type 1 detected at or above optimal thresholds were highly predictable for BV, with the best diagnostic accuracy shown for A. vaginae. The depletion of Lactobacillus species combined with the presence of either G. vaginalis or A. vaginae at diagnostic levels was a highly accurate BV predictor. Conclusions Quantitative determination of the presence of G. vaginalis, A. vaginae, Eggerthella, Prevotella, BVAB2 and Megasphaera type 1 as well as the depletion of Lactobacillus was highly accurate for BV diagnosis. Measurements of abundance of normal and BV microbiota relative to total bacteria in vaginal fluid may provide more accurate BV diagnosis, and be used for test

  19. Extensive bleeding during surgical treatment for gingival overgrowth in a patient on haemodialysis--a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Nishide, N; Nishikawa, T; Kanamura, N

    2005-12-01

    Before performing renal transplantation, a most important concern is to control any infection, including oral infections before transplantation. The bleeding diathesis of patients with uraemia is a significant clinical concern, especially when surgery is required. A 44-year-old female patient on haemodialysis was referred for evaluation of gingival overgrowth. The patient was planning a renal transplantation two months later. As the lesions were not considered successfully treatable before transplantation, a gingivectomy and teeth extraction was performed. In pre-operative examinations, an abnormal bleeding time was not detected and other coagulation tests were normal. Under general anaesthesia, 19 teeth were extracted and overgrown gingiva was removed. During the operation, extensive blood loss of 1650ml occurred and four units of concentrated red blood cells were transfused. This study suggests that patients with renal failure undergoing dental surgery require careful pre-surgical evaluation including assessment of their coagulation ability.

  20. Bacterial meningitis.

    PubMed

    Heckenberg, Sebastiaan G B; Brouwer, Matthijs C; van de Beek, Diederik

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a neurologic emergency. Vaccination against common pathogens has decreased the burden of disease. Early diagnosis and rapid initiation of empiric antimicrobial and adjunctive therapy are vital. Therapy should be initiated as soon as blood cultures have been obtained, preceding any imaging studies. Clinical signs suggestive of bacterial meningitis include fever, headache, meningismus, and an altered level of consciousness but signs may be scarce in children, in the elderly, and in meningococcal disease. Host genetic factors are major determinants of susceptibility to meningococcal and pneumococcal disease. Dexamethasone therapy has been implemented as adjunctive treatment of adults with pneumococcal meningitis. Adequate and prompt treatment of bacterial meningitis is critical to outcome. In this chapter we review the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management of bacterial meningitis. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Probiotics feeding in prevention of urinary tract infection, bacterial sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants. A prospective double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Dani, Carlo; Biadaioli, Roberto; Bertini, Giovanna; Martelli, Elena; Rubaltelli, Firmino F

    2002-08-01

    It has been suggested that probiotics can reduce the overgrowth of pathogens in the bowels of preterm infants and contribute to the reduction of the incidence of nosocomial infections in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Lactobacillus GG supplementation in reducing the incidence of urinary tract infections (UTIs), bacterial sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants. A double-blind study was conducted in 12 Italian NICUs. Newborn infants with a gestational age <33 weeks or birthweight <1,500 g were randomized to receive standard milk feed supplemented with Lactobacillus GG (Dicoflor), Dicofarm, Rome, Italy) in a dose of 6 x 10(9) colony-forming units (cfu) once a day until discharge, starting with the first feed or placebo. Five hundred eighty-five patients were studied. The probiotics group (n = 295) and the placebo group (n = 290) exhibited similar clinical characteristics. The duration of Lactobacillus GG and placebo supplementation was 47.3 +/- 26.0 and 48.2 +/- 24.3 days, respectively. Although UTIs (3.4 vs. 5.8%) and NEC (1.4 vs. 2.7%) were found less frequently in the probiotic group compared to the control group, these differences were not significant. Bacterial sepsis was more frequent in the probiotics group (4.4%, n = 11) than in the placebo group (3.8%, n = 9), but the difference was not significant. Seven days of Lactobacillus GG supplementation starting with the first feed is not effective in reducing the incidence of UTIs, NEC and sepsis in preterm infants. Further studies are required to confirm our results in lower birthweight populations. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  2. Doom and boom on a resilient reef: climate change, algal overgrowth and coral recovery.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Pulido, Guillermo; McCook, Laurence J; Dove, Sophie; Berkelmans, Ray; Roff, George; Kline, David I; Weeks, Scarla; Evans, Richard D; Williamson, David H; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

    2009-01-01

    Coral reefs around the world are experiencing large-scale degradation, largely due to global climate change, overfishing, diseases and eutrophication. Climate change models suggest increasing frequency and severity of warming-induced coral bleaching events, with consequent increases in coral mortality and algal overgrowth. Critically, the recovery of damaged reefs will depend on the reversibility of seaweed blooms, generally considered to depend on grazing of the seaweed, and replenishment of corals by larvae that successfully recruit to damaged reefs. These processes usually take years to decades to bring a reef back to coral dominance. In 2006, mass bleaching of corals on inshore reefs of the Great Barrier Reef caused high coral mortality. Here we show that this coral mortality was followed by an unprecedented bloom of a single species of unpalatable seaweed (Lobophora variegata), colonizing dead coral skeletons, but that corals on these reefs recovered dramatically, in less than a year. Unexpectedly, this rapid reversal did not involve reestablishment of corals by recruitment of coral larvae, as often assumed, but depended on several ecological mechanisms previously underestimated. These mechanisms of ecological recovery included rapid regeneration rates of remnant coral tissue, very high competitive ability of the corals allowing them to out-compete the seaweed, a natural seasonal decline in the particular species of dominant seaweed, and an effective marine protected area system. Our study provides a key example of the doom and boom of a highly resilient reef, and new insights into the variability and mechanisms of reef resilience under rapid climate change.

  3. Restoring vaginal microbiota: biological control of bacterial vaginosis. A prospective case-control study using Lactobacillus rhamnosus BMX 54 as adjuvant treatment against bacterial vaginosis.

    PubMed

    Recine, Nadia; Palma, Ettore; Domenici, Lavinia; Giorgini, Margherita; Imperiale, Ludovica; Sassu, Carolina; Musella, Angela; Marchetti, Claudia; Muzii, Ludovico; Benedetti Panici, Pierluigi

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most prevalent lower genital tract infection in reproductive-age women worldwide. BV is an ecological disorder of the vaginal microbiota characterized microbiologically by replacement of the lactobacilli, predominant vaginal microbiota. It is characterized by a high rate of relapse in sexual active women, and these patients show three or more relapses each year. A healthy vagina is characterized by hydrogen peroxide and acid-producing lactobacilli, which are crucial to maintain the physiological vaginal ecosystem and their depletion speeds up bacterial overgrowth with pH elevation, salidase and amine production, leading to the observed signs and symptoms of BV. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of long-term vaginal lactobacilli's implementation in restoring and maintaining vaginal microflora and pH and to collect data about prophylactic approach based on probiotics supplementation with lactobacilli. This is a prospective case-control study, performed between January 2013 and September 2014 at Department of Gynecological Obstetrics and Urologic Sciences of "Sapienza" University of Rome. 250 non-pregnant sexually active women with diagnoses of BV were collected. Patients selected were divided in Group A (125 patients assigned to standard treatment for BV-metronidazole 500 mg orally twice a day for 7 days) and Group B (125 women undergoing the same standard antibiotic regimen followed by vaginal tablets containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus BMX 54). Patients were evaluated after 2, 6, and 9 months (T0, T2, T6, and T9) in term of recurrences rates of BV, vaginal symptoms, re-establishment of healthy vaginal flora, vaginal pH, and treatment tolerability. Vaginal flora was significantly replaced in Group B patients after 2 months comparing with Group A (p = 0.014). These data were confirmed at 6 and 9 months follow-up: patients that underwent prophylactic therapy with NORMOGIN(®) experienced significantly low rate of

  4. Rifaximin, but not growth factor 1, reduces brain edema in cirrhotic rats

    PubMed Central

    Òdena, Gemma; Miquel, Mireia; Serafín, Anna; Galan, Amparo; Morillas, Rosa; Planas, Ramon; Bartolí, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To compare rifaximin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 treatment of hyperammonemia and brain edema in cirrhotic rats with portal occlusion. METHODS: Rats with CCl4-induced cirrhosis with ascites plus portal vein occlusion and controls were randomized into six groups: Cirrhosis; Cirrhosis + IGF-1; Cirrhosis + rifaximin; Controls; Controls + IGF-1; and Controls + rifaximin. An oral glutamine-challenge test was performed, and plasma and cerebral ammonia, glucose, bilirubin, transaminases, endotoxemia, brain water content and ileocecal cultures were measured and liver histology was assessed. RESULTS: Rifaximin treatment significantly reduced bacterial overgrowth and endotoxemia compared with cirrhosis groups, and improved some liver function parameters (bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase). These effects were associated with a significant reduction in cerebral water content. Blood and cerebral ammonia levels, and area-under-the-curve values for oral glutamine-challenge tests were similar in rifaximin-treated cirrhotic rats and control group animals. By contrast, IGF-1 administration failed to improve most alterations observed in cirrhosis. CONCLUSION: By reducing gut bacterial overgrowth, only rifaximin was capable of normalizing plasma and brain ammonia and thereby abolishing low-grade brain edema, alterations associated with hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:22563196

  5. Impact of collection conditions on the metabolite content of human urine samples as analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Roux, Aurélie; Thévenot, Etienne A; Seguin, François; Olivier, Marie-Françoise; Junot, Christophe

    There is a lack of comprehensive studies documenting the impact of sample collection conditions on metabolic composition of human urine. To address this issue, two experiments were performed at a 3-month interval, in which midstream urine samples from healthy individuals were collected, pooled, divided into several aliquots and kept under specific conditions (room temperature, 4 °C, with or without preservative) up to 72 h before storage at -80 °C. Samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry and bacterial contamination was monitored by turbidimetry. Multivariate analyses showed that urinary metabolic fingerprints were affected by the presence of preservatives and also by storage at room temperature from 24 to 72 h, whereas no change was observed for urine samples stored at 4 °C over a 72-h period. Investigations were then focused on 280 metabolites previously identified in urine: 19 of them were impacted by the kind of sample collection protocol in both experiments, including 12 metabolites affected by bacterial contamination and 7 exhibiting poor chemical stability. Finally, our results emphasize that the use of preservative prevents bacterial overgrowth, but does not avoid metabolite instability in solution, whereas storage at 4 °C inhibits bacterial overgrowth at least over a 72-h period and slows the chemical degradation process. Consequently, and for further LC/MS analyses, human urine samples should be kept at 4 °C if their collection is performed over 24 h.

  6. Epitaxial lateral overgrowth of InP on Si from nano-openings: Theoretical and experimental indication for defect filtering throughout the grown layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsson, F.; Xie, M.; Lourdudoss, S.; Prieto, I.; Postigo, P. A.

    2008-11-01

    We present a model for the filtration of dislocations inside the seed window in epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO). We found that, when the additive effects of image and gliding forces exceed the defect line tension force, filtering can occur even in the openings. The model is applied to ELO of InP on Si where the opening size and the thermal stress arising due to the mask and the grown material are taken into account and analyzed. Further, we have also designed the mask patterns in net structures, where the tilting angles of the openings in the nets are chosen in order to take advantage of the filtering in the openings more effectively, and to minimize new defects due to coalescence in the ELO. Photoluminescence intensities of ELO InP on Si and on InP are compared and found to be in qualitative agreement with the model.

  7. Structural differences in the bacterial flagellar motor among bacterial species.

    PubMed

    Terashima, Hiroyuki; Kawamoto, Akihiro; Morimoto, Yusuke V; Imada, Katsumi; Minamino, Tohru

    2017-01-01

    The bacterial flagellum is a supramolecular motility machine consisting of the basal body as a rotary motor, the hook as a universal joint, and the filament as a helical propeller. Intact structures of the bacterial flagella have been observed for different bacterial species by electron cryotomography and subtomogram averaging. The core structures of the basal body consisting of the C ring, the MS ring, the rod and the protein export apparatus, and their organization are well conserved, but novel and divergent structures have also been visualized to surround the conserved structure of the basal body. This suggests that the flagellar motors have adapted to function in various environments where bacteria live and survive. In this review, we will summarize our current findings on the divergent structures of the bacterial flagellar motor.

  8. Intestinal bile acid malabsorption in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, S; Mulcahy, H; Fenlon, H; O'Broin, A; Casey, M; Burke, A; FitzGerald, M X; Hegarty, J E

    1993-08-01

    This study aimed at examining the mechanisms participating in excessive faecal bile acid loss in cystic fibrosis. The study was designed to define the relation between faecal fat and faecal bile acid loss in patients with and without cystic fibrosis related liver disease; to assess terminal ileal bile acid absorption by a seven day whole body retention of selenium labelled homotaurocholic acid (SeHCAT); and to determine if small intestinal bacterial overgrowth contributes to faecal bile acid loss. The study population comprised 40 patients (27 men; median age 18 years) with cystic fibrosis (n = 8) and without (n = 32) liver disease and eight control subjects. Faecal bile acid excretion was significantly higher in cystic fibrosis patients without liver disease compared with control subjects (mean (SEM) 21.5 (2.4) and 7.3 (1.2) micromoles/kg/24 hours respectively; p < 0.01) and patients with liver disease (7.9 (1.3) micromoles/kg/24 hours; p < 0.01). No correlation was found between faecal fat (g fat/24 hours) and faecal bile acid (micromoles 24 hours) excretion. Eight (33%) of cystic fibrosis patients had seven day SeHCAT retention < 10% (normal retention > 20%). SeHCAT retention in cystic fibrosis patients with liver disease was comparable with control subjects (30.0 (SEM) 8.3% v 36.8 (5.9)%; p = NS) while SeHCAT retention in cystic fibrosis patients who did not have liver disease was significantly reduced (19.9 (3.8); p < 0.05). Although evidence of small bowel bacterial overgrowth was present in 40% of patients no relation was found between breath hydrogen excretion, faecal fat, and faecal bile acid loss. The results are consistent with the presence of an abnormality in terminal ideal function in patients with cystic fibrosis who do not have liver disease and that a defect in the ileal absorption of bile acids may be a contributory factor to excessive faecal bile acid loss. Faecal bile acid loss in cystic fibrosis is unrelated to the presence of intraluminal fat

  9. Intestinal bile acid malabsorption in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, S; Mulcahy, H; Fenlon, H; O'Broin, A; Casey, M; Burke, A; FitzGerald, M X; Hegarty, J E

    1993-01-01

    This study aimed at examining the mechanisms participating in excessive faecal bile acid loss in cystic fibrosis. The study was designed to define the relation between faecal fat and faecal bile acid loss in patients with and without cystic fibrosis related liver disease; to assess terminal ileal bile acid absorption by a seven day whole body retention of selenium labelled homotaurocholic acid (SeHCAT); and to determine if small intestinal bacterial overgrowth contributes to faecal bile acid loss. The study population comprised 40 patients (27 men; median age 18 years) with cystic fibrosis (n = 8) and without (n = 32) liver disease and eight control subjects. Faecal bile acid excretion was significantly higher in cystic fibrosis patients without liver disease compared with control subjects (mean (SEM) 21.5 (2.4) and 7.3 (1.2) micromoles/kg/24 hours respectively; p < 0.01) and patients with liver disease (7.9 (1.3) micromoles/kg/24 hours; p < 0.01). No correlation was found between faecal fat (g fat/24 hours) and faecal bile acid (micromoles 24 hours) excretion. Eight (33%) of cystic fibrosis patients had seven day SeHCAT retention < 10% (normal retention > 20%). SeHCAT retention in cystic fibrosis patients with liver disease was comparable with control subjects (30.0 (SEM) 8.3% v 36.8 (5.9)%; p = NS) while SeHCAT retention in cystic fibrosis patients who did not have liver disease was significantly reduced (19.9 (3.8); p < 0.05). Although evidence of small bowel bacterial overgrowth was present in 40% of patients no relation was found between breath hydrogen excretion, faecal fat, and faecal bile acid loss. The results are consistent with the presence of an abnormality in terminal ideal function in patients with cystic fibrosis who do not have liver disease and that a defect in the ileal absorption of bile acids may be a contributory factor to excessive faecal bile acid loss. Faecal bile acid loss in cystic fibrosis is unrelated to the presence of intraluminal fat

  10. Outbreaks of Acropora white syndrome and Terpios sponge overgrowth combined with coral mortality in Palk Bay, southeast coast of India.

    PubMed

    Thinesh, T; Mathews, G; Diraviya Raj, K; Edward, J K P

    2017-09-20

    Acropora white syndrome (AWS) and Terpios sponge overgrowth (TSO) are serious threats to coral communities in various regions; however, information on these 2 lesions in the Indian Ocean is much more limited than in the Indo-Pacific. The present study revealed the impact of these lesions on the Palk Bay reef, India, and covered an area of 7 km2. In total, 1930 colonies were permanently monitored to assess incidences of AWS and TSO and consequent mortality for a period of 1 yr. TSO affected 5 coral genera and caused 20.7% mortality; overall prevalence increased from 1.3% (n = 25) to 25.5% (n = 492). In contrast, AWS only affected Acropora colonies and caused a mortality of 8%; overall prevalence increased from 0.9% (n = 17) to 12.9% (n = 249). Year-round monitoring revealed an increasing trend of both AWS and TSO, followed by temperature rise. These results add to the known geographic distribution of these coral diseases and reveal the impacts of AWS and TSO on coral reefs in the Indian Ocean.

  11. Bacterial mycophagy: definition and diagnosis of a unique bacterial-fungal interaction.

    PubMed

    Leveau, Johan H J; Preston, Gail M

    2008-01-01

    This review analyses the phenomenon of bacterial mycophagy, which we define as a set of phenotypic behaviours that enable bacteria to obtain nutrients from living fungi and thus allow the conversion of fungal into bacterial biomass. We recognize three types of bacterial strategies to derive nutrition from fungi: necrotrophy, extracellular biotrophy and endocellular biotrophy. Each is characterized by a set of uniquely sequential and differently overlapping interactions with the fungal target. We offer a detailed analysis of the nature of these interactions, as well as a comprehensive overview of methodologies for assessing and quantifying their individual contributions to the mycophagy phenotype. Furthermore, we discuss future prospects for the study and exploitation of bacterial mycophagy, including the need for appropriate tools to detect bacterial mycophagy in situ in order to be able to understand, predict and possibly manipulate the way in which mycophagous bacteria affect fungal activity, turnover, and community structure in soils and other ecosystems.

  12. Cellular damage in bacterial meningitis: an interplay of bacterial and host driven toxicity.

    PubMed

    Weber, Joerg R; Tuomanen, Elaine I

    2007-03-01

    Bacterial meningitis is still an important infectious disease causing death and disability. Invasive bacterial infections of the CNS generate some of the most powerful inflammatory responses known in medicine. Although the components of bacterial cell surfaces are now chemically defined in exquisite detail and the interaction with several receptor pathways has been discovered, it is only very recently that studies combining these advanced biochemical and cell biological tools have been done. Additional to the immunological response direct bacterial toxicity has been identified as an important contributor to neuronal damage. A detailed understanding of the complex interaction of bacterial toxicity and host response may generate opportunities for innovative and specific neuroprotective therapies.

  13. Comprehensive mutation analysis of PIK3CA, p14ARF, p16INK4a and p21Waf1/Cip1 genes is suggestive of a non- neoplastic nature of phenytoin induced gingival overgrowth.

    PubMed

    Swamikannu, Bhuminathan; Kumar, Kishore S; Jayesh, Raghavendra S; Rajendran, Senthilnathan; Muthupalani, Rajendran Shanmugam; Ramanathan, Arvind

    2013-01-01

    Dilantin sodium (phenytoin) is an antiepileptic drug, which is routinely used to control generalized tonic clonic seizure and partial seizure episodes. A few case reports of oral squamous cell carcinomas arising from regions of phenytoin induced gingival overgrowth (GO), and overexpression of mitogenic factors and p53 have presented this condition as a pathology with potential to transform into malignancy. We recently investigated the genetic status of p53 and H-ras, which are known to be frequently mutated in Indian oral carcinomas in GO tissues and found them to only contain wild type sequences, which suggested a non-neoplastic nature of phenytoin induced GO. However, besides p53 and H-ras, other oncogenes and tumor suppressors such as PIK3CA, p14ARF, p16INK4a and p21Waf1/Cip1, are frequently altered in oral squamous cell carcinoma, and hence are required to be analyzed in phenytoin induced GO tissues to be affirmative of its non-neoplastic nature. 100ng of chromosomal DNA isolated from twenty gingival overgrowth tissues were amplified with primers for exons 9 and 20 of PIK3CA, exons 1α, 1β and 2 of p16INK4a and p14ARF, and exon 2 of p21Waf1/Cip1, in independent reactions. PCR amplicons were subsequently gel purified and eluted products were sequenced. Sequencing analysis of the twenty samples of phenytoin induced gingival growth showed no mutations in the analyzed exons of PIK3CA, p14ARF, p16INK4a and p21Waf1/Cip1. The present data indicate that the mutational alterations of genes, PIK3CA, p14ARF, p16INK4a and p21Waf1/Cip1 that are frequently mutated in oral squamous cell carcinomas are rare in phenytoin induced gingival growth. Thus the findings provide further evidence that phenytoin induced gingival overgrowth as a non-neoplastic lesion, which may be considered as clinically significant given the fact that the epileptic patients are routinely administered with phenytoin for the rest of their lives to control seizure episodes.

  14. Bacterial surface adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utada, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Biofilms are structured multi-cellular communities that are fundamental to the biology and ecology of bacteria. Parasitic bacterial biofilms can cause lethal infections and biofouling, but commensal bacterial biofilms, such as those found in the gut, can break down otherwise indigestible plant polysaccharides and allow us to enjoy vegetables. The first step in biofilm formation, adaptation to life on a surface, requires a working knowledge of low Reynolds number fluid physics, and the coordination of biochemical signaling, polysaccharide production, and molecular motility motors. These crucial early stages of biofilm formation are at present poorly understood. By adapting methods from soft matter physics, we dissect bacterial social behavior at the single cell level for several prototypical bacterial species, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio cholerae.

  15. C-reactive Protein Versus Neutrophil/lymphocyte Ratio in Differentiating Bacterial and Non-bacterial Pneumonia in Children.

    PubMed

    Gauchan, E; Adhikari, S

    2016-09-01

    Pneumonia is a leading cause of childhood mortality in a low resource country. Simple laboratory markers can help differentiate between bacterial and non-bacterial pneumonias for appropriate management. In children aged one to 60 months with features of lower respiratory infection, C-reactive protein (CRP) and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) were used to differentiate between bacterial and non-bacterial pneumonias. The cutoff values for detecting bacterial pneumonias were evaluated by statistical tools. Bacterial pneumonia was diagnosed in 285 (43.6%) children out of 654 studied. At a cut-off value of 36 mg/L CRP was predictive of bacterial pneumonias with sensitivity and specificity of 61.8% and 91.3% respectively while the sensitivity and specificity for predicting bacterial pneumonia using NLR was 45.6% and 64% respectively with 1.28 used as a cut-off. Our study shows that CRP is superior to NLR in differentiating bacterial from non-bacterial pneumonias in children.

  16. Bacterial Prostatitis: Bacterial Virulence, Clinical Outcomes, and New Directions.

    PubMed

    Krieger, John N; Thumbikat, Praveen

    2016-02-01

    Four prostatitis syndromes are recognized clinically: acute bacterial prostatitis, chronic bacterial prostatitis, chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome, and asymptomatic prostatitis. Because Escherichia coli represents the most common cause of bacterial prostatitis, we investigated the importance of bacterial virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance in E. coli strains causing prostatitis and the potential association of these characteristics with clinical outcomes. A structured literature review revealed that we have limited understanding of the virulence-associated characteristics of E. coli causing acute prostatitis. Therefore, we completed a comprehensive microbiological and molecular investigation of a unique strain collection isolated from healthy young men. We also considered new data from an animal model system suggesting certain E. coli might prove important in the etiology of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Our human data suggest that E. coli needs multiple pathogenicity-associated traits to overcome anatomic and immune responses in healthy young men without urological risk factors. The phylogenetic background and accumulation of an exceptional repertoire of extraintestinal pathogenic virulence-associated genes indicate that these E. coli strains belong to a highly virulent subset of uropathogenic variants. In contrast, antibiotic resistance confers little added advantage to E. coli strains in these healthy outpatients. Our animal model data also suggest that certain pathogenic E. coli may be important in the etiology of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome through mechanisms that are dependent on the host genetic background and the virulence of the bacterial strain.

  17. Deficiency of intestinal mucin-2 ameliorates experimental alcoholic liver disease in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Phillipp; Chen, Peng; Wang, Hui J.; Wang, Lirui; McCole, Declan F.; Brandl, Katharina; Stärkel, Peter; Belzer, Clara; Hellerbrand, Claus; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu; Ho, Samuel B.; Schnabl, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    The intestinal mucus layer protects the epithelium from noxious agents, viruses, and pathogenic bacteria present in the gastrointestinal tract. It is composed of mucins, predominantly mucin-2 (Muc2), secreted by goblet cells of the intestine. Experimental alcoholic liver disease requires translocation of bacterial products across the intestinal barrier into the systemic circulation, which induces an inflammatory response in the liver and contributes to steatohepatitis. We investigated the roles of the intestinal mucus layer, and in particular Muc2, in development of experimental alcohol-associated liver disease in mice. We studied experimental alcohol-induced liver disease, induced by the Tsukamoto-French method (which involves continuous intragastric feeding of an isocaloric diet or alcohol) in wild-type and Muc2−/− mice. Muc2−/− mice showed less alcohol-induced liver injury and steatosis that developed in wild-type mice. Most notably, Muc2−/− mice had significantly lower plasma levels of lipopolysaccharide than wild-type mice after alcohol feeding. In contrast to wild-type mice, Muc2−/− mice were protected from alcohol-associated microbiome changes that are dependent on intestinal mucins. The anti-microbial proteins Reg3b and Reg3g were expressed at significantly higher levels in the jejunum of Muc2−/− mice fed the isocaloric diet or alcohol, compared with wild-type mice. Consequently, Muc2−/− mice showed increased killing of commensal bacteria and prevented intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Conclusion: Muc2−/− mice are protected from intestinal bacterial overgrowth and dysbiosis in response to alcohol feeding. Subsequently, lower amounts of bacterial products such as endotoxin translocate into the systemic circulation, decreasing liver disease. PMID:23408358

  18. An InP/Si heterojunction photodiode fabricated by self-aligned corrugated epitaxial lateral overgrowth

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Sun, Y. T., E-mail: yasun@kth.se; Omanakuttan, G.; Lourdudoss, S.

    2015-05-25

    An n-InP/p-Si heterojunction photodiode fabricated by corrugated epitaxial lateral overgrowth (CELOG) method is presented. N-InP/p-Si heterojunction has been achieved from a suitable pattern containing circular shaped openings in a triangular lattice on the InP seed layer on p-Si substrate and subsequent CELOG of completely coalesced n-InP. To avoid current path through the seed layer in the final photodiode, semi-insulating InP:Fe was grown with adequate thickness prior to n-InP growth in a low pressure hydride vapor phase epitaxy reactor. The n-InP/p-Si heterointerface was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Room temperature cross-sectional photoluminescence (PL) mapping illustrates the defect reductionmore » effect in InP grown on Si by CELOG method. The InP PL intensity measured above the InP/Si heterojunction is comparable to that of InP grown on a native planar substrate indicating low interface defect density of CELOG InP despite of 8% lattice mismatch with Si. The processed n-InP/p-Si heterojunction photodiodes show diode characteristics from the current-voltage (I-V) measurements with a dark current density of 0.324 mA/cm{sup 2} at a reverse voltage of −1 V. Under the illumination of AM1.5 conditions, the InP/Si heterojunction photodiode exhibited photovoltaic effect with an open circuit voltage of 180 mV, a short circuit current density of 1.89 mA/cm{sup 2}, an external quantum efficiency of 4.3%, and an internal quantum efficiency of 6.4%. This demonstration of epitaxially grown InP/Si heterojunction photodiode will open the door for low cost and high efficiency solar cells and photonic integration of III-Vs on silicon.« less

  19. Role of PHGG as a dietary fiber: a review article.

    PubMed

    Quartarone, G

    2013-12-01

    Functional and metabolic effects of dietary fiber are recognized by the scientific, clinical and nutritional experts. Dietary fiber plays a very significant role in modifying the intestinal microbiota, exerting prebiotic effects such as stimulating the growth and/or function of beneficial intestinal microorganisms. Changes in the gut microbiota composition are classically considered as one of the many factors involved in the pathogenesis of either inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome. The use of particular food products with a prebiotic effect has thus been tested in clinical trials with the objective to improve the clinical activity and well-being of patients with such disorders. Partially Hydrolyzed Guar Gum (PHGG) is a natural dietary fiber (Benefibra™, Novartis CH Italy): it is a white powder, water-soluble, colorless and transparent in water solution and almost tasteless. PHGG is stable and soluble at various pH levels commonly found in foods as well as resistant to heat, acid, salt, high pressure and digestive enzymes. Low viscosity of PHGG provides a distinct advantage for the use of fiber in enteral feeding products to be administered through feeding tubes. It has been studied in adults, both healthy volunteers and patients, in different disorders such as constipation, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), enteral nutrition, small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and, very recently, in children suffering from functional abdominal pain according to the Rome III Criteria definition for functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). This review takes stock of the situation concerning what is known to date on PHGG as dietary fiber, in order to give the health care professionals, such as gastroenterologists, dieticians and general practitioners, a complete overview on its intrinsic characteristics, preclinical and clinical evaluations, uses in different situations as supportive therapy in the management of the main intestinal functional

  20. [Current treatment of bacterial vaginosis].

    PubMed

    Borisov, I

    1999-01-01

    Therapeutic options for the treatment of accurately diagnosed bacterial vaginosis are reviewed on the basis of current concepts for treatment of bacterial vaginosis. The importance for screening for bacterial vaginosis is pointed out especially before intrauterine procedures and in pregnant women at risk for premature deliveries. Treatment regimens for pregnant women are discussed as well. Emphasis is given to treatment modalities for recurrent bacterial vaginosis.

  1. The intestinal microbiome and the leaky gut as therapeutic targets in alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Phillipp; Chen, Wei-Chung; Schnabl, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) encompasses hepatic steatosis, which may progress to alcoholic hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. It remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the US and worldwide. The severity of liver disease correlates with plasma levels of bacterial products in patients, and experimental ALD depends on the level of gut derived bacterial products in rodents. Since intestinal decontamination and deficiency of bacterial product receptors or their downstream signaling molecules protect from alcohol-induced liver disease, bacterial translocation (BT), qualitative, and quantitative changes of the enteric microbiome are considered as being of fundamental importance in the pathogenesis of ALD. Recent enhancements in diagnostic technologies provide a better insight into these shifts. This review highlights vital events in ALD such as BT, the importance of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, intestinal bacterial overgrowth (IBO), and changes in the intestinal microbiome. Furthermore, a treatment trial section of patients reviews possible future options of therapy for ALD modifying the enteric microbiome. PMID:23087650

  2. The impact of proton pump inhibitors on the human gastrointestinal microbiome.

    PubMed

    Freedberg, Daniel E; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Abrams, Julian A

    2014-12-01

    Potent gastric acid suppression using proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) is common in clinical practice but may have important effects on human health that are mediated through changes in the gastrointestinal microbiome. In the esophagus, PPIs change the normal bacterial milieu to decrease distal esophageal exposure to inflammatory gram-negative bacteria. In the stomach, PPIs alter the abundance and location of gastric Helicobacter pylori and other bacteria. In the small bowel, PPIs cause polymicrobial small bowel bacterial overgrowth and have been associated with the diagnosis of celiac disease. In the colon, PPIs associate with incident but not recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Bacterial Cell Mechanics.

    PubMed

    Auer, George K; Weibel, Douglas B

    2017-07-25

    Cellular mechanical properties play an integral role in bacterial survival and adaptation. Historically, the bacterial cell wall and, in particular, the layer of polymeric material called the peptidoglycan were the elements to which cell mechanics could be primarily attributed. Disrupting the biochemical machinery that assembles the peptidoglycan (e.g., using the β-lactam family of antibiotics) alters the structure of this material, leads to mechanical defects, and results in cell lysis. Decades after the discovery of peptidoglycan-synthesizing enzymes, the mechanisms that underlie their positioning and regulation are still not entirely understood. In addition, recent evidence suggests a diverse group of other biochemical elements influence bacterial cell mechanics, may be regulated by new cellular mechanisms, and may be triggered in different environmental contexts to enable cell adaptation and survival. This review summarizes the contributions that different biomolecular components of the cell wall (e.g., lipopolysaccharides, wall and lipoteichoic acids, lipid bilayers, peptidoglycan, and proteins) make to Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial cell mechanics. We discuss the contribution of individual proteins and macromolecular complexes in cell mechanics and the tools that make it possible to quantitatively decipher the biochemical machinery that contributes to bacterial cell mechanics. Advances in this area may provide insight into new biology and influence the development of antibacterial chemotherapies.

  4. Strontium ranelate causes osteophytes overgrowth in a model of early phase osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Chu, Jian-Guo; Dai, Mu-Wei; Wang, Yu; Tian, Fa-Ming; Song, Hui-Ping; Xiao, Ya-Ping; Shao, Li-Tao; Zhang, Ying-Ze; Zhang, Liu

    2017-02-10

    phase OA, SR administration causes osteophyte overgrowth, which may be related to incorporation into mineralizing osteophytes. This adverse effect is important for future studies of SR in OA.

  5. Fetal overgrowth in women with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ladfors, Linnea; Shaat, Nael; Wiberg, Nana; Katasarou, Anastasia; Berntorp, Kerstin; Kristensen, Karl

    2017-01-01

    Despite improved glycemic control, the rate of large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants remains high in pregnancies complicated by diabetes mellitus type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 (T2DM). Poor glycemic control, obesity, and excessive gestational weight gain are the main risk factors. The aim of this study was to determine the relative contribution of these risk factors for LGA in women with T1DM and T2DM, after controlling for important confounders such as age, smoking, and parity. In this retrospective chart review study, we analyzed the medical files of pregnant women with T1DM and T2DM who attended the antenatal care program at Skåne University Hospital during the years 2006 to 2016. HbA1c was used as a measure of glycemic control. Maternal weight in early pregnancy and at term was registered. LGA was defined as birth weight > 2 standard deviations of the mean. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratios (OR's) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for LGA. Over the 11-year period, we identified 308 singleton pregnancies in 221 women with T1DM and in 87 women with T2DM. The rate of LGA was 50% in women with T1DM and 23% in women with T2DM. The multivariable regression model identified gestational weight gain and second-trimester HbA1c as risk factors for LGA in T1DM pregnancies (OR = 1.107, 95% CI: 1.044-1.17, and OR = 1.047, 95% CI: 1.015-1.080, respectively) and gestational weight gain as a risk factor in T2DM pregnancies (OR = 1.175, 95% CI: 1.048-1.318), independent of body mass index. Gestational weight gain was associated with LGA in women with T1DM and T2DM, independent of maternal body mass index. The findings suggest that monitoring and regulation of gestational weight gain is important in the clinical care of these women, to minimize the risk of fetal overgrowth.

  6. Nutritional status, fecal elastase-1, and 13C-labeled mixed triglyceride breath test in the long-term after pancreaticoduodenectomy.

    PubMed

    Muniz, Cinara Knychala; dos Santos, José Sebastião; Pfrimer, Karina; Ferrioli, Eduardo; Kemp, Rafael; Marchini, Júlio Sérgio; Cunha, Selma Freire

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to compare the body composition, dietary intake and serum levels of vitamins and minerals, and exocrine pancreatic function in patients late after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and healthy subjects. Fifteen patients (PD group) who had undergone PD over 1 year before the study and 15 health volunteers (control group) were included in the study. All volunteers underwent dietary intake evaluation, body composition, laboratory data, exocrine pancreatic function by elastase-1, and carbon (C )-labeled triglycerides in breath tests. The PD group subjects also underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth analysis. Nutrient intake was adequate, and there were no differences in body mass index and mineral serum levels between the groups. The PD group showed lower serum levels of retinol, α-tocopherol, and ascorbic acid. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth occurred in 39% of the patients. Fecal elastase-1 was lower in the PD group. The PD group had a higher C peak time; the cumulative label C recovery in 7 hours was similar in both groups. Fecal elastase-1 decreased, and the excretion of C in breath was similar to healthy controls. Although the data point toward an adaptation in the absorptive capacity of fats, A, C, and E hypovitaminosis indicate that some absorptive insufficiency persists late after PD.

  7. [Review of the relation between gut microbiome, metabolic disease and hypertension].

    PubMed

    Barna, István; Nyúl, Dóra; Szentes, Tamás; Schwab, Richárd

    2018-03-01

    Gut flora has personal characteristics for each individual, similar to the fingerprints, consisting of a special mixture of bacterial species living in the intestines, now referred to as the gut microbiome. There is a strong correlation between the loss of microbial diversity and the functional bowel disorders, obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease as well as many autoimmune disorders. With genetic testing of stool diversity of the gut microbiome and exact analysis of the species and phylogenetic classification of the gut flora, the changes of diversity can be identified and the overgrowth of some bacteria can be revealed. In cases with pre- and manifest hypertension, an overgrowth of species from the phylum Firmicutes has been reported along with the relative decline of the phylum Bacteroidetes as opposed with cases of normotension. At the same time, the physiological balance among bacterial families was lost. According to the first studies, there is a correlation between hypertension and the lost balance of the gut microflora, both in animal experiments and in the human clinical setting. This evidence also suggests that targeted dietary alteration of the gut microbiome can be a new innovative approach in the treatment of hypertension. Orv Hetil. 2018; 159(9): 346-351.

  8. In vitro bacterial isolate susceptibility to empirically selected antimicrobials in 111 dogs with bacterial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Proulx, Alexandre; Hume, Daniel Z; Drobatz, Kenneth J; Reineke, Erica L

    2014-01-01

    To determine the proportion of airway bacterial isolates resistant to both empirically selected and recently administered antimicrobials, and to assess the impact of inappropriate initial empiric antimicrobials selection on length of hospital stay and survival to discharge in dogs with bacterial pneumonia. Retrospective study. University veterinary teaching hospital. One hundred and eleven dogs with a clinical diagnosis of bacterial pneumonia that had aerobic bacterial culture and susceptibility testing performed from a tracheal wash sample. None. Overall, 26% (29/111) of the dogs had at least 1 bacterial isolate that was resistant to empirically selected antimicrobials. In dogs with a history of antimicrobial administration within the preceding 4 weeks, a high incidence (57.4%, 31/54) of in vitro bacterial resistance to those antimicrobials was found: 64.7% (11/17) in the community-acquired pneumonia group, 55.2% (16/29) in the aspiration pneumonia group, and 50.0% (4/8) in the other causes of bacterial pneumonia group. No statistically significant association was found between bacterial isolate resistance to empirically selected antimicrobials and length of hospital stay or mortality. The high proportion of in vitro airway bacterial resistance to empiric antimicrobials would suggest that airway sampling for bacterial culture and susceptibility testing may be helpful in guiding antimicrobial therapy and recently administered antimicrobials should be avoided when empirically selecting antimicrobials. Although no relationship was found between inappropriate initial empiric antimicrobial selection and length of hospital stay or mortality, future prospective studies using standardized airway-sampling techniques, treatment modalities, and stratification of disease severity based on objective values, such as arterial blood gas analysis in all dogs with pneumonia, would be needed to determine if a clinical effect of in vitro bacterial resistance to empirically

  9. Facial bacterial infections: folliculitis.

    PubMed

    Laureano, Ana Cristina; Schwartz, Robert A; Cohen, Philip J

    2014-01-01

    Facial bacterial infections are most commonly caused by infections of the hair follicles. Wherever pilosebaceous units are found folliculitis can occur, with the most frequent bacterial culprit being Staphylococcus aureus. We review different origins of facial folliculitis, distinguishing bacterial forms from other infectious and non-infectious mimickers. We distinguish folliculitis from pseudofolliculitis and perifolliculitis. Clinical features, etiology, pathology, and management options are also discussed. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Treatment of bacterial meningitis: an update.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seon Hee; Kim, Kwang Sik

    2012-10-01

    The introduction of protein conjugate vaccines for Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) and Neisseria meningitidis (N. menigitidis) has changed the epidemiology of bacterial meningitis. Bacterial meningitis continues to be an important cause of mortality and morbidity, and our incomplete knowledge of its pathogenesis and emergence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria contribute to such mortality and morbidity. An early empiric antibiotic treatment is critical for the management of patients with bacterial meningitis. This article gives an overview on optimal treatment strategies of bacterial meningitis, along with considerations of new insights on epidemiology, clinical and laboratory findings supportive of bacterial meningitis, chemoprophylaxis, selection of initial antimicrobial agents for suspected bacterial meningitis, antimicrobial resistance and utility of new antibiotics, status on anti-inflammatory agents and adjunctive therapy, and pathogenesis of bacterial meningitis. Prompt treatment of bacterial meningitis with an appropriate antibiotic is essential. Optimal antimicrobial treatment of bacterial meningitis requires bactericidal agents able to penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB), with efficacy in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Several new antibiotics have been introduced for the treatment of meningitis caused by resistant bacteria, but their use in human studies has been limited. More complete understanding of the microbial and host interactions that are involved in the pathogenesis of bacterial meningitis and associated neurologic sequelae is likely to help in developing new strategies for the prevention and therapy of bacterial meningitis.

  11. Does overgrowth of costal cartilage cause pectus carinatum? A three-dimensional computed tomography evaluation of rib length and costal cartilage length in patients with asymmetric pectus carinatum

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chul Hwan; Kim, Tae Hoon; Haam, Seok Jin; Lee, Sungsoo

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To evaluate whether the overgrowth of costal cartilage may cause pectus carinatum using three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT). METHODS Twenty-two patients with asymmetric pectus carinatum were included. The fourth, fifth and sixth ribs and costal cartilages were semi-automatically traced, and their full lengths were measured on three-dimensional CT images using curved multi-planar reformatted (MPR) techniques. The rib length and costal cartilage length, the total combined length of the rib and costal cartilage and the ratio of the cartilage and rib lengths (C/R ratio) in each patient were compared between the protruding side and the opposite side at the levels of the fourth, fifth and sixth ribs. RESULTS The length of the costal cartilage was not different between the more protruded side and the contralateral side (55.8 ± 9.8 mm vs 55.9 ± 9.3 mm at the fourth, 70 ± 10.8 mm vs 71.6 ± 10.8 mm at the fifth and 97.8 ± 13.2 mm vs 99.8 ± 15.5 mm at the sixth; P > 0.05). There were also no significant differences between the lengths of ribs. (265.8 ± 34.9 mm vs 266.3 ± 32.9 mm at the fourth, 279.7 ± 32.7 mm vs 280.6 ± 32.4 mm at the fifth and 283.8 ± 33.9 mm vs 283.9 ± 32.3 mm at the sixth; P > 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in either the total length of rib and costal cartilage or the C/R ratio according to side of the chest (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS In patients with asymmetric pectus carinatum, the lengths of the fourth, fifth and sixth costal cartilage on the more protruded side were not different from those on the contralateral side. These findings suggest that overgrowth of costal cartilage cannot explain the asymmetric protrusion of anterior chest wall and may not be the main cause of pectus carinatum. PMID:23868604

  12. Does overgrowth of costal cartilage cause pectus carinatum? A three-dimensional computed tomography evaluation of rib length and costal cartilage length in patients with asymmetric pectus carinatum.

    PubMed

    Park, Chul Hwan; Kim, Tae Hoon; Haam, Seok Jin; Lee, Sungsoo

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate whether the overgrowth of costal cartilage may cause pectus carinatum using three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT). Twenty-two patients with asymmetric pectus carinatum were included. The fourth, fifth and sixth ribs and costal cartilages were semi-automatically traced, and their full lengths were measured on three-dimensional CT images using curved multi-planar reformatted (MPR) techniques. The rib length and costal cartilage length, the total combined length of the rib and costal cartilage and the ratio of the cartilage and rib lengths (C/R ratio) in each patient were compared between the protruding side and the opposite side at the levels of the fourth, fifth and sixth ribs. The length of the costal cartilage was not different between the more protruded side and the contralateral side (55.8 ± 9.8 mm vs 55.9 ± 9.3 mm at the fourth, 70 ± 10.8 mm vs 71.6 ± 10.8 mm at the fifth and 97.8 ± 13.2 mm vs 99.8 ± 15.5 mm at the sixth; P > 0.05). There were also no significant differences between the lengths of ribs. (265.8 ± 34.9 mm vs 266.3 ± 32.9 mm at the fourth, 279.7 ± 32.7 mm vs 280.6 ± 32.4 mm at the fifth and 283.8 ± 33.9 mm vs 283.9 ± 32.3 mm at the sixth; P > 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in either the total length of rib and costal cartilage or the C/R ratio according to side of the chest (P > 0.05). In patients with asymmetric pectus carinatum, the lengths of the fourth, fifth and sixth costal cartilage on the more protruded side were not different from those on the contralateral side. These findings suggest that overgrowth of costal cartilage cannot explain the asymmetric protrusion of anterior chest wall and may not be the main cause of pectus carinatum.

  13. Exploring bacterial infections: theoretical and experimental studies of the bacterial population dynamics and antibiotic treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Xinxian

    Bacterial infections are very common in human society. Thus extensive research has been conducted to reveal the molecular mechanisms of the pathogenesis and to evaluate the antibiotics' efficacy against bacteria. Little is known, however, about the population dynamics of bacterial populations and their interactions with the host's immune system. In this dissertation, a stochatic model is developed featuring stochastic phenotypic switching of bacterial individuals to explain the single-variant bottleneck discovered in multi strain bacterial infections. I explored early events in a bacterial infection establishment using classical experiments of Moxon and Murphy on neonatal rats. I showed that the minimal model and its simple variants do not work. I proposed modifications to the model that could explain the data quantitatively. The bacterial infections are also commonly established in physical structures, as biofilms or 3-d colonies. In contrast, most research on antibiotic treatment of bacterial infections has been conducted in well-mixed liquid cultures. I explored the efficacy of antibiotics to treat such bacterial colonies, a broadly applicable method is designed and evaluated where discrete bacterial colonies on 2-d surfaces were exposed to antibiotics. I discuss possible explanations and hypotheses for the experimental results. To verify these hypotheses, we investigated the dynamics of bacterial population as 3-d colonies. We showed that a minimal mathematical model of bacterial colony growth in 3-d was able to account for the experimentally observed presence of a diffusion-limited regime. The model further revealed highly loose packing of the cells in 3-d colonies and smaller cell sizes in colonies than plancktonic cells in corresponding liquid culture. Further experimental tests of the model predictions have revealed that the ratio of the cell size in liquid culture to that in colony cultures was consistent with the model prediction, that the dead cells

  14. Bacterial avirulence genes.

    PubMed

    Leach, J E; White, F F

    1996-01-01

    Although more than 30 bacterial avirulence genes have been cloned and characterized, the function of the gene products in the elictitation of resistance is unknown in all cases but one. The product of avrD from Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea likely functions indirectly to elicit resistance in soybean, that is, evidence suggests the gene product is an enzyme involved in elicitor production. In most if not all cases, bacterial avirulence gene function is dependent on interactions with the hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (hrp) genes. Many hrp genes are similar to genes involved in delivery of pathogenicity factors in mammalian bacterial pathogens. Thus, analogies between mammalian and plant pathogens may provide needed clues to elucidate how virulence gene products control induction of resistance.

  15. Bacterial pneumonia as an influenza complication.

    PubMed

    Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; van Someren Gréve, Frank; Schultz, Marcus J

    2017-04-01

    The pathogenesis and impact of coinfection, in particular bacterial coinfection, in influenza are incompletely understood. This review summarizes results from studies on bacterial coinfection in the recent pandemic influenza outbreak. Systemic immune mechanisms play a key role in the development of coinfection based on the complexity of the interaction of the host and the viral and bacterial pathogens. Several studies were performed to determine the point prevalence of bacterial coinfection in influenza. Coinfection in influenza is frequent in critically ill patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae being the most frequent bacterial pathogen and higher rates of potentially resistant pathogens over the years. Bacterial pneumonia is certainly an influenza complication. The recent epidemiology findings have helped to partially resolve the contribution of different pathogens. Immunosuppression is a risk factor for bacterial coinfection in influenza, and the epidemiology of coinfection has changed over the years during the last influenza pandemic, and these recent findings should be taken into account during present outbreaks.

  16. Zoonotic bacterial meningitis in human adults.

    PubMed

    van Samkar, Anusha; Brouwer, Matthijs C; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2016-09-13

    To describe the epidemiology, etiology, clinical characteristics, treatment, outcome, and prevention of zoonotic bacterial meningitis in human adults. We identified 16 zoonotic bacteria causing meningitis in adults. Zoonotic bacterial meningitis is uncommon compared to bacterial meningitis caused by human pathogens, and the incidence has a strong regional distribution. Zoonotic bacterial meningitis is mainly associated with animal contact, consumption of animal products, and an immunocompromised state of the patient. In a high proportion of zoonotic bacterial meningitis cases, CSF analysis showed only a mildly elevated leukocyte count. The recommended antibiotic therapy differs per pathogen, and the overall mortality is low. Zoonotic bacterial meningitis is uncommon but is associated with specific complications. The suspicion should be raised in patients with bacterial meningitis who have recreational or professional contact with animals and in patients living in regions endemic for specific zoonotic pathogens. An immunocompromised state is associated with a worse prognosis. Identification of risk factors and underlying disease is necessary to improve treatment. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  17. Community-acquired bacterial meningitis.

    PubMed

    Costerus, Joost M; Brouwer, Matthijs C; Bijlsma, Merijn W; van de Beek, Diederik

    2017-02-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency and is associated with a high disease burden. We reviewed recent progress in the management of patients with community-acquired bacterial meningitis. The worldwide burden of disease of bacterial meningitis remains high, despite the decreasing incidence following introduction of routine vaccination campaigns. Delay in diagnosis and treatment remain major concerns in the management of acute bacterial meningitis. European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases guidelines strive for a door-to-antibiotic-time less than 1 h. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has emerged as an important diagnostic tool to identify the causative organism. Point-of-care tests using fast multiplex PCR have been developed, but additional value has not been proven. Although anecdotal observations advocate pressure-based management, a randomized controlled trial will need to be performed first to determine efficacy and safety of such an aggressive treatment approach. Adjunctive dexamethasone remains the only adjunctive therapy with proven efficacy. The incidence of bacterial meningitis has been decreasing after the implementation of effective vaccines. Treatment should be administered as soon as possible and time to treatment should not exceed 1 h.

  18. [Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis].

    PubMed

    Velkey, Bálint; Vitális, Eszter; Vitális, Zsuzsanna

    2017-01-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis occurs most commonly in cirrhotic patients with ascites. Pathogens get into the circulation by intestinal translocation and colonize in peritoneal fluid. Diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is based on elevated polymorphonuclear leukocyte count in the ascites (>0,25 G/L). Ascites culture is often negative but aids to get information about antibiotic sensitivity in positive cases. Treatment in stable patient can be intravenous then orally administrated ciprofloxacin or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, while in severe cases intravenous III. generation cephalosporin. Nosocomial spontaneous bacterial peritonitis often caused by Gram-positive bacteria and multi-resistant pathogens can also be expected thus carbapenem should be the choice of the empiric treatment. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be considered. Norfloxacin is used most commonly, but changes are expected due to increase in quinolone resistance. As a primary prophylaxis, a short-term antibiotic treatment is recommended after gastrointestinal bleeding for 5 days, while long-term prophylaxis is for patients with low ascites protein, and advanced disease (400 mg/day). Secondary prophylaxis is recommended for all patients recovered from spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Due to increasing antibiotic use of antibiotics prophylaxis is debated to some degree. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(2), 50-57.

  19. Biofilm architecture of Phanerozoic cryptic carbonate marine veneers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riding, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Thin (<150 μm) micritic veneers lining crypts in Paleozoic and Mesozoic reef, microbial, and bioclastic carbonates have the dimensions and architecture of modern uncalcified bacterial biofilm. Morphologic attributes include rounded aggregate nanofabric, internal channels, external towers, mushrooms, and plumes. All can be interpreted as characteristics of attached bacterial communities, i.e., aggregates as microcolonies, originally embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances; channels as water conduits and/or uncolonized nutrient-poor spaces; external protuberances as localized growths; and plumes as surface streamers. Cryptic habitat favored pristine biofilm preservation by precluding disturbance and overgrowth, and suggests aphotic and anoxic conditions. These examples provide diagnostic morphologic criteria for wider recognition of biofilm in Phanerozoic and older carbonates.

  20. Self-organization during growth of ZrN/SiN{sub x} multilayers by epitaxial lateral overgrowth

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Fallqvist, A.; Fager, H.; Hultman, L.

    ZrN/SiN{sub x} nanoscale multilayers were deposited on ZrN seed layers grown on top of MgO(001) substrates by dc magnetron sputtering with a constant ZrN thickness of 40 Å and with an intended SiN{sub x} thickness of 2, 4, 6, 8, and 15 Å at a substrate temperature of 800 °C and 6 Å at 500 °C. The films were investigated by X-ray diffraction, high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The investigations show that the SiN{sub x} is amorphous and that the ZrN layers are crystalline. Growth of epitaxial cubic SiN{sub x}—known to take place on TiN(001)—onmore » ZrN(001) is excluded to the monolayer resolution of this study. During the course of SiN{sub x} deposition, the material segregates to form surface precipitates in discontinuous layers for SiN{sub x} thicknesses ≤6 Å that coalesce into continuous layers for 8 and 15 Å thickness at 800 °C, and for 6 Å at 500 °C. The SiN{sub x} precipitates are aligned vertically. The ZrN layers in turn grow by epitaxial lateral overgrowth on the discontinuous SiN{sub x} in samples deposited at 800 °C with up to 6 Å thick SiN{sub x} layers. Effectively a self-organized nanostructure can be grown consisting of strings of 1–3 nm large SiN{sub x} precipitates along apparent column boundaries in the epitaxial ZrN.« less

  1. High current density GaAs/Si rectifying heterojunction by defect free Epitaxial Lateral overgrowth on Tunnel Oxide from nano-seed.

    PubMed

    Renard, Charles; Molière, Timothée; Cherkashin, Nikolay; Alvarez, José; Vincent, Laetitia; Jaffré, Alexandre; Hallais, Géraldine; Connolly, James Patrick; Mencaraglia, Denis; Bouchier, Daniel

    2016-05-04

    Interest in the heteroepitaxy of GaAs on Si has never failed in the last years due to the potential for monolithic integration of GaAs-based devices with Si integrated circuits. But in spite of this effort, devices fabricated from them still use homo-epitaxy only. Here we present an epitaxial technique based on the epitaxial lateral overgrowth of micrometer scale GaAs crystals on a thin SiO2 layer from nanoscale Si seeds. This method permits the integration of high quality and defect-free crystalline GaAs on Si substrate and provides active GaAs/Si heterojunctions with efficient carrier transport through the thin SiO2 layer. The nucleation from small width openings avoids the emission of misfit dislocations and the formation of antiphase domains. With this method, we have experimentally demonstrated for the first time a monolithically integrated GaAs/Si diode with high current densities of 10 kA.cm(-2) for a forward bias of 3.7 V. This epitaxial technique paves the way to hybrid III-V/Si devices that are free from lattice-matching restrictions, and where silicon not only behaves as a substrate but also as an active medium.

  2. Mechanisms of inflammation-driven bacterial dysbiosis in the gut

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, MY; Inohara, N; Nuñez, G

    2018-01-01

    The gut microbiota has diverse and essential roles in host metabolism, development of the immune system and as resistance to pathogen colonization. Perturbations of the gut microbiota, termed gut dysbiosis, are commonly observed in diseases involving inflammation in the gut, including inflammatory bowel disease, infection, colorectal cancer and food allergies. Importantly, the inflamed microenvironment in the gut is particularly conducive to blooms of Enterobacteriaceae, which acquire fitness benefits while other families of symbiotic bacteria succumb to environmental changes inflicted by inflammation. Here we summarize studies that examined factors in the inflamed gut that contribute to blooms of Enterobacterieaceae, and highlight potential approaches to restrict Enterobacterial blooms in treating diseases that are otherwise complicated by overgrowth of virulent Enterobacterial species in the gut. PMID:27554295

  3. Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis by wet mount identification of bacterial morphotypes in vaginal fluid.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, H; Hansen, J G

    2000-03-01

    In order to develop a more practical way of diagnosing bacterial vaginosis (BV), we evaluated a scoring system, weighting small bacterial morphotypes versus lactobacillary morphotypes in wet mounts, assessed criteria for BV and normalcy from this scoring, and then evaluated their reproducibility and accuracy. We examined 754 women for pH, homogeneous vaginal discharge, amine odour, clue cells and the composite clinical diagnosis. We also examined wet mounts for small bacterial morphotypes and lactobacillary morphotypes, and weighted their quantitative presence as a bacterial morphotype score. The term 'small bacterial morphotypes' denotes a group of small bacillary forms comprising coccobacilli, tiny rods, and mobile curved rods. The different characteristics of BV were all gradually associated with increased bacterial morphotype scoring. We deemed a score of 0-1 as normal, 2-4 as intermediate phase, grade I, 5-6 as intermediate phase, grade II, and 7-8 indicative of BV. Reproducibility of the interpretation was high, both for the new grading system (weighted Kappa 0.90 in women perceiving and 0.81 in women not perceiving abnormal vaginal discharge) and for the new criterion for BV (non-weighted Kappa 0.91 and 0.84 in the 2 groups of women). The new criterion also proved highly concurrent with the composite clinical diagnosis (Kappa 0.91 and 0.81 in the 2 groups). In conclusion, the wet mount bacterial morphotype scoring is valid for grading of the disorder of the vaginal microbial ecosystem, and the new criterion for BV a more practical option than existing diagnostic methods.

  4. Insight into the effects of different cropping systems on soil bacterial community and tobacco bacterial wilt rate.

    PubMed

    Niu, Jiaojiao; Chao, Jin; Xiao, Yunhua; Chen, Wu; Zhang, Chao; Liu, Xueduan; Rang, Zhongwen; Yin, Huaqun; Dai, Linjian

    2017-01-01

    Rotation is an effective strategy to control crop disease and improve plant health. However, the effects of crop rotation on soil bacterial community composition and structure, and crop health remain unclear. In this study, using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we explored the soil bacterial communities under four different cropping systems, continuous tobacco cropping (control group), tobacco-maize rotation, tobacco-lily rotation, and tobacco-turnip rotation. Results of detrended correspondence analysis and dissimilarity tests showed that soil bacterial community composition and structure changed significantly among the four groups, such that Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria were more abundant in the maize rotation group (16.6 and 11.5%, respectively) than in the control (8.5 and 7.1%, respectively). Compared with the control group (57.78%), maize and lily were effective rotation crops in controlling tobacco bacterial wilt (about 23.54 and 48.67%). On the other hand, tobacco bacterial wilt rate was increased in the turnip rotation (59.62%) relative to the control. Further study revealed that the abundances of several bacterial populations were directly correlated with tobacco bacterial wilt. For example, Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria were significantly negatively correlated to the tobacco bacterial wilt rate, so they may be probiotic bacteria. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that soil pH and calcium content were key factors in determining soil bacterial communities. In conclusion, our study revealed the composition and structure of bacterial communities under four different cropping systems and may unveil molecular mechanisms for the interactions between soil microorganisms and crop health. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Growth of Bacterial Colonies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Mya; Hwa, Terence

    2013-03-01

    On hard agar gel, there is insufficient surface hydration for bacteria to swim or swarm. Instead, growth occurs in colonies of close-packed cells, which expand purely due to repulsive interactions: individual bacteria push each other out of the way through the force of their growth. In this way, bacterial colonies represent a new type of ``active'' granular matter. In this study, we investigate the physical, biochemical, and genetic elements that determine the static and dynamic aspects of this mode of bacterial growth for E. coli. We characterize the process of colony expansion empirically, and use discrete and continuum models to examine the extent to which our observations can be explained by the growth characteristics of non-communicating cells, coupled together by physical forces, nutrients, and waste products. Our results challenge the commonly accepted modes of bacterial colony growth and provide insight into sources of growth limitation in crowded bacterial communities.

  6. Periodic growth of bacterial colonies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Yoshihiro; Ikeda, Takemasa; Shimada, Hirotoshi; Hiramatsu, Fumiko; Kobayashi, Naoki; Wakita, Jun-ichi; Itoh, Hiroto; Kurosu, Sayuri; Nakatsuchi, Michio; Matsuyama, Tohey; Matsushita, Mitsugu

    2005-06-01

    The formation of concentric ring colonies by bacterial species Bacillus subtilis and Proteus mirabilis has been investigated experimentally, focusing our attention on the dependence of local cell density upon the bacterial motility. It has been confirmed that these concentric ring colonies reflect the periodic change of the bacterial motility between motile cell state and immotile cell state. We conclude that this periodic change is macroscopically determined neither by biological factors (i.e., biological clock) nor by chemical factors (chemotaxis as inhibitor). And our experimental results strongly suggest that the essential factor for the change of the bacterial motility during concentric ring formation is the local cell density.

  7. Nanoparticle Approaches against Bacterial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Weiwei; Thamphiwatana, Soracha; Angsantikul, Pavimol; Zhang, Liangfang

    2014-01-01

    Despite the wide success of antibiotics, the treatment of bacterial infection still faces significant challenges, particularly the emergence of antibiotic resistance. As a result, nanoparticle drug delivery platforms including liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, dendrimers, and various inorganic nanoparticles have been increasingly exploited to enhance the therapeutic effectiveness of existing antibiotics. This review focuses on areas where nanoparticle approaches hold significant potential to advance the treatment of bacterial infection. These areas include targeted antibiotic delivery, environmentally responsive antibiotic delivery, combinatorial antibiotic delivery, nanoparticle-enabled antibacterial vaccination, and nanoparticle-based bacterial detection. In each area we highlight the innovative antimicrobial nanoparticle platforms and review their progress made against bacterial infections. PMID:25044325

  8. The restoration of the vaginal microbiota after treatment for bacterial vaginosis with metronidazole or probiotics.

    PubMed

    Ling, Zongxin; Liu, Xia; Chen, Weiguang; Luo, Yueqiu; Yuan, Li; Xia, Yaxian; Nelson, Karen E; Huang, Shaolei; Zhang, Shaoen; Wang, Yuezhu; Yuan, Jieli; Li, Lanjuan; Xiang, Charlie

    2013-04-01

    Whether or not treatment with antibiotics or probiotics for bacterial vaginosis (BV) is associated with a change in the diversity of vaginal microbiota in women was investigated. One hundred fifteen women, consisting of 30 healthy subjects, 30 BV-positive control subjects, 30 subjects with BV treated with a 7-day metronidazole regimen, and 25 subjects with BV treated with a 10-day probiotics regimen, were analyzed to determine the efficacy and disparity of diversity and richness of vaginal microbiota using 454 pyrosequencing. Follow-up visits at days 5 and 30 showed a greater BV cure rate in the probiotics-treated subjects (88.0 and 96 %, respectively) compared to the metronidazole-treated subjects (83.3 and 70 %, respectively [p = 0.625 at day 5 and p = 0.013 at day 30]). Treatment with metronidazole reduced the taxa diversity and eradicated most of the BV-associated phylotypes, while probiotics only suppressed the overgrowth and re-established vaginal homeostasis gradually and steadily. Despite significant interindividual variation, the microbiota of the actively treated groups or participants constituted a unique profile. Along with the decrease in pathogenic bacteria, such as Gardnerella, Atopobium, Prevotella, Megasphaera, Coriobacteriaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Mycoplasma, and Sneathia, a Lactobacillus-dominated vaginal microbiota was recovered. Acting as vaginal sentinels and biomarkers, the relative abundance of Lactobacillus and pathogenic bacteria determined the consistency of the BV clinical and microbiologic cure rates, as well as recurrent BV. Both 7-day intravaginal metronidazole and 10-day intravaginal probiotics have good efficacy against BV, while probiotics maintained normal vaginal microbiota longer due to effective and steady vaginal microbiota restoration, which provide new insights into BV treatment.

  9. Bacterial symbionts and natural products.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Jason M; Clardy, Jon

    2011-07-21

    The study of bacterial symbionts of eukaryotic hosts has become a powerful discovery engine for chemistry. This highlight looks at four case studies that exemplify the range of chemistry and biology involved in these symbioses: a bacterial symbiont of a fungus and a marine invertebrate that produce compounds with significant anticancer activity, and bacterial symbionts of insects and nematodes that produce compounds that regulate multilateral symbioses.

  10. Postviral Complications: Bacterial Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Prasso, Jason E; Deng, Jane C

    2017-03-01

    Secondary bacterial pneumonia after viral respiratory infection remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality. Susceptibility is mediated by a variety of viral and bacterial factors, and complex interactions with the host immune system. Prevention and treatment strategies are limited to influenza vaccination and antibiotics/antivirals respectively. Novel approaches to identifying the individuals with influenza who are at increased risk for secondary bacterial pneumonias are urgently needed. Given the threat of further pandemics and the heightened prevalence of these viruses, more research into the immunologic mechanisms of this disease is warranted with the hope of discovering new potential therapies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Community-acquired bacterial meningitis.

    PubMed

    van de Beek, Diederik; Brouwer, Matthijs; Hasbun, Rodrigo; Koedel, Uwe; Whitney, Cynthia G; Wijdicks, Eelco

    2016-11-03

    Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges and subarachnoid space that can also involve the brain cortex and parenchyma. It can be acquired spontaneously in the community - community-acquired bacterial meningitis - or in the hospital as a complication of invasive procedures or head trauma (nosocomial bacterial meningitis). Despite advances in treatment and vaccinations, community-acquired bacterial meningitis remains one of the most important infectious diseases worldwide. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis are the most common causative bacteria and are associated with high mortality and morbidity; vaccines targeting these organisms, which have designs similar to the successful vaccine that targets Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis, are now being used in many routine vaccination programmes. Experimental and genetic association studies have increased our knowledge about the pathogenesis of bacterial meningitis. Early antibiotic treatment improves the outcome, but the growing emergence of drug resistance as well as shifts in the distribution of serotypes and groups are fuelling further development of new vaccines and treatment strategies. Corticosteroids were found to be beneficial in high-income countries depending on the bacterial species. Further improvements in the outcome are likely to come from dampening the host inflammatory response and implementing preventive measures, especially the development of new vaccines.

  12. Messing with Bacterial Quorum Sensing

    PubMed Central

    González, Juan E.; Keshavan, Neela D.

    2006-01-01

    Quorum sensing is widely recognized as an efficient mechanism to regulate expression of specific genes responsible for communal behavior in bacteria. Several bacterial phenotypes essential for the successful establishment of symbiotic, pathogenic, or commensal relationships with eukaryotic hosts, including motility, exopolysaccharide production, biofilm formation, and toxin production, are often regulated by quorum sensing. Interestingly, eukaryotes produce quorum-sensing-interfering (QSI) compounds that have a positive or negative influence on the bacterial signaling network. This eukaryotic interference could result in further fine-tuning of bacterial quorum sensing. Furthermore, recent work involving the synthesis of structural homologs to the various quorum-sensing signal molecules has resulted in the development of additional QSI compounds that could be used to control pathogenic bacteria. The creation of transgenic plants that express bacterial quorum-sensing genes is yet another strategy to interfere with bacterial behavior. Further investigation on the manipulation of quorum-sensing systems could provide us with powerful tools against harmful bacteria. PMID:17158701

  13. Bacterial 'immunity' against bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Abedon, Stephen T

    2012-01-01

    Vertebrate animals possess multiple anti-pathogen defenses. Individual mechanisms usually are differentiated into those that are immunologically adaptive vs. more "primitive" anti-pathogen phenomena described as innate responses. Here I frame defenses used by bacteria against bacteriophages as analogous to these animal immune functions. Included are numerous anti-phage defenses in addition to the adaptive immunity associated with CRISPR/cas systems. As these other anti-pathogen mechanisms are non-adaptive they can be described as making up an innate bacterial immunity. This exercise was undertaken in light of the recent excitement over the discovery that CRISPR/cas systems can serve, as noted, as a form of bacterial adaptive immunity. The broader goal, however, is to gain novel insight into bacterial defenses against phages by fitting these mechanisms into considerations of how multicellular organisms also defend themselves against pathogens. This commentary can be viewed in addition as a bid toward integrating these numerous bacterial anti-phage defenses into a more unified immunology.

  14. Bacterial meningitis - principles of antimicrobial treatment.

    PubMed

    Jawień, Miroslaw; Garlicki, Aleksander M

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is associated with significant morbidity and mortality despite the availability of effective antimicrobial therapy. The management approach to patients with suspected or proven bacterial meningitis includes emergent cerebrospinal fluid analysis and initiation of appropriate antimicrobial and adjunctive therapies. The choice of empirical antimicrobial therapy is based on the patient's age and underlying disease status; once the infecting pathogen is isolated, antimicrobial therapy can be modified for optimal treatment. Successful treatment of bacterial meningitis requires the knowledge on epidemiology including prevalence of antimicrobial resistant pathogens, pathogenesis of meningitis, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antimicrobial agents. The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains in recent years has necessitated the development of new strategies for empiric antimicrobial therapy for bacterial meningitis.

  15. Sequence-Specific Affinity Chromatography of Bacterial Small Regulatory RNA-Binding Proteins from Bacterial Cells.

    PubMed

    Gans, Jonathan; Osborne, Jonathan; Cheng, Juliet; Djapgne, Louise; Oglesby-Sherrouse, Amanda G

    2018-01-01

    Bacterial small RNA molecules (sRNAs) are increasingly recognized as central regulators of bacterial stress responses and pathogenesis. In many cases, RNA-binding proteins are critical for the stability and function of sRNAs. Previous studies have adopted strategies to genetically tag an sRNA of interest, allowing isolation of RNA-protein complexes from cells. Here we present a sequence-specific affinity purification protocol that requires no prior genetic manipulation of bacterial cells, allowing isolation of RNA-binding proteins bound to native RNA molecules.

  16. Bacterial detection: from microscope to smartphone.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Subash C B; Tang, Thean-Hock; Chen, Yeng; Citartan, Marimuthu; Lakshmipriya, Thangavel

    2014-10-15

    The ubiquitous nature of bacteria enables them to survive in a wide variety of environments. Hence, the rise of various pathogenic species that are harmful to human health raises the need for the development of accurate sensing systems. Sensing systems are necessary for diagnosis and epidemiological control of pathogenic organism, especially in the food-borne pathogen and sanitary water treatment facility' bacterial populations. Bacterial sensing for the purpose of diagnosis can function in three ways: bacterial morphological visualization, specific detection of bacterial component and whole cell detection. This paper provides an overview of the currently available bacterial detection systems that ranges from microscopic observation to state-of-the-art smartphone-based detection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Magistral Phage

    PubMed Central

    Pirnay, Jean-Paul; Verbeken, Gilbert; Ceyssens, Pieter-Jan; Huys, Isabelle; De Vos, Daniel; Ameloot, Charlotte; Fauconnier, Alan

    2018-01-01

    Since time immemorial, phages—the viral parasites of bacteria—have been protecting Earth’s biosphere against bacterial overgrowth. Today, phages could help address the antibiotic resistance crisis that affects all of society. The greatest hurdle to the introduction of phage therapy in Western medicine is the lack of an appropriate legal and regulatory framework. Belgium is now implementing a pragmatic phage therapy framework that centers on the magistral preparation (compounding pharmacy in the US) of tailor-made phage medicines. PMID:29415431

  18. Spatial distribution of marine airborne bacterial communities

    PubMed Central

    Seifried, Jasmin S; Wichels, Antje; Gerdts, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    The spatial distribution of bacterial populations in marine bioaerosol samples was investigated during a cruise from the North Sea to the Baltic Sea via Skagerrak and Kattegat. The analysis of the sampled bacterial communities with a pyrosequencing approach revealed that the most abundant phyla were represented by the Proteobacteria (49.3%), Bacteroidetes (22.9%), Actinobacteria (16.3%), and Firmicutes (8.3%). Cyanobacteria were assigned to 1.5% of all bacterial reads. A core of 37 bacterial OTUs made up more than 75% of all bacterial sequences. The most abundant OTU was Sphingomonas sp. which comprised 17% of all bacterial sequences. The most abundant bacterial genera were attributed to distinctly different areas of origin, suggesting highly heterogeneous sources for bioaerosols of marine and coastal environments. Furthermore, the bacterial community was clearly affected by two environmental parameters – temperature as a function of wind direction and the sampling location itself. However, a comparison of the wind directions during the sampling and calculated backward trajectories underlined the need for more detailed information on environmental parameters for bioaerosol investigations. The current findings support the assumption of a bacterial core community in the atmosphere. They may be emitted from strong aerosolizing sources, probably being mixed and dispersed over long distances. PMID:25800495

  19. Bacterial membrane proteomics.

    PubMed

    Poetsch, Ansgar; Wolters, Dirk

    2008-10-01

    About one quarter to one third of all bacterial genes encode proteins of the inner or outer bacterial membrane. These proteins perform essential physiological functions, such as the import or export of metabolites, the homeostasis of metal ions, the extrusion of toxic substances or antibiotics, and the generation or conversion of energy. The last years have witnessed completion of a plethora of whole-genome sequences of bacteria important for biotechnology or medicine, which is the foundation for proteome and other functional genome analyses. In this review, we discuss the challenges in membrane proteome analysis, starting from sample preparation and leading to MS-data analysis and quantification. The current state of available proteomics technologies as well as their advantages and disadvantages will be described with a focus on shotgun proteomics. Then, we will briefly introduce the most abundant proteins and protein families present in bacterial membranes before bacterial membrane proteomics studies of the last years will be presented. It will be shown how these works enlarged our knowledge about the physiological adaptations that take place in bacteria during fine chemical production, bioremediation, protein overexpression, and during infections. Furthermore, several examples from literature demonstrate the suitability of membrane proteomics for the identification of antigens and different pathogenic strains, as well as the elucidation of membrane protein structure and function.

  20. Molecular diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis: Does adjustment for total bacterial load or human cellular content improve diagnostic performance?

    PubMed

    Plummer, E L; Garland, S M; Bradshaw, C S; Law, M G; Vodstrcil, L A; Hocking, J S; Fairley, C K; Tabrizi, S N

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the utility of quantitative PCR assays for diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis and found that while the best model utilized bacterial copy number adjusted for total bacterial load (sensitivity=98%, specificity=93%, AUC=0.95[95%CI=0.93,0.97]), adjusting for total bacterial or human cell load did not consistently increase the diagnostic performance of the assays. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Arsenic uptake in bacterial calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catelani, Tiziano; Perito, Brunella; Bellucci, Francesco; Lee, Sang Soo; Fenter, Paul; Newville, Matthew; Rimondi, Valentina; Pratesi, Giovanni; Costagliola, Pilario

    2018-02-01

    Bio-mediated processes for arsenic (As) uptake in calcite were investigated by means of X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) coupled with X-ray Fluorescence measurements. The environmental bacterial strain Bacillus licheniformis BD5, sampled at the Bullicame Hot Springs (Viterbo, Central Italy), was used to synthesize calcite from As-enriched growth media. Both liquid and solid cultures were applied to simulate planktonic and biofilm community environments, respectively. Bacterial calcite samples cultured in liquid media had an As enrichment factor (Kd) 50 times higher than that from solid media. The XRD analysis revealed an elongation of the crystal lattice along the c axis (by 0.03 Å) for biogenic calcite, which likely resulted from the substitution of larger arsenate for carbonate in the crystal. The XAS data also showed a clear difference in the oxidation state of sorbed As between bacterial and abiotic calcite. Abiotic chemical processes yielded predominantly As(V) uptake whereas bacterial precipitation processes led to the uptake of both As(III) and As(V). The presence of As(III) in bacterial calcite is proposed to result from subsequent reduction of arsenate to arsenite by bacterial activities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first experimental observation of the incorporation of As(III) in the calcite crystal lattice, revealing a critical role of biochemical processes for the As cycling in nature.

  2. Bacterial interactions in dental biofilm development.

    PubMed

    Hojo, K; Nagaoka, S; Ohshima, T; Maeda, N

    2009-11-01

    Recent analyses with ribosomal RNA-based technologies have revealed the diversity of bacterial populations within dental biofilms, and have highlighted their important contributions to oral health and disease. Dental biofilms are exceedingly complex and multispecies ecosystems, where oral bacteria interact cooperatively or competitively with other members. Bacterial interactions that influence dental biofilm communities include various different mechanisms. During the early stage of biofilm formation, it is known that planktonic bacterial cells directly attach to surfaces of the oral cavity or indirectly bind to other bacterial cells that have already colonized. Adherence through co-aggregation may be critical for the temporary retention of bacteria on dental surfaces, and may facilitate eventual bacterial colonization. It is likely that metabolic communication, genetic exchange, production of inhibitory factors (e.g., bacteriocins, hydrogen peroxide, etc.), and quorum-sensing are pivotal regulatory factors that determine the bacterial composition and/or metabolism. Since each bacterium can easily access a neighboring bacterial cell and its metabolites, genetic exchanges and metabolic communication may occur frequently in dental biofilms. Quorum-sensing is defined as gene regulation in response to cell density, which influences various functions, e.g., virulence and bacteriocin production. In this review, we discuss these important interactions among oral bacteria within the dental biofilm communities.

  3. Athlete's foot caused by pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Abramson, C

    1983-01-01

    An enzymatically active pigment-producing clinical isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found to produce a diffusible antifungal product that was shown to be inhibitory to the growth of several dermatophytes, specifically, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum, and Microsporum audouini. In this study, Trichophyton rubrum was used as the test organism. The antifungal product was partially purified by Sephadex column chromatography and was found to be stable at 5 degrees, 25 degrees, and 37 degrees C. Several investigators have alluded to the fact that as asymptomatic cases of dermatophytosis simplex progress to symptomatic dermatophytosis complex, the bacterial profile changes from a gram-positive bacterial ecosystem to a gram-negative bacterial over-growth. The primary event in the pathogenesis of interdigital athlete's foot is the invasion of the horny layer by dermatophytes. This presents as a mild to moderate scaly lesion and is asymptomatic. As a result of predisposing factors, such as hyperhidrosis, occlusion by tight shoes, minute abrasions due to friction, and fungal-infected skin surfaces, dynamic overgrowth of opportunistic gram-negative bacilli prevails. As the gram-negative population increases, the recovery of dermatophytes dramatically diminishes, until a point is reached when no dermatophytes can be recovered from clinically symptomatic tinea pedis. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is inhibiting its fungal competitor Trichophyton rubrum by producing a diffusible antifungal agent into the infectious environment of the intertriginous foot lesion. Clinically, the patient is diagnosed as having tinea pedis; laboratory culture for fungus and KOH are negative, and what was a paradox just a few years ago can currently be identified and treated appropriately as gram-negative athlete's foot.

  4. Gut Microbiome-based Therapeutics in Liver Cirrhosis: Basic Consideration for the Next Step.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Hiroshi

    2017-09-28

    Infections account for significant morbidity and mortality in liver cirrhosis and most are related to the gut microbiome. Fecal dysbiosis, characterized by an overgrowth of potentially pathogenic bacteria and a decrease in autochthonous non-pathogenic bacteria, becomes prominent with the progression of liver cirrhosis. In cirrhotic patients, disruption of the intestinal barrier causes intestinal hyperpermeability (i.e. leaky gut), which is closely related to gut dysmotility, dysbiosis and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and may induce pathological bacterial translocation. Although the involved microbial taxa are somewhat different between the cirrhotic patients from the East and the West, the common manifestation of a shortage of bacteria that contribute to the production of short-chain fatty acids and secondary bile acids may facilitate intestinal inflammation, leaky gut and gut dysbiosis. Translocated endotoxin and bacterial DNA are capable of provoking potent inflammation and affecting the metabolic and hemodynamic systems, which may ultimately enhance the progression of liver cirrhosis and its various complications, such as hepatic encephalopathy (HE), variceal bleeding, infection and renal disturbances. Among studies on the microbiome-based therapeutics, findings of probiotic effects on HE have been contradictory in spite of several supportive results. However, the effects of synbiotics and prebiotics are substantially documented. The background of their effectiveness should be evaluated again in relation to the cirrhosis-related changes in gut microbiome and their metabolic effects. Strict indications for the antibiotic rifaximin remain unestablished, although its effect is promising, improving HE and other complications with little influence on microbial populations. The final goal of microbiome-based therapeutics is to adjust the gut-liver axis to the maximal benefit of cirrhotic patients, with the aid of evolving metagenomic and metabolomic analyses.

  5. Experimental calibration of silicon and oxygen isotope fractionations between quartz and water at 250°C by in situ microanalysis of experimental products and application to zoned low δ 30Si quartz overgrowths

    DOE PAGES

    Pollington, Anthony D.; Kozdon, Reinhard; Anovitz, Lawrence M.; ...

    2015-12-01

    The interpretation of silicon isotope data for quartz is hampered by the lack of experimentally determined fractionation factors between quartz and fluid. Further, there is a large spread in published oxygen isotope fractionation factors at low temperatures, primarily due to extrapolation from experimental calibrations at high temperature. We report the first measurements of silicon isotope ratios from experimentally precipitated quartz and estimate the equilibrium fractionation vs. dissolved silica using a novel in situ analysis technique applying secondary ion mass spectrometry to directly analyze experimental products. These experiments also yield a new value for oxygen isotope fractionation. Quartz overgrowths up tomore » 235 μm thick were precipitated in silica–H 2O–NaOH–NaCl fluids, at pH 12–13 and 250 °C. At this temperature, 1000lnα 30Si(Qtz–fluid) = 0.55 ± 0.10‰ and 1000lnα 18O(Qtz–fluid) = 10.62 ± 0.13‰, yielding the relations 1000lnα 30Si(Qtz–fluid) = (0.15 ± 0.03) * 10 6/T 2 and 1000lnα 18O(Qtz–fluid) = (2.91 ± 0.04) * 10 6/T 2 when extended to zero fractionation at infinite temperature. Values of δ 30Si(Qtz) from diagenetic cement in sandstones from the basal Cambrian Mt. Simon Formation in central North America range from 0 to ₋5.4‰. Paired δ 18O and δ 30Si values from individual overgrowths preserve a record of Precambrian weathering and fluid transport. In conclusion, the application of the experimental quartz growth results to observations from natural sandstone samples suggests that precipitation of quartz at low temperatures in nature is dominated by kinetic, rather than equilibrium, processes.« less

  6. Reversal of drug-induced gingival overgrowth by UV-mediated apoptosis of gingival fibroblasts - an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Ritchhart, Casey; Joy, Anita

    2018-05-01

    Gingival overgrowth (GO) is an undesirable result of certain drugs like Cyclosporine A (CsA). Histopathology of GO shows hyperplasia of gingival epithelium, expansion of connective tissue with increased collagen, or a combination. Factors such as age, gender, oral hygiene, duration, and dosage also influence onset and severity of GO. One of the mechanisms behind uncontrolled cell proliferation in drug-induced GO is inhibition of apoptotic pathways, with a consequent effect on normal cell turnover. Our objective was to determine if UV photo-treatment would activate apoptosis in the gingival fibroblast component. Human gingival fibroblast cells (HGF-1) were exposed to 200ng/ml or 400ng/ml CsA and maintained for 3, 6, and 9 days, followed by UV radiation for 2, 5, or 10min (N=6). Naïve (no CsA or UV), negative (UV, no CsA), and positive controls (CsA, no UV) were designated. Prior to UV treatment, growth media was replaced with 1M PBS to prevent absorption of UV radiation by serum proteins, and cells were incubated in growth media for 24h post-UV before processing for TUNEL assay, cell proliferation assays, or immunofluorescence. Data showed a temporal increase in proliferation of HGF-1 cells under the influence of CsA. The 200ng/ml dose was more effective in causing over-proliferation. UV treatment for 10min resulted in significant reduction in cell numbers, as evidenced by counts and proliferation assays. Our study is a first step to further evaluate UV-mediated apoptosis as a mechanism to control certain forms of GO. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Deeply hidden inside introduced biogenic structures - Pacific oyster reefs reduce detrimental barnacle overgrowth on native blue mussels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buschbaum, Christian; Cornelius, Annika; Goedknegt, M. Anouk

    2016-11-01

    In sedimentary coastal ecosystems shells of epibenthic organisms such as blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) provide the only major attachment surface for barnacle epibionts, which may cause detrimental effects on their mussel basibionts by e.g. reducing growth rate. In the European Wadden Sea, beds of native blue mussels have been invaded by Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas, which transformed these beds into mixed reefs of oysters with mussels. In this study, we determined the spatial distribution of M. edulis and their barnacle epibionts (Semibalanus balanoides) within the reef matrix. Mean mussel density near the bottom was about twice as high compared to the mussel density near the top of an oyster reef, whereas barnacles on mussels showed a reversed pattern. Barnacle dry weight per mussel was on average 14 times higher near the top than at the bottom. This pattern was confirmed by experimentally placing clean M. edulis at the top and on the bottom of oyster reefs at two sites in the Wadden Sea (island of Texel, The Netherlands; island of Sylt, Germany). After an experimental period of five weeks (April and May 2015, the main settlement period of S. balanoides), the number of barnacles per mussel was at both sites significantly higher on mussels near the top compared to near the bottom. We conclude that the oyster reef matrix offers a refuge for M. edulis: inside reefs they are not only better protected against predators but also against detrimental barnacle overgrowth. This study shows that alien species can cause beneficial effects for native organisms and should not be generally considered as a risk for the recipient marine ecosystems.

  8. Volatiles in Inter-Specific Bacterial Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Tyc, Olaf; Zweers, Hans; de Boer, Wietse; Garbeva, Paolina

    2015-01-01

    The importance of volatile organic compounds for functioning of microbes is receiving increased research attention. However, to date very little is known on how inter-specific bacterial interactions effect volatiles production as most studies have been focused on volatiles produced by monocultures of well-described bacterial genera. In this study we aimed to understand how inter-specific bacterial interactions affect the composition, production and activity of volatiles. Four phylogenetically different bacterial species namely: Chryseobacterium, Dyella, Janthinobacterium, and Tsukamurella were selected. Earlier results had shown that pairwise combinations of these bacteria induced antimicrobial activity in agar media whereas this was not the case for monocultures. In the current study, we examined if these observations were also reflected by the production of antimicrobial volatiles. Thus, the identity and antimicrobial activity of volatiles produced by the bacteria were determined in monoculture as well in pairwise combinations. Antimicrobial activity of the volatiles was assessed against fungal, oomycetal, and bacterial model organisms. Our results revealed that inter-specific bacterial interactions affected volatiles blend composition. Fungi and oomycetes showed high sensitivity to bacterial volatiles whereas the effect of volatiles on bacteria varied between no effects, growth inhibition to growth promotion depending on the volatile blend composition. In total 35 volatile compounds were detected most of which were sulfur-containing compounds. Two commonly produced sulfur-containing volatile compounds (dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide) were tested for their effect on three target bacteria. Here, we display the importance of inter-specific interactions on bacterial volatiles production and their antimicrobial activities. PMID:26733959

  9. Elucidating Duramycin's Bacterial Selectivity and Mode of Action on the Bacterial Cell Envelope.

    PubMed

    Hasim, Sahar; Allison, David P; Mendez, Berlin; Farmer, Abigail T; Pelletier, Dale A; Retterer, Scott T; Campagna, Shawn R; Reynolds, Todd B; Doktycz, Mitchel J

    2018-01-01

    The use of naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides provides a promising route to selectively target pathogenic agents and to shape microbiome structure. Lantibiotics, such as duramycin, are one class of bacterially produced peptidic natural products that can selectively inhibit the growth of other bacteria. However, despite longstanding characterization efforts, the microbial selectivity and mode of action of duramycin are still obscure. We describe here a suite of biological, chemical, and physical characterizations that shed new light on the selective and mechanistic aspects of duramycin activity. Bacterial screening assays have been performed using duramycin and Populus -derived bacterial isolates to determine species selectivity. Lipidomic profiles of selected resistant and sensitive strains show that the sensitivity of Gram-positive bacteria depends on the presence of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) in the cell membrane. Further the surface and interface morphology were studied by high resolution atomic force microscopy and showed a progression of cellular changes in the cell envelope after treatment with duramycin for the susceptible bacterial strains. Together, these molecular and cellular level analyses provide insight into duramycin's mode of action and a better understanding of its selectivity.

  10. Vulvovaginal symptoms in women with bacterial vaginosis.

    PubMed

    Klebanoff, Mark A; Schwebke, Jane R; Zhang, Jun; Nansel, Tonja R; Yu, Kai-Fun; Andrews, William W

    2004-08-01

    A substantial, but highly variable, percentage of women with bacterial vaginosis are said to be asymptomatic. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of symptoms among women with bacterial vaginosis compared with women without bacterial vaginosis by direct, explicit, and detailed questioning of these women. Women presenting for a routine health care visit at 12 health department clinics in Birmingham, Alabama, were recruited to participate in a longitudinal study of vaginal flora. At the first visit, they underwent a pelvic examination, lower genital tract microbiological evaluation, and an interview that included detailed questions regarding lower genital tract symptoms. The prevalence of symptoms among women with and without bacterial vaginosis (Gram stain score 7 or higher) was compared. Among 2,888 women without gonorrhea, Chlamydia, or trichomonas, 75% of women with and 82% of women without bacterial vaginosis never noted any vaginal odor in the past 6 months (P <.001). The corresponding values were 63% and 65% for never noting vaginal "wetness" (P =.02); 58% and 57% for vaginal discharge (P =.65); 91% and 86% for irritation (P =.004); 88% and 85% for itching (P =.64); and 96% and 94% for dysuria (P =.002), respectively. Cumulatively, 58% of women with bacterial vaginosis noted odor, discharge, and/or wetness in the past 6 months compared with 57% of women without bacterial vaginosis (P =.70). The 2 classic symptoms of bacterial vaginosis discharge and odor are each reported by a minority of women with bacterial vaginosis and are only slightly more prevalent than among women without bacterial vaginosis.

  11. Viral-bacterial associations in acute apical abscesses.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Dennis C; Rôças, Isabela N; Paiva, Simone S M; Carmo, Flávia L; Cavalcante, Fernanda S; Rosado, Alexandre S; Santos, Kátia R N; Siqueira, José F

    2011-08-01

    Viral-bacterial and bacterial synergism have been suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of several human diseases. This study sought to investigate the possible associations between 9 candidate endodontic bacterial pathogens and 9 human viruses in samples from acute apical abscesses. DNA extracts from purulent exudate aspirates of 33 cases of acute apical abscess were surveyed for the presence of 9 selected bacterial species using a 16S ribosomal RNA gene-based nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach. Single or nested PCR assays were used for detection of the human papillomavirus (HPV) and herpesviruses types 1 to 8. Two-thirds of the abscess samples were positive for at least one of the target viruses. Specifically, the most frequently detected viruses were HHV-8 (54.5%); HPV (9%); and varicella zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and HHV-6 (6%). Bacterial DNA was present in all cases and the most prevalent bacterial species were Treponema denticola (70%), Tannerella forsythia (67%), Porphyromonas endodontalis (67%), Dialister invisus (61%), and Dialister pneumosintes (57.5%). HHV-8 was positively associated with 7 of the target bacterial species and HPV with 4, but all these associations were weak. Several bacterial pairs showed a moderate positive association. Viral coinfection was found in 6 abscess cases, but no significant viral association could be determined. Findings demonstrated that bacterial and viral DNA occurred concomitantly in two-thirds of the samples from endodontic abscesses. Although this may suggest a role for viruses in the etiology of apical abscesses, the possibility also exists that the presence of viruses in abscess samples is merely a consequence of the bacterially induced disease process. Further studies are necessary to clarify the role of these viral-bacterial interactions, if any, in the pathogenesis of acute apical abscesses. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. An evaluation of bacterial contamination of barriers used in periapical tissue regeneration: Part 1--Bacterial adherence.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Priya; Mickel, André K; Chogle, Sami; Sharma, Prem Nath; Han, Yiping W; Jones, Jefferson J

    2008-02-01

    To compare the adherence of Prevotella melaninogenica and Enterococcus faecalis to 3 guided tissue regeneration membranes: Atrisorb, Lambone, and OsseoQuest. It was hypothesized that OsseoQuest would show increased bacterial adherence compared to Lambone and Atrisorb. The barriers were suspended in trypticase soy broth containing an inoculum of either P melaninogenica or E faecalis. The samples were incubated under appropriate conditions for 6, 24, and 48 hours. Following incubation, each membrane was mixed in fresh media in a vortex machine to dislodge adherent bacteria. The vortexed media was quantitatively assessed using serial dilutions for viable cell count. E faecalis exhibited higher adherence compared to P melaninogenica with time. Of the membranes tested, Lambone displayed the least bacterial adherence. An analysis of the results indicated that bacterial adherence was time-dependent for all membranes. Membrane structure, chemical configuration, hydrophobicity, and bacterial cell surface structure were suggested as factors contributing to variance in bacterial adherence.

  13. High-Quality GaN Epilayers Achieved by Facet-Controlled Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth on Sputtered AlN/PSS Templates.

    PubMed

    He, Chenguang; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Kang; He, Longfei; Wu, Hualong; Liu, Ningyang; Zhang, Shan; Liu, Xiaoyan; Chen, Zhitao

    2017-12-13

    It is widely believed that the lack of high-quality GaN wafers severely hinders the progress in GaN-based devices, especially for defect-sensitive devices. Here, low-cost AlN buffer layers were sputtered on cone-shaped patterned sapphire substrates (PSSs) to obtain high-quality GaN epilayers. Without any mask or regrowth, facet-controlled epitaxial lateral overgrowth was realized by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The uniform coating of the sputtered AlN buffer layer and the optimized multiple modulation guaranteed high growth selectivity and uniformity of the GaN epilayer. As a result, an extremely smooth surface was achieved with an average roughness of 0.17 nm over 3 × 3 μm 2 . It was found that the sputtered AlN buffer layer could significantly suppress dislocations on the cones. Moreover, the optimized three-dimensional growth process could effectively promote dislocation bending. Therefore, the threading dislocation density (TDD) of the GaN epilayer was reduced to 4.6 × 10 7 cm -2 , which is about an order of magnitude lower than the case of two-step GaN on the PSS. In addition, contamination and crack in the light-emitting diode fabricated on the obtained GaN were also effectively suppressed by using the sputtered AlN buffer layer. All of these advantages led to a high output power of 116 mW at 500 mA with an emission wavelength of 375 nm. This simple, yet effective growth technique is believed to have great application prospects in high-performance TDD-sensitive optoelectronic and electronic devices.

  14. Traumatic brain injury causes an FK506-sensitive loss and an overgrowth of dendritic spines in rat forebrain.

    PubMed

    Campbell, John N; Register, David; Churn, Severn B

    2012-01-20

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes both an acute loss of tissue and a progressive injury through reactive processes such as excitotoxicity and inflammation. These processes may worsen neural dysfunction by altering neuronal circuitry beyond the focally-damaged tissue. One means of circuit alteration may involve dendritic spines, micron-sized protuberances of dendritic membrane that support most of the excitatory synapses in the brain. This study used a modified Golgi-Cox technique to track changes in spine density on the proximal dendrites of principal cells in rat forebrain regions. Spine density was assessed at 1 h, 24 h, and 1 week after a lateral fluid percussion TBI of moderate severity. At 1 h after TBI, no changes in spine density were observed in any of the brain regions examined. By 24 h after TBI, however, spine density had decreased in ipsilateral neocortex in layer II and III and dorsal dentate gyrus (dDG). This apparent loss of spines was prevented by a single, post-injury administration of the calcineurin inhibitor FK506. These results, together with those of a companion study, indicate an FK506-sensitive mechanism of dendritic spine loss in the TBI model. Furthermore, by 1 week after TBI, spine density had increased substantially above control levels, bilaterally in CA1 and CA3 and ipsilaterally in dDG. The apparent overgrowth of spines in CA1 is of particular interest, as it may explain previous reports of abnormal and potentially epileptogenic activity in this brain region.

  15. Arsenic uptake in bacterial calcite

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Catelani, Tiziano; Perito, Brunella; Bellucci, Francesco

    Bio-mediated processes for arsenic (As) uptake in calcite were investigated by means of X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Xray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) coupled with X-ray Fluorescence measurements. The environmental bacterial strain Bacillus licheniformis BD5, sampled at the Bullicame Hot Springs (Viterbo, Central Italy), was used to synthesize calcite from As-enriched growth media. Both liquid and solid cultures were applied to simulate planktonic and biofilm community environments, respectively. Bacterial calcite samples cultured in liquid media had an As enrichment factor (Kd) 50 times higher than that from solid media. The XRD analysis revealed an elongation of the crystal lattice along the cmore » axis (by 0.03Å) for biogenic calcite, which likely resulted from the substitution of larger arsenate for carbonate in the crystal. The XAS data also showed a clear difference in the oxidation state of sorbed As between bacterial and abiotic calcite. Abiotic chemical processes yielded predominantly As(V) uptake whereas bacterial precipitation processes led to the uptake of both As(III) and As(V). The presence of As(III) in bacterial calcite is proposed to result from subsequent reduction of arsenate to arsenite by bacterial activities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first experimental observation of the incorporation of As(III) in the calcite crystal lattice, revealing a critical role of biochemical processes for the As cycling in nature.« less

  16. Gut-liver axis in liver cirrhosis: How to manage leaky gut and endotoxemia

    PubMed Central

    Fukui, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    A “leaky gut” may be the cutting edge for the passage of toxins, antigens or bacteria into the body, and may play a pathogenic role in advanced liver cirrhosis and its complications. Plasma endotoxin levels have been admitted as a surrogate marker of bacterial translocation and close relations of endotoxemia to hyperdynamic circulation, portal hypertension, renal, cardiac, pulmonary and coagulation disturbances have been reported. Bacterial overgrowth, increased intestinal permeability, failure to inactivate endotoxin, activated innate immunity are all likely to play a role in the pathological states of bacterial translocation. Therapeutic approach by management of the gut-liver axis by antibiotics, probiotics, synbiotics, prebiotics and their combinations may improve the clinical course of cirrhotic patients. Special concern should be paid on anti-endotoxin treatment. Adequate management of the gut-liver axis may be effective for prevention of liver cirrhosis itself by inhibiting the progression of fibrosis. PMID:25848468

  17. Gamma-irradiated bacterial preparation having anti-tumor activity

    DOEpatents

    Vass, Arpad A.; Tyndall, Richard L.; Terzaghi-Howe, Peggy

    1999-01-01

    A bacterial preparation from Pseudomonas species isolated #15 ATCC 55638 that has been exposed to gamma radiation exhibits cytotoxicity that is specific for neoplastic carcinoma cells. A method for obtaining a bacterial preparation having antitumor activity consists of suspending a bacterial isolate in media and exposing the suspension to gamma radiation. A bacterial preparation of an aged culture of an amoeba-associated bacteria exhibits anti-reverse transcriptase activity. A method for obtaining a bacterial preparation having anti-reverse transcriptase activity from an amoeba-associated bacterial isolate grown to stationary phase is disclosed.

  18. Bacteriophages and Bacterial Plant Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Buttimer, Colin; McAuliffe, Olivia; Ross, R. P.; Hill, Colin; O’Mahony, Jim; Coffey, Aidan

    2017-01-01

    Losses in crop yields due to disease need to be reduced in order to meet increasing global food demands associated with growth in the human population. There is a well-recognized need to develop new environmentally friendly control strategies to combat bacterial crop disease. Current control measures involving the use of traditional chemicals or antibiotics are losing their efficacy due to the natural development of bacterial resistance to these agents. In addition, there is an increasing awareness that their use is environmentally unfriendly. Bacteriophages, the viruses of bacteria, have received increased research interest in recent years as a realistic environmentally friendly means of controlling bacterial diseases. Their use presents a viable control measure for a number of destructive bacterial crop diseases, with some phage-based products already becoming available on the market. Phage biocontrol possesses advantages over chemical controls in that tailor-made phage cocktails can be adapted to target specific disease-causing bacteria. Unlike chemical control measures, phage mixtures can be easily adapted for bacterial resistance which may develop over time. In this review, we will examine the progress and challenges for phage-based disease biocontrol in food crops. PMID:28163700

  19. Bacterial symbionts and natural products

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Jason M.; Clardy, Jon

    2011-01-01

    The study of bacterial symbionts of eukaryotic hosts has become a powerful discovery engine for chemistry. This highlight looks at four case studies that exemplify the range of chemistry and biology involved in these symbioses: a bacterial symbiont of a fungus and a marine invertebrate that produce compounds with significant anticancer activity, and bacterial symbionts of insects and nematodes that produce compounds that regulate multilateral symbioses. In the last ten years, a series of shocking revelations – the molecular equivalents of a reality TV show’s uncovering the true parents of a well known individual or a deeply hidden family secret – altered the study of genetically encoded small molecules, natural products for short. These revelations all involved natural products produced by bacterial symbionts, and while details differed, two main plot lines emerged: parentage, in which the real producers of well known natural products with medical potential were not the organisms from which they were originally discovered, and hidden relationships, in which bacterially produced small molecules turned out to be the unsuspected regulators of complex interactions. For chemists, these studies led to new molecules, new biosynthetic pathways, and an understanding of the biological functions these molecules fulfill. PMID:21594283

  20. Evolution of bacterial virulence.

    PubMed

    Diard, Médéric; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich

    2017-09-01

    Bacterial virulence is highly dynamic and context-dependent. For this reason, it is challenging to predict how molecular changes affect the growth of a pathogen in a host and its spread in host population. Two schools of thought have taken quite different directions to decipher the underlying principles of bacterial virulence. While molecular infection biology is focusing on the basic mechanisms of the pathogen-host interaction, evolution biology takes virulence as one of several parameters affecting pathogen spread in a host population. We review both approaches and discuss how they can complement each other in order to obtain a comprehensive understanding of bacterial virulence, its emergence, maintenance and evolution. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Endocarditis in adults with bacterial meningitis.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Marjolein J; Brouwer, Matthijs C; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2013-05-21

    Endocarditis may precede or complicate bacterial meningitis, but the incidence and impact of endocarditis in bacterial meningitis are unknown. We assessed the incidence and clinical characteristics of patients with meningitis and endocarditis from a nationwide cohort study of adults with community-acquired bacterial meningitis in the Netherlands from 2006 to 2012. Endocarditis was identified in 24 of 1025 episodes (2%) of bacterial meningitis. Cultures yielded Streptococcus pneumoniae in 13 patients, Staphylococcus aureus in 8 patients, and Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Streptococcus salivarius in 1 patient each. Clues leading to the diagnosis of endocarditis were cardiac murmurs, persistent or recurrent fever, a history of heart valve disease, and S aureus as the causative pathogen of bacterial meningitis. Treatment consisted of prolonged antibiotic therapy in all patients and surgical valve replacement in 10 patients (42%). Two patients were treated with oral anticoagulants, and both developed life-threatening intracerebral hemorrhage. Systemic (70%) and neurological (54%) complications occurred frequently, leading to a high proportion of patients with unfavorable outcome (63%). Seven of 24 patients (29%) with meningitis and endocarditis died. Endocarditis is an uncommon coexisting condition in bacterial meningitis but is associated with a high rate of unfavorable outcome.

  2. Phenotypic Signatures Arising from Unbalanced Bacterial Growth

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Cheemeng; Smith, Robert Phillip; Tsai, Ming-Chi; Schwartz, Russell; You, Lingchong

    2014-01-01

    Fluctuations in the growth rate of a bacterial culture during unbalanced growth are generally considered undesirable in quantitative studies of bacterial physiology. Under well-controlled experimental conditions, however, these fluctuations are not random but instead reflect the interplay between intra-cellular networks underlying bacterial growth and the growth environment. Therefore, these fluctuations could be considered quantitative phenotypes of the bacteria under a specific growth condition. Here, we present a method to identify “phenotypic signatures” by time-frequency analysis of unbalanced growth curves measured with high temporal resolution. The signatures are then applied to differentiate amongst different bacterial strains or the same strain under different growth conditions, and to identify the essential architecture of the gene network underlying the observed growth dynamics. Our method has implications for both basic understanding of bacterial physiology and for the classification of bacterial strains. PMID:25101949

  3. Phenotypic signatures arising from unbalanced bacterial growth.

    PubMed

    Tan, Cheemeng; Smith, Robert Phillip; Tsai, Ming-Chi; Schwartz, Russell; You, Lingchong

    2014-08-01

    Fluctuations in the growth rate of a bacterial culture during unbalanced growth are generally considered undesirable in quantitative studies of bacterial physiology. Under well-controlled experimental conditions, however, these fluctuations are not random but instead reflect the interplay between intra-cellular networks underlying bacterial growth and the growth environment. Therefore, these fluctuations could be considered quantitative phenotypes of the bacteria under a specific growth condition. Here, we present a method to identify "phenotypic signatures" by time-frequency analysis of unbalanced growth curves measured with high temporal resolution. The signatures are then applied to differentiate amongst different bacterial strains or the same strain under different growth conditions, and to identify the essential architecture of the gene network underlying the observed growth dynamics. Our method has implications for both basic understanding of bacterial physiology and for the classification of bacterial strains.

  4. Modeling Intraocular Bacterial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Astley, Roger A.; Coburn, Phillip S.; Parkunan, Salai Madhumathi; Callegan, Michelle C.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial endophthalmitis is an infection and inflammation of the posterior segment of the eye which can result in significant loss of visual acuity. Even with prompt antibiotic, anti-inflammatory and surgical intervention, vision and even the eye itself may be lost. For the past century, experimental animal models have been used to examine various aspects of the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of bacterial endophthalmitis, to further the development of anti-inflammatory treatment strategies, and to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and efficacies of antibiotics. Experimental models allow independent control of many parameters of infection and facilitate systematic examination of infection outcomes. While no single animal model perfectly reproduces the human pathology of bacterial endophthalmitis, investigators have successfully used these models to understand the infectious process and the host response, and have provided new information regarding therapeutic options for the treatment of bacterial endophthalmitis. This review highlights experimental animal models of endophthalmitis and correlates this information with the clinical setting. The goal is to identify knowledge gaps that may be addressed in future experimental and clinical studies focused on improvements in the therapeutic preservation of vision during and after this disease. PMID:27154427

  5. [The composition of the gastrointestinal bacterial flora of mouse embryos and the placenta tissue bacterial flora].

    PubMed

    Lei, D; Lin, Y; Jiang, X; Lan, L; Zhang, W; Wang, B X

    2017-03-02

    Objective: To explore the composition of the gastrointestinal bacterial flora of mouse embryos and the placenta tissue bacterial flora. Method: Twenty-four specimens were collected from pregnant Kunming mouse including 8 mice of early embryonic (12-13 days) gastrointestinal tissues, 8 cases of late embryonic (19-20 days)gastrointestinal tissues, 8 of late pregnancy placental tissues.The 24 samples were extracted by DNeasy Blood & Tissue kit for high-throughput DNA sequencing. Result: The level of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actino-bacteria and Firmicutes were predominantin all specimens.The relative content of predominant bacterial phyla in each group: Proteobacteria (95.00%, 88.14%, 87.26%), Bacteroidetes(1.71%, 2.15%, 2.63%), Actino-Bacteria(1.16%, 4.10%, 3.38%), Firmicutes(0.75%, 2.62%, 2.01%). At the level of family, there were nine predominant bacterial families in which Enterobacteriaeae , Shewanel laceae and Moraxellaceae were dominant.The relative content of dominant bacterial family in eachgroup: Enterobacteriaeae (46.99%, 44.34%, 41.08%), Shewanellaceae (21.99%, 21.10%, 19.05%), Moraxellaceae (9.18%, 7.09%, 5.64%). From the species of flora, the flora from fetal gastrointestinal in early pregnancy and late pregnancy (65.44% and 62.73%) were the same as that from placenta tissue in the late pregnancy.From the abundance of bacteria, at the level of family, the same content of bacteria in three groups accounted for 78.16%, 72.53% and 65.78% respectively. Conclusion: It was proved that the gastrointestinal bacterial flora of mouse embryos and the placenta tissue bacterial flora were colonized. At the same time the bacteria are classified.

  6. Gamma-irradiated bacterial preparation having anti-tumor activity

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Vass, A.A.; Tyndall, R.L.; Terzaghi-Howe, P.

    1999-11-16

    This application describes a bacterial preparation from Pseudomonas species isolated {number{underscore}sign}15 ATCC 55638 that has been exposed to gamma radiation exhibits cytotoxicity that is specific for neoplastic carcinoma cells. A method for obtaining a bacterial preparation having antitumor activity consists of suspending a bacterial isolate in media and exposing the suspension to gamma radiation. A bacterial preparation of an aged culture of an amoeba-associated bacteria exhibits anti-reverse transcriptase activity. A method for obtaining a bacterial preparation having anti-reverse transcriptase activity from an amoeba-associated bacterial isolate grown to stationary phase is disclosed.

  7. Plant growth-promoting bacterial endophytes.

    PubMed

    Santoyo, Gustavo; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel; Orozco-Mosqueda, Ma del Carmen; Glick, Bernard R

    2016-02-01

    Bacterial endophytes ubiquitously colonize the internal tissues of plants, being found in nearly every plant worldwide. Some endophytes are able to promote the growth of plants. For those strains the mechanisms of plant growth-promotion known to be employed by bacterial endophytes are similar to the mechanisms used by rhizospheric bacteria, e.g., the acquisition of resources needed for plant growth and modulation of plant growth and development. Similar to rhizospheric plant growth-promoting bacteria, endophytic plant growth-promoting bacteria can act to facilitate plant growth in agriculture, horticulture and silviculture as well as in strategies for environmental cleanup (i.e., phytoremediation). Genome comparisons between bacterial endophytes and the genomes of rhizospheric plant growth-promoting bacteria are starting to unveil potential genetic factors involved in an endophytic lifestyle, which should facilitate a better understanding of the functioning of bacterial endophytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. [Bacterial vaginosis].

    PubMed

    Romero Herrero, Daniel; Andreu Domingo, Antonia

    2016-07-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the main cause of vaginal dysbacteriosis in the women during the reproductive age. It is an entity in which many studies have focused for years and which is still open for discussion topics. This is due to the diversity of microorganisms that cause it and therefore, its difficult treatment. Bacterial vaginosis is probably the result of vaginal colonization by complex bacterial communities, many of them non-cultivable and with interdependent metabolism where anaerobic populations most likely play an important role in its pathogenesis. The main symptoms are an increase of vaginal discharge and the unpleasant smell of it. It can lead to serious consequences for women, such as an increased risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections including human immunodeficiency virus and upper genital tract and pregnancy complications. Gram stain is the gold standard for microbiological diagnosis of BV, but can also be diagnosed using the Amsel clinical criteria. It should not be considered a sexually transmitted disease but it is highly related to sex. Recurrence is the main problem of medical treatment. Apart from BV, there are other dysbacteriosis less characterized like aerobic vaginitis of which further studies are coming slowly but are achieving more attention and consensus among specialists. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Advances in Bacterial Methionine Aminopeptidase Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Helgren, Travis R.; Wangtrakuldee, Phumvadee; Staker, Bart L.; Hagen, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    Methionine aminopeptidases (MetAPs) are metalloenzymes that cleave the N-terminal methionine from newly synthesized peptides and proteins. These MetAP enzymes are present in bacteria, and knockout experiments have shown that MetAP activity is essential for cell life, suggesting that MetAPs are good antibacterial drug targets. MetAP enzymes are also present in the human host and selectivity is essential. There have been significant structural biology efforts and over 65 protein crystal structures of bacterial MetAPs are deposited into the PDB. This review highlights the available crystallographic data for bacterial MetAPs. Structural comparison of bacterial MetAPs with human MetAPs highlights differences that can lead to selectivity. In addition, this review includes the chemical diversity of molecules that bind and inhibit the bacterial MetAP enzymes. Analysis of the structural biology and chemical space of known bacterial MetAP inhibitors leads to a greater understanding of this antibacterial target and the likely development of potential antibacterial agents. PMID:26268344

  10. [Bacterial translocation: gap in the shield].

    PubMed

    Rosero, Olivér; Kovács, Tibor; Onody, Péter; Harsányi, László; Szijártó, Attila

    2014-02-23

    The gastrointestinal tract is not only regarded as a system where nutrient absorption takes place, but also as a vital barrier against intraluminal pathogens entering the circulation and the maintenance of immune homeostasis. Bacterial translocation is defined as the penetration of viable bacteria or bacterial compounds from the gastrointestinal tract to extraintestinal sites. This disorder has been described in several clinical conditions. The main promoting factors for bacterial translocation have been proposed to be changes in the intestinal microflora, mucosal barrier failure and defects in host immunity. The presence of bacterial translocation has been associated with higher complications and mortality rates; therefore it should be taken into account in the therapeutic strategies of patients with predisposing factors.

  11. Host Biomarkers for Distinguishing Bacterial from Non-Bacterial Causes of Acute Febrile Illness: A Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Kapasi, Anokhi J.; Dittrich, Sabine; González, Iveth J.; Rodwell, Timothy C.

    2016-01-01

    Background In resource limited settings acute febrile illnesses are often treated empirically due to a lack of reliable, rapid point-of-care diagnostics. This contributes to the indiscriminate use of antimicrobial drugs and poor treatment outcomes. The aim of this comprehensive review was to summarize the diagnostic performance of host biomarkers capable of differentiating bacterial from non-bacterial infections to guide the use of antibiotics. Methods Online databases of published literature were searched from January 2010 through April 2015. English language studies that evaluated the performance of one or more host biomarker in differentiating bacterial from non-bacterial infection in patients were included. Key information extracted included author information, study methods, population, pathogens, clinical information, and biomarker performance data. Study quality was assessed using a combination of validated criteria from the QUADAS and Lijmer checklists. Biomarkers were categorized as hematologic factors, inflammatory molecules, cytokines, cell surface or metabolic markers, other host biomarkers, host transcripts, clinical biometrics, and combinations of markers. Findings Of the 193 citations identified, 59 studies that evaluated over 112 host biomarkers were selected. Most studies involved patient populations from high-income countries, while 19% involved populations from low- and middle-income countries. The most frequently evaluated host biomarkers were C-reactive protein (61%), white blood cell count (44%) and procalcitonin (34%). Study quality scores ranged from 23.1% to 92.3%. There were 9 high performance host biomarkers or combinations, with sensitivity and specificity of ≥85% or either sensitivity or specificity was reported to be 100%. Five host biomarkers were considered weak markers as they lacked statistically significant performance in discriminating between bacterial and non-bacterial infections. Discussion This manuscript provides a summary

  12. The intrinsic resistome of bacterial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Olivares, Jorge; Bernardini, Alejandra; Garcia-Leon, Guillermo; Corona, Fernando; B. Sanchez, Maria; Martinez, Jose L.

    2013-01-01

    Intrinsically resistant bacteria have emerged as a relevant health problem in the last years. Those bacterial species, several of them with an environmental origin, present naturally low-level susceptibility to several drugs. It has been proposed that intrinsic resistance is mainly the consequence of the impermeability of cellular envelopes, the activity of multidrug efflux pumps or the lack of appropriate targets for a given family of drugs. However, recently published articles indicate that the characteristic phenotype of susceptibility to antibiotics of a given bacterial species depends on the concerted activity of several elements, what has been named as intrinsic resistome. These determinants comprise not just classical resistance genes. Other elements, several of them involved in basic bacterial metabolic processes, are of relevance for the intrinsic resistance of bacterial pathogens. In the present review we analyze recent publications on the intrinsic resistomes of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We present as well information on the role that global regulators of bacterial metabolism, as Crc from P. aeruginosa, may have on modulating bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics. Finally, we discuss the possibility of searching inhibitors of the intrinsic resistome in the aim of improving the activity of drugs currently in use for clinical practice. PMID:23641241

  13. The intrinsic resistome of bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Jorge; Bernardini, Alejandra; Garcia-Leon, Guillermo; Corona, Fernando; B Sanchez, Maria; Martinez, Jose L

    2013-01-01

    Intrinsically resistant bacteria have emerged as a relevant health problem in the last years. Those bacterial species, several of them with an environmental origin, present naturally low-level susceptibility to several drugs. It has been proposed that intrinsic resistance is mainly the consequence of the impermeability of cellular envelopes, the activity of multidrug efflux pumps or the lack of appropriate targets for a given family of drugs. However, recently published articles indicate that the characteristic phenotype of susceptibility to antibiotics of a given bacterial species depends on the concerted activity of several elements, what has been named as intrinsic resistome. These determinants comprise not just classical resistance genes. Other elements, several of them involved in basic bacterial metabolic processes, are of relevance for the intrinsic resistance of bacterial pathogens. In the present review we analyze recent publications on the intrinsic resistomes of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We present as well information on the role that global regulators of bacterial metabolism, as Crc from P. aeruginosa, may have on modulating bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics. Finally, we discuss the possibility of searching inhibitors of the intrinsic resistome in the aim of improving the activity of drugs currently in use for clinical practice.

  14. Statistical analysis of the Bacterial Carbohydrate Structure Data Base (BCSDB): Characteristics and diversity of bacterial carbohydrates in comparison with mammalian glycans

    PubMed Central

    Herget, Stephan; Toukach, Philip V; Ranzinger, René; Hull, William E; Knirel, Yuriy A; von der Lieth, Claus-Wilhelm

    2008-01-01

    Background There are considerable differences between bacterial and mammalian glycans. In contrast to most eukaryotic carbohydrates, bacterial glycans are often composed of repeating units with diverse functions ranging from structural reinforcement to adhesion, colonization and camouflage. Since bacterial glycans are typically displayed at the cell surface, they can interact with the environment and, therefore, have significant biomedical importance. Results The sequence characteristics of glycans (monosaccharide composition, modifications, and linkage patterns) for the higher bacterial taxonomic classes have been examined and compared with the data for mammals, with both similarities and unique features becoming evident. Compared to mammalian glycans, the bacterial glycans deposited in the current databases have a more than ten-fold greater diversity at the monosaccharide level, and the disaccharide pattern space is approximately nine times larger. Specific bacterial subclasses exhibit characteristic glycans which can be distinguished on the basis of distinctive structural features or sequence properties. Conclusion For the first time a systematic database analysis of the bacterial glycome has been performed. This study summarizes the current knowledge of bacterial glycan architecture and diversity and reveals putative targets for the rational design and development of therapeutic intervention strategies by comparing bacterial and mammalian glycans. PMID:18694500

  15. The quest for bacterial allergens.

    PubMed

    Nordengrün, Maria; Michalik, Stephan; Völker, Uwe; Bröker, Barbara M; Gómez-Gascón, Lidia

    2018-04-26

    Allergies are complex diseases featuring local tissue inflammation, which is characterized by an exaggerated type 2 immune response to environmental compounds known as allergens. Pollens, environmental fungi, and house dust mites are examples of common allergens. Bacteria have a dual role in allergy. Usually, they are associated with protection, however, certain bacterial species promote the development and exacerbation of allergic inflammation. Notably, IgE antibodies specific for bacterial antigens are found in the sera of allergic individuals. This implies that some bacterial factors are allergens, eliciting a specific type 2 immune response. However, to date, only a few of these are molecularly defined. This review summarizes the current knowledge about known bacterial allergens, and it provides an overview of the available techniques for the discovery of new allergens as well as for measuring the immune responses directed against them. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterisation of the gill mucosal bacterial communities of four butterflyfish species: a reservoir of bacterial diversity in coral reef ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Reverter, Miriam; Sasal, Pierre; Tapissier-Bontemps, N; Lecchini, D; Suzuki, M

    2017-06-01

    While recent studies have suggested that fish mucus microbiota play an important role in homeostasis and prevention of infections, very few studies have investigated the bacterial communities of gill mucus. We characterised the gill mucus bacterial communities of four butterflyfish species and although the bacterial diversity of gill mucus varied significantly between species, Shannon diversities were high (H = 3.7-5.7) in all species. Microbiota composition differed between butterflyfishes, with Chaetodon lunulatus and C. ornatissimus having the most similar bacterial communities, which differed significantly from C. vagabundus and C. reticulatus. The core bacterial community of all species consisted of mainly Proteobacteria followed by Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. Chaetodonlunulatus and C. ornatissimus bacterial communities were mostly dominated by Gammaproteobacteria with Vibrio as the most abundant genus. Chaetodonvagabundus and C. reticulatus presented similar abundances of Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria, which were well represented by Acinetobacter and Paracoccus, respectively. In conclusion, our results indicate that different fish species present specific bacterial assemblages. Finally, as mucus layers are nutrient hotspots for heterotrophic bacteria living in oligotrophic environments, such as coral reef waters, the high bacterial diversity found in butterflyfish gill mucus might indicate external fish mucus surfaces act as a reservoir of coral reef bacterial diversity. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Mechanical Homogenization Increases Bacterial Homogeneity in Sputum

    PubMed Central

    Stokell, Joshua R.; Khan, Ammad

    2014-01-01

    Sputum obtained from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is highly viscous and often heterogeneous in bacterial distribution. Adding dithiothreitol (DTT) is the standard method for liquefaction prior to processing sputum for molecular detection assays. To determine if DTT treatment homogenizes the bacterial distribution within sputum, we measured the difference in mean total bacterial abundance and abundance of Burkholderia multivorans between aliquots of DTT-treated sputum samples with and without a mechanical homogenization (MH) step using a high-speed dispersing element. Additionally, we measured the effect of MH on bacterial abundance. We found a significant difference between the mean bacterial abundances in aliquots that were subjected to only DTT treatment and those of the aliquots which included an MH step (all bacteria, P = 0.04; B. multivorans, P = 0.05). There was no significant effect of MH on bacterial abundance in sputum. Although our results are from a single CF patient, they indicate that mechanical homogenization increases the homogeneity of bacteria in sputum. PMID:24759710

  18. Phase 2a study assessing colonization efficiency, safety, and acceptability of Lactobacillus crispatus CTV-05 in women with bacterial vaginosis.

    PubMed

    Hemmerling, Anke; Harrison, William; Schroeder, Adrienne; Park, Jeanna; Korn, Abner; Shiboski, Stephen; Foster-Rosales, Anne; Cohen, Craig R

    2010-12-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common vaginal infection caused by a lack of endogenous lactobacilli and overgrowth of pathogens that frequently recurs following antibiotic treatment. A phase 2a study assessed colonization efficiency, safety, tolerability, and acceptability of Lactobacillus crispatus CTV-05 (LACTIN-V) administered by a vaginal applicator. Twenty-four women with BV were randomized in a 3:1 ratio of active product to placebo. Participants used LACTIN-V at 2 × 10 colony-forming units (cfu)/dose or placebo for 5 initial consecutive days, followed by a weekly application over 2 weeks. They returned for follow-up on Days 10 and 28. Sixty-one percent of the 18 women randomized to the LACTIN-V group were colonized with L. crispatus CTV-05 at Day 10 or Day 28. Among LACTIN-V users with complete adherence to the study regimen, 78% were colonized at Day 10 or Day 28. Of the 120 adverse events (AEs) that occurred, 108 (90%) and 12 (10%) were of mild and moderate severity, respectively. AEs were evenly distributed between the LACTIN-V and placebo group. Of the total AEs, 93 (78%) were genitourinary in origin. The most common genitourinary AEs included vaginal discharge (46%), abdominal pain (46%), dysuria (21%), pollakiuria (21%), vaginal odor (21%), and genital pruritus (17%). No grade 3 or 4 AEs or serious AEs occurred and no deep epithelial disruption was seen during colposcopic evaluation. The product was well tolerated and accepted. LACTIN-V colonized well, and was safe and acceptable in women treated for BV.

  19. Myc-driven overgrowth requires unfolded protein response-mediated induction of autophagy and antioxidant responses in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Péter; Varga, Agnes; Pircs, Karolina; Hegedűs, Krisztina; Juhász, Gábor

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy, a lysosomal self-degradation and recycling pathway, plays dual roles in tumorigenesis. Autophagy deficiency predisposes to cancer, at least in part, through accumulation of the selective autophagy cargo p62, leading to activation of antioxidant responses and tumor formation. While cell growth and autophagy are inversely regulated in most cells, elevated levels of autophagy are observed in many established tumors, presumably mediating survival of cancer cells. Still, the relationship of autophagy and oncogenic signaling is poorly characterized. Here we show that the evolutionarily conserved transcription factor Myc (dm), a proto-oncogene involved in cell growth and proliferation, is also a physiological regulator of autophagy in Drosophila melanogaster. Loss of Myc activity in null mutants or in somatic clones of cells inhibits autophagy. Forced expression of Myc results in cell-autonomous increases in cell growth, autophagy induction, and p62 (Ref2P)-mediated activation of Nrf2 (cnc), a transcription factor promoting antioxidant responses. Mechanistically, Myc overexpression increases unfolded protein response (UPR), which leads to PERK-dependent autophagy induction and may be responsible for p62 accumulation. Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of UPR, autophagy or p62/Nrf2 signaling prevents Myc-induced overgrowth, while these pathways are dispensable for proper growth of control cells. In addition, we show that the autophagy and antioxidant pathways are required in parallel for excess cell growth driven by Myc. Deregulated expression of Myc drives tumor progression in most human cancers, and UPR and autophagy have been implicated in the survival of Myc-dependent cancer cells. Our data obtained in a complete animal show that UPR, autophagy and p62/Nrf2 signaling are required for Myc-dependent cell growth. These novel results give additional support for finding future approaches to specifically inhibit the growth of cancer cells addicted to oncogenic

  20. Temperate bacterial viruses as double-edged swords in bacterial warfare.

    PubMed

    Gama, João Alves; Reis, Ana Maria; Domingues, Iolanda; Mendes-Soares, Helena; Matos, Ana Margarida; Dionisio, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    It has been argued that bacterial cells may use their temperate viruses as biological weapons. For instance, a few bacterial cells among a population of lysogenic cells could release the virus and kill susceptible non-lysogenic competitors, while their clone mates would be immune. Because viruses replicate inside their victims upon infection, this process would amplify their number in the arena. Sometimes, however, temperate viruses spare recipient cells from death by establishing themselves in a dormant state inside cells. This phenomenon is called lysogenization and, for some viruses such as the λ virus, the probability of lysogenization increases with the multiplicity of infection. Therefore, the amplification of viruses leads to conflicting predictions about the efficacy of temperate viruses as biological weapons: amplification can increase the relative advantage of clone mates of lysogens but also the likelihood of saving susceptible cells from death, because the probability of lysogenization is higher. To test the usefulness of viruses as biological weapons, we performed competition experiments between lysogenic Escherichia coli cells carrying the λ virus and susceptible λ-free E. coli cells, either in a structured or unstructured habitat. In structured and sometimes in unstructured habitats, the λ virus qualitatively behaved as a "replicating toxin". However, such toxic effect of λ viruses ceased after a few days of competition. This was due to the fact that many of initially susceptible cells became lysogenic. Massive lysogenization of susceptible cells occurred precisely under the conditions where the amplification of the virus was substantial. From then on, these cells and their descendants became immune to the λ virus. In conclusion, if at short term bacterial cells may use temperate viruses as biological weapons, after a few days only the classical view of temperate bacterial viruses as parasitic agents prevails.

  1. Temperate Bacterial Viruses as Double-Edged Swords in Bacterial Warfare

    PubMed Central

    Gama, João Alves; Reis, Ana Maria; Domingues, Iolanda; Mendes-Soares, Helena; Matos, Ana Margarida; Dionisio, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    It has been argued that bacterial cells may use their temperate viruses as biological weapons. For instance, a few bacterial cells among a population of lysogenic cells could release the virus and kill susceptible non-lysogenic competitors, while their clone mates would be immune. Because viruses replicate inside their victims upon infection, this process would amplify their number in the arena. Sometimes, however, temperate viruses spare recipient cells from death by establishing themselves in a dormant state inside cells. This phenomenon is called lysogenization and, for some viruses such as the λ virus, the probability of lysogenization increases with the multiplicity of infection. Therefore, the amplification of viruses leads to conflicting predictions about the efficacy of temperate viruses as biological weapons: amplification can increase the relative advantage of clone mates of lysogens but also the likelihood of saving susceptible cells from death, because the probability of lysogenization is higher. To test the usefulness of viruses as biological weapons, we performed competition experiments between lysogenic Escherichia coli cells carrying the λ virus and susceptible λ-free E. coli cells, either in a structured or unstructured habitat. In structured and sometimes in unstructured habitats, the λ virus qualitatively behaved as a “replicating toxin”. However, such toxic effect of λ viruses ceased after a few days of competition. This was due to the fact that many of initially susceptible cells became lysogenic. Massive lysogenization of susceptible cells occurred precisely under the conditions where the amplification of the virus was substantial. From then on, these cells and their descendants became immune to the λ virus. In conclusion, if at short term bacterial cells may use temperate viruses as biological weapons, after a few days only the classical view of temperate bacterial viruses as parasitic agents prevails. PMID:23536852

  2. Steroids in bacterial meningitis: yes.

    PubMed

    Benninger, Felix; Steiner, Israel

    2013-02-01

    Bacterial meningitis is an infectious condition associated with severe morbidity and mortality, even with rapid diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic therapy. Despite decrease in the rate of bacterial meningitis brought about by vaccination programs against Haemophilus influenzae type-B and Streptococcus pneumonia, the incidence of meningitis is still unacceptably high and acute treatment remains the mainstay of therapy. The infection is accompanied by intense inflammatory response, which may carry deleterious effects upon the tissue. This led to the possibility of adjuvant corticosteroid therapy, as an anti-inflammatory agent, in bacterial meningitis. The debate focuses on the rational and evidence supporting and refuting such an approach.

  3. Bacterial disease management: challenges, experience, innovation and future prospects: Challenges in Bacterial Molecular Plant Pathology.

    PubMed

    Sundin, George W; Castiblanco, Luisa F; Yuan, Xiaochen; Zeng, Quan; Yang, Ching-Hong

    2016-12-01

    Plant diseases caused by bacterial pathogens place major constraints on crop production and cause significant annual losses on a global scale. The attainment of consistent effective management of these diseases can be extremely difficult, and management potential is often affected by grower reliance on highly disease-susceptible cultivars because of consumer preferences, and by environmental conditions favouring pathogen development. New and emerging bacterial disease problems (e.g. zebra chip of potato) and established problems in new geographical regions (e.g. bacterial canker of kiwifruit in New Zealand) grab the headlines, but the list of bacterial disease problems with few effective management options is long. The ever-increasing global human population requires the continued stable production of a safe food supply with greater yields because of the shrinking areas of arable land. One major facet in the maintenance of the sustainability of crop production systems with predictable yields involves the identification and deployment of sustainable disease management solutions for bacterial diseases. In addition, the identification of novel management tactics has also come to the fore because of the increasing evolution of resistance to existing bactericides. A number of central research foci, involving basic research to identify critical pathogen targets for control, novel methodologies and methods of delivery, are emerging that will provide a strong basis for bacterial disease management into the future. Near-term solutions are desperately needed. Are there replacement materials for existing bactericides that can provide effective disease management under field conditions? Experience should inform the future. With prior knowledge of bactericide resistance issues evolving in pathogens, how will this affect the deployment of newer compounds and biological controls? Knowledge is critical. A comprehensive understanding of bacterial pathosystems is required to not

  4. Electrical conductivity measurements of bacterial nanowires from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruthupandy, Muthusamy; Anand, Muthusamy; Maduraiveeran, Govindhan; Sait Hameedha Beevi, Akbar; Jeeva Priya, Radhakrishnan

    2015-12-01

    The extracellular appendages of bacteria (flagella) that transfer electrons to electrodes are called bacterial nanowires. This study focuses on the isolation and separation of nanowires that are attached via Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial culture. The size and roughness of separated nanowires were measured using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. The obtained bacterial nanowires indicated a clear image of bacterial nanowires measuring 16 nm in diameter. The formation of bacterial nanowires was confirmed by microscopic studies (AFM and TEM) and the conductivity nature of bacterial nanowire was investigated by electrochemical techniques. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), which are nondestructive voltammetry techniques, suggest that bacterial nanowires could be the source of electrons—which may be used in various applications, for example, microbial fuel cells, biosensors, organic solar cells, and bioelectronic devices. Routine analysis of electron transfer between bacterial nanowires and the electrode was performed, providing insight into the extracellular electron transfer (EET) to the electrode. CV revealed the catalytic electron transferability of bacterial nanowires and electrodes and showed excellent redox activities. CV and EIS studies showed that bacterial nanowires can charge the surface by producing and storing sufficient electrons, behave as a capacitor, and have features consistent with EET. Finally, electrochemical studies confirmed the development of bacterial nanowires with EET. This study suggests that bacterial nanowires can be used to fabricate biomolecular sensors and nanoelectronic devices.

  5. Rifaximin has minor effects on bacterial composition, inflammation, and bacterial translocation in cirrhosis: A randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Kimer, Nina; Pedersen, Julie S; Tavenier, Juliette; Christensen, Jeffrey E; Busk, Troels M; Hobolth, Lise; Krag, Aleksander; Al-Soud, Waleed Abu; Mortensen, Martin S; Sørensen, Søren J; Møller, Søren; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2018-01-01

    Decompensated cirrhosis is characterized by disturbed hemodynamics, immune dysfunction, and high risk of infections. Translocation of viable bacteria and bacterial products from the gut to the blood is considered a key driver in this process. Intestinal decontamination with rifaximin may reduce bacterial translocation (BT) and decrease inflammation. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial investigated the effects of rifaximin on inflammation and BT in decompensated cirrhosis. Fifty-four out-patients with cirrhosis and ascites were randomized, mean age 56 years (± 8.4), and model for end-stage liver disease score 12 (± 3.9). Patients received rifaximin 550-mg BD (n = 36) or placebo BD (n = 18). Blood and fecal (n = 15) sampling were conducted at baseline and after 4 weeks. Bacterial DNA in blood was determined by real-time qPCR 16S rRNA gene quantification. Bacterial composition in feces was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Circulating markers of inflammation, including tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukins 6, 10, and 18, stromal cell-derived factor 1-α, transforming growth factor β-1, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein, were unaltered by rifaximin treatment. Rifaximin altered abundance of bacterial taxa in blood marginally, only a decrease in Pseudomonadales was observed. In feces, rifaximin decreased bacterial richness, but effect on particular species was not observed. Subgroup analyses on patients with severely disturbed hemodynamics (n = 34) or activated lipopolysaccharide binding protein (n = 37) revealed no effect of rifaximin. Four weeks of treatment with rifaximin had no impact on the inflammatory state and only minor effects on BT and intestinal bacterial composition in stable, decompensated cirrhosis (NCT01769040). © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Bacterial Meningitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Links Vaccine Schedules Preteen & Teen Vaccines Meningococcal Disease Sepsis Bacterial Meningitis Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend ... can also be associated with another serious illness, sepsis . Sepsis is the body’s overwhelming and life-threatening ...

  7. Staphylococcus epidermidis in the human skin microbiome mediates fermentation to inhibit the growth of Propionibacterium acnes: Implications of probiotics in acne vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanhan; Kuo, Sherwin; Shu, Muya; Yu, Jinghua; Huang, Stephen; Dai, Ashley; Two, Aimee; Gallo, Richard L.; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence demonstrates that commensal microorganisms in the human skin microbiome help fight pathogens and maintain homeostasis of the microbiome. However, it is unclear how these microorganisms maintain biological balance when one of them overgrows. The overgrowth of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), a commensal skin bacterium, has been associated with the progression of acne vulgaris. Our results demonstrate that skin microorganisms can mediate fermentation of glycerol, which is naturally produced in skin, to enhance their inhibitory effects on P. acnes growth. The skin microorganisms, most of which have been identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), in the microbiome of human fingerprints can ferment glycerol and create inhibition zones to repel a colony of overgrown P. acnes. Succinic acid, one of four short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) detected in fermented media by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis, effectively inhibits the growth of P. acnes in vitro and in vivo. Both intralesional injection and topical application of succinic acid to P. acnes-induced lesions markedly suppress the P. acnes-induced inflammation in mice. We demonstrate for the first time that bacterial members in the skin microbiome can undergo fermentation to rein in the overgrowth of P. acnes. The concept of bacterial interference between P. acnes and S. epidermidis via fermentation can be applied to develop probiotics against acne vulgaris and other skin diseases. In addition, it will open up an entirely new area of study for the biological function of the skin microbiome in promoting human health. PMID:24265031

  8. Bacterial communities in floral nectar.

    PubMed

    Fridman, Svetlana; Izhaki, Ido; Gerchman, Yoram; Halpern, Malka

    2012-02-01

    Floral nectar is regarded as the most important reward available to animal-pollinated plants to attract pollinators. Despite the vast amount of publications on nectar properties, the role of nectar as a natural bacterial habitat is yet unexplored. To gain a better understanding of bacterial communities inhabiting floral nectar, culture-dependent and -independent (454-pyrosequencing) methods were used. Our findings demonstrate that bacterial communities in nectar are abundant and diverse. Using culture-dependent method we showed that bacterial communities of nectar displayed significant variation among three plant species: Amygdalus communis, Citrus paradisi and Nicotiana glauca. The dominant class in the nectar bacterial communities was Gammaproteobacteria. About half of the isolates were novel species (< 97% similarities of the 16S rRNA gene with known species). Using 454-pyrosequencing we demonstrated that nectar microbial community are distinct for each of the plant species while there are no significant differences between nectar microbial communities within nectars taken from different plants of the same species. Primary selection of the nectar bacteria is unclear; it may be affected by variations in the chemical composition of the nectar in each plant. The role of the rich and diverse nectar microflora in the attraction-repulsion relationships between the plant and its nectar consumers has yet to be explored. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Transcriptome landscape of a bacterial pathogen under plant immunity.

    PubMed

    Nobori, Tatsuya; Velásquez, André C; Wu, Jingni; Kvitko, Brian H; Kremer, James M; Wang, Yiming; He, Sheng Yang; Tsuda, Kenichi

    2018-03-27

    Plant pathogens can cause serious diseases that impact global agriculture. The plant innate immunity, when fully activated, can halt pathogen growth in plants. Despite extensive studies into the molecular and genetic bases of plant immunity against pathogens, the influence of plant immunity in global pathogen metabolism to restrict pathogen growth is poorly understood. Here, we developed RNA sequencing pipelines for analyzing bacterial transcriptomes in planta and determined high-resolution transcriptome patterns of the foliar bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis thaliana with a total of 27 combinations of plant immunity mutants and bacterial strains. Bacterial transcriptomes were analyzed at 6 h post infection to capture early effects of plant immunity on bacterial processes and to avoid secondary effects caused by different bacterial population densities in planta We identified specific "immune-responsive" bacterial genes and processes, including those that are activated in susceptible plants and suppressed by plant immune activation. Expression patterns of immune-responsive bacterial genes at the early time point were tightly linked to later bacterial growth levels in different host genotypes. Moreover, we found that a bacterial iron acquisition pathway is commonly suppressed by multiple plant immune-signaling pathways. Overexpression of a P. syringae sigma factor gene involved in iron regulation and other processes partially countered bacterial growth restriction during the plant immune response triggered by AvrRpt2. Collectively, this study defines the effects of plant immunity on the transcriptome of a bacterial pathogen and sheds light on the enigmatic mechanisms of bacterial growth inhibition during the plant immune response.

  10. Analysis of bacterial communities and bacterial pathogens in a biogas plant by the combination of ethidium monoazide, PCR and Ion Torrent sequencing.

    PubMed

    Luo, Gang; Angelidaki, Irini

    2014-09-01

    The present study investigated the changes of bacterial community composition including bacterial pathogens along a biogas plant, i.e. from the influent, to the biogas reactor and to the post-digester. The effects of post-digestion temperature and time on the changes of bacterial community composition and bacterial pathogens were also studied. Microbial analysis was made by Ion Torrent sequencing of the PCR amplicons from ethidium monoazide treated samples, and ethidium monoazide was used to cleave DNA from dead cells and exclude it from PCR amplification. Both similarity and taxonomic analysis showed that the bacterial community composition in the influent was changed after anaerobic digestion. Firmicutes were dominant in all the samples, while Proteobacteria decreased in the biogas reactor compared with the influent. Variations of bacterial community composition in the biogas reactor with time were also observed. This could be attributed to varying composition of the influent. Batch experiments showed that the methane recovery from the digested residues (obtained from biogas reactor) was mainly related with post-digestion temperature. However, post-digestion time rather than temperature had a significant effect on the changes of bacterial community composition. The changes of bacterial community composition were also reflected in the changes of relative abundance of bacterial pathogens. The richness and relative abundance of bacterial pathogens were reduced after anaerobic digestion in the biogas reactor. It was found in batch experiments that bacterial pathogens showed the highest relative abundance and richness after 30 days' post-digestion. Streptococcus bovis was found in all the samples. Our results showed that special attention should be paid to the post-digestion since the increase in relative abundance of bacterial pathogens after post-digestion might reflect regrowth of bacterial pathogens and limit biosolids disposal vectors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  11. Non-homogeneous flow profiles in sheared bacterial suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Devranjan; Cheng, Xiang

    Bacterial suspensions under shear exhibit interesting rheological behaviors including the remarkable ``superfluidic'' state with vanishing viscosity at low shear rates. Theoretical studies have shown that such ``superfluidic'' state is linked with non-homogeneous shear flows, which are induced by coupling between nematic order of active fluids and hydrodynamics of shear flows. However, although bulk rheology of bacterial suspensions has been experimentally studied, shear profiles within bacterial suspensions have not been explored so far. Here, we experimentally investigate the flow behaviors of E. coli suspensions under planar oscillatory shear. Using confocal microscopy and PIV, we measure velocity profiles across gap between two shear plates. We find that with increasing shear rates, high-concentration bacterial suspensions exhibit an array of non-homogeneous flow behaviors like yield-stress flows and shear banding. We show that these non-homogeneous flows are due to collective motion of bacterial suspensions. The phase diagram of sheared bacterial suspensions is systematically mapped as functions of shear rates an bacterial concentrations. Our experiments provide new insights into rheology of bacterial suspensions and shed light on shear induced dynamics of active fluids. Chemical Engineering and Material Science department.

  12. Bacterial reproductive pathogens of cats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Graham, Elizabeth M; Taylor, David J

    2012-05-01

    With the notable exception of Brucella canis, exogenous bacterial pathogens are uncommon causes of reproductive disease in cats and dogs. Most bacterial reproductive infections are endogenous, and predisposing factors for infection are important. This article reviews the etiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and public health significance of bacterial reproductive pathogens in cats and dogs.

  13. Role of quorum sensing in bacterial infections

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Juárez, Israel; Maeda, Toshinari; Mandujano-Tinoco, Edna Ayerim; Tomás, María; Pérez-Eretza, Berenice; García-Contreras, Silvia Julieta; Wood, Thomas K; García-Contreras, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is cell communication that is widely used by bacterial pathogens to coordinate the expression of several collective traits, including the production of multiple virulence factors, biofilm formation, and swarming motility once a population threshold is reached. Several lines of evidence indicate that QS enhances virulence of bacterial pathogens in animal models as well as in human infections; however, its relative importance for bacterial pathogenesis is still incomplete. In this review, we discuss the present evidence from in vitro and in vivo experiments in animal models, as well as from clinical studies, that link QS systems with human infections. We focus on two major QS bacterial models, the opportunistic Gram negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus, which are also two of the main agents responsible of nosocomial and wound infections. In addition, QS communication systems in other bacterial, eukaryotic pathogens, and even immune and cancer cells are also reviewed, and finally, the new approaches proposed to combat bacterial infections by the attenuation of their QS communication systems and virulence are also discussed. PMID:26244150

  14. Bacterial Community Succession in Pine-Wood Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Kielak, Anna M; Scheublin, Tanja R; Mendes, Lucas W; van Veen, Johannes A; Kuramae, Eiko E

    2016-01-01

    Though bacteria and fungi are common inhabitants of decaying wood, little is known about the relationship between bacterial and fungal community dynamics during natural wood decay. Based on previous studies involving inoculated wood blocks, strong fungal selection on bacteria abundance and community composition was expected to occur during natural wood decay. Here, we focused on bacterial and fungal community compositions in pine wood samples collected from dead trees in different stages of decomposition. We showed that bacterial communities undergo less drastic changes than fungal communities during wood decay. Furthermore, we found that bacterial community assembly was a stochastic process at initial stage of wood decay and became more deterministic in later stages, likely due to environmental factors. Moreover, composition of bacterial communities did not respond to the changes in the major fungal species present in the wood but rather to the stage of decay reflected by the wood density. We concluded that the shifts in the bacterial communities were a result of the changes in wood properties during decomposition and largely independent of the composition of the wood-decaying fungal communities.

  15. Bacterial Community Succession in Pine-Wood Decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Kielak, Anna M.; Scheublin, Tanja R.; Mendes, Lucas W.; van Veen, Johannes A.; Kuramae, Eiko E.

    2016-01-01

    Though bacteria and fungi are common inhabitants of decaying wood, little is known about the relationship between bacterial and fungal community dynamics during natural wood decay. Based on previous studies involving inoculated wood blocks, strong fungal selection on bacteria abundance and community composition was expected to occur during natural wood decay. Here, we focused on bacterial and fungal community compositions in pine wood samples collected from dead trees in different stages of decomposition. We showed that bacterial communities undergo less drastic changes than fungal communities during wood decay. Furthermore, we found that bacterial community assembly was a stochastic process at initial stage of wood decay and became more deterministic in later stages, likely due to environmental factors. Moreover, composition of bacterial communities did not respond to the changes in the major fungal species present in the wood but rather to the stage of decay reflected by the wood density. We concluded that the shifts in the bacterial communities were a result of the changes in wood properties during decomposition and largely independent of the composition of the wood-decaying fungal communities. PMID:26973611

  16. Corticosteroids for Bacterial Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Muthiah; Mascarenhas, Jeena; Rajaraman, Revathi; Ravindran, Meenakshi; Lalitha, Prajna; Glidden, David V.; Ray, Kathryn J.; Hong, Kevin C.; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Lee, Salena M.; Zegans, Michael E.; McLeod, Stephen D.; Lietman, Thomas M.; Acharya, Nisha R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether there is a benefit in clinical outcomes with the use of topical corticosteroids as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of bacterial corneal ulcers. Methods Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked, multicenter clinical trial comparing prednisolone sodium phosphate, 1.0%, to placebo as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of bacterial corneal ulcers. Eligible patients had a culture-positive bacterial corneal ulcer and received topical moxifloxacin for at least 48 hours before randomization. Main Outcome Measures The primary outcome was best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) at 3 months from enrollment. Secondary outcomes included infiltrate/scar size, reepithelialization, and corneal perforation. Results Between September 1, 2006, and February 22, 2010, 1769 patients were screened for the trial and 500 patients were enrolled. No significant difference was observed in the 3-month BSCVA (−0.009 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR]; 95% CI, −0.085 to 0.068; P = .82), infiltrate/scar size (P = .40), time to reepithelialization (P = .44), or corneal perforation (P > .99). A significant effect of corticosteroids was observed in subgroups of baseline BSCVA (P = .03) and ulcer location (P = .04). At 3 months, patients with vision of counting fingers or worse at baseline had 0.17 logMAR better visual acuity with corticosteroids (95% CI, −0.31 to −0.02; P = .03) compared with placebo, and patients with ulcers that were completely central at baseline had 0.20 logMAR better visual acuity with corticosteroids (−0.37 to −0.04; P = .02). Conclusions We found no overall difference in 3-month BSCVA and no safety concerns with adjunctive corticosteroid therapy for bacterial corneal ulcers. Application to Clinical Practice Adjunctive topical corticosteroid use does not improve 3-month vision in patients with bacterial corneal ulcers. PMID:21987582

  17. Diagnosis and treatment of bacterial prostatitis.

    PubMed

    Videčnik Zorman, Jerneja; Matičič, Mojca; Jeverica, Samo; Smrkolj, Tomaž

    2015-01-01

    Prostate inflammation is a common syndrome, especially in men under 50. It usually presents with voiding symptoms and pain in the genitourinary area, and sometimes as sexual dysfunction. Based on clinical and laboratory characteristics, prostatitis is classified as acute bacterial prostatitis, chronic bacterial prostatitis, chronic inflammatory and non-inflammatory prostatitis or chronic pelvic pain syndrome, and asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis. Bacterial prostatitis is most often caused by infection with uropathogens, mainly Gram-negative bacilli, but Gram-positive and atypical microorganisms have also been identified as causative organisms of chronic prostatitis. According to reports by several authors, Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis are some of the most common pathogens, making chronic prostatitis a sexually transmitted disease. Diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis in particular can be challenging.

  18. Bacterial endophytes enhance competition by invasive plants.

    PubMed

    Rout, Marnie E; Chrzanowski, Thomas H; Westlie, Tara K; DeLuca, Thomas H; Callaway, Ragan M; Holben, William E

    2013-09-01

    Invasive plants can alter soil microbial communities and profoundly alter ecosystem processes. In the invasive grass Sorghum halepense, these disruptions are consequences of rhizome-associated bacterial endophytes. We describe the effects of N2-fixing bacterial strains from S. halepense (Rout and Chrzanowski, 2009) on plant growth and show that bacteria interact with the plant to alter soil nutrient cycles, enabling persistence of the invasive. • We assessed fluxes in soil nutrients for ∼4 yr across a site invaded by S. halepense. We assayed the N2-fixing bacteria in vitro for phosphate solubilization, iron chelation, and production of the plant-growth hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). We assessed the plant's ability to recruit bacterial partners from substrates and vertically transmit endophytes to seeds and used an antibiotic approach to inhibit bacterial activity in planta and assess microbial contributions to plant growth. • We found persistent alterations to eight biogeochemical cycles (including nitrogen, phosphorus, and iron) in soils invaded by S. halepense. In this context, three bacterial isolates solubilized phosphate, and all produced iron siderophores and IAA in vitro. In growth chamber experiments, bacteria were transmitted vertically, and molecular analysis of bacterial community fingerprints from rhizomes indicated that endophytes are also horizontally recruited. Inhibiting bacterial activity with antibiotics resulted in significant declines in plant growth rate and biomass, with pronounced rhizome reductions. • This work suggests a major role of endophytes on growth and resource allocation of an invasive plant. Indeed, bacterial isolate physiology is correlated with invader effects on biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen, phosphate, and iron.

  19. Elucidating Duramycin’s Bacterial Selectivity and Mode of Action on the Bacterial Cell Envelope

    DOE PAGES

    Hasim, Sahar; Allison, David P.; Mendez, Berlin; ...

    2018-02-14

    The use of naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides provides a promising route to selectively target pathogenic agents and to shape microbiome structure. Lantibiotics, such as duramycin, are one class of bacterially produced peptidic natural products that can selectively inhibit the growth of other bacteria. However, despite longstanding characterization efforts, the microbial selectivity and mode of action of duramycin are still obscure. We describe here a suite of biological, chemical, and physical characterizations that shed new light on the selective and mechanistic aspects of duramycin activity. Bacterial screening assays have been performed using duramycin and Populus-derived bacterial isolates to determine species selectivity.more » Lipidomic profiles of selected resistant and sensitive strains show that the sensitivity of Gram-positive bacteria depends on the presence of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) in the cell membrane. Further the surface and interface morphology were studied by high resolution atomic force microscopy and showed a progression of cellular changes in the cell envelope after treatment with duramycin for the susceptible bacterial strains. Together, these molecular and cellular level analyses provide insight into duramycin’s mode of action and a better understanding of its selectivity.« less

  20. Elucidating Duramycin’s Bacterial Selectivity and Mode of Action on the Bacterial Cell Envelope

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hasim, Sahar; Allison, David P.; Mendez, Berlin

    The use of naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides provides a promising route to selectively target pathogenic agents and to shape microbiome structure. Lantibiotics, such as duramycin, are one class of bacterially produced peptidic natural products that can selectively inhibit the growth of other bacteria. However, despite longstanding characterization efforts, the microbial selectivity and mode of action of duramycin are still obscure. We describe here a suite of biological, chemical, and physical characterizations that shed new light on the selective and mechanistic aspects of duramycin activity. Bacterial screening assays have been performed using duramycin and Populus-derived bacterial isolates to determine species selectivity.more » Lipidomic profiles of selected resistant and sensitive strains show that the sensitivity of Gram-positive bacteria depends on the presence of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) in the cell membrane. Further the surface and interface morphology were studied by high resolution atomic force microscopy and showed a progression of cellular changes in the cell envelope after treatment with duramycin for the susceptible bacterial strains. Together, these molecular and cellular level analyses provide insight into duramycin’s mode of action and a better understanding of its selectivity.« less

  1. Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis by Amsel's criteria.

    PubMed

    Iftikhar, Razia

    2003-02-01

    To evaluate Amsel's criteria for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis in reproductive age group. Prospective study. This study was conducted in a private hospital in Jeddah, K.S.A between January, 2001 and January, 2002. Patients attending the clinic with complaint of vaginal discharge were selected and screened out for bacterial vaginosis on the basis of Amsel's criteria. Ot of 100 cases 35 (35%) cases were diagnosed as bacterial vaginosis, 25 (25%) were of Candida albicans and 15 (15%) were suffering from trichomoniasis. No pathogen was found in 25 patients. Amsel's criteria is an accurate test for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis.

  2. Dysbiosis of upper respiratory tract microbiota in elderly pneumonia patients

    PubMed Central

    de Steenhuijsen Piters, Wouter A A; Huijskens, Elisabeth G W; Wyllie, Anne L; Biesbroek, Giske; van den Bergh, Menno R; Veenhoven, Reinier H; Wang, Xinhui; Trzciński, Krzysztof; Bonten, Marc J; Rossen, John W A; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Bogaert, Debby

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in elderly. We hypothesize that dysbiosis between regular residents of the upper respiratory tract (URT) microbiome, that is balance between commensals and potential pathogens, is involved in pathogen overgrowth and consequently disease. We compared oropharyngeal microbiota of elderly pneumonia patients (n=100) with healthy elderly (n=91) by 16S-rRNA-based sequencing and verified our findings in young adult pneumonia patients (n=27) and young healthy adults (n=187). Microbiota profiles differed significantly between elderly pneumonia patients and healthy elderly (PERMANOVA, P<0.0005). Highly similar differences were observed between microbiota profiles of young adult pneumonia patients and their healthy controls. Clustering resulted in 11 (sub)clusters including 95% (386/405) of samples. We observed three microbiota profiles strongly associated with pneumonia (P<0.05) and either dominated by lactobacilli (n=11), Rothia (n=51) or Streptococcus (pseudo)pneumoniae (n=42). In contrast, three other microbiota clusters (in total n=183) were correlated with health (P<0.05) and were all characterized by more diverse profiles containing higher abundances of especially Prevotella melaninogenica, Veillonella and Leptotrichia. For the remaining clusters (n=99), the association with health or disease was less clear. A decision tree model based on the relative abundance of five bacterial community members in URT microbiota showed high specificity of 95% and sensitivity of 84% (89% and 73%, respectively, after cross-validation) for differentiating pneumonia patients from healthy individuals. These results suggest that pneumonia in elderly and young adults is associated with dysbiosis of the URT microbiome with bacterial overgrowth of single species and absence of distinct anaerobic bacteria. Whether the observed microbiome changes are a cause or a consequence of the development of pneumonia or merely coincide with

  3. Dysbiosis of upper respiratory tract microbiota in elderly pneumonia patients.

    PubMed

    de Steenhuijsen Piters, Wouter A A; Huijskens, Elisabeth G W; Wyllie, Anne L; Biesbroek, Giske; van den Bergh, Menno R; Veenhoven, Reinier H; Wang, Xinhui; Trzciński, Krzysztof; Bonten, Marc J; Rossen, John W A; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Bogaert, Debby

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in elderly. We hypothesize that dysbiosis between regular residents of the upper respiratory tract (URT) microbiome, that is balance between commensals and potential pathogens, is involved in pathogen overgrowth and consequently disease. We compared oropharyngeal microbiota of elderly pneumonia patients (n=100) with healthy elderly (n=91) by 16S-rRNA-based sequencing and verified our findings in young adult pneumonia patients (n=27) and young healthy adults (n=187). Microbiota profiles differed significantly between elderly pneumonia patients and healthy elderly (PERMANOVA, P<0.0005). Highly similar differences were observed between microbiota profiles of young adult pneumonia patients and their healthy controls. Clustering resulted in 11 (sub)clusters including 95% (386/405) of samples. We observed three microbiota profiles strongly associated with pneumonia (P<0.05) and either dominated by lactobacilli (n=11), Rothia (n=51) or Streptococcus (pseudo)pneumoniae (n=42). In contrast, three other microbiota clusters (in total n=183) were correlated with health (P<0.05) and were all characterized by more diverse profiles containing higher abundances of especially Prevotella melaninogenica, Veillonella and Leptotrichia. For the remaining clusters (n=99), the association with health or disease was less clear. A decision tree model based on the relative abundance of five bacterial community members in URT microbiota showed high specificity of 95% and sensitivity of 84% (89% and 73%, respectively, after cross-validation) for differentiating pneumonia patients from healthy individuals. These results suggest that pneumonia in elderly and young adults is associated with dysbiosis of the URT microbiome with bacterial overgrowth of single species and absence of distinct anaerobic bacteria. Whether the observed microbiome changes are a cause or a consequence of the development of pneumonia or merely coincide with

  4. Gut Microbiome-based Therapeutics in Liver Cirrhosis: Basic Consideration for the Next Step

    PubMed Central

    Fukui, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Infections account for significant morbidity and mortality in liver cirrhosis and most are related to the gut microbiome. Fecal dysbiosis, characterized by an overgrowth of potentially pathogenic bacteria and a decrease in autochthonous non-pathogenic bacteria, becomes prominent with the progression of liver cirrhosis. In cirrhotic patients, disruption of the intestinal barrier causes intestinal hyperpermeability (i.e. leaky gut), which is closely related to gut dysmotility, dysbiosis and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and may induce pathological bacterial translocation. Although the involved microbial taxa are somewhat different between the cirrhotic patients from the East and the West, the common manifestation of a shortage of bacteria that contribute to the production of short-chain fatty acids and secondary bile acids may facilitate intestinal inflammation, leaky gut and gut dysbiosis. Translocated endotoxin and bacterial DNA are capable of provoking potent inflammation and affecting the metabolic and hemodynamic systems, which may ultimately enhance the progression of liver cirrhosis and its various complications, such as hepatic encephalopathy (HE), variceal bleeding, infection and renal disturbances. Among studies on the microbiome-based therapeutics, findings of probiotic effects on HE have been contradictory in spite of several supportive results. However, the effects of synbiotics and prebiotics are substantially documented. The background of their effectiveness should be evaluated again in relation to the cirrhosis-related changes in gut microbiome and their metabolic effects. Strict indications for the antibiotic rifaximin remain unestablished, although its effect is promising, improving HE and other complications with little influence on microbial populations. The final goal of microbiome-based therapeutics is to adjust the gut-liver axis to the maximal benefit of cirrhotic patients, with the aid of evolving metagenomic and metabolomic

  5. The importance of duodenal diverticula in the elderly.

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, V. R.

    1980-01-01

    All barium meal examinations performed, in patients aged greater than 65 years, in one year in one Health District are reviewed. There were 39 cases of duodenal diverticula. One case of osteomalacia and folate deficiency was discovered and this patient had evidence of small bowel bacterial overgrowth. In the remaining cases showing evidence of nutritional deficiency, other factors were probably responsible. The evidence for an association between deficiencies and duodenal diverticula is discussed, and it is concluded that these structures are rarely responsible for nutritional deficiencies in the elderly. PMID:6791147

  6. Early-life enteric infections: relation between chronic systemic inflammation and poor cognition in children

    PubMed Central

    Murray-Kolb, Laura E.; Scharf, Rebecca J.; Pendergast, Laura L.; Lang, Dennis R.; Kolling, Glynis L.; Guerrant, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota undergoes active remodeling in the first 6 to 18 months of life, during which time the characteristics of the adult microbiota are developed. This process is strongly influenced by the early diet and enteric pathogens. Enteric infections and malnutrition early in life may favor microbiota dysbiosis and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, resulting in intestinal barrier dysfunction and translocation of intestinal bacterial products, ultimately leading to low-grade, chronic, subclinical systemic inflammation. The leaky gut–derived low-grade systemic inflammation may have profound consequences on the gut–liver–brain axis, compromising normal growth, metabolism, and cognitive development. This review examines recent data suggesting that early-life enteric infections that lead to intestinal barrier disruption may shift the intestinal microbiota toward chronic systemic inflammation and subsequent impaired cognitive development. PMID:27142301

  7. QTLs for Resistance to Major Rice Diseases Exacerbated by Global Warming: Brown Spot, Bacterial Seedling Rot, and Bacterial Grain Rot.

    PubMed

    Mizobuchi, Ritsuko; Fukuoka, Shuichi; Tsushima, Seiya; Yano, Masahiro; Sato, Hiroyuki

    2016-12-01

    In rice (Oryza sativa L.), damage from diseases such as brown spot, caused by Bipolaris oryzae, and bacterial seedling rot and bacterial grain rot, caused by Burkholderia glumae, has increased under global warming because the optimal temperature ranges for growth of these pathogens are relatively high (around 30 °C). Therefore, the need for cultivars carrying genes for resistance to these diseases is increasing to ensure sustainable rice production. In contrast to the situation for other important rice diseases such as blast and bacterial blight, no genes for complete resistance to brown spot, bacterial seedling rot or bacterial grain rot have yet been discovered. Thus, rice breeders have to use partial resistance, which is largely influenced by environmental conditions. Recent progress in molecular genetics and improvement of evaluation methods for disease resistance have facilitated detection of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with resistance. In this review, we summarize the results of worldwide screening for cultivars with resistance to brown spot, bacterial seedling rot and bacterial grain rot and we discuss the identification of QTLs conferring resistance to these diseases in order to provide useful information for rice breeding programs.

  8. Bacterially mediated mineralization of vaterite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Navarro, Carlos; Jimenez-Lopez, Concepcion; Rodriguez-Navarro, Alejandro; Gonzalez-Muñoz, Maria Teresa; Rodriguez-Gallego, Manuel

    2007-03-01

    Myxococcus xanthus, a common soil bacterium, plays an active role in the formation of spheroidal vaterite. Bacterial production of CO 2 and NH 3 and the transformation of the NH 3 to NH4+ and OH -, thus increasing solution pH and carbonate alkalinity, set the physicochemical conditions (high supersaturation) leading to vaterite precipitation in the microenvironment around cells, and directly onto the surface of bacterial cells. In the latter case, fossilization of bacteria occurs. Vaterite crystals formed by aggregation of oriented nanocrystals with c-axis normal to the bacterial cell-wall, or to the core of the spherulite when bacteria were not encapsulated. While preferred orientation of vaterite c-axis appears to be determined by electrostatic affinity (ionotropic effect) between vaterite crystal (0001) planes and the negatively charged functional groups of organic molecules on the bacterium cell-wall or on extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), analysis of the changes in the culture medium chemistry as well as high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) observations point to polymorph selection by physicochemical (kinetic) factors (high supersaturation) and stabilization by organics, both connected with bacterial activity. The latter is in agreement with inorganic precipitation of vaterite induced by NH 3 and CO 2 addition in the protein-rich sterile culture medium. Our results as well as recent studies on vaterite precipitation in the presence of different types of bacteria suggest that bacterially mediated vaterite precipitation is not strain-specific, and could be more common than previously thought.

  9. Peritonitis - spontaneous bacterial

    MedlinePlus

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP); Ascites - peritonitis; Cirrhosis - peritonitis ... who are on peritoneal dialysis for kidney failure. Peritonitis may have other causes . These include infection from ...

  10. Crossroads between Bacterial and Mammalian Glycosyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Brockhausen, Inka

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial glycosyltransferases (GT) often synthesize the same glycan linkages as mammalian GT; yet, they usually have very little sequence identity. Nevertheless, enzymatic properties, folding, substrate specificities, and catalytic mechanisms of these enzyme proteins may have significant similarity. Thus, bacterial GT can be utilized for the enzymatic synthesis of both bacterial and mammalian types of complex glycan structures. A comparison is made here between mammalian and bacterial enzymes that synthesize epitopes found in mammalian glycoproteins, and those found in the O antigens of Gram-negative bacteria. These epitopes include Thomsen–Friedenreich (TF or T) antigen, blood group O, A, and B, type 1 and 2 chains, Lewis antigens, sialylated and fucosylated structures, and polysialic acids. Many different approaches can be taken to investigate the substrate binding and catalytic mechanisms of GT, including crystal structure analyses, mutations, comparison of amino acid sequences, NMR, and mass spectrometry. Knowledge of the protein structures and functions helps to design GT for specific glycan synthesis and to develop inhibitors. The goals are to develop new strategies to reduce bacterial virulence and to synthesize vaccines and other biologically active glycan structures. PMID:25368613

  11. Effectiveness of Polyvalent Bacterial Lysate and Autovaccines Against Upper Respiratory Tract Bacterial Colonization by Potential Pathogens: A Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Zagólski, Olaf; Stręk, Paweł; Kasprowicz, Andrzej; Białecka, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Background Polyvalent bacterial lysate (PBL) is an oral immunostimulating vaccine consisting of bacterial standardized lysates obtained by lysis of different strains of bacteria. Autovaccines are individually prepared based on the results of smears obtained from the patient. Both types of vaccine can be used to treat an ongoing chronic infection. This study sought to determine which method is more effective against nasal colonization by potential respiratory tract pathogens. Material/Methods We enrolled 150 patients with aerobic Gram stain culture and count results indicating bacterial colonization of the nose and/or throat by potential pathogens. The participants were randomly assigned to each of the following groups: 1. administration of PBL, 2. administration of autovaccine, and 3. no intervention (controls). Results Reduction of the bacterial count in Streptococcus pneumoniae-colonized participants was significant after the autovaccine (p<0.001) and PBL (p<0.01). Reduction of the bacterial count of other β-hemolytic streptococcal strains after treatment with the autovaccine was significant (p<0.01) and was non-significant after PBL. In Haemophilus influenzae colonization, significant reduction in the bacterial count was noted in the PBL group (p<0.01). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization did not respond to either treatment. Conclusions The autovaccine is more effective than PBL for reducing bacterial count of Streptococcus pneumoniae and β-hemolytic streptococci, while PBL was more effective against Haemophilus influenzae colonization. PMID:26434686

  12. An evaluation of bacterial contamination of barriers used in periapical tissue regeneration: Part 2--Bacterial penetration.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Priya; Mickel, André K; Chogle, Sami; Sharma, Prem Nath; Han, Yiping W; Jones, Jefferson J

    2008-03-01

    To compare the relative penetration of Prevotella melaninogenica and Enterococcus faecalis through 3 guided tissue regeneration membranes: Atrisorb, Lambone, and OsseoQuest. It was hypothesized that OsseoQuest would show increased bacterial penetration when compared to Lambone and Atrisorb. Centrifuge tubes containing trypticase soy broth were sealed with circular sections of membranes and placed in test tubes containing culture media. The bacterial penetration was assessed by passage of bacteria from the outer tube culture media to the inner centrifuge tube media through the membrane. After incubation for 4 and 48 hours, the media from the outer and inner tubes were compared for bacterial count. P melaninogenica exhibited 91% penetration for Lambone in 2 days, while OsseoQuest displayed 87% penetration with E faecalis in the same time. Atrisorb displayed a minimal penetration with both bacteria (2%). Atrisorb displayed the least bacterial penetration, which may be attributed to membrane structure, chemical configuration, hydrophobicity, and porosity of tested membranes.

  13. Bacterial Degradation of Aromatic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jong-Su; Keum, Young-Soo; Li, Qing X.

    2009-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are among the most prevalent and persistent pollutants in the environment. Petroleum-contaminated soil and sediment commonly contain a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocyclic aromatics. Aromatics derived from industrial activities often have functional groups such as alkyls, halogens and nitro groups. Biodegradation is a major mechanism of removal of organic pollutants from a contaminated site. This review focuses on bacterial degradation pathways of selected aromatic compounds. Catabolic pathways of naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene are described in detail. Bacterial catabolism of the heterocycles dibenzofuran, carbazole, dibenzothiophene, and dibenzodioxin is discussed. Bacterial catabolism of alkylated PAHs is summarized, followed by a brief discussion of proteomics and metabolomics as powerful tools for elucidation of biodegradation mechanisms. PMID:19440284

  14. Assembling the bacterial segrosome.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Finbarr; Barillà, Daniela

    2006-05-01

    Genome segregation in prokaryotes is a highly ordered process that integrates with DNA replication, cytokinesis and other fundamental facets of the bacterial cell cycle. The segrosome is the nucleoprotein complex that mediates DNA segregation in bacteria, its assembly and organization is best understood for plasmid partition. The recent elucidation of structures of the ParB plasmid segregation protein bound to centromeric DNA, and of the tertiary structures of other segregation proteins, are key milestones in the path to deciphering the molecular basis of bacterial DNA segregation.

  15. Direct detection of various pathogens by loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays on bacterial culture and bacterial colony.

    PubMed

    Yan, Muxia; Li, Weidong; Zhou, Zhenwen; Peng, Hongxia; Luo, Ziyan; Xu, Ling

    2017-01-01

    In this work, loop-mediated isothermal amplification based detection assay using bacterial culture and bacterial colony for various common pathogens direct detection had been established, evaluated and further applied. A total of five species of common pathogens and nine detection targets (tlh, tdh and trh for V. Parahaemolyticus, rfbE, stx1 and stx2 for E. coli, oprI for P. aeruginosa, invA for Salmonella and hylA for L. monocytogenes) were performed on bacterial culture and bacterial colony LAMP. To evaluate and optimize this assay, a total of 116 standard strains were included. Then, for each detected targets, 20 random selected strains were applied. Results were determined through both visual observation of the changed color by naked eye and electrophoresis, which increased the accuracy of survey. The minimum adding quantity of each primer had been confirmed, and the optimal amplification was obtained under 65 °C for 45 min with 25 μl reaction volume. The detection limit of bacterial culture LAMP and PCR assay were determined to be 10 2 and 10 4 or 10 5  CFU/reaction, respectively. No false positive amplification was observed when subjecting the bacterial -LAMP assay to 116 reference strains. This was the first report of colony-LAMP and culture-LAMP assay, which had been demonstrated to be a fast, reliable, cost-effective and simple method on detection of various common pathogens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Marine mesocosm bacterial colonisation of volcanic ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witt, Verena; Cimarelli, Corrado; Ayris, Paul; Kueppers, Ulrich; Erpenbeck, Dirk; Dingwell, Donald; Woerheide, Gert

    2015-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions regularly eject large quantities of ash particles into the atmosphere, which can be deposited via fallout into oceanic environments. Such fallout has the potential to alter pH, light and nutrient availability at local scales. Shallow-water coral reef ecosystems - "rainforests of the sea" - are highly sensitive to disturbances, such as ocean acidification, sedimentation and eutrophication. Therefore, wind-delivered volcanic ash may lead to burial and mortality of such reefs. Coral reef ecosystem resilience may depend on pioneer bacterial colonisation of the ash layer, supporting subsequent establishment of the micro- and ultimately the macro-community. However, which bacteria are involved in pioneer colonisation remain unknown. We hypothesize that physico-chemical properties (i.e., morphology, mineralogy) of the ash may dictate bacterial colonisation. The effect of substrate properties on bacterial colonisation was tested by exposing five substrates: i) quartz sand ii) crystalline ash (Sakurajima, Japan) iii) volcanic glass iv) carbonate reef sand and v) calcite sand of similar grain size, in controlled marine coral reef aquaria under low light conditions for six months. Bacterial communities were screened every month by Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA Internal Transcribed Spacer region. Multivariate statistics revealed discrete groupings of bacterial communities on substrates of volcanic origin (ash and glass) and reef origin (three sands). Analysis of Similarity supported significantly different communities associated with all substrates (p=0.0001), only quartz did not differ from both carbonate and calcite sands. The ash substrate exhibited the most diverse bacterial community with the most substrate-specific bacterial operational taxonomic units. Our findings suggest that bacterial diversity and community composition during colonisation of volcanic ash in a coral reef-like environment is controlled by the

  17. Marine Mesocosm Bacterial Colonisation of Volcanic Ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witt, V.; Cimarelli, C.; Ayris, P. M.; Kueppers, U.; Erpenbeck, D.; Dingwell, D. B.; Woerheide, G.

    2014-12-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions regularly eject large quantities of ash particles into the atmosphere, which can be deposited via fallout into oceanic environments. Such fallout has the potential to alter pH, light and nutrient availability at local or regional scales. Shallow-water coral reef ecosystems - "rainforests of the sea" - are highly sensitive to disturbances, such as ocean acidification, sedimentation and eutrophication. Therefore, ash deposition may lead to burial and mortality of such reefs. Coral reef ecosystem resilience may depend on pioneer bacterial colonisation of the ash layer, supporting subsequent establishment of the micro- and ultimately the macro-community. However, it is currently unknown which bacteria are involved in pioneer colonisation. We hypothesize that physico-chemical properties (i.e., morphology, chemistry, mineralogy) of the ash may dictate bacterial colonisation. We have tested the effect of substrate properties on bacterial diversity and abundance colonising five substrates: i) quartz sand ii) crystalline ash from the Sakurajima volcano (Japan) iii) volcanic glass iv) carbonate reef sand and v) calcite sand of similar grain size - by incubation in a controlled marine mesocosm (coral reef aquarium) under low light conditions for three months. Bacterial communities were screened every month by Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA Internal Transcribed Spacer region. Multivariate statistics revealed discrete groupings of bacterial communities on substrates of volcanic origin (ash and glass) and reef origin (three sands). Analysis Of Similarity supports significantly different communities associated with all substrates (p=0.0001), only quartz did not differ from both carbonate and calcite sands. The ash substrate exhibited the most diverse bacterial community and carried the most substrate-specific bacterial operational taxonomic units. Our findings suggest that bacterial diversity and community

  18. Copper effects on bacterial activity of estuarine silty sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Adelaide; Cunha, Ângela; Fernandes, Sandra; Sobral, Paula; Alcântara, Fernanda

    2007-07-01

    Bacteria of silty estuarine sediments were spiked with copper to 200 μg Cu g -1 dry weight sediment in order to assess the impact of copper on bacterial degradation of organic matter and on bacterial biomass production. Bacterial density was determined by direct counting under epifluorescence microscopy and bacterial production by the incorporation of 3H-Leucine. Leucine turnover rate was evaluated by 14C-leucine incorporation and ectoenzymatic activities were estimated as the hydrolysis rate of model substrates for β-glucosidase and leucine-aminopeptidase. The presence of added copper in the microcosms elicited, after 21 days of incubation, generalised anoxia and a decrease in organic matter content. The non-eroded surface of the copper-spiked sediment showed, when compared to the control, a decrease in bacterial abundance and significant lower levels of bacterial production and of leucine turnover rate. Bacterial production and leucine turnover rate decreased to 1.4% and 13% of the control values, respectively. Ectoenzymatic activities were also negatively affected but by smaller factors. After erosion by the water current in laboratory flume conditions, the eroded surface of the control sediment showed a generalised decline in all bacterial activities. The erosion of the copper-spiked sediment showed, however, two types of responses with respect to bacterial activities at the exposed surface: positive responses of bacterial production and leucine turnover rate contrasting with slight negative responses of ectoenzymatic activities. The effects of experimental erosion in the suspended cells were also different in the control and in the copper-spiked sediment. Bacterial cells in the control microcosm exhibited, when compared to the non-eroded sediment cells, decreases in all activities after the 6-h suspension. The response of the average suspended copper-spiked sediment cell differed from the control by a less sharp decrease in ectoenzymatic activities and

  19. Colon-targeted delivery of live bacterial cell biotherapeutics including microencapsulated live bacterial cells

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Satya; Malgorzata Urbanska, Aleksandra

    2008-01-01

    There has been an ample interest in delivery of therapeutic molecules using live cells. Oral delivery has been stipulated as best way to deliver live cells to humans for therapy. Colon, in particular, is a part of gastrointestinal (GI) tract that has been proposed to be an oral targeted site. The main objective of these oral therapy procedures is to deliver live cells not only to treat diseases like colorectal cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, and other GI tract diseases like intestinal obstruction and gastritis, but also to deliver therapeutic molecules for overall therapy in various diseases such as renal failure, coronary heart disease, hypertension, and others. This review provides a comprehensive summary of recent advancement in colon targeted live bacterial cell biotherapeutics. Current status of bacterial cell therapy, principles of artificial cells and its potentials in oral delivery of live bacterial cell biotherapeutics for clinical applications as well as biotherapeutic future perspectives are also discussed in our review. PMID:19707368

  20. Polymicrobial airway bacterial communities in adult bronchiectasis patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic airway infection contributes to the underlying pathogenesis of non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFBr). In contrast to other chronic airway infections, associated with COPD and CF bronchiectasis, where polymicrobial communities have been implicated in lung damage due to the vicious circle of recurrent bacterial infections and inflammation, there is sparse information on the composition of bacterial communities in NCFBr. Seventy consecutive patients were recruited from an outpatient adult NCFBr clinic. Bacterial communities in sputum samples were analysed by culture and pyrosequencing approaches. Bacterial sequences were analysed using partial least square discrimination analyses to investigate trends in community composition and identify those taxa that contribute most to community variation. Results The lower airway in NCFBr is dominated by three bacterial taxa Pasteurellaceae, Streptococcaceae and Pseudomonadaceae. Moreover, the bacterial community is much more diverse than indicated by culture and contains significant numbers of other genera including anaerobic Prevotellaceae, Veillonellaceae and Actinomycetaceae. We found particular taxa are correlated with different clinical states, 27 taxa were associated with acute exacerbations, whereas 11 taxa correlated with stable clinical states. We were unable to demonstrate a significant effect of antibiotic therapy, gender, or lung function on the diversity of the bacterial community. However, presence of clinically significant culturable taxa; particularly Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Haemophilus influenzae correlated with a significant change in the diversity of the bacterial community in the lung. Conclusions We have demonstrated that acute exacerbations, the frequency of exacerbation and episodes of clinical stability are correlated, in some patients, with a significantly different bacterial community structure, that are associated with a presence of particular taxa in the NCFBr lung. Moreover

  1. Microbiology: Detection of Bacterial Pathogens and Their Occurrence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reasoner, Donald J.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of bacterial pathogens that are related to water pollution, covering publications from 1976-77. This review includes: (1) bacterial pathogens in animals; and (2) detection and identification of waterborne bacterial pathogens. A list of 129 references is also presented. (HM)

  2. Bacterial fatty acid metabolism in modern antibiotic discovery.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jiangwei; Rock, Charles O

    2017-11-01

    Bacterial fatty acid synthesis is essential for many pathogens and different from the mammalian counterpart. These features make bacterial fatty acid synthesis a desirable target for antibiotic discovery. The structural divergence of the conserved enzymes and the presence of different isozymes catalyzing the same reactions in the pathway make bacterial fatty acid synthesis a narrow spectrum target rather than the traditional broad spectrum target. Furthermore, bacterial fatty acid synthesis inhibitors are single-targeting, rather than multi-targeting like traditional monotherapeutic, broad-spectrum antibiotics. The single-targeting nature of bacterial fatty acid synthesis inhibitors makes overcoming fast-developing, target-based resistance a necessary consideration for antibiotic development. Target-based resistance can be overcome through multi-targeting inhibitors, a cocktail of single-targeting inhibitors, or by making the single targeting inhibitor sufficiently high affinity through a pathogen selective approach such that target-based mutants are still susceptible to therapeutic concentrations of drug. Many of the pathogens requiring new antibiotic treatment options encode for essential bacterial fatty acid synthesis enzymes. This review will evaluate the most promising targets in bacterial fatty acid metabolism for antibiotic therapeutics development and review the potential and challenges in advancing each of these targets to the clinic and circumventing target-based resistance. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Bacterial Lipids edited by Russell E. Bishop. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Formation and dissolution of bacterial colonies.

    PubMed

    Weber, Christoph A; Lin, Yen Ting; Biais, Nicolas; Zaburdaev, Vasily

    2015-09-01

    Many organisms form colonies for a transient period of time to withstand environmental pressure. Bacterial biofilms are a prototypical example of such behavior. Despite significant interest across disciplines, physical mechanisms governing the formation and dissolution of bacterial colonies are still poorly understood. Starting from a kinetic description of motile and interacting cells we derive a hydrodynamic equation for their density on a surface, where most of the kinetic coefficients are estimated from experimental data for N. gonorrhoeae bacteria. We use it to describe the formation of multiple colonies with sizes consistent with experimental observations. Finally, we show how the changes in the cell-to-cell interactions lead to the dissolution of the bacterial colonies. The successful application of kinetic theory to a complex far from equilibrium system such as formation and dissolution of living bacterial colonies potentially paves the way for the physical quantification of the initial stages of biofilm formation.

  4. Demonstrating Bacterial Flagella.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, John R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes an effective laboratory method for demonstrating bacterial flagella that utilizes the Proteus mirabilis organism and a special harvesting technique. Includes safety considerations for the laboratory exercise. (MDH)

  5. Improvement of optical quality of semipolar (11 2 ¯ 2 ) GaN on m-plane sapphire by in-situ epitaxial lateral overgrowth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monavarian, Morteza; Izyumskaya, Natalia; Müller, Marcus; Metzner, Sebastian; Veit, Peter; Can, Nuri; Das, Saikat; Özgür, Ümit; Bertram, Frank; Christen, Jürgen; Morkoç, Hadis; Avrutin, Vitaliy

    2016-04-01

    Among the major obstacles for development of non-polar and semipolar GaN structures on foreign substrates are stacking faults which deteriorate the structural and optical quality of the material. In this work, an in-situ SiNx nano-network has been employed to achieve high quality heteroepitaxial semipolar (11 2 ¯ 2 ) GaN on m-plane sapphire with reduced stacking fault density. This approach involves in-situ deposition of a porous SiNx interlayer on GaN that serves as a nano-mask for the subsequent growth, which starts in the nanometer-sized pores (window regions) and then progresses laterally as well, as in the case of conventional epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO). The inserted SiNx nano-mask effectively prevents the propagation of defects, such as dislocations and stacking faults, in the growth direction and thus reduces their density in the overgrown layers. The resulting semipolar (11 2 ¯ 2 ) GaN layers exhibit relatively smooth surface morphology and improved optical properties (PL intensity enhanced by a factor of 5 and carrier lifetimes by 35% to 85% compared to the reference semipolar (11 2 ¯ 2 ) GaN layer) which approach to those of the c-plane in-situ nano-ELO GaN reference and, therefore, holds promise for light emitting and detecting devices.

  6. Initial insights into bacterial succession during human decomposition.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Embriette R; Haarmann, Daniel P; Petrosino, Joseph F; Lynne, Aaron M; Bucheli, Sibyl R

    2015-05-01

    Decomposition is a dynamic ecological process dependent upon many factors such as environment, climate, and bacterial, insect, and vertebrate activity in addition to intrinsic properties inherent to individual cadavers. Although largely attributed to microbial metabolism, very little is known about the bacterial basis of human decomposition. To assess the change in bacterial community structure through time, bacterial samples were collected from several sites across two cadavers placed outdoors to decompose and analyzed through 454 pyrosequencing and analysis of variable regions 3-5 of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene. Each cadaver was characterized by a change in bacterial community structure for all sites sampled as time, and decomposition, progressed. Bacteria community structure is variable at placement and before purge for all body sites. At bloat and purge and until tissues began to dehydrate or were removed, bacteria associated with flies, such as Ignatzschineria and Wohlfahrtimonas, were common. After dehydration and skeletonization, bacteria associated with soil, such as Acinetobacter, were common at most body sites sampled. However, more cadavers sampled through multiple seasons are necessary to assess major trends in bacterial succession.

  7. Jellyfish modulate bacterial dynamic and community structure.

    PubMed

    Tinta, Tinkara; Kogovšek, Tjaša; Malej, Alenka; Turk, Valentina

    2012-01-01

    Jellyfish blooms have increased in coastal areas around the world and the outbreaks have become longer and more frequent over the past few decades. The Mediterranean Sea is among the heavily affected regions and the common bloom-forming taxa are scyphozoans Aurelia aurita s.l., Pelagia noctiluca, and Rhizostoma pulmo. Jellyfish have few natural predators, therefore their carcasses at the termination of a bloom represent an organic-rich substrate that supports rapid bacterial growth, and may have a large impact on the surrounding environment. The focus of this study was to explore whether jellyfish substrate have an impact on bacterial community phylotype selection. We conducted in situ jellyfish-enrichment experiment with three different jellyfish species. Bacterial dynamic together with nutrients were monitored to assess decaying jellyfish-bacteria dynamics. Our results show that jellyfish biomass is characterized by protein rich organic matter, which is highly bioavailable to 'jellyfish-associated' and 'free-living' bacteria, and triggers rapid shifts in bacterial population dynamics and composition. Based on 16S rRNA clone libraries and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, we observed a rapid shift in community composition from unculturable Alphaproteobacteria to culturable species of Gammaproteobacteria and Flavobacteria. The results of sequence analyses of bacterial isolates and of total bacterial community determined by culture independent genetic analysis showed the dominance of the Pseudoalteromonadaceae and the Vibrionaceae families. Elevated levels of dissolved proteins, dissolved organic and inorganic nutrient release, bacterial abundance and carbon production as well as ammonium concentrations characterized the degradation process. The biochemical composition of jellyfish species may influence changes in the amount of accumulated dissolved organic and inorganic nutrients. Our results can contribute insights into possible changes in

  8. The burden of bacterial vaginosis: women's experience of the physical, emotional, sexual and social impact of living with recurrent bacterial vaginosis.

    PubMed

    Bilardi, Jade E; Walker, Sandra; Temple-Smith, Meredith; McNair, Ruth; Mooney-Somers, Julie; Bellhouse, Clare; Fairley, Christopher K; Chen, Marcus Y; Bradshaw, Catriona

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis is a common vaginal infection, causing an abnormal vaginal discharge and/or odour in up to 50% of sufferers. Recurrence is common following recommended treatment. There are limited data on women's experience of bacterial vaginosis, and the impact on their self-esteem, sexual relationships and quality of life. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences and impact of recurrent bacterial vaginosis on women. A social constructionist approach was chosen as the framework for the study. Thirty five women with male and/or female partners participated in semi-structured interviews face-to-face or by telephone about their experience of recurrent bacterial vaginosis. Recurrent bacterial vaginosis impacted on women to varying degrees, with some women reporting it had little impact on their lives but most reporting it had a moderate to severe impact. The degree to which it impacted on women physically, emotionally, sexually and socially often depended on the frequency of episodes and severity of symptoms. Women commonly reported that symptoms of bacterial vaginosis made them feel embarrassed, ashamed, 'dirty' and very concerned others may detect their malodour and abnormal discharge. The biggest impact of recurrent bacterial vaginosis was on women's self-esteem and sex lives, with women regularly avoiding sexual activity, in particular oral sex, as they were too embarrassed and self-conscious of their symptoms to engage in these activities. Women often felt confused about why they were experiencing recurrent bacterial vaginosis and frustrated at their lack of control over recurrence. Women's experience of recurrent bacterial vaginosis varied broadly and significantly in this study. Some women reported little impact on their lives but most reported a moderate to severe impact, mainly on their self-esteem and sex life. Further support and acknowledgement of these impacts are required when managing women with recurrent bacterial vaginosis.

  9. Characterization of Bacterial Cellulose by Gluconacetobacter hansenii CGMCC 3917.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xianchao; Ullah, Niamat; Wang, Xuejiao; Sun, Xuchun; Li, Chenyi; Bai, Yun; Chen, Lin; Li, Zhixi

    2015-10-01

    In this study, comprehensive characterization and drying methods on properties of bacterial cellulose were analyzed. Bacterial cellulose was prepared by Gluconacetobacter hansenii CGMCC 3917, which was mutated by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment. Bacterial cellulose is mainly comprised of cellulose Iα with high crystallinity and purity. High-water holding and absorption capacity were examined by reticulated structure. Thermogravimetric analysis showed high thermal stability. High tensile strength and Young's modulus indicated its mechanical properties. The rheological analysis showed that bacterial cellulose had good consistency and viscosity. These results indicated that bacterial cellulose is a potential food additive and also could be used for a food packaging material. The high textural stability during freeze-thaw cycles makes bacterial cellulose an effective additive for frozen food products. In addition, the properties of bacterial cellulose can be affected by drying methods. Our results suggest that the bacterial cellulose produced from HHP-mutant strain has an effective characterization, which can be used for a wide range of applications in food industry. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Assessing the Robustness of Complete Bacterial Genome Segmentations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devillers, Hugo; Chiapello, Hélène; Schbath, Sophie; El Karoui, Meriem

    Comparison of closely related bacterial genomes has revealed the presence of highly conserved sequences forming a "backbone" that is interrupted by numerous, less conserved, DNA fragments. Segmentation of bacterial genomes into backbone and variable regions is particularly useful to investigate bacterial genome evolution. Several software tools have been designed to compare complete bacterial chromosomes and a few online databases store pre-computed genome comparisons. However, very few statistical methods are available to evaluate the reliability of these software tools and to compare the results obtained with them. To fill this gap, we have developed two local scores to measure the robustness of bacterial genome segmentations. Our method uses a simulation procedure based on random perturbations of the compared genomes. The scores presented in this paper are simple to implement and our results show that they allow to discriminate easily between robust and non-robust bacterial genome segmentations when using aligners such as MAUVE and MGA.

  11. Epidemiology of community-acquired bacterial meningitis.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Matthijs C; van de Beek, Diederik

    2018-02-01

    The epidemiology of bacterial meningitis has been dynamic in the past 30 years following introduction of conjugated vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae type B, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis. The purpose of this review is to describe recent developments in bacterial meningitis epidemiology. The incidence of bacterial meningitis in Western countries (Finland, Netherlands, and the United States) gradually declined by 3-4% per year to 0.7-0.9 per 100 000 per year in the past 10-20 years. In African countries (Burkina Faso and Malawi), incidence rates are still substantially higher at 10-40 per 100 000 persons per year. Introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have not consistently decreased overall pneumococcal meningitis incidence because of serotype replacement. Following the introduction of serogroup A and C meningococcal vaccines, the incidence of meningococcal meningitis because of these serogroups strongly decreased. Novel outbreaks in the African meningitis belt by serogroup C and increased incidence of serogroup W in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands were observed recently. Bacterial meningitis remains an important infectious disease, despite a gradual decline in incidence after large-scale vaccination campaigns. Further development of vaccines with broader coverage is important, as is continuous surveillance of bacterial meningitis cases.

  12. The epidemiology of bacterial meningitis in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Namani, Sadie A; Koci, Remzie A; Qehaja-Buçaj, Emine; Ajazaj-Berisha, Lindita; Mehmeti, Murat

    2014-07-14

    The purpose of this study was to present the epidemiologic features of bacterial meningitis in the developing country of Kosovo. Data were collected from active surveillance of bacterial meningitis cases treated at the University Clinical Center of Kosovo in the years 2000 (first post-war year) and 2010. Meningitis cases in 2000 compared with 2010 showed a 35.5% decline in incidence (from 4.8 to 3.1 cases per 100,000 population) and a decrease in the case fatality rate from 10% to 5%. In children, there was a lower mortality rate (5% versus 2%) and a lower incidence of neurological complications (13% versus 16%) as compared to adults (32% versus 10% and 16% versus 35%, respectively). Neisseria meningitidis was the most common pathogen of bacterial meningitis in both study periods. Bacterial meningitis was most prevalent in the pediatric population, and showed an increase in the median age, from three years in 2000 to seven years in 2010. A steady number of bacterial meningitis cases in adults throughout last decade (around 20 cases per year) was recorded. During the last decade, gradual changes have been observed in the epidemiology of bacterial meningitis that are unrelated to the introduction of new vaccines, but are partly due to the improvement of living conditions.

  13. 7 CFR 58.135 - Bacterial estimate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Milk § 58.135 Bacterial estimate. (a) Methods of Testing. Milk shall be tested for bacterial estimate...

  14. Avoidance of Maternal Cell Contamination and Overgrowth in Isolating Fetal Chorionic Villi Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Human Term Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Sardesai, Varda S.; Shafiee, Abbas; Fisk, Nicholas M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Human placenta is rich in mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC), with their origin widely presumed fetal. Cultured placental MSCs are confounded by a high frequency of maternal cell contamination. Our recent systematic review concluded that only a small minority of placental MSC publications report fetal/maternal origin, and failed to discern a specific methodology for isolation of fetal MSC from term villi. We determined isolation conditions to yield fetal and separately maternal MSC during ex vivo expansion from human term placenta. MSCs were isolated via a range of methods in combination; selection from various chorionic regions, different commercial media, mononuclear cell digest and/or explant culture. Fetal and maternal cell identities were quantitated in gender‐discordant pregnancies by XY chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization. We first demonstrated reproducible maternal cell contamination in MSC cultures from all chorionic anatomical locations tested. Cultures in standard media rapidly became composed entirely of maternal cells despite isolation from fetal villi. To isolate pure fetal cells, we validated a novel isolation procedure comprising focal dissection from the cotyledonary core, collagenase/dispase digestion and explant culture in endothelial growth media that selected, and provided a proliferative environment, for fetal MSC. Comparison of MSC populations within the same placenta confirmed fetal to be smaller, more osteogenic and proliferative than maternal MSC. We conclude that in standard media, fetal chorionic villi‐derived MSC (CV‐MSC) do not grow readily, whereas maternal MSC proliferate to result in maternal overgrowth during culture. Instead, fetal CV‐MSCs require isolation under specific conditions, which has implications for clinical trials using placental MSC. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:1070–1084 PMID:28205414

  15. Nest Material Shapes Eggs Bacterial Environment.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Castellano, Cristina; Tomás, Gustavo; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Martín-Gálvez, David; Soler, Juan José

    2016-01-01

    Selective pressures imposed by pathogenic microorganisms to embryos have selected in hosts for a battery of antimicrobial lines of defenses that includes physical and chemical barriers. Due to the antimicrobial properties of volatile compounds of green plants and of chemicals of feather degrading bacteria, the use of aromatic plants and feathers for nest building has been suggested as one of these barriers. However, experimental evidence suggesting such effects is scarce in the literature. During two consecutive years, we explored experimentally the effects of these nest materials on loads of different groups of bacteria (mesophilic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus and Enterococcus) of eggshells in nests of spotless starlings (Sturnus unicolor) at the beginning and at the end of the incubation period. This was also explored in artificial nests without incubation activity. We also experimentally increased bacterial density of eggs in natural and artificial nests and explored the effects of nest lining treatments on eggshell bacterial load. Support for the hypothetical antimicrobial function of nest materials was mainly detected for the year and location with larger average values of eggshell bacterial density. The beneficial effects of feathers and plants were more easily detected in artificial nests with no incubation activity, suggesting an active role of incubation against bacterial colonization of eggshells. Pigmented and unpigmented feathers reduced eggshell bacterial load in starling nests and artificial nest boxes. Results from artificial nests allowed us to discuss and discard alternative scenarios explaining the detected association, particularly those related to the possible sexual role of feathers and aromatic plants in starling nests. All these results considered together confirm the antimicrobial functionality mainly of feathers but also of plants used as nest materials, and highlight the importance of temporally and geographically

  16. Nest Material Shapes Eggs Bacterial Environment

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Castellano, Cristina; Tomás, Gustavo; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Martín-Gálvez, David; Soler, Juan José

    2016-01-01

    Selective pressures imposed by pathogenic microorganisms to embryos have selected in hosts for a battery of antimicrobial lines of defenses that includes physical and chemical barriers. Due to the antimicrobial properties of volatile compounds of green plants and of chemicals of feather degrading bacteria, the use of aromatic plants and feathers for nest building has been suggested as one of these barriers. However, experimental evidence suggesting such effects is scarce in the literature. During two consecutive years, we explored experimentally the effects of these nest materials on loads of different groups of bacteria (mesophilic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus and Enterococcus) of eggshells in nests of spotless starlings (Sturnus unicolor) at the beginning and at the end of the incubation period. This was also explored in artificial nests without incubation activity. We also experimentally increased bacterial density of eggs in natural and artificial nests and explored the effects of nest lining treatments on eggshell bacterial load. Support for the hypothetical antimicrobial function of nest materials was mainly detected for the year and location with larger average values of eggshell bacterial density. The beneficial effects of feathers and plants were more easily detected in artificial nests with no incubation activity, suggesting an active role of incubation against bacterial colonization of eggshells. Pigmented and unpigmented feathers reduced eggshell bacterial load in starling nests and artificial nest boxes. Results from artificial nests allowed us to discuss and discard alternative scenarios explaining the detected association, particularly those related to the possible sexual role of feathers and aromatic plants in starling nests. All these results considered together confirm the antimicrobial functionality mainly of feathers but also of plants used as nest materials, and highlight the importance of temporally and geographically

  17. Multiple reservoirs contribute to intraoperative bacterial transmission.

    PubMed

    Loftus, Randy W; Brown, Jeremiah R; Koff, Matthew D; Reddy, Sundara; Heard, Stephen O; Patel, Hetal M; Fernandez, Patrick G; Beach, Michael L; Corwin, Howard L; Jensen, Jens T; Kispert, David; Huysman, Bridget; Dodds, Thomas M; Ruoff, Kathryn L; Yeager, Mark P

    2012-06-01

    Intraoperative stopcock contamination is a frequent event associated with increased patient mortality. In the current study we examined the relative contributions of anesthesia provider hands, the patient, and the patient environment to stopcock contamination. Our secondary aims were to identify risk factors for stopcock contamination and to examine the prior association of stopcock contamination with 30-day postoperative infection and mortality. Additional microbiological analyses were completed to determine the prevalence of bacterial pathogens within intraoperative bacterial reservoirs. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to assess the contribution of reservoir bacterial pathogens to 30-day postoperative infections. In a multicenter study, stopcock transmission events were observed in 274 operating rooms, with the first and second cases of the day in each operating room studied in series to identify within- and between-case transmission events. Reservoir bacterial cultures were obtained and compared with stopcock set isolates to determine the origin of stopcock contamination. Between-case transmission was defined by the isolation of 1 or more bacterial isolates from the stopcock set of a subsequent case (case 2) that were identical to reservoir isolates from the preceding case (case 1). Within-case transmission was defined by the isolation of 1 or more bacterial isolates from a stopcock set that were identical to bacterial reservoirs from the same case. Bacterial pathogens within these reservoirs were identified, and their potential contribution to postoperative infections was evaluated. All patients were followed for 30 days postoperatively for the development of infection and all-cause mortality. Stopcock contamination was detected in 23% (126 out of 548) of cases with 14 between-case and 30 within-case transmission events confirmed. All 3 reservoirs contributed to between-case (64% environment, 14% patient, and 21% provider) and within-case (47

  18. Detergent-compatible bacterial amylases.

    PubMed

    Niyonzima, Francois N; More, Sunil S

    2014-10-01

    Proteases, lipases, amylases, and cellulases are enzymes used in detergent formulation to improve the detergency. The amylases are specifically supplemented to the detergent to digest starchy stains. Most of the solid and liquid detergents that are currently manufactured contain alkaline enzymes. The advantages of using alkaline enzymes in the detergent formulation are that they aid in removing tough stains and the process is environmentally friendly since they reduce the use of toxic detergent ingredients. Amylases active at low temperature are preferred as the energy consumption gets reduced, and the whole process becomes cost-effective. Most microbial alkaline amylases are used as detergent ingredients. Various reviews report on the production, purification, characterization, and application of amylases in different industry sectors, but there is no specific review on bacterial or fungal alkaline amylases or detergent-compatible amylases. In this mini-review, an overview on the production and property studies of the detergent bacterial amylases is given, and the stability and compatibility of the alkaline bacterial amylases in the presence of the detergents and the detergent components are highlighted.

  19. Molecular Survey of Bacterial Communities Associated with Bacterial Chondronecrosis with Osteomyelitis (BCO) in Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Tieshan; Mandal, Rabindra K.; Wideman, Robert F.; Khatiwara, Anita; Pevzner, Igal; Min Kwon, Young

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis (BCO) is recognized as an important cause of lameness in commercial broiler chickens (meat-type chickens). Relatively little is known about the microbial communities associated with BCO. This study was conducted to increase our understanding of the microbial factors associated with BCO using a culture-independent approach. Using Illumina sequencing of the hyper-variable region V6 in the 16S rRNA gene, we characterized the bacterial communities in 97 femoral or tibial heads from normal and lame broilers carefully selected to represent diverse variations in age, line, lesion type, floor type, clinical status and bone type. Our in-depth survey based on 14 million assembled sequence reads revealed that complex bacterial communities exist in all samples, including macroscopically normal bones from clinically healthy birds. Overall, Proteobacteria (mean 90.9%) comprised the most common phylum, followed by Firmicutes (6.1%) and Actinobacteria (2.6%), accounting for more than 99% of all reads. Statistical analyses demonstrated that there are differences in bacterial communities in different types of bones (femur vs. tibia), lesion types (macroscopically normal femora or tibiae vs. those with pathognomonic BCO lesions), and among individual birds. This analysis also showed that BCO samples overrepresented genera Staphylococcus, whose species have been frequently isolated in BCO samples in previous studies. Rarefaction analysis demonstrated the general tendency that increased severities of BCO lesions were associated with reduced species diversity in both femoral and tibial samples when compared to macroscopically normal samples. These observations suggest that certain bacterial subgroups are preferentially selected in association with the development of BCO lesions. Understanding the microbial species associated with BCO will identify opportunities for understanding and modulating the pathogenesis of this form of lameness in

  20. Bacterial pathogen manipulation of host membrane trafficking.

    PubMed

    Asrat, Seblewongel; de Jesús, Dennise A; Hempstead, Andrew D; Ramabhadran, Vinay; Isberg, Ralph R

    2014-01-01

    Pathogens use a vast number of strategies to alter host membrane dynamics. Targeting the host membrane machinery is important for the survival and pathogenesis of several extracellular, vacuolar, and cytosolic bacteria. Membrane manipulation promotes bacterial replication while suppressing host responses, allowing the bacterium to thrive in a hostile environment. This review provides a comprehensive summary of various strategies used by both extracellular and intracellular bacteria to hijack host membrane trafficking machinery. We start with mechanisms used by bacteria to alter the plasma membrane, delve into the hijacking of various vesicle trafficking pathways, and conclude by summarizing bacterial adaptation to host immune responses. Understanding bacterial manipulation of host membrane trafficking provides insights into bacterial pathogenesis and uncovers the molecular mechanisms behind various processes within a eukaryotic cell.

  1. Riboregulation of bacterial and archaeal transposition.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Michael J; Haniford, David B

    2016-05-01

    The coexistence of transposons with their hosts depends largely on transposition levels being tightly regulated to limit the mutagenic burden associated with frequent transposition. For 'DNA-based' (class II) bacterial transposons there is growing evidence that regulation through small noncoding RNAs and/or the RNA-binding protein Hfq are prominent mechanisms of defense against transposition. Recent transcriptomics analyses have identified many new cases of antisense RNAs (asRNA) that potentially could regulate the expression of transposon-encoded genes giving the impression that asRNA regulation of DNA-based transposons is much more frequent than previously thought. Hfq is a highly conserved bacterial protein that plays a central role in posttranscriptional gene regulation and stress response pathways in many bacteria. Three different mechanisms for Hfq-directed control of bacterial transposons have been identified to date highlighting the versatility of this protein as a regulator of bacterial transposons. There is also evidence emerging that some DNA-based transposons encode RNAs that could regulate expression of host genes. In the case of IS200, which appears to have lost its ability to transpose, contributing a regulatory RNA to its host could account for the persistence of this mobile element in a wide range of bacterial species. It remains to be seen how prevalent these transposon-encoded RNA regulators are, but given the relatively large amount of intragenic transcription in bacterial genomes, it would not be surprising if new examples are forthcoming. WIREs RNA 2016, 7:382-398. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1341 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Dietary and developmental shifts in butterfly-associated bacterial communities

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Bacterial communities associated with insects can substantially influence host ecology, evolution and behaviour. Host diet is a key factor that shapes bacterial communities, but the impact of dietary transitions across insect development is poorly understood. We analysed bacterial communities of 12 butterfly species across different developmental stages, using amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Butterfly larvae typically consume leaves of a single host plant, whereas adults are more generalist nectar feeders. Thus, we expected bacterial communities to vary substantially across butterfly development. Surprisingly, only few species showed significant dietary and developmental transitions in bacterial communities, suggesting weak impacts of dietary transitions across butterfly development. On the other hand, bacterial communities were strongly influenced by butterfly species and family identity, potentially due to dietary and physiological variation across the host phylogeny. Larvae of most butterfly species largely mirrored bacterial community composition of their diets, suggesting passive acquisition rather than active selection. Overall, our results suggest that although butterflies harbour distinct microbiomes across taxonomic groups and dietary guilds, the dramatic dietary shifts that occur during development do not impose strong selection to maintain distinct bacterial communities across all butterfly hosts. PMID:29892359

  3. The bacterial meningitis score to distinguish bacterial from aseptic meningitis in children from Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mekitarian Filho, Eduardo; Horita, Sérgio Massaru; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; Alves, Anna Cláudia Dominguez; Nigrovic, Lise E

    2013-09-01

    In a retrospective cohort of 494 children with meningitis in Sao Paulo, Brazil, the Bacterial Meningitis Score identified all the children with bacterial meningitis (sensitivity 100%, 95% confidence interval: 92-100% and negative predictive value 100%, 95% confidence interval: 98-100%). Addition of cerebrospinal fluid lactate to the score did not improve clinical prediction rule performance.

  4. Combing bacterial turbulence.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Andrey; Nishiguchi, Daiki; Aronson, Igor

    Living systems represented by ensembles of motile organisms demonstrate a transition from a chaotic motion to a highly ordered state. Examples of such living systems include suspensions of bacteria, schools of fish, flocks of birds and even crowds of people. In spite of significant differences in interacting mechanisms and motion scales, ordered living systems have many similarities: short-range alignment of organism, turbulent-like motion, emergence of large-scale flows and dynamic vortices. In this work, we rectify a turbulent dynamics in suspensions of swimming bacteria Bacillus subtilis by imposing periodical constraints on bacterial motion. Bacteria, swimming between periodically placed microscopic vertical pillars, may self-organize in a stable lattice of vortices. We demonstrate the emergence of a strong anti-ferromagnetic order of bacterial vortices in a rectangular lattice of pillars. Hydrodynamic interaction between vortices increases the stability of an emerged pattern. The highest stability of vortices in the anti-ferromagnetic lattice and the fastest vortices speed were observed in structures with the periods comparable with a correlation length of bacterial unconstrained motion. A.S and I.A were supported by the US DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Science And Engineering, under contract No. DE AC02-06CH11357 and D.N was supported by ALPS and JSPS Grant No. 26-9915.

  5. Neglected Bacterial Zoonoses

    PubMed Central

    Chikeka, Ijeuru; Dumler, J. Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial zoonoses comprise a group of diseases in humans or animals acquired by direct contact with or by oral consumption of contaminated animal materials, or via arthropod vectors. Among neglected infections, bacterial zoonoses are among the most neglected given emerging data on incidence and prevalence as causes of acute febrile illness, even in areas where recognized neglected tropical diseases occur frequently. While many other bacterial infections could also be considered in this neglected category, five distinct infections stand out because they are globally distributed, are acute febrile diseases, have high rates of morbidity and case fatality, and are reported as commonly as malaria, typhoid or dengue virus infections in carefully designed studies in which a broad spectrum diagnoses are actively sought. Thus, this review will focus attention on leptospirosis, relapsing fever borreliosis, and rickettsioses, including scrub typhus, murine typhus and spotted fever group rickettsiosis. Of greatest interest is the lack of distinguishing clinical features among these infections when in humans, which confounds diagnosis where laboratory confirmation is lacking, and in regions where clinical diagnosis is often attributed to one of several perceived more common threats. As diseases such as malaria come under improved control, the real impact of these common and under-recognized infections will become evident, as will the requirement for the strategies and allocation of resources for their control. PMID:25964152

  6. Synthetic analogs of bacterial quorum sensors

    DOEpatents

    Iyer, Rashi [Los Alamos, NM; Ganguly, Kumkum [Los Alamos, NM; Silks, Louis A [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-12-06

    Bacterial quorum-sensing molecule analogs having the following structures: ##STR00001## and methods of reducing bacterial pathogenicity, comprising providing a biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria which produce natural quorum-sensing molecule; providing a synthetic bacterial quorum-sensing molecule having the above structures and introducing the synthetic quorum-sensing molecule into the biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria. Further is provided a method of targeted delivery of an antibiotic, comprising providing a synthetic quorum-sensing molecule; chemically linking the synthetic quorum-sensing molecule to an antibiotic to produce a quorum-sensing molecule-antibiotic conjugate; and introducing the conjugate into a biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria susceptible to the antibiotic.

  7. Synthetic analogs of bacterial quorum sensors

    DOEpatents

    Iyer, Rashi S.; Ganguly, Kumkum; Silks, Louis A.

    2013-01-08

    Bacterial quorum-sensing molecule analogs having the following structures: ##STR00001## and methods of reducing bacterial pathogenicity, comprising providing a biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria which produce natural quorum-sensing molecule; providing a synthetic bacterial quorum-sensing molecule having the above structures and introducing the synthetic quorum-sensing molecule into the biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria. Further is provided a method of targeted delivery of an antibiotic, comprising providing a synthetic quorum-sensing molecule; chemically linking the synthetic quorum-sensing molecule to an antibiotic to produce a quorum-sensing molecule-antibiotic conjugate; and introducing the conjugate into a biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria susceptible to the antibiotic.

  8. New perspectives on bacterial ferredoxin evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, D. G.; Hunt, L. T.; Yeh, L.-S. L.; Barker, W. C.

    1985-01-01

    Ferredoxins are low-molecular-weight, nonheme, iron proteins which function as electron carriers in a wide variety of electron transport chains. Howard et al. (1983) have suggested that the amino end of Azotobacter vinelandii ferredoxin shows a greater similarity to the carboxyl end of ferredoxin from Chromatium vinosum and that their half-chain sequences are homologous when the half-chains of either species are considered in inverse order. Examination of this proposition has made it necessary to reevaluate previous conclusions concerning the evolution of bacterial ferredoxin. Attention is given to the properties of the bacterial ferredoxin sequences, and the evolution of the bacterial ferredoxins.

  9. Bacterial detection of platelets: current problems and possible resolutions.

    PubMed

    Blajchman, Morris A; Beckers, Erik A M; Dickmeiss, Ebbe; Lin, Lilly; Moore, Gillian; Muylle, Ludo

    2005-10-01

    The greatest transfusion-transmitted disease risk facing a transfusion recipient is that of bacterial sepsis. The prevalence of bacterial contamination in platelets and red blood cells is approximately 1 in 3,000 units transfused. The available data indicate that transfusion-associated sepsis develops after 1 in 25,000 platelet transfusions and 1 in 250,000 red blood cell transfusions. One of the most widely used strategies for decreasing bacterial sepsis risk is bacterial detection. A roundtable meeting of experts was convened during the XXVIII Annual Congress of the International Society of Blood Transfusion (Edinburgh, UK, July 2004) to provide a forum for experts to share their experiences in the routine bacterial detection of platelet products. This article summarizes the presentations, discussions, and recommendations of the panel. The data presented indicate that some of the current bacterial screening technology is useful for blocking the issuance of platelet units that contain relatively high levels of contaminating bacteria. Platelet units are usually released based on a test-negative status, which often become test-positive only upon longer storage. These data thus suggest that bacterial screening may not prevent all transfusion-transmitted bacterial infections. Two transfusion-transmitted case reports further highlighted the limitation of the routine bacterial screening of platelet products. It was felt that newer technologies, such as pathogen inactivation, may represent a more reliable process, with a higher level of safety. The panel thus recommended that the Transfusion Medicine community may need to change its thinking (paradigm) about bacterial detection, toward the possibility of the pathogen inactivation of blood products, to deal with the bacterial contamination issue. It was suggested, where permitted by regulatory agencies, that blood centers should consider adopting first-generation pathogen inactivation systems as a more effective approach

  10. Bacterial vaginosis and preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Manns-James, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Although it has been clear for more than 2 decades that bacterial vaginosis increases the risk for preterm birth in some women, it is not yet fully understood why this association exists or how best to modify the risk. Incomplete understanding of this polymicrobial condition and difficulties in classification contribute to the challenge. The relationship between altered vaginal microflora and preterm birth is likely mediated by host immune responses. Because treatment of bacterial vaginosis during pregnancy does not improve preterm birth rates, and may in fact increase them, screening and treatment of asymptomatic pregnant women is discouraged. Symptomatic women should be treated for symptom relief. This article reviews the pathophysiology of bacterial vaginosis and controversy surrounding management during pregnancy. Agents currently recommended for treatment of this condition are reviewed. © 2011 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  11. The Burden of Bacterial Vaginosis: Women’s Experience of the Physical, Emotional, Sexual and Social Impact of Living with Recurrent Bacterial Vaginosis

    PubMed Central

    Bilardi, Jade E.; Walker, Sandra; Temple-Smith, Meredith; McNair, Ruth; Mooney-Somers, Julie; Bellhouse, Clare; Fairley, Christopher K.; Chen, Marcus Y.; Bradshaw, Catriona

    2013-01-01

    Background Bacterial vaginosis is a common vaginal infection, causing an abnormal vaginal discharge and/or odour in up to 50% of sufferers. Recurrence is common following recommended treatment. There are limited data on women’s experience of bacterial vaginosis, and the impact on their self-esteem, sexual relationships and quality of life. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences and impact of recurrent bacterial vaginosis on women. Methods A social constructionist approach was chosen as the framework for the study. Thirty five women with male and/or female partners participated in semi-structured interviews face-to-face or by telephone about their experience of recurrent bacterial vaginosis. Results Recurrent bacterial vaginosis impacted on women to varying degrees, with some women reporting it had little impact on their lives but most reporting it had a moderate to severe impact. The degree to which it impacted on women physically, emotionally, sexually and socially often depended on the frequency of episodes and severity of symptoms. Women commonly reported that symptoms of bacterial vaginosis made them feel embarrassed, ashamed, ‘dirty’ and very concerned others may detect their malodour and abnormal discharge. The biggest impact of recurrent bacterial vaginosis was on women’s self-esteem and sex lives, with women regularly avoiding sexual activity, in particular oral sex, as they were too embarrassed and self-conscious of their symptoms to engage in these activities. Women often felt confused about why they were experiencing recurrent bacterial vaginosis and frustrated at their lack of control over recurrence. Conclusion Women’s experience of recurrent bacterial vaginosis varied broadly and significantly in this study. Some women reported little impact on their lives but most reported a moderate to severe impact, mainly on their self-esteem and sex life. Further support and acknowledgement of these impacts are required when managing women

  12. Precise, High-throughput Analysis of Bacterial Growth.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Masaomi; Ying, Bei-Wen

    2017-09-19

    Bacterial growth is a central concept in the development of modern microbial physiology, as well as in the investigation of cellular dynamics at the systems level. Recent studies have reported correlations between bacterial growth and genome-wide events, such as genome reduction and transcriptome reorganization. Correctly analyzing bacterial growth is crucial for understanding the growth-dependent coordination of gene functions and cellular components. Accordingly, the precise quantitative evaluation of bacterial growth in a high-throughput manner is required. Emerging technological developments offer new experimental tools that allow updates of the methods used for studying bacterial growth. The protocol introduced here employs a microplate reader with a highly optimized experimental procedure for the reproducible and precise evaluation of bacterial growth. This protocol was used to evaluate the growth of several previously described Escherichia coli strains. The main steps of the protocol are as follows: the preparation of a large number of cell stocks in small vials for repeated tests with reproducible results, the use of 96-well plates for high-throughput growth evaluation, and the manual calculation of two major parameters (i.e., maximal growth rate and population density) representing the growth dynamics. In comparison to the traditional colony-forming unit (CFU) assay, which counts the cells that are cultured in glass tubes over time on agar plates, the present method is more efficient and provides more detailed temporal records of growth changes, but has a stricter detection limit at low population densities. In summary, the described method is advantageous for the precise and reproducible high-throughput analysis of bacterial growth, which can be used to draw conceptual conclusions or to make theoretical observations.

  13. Minerals in soil select distinct bacterial communities in their microhabitats.

    PubMed

    Carson, Jennifer K; Campbell, Louise; Rooney, Deirdre; Clipson, Nicholas; Gleeson, Deirdre B

    2009-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that different minerals in soil select distinct bacterial communities in their microhabitats. Mica (M), basalt (B) and rock phosphate (RP) were incubated separately in soil planted with Trifolium subterraneum, Lolium rigidum or left unplanted. After 70 days, the mineral and soil fractions were separated by sieving. Automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis was used to determine whether the bacterial community structure was affected by the mineral, fraction and plant treatments. Principal coordinate plots showed clustering of bacterial communities from different fraction and mineral treatments, but not from different plant treatments. Permutational multivariate anova (permanova) showed that the microhabitats of M, B and RP selected bacterial communities different from each other in unplanted and L. rigidum, and in T. subterraneum, bacterial communities from M and B differed (P<0.046). permanova also showed that each mineral fraction selected bacterial communities different from the surrounding soil fraction (P<0.05). This study shows that the structure of bacterial communities in soil is influenced by the mineral substrates in their microhabitat and that minerals in soil play a greater role in bacterial ecology than simply providing an inert matrix for bacterial growth. This study suggests that mineral heterogeneity in soil contributes to the spatial variation in bacterial communities.

  14. Bacterial strategies of resistance to antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Joo, Hwang-Soo; Fu, Chih-Iung; Otto, Michael

    2016-05-26

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a key component of the host's innate immune system, targeting invasive and colonizing bacteria. For successful survival and colonization of the host, bacteria have a series of mechanisms to interfere with AMP activity, and AMP resistance is intimately connected with the virulence potential of bacterial pathogens. In particular, because AMPs are considered as potential novel antimicrobial drugs, it is vital to understand bacterial AMP resistance mechanisms. This review gives a comparative overview of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strategies of resistance to various AMPs, such as repulsion or sequestration by bacterial surface structures, alteration of membrane charge or fluidity, degradation and removal by efflux pumps.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evolutionary ecology of arthropod antimicrobial peptides'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. 9 CFR 113.64 - General requirements for live bacterial vaccines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... bacterial vaccines. 113.64 Section 113.64 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.64 General requirements for live bacterial vaccines... bacterial vaccine shall meet the requirements in this section. (a) Purity test. Final container samples of...

  16. 9 CFR 113.64 - General requirements for live bacterial vaccines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... bacterial vaccines. 113.64 Section 113.64 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.64 General requirements for live bacterial vaccines... bacterial vaccine shall meet the requirements in this section. (a) Purity test. Final container samples of...

  17. 9 CFR 113.64 - General requirements for live bacterial vaccines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... bacterial vaccines. 113.64 Section 113.64 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.64 General requirements for live bacterial vaccines... bacterial vaccine shall meet the requirements in this section. (a) Purity test. Final container samples of...

  18. Raw Cow Milk Bacterial Population Shifts Attributable to Refrigeration

    PubMed Central

    Lafarge, Véronique; Ogier, Jean-Claude; Girard, Victoria; Maladen, Véronique; Leveau, Jean-Yves; Gruss, Alexandra; Delacroix-Buchet, Agnès

    2004-01-01

    We monitored the dynamic changes in the bacterial population in milk associated with refrigeration. Direct analyses of DNA by using temporal temperature gel electrophoresis (TTGE) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) allowed us to make accurate species assignments for bacteria with low-GC-content (low-GC%) (<55%) and medium- or high-GC% (>55%) genomes, respectively. We examined raw milk samples before and after 24-h conservation at 4°C. Bacterial identification was facilitated by comparison with an extensive bacterial reference database (∼150 species) that we established with DNA fragments of pure bacterial strains. Cloning and sequencing of fragments missing from the database were used to achieve complete species identification. Considerable evolution of bacterial populations occurred during conservation at 4°C. TTGE and DGGE are shown to be a powerful tool for identifying the main bacterial species of the raw milk samples and for monitoring changes in bacterial populations during conservation at 4°C. The emergence of psychrotrophic bacteria such as Listeria spp. or Aeromonas hydrophila is demonstrated. PMID:15345453

  19. Fungal and Bacterial Pigments: Secondary Metabolites with Wide Applications

    PubMed Central

    Narsing Rao, Manik Prabhu; Xiao, Min; Li, Wen-Jun

    2017-01-01

    The demand for natural colors is increasing day by day due to harmful effects of some synthetic dyes. Bacterial and fungal pigments provide a readily available alternative source of naturally derived pigments. In contrast to other natural pigments, they have enormous advantages including rapid growth, easy processing, and independence of weather conditions. Apart from colorant, bacterial and fungal pigments possess many biological properties such as antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activity. This review outlines different types of pigments. It lists some bacterial and fungal pigments and current bacterial and fungal pigment status and challenges. It also focuses on possible fungal and bacterial pigment applications. PMID:28690593

  20. Survivial Strategies in Bacterial Range Expansions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Erwin

    2014-03-01

    Bacterial communities represent complex and dynamic ecological systems. Different environmental conditions as well as bacterial interactions determine the establishment and sustainability of bacterial diversity. In this talk we discuss the competition of three Escherichia coli strains during range expansions on agar plates. In this bacterial model system, a colicin E2 producing strain C competes with a colicin resistant strain R and with a colicin sensitive strain S for new territory. Genetic engineering allows us to tune the growth rates of the strains and to study distinct ecological scenarios. These scenarios may lead to either single-strain dominance, pairwise coexistence, or to the coexistence of all three strains. In order to elucidate the survival mechanisms of the individual strains, we also developed a stochastic agent-based model to capture the ecological scenarios in silico. In a combined theoretical and experimental approach we are able to show that the level of biodiversity depends crucially on the composition of the inoculum, on the relative growth rates of the three strains, and on the effective reach of colicin toxicity.

  1. Acute bacterial and viral meningitis.

    PubMed

    Bartt, Russell

    2012-12-01

    Most cases of acute meningitis are infectious and result from a potentially wide range of bacterial and viral pathogens. The organized approach to the patient with suspected meningitis enables the prompt administration of antibiotics, possibly corticosteroids, and diagnostic testing with neuroimaging and spinal fluid analysis. Acute meningitis is infectious in most cases and caused by a potentially wide range of bacterial and viral pathogens. Shifts in the epidemiology of bacterial pathogens have been influenced by changes in vaccines and their implementation. Seasonal and environmental changes influence the likely viral and rickettsial pathogens. The organized approach to the patient with suspected meningitis enables the prompt administration of antibiotics, possibly corticosteroids, and diagnostic testing with neuroimaging and spinal fluid analysis. Pertinent testing and treatment can vary with the clinical presentation, season, and possible exposures. This article reviews the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of acute meningitis.

  2. Evolving issues in understanding and treating bacterial vaginosis.

    PubMed

    Marrazzo, Jeanne M

    2004-12-01

    Bacterial vaginosis is a synergistic polymicrobial syndrome characterized by depletion of Lactobacillus spp., especially those that produce hydrogen peroxide, and an intense increase in the quantity of commensal vaginal anaerobic bacteria to 100- to 1000-fold above normal levels. While the bacterial spectrum of these organisms has long been known to include Gardnerella vaginalis, Prevotella spp., anaerobic Gram-positive cocci, Mobiluncus spp. and Mycoplasma hominis, innovative use of molecular diagnostics has identified novel species apparently associated with this syndrome, including Atopobium vaginalis. Effecting resolution of bacterial vaginosis is important, in particular for the 8 to 23% of women afflicted with symptomatic disease during their reproductive years. Bacterial vaginosis has been consistently associated with numerous adverse sequelae related to the upper genital tract, including pelvic inflammatory disease and postsurgical infection in the setting of invasive gynecologic procedures, and may increase women's risk of acquiring HIV infection. Pregnant women with bacterial vaginosis experience a higher rate of preterm delivery and low-birth-weight infants. While antibiotics with activity against anaerobes--typically, metronidazole and clindamycin applied vaginally or taken orally--are the mainstays of therapy, bacterial vaginosis frequently recurs. For these reasons, innovative approaches to therapy are urgently required.

  3. Comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of bacterial reverse transcriptases.

    PubMed

    Toro, Nicolás; Nisa-Martínez, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Much less is known about reverse transcriptases (RTs) in prokaryotes than in eukaryotes, with most prokaryotic enzymes still uncharacterized. Two surveys involving BLAST searches for RT genes in prokaryotic genomes revealed the presence of large numbers of diverse, uncharacterized RTs and RT-like sequences. Here, using consistent annotation across all sequenced bacterial species from GenBank and other sources via RAST, available from the PATRIC (Pathogenic Resource Integration Center) platform, we have compiled the data for currently annotated reverse transcriptases from completely sequenced bacterial genomes. RT sequences are broadly distributed across bacterial phyla, but green sulfur bacteria and cyanobacteria have the highest levels of RT sequence diversity (≤85% identity) per genome. By contrast, phylum Actinobacteria, for which a large number of genomes have been sequenced, was found to have a low RT sequence diversity. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that bacterial RTs could be classified into 17 main groups: group II introns, retrons/retron-like RTs, diversity-generating retroelements (DGRs), Abi-like RTs, CRISPR-Cas-associated RTs, group II-like RTs (G2L), and 11 other groups of RTs of unknown function. Proteobacteria had the highest potential functional diversity, as they possessed most of the RT groups. Group II introns and DGRs were the most widely distributed RTs in bacterial phyla. Our results provide insights into bacterial RT phylogeny and the basis for an update of annotation systems based on sequence/domain homology.

  4. Comprehensive Phylogenetic Analysis of Bacterial Reverse Transcriptases

    PubMed Central

    Toro, Nicolás; Nisa-Martínez, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Much less is known about reverse transcriptases (RTs) in prokaryotes than in eukaryotes, with most prokaryotic enzymes still uncharacterized. Two surveys involving BLAST searches for RT genes in prokaryotic genomes revealed the presence of large numbers of diverse, uncharacterized RTs and RT-like sequences. Here, using consistent annotation across all sequenced bacterial species from GenBank and other sources via RAST, available from the PATRIC (Pathogenic Resource Integration Center) platform, we have compiled the data for currently annotated reverse transcriptases from completely sequenced bacterial genomes. RT sequences are broadly distributed across bacterial phyla, but green sulfur bacteria and cyanobacteria have the highest levels of RT sequence diversity (≤85% identity) per genome. By contrast, phylum Actinobacteria, for which a large number of genomes have been sequenced, was found to have a low RT sequence diversity. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that bacterial RTs could be classified into 17 main groups: group II introns, retrons/retron-like RTs, diversity-generating retroelements (DGRs), Abi-like RTs, CRISPR-Cas-associated RTs, group II-like RTs (G2L), and 11 other groups of RTs of unknown function. Proteobacteria had the highest potential functional diversity, as they possessed most of the RT groups. Group II introns and DGRs were the most widely distributed RTs in bacterial phyla. Our results provide insights into bacterial RT phylogeny and the basis for an update of annotation systems based on sequence/domain homology. PMID:25423096

  5. Metamorphosis of a butterfly-associated bacterial community.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Tobin J; McMillan, W Owen; Fierer, Noah

    2014-01-01

    Butterflies are charismatic insects that have long been a focus of biological research. They are also habitats for microorganisms, yet these microbial symbionts are little-studied, despite their likely importance to butterfly ecology and evolution. In particular, the diversity and composition of the microbial communities inhabiting adult butterflies remain uncharacterized, and it is unknown how the larval (caterpillar) and adult microbiota compare. To address these knowledge gaps, we used Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from internal bacterial communities associated with multiple life stages of the neotropical butterfly Heliconius erato. We found that the leaf-chewing larvae and nectar- and pollen-feeding adults of H. erato contain markedly distinct bacterial communities, a pattern presumably rooted in their distinct diets. Larvae and adult butterflies host relatively small and similar numbers of bacterial phylotypes, but few are common to both stages. The larval microbiota clearly simplifies and reorganizes during metamorphosis; thus, structural changes in a butterfly's bacterial community parallel those in its own morphology. We furthermore identify specific bacterial taxa that may mediate larval and adult feeding biology in Heliconius and other butterflies. Although male and female Heliconius adults differ in reproductive physiology and degree of pollen feeding, bacterial communities associated with H. erato are not sexually dimorphic. Lastly, we show that captive and wild individuals host different microbiota, a finding that may have important implications for the relevance of experimental studies using captive butterflies.

  6. Metamorphosis of a Butterfly-Associated Bacterial Community

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Tobin J.; McMillan, W. Owen; Fierer, Noah

    2014-01-01

    Butterflies are charismatic insects that have long been a focus of biological research. They are also habitats for microorganisms, yet these microbial symbionts are little-studied, despite their likely importance to butterfly ecology and evolution. In particular, the diversity and composition of the microbial communities inhabiting adult butterflies remain uncharacterized, and it is unknown how the larval (caterpillar) and adult microbiota compare. To address these knowledge gaps, we used Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from internal bacterial communities associated with multiple life stages of the neotropical butterfly Heliconius erato. We found that the leaf-chewing larvae and nectar- and pollen-feeding adults of H. erato contain markedly distinct bacterial communities, a pattern presumably rooted in their distinct diets. Larvae and adult butterflies host relatively small and similar numbers of bacterial phylotypes, but few are common to both stages. The larval microbiota clearly simplifies and reorganizes during metamorphosis; thus, structural changes in a butterfly's bacterial community parallel those in its own morphology. We furthermore identify specific bacterial taxa that may mediate larval and adult feeding biology in Heliconius and other butterflies. Although male and female Heliconius adults differ in reproductive physiology and degree of pollen feeding, bacterial communities associated with H. erato are not sexually dimorphic. Lastly, we show that captive and wild individuals host different microbiota, a finding that may have important implications for the relevance of experimental studies using captive butterflies. PMID:24466308

  7. SIMPLAS: A Simulation of Bacterial Plasmid Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    This article describes a computer simulation of bacterial physiology during growth in a chemostat. The program was designed to help students to appreciate and understand the related effects of parameters which influence plasmid persistence in bacterial populations. (CW)

  8. Identifying Bacterial Immune Evasion Proteins Using Phage Display.

    PubMed

    Fevre, Cindy; Scheepmaker, Lisette; Haas, Pieter-Jan

    2017-01-01

    Methods aimed at identification of immune evasion proteins are mainly rely on in silico prediction of sequence, structural homology to known evasion proteins or use a proteomics driven approach. Although proven successful these methods are limited by a low efficiency and or lack of functional identification. Here we describe a high-throughput genomic strategy to functionally identify bacterial immune evasion proteins using phage display technology. Genomic bacterial DNA is randomly fragmented and ligated into a phage display vector that is used to create a phage display library expressing bacterial secreted and membrane bound proteins. This library is used to select displayed bacterial secretome proteins that interact with host immune components.

  9. Bacterial copper storage proteins.

    PubMed

    Dennison, Christopher; David, Sholto; Lee, Jaeick

    2018-03-30

    Copper is essential for most organisms as a cofactor for key enzymes involved in fundamental processes such as respiration and photosynthesis. However, copper also has toxic effects in cells, which is why eukaryotes and prokaryotes have evolved mechanisms for safe copper handling. A new family of bacterial proteins uses a Cys-rich four-helix bundle to safely store large quantities of Cu(I). The work leading to the discovery of these proteins, their properties and physiological functions, and how their presence potentially impacts the current views of bacterial copper handling and use are discussed in this review. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Effects of bacterial pollution caused by a strong typhoon event and the restoration of a recreational beach: Transitions of fecal bacterial counts and bacterial flora in beach sand.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Teranishi, Kotaro; Matsuwaki, Tomonori; Nukazawa, Kei; Ogura, Yoshitoshi

    2018-05-28

    To determine the effects of bacteria pollution associated with a strong typhoon event and to assess the restoration of the normal bacterial flora, we used conventional filtration methods and nextgeneration sequencing of 16S rRNA genes to analyze the transition of fecal and total bacterial counts in water and core sand samples collected from a recreational beach. Immediately after the typhoon event, Escherichia coli counts increased to 82 CFU/100 g in the surface beach sand. E. coli was detected through the surface to sand 85-cm deep at the land side point (10-m land side from the high-water line). However, E. coli disappeared within a month from the land side point. The composition of the bacterial flora in the beach sand at the land point was directly influenced by the typhoon event. Pseudomonas was the most prevalent genus throughout the sand layers (0-102-cm deep) during the typhoon event. After 3 months, the population of Pseudomonas significantly decreased, and the predominant genus in the surface layer was Kaistobacter, although Pseudomonas was the major genus in the 17- to 85-cm layer. When the beach conditions stabilized, the number of pollutant Pseudomonas among the 10 most abundant genera decreased to lower than the limit of detection. The bacterial population of the sand was subsequently restored to the most populous pre-event orders at the land point. A land-side beach, where users directly contact the sand, was significantly affected by bacterial pollution caused by a strong typhoon event. We show here that the normal bacterial flora of the surface sand was restored within 1 month. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Acute Bacterial Prostatitis: Diagnosis and Management.

    PubMed

    Coker, Timothy J; Dierfeldt, Daniel M

    2016-01-15

    Acute bacterial prostatitis is an acute infection of the prostate gland that causes pelvic pain and urinary tract symptoms, such as dysuria, urinary frequency, and urinary retention, and may lead to systemic symptoms, such as fevers, chills, nausea, emesis, and malaise. Although the true incidence is unknown, acute bacterial prostatitis is estimated to comprise approximately 10% of all cases of prostatitis. Most acute bacterial prostatitis infections are community acquired, but some occur after transurethral manipulation procedures, such as urethral catheterization and cystoscopy, or after transrectal prostate biopsy. The physical examination should include abdominal, genital, and digital rectal examination to assess for a tender, enlarged, or boggy prostate. Diagnosis is predominantly made based on history and physical examination, but may be aided by urinalysis. Urine cultures should be obtained in all patients who are suspected of having acute bacterial prostatitis to determine the responsible bacteria and its antibiotic sensitivity pattern. Additional laboratory studies can be obtained based on risk factors and severity of illness. Radiography is typically unnecessary. Most patients can be treated as outpatients with oral antibiotics and supportive measures. Hospitalization and broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics should be considered in patients who are systemically ill, unable to voluntarily urinate, unable to tolerate oral intake, or have risk factors for antibiotic resistance. Typical antibiotic regimens include ceftriaxone and doxycycline, ciprofloxacin, and piperacillin/tazobactam. The risk of nosocomial bacterial prostatitis can be reduced by using antibiotics, such as ciprofloxacin, before transrectal prostate biopsy.

  12. Neglected bacterial zoonoses.

    PubMed

    Chikeka, I; Dumler, J S

    2015-05-01

    Bacterial zoonoses comprise a group of diseases in humans or animals acquired by direct contact with or by oral consumption of contaminated animal materials, or via arthropod vectors. Among neglected infections, bacterial zoonoses are among the most neglected given emerging data on incidence and prevalence as causes of acute febrile illness, even in areas where recognized neglected tropical diseases occur frequently. Although many other bacterial infections could also be considered in this neglected category, five distinct infections stand out because they are globally distributed, are acute febrile diseases, have high rates of morbidity and case fatality, and are reported as commonly as malaria, typhoid or dengue virus infections in carefully designed studies in which broad-spectrum diagnoses are actively sought. This review will focus attention on leptospirosis, relapsing fever borreliosis and rickettsioses, including scrub typhus, murine typhus and spotted fever group rickettsiosis. Of greatest interest is the lack of distinguishing clinical features among these infections when in humans, which confounds diagnosis where laboratory confirmation is lacking, and in regions where clinical diagnosis is often attributed to one of several perceived more common threats. As diseases such as malaria come under improved control, the real impact of these common and under-recognized infections will become evident, as will the requirement for the strategies and allocation of resources for their control. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Revised Japanese guidelines for the clinical management of bacterial meningitis].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Harumi; Kamei, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Improvement of outcomes represents the most important problem in the treatment of bacterial meningitis. To achieve such improvement, revision of the guidelines for the clinical management of bacterial meningitis in Japan has been carried out, and these revised Japanese guidelines will soon be published. The choice of specific antimicrobial agents for initial treatment in bacterial meningitis is influenced by a number of factors, including patient age, systemic symptoms, and local patterns of bacterial resistance. In the revised Japanese guidelines, antimicrobial agents based on current knowledge of the epidemiology in Japan are recommended. Bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency, and patients with this disease require immediate medical assessment and appropriate treatment. Rapid diagnosis and treatment of bacterial meningitis reduces mortality and neurological sequelae. We describe the revised Japanese guidelines for the clinical management of bacterial meningitis 2014, with a focus on adults.

  14. Predictive value of decoy receptor 3 in postoperative nosocomial bacterial meningitis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Juan; Shao, Li-Hua; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Jian; Ma, Rui-Ping; Liu, Hai-Hong; Dong, Xiao-Meng; Ma, Li-Xian

    2014-11-03

    Nosocomial bacterial meningitis requires timely treatment, but what is difficult is the prompt and accurate diagnosis of this disease. The aim of this study was to assess the potential role of decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) levels in the differentiation of bacterial meningitis from non-bacterial meningitis. A total of 123 patients were recruited in this study, among them 80 patients being with bacterial meningitis and 43 patients with non-bacterial meningitis. Bacterial meningitis was confirmed by bacterial culture of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the level of DcR3 in CSF. CSF levels of DcR3 were statistically significant between patients with bacterial meningitis and those with non-bacterial meningitis (p<0.001). A total of 48.75% of patients with bacterial meningitis received antibiotic>24 h before CSF sampling, which was much higher than that of non-bacterial meningitis. CSF leucocyte count yielded the highest diagnostic value, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) of 0.928, followed by DcR3. At a critical value of 0.201 ng/mL for DcR3, the sensitivity and specificity were 78.75% and 81.40% respectively. DcR3 in CSF may be a valuable predictor for differentiating patients with bacterial meningitis from those with non-bacterial meningitis. Further studies are needed for the validation of this study.

  15. Predictive Value of Decoy Receptor 3 in Postoperative Nosocomial Bacterial Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong-Juan; Shao, Li-Hua; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Jian; Ma, Rui-Ping; Liu, Hai-Hong; Dong, Xiao-Meng; Ma, Li-Xian

    2014-01-01

    Nosocomial bacterial meningitis requires timely treatment, but what is difficult is the prompt and accurate diagnosis of this disease. The aim of this study was to assess the potential role of decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) levels in the differentiation of bacterial meningitis from non-bacterial meningitis. A total of 123 patients were recruited in this study, among them 80 patients being with bacterial meningitis and 43 patients with non-bacterial meningitis. Bacterial meningitis was confirmed by bacterial culture of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the level of DcR3 in CSF. CSF levels of DcR3 were statistically significant between patients with bacterial meningitis and those with non-bacterial meningitis (p < 0.001). A total of 48.75% of patients with bacterial meningitis received antibiotic >24 h before CSF sampling, which was much higher than that of non-bacterial meningitis. CSF leucocyte count yielded the highest diagnostic value, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) of 0.928, followed by DcR3. At a critical value of 0.201 ng/mL for DcR3, the sensitivity and specificity were 78.75% and 81.40% respectively. DcR3 in CSF may be a valuable predictor for differentiating patients with bacterial meningitis from those with non-bacterial meningitis. Further studies are needed for the validation of this study. PMID:25372942

  16. Bacterial selection by mycospheres of Atlantic Rainforest mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Halsey, Joshua Andrew; de Cássia Pereira E Silva, Michele; Andreote, Fernando Dini

    2016-10-01

    This study focuses on the selection exerted on bacterial communities in the mycospheres of mushrooms collected in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. A total of 24 paired samples (bulk soil vs. mycosphere) were assessed to investigate potential interactions between fungi and bacteria present in fungal mycospheres. Prevalent fungal families were identified as Marasmiaceae and Lepiotaceae (both Basidiomycota) based on ITS partial sequencing. We used culture-independent techniques to analyze bacterial DNA from soil and mycosphere samples. Bacterial communities in the samples were distinguished based on overall bacterial, alphaproteobacterial, and betaproteobacterial PCR-DGGE patterns, which were different in fungi belonging to different taxa. These results were confirmed by pyrosequencing the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene (based on five bulk soil vs. mycosphere pairs), which revealed the most responsive bacterial families in the different conditions generated beneath the mushrooms, identified as Bradyrhizobiaceae, Burkholderiaceae, and Pseudomonadaceae. The bacterial families Acetobacteraceae, Chrhoniobacteraceae, Planctomycetaceae, Conexibacteraceae, and Burkholderiaceae were found in all mycosphere samples, composing the core mycosphere microbiome. Similarly, some bacterial groups identified as Koribacteriaceae, Acidobacteria (Solibacteriaceae) and an unclassified group of Acidobacteria were preferentially present in the bulk soil samples (found in all of them). In this study we depict the mycosphere effect exerted by mushrooms inhabiting the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest, and identify the bacteria with highest response to such a specific niche, possibly indicating the role bacteria play in mushroom development and dissemination within this yet-unexplored environment.

  17. Bacterial Communities in Women with Bacterial Vaginosis: High Resolution Phylogenetic Analyses Reveal Relationships of Microbiota to Clinical Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Sujatha; Hoffman, Noah G.; Morgan, Martin T.; Matsen, Frederick A.; Fiedler, Tina L.; Hall, Robert W.; Ross, Frederick J.; McCoy, Connor O.; Bumgarner, Roger; Marrazzo, Jeanne M.; Fredricks, David N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common condition that is associated with numerous adverse health outcomes and is characterized by poorly understood changes in the vaginal microbiota. We sought to describe the composition and diversity of the vaginal bacterial biota in women with BV using deep sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene coupled with species-level taxonomic identification. We investigated the associations between the presence of individual bacterial species and clinical diagnostic characteristics of BV. Methodology/Principal Findings Broad-range 16S rRNA gene PCR and pyrosequencing were performed on vaginal swabs from 220 women with and without BV. BV was assessed by Amsel’s clinical criteria and confirmed by Gram stain. Taxonomic classification was performed using phylogenetic placement tools that assigned 99% of query sequence reads to the species level. Women with BV had heterogeneous vaginal bacterial communities that were usually not dominated by a single taxon. In the absence of BV, vaginal bacterial communities were dominated by either Lactobacillus crispatus or Lactobacillus iners. Leptotrichia amnionii and Eggerthella sp. were the only two BV-associated bacteria (BVABs) significantly associated with each of the four Amsel’s criteria. Co-occurrence analysis revealed the presence of several sub-groups of BVABs suggesting metabolic co-dependencies. Greater abundance of several BVABs was observed in Black women without BV. Conclusions/Significance The human vaginal bacterial biota is heterogeneous and marked by greater species richness and diversity in women with BV; no species is universally present. Different bacterial species have different associations with the four clinical criteria, which may account for discrepancies often observed between Amsel and Nugent (Gram stain) diagnostic criteria. Several BVABs exhibited race-dependent prevalence when analyzed in separate groups by BV status which may contribute to increased incidence of BV in

  18. Probiotic Therapy for Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Aragon, George; Graham, Deborah B.; Borum, Marie

    2010-01-01

    The etiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is thought to be multifactorial, with several factors (including alterations in gut motility, small-bowel bacterial overgrowth, microscopic inflammation, and visceral hypersensitivity) potentially playing a role. Recent studies have suggested that probiotics may be useful in the treatment of IBS. Although the exact mechanism for how probiotics may aid in the reduction of symptoms commonly found in IBS is unknown, the effects of probiotics on alterations in gut bacteria appear to play a part. This review focuses on recent studies examining the role of probiotics in the treatment of IBS. PMID:20567539

  19. Cytosolic Access of Intracellular Bacterial Pathogens: The Shigella Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Mellouk, Nora; Enninga, Jost

    2016-01-01

    Shigella is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen, which causes bacillary dysentery in humans. A crucial step of Shigella infection is its invasion of epithelial cells. Using a type III secretion system, Shigella injects several bacterial effectors ultimately leading to bacterial internalization within a vacuole. Then, Shigella escapes rapidly from the vacuole, it replicates within the cytosol and spreads from cell-to-cell. The molecular mechanism of vacuolar rupture used by Shigella has been studied in some detail during the recent years and new paradigms are emerging about the underlying molecular events. For decades, bacterial effector proteins were portrayed as main actors inducing vacuolar rupture. This includes the effector/translocators IpaB and IpaC. More recently, this has been challenged and an implication of the host cell in the process of vacuolar rupture has been put forward. This includes the bacterial subversion of host trafficking regulators, such as the Rab GTPase Rab11. The involvement of the host in determining bacterial vacuolar integrity has also been found for other bacterial pathogens, particularly for Salmonella. Here, we will discuss our current view of host factor and pathogen effector implications during Shigella vacuolar rupture and the steps leading to it.

  20. Distinct Habitats Select Particular Bacterial Communities in Mangrove Sediments.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Lidianne L; Colares, Geórgia B; Nogueira, Vanessa L R; Paes, Fernanda A; Melo, Vânia M M

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the relationship among environmental variables, composition, and structure of bacterial communities in different habitats in a mangrove located nearby to an oil exploitation area, aiming to retrieve the natural pattern of bacterial communities in this ecosystem. The T-RFLP analysis showed a high diversity of bacterial populations and an increase in the bacterial richness from habitats closer to the sea and without vegetation (S1) to habitats covered by Avicennia schaueriana (S2) and Rhizophora mangle (S3). Environmental variables in S1 and S2 were more similar than in S3; however, when comparing the bacterial compositions, S2 and S3 shared more OTUs between them, suggesting that the presence of vegetation is an important factor in shaping these bacterial communities. In silico analyses of the fragments revealed a high diversity of the class Gammaproteobacteria in the 3 sites, although in general they presented quite different bacterial composition, which is probably shaped by the specificities of each habitat. This study shows that microhabitats inside of a mangrove ecosystem harbor diverse and distinct microbiota, reinforcing the need to conserve these ecosystems as a whole.

  1. Distinct Habitats Select Particular Bacterial Communities in Mangrove Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Lidianne L.; Colares, Geórgia B.; Nogueira, Vanessa L. R.; Paes, Fernanda A.; Melo, Vânia M. M.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the relationship among environmental variables, composition, and structure of bacterial communities in different habitats in a mangrove located nearby to an oil exploitation area, aiming to retrieve the natural pattern of bacterial communities in this ecosystem. The T-RFLP analysis showed a high diversity of bacterial populations and an increase in the bacterial richness from habitats closer to the sea and without vegetation (S1) to habitats covered by Avicennia schaueriana (S2) and Rhizophora mangle (S3). Environmental variables in S1 and S2 were more similar than in S3; however, when comparing the bacterial compositions, S2 and S3 shared more OTUs between them, suggesting that the presence of vegetation is an important factor in shaping these bacterial communities. In silico analyses of the fragments revealed a high diversity of the class Gammaproteobacteria in the 3 sites, although in general they presented quite different bacterial composition, which is probably shaped by the specificities of each habitat. This study shows that microhabitats inside of a mangrove ecosystem harbor diverse and distinct microbiota, reinforcing the need to conserve these ecosystems as a whole. PMID:26989418

  2. A uniform bacterial growth potential assay for different water types.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Nadia; Hammes, Frederik; Prest, Emmanuelle; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes

    2018-06-06

    The bacterial growth potential is important to understand and manage bacterial regrowth-related water quality concerns. Bacterial growth potential depends on growth promoting/limiting compounds, therefore, nutrient availability is the key factor governing bacterial growth potential. Selecting proper tools for bacterial growth measurement is essential for routine implementation of the growth potential measurement. This study proposes a growth potential assay that is universal and can be used for different water types and soil extract without restrictions of pure culture or cultivability of the bacterial strain. The proposed assay measures the sample bacterial growth potential by using the indigenous community as inocula. Flow cytometry (FCM) and adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) were used to evaluate the growth potential of six different microbial communities indigenous to the sample being analyzed, with increasing carbon concentrations. Bottled mineral water, non-chlorinated tap water, seawater, river water, wastewater effluent and a soil organic carbon extract were analyzed. Results showed that indigenous bacterial communities followed normal batch growth kinetics when grown on naturally present organic carbon. Indigenous bacterial growth could detect spiked organic carbon concentrations as low as 10 μg/L. The indigenous community in all samples responded proportionally to the increase in acetate-carbon and proportional growth could be measured with both FCM and ATP. Bacterial growth was proportional to the carbon concentration but not the same proportion factor for the different water samples tested. The effect of inoculating the same water with different indigenous microbial communities on the growth potential was also examined. The FCM results showed that the highest increase in total bacterial cell concentration was obtained with bacteria indigenous to the water sample. The growth potential assay using indigenous bacterial community revealed consistent results

  3. Physical stress and bacterial colonization

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial surface colonizers are subject to a variety of physical stresses. During the colonization of human epithelia such as on the skin or the intestinal mucosa, bacteria mainly have to withstand the mechanical stress of being removed by fluid flow, scraping, or epithelial turnover. To that end, they express a series of molecules to establish firm attachment to the epithelial surface, such as fibrillar protrusions (pili) and surface-anchored proteins that bind to human matrix proteins. In addition, some bacteria – in particular gut and urinary tract pathogens – use internalization by epithelial cells and other methods such as directed inhibition of epithelial turnover to ascertain continued association with the epithelial layer. Furthermore, many bacteria produce multi-layered agglomerations called biofilms with a sticky extracellular matrix, providing additional protection from removal. This review will give an overview over the mechanisms human bacterial colonizers have to withstand physical stresses with a focus on bacterial adhesion. PMID:25212723

  4. Acute bacterial meningitis in adults.

    PubMed

    McGill, Fiona; Heyderman, Robert S; Panagiotou, Stavros; Tunkel, Allan R; Solomon, Tom

    2016-12-17

    Over the past several decades, the incidence of bacterial meningitis in children has decreased but there remains a significant burden of disease in adults, with a mortality of up to 30%. Although the pathogenesis of bacterial meningitis is not completely understood, knowledge of bacterial invasion and entry into the CNS is improving. Clinical features alone cannot determine whether meningitis is present and analysis of cerebrospinal fluid is essential for diagnosis. Newer technologies, such as multiplex PCR, and novel diagnostic platforms that incorporate proteomics and genetic sequencing, might help provide a quicker and more accurate diagnosis. Even with appropriate antimicrobial therapy, mortality is high and so attention has focused on adjunctive therapies; adjunctive corticosteroids are beneficial in certain circumstances. Any further improvements in outcome are likely to come from either modulation of the host response or novel approaches to therapy, rather than new antibiotics. Ultimately, the best hope to reduce the disease burden is with broadly protective vaccines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Contrasting ability to take up leucine and thymidine among freshwater bacterial groups: implications for bacterial production measurements

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, María Teresa; Hörtnagl, Paul; Sommaruga, Ruben

    2010-01-01

    We examined the ability of different freshwater bacterial groups to take up leucine and thymidine in two lakes. Utilization of both substrates by freshwater bacteria was examined at the community level by looking at bulk incorporation rates and at the single-cell level by combining fluorescent in situ hybridization and signal amplification by catalysed reporter deposition with microautoradiography. Our results showed that leucine was taken up by 70–80% of Bacteria-positive cells, whereas only 15–43% of Bacteria-positive cells were able to take up thymidine. When a saturating substrate concentration in combination with a short incubation was used, 80–90% of Betaproteobacteria and 67–79% of Actinobacteria were positive for leucine uptake, whereas thymidine was taken up by < 10% of Betaproteobacteria and by < 1% of the R-BT subgroup that dominated this bacterial group. Bacterial abundance was a good predictor of the relative contribution of bacterial groups to leucine uptake, whereas when thymidine was used Actinobacteria represented the large majority (> 80%) of the cells taking up this substrate. Increasing the substrate concentration to 100 nM did not affect the percentage of R-BT cells taking up leucine (> 90% even at low concentrations), but moderately increased the fraction of thymidine-positive R-BT cells to a maximum of 35% of the hybridized cells. Our results show that even at very high concentrations, thymidine is not taken up by all, otherwise active, bacterial cells. PMID:19725866

  6. Enzymatic hydrolysis of biomimetic bacterial cellulose-hemicellulose composites.

    PubMed

    Penttilä, Paavo A; Imai, Tomoya; Hemming, Jarl; Willför, Stefan; Sugiyama, Junji

    2018-06-15

    The production of biofuels and other chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass is limited by the inefficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis. Here a biomimetic composite material consisting of bacterial cellulose and wood-based hemicelluloses was used to study the effects of hemicelluloses on the enzymatic hydrolysis with a commercial cellulase mixture. Bacterial cellulose synthesized in the presence of hemicelluloses, especially xylan, was found to be more susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis than hemicellulose-free bacterial cellulose. The reason for the easier hydrolysis could be related to the nanoscale structure of the substrate, particularly the packing of cellulose microfibrils into ribbons or bundles. In addition, small-angle X-ray scattering was used to show that the average nanoscale morphology of bacterial cellulose remained unchanged during the enzymatic hydrolysis. The reported easier enzymatic hydrolysis of bacterial cellulose produced in the presence of wood-based xylan offers new insights to overcome biomass recalcitrance through genetic engineering. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Differential Effects of Anesthetics on Bacterial Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, Matthew; Koutsogiannaki, Sophia; Schaefers, Matthew; Babazada, Hasan; Liu, Renyu; Yuki, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    Volatile anesthetics have been in clinical use for a long period of time and are considered to be promiscuous by presumably interacting with several ion channels in the central nervous system to produce anesthesia. Because ion channels and their existing evolutionary analogues, ion transporters, are very important in various organisms, it is possible that volatile anesthetics may affect some bacteria. In this study, we hypothesized that volatile anesthetics could affect bacterial behaviors. We evaluated the impact of anesthetics on bacterial growth, motility (swimming and gliding) and biofilm formation of four common bacterial pathogens in vitro. We found that commonly used volatile anesthetics isoflurane and sevoflurane affected bacterial motility and biofilm formation without any effect on growth of the common bacterial pathogens studied here. Using available Escherichia coli gene deletion mutants of ion transporters and in silico molecular docking, we suggested that these altered behaviors might be at least partly via the interaction of volatile anesthetics with ion transporters. PMID:28099463

  8. Bacterial desorption from food container and food processing surfaces.

    PubMed

    McEldowney, S; Fletcher, M

    1988-03-01

    The desorption ofStaphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, and a coryneform from the surfaces of materials used for manufacturing food containers (glass, tin plate, and polypropylene) or postprocess canning factory conveyor belts (stainless steel and nylon) was investigated. The effect of time, pH, temperature, and adsorbed organic layers on desorption was studied.S. aureus did not detach from the substrata at any pH investigated (between pH 5 and 9).A. calcoaceticus and the coryneform in some cases detached, depending upon pH and substratum composition. The degree of bacterial detachment from the substrata was not related to bacterial respiration at experimental pH values. Bacterial desorption was not affected by temperature (4-30°C) nor by an adsorbed layer of peptone and yeast extract on the substrata. The results indicate that bacterial desorption, hence bacterial removal during cleaning or their transfer via liquids flowing over colonized surfaces, is likely to vary with the surface composition and the bacterial species colonizing the surfaces.

  9. Impairment of the Bacterial Biofilm Stability by Triclosan

    PubMed Central

    Hubas, Cédric; Behrens, Sebastian; Ricciardi, Francesco; Paterson, David M.

    2012-01-01

    The accumulation of the widely-used antibacterial and antifungal compound triclosan (TCS) in freshwaters raises concerns about the impact of this harmful chemical on the biofilms that are the dominant life style of microorganisms in aquatic systems. However, investigations to-date rarely go beyond effects at the cellular, physiological or morphological level. The present paper focuses on bacterial biofilms addressing the possible chemical impairment of their functionality, while also examining their substratum stabilization potential as one example of an important ecosystem service. The development of a bacterial assemblage of natural composition – isolated from sediments of the Eden Estuary (Scotland, UK) – on non-cohesive glass beads (<63 µm) and exposed to a range of triclosan concentrations (control, 2 – 100 µg L−1) was monitored over time by Magnetic Particle Induction (MagPI). In parallel, bacterial cell numbers, division rate, community composition (DGGE) and EPS (extracellular polymeric substances: carbohydrates and proteins) secretion were determined. While the triclosan exposure did not prevent bacterial settlement, biofilm development was increasingly inhibited by increasing TCS levels. The surface binding capacity (MagPI) of the assemblages was positively correlated to the microbial secreted EPS matrix. The EPS concentrations and composition (quantity and quality) were closely linked to bacterial growth, which was affected by enhanced TCS exposure. Furthermore, TCS induced significant changes in bacterial community composition as well as a significant decrease in bacterial diversity. The impairment of the stabilization potential of bacterial biofilm under even low, environmentally relevant TCS levels is of concern since the resistance of sediments to erosive forces has large implications for the dynamics of sediments and associated pollutant dispersal. In addition, the surface adhesive capacity of the biofilm acts as a sensitive measure of

  10. Risk factors for community-acquired bacterial meningitis.

    PubMed

    Lundbo, Lene Fogt; Benfield, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a significant burden of disease and mortality in all age groups worldwide despite the development of effective conjugated vaccines. The pathogenesis of bacterial meningitis is based on complex and incompletely understood host-pathogen interactions. Some of these are pathogen-specific, while some are shared between different bacteria. We searched the database PubMed to identify host risk factors for bacterial meningitis caused by the pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae type b, because they are three most common causative bacteria beyond the neonatal period. We describe a number of risk factors; including socioeconomic factors, age, genetic variation of the host and underlying medical conditions associated with increased susceptibility to invasive bacterial infections in both children and adults. As conjugated vaccines are available for these infections, it is of utmost importance to identify high risk patients to be able to prevent invasive disease.

  11. The Gut Microbiome and the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Galland, Leo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The human gut microbiome impacts human brain health in numerous ways: (1) Structural bacterial components such as lipopolysaccharides provide low-grade tonic stimulation of the innate immune system. Excessive stimulation due to bacterial dysbiosis, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, or increased intestinal permeability may produce systemic and/or central nervous system inflammation. (2) Bacterial proteins may cross-react with human antigens to stimulate dysfunctional responses of the adaptive immune system. (3) Bacterial enzymes may produce neurotoxic metabolites such as D-lactic acid and ammonia. Even beneficial metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids may exert neurotoxicity. (4) Gut microbes can produce hormones and neurotransmitters that are identical to those produced by humans. Bacterial receptors for these hormones influence microbial growth and virulence. (5) Gut bacteria directly stimulate afferent neurons of the enteric nervous system to send signals to the brain via the vagus nerve. Through these varied mechanisms, gut microbes shape the architecture of sleep and stress reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. They influence memory, mood, and cognition and are clinically and therapeutically relevant to a range of disorders, including alcoholism, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, and restless legs syndrome. Their role in multiple sclerosis and the neurologic manifestations of celiac disease is being studied. Nutritional tools for altering the gut microbiome therapeutically include changes in diet, probiotics, and prebiotics. PMID:25402818

  12. Probing Prokaryotic Social Behaviors with Bacterial “Lobster Traps”

    PubMed Central

    Connell, Jodi L.; Wessel, Aimee K.; Parsek, Matthew R.; Ellington, Andrew D.; Whiteley, Marvin; Shear, Jason B.

    2010-01-01

    Bacteria are social organisms that display distinct behaviors/phenotypes when present in groups. These behaviors include the abilities to construct antibiotic-resistant sessile biofilm communities and to communicate with small signaling molecules (quorum sensing [QS]). Our understanding of biofilms and QS arises primarily from in vitro studies of bacterial communities containing large numbers of cells, often greater than 108 bacteria; however, in nature, bacteria often reside in dense clusters (aggregates) consisting of significantly fewer cells. Indeed, bacterial clusters containing 101 to 105 cells are important for transmission of many bacterial pathogens. Here, we describe a versatile strategy for conducting mechanistic studies to interrogate the molecular processes controlling antibiotic resistance and QS-mediated virulence factor production in high-density bacterial clusters. This strategy involves enclosing a single bacterium within three-dimensional picoliter-scale microcavities (referred to as bacterial “lobster traps”) defined by walls that are permeable to nutrients, waste products, and other bioactive small molecules. Within these traps, bacteria divide normally into extremely dense (1012 cells/ml) clonal populations with final population sizes similar to that observed in naturally occurring bacterial clusters. Using these traps, we provide strong evidence that within low-cell-number/high-density bacterial clusters, QS is modulated not only by bacterial density but also by population size and flow rate of the surrounding medium. We also demonstrate that antibiotic resistance develops as cell density increases, with as few as ~150 confined bacteria exhibiting an antibiotic-resistant phenotype similar to biofilm bacteria. Together, these findings provide key insights into clinically relevant phenotypes in low-cell-number/high-density bacterial populations. PMID:21060734

  13. Community-Acquired Bacterial Meningitis in Alcoholic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Weisfelt, Martijn; de Gans, Jan; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2010-01-01

    Background Alcoholism is associated with susceptibility to infectious disease, particularly bacterial pneumonia. In the present study we described characteristics in alcoholic patients with bacterial meningitis and delineate the differences with findings in non-alcoholic adults with bacterial meningitis. Methods/Principal Findings This was a prospective nationwide observational cohort study including patients aged >16 years who had bacterial meningitis confirmed by culture of cerebrospinal fluid (696 episodes of bacterial meningitis occurring in 671 patients). Alcoholism was present in 27 of 686 recorded episodes of bacterial meningitis (4%) and alcoholics were more often male than non-alcoholics (82% vs 48%, P = 0.001). A higher proportion of alcoholics had underlying pneumonia (41% vs 11% P<0.001). Alcoholics were more likely to have meningitis due to infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae (70% vs 50%, P = 0.01) and Listeria monocytogenes (19% vs 4%, P = 0.005), whereas Neisseria meningitidis was more common in non-alcoholic patients (39% vs 4%, P = 0.01). A large proportion of alcoholics developed complications during clinical course (82% vs 62%, as compared with non-alcoholics; P = 0.04), often cardiorespiratory failure (52% vs 28%, as compared with non-alcoholics; P = 0.01). Alcoholic patients were at risk for unfavourable outcome (67% vs 33%, as compared with non-alcoholics; P<0.001). Conclusions/Significance Alcoholic patients are at high risk for complications resulting in high morbidity and mortality. They are especially at risk for cardiorespiratory failure due to underlying pneumonia, and therefore, aggressive supportive care may be crucial in the treatment of these patients. PMID:20161709

  14. Determinants of bacterial communities in Canadian agroforestry systems.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Samiran; Baah-Acheamfour, Mark; Carlyle, Cameron N; Bissett, Andrew; Richardson, Alan E; Siddique, Tariq; Bork, Edward W; Chang, Scott X

    2016-06-01

    Land-use change is one of the most important factors influencing soil microbial communities, which play a pivotal role in most biogeochemical and ecological processes. Using agroforestry systems as a model, this study examined the effects of land uses and edaphic properties on bacterial communities in three agroforestry types covering a 270 km soil-climate gradient in Alberta, Canada. Our results demonstrate that land-use patterns exert stronger effects on soil bacterial communities than soil zones in these agroforestry systems. Plots with trees in agroforestry systems promoted greater bacterial abundance and to some extent species richness, which was associated with more nutrient-rich soil resources. While Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria were the dominant bacterial phyla and subphyla across land uses, Arthrobacter, Acidobacteria_Gp16, Burkholderia, Rhodanobacter and Rhizobium were the keystone taxa in these agroforestry systems. Soil pH and carbon contents emerged as the major determinants of bacterial community characteristics. We found non-random co-occurrence and modular patterns of soil bacterial communities, and these patterns were controlled by edaphic factors and not their taxonomy. Overall, this study highlights the drivers and co-occurrence patterns of soil microbial communities in agroforestry systems. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. CHANGES IN BACTERIAL COMPOSITION OF BIOFILM IN A ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This study examined the development of bacterial biofilms within a metropolitan distribution system. The distribution system is fed with different source water (i.e., groundwater, GW and surface water, SW) and undergoes different treatment processes in separate facilities. The biofilm community was characterized using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and functional potential analysis, generated from total DNA extracted from coupons in biofilm annular reactors fed with onsite drinking water for up to eighteen months. Significant differences in the bacterial community structure were observed between GW and SW. Representatives that explained the dissimilarity between service areas were associated with Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes. After nine months the biofilm bacterial community from both areas were dominated by Mycobacterium species. The distribution of the dominant OTU (Mycobacterium) positively correlated with the drinking water distribution system (DWDS) temperature, but no clear relationship was seen with free chlorine residual, pH, turbidity or total organic carbon (TOC). The results suggest that biofilm microbial communities harbor distinct and diverse bacterial communities, and that source water, treatment processes and environmental conditions may play an important role in shaping the bacterial community in the distribution system. On the other hand, several bacterial groups were present i

  16. Phage Life Cycles Behind Bacterial Biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Olszak, Tomasz; Latka, Agnieszka; Roszniowski, Bartosz; Valvano, Miguel A; Drulis-Kawa, Zuzanna

    2017-11-24

    Bacteriophages (phages or bacterial viruses) are the most abundant biological entities in our planet; their influence reaches far beyond the microorganisms they parasitize. Phages are present in every environment and shape up every bacterial population in both active and passive ways. They participate in the circulation of organic matter and drive the evolution of microorganisms by horizontal gene transfer at unprecedented scales. The mass flow of genetic information in the microbial world influences the biosphere and poses challenges for science and medicine. The genetic flow, however, depends on the fate of the viral DNA injected into the bacterial cell. The archetypal notion of phages only engaging in predatorprey relationships is slowly fading. Because of their varied development cycles, environmental conditions, and the diversity of microorganisms they parasitize, phages form a dense and highly complex web of dependencies, which has important consequences for life on Earth. The sophisticated phage-bacteria interplay includes both aggressive action (bacterial lysis) and "diplomatic negotiations" (prophage domestication). Here, we review the most important mechanisms of interactions between phages and bacteria and their evolutionary consequences influencing their biodiversity. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Bacterial enzymes involved in lignin degradation.

    PubMed

    de Gonzalo, Gonzalo; Colpa, Dana I; Habib, Mohamed H M; Fraaije, Marco W

    2016-10-20

    Lignin forms a large part of plant biomass. It is a highly heterogeneous polymer of 4-hydroxyphenylpropanoid units and is embedded within polysaccharide polymers forming lignocellulose. Lignin provides strength and rigidity to plants and is rather resilient towards degradation. To improve the (bio)processing of lignocellulosic feedstocks, more effective degradation methods of lignin are in demand. Nature has found ways to fully degrade lignin through the production of dedicated ligninolytic enzyme systems. While such enzymes have been well thoroughly studied for ligninolytic fungi, only in recent years biochemical studies on bacterial enzymes capable of lignin modification have intensified. This has revealed several types of enzymes available to bacteria that enable them to act on lignin. Two major classes of bacterial lignin-modifying enzymes are DyP-type peroxidases and laccases. Yet, recently also several other bacterial enzymes have been discovered that seem to play a role in lignin modifications. In the present review, we provide an overview of recent advances in the identification and use of bacterial enzymes acting on lignin or lignin-derived products. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Temporal Relationships Exist Between Cecum, Ileum, and Litter Bacterial Microbiomes in a Commercial Turkey Flock, and Subtherapeutic Penicillin Treatment Impacts Ileum Bacterial Community Establishment

    PubMed Central

    Danzeisen, Jessica L.; Clayton, Jonathan B.; Huang, Hu; Knights, Dan; McComb, Brian; Hayer, Shivdeep S.; Johnson, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Gut health is paramount for commercial poultry production, and improved methods to assess gut health are critically needed to better understand how the avian gastrointestinal tract matures over time. One important aspect of gut health is the totality of bacterial populations inhabiting different sites of the avian gastrointestinal tract, and associations of these populations with the poultry farm environment, since these bacteria are thought to drive metabolism and prime the developing host immune system. In this study, a single flock of commercial turkeys was followed over the course of 12 weeks to examine bacterial microbiome inhabiting the ceca, ileum, and corresponding poultry litter. Furthermore, the effects of low-dose, growth-promoting penicillin treatment (50 g/ton) in feed on the ileum bacterial microbiome were also examined during the early brood period. The cecum and ileum bacterial communities of turkeys were distinct, yet shifted in parallel to one another over time during bird maturation. Corresponding poultry litter was also distinct yet more closely represented the ileal bacterial populations than cecal bacterial populations, and also changed parallel to ileum bacterial populations over time. Penicillin applied at low dose in feed significantly enhanced early weight gain in commercial poults, and this correlated with predictable shifts in the ileum bacterial populations in control versus treatment groups. Overall, this study identified the dynamics of the turkey gastrointestinal microbiome during development, correlations between bacterial populations in the gastrointestinal tract and the litter environment, and the impact of low-dose penicillin on modulation of bacterial communities in the ileum. Such modulations provide a target for alternatives to low-dose antibiotics. PMID:26664983

  19. Cognitive outcome in adults after bacterial meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Hoogman, Martine; van de Beek, Diederik; Weisfelt, Martijn; de Gans, Jan; Schmand, Ben

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate cognitive outcome in adult survivors of bacterial meningitis. Methods Data from three prospective multicentre studies were pooled and reanalysed, involving 155 adults surviving bacterial meningitis (79 after pneumococcal and 76 after meningococcal meningitis) and 72 healthy controls. Results Cognitive impairment was found in 32% of patients and this proportion was similar for survivors of pneumococcal and meningococcal meningitis. Survivors of pneumococcal meningitis performed worse on memory tasks (p<0.001) and tended to be cognitively slower than survivors of meningococcal meningitis (p = 0.08). We found a diffuse pattern of cognitive impairment in which cognitive speed played the most important role. Cognitive performance was not related to time since meningitis; however, there was a positive association between time since meningitis and self‐reported physical impairment (p<0.01). The frequency of cognitive impairment and the numbers of abnormal test results for patients with and without adjunctive dexamethasone were similar. Conclusions Adult survivors of bacterial meningitis are at risk of cognitive impairment, which consists mainly of cognitive slowness. The loss of cognitive speed is stable over time after bacterial meningitis; however, there is a significant improvement in subjective physical impairment in the years after bacterial meningitis. The use of dexamethasone was not associated with cognitive impairment. PMID:17353256

  20. Emerging bacterial pathogens: the past and beyond.

    PubMed

    Vouga, M; Greub, G

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1950s, medical communities have been facing with emerging and reemerging infectious diseases, and emerging pathogens are now considered to be a major microbiologic public health threat. In this review, we focus on bacterial emerging diseases and explore factors involved in their emergence as well as future challenges. We identified 26 major emerging and reemerging infectious diseases of bacterial origin; most of them originated either from an animal and are considered to be zoonoses or from water sources. Major contributing factors in the emergence of these bacterial infections are: (1) development of new diagnostic tools, such as improvements in culture methods, development of molecular techniques and implementation of mass spectrometry in microbiology; (2) increase in human exposure to bacterial pathogens as a result of sociodemographic and environmental changes; and (3) emergence of more virulent bacterial strains and opportunistic infections, especially affecting immunocompromised populations. A precise definition of their implications in human disease is challenging and requires the comprehensive integration of microbiological, clinical and epidemiologic aspects as well as the use of experimental models. It is now urgent to allocate financial resources to gather international data to provide a better understanding of the clinical relevance of these waterborne and zoonotic emerging diseases. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. BACTERIAL WATERBORNE PATHOGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bacterial pathogens are examples of classical etiological agents of waterborne disease. While these agents no longer serve as major threats to U.S. water supplies, they are still important pathogens in areas with substandard sanitation and poor water treatment facilities. In th...

  2. Bacterial leaf spot

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bacterial leaf spot has been reported in Australia (Queensland), Egypt, El Salvador, India, Japan, Nicaragua, Sudan, and the United States (Florida, Iowa, Kansas, Maryland, and Wisconsin). It occasionally causes locally severe defoliation and post-emergence damping-off and stunting. The disease is...

  3. Structure of bacterial lipopolysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Caroff, Martine; Karibian, Doris

    2003-11-14

    Bacterial lipopolysaccharides are the major components of the outer surface of Gram-negative bacteria They are often of interest in medicine for their immunomodulatory properties. In small amounts they can be beneficial, but in larger amounts they may cause endotoxic shock. Although they share a common architecture, their structural details exert a strong influence on their activity. These molecules comprise: a lipid moiety, called lipid A, which is considered to be the endotoxic component, a glycosidic part consisting of a core of approximately 10 monosaccharides and, in "smooth-type" lipopolysaccharides, a third region, named O-chain, consisting of repetitive subunits of one to eight monosaccharides responsible for much of the immunospecificity of the bacterial cell.

  4. Compatible bacterial mixture, tolerant to desiccation, improves maize plant growth.

    PubMed

    Molina-Romero, Dalia; Baez, Antonino; Quintero-Hernández, Verónica; Castañeda-Lucio, Miguel; Fuentes-Ramírez, Luis Ernesto; Bustillos-Cristales, María Del Rocío; Rodríguez-Andrade, Osvaldo; Morales-García, Yolanda Elizabeth; Munive, Antonio; Muñoz-Rojas, Jesús

    2017-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) increase plant growth and crop productivity. The inoculation of plants with a bacterial mixture (consortium) apparently provides greater benefits to plant growth than inoculation with a single bacterial strain. In the present work, a bacterial consortium was formulated containing four compatible and desiccation-tolerant strains with potential as PGPR. The formulation had one moderately (Pseudomonas putida KT2440) and three highly desiccation-tolerant (Sphingomonas sp. OF178, Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 and Acinetobacter sp. EMM02) strains. The four bacterial strains were able to adhere to seeds and colonize the rhizosphere of plants when applied in both mono-inoculation and multi-inoculation treatments, showing that they can also coexist without antagonistic effects in association with plants. The effects of the bacterial consortium on the growth of blue maize were evaluated. Seeds inoculated with either individual bacterial strains or the bacterial consortium were subjected to two experimental conditions before sowing: normal hydration or desiccation. In general, inoculation with the bacterial consortium increased the shoot and root dry weight, plant height and plant diameter compared to the non-inoculated control or mono-inoculation treatments. The bacterial consortium formulated in this work had greater benefits for blue maize plants even when the inoculated seeds underwent desiccation stress before germination, making this formulation attractive for future field applications.

  5. Compatible bacterial mixture, tolerant to desiccation, improves maize plant growth

    PubMed Central

    Molina-Romero, Dalia; Baez, Antonino; Quintero-Hernández, Verónica; Castañeda-Lucio, Miguel; Fuentes-Ramírez, Luis Ernesto; Bustillos-Cristales, María del Rocío; Rodríguez-Andrade, Osvaldo; Morales-García, Yolanda Elizabeth; Munive, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) increase plant growth and crop productivity. The inoculation of plants with a bacterial mixture (consortium) apparently provides greater benefits to plant growth than inoculation with a single bacterial strain. In the present work, a bacterial consortium was formulated containing four compatible and desiccation-tolerant strains with potential as PGPR. The formulation had one moderately (Pseudomonas putida KT2440) and three highly desiccation-tolerant (Sphingomonas sp. OF178, Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 and Acinetobacter sp. EMM02) strains. The four bacterial strains were able to adhere to seeds and colonize the rhizosphere of plants when applied in both mono-inoculation and multi-inoculation treatments, showing that they can also coexist without antagonistic effects in association with plants. The effects of the bacterial consortium on the growth of blue maize were evaluated. Seeds inoculated with either individual bacterial strains or the bacterial consortium were subjected to two experimental conditions before sowing: normal hydration or desiccation. In general, inoculation with the bacterial consortium increased the shoot and root dry weight, plant height and plant diameter compared to the non-inoculated control or mono-inoculation treatments. The bacterial consortium formulated in this work had greater benefits for blue maize plants even when the inoculated seeds underwent desiccation stress before germination, making this formulation attractive for future field applications. PMID:29117218

  6. Marine bacterial degradation of brominated methanes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodwin, K.D.; Lidstrom, M.E.; Oremland, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    Brominated methanes are ozone-depleting compounds whose natural sources include marine algae such as kelp. Brominated methane degradation by bacteria was investigated to address whether bacterial processes might effect net emission of these compounds to the atmosphere. Bacteria in seawater collected from California kelp beds degraded CH2Br2 but not CHBr3. Specific inhibitors showed that methanotrophs and nitrifiers did not significantly contribute to CH2Br2 removal. A seawater enrichment culture oxidized 14CH2Br2 to 14CO2 as well as 14CH3Br to 14CO2. The rates of CH2Br2 degradation in laboratory experiments suggest that bacterial degradation of CH2Br2 in a kelp bed accounts for <1% of the CH2Br2 produced by the kelp. However, the half-life of CH2Br2 due to bacterial removal appears faster than hydrolysis and within an order of magnitude of volatilization to the atmosphere.Brominated methanes are ozone-depleting compounds whose natural sources include marine algae such as kelp. Brominated methane degradation by bacteria was investigated to address whether bacterial processes might effect net emission of these compounds to the atmosphere. Bacteria in seawater collected from California kelp beds degraded CH2Br2 but not CHBr3. Specific inhibitors showed that methanotrophs and nitrifiers did not significantly contribute to CH2Br2 removal. A seawater enrichment culture oxidized 14CH2Br2 to 14CO2 as well as 14CH3Br to 14CO2. The rates of CH2Br2 degradation in laboratory experiments suggest that bacterial degradation of CH2Br2 in a kelp bed accounts for <1% of the CH2Br2 produced by the kelp. However, the half-life of CH2Br2 due to bacterial removal appears faster than hydrolysis and within an order of magnitude of volatilization to the atmosphere.

  7. Inflammatory response in mixed viral-bacterial community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Bello, Salvador; Mincholé, Elisa; Fandos, Sergio; Lasierra, Ana B; Ruiz, María A; Simon, Ana L; Panadero, Carolina; Lapresta, Carlos; Menendez, Rosario; Torres, Antoni

    2014-07-29

    The role of mixed pneumonia (virus+bacteria) in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has been described in recent years. However, it is not known whether the systemic inflammatory profile is different compared to monomicrobial CAP. We wanted to investigate this profile of mixed viral-bacterial infection and to compare it to monomicrobial bacterial or viral CAP. We measured baseline serum procalcitonin (PCT), C reactive protein (CRP), and white blood cell (WBC) count in 171 patients with CAP with definite etiology admitted to a tertiary hospital: 59 (34.5%) bacterial, 66 (39.%) viral and 46 (27%) mixed (viral-bacterial). Serum PCT levels were higher in mixed and bacterial CAP compared to viral CAP. CRP levels were higher in mixed CAP compared to the other groups. CRP was independently associated with mixed CAP. CRP levels below 26 mg/dL were indicative of an etiology other than mixed in 83% of cases, but the positive predictive value was 45%. PCT levels over 2.10 ng/mL had a positive predictive value for bacterial-involved CAP versus viral CAP of 78%, but the negative predictive value was 48%. Mixed CAP has a different inflammatory pattern compared to bacterial or viral CAP. High CRP levels may be useful for clinicians to suspect mixed CAP.

  8. Normal bacterial flora from vaginas of Criollo Limonero cows.

    PubMed

    Zambrano-Nava, Sunny; Boscán-Ocando, Julio; Nava, Jexenia

    2011-02-01

    In order to describe the normal bacterial flora in vaginas of Criollo Limonero cows, 51 healthy multiparous cows, at least 90-day postpartum, were selected. Duplicated swabs (N = 102) were taken from the vaginal fornix of cows to perform aerobic and anaerobic cultures as well as conventional biochemical tests. Out of 102 swabs, bacterial growth was obtained in 55 (53.9%) while the remaining 47 (46.1%) did not exhibited any bacterial growth. Of the 55 bacterial growths, 23 (41.8%) were aerobic whereas 32 (58.1%) were anaerobic. Likewise, 29 (52.72%) of bacterial growths were pure and 26 (47.27%) were mixed. Under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, Gram positive bacteria were predominant (81.82% and 73.08%, respectively) over Gram negative bacteria (18.18% and 26.92%, respectively). Isolated bacteria were Arcanobacterium pyogenes (22.92%), Staphylococcus aureus (15.63%), Staphylococcus coagulase negative (17.71%), Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (6.25%), Bacteroides spp. (13.54%), and Peptostreptococcus spp. (7.29%). In conclusion, normal vaginal bacterial flora of Criollo Limonero cows was predominantly Gram positive and included A. pyogenes, S. aureus, coagulase negative Staphylococcus, E. rhusiopathiae, Bacteroides spp., and Peptostreptococcus spp. In Criollo Limonero cattle, adaptive aspects such as development of humoral and physical mechanisms for defense, and bacterial adaptation to host deserve research attention.

  9. Applications of bacterial cellulose and its composites in biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Rajwade, J M; Paknikar, K M; Kumbhar, J V

    2015-03-01

    Bacterial cellulose produced by few but specific microbial genera is an extremely pure natural exopolysaccharide. Besides providing adhesive properties and a competitive advantage to the cellulose over-producer, bacterial cellulose confers UV protection, ensures maintenance of an aerobic environment, retains moisture, protects against heavy metal stress, etc. This unique nanostructured matrix is being widely explored for various medical and nonmedical applications. It can be produced in various shapes and forms because of which it finds varied uses in biomedicine. The attributes of bacterial cellulose such as biocompatibility, haemocompatibility, mechanical strength, microporosity and biodegradability with its unique surface chemistry make it ideally suited for a plethora of biomedical applications. This review highlights these qualities of bacterial cellulose in detail with emphasis on reports that prove its utility in biomedicine. It also gives an in-depth account of various biomedical applications ranging from implants and scaffolds for tissue engineering, carriers for drug delivery, wound-dressing materials, etc. that are reported until date. Besides, perspectives on limitations of commercialisation of bacterial cellulose have been presented. This review is also an update on the variety of low-cost substrates used for production of bacterial cellulose and its nonmedical applications and includes patents and commercial products based on bacterial cellulose.

  10. Cytosolic Access of Intracellular Bacterial Pathogens: The Shigella Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Mellouk, Nora; Enninga, Jost

    2016-01-01

    Shigella is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen, which causes bacillary dysentery in humans. A crucial step of Shigella infection is its invasion of epithelial cells. Using a type III secretion system, Shigella injects several bacterial effectors ultimately leading to bacterial internalization within a vacuole. Then, Shigella escapes rapidly from the vacuole, it replicates within the cytosol and spreads from cell-to-cell. The molecular mechanism of vacuolar rupture used by Shigella has been studied in some detail during the recent years and new paradigms are emerging about the underlying molecular events. For decades, bacterial effector proteins were portrayed as main actors inducing vacuolar rupture. This includes the effector/translocators IpaB and IpaC. More recently, this has been challenged and an implication of the host cell in the process of vacuolar rupture has been put forward. This includes the bacterial subversion of host trafficking regulators, such as the Rab GTPase Rab11. The involvement of the host in determining bacterial vacuolar integrity has also been found for other bacterial pathogens, particularly for Salmonella. Here, we will discuss our current view of host factor and pathogen effector implications during Shigella vacuolar rupture and the steps leading to it. PMID:27092296

  11. Bacterial carbon utilization in vertical subsurface flow constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Tietz, Alexandra; Langergraber, Günter; Watzinger, Andrea; Haberl, Raimund; Kirschner, Alexander K T

    2008-03-01

    Subsurface vertical flow constructed wetlands with intermittent loading are considered as state of the art and can comply with stringent effluent requirements. It is usually assumed that microbial activity in the filter body of constructed wetlands, responsible for the removal of carbon and nitrogen, relies mainly on bacterially mediated transformations. However, little quantitative information is available on the distribution of bacterial biomass and production in the "black-box" constructed wetland. The spatial distribution of bacterial carbon utilization, based on bacterial (14)C-leucine incorporation measurements, was investigated for the filter body of planted and unplanted indoor pilot-scale constructed wetlands, as well as for a planted outdoor constructed wetland. A simple mass-balance approach was applied to explain the bacterially catalysed organic matter degradation in this system by comparing estimated bacterial carbon utilization rates with simultaneously measured carbon reduction values. The pilot-scale constructed wetlands proved to be a suitable model system for investigating microbial carbon utilization in constructed wetlands. Under an ideal operating mode, the bulk of bacterial productivity occurred within the first 10cm of the filter body. Plants seemed to have no significant influence on productivity and biomass of bacteria, as well as on wastewater total organic carbon removal.

  12. Proteome analysis of Arabidopsis seedlings exposed to bacterial volatiles.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Young Sang; Ryu, Choong-Min; Lee, Soohyun; Park, Hyo Bee; Han, Ki Soo; Lee, Jung Han; Lee, Kyunghee; Chung, Woo Sik; Jeong, Mi-Jeong; Kim, Hee Kyu; Bae, Dong-Won

    2010-11-01

    Plant root-associated bacteria (rhizobacteria) elicit plant basal immunity referred to as induced systemic resistance (ISR) against multiple pathogens. Among multi-bacterial determinants involving such ISR, the induction of ISR and promotion of growth by bacterial volatile compounds was previously reported. To exploit global de novo expression of plant proteins by bacterial volatiles, proteomic analysis was performed after exposure of Arabidopsis plants to the rhizobacterium Bacillus subtilis GB03. Ethylene biosynthesis enzymes were significantly up-regulated. Analysis by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction confirmed that ethylene biosynthesis-related genes SAM-2, ACS4, ACS12, and ACO2 as well as ethylene response genes, ERF1, GST2, and CHIB were up-regulated by the exposure to bacterial volatiles. More interestingly, the emission of bacterial volatiles significantly up-regulated both key defense mechanisms mediated by jasmonic acid and salicylic acid signaling pathways. In addition, high accumulation of antioxidant proteins also provided evidence of decreased sensitivity to reactive oxygen species during the elicitation of ISR by bacterial volatiles. The present results suggest that the proteomic analysis of plant defense responses in bacterial volatile-mediated ISR can reveal the mechanisms of plant basal defenses orchestrated by endogenous ethylene production pathways and the generation of reactive oxygen species.

  13. Sugarbeet Cultivar Evaluation for Bacterial Root Rot

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bacterial root rot of sugarbeet caused by Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum is a disease problem recently described in the United States. To ameliorate the impact of bacterial root rot on sucrose loss in the field, storage piles, and factories, studies were conducted to establish an assa...

  14. Isolation of cell-free bacterial inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Carmona, Escarlata; Cano-Garrido, Olivia; Seras-Franzoso, Joaquin; Villaverde, Antonio; García-Fruitós, Elena

    2010-09-17

    Bacterial inclusion bodies are submicron protein clusters usually found in recombinant bacteria that have been traditionally considered as undesirable products from protein production processes. However, being fully biocompatible, they have been recently characterized as nanoparticulate inert materials useful as scaffolds for tissue engineering, with potentially wider applicability in biomedicine and material sciences. Current protocols for inclusion body isolation from Escherichia coli usually offer between 95 to 99% of protein recovery, what in practical terms, might imply extensive bacterial cell contamination, not compatible with the use of inclusion bodies in biological interfaces. Using an appropriate combination of chemical and mechanical cell disruption methods we have established a convenient procedure for the recovery of bacterial inclusion bodies with undetectable levels of viable cell contamination, below 10⁻¹ cfu/ml, keeping the particulate organization of these aggregates regarding size and protein folding features. The application of the developed protocol allows obtaining bacterial free inclusion bodies suitable for use in mammalian cell cultures and other biological interfaces.

  15. Bacterial computing with engineered populations.

    PubMed

    Amos, Martyn; Axmann, Ilka Maria; Blüthgen, Nils; de la Cruz, Fernando; Jaramillo, Alfonso; Rodriguez-Paton, Alfonso; Simmel, Friedrich

    2015-07-28

    We describe strategies for the construction of bacterial computing platforms by describing a number of results from the recently completed bacterial computing with engineered populations project. In general, the implementation of such systems requires a framework containing various components such as intracellular circuits, single cell input/output and cell-cell interfacing, as well as extensive analysis. In this overview paper, we describe our approach to each of these, and suggest possible areas for future research. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Bacterial vaginosis in threatened preterm, preterm and term labour.

    PubMed

    Chawanpaiboon, Saifon; Pimol, Kanjana

    2010-12-01

    To present the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in threatened preterm, preterm, and term labor and results after tre