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Sample records for bacterial transcription initiation

  1. Initial Events in Bacterial Transcription Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Ruff, Emily F.; Record, M. Thomas; Artsimovitch, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Transcription initiation is a highly regulated step of gene expression. Here, we discuss the series of large conformational changes set in motion by initial specific binding of bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) to promoter DNA and their relevance for regulation. Bending and wrapping of the upstream duplex facilitates bending of the downstream duplex into the active site cleft, nucleating opening of 13 bp in the cleft. The rate-determining opening step, driven by binding free energy, forms an unstable open complex, probably with the template strand in the active site. At some promoters, this initial open complex is greatly stabilized by rearrangements of the discriminator region between the −10 element and +1 base of the nontemplate strand and of mobile in-cleft and downstream elements of RNAP. The rate of open complex formation is regulated by effects on the rapidly-reversible steps preceding DNA opening, while open complex lifetime is regulated by effects on the stabilization of the initial open complex. Intrinsic DNA opening-closing appears less regulated. This noncovalent mechanism and its regulation exhibit many analogies to mechanisms of enzyme catalysis. PMID:26023916

  2. Structural Basis of Transcription Initiation by Bacterial RNA Polymerase Holoenzyme*

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Ritwika S.; Warner, Brittany A.; Molodtsov, Vadim; Pupov, Danil; Esyunina, Daria; Fernández-Tornero, Carlos; Kulbachinskiy, Andrey; Murakami, Katsuhiko S.

    2014-01-01

    The bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme containing σ factor initiates transcription at specific promoter sites by de novo RNA priming, the first step of RNA synthesis where RNAP accepts two initiating ribonucleoside triphosphates (iNTPs) and performs the first phosphodiester bond formation. We present the structure of de novo transcription initiation complex that reveals unique contacts of the iNTPs bound at the transcription start site with the template DNA and also with RNAP and demonstrate the importance of these contacts for transcription initiation. To get further insight into the mechanism of RNA priming, we determined the structure of initially transcribing complex of RNAP holoenzyme with 6-mer RNA, obtained by in crystallo transcription approach. The structure highlights RNAP-RNA contacts that stabilize the short RNA transcript in the active site and demonstrates that the RNA 5′-end displaces σ region 3.2 from its position near the active site, which likely plays a key role in σ ejection during the initiation-to-elongation transition. Given the structural conservation of the RNAP active site, the mechanism of de novo RNA priming appears to be conserved in all cellular RNAPs. PMID:24973216

  3. Structural basis of transcription initiation by bacterial RNA polymerase holoenzyme.

    PubMed

    Basu, Ritwika S; Warner, Brittany A; Molodtsov, Vadim; Pupov, Danil; Esyunina, Daria; Fernández-Tornero, Carlos; Kulbachinskiy, Andrey; Murakami, Katsuhiko S

    2014-08-29

    The bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme containing σ factor initiates transcription at specific promoter sites by de novo RNA priming, the first step of RNA synthesis where RNAP accepts two initiating ribonucleoside triphosphates (iNTPs) and performs the first phosphodiester bond formation. We present the structure of de novo transcription initiation complex that reveals unique contacts of the iNTPs bound at the transcription start site with the template DNA and also with RNAP and demonstrate the importance of these contacts for transcription initiation. To get further insight into the mechanism of RNA priming, we determined the structure of initially transcribing complex of RNAP holoenzyme with 6-mer RNA, obtained by in crystallo transcription approach. The structure highlights RNAP-RNA contacts that stabilize the short RNA transcript in the active site and demonstrates that the RNA 5'-end displaces σ region 3.2 from its position near the active site, which likely plays a key role in σ ejection during the initiation-to-elongation transition. Given the structural conservation of the RNAP active site, the mechanism of de novo RNA priming appears to be conserved in all cellular RNAPs. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. A bacteriophage transcription regulator inhibits bacterial transcription initiation by σ-factor displacement.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing; Shadrin, Andrey; Sheppard, Carol; Mekler, Vladimir; Xu, Yingqi; Severinov, Konstantin; Matthews, Steve; Wigneshweraraj, Sivaramesh

    2014-04-01

    Bacteriophages (phages) appropriate essential processes of bacterial hosts to benefit their own development. The multisubunit bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAp) enzyme, which catalyses DNA transcription, is targeted by phage-encoded transcription regulators that selectively modulate its activity. Here, we describe the structural and mechanistic basis for the inhibition of bacterial RNAp by the transcription regulator P7 encoded by Xanthomonas oryzae phage Xp10. We reveal that P7 uses a two-step mechanism to simultaneously interact with the catalytic β and β' subunits of the bacterial RNAp and inhibits transcription initiation by inducing the displacement of the σ(70)-factor on initial engagement of RNAp with promoter DNA. The new mode of interaction with and inhibition mechanism of bacterial RNAp by P7 underscore the remarkable variety of mechanisms evolved by phages to interfere with host transcription.

  5. The interaction between bacterial transcription factors and RNA polymerase during the transition from initiation to elongation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao; Lewis, Peter J

    2010-01-01

    There are three stages of transcription: initiation, elongation and termination, and traditionally there has been a clear distinction between the stages. The specificity factor sigma is completely released from bacterial RNA polymerase after initiation, and then recycled for another round of transcription. Elongation factors then associate with the polymerase followed by termination factors (where necessary). These factors dissociate prior to initiation of a new round of transcription. However, there is growing evidence suggesting that sigma factors can be retained in the elongation complex. The structure of bacterial RNAP in complex with an essential elongation factor NusA has recently been published, which suggested rather than competing for the major σ binding site, NusA binds to a discrete region on RNAP. A model was proposed to help explain the way in which both factors could be associated with RNAP during the transition from transcription initiation to elongation.

  6. Role of the σ54 Activator Interacting Domain in Bacterial Transcription Initiation

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, Alexander R.; Wemmer, David E.

    2016-10-11

    Bacterial sigma factors are subunits of RNA polymerase that direct the holoenzyme to specific sets of promoters in the genome and are a central element of regulating transcription. Most polymerase holoenzymes open the promoter and initiate transcription rapidly after binding. However, polymerase containing the members of the σ54 family must be acted on by a transcriptional activator before DNA opening and initiation occur. A key domain in these transcriptional activators forms a hexameric AAA + ATPase that acts through conformational changes brought on by ATP hydrolysis. Contacts between the transcriptional activator and σ54 are primarily made through an N-terminal σ54 activator interacting domain (AID). To better understand this mechanism of bacterial transcription initiation, we characterized the σ54 AID by NMR spectroscopy and other biophysical methods and show that it is an intrinsically disordered domain in σ54 alone. In this paper, we identified a minimal construct of the Aquifex aeolicus σ54 AID that consists of two predicted helices and retains native-like binding affinity for the transcriptional activator NtrC1. Using the NtrC1 ATPase domain, bound with the non-hydrolyzable ATP analog ADP-beryllium fluoride, we studied the NtrC1–σ54 AID complex using NMR spectroscopy. We show that the σ54 AID becomes structured after associating with the core loops of the transcriptional activators in their ATP state and that the primary site of the interaction is the first predicted helix. Finally, understanding this complex, formed as the first step toward initiation, will help unravel the mechanism of σ54 bacterial transcription initiation.

  7. STATIC AND KINETIC SITE-SPECIFIC PROTEIN-DNA PHOTOCROSSLINKING: ANALYSIS OF BACTERIAL TRANSCRIPTION INITIATION COMPLEXES

    PubMed Central

    Naryshkin, Nikolai; Druzhinin, Sergei; Revyakin, Andrei; Kim, Younggyu; Mekler, Vladimir; Ebright, Richard H.

    2009-01-01

    Static site-specific protein-DNA photocrosslinking permits identification of protein-DNA interactions within multiprotein-DNA complexes. Kinetic site-specific protein-DNA photocrosslinking--involving rapid-quench-flow mixing and pulsed-laser irradiation--permits elucidation of pathways and kinetics of formation of protein-DNA interactions within multiprotein-DNA complexes. We present detailed protocols for application of static and kinetic site-specific protein-DNA photocrosslinking to bacterial transcription initiation complexes. PMID:19378179

  8. Genetic networks controlled by the bacterial replication initiator and transcription factor DnaA in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Washington, Tracy A; Smith, Janet L; Grossman, Alan D

    2017-10-01

    DnaA is the widely conserved bacterial AAA+ ATPase that functions as both the replication initiator and a transcription factor. In many organisms, DnaA controls expression of its own gene and likely several others during growth and in response to replication stress. To evaluate the effects of DnaA on gene expression, separate from its role in replication initiation, we analyzed changes in mRNA levels in Bacillus subtilis cells with and without dnaA, using engineered strains in which dnaA is not essential. We found that dnaA was required for many of the changes in gene expression in response to replication stress. We also found that dnaA indirectly affected expression of several regulons during growth, including those controlled by the transcription factors Spo0A, AbrB, PhoP, SinR, RemA, Rok and YvrH. These effects were largely mediated by the effects of DnaA on expression of sda. DnaA activates transcription of sda, and Sda inhibits histidine protein kinases required for activation of the transcription factor Spo0A. We also found that loss of dnaA caused a decrease in the development of genetic competence. Together, our results indicate that DnaA plays an important role in modulating cell physiology, separate from its role in replication initiation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. [Regulation of bacterial transcription elongation].

    PubMed

    Proshkin, S A; Mironov, A S

    2011-01-01

    The elongation complex, which involves RNA polymerase, DNA template and nascent RNA, is a central intermediate in transcription cycle. It is elongation complex that represents the main target for the action of different regulatory factors. Over the past several years, many structural and biochemical data have been obtained that shed light upon the molecular details of RNA polymerase function. Cooperation between RNA polymerase elongation complex and translating ribosome was established recently. Here we discuss the mechanisms of the regulation of bacterial transcription elongation.

  10. A non-bacterial transcription factor inhibits bacterial transcription by a multipronged mechanism.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Carol; James, Ellen; Barton, Geraint; Matthews, Stephen; Severinov, Konstantin; Wigneshweraraj, Sivaramesh

    2013-04-01

    The process of transcription initiation is the major target for regulation of gene expression in bacteria and is performed by a multi-subunit RNA polymerase enzyme (RNAp). A complex network of regulatory elements controls the activity of the RNAp to fine-tune transcriptional output. Thus, RNAp is a nexus for controlling bacterial gene expression at the transcription level. Many bacteriophages, viruses that infect bacteria, encode transcription factors that specifically target and modulate the activity of the host RNAp and, thereby, facilitate the acquisition of the host bacteria by the phage. Here, we describe the modus operandi of a T7 bacteriophage-encoded small protein called Gp2 and define Gp2 as a non-bacterial regulator of bacterial transcription.

  11. Antibiotics trapping transcription initiation intermediates

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Promoter DNA melting, culminating in the loading of the single-stranded DNA template into the RNA polymerase active site, is a key step in transcription initiation. Recently, the first transcription inhibitors found to block distinct steps of promoter melting were characterized. Here, the impact of these studies is discussed with respect to the current models of transcription initiation. PMID:21468230

  12. Structural basis of transcription by bacterial and eukaryotic RNA polymerases.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Shun-ichi; Tagami, Shunsuke; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2012-02-01

    DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP) is responsible for cellular gene transcription. Although crystallographic studies on prokaryotic and eukaryotic RNAPs have elucidated the basic RNAP architectures, the structural details of many essential events during transcription initiation, elongation, and termination are still largely unknown. Recent crystallographic studies on a bacterial RNAP and yeast RNAP II have revealed different RNAP structural states from that of the normal transcribing complex, as well as the basis of transcription factor functions, advancing our understanding of transcription. These studies have highlighted unexpected similarities in many fundamental aspects of transcription mechanisms between the bacterial and eukaryotic transcription machineries. Remarkable differences also exist between the bacterial and eukaryotic transcription systems, suggesting directions for future studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Structural basis of transcription initiation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Feng, Yu; Chatterjee, Sujoy; Tuske, Steve; Ho, Mary X; Arnold, Eddy; Ebright, Richard H

    2012-11-23

    During transcription initiation, RNA polymerase (RNAP) binds and unwinds promoter DNA to form an RNAP-promoter open complex. We have determined crystal structures at 2.9 and 3.0 Å resolution of functional transcription initiation complexes comprising Thermus thermophilus RNA polymerase, σ(A), and a promoter DNA fragment corresponding to the transcription bubble and downstream double-stranded DNA of the RNAP-promoter open complex. The structures show that σ recognizes the -10 element and discriminator element through interactions that include the unstacking and insertion into pockets of three DNA bases and that RNAP recognizes the -4/+2 region through interactions that include the unstacking and insertion into a pocket of the +2 base. The structures further show that interactions between σ and template-strand single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) preorganize template-strand ssDNA to engage the RNAP active center.

  14. CoSMoS unravels mysteries of transcription initiation.

    PubMed

    Gourse, Richard L; Landick, Robert

    2012-02-17

    Using a fluorescence method called colocalization single-molecule spectroscopy (CoSMoS), Friedman and Gelles dissect the kinetics of transcription initiation at a bacterial promoter. Ultimately, CoSMoS could greatly aid the study of the effects of DNA sequence and transcription factors on both prokaryotic and eukaryotic promoters.

  15. Spatial organization of transcription in bacterial cells.

    PubMed

    Weng, Xiaoli; Xiao, Jie

    2014-07-01

    Prokaryotic transcription has been extensively studied over the past half a century. However, there often exists a gap between the structural, mechanistic description of transcription obtained from in vitro biochemical studies, and the cellular, phenomenological observations from in vivo genetic studies. It is now accepted that a living bacterial cell is a complex entity; the heterogeneous cellular environment is drastically different from the homogenous, well-mixed situation in vitro. Where molecules are inside a cell may be important for their function; hence, the spatial organization of different molecular components may provide a new means of transcription regulation in vivo, possibly bridging this gap. In this review, we survey current evidence for the spatial organization of four major components of transcription [genes, transcription factors, RNA polymerase (RNAP) and RNAs] and critically analyze their biological significance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Local and global regulation of transcription initiation in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Browning, Douglas F; Busby, Stephen J W

    2016-10-01

    Gene expression in bacteria relies on promoter recognition by the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase and subsequent transcription initiation. Bacterial cells are able to tune their transcriptional programmes to changing environments, through numerous mechanisms that regulate the activity of RNA polymerase, or change the set of promoters to which the RNA polymerase can bind. In this Review, we outline our current understanding of the different factors that direct the regulation of transcription initiation in bacteria, whether by interacting with promoters, with RNA polymerase or with both, and we discuss the diverse molecular mechanisms that are used by these factors to regulate gene expression.

  17. Regulated assembly of transcription factors and control of transcription initiation.

    PubMed

    Beckett, D

    2001-11-30

    Proteins that function in regulation of transcription initiation are typically homo or hetero-oligomeric. Results of recent biophysical studies of transcription regulators indicate that the assembly of these proteins is often subject to regulation. This regulation of assembly dictates the frequency of transcription initiation via its influence on the affinity of a transcription regulator for DNA and its affect on target site selection. Factors that modulate transcription factor assembly include binding of small molecules, post-translational modification, DNA binding and interactions with other proteins. Here, the results of recent structural and/or thermodynamic studies of a number of transcription regulators that are subject to regulated assembly are reviewed. The accumulated data indicate that this phenomenon is ubiquitous and that mechanisms utilized in eukaryotes and prokaryotes share common features. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  18. Topography of the euryarchaeal transcription initiation complex.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Michael S; Thomm, Michael; Geiduschek, E Peter

    2004-02-13

    Transcription in the Archaea is carried out by RNA polymerases and transcription factors that are highly homologous to their eukaryotic counterparts, but little is known about the structural organization of the archaeal transcription complex. To address this, transcription initiation complexes have been formed with Pyrococcus furiosus transcription factors (TBP and TFB1), RNA polymerase, and a linear DNA fragment containing a strong promoter. The arrangement of proteins from base pair -35 to +20 (relative to the transcriptional start site) has been analyzed by photochemical protein-DNA cross-linking. TBP cross-links to the TATA box and TFB1 cross-links both upstream and downstream of the TATA box, as expected, but the sites of most prominent TFB1 cross-linking are located well downstream of the TATA box, reaching as far as the start site of transcription, suggesting a role for TFB1 in initiation of transcription that extends beyond polymerase recruitment. These cross-links indicate the transcription factor orientation in the initiation complex. The pattern of cross-linking of four RNA polymerase subunits (B, A', A", and H) to the promoter suggests a path for promoter DNA relative to the RNA polymerase surface in this archaeal transcription initiation complex. In addition, an unidentified protein approximately the size of TBP cross-links to the non-transcribed DNA strand near the upstream edge of the transcription bubble. Cross-linking is specific to the polymerase-containing initiation complex and requires the gdh promoter TATA box. The location of this protein suggests that it, like TFB1, could also have a role in transcription initiation following RNA polymerase recruitment.

  19. DNA dynamically directs its own transcription initiation

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, K. O.; Kalosakas, G.; Bishop, A. R.; Choi, C. H.; Usheva, A.

    2004-01-01

    Initiation of DNA gene transcription requires a transient opening in the double helix at the transcriptional start site. It is generally assumed that the location of this 'transcriptional bubble' is determined by sequence-specific protein binding, and that the energy required for unwinding the double helix comes from torsional strain. Physical twisting should cause DNA to open consistently in weakly bonded A/T rich stretches, however, simple base-pairing energetics alone can not account for the variety of observed transcriptional start sites. Applying the Peyrard-Bishop nonlinear cooperativity model to DNA, we are able to predict that thermally-induced DNA bubbles, similar in size to transcription bubbles, form at specific locations on DNA promoters. These predicted openings agree remarkably well with experiment, and that they correlate exactly with known transcription start sites and important regulatory sites on three different promoters. We propose that the sequence-specific location of the transcriptional start site is predetermined by the inherent opening patterns of specific DNA sequences. As DNA bubble formation is independent of protein binding, it appears that DNA is not only a passive carrier of information, but its dynamics plays an important role in directing the transcription and regulation of the genes it contains.

  20. Mechanisms of post-transcriptional gene regulation in bacterial biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Luary C.; Vadyvaloo, Viveka

    2014-01-01

    Biofilms are characterized by a dense multicellular community of microorganisms that can be formed by the attachment of bacteria to an inert surface and to each other. The development of biofilm involves the initial attachment of planktonic bacteria to a surface, followed by replication, cell-to-cell adhesion to form microcolonies, maturation, and detachment. Mature biofilms are embedded in a self-produced extracellular polymeric matrix composed primarily of bacterial-derived exopolysaccharides, specialized proteins, adhesins, and occasionally DNA. Because the synthesis and assembly of biofilm matrix components is an exceptionally complex process, the transition between its different phases requires the coordinate expression and simultaneous regulation of many genes by complex genetic networks involving all levels of gene regulation. The finely controlled intracellular level of the chemical second messenger molecule, cyclic-di-GMP is central to the post-transcriptional mechanisms governing the switch between the motile planktonic lifestyle and the sessile biofilm forming state in many bacteria. Several other post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms are known to dictate biofilm development and assembly and these include RNA-binding proteins, small non-coding RNAs, toxin-antitoxin systems, riboswitches, and RNases. Post-transcriptional regulation is therefore a powerful molecular mechanism employed by bacteria to rapidly adjust to the changing environment and to fine tune gene expression to the developmental needs of the cell. In this review, we discuss post-transcriptional mechanisms that influence the biofilm developmental cycle in a variety of pathogenic bacteria. PMID:24724055

  1. Pervasive transcription: illuminating the dark matter of bacterial transcriptomes.

    PubMed

    Wade, Joseph T; Grainger, David C

    2014-09-01

    The conventional view of transcription posits that mRNAs are generated from the coding DNA strand and are delineated by gene boundaries; however, recent reports have mapped transcription start sites to unexpected locations in bacterial genomes, including the non-coding strand. The resultant RNAs were previously dismissed as artefacts, but models that describe such events as 'pervasive transcription' are now gaining support. In this Opinion article, we discuss our current understanding of pervasive transcription, its genetic origin and its regulation. On the basis of existing observations, we propose that RNAs that result from pervasive transcription are more than 'transcriptional noise' and have important functions in gene regulation and genome evolution.

  2. Bacterial Transcription as a Target for Antibacterial Drug Development.

    PubMed

    Ma, Cong; Yang, Xiao; Lewis, Peter J

    2016-03-01

    Transcription, the first step of gene expression, is carried out by the enzyme RNA polymerase (RNAP) and is regulated through interaction with a series of protein transcription factors. RNAP and its associated transcription factors are highly conserved across the bacterial domain and represent excellent targets for broad-spectrum antibacterial agent discovery. Despite the numerous antibiotics on the market, there are only two series currently approved that target transcription. The determination of the three-dimensional structures of RNAP and transcription complexes at high resolution over the last 15 years has led to renewed interest in targeting this essential process for antibiotic development by utilizing rational structure-based approaches. In this review, we describe the inhibition of the bacterial transcription process with respect to structural studies of RNAP, highlight recent progress toward the discovery of novel transcription inhibitors, and suggest additional potential antibacterial targets for rational drug design. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Bacterial Transcription as a Target for Antibacterial Drug Development

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Cong; Yang, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Transcription, the first step of gene expression, is carried out by the enzyme RNA polymerase (RNAP) and is regulated through interaction with a series of protein transcription factors. RNAP and its associated transcription factors are highly conserved across the bacterial domain and represent excellent targets for broad-spectrum antibacterial agent discovery. Despite the numerous antibiotics on the market, there are only two series currently approved that target transcription. The determination of the three-dimensional structures of RNAP and transcription complexes at high resolution over the last 15 years has led to renewed interest in targeting this essential process for antibiotic development by utilizing rational structure-based approaches. In this review, we describe the inhibition of the bacterial transcription process with respect to structural studies of RNAP, highlight recent progress toward the discovery of novel transcription inhibitors, and suggest additional potential antibacterial targets for rational drug design. PMID:26764017

  4. Transcription initiation complex structures elucidate DNA opening.

    PubMed

    Plaschka, C; Hantsche, M; Dienemann, C; Burzinski, C; Plitzko, J; Cramer, P

    2016-05-19

    Transcription of eukaryotic protein-coding genes begins with assembly of the RNA polymerase (Pol) II initiation complex and promoter DNA opening. Here we report cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of yeast initiation complexes containing closed and open DNA at resolutions of 8.8 Å and 3.6 Å, respectively. DNA is positioned and retained over the Pol II cleft by a network of interactions between the TATA-box-binding protein TBP and transcription factors TFIIA, TFIIB, TFIIE, and TFIIF. DNA opening occurs around the tip of the Pol II clamp and the TFIIE 'extended winged helix' domain, and can occur in the absence of TFIIH. Loading of the DNA template strand into the active centre may be facilitated by movements of obstructing protein elements triggered by allosteric binding of the TFIIE 'E-ribbon' domain. The results suggest a unified model for transcription initiation with a key event, the trapping of open promoter DNA by extended protein-protein and protein-DNA contacts.

  5. R-loops in bacterial transcription

    PubMed Central

    Gowrishankar, J; Leela, J Krishna; Anupama, K

    2013-01-01

    Nascent untranslated transcripts in bacteria are prone to generating RNA-DNA hybrids (R-loops); Rho-dependent transcription termination acts to reduce their prevalence. Here we discuss the mechanisms of R-loop formation and growth inhibition in bacteria. PMID:23756343

  6. Bacterial antisense RNAs are mainly the product of transcriptional noise

    PubMed Central

    Lloréns-Rico, Verónica; Cano, Jaime; Kamminga, Tjerko; Gil, Rosario; Latorre, Amparo; Chen, Wei-Hua; Bork, Peer; Glass, John I.; Serrano, Luis; Lluch-Senar, Maria

    2016-01-01

    cis-Encoded antisense RNAs (asRNAs) are widespread along bacterial transcriptomes. However, the role of most of these RNAs remains unknown, and there is an ongoing discussion as to what extent these transcripts are the result of transcriptional noise. We show, by comparative transcriptomics of 20 bacterial species and one chloroplast, that the number of asRNAs is exponentially dependent on the genomic AT content and that expression of asRNA at low levels exerts little impact in terms of energy consumption. A transcription model simulating mRNA and asRNA production indicates that the asRNA regulatory effect is only observed above certain expression thresholds, substantially higher than physiological transcript levels. These predictions were verified experimentally by overexpressing nine different asRNAs in Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Our results suggest that most of the antisense transcripts found in bacteria are the consequence of transcriptional noise, arising at spurious promoters throughout the genome. PMID:26973873

  7. Intragenic DNA methylation prevents spurious transcription initiation.

    PubMed

    Neri, Francesco; Rapelli, Stefania; Krepelova, Anna; Incarnato, Danny; Parlato, Caterina; Basile, Giulia; Maldotti, Mara; Anselmi, Francesca; Oliviero, Salvatore

    2017-03-02

    In mammals, DNA methylation occurs mainly at CpG dinucleotides. Methylation of the promoter suppresses gene expression, but the functional role of gene-body DNA methylation in highly expressed genes has yet to be clarified. Here we show that, in mouse embryonic stem cells, Dnmt3b-dependent intragenic DNA methylation protects the gene body from spurious RNA polymerase II entry and cryptic transcription initiation. Using different genome-wide approaches, we demonstrate that this Dnmt3b function is dependent on its enzymatic activity and recruitment to the gene body by H3K36me3. Furthermore, the spurious transcripts can either be degraded by the RNA exosome complex or capped, polyadenylated, and delivered to the ribosome to produce aberrant proteins. Elongating RNA polymerase II therefore triggers an epigenetic crosstalk mechanism that involves SetD2, H3K36me3, Dnmt3b and DNA methylation to ensure the fidelity of gene transcription initiation, with implications for intragenic hypomethylation in cancer.

  8. Coupling of downstream RNA polymerase-promoter interactions with formation of catalytically competent transcription initiation complex

    PubMed Central

    Mekler, Vladimir; Minakhin, Leonid; Borukhov, Sergei; Mustaev, Arkady; Severinov, Konstantin

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) makes extensive contacts with duplex DNA downstream of the transcription bubble in initiation and elongation complexes. We investigated the role of downstream interactions in formation of catalytically competent transcription initiation complex by measuring initiation activity of stable RNAP complexes with model promoter DNA fragments whose downstream ends extend from +3 to +21 relative to the transcription start site at +1. We found that DNA downstream of position +6 does not play a significant role in transcription initiation when RNAP-promoter interactions upstream of the transcription start site are strong and promoter melting region is AT-rich. Further shortening of downstream DNA dramatically reduces efficiency of transcription initiation. The boundary of minimal downstream DNA duplex needed for efficient transcription initiation shifted further away from the catalytic center upon increasing the GC content of promoter melting region or in the presence of bacterial stringent response regulators DksA and ppGpp. These results indicate that the strength of RNAP-downstream DNA interactions has to reach a certain threshold to retain the catalytically competent conformation of the initiation complex and that establishment of contacts between RNAP and downstream DNA can be coupled with promoter melting. The data further suggest that RNAP interactions with DNA immediately downstream of the transcription bubble are particularly important for initiation of transcription. We hypothesize that these active center-proximal contacts stabilize the DNA template strand in the active center cleft and/or position the RNAP clamp domain to allow RNA synthesis. PMID:25311862

  9. Optimized rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) for mapping bacterial mRNA transcripts.

    PubMed

    Tillett, D; Burns, B P; Neilan, B A

    2000-03-01

    A simple, efficient and sensitive RACE-based procedure was developed for the determination of unknown 5' regions from bacterial cDNA. A number of critical modifications were made to the standard RACE method, including the optimization of the RNA extraction, reverse transcription and PCR conditions. This procedure was used to accurately determine the site of transcript initiation and structure of the promoter region of the Helicobacter pylori aspartate carbamoyltransferase gene (pyrB). The technique avoids many of the difficulties associated with established bacterial transcript mapping protocols and can be performed in two days starting with less than 1 microgram of total RNA. The modifications described here have significant potential for the identification of transcript start sites of bacterial genes and non-polyadenylated eukaryotic RNA.

  10. DNA wrapping in transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Coulombe, B

    1999-01-01

    The DNA wrapping model of transcription stipulates that DNA bending and wrapping around RNA polymerase causes an unwinding of the DNA helix at the enzyme catalytic center that stimulates strand separation prior to initiation and during transcript elongation. Recent experiments with mammalian RNA polymerase II indicate the significance of DNA bending and wrapping in transcriptional mechanisms. These findings have important implications in our understanding of the role of the general transcription factors in transcriptional initiation and the mechanisms underlying transcriptional regulation.

  11. Non-canonical transcription initiation: the expanding universe of transcription initiating substrates.

    PubMed

    Barvík, Ivan; Rejman, Dominik; Panova, Natalya; Šanderová, Hana; Krásný, Libor

    2017-03-01

    RNA polymerase (RNAP) is the central enzyme of transcription of the genetic information from DNA into RNA. RNAP recognizes four main substrates: ATP, CTP, GTP and UTP. Experimental evidence from the past several years suggests that, besides these four NTPs, other molecules can be used to initiate transcription: (i) ribooligonucleotides (nanoRNAs) and (ii) coenzymes such as NAD+, NADH, dephospho-CoA and FAD. The presence of these molecules at the 5΄ ends of RNAs affects the properties of the RNA. Here, we discuss the expanding portfolio of molecules that can initiate transcription, their mechanism of incorporation, effects on RNA and cellular processes, and we present an outlook toward other possible initiation substrates.

  12. Molecular basis of transcription initiation in Archaea.

    PubMed

    De Carlo, Sacha; Lin, Shih-Chieh; Taatjes, Dylan J; Hoenger, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Compared with eukaryotes, the archaeal transcription initiation machinery-commonly known as the Pre-Initiation Complex-is relatively simple. The archaeal PIC consists of the TFIIB ortholog TFB, TBP, and an 11-subunit RNA polymerase (RNAP). The relatively small size of the entire archaeal PIC makes it amenable to structural analysis. Using purified RNAP, TFB, and TBP from the thermophile Pyrococcus furiosus, we assembled the biochemically active PIC at 65ºC. The intact archaeal PIC was isolated by implementing a cross-linking technique followed by size-exclusion chromatography, and the structure of this 440 kDa assembly was determined using electron microscopy and single-particle reconstruction techniques. Combining difference maps with crystal structure docking of various sub-domains, TBP and TFB were localized within the macromolecular PIC. TBP/TFB assemble near the large RpoB subunit and the RpoD/L "foot" domain behind the RNAP central cleft. This location mimics that of yeast TBP and TFIIB in complex with yeast RNAP II. Collectively, these results define the structural organization of the archaeal transcription machinery and suggest a conserved core PIC architecture.

  13. Transcript profiling of early lateral root initiation.

    PubMed

    Himanen, Kristiina; Vuylsteke, Marnik; Vanneste, Steffen; Vercruysse, Steven; Boucheron, Elodie; Alard, Philippe; Chriqui, Dominique; Van Montagu, Marc; Inzé, Dirk; Beeckman, Tom

    2004-04-06

    At the onset of lateral root initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana, the phytohormone auxin activates xylem pole pericycle cells for asymmetric cell division. However, the molecular events leading from auxin to lateral root initiation are poorly understood, in part because the few responsive cells in the process are embedded in the root and are thus difficult to access. A lateral root induction system, in which most xylem pole pericycle cells were synchronously activated by auxin transport inhibition followed by auxin application, was used for microarray transcript profiling. Of 4,600 genes analyzed, 906 significantly differentially regulated genes were identified that could be grouped into six major clusters. Basically, three major patterns were discerned representing induced, repressed, and transiently expressed genes. Analysis of the coregulated genes, which were specific for each time point, provided new insight into the molecular regulation and signal transduction preceding lateral root initiation in Arabidopsis. The reproducible expression profiles during a time course allowed us to define four stages that precede the cell division in the pericycle. These early stages were characterized by G1 cell cycle block, auxin perception, and signal transduction, followed by progression over G1/S transition and G2/M transition. All these processes took place within 6 h after transfer from N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid to 1-naphthalene acetic acid. These results indicate that this lateral root induction system represents a unique synchronized system that allows the systematic study of the developmental program upstream of the cell cycle activation during lateral root initiation.

  14. Structural basis of transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Sainsbury, Sarah; Bernecky, Carrie; Cramer, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    Transcription of eukaryotic protein-coding genes commences with the assembly of a conserved initiation complex, which consists of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and the general transcription factors, at promoter DNA. After two decades of research, the structural basis of transcription initiation is emerging. Crystal structures of many components of the initiation complex have been resolved, and structural information on Pol II complexes with general transcription factors has recently been obtained. Although mechanistic details await elucidation, available data outline how Pol II cooperates with the general transcription factors to bind to and open promoter DNA, and how Pol II directs RNA synthesis and escapes from the promoter.

  15. Bacterial RNA polymerase can retain σ70 throughout transcription.

    PubMed

    Harden, Timothy T; Wells, Christopher D; Friedman, Larry J; Landick, Robert; Hochschild, Ann; Kondev, Jane; Gelles, Jeff

    2016-01-19

    Production of a messenger RNA proceeds through sequential stages of transcription initiation and transcript elongation and termination. During each of these stages, RNA polymerase (RNAP) function is regulated by RNAP-associated protein factors. In bacteria, RNAP-associated σ factors are strictly required for promoter recognition and have historically been regarded as dedicated initiation factors. However, the primary σ factor in Escherichia coli, σ(70), can remain associated with RNAP during the transition from initiation to elongation, influencing events that occur after initiation. Quantitative studies on the extent of σ(70) retention have been limited to complexes halted during early elongation. Here, we used multiwavelength single-molecule fluorescence-colocalization microscopy to observe the σ(70)-RNAP complex during initiation from the λ PR' promoter and throughout the elongation of a long (>2,000-nt) transcript. Our results provide direct measurements of the fraction of actively transcribing complexes with bound σ(70) and the kinetics of σ(70) release from actively transcribing complexes. σ(70) release from mature elongation complexes was slow (0.0038 s(-1)); a substantial subpopulation of elongation complexes retained σ(70) throughout transcript elongation, and this fraction depended on the sequence of the initially transcribed region. We also show that elongation complexes containing σ(70) manifest enhanced recognition of a promoter-like pause element positioned hundreds of nucleotides downstream of the promoter. Together, the results provide a quantitative framework for understanding the postinitiation roles of σ(70) during transcription.

  16. Different types of pausing modes during transcription initiation.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Eitan; Ingargiola, Antonino; Lee, Jookyung J; Borukhov, Sergei; Michalet, Xavier; Weiss, Shimon

    2017-08-08

    In many cases, initiation is rate limiting to transcription. This due in part to the multiple cycles of abortive transcription that delay promoter escape and the transition from initiation to elongation. Pausing of transcription in initiation can further delay promoter escape. The previously hypothesized pausing in initiation was confirmed by two recent studies from Duchi et al. (1) and from Lerner, Chung et al. (2) In both studies, pausing is attributed to a lack of forward translocation of the nascent transcript during initiation. However, the two works report on different pausing mechanisms. Duchi et al. report on pausing that occurs during initiation predominantly on-pathway of transcript synthesis. Lerner, Chung et al. report on pausing during initiation as a result of RNAP backtracking, which is off-pathway to transcript synthesis. Here, we discuss these studies, together with additional experimental results from single-molecule FRET focusing on a specific distance within the transcription bubble. We show that the results of these studies are complementary to each other and are consistent with a model involving two types of pauses in initiation: a short-lived pause that occurs in the translocation of a 6-mer nascent transcript and a long-lived pause that occurs as a result of 1-2 nucleotide backtracking of a 7-mer transcript.

  17. The TRTGn motif stabilizes the transcription initiation open complex.

    PubMed

    Voskuil, Martin I; Chambliss, Glenn H

    2002-09-20

    The effect on transcription initiation by the extended -10 motif (5'-TRTG(n)-3'), positioned upstream of the -10 region, was investigated using a series of base substitution mutations in the alpha-amylase promoter (amyP). The extended -10 motif, previously referred to as the -16 region, is found frequently in Gram-positive bacterial promoters and several extended -10 promoters from Escherichia coli. The inhibitory effects of the non-productive promoter site (amyP2), which overlaps the upstream region of amyP, were eliminated by mutagenesis of the -35 region and the TRTG motif of amyP2. Removal by mutagenesis of the competitive effects of amyP2 resulted in a reduced dependence of amyP on the TRTG motif. In the absence of the second promoter, mutations in the TRTG motif of amyP destabilized the open complex and prevented the maintenance of open complexes at low temperatures. The open complex half-life was up to 26-fold shorter in the mutant TRTG motif promoters than in the wild-type promoter. We demonstrate that the amyP TRTG motif dramatically stabilizes the open complex intermediate during transcription initiation. Even though the open complex is less stable in the mutant promoters, the region of melted DNA is the same in the wild-type and mutant promoters. However, upon addition of the first three nucleotides, which trap RNAP (RNA polymerase) in a stable initiating complex, the melted DNA region contracts at the 5'-end in a TRTG motif promoter mutant but not at the wild-type promoter, indicating that the motif contributes to maintaining DNA-strand separation.

  18. Evolutionary conservation of bacterial operons: does transcriptional connectivity matter?

    PubMed

    Hazkani-Covo, Einat; Graur, Dan

    2005-07-01

    In the literature, it has been frequently suggested that the connectivity of a protein, i.e., the number of proteins with which it interacts, is inversely correlated with the rate of evolution. We attempted to extrapolate from proteins to operons by testing the hypothesis that operons with high transcriptional connectivity, i.e., operons that are controlled through interactions with many transcription factors, are evolutionarily more conserved at the structure and sequence levels than low-connectivity operons. With Escherichia coli used as reference, two structural- and two sequence-conservation measures were determined for 82 groups of homologous operons from 30 completely-sequenced bacterial genomes. In E. coli, large operons tend to be regulated by more transcription factors than either smaller operons or single genes. Large E. coli operons that are regulated by single transcription factors were found to be regulated by activators more frequently than by repressors. Levels of sequence conservation and structural conservation of operons were found to be independent of each other, i.e., structurally conserved operons may be divergent in sequence, and vice versa. Transcriptional connectivity was found to influence neither sequence nor structural conservation of operons. Although this finding seems to contradict the situation in genes, a critical review of the literature indicates that although gene connectivity is frequently touted as a factor in determining rates of evolution, only a very small fraction of the variability in degrees of evolutionary conservation is explainable by this factor.

  19. Collective Properties of a Transcription Initiation Model Under Varying Environment.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yucheng; Lowengrub, John S

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of gene transcription is tightly regulated in eukaryotes. Recent experiments have revealed various kinds of transcriptional dynamics, such as RNA polymerase II pausing, that involves regulation at the transcription initiation stage, and the choice of different regulation pattern is closely related to the physiological functions of the target gene. Here we consider a simplified model of transcription initiation, a process including the assembly of transcription complex and the pausing and releasing of the RNA polymerase II. Focusing on the collective behaviors of a population level, we explore the potential regulatory functions this model can offer. These functions include fast and synchronized response to environmental change, or long-term memory about the transcriptional status. As a proof of concept we also show that, by selecting different control mechanisms cells can adapt to different environments. These findings may help us better understand the design principles of transcriptional regulation.

  20. RNA remodeling by bacterial global regulator CsrA promotes Rho-dependent transcription termination

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa-Bossi, Nara; Schwartz, Annie; Guillemardet, Benoit; D’Heygère, François; Bossi, Lionello; Boudvillain, Marc

    2014-01-01

    RNA-binding protein CsrA is a key regulator of a variety of cellular processes in bacteria, including carbon and stationary phase metabolism, biofilm formation, quorum sensing, and virulence gene expression in pathogens. CsrA binds to bipartite sequence elements at or near the ribosome loading site in messenger RNA (mRNA), most often inhibiting translation initiation. Here we describe an alternative novel mechanism through which CsrA achieves negative regulation. We show that CsrA binding to the upstream portion of the 5′ untranslated region of Escherichia coli pgaA mRNA—encoding a polysaccharide adhesin export protein—unfolds a secondary structure that sequesters an entry site for transcription termination factor Rho, resulting in the premature stop of transcription. These findings establish a new paradigm for bacterial gene regulation in which remodeling of the nascent transcript by a regulatory protein promotes Rho-dependent transcription attenuation. PMID:24888591

  1. Fluorescent Methods to Study Transcription Initiation and Transition into Elongation

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Aishwarya P.; Sultana, Shemaila

    2015-01-01

    The DNA-dependent RNA polymerases induce specific conformational changes in the promoter DNA during transcription initiation. Fluorescence spectroscopy sensitively monitors these DNA conformational changes in real time and at equilibrium providing powerful ways to estimate interactions in transcriptional complexes and to assess how transcription is regulated by the promoter DNA sequence, transcription factors, and small ligands. Ensemble fluorescence methods described here probe the individual steps of promoter binding, bending, opening, and transition into the elongation using T7 phage and mitochondrial transcriptional systems as examples. PMID:25095993

  2. The orientation of DNA in an archaeal transcription initiation complex.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, M S; Thomm, M; Geiduschek, E P

    2000-09-01

    RNA polymerase from the hyperthermophile archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus (Pfu) forms specific and transcriptionally active complexes with its conjugate transcription factors TBP (the archaeal TATA binding protein homolog) and TFB (the archaeal homolog of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II and III transcription factors TFIIB and Brf) at the Pfu glutamate dehydrogenase promoter. A photochemical crosslinking method was used to map the vicinity of the catalytic subunits of Pfu RNA polymerase to DNA locations distributed along the polymerase-promoter interface. The largest component of this archaeal polymerase is split into two subunits, A' and A", whose relatively sharp boundary of DNA crosslinking (probed on the transcribed strand) is centered five to six base pairs downstream of the transcriptional start site. A strong argument based on this information, on the well-defined homology between the core bacterial, archaeal and eukaryotic RNA polymerase subunits, and on the recently determined structure of a bacterial RNA polymerase specifies the directionality of DNA in the archaeal transcription complex and its trajectory downstream of the transcriptional start site.

  3. CDK9-dependent RNA polymerase II pausing controls transcription initiation.

    PubMed

    Gressel, Saskia; Schwalb, Björn; Decker, Tim Michael; Qin, Weihua; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Eick, Dirk; Cramer, Patrick

    2017-10-10

    Gene transcription can be activated by decreasing the duration of RNA polymerase II pausing in the promoter-proximal region, but how this is achieved remains unclear. Here we use a 'multi-omics' approach to demonstrate that the duration of polymerase pausing generally limits the productive frequency of transcription initiation in human cells ('pause-initiation limit'). We further engineer a human cell line to allow for specific and rapid inhibition of the P-TEFb kinase CDK9, which is implicated in polymerase pause release. CDK9 activity decreases the pause duration but also increases the productive initiation frequency. This shows that CDK9 stimulates release of paused polymerase and activates transcription by increasing the number of transcribing polymerases and thus the amount of mRNA synthesized per time. CDK9 activity is also associated with long-range chromatin interactions, suggesting that enhancers can influence the pause-initiation limit to regulate transcription.

  4. Mechanism of transcription initiation by the yeast mitochondrial RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Aishwarya P; Patel, Smita S

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondria are the major supplier of cellular energy in the form of ATP. Defects in normal ATP production due to dysfunctions in mitochondrial gene expression are responsible for many mitochondrial and aging related disorders. Mitochondria carry their own DNA genome which is transcribed by relatively simple transcriptional machinery consisting of the mitochondrial RNAP (mtRNAP) and one or more transcription factors. The mtRNAPs are remarkably similar in sequence and structure to single-subunit bacteriophage T7 RNAP but they require accessory transcription factors for promoter-specific initiation. Comparison of the mechanisms of T7 RNAP and mtRNAP provides a framework to better understand how mtRNAP and the transcription factors work together to facilitate promoter selection, DNA melting, initiating nucleotide binding, and promoter clearance. This review focuses primarily on the mechanistic characterization of transcription initiation by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae mtRNAP (Rpo41) and its transcription factor (Mtf1) drawing insights from the homologous T7 and the human mitochondrial transcription systems. We discuss regulatory mechanisms of mitochondrial transcription and the idea that the mtRNAP acts as the in vivo ATP "sensor" to regulate gene expression. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mitochondrial Gene Expression.

  5. Comparative expression and transcript initiation of three peach dehydrin genes.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Carole Leavel; Wisniewski, Michael E; Artlip, Timothy S; Richart, Greg; Norelli, John L; Farrell, Robert E

    2009-06-01

    Dehydrin genes encode proteins with demonstrated cryoprotective and antifreeze activity, and they respond to a variety of abiotic stress conditions that have dehydration as a common component. Two dehydrins from peach (Prunus persica L. [Batsch.]) have been previously characterized; here, we describe the characterization of a third dehydrin from peach bark, PpDhn3, isolated by its response to low temperature. The expression of all three dehydrin genes was profiled by semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR, and transcript initiation was mapped for all three genes using the RNA ligase-mediated 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends technique. PpDhn3 transcripts from bark collected in December or July, as well as transcripts from developing fruit, initiated at a single site. Although most of the PpDhn1 transcripts initiated at a similar position, those from young fruit initiated much further upstream of the consensus TATA box. Bark and fruit transcripts encoding PpDhn2 initiated ca. 30 bases downstream of a consensus TATA box; however, transcripts from ripe fruit initiated further upstream. Ripe fruit transcripts of PpDhn2 contain a 5' leader intron which is predicted to add some 34 amino acids to the N-terminal methionine of the cognate protein when properly processed. Secondary structure prediction of sequences surrounding the TATA box suggests that conformational transitions associated with decreasing temperature contribute to the regulation of expression of the cold-responsive dehydrin genes. Taken together these results reveal new, unexpected levels of gene regulation contributing to the overall expression pattern of peach dehydrins.

  6. Quantitative regulation of FLC via coordinated transcriptional initiation and elongation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhe; Ietswaart, Robert; Liu, Fuquan; Yang, Hongchun; Howard, Martin; Dean, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The basis of quantitative regulation of gene expression is still poorly understood. In Arabidopsis thaliana, quantitative variation in expression of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) influences the timing of flowering. In ambient temperatures, FLC expression is quantitatively modulated by a chromatin silencing mechanism involving alternative polyadenylation of antisense transcripts. Investigation of this mechanism unexpectedly showed that RNA polymerase II (Pol II) occupancy changes at FLC did not reflect RNA fold changes. Mathematical modeling of these transcriptional dynamics predicted a tight coordination of transcriptional initiation and elongation. This prediction was validated by detailed measurements of total and chromatin-bound FLC intronic RNA, a methodology appropriate for analyzing elongation rate changes in a range of organisms. Transcription initiation was found to vary ∼25-fold with elongation rate varying ∼8- to 12-fold. Premature sense transcript termination contributed very little to expression differences. This quantitative variation in transcription was coincident with variation in H3K36me3 and H3K4me2 over the FLC gene body. We propose different chromatin states coordinately influence transcriptional initiation and elongation rates and that this coordination is likely to be a general feature of quantitative gene regulation in a chromatin context. PMID:26699513

  7. Crystal structure of bacterial RNA polymerase bound with a transcription inhibitor protein.

    PubMed

    Tagami, Shunsuke; Sekine, Shun-Ichi; Kumarevel, Thirumananseri; Hino, Nobumasa; Murayama, Yuko; Kamegamori, Syunsuke; Yamamoto, Masaki; Sakamoto, Kensaku; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2010-12-16

    The multi-subunit DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP) is the principal enzyme of transcription for gene expression. Transcription is regulated by various transcription factors. Gre factor homologue 1 (Gfh1), found in the Thermus genus, is a close homologue of the well-conserved bacterial transcription factor GreA, and inhibits transcription initiation and elongation by binding directly to RNAP. The structural basis of transcription inhibition by Gfh1 has remained elusive, although the crystal structures of RNAP and Gfh1 have been determined separately. Here we report the crystal structure of Thermus thermophilus RNAP complexed with Gfh1. The amino-terminal coiled-coil domain of Gfh1 fully occludes the channel formed between the two central modules of RNAP; this channel would normally be used for nucleotide triphosphate (NTP) entry into the catalytic site. Furthermore, the tip of the coiled-coil domain occupies the NTP β-γ phosphate-binding site. The NTP-entry channel is expanded, because the central modules are 'ratcheted' relative to each other by ∼7°, as compared with the previously reported elongation complexes. This 'ratcheted state' is an alternative structural state, defined by a newly acquired contact between the central modules. Therefore, the shape of Gfh1 is appropriate to maintain RNAP in the ratcheted state. Simultaneously, the ratcheting expands the nucleic-acid-binding channel, and kinks the bridge helix, which connects the central modules. Taken together, the present results reveal that Gfh1 inhibits transcription by preventing NTP binding and freezing RNAP in the alternative structural state. The ratcheted state might also be associated with other aspects of transcription, such as RNAP translocation and transcription termination.

  8. DNA replication initiator Cdc6 also regulates ribosomal DNA transcription initiation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shijiao; Xu, Xiaowei; Wang, Guopeng; Lu, Guoliang; Xie, Wenbing; Tao, Wei; Zhang, Hongyin; Jiang, Qing; Zhang, Chuanmao

    2016-04-01

    RNA-polymerase-I-dependent ribosomal DNA (rDNA) transcription is fundamental to rRNA processing, ribosome assembly and protein synthesis. However, how this process is initiated during the cell cycle is not fully understood. By performing a proteomic analysis of transcription factors that bind RNA polymerase I during rDNA transcription initiation, we identified that the DNA replication initiator Cdc6 interacts with RNA polymerase I and its co-factors, and promotes rDNA transcription in G1 phase in an ATPase-activity-dependent manner. We further showed that Cdc6 is targeted to the nucleolus during late mitosis and G1 phase in a manner that is dependent on B23 (also known as nucleophosmin, NPM1), and preferentially binds to the rDNA promoter through its ATP-binding domain. Overexpression of Cdc6 increases rDNA transcription, whereas knockdown of Cdc6 results in a decreased association of both RNA polymerase I and the RNA polymerase I transcription factor RRN3 with rDNA, and a reduction of rDNA transcription. Furthermore, depletion of Cdc6 impairs the interaction between RRN3 and RNA polymerase I. Taken together, our data demonstrate that Cdc6 also serves as a regulator of rDNA transcription initiation, and indicate a mechanism by which initiation of rDNA transcription and DNA replication can be coordinated in cells. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. INITIATION AND REGULATION OF PARAMYXOVIRUS TRANSCRIPTION AND REPLICATION

    PubMed Central

    Noton, Sarah L.; Fearns, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    The paramyxovirus family has a genome consisting of a single strand of negative sense RNA. This genome acts as a template for two distinct processes: transcription to generate subgenomic, capped and polyadenylated mRNAs, and genome replication. These viruses only encode one polymerase. Thus, an intriguing question is, how does the viral polymerase initiate and become committed to either transcription or replication? By answering this we can begin to understand how these two processes are regulated. In this review article, we present recent findings from studies on the paramyxovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, which show how its polymerase is able to initiate transcription and replication from a single promoter. We discuss how these findings apply to other paramyxoviruses. Then, we examine how trans-acting proteins and promoter secondary structure might serve to regulate transcription and replication during different phases of the paramyxovirus replication cycle. PMID:25683441

  10. Structural insights into transcription initiation by yeast RNA polymerase I.

    PubMed

    Sadian, Yashar; Tafur, Lucas; Kosinski, Jan; Jakobi, Arjen J; Wetzel, Rene; Buczak, Katarzyna; Hagen, Wim Jh; Beck, Martin; Sachse, Carsten; Müller, Christoph W

    2017-09-15

    In eukaryotic cells, RNA polymerase I (Pol I) synthesizes precursor ribosomal RNA (pre-rRNA) that is subsequently processed into mature rRNA. To initiate transcription, Pol I requires the assembly of a multi-subunit pre-initiation complex (PIC) at the ribosomal RNA promoter. In yeast, the minimal PIC includes Pol I, the transcription factor Rrn3, and Core Factor (CF) composed of subunits Rrn6, Rrn7, and Rrn11. Here, we present the cryo-EM structure of the 18-subunit yeast Pol I PIC bound to a transcription scaffold. The cryo-EM map reveals an unexpected arrangement of the DNA and CF subunits relative to Pol I. The upstream DNA is positioned differently than in any previous structures of the Pol II PIC. Furthermore, the TFIIB-related subunit Rrn7 also occupies a different location compared to the Pol II PIC although it uses similar interfaces as TFIIB to contact DNA. Our results show that although general features of eukaryotic transcription initiation are conserved, Pol I and Pol II use them differently in their respective transcription initiation complexes. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  11. Two independent transcription initiation codes overlap on vertebrate core promoters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberle, Vanja; Li, Nan; Hadzhiev, Yavor; Plessy, Charles; Previti, Christopher; Nepal, Chirag; Gehrig, Jochen; Dong, Xianjun; Akalin, Altuna; Suzuki, Ana Maria; van Ijcken, Wilfred F. J.; Armant, Olivier; Ferg, Marco; Strähle, Uwe; Carninci, Piero; Müller, Ferenc; Lenhard, Boris

    2014-03-01

    A core promoter is a stretch of DNA surrounding the transcription start site (TSS) that integrates regulatory inputs and recruits general transcription factors to initiate transcription. The nature and causative relationship of the DNA sequence and chromatin signals that govern the selection of most TSSs by RNA polymerase II remain unresolved. Maternal to zygotic transition represents the most marked change of the transcriptome repertoire in the vertebrate life cycle. Early embryonic development in zebrafish is characterized by a series of transcriptionally silent cell cycles regulated by inherited maternal gene products: zygotic genome activation commences at the tenth cell cycle, marking the mid-blastula transition. This transition provides a unique opportunity to study the rules of TSS selection and the hierarchy of events linking transcription initiation with key chromatin modifications. We analysed TSS usage during zebrafish early embryonic development at high resolution using cap analysis of gene expression, and determined the positions of H3K4me3-marked promoter-associated nucleosomes. Here we show that the transition from the maternal to zygotic transcriptome is characterized by a switch between two fundamentally different modes of defining transcription initiation, which drive the dynamic change of TSS usage and promoter shape. A maternal-specific TSS selection, which requires an A/T-rich (W-box) motif, is replaced with a zygotic TSS selection grammar characterized by broader patterns of dinucleotide enrichments, precisely aligned with the first downstream (+1) nucleosome. The developmental dynamics of the H3K4me3-marked nucleosomes reveal their DNA-sequence-associated positioning at promoters before zygotic transcription and subsequent transcription-independent adjustment to the final position downstream of the zygotic TSS. The two TSS-defining grammars coexist, often physically overlapping, in core promoters of constitutively expressed genes to enable

  12. Two independent transcription initiation codes overlap on vertebrate core promoters.

    PubMed

    Haberle, Vanja; Li, Nan; Hadzhiev, Yavor; Plessy, Charles; Previti, Christopher; Nepal, Chirag; Gehrig, Jochen; Dong, Xianjun; Akalin, Altuna; Suzuki, Ana Maria; van IJcken, Wilfred F J; Armant, Olivier; Ferg, Marco; Strähle, Uwe; Carninci, Piero; Müller, Ferenc; Lenhard, Boris

    2014-03-20

    A core promoter is a stretch of DNA surrounding the transcription start site (TSS) that integrates regulatory inputs and recruits general transcription factors to initiate transcription. The nature and causative relationship of the DNA sequence and chromatin signals that govern the selection of most TSSs by RNA polymerase II remain unresolved. Maternal to zygotic transition represents the most marked change of the transcriptome repertoire in the vertebrate life cycle. Early embryonic development in zebrafish is characterized by a series of transcriptionally silent cell cycles regulated by inherited maternal gene products: zygotic genome activation commences at the tenth cell cycle, marking the mid-blastula transition. This transition provides a unique opportunity to study the rules of TSS selection and the hierarchy of events linking transcription initiation with key chromatin modifications. We analysed TSS usage during zebrafish early embryonic development at high resolution using cap analysis of gene expression, and determined the positions of H3K4me3-marked promoter-associated nucleosomes. Here we show that the transition from the maternal to zygotic transcriptome is characterized by a switch between two fundamentally different modes of defining transcription initiation, which drive the dynamic change of TSS usage and promoter shape. A maternal-specific TSS selection, which requires an A/T-rich (W-box) motif, is replaced with a zygotic TSS selection grammar characterized by broader patterns of dinucleotide enrichments, precisely aligned with the first downstream (+1) nucleosome. The developmental dynamics of the H3K4me3-marked nucleosomes reveal their DNA-sequence-associated positioning at promoters before zygotic transcription and subsequent transcription-independent adjustment to the final position downstream of the zygotic TSS. The two TSS-defining grammars coexist, often physically overlapping, in core promoters of constitutively expressed genes to enable

  13. A model for transcription initiation in human mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Morozov, Yaroslav I.; Parshin, Andrey V.; Agaronyan, Karen; Cheung, Alan C. M.; Anikin, Michael; Cramer, Patrick; Temiakov, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of transcription of mtDNA is thought to be crucial for maintenance of redox potential and vitality of the cell but is poorly understood at the molecular level. In this study we mapped the binding sites of the core transcription initiation factors TFAM and TFB2M on human mitochondrial RNA polymerase, and interactions of the latter with promoter DNA. This allowed us to construct a detailed structural model, which displays a remarkable level of interaction between the components of the initiation complex (IC). The architecture of the mitochondrial IC suggests mechanisms of promoter binding and recognition that are distinct from the mechanisms found in RNAPs operating in all domains of life, and illuminates strategies of transcription regulation developed at the very early stages of evolution of gene expression. PMID:25800739

  14. RNA remodeling by bacterial global regulator CsrA promotes Rho-dependent transcription termination.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Bossi, Nara; Schwartz, Annie; Guillemardet, Benoit; D'Heygère, François; Bossi, Lionello; Boudvillain, Marc

    2014-06-01

    RNA-binding protein CsrA is a key regulator of a variety of cellular processes in bacteria, including carbon and stationary phase metabolism, biofilm formation, quorum sensing, and virulence gene expression in pathogens. CsrA binds to bipartite sequence elements at or near the ribosome loading site in messenger RNA (mRNA), most often inhibiting translation initiation. Here we describe an alternative novel mechanism through which CsrA achieves negative regulation. We show that CsrA binding to the upstream portion of the 5' untranslated region of Escherichia coli pgaA mRNA-encoding a polysaccharide adhesin export protein-unfolds a secondary structure that sequesters an entry site for transcription termination factor Rho, resulting in the premature stop of transcription. These findings establish a new paradigm for bacterial gene regulation in which remodeling of the nascent transcript by a regulatory protein promotes Rho-dependent transcription attenuation. © 2014 Figueroa-Bossi et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  15. Bacterial effectors target the plant cell nucleus to subvert host transcription

    PubMed Central

    Canonne, Joanne; Rivas, Susana

    2012-01-01

    In order to promote virulence, Gram-negative bacteria have evolved the ability to inject so-called type III effector proteins into host cells. The plant cell nucleus appears to be a subcellular compartment repeatedly targeted by bacterial effectors. In agreement with this observation, mounting evidence suggests that manipulation of host transcription is a major strategy developed by bacteria to counteract plant defense responses. It has been suggested that bacterial effectors may adopt at least three alternative, although not mutually exclusive, strategies to subvert host transcription. T3Es may (1) act as transcription factors that directly activate transcription in host cells, (2) affect histone packing and chromatin configuration, and/or (3) directly target host transcription factor activity. Here, we provide an overview on how all these strategies may lead to host transcriptional re-programming and, as a result, to improved bacterial multiplication inside plant cells. PMID:22353865

  16. Localization of transcription initiation sites on the mouse mitochondrial genome

    SciTech Connect

    Fluellen, C.F.; Bhat, K.S.; Avdalovic, N.; Avadhani, M.G.

    1987-05-01

    The authors have identified the primary transcription initiation sites on the H and L strands of mouse mitochondrial (mt) genome by mapping the 5' ends of in vitro capped mt RNA, and 5' end labelling of the nascent RNA synthesized in an in vitro mt system. RNA capped with TSP GTP resolve into 4 major (25 to 150 nucleotides) and one minor (0.75 kb) bands on denaturing gels. Only the 25 nucleotide long capped RNA hybridizes to the H strand of D-loop DNA and the rest hybridize to the L-strand DNA probes. S1 protection of capped RNA and DNA hybrids, and primer extention analysis using defined DNA primers show that all of the L-strand specific primary transcripts have a common 5' end mapping at about nucleotide 16,180 +/- 5 of the genome. The 3' ends of the small RNA species map near the start of conserved sequence boxes. The 3' end of the 0.75 Kb RNA maps to the start of gene coding for tRNA/sup Phe/. The 5' end of the capped RNA hybridizing to the H strand maps at about nucleotide 16,275 to 16,280 of the genome indicating a major H strand transcription initiation at this region. The authors have also used an in vitro transcription system which involves the use of mt extract from Ehrlich ascites cells to study transcription initiation. Nascent RNA 5' end labeled with elTSP ATP and GTP closely resemble the electrophoretic pattern and S1 protection pattern obtained with the capped RNA.

  17. Insights into the Mechanism of Initial Transcription in Escherichia coli RNA Polymerase*

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, Satamita; Martin, Craig T.

    2013-01-01

    It has long been known that during initial transcription of the first 8–10 bases of RNA, complexes are relatively unstable, leading to the release of short abortive RNA transcripts. An early “stressed intermediate” model led to a more specific mechanistic model proposing “scrunching” stress as the basis for the instability. Recent studies in the single subunit T7 RNA polymerase have argued against scrunching as the energetic driving force and instead argue for a model in which pushing of the RNA-DNA hybrid against a protein element associated with promoter binding, while likely driving promoter release, reciprocally leads to instability of the hybrid. In this study, we test these models in the structurally unrelated multisubunit bacterial RNA polymerase. Via the targeted introduction of mismatches and nicks in the DNA, we demonstrate that neither downstream bubble collapse nor compaction/scrunching of either the single-stranded template or nontemplate strands is a major force driving abortive instability (although collapse from the downstream end of the bubble does contribute significantly to the instability of artificially halted complexes). In contrast, pushing of the hybrid against a mobile protein element (σ3.2 in the bacterial enzyme) results in substantially increased abortive instability and is likely the primary energetic contributor to abortive cycling. The results suggest that abortive instability is a by-product of the mechanistic need to couple the energy of nucleotide addition (RNA chain growth) to driving the timed release of promoter contacts during initial transcription. PMID:24047893

  18. Dissecting the stochastic transcription initiation process in live Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Lloyd-Price, Jason; Startceva, Sofia; Kandavalli, Vinodh; Chandraseelan, Jerome G; Goncalves, Nadia; Oliveira, Samuel M D; Häkkinen, Antti; Ribeiro, Andre S

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the hypothesis that, in Escherichia coli, while the concentration of RNA polymerases differs in different growth conditions, the fraction of RNA polymerases free for transcription remains approximately constant within a certain range of these conditions. After establishing this, we apply a standard model-fitting procedure to fully characterize the in vivo kinetics of the rate-limiting steps in transcription initiation of the Plac/ara-1 promoter from distributions of intervals between transcription events in cells with different RNA polymerase concentrations. We find that, under full induction, the closed complex lasts ∼788 s while subsequent steps last ∼193 s, on average. We then establish that the closed complex formation usually occurs multiple times prior to each successful initiation event. Furthermore, the promoter intermittently switches to an inactive state that, on average, lasts ∼87 s. This is shown to arise from the intermittent repression of the promoter by LacI. The methods employed here should be of use to resolve the rate-limiting steps governing the in vivo dynamics of initiation of prokaryotic promoters, similar to established steady-state assays to resolve the in vitro dynamics. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  19. Dissecting the stochastic transcription initiation process in live Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd-Price, Jason; Startceva, Sofia; Kandavalli, Vinodh; Chandraseelan, Jerome G.; Goncalves, Nadia; Oliveira, Samuel M. D.; Häkkinen, Antti; Ribeiro, Andre S.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the hypothesis that, in Escherichia coli, while the concentration of RNA polymerases differs in different growth conditions, the fraction of RNA polymerases free for transcription remains approximately constant within a certain range of these conditions. After establishing this, we apply a standard model-fitting procedure to fully characterize the in vivo kinetics of the rate-limiting steps in transcription initiation of the Plac/ara-1 promoter from distributions of intervals between transcription events in cells with different RNA polymerase concentrations. We find that, under full induction, the closed complex lasts ∼788 s while subsequent steps last ∼193 s, on average. We then establish that the closed complex formation usually occurs multiple times prior to each successful initiation event. Furthermore, the promoter intermittently switches to an inactive state that, on average, lasts ∼87 s. This is shown to arise from the intermittent repression of the promoter by LacI. The methods employed here should be of use to resolve the rate-limiting steps governing the in vivo dynamics of initiation of prokaryotic promoters, similar to established steady-state assays to resolve the in vitro dynamics. PMID:27026687

  20. Structural Basis of RNA Polymerase I Transcription Initiation.

    PubMed

    Engel, Christoph; Gubbey, Tobias; Neyer, Simon; Sainsbury, Sarah; Oberthuer, Christiane; Baejen, Carlo; Bernecky, Carrie; Cramer, Patrick

    2017-03-23

    Transcription initiation at the ribosomal RNA promoter requires RNA polymerase (Pol) I and the initiation factors Rrn3 and core factor (CF). Here, we combine X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) to obtain a molecular model for basal Pol I initiation. The three-subunit CF binds upstream promoter DNA, docks to the Pol I-Rrn3 complex, and loads DNA into the expanded active center cleft of the polymerase. DNA unwinding between the Pol I protrusion and clamp domains enables cleft contraction, resulting in an active Pol I conformation and RNA synthesis. Comparison with the Pol II system suggests that promoter specificity relies on a distinct "bendability" and "meltability" of the promoter sequence that enables contacts between initiation factors, DNA, and polymerase.

  1. The Transcription Factor THO Promotes Transcription Initiation and Elongation by RNA Polymerase I.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yinfeng; French, Sarah L; Beyer, Ann L; Schneider, David A

    2016-02-05

    Although ribosomal RNA represents the majority of cellular RNA, and ribosome synthesis is closely connected to cell growth and proliferation rates, a complete understanding of the factors that influence transcription of ribosomal DNA is lacking. Here, we show that the THO complex positively affects transcription by RNA polymerase I (Pol I). We found that THO physically associates with the rDNA repeat and interacts genetically with Pol I transcription initiation factors. Pol I transcription in hpr1 or tho2 null mutants is dramatically reduced to less than 20% of the WT level. Pol I occupancy of the coding region of the rDNA in THO mutants is decreased to ~50% of WT level. Furthermore, although the percentage of active rDNA repeats remains unaffected in the mutant cells, the overall rDNA copy number increases ~2-fold compared with WT. Together, these data show that perturbation of THO function impairs transcription initiation and elongation by Pol I, identifying a new cellular target for the conserved THO complex. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Initial in vitro bacterial adhesion on dental restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ha-Young; Yeo, In-Sung; Lee, Jai-Bong; Kim, Sung-Hun; Kim, Dae-Joon; Han, Jung-Suk

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate initial bacterial adhesion on several restorative materials with similar roughness. Sixty cylindrical slabs were prepared from four restorative materials: zirconia (Zr), alumina-toughened zirconia (Al-Zr), type III gold alloy (Au), and cp-titanium (Ti). All the materials were polished until a mirror-like shine was achieved. The average surface roughness and topography were determined by atomic force microscopy. Contact angles were measured to calculate surface free energy by the sessile drop technique. After the formation of a salivary pellicle, S. sanguinis, S. gordonii, and S. oralis were inoculated onto the specimens and incubated for 4 h. Quantification of the adherent bacteria was performed by crystal violet staining technique and resazurin reduction assay. One-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test were adopted for statistical analysis. The level of significance was 0.05. The Ra values determined with atomic force microscopy for all specimens were lower than 5 nm. Surface free energy increased in the order of Al-Zr, Zr, Ti, and Au. Differences were significant between the investigated materials in both crystal violet absorbance and fluorescence intensities. Gold alloy showed the highest values for all bacterial strains (p<0.05). Zirconia, alumina-toughened zirconia, and titanium may be more suitable than gold alloy as an abutment material with respect to the initial bacterial adhesion and subsequent advance of peri-implantitis.

  3. DNA dynamics play a role as a basal transcription factor in the positioning and regulation of gene transcription initiation.

    PubMed

    Alexandrov, Boian S; Gelev, Vladimir; Yoo, Sang Wook; Alexandrov, Ludmil B; Fukuyo, Yayoi; Bishop, Alan R; Rasmussen, Kim Ø; Usheva, Anny

    2010-04-01

    We assess the role of DNA breathing dynamics as a determinant of promoter strength and transcription start site (TSS) location. We compare DNA Langevin dynamic profiles of representative gene promoters, calculated with the extended non-linear PBD model of DNA with experimental data on transcription factor binding and transcriptional activity. Our results demonstrate that DNA dynamic activity at the TSS can be suppressed by mutations that do not affect basal transcription factor binding-DNA contacts. We use this effect to establish the separate contributions of transcription factor binding and DNA dynamics to transcriptional activity. Our results argue against a purely 'transcription factor-centric' view of transcription initiation, suggesting that both DNA dynamics and transcription factor binding are necessary conditions for transcription initiation.

  4. Structures of RNA Polymerase Closed and Intermediate Complexes Reveal Mechanisms of DNA Opening and Transcription Initiation.

    PubMed

    Glyde, Robert; Ye, Fuzhou; Darbari, Vidya Chandran; Zhang, Nan; Buck, Martin; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2017-07-06

    Gene transcription is carried out by RNA polymerases (RNAPs). For transcription to occur, the closed promoter complex (RPc), where DNA is double stranded, must isomerize into an open promoter complex (RPo), where the DNA is melted out into a transcription bubble and the single-stranded template DNA is delivered to the RNAP active site. Using a bacterial RNAP containing the alternative σ(54) factor and cryoelectron microscopy, we determined structures of RPc and the activator-bound intermediate complex en route to RPo at 3.8 and 5.8 Å. Our structures show how RNAP-σ(54) interacts with promoter DNA to initiate the DNA distortions required for transcription bubble formation, and how the activator interacts with RPc, leading to significant conformational changes in RNAP and σ(54) that promote RPo formation. We propose that DNA melting is an active process initiated in RPc and that the RNAP conformations of intermediates are significantly different from that of RPc and RPo. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. R-loops in bacterial transcription: their causes and consequences.

    PubMed

    Gowrishankar, J; Leela, J Krishna; Anupama, K

    2013-01-01

    Nascent untranslated transcripts in bacteria are prone to generating RNA-DNA hybrids (R-loops); Rho-dependent transcription termination acts to reduce their prevalence. Here we discuss the mechanisms of R-loop formation and growth inhibition in bacteria.

  6. Shaping the Growth Behaviour of Biofilms Initiated from Bacterial Aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Melaugh, Gavin; Hutchison, Jaime; Kragh, Kasper Nørskov; Irie, Yasuhiko; Roberts, Aled; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Diggle, Stephen P.; Gordon, Vernita D.; Allen, Rosalind J.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are usually assumed to originate from individual cells deposited on a surface. However, many biofilm-forming bacteria tend to aggregate in the planktonic phase so that it is possible that many natural and infectious biofilms originate wholly or partially from pre-formed cell aggregates. Here, we use agent-based computer simulations to investigate the role of pre-formed aggregates in biofilm development. Focusing on the initial shape the aggregate forms on the surface, we find that the degree of spreading of an aggregate on a surface can play an important role in determining its eventual fate during biofilm development. Specifically, initially spread aggregates perform better when competition with surrounding unaggregated bacterial cells is low, while initially rounded aggregates perform better when competition with surrounding unaggregated cells is high. These contrasting outcomes are governed by a trade-off between aggregate surface area and height. Our results provide new insight into biofilm formation and development, and reveal new factors that may be at play in the social evolution of biofilm communities. PMID:26934187

  7. Shaping the Growth Behaviour of Biofilms Initiated from Bacterial Aggregates.

    PubMed

    Melaugh, Gavin; Hutchison, Jaime; Kragh, Kasper Nørskov; Irie, Yasuhiko; Roberts, Aled; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Diggle, Stephen P; Gordon, Vernita D; Allen, Rosalind J

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are usually assumed to originate from individual cells deposited on a surface. However, many biofilm-forming bacteria tend to aggregate in the planktonic phase so that it is possible that many natural and infectious biofilms originate wholly or partially from pre-formed cell aggregates. Here, we use agent-based computer simulations to investigate the role of pre-formed aggregates in biofilm development. Focusing on the initial shape the aggregate forms on the surface, we find that the degree of spreading of an aggregate on a surface can play an important role in determining its eventual fate during biofilm development. Specifically, initially spread aggregates perform better when competition with surrounding unaggregated bacterial cells is low, while initially rounded aggregates perform better when competition with surrounding unaggregated cells is high. These contrasting outcomes are governed by a trade-off between aggregate surface area and height. Our results provide new insight into biofilm formation and development, and reveal new factors that may be at play in the social evolution of biofilm communities.

  8. Structural basis for bacterial transcription-coupled DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Deaconescu, Alexandra M; Chambers, Anna L; Smith, Abigail J; Nickels, Bryce E; Hochschild, Ann; Savery, Nigel J; Darst, Seth A

    2006-02-10

    Coupling of transcription and DNA repair in bacteria is mediated by transcription-repair coupling factor (TRCF, the product of the mfd gene), which removes transcription elongation complexes stalled at DNA lesions and recruits the nucleotide excision repair machinery to the site. Here we describe the 3.2 A-resolution X-ray crystal structure of Escherichia coli TRCF. The structure consists of a compact arrangement of eight domains, including a translocation module similar to the SF2 ATPase RecG, and a region of structural similarity to UvrB. Biochemical and genetic experiments establish that another domain with structural similarity to the Tudor-like domain of the transcription elongation factor NusG plays a critical role in TRCF/RNA polymerase interactions. Comparison with the translocation module of RecG as well as other structural features indicate that TRCF function involves large-scale conformational changes. These data, along with a structural model for the interaction of TRCF with the transcription elongation complex, provide mechanistic insights into TRCF function.

  9. Nucleolus-like compartmentalization of the transcription machinery in fast-growing bacterial cells.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ding Jun; Mata Martin, Carmen; Sun, Zhe; Cagliero, Cedric; Zhou, Yan Ning

    2017-02-01

    We have learned a great deal about RNA polymerase (RNA Pol), transcription factors, and the transcriptional regulation mechanisms in prokaryotes for specific genes, operons, or transcriptomes. However, we have only begun to understand how the transcription machinery is three-dimensionally (3D) organized into bacterial chromosome territories to orchestrate the transcription process and to maintain harmony with the replication machinery in the cell. Much progress has been made recently in our understanding of the spatial organization of the transcription machinery in fast-growing Escherichia coli cells using state-of-the-art superresolution imaging techniques. Co-imaging of RNA polymerase (RNA Pol) with DNA and transcription elongation factors involved in ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis, and ribosome biogenesis has revealed similarities between bacteria and eukaryotes in the spatial organization of the transcription machinery for growth genes, most of which are rRNA genes. Evidence supports the notion that RNA Pol molecules are concentrated, forming foci at the clustering of rRNA operons resembling the eukaryotic nucleolus. RNA Pol foci are proposed to be active transcription factories for both rRNA genes expression and ribosome biogenesis to support maximal growth in optimal growing conditions. Thus, in fast-growing bacterial cells, RNA Pol foci mimic eukaryotic Pol I activity, and transcription factories resemble nucleolus-like compartmentation. In addition, the transcription and replication machineries are mostly segregated in space to avoid the conflict between the two major cellular functions in fast-growing cells.

  10. Upstream Binding of Idling RNA Polymerase Modulates Transcription Initiation from a Nearby Promoter*

    PubMed Central

    Gerganova, Veneta; Maurer, Sebastian; Stoliar, Liubov; Japaridze, Aleksandre; Dietler, Giovanni; Nasser, William; Kutateladze, Tamara; Travers, Andrew; Muskhelishvili, Georgi

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial gene regulatory regions often demonstrate distinctly organized arrays of RNA polymerase binding sites of ill-defined function. Previously we observed a module of closely spaced polymerase binding sites upstream of the canonical promoter of the Escherichia coli fis operon. FIS is an abundant nucleoid-associated protein involved in adjusting the chromosomal DNA topology to changing cellular physiology. Here we show that simultaneous binding of the polymerase at the canonical fis promoter and an upstream transcriptionally inactive site stabilizes a RNAP oligomeric complex in vitro. We further show that modulation of the upstream binding of RNA polymerase affects the fis promoter activity both in vivo and in vitro. The effect of the upstream RNA polymerase binding on the fis promoter activity depends on the spatial arrangement of polymerase binding sites and DNA supercoiling. Our data suggest that a specific DNA geometry of the nucleoprotein complex stabilized on concomitant binding of RNA polymerase molecules at the fis promoter and the upstream region acts as a topological device regulating the fis transcription. We propose that transcriptionally inactive RNA polymerase molecules can act as accessory factors regulating the transcription initiation from a nearby promoter. PMID:25648898

  11. The RPB2 Flap Loop of Human RNA Polymerase II Is Dispensable for Transcription Initiation and Elongation▿†

    PubMed Central

    Palangat, Murali; Grass, Jeffrey A.; Langelier, Marie-France; Coulombe, Benoit; Landick, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The flap domain of multisubunit RNA polymerases (RNAPs), also called the wall, forms one side of the RNA exit channel. In bacterial RNAP, the mobile part of the flap is called the flap tip and makes essential contacts with initiation and elongation factors. Cocrystal structures suggest that the orthologous part of eukaryotic RNAPII, called the flap loop, contacts transcription factor IIB (TFIIB), but the function of the flap loop has not been assessed. We constructed and tested a deletion of the flap loop in human RNAPII (subunit RPB2 Δ873-884) that removes the flap loop interaction interface with TFIIB. Genome-wide analysis of the distribution of the RNAPII with the flap loop deletion expressed in a human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK 293) revealed no effect of the flap loop on global transcription initiation, RNAPII occupancy within genes, or the efficiency of promoter escape and productive elongation. In vitro, the flap loop deletion had no effect on promoter binding, abortive initiation or promoter escape, TFIIS-stimulated transcript cleavage, or inhibition of transcript elongation by the complex of negative elongation factor (NELF) and 5,6-dichloro-1-β-d-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB) sensitivity-inducing factor (DSIF). A modest effect on transcript elongation and pausing was suppressed by TFIIF. Although similar to the flap tip of bacterial RNAP, the RNAPII flap loop is not equivalently essential. PMID:21670157

  12. Structural studies of bacterial transcriptional regulatory proteins by multidimensional heteronuclear NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Volkman, Brian Finley

    1995-02-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to elucidate detailed structural information for peptide and protein molecules. A small peptide was designed and synthesized, and its three-dimensional structure was calculated using distance information derived from two-dimensional NMR measurements. The peptide was used to induce antibodies in mice, and the cross-reactivity of the antibodies with a related protein was analyzed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Two proteins which are involved in regulation of transcription in bacteria were also studied. The ferric uptake regulation (Fur) protein is a metal-dependent repressor which controls iron uptake in bacteria. Two- and three-dimensional NMR techniques, coupled with uniform and selective isotope labeling allowed the nearly complete assignment of the resonances of the metal-binding domain of the Fur protein. NTRC is a transcriptional enhancer binding protein whose N-terminal domain is a "receiver domain" in the family of "two-component" regulatory systems. Phosphorylation of the N-terminal domain of NTRC activates the initiation of transcription of aeries encoding proteins involved in nitrogen regulation. Three- and four-dimensional NMR spectroscopy methods have been used to complete the resonance assignments and determine the solution structure of the N-terminal receiver domain of the NTRC protein. Comparison of the solution structure of the NTRC receiver domain with the crystal structures of the homologous protein CheY reveals a very similar fold, with the only significant difference being the position of helix 4 relative to the rest of the protein. The determination of the structure of the NTRC receiver domain is the first step toward understanding a mechanism of signal transduction which is common to many bacterial regulatory systems.

  13. Bacterial Transcriptional Regulators for Degradation Pathways of Aromatic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Tropel, David; van der Meer, Jan Roelof

    2004-01-01

    Human activities have resulted in the release and introduction into the environment of a plethora of aromatic chemicals. The interest in discovering how bacteria are dealing with hazardous environmental pollutants has driven a large research community and has resulted in important biochemical, genetic, and physiological knowledge about the degradation capacities of microorganisms and their application in bioremediation, green chemistry, or production of pharmacy synthons. In addition, regulation of catabolic pathway expression has attracted the interest of numerous different groups, and several catabolic pathway regulators have been exemplary for understanding transcription control mechanisms. More recently, information about regulatory systems has been used to construct whole-cell living bioreporters that are used to measure the quality of the aqueous, soil, and air environment. The topic of biodegradation is relatively coherent, and this review presents a coherent overview of the regulatory systems involved in the transcriptional control of catabolic pathways. This review summarizes the different regulatory systems involved in biodegradation pathways of aromatic compounds linking them to other known protein families. Specific attention has been paid to describing the genetic organization of the regulatory genes, promoters, and target operon(s) and to discussing present knowledge about signaling molecules, DNA binding properties, and operator characteristics, and evidence from regulatory mutants. For each regulator family, this information is combined with recently obtained protein structural information to arrive at a possible mechanism of transcription activation. This demonstrates the diversity of control mechanisms existing in catabolic pathways. PMID:15353566

  14. Transcription initiation factor DksA has diverse effects on RNA chain elongation

    PubMed Central

    Furman, Ran; Sevostyanova, Anastasiya; Artsimovitch, Irina

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial transcription factors DksA and GreB belong to a family of coiled-coil proteins that bind within the secondarychannel of RNA polymerase (RNAP). These proteins display structural homology but play different regulatory roles. DksA disrupts RNAP interactions with promoter DNA and inhibits formation of initiation complexes, sensitizing rRNA synthesis to changes in concentrations of ppGpp and NTPs. Gre proteins remodel the RNAP active site and facilitate cleavage of the nascent RNA in elongation complexes. However, DksA and GreB were shown to have overlapping effects during initiation, and in vivo studies suggested that DksA may also function at post-initiation steps. Here we show that DksA has many features of an elongation factor: it inhibits both RNA chain extension and RNA shortening by exonucleolytic cleavage or pyrophosphorolysis and increases intrinsic termination in vitro and in vivo. However, DksA has no effect on Rho- or Mfd-mediated RNA release or nascent RNA cleavage in backtracked complexes, the regulatory target of Gre factors. Our results reveal that DksA effects on elongating RNAP are very different from those of GreB, suggesting that these regulators recognize distinct states of the transcription complex. PMID:22210857

  15. Ocean microbes. Multispecies diel transcriptional oscillations in open ocean heterotrophic bacterial assemblages.

    PubMed

    Ottesen, Elizabeth A; Young, Curtis R; Gifford, Scott M; Eppley, John M; Marin, Roman; Schuster, Stephan C; Scholin, Christopher A; DeLong, Edward F

    2014-07-11

    Oscillating diurnal rhythms of gene transcription, metabolic activity, and behavior are found in all three domains of life. However, diel cycles in naturally occurring heterotrophic bacteria and archaea have rarely been observed. Here, we report time-resolved whole-genome transcriptome profiles of multiple, naturally occurring oceanic bacterial populations sampled in situ over 3 days. As anticipated, the cyanobacterial transcriptome exhibited pronounced diel periodicity. Unexpectedly, several different heterotrophic bacterioplankton groups also displayed diel cycling in many of their gene transcripts. Furthermore, diel oscillations in different heterotrophic bacterial groups suggested population-specific timing of peak transcript expression in a variety of metabolic gene suites. These staggered multispecies waves of diel gene transcription may influence both the tempo and the mode of matter and energy transformation in the sea.

  16. An iron detection system determines bacterial swarming initiation and biofilm formation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chuan-Sheng; Tsai, Yu-Huan; Chang, Chih-Jung; Tseng, Shun-Fu; Wu, Tsung-Ru; Lu, Chia-Chen; Wu, Ting-Shu; Lu, Jang-Jih; Horng, Jim-Tong; Martel, Jan; Ojcius, David M.; Lai, Hsin-Chih; Young, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Iron availability affects swarming and biofilm formation in various bacterial species. However, how bacteria sense iron and coordinate swarming and biofilm formation remains unclear. Using Serratia marcescens as a model organism, we identify here a stage-specific iron-regulatory machinery comprising a two-component system (TCS) and the TCS-regulated iron chelator 2-isocyano-6,7-dihydroxycoumarin (ICDH-Coumarin) that directly senses and modulates environmental ferric iron (Fe3+) availability to determine swarming initiation and biofilm formation. We demonstrate that the two-component system RssA-RssB (RssAB) directly senses environmental ferric iron (Fe3+) and transcriptionally modulates biosynthesis of flagella and the iron chelator ICDH-Coumarin whose production requires the pvc cluster. Addition of Fe3+, or loss of ICDH-Coumarin due to pvc deletion results in prolonged RssAB signaling activation, leading to delayed swarming initiation and increased biofilm formation. We further show that ICDH-Coumarin is able to chelate Fe3+ to switch off RssAB signaling, triggering swarming initiation and biofilm reduction. Our findings reveal a novel cellular system that senses iron levels to regulate bacterial surface lifestyle. PMID:27845335

  17. The transcription cycle in eukaryotes: from productive initiation to RNA polymerase II recycling.

    PubMed

    Shandilya, Jayasha; Roberts, Stefan G E

    2012-05-01

    The cycle of eukaryotic transcription, from initiation to elongation and termination is regulated at multiple steps. Coordinated action of regulatory factors keeps in check the transcriptional competence of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) at different stages. Productive transcription requires the escape of the paused RNAPII from the promoter and transition to rapid elongation of the transcript. Numerous studies have identified diverse mechanisms of initiating transcription by overriding inhibitory signals at the gene promoter. The general theme that has emerged is that the balance between positive and negative regulatory factors determines the overall rate of transcription. Recently transcription termination has emerged as an important area of transcriptional regulation that is coupled with the efficient recycling of RNAPII. The factors associated with transcription termination can also mediate gene looping and thereby determine the efficiency of re-initiation. This review highlights these regulatory steps, the key modulators involved in transcription dynamics, and the emerging tools to analyze them.

  18. Structural basis of initial RNA polymerase II transcription.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Alan C M; Sainsbury, Sarah; Cramer, Patrick

    2011-11-04

    During transcription initiation by RNA polymerase (Pol) II, a transient open promoter complex (OC) is converted to an initially transcribing complex (ITC) containing short RNAs, and to a stable elongation complex (EC). We report structures of a Pol II-DNA complex mimicking part of the OC, and of complexes representing minimal ITCs with 2, 4, 5, 6, and 7 nucleotide (nt) RNAs, with and without a non-hydrolyzable nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) in the insertion site +1. The partial OC structure reveals that Pol II positions the melted template strand opposite the active site. The ITC-mimicking structures show that two invariant lysine residues anchor the 3'-proximal phosphate of short RNAs. Short DNA-RNA hybrids adopt a tilted conformation that excludes the +1 template nt from the active site. NTP binding induces complete DNA translocation and the standard hybrid conformation. Conserved NTP contacts indicate a universal mechanism of NTP selection. The essential residue Q1078 in the closed trigger loop binds the NTP 2'-OH group, explaining how the trigger loop couples catalysis to NTP selection, suppressing dNTP binding and DNA synthesis.

  19. Initial stages of bacterial fouling during dead-end microfiltration.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wendong; Chellam, Shankararaman

    2005-09-01

    Constant pressure experiments were performed using track-etched polycarbonate membranes and rod-shaped bacteria (viz., Brevundimonas diminuta and Serratia marcescens) to study flux decline and backwashing during the early stages of microfiltration. The intermediate blocking law originally derived for spherical particles was modified to account for the approximate cylindrical shape of the selected bacteria. A deposition factor was introduced to empirically account for the morphology of bacterial deposits. The initial stages of flux decline prior to the secretion of new extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) was quantitatively described by the intermediate blocking law before transitioning to cake filtration at later times. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) provided additional visual evidence that bacteria simultaneously deposited directly on the membrane and on each other during early stages of filtration as assumed bythe intermediate blocking law. Empirical deposition factors decreased with initial permeate flux indicating its effect on bacteria deposition patterns, which was also confirmed by SEM. Bacteria were easily removed following short filtration times before significant secretion of new EPS by simply rinsing with ultrapure water, thereby completely restoring the clean membrane permeability. In contrast, this rinsing procedure did not completely recover the membrane permeability following longer durations when significant amounts of new EPS proteins and polysaccharides were secreted. Consequently, backwashing effectiveness during water and wastewater microfiltration will be high prior to EPS production whereas flux recovery may not be possible solely by hydrodynamic means once EPS are secreted.

  20. Tuning of Recombinant Protein Expression in Escherichia coli by Manipulating Transcription, Translation Initiation Rates, and Incorporation of Noncanonical Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, Orr; Chemla, Yonatan; Heltberg, Mathias; Ozer, Eden; Marshall, Ryan; Noireaux, Vincent; Jensen, Mogens Høgh; Alfonta, Lital

    2017-06-16

    Protein synthesis in cells has been thoroughly investigated and characterized over the past 60 years. However, some fundamental issues remain unresolved, including the reasons for genetic code redundancy and codon bias. In this study, we changed the kinetics of the Eschrichia coli transcription and translation processes by mutating the promoter and ribosome binding domains and by using genetic code expansion. The results expose a counterintuitive phenomenon, whereby an increase in the initiation rates of transcription and translation lead to a decrease in protein expression. This effect can be rescued by introducing slow translating codons into the beginning of the gene, by shortening gene length or by reducing initiation rates. On the basis of the results, we developed a biophysical model, which suggests that the density of co-transcriptional-translation plays a role in bacterial protein synthesis. These findings indicate how cells use codon bias to tune translation speed and protein synthesis.

  1. A new way to start: nanoRNA-mediated priming of transcription initiation.

    PubMed

    Nickels, Bryce E

    2012-01-01

    A recent study provides evidence that RNA polymerase uses 2- to ~4-nt RNAs, species termed "nanoRNAs," to prime transcription initiation in Escherichia coli. Priming of transcription initiation with nanoRNAs represents a previously undocumented component of transcription start site selection and gene expression.

  2. Small molecule inhibitors of bacterial transcription complex formation.

    PubMed

    Wenholz, Daniel S; Zeng, Ming; Ma, Cong; Mielczarek, Marcin; Yang, Xiao; Bhadbhade, Mohan; Black, David St C; Lewis, Peter J; Griffith, Renate; Kumar, Naresh

    2017-09-15

    Knoevenagel condensation was employed to generate a set of molecules potentially capable of inhibiting the RNA polymerase-σ(70)/σ(A) interaction in bacteria. Synthesis was achieved via reactions between a variety of indole-7-carbaldehydes and rhodanine, N-allylrhodanine, barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. A library of structurally diverse compounds was examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to assess the inhibition of the targeted protein-protein interaction. Inhibition of bacterial growth was also evaluated using Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli cultures. The structure-activity relationship studies demonstrated the significance of particular structural features of the synthesized molecules for RNA polymerase-σ(70)/σ(A) interaction inhibition and antibacterial activity. Docking was investigated as an in silico method for the further development of the compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Conserved rates and patterns of transcription errors across bacterial growth states and lifestyles

    PubMed Central

    Traverse, Charles C.; Ochman, Howard

    2016-01-01

    Errors that occur during transcription have received much less attention than the mutations that occur in DNA because transcription errors are not heritable and usually result in a very limited number of altered proteins. However, transcription error rates are typically several orders of magnitude higher than the mutation rate. Also, individual transcripts can be translated multiple times, so a single error can have substantial effects on the pool of proteins. Transcription errors can also contribute to cellular noise, thereby influencing cell survival under stressful conditions, such as starvation or antibiotic stress. Implementing a method that captures transcription errors genome-wide, we measured the rates and spectra of transcription errors in Escherichia coli and in endosymbionts for which mutation and/or substitution rates are greatly elevated over those of E. coli. Under all tested conditions, across all species, and even for different categories of RNA sequences (mRNA and rRNAs), there were no significant differences in rates of transcription errors, which ranged from 2.3 × 10−5 per nucleotide in mRNA of the endosymbiont Buchnera aphidicola to 5.2 × 10−5 per nucleotide in rRNA of the endosymbiont Carsonella ruddii. The similarity of transcription error rates in these bacterial endosymbionts to that in E. coli (4.63 × 10−5 per nucleotide) is all the more surprising given that genomic erosion has resulted in the loss of transcription fidelity factors in both Buchnera and Carsonella. PMID:26884158

  4. Initial bacterial adhesion on resin, titanium and zirconia in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byung-Chul; Jung, Gil-Yong; Kim, Dae-Joon

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the adhesion of initial colonizer, Streptococcus sanguis, on resin, titanium and zirconia under the same surface polishing condition. MATERIALS AND METHODS Specimens were prepared from Z-250, cp-Ti and 3Y-TZP and polished with 1 µm diamond paste. After coating with saliva, each specimen was incubated with Streptococcus sanguis. Scanning electron microscope, crystal violet staining and measurement of fluorescence intensity resulting from resazurin reduction were performed for quantifying the bacterial adhesion. RESULTS Surface of resin composite was significantly rougher than that of titanium and zirconia, although all tested specimens are classified as smooth. The resin specimens showed lower value of contact angle compared with titanium and zirconia specimens, and had hydrophilic surfaces. The result of scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that bound bacteria were more abundant on resin in comparison with titanium and zirconia. When total biofilm mass determined by crystal violet, absorbance value of resin was significantly higher than that of titanium or zirconia. The result of relative fluorescence intensities also demonstrated that the highest fluorescence intensity was found on the surface of resin. Absorbance value and fluorescence intensity on titanium was not significantly different from those on zirconia. CONCLUSION Resin specimens showed the roughest surface and have a significantly higher susceptibility to adhere Streptococcus sanguis than titanium and zirconia when surfaces of each specimen were polished under same condition. There was no significant difference in bacteria adhesion between titanium and zirconia in vitro. PMID:21814616

  5. Transcriptional Responses of Treponema denticola to Other Oral Bacterial Species

    PubMed Central

    Simanian, Emil J.; Shi, Wenyuan; Lux, Renate

    2014-01-01

    an in-depth understanding of the transcriptional responses triggered by contact-dependent interactions between microorganisms inhabiting the periodontal pocket. PMID:24505483

  6. The dynamic nature and territory of transcriptional machinery in the bacterial chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Ding J.; Cagliero, Cedric; Martin, Carmen M.; Izard, Jerome; Zhou, Yan N.

    2015-01-01

    Our knowledge of the regulation of genes involved in bacterial growth and stress responses is extensive; however, we have only recently begun to understand how environmental cues influence the dynamic, three-dimensional distribution of RNA polymerase (RNAP) in Escherichia coli on the level of single cell, using wide-field fluorescence microscopy and state-of-the-art imaging techniques. Live-cell imaging using either an agarose-embedding procedure or a microfluidic system further underscores the dynamic nature of the distribution of RNAP in response to changes in the environment and highlights the challenges in the study. A general agreement between live-cell and fixed-cell images has validated the formaldehyde-fixing procedure, which is a technical breakthrough in the study of the cell biology of RNAP. In this review we use a systems biology perspective to summarize the advances in the cell biology of RNAP in E. coli, including the discoveries of the bacterial nucleolus, the spatial compartmentalization of the transcription machinery at the periphery of the nucleoid, and the segregation of the chromosome territories for the two major cellular functions of transcription and replication in fast-growing cells. Our understanding of the coupling of transcription and bacterial chromosome (or nucleoid) structure is also summarized. Using E. coli as a simple model system, co-imaging of RNAP with DNA and other factors during growth and stress responses will continue to be a useful tool for studying bacterial growth and adaptation in changing environment. PMID:26052320

  7. Initial insights into bacterial succession during human decomposition.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Embriette R; Haarmann, Daniel P; Petrosino, Joseph F; Lynne, Aaron M; Bucheli, Sibyl R

    2015-05-01

    Decomposition is a dynamic ecological process dependent upon many factors such as environment, climate, and bacterial, insect, and vertebrate activity in addition to intrinsic properties inherent to individual cadavers. Although largely attributed to microbial metabolism, very little is known about the bacterial basis of human decomposition. To assess the change in bacterial community structure through time, bacterial samples were collected from several sites across two cadavers placed outdoors to decompose and analyzed through 454 pyrosequencing and analysis of variable regions 3-5 of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene. Each cadaver was characterized by a change in bacterial community structure for all sites sampled as time, and decomposition, progressed. Bacteria community structure is variable at placement and before purge for all body sites. At bloat and purge and until tissues began to dehydrate or were removed, bacteria associated with flies, such as Ignatzschineria and Wohlfahrtimonas, were common. After dehydration and skeletonization, bacteria associated with soil, such as Acinetobacter, were common at most body sites sampled. However, more cadavers sampled through multiple seasons are necessary to assess major trends in bacterial succession.

  8. Premature terminator analysis sheds light on a hidden world of bacterial transcriptional attenuation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bacterial transcription attenuation occurs through a variety of cis-regulatory elements that control gene expression in response to a wide range of signals. The signal-sensing structures in attenuators are so diverse and rapidly evolving that only a small fraction have been properly annotated and characterized to date. Here we apply a broad-spectrum detection tool in order to achieve a more complete view of the transcriptional attenuation complement of key bacterial species. Results Our protocol seeks gene families with an unusual frequency of 5' terminators found across multiple species. Many of the detected attenuators are part of annotated elements, such as riboswitches or T-boxes, which often operate through transcriptional attenuation. However, a significant fraction of candidates were not previously characterized in spite of their unmistakable footprint. We further characterized some of these new elements using sequence and secondary structure analysis. We also present elements that may control the expression of several non-homologous genes, suggesting co-transcription and response to common signals. An important class of such elements, which we called mobile attenuators, is provided by 3' terminators of insertion sequences or prophages that may be exapted as 5' regulators when inserted directly upstream of a cellular gene. Conclusions We show here that attenuators involve a complex landscape of signal-detection structures spanning the entire bacterial domain. We discuss possible scenarios through which these diverse 5' regulatory structures may arise or evolve. PMID:20920266

  9. Premature terminator analysis sheds light on a hidden world of bacterial transcriptional attenuation.

    PubMed

    Naville, Magali; Gautheret, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial transcription attenuation occurs through a variety of cis-regulatory elements that control gene expression in response to a wide range of signals. The signal-sensing structures in attenuators are so diverse and rapidly evolving that only a small fraction have been properly annotated and characterized to date. Here we apply a broad-spectrum detection tool in order to achieve a more complete view of the transcriptional attenuation complement of key bacterial species. Our protocol seeks gene families with an unusual frequency of 5' terminators found across multiple species. Many of the detected attenuators are part of annotated elements, such as riboswitches or T-boxes, which often operate through transcriptional attenuation. However, a significant fraction of candidates were not previously characterized in spite of their unmistakable footprint. We further characterized some of these new elements using sequence and secondary structure analysis. We also present elements that may control the expression of several non-homologous genes, suggesting co-transcription and response to common signals. An important class of such elements, which we called mobile attenuators, is provided by 3' terminators of insertion sequences or prophages that may be exapted as 5' regulators when inserted directly upstream of a cellular gene. We show here that attenuators involve a complex landscape of signal-detection structures spanning the entire bacterial domain. We discuss possible scenarios through which these diverse 5' regulatory structures may arise or evolve.

  10. Binding motifs in bacterial gene promoters modulate transcriptional effect of global regulators

    SciTech Connect

    Leuze, Michael Rex; Karpinets, Tatiana V; Syed, Mustafa H; Beliaev, Alexander S; Uberbacher, Edward C

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial gene regulation involves transcription factors (TFs) that influence the expression of many genes. Global regulators, including CRP (cAMP Receptor Protein), ArcA, and FNR, can modulate the transcriptional activity of multiple operons. The similarity of a regulatory element s sequence to a TF s consensus binding site (BS) and the position of the regulatory element in an operon promoter are considered the most important determinants of this TF s regulatory influence. In this study we explore the hypothesis that the number of TFBS half-sites (where a half-site is one half of the palindromic BS consensus sequence, which we shall refer to as a binding motif or a BM) of a global regulator in an operon s promoter plays an important role in the operon s transcriptional regulation. We examine empirical data from transcriptional profiling of the CRP regulon in Shewanella oneidenses MR 1 and Escherichia coli, and of the ArcA regulon in S. oneidenses MR 1. We compare the power of CRP BM counts and of full, symmetrical CRP TFBS characteristics, namely similarity to consensus and location, to predict CRP-induced transcriptional activity. We find that CRP BM counts have a nonlinear effect on CRP-dependent transcriptional activity and predict this activity better than full-length TFBS quality or location. Regression analysis indicates that IHF (Integration Host Factor) and ArcA have synergistic effects on CRP-induced gene transcription, positive and negative, respectively. Based on these results, we propose that the fine-tuning of bacterial transcriptional activity by CRP may involves not only the bending of the operon promoter, facilitated by CRP in cooperation with the histone-like protein IHF, but also the cumulative binding affinity of multiple weak BMs.

  11. Possible interaction between the bacterial transcription factor ArtA and the eukaryotic RNA polymerase III promoter.

    PubMed

    Matsutani, Sachiko

    2016-06-01

    Eukaryotic RNA polymerase III (RNAP III) transcribes tRNA genes and short interspersed elements that have internal promoters consisting of A- and B-blocks. The B-block binding subunit of the transcription initiation factor TFIIIC binds to the B-block. The mobile bacterial insertion sequence (IS) 1 contains a RNAP III promoter-like sequence, which stimulates bacterial transcription along with the bacterial ArtA protein. Here, the DNA-binding ability of ArtA was examined in vitro using a simple, newly developed method. Various DNA fragments, including RNAP III promoter fragments, were separately incubated with purified ArtA, and then loaded onto a polyacrylamide gel. Since DNAs bound by ArtA remain in the gel wells during electrophoresis, SDS was added into the wells at the electrophoresis halfway point. It was hypothesized that SDS would dissociate the DNA-ArtA complexes in the wells, and then the DNAs would begin to migrate. In fact, new bands appeared in all of the lanes at similar intensities, indicating that ArtA binds nonspecifically to DNA. Therefore, labeled wild-type RNAP III promoter fragments were incubated with either the unlabeled wild-type or mutant fragments and ArtA, and electrophoresed. The B-block(-like) sequences of IS1, a human Alu element, and an anuran tRNA gene were important for binding to ArtA. Additionally, in silico analyses revealed the presence of the RNAP III promoter-like structures in the IS1 isoforms and the IS3 family elements. These results suggest the presence of parts of the RNAP III transcription machinery in bacteria, and might imply that its prototype existed in the common ancestor.

  12. Global analysis of bacterial transcription factors to predict cellular target processes.

    PubMed

    Doerks, Tobias; Andrade, Miguel A; Lathe, Warren; von Mering, Christian; Bork, Peer

    2004-03-01

    Whole-genome sequences are now available for >100 bacterial species, giving unprecedented power to comparative genomics approaches. We have applied genome-context methods to predict target processes that are regulated by transcription factors (TFs). Of 128 orthologous groups of proteins annotated as TFs, to date, 36 are functionally uncharacterized; in our analysis we predict a probable cellular target process or biochemical pathway for half of these functionally uncharacterized TFs.

  13. Human Mitochondrial Transcription Initiation Complexes Have Similar Topology on the Light and Heavy Strand Promoters.

    PubMed

    Morozov, Yaroslav I; Temiakov, Dmitry

    2016-06-24

    Transcription is a highly regulated process in all domains of life. In human mitochondria, transcription of the circular genome involves only two promoters, called light strand promoter (LSP) and heavy strand promoter (HSP), located in the opposite DNA strands. Initiation of transcription occurs upon sequential assembly of an initiation complex that includes mitochondrial RNA polymerase (mtRNAP) and the initiation factors mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) and TFB2M. It has been recently suggested that the transcription initiation factor TFAM binds to HSP and LSP in opposite directions, implying that the mechanisms of transcription initiation are drastically dissimilar at these promoters. In contrast, we found that binding of TFAM to HSP and the subsequent recruitment of mtRNAP results in a pre-initiation complex that is remarkably similar in topology and properties to that formed at the LSP promoter. Our data suggest that assembly of the pre-initiation complexes on LSP and HSP brings these transcription units in close proximity, providing an opportunity for regulatory proteins to simultaneously control transcription initiation in both mtDNA strands.

  14. Specific Inhibition of HER-2/NEU Transcription Initiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    quadruplex-forming region in the c-myb promoter is a critical cis-acting element that may repress c-myb promoter activity through MAZ 6 W81XWH-04-1-0560...oligonucleotides representing the c-MYB promoter. o Identification of MAZ as a transcription factor that can recognize alternate DNA conformations in

  15. The use of Molecular Beacons to Directly Measure Bacterial mRNA Abundances and Transcript Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Kuechenmeister, Lisa J.; Anderson, Kelsi L.; Morrison, John M.; Dunman, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    The regulation of mRNA turnover is a dynamic means by which bacteria regulate gene expression. Although current methodologies allow characterization of the stability of individual transcripts, procedures designed to measure alterations in transcript abundance/turnover on a high throughput scale are lacking. In the current report, we describe the development of a rapid and simplified molecular beacon-based procedure to directly measure the mRNA abundances and mRNA degradation properties of well-characterized Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity factors. This method does not require any PCR-based amplification, can monitor the abundances of multiple transcripts within a single RNA sample, and was successfully implemented into a high throughput screen of transposon mutant library members to detect isolates with altered mRNA turnover properties. It is expected that the described methodology will provide great utility in characterizing components of bacterial RNA degradation processes and can be used to directly measure the mRNA levels of virtually any bacterial transcript. PMID:18992285

  16. Transcription Start Site Scanning and the Requirement for ATP during Transcription Initiation by RNA Polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Fishburn, James; Galburt, Eric; Hahn, Steven

    2016-06-17

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase (Pol) II locates transcription start sites (TSS) at TATA-containing promoters by scanning sequences downstream from the site of preinitiation complex formation, a process that involves the translocation of downstream promoter DNA toward Pol II. To investigate a potential role of yeast Pol II transcription in TSS scanning, HIS4 promoter derivatives were generated that limited transcripts in the 30-bp scanned region to two nucleotides in length. Although we found that TSS scanning does not require RNA synthesis, our results revealed that transcription in the purified yeast basal system is largely ATP-independent despite a requirement for the TFIIH DNA translocase subunit Ssl2. This result is rationalized by our finding that, although they are poorer substrates, UTP and GTP can also be utilized by Ssl2. ATPγS is a strong inhibitor of rNTP-fueled translocation, and high concentrations of ATPγS make transcription completely dependent on added dATP. Limiting Pol II function with low ATP concentrations shifted the TSS position downstream. Combined with prior work, our results show that Pol II transcription plays an important role in TSS selection but is not required for the scanning reaction.

  17. Specific Inhibition of HER-2/neu Transcription Initiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    small molecule to repress c -MYC transcription, Proc Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S . A 99, 11593-11598. (5) Weitzmann, M. N., Woodford, K. J., and Usdin, K...Acids Res. 27, 537-542. (7) Grand, C . L., Han, H., Munoz, R. M., Weitman, S ., Von Hoff, D. D., Hurley, L. H., and Bearss, D. J. (2002) The cationic...J., Rezler, E. M., Powell, T. J., Tye, D., Gokhale, V., Joshi, C . S ., Siddiqui-Jain, A., and Hurley, L. H. (2004) The dynamic character of the G

  18. Crystal Structures of the E. coli Transcription Initiation Complexes with a Complete Bubble

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo, Yuhong; Steitz, Thomas A.

    2015-05-01

    During transcription initiation, RNA polymerase binds to promoter DNA to form an initiation complex containing a DNA bubble and enters into abortive cycles of RNA synthesis before escaping the promoter to transit into the elongation phase for processive RNA synthesis. Here we present the crystal structures of E. coli transcription initiation complexes containing a complete transcription bubble and de novo synthesized RNA oligonucleotides at about 6-Å resolution. The structures show how RNA polymerase recognizes DNA promoters that contain spacers of different lengths and reveal a bridging interaction between the 5'-triphosphate of the nascent RNA and the σ factor that may function to stabilize the short RNA-DNA hybrids during the early stage of transcription initiation. The conformation of the RNA oligonucleotides and the paths of the DNA strands in the complete initiation complexes provide insights into the mechanism that controls both the abortive and productive RNA synthesis.

  19. The interaction surface of a bacterial transcription elongation factor required for complex formation with an antiterminator during transcription antitermination.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Saurabh; Mohan, Shalini; Godavarthi, Sapna; Sen, Ranjan

    2013-09-27

    The bacterial transcription elongation factor, NusA, functions as an antiterminator when it is bound to the lambdoid phage derived antiterminator protein, N. The mode of N-NusA interaction is unknown, knowledge of which is essential to understand the antitermination process. It was reported earlier that in the absence of the transcription elongation complex (EC), N interacts with the C-terminal AR1 domain of NusA. However, the functional significance of this interaction is obscure. Here we identified mutations in NusA N terminus (NTD) specifically defective for N-mediated antitermination. These are located at a convex surface of the NusA-NTD, situated opposite its concave RNA polymerase (RNAP) binding surface. These NusA mutants disrupt the N-nut site interactions on the nascent RNA emerging out of a stalled EC. In the N/NusA-modified EC, a Cys-53 (S53C) from the convex surface of the NusA-NTD forms a specific disulfide (S-S) bridge with a Cys-39 (S39C) of the NusA binding region of the N protein. We conclude that when bound to the EC, the N interaction surface of NusA shifts from the AR1 domain to its NTD domain. This occurred due to a massive away-movement of the adjacent AR2 domain of NusA upon binding to the EC. We propose that the close proximity of this altered N-interaction site of NusA to its RNAP binding surface, enables N to influence the NusA-RNAP interaction during transcription antitermination that in turn facilitates the conversion of NusA into an antiterminator.

  20. The Role of Bacterial Enhancer Binding Proteins as Specialized Activators of σ54-Dependent Transcription

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Bacterial enhancer binding proteins (bEBPs) are transcriptional activators that assemble as hexameric rings in their active forms and utilize ATP hydrolysis to remodel the conformation of RNA polymerase containing the alternative sigma factor σ54. We present a comprehensive and detailed summary of recent advances in our understanding of how these specialized molecular machines function. The review is structured by introducing each of the three domains in turn: the central catalytic domain, the N-terminal regulatory domain, and the C-terminal DNA binding domain. The role of the central catalytic domain is presented with particular reference to (i) oligomerization, (ii) ATP hydrolysis, and (iii) the key GAFTGA motif that contacts σ54 for remodeling. Each of these functions forms a potential target of the signal-sensing N-terminal regulatory domain, which can act either positively or negatively to control the activation of σ54-dependent transcription. Finally, we focus on the DNA binding function of the C-terminal domain and the enhancer sites to which it binds. Particular attention is paid to the importance of σ54 to the bacterial cell and its unique role in regulating transcription. PMID:22933558

  1. Evolutionary Origins of Two-Barrel RNA Polymerases and Site-Specific Transcription Initiation.

    PubMed

    Fouqueau, Thomas; Blombach, Fabian; Werner, Finn

    2017-09-08

    Evolution-related multisubunit RNA polymerases (RNAPs) carry out RNA synthesis in all domains life. Although their catalytic cores and fundamental mechanisms of transcription elongation are conserved, the initiation stage of the transcription cycle differs substantially in bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes in terms of the requirements for accessory factors and details of the molecular mechanisms. This review focuses on recent insights into the evolution of the transcription apparatus with regard to (a) the surprisingly pervasive double-Ψ β-barrel active-site configuration among different nucleic acid polymerase families, (b) the origin and phylogenetic distribution of TBP, TFB, and TFE transcription factors, and (c) the functional relationship between transcription and translation initiation mechanisms in terms of transcription start site selection and RNA structure.

  2. Human transcription factor USF stimulates transcription through the initiator elements of the HIV-1 and the Ad-ML promoters.

    PubMed Central

    Du, H; Roy, A L; Roeder, R G

    1993-01-01

    Earlier in vitro studies identified USF as a cellular factor which activates the adenovirus major late (Ad-ML) promoter by binding to an E-box motif located at position -60 with respect to the cap site. Purified USF contains 44 and 43 kDa polypeptides, and the latter was found (by cDNA cloning) to be a helix-loop-helix protein. In this report, we demonstrate a 25-to 30-fold stimulation of transcription via an upstream binding site by ectopic expression of the 43 kDa form of USF (USF43) in transient transfection assays. More recent data have also revealed alternate interactions of USF43 at pyrimidine-rich (consensus YYAYTCYY) initiator (Inr) elements present in a variety of core promoters. In agreement with this observation, we show here that USF43 can recognize the initiator elements of the HIV-1 promoter, as well as those in the Ad-ML promoter, and that ectopic expression of USF43 can stimulate markedly the corresponding core promoters (TATA and initiator elements) when analyzed in transient co-transfection assays. Mutations in either Inr 1 or Inr 2 reduced the USF43-dependent transcription activity in vivo. In addition, in vitro transcription assays showed that mutations in either or both of the Inr 1 and Inr 2 sequences of the HIV-1 and Ad-ML promoters could affect transcription efficiency, but not the position of the transcriptional start site. These results indicate that USF43 can stimulate transcription through initiator elements in two viral promoters, although the exact mechanism and physiological significance of this effect remain unclear. Images PMID:8440240

  3. Ribavirin suppresses bacterial virulence by targeting LysR-type transcriptional regulators

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Rahul Shubhra; Ta, Atri; Sinha, Ritam; Theeya, Nagaraja; Ghosh, Anirban; Tasneem, Mohsina; Bhunia, Anirban; Koley, Hemanta; Das, Santasabuj

    2016-01-01

    Targeting bacterial virulence mechanisms without compromising bacterial growth is a promising strategy to prevent drug resistance. LysR-type transcriptional regulators (LTTRs) possess structural conservation across bacterial species and regulate virulence in numerous pathogens, making them attractive targets for antimicrobial agents. We targeted AphB, a Vibrio cholerae LTTR, which regulates the expression of genes encoding cholera toxin and toxin-co-regulated pilus for inhibitor designing. Since AphB ligand is unknown, we followed a molecular fragment-based approach for ligand designing using FDA-approved drugs and subsequent screen to identify molecules that exhibited high-affinity binding to AphB ligand-binding pocket. Among the identified compounds, ribavirin, an anti-viral drug, antagonized AphB functions. Ribavirin perturbed Vibrio cholerae pathogenesis in animal models. The inhibitory effects of the drug was limited to the bacteria expressing wild type AphB, but not its constitutively active mutant (AphBN100E), which represents the ligand-bound state, suggesting that ribavirin binds to the active site of AphB to exert its inhibitory role and there exists no AphB-independent mechanism of its action. Similarly, ribavirin suppressed the functions of Salmonella Typhi LTTR Hrg, indicating its broad spectrum efficacy. Moreover, ribavirin did not affect the bacterial viability in culture. This study cites an example of drug repurposing for anti-infective therapy. PMID:27991578

  4. Integrated Circuits: How Transcriptional Silencing and Counter-Silencing Facilitate Bacterial Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Will, W. Ryan; Navarre, William W.; Fang, Ferric C.

    2014-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer is a major contributor to bacterial evolution and diversity. For a bacterial cell to utilize newly-acquired traits such as virulence and antibiotic resistance, new genes must be integrated into the existing regulatory circuitry to allow appropriate expression. Xenogeneic silencing of horizontally-acquired genes by H-NS or other nucleoid-associated proteins avoids adventitious expression and can be relieved by other DNA-binding counter-silencing proteins in an environmentally- and physiologically-responsive manner. Biochemical and genetic analyses have recently demonstrated that counter-silencing can occur at a variety of promoter architectures, in contrast to classical transcriptional activation. Disruption of H-NS nucleoprotein filaments by DNA bending is a suggested mechanism by which silencing can be relieved. This review discusses recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms and importance of xenogeneic silencing and counter-silencing in the successful integration of horizontally-acquired genes into regulatory networks. PMID:25461567

  5. Transcriptional and antagonistic responses of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1 to phylogenetically different bacterial competitors

    PubMed Central

    Garbeva, Paolina; Silby, Mark W; Raaijmakers, Jos M; Levy, Stuart B; Boer, Wietse de

    2011-01-01

    The ability of soil bacteria to successfully compete with a range of other microbial species is crucial for their growth and survival in the nutrient-limited soil environment. In the present work, we studied the behavior and transcriptional responses of soil-inhabiting Pseudomonas fluorescens strain Pf0-1 on nutrient-poor agar to confrontation with strains of three phylogenetically different bacterial genera, that is, Bacillus, Brevundimonas and Pedobacter. Competition for nutrients was apparent as all three bacterial genera had a negative effect on the density of P. fluorescens Pf0-1; this effect was most strong during the interaction with Bacillus. Microarray-based analyses indicated strong differences in the transcriptional responses of Pf0-1 to the different competitors. There was higher similarity in the gene expression response of P. fluorescens Pf0-1 to the Gram-negative bacteria as compared with the Gram-positive strain. The Gram-negative strains did also trigger the production of an unknown broad-spectrum antibiotic in Pf0-1. More detailed analysis indicated that expression of specific Pf0-1 genes involved in signal transduction and secondary metabolite production was strongly affected by the competitors' identity, suggesting that Pf0-1 can distinguish among different competitors and fine-tune its competitive strategies. The results presented here demonstrate that P. fluorescens Pf0-1 shows a species-specific transcriptional and metabolic response to bacterial competitors and provide new leads in the identification of specific cues in bacteria–bacteria interactions and of novel competitive strategies, antimicrobial traits and genes. PMID:21228890

  6. RNA Polymerase III Accurately Initiates Transcription from RNA Polymerase II Promoters in Vitro*

    PubMed Central

    Duttke, Sascha H. C.

    2014-01-01

    In eukaryotes, there are three major RNA polymerases (Pol) in the nucleus, which are commonly described as transcribing non-overlapping subsets of genes. Structural studies have highlighted a conserved core shared among all three transcription systems. Initiation of human Pol III from TATA box-containing Pol II promoters under conditions with impaired Pol II transcription activity have been described previously. RNA polymerase III and Pol II were found to co-localize at the promoters of the c-myc gene and the RPPH1 sRNA in vivo. Here, I report that Pol III can, like Pol II, initiate transcription from most tested Pol II core promoters when assayed with crude human nuclear extracts (HSK, SNF, or Dignam). Both polymerases often initiate from the same transcription start site, and depend on a TATA box or AT-rich region but not the downstream promoter element (DPE) or the motif ten element (MTE). Moderate (∼2-fold) changes in the ratio of DNA template to nuclear extract were sufficient to change Pol II-mediated transcription to a mixture of Pol II- and Pol III-, or to a solely Pol III-dependent initiation of transcription from Pol II promoters. Polymerase specificity is thus not fixed but a variable that depends on the properties of the promoter and the transcription conditions. These findings provide functional evidence for a close similarity between the Pol II and Pol III transcription complexes, and additionally explain previous controversies in the literature. PMID:24917680

  7. Transcriptional activation domains stimulate initiation and elongation at different times and via different residues.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, S A; Weirich, C S; Newton, E M; Kingston, R E

    1998-01-01

    Transcriptional activators can stimulate multiple steps in the transcription process. We have used GAL4 fusion proteins to characterize the ability of different transcriptional activation domains to stimulate transcriptional elongation on the hsp70 gene in vitro. Stimulation of elongation apparently occurs via a mechanistic pathway different from that of stimulation of initiation: the herpes simplex virus VP16, heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) and amphipathic helix (AH) activation domains all stimulate initiation, but only VP16 and HSF1 stimulate elongation; and mutations in hydrophobic residues of the HSF1 activation domains impair stimulation of elongation but not of initiation, while mutations in adjacent acidic residues impair stimulation of initiation more than of elongation. Experiments in which activators were exchanged between initiation and elongation demonstrate that the elongation function of HSF1 will stimulate RNA polymerase that has initiated and is transcriptionally engaged. Transcriptional activators thus appear to have at least two distinct functions that reside in the same domain, and that act at different times to stimulate initiation and elongation. PMID:9606196

  8. Paradox of sonic hedgehog (SHH) transcriptional regulation: Alternative transcription initiation overrides the effect of downstream promoter DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    ten Haaf, Anette; Franken, Laura; Heymann, Caroline; von Serenyi, Sonja; Cornelissen, Christian; de Hoon, Joep P J; Veeck, Jürgen; Lüscher, Bernhard; Knüchel, Ruth; Dahl, Edgar

    2011-04-01

    Recently, DNA methylation has been suggested as a potential mechanism involved in the transcriptional regulation of SHH gene expression in cancer. However, detailed analyses on the underlying transcriptional mechanisms of SHH expression have not been presented so far and were therefore the focus of this study. We found that the genomic region of SHH contains two different transcriptional start sites and four CpG islands spread from the 5' promoter region to the 3' end of the SHH gene. Based on this CpG island topology we analyzed the influence of DNA methylation within the promoter region as well as in exon 2 and exon 3 on SHH mRNA expression in a large set (n = 14) of benign and malignant human cell lines, and further elucidated the functionality of the two identified SHH transcription initiation sites. Methylation-specific PCR (MSP) clearly showed that SHH is expressed independently of DNA methylation within exon 2 and exon 3 of its genomic region, while methylation of the promoter region is able to abrogate SHH expression. Most interesting, we found activation of the upstream SHH promoter in several breast cancer cell lines when the downstream SHH promoter is methylated. These observations lead us to propose a transcriptional model for the SHH gene, in which combined mechanisms of DNA methylation and alternative promoter usage coordinate the transcriptional activity of this important developmental gene.

  9. Snapshots of a viral RNA polymerase switching gears from transcription initiation to elongation.

    PubMed

    Theis, Karsten

    2013-12-01

    During transcription initiation, RNA polymerase binds tightly to the promoter DNA defining the start of transcription, transcribes comparatively slowly, and frequently releases short transcripts (3-8 nucleotides) in a process called abortive cycling. Transitioning to elongation, the second phase of transcription, the polymerase dissociates from the promoter while RNA synthesis continues. Elongation is characterized by higher rates of transcription and tight binding to the RNA transcript. The RNA polymerase from enterophage T7 (T7 RNAP) has been used as a model to understand the mechanism of transcription in general, and the transition from initiation to elongation specifically. This single-subunit enzyme undergoes dramatic conformational changes during this transition to support the changing requirements of nucleic acid interactions while continuously maintaining polymerase function. Crystal structures, available of multiple stages of the initiation complex and of the elongation complex, combined with biochemical and biophysical data, offer molecular detail of the transition. Some of the crystal structures contain a variant of T7 RNAP where proline 266 is substituted by leucine. This variant shows less abortive products and altered timing of transition, and is a valuable tool to study these processes. The structural transitions from early to late initiation are well understood and are consistent with solution data. The timing of events and the structural intermediates in the transition from late initiation to elongation are less well understood, but the available data allows one to formulate testable models of the transition to guide further research.

  10. Genomic context drives transcription of insertion sequences in the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia wVulC.

    PubMed

    Cerveau, Nicolas; Gilbert, Clément; Liu, Chao; Garrett, Roger A; Grève, Pierre; Bouchon, Didier; Cordaux, Richard

    2015-06-10

    Transposable elements (TEs) are DNA pieces that are present in almost all the living world at variable genomic density. Due to their mobility and density, TEs are involved in a large array of genomic modifications. In eukaryotes, TE expression has been studied in detail in several species. In prokaryotes, studies of IS expression are generally linked to particular copies that induce a modification of neighboring gene expression. Here we investigated global patterns of IS transcription in the Alphaproteobacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia wVulC, using both RT-PCR and bioinformatic analyses. We detected several transcriptional promoters in all IS groups. Nevertheless, only one of the potentially functional IS groups possesses a promoter located upstream of the transposase gene, that could lead up to the production of a functional protein. We found that the majority of IS groups are expressed whatever their functional status. RT-PCR analyses indicate that the transcription of two IS groups lacking internal promoters upstream of the transposase start codon may be driven by the genomic environment. We confirmed this observation with the transcription analysis of individual copies of one IS group. These results suggest that the genomic environment is important for IS expression and it could explain, at least partly, copy number variability of the various IS groups present in the wVulC genome and, more generally, in bacterial genomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Alternative Translation Initiation of a Haloarchaeal Serine Protease Transcript Containing Two In-Frame Start Codons

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Wei; Wu, Yufeng; Li, Moran; Wang, Jian; Mei, Sha

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recent studies have shown that haloarchaea employ leaderless and Shine-Dalgarno (SD)-less mechanisms for translation initiation of leaderless transcripts with a 5′ untranslated region (5′ UTR) of <10 nucleotides (nt) and leadered transcripts with a 5′ UTR of ≥10 nt, respectively. However, whether the two mechanisms can operate on the same naturally occurring haloarchaeal transcript carrying multiple potential start codons is unknown. In this study, the transcript of the sptA gene (encoding an extracellular serine protease of Natrinema sp. strain J7-2) was experimentally determined and found to contain two potential in-frame AUG codons (AUG1 and AUG2) located 5 and 29 nt, respectively, downstream of the transcription start site. Mutational analysis revealed that both AUGs can function as the translation start codon for production of active SptA, although AUG1 is more efficient than AUG2 for translation initiation. Insertion of a stable stem-loop structure between the two AUGs completely abolished initiation at AUG1 but did not affect initiation at AUG2, indicating that AUG2-initiated translation does not involve ribosome scanning from the 5′ end of the transcript. Furthermore, the efficiency of AUG2-initiated translation was not influenced by an upstream SD-like sequence. In addition, both AUG1 and AUG2 contribute to transcript stability, probably by recruiting ribosomes to protect the transcript against degradation. These data suggest that depending on which of two in-frame start codons is used, the sptA transcript can act as either a leaderless or a leadered transcript for SptA production in haloarchaea. IMPORTANCE In eukaryotes and bacteria, alternative translation start sites contribute to proteome complexity and can be used as a functional mechanism to increase translation efficiency. However, little is known about alternative translation initiation in archaea. Our results demonstrate that leaderless and SD-less mechanisms can be used for

  12. Alternative Translation Initiation of a Haloarchaeal Serine Protease Transcript Containing Two In-Frame Start Codons.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wei; Wu, Yufeng; Li, Moran; Wang, Jian; Mei, Sha; Tang, Bing; Tang, Xiao-Feng

    2016-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that haloarchaea employ leaderless and Shine-Dalgarno (SD)-less mechanisms for translation initiation of leaderless transcripts with a 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) of <10 nucleotides (nt) and leadered transcripts with a 5' UTR of ≥10 nt, respectively. However, whether the two mechanisms can operate on the same naturally occurring haloarchaeal transcript carrying multiple potential start codons is unknown. In this study, the transcript of the sptA gene (encoding an extracellular serine protease of Natrinema sp. strain J7-2) was experimentally determined and found to contain two potential in-frame AUG codons (AUG(1) and AUG(2)) located 5 and 29 nt, respectively, downstream of the transcription start site. Mutational analysis revealed that both AUGs can function as the translation start codon for production of active SptA, although AUG(1) is more efficient than AUG(2) for translation initiation. Insertion of a stable stem-loop structure between the two AUGs completely abolished initiation at AUG(1) but did not affect initiation at AUG(2), indicating that AUG(2)-initiated translation does not involve ribosome scanning from the 5' end of the transcript. Furthermore, the efficiency of AUG(2)-initiated translation was not influenced by an upstream SD-like sequence. In addition, both AUG(1) and AUG(2) contribute to transcript stability, probably by recruiting ribosomes to protect the transcript against degradation. These data suggest that depending on which of two in-frame start codons is used, the sptA transcript can act as either a leaderless or a leadered transcript for SptA production in haloarchaea. In eukaryotes and bacteria, alternative translation start sites contribute to proteome complexity and can be used as a functional mechanism to increase translation efficiency. However, little is known about alternative translation initiation in archaea. Our results demonstrate that leaderless and SD-less mechanisms can be used for translation

  13. An aromatic residue switch in enhancer-dependent bacterial RNA polymerase controls transcription intermediate complex activity

    PubMed Central

    Wiesler, Simone C.; Weinzierl, Robert O. J.; Buck, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The formation of the open promoter complex (RPo) in which the melted DNA containing the transcription start site is located at the RNA polymerase (RNAP) catalytic centre is an obligatory step in the transcription of DNA into RNA catalyzed by RNAP. In the RPo, an extensive network of interactions is established between DNA, RNAP and the σ-factor and the formation of functional RPo occurs via a series of transcriptional intermediates (collectively ‘RPi’). A single tryptophan is ideally positioned to directly engage with the flipped out base of the non-template strand at the +1 site. Evidence suggests that this tryptophan (i) is involved in either forward translocation or DNA scrunching and (ii) in σ54-regulated promoters limits the transcription activity of at least one intermediate complex (RPi) before the formation of a fully functional RPo. Limiting RPi activity may be important in preventing the premature synthesis of abortive transcripts, suggesting its involvement in a general mechanism driving the RPi to RPo transition for transcription initiation. PMID:23609536

  14. Bacterial Effector Activates Jasmonate Signaling by Directly Targeting JAZ Transcriptional Repressors

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shushu; Yao, Jian; Ma, Ka-Wai; Zhou, Huanbin; Song, Jikui; He, Sheng Yang; Ma, Wenbo

    2013-01-01

    Gram-negative bacterial pathogens deliver a variety of virulence proteins through the type III secretion system (T3SS) directly into the host cytoplasm. These type III secreted effectors (T3SEs) play an essential role in bacterial infection, mainly by targeting host immunity. However, the molecular basis of their functionalities remains largely enigmatic. Here, we show that the Pseudomonas syringae T3SE HopZ1a, a member of the widely distributed YopJ effector family, directly interacts with jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins through the conserved Jas domain in plant hosts. JAZs are transcription repressors of jasmonate (JA)-responsive genes and major components of the jasmonate receptor complex. Upon interaction, JAZs can be acetylated by HopZ1a through a putative acetyltransferase activity. Importantly, P. syringae producing the wild-type, but not a catalytic mutant of HopZ1a, promotes the degradation of HopZ1-interacting JAZs and activates JA signaling during bacterial infection. Furthermore, HopZ1a could partially rescue the virulence defect of a P. syringae mutant that lacks the production of coronatine, a JA-mimicking phytotoxin produced by a few P. syringae strains. These results highlight a novel example by which a bacterial effector directly manipulates the core regulators of phytohormone signaling to facilitate infection. The targeting of JAZ repressors by both coronatine toxin and HopZ1 effector suggests that the JA receptor complex is potentially a major hub of host targets for bacterial pathogens. PMID:24204266

  15. The Chinese hamster dihydrofolate reductase replication origin decision point follows activation of transcription and suppresses initiation of replication within transcription units.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Takayo; Ramanathan, Sunita; Okuno, Yukiko; Kumagai, Chiharu; Shaikh, Seemab S; Gilbert, David M

    2006-02-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells select specific replication origin sites within the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) locus at a discrete point during G1 phase, the origin decision point (ODP). Origin selection is sensitive to transcription but not protein synthesis inhibitors, implicating a pretranslational role for transcription in origin specification. We have constructed a DNA array covering 121 kb surrounding the DHFR locus, to comprehensively investigate replication initiation and transcription in this region. When nuclei isolated within the first 3 h of G1 phase were stimulated to initiate replication in Xenopus egg extracts, replication initiated without any detectable preference for specific sites. At the ODP, initiation became suppressed from within the Msh3, DHFR, and 2BE2121 transcription units. Active transcription was mostly confined to these transcription units, and inhibition of transcription by alpha-amanitin resulted in the initiation of replication within transcription units, indicating that transcription is necessary to limit initiation events to the intergenic region. However, the resumption of DHFR transcription after mitosis took place prior to the ODP and so is not on its own sufficient to suppress initiation of replication. Together, these results demonstrate a remarkable flexibility in sequence selection for initiating replication and implicate transcription as one important component of origin specification at the ODP.

  16. The Chinese Hamster Dihydrofolate Reductase Replication Origin Decision Point Follows Activation of Transcription and Suppresses Initiation of Replication within Transcription Units

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Takayo; Ramanathan, Sunita; Okuno, Yukiko; Kumagai, Chiharu; Shaikh, Seemab S.; Gilbert, David M.

    2006-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells select specific replication origin sites within the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) locus at a discrete point during G1 phase, the origin decision point (ODP). Origin selection is sensitive to transcription but not protein synthesis inhibitors, implicating a pretranslational role for transcription in origin specification. We have constructed a DNA array covering 121 kb surrounding the DHFR locus, to comprehensively investigate replication initiation and transcription in this region. When nuclei isolated within the first 3 h of G1 phase were stimulated to initiate replication in Xenopus egg extracts, replication initiated without any detectable preference for specific sites. At the ODP, initiation became suppressed from within the Msh3, DHFR, and 2BE2121 transcription units. Active transcription was mostly confined to these transcription units, and inhibition of transcription by alpha-amanitin resulted in the initiation of replication within transcription units, indicating that transcription is necessary to limit initiation events to the intergenic region. However, the resumption of DHFR transcription after mitosis took place prior to the ODP and so is not on its own sufficient to suppress initiation of replication. Together, these results demonstrate a remarkable flexibility in sequence selection for initiating replication and implicate transcription as one important component of origin specification at the ODP. PMID:16428457

  17. Principles for RNA metabolism and alternative transcription initiation within closely spaced promoters.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun; Pai, Athma A; Herudek, Jan; Lubas, Michal; Meola, Nicola; Järvelin, Aino I; Andersson, Robin; Pelechano, Vicent; Steinmetz, Lars M; Jensen, Torben Heick; Sandelin, Albin

    2016-09-01

    Mammalian transcriptomes are complex and formed by extensive promoter activity. In addition, gene promoters are largely divergent and initiate transcription of reverse-oriented promoter upstream transcripts (PROMPTs). Although PROMPTs are commonly terminated early, influenced by polyadenylation sites, promoters often cluster so that the divergent activity of one might impact another. Here we found that the distance between promoters strongly correlates with the expression, stability and length of their associated PROMPTs. Adjacent promoters driving divergent mRNA transcription support PROMPT formation, but owing to polyadenylation site constraints, these transcripts tend to spread into the neighboring mRNA on the same strand. This mechanism to derive new alternative mRNA transcription start sites (TSSs) is also evident at closely spaced promoters supporting convergent mRNA transcription. We suggest that basic building blocks of divergently transcribed core promoter pairs, in combination with the wealth of TSSs in mammalian genomes, provide a framework with which evolution shapes transcriptomes.

  18. Principles for RNA metabolism and alternative transcription initiation within closely spaced promoters

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yun; Pai, Athma A.; Herudek, Jan; Lubas, Michal; Meola, Nicola; Järvelin, Aino I.; Andersson, Robin; Pelechano, Vicent; Steinmetz, Lars M.; Heick Jensen, Torben; Sandelin, Albin

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian transcriptomes are complex and formed by extensive promoter activity. In addition, gene promoters are largely divergent and initiate transcription of reverse-oriented promoter upstream transcripts (PROMPTs). Although PROMPTs are commonly terminated early, influenced by polyadenylation sites, promoters often cluster so that the divergent activity of one might impact another. Here, we find that the distance between promoters strongly correlates with the expression, stability and length of their associated PROMPTs. Adjacent promoters driving divergent mRNA transcription support PROMPT formation, but due to polyadenylation site constraints, these transcripts tend to spread into the neighboring mRNA on the same strand. This mechanism to derive new alternative mRNA transcription start sites (TSSs) is also evident at closely spaced promoters supporting convergent mRNA transcription. We suggest that basic building blocks of divergently transcribed core promoter pairs, in combination with the wealth of TSSs in mammalian genomes, provides a framework with which evolution shapes transcriptomes. PMID:27455346

  19. Adaptable Functionality of Transcriptional Feedback in Bacterial Two-Component Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ray, J. Christian J.; Igoshin, Oleg A.

    2010-01-01

    A widespread mechanism of bacterial signaling occurs through two-component systems, comprised of a sensor histidine kinase (SHK) and a transcriptional response regulator (RR). The SHK activates RR by phosphorylation. The most common two-component system structure involves expression from a single operon, the transcription of which is activated by its own phosphorylated RR. The role of this feedback is poorly understood, but it has been associated with an overshooting kinetic response and with fast recovery of previous interrupted signaling events in different systems. Mathematical models show that overshoot is only attainable with negative feedback that also improves response time. Our models also predict that fast recovery of previous interrupted signaling depends on high accumulation of SHK and RR, which is more likely in a positive feedback regime. We use Monte Carlo sampling of the parameter space to explore the range of attainable model behaviors. The model predicts that the effective feedback sign can change from negative to positive depending on the signal level. Variations in two-component system architectures and parameters may therefore have evolved to optimize responses in different bacterial lifestyles. We propose a conceptual model where low signal conditions result in a responsive system with effectively negative feedback while high signal conditions with positive feedback favor persistence of system output. PMID:20168997

  20. Transcriptional regulation of bacterial virulence gene expression by molecular oxygen and nitric oxide

    PubMed Central

    Green, Jeffrey; Rolfe, Matthew D; Smith, Laura J

    2014-01-01

    Molecular oxygen (O2) and nitric oxide (NO) are diatomic gases that play major roles in infection. The host innate immune system generates reactive oxygen species and NO as bacteriocidal agents and both require O2 for their production. Furthermore, the ability to adapt to changes in O2 availability is crucial for many bacterial pathogens, as many niches within a host are hypoxic. Pathogenic bacteria have evolved transcriptional regulatory systems that perceive these gases and respond by reprogramming gene expression. Direct sensors possess iron-containing co-factors (iron–sulfur clusters, mononuclear iron, heme) or reactive cysteine thiols that react with O2 and/or NO. Indirect sensors perceive the physiological effects of O2 starvation. Thus, O2 and NO act as environmental cues that trigger the coordinated expression of virulence genes and metabolic adaptations necessary for survival within a host. Here, the mechanisms of signal perception by key O2- and NO-responsive bacterial transcription factors and the effects on virulence gene expression are reviewed, followed by consideration of these aspects of gene regulation in two major pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:25603427

  1. Efficient Gene Editing in Pluripotent Stem Cells by Bacterial Injection of Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nuclease Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jingyue; Bai, Fang; Jin, Yongxin; Santostefano, Katherine E.; Ha, Un-Hwan; Wu, Donghai

    2015-01-01

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a powerful tool for direct protein delivery into mammalian cells and has successfully been used to deliver various exogenous proteins into mammalian cells. In the present study, transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) proteins have been efficiently delivered using the P. aeruginosa T3SS into mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), human ESCs (hESCs), and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) for genome editing. This bacterial delivery system offers an alternative method of TALEN delivery that is highly efficient in cleavage of the chromosomal target and presumably safer by avoiding plasmid DNA introduction. We combined the method of bacterial T3SS-mediated TALEN protein injection and transfection of an oligonucleotide template to effectively generate precise genetic modifications in the stem cells. Initially, we efficiently edited a single-base in the gfp gene of a mESC line to silence green fluorescent protein (GFP) production. The resulting GFP-negative mESC was cloned from a single cell and subsequently mutated back to a GFP-positive mESC line. Using the same approach, the gfp gene was also effectively knocked out in hESCs. In addition, a defined single-base edition was effectively introduced into the X-chromosome-linked HPRT1 gene in hiPSCs, generating an in vitro model of Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. T3SS-mediated TALEN protein delivery provides a highly efficient alternative for introducing precise gene editing within pluripotent stem cells for the purpose of disease genotype-phenotype relationship studies and cellular replacement therapies. Significance The present study describes a novel and powerful tool for the delivery of the genome editing enzyme transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) directly into pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), achieving desired base changes on the genomes of PSCs with high efficiency. This novel approach uses bacteria as a protein delivery

  2. Spatial organization of transcription machinery and its segregation from the replisome in fast-growing bacterial cells.

    PubMed

    Cagliero, Cedric; Zhou, Yan Ning; Jin, Ding Jun

    2014-12-16

    In a fast-growing Escherichia coli cell, most RNA polymerase (RNAP) is allocated to rRNA synthesis forming transcription foci at clusters of rrn operons or bacterial nucleolus, and each of the several nascent nucleoids contains multiple pairs of replication forks. The composition of transcription foci has not been determined. In addition, how the transcription machinery is three-dimensionally organized to promote cell growth in concord with replication machinery in the nucleoid remains essentially unknown. Here, we determine the spatial and functional landscapes of transcription and replication machineries in fast-growing E. coli cells using super-resolution-structured illumination microscopy. Co-images of RNAP and DNA reveal spatial compartmentation and duplication of the transcription foci at the surface of the bacterial chromosome, encompassing multiple nascent nucleoids. Transcription foci cluster with NusA and NusB, which are the rrn anti-termination system and are associated with nascent rRNAs. However, transcription foci tend to separate from SeqA and SSB foci, which track DNA replication forks and/or the replisomes, demonstrating that transcription machinery and replisome are mostly located in different chromosomal territories to maintain harmony between the two major cellular functions in fast-growing cells. Our study suggests that bacterial chromosomes are spatially and functionally organized, analogous to eukaryotes.

  3. Spatial organization of transcription machinery and its segregation from the replisome in fast-growing bacterial cells

    PubMed Central

    Cagliero, Cedric; Zhou, Yan Ning; Jin, Ding Jun

    2014-01-01

    In a fast-growing Escherichia coli cell, most RNA polymerase (RNAP) is allocated to rRNA synthesis forming transcription foci at clusters of rrn operons or bacterial nucleolus, and each of the several nascent nucleoids contains multiple pairs of replication forks. The composition of transcription foci has not been determined. In addition, how the transcription machinery is three-dimensionally organized to promote cell growth in concord with replication machinery in the nucleoid remains essentially unknown. Here, we determine the spatial and functional landscapes of transcription and replication machineries in fast-growing E. coli cells using super-resolution-structured illumination microscopy. Co-images of RNAP and DNA reveal spatial compartmentation and duplication of the transcription foci at the surface of the bacterial chromosome, encompassing multiple nascent nucleoids. Transcription foci cluster with NusA and NusB, which are the rrn anti-termination system and are associated with nascent rRNAs. However, transcription foci tend to separate from SeqA and SSB foci, which track DNA replication forks and/or the replisomes, demonstrating that transcription machinery and replisome are mostly located in different chromosomal territories to maintain harmony between the two major cellular functions in fast-growing cells. Our study suggests that bacterial chromosomes are spatially and functionally organized, analogous to eukaryotes. PMID:25416798

  4. Environmental regulation operating at the promoter clearance step of bacterial transcription

    PubMed Central

    Laishram, Rakesh S.; Gowrishankar, Jayaraman

    2007-01-01

    In vivo transcription of the Escherichia coli argO gene, which encodes an arginine (Arg) exporter, requires the LysR-family regulator protein ArgP (previously called IciA) and is induced in the presence of Arg or its naturally occurring antimetabolite analog canavanine. Lysine (Lys) addition, on the other hand, phenocopies an argP mutation to result in the shutoff of argO expression. We now report that the ArgP dimer by itself is able to bind the argO promoter-operator region to form a binary complex, but that the formation of a ternary complex with RNA polymerase is greatly stimulated only in presence of a coeffector. Both Arg and Lys were proficient as coeffectors for ArgP-mediated recruitment of RNA polymerase to, and open complex formation at, the argO promoter, although only Arg (but not Lys) was competent to activate transcription. The two coeffectors competed for binding to ArgP, and the ternary complex that had been assembled on the argO template in the presence of Lys could be chased into a transcriptionally active state upon Arg addition. Our results support a novel mechanism of argO regulation in which Lys-bound ArgP reversibly restrains RNA polymerase at the promoter, at a step (following open complex formation) that precedes, and is common to, both abortive and productive transcription. This represents, therefore, the first example of an environmental signal regulating the final step of promoter clearance by RNA polymerase in bacterial transcription. We propose that, in E. coli cells, the ternary complex remains assembled and poised at the argO promoter at all times to respond, positively or negatively, to instantaneous changes in the ratio of intracellular Arg to Lys concentrations. PMID:17504942

  5. Mechanisms of Antisense Transcription Initiation from the 3′ End of the GAL10 Coding Sequence In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Shivani; Durairaj, Geetha

    2013-01-01

    In spite of the important regulatory functions of antisense transcripts in gene expression, it remains unknown how antisense transcription is initiated. Recent studies implicated RNA polymerase II in initiation of antisense transcription. However, how RNA polymerase II is targeted to initiate antisense transcription has not been elucidated. Here, we have analyzed the association of RNA polymerase II with the antisense initiation site at the 3′ end of the GAL10 coding sequence in dextrose-containing growth medium that induces antisense transcription. We find that RNA polymerase II is targeted to the antisense initiation site at GAL10 by Reb1p activator as well as general transcription factors (e.g., TFIID, TFIIB, and Mediator) for antisense transcription initiation. Intriguingly, while GAL10 antisense transcription is dependent on TFIID, its sense transcription does not require TFIID. Further, the Gal4p activator that promotes GAL10 sense transcription is dispensable for antisense transcription. Moreover, the proteasome that facilitates GAL10 sense transcription does not control its antisense transcription. Taken together, our results reveal that GAL10 sense and antisense transcriptions are regulated differently and shed much light on the mechanisms of antisense transcription initiation. PMID:23836882

  6. Directional transition from initiation to elongation in bacterial translation

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Akanksha; Belardinelli, Riccardo; Maracci, Cristina; Milón, Pohl; Rodnina, Marina V.

    2015-01-01

    The transition of the 30S initiation complex (IC) to the translating 70S ribosome after 50S subunit joining provides an important checkpoint for mRNA selection during translation in bacteria. Here, we study the timing and control of reactions that occur during 70S IC formation by rapid kinetic techniques, using a toolbox of fluorescence-labeled translation components. We present a kinetic model based on global fitting of time courses obtained with eight different reporters at increasing concentrations of 50S subunits. IF1 and IF3 together affect the kinetics of subunit joining, but do not alter the elemental rates of subsequent steps of 70S IC maturation. After 50S subunit joining, IF2-dependent reactions take place independent of the presence of IF1 or IF3. GTP hydrolysis triggers the efficient dissociation of fMet-tRNAfMet from IF2 and promotes the dissociation of IF2 and IF1 from the 70S IC, but does not affect IF3. The presence of non-hydrolyzable GTP analogs shifts the equilibrium towards a stable 70S–mRNA–IF1–IF2–fMet-tRNAfMet complex. Our kinetic analysis reveals the molecular choreography of the late stages in translation initiation. PMID:26338773

  7. The Mauriceville plasmid of Neurospora spp. uses novel mechanisms for initiating reverse transcription in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Kennell, J C; Wang, H; Lambowitz, A M

    1994-01-01

    The Mauriceville plasmid and the closely related Varkud plasmid of Neurospora spp. are retroelements that propagate in mitochondria. Replication appears to occur by a novel mechanism in which a monomer-length plasmid transcript having a 3' tRNA-like structure ending in CCA is reverse transcribed to give a full-length minus-strand cDNA beginning at or near the 3' end of the RNA. Here, we show that the plasmids are transcribed in vitro by the Neurospora mitochondrial RNA polymerase, with the major in vitro transcription start site approximately 260 bp upstream of the 5' end of the plasmid transcript. The location of the transcription start site suggests that the monomer-length transcripts are generated by transcription around the plasmid combined with a site-specific RNA cleavage after the 3'-CCA sequence. The 5' ends of minus-strand cDNAs in ribonucleoprotein particles were analyzed to obtain insight into the mechanism of initiation of reverse transcription in vivo. A major class of minus-strand cDNAs begins opposite C2 of the 3'-CCA sequence, the same site used for de novo initiation of cDNA synthesis by the plasmid reverse transcriptase in vitro. A second class of minus-strand cDNAs begins with putative primer sequences that correspond to cDNA copies of the plasmid or mitochondrial transcripts. These findings are consistent with the possibility that the plasmid reverse transcriptase initiates minus-strand cDNA synthesis in vivo both by de novo initiation and by a novel template-switching mechanism in which the 3' OH of a previously synthesized cDNA is used to prime the synthesis of a new minus-strand cDNA directly at the 3' end of the plasmid transcript. Images PMID:8164665

  8. Developmental regulation of transcription initiation: more than just changing the actors.

    PubMed

    Müller, Ferenc; Zaucker, Andreas; Tora, Làszlò

    2010-10-01

    The traditional model of transcription initiation nucleated by the TFIID complex has suffered significant erosion in the last decade. The discovery of cell-specific paralogs of TFIID subunits and a variety of complexes that replace TFIID in transcription initiation of protein coding genes have been paralleled by the description of diverse core promoter sequences. These observations suggest an additional level of regulation of developmental and tissue-specific gene expression at the core promoter level. Recent work suggests that this regulation may function through specific roles of distinct TBP-type factors and TBP-associated factors (TAFs), however the picture emerging is still far from complete. Here we summarize the proposed models of transcription initiation by alternative initiation complexes in distinct stages of developmental specialization during vertebrate ontogeny.

  9. Effects of rate-limiting steps in transcription initiation on genetic filter motifs.

    PubMed

    Häkkinen, Antti; Tran, Huy; Yli-Harja, Olli; Ribeiro, Andre S

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of genetic motifs is determined not only by the gene-gene interactions, but also by the expression patterns of the constituent genes. Live single-molecule measurements have provided evidence that transcription initiation is a sequential process, whose kinetics plays a key role in the dynamics of mRNA and protein numbers. The extent to which it affects the behavior of cellular motifs is unknown. Here, we examine how the kinetics of transcription initiation affects the behavior of motifs performing filtering in amplitude and frequency domain. We find that the performance of each filter is degraded as transcript levels are lowered. This effect can be reduced by having a transcription process with more steps. In addition, we show that the kinetics of the stepwise transcription initiation process affects features such as filter cutoffs. These results constitute an assessment of the range of behaviors of genetic motifs as a function of the kinetics of transcription initiation, and thus will aid in tuning of synthetic motifs to attain specific characteristics without affecting their protein products.

  10. oriC-encoded instructions for the initiation of bacterial chromosome replication

    PubMed Central

    Wolański, Marcin; Donczew, Rafał; Zawilak-Pawlik, Anna; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    Replication of the bacterial chromosome initiates at a single origin of replication that is called oriC. This occurs via the concerted action of numerous proteins, including DnaA, which acts as an initiator. The origin sequences vary across species, but all bacterial oriCs contain the information necessary to guide assembly of the DnaA protein complex at oriC, triggering the unwinding of DNA and the beginning of replication. The requisite information is encoded in the unique arrangement of specific sequences called DnaA boxes, which form a framework for DnaA binding and assembly. Other crucial sequences of bacterial origin include DNA unwinding element (DUE, which designates the site at which oriC melts under the influence of DnaA) and binding sites for additional proteins that positively or negatively regulate the initiation process. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge and understanding of the information encoded in bacterial origins of chromosomal replication, particularly in the context of replication initiation and its regulation. We show that oriC encoded instructions allow not only for initiation but also for precise regulation of replication initiation and coordination of chromosomal replication with the cell cycle (also in response to environmental signals). We focus on Escherichia coli, and then expand our discussion to include several other microorganisms in which additional regulatory proteins have been recently shown to be involved in coordinating replication initiation to other cellular processes (e.g., Bacillus, Caulobacter, Helicobacter, Mycobacterium, and Streptomyces). We discuss diversity of bacterial oriC regions with the main focus on roles of individual DNA recognition sequences at oriC in binding the initiator and regulatory proteins as well as the overall impact of these proteins on the formation of initiation complex. PMID:25610430

  11. Rates of gyrase supercoiling and transcription elongation control supercoil density in a bacterial chromosome.

    PubMed

    Rovinskiy, Nikolay; Agbleke, Andrews Akwasi; Chesnokova, Olga; Pang, Zhenhua; Higgins, N Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Gyrase catalyzes negative supercoiling of DNA in an ATP-dependent reaction that helps condense bacterial chromosomes into a compact interwound "nucleoid." The supercoil density (σ) of prokaryotic DNA occurs in two forms. Diffusible supercoil density (σ(D)) moves freely around the chromosome in 10 kb domains, and constrained supercoil density (σ(C)) results from binding abundant proteins that bend, loop, or unwind DNA at many sites. Diffusible and constrained supercoils contribute roughly equally to the total in vivo negative supercoil density of WT cells, so σ = σ(C)+σ(D). Unexpectedly, Escherichia coli chromosomes have a 15% higher level of σ compared to Salmonella enterica. To decipher critical mechanisms that can change diffusible supercoil density of chromosomes, we analyzed strains of Salmonella using a 9 kb "supercoil sensor" inserted at ten positions around the genome. The sensor contains a complete Lac operon flanked by directly repeated resolvase binding sites, and the sensor can monitor both supercoil density and transcription elongation rates in WT and mutant strains. RNA transcription caused (-) supercoiling to increase upstream and decrease downstream of highly expressed genes. Excess upstream supercoiling was relaxed by Topo I, and gyrase replenished downstream supercoil losses to maintain an equilibrium state. Strains with TS gyrase mutations growing at permissive temperature exhibited significant supercoil losses varying from 30% of WT levels to a total loss of σ(D) at most chromosome locations. Supercoil losses were influenced by transcription because addition of rifampicin (Rif) caused supercoil density to rebound throughout the chromosome. Gyrase mutants that caused dramatic supercoil losses also reduced the transcription elongation rates throughout the genome. The observed link between RNA polymerase elongation speed and gyrase turnover suggests that bacteria with fast growth rates may generate higher supercoil densities than slow

  12. Rates of Gyrase Supercoiling and Transcription Elongation Control Supercoil Density in a Bacterial Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Chesnokova, Olga; Pang, Zhenhua; Higgins, N. Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Gyrase catalyzes negative supercoiling of DNA in an ATP-dependent reaction that helps condense bacterial chromosomes into a compact interwound “nucleoid.” The supercoil density (σ) of prokaryotic DNA occurs in two forms. Diffusible supercoil density (σD) moves freely around the chromosome in 10 kb domains, and constrained supercoil density (σC) results from binding abundant proteins that bend, loop, or unwind DNA at many sites. Diffusible and constrained supercoils contribute roughly equally to the total in vivo negative supercoil density of WT cells, so σ = σC+σD. Unexpectedly, Escherichia coli chromosomes have a 15% higher level of σ compared to Salmonella enterica. To decipher critical mechanisms that can change diffusible supercoil density of chromosomes, we analyzed strains of Salmonella using a 9 kb “supercoil sensor” inserted at ten positions around the genome. The sensor contains a complete Lac operon flanked by directly repeated resolvase binding sites, and the sensor can monitor both supercoil density and transcription elongation rates in WT and mutant strains. RNA transcription caused (−) supercoiling to increase upstream and decrease downstream of highly expressed genes. Excess upstream supercoiling was relaxed by Topo I, and gyrase replenished downstream supercoil losses to maintain an equilibrium state. Strains with TS gyrase mutations growing at permissive temperature exhibited significant supercoil losses varying from 30% of WT levels to a total loss of σD at most chromosome locations. Supercoil losses were influenced by transcription because addition of rifampicin (Rif) caused supercoil density to rebound throughout the chromosome. Gyrase mutants that caused dramatic supercoil losses also reduced the transcription elongation rates throughout the genome. The observed link between RNA polymerase elongation speed and gyrase turnover suggests that bacteria with fast growth rates may generate higher supercoil densities than slow

  13. Initiator-dependent transcription in vitro by a wheat germ chromatin extract.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, P; Mösinger, E

    1994-04-01

    The development of plant in vitro transcription systems transcribing faithfully and efficiently from a broad range of plant nuclear promoters has remained a challenge. We examined the nucleotide sequence requirements for faithful and efficient transcription in a wheat germ chromatin extract (Yamazaki et al., Plant Mol Biol Rep 8: 114-123). The wheat germ chromatin extract was tested with a series of chimeric promoter constructs containing plant promoter sequences upstream from the TATA box, TATA boxes, and cap-site sequences (from -10 to +14, relative to the major in vivo initiation site) in different combinations. The plant extract transcribed faithfully from several chimeric promoters containing the capsite sequence of the parsley chalcone synthase promoter. The transcription was sensitive to the RNA polymerase II-specific inhibitor alpha-amanitin and was only dependent on the chalcone synthase cap-site sequence which therefore fulfils the operational criteria for a plant initiator element. Mutations of the putative chalcone synthase initiator element defined a core sequence '5'TAACAAC' around the initiation site that was necessary for efficient transcription in vitro. In contrast to the extract, purified wheat germ RNA polymerase II showed no preference for transcription from the major chalcone synthase in vivo initiation site.

  14. Landscape and Dynamics of Transcription Initiation in the Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Adjalley, Sophie H; Chabbert, Christophe D; Klaus, Bernd; Pelechano, Vicent; Steinmetz, Lars M

    2016-03-15

    A comprehensive map of transcription start sites (TSSs) across the highly AT-rich genome of P. falciparum would aid progress toward deciphering the molecular mechanisms that underlie the timely regulation of gene expression in this malaria parasite. Using high-throughput sequencing technologies, we generated a comprehensive atlas of transcription initiation events at single-nucleotide resolution during the parasite intra-erythrocytic developmental cycle. This detailed analysis of TSS usage enabled us to define architectural features of plasmodial promoters. We demonstrate that TSS selection and strength are constrained by local nucleotide composition. Furthermore, we provide evidence for coordinate and stage-specific TSS usage from distinct sites within the same transcription unit, thereby producing transcript isoforms, a subset of which are developmentally regulated. This work offers a framework for further investigations into the interactions between genomic sequences and regulatory factors governing the complex transcriptional program of this major human pathogen.

  15. Bacterial Shape and ActA Distribution Affect Initiation of Listeria monocytogenes Actin-Based Motility

    PubMed Central

    Rafelski, Susanne M.; Theriot, Julie A.

    2005-01-01

    We have examined the process by which the intracellular bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes initiates actin-based motility and determined the contribution of the variable surface distribution of the ActA protein to initiation and steady-state movement. To directly correlate ActA distributions to actin dynamics and motility of live bacteria, ActA was fused to a monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP1). Actin comet tail formation and steady-state bacterial movement rates both depended on ActA distribution, which in turn was tightly coupled to the bacterial cell cycle. Motility initiation was found to be a highly complex, multistep process for bacteria, in contrast to the simple symmetry breaking previously observed for ActA-coated spherical beads. F-actin initially accumulated along the sides of the bacterium and then slowly migrated to the bacterial pole expressing the highest density of ActA as a tail formed. Early movement was highly unstable with extreme changes in speed and frequent stops. Over time, saltatory motility and sensitivity to the immediate environment decreased as bacterial movement became robust at a constant steady-state speed. PMID:15980176

  16. Events during eucaryotic rRNA transcription initiation and elongation: Conversion from the closed to the open promoter complex requires nucleotide substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Bateman, E.; Paule, M.R.

    1988-05-01

    Chemical footprinting and topological analysis were carried out on the Acanthamoeba castellanii rRNA transcription initiation factor (TIF) and RNA polymerase I complexes with DNA during transcription initiation and elongation. The results show that the binding of TIF and polymerase to the promoter does not alter the supercoiling of the DNA template and the template does not become sensitive to modification by diethylpyro-carbonate, which can identify melted DNA regions. Thus, in contrast to bacterial RNA polymerase, the eucaryotic RNA polymerase I-promoter complex is in a closed configuration preceding addition of nucleotides in vitro. Initiation and 3'-O-methyl CTP-limited translocation by RNA polymerase I results in separation of the polymerase-TIF footprints, leaving the TIF footprint unaltered. In contrast, initiation and translocation result in a significant change in the conformation of the polymerase-DNA complex, culminating in an unwound DNA region of at least 10 base pairs.

  17. Real-time observation of the initiation of RNA polymerase II transcription.

    PubMed

    Fazal, Furqan M; Meng, Cong A; Murakami, Kenji; Kornberg, Roger D; Block, Steven M

    2015-09-10

    Biochemical and structural studies have shown that the initiation of RNA polymerase II transcription proceeds in the following stages: assembly of the polymerase with general transcription factors and promoter DNA in a 'closed' preinitiation complex (PIC); unwinding of about 15 base pairs of the promoter DNA to form an 'open' complex; scanning downstream to a transcription start site; synthesis of a short transcript, thought to be about 10 nucleotides long; and promoter escape. Here we have assembled a 32-protein, 1.5-megadalton PIC derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and observe subsequent initiation processes in real time with optical tweezers. Contrary to expectation, scanning driven by the transcription factor IIH involved the rapid opening of an extended transcription bubble, averaging 85 base pairs, accompanied by the synthesis of a transcript up to the entire length of the extended bubble, followed by promoter escape. PICs that failed to achieve promoter escape nevertheless formed open complexes and extended bubbles, which collapsed back to closed or open complexes, resulting in repeated futile scanning.

  18. Binding motifs in bacterial gene promoters modulate transcriptional effects of global regulators CRP and ArcA

    SciTech Connect

    Leuze, Mike; Karpinets, Tatiana V.; Syed, Mustafa H.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Uberbacher, Edward

    2012-05-30

    Bacterial gene regulation involves transcription factors (TF) that bind to DNA recognition sequences in operon promoters. These recognition sequences, many of which are palindromic, are known as regulatory elements or transcription factor binding sites (TFBS). Some TFs are global regulators that can modulate the expression of hundreds of genes. In this study we examine global regulator half-sites, where a half-site, which we shall call a binding motif (BM), is one half of a palindromic TFBS. We explore the hypothesis that the number of BMs plays an important role in transcriptional regulation, examining empirical data from transcriptional profiling of the CRP and ArcA regulons. We compare the power of BM counts and of full TFBS characteristics to predict induced transcriptional activity. We find that CRP BM counts have a nonlinear effect on CRP-dependent transcriptional activity and predict this activity better than full TFBS quality or location.

  19. Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 4H Is under Transcriptional Control of p65/NF-κB

    PubMed Central

    Fiume, Giuseppe; Rossi, Annalisa; de Laurentiis, Annamaria; Falcone, Cristina; Pisano, Antonio; Vecchio, Eleonora; Pontoriero, Marilena; Scala, Iris; Scialdone, Annarita; Masci, Francesca Fasanella; Mimmi, Selena; Palmieri, Camillo; Scala, Giuseppe; Quinto, Ileana

    2013-01-01

    Protein synthesis is mainly regulated at the initiation step, allowing the fast, reversible and spatial control of gene expression. Initiation of protein synthesis requires at least 13 translation initiation factors to assemble the 80S ribosomal initiation complex. Loss of translation control may result in cell malignant transformation. Here, we asked whether translational initiation factors could be regulated by NF-κB transcription factor, a major regulator of genes involved in cell proliferation, survival, and inflammatory response. We show that the p65 subunit of NF-κB activates the transcription of eIF4H gene, which is the regulatory subunit of eIF4A, the most relevant RNA helicase in translation initiation. The p65-dependent transcriptional activation of eIF4H increased the eIF4H protein content augmenting the rate of global protein synthesis. In this context, our results provide novel insights into protein synthesis regulation in response to NF-κB activation signalling, suggesting a transcription-translation coupled mechanism of control. PMID:23776612

  20. Influence of major-groove chemical modifications of DNA on transcription by bacterial RNA polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Raindlová, Veronika; Janoušková, Martina; Slavíčková, Michaela; Perlíková, Pavla; Boháčová, Soňa; Milisavljevič, Nemanja; Šanderová, Hana; Benda, Martin; Barvík, Ivan; Krásný, Libor; Hocek, Michal

    2016-01-01

    DNA templates containing a set of base modifications in the major groove (5-substituted pyrimidines or 7-substituted 7-deazapurines bearing H, methyl, vinyl, ethynyl or phenyl groups) were prepared by PCR using the corresponding base-modified 2′-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs). The modified templates were used in an in vitro transcription assay using RNA polymerase from Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. Some modified nucleobases bearing smaller modifications (H, Me in 7-deazapurines) were perfectly tolerated by both enzymes, whereas bulky modifications (Ph at any nucleobase) and, surprisingly, uracil blocked transcription. Some middle-sized modifications (vinyl or ethynyl) were partly tolerated mostly by the E. coli enzyme. In all cases where the transcription proceeded, full length RNA product with correct sequence was obtained indicating that the modifications of the template are not mutagenic and the inhibition is probably at the stage of initiation. The results are promising for the development of bioorthogonal reactions for artificial chemical switching of the transcription. PMID:27001521

  1. Influence of major-groove chemical modifications of DNA on transcription by bacterial RNA polymerases.

    PubMed

    Raindlová, Veronika; Janoušková, Martina; Slavíčková, Michaela; Perlíková, Pavla; Boháčová, Soňa; Milisavljevič, Nemanja; Šanderová, Hana; Benda, Martin; Barvík, Ivan; Krásný, Libor; Hocek, Michal

    2016-04-20

    DNA templates containing a set of base modifications in the major groove (5-substituted pyrimidines or 7-substituted 7-deazapurines bearing H, methyl, vinyl, ethynyl or phenyl groups) were prepared by PCR using the corresponding base-modified 2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs). The modified templates were used in an in vitro transcription assay using RNA polymerase from Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli Some modified nucleobases bearing smaller modifications (H, Me in 7-deazapurines) were perfectly tolerated by both enzymes, whereas bulky modifications (Ph at any nucleobase) and, surprisingly, uracil blocked transcription. Some middle-sized modifications (vinyl or ethynyl) were partly tolerated mostly by the E. colienzyme. In all cases where the transcription proceeded, full length RNA product with correct sequence was obtained indicating that the modifications of the template are not mutagenic and the inhibition is probably at the stage of initiation. The results are promising for the development of bioorthogonal reactions for artificial chemical switching of the transcription. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  2. NanoRNAs: a class of small RNAs that can prime transcription initiation in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nickels, Bryce E; Dove, Simon L

    2011-10-07

    It has been widely assumed that all transcription in cells occur using NTPs only (i.e., de novo). However, it has been known for several decades that both prokaryotic and eukaryotic RNA polymerases can utilize small (2 to ∼5 nt) RNAs to prime transcription initiation in vitro, raising the possibility that small RNAs might also prime transcription initiation in vivo. A new study by Goldman et al. has now provided the first evidence that priming with so-called "nanoRNAs" (i.e., 2 to ∼5 nt RNAs) can, in fact, occur in vivo. Furthermore, this study provides evidence that altering the extent of nanoRNA-mediated priming of transcription initiation can profoundly influence global gene expression. In this perspective, we summarize the findings of Goldman et al. and discuss the prospect that nanoRNA-mediated priming of transcription initiation represents an underappreciated aspect of gene expression in vivo. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A novel intermediate in transcription initiation by human mitochondrial RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Morozov, Yaroslav I; Agaronyan, Karen; Cheung, Alan C M; Anikin, Michael; Cramer, Patrick; Temiakov, Dmitry

    2014-04-01

    The mitochondrial genome is transcribed by a single-subunit T7 phage-like RNA polymerase (mtRNAP), structurally unrelated to cellular RNAPs. In higher eukaryotes, mtRNAP requires two transcription factors for efficient initiation-TFAM, a major nucleoid protein, and TFB2M, a transient component of mtRNAP catalytic site. The mechanisms behind assembly of the mitochondrial transcription machinery and its regulation are poorly understood. We isolated and identified a previously unknown human mitochondrial transcription intermediate-a pre-initiation complex that includes mtRNAP, TFAM and promoter DNA. Using protein-protein cross-linking, we demonstrate that human TFAM binds to the N-terminal domain of mtRNAP, which results in bending of the promoter DNA around mtRNAP. The subsequent recruitment of TFB2M induces promoter melting and formation of an open initiation complex. Our data indicate that the pre-initiation complex is likely to be an important target for transcription regulation and provide basis for further structural, biochemical and biophysical studies of mitochondrial transcription.

  4. In vivo single-molecule imaging of bacterial DNA replication, transcription, and repair.

    PubMed

    Stracy, Mathew; Uphoff, Stephan; Garza de Leon, Federico; Kapanidis, Achillefs N

    2014-10-01

    In vivo single-molecule experiments offer new perspectives on the behaviour of DNA binding proteins, from the molecular level to the length scale of whole bacterial cells. With technological advances in instrumentation and data analysis, fluorescence microscopy can detect single molecules in live cells, opening the doors to directly follow individual proteins binding to DNA in real time. In this review, we describe key technical considerations for implementing in vivo single-molecule fluorescence microscopy. We discuss how single-molecule tracking and quantitative super-resolution microscopy can be adapted to extract DNA binding kinetics, spatial distributions, and copy numbers of proteins, as well as stoichiometries of protein complexes. We highlight experiments which have exploited these techniques to answer important questions in the field of bacterial gene regulation and transcription, as well as chromosome replication, organisation and repair. Together, these studies demonstrate how single-molecule imaging is transforming our understanding of DNA-binding proteins in cells. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Human mitochondrial transcription factors TFAM and TFB2M work synergistically in promoter melting during transcription initiation

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Aparna; Basu, Urmimala; Sultana, Shemaila; Nandakumar, Divya; Patel, Smita S.

    2017-01-01

    Human mitochondrial DNA is transcribed by POLRMT with the help of two initiation factors, TFAM and TFB2M. The current model postulates that the role of TFAM is to recruit POLRMT and TFB2M to melt the promoter. However, we show that TFAM has ‘post-recruitment’ roles in promoter melting and RNA synthesis, which were revealed by studying the pre-initiation steps of promoter binding, bending and melting, and abortive RNA synthesis. Our 2-aminopurine mapping studies show that the LSP (Light Strand Promoter) is melted from −4 to +1 in the open complex with all three proteins and from −4 to +3 with addition of ATP. Our equilibrium binding studies show that POLRMT forms stable complexes with TFB2M or TFAM on LSP with low-nanomolar Kd values, but these two-component complexes lack the mechanism to efficiently melt the promoter. This indicates that POLRMT needs both TFB2M and TFAM to melt the promoter. Additionally, POLRMT+TFB2M makes 2-mer abortives on LSP, but longer RNAs are observed only with TFAM. These results are explained by TFAM playing a role in promoter melting and/or stabilization of the open complex on LSP. Based on our results, we propose a refined model of transcription initiation by the human mitochondrial transcription machinery. PMID:27903899

  6. SeqTU: A Web Server for Identification of Bacterial Transcription Units.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin; Chou, Wen-Chi; Ma, Qin; Xu, Ying

    2017-03-07

    A transcription unit (TU) consists of K ≥ 1consecutive genes on the same strand of a bacterial genome that are transcribed into a single mRNA molecule under certain conditions. Their identification is an essential step in elucidation of transcriptional regulatory networks. We have recently developed a machine-learning method to accurately identify TUs from RNA-seq data, based on two features of the assembled RNA reads: the continuity and stability of RNA-seq coverage across a genomic region. While good performance was achieved by the method on Escherichia coli and Clostridium thermocellum, substantial work is needed to make the program generally applicable to all bacteria, knowing that the program requires organism specific information. A web server, named SeqTU, was developed to automatically identify TUs with given RNA-seq data of any bacterium using a machine-learning approach. The server consists of a number of utility tools, in addition to TU identification, such as data preparation, data quality check and RNA-read mapping. SeqTU provides a user-friendly interface and automated prediction of TUs from given RNA-seq data. The predicted TUs are displayed intuitively using HTML format along with a graphic visualization of the prediction.

  7. SeqTU: A web server for identification of bacterial transcription units

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Xin; Chou, Wen -Chi; Ma, Qin; ...

    2017-03-07

    A transcription unit (TU) consists of K ≥ 1 consecutive genes on the same strand of a bacterial genome that are transcribed into a single mRNA molecule under certain conditions. Their identification is an essential step in elucidation of transcriptional regulatory networks. We have recently developed a machine-learning method to accurately identify TUs from RNA-seq data, based on two features of the assembled RNA reads: the continuity and stability of RNA-seq coverage across a genomic region. While good performance was achieved by the method on Escherichia coli and Clostridium thermocellum, substantial work is needed to make the program generally applicablemore » to all bacteria, knowing that the program requires organism specific information. A web server, named SeqTU, was developed to automatically identify TUs with given RNA-seq data of any bacterium using a machine-learning approach. The server consists of a number of utility tools, in addition to TU identification, such as data preparation, data quality check and RNA-read mapping. SeqTU provides a user-friendly interface and automated prediction of TUs from given RNA-seq data. Furthermore, the predicted TUs are displayed intuitively using HTML format along with a graphic visualization of the prediction.« less

  8. Short term memory of Caenorhabditis elegans against bacterial pathogens involves CREB transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Prithika, Udayakumar; Vikneswari, Ramaraj; Balamurugan, Krishnaswamy

    2017-04-01

    One of the key issues pertaining to the control of memory is to respond to a consistently changing environment or microbial niche present in it. Human cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) transcription factor which plays a crucial role in memory has a homolog in C. elegans, crh-1. crh-1 appears to influence memory processes to certain extent by habituation of the host to a particular environment. The discrimination between the pathogen and a non-pathogen is essential for C. elegans in a microbial niche which determines its survival. Training the nematodes in the presence of a virulent pathogen (S. aureus) and an opportunistic pathogen (P. mirabilis) separately exhibits a different behavioural paradigm. This appears to be dependent on the CREB transcription factor. Here we show that C. elegans homolog crh-1 helps in memory response for a short term against the interacting pathogens. Following conditioning of the nematodes to S. aureus and P. mirabilis, the wild type nematodes exhibited a positive response towards the respective pathogens which diminished slowly after 2h. By contrast, the crh-1 deficient nematodes had a defective memory post conditioning. The molecular data reinforces the importance of crh-1 gene in retaining the memory of nematode. Our results also suggest that involvement of neurotransmitters play a crucial role in modulating the memory of the nematode with the assistance of CREB. Therefore, we elucidate that CREB is responsible for the short term memory response in C. elegans against bacterial pathogens.

  9. SeqTU: A Web Server for Identification of Bacterial Transcription Units

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xin; Chou, Wen-Chi; Ma, Qin; Xu, Ying

    2017-01-01

    A transcription unit (TU) consists of K ≥ 1consecutive genes on the same strand of a bacterial genome that are transcribed into a single mRNA molecule under certain conditions. Their identification is an essential step in elucidation of transcriptional regulatory networks. We have recently developed a machine-learning method to accurately identify TUs from RNA-seq data, based on two features of the assembled RNA reads: the continuity and stability of RNA-seq coverage across a genomic region. While good performance was achieved by the method on Escherichia coli and Clostridium thermocellum, substantial work is needed to make the program generally applicable to all bacteria, knowing that the program requires organism specific information. A web server, named SeqTU, was developed to automatically identify TUs with given RNA-seq data of any bacterium using a machine-learning approach. The server consists of a number of utility tools, in addition to TU identification, such as data preparation, data quality check and RNA-read mapping. SeqTU provides a user-friendly interface and automated prediction of TUs from given RNA-seq data. The predicted TUs are displayed intuitively using HTML format along with a graphic visualization of the prediction. PMID:28266571

  10. Conservation of Transcription Start Sites within Genes across a Bacterial Genus

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Wenjun; Price, Morgan N.; Deutschbauer, Adam M.; Romine, Margaret F.; Arkin, Adam P.

    2014-07-01

    Transcription start sites (TSSs) lying inside annotated genes, on the same or opposite strand, have been observed in diverse bacteria, but the function of these unexpected transcripts is unclear. Here, we use the metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and its relatives to study the evolutionary conservation of unexpected TSSs. Using high-resolution tiling microarrays and 5'-end RNA sequencing, we identified 2,531 TSSs in S. oneidensis MR-1, of which 18% were located inside coding sequences (CDSs). Comparative transcriptome analysis with seven additional Shewanella species revealed that the majority (76%) of the TSSs within the upstream regions of annotated genes (gTSSs) were conserved. Thirty percent of the TSSs that were inside genes and on the sense strand (iTSSs) were also conserved. Sequence analysis around these iTSSs showed conserved promoter motifs, suggesting that many iTSS are under purifying selection. Furthermore, conserved iTSSs are enriched for regulatory motifs, suggesting that they are regulated, and they tend to eliminate polar effects, which confirms that they are functional. In contrast, the transcription of antisense TSSs located inside CDSs (aTSSs) was significantly less likely to be conserved (22%). However, aTSSs whose transcription was conserved often have conserved promoter motifs and drive the expression of nearby genes. Overall, our findings demonstrate that some internal TSSs are conserved and drive protein expression despite their unusual locations, but the majority are not conserved and may reflect noisy initiation of transcription rather than a biological function.

  11. Diagnostic Test Accuracy of a 2-Transcript Host RNA Signature for Discriminating Bacterial vs Viral Infection in Febrile Children.

    PubMed

    Herberg, Jethro A; Kaforou, Myrsini; Wright, Victoria J; Shailes, Hannah; Eleftherohorinou, Hariklia; Hoggart, Clive J; Cebey-López, Miriam; Carter, Michael J; Janes, Victoria A; Gormley, Stuart; Shimizu, Chisato; Tremoulet, Adriana H; Barendregt, Anouk M; Salas, Antonio; Kanegaye, John; Pollard, Andrew J; Faust, Saul N; Patel, Sanjay; Kuijpers, Taco; Martinón-Torres, Federico; Burns, Jane C; Coin, Lachlan J M; Levin, Michael

    Because clinical features do not reliably distinguish bacterial from viral infection, many children worldwide receive unnecessary antibiotic treatment, while bacterial infection is missed in others. To identify a blood RNA expression signature that distinguishes bacterial from viral infection in febrile children. Febrile children presenting to participating hospitals in the United Kingdom, Spain, the Netherlands, and the United States between 2009-2013 were prospectively recruited, comprising a discovery group and validation group. Each group was classified after microbiological investigation as having definite bacterial infection, definite viral infection, or indeterminate infection. RNA expression signatures distinguishing definite bacterial from viral infection were identified in the discovery group and diagnostic performance assessed in the validation group. Additional validation was undertaken in separate studies of children with meningococcal disease (n = 24) and inflammatory diseases (n = 48) and on published gene expression datasets. A 2-transcript RNA expression signature distinguishing bacterial infection from viral infection was evaluated against clinical and microbiological diagnosis. Definite bacterial and viral infection was confirmed by culture or molecular detection of the pathogens. Performance of the RNA signature was evaluated in the definite bacterial and viral group and in the indeterminate infection group. The discovery group of 240 children (median age, 19 months; 62% male) included 52 with definite bacterial infection, of whom 36 (69%) required intensive care, and 92 with definite viral infection, of whom 32 (35%) required intensive care. Ninety-six children had indeterminate infection. Analysis of RNA expression data identified a 38-transcript signature distinguishing bacterial from viral infection. A smaller (2-transcript) signature (FAM89A and IFI44L) was identified by removing highly correlated transcripts. When this 2-transcript

  12. Initiation by RNA polymerase II and formation of runoff transcripts containing unblocked and unmethylated 5' termini

    SciTech Connect

    Ernst, H.; Filipowicz, W.; Shatkin, A.J.

    1983-12-01

    Transcription of cloned adenovirus, ..beta..-globin, and retrovirus long terminal repeat DNAs in HeLa whole-cell lysate was inhibited by S-adenosylhomocysteine. However, full-length 1.7-kilobase transcripts made on adenovirus 2 late promoter DNA contained 5'-terminal GpppA, consistent with specific initiation and runoff synthesis in the absence of product methylation. Formation of runoff transcripts including retrovirus RNAs that normally contain 5'-m/sup 7/GpppG/sub p//sup m/C was not decreased by replacing GTP with non-hydrolyzable analogs, and Rous-associated virus-2 runoff products made in the presence of GTP-..gamma..-S contained 5'-terminal ..gamma..-S-pppGpC. The results indicate that capping and specific transcript synthesis by RNA polymerase II are not obligatorily linked in HeLa whole-cell lysate. Accurate initiation is dependent on ATP hydrolysis, and in contrast to GTP, replacement of ATP by 5'-adenylyl-imidodiphosphate blocked specific initiation of transcripts that start with either GTP (Rous-associated virus-2, Rous-associated virus-0) or ATP (..beta..-globin, adenovirus).

  13. A transcript finishing initiative for closing gaps in the human transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Sogayar, Mari Cleide; Camargo, Anamaria A; Bettoni, Fabiana; Carraro, Dirce Maria; Pires, Lilian C; Parmigiani, Raphael B; Ferreira, Elisa N; de Sá Moreira, Eloísa; do Rosário D de O Latorre, Maria; Simpson, Andrew J G; Cruz, Luciana Oliveira; Degaki, Theri Leica; Festa, Fernanda; Massirer, Katlin B; Sogayar, Mari C; Filho, Fernando Camargo; Camargo, Luiz Paulo; Cunha, Marco A V; De Souza, Sandro J; Faria, Milton; Giuliatti, Silvana; Kopp, Leonardo; de Oliveira, Paulo S L; Paiva, Paulo B; Pereira, Anderson A; Pinheiro, Daniel G; Puga, Renato D; S de Souza, Jorge Estefano; Albuquerque, Dulcineia M; Andrade, Luís E C; Baia, Gilson S; Briones, Marcelo R S; Cavaleiro-Luna, Ana M S; Cerutti, Janete M; Costa, Fernando F; Costanzi-Strauss, Eugenia; Espreafico, Enilza M; Ferrasi, Adriana C; Ferro, Emer S; Fortes, Maria A H Z; Furchi, Joelma R F; Giannella-Neto, Daniel; Goldman, Gustavo H; Goldman, Maria H S; Gruber, Arthur; Guimarães, Gustavo S; Hackel, Christine; Henrique-Silva, Flavio; Kimura, Edna T; Leoni, Suzana G; Macedo, Cláudia; Malnic, Bettina; Manzini B, Carina V; Marie, Suely K N; Martinez-Rossi, Nilce M; Menossi, Marcelo; Miracca, Elisabete C; Nagai, Maria A; Nobrega, Francisco G; Nobrega, Marina P; Oba-Shinjo, Sueli M; Oliveira, Márika K; Orabona, Guilherme M; Otsuka, Audrey Y; Paço-Larson, Maria L; Paixão, Beatriz M C; Pandolfi, Jose R C; Pardini, Maria I M C; Passos Bueno, Maria R; Passos, Geraldo A S; Pesquero, Joao B; Pessoa, Juliana G; Rahal, Paula; Rainho, Cláudia A; Reis, Caroline P; Ricca, Tatiana I; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; Rogatto, Silvia R; Romano, Camila M; Romeiro, Janaína G; Rossi, Antonio; Sá, Renata G; Sales, Magaly M; Sant'Anna, Simone C; Santarosa, Patrícia L; Segato, Fernando; Silva, Wilson A; Silva, Ismael D C G; Silva, Neusa P; Soares-Costa, Andrea; Sonati, Maria F; Strauss, Bryan E; Tajara, Eloiza H; Valentini, Sandro R; Villanova, Fabiola E; Ward, Laura S; Zanette, Dalila L

    2004-07-01

    We report the results of a transcript finishing initiative, undertaken for the purpose of identifying and characterizing novel human transcripts, in which RT-PCR was used to bridge gaps between paired EST clusters, mapped against the genomic sequence. Each pair of EST clusters selected for experimental validation was designated a transcript finishing unit (TFU). A total of 489 TFUs were selected for validation, and an overall efficiency of 43.1% was achieved. We generated a total of 59,975 bp of transcribed sequences organized into 432 exons, contributing to the definition of the structure of 211 human transcripts. The structure of several transcripts reported here was confirmed during the course of this project, through the generation of their corresponding full-length cDNA sequences. Nevertheless, for 21% of the validated TFUs, a full-length cDNA sequence is not yet available in public databases, and the structure of 69.2% of these TFUs was not correctly predicted by computer programs. The TF strategy provides a significant contribution to the definition of the complete catalog of human genes and transcripts, because it appears to be particularly useful for identification of low abundance transcripts expressed in a restricted set of tissues as well as for the delineation of gene boundaries and alternatively spliced isoforms. Copyright 2004 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press ISSN

  14. A Transcript Finishing Initiative for Closing Gaps in the Human Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Sogayar, Mari Cleide; Camargo, Anamaria A.

    2004-01-01

    We report the results of a transcript finishing initiative, undertaken for the purpose of identifying and characterizing novel human transcripts, in which RT-PCR was used to bridge gaps between paired EST clusters, mapped against the genomic sequence. Each pair of EST clusters selected for experimental validation was designated a transcript finishing unit (TFU). A total of 489 TFUs were selected for validation, and an overall efficiency of 43.1% was achieved. We generated a total of 59,975 bp of transcribed sequences organized into 432 exons, contributing to the definition of the structure of 211 human transcripts. The structure of several transcripts reported here was confirmed during the course of this project, through the generation of their corresponding full-length cDNA sequences. Nevertheless, for 21% of the validated TFUs, a full-length cDNA sequence is not yet available in public databases, and the structure of 69.2% of these TFUs was not correctly predicted by computer programs. The TF strategy provides a significant contribution to the definition of the complete catalog of human genes and transcripts, because it appears to be particularly useful for identification of low abundance transcripts expressed in a restricted set of tissues as well as for the delineation of gene boundaries and alternatively spliced isoforms. PMID:15197164

  15. Neuronal Transcriptional Repressor REST Suppresses an Atoh7-Independent Program for Initiating Retinal Ganglion Cell Development

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Chai-An; Tsai, Wen-Wei; Cho, Jang-Hyeon; Pan, Ping; Barton, Michelle Craig; Klein, William H.

    2010-01-01

    As neuronal progenitors differentiate into neurons, they acquire a unique set of transcription factors. The transcriptional repressor REST prevents progenitors from undergoing differentiation. Notably, REST binding sites are often associated with retinal ganglion cell (RGC) genes whose expression in the retina is positively controlled by Atoh7, a factor essential for RGC formation. The key regulators that enable a retinal progenitor cell (RPC) to commit to an RGC fate have not been identified. We show here that REST suppresses RGC gene expression in RPCs. REST inactivation causes aberrant expression of RGC transcription factors in proliferating RPCs, independent of Atoh7, resulting in increased RGC formation. Strikingly, inactivating REST in Atoh7-null retinas restores transcription factor expression, which partially activates downstream RGC genes but is insufficient to prevent RGC loss. Our results demonstrate an Atoh7-independent program for initial activation of RGC genes and suggest a novel role for REST in preventing premature expression in RPCs. PMID:20969844

  16. TFIIA and the transactivator Rap1 cooperate to commit TFIID for transcription initiation.

    PubMed

    Papai, Gabor; Tripathi, Manish K; Ruhlmann, Christine; Layer, Justin H; Weil, P Anthony; Schultz, Patrick

    2010-06-17

    Transcription of eukaryotic messenger RNA (mRNA) encoding genes by RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is triggered by the binding of transactivating proteins to enhancer DNA, which stimulates the recruitment of general transcription factors (TFIIA, B, D, E, F, H) and Pol II on the cis-linked promoter, leading to pre-initiation complex formation and transcription. In TFIID-dependent activation pathways, this general transcription factor containing TATA-box-binding protein is first recruited on the promoter through interaction with activators and cooperates with TFIIA to form a committed pre-initiation complex. However, neither the mechanisms by which activation signals are communicated between these factors nor the structural organization of the activated pre-initiation complex are known. Here we used cryo-electron microscopy to determine the architecture of nucleoprotein complexes composed of TFIID, TFIIA, the transcriptional activator Rap1 and yeast enhancer-promoter DNA. These structures revealed the mode of binding of Rap1 and TFIIA to TFIID, as well as a reorganization of TFIIA induced by its interaction with Rap1. We propose that this change in position increases the exposure of TATA-box-binding protein within TFIID, consequently enhancing its ability to interact with the promoter. A large Rap1-dependent DNA loop forms between the activator-binding site and the proximal promoter region. This loop is topologically locked by a TFIIA-Rap1 protein bridge that folds over the DNA. These results highlight the role of TFIIA in transcriptional activation, define a molecular mechanism for enhancer-promoter communication and provide structural insights into the pathways of intramolecular communication that convey transcription activation signals through the TFIID complex.

  17. High initiation rates at the ribosomal gene promoter do not depend upon spacer transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Labhart, P; Reeder, R H

    1989-01-01

    We report experiments that test the model that in Xenopus laevis, RNA polymerase I is "handed over" in a conservative fashion from the T3 terminator to the adjacent gene promoter. We have introduced transcription-terminating lesions into the ribosomal DNA repeat by irradiating cultured cells with ultraviolet light. We used isolated nuclei to measure the effect of such lesions on transcription. UV damage sufficient to prevent all elongating RNA polymerase from reaching T3 from upstream had no adverse effect on the density of RNA polymerase at the very 5' end of the gene. We conclude that high rates of transcription initiation at the gene promoter do not depend upon polymerase passing from one repeat to the next or on polymerase initiating at the spacer promoters. Images PMID:2470092

  18. Visualization of initial bacterial colonization on dentine and enamel in situ.

    PubMed

    Jung, David Jonathan; Al-Ahmad, Ali; Follo, Marie; Spitzmüller, Bettina; Hoth-Hannig, Wiebke; Hannig, Matthias; Hannig, Christian

    2010-05-01

    Bacterial colonization of dentine is of high relevance in cariology, endodontology and periodontology. The aim of the present in situ study was to establish recent methods for visualization and quantification of initial bacterial adherence to dentine in comparison to enamel. For this purpose, bovine enamel and dentine slabs were fixed on buccal sites of individual upper jaw splints worn by 6 subjects for 30min, 120min and 360min, respectively. Adherent bacteria on the slabs were visualized and quantified with DAPI-staining (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of streptococci and eubacteria using the CLSM (confocal laser scanning microscopy) as well as an epifluorescence microscope. In addition, the number of colony forming units was quantified after desorption. Representative samples were processed for SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and TEM (transmission electron microscopy). All methods clearly indicated that a significantly higher number of bacteria adhered to dentine than to enamel. Furthermore, the amount of bacteria on the dentine increased with increasing oral exposure time, but remained rather constant on the enamel. The CLSM allowed visualization of bacteria in the dentinal tubules. Bacteria were found preferentially at the openings of the dentine tubules, but were distributed randomly on the enamel. In conclusion, the adopted methods are suitable for visualization and quantification of bacterial adhesion to dentine. Even the initial bacterial colonization of dentine is much more pronounced than bacterial adherence to the enamel. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Topoisomerase IIα promotes activation of RNA polymerase I transcription by facilitating pre-initiation complex formation

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Swagat; Panova, Tatiana; Miller, Gail; Volkov, Arsen; Porter, Andrew C. G.; Russell, Jackie; Panov, Konstantin I.; Zomerdijk, Joost C. B. M.

    2013-01-01

    Type II DNA topoisomerases catalyse DNA double-strand cleavage, passage and re-ligation to effect topological changes. There is considerable interest in elucidating topoisomerase II roles, particularly as these proteins are targets for anti-cancer drugs. Here we uncover a role for topoisomerase IIα in RNA polymerase I-directed ribosomal RNA gene transcription, which drives cell growth and proliferation and is upregulated in cancer cells. Our data suggest that topoisomerase IIα is a component of the initiation-competent RNA polymerase Iβ complex and interacts directly with RNA polymerase I-associated transcription factor RRN3, which targets the polymerase to promoter-bound SL1 in pre-initiation complex formation. In cells, activation of rDNA transcription is reduced by inhibition or depletion of topoisomerase II, and this is accompanied by reduced transient double-strand DNA cleavage in the rDNA-promoter region and reduced pre-initiation complex formation. We propose that topoisomerase IIα functions in RNA polymerase I transcription to produce topological changes at the rDNA promoter that facilitate efficient de novo pre-initiation complex formation. PMID:23511463

  20. Bacterial transcription elongation factors: new insights into molecular mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Borukhov, Sergei; Lee, Jookyung; Laptenko, Oleg

    2005-03-01

    Like transcription initiation, the elongation and termination stages of transcription cycle serve as important targets for regulatory factors in prokaryotic cells. In this review, we discuss the recent progress in structural and biochemical studies of three evolutionarily conserved elongation factors, GreA, NusA and Mfd. These factors affect RNA polymerase (RNAP) processivity by modulating transcription pausing, arrest, termination or anti-termination. With structural information now available for RNAP and models of ternary elongation complexes, the interaction between these factors and RNAP can be modelled, and possible molecular mechanisms of their action can be inferred. The models suggest that these factors interact with RNAP at or near its three major, nucleic acid-binding channels: Mfd near the upstream opening of the primary (DNA-binding) channel, NusA in the vicinity of both the primary channel and the RNA exit channel, and GreA within the secondary (backtracked RNA-binding) channel, and support the view that these channels are involved in the maintenance of RNAP processivity.

  1. High-Density Transcriptional Initiation Signals Underline Genomic Islands in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qianli; Cheng, Xuanjin; Cheung, Man Kit; Kiselev, Sergey S.; Ozoline, Olga N.; Kwan, Hoi Shan

    2012-01-01

    Genomic islands (GIs), frequently associated with the pathogenicity of bacteria and having a substantial influence on bacterial evolution, are groups of “alien” elements which probably undergo special temporal–spatial regulation in the host genome. Are there particular hallmark transcriptional signals for these “exotic” regions? We here explore the potential transcriptional signals that underline the GIs beyond the conventional views on basic sequence composition, such as codon usage and GC property bias. It showed that there is a significant enrichment of the transcription start positions (TSPs) in the GI regions compared to the whole genome of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli. There was up to a four-fold increase for the 70% GIs, implying high-density TSPs profile can potentially differentiate the GI regions. Based on this feature, we developed a new sliding window method GIST, Genomic-island Identification by Signals of Transcription, to identify these regions. Subsequently, we compared the known GI-associated features of the GIs detected by GIST and by the existing method Islandviewer to those of the whole genome. Our method demonstrates high sensitivity in detecting GIs harboring genes with biased GI-like function, preferred subcellular localization, skewed GC property, shorter gene length and biased “non-optimal” codon usage. The special transcriptional signals discovered here may contribute to the coordinate expression regulation of foreign genes. Finally, by using GIST, we detected many interesting GIs in the 2011 German E. coli O104:H4 outbreak strain TY-2482, including the microcin H47 system and gene cluster ycgXEFZ-ymgABC that activates the production of biofilm matrix. The aforesaid findings highlight the power of GIST to predict GIs with distinct intrinsic features to the genome. The heterogeneity of cumulative TSPs profiles may not only be a better identity for “alien” regions, but also provide hints to the special

  2. X-ray Crystal Structures Elucidate the Nucleotidyl Transfer Reaction of Transcript Initiation Using Two Nucleotides

    SciTech Connect

    M Gleghorn; E Davydova; R Basu; L Rothman-Denes; K Murakami

    2011-12-31

    We have determined the X-ray crystal structures of the pre- and postcatalytic forms of the initiation complex of bacteriophage N4 RNA polymerase that provide the complete set of atomic images depicting the process of transcript initiation by a single-subunit RNA polymerase. As observed during T7 RNA polymerase transcript elongation, substrate loading for the initiation process also drives a conformational change of the O helix, but only the correct base pairing between the +2 substrate and DNA base is able to complete the O-helix conformational transition. Substrate binding also facilitates catalytic metal binding that leads to alignment of the reactive groups of substrates for the nucleotidyl transfer reaction. Although all nucleic acid polymerases use two divalent metals for catalysis, they differ in the requirements and the timing of binding of each metal. In the case of bacteriophage RNA polymerase, we propose that catalytic metal binding is the last step before the nucleotidyl transfer reaction.

  3. Transcription activator structure reveals redox control of a replication initiation reaction†

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Cyril M.; Sizov, Dmytro; Seavers, Philippa R.; Ortiz-Lombardía, Miguel; Antson, Alfred A.

    2007-01-01

    Redox changes are one of the factors that influence cell-cycle progression and that control the processes of cellular proliferation, differentiation, senescence and apoptosis. Proteins regulated through redox-sensitive cysteines have been characterized but specific ‘sulphydryl switches’ in replication proteins remain to be identified. In bovine papillomavirus type-1, DNA replication begins when the viral transcription factor E2 recruits the viral initiator protein E1 to the origin of DNA replication (ori). Here we show that a novel dimerization interface in the E2 transcription activation domain is stabilized by a disulphide bond. Oxidative cross-linking via Cys57 sequesters the interaction surface between E1 and E2, preventing pre-initiation and replication initiation complex formation. Our data demonstrate that as well as a mechanism for regulating DNA binding, redox reactions can control replication by modulating the tertiary structure of critical protein factors using a specific redox sensor. PMID:17478495

  4. A model for regulation of mammalian ribosomal DNA transcription. Co-ordination of initiation and termination.

    PubMed Central

    Nashimoto, M; Mishima, Y

    1988-01-01

    Based on recent experimental data about transcription initiation and termination, a model for regulation of mammalian ribosomal DNA transcription is developed using a simple kinetic scheme. In this model, the existence of the transition pathway from the terminator to the promoter increases the rate of ribosomal RNA precursor synthesis. In addition to this 'non-transcribed spacer' traverse of RNA polymerase I, the co-ordination of initiation and termination allows a rapid on/off switch transition from the minimum to the maximum rate of ribosomal RNA precursor synthesis. Furthermore, taking account of the participation of two factors in the termination event, we propose a plausible molecular mechanism for the co-ordination of initiation and termination. This co-ordination is emphasized by repetition of the terminator unit. PMID:3223915

  5. Internal translation initiation from HIV-1 transcripts is conferred by a common RNA structure

    PubMed Central

    Plank, Terra-Dawn M; Whitehurst, James T; Cencic, Regina; Pelletier, Jerry; Kieft, Jeffrey S

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing of the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) RNA transcripts produces mRNAs encoding nine different viral proteins. The leader of each contains a common non-coding exon at the 5' end. Previous studies showed that the leaders from the common exon-containing transcripts gag, nef, vif, vpr and vpu can direct protein synthesis through internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) with varying efficiencies. Here we explored whether the common exon acts as an IRES element in the context of all the 5' leaders or if each harbors a distinct IRES. We also explored the relationship between the IRESs and initiation codon selection. We find that the common exon adopts a similar conformation in every leader we explored and that the sequence and structure is required for IRES activity. We also find that each leader uses a scanning mechanism for start codon identification. Together, our data point to a model in which the common exon on HIV-1 transcripts acts as the ribosome landing pad, recruiting preinitiation complexes upstream of the initiation codon, followed by scanning to each transcript's initiator AUG. PMID:26779399

  6. Internal translation initiation from HIV-1 transcripts is conferred by a common RNA structure.

    PubMed

    Plank, Terra-Dawn M; Whitehurst, James T; Cencic, Regina; Pelletier, Jerry; Kieft, Jeffrey S

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing of the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) RNA transcripts produces mRNAs encoding nine different viral proteins. The leader of each contains a common non-coding exon at the 5' end. Previous studies showed that the leaders from the common exon-containing transcripts gag, nef, vif, vpr and vpu can direct protein synthesis through internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) with varying efficiencies. Here we explored whether the common exon acts as an IRES element in the context of all the 5' leaders or if each harbors a distinct IRES. We also explored the relationship between the IRESs and initiation codon selection. We find that the common exon adopts a similar conformation in every leader we explored and that the sequence and structure is required for IRES activity. We also find that each leader uses a scanning mechanism for start codon identification. Together, our data point to a model in which the common exon on HIV-1 transcripts acts as the ribosome landing pad, recruiting preinitiation complexes upstream of the initiation codon, followed by scanning to each transcript's initiator AUG.

  7. Structural basis for the transition from initiation to elongation transcription in T7 RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Yin, Y Whitney; Steitz, Thomas A

    2002-11-15

    To make messenger RNA transcripts, bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase (T7 RNAP) undergoes a transition from an initiation phase, which only makes short RNA fragments, to a stable elongation phase. We have determined at 2.1 angstrom resolution the crystal structure of a T7 RNAP elongation complex with 30 base pairs of duplex DNA containing a "transcription bubble" interacting with a 17-nucleotide RNA transcript. The transition from an initiation to an elongation complex is accompanied by a major refolding of the amino-terminal 300 residues. This results in loss of the promoter binding site, facilitating promoter clearance, and creates a tunnel that surrounds the RNA transcript after it peels off a seven-base pair heteroduplex. Formation of the exit tunnel explains the enhanced processivity of the elongation complex. Downstream duplex DNA binds to the fingers domain, and its orientation relative to upstream DNA in the initiation complex implies an unwinding that could facilitate formation of the open promoter complex.

  8. Anti-Biofilm Performance of Three Natural Products against Initial Bacterial Attachment

    PubMed Central

    Salta, Maria; Wharton, Julian A.; Dennington, Simon P.; Stoodley, Paul; Stokes, Keith R.

    2013-01-01

    Marine bacteria contribute significantly towards the fouling consortium, both directly (modern foul release coatings fail to prevent “slime” attachment) and indirectly (biofilms often excrete chemical cues that attract macrofouling settlement). This study assessed the natural product anti-biofilm performance of an extract of the seaweed, Chondrus crispus, and two isolated compounds from terrestrial sources, (+)-usnic acid and juglone, against two marine biofilm forming bacteria, Cobetia marina and Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus. Bioassays were developed using quantitative imaging and fluorescent labelling to test the natural products over a range of concentrations against initial bacterial attachment. All natural products affected bacterial attachment; however, juglone demonstrated the best anti-biofilm performance against both bacterial species at a concentration range between 5–20 ppm. In addition, for the first time, a dose-dependent inhibition (hormetic) response was observed for natural products against marine biofilm forming bacteria. PMID:24192819

  9. Effects of Dispersal and Initial Diversity on the Composition and Functional Performance of Bacterial Communities.

    PubMed

    Zha, Yinghua; Berga, Mercè; Comte, Jérôme; Langenheder, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Natural communities are open systems and consequently dispersal can play an important role for the diversity, composition and functioning of communities at the local scale. It is, however, still unclear how effects of dispersal differ depending on the initial diversity of local communities. Here we implemented an experiment where we manipulated the initial diversity of natural freshwater bacterioplankton communities using a dilution-to-extinction approach as well as dispersal from a regional species pool. The aim was further to test whether dispersal effects on bacterial abundance and functional parameters (average community growth rates, respiration rates, substrate utilisation ability) differ in dependence of the initial diversity of the communities. First of all, we found that both initial diversity and dispersal rates had an effect on the recruitment of taxa from a regional source, which was higher in communities with low initial diversity and at higher rates of dispersal. Higher initial diversity and dispersal also promoted higher levels of richness and evenness in local communities and affected, both, separately or interactively, the functional performance of communities. Our study therefore suggests that dispersal can influence the diversity, composition and functioning of bacterial communities and that this effect may be enhanced if the initial diversity of communities is depleted.

  10. Plant and Bacterial Symbiotic Mutants Define Three Transcriptionally Distinct Stages in the Development of the Medicago truncatula/Sinorhizobium meliloti Symbiosis1

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Raka Mustaphi; Long, Sharon Rugel

    2004-01-01

    In the Medicago truncatula/Sinorhizobium meliloti symbiosis, the plant undergoes a series of developmental changes simultaneously, creating a root nodule and allowing bacterial entry and differentiation. Our studies of plant genes reveal novel transcriptional regulation during the establishment of the symbiosis and identify molecular markers that distinguish classes of plant and bacterial symbiotic mutants. We have identified three symbiotically regulated plant genes encoding a β,1–3 endoglucanase (MtBGLU1), a lectin (MtLEC4), and a cysteine-containing protein (MtN31). MtBGLU1 is down-regulated in the plant 24 h after exposure to the bacterial signal, Nod factor. The non-nodulating plant mutant dmi1 is defective in the ability to down-regulate MtBGLU1. MtLEC4 and MtN31 are induced 1 and 2 weeks after bacterial inoculation, respectively. We examined the regulation of these two genes and three previously identified genes (MtCAM1, ENOD2, and MtLB1) in plant symbiotic mutants and wild-type plants inoculated with bacterial symbiotic mutants. Plant (bit1, rit1, and Mtsym1) and bacterial (exoA and exoH) mutants with defects in the initial stages of invasion are unable to induce MtLEC4, MtN31, MtCAM1, ENOD2, and MtLB1. Bacterial mutants (fixJ and nifD) and a subset of plant mutants (dnf2, dnf3, dnf4, dnf6, and dnf7) defective for nitrogen fixation induce the above genes. The bacA bacterial mutant, which senesces upon deposition into plant cells, and two plant mutants with defects in nitrogen fixation (dnf1 and dnf5) induce MtLEC4 and ENOD2 but not MtN31, MtCAM1, or MtLB1. These data suggest the presence of at least three transcriptionally distinct developmental stages during invasion of M. truncatula by S. meliloti. PMID:14739349

  11. Developmental trajectories of amphibian microbiota: response to bacterial therapy depends on initial community structure.

    PubMed

    Davis, Leyla R; Bigler, Laurent; Woodhams, Douglas C

    2017-02-22

    Improving host health through microbial manipulation requires untangling factors that shape the microbiome. There is currently little understanding of how initial community structure may drive the microbiota trajectory across host development or influence bacterial therapy outcomes. Probiotic baths of surface symbionts, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Flavobacterium johnsoniae were administered to 240 tadpoles of the midwife toad, Alytes obstetricans in semi-natural outdoor mesocosms originating from geographically and genetically distinct populations in Switzerland. Host bacterial and fungal assemblages were compared in tadpoles from the pond of origin, across metamorphosis, and in toadlets via microbial fingerprinting. Bacterial and fungal community structures differed significantly among populations and a microbial population signature persisted from the tadpole stage, through metamorphosis, and following probiotic treatment. A minimal core surface microbiota is described by persistence through development and by shared membership across populations. The impact of F. johnsoniae on the tadpole surface microbiome was assessed with shotgun metagenomics. Bacterial therapy reduced abundance, diversity, and functional repertoire compared to untreated controls. A correlation between host skin peptides and microbiota suggests a mechanism of host-directed symbiosis throughout development. Early developmental stages are ideal targets for amphibian bacterial therapy that can govern a microbiome trajectory at critical timepoints and may impact susceptibility to disease.

  12. Waves of early transcriptional activation and pluripotency program initiation during human preimplantation development

    PubMed Central

    Vassena, Rita; Boué, Stéphanie; González-Roca, Eva; Aran, Begoña; Auer, Herbert; Veiga, Anna; Belmonte, Juan Carlos Izpisua

    2011-01-01

    The events regulating human preimplantation development are still largely unknown owing to a scarcity of material, ethical and legal limitations and a lack of reliable techniques to faithfully amplify the transcriptome of a single cell. Nonetheless, human embryology is gathering renewed interest due to its close relationship with both stem cell biology and epigenetic reprogramming to pluripotency and their importance in regenerative medicine. Carefully timed genome-wide transcript analyses of single oocytes and embryos uncovered a series of successive waves of embryonic transcriptional initiation that start as early as the 2-cell stage. In addition, we identified the hierarchical activation of genes involved in the regulation of pluripotency. Finally, we developed HumER, a database of human preimplantation gene expression, to serve the scientific community. Importantly, our work links early transcription in the human embryo with the correct execution of the pluripotency program later in development and paves the way for the identification of factors to improve epigenetic reprogramming. PMID:21775417

  13. Regulation of Axillary Meristem Initiation by Transcription Factors and Plant Hormones.

    PubMed

    Yang, Minglei; Jiao, Yuling

    2016-01-01

    One distinctive feature of plant post-embryonic development is that plants can undergo reiterative growth and continuous organogenesis throughout their lifetimes. Axillary meristems (AMs) in leaf axils play a central role in this growth and differences in meristem initiation and development produce the diversity of plant architecture. Studies in the past 15 years have shown that several transcription factors (TFs) and phytohormones affect AM initiation. In this review, we highlight recent research using systems biology approaches to examine the regulatory hierarchies underlying AM initiation and the role of auxins and cytokinins in AM initiation and development. This research revealed a developmental mechanism in which phytohormone signals act with a gene regulatory network containing multiple TFs to contribute to the initiation of AMs.

  14. DciA is an ancestral replicative helicase operator essential for bacterial replication initiation

    PubMed Central

    Brézellec, Pierre; Vallet-Gely, Isabelle; Possoz, Christophe; Quevillon-Cheruel, Sophie; Ferat, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    Delivery of the replicative helicase onto DNA is an essential step in the initiation of replication. In bacteria, DnaC (in Escherichia coli) and DnaI (in Bacillus subtilis) are representative of the two known mechanisms that assist the replicative helicase at this stage. Here, we establish that these two strategies cannot be regarded as prototypical of the bacterial domain since dnaC and dnaI (dna[CI]) are present in only a few bacterial phyla. We show that dna[CI] was domesticated at least seven times through evolution in bacteria and at the expense of one gene, which we rename dciA (dna[CI] antecedent), suggesting that DciA and Dna[CI] share a common function. We validate this hypothesis by establishing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa that DciA possesses the attributes of the replicative helicase-operating proteins associated with replication initiation. PMID:27830752

  15. Real-Time Imaging of a Single Gene Reveals Transcription-Initiated Local Confinement.

    PubMed

    Germier, Thomas; Kocanova, Silvia; Walther, Nike; Bancaud, Aurélien; Shaban, Haitham Ahmed; Sellou, Hafida; Politi, Antonio Zaccaria; Ellenberg, Jan; Gallardo, Franck; Bystricky, Kerstin

    2017-10-03

    Genome dynamics are intimately linked to the regulation of gene expression, the most fundamental mechanism in biology, yet we still do not know whether the very process of transcription drives spatial organization at specific gene loci. Here, we have optimized the ANCHOR/ParB DNA-labeling system for real-time imaging of a single-copy, estrogen-inducible transgene in human cells. Motion of an ANCHOR3-tagged DNA locus was recorded in the same cell before and during the appearance of nascent MS2-labeled mRNA. We found that transcription initiation by RNA polymerase 2 resulted in confinement of the mRNA-producing gene domain within minutes. Transcription-induced confinement occurred in each single cell independently of initial, highly heterogeneous mobility. Constrained mobility was maintained even when inhibiting polymerase elongation. Chromatin motion at constant step size within a largely confined area hence leads to increased collisions that are compatible with the formation of gene-specific chromatin domains, and reflect the assembly of functional protein hubs and DNA processing during the rate-limiting steps of transcription. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Structure of an RNA Polymerase II-TFIIB Complex and the Transcription Initiation Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xin; Bushnell, David A; Wang, Dong; Calero, Guillermo; Kornberg, Roger D

    2010-01-14

    Previous x-ray crystal structures have given insight into the mechanism of transcription and the role of general transcription factors in the initiation of the process. A structure of an RNA polymerase II-general transcription factor TFIIB complex at 4.5 angstrom resolution revealed the amino-terminal region of TFIIB, including a loop termed the 'B finger,' reaching into the active center of the polymerase where it may interact with both DNA and RNA, but this structure showed little of the carboxyl-terminal region. A new crystal structure of the same complex at 3.8 angstrom resolution obtained under different solution conditions is complementary with the previous one, revealing the carboxyl-terminal region of TFIIB, located above the polymerase active center cleft, but showing none of the B finger. In the new structure, the linker between the amino- and carboxyl-terminal regions can also be seen, snaking down from above the cleft toward the active center. The two structures, taken together with others previously obtained, dispel long-standing mysteries of the transcription initiation process.

  17. Structure and function of the mycobacterial transcription initiation complex with the essential regulator RbpA.

    PubMed

    Hubin, Elizabeth A; Fay, Allison; Xu, Catherine; Bean, James M; Saecker, Ruth M; Glickman, Michael S; Darst, Seth A; Campbell, Elizabeth A

    2017-01-09

    RbpA and CarD are essential transcription regulators in mycobacteria. Mechanistic analyses of promoter open complex (RPo) formation establish that RbpA and CarD cooperatively stimulate formation of an intermediate (RP2) leading to RPo; formation of RP2 is likely a bottleneck step at the majority of mycobacterial promoters. Once RPo forms, CarD also disfavors its isomerization back to RP2. We determined a 2.76 Å-resolution crystal structure of a mycobacterial transcription initiation complex (TIC) with RbpA as well as a CarD/RbpA/TIC model. Both CarD and RbpA bind near the upstream edge of the -10 element where they likely facilitate DNA bending and impede transcription bubble collapse. In vivo studies demonstrate the essential role of RbpA, show the effects of RbpA truncations on transcription and cell physiology, and indicate additional functions for RbpA not evident in vitro. This work provides a framework to understand the control of mycobacterial transcription by RbpA and CarD.

  18. A cellular repressor regulates transcription initiation from the minute virus of mice P38 promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Krauskopf, A; Aloni, Y

    1994-01-01

    We previously reported that the P38 promoter of minute virus of mice (MVM) is trans activated by the viral nonstructural protein, NS1, through an interaction with a downstream promoter element designated DPE. In this communication we report the identification of a distinct downstream promoter element which inhibits transcription from the P38 promoter in vitro, in the absence of the DPE. Removal of 34 bp from the region between +95 and +129 downstream from the P38 initiation start site relieved inhibition of transcription in whole-cell extract. Inhibition was also relieved by the addition, to the transcription reaction, of excess DNA fragments which span the putative inhibiting element. This indicated the involvement of a trans-acting factor, in inhibition of transcription from the P38. Gel retardation experiments demonstrated the specific binding of a cellular protein to the inhibitory element. This P38 inhibitory element shows spacing and orientation dependence as well as promoter specificity. The regulation of viral transcription by a cellular repressor may play an important role in obtaining a fine temporal order of viral gene expression during the course of infection. Images PMID:8139925

  19. Structure and function of the mycobacterial transcription initiation complex with the essential regulator RbpA

    PubMed Central

    Hubin, Elizabeth A; Fay, Allison; Xu, Catherine; Bean, James M; Saecker, Ruth M; Glickman, Michael S; Darst, Seth A; Campbell, Elizabeth A

    2017-01-01

    RbpA and CarD are essential transcription regulators in mycobacteria. Mechanistic analyses of promoter open complex (RPo) formation establish that RbpA and CarD cooperatively stimulate formation of an intermediate (RP2) leading to RPo; formation of RP2 is likely a bottleneck step at the majority of mycobacterial promoters. Once RPo forms, CarD also disfavors its isomerization back to RP2. We determined a 2.76 Å-resolution crystal structure of a mycobacterial transcription initiation complex (TIC) with RbpA as well as a CarD/RbpA/TIC model. Both CarD and RbpA bind near the upstream edge of the −10 element where they likely facilitate DNA bending and impede transcription bubble collapse. In vivo studies demonstrate the essential role of RbpA, show the effects of RbpA truncations on transcription and cell physiology, and indicate additional functions for RbpA not evident in vitro. This work provides a framework to understand the control of mycobacterial transcription by RbpA and CarD. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22520.001 PMID:28067618

  20. The elongation factor Spt5 facilitates transcription initiation for rapid induction of inflammatory-response genes

    PubMed Central

    Diamant, Gil; Bahat, Anat; Dikstein, Rivka

    2016-01-01

    A subset of inflammatory-response NF-κB target genes is activated immediately following pro-inflammatory signal. Here we followed the kinetics of primary transcript accumulation after NF-κB activation when the elongation factor Spt5 is knocked down. While elongation rate is unchanged, the transcript synthesis at the 5′-end and at the earliest time points is delayed and reduced, suggesting an unexpected role in early transcription. Investigating the underlying mechanism reveals that the induced TFIID–promoter association is practically abolished by Spt5 depletion. This effect is associated with a decrease in promoter-proximal H3K4me3 and H4K5Ac histone modifications that are differentially required for rapid transcriptional induction. In contrast, the displacement of TFIIE and Mediator, which occurs during promoter escape, is attenuated in the absence of Spt5. Our findings are consistent with a central role of Spt5 in maintenance of TFIID–promoter association and promoter escape to support rapid transcriptional induction and re-initiation of inflammatory-response genes. PMID:27180651

  1. Bacterial community initial development in proglacial soils of Larsemann hill, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, H.; Yan, W.; Shi, G.; Sun, B.; Zhang, Y.; Xiao, X.

    2016-12-01

    Glacial forefields are considered ideal places to explore how microbial communities will response to climate-driven environmental changes. Our knowledge of how the bacterial community activities and structure was influenced by changing environment due to glacier retreat is still very limited, especially at the initial stage of glacier retreat. The short gradient soil samples including the ice free and ice covered sites were sampled in the forehead of East Antarctica ice sheet, in Larsemann Hills. By employing the Miseq sequencing methods, 1.8 x104 high-quality sequences were gotten for each sample and the bacterial diversity including abundant bacteria and rare bacteria were studied and compared between the gradient samples. Even though in such an extreme stress condition, the bacterial diversity was high. The coefficient of variance between the five sites of abundant group was 0.886 which was higher than that of the top 20 rare group (0.159) significantly (unpaired t test, p-value<0.0001) suggesting that the abundant bacterial communities were more sensitive to the ice sheet change in the initial stage than rare bacteria did. And the abundant bacteria contributed the community structure more than the rare bacteria did. The rare group acted more like seed bank to keep the community functionality in the forehead of sheet. And the ice thickness was the major factor to affect the abundant bacterial community. Given the fact that Antarctica environment was more sensitive to the global warming, the study about abundant and rare bacteria response to condition change will be helpful to precisely predict community response to climate change in polar region. This finding will improve the understanding about the relationship between community structure and environment condition in extreme stress condition.

  2. The elongation factor RfaH and the initiation factor σ bind to the same site on the transcription elongation complex

    PubMed Central

    Sevostyanova, Anastasiya; Svetlov, Vladimir; Vassylyev, Dmitry G.; Artsimovitch, Irina

    2008-01-01

    RNA polymerase is a target for numerous regulatory events in all living cells. Recent studies identified a few “hot spots” on the surface of bacterial RNA polymerase that mediate its interactions with diverse accessory proteins. Prominent among these hot spots, the β′ subunit clamp helices serve as a major binding site for the initiation factor σ and for the elongation factor RfaH. Furthermore, the two proteins interact with the nontemplate DNA strand in transcription complexes and thus may interfere with each other's activity. We show that RfaH does not inhibit transcription initiation but, once recruited to RNA polymerase, abolishes σ-dependent pausing. We argue that this apparent competition is due to a steric exclusion of σ by RfaH that is stably bound to the nontemplate DNA and clamp helices, both of which are necessary for the σ recruitment to the transcription complex. Our findings highlight the key regulatory role played by the clamp helices during both initiation and elongation stages of transcription. PMID:18195372

  3. Dynamic regulation of the transcription initiation landscape at single nucleotide resolution during vertebrate embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Nepal, Chirag; Hadzhiev, Yavor; Previti, Christopher; Haberle, Vanja; Li, Nan; Takahashi, Hazuki; Suzuki, Ana Maria M; Sheng, Ying; Abdelhamid, Rehab F; Anand, Santosh; Gehrig, Jochen; Akalin, Altuna; Kockx, Christel E M; van der Sloot, Antoine A J; van Ijcken, Wilfred F J; Armant, Olivier; Rastegar, Sepand; Watson, Craig; Strähle, Uwe; Stupka, Elia; Carninci, Piero; Lenhard, Boris; Müller, Ferenc

    2013-11-01

    Spatiotemporal control of gene expression is central to animal development. Core promoters represent a previously unanticipated regulatory level by interacting with cis-regulatory elements and transcription initiation in different physiological and developmental contexts. Here, we provide a first and comprehensive description of the core promoter repertoire and its dynamic use during the development of a vertebrate embryo. By using cap analysis of gene expression (CAGE), we mapped transcription initiation events at single nucleotide resolution across 12 stages of zebrafish development. These CAGE-based transcriptome maps reveal genome-wide rules of core promoter usage, structure, and dynamics, key to understanding the control of gene regulation during vertebrate ontogeny. They revealed the existence of multiple classes of pervasive intra- and intergenic post-transcriptionally processed RNA products and their developmental dynamics. Among these RNAs, we report splice donor site-associated intronic RNA (sRNA) to be specific to genes of the splicing machinery. For the identification of conserved features, we compared the zebrafish data sets to the first CAGE promoter map of Tetraodon and the existing human CAGE data. We show that a number of features, such as promoter type, newly discovered promoter properties such as a specialized purine-rich initiator motif, as well as sRNAs and the genes in which they are detected, are conserved in mammalian and Tetraodon CAGE-defined promoter maps. The zebrafish developmental promoterome represents a powerful resource for studying developmental gene regulation and revealing promoter features shared across vertebrates.

  4. Dynamic regulation of the transcription initiation landscape at single nucleotide resolution during vertebrate embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Nepal, Chirag; Hadzhiev, Yavor; Previti, Christopher; Haberle, Vanja; Li, Nan; Takahashi, Hazuki; Suzuki, Ana Maria M.; Sheng, Ying; Abdelhamid, Rehab F.; Anand, Santosh; Gehrig, Jochen; Akalin, Altuna; Kockx, Christel E.M.; van der Sloot, Antoine A.J.; van IJcken, Wilfred F.J.; Armant, Olivier; Rastegar, Sepand; Watson, Craig; Strähle, Uwe; Stupka, Elia; Carninci, Piero; Lenhard, Boris; Müller, Ferenc

    2013-01-01

    Spatiotemporal control of gene expression is central to animal development. Core promoters represent a previously unanticipated regulatory level by interacting with cis-regulatory elements and transcription initiation in different physiological and developmental contexts. Here, we provide a first and comprehensive description of the core promoter repertoire and its dynamic use during the development of a vertebrate embryo. By using cap analysis of gene expression (CAGE), we mapped transcription initiation events at single nucleotide resolution across 12 stages of zebrafish development. These CAGE-based transcriptome maps reveal genome-wide rules of core promoter usage, structure, and dynamics, key to understanding the control of gene regulation during vertebrate ontogeny. They revealed the existence of multiple classes of pervasive intra- and intergenic post-transcriptionally processed RNA products and their developmental dynamics. Among these RNAs, we report splice donor site-associated intronic RNA (sRNA) to be specific to genes of the splicing machinery. For the identification of conserved features, we compared the zebrafish data sets to the first CAGE promoter map of Tetraodon and the existing human CAGE data. We show that a number of features, such as promoter type, newly discovered promoter properties such as a specialized purine-rich initiator motif, as well as sRNAs and the genes in which they are detected, are conserved in mammalian and Tetraodon CAGE-defined promoter maps. The zebrafish developmental promoterome represents a powerful resource for studying developmental gene regulation and revealing promoter features shared across vertebrates. PMID:24002785

  5. The role of general initiation factors in transcription by RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Roeder, R G

    1996-09-01

    Transcription initiation on protein-encoding genes represents a major control point for gene expression in eukaryotes, and is mediated by RNA polymerase II and a surprisingly complex array of general initiation factors (TFIIA, -B, -D, -E, -F and -H) that are highly conserved from yeast to man. Elucidation of structural and functional features of these factors on model promoters has revealed insights into biochemical mechanisms and provides a basis for understanding their regulation on diverse promoters by gene- and cell-specific activators.

  6. Structure of the initiation-competent RNA polymerase I and its implication for transcription

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilsl, Michael; Crucifix, Corinne; Papai, Gabor; Krupp, Ferdinand; Steinbauer, Robert; Griesenbeck, Joachim; Milkereit, Philipp; Tschochner, Herbert; Schultz, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    Eukaryotic RNA polymerase I (Pol I) is specialized in rRNA gene transcription synthesizing up to 60% of cellular RNA. High level rRNA production relies on efficient binding of initiation factors to the rRNA gene promoter and recruitment of Pol I complexes containing initiation factor Rrn3. Here, we determine the cryo-EM structure of the Pol I-Rrn3 complex at 7.5 Å resolution, and compare it with Rrn3-free monomeric and dimeric Pol I. We observe that Rrn3 contacts the Pol I A43/A14 stalk and subunits A190 and AC40, that association re-organizes the Rrn3 interaction interface, thereby preventing Pol I dimerization; and Rrn3-bound and monomeric Pol I differ from the dimeric enzyme in cleft opening, and localization of the A12.2 C-terminus in the active centre. Our findings thus support a dual role for Rrn3 in transcription initiation to stabilize a monomeric initiation competent Pol I and to drive pre-initiation complex formation.

  7. Structure of the initiation-competent RNA polymerase I and its implication for transcription

    PubMed Central

    Pilsl, Michael; Crucifix, Corinne; Papai, Gabor; Krupp, Ferdinand; Steinbauer, Robert; Griesenbeck, Joachim; Milkereit, Philipp; Tschochner, Herbert; Schultz, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic RNA polymerase I (Pol I) is specialized in rRNA gene transcription synthesizing up to 60% of cellular RNA. High level rRNA production relies on efficient binding of initiation factors to the rRNA gene promoter and recruitment of Pol I complexes containing initiation factor Rrn3. Here, we determine the cryo-EM structure of the Pol I-Rrn3 complex at 7.5 Å resolution, and compare it with Rrn3-free monomeric and dimeric Pol I. We observe that Rrn3 contacts the Pol I A43/A14 stalk and subunits A190 and AC40, that association re-organizes the Rrn3 interaction interface, thereby preventing Pol I dimerization; and Rrn3-bound and monomeric Pol I differ from the dimeric enzyme in cleft opening, and localization of the A12.2 C-terminus in the active centre. Our findings thus support a dual role for Rrn3 in transcription initiation to stabilize a monomeric initiation competent Pol I and to drive pre-initiation complex formation. PMID:27418187

  8. An unmethylated 3' promoter-proximal region is required for efficient transcription initiation.

    PubMed

    Appanah, Ruth; Dickerson, David R; Goyal, Preeti; Groudine, Mark; Lorincz, Matthew C

    2007-02-16

    The promoter regions of approximately 40% of genes in the human genome are embedded in CpG islands, CpG-rich regions that frequently extend on the order of one kb 3' of the transcription start site (TSS) region. CpGs 3' of the TSS of actively transcribed CpG island promoters typically remain methylation-free, indicating that maintaining promoter-proximal CpGs in an unmethylated state may be important for efficient transcription. Here we utilize recombinase-mediated cassette exchange to introduce a Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (MoMuLV)-based reporter, in vitro methylated 1 kb downstream of the TSS, into a defined genomic site. In a subset of clones, methylation spreads to within approximately 320 bp of the TSS, yielding a dramatic decrease in transcript level, even though the promoter/TSS region remains unmethylated. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses reveal that such promoter-proximal methylation results in loss of RNA polymerase II and TATA-box-binding protein (TBP) binding in the promoter region, suggesting that repression occurs at the level of transcription initiation. While DNA methylation-dependent trimethylation of H3 lysine (K)9 is confined to the intragenic methylated region, the promoter and downstream regions are hypo-acetylated on H3K9/K14. Furthermore, DNase I hypersensitivity and methylase-based single promoter analysis (M-SPA) experiments reveal that a nucleosome is positioned over the unmethylated TATA-box in these clones, indicating that dense DNA methylation downstream of the promoter region is sufficient to alter the chromatin structure of an unmethylated promoter. Based on these observations, we propose that a DNA methylation-free region extending several hundred bases downstream of the TSS may be a prerequisite for efficient transcription initiation. This model provides a biochemical explanation for the typical positioning of TSSs well upstream of the 3' end of the CpG islands in which they are embedded.

  9. A Critical, Nonlinear Threshold Dictates Bacterial Invasion and Initial Kinetics During Influenza

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Amber M.; Smith, Amanda P.

    2016-12-01

    Secondary bacterial infections increase morbidity and mortality of influenza A virus (IAV) infections. Bacteria are able to invade due to virus-induced depletion of alveolar macrophages (AMs), but this is not the only contributing factor. By analyzing a kinetic model, we uncovered a nonlinear initial dose threshold that is dependent on the amount of virus-induced AM depletion. The threshold separates the growth and clearance phenotypes such that bacteria decline for dose-AM depletion combinations below the threshold, stay constant near the threshold, and increase above the threshold. In addition, the distance from the threshold correlates to the growth rate. Because AM depletion changes throughout an IAV infection, the dose requirement for bacterial invasion also changes accordingly. Using the threshold, we found that the dose requirement drops dramatically during the first 7d of IAV infection. We then validated these analytical predictions by infecting mice with doses below or above the predicted threshold over the course of IAV infection. These results identify the nonlinear way in which two independent factors work together to support successful post-influenza bacterial invasion. They provide insight into coinfection timing, the heterogeneity in outcome, the probability of acquiring a coinfection, and the use of new therapeutic strategies to combat viral-bacterial coinfections.

  10. A Critical, Nonlinear Threshold Dictates Bacterial Invasion and Initial Kinetics During Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Amber M.; Smith, Amanda P.

    2016-01-01

    Secondary bacterial infections increase morbidity and mortality of influenza A virus (IAV) infections. Bacteria are able to invade due to virus-induced depletion of alveolar macrophages (AMs), but this is not the only contributing factor. By analyzing a kinetic model, we uncovered a nonlinear initial dose threshold that is dependent on the amount of virus-induced AM depletion. The threshold separates the growth and clearance phenotypes such that bacteria decline for dose-AM depletion combinations below the threshold, stay constant near the threshold, and increase above the threshold. In addition, the distance from the threshold correlates to the growth rate. Because AM depletion changes throughout an IAV infection, the dose requirement for bacterial invasion also changes accordingly. Using the threshold, we found that the dose requirement drops dramatically during the first 7d of IAV infection. We then validated these analytical predictions by infecting mice with doses below or above the predicted threshold over the course of IAV infection. These results identify the nonlinear way in which two independent factors work together to support successful post-influenza bacterial invasion. They provide insight into coinfection timing, the heterogeneity in outcome, the probability of acquiring a coinfection, and the use of new therapeutic strategies to combat viral-bacterial coinfections. PMID:27974820

  11. Transcriptional Response of Honey Bee Larvae Infected with the Bacterial Pathogen Paenibacillus larvae

    PubMed Central

    Cornman, Robert Scott; Lopez, Dawn; Evans, Jay D.

    2013-01-01

    American foulbrood disease of honey bees is caused by the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. Infection occurs per os in larvae and systemic infection requires a breaching of the host peritrophic matrix and midgut epithelium. Genetic variation exists for both bacterial virulence and host resistance, and a general immunity is achieved by larvae as they age, the basis of which has not been identified. To quickly identify a pool of candidate genes responsive to P. larvae infection, we sequenced transcripts from larvae inoculated with P. larvae at 12 hours post-emergence and incubated for 72 hours, and compared expression levels to a control cohort. We identified 75 genes with significantly higher expression and six genes with significantly lower expression. In addition to several antimicrobial peptides, two genes encoding peritrophic-matrix domains were also up-regulated. Extracellular matrix proteins, proteases/protease inhibitors, and members of the Osiris gene family were prevalent among differentially regulated genes. However, analysis of Drosophila homologs of differentially expressed genes revealed spatial and temporal patterns consistent with developmental asynchrony as a likely confounder of our results. We therefore used qPCR to measure the consistency of gene expression changes for a subset of differentially expressed genes. A replicate experiment sampled at both 48 and 72 hours post infection allowed further discrimination of genes likely to be involved in host response. The consistently responsive genes in our test set included a hymenopteran-specific protein tyrosine kinase, a hymenopteran specific serine endopeptidase, a cytochrome P450 (CYP9Q1), and a homolog of trynity, a zona pellucida domain protein. Of the known honey bee antimicrobial peptides, apidaecin was responsive at both time-points studied whereas hymenoptaecin was more consistent in its level of change between biological replicates and had the greatest increase in expression by RNA-seq analysis

  12. Addition of transcription activator-like effector binding sites to a pathogen strain-specific rice bacterial blight resistance gene makes it effective against additional strains and against bacterial leaf streak.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Aaron W; Doyle, Erin L; Bogdanove, Adam J

    2012-09-01

    Xanthomonas transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors promote disease in plants by binding to and activating host susceptibility genes. Plants counter with TAL effector-activated executor resistance genes, which cause host cell death and block disease progression. We asked whether the functional specificity of an executor gene could be broadened by adding different TAL effector binding elements (EBEs) to it. We added six EBEs to the rice Xa27 gene, which confers resistance to strains of the bacterial blight pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) that deliver the TAL effector AvrXa27. The EBEs correspond to three other effectors from Xoo strain PXO99(A) and three from strain BLS256 of the bacterial leaf streak pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc). Stable integration into rice produced healthy lines exhibiting gene activation by each TAL effector, and resistance to PXO99(A) , a PXO99(A) derivative lacking AvrXa27, and BLS256, as well as two other Xoo and 10 Xoc strains virulent toward wildtype Xa27 plants. Transcripts initiated primarily at a common site. Sequences in the EBEs were found to occur nonrandomly in rice promoters, suggesting an overlap with endogenous regulatory sequences. Thus, executor gene specificity can be broadened by adding EBEs, but caution is warranted because of the possible coincident introduction of endogenous regulatory elements.

  13. Post-transcription initiation function of the ubiquitous SAGA complex in tissue-specific gene activation

    PubMed Central

    Weake, Vikki M.; Dyer, Jamie O.; Seidel, Christopher; Box, Andrew; Swanson, Selene K.; Peak, Allison; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P.; Abmayr, Susan M.; Workman, Jerry L.

    2011-01-01

    The Spt–Ada–Gcn5–acetyltransferase (SAGA) complex was discovered from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and has been well characterized as an important transcriptional coactivator that interacts both with sequence-specific transcription factors and the TATA-binding protein TBP. SAGA contains a histone acetyltransferase and a ubiquitin protease. In metazoans, SAGA is essential for development, yet little is known about the function of SAGA in differentiating tissue. We analyzed the composition, interacting proteins, and genomic distribution of SAGA in muscle and neuronal tissue of late stage Drosophila melanogaster embryos. The subunit composition of SAGA was the same in each tissue; however, SAGA was associated with considerably more transcription factors in muscle compared with neurons. Consistent with this finding, SAGA was found to occupy more genes specifically in muscle than in neurons. Strikingly, SAGA occupancy was not limited to enhancers and promoters but primarily colocalized with RNA polymerase II within transcribed sequences. SAGA binding peaks at the site of RNA polymerase pausing at the 5′ end of transcribed sequences. In addition, many tissue-specific SAGA-bound genes required its ubiquitin protease activity for full expression. These data indicate that in metazoans SAGA plays a prominent post-transcription initiation role in tissue-specific gene expression. PMID:21764853

  14. Convergent Transcription At Intragenic Super-Enhancers Targets AID-initiated Genomic Instability

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Fei-Long; Du, Zhou; Federation, Alexander; Hu, Jiazhi; Wang, Qiao; Kieffer-Kwon, Kyong-Rim; Meyers, Robin M.; Amor, Corina; Wasserman, Caitlyn R.; Neuberg, Donna; Casellas, Rafael; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Bradner, James E.; Liu, X. Shirley; Alt, Frederick W.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) initiates both somatic hypermutation (SHM) for antibody affinity maturation and DNA breakage for antibody class switch recombination (CSR) via transcription-dependent cytidine deamination of single stranded DNA targets. While largely specific for immunoglobulin genes, AID also acts on a limited set of off-targets, generating oncogenic translocations and mutations that contribute to B cell lymphoma. How AID is recruited to off-targets has been a long-standing mystery. Based on deep GRO-Seq studies of mouse and human B lineage cells activated for CSR or SHM, we report that most robust AID off-target translocations occur within highly focal regions of target genes in which sense and antisense transcription converge. Moreover, we found that such AID-targeting “convergent” transcription arises from antisense transcription that emanates from Super-Enhancers within sense transcribed gene bodies. Our findings provide an explanation for AID off-targeting to a small subset of mostly lineage-specific genes in activated B cells. PMID:25483776

  15. RBPJ maintains brain tumor–initiating cells through CDK9-mediated transcriptional elongation

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Qi; Wu, Qiulian; Kim, Leo; Miller, Tyler E.; Liau, Brian B.; Mack, Stephen C.; Yang, Kailin; Factor, Daniel C.; Fang, Xiaoguang; Huang, Zhi; Zhou, Wenchao; Alazem, Kareem; Wang, Xiuxing; Bernstein, Bradley E.; Bao, Shideng; Rich, Jeremy N.

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastomas co-opt stem cell regulatory pathways to maintain brain tumor–initiating cells (BTICs), also known as cancer stem cells. NOTCH signaling has been a molecular target in BTICs, but NOTCH antagonists have demonstrated limited efficacy in clinical trials. Recombining binding protein suppressor of hairless (RBPJ) is considered a central transcriptional mediator of NOTCH activity. Here, we report that pharmacologic NOTCH inhibitors were less effective than targeting RBPJ in suppressing tumor growth. While NOTCH inhibitors decreased canonical NOTCH gene expression, RBPJ regulated a distinct profile of genes critical to BTIC stemness and cell cycle progression. RBPJ was preferentially expressed by BTICs and required for BTIC self-renewal and tumor growth. MYC, a key BTIC regulator, bound the RBPJ promoter and treatment with a bromodomain and extraterminal domain (BET) family bromodomain inhibitor decreased MYC and RBPJ expression. Proteomic studies demonstrated that RBPJ binds CDK9, a component of positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb), to target gene promoters, enhancing transcriptional elongation. Collectively, RBPJ links MYC and transcriptional control through CDK9, providing potential nodes of fragility for therapeutic intervention, potentially distinct from NOTCH. PMID:27322055

  16. RBPJ maintains brain tumor-initiating cells through CDK9-mediated transcriptional elongation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qi; Wu, Qiulian; Kim, Leo; Miller, Tyler E; Liau, Brian B; Mack, Stephen C; Yang, Kailin; Factor, Daniel C; Fang, Xiaoguang; Huang, Zhi; Zhou, Wenchao; Alazem, Kareem; Wang, Xiuxing; Bernstein, Bradley E; Bao, Shideng; Rich, Jeremy N

    2016-07-01

    Glioblastomas co-opt stem cell regulatory pathways to maintain brain tumor-initiating cells (BTICs), also known as cancer stem cells. NOTCH signaling has been a molecular target in BTICs, but NOTCH antagonists have demonstrated limited efficacy in clinical trials. Recombining binding protein suppressor of hairless (RBPJ) is considered a central transcriptional mediator of NOTCH activity. Here, we report that pharmacologic NOTCH inhibitors were less effective than targeting RBPJ in suppressing tumor growth. While NOTCH inhibitors decreased canonical NOTCH gene expression, RBPJ regulated a distinct profile of genes critical to BTIC stemness and cell cycle progression. RBPJ was preferentially expressed by BTICs and required for BTIC self-renewal and tumor growth. MYC, a key BTIC regulator, bound the RBPJ promoter and treatment with a bromodomain and extraterminal domain (BET) family bromodomain inhibitor decreased MYC and RBPJ expression. Proteomic studies demonstrated that RBPJ binds CDK9, a component of positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb), to target gene promoters, enhancing transcriptional elongation. Collectively, RBPJ links MYC and transcriptional control through CDK9, providing potential nodes of fragility for therapeutic intervention, potentially distinct from NOTCH.

  17. SigmoID: a user-friendly tool for improving bacterial genome annotation through analysis of transcription control signals.

    PubMed

    Nikolaichik, Yevgeny; Damienikan, Aliaksandr U

    2016-01-01

    The majority of bacterial genome annotations are currently automated and based on a 'gene by gene' approach. Regulatory signals and operon structures are rarely taken into account which often results in incomplete and even incorrect gene function assignments. Here we present SigmoID, a cross-platform (OS X, Linux and Windows) open-source application aiming at simplifying the identification of transcription regulatory sites (promoters, transcription factor binding sites and terminators) in bacterial genomes and providing assistance in correcting annotations in accordance with regulatory information. SigmoID combines a user-friendly graphical interface to well known command line tools with a genome browser for visualising regulatory elements in genomic context. Integrated access to online databases with regulatory information (RegPrecise and RegulonDB) and web-based search engines speeds up genome analysis and simplifies correction of genome annotation. We demonstrate some features of SigmoID by constructing a series of regulatory protein binding site profiles for two groups of bacteria: Soft Rot Enterobacteriaceae (Pectobacterium and Dickeya spp.) and Pseudomonas spp. Furthermore, we inferred over 900 transcription factor binding sites and alternative sigma factor promoters in the annotated genome of Pectobacterium atrosepticum. These regulatory signals control putative transcription units covering about 40% of the P. atrosepticum chromosome. Reviewing the annotation in cases where it didn't fit with regulatory information allowed us to correct product and gene names for over 300 loci.

  18. SigmoID: a user-friendly tool for improving bacterial genome annotation through analysis of transcription control signals

    PubMed Central

    Damienikan, Aliaksandr U.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of bacterial genome annotations are currently automated and based on a ‘gene by gene’ approach. Regulatory signals and operon structures are rarely taken into account which often results in incomplete and even incorrect gene function assignments. Here we present SigmoID, a cross-platform (OS X, Linux and Windows) open-source application aiming at simplifying the identification of transcription regulatory sites (promoters, transcription factor binding sites and terminators) in bacterial genomes and providing assistance in correcting annotations in accordance with regulatory information. SigmoID combines a user-friendly graphical interface to well known command line tools with a genome browser for visualising regulatory elements in genomic context. Integrated access to online databases with regulatory information (RegPrecise and RegulonDB) and web-based search engines speeds up genome analysis and simplifies correction of genome annotation. We demonstrate some features of SigmoID by constructing a series of regulatory protein binding site profiles for two groups of bacteria: Soft Rot Enterobacteriaceae (Pectobacterium and Dickeya spp.) and Pseudomonas spp. Furthermore, we inferred over 900 transcription factor binding sites and alternative sigma factor promoters in the annotated genome of Pectobacterium atrosepticum. These regulatory signals control putative transcription units covering about 40% of the P. atrosepticum chromosome. Reviewing the annotation in cases where it didn’t fit with regulatory information allowed us to correct product and gene names for over 300 loci. PMID:27257541

  19. Chemical perturbation of an intrinsically disordered region of TFIID distinguishes two modes of transcription initiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhengjian; Boskovic, Zarko; Hussain, Mahmud M; Hu, Wenxin; Inouye, Carla; Kim, Han-Je; Abole, A Katherine; Doud, Mary K; Lewis, Timothy A; Koehler, Angela N; Schreiber, Stuart L; Tjian, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins/regions (IDPs/IDRs) are proteins or peptide segments that fail to form stable 3-dimensional structures in the absence of partner proteins. They are abundant in eukaryotic proteomes and are often associated with human diseases, but their biological functions have been elusive to study. In this study, we report the identification of a tin(IV) oxochloride-derived cluster that binds an evolutionarily conserved IDR within the metazoan TFIID transcription complex. Binding arrests an isomerization of promoter-bound TFIID that is required for the engagement of Pol II during the first (de novo) round of transcription initiation. However, the specific chemical probe does not affect reinitiation, which requires the re-entry of Pol II, thus, mechanistically distinguishing these two modes of transcription initiation. This work also suggests a new avenue for targeting the elusive IDRs by harnessing certain features of metal-based complexes for mechanistic studies, and for the development of novel pharmaceutical interventions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07777.001 PMID:26314865

  20. ITPI: Initial Transcription Process-Based Identification Method of Bioactive Components in Traditional Chinese Medicine Formula

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Baixia; Li, Yanwen; Zhang, Yanling; Li, Zhiyong; Bi, Tian; He, Yusu; Song, Kuokui; Wang, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Identification of bioactive components is an important area of research in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula. The reported identification methods only consider the interaction between the components and the target proteins, which is not sufficient to explain the influence of TCM on the gene expression. Here, we propose the Initial Transcription Process-based Identification (ITPI) method for the discovery of bioactive components that influence transcription factors (TFs). In this method, genome-wide chip detection technology was used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs). The TFs of DEGs were derived from GeneCards. The components influencing the TFs were derived from STITCH. The bioactive components in the formula were identified by evaluating the molecular similarity between the components in formula and the components that influence the TF of DEGs. Using the formula of Tian-Zhu-San (TZS) as an example, the reliability and limitation of ITPI were examined and 16 bioactive components that influence TFs were identified. PMID:27034696

  1. Activation and repression of transcription initiation by a distant DNA structural transition.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, S D; Opel, M L; Hatfield, G W

    2001-05-01

    Negative superhelical tension can drive local transitions to alternative DNA structures. Long regions of DNA may contain several sites that are susceptible to forming alternative structures. Their relative propensities to undergo transition are ordered according to the energies required for their formation. These energies have two components - the energy needed to drive the transition and the energy relieved by the partial relaxation of superhelicity that the transition provides. This coupling can cause a complex competition among the possible transitions, in which the formation of one energetically favourable alternative structure may inhibit the formation of another within the same domain. In principle, DNA structural competitions can affect the structural and energetic requirements for the initiation of transcription at distant promoter sites. We have tested this possibility by examining the effects of structural transitions on transcription initiation from promoter sites in the same superhelical domain. Specifically, we describe the effects of the presence of a Z-DNA-forming DNA sequence on the basal levels of expression of two supercoiling-sensitive promoters of Escherichia coli, ilvPG and gyrA. We demonstrate transcriptional repression of the ilvPG promoter and activation of the gyrA promoter. We present evidence that this regulation is effected by the superhelically induced B- to Z-DNA transition in a manner that is both orientation and distance independent. We discuss the mechanism of topological coupling between left-handed Z-DNA and the regulation of promoter activity. We also discuss the possibility that the coupling of DNA structural transitions and transcriptional activity might be used as a general regulatory mechanism for gene expression.

  2. Site-directed photo-cross-linking of rRNA transcription initiation complexes.

    PubMed Central

    Gong, X; Radebaugh, C A; Geiss, G K; Simon, M N; Paule, M R

    1995-01-01

    Site-specific photo-cross-linking of the rRNA committed transcription complex was carried out by using 5-[N-(p-azidobenzoyl)-3-aminoallyl]-dUMP-derivatized promoter DNA. Putative TAFIs of 145, 99, 96, and 91 kDa, as well as TATA-binding protein (TBP), were found to specifically photo-cross-link to different positions along the promoter. These had been identified as potential subunits of the fundamental transcription initiation factor TIF-IB (also known as SL1, factor D, and TFID) from Acanthamoeba castellanii by purification to apparent homogeneity. No other polypeptides attributable to the rRNA architectural transcription factor UBF were identified, suggesting that this protein is not part of the committed complex. Scanning transmission electron microscopy of the complexes was used to estimate the mass of the complex and the contour length of the DNA in the complex. This showed that a single molecule of TIF-IB is in each committed complex and that the DNA is not looped around the protein, as would be expected if UBF were in the complex. A circular permutation analysis of DNA bending resulting from TIF-IB binding revealed a 45 +/- 3.1 degrees (n = 14) bend centered 23 bp upstream of the transcription initiation site. This degree of bending and the position of the bend relative to the site of TBP photo-cross-linking are consistent with earlier data showing that the TBP TATA box-binding domain is not utilized in the assembly of the rRNA committed complex (C. A. Radebaugh, J. L. Mathews, G. K. Geiss, F. Liu, J. Wong, E. Bateman, S. Camier, A. Sentenac, and M. R. Paule, Mol. Cell. Biol. 14:597-605, 1994). PMID:7651413

  3. Site-directed photo-cross-linking of rRNA transcription initiation complexes.

    PubMed

    Gong, X; Radebaugh, C A; Geiss, G K; Simon, M N; Paule, M R

    1995-09-01

    Site-specific photo-cross-linking of the rRNA committed transcription complex was carried out by using 5-[N-(p-azidobenzoyl)-3-aminoallyl]-dUMP-derivatized promoter DNA. Putative TAFIs of 145, 99, 96, and 91 kDa, as well as TATA-binding protein (TBP), were found to specifically photo-cross-link to different positions along the promoter. These had been identified as potential subunits of the fundamental transcription initiation factor TIF-IB (also known as SL1, factor D, and TFID) from Acanthamoeba castellanii by purification to apparent homogeneity. No other polypeptides attributable to the rRNA architectural transcription factor UBF were identified, suggesting that this protein is not part of the committed complex. Scanning transmission electron microscopy of the complexes was used to estimate the mass of the complex and the contour length of the DNA in the complex. This showed that a single molecule of TIF-IB is in each committed complex and that the DNA is not looped around the protein, as would be expected if UBF were in the complex. A circular permutation analysis of DNA bending resulting from TIF-IB binding revealed a 45 +/- 3.1 degrees (n = 14) bend centered 23 bp upstream of the transcription initiation site. This degree of bending and the position of the bend relative to the site of TBP photo-cross-linking are consistent with earlier data showing that the TBP TATA box-binding domain is not utilized in the assembly of the rRNA committed complex (C. A. Radebaugh, J. L. Mathews, G. K. Geiss, F. Liu, J. Wong, E. Bateman, S. Camier, A. Sentenac, and M. R. Paule, Mol. Cell. Biol. 14:597-605, 1994).

  4. Transcriptional Regulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Transcription Factor Regulation and Function, Mechanisms of Initiation, and Roles of Activators and Coactivators

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Steven; Young, Elton T.

    2011-01-01

    Here we review recent advances in understanding the regulation of mRNA synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Many fundamental gene regulatory mechanisms have been conserved in all eukaryotes, and budding yeast has been at the forefront in the discovery and dissection of these conserved mechanisms. Topics covered include upstream activation sequence and promoter structure, transcription factor classification, and examples of regulated transcription factor activity. We also examine advances in understanding the RNA polymerase II transcription machinery, conserved coactivator complexes, transcription activation domains, and the cooperation of these factors in gene regulatory mechanisms. PMID:22084422

  5. Transcription initiation-defective forms of sigma(54) that differ in ability To function with a heteroduplex DNA template.

    PubMed

    Kelly, M T; Ferguson, J A; Hoover, T R

    2000-11-01

    Transcription by sigma(54)-RNA polymerase holoenzyme requires an activator that catalyzes isomerization of the closed promoter complex to an open complex. We examined mutant forms of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium sigma(54) that were defective in transcription initiation but retained core RNA polymerase- and promoter-binding activities. Four of the mutant proteins allowed activator-independent transcription from a heteroduplex DNA template. One of these mutant proteins, L124P V148A, had substitutions in a sequence that had not been shown previously to participate in the prevention of activator-independent transcription. The remaining mutants did not allow efficient activator-independent transcription from the heteroduplex DNA template and had substitutions within a conserved 20-amino-acid segment (Leu-179 to Leu-199), suggesting a role for this sequence in transcription initiation.

  6. Transcription Initiation-Defective Forms of ς54 That Differ in Ability To Function with a Heteroduplex DNA Template

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Mary T.; Ferguson, John A.; Hoover, Timothy R.

    2000-01-01

    Transcription by ς54-RNA polymerase holoenzyme requires an activator that catalyzes isomerization of the closed promoter complex to an open complex. We examined mutant forms of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ς54 that were defective in transcription initiation but retained core RNA polymerase- and promoter-binding activities. Four of the mutant proteins allowed activator-independent transcription from a heteroduplex DNA template. One of these mutant proteins, L124P V148A, had substitutions in a sequence that had not been shown previously to participate in the prevention of activator-independent transcription. The remaining mutants did not allow efficient activator-independent transcription from the heteroduplex DNA template and had substitutions within a conserved 20-amino-acid segment (Leu-179 to Leu-199), suggesting a role for this sequence in transcription initiation. PMID:11053397

  7. Initial Bacterial Adhesion on Different Yttria-Stabilized Tetragonal Zirconia Implant Surfaces in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Karygianni, Lamprini; Jähnig, Andrea; Schienle, Stefanie; Bernsmann, Falk; Adolfsson, Erik; Kohal, Ralf J; Chevalier, Jérôme; Hellwig, Elmar; Al-Ahmad, Ali

    2013-12-04

    Bacterial adhesion to implant biomaterials constitutes a virulence factor leading to biofilm formation, infection and treatment failure. The aim of this study was to examine the initial bacterial adhesion on different implant materials in vitro. Four implant biomaterials were incubated with Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans for 2 h: 3 mol % yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal surface (B1a), B1a with zirconium oxide (ZrO₂) coating (B2a), B1a with zirconia-based composite coating (B1b) and B1a with zirconia-based composite and ZrO₂ coatings (B2b). Bovine enamel slabs (BES) served as control. The adherent microorganisms were quantified and visualized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM); DAPI and live/dead staining. The lowest bacterial count of E. faecalis was detected on BES and the highest on B1a. The fewest vital C. albicans strains (42.22%) were detected on B2a surfaces, while most E. faecalis and S. aureus strains (approximately 80%) were vital overall. Compared to BES; coated and uncoated zirconia substrata exhibited no anti-adhesive properties. Further improvement of the material surface characteristics is essential.

  8. Initial Bacterial Adhesion on Different Yttria-Stabilized Tetragonal Zirconia Implant Surfaces in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Karygianni, Lamprini; Jähnig, Andrea; Schienle, Stefanie; Bernsmann, Falk; Adolfsson, Erik; Kohal, Ralf J.; Chevalier, Jérôme; Hellwig, Elmar; Al-Ahmad, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial adhesion to implant biomaterials constitutes a virulence factor leading to biofilm formation, infection and treatment failure. The aim of this study was to examine the initial bacterial adhesion on different implant materials in vitro. Four implant biomaterials were incubated with Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans for 2 h: 3 mol % yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal surface (B1a), B1a with zirconium oxide (ZrO2) coating (B2a), B1a with zirconia-based composite coating (B1b) and B1a with zirconia-based composite and ZrO2 coatings (B2b). Bovine enamel slabs (BES) served as control. The adherent microorganisms were quantified and visualized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM); DAPI and live/dead staining. The lowest bacterial count of E. faecalis was detected on BES and the highest on B1a. The fewest vital C. albicans strains (42.22%) were detected on B2a surfaces, while most E. faecalis and S. aureus strains (approximately 80%) were vital overall. Compared to BES; coated and uncoated zirconia substrata exhibited no anti-adhesive properties. Further improvement of the material surface characteristics is essential. PMID:28788415

  9. Key Roles of the Downstream Mobile Jaw of Escherichia coli RNA Polymerase in Transcription Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Drennan, Amanda; Kraemer, Mark; Capp, Michael; Gries, Theodore; Ruff, Emily; Sheppard, Carol; Wigneshweraraj, Sivaramesh; Artsimovitch, Irina; Record, M. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Differences in kinetics of transcription initiation by RNA polymerase (RNAP) at different promoters tailor the pattern of gene expression to cellular needs. After initial binding, large conformational changes occur in promoter DNA and RNAP to form initiation-capable complexes. To understand the mechanism and regulation of transcription initiation, the nature and sequence of these conformational changes must be determined. Escherichia coli RNAP uses binding free energy to unwind and separate 13 base pairs of λPR promoter DNA to form the unstable open intermediate I2, which rapidly converts to much more stable open complexes (I3, RPo). Conversion of I2 to RPo involves folding/assembly of several mobile RNAP domains on downstream duplex DNA. Here, we investigate effects of a 42-residue deletion in the mobile β’ jaw (ΔJAW) and truncation of promoter DNA beyond +12 (DT+12) on the steps of initiation. We find that in stable ΔJAW open complexes the downstream boundary of hydroxyl radical protection shortens by 5–10 base pairs, as compared to wild-type (WT) complexes. Dissociation kinetics of open complexes formed with ΔJAW RNAP and/or DT+12 DNA resemble those deduced for the structurally-uncharacterized intermediate I3. Overall rate constants (ka) for promoter binding and DNA opening by ΔJAW RNAP are much smaller than for WT RNAP. Values of ka for WT RNAP with DT+12 and full-length λPR are similar, though contributions of binding and isomerization steps differ. Hence, the jaw plays major roles both early and late in RPo formation, while downstream DNA functions primarily as the assembly platform after DNA opening. PMID:23116321

  10. Transcriptional and structural impact of TATA-initiation site spacing in mammalian core promoters

    PubMed Central

    Ponjavic, Jasmina; Lenhard, Boris; Kai, Chikatoshi; Kawai, Jun; Carninci, Piero; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Sandelin, Albin

    2006-01-01

    Background The TATA box, one of the most well studied core promoter elements, is associated with induced, context-specific expression. The lack of precise transcription start site (TSS) locations linked with expression information has impeded genome-wide characterization of the interaction between TATA and the pre-initiation complex. Results Using a comprehensive set of 5.66 × 106 sequenced 5' cDNA ends from diverse tissues mapped to the mouse genome, we found that the TATA-TSS distance is correlated with the tissue specificity of the downstream transcript. To achieve tissue-specific regulation, the TATA box position relative to the TSS is constrained to a narrow window (-32 to -29), where positions -31 and -30 are the optimal positions for achieving high tissue specificity. Slightly larger spacings can be accommodated only when there is no optimally spaced initiation signal; in contrast, the TATA box like motifs found downstream of position -28 are generally nonfunctional. The strength of the TATA binding protein-DNA interaction plays a subordinate role to spacing in terms of tissue specificity. Furthermore, promoters with different TATA-TSS spacings have distinct features in terms of consensus sequence around the initiation site and distribution of alternative TSSs. Unexpectedly, promoters that have two dominant, consecutive TSSs are TATA depleted and have a novel GGG initiation site consensus. Conclusion In this report we present the most comprehensive characterization of TATA-TSS spacing and functionality to date. The coupling of spacing to tissue specificity at the transcriptome level provides important clues as to the function of core promoters and the choice of TSS by the pre-initiation complex. PMID:16916456

  11. Mechanism of transcription initiation and promoter escape by E. coli RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Kate L; Felth, Lindsey C; Molzahn, Cristen M; Shkel, Irina; Wang, Si; Chhabra, Munish; Ruff, Emily F; Bieter, Lauren; Kraft, Joseph E; Record, M Thomas

    2017-04-11

    To investigate roles of the discriminator and open complex (OC) lifetime in transcription initiation by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase (RNAP; α2ββ'ωσ(70)), we compare productive and abortive initiation rates, short RNA distributions, and OC lifetime for the λPR and T7A1 promoters and variants with exchanged discriminators, all with the same transcribed region. The discriminator determines the OC lifetime of these promoters. Permanganate reactivity of thymines reveals that strand backbones in open regions of long-lived λPR-discriminator OCs are much more tightly held than for shorter-lived T7A1-discriminator OCs. Initiation from these OCs exhibits two kinetic phases and at least two subpopulations of ternary complexes. Long RNA synthesis (constrained to be single round) occurs only in the initial phase (<10 s), at similar rates for all promoters. Less than half of OCs synthesize a full-length RNA; the majority stall after synthesizing a short RNA. Most abortive cycling occurs in the slower phase (>10 s), when stalled complexes release their short RNA and make another without escaping. In both kinetic phases, significant amounts of 8-nt and 10-nt transcripts are produced by longer-lived, λPR-discriminator OCs, whereas no RNA longer than 7 nt is produced by shorter-lived T7A1-discriminator OCs. These observations and the lack of abortive RNA in initiation from short-lived ribosomal promoter OCs are well described by a quantitative model in which ∼1.0 kcal/mol of scrunching free energy is generated per translocation step of RNA synthesis to overcome OC stability and drive escape. The different length-distributions of abortive RNAs released from OCs with different lifetimes likely play regulatory roles.

  12. Fate of HIV-1 cDNA intermediates during reverse transcription is dictated by transcription initiation site of virus genomic RNA

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Takao; Sato, Yoko; Huang, Yu-Lun; Koi, Satoshi; Takahata, Tatsuro; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Kawai, Gota; Kannagi, Mari

    2015-01-01

    Retroviral reverse transcription is accomplished by sequential strand-transfers of partial cDNA intermediates copied from viral genomic RNA. Here, we revealed an unprecedented role of 5′-end guanosine (G) of HIV-1 genomic RNA for reverse transcription. Based on current consensus for HIV-1 transcription initiation site, HIV-1 transcripts possess a single G at 5′-ends (G1-form). However, we found that HIV-1 transcripts with additional Gs at 5′-ends (G2- and G3-forms) were abundantly expressed in infected cells by using alternative transcription initiation sites. The G2- and G3-forms were also detected in the virus particle, although the G1-form predominated. To address biological impact of the 5′-G number, we generated HIV clone DNA to express the G1-form exclusively by deleting the alternative initiation sites. Virus produced from the clone showed significantly higher strand-transfer of minus strong-stop cDNA (-sscDNA). The in vitro assay using synthetic HIV-1 RNAs revealed that the abortive forms of -sscDNA were abundantly generated from the G3-form RNA, but dramatically reduced from the G1-form. Moreover, the strand-transfer of -sscDNA from the G1-form was prominently stimulated by HIV-1 nucleocapsid. Taken together, our results demonstrated that the 5′-G number that corresponds to HIV-1 transcription initiation site was critical for successful strand-transfer of -sscDNA during reverse transcription. PMID:26631448

  13. Unusually Situated Binding Sites for Bacterial Transcription Factors Can Have Hidden Functionality

    PubMed Central

    Haycocks, James R. J.; Grainger, David C.

    2016-01-01

    A commonly accepted paradigm of molecular biology is that transcription factors control gene expression by binding sites at the 5' end of a gene. However, there is growing evidence that transcription factor targets can occur within genes or between convergent genes. In this work, we have investigated one such target for the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. We show that CRP binds between two convergent genes. When bound, CRP regulates transcription of a small open reading frame, which we term aatS, embedded within one of the adjacent genes. Our work demonstrates that non-canonical sites of transcription factor binding can have hidden functionality. PMID:27258043

  14. Regulation of transcription by eukaryotic-like serine-threonine kinases and phosphatases in Gram-positive bacterial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Wright, David P; Ulijasz, Andrew T

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial eukaryotic-like serine threonine kinases (eSTKs) and serine threonine phosphatases (eSTPs) have emerged as important signaling elements that are indispensable for pathogenesis. Differing considerably from their histidine kinase counterparts, few eSTK genes are encoded within the average bacterial genome, and their targets are pleiotropic in nature instead of exclusive. The growing list of important eSTK/P substrates includes proteins involved in translation, cell division, peptidoglycan synthesis, antibiotic tolerance, resistance to innate immunity and control of virulence factors. Recently it has come to light that eSTK/Ps also directly modulate transcriptional machinery in many microbial pathogens. This novel form of regulation is now emerging as an additional means by which bacteria can alter their transcriptomes in response to host-specific environmental stimuli. Here we focus on the ability of eSTKs and eSTPs in Gram-positive bacterial pathogens to directly modulate transcription, the known mechanistic outcomes of these modifications, and their roles as an added layer of complexity in controlling targeted RNA synthesis to enhance virulence potential. PMID:25603430

  15. Redox-Active Sensing by Bacterial DksA Transcription Factors Is Determined by Cysteine and Zinc Content.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Matthew A; Tapscott, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Liam F; Liu, Lin; Reyes, Aníbal M; Libby, Stephen J; Trujillo, Madia; Fang, Ferric C; Radi, Rafael; Vázquez-Torres, Andrés

    2016-04-19

    The four-cysteine zinc finger motif of the bacterial RNA polymerase regulator DksA is essential for protein structure, canonical control of the stringent response to nutritional limitation, and thiol-based sensing of oxidative and nitrosative stress. This interdependent relationship has limited our understanding of DksA-mediated functions in bacterial pathogenesis. Here, we have addressed this challenge by complementing ΔdksA Salmonella with Pseudomonas aeruginosa dksA paralogues that encode proteins differing in cysteine and zinc content. We find that four-cysteine, zinc-bound (C4) and two-cysteine, zinc-free (C2) DksA proteins are able to mediate appropriate stringent control in Salmonella and that thiol-based sensing of reactive species is conserved among C2 and C4 orthologues. However, variations in cysteine and zinc content determine the threshold at which individual DksA proteins sense and respond to reactive species. In particular, zinc acts as an antioxidant, dampening cysteine reactivity and raising the threshold of posttranslational thiol modification with reactive species. Consequently, C2 DksA triggers transcriptional responses in Salmonella at levels of oxidative or nitrosative stress normally tolerated by Salmonella expressing C4 orthologues. Inappropriate transcriptional regulation by C2 DksA increases the susceptibility of Salmonella to the antimicrobial effects of hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide, and attenuates virulence in macrophages and mice. Our findings suggest that the redox-active sensory function of DksA proteins is finely tuned to optimize bacterial fitness according to the levels of oxidative and nitrosative stress encountered by bacterial species in their natural and host environments. In order to cause disease, pathogenic bacteria must rapidly sense and respond to antimicrobial pressures encountered within the host. Prominent among these stresses, and of particular relevance to intracellular pathogens such as Salmonella, are

  16. Core promoter-selective function of HMGA1 and Mediator in Initiator-dependent transcription

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Muyu; Sharma, Priyanka; Pan, Songqin; Malik, Sohail; Roeder, Robert G.; Martinez, Ernest

    2011-01-01

    The factors and mechanisms underlying the differential activity and regulation of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II on different types of core promoters have remained elusive. Here we show that the architectural factor HMGA1 and the Mediator coregulator complex cooperate to enhance basal transcription from core promoters containing both a TATA box and an Initiator (INR) element but not from “TATA-only” core promoters. INR-dependent activation by HMGA1 and Mediator requires the TATA-binding protein (TBP)-associated factors (TAFs) within the TFIID complex and counteracts negative regulators of TBP/TATA-dependent transcription such as NC2 and Topoisomerase I. HMGA1 interacts with TFIID and Mediator and is required for the synergy of TATA and INR elements in mammalian cells. Accordingly, natural HMGA1-activated genes in embryonic stem cells tend to have both TATA and INR elements in a synergistic configuration. Our results suggest a core promoter-specific regulation of Mediator and the basal transcription machinery by HMGA1. PMID:22156211

  17. Effects of Modification of the Transcription Initiation Site Context on Citrus Tristeza Virus Subgenomic RNA Synthesis†

    PubMed Central

    Ayllón, María A.; Gowda, Siddarame; Satyanarayana, Tatineni; Karasev, Alexander V.; Adkins, Scott; Mawassi, Munir; Guerri, José; Moreno, Pedro; Dawson, William O.

    2003-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a member of the Closteroviridae, has a positive-sense RNA genome of about 20 kb organized into 12 open reading frames (ORFs). The last 10 ORFs are expressed through 3′-coterminal subgenomic RNAs (sgRNAs) regulated in both amounts and timing. Additionally, relatively large amounts of complementary sgRNAs are produced. We have been unable to determine whether these sgRNAs are produced by internal promotion from the full-length template minus strand or by transcription from the minus-stranded sgRNAs. Understanding the regulation of 10 sgRNAs is a conceptual challenge. In analyzing commonalities of a replicase complex in producing so many sgRNAs, we examined initiating nucleotides of the sgRNAs. We mapped the 5′ termini of intermediate- (CP and p13) and low- (p18) produced sgRNAs that, like the two highly abundant sgRNAs (p20 and p23) previously mapped, all initiate with an adenylate. We then examined modifications of the initiation site, which has been shown to be useful in defining mechanisms of sgRNA synthesis. Surprisingly, mutation of the initiating nucleotide of the CTV sgRNAs did not prevent sgRNA accumulation. Based on our results, the CTV replication complex appears to initiate sgRNA synthesis with purines, preferably with adenylates, and is able to initiate synthesis using a nucleotide a few positions 5′ or 3′ of the native initiation nucleotide. Furthermore, the context of the initiation site appears to be a regulatory mechanism for levels of sgRNA production. These data do not support either of the established mechanisms for synthesis of sgRNAs, suggesting that CTV sgRNA production utilizes a different mechanism. PMID:12915539

  18. Initial symbiont contact orchestrates host-organ-wide transcriptional changes that prime tissue colonization.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Natacha; Philipp, Eva E R; Carpentier, Marie-Christine; Brennan, Caitlin A; Kraemer, Lars; Altura, Melissa A; Augustin, René; Häsler, Robert; Heath-Heckman, Elizabeth A C; Peyer, Suzanne M; Schwartzman, Julia; Rader, Bethany A; Ruby, Edward G; Rosenstiel, Philip; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J

    2013-08-14

    Upon transit to colonization sites, bacteria often experience critical priming that prepares them for subsequent, specific interactions with the host; however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly described. During initiation of the symbiosis between the bacterium Vibrio fischeri and its squid host, which can be observed directly and in real time, approximately five V. fischeri cells aggregate along the mucociliary membranes of a superficial epithelium prior to entering host tissues. Here, we show that these few early host-associated symbionts specifically induce robust changes in host gene expression that are critical to subsequent colonization steps. This exquisitely sensitive response to the host's specific symbiotic partner includes the upregulation of a host endochitinase, whose activity hydrolyzes polymeric chitin in the mucus into chitobiose, thereby priming the symbiont and also producing a chemoattractant gradient that promotes V. fischeri migration into host tissues. Thus, the host responds transcriptionally upon initial symbiont contact, which facilitates subsequent colonization.

  19. Initial Symbiont Contact Orchestrates Host Organ-wide Transcriptional Changes that Prime Tissue Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Kremer, Natacha; Philipp, Eva E.R.; Carpentier, Marie-Christine; Brennan, Caitlin A.; Kraemer, Lars; Altura, Melissa A.; Augustin, René; Häsler, Robert; Heath-Heckman, Elizabeth A. C.; Peyer, Suzanne M.; Schwartzman, Julia; Rader, Bethany; Ruby, Edward G.; Rosenstiel, Philip; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Upon transit to colonization sites, bacteria often experience critical priming that prepares them for subsequent, specific interactions with the host; however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly described. During initiation of the symbiosis between the bacterium Vibrio fischeri and its squid host, which can be observed directly and in real time, ~5 V. fischeri cells aggregate along the mucociliary membranes of a superficial epithelium prior to entering host tissues. Here we show that these few early host-associated symbionts specifically induce robust changes in host gene expression that are critical to subsequent colonization steps. This exquisitely sensitive response to its specific symbiotic partner includes the upregulation of a host endochitinase, whose activity hydrolyzes polymeric chitin in the mucus into chitobiose, thereby priming the symbiont and also producing a chemoattractant gradient that promotes V. fischeri migration into host tissues. Thus, the host responds transcriptionally upon initial symbiont contact, which facilitates subsequent colonization. PMID:23954157

  20. Transcription Initiation Patterns Indicate Divergent Strategies for Gene Regulation at the Chromatin Level

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, Ashlee M.; Corcoran, David L.; Ni, Ting; Zhu, Jun; Ohler, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    The application of deep sequencing to map 5′ capped transcripts has confirmed the existence of at least two distinct promoter classes in metazoans: “focused” promoters with transcription start sites (TSSs) that occur in a narrowly defined genomic span and “dispersed” promoters with TSSs that are spread over a larger window. Previous studies have explored the presence of genomic features, such as CpG islands and sequence motifs, in these promoter classes, but virtually no studies have directly investigated the relationship with chromatin features. Here, we show that promoter classes are significantly differentiated by nucleosome organization and chromatin structure. Dispersed promoters display higher associations with well-positioned nucleosomes downstream of the TSS and a more clearly defined nucleosome free region upstream, while focused promoters have a less organized nucleosome structure, yet higher presence of RNA polymerase II. These differences extend to histone variants (H2A.Z) and marks (H3K4 methylation), as well as insulator binding (such as CTCF), independent of the expression levels of affected genes. Notably, differences are conserved across mammals and flies, and they provide for a clearer separation of promoter architectures than the presence and absence of CpG islands or the occurrence of stalled RNA polymerase. Computational models support the stronger contribution of chromatin features to the definition of dispersed promoters compared to focused start sites. Our results show that promoter classes defined from 5′ capped transcripts not only reflect differences in the initiation process at the core promoter but also are indicative of divergent transcriptional programs established within gene-proximal nucleosome organization. PMID:21249180

  1. Core Mediator structure at 3.4 Å extends model of transcription initiation complex.

    PubMed

    Nozawa, Kayo; Schneider, Thomas R; Cramer, Patrick

    2017-05-11

    Mediator is a multiprotein co-activator that binds the transcription pre-initiation complex (PIC) and regulates RNA polymerase (Pol) II. The Mediator head and middle modules form the essential core Mediator (cMed), whereas the tail and kinase modules play regulatory roles. The architecture of Mediator and its position on the PIC are known, but atomic details are limited to Mediator subcomplexes. Here we report the crystal structure of the 15-subunit cMed from Schizosaccharomyces pombe at 3.4 Å resolution. The structure shows an unaltered head module, and reveals the intricate middle module, which we show is globally required for transcription. Sites of known Mediator mutations cluster at the interface between the head and middle modules, and in terminal regions of the head subunits Med6 (ref. 16) and Med17 (ref. 17) that tether the middle module. The structure led to a model for Saccharomyces cerevisiae cMed that could be combined with the 3.6 Å cryo-electron microscopy structure of the core PIC (cPIC). The resulting atomic model of the cPIC-cMed complex informs on interactions of the submodules forming the middle module, called beam, knob, plank, connector, and hook. The hook is flexibly linked to Mediator by a conserved hinge and contacts the transcription initiation factor IIH (TFIIH) kinase that phosphorylates the carboxy (C)-terminal domain (CTD) of Pol II and was recently positioned on the PIC. The hook also contains residues that crosslink to the CTD and reside in a previously described cradle. These results provide a framework for understanding Mediator function, including its role in stimulating CTD phosphorylation by TFIIH.

  2. The colitis-associated transcriptional profile of commensal Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron enhances adaptive immune responses to a bacterial antigen.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Jonathan J; Huang, Yong; Peterson, Daniel A; Goeser, Laura; Fan, Ting-Jia; Chang, Eugene B; Sartor, R Balfour

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) may be caused in part by aberrant immune responses to commensal intestinal microbes including the well-characterized anaerobic gut commensal Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (B. theta). Healthy, germ-free HLA-B27 transgenic (Tg) rats develop chronic colitis when colonized with complex gut commensal bacteria whereas non-transgenic (nTg) rats remain disease-free. However, the role of B. theta in causing disease in Tg rats is unknown nor is much known about how gut microbes respond to host inflammation. Tg and nTg rats were monoassociated with a human isolate of B. theta. Colonic inflammation was assessed by histologic scoring and tissue pro-inflammatory cytokine measurement. Whole genome transcriptional profiling of B. theta recovered from ceca was performed using custom GeneChips and data analyzed using dChip, Significance Analysis of Microarrays, and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) software. Western Blots were used to determine adaptive immune responses to a differentially expressed B. theta gene. B. theta monoassociated Tg rats, but not nTg or germ-free controls, developed chronic colitis. Transcriptional profiles of cecal B. theta were significantly different in Tg vs. nTg rats. GSEA revealed that genes in KEGG canonical pathways involved in bacterial growth and metabolism were downregulated in B. theta from Tg rats with colitis though luminal bacterial concentrations were unaffected. Bacterial genes in the Gene Ontology molecular function "receptor activity", most of which encode nutrient binding proteins, were significantly upregulated in B. theta from Tg rats and include a SusC homolog that induces adaptive immune responses in Tg rats. B. theta induces colitis in HLA-B27 Tg rats, which is associated with regulation of bacterial genes in metabolic and nutrient binding pathways that may affect host immune responses. These studies of the host-microbial dialogue may lead to the identification of novel microbial targets for IBD

  3. Increasing the dynamic control space of mammalian transcription devices by combinatorial assembly of homologous regulatory elements from different bacterial species.

    PubMed

    Bacchus, William; Weber, Wilfried; Fussenegger, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Prokaryotic transcriptional regulatory elements are widely utilized building blocks for constructing regulatory genetic circuits adapted for mammalian cells and have found their way into a broad range of biotechnological applications. Prokaryotic transcriptional repressors, fused to eukaryotic transactivation or repression domains, compose the transcription factor, which binds and adjusts transcription from chimeric promoters containing the repressor-specific operator sequence. Escherichia coli and Chlamydia trachomatis share common features in the regulatory mechanism of the biosynthesis of l-tryptophan. The repressor protein TrpR of C. trachomatis regulates the trpRBA operon and the TrpR of E. coli regulates the trpEDCBA operon, both requiring l-tryptophan as a co-repressor. Fusion of these bacterial repressors to the VP16 transactivation domain of Herpes simplex virus creates synthetic transactivators that could bind and activate chimeric promoters, assembled by placing repressor-specific operator modules adjacent to a minimal promoter, in an l-tryptophan-adjustable manner. Combinations of different transactivator and promoter variants from the same or different bacterial species resulted in a multitude of regulatory systems where l-tryptophan regulation properties, background noise, and maximal gene expression levels were significantly diverse. Different l-tryptophan analogues showed diverse regulatory capacity depending on the promoter/transactivator combination. We believe the systems approach to rationally choose promoters, transactivators and inducer molecules, to obtain desired and predefined genetic expression dynamics and control profiles, will significantly advance the design of new regulatory circuits as well as improving already existing ones. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Transcription initiation in vivo without classical transactivators: DNA kinks flanking the core promoter of the housekeeping yeast adenylate kinase gene, AKY2, position nucleosomes and constitutively activate transcription.

    PubMed

    Angermayr, Michaela; Oechsner, Ulrich; Gregor, Kerstin; Schroth, Gary P; Bandlow, Wolfhard

    2002-10-01

    The housekeeping gene of the major adenylate kinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (AKY2, ADK1) is constitutively transcribed at a moderate level. The promoter has been dissected in order to define elements that effect constitutive transcription. Initiation of mRNA synthesis at the AKY2 promoter is shown to be mediated by a non-canonic core promoter, (TA)(6). Nucleotide sequences 5' of this element only marginally affect transcription suggesting that promoter activation can dispense with transactivators and essentially involves basal transcription. We show that the core promoter of AKY2 is constitutively kept free of nucleosomes. Analyses of permutated AKY2 promoter DNA revealed the presence of bent DNA. DNA structure analysis by computer and by mutation identified two kinks flanking an interstitial stretch of 65 bp of moderately bent core promoter DNA. Kinked DNA is likely incompatible with packaging into nucleosomes and responsible for positioning nucleosomes at the flanks allowing unimpeded access of the basal transcription machinery to the core promoter. The data show that in yeast, constitutive gene expression can dispense with classical transcriptional activator proteins, if two prerequisites are met: (i) the core promoter is kept free of nucleosomes; this can be due to structural properties of the DNA as an alternative to chromatin remodeling factors; and (ii) the core promoter is pre-bent to allow a high rate of basal transcription initiation.

  5. Transcription in archaea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyrpides, N. C.; Ouzounis, C. A.; Woese, C. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Using the sequences of all the known transcription-associated proteins from Bacteria and Eucarya (a total of 4,147), we have identified their homologous counterparts in the four complete archaeal genomes. Through extensive sequence comparisons, we establish the presence of 280 predicted transcription factors or transcription-associated proteins in the four archaeal genomes, of which 168 have homologs only in Bacteria, 51 have homologs only in Eucarya, and the remaining 61 have homologs in both phylogenetic domains. Although bacterial and eukaryotic transcription have very few factors in common, each exclusively shares a significantly greater number with the Archaea, especially the Bacteria. This last fact contrasts with the obvious close relationship between the archaeal and eukaryotic transcription mechanisms per se, and in particular, basic transcription initiation. We interpret these results to mean that the archaeal transcription system has retained more ancestral characteristics than have the transcription mechanisms in either of the other two domains.

  6. Transcription in archaea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyrpides, N. C.; Ouzounis, C. A.; Woese, C. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Using the sequences of all the known transcription-associated proteins from Bacteria and Eucarya (a total of 4,147), we have identified their homologous counterparts in the four complete archaeal genomes. Through extensive sequence comparisons, we establish the presence of 280 predicted transcription factors or transcription-associated proteins in the four archaeal genomes, of which 168 have homologs only in Bacteria, 51 have homologs only in Eucarya, and the remaining 61 have homologs in both phylogenetic domains. Although bacterial and eukaryotic transcription have very few factors in common, each exclusively shares a significantly greater number with the Archaea, especially the Bacteria. This last fact contrasts with the obvious close relationship between the archaeal and eukaryotic transcription mechanisms per se, and in particular, basic transcription initiation. We interpret these results to mean that the archaeal transcription system has retained more ancestral characteristics than have the transcription mechanisms in either of the other two domains.

  7. The nucleotide sequence of the putative transcription initiation site of a cloned ribosomal RNA gene of the mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Urano, Y; Kominami, R; Mishima, Y; Muramatsu, M

    1980-01-01

    Approximately one kilobase pairs surrounding and upstream the transcription initiation site of a cloned ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of the mouse were sequenced. The putative transcription initiation site was determined by two independent methods: one nuclease S1 protection and the other reverse transcriptase elongation mapping using isolated 45S ribosomal RNA precursor (45S RNA) and appropriate restriction fragments of rDNA. Both methods gave an identical result; 45S RNA had a structure starting from ACTCTTAG---. Characteristically, mouse rDNA had many T clusters (greater than or equal to 5) upstream the initiation site, the longest being 21 consecutive T's. A pentadecanucleotide, TGCCTCCCGAGTGCA, appeared twice within 260 nucleotides upstream the putative initiation site. No such characteristic sequences were found downstream this site. Little similarity was found in the upstream of the transcription initiation site between the mouse, Xenopus laevis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae rDNA. Images PMID:6162156

  8. Effects of single-base substitutions within the acanthamoeba castellanii rRNA promoter on transcription and on binding of transcription initiation factor and RNA polymerase I

    SciTech Connect

    Kownin, P.; Bateman, E.; Paule, M.R.

    1988-02-01

    Single-point mutations were introduced into the promoter region of the Acanthamoeba castellanii rRNA gene by chemical mutagen treatment of a single-stranded clone in vitro, followed by reverse transcription and cloning of the altered fragment. The promoter mutants were tested for transcription initiation factor (TIF) binding by a template commitment assay plus DNase I footprinting and for transcription by an in vitro runoff assay. Point mutations within the previously identified TIF interaction region (between -20 and -47, motifs A and B) indicated that TIF interacts most strongly with a sequence centered at -29 and less tightly with sequences upstream and downstream. Some alterations of the base sequence closer to the transcription start site (and outside the TIF-protected site) also significantly decrease specific RNA synthesis in vitro. These were within the region which is protected from DNAse I digestion by polymerase I, but these mutations did not detectably affect the binding of polymerase to the promoter.

  9. Initial bacterial deposition on bare and zeolite-coated aluminum alloy and stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gexin; Beving, Derek E; Bedi, Rajwant S; Yan, Yushan S; Walker, Sharon L

    2009-02-03

    In this study, the impact of zeolite thin film coatings on bacterial deposition and "biofouling" of surfaces has been investigated in an aqueous environment. The synthesis of two types of zeolite coatings, ZSM-5 coated on aluminum alloy and zeolite A coated on stainless steel, and the characterization of the coated and bare metal surfaces are described. The extent of cell deposition onto the bare and zeolite-coated aluminum alloy and stainless steel surfaces is investigated in a parallel plate flow chamber system under a laminar flow conditions. The initial rates of bacterial transfer to the various surfaces are compared by utilizing a marine bacterium, Halomonas pacifica g, under a range of ionic strength conditions. H. pacifica g deposited onto bare metal surfaces to a greater extent as compared with cells deposited onto the zeolite coatings. The surface properties found to have the most notable effect on attachment are the electrokinetic and hydrophobicity properties of the metal and zeolite-coated surfaces. These results suggest that a combination of two chemical mechanisms-hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions-contribute to the antifouling nature of the zeolite surface. Additional observations on the relative role of the hydrodynamic and physical phenomena are also discussed.

  10. Transcription initiation factor IID-interactive histone chaperone CIA-II implicated in mammalian spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Umehara, Takashi; Horikoshi, Masami

    2003-09-12

    Histones are thought to have specific roles in mammalian spermatogenesis, because several subtypes of histones emerge that are post-translationally modified during spermatogenesis. Though regular assembly of nucleosome is guaranteed by histone chaperones, their involvement in spermatogenesis is yet to be characterized. Here we identified a histone chaperone-related factor, which we designated as CCG1-interacting factor A-II (CIA-II), through interaction with bromodomains of TAFII250/CCG1, which is the largest subunit of human transcription initiation factor IID (TFIID). We found that human CIA-II (hCIA-II) localizes in HeLa nuclei and is highly expressed in testis and other proliferating cell-containing tissues. Expression of mouse CIA-II (mCIA-II) does not occur in the germ cell-lacking testes of adult WBB6F1-W/Wv mutant mice, indicating its expression in testis to be specific to germ cells. Fractionation of testicular germ cells revealed that mCIA-II transcripts accumulate in pachytene spermatocytes but not in spermatids. In addition, the mCIA-II transcripts in testis were present as early as 4 days after birth and decreased at 56 days after birth. These findings indicate that mCIA-II expression in testis is restricted to premeiotic to meiotic stages during spermatogenesis. Also, we found that hCIA-II interacts with histone H3 in vivo and with histones H3/H4 in vitro and that it facilitates supercoiling of circular DNA when it is incubated with core histones and topoisomerase I in vitro. These data suggest that CIA-II is a histone chaperone and is implicated in the regulation of mammalian spermatogenesis.

  11. Pituitary adenoma apoplexy with initial presentation mimicking bacterial meningoencephalitis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Yi; Chien, Yu-Yi; Wu, Chia-Lun; Weng, Wei-Chieh; Peng, Tsung-I; Chen, Hsien-Chih

    2009-05-01

    Pituitary apoplexy is a rare but life-threatening disorder. Clinical presentation of this condition includes severe headache, impaired consciousness, fever, visual disturbance, and variable ocular paresis. Signs of meningeal irritation are very rare. However, if present and associated with headache, fever, and pleocytosis, meningeal irritation may lead to misinterpretation as infectious meningoencephalitis. To the best of our knowledge, pituitary apoplexy with an initial presentation mimicking infectious meningoencephalitis had rarely been reported in the literature. Here, we report a 57-year-old man who had acute severe headache, high fever, neck stiffness, disturbance in consciousness, and left ocular paresis. Laboratory data showed leukocytosis, an elevated C-reactive protein level, and neutrophilic pleocytosis in the cerebrospinal fluid. Because bacterial meningoencephalitis was suspected, empiric antibiotic therapy was administered but in vain. Further examinations indicated a diagnosis of pituitary adenoma with apoplexy. After the immediate administration of intravenous corticosteroid supplement and surgical decompression, the patient recovered.

  12. Direct ultrasensitive electrochemical biosensing of pathogenic DNA using homogeneous target-initiated transcription amplification

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yurong; Ding, Shijia; Zhao, Dan; Yuan, Rui; Zhang, Yuhong; Cheng, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Sensitive and specific methodologies for detection of pathogenic gene at the point-of-care are still urgent demands in rapid diagnosis of infectious diseases. This work develops a simple and pragmatic electrochemical biosensing strategy for ultrasensitive and specific detection of pathogenic nucleic acids directly by integrating homogeneous target-initiated transcription amplification (HTITA) with interfacial sensing process in single analysis system. The homogeneous recognition and specific binding of target DNA with the designed hairpin probe triggered circular primer extension reaction to form DNA double-strands which contained T7 RNA polymerase promoter and served as templates for in vitro transcription amplification. The HTITA protocol resulted in numerous single-stranded RNA products which could synchronously hybridized with the detection probes and immobilized capture probes for enzyme-amplified electrochemical detection on the biosensor surface. The proposed electrochemical biosensing strategy showed very high sensitivity and selectivity for target DNA with a dynamic response range from 1 fM to 100 pM. Using salmonella as a model, the established strategy was successfully applied to directly detect invA gene from genomic DNA extract. This proposed strategy presented a simple, pragmatic platform toward ultrasensitive nucleic acids detection and would become a versatile and powerful tool for point-of-care pathogen identification. PMID:26729209

  13. Structural insights into the mycobacteria transcription initiation complex from analysis of X-ray crystal structures

    DOE PAGES

    Hubin, Elizabeth A.; Lilic, Mirjana; Darst, Seth A.; ...

    2017-07-13

    The mycobacteria RNA polymerase (RNAP) is a target for antimicrobials against tuberculosis, motivating structure/function studies. Here we report a 3.2 Å-resolution crystal structure of a Mycobacterium smegmatis (Msm) open promoter complex (RPo), along with structural analysis of the Msm RPo and a previously reported 2.76 Å-resolution crystal structure of an Msm transcription initiation complex with a promoter DNA fragment. We observe the interaction of the Msm RNAP α-subunit C-terminal domain (αCTD) with DNA, and we provide evidence that the a CTD may play a role in Mtb transcription regulation. Here, our results reveal the structure of an Actinobacteria-unique insert ofmore » the RNAP β' subunit. Finally, our analysis reveals the disposition of the N-terminal segment of Msm σA, which may comprise an intrinsically disordered protein domain unique to mycobacteria. The clade-specific features of the mycobacteria RNAP provide clues to the profound instability of mycobacteria RPo compared with E. coli.« less

  14. Direct ultrasensitive electrochemical biosensing of pathogenic DNA using homogeneous target-initiated transcription amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yurong; Ding, Shijia; Zhao, Dan; Yuan, Rui; Zhang, Yuhong; Cheng, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Sensitive and specific methodologies for detection of pathogenic gene at the point-of-care are still urgent demands in rapid diagnosis of infectious diseases. This work develops a simple and pragmatic electrochemical biosensing strategy for ultrasensitive and specific detection of pathogenic nucleic acids directly by integrating homogeneous target-initiated transcription amplification (HTITA) with interfacial sensing process in single analysis system. The homogeneous recognition and specific binding of target DNA with the designed hairpin probe triggered circular primer extension reaction to form DNA double-strands which contained T7 RNA polymerase promoter and served as templates for in vitro transcription amplification. The HTITA protocol resulted in numerous single-stranded RNA products which could synchronously hybridized with the detection probes and immobilized capture probes for enzyme-amplified electrochemical detection on the biosensor surface. The proposed electrochemical biosensing strategy showed very high sensitivity and selectivity for target DNA with a dynamic response range from 1 fM to 100 pM. Using salmonella as a model, the established strategy was successfully applied to directly detect invA gene from genomic DNA extract. This proposed strategy presented a simple, pragmatic platform toward ultrasensitive nucleic acids detection and would become a versatile and powerful tool for point-of-care pathogen identification.

  15. Identification of the transcriptional initiation site of ribosomal RNA genes in the crustacean Artemia.

    PubMed Central

    Gil, I; Gallego, M E; Renart, J; Cruces, J

    1987-01-01

    The proximal part of the Intergenic Spacer, as well as most of the External Transcribed Spacer of the ribosomal RNA type I genes from the crustacean Artemia have been sequenced. We have identified in the Intergenic Spacer five repeats of around 600 bp in length and, possibly, two imperfect or truncated repeats, derived from the principal ones. These sequences are separated by 485 bp from the 17S rRNA coding sequence. We have also identified the start point of transcription by S1 nuclease analysis. This start point is found 248 bp inside the first repeat. The sequence around the start point shows homology with that described for other members of the same phylum, mostly insects. The most conserved regions are from -1 to +25, and the G residue at position -16. At least the three 600-bp repeats upstream from that containing the promoter also contain the start point sequence, and could therefore act as initiation sites for snPIRNA and/or as enhancer sequences for ribosomal RNA gene transcription. Images PMID:3627976

  16. Three-dimensional EM Structure of an Intact Activator-dependent Transcription Initiation Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, B.; Quispe, J; Lara-González, S; Kim, Y; Berman, H; Arnold, E; Ebright, R; Lawson, C

    2009-01-01

    We present the experimentally determined 3D structure of an intact activator-dependent transcription initiation complex comprising the Escherichia coli catabolite activator protein (CAP), RNA polymerase holoenzyme (RNAP), and a DNA fragment containing positions -78 to +20 of a Class I CAP-dependent promoter with a CAP site at position -61.5 and a premelted transcription bubble. A 20-{angstrom} electron microscopy reconstruction was obtained by iterative projection-based matching of single particles visualized in carbon-sandwich negative stain and was fitted using atomic coordinate sets for CAP, RNAP, and DNA. The structure defines the organization of a Class I CAP-RNAP-promoter complex and supports previously proposed interactions of CAP with RNAP {alpha} subunit C-terminal domain ({alpha}CTD), interactions of {alpha}CTD with {sigma}70 region 4, interactions of CAP and RNAP with promoter DNA, and phased-DNA-bend-dependent partial wrapping of DNA around the complex. The structure also reveals the positions and shapes of species-specific domains within the RNAP {beta}{prime}, {beta}, and {sigma}70 subunits.

  17. Early Canine Plaque Biofilms: Characterization of Key Bacterial Interactions Involved in Initial Colonization of Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Holcombe, Lucy J.; Patel, Niran; Colyer, Alison; Deusch, Oliver; O’Flynn, Ciaran; Harris, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Periodontal disease (PD) is a significant problem in dogs affecting between 44% and 63.6% of the population. The main etiological agent for PD is plaque, a microbial biofilm that colonizes teeth and causes inflammation of the gingiva. Understanding how this biofilm initiates on the tooth surface is of central importance in developing interventions against PD. Although the stages of plaque development on human teeth have been well characterized little is known about how canine plaque develops. Recent studies of the canine oral microbiome have revealed distinct differences between the canine and human oral environments and the bacterial communities they support, particularly with respect to healthy plaque. These differences mean knowledge about the nature of plaque formation in humans may not be directly translatable to dogs. The aim of this study was to identify the bacterial species important in the early stages of canine plaque formation in vivo and then use isolates of these species in a laboratory biofilm model to develop an understanding of the sequential processes which take place during the initial colonization of enamel. Supra-gingival plaque samples were collected from 12 dogs at 24 and 48 hour time points following a full mouth descale and polish. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rDNA identified 134 operational taxonomic units after statistical analysis. The species with the highest relative abundance were Bergeyella zoohelcum, Neisseria shayeganii and a Moraxella species. Streptococcal species, which tend to dominate early human plaque biofilms, had very low relative abundance. In vitro testing of biofilm formation identified five primary colonizer species, three of which belonged to the genus Neisseria. Using these pioneer bacteria as a starting point, viable two and three species communities were developed. Combining in vivo and in vitro data has led us to construct novel models of how the early canine plaque biofilm develops. PMID:25463050

  18. Early canine plaque biofilms: characterization of key bacterial interactions involved in initial colonization of enamel.

    PubMed

    Holcombe, Lucy J; Patel, Niran; Colyer, Alison; Deusch, Oliver; O'Flynn, Ciaran; Harris, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Periodontal disease (PD) is a significant problem in dogs affecting between 44% and 63.6% of the population. The main etiological agent for PD is plaque, a microbial biofilm that colonizes teeth and causes inflammation of the gingiva. Understanding how this biofilm initiates on the tooth surface is of central importance in developing interventions against PD. Although the stages of plaque development on human teeth have been well characterized little is known about how canine plaque develops. Recent studies of the canine oral microbiome have revealed distinct differences between the canine and human oral environments and the bacterial communities they support, particularly with respect to healthy plaque. These differences mean knowledge about the nature of plaque formation in humans may not be directly translatable to dogs. The aim of this study was to identify the bacterial species important in the early stages of canine plaque formation in vivo and then use isolates of these species in a laboratory biofilm model to develop an understanding of the sequential processes which take place during the initial colonization of enamel. Supra-gingival plaque samples were collected from 12 dogs at 24 and 48 hour time points following a full mouth descale and polish. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rDNA identified 134 operational taxonomic units after statistical analysis. The species with the highest relative abundance were Bergeyella zoohelcum, Neisseria shayeganii and a Moraxella species. Streptococcal species, which tend to dominate early human plaque biofilms, had very low relative abundance. In vitro testing of biofilm formation identified five primary colonizer species, three of which belonged to the genus Neisseria. Using these pioneer bacteria as a starting point, viable two and three species communities were developed. Combining in vivo and in vitro data has led us to construct novel models of how the early canine plaque biofilm develops.

  19. Pioneer Transcription Factors Target Partial DNA Motifs on Nucleosomes to Initiate Reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Soufi, Abdenour; Garcia, Meilin Fernandez; Jaroszewicz, Artur; Osman, Nebiyu; Pellegrini, Matteo; Zaret, Kenneth S.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Pioneer transcription factors (TFs) access silent chromatin and initiate cell fate changes, using diverse types of DNA binding domains (DBDs). FoxA, the paradigm pioneer TF, has a winged helix DBD that resembles linker histone and thereby binds its target sites on nucleosomes and in compacted chromatin. Herein we compare the nucleosome and chromatin targeting activities of Oct4 (POU DBD), Sox2 (HMG box DBD), Klf4 (zinc finger DBD), and c-Myc (bHLH DBD), which together reprogram somatic cells to pluripotency. Purified Oct4, Sox2, and Klf4 proteins can bind nucleosomes in vitro, and in vivo they preferentially target silent sites enriched for nucleosomes. Pioneer activity relates simply to the ability of a given DBD to target partial motifs displayed on the nucleosome surface. Such partial motif recognition can occur by coordinate binding between factors. Our findings provide insight into how pioneer factors can target naïve chromatin sites. PMID:25892221

  20. Defective transcription initiation causes postnatal growth failure in a mouse model of nucleotide excision repair (NER) progeria.

    PubMed

    Kamileri, Irene; Karakasilioti, Ismene; Sideri, Aria; Kosteas, Theodoros; Tatarakis, Antonis; Talianidis, Iannis; Garinis, George A

    2012-02-21

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) defects are associated with cancer, developmental disorders and neurodegeneration. However, with the exception of cancer, the links between defects in NER and developmental abnormalities are not well understood. Here, we show that the ERCC1-XPF NER endonuclease assembles on active promoters in vivo and facilitates chromatin modifications for transcription during mammalian development. We find that Ercc1(-/-) mice demonstrate striking physiological, metabolic and gene expression parallels with Taf10(-/-) animals carrying a liver-specific transcription factor II D (TFIID) defect in transcription initiation. Promoter occupancy studies combined with expression profiling in the liver and in vitro differentiation cell assays reveal that ERCC1-XPF interacts with TFIID and assembles with POL II and the basal transcription machinery on promoters in vivo. Whereas ERCC1-XPF is required for the initial activation of genes associated with growth, it is dispensable for ongoing transcription. Recruitment of ERCC1-XPF on promoters is accompanied by promoter-proximal DNA demethylation and histone marks associated with active hepatic transcription. Collectively, the data unveil a role of ERCC1/XPF endonuclease in transcription initiation establishing its causal contribution to NER developmental disorders.

  1. Kinetics of transcription initiation directed by multiple cis-regulatory elements on the glnAp2 promoter.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaolai; Liu, Feng; Wang, Wei

    2016-12-15

    Transcription initiation is orchestrated by dynamic molecular interactions, with kinetic steps difficult to detect. Utilizing a hybrid method, we aim to unravel essential kinetic steps of transcriptional regulation on the glnAp2 promoter, whose regulatory region includes two enhancers (sites I and II) and three low-affinity sequences (sites III-V), to which the transcriptional activator NtrC binds. By structure reconstruction, we analyze all possible organization architectures of the transcription apparatus (TA). The main regulatory mode involves two NtrC hexamers: one at enhancer II transiently associates with site V such that the other at enhancer I can rapidly approach and catalyze the σ(54)-RNA polymerase holoenzyme. We build a kinetic model characterizing essential steps of the TA operation; with the known kinetics of the holoenzyme interacting with DNA, this model enables the kinetics beyond technical detection to be determined by fitting the input-output function of the wild-type promoter. The model further quantitatively reproduces transcriptional activities of various mutated promoters. These results reveal different roles played by two enhancers and interpret why the low-affinity elements conditionally enhance or repress transcription. This work presents an integrated dynamic picture of regulated transcription initiation and suggests an evolutionarily conserved characteristic guaranteeing reliable transcriptional response to regulatory signals. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  2. Kinetics of transcription initiation directed by multiple cis-regulatory elements on the glnAp2 promoter

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yaolai; Liu, Feng; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Transcription initiation is orchestrated by dynamic molecular interactions, with kinetic steps difficult to detect. Utilizing a hybrid method, we aim to unravel essential kinetic steps of transcriptional regulation on the glnAp2 promoter, whose regulatory region includes two enhancers (sites I and II) and three low-affinity sequences (sites III-V), to which the transcriptional activator NtrC binds. By structure reconstruction, we analyze all possible organization architectures of the transcription apparatus (TA). The main regulatory mode involves two NtrC hexamers: one at enhancer II transiently associates with site V such that the other at enhancer I can rapidly approach and catalyze the σ54-RNA polymerase holoenzyme. We build a kinetic model characterizing essential steps of the TA operation; with the known kinetics of the holoenzyme interacting with DNA, this model enables the kinetics beyond technical detection to be determined by fitting the input-output function of the wild-type promoter. The model further quantitatively reproduces transcriptional activities of various mutated promoters. These results reveal different roles played by two enhancers and interpret why the low-affinity elements conditionally enhance or repress transcription. This work presents an integrated dynamic picture of regulated transcription initiation and suggests an evolutionarily conserved characteristic guaranteeing reliable transcriptional response to regulatory signals. PMID:27899598

  3. Transcription Factor Interplay between LEAFY and APETALA1/CAULIFLOWER during Floral Initiation.

    PubMed

    Goslin, Kevin; Zheng, Beibei; Serrano-Mislata, Antonio; Rae, Liina; Ryan, Patrick T; Kwaśniewska, Kamila; Thomson, Bennett; Ó'Maoiléidigh, Diarmuid S; Madueño, Francisco; Wellmer, Frank; Graciet, Emmanuelle

    2017-06-01

    The transcription factors LEAFY (LFY) and APETALA1 (AP1), together with the AP1 paralog CAULIFLOWER (CAL), control the onset of flower development in a partially redundant manner. This redundancy is thought to be mediated, at least in part, through the regulation of a shared set of target genes. However, whether these genes are independently or cooperatively regulated by LFY and AP1/CAL is currently unknown. To better understand the regulatory relationship between LFY and AP1/CAL and to obtain deeper insights into the control of floral initiation, we monitored the activity of LFY in the absence of AP1/CAL function. We found that the regulation of several known LFY target genes is unaffected by AP1/CAL perturbation, while others appear to require AP1/CAL activity. Furthermore, we obtained evidence that LFY and AP1/CAL control the expression of some genes in an antagonistic manner. Notably, these include key regulators of floral initiation such as TERMINAL FLOWER1 (TFL1), which had been previously reported to be directly repressed by both LFY and AP1. We show here that TFL1 expression is suppressed by AP1 but promoted by LFY. We further demonstrate that LFY has an inhibitory effect on flower formation in the absence of AP1/CAL activity. We propose that LFY and AP1/CAL act as part of an incoherent feed-forward loop, a network motif where two interconnected pathways or transcription factors act in opposite directions on a target gene, to control the establishment of a stable developmental program for the formation of flowers. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Disarming Bacterial Virulence through Chemical Inhibition of the DNA Binding Domain of an AraC-like Transcriptional Activator Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ji; Hocking, Dianna M.; Cheng, Catherine; Dogovski, Con; Perugini, Matthew A.; Holien, Jessica K.; Parker, Michael W.; Hartland, Elizabeth L.; Tauschek, Marija; Robins-Browne, Roy M.

    2013-01-01

    The misuse of antibiotics during past decades has led to pervasive antibiotic resistance in bacteria. Hence, there is an urgent need for the development of new and alternative approaches to combat bacterial infections. In most bacterial pathogens the expression of virulence is tightly regulated at the transcriptional level. Therefore, targeting pathogens with drugs that interfere with virulence gene expression offers an effective alternative to conventional antimicrobial chemotherapy. Many Gram-negative intestinal pathogens produce AraC-like proteins that control the expression of genes required for infection. In this study we investigated the prototypical AraC-like virulence regulator, RegA, from the mouse attaching and effacing pathogen, Citrobacter rodentium, as a potential drug target. By screening a small molecule chemical library and chemical optimization, we identified two compounds that specifically inhibited the ability of RegA to activate its target promoters and thus reduced expression of a number of proteins required for virulence. Biophysical, biochemical, genetic, and computational analyses indicated that the more potent of these two compounds, which we named regacin, disrupts the DNA binding capacity of RegA by interacting with amino acid residues within a conserved region of the DNA binding domain. Oral administration of regacin to mice, commencing 15 min before or 12 h after oral inoculation with C. rodentium, caused highly significant attenuation of intestinal colonization by the mouse pathogen comparable to that of an isogenic regA-deletion mutant. These findings demonstrate that chemical inhibition of the DNA binding domains of transcriptional regulators is a viable strategy for the development of antimicrobial agents that target bacterial pathogens. PMID:24019519

  5. Overexpression of the Eggplant (Solanum melongena) NAC Family Transcription Factor SmNAC Suppresses Resistance to Bacterial Wilt.

    PubMed

    Na, Chen; Shuanghua, Wu; Jinglong, Fu; Bihao, Cao; Jianjun, Lei; Changming, Chen; Jin, Jiang

    2016-08-16

    Bacterial wilt (BW) is a serious disease that affects eggplant (Solanum melongena) production. Although resistance to this disease has been reported, the underlying mechanism is unknown. In this study, we identified a NAC family transcription factor (SmNAC) from eggplant and characterized its expression, its localization at the tissue and subcellular levels, and its role in BW resistance. To this end, transgenic eggplant lines were generated in which the expression of SmNAC was constitutively up regulated or suppressed using RNAi. The results indicated that overexpression of SmNAC decreases resistance to BW. Moreover, SmNAC overexpression resulted in the reduced accumulation of the plant immune signaling molecule salicylic acid (SA) and reduced expression of ICS1 (a gene that encode isochorismate synthase 1, which is involved in SA biosynthesis). We propose that reduced SA content results in increased bacterial wilt susceptibility in the transgenic lines. Our results provide important new insights into the regulatory mechanisms of bacterial wilt resistance in eggplant.

  6. Overexpression of the Eggplant (Solanum melongena) NAC Family Transcription Factor SmNAC Suppresses Resistance to Bacterial Wilt

    PubMed Central

    Na, Chen; Shuanghua, Wu; Jinglong, Fu; Bihao, Cao; Jianjun, Lei; Changming, Chen; Jin, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial wilt (BW) is a serious disease that affects eggplant (Solanum melongena) production. Although resistance to this disease has been reported, the underlying mechanism is unknown. In this study, we identified a NAC family transcription factor (SmNAC) from eggplant and characterized its expression, its localization at the tissue and subcellular levels, and its role in BW resistance. To this end, transgenic eggplant lines were generated in which the expression of SmNAC was constitutively up regulated or suppressed using RNAi. The results indicated that overexpression of SmNAC decreases resistance to BW. Moreover, SmNAC overexpression resulted in the reduced accumulation of the plant immune signaling molecule salicylic acid (SA) and reduced expression of ICS1 (a gene that encode isochorismate synthase 1, which is involved in SA biosynthesis). We propose that reduced SA content results in increased bacterial wilt susceptibility in the transgenic lines. Our results provide important new insights into the regulatory mechanisms of bacterial wilt resistance in eggplant. PMID:27528282

  7. Transcriptional response of honey bee larvae infected with the bacterial pathogen Paenibacillus larvae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    American foulbrood disease of honey bees is caused by the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. Infection occurs per os in larvae and systemic infection requires a breaching of the host peritrophic matrix and midgut epithelium. Genetic variation exists for both bacterial virulence and host resistance, and...

  8. Bacterial infection of osteoblasts induces interleukin-1beta and interleukin-18 transcription but not protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Marriott, Ian; Hughes, Francis M; Bost, Kenneth L

    2002-10-01

    A growing body of evidence has shown that bacterially challenged bone-forming osteoblasts are a significant source of an array of cytokines and chemokines that can support immune responses during bone disease. In the present study, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella, two common pathogens of bone, were investigated for their ability to induce production of two related inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and IL18, in osteoblasts. Cultured mouse osteoblasts were found to respond rapidly to either bacterial challenge by upregulation in the levels of mRNA encoding both IL-1beta and IL-18. Surprisingly, this mRNA expression did not translate into intracellular accumulation of IL-1beta or IL-18 precursor proteins or secretion of mature cytokines, despite the presence of detectable caspase-1 activity in these cells. These studies demonstrate that although osteoblasts can secrete a number of key proinflammatory mediators in response to bacterial pathogens, IL-1beta and IL-18 are not among this number. We suggest that osteoblasts are an unlikely source of these cytokines during the progression of bacterial infection of bone.

  9. Novel functions of thyroid hormone receptor mutants: Beyond nucleus-initiated transcription

    PubMed Central

    Furuya, Fumihiko; Ying, Hao; Zhao, Li; Cheng, Sheue-yann

    2009-01-01

    Study of molecular actions of thyroid hormone receptor β (TRβ) mutants in vivo has been facilitated by creation of a mouse model (TRβPV mouse) that harbors a knockin mutant of TRβ (denoted PV). PV, which was identified in a patient with resistance to thyroid hormone, has lost T3 binding activity and transcription capacity. The striking phenotype of thyroid cancer exhibited by TRβPV/PV mice has allowed the elucidation of novel oncogenic activity of a TRβ mutant (PV) [PAS1]beyond nucleus-initiated transcription. PV was found to physically interact with the regulatory p85α subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) in both the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments. This protein-protein interaction activates the PI3K signaling by increasing phosphorylation of AKT, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and p70S6K. PV, via interaction with p85α, also activates the PI3K-integrin-linked kinase-matrix metalloproteinase-2 signaling pathway in the extra-nuclear compartment. The PV-mediated PI3K activation results in increased cell proliferation, motility, migration, and metastasis. In addition to affecting these membrane-initiated signaling events, PV affects [PAS2]the stability of the pituitary tumor-transforming gene (PTTG) product. PTTG (also known as securin), a critical mitotic checkpoint protein, is physically associated with TRβ or PV in vivo. Concomitant with T3-induced degradation of TRβ, PTTG is degraded by the proteasome machinery, but no such degradation occurs when PTTG is associated with PV. The degradation of PTTG/TRβ is activated by the direct interaction of the T3-bound TRβ with the steroid receptor coactivator-3 (SRC-3) that recruits a proteasome activator (PA28γ). PV that does not bind T3 cannot interact directly with SRC-3/PA28γ to activate proteasome degradation, and the absence of degradation results in an aberrant accumulation of PTTG. The PV-induced failure of timely degradation of PTTG results in mitotic abnormalities. PV, via novel

  10. Temporal Transcriptional Response during Infection of Type II Alveolar Epithelial Cells with Francisella tularensis Live Vaccine Strain (LVS) Supports a General Host Suppression and Bacterial Uptake by Macropinocytosis*

    PubMed Central

    Bradburne, Christopher E.; Verhoeven, Anne B.; Manyam, Ganiraju C.; Chaudhry, Saira A.; Chang, Eddie L.; Thach, Dzung C.; Bailey, Charles L.; van Hoek, Monique L.

    2013-01-01

    Pneumonic tularemia is caused by inhalation of Francisella tularensis, one of the most infectious microbes known. We wanted to study the kinetics of the initial and early interactions between bacterium and host cells in the lung. To do this, we examined the infection of A549 airway epithelial cells with the live vaccine strain (LVS) of F. tularensis. A549 cells were infected and analyzed for global transcriptional response at multiple time points up to 16 h following infection. At 15 min and 2 h, a strong transcriptional response was observed including cytoskeletal rearrangement, intracellular transport, and interferon signaling. However, at later time points (6 and 16 h), very little differential gene expression was observed, indicating a general suppression of the host response consistent with other reported cell lines and murine tissues. Genes for macropinocytosis and actin/cytoskeleton rearrangement were highly up-regulated and common to the 15 min and 2 h time points, suggesting the use of this method for bacterial entry into cells. We demonstrate macropinocytosis through the uptake of FITC-dextran and amiloride inhibition of Francisella LVS uptake. Our results suggest that macropinocytosis is a potential mechanism of intracellular entry by LVS and that the host cell response is suppressed during the first 2–6 h of infection. These results suggest that the attenuated Francisella LVS induces significant host cell signaling at very early time points after the bacteria's interaction with the cell. PMID:23322778

  11. Human cap methyltransferase (RNMT) N-terminal non-catalytic domain mediates recruitment to transcription initiation sites

    PubMed Central

    Aregger, Michael; Cowling, Victoria H.

    2013-01-01

    Gene expression in eukaryotes is dependent on the mRNA methyl cap which mediates mRNA processing and translation initiation. Synthesis of the methyl cap initiates with the addition of 7-methylguanosine to the initiating nucleotide of RNA pol II (polymerase II) transcripts, which occurs predominantly during transcription and in mammals is catalysed by RNGTT (RNA guanylyltransferase and 5′ phosphatase) and RNMT (RNA guanine-7 methyltransferase). RNMT has a methyltransferase domain and an N-terminal domain whose function is unclear; it is conserved in mammals, but not required for cap methyltransferase activity. In the present study we report that the N-terminal domain is necessary and sufficient for RNMT recruitment to transcription initiation sites and that recruitment occurs in a DRB (5,6-dichloro-1-β-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole)-dependent manner. The RNMT-activating subunit, RAM (RNMT-activating miniprotein), is also recruited to transcription initiation sites via an interaction with RNMT. The RNMT N-terminal domain is required for transcript expression, translation and cell proliferation. PMID:23863084

  12. [SWI/SNF Protein Complexes Participate in the Initiation and Elongation Stages of Drosophila hsp70 Gene Transcription].

    PubMed

    Mazina, M Yu; Nikolenko, Yu V; Krasnov, A N; Vorobyeva, N E

    2016-02-01

    The participation of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex in the stimulation of the RNA polymerase II binding to gene promotors was demonstrated in all model eukaryotic organisms. It was shown eight years ago that the SWI/SNF complex influence on transcription is not limited to its role in initiation but also includes participation in elongation and alternative splicing. In the current work, we describe the subunit composition of the SWI/SNF complexes participating in initiation, preparing for the elongation and elongation of hsp70 gene transcription in Drosophila melanogaster. The data reveal the high mobility of the SWI/SNF complex composition during the hsp 70 gene transcription process. We suggest a model describing the process of sequential SWI/SNF complex formation during heat-shock induced transcription of the hsp 70 gene.

  13. Bacterial rRNA-targeted reverse transcription-PCR used to identify pathogens responsible for fever with neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Sachi; Saito, Masahiro; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Asahara, Takashi; Takata, Oto; Fujimura, Junya; Nagata, Satoru; Nomoto, Koji; Shimizu, Toshiaki

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of bacterial rRNA-targeted reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (BrRNA RT-qPCR) assays for identifying the bacterial pathogens that cause fever with neutropenia in pediatric cancer patients, by comparing the bacterial detection rate of this technique with that of blood culture. One milliliter of blood was collected from pediatric patients who developed fever with neutropenia following cancer chemotherapy. BrRNA RT-qPCR was performed using 16 primer sets, each designed for a specific type of bacteria. The entire BrRNA RT-qPCR procedure took less than 5 h. Blood culture was performed at the same time, following the standard institutional procedure. Blood from 13 patients was collected during 23 febrile neutropenic episodes. Of these samples, bacteria were identified in 16 by BrRNA RT-qPCR (69.6%) and in 4 by blood culture (17.4%, P<0.001). In all 4 blood culture-positive samples, BrRNA RT-qPCR detected the same type of bacteria as that identified by culture. In 9 samples, more than 4 types of bacteria were identified simultaneously by BrRNA RT-qPCR, most of which were anaerobic bacteria known to be part of the gut flora. We conclude that BrRNA RT-qPCR could be useful in the diagnosis of fever with neutropenia, given its high bacterial detection rate, short turnaround time, and the small blood sample required compared with the standard blood culture techniques. Our findings also indicate that anaerobic intestinal bacteria, which are difficult to detect by standard culture techniques, may be responsible for some cases of febrile neutropenia.

  14. Sophisticated Regulation of Transcriptional Factors by the Bacterial Phosphoenolpyruvate: Sugar Phosphotransferase System.

    PubMed

    Galinier, Anne; Deutscher, Josef

    2017-03-24

    The phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) is a carbohydrate transport and phosphorylation system present in bacteria of all different phyla and in archaea. It is usually composed of three proteins or protein complexes, enzyme I, HPr, and enzyme II, which are phosphorylated at histidine or cysteine residues. However, in many bacteria, HPr can also be phosphorylated at a serine residue. The PTS not only functions as a carbohydrate transporter but also regulates numerous cellular processes either by phosphorylating its target proteins or by interacting with them in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. The target proteins can be catabolic enzymes, transporters, and signal transduction proteins but are most frequently transcriptional regulators. In this review, we will describe how PTS components interact with or phosphorylate proteins to regulate directly or indirectly the activity of transcriptional repressors, activators, or antiterminators. We will briefly summarize the well-studied mechanism of carbon catabolite repression in firmicutes, where the transcriptional regulator catabolite control protein A needs to interact with seryl-phosphorylated HPr in order to be functional. We will present new results related to transcriptional activators and antiterminators containing specific PTS regulation domains, which are the phosphorylation targets for three different types of PTS components. Moreover, we will discuss how the phosphorylation level of the PTS components precisely regulates the activity of target transcriptional regulators or antiterminators, with or without PTS regulation domain, and how the availability of PTS substrates and thus the metabolic status of the cell are connected with various cellular processes, such as biofilm formation or virulence of certain pathogens.

  15. A cysteine protease (cathepsin Z) from disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus: Genomic characterization and transcriptional profiling during bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Godahewa, G I; Perera, N C N; Lee, Sukkyoung; Kim, Myoung-Jin; Lee, Jehee

    2017-09-05

    Cathepsin Z (CTSZ) is lysosomal cysteine protease of the papain superfamily. It participates in the host immune defense via phagocytosis, signal transduction, cell-cell communication, proliferation, and migration of immune cells such as monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. Hence, CTSZ is also acknowledged as an acute-phase protein in host immunity. In this study, we sought to identify the CTSZ homolog from disk abalone (AbCTSZ) and characterize it at the molecular, genomic, and transcriptional levels. AbCTSZ encodes a protein with 318 amino acids and a molecular mass of 36kDa. The structure of AbCTSZ reveals amino acid sequences that are characteristic of the signal sequence, pro-peptide, peptidase-C1 papain family cysteine protease domain, mini-loop, HIP motif, N-linked glycosylation sites, active sites, and conserved Cys residues. A pairwise comparison revealed that AbCTSZ shared the highest amino acid homology with its molluscan counterpart from Crassostrea gigas. A multiple alignment analysis revealed the conservation of functionally crucial elements of AbCTSZ, and a phylogenetic study further confirmed a proximal evolutionary relationship with its invertebrate counterparts. Further, an analysis of AbCTSZ genomic structure revealed seven exons separated by six introns, which differs from that of its vertebrate counterparts. Quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) detected the transcripts of AbCTSZ in early developmental stages and in eight different tissues. Higher levels of AbCTSZ transcripts were found in trochophore, gill, and hemocytes, highlighting its importance in the early development and immunity of disk abalone. In addition, we found that viable bacteria (Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Listeria monocytogenes) and bacterial lipopolysaccharides significantly modulated AbCTSZ transcription. Collectively, these lines of evidences suggest that AbCTSZ plays an indispensable role in the innate immunity of disk abalone. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier

  16. Caspase 3 from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus): genomic characterization and transcriptional profiling upon bacterial and viral inductions.

    PubMed

    Elvitigala, Don Anushka Sandaruwan; Whang, Ilson; Premachandra, H K A; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Oh, Myung-Joo; Jung, Sung-Ju; Yeo, Sang-Yeob; Lim, Bong-Soo; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Park, Hae-Chul; Lee, Jehee

    2012-07-01

    Caspase 3 is a prominent mediator of apoptosis and participates in the cell death signaling cascade. In this study, caspase 3 was identified (Rbcasp3) and characterized from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus). The full-length cDNA of Rbcasp3 is 2683 bp and contains an open reading frame of 849 bp, which encodes a 283 amino acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of 31.2 kDa and isoelectric point of 6.31. The amino acid sequence resembles the conventional caspase 3 domain architecture, including crucial amino acid residues in the catalytic site and binding pocket. The genomic length of Rbcasp3 is 7529 bp, and encompasses six exons interrupted by five introns. Phylogenetic analysis affirmed that Rbcasp3 represents a complex group in fish that has been shaped by gene duplication and diversification. Many putative transcription factor binding sites were identified in the predicted promoter region of Rbcasp3, including immune factor- and cancer signal-inducible sites. Rbcasp3, excluding the pro-domain, was expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein showed a detectable activity against the mammalian caspase 3/7-specific substrate DEVD-pNA, indicating a functional role in physiology. Quantitative real time PCR assay detected Rbcasp3 expression in all examined tissues, but with high abundance in blood, liver and brain. Transcriptional profiling of rock bream liver tissue revealed that challenge with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) caused prolonged up-regulation of Rbcasp3 mRNA whereas, Edwardsiella tarda (E. tarda) stimulated a late-phase significant transcriptional response. Rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) up-regulated Rbcasp3 transcription significantly at late-phase, however polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) induced Rbcasp3 significantly at early-phase. Our findings suggest that Rbcasp3 functions as a cysteine-aspartate-specific protease and contributes to immune responses against bacterial and viral infections. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All

  17. AF4 uses the SL1 components of RNAP1 machinery to initiate MLL fusion- and AEP-dependent transcription

    PubMed Central

    Okuda, Hiroshi; Kanai, Akinori; Ito, Shinji; Matsui, Hirotaka; Yokoyama, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    Gene rearrangements generate MLL fusion genes, which can lead to aggressive leukemia. In most cases, MLL fuses with a gene encoding a component of the AEP (AF4 family/ENL family/P-TEFb) coactivator complex. MLL–AEP fusion proteins constitutively activate their target genes to immortalize haematopoietic progenitors. Here we show that AEP and MLL–AEP fusion proteins activate transcription through selectivity factor 1 (SL1), a core component of the pre-initiation complex (PIC) of RNA polymerase I (RNAP1). The pSER domain of AF4 family proteins associates with SL1 on chromatin and loads TATA-binding protein (TBP) onto the promoter to initiate RNA polymerase II (RNAP2)-dependent transcription. These results reveal a previously unknown transcription initiation mechanism involving AEP and a role for SL1 as a TBP-loading factor in RNAP2-dependent gene activation. PMID:26593443

  18. Assembly of RNA polymerase II preinitiation complexes before assembly of nucleosomes allows efficient initiation of transcription on nucleosomal templates

    SciTech Connect

    Knezetic, J.A.; Jacob, G.A.; Luse, D.S.

    1988-08-01

    The authors have previously shown that assembly of nucleosomes on the DNA template blocks transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II in vitro. In the studies reported here, they demonstrate that assembly of a complete RNA polymerase II preinitiation complex before nucleosome assembly results in nucleosomal templates which support initiation in vitro as efficiently as naked DNA. Control experiments prove that the observations are not the result of slow displacemnt of nucleosomes by the transcription machinery during chromatin assembly, nor are they an artifact of inefficient nucleosome deposition on templates already bearing an RNA polymerase. Thus, the RNA polymerase II preinitiation complex appears to be resistant to disruption by subsequent nucleosome assembly.

  19. Interactions between Lactobacillus crispatus and Bacterial Vaginosis (BV)-Associated Bacterial Species in Initial Attachment and Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Machado, António; Jefferson, Kimberly Kay; Cerca, Nuno

    2013-01-01

    Certain anaerobic bacterial species tend to predominate the vaginal flora during bacterial vaginosis (BV), with Gardnerella vaginalis being the most common. However, the exact role of G. vaginalis in BV has not yet been determined. The main goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that G. vaginalis is an early colonizer, paving the way for intermediate (e.g., Fusobacterium nucleatum) and late colonizers (e.g., Prevotella bivia). Theoretically, in order to function as an early colonizer, species would need to be able to adhere to vaginal epithelium, even in the presence of vaginal lactobacilli. Therefore, we quantified adherence of G. vaginalis and other BV-associated bacteria to an inert surface pre-coated with Lactobacillus crispatus using a new Peptide Nucleic Acid (PNA) Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) methodology. We found that G. vaginalis had the greatest capacity to adhere in the presence of L. crispatus. Theoretically, an early colonizer would contribute to the adherence and/or growth of additional species, so we next quantified the effect of G. vaginalis biofilms on the adherence and growth of other BV-associated species by quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) technique. Interestingly, G. vaginalis derived a growth benefit from the addition of a second species, regardless of the species. Conversely, G. vaginalis biofilms enhanced the growth of P. bivia, and to a minor extent of F. nucleatum. These results contribute to our understanding of BV biofilm formation and the progression of the disorder. PMID:23739678

  20. RNA secondary structures regulate three steps of Rho-dependent transcription termination within a bacterial mRNA leader.

    PubMed

    Kriner, Michelle A; Groisman, Eduardo A

    2017-01-25

    Transcription termination events in bacteria often require the RNA helicase Rho. Typically, Rho promotes termination at the end of coding sequences, but it can also terminate transcription within leader regions to implement regulatory decisions. Rho-dependent termination requires initial recognition of a Rho utilization (rut) site on a nascent RNA by Rho's primary binding surface. However, it is presently unclear what factors determine the location of transcription termination, how RNA secondary structures influence this process and whether mechanistic differences distinguish constitutive from regulated Rho-dependent terminators. We previously demonstrated that the 5' leader mRNA of the Salmonella corA gene can adopt two mutually exclusive conformations that dictate accessibility of a rut site to Rho. We now report that the corA leader also controls two subsequent steps of Rho-dependent termination. First, the RNA conformation that presents an accessible rut site promotes pausing of RNA polymerase (RNAP) at a single Rho-dependent termination site over 100 nt downstream. Second, an additional RNA stem-loop promotes Rho activity and controls the location at which Rho-dependent termination occurs, despite having no effect on initial Rho binding to the corA leader. Thus, the multi-step nature of Rho-dependent termination may facilitate regulation of a given coding region by multiple cytoplasmic signals. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  1. RNA secondary structures regulate three steps of Rho-dependent transcription termination within a bacterial mRNA leader

    PubMed Central

    Kriner, Michelle A.; Groisman, Eduardo A.

    2017-01-01

    Transcription termination events in bacteria often require the RNA helicase Rho. Typically, Rho promotes termination at the end of coding sequences, but it can also terminate transcription within leader regions to implement regulatory decisions. Rho-dependent termination requires initial recognition of a Rho utilization (rut) site on a nascent RNA by Rho's primary binding surface. However, it is presently unclear what factors determine the location of transcription termination, how RNA secondary structures influence this process and whether mechanistic differences distinguish constitutive from regulated Rho-dependent terminators. We previously demonstrated that the 5′ leader mRNA of the Salmonella corA gene can adopt two mutually exclusive conformations that dictate accessibility of a rut site to Rho. We now report that the corA leader also controls two subsequent steps of Rho-dependent termination. First, the RNA conformation that presents an accessible rut site promotes pausing of RNA polymerase (RNAP) at a single Rho-dependent termination site over 100 nt downstream. Second, an additional RNA stem-loop promotes Rho activity and controls the location at which Rho-dependent termination occurs, despite having no effect on initial Rho binding to the corA leader. Thus, the multi-step nature of Rho-dependent termination may facilitate regulation of a given coding region by multiple cytoplasmic signals. PMID:28123036

  2. A model of membrane contraction predicting initiation and completion of bacterial cell division.

    PubMed

    Dow, Claire E; Rodger, Alison; Roper, David I; van den Berg, Hugo A

    2013-05-01

    Bacterial cell division involves a complex and dynamic sequence of events whereby polymers of the protein FtsZ assemble at the division plane and rearrange to achieve the goal of contracting the cell membrane at the site of cell division, thus dividing the parent cell into two daughter cells. We present a mathematical model (which we refer to as CAM-FF: Critical Accumulation of Membrane-bound FtsZ Fibres) of the assembly of the contractile ring in terms of the accumulation of short linear polymers of FtsZ that associate and dissociate from the cell membrane. In prokaryotes, the biochemical function of FtsZ is thought to underpin the assembly and at least the initial kinetic force of ring contraction. Our model extends earlier work of Surovtsev et al. [PLoS Comput. Biol., 2008, 4, e1000102] by adding (i) the kinetics of FtsZ accumulation on cell membrane anchor proteins and (ii) the physical forces required to deform the cell against its surface tension. Moreover, we provide a more rigorous treatment of intracellular diffusion and we revise some of the model parameter values in light of the experimental evidence now available. We derive a critical contraction parameter which links the chemical population dynamics of membrane-bound FtsZ molecules to the force of contraction. Using this parameter as a tool to predict the ability of the cell to initiate division, we are able to predict the division outcome in cells depleted of key FtsZ-binding proteins.

  3. From Peptide Aptamers to Inhibitors of FUR, Bacterial Transcriptional Regulator of Iron Homeostasis and Virulence.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Sophie; Cissé, Cheickna; Vitale, Sylvia; Ahmadova, Aynur; Degardin, Mélissa; Pérard, Julien; Colas, Pierre; Miras, Roger; Boturyn, Didier; Covès, Jacques; Crouzy, Serge; Michaud-Soret, Isabelle

    2016-09-16

    FUR (Ferric Uptake Regulator) protein is a global transcriptional regulator that senses iron status and controls the expression of genes involved in iron homeostasis, virulence, and oxidative stress. Ubiquitous in Gram-negative bacteria and absent in eukaryotes, FUR is an attractive antivirulence target since the inactivation of the fur gene in various pathogens attenuates their virulence. The characterization of 13-aa-long anti-FUR linear peptides derived from the variable part of the anti-FUR peptide aptamers, that were previously shown to decrease pathogenic E. coli strain virulence in a fly infection model, is described herein. Modeling, docking, and experimental approaches in vitro (activity and interaction assays, mutations) and in cells (yeast two-hybrid assays) were combined to characterize the interactions of the peptides with FUR, and to understand their mechanism of inhibition. As a result, reliable structure models of two peptide-FUR complexes are given. Inhibition sites are mapped in the groove between the two FUR subunits where DNA should also bind. Another peptide behaves differently and interferes with the dimerization itself. These results define these novel small peptide inhibitors as lead compounds for inhibition of the FUR transcription factor.

  4. Modulation of Re-initiation of Measles Virus Transcription at Intergenic Regions by PXD to NTAIL Binding Strength

    PubMed Central

    Hamon, Véronique; Erales, Jenny; Bignon, Christophe; Roche, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Measles virus (MeV) and all Paramyxoviridae members rely on a complex polymerase machinery to ensure viral transcription and replication. Their polymerase associates the phosphoprotein (P) and the L protein that is endowed with all necessary enzymatic activities. To be processive, the polymerase uses as template a nucleocapsid made of genomic RNA entirely wrapped into a continuous oligomer of the nucleoprotein (N). The polymerase enters the nucleocapsid at the 3’end of the genome where are located the promoters for transcription and replication. Transcription of the six genes occurs sequentially. This implies ending and re-initiating mRNA synthesis at each intergenic region (IGR). We explored here to which extent the binding of the X domain of P (XD) to the C-terminal region of the N protein (NTAIL) is involved in maintaining the P/L complex anchored to the nucleocapsid template during the sequential transcription. Amino acid substitutions introduced in the XD-binding site on NTAIL resulted in a wide range of binding affinities as determined by combining protein complementation assays in E. coli and human cells and isothermal titration calorimetry. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed that XD binding to NTAIL involves a complex network of hydrogen bonds, the disruption of which by two individual amino acid substitutions markedly reduced the binding affinity. Using a newly designed, highly sensitive dual-luciferase reporter minigenome assay, the efficiency of re-initiation through the five measles virus IGRs was found to correlate with NTAIL/XD KD. Correlatively, P transcript accumulation rate and F/N transcript ratios from recombinant viruses expressing N variants were also found to correlate with the NTAIL to XD binding strength. Altogether, our data support a key role for XD binding to NTAIL in maintaining proper anchor of the P/L complex thereby ensuring transcription re-initiation at each intergenic region. PMID:27936158

  5. Bovine and human cathelicidin cationic host defense peptides similarly suppress transcriptional responses to bacterial lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Mookherjee, Neeloffer; Wilson, Heather L; Doria, Silvana; Popowych, Yurij; Falsafi, Reza; Yu, Jie Jessie; Li, Yuexin; Veatch, Sarah; Roche, Fiona M; Brown, Kelly L; Brinkman, Fiona S L; Hokamp, Karsten; Potter, Andy; Babiuk, Lorne A; Griebel, Philip J; Hancock, Robert E W

    2006-12-01

    Genomic approaches can be exploited to expose the complexities and conservation of biological systems such as the immune network across various mammalian species. In this study, temporal transcriptional expression profiles were analyzed in human and bovine monocytic cells in response to the TLR-4 agonist, LPS, in the presence or absence of their respective host defense peptides. The cathelicidin peptides, human LL-37 and bovine myeloid antimicrobial peptide-27 (BMAP-27), are homologs, yet they have diverged notably in terms of sequence similarity. In spite of their low sequence similarities, both of these cathelicidin peptides demonstrated potent, antiendotoxin activity in monocytic cells at low, physiologically relevant concentrations. Microarray studies indicated that 10 ng/ml LPS led to the up-regulation of 125 genes in human monocytes, 106 of which were suppressed in the presence of 5 mug/ml of the human peptide LL-37. To confirm and extend these data, temporal transcriptional responses to LPS were assessed in the presence or absence of the species-specific host defense peptides by quantitative real-time PCR. The transcriptional trends of 20 LPS-induced genes were analyzed in bovine and human monocytic cells. These studies demonstrated conserved trends of gene responses in that both peptides were able to profoundly suppress many LPS-induced genes. Consistent with this, the human and bovine peptides suppressed LPS-induced translocation of NF-kappaB subunits p50 and p65 into the nucleus of monocytic cells. However, there were also distinct differences in responses to LPS and the peptides; for example, treatment with 5 mug/ml BMAP-27 alone tended to influence gene expression (RELA, TNF-alpha-induced protein 2, MAPK phosphatase 1/dual specificity phosphatase 1, IkappaBkappaB, NFkappaBIL1, TNF receptor-associated factor 2) to a greater extent than did the same amount of human LL-37. We hypothesize that the immunomodulatory effects of the species-specific host

  6. Structural and functional aspects of winged-helix domains at the core of transcription initiation complexes.

    PubMed

    Teichmann, Martin; Dumay-Odelot, Hélène; Fribourg, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    The winged helix (WH) domain is found in core components of transcription systems in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. It represents a sub-class of the helix-turn-helix motif. The WH domain participates in establishing protein-DNA and protein-protein-interactions. Here, we discuss possible explanations for the enrichment of this motif in transcription systems.

  7. Influence of membrane surface properties on the behavior of initial bacterial adhesion and biofilm development onto nanofiltration membranes.

    PubMed

    Myint, Aye Aye; Lee, Wonil; Mun, Sungmin; Ahn, Chang Hoon; Lee, Seockheon; Yoon, Jeyong

    2010-01-01

    In order to investigate biofouling problems, the fundamental behaviors of initial bacterial adhesion and biofilm development on four different nanofiltration (NF) membranes were evaluated using Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 as a model bacterial strain. Initial cell adhesion was considerably higher on an aromatic polyamide-based NF membrane with a hydrophobic and rough surface, whereas cell aggregation on a polypiperazine-based NF membrane with a relatively hydrophilic and smooth surface was lower. Moreover, significant differences in the structural heterogeneity of the biofilms were observed among the four NF membranes. This study shows that the surface roughness and hydrophobicity of a membrane play an important role in determining initial cell adhesion, aggregation and favorable localization sites for colony formation. In addition, it was found that biofilm development was strongly influenced by the surface morphology of a membrane.

  8. A dinucleotide deletion in the ankyrin promoter alters gene expression, transcription initiation and TFIID complex formation in hereditary spherocytosis.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Patrick G; Nilson, Douglas G; Wong, Clara; Weisbein, Jessica L; Garrett-Beal, Lisa J; Eber, Stephan W; Bodine, David M

    2005-09-01

    Ankyrin defects are the most common cause of hereditary spherocytosis (HS). In some HS patients, mutations in the ankyrin promoter have been hypothesized to lead to decreased ankyrin mRNA synthesis. The ankyrin erythroid promoter is a member of the most common class of mammalian promoters which lack conserved TATA, initiator or other promoter cis elements and have high G+C content, functional Sp1 binding sites and multiple transcription initiation sites. We identified a novel ankyrin gene promoter mutation, a TG deletion adjacent to a transcription initiation site, in a patient with ankyrin-linked HS and analyzed its effects on ankyrin expression. In vitro, the mutant promoter directed decreased levels of gene expression, altered transcription initiation site utilization and exhibited defective binding of TATA-binding protein (TBP) and TFIID complex formation. In a transgenic mouse model, the mutant ankyrin promoter led to abnormalities in gene expression, including decreased expression of a reporter gene and altered transcription initiation site utilization. These data indicate that the mutation alters ankyrin gene transcription and contributes to the HS phenotype by decreasing ankyrin gene synthesis via disruption of TFIID complex interactions with the ankyrin core promoter. These studies support the model that in promoters that lack conserved cis elements, the TFIID complex directs preinitiation complex formation at specific sites in core promoter DNA and provide the first evidence that disruption of TBP binding and TFIID complex formation in this type of promoter leads to alterations in start site utilization, decreased gene expression and a disease phenotype in vivo.

  9. Innate immunity: Bacterial cell-wall muramyl peptide targets the conserved transcription factor YB-1.

    PubMed

    Laman, A G; Lathe, R; Savinov, G V; Shepelyakovskaya, A O; Boziev, Kh M; Baidakova, L K; Chulin, A N; Brovko, F A; Svirshchevskaya, E V; Kotelevtsev, Y; Eliseeva, I A; Guryanov, S G; Lyabin, D N; Ovchinnikov, L P; Ivanov, V T

    2015-07-08

    The bacterial cell wall muramyl dipeptides MDP and glucosaminyl-MDP (GMDP) are powerful immunostimulators but their binding target remains controversial. We previously reported expression cloning of GMDP-binding polypeptides and identification of Y-box protein 1 (YB-1) as their sole target. Here we show specific binding of GMDP to recombinant YB-1 protein and subcellular colocalization of YB-1 and GMDP. GMDP binding to YB-1 upregulated gene expression levels of NF-κB2, a mediator of innate immunity. Furthermore, YB-1 knockdown abolished GMDP-induced Nfkb2 expression. GMDP/YB-1 stimulation led to NF-κB2 cleavage, transport of activated NF-κB2 p52 to the nucleus, and upregulation of NF-κB2-dependent chemokine Cxcr4 gene expression. Therefore, our findings identify YB-1 as new target for muramyl peptide signaling. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Conserved Foot Domain of RNA Pol II Associates with Proteins Involved in Transcriptional Initiation and/or Early Elongation

    PubMed Central

    García-López, M. Carmen; Pelechano, Vicent; Mirón-García, M. Carmen; Garrido-Godino, Ana I.; García, Alicia; Calvo, Olga; Werner, Michel; Pérez-Ortín, José E.; Navarro, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    RNA polymerase (pol) II establishes many protein–protein interactions with transcriptional regulators to coordinate different steps of transcription. Although some of these interactions have been well described, little is known about the existence of RNA pol II regions involved in contact with transcriptional regulators. We hypothesize that conserved regions on the surface of RNA pol II contact transcriptional regulators. We identified such an RNA pol II conserved region that includes the majority of the “foot” domain and identified interactions of this region with Mvp1, a protein required for sorting proteins to the vacuole, and Spo14, a phospholipase D. Deletion of MVP1 and SPO14 affects the transcription of their target genes and increases phosphorylation of Ser5 in the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD). Genetic, phenotypic, and functional analyses point to a role for these proteins in transcriptional initiation and/or early elongation, consistent with their genetic interactions with CEG1, a guanylyltransferase subunit of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae capping enzyme. PMID:21954159

  11. Inhibition of transcription by the Caenorhabditis elegans germline protein PIE-1: genetic evidence for distinct mechanisms targeting initiation and elongation.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Dolan; Seydoux, Geraldine

    2008-01-01

    In Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, specification of the germ lineage depends on PIE-1, a maternal protein that blocks mRNA transcription in germline blastomeres. Studies in mammalian cell culture have suggested that PIE-1 inhibits P-TEFb, a kinase that phosphorylates serine 2 in the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) repeats of RNA polymerase II during transcriptional elongation. We have tested this hypothesis using an in vivo complementation assay for PIE-1 function. Our results support the view that PIE-1 inhibits P-TEFb using the CTD-like motif YAPMAPT. This activity is required to block serine 2 phosphorylation in germline blastomeres, but unexpectedly is not essential for transcriptional repression or specification of the germline. We find that sequences outside of the YAPMAPT are required to inhibit serine 5 phosphorylation, and that this second inhibitory mechanism is essential for transcriptional repression and specification of the germ lineage. Our results suggest that PIE-1 uses partially redundant mechanisms to block transcription by targeting both the initiation and elongation phases of the transcription cycle.

  12. Structure of a bacterial quorum-sensing transcription factor complexed with pheromone and DNA.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, R.; Pappas, T.; Brace, J.; Miller, P.; Oulmassov, T.; Molyneaux, J.; Anderson, J.; Bashkin, J.; Winans, S.; Joachimiak, A.; Biosciences Division; Cornell Univ.; Monsanto Co.

    2002-06-27

    Many proteobacteria are able to monitor their population densities through the release of pheromones known as N-acylhomoserine lactones. At high population densities, these pheromones elicit diverse responses that include bioluminescence, biofilm formation, production of antimicrobials, DNA exchange, pathogenesis and symbiosis1. Many of these regulatory systems require a pheromone-dependent transcription factor similar to the LuxR protein of Vibrio fischeri. Here we present the structure of a LuxR-type protein. TraR of Agrobacterium tumefaciens was solved at 1.66 A as a complex with the pheromone N-3-oxooctanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (OOHL) and its TraR DNA-binding site. The amino-terminal domain of TraR is an {alpha}/{beta}/{alpha} sandwich that binds OOHL, whereas the carboxy-terminal domain contains a helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motif. The TraR dimer displays a two-fold symmetry axis in each domain; however, these two axes of symmetry are at an approximately 90 degree angle, resulting in a pronounced overall asymmetry of the complex. The pheromone lies fully embedded within the protein with virtually no solvent contact, and makes numerous hydrophobic contacts with the protein as well as four hydrogen bonds: three direct and one water-mediated.

  13. Transcription-coupled DNA supercoiling dictates the chromosomal arrangement of bacterial genes.

    PubMed

    Sobetzko, Patrick

    2016-02-29

    Over the recent decade, the central importance of DNA supercoiling in chromosome organization and global gene regulation of bacteria became more and more visible. With a regulon comprising more than 2000 genes in Escherichia coli, DNA supercoiling is among the most influential regulators of gene expression found in bacteria so far. However, the mechanism creating thousands of diverse temporal gene expression patterns coordinated by DNA supercoiling remains unclear. In this study we show that a specific chromosomal arrangement of genes modulates the local levels of DNA supercoiling at gene promoters via transcription-coupled DNA supercoiling (TCDS) in the model organism E. coli. Our findings provide a consistent explanation for the strong positive coupling of temporal gene expression patterns of neighboring genes. Using comparative genomics we are furthermore able to provide evidence that TCDS is a driving force for the evolution of chromosomal gene arrangement patterns in other Enterobacteriaceae. With the currently available data of promoter supercoiling sensitivity we prove that the same principle is applicable also for the evolutionary distant gram-positive pathogenic bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae. Moreover, our findings are fully consistent with recent investigations concerning the regulatory impact of TCDS on gene pairs in eukaryots underpinning the broad applicability of our analysis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  14. SutA is a bacterial transcription factor expressed during slow growth in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Babin, Brett M.; Bergkessel, Megan; Sweredoski, Michael J.; Moradian, Annie; Hess, Sonja; Newman, Dianne K.; Tirrell, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Microbial quiescence and slow growth are ubiquitous physiological states, but their study is complicated by low levels of metabolic activity. To address this issue, we used a time-selective proteome-labeling method [bioorthogonal noncanonical amino acid tagging (BONCAT)] to identify proteins synthesized preferentially, but at extremely low rates, under anaerobic survival conditions by the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. One of these proteins is a transcriptional regulator that has no homology to any characterized protein domains and is posttranscriptionally up-regulated during survival and slow growth. This small, acidic protein associates with RNA polymerase, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by high-throughput sequencing suggests that the protein associates with genomic DNA through this interaction. ChIP signal is found both in promoter regions and throughout the coding sequences of many genes and is particularly enriched at ribosomal protein genes and in the promoter regions of rRNA genes. Deletion of the gene encoding this protein affects expression of these and many other genes and impacts biofilm formation, secondary metabolite production, and fitness in fluctuating conditions. On the basis of these observations, we have designated the protein SutA (survival under transitions A). PMID:26787849

  15. Transcription-coupled DNA supercoiling dictates the chromosomal arrangement of bacterial genes

    PubMed Central

    Sobetzko, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Over the recent decade, the central importance of DNA supercoiling in chromosome organization and global gene regulation of bacteria became more and more visible. With a regulon comprising more than 2000 genes in Escherichia coli, DNA supercoiling is among the most influential regulators of gene expression found in bacteria so far. However, the mechanism creating thousands of diverse temporal gene expression patterns coordinated by DNA supercoiling remains unclear. In this study we show that a specific chromosomal arrangement of genes modulates the local levels of DNA supercoiling at gene promoters via transcription-coupled DNA supercoiling (TCDS) in the model organism E. coli. Our findings provide a consistent explanation for the strong positive coupling of temporal gene expression patterns of neighboring genes. Using comparative genomics we are furthermore able to provide evidence that TCDS is a driving force for the evolution of chromosomal gene arrangement patterns in other Enterobacteriaceae. With the currently available data of promoter supercoiling sensitivity we prove that the same principle is applicable also for the evolutionary distant gram-positive pathogenic bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae. Moreover, our findings are fully consistent with recent investigations concerning the regulatory impact of TCDS on gene pairs in eukaryots underpinning the broad applicability of our analysis. PMID:26783203

  16. Inhibition of Pol I transcription treats murine and human AML by targeting the leukemia-initiating cell population

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nhu-Y N.; Fong, Chun Yew; Sornkom, Jirawas; Wall, Meaghan; Pavy, Megan; Cullinane, Carleen; Diesch, Jeannine; Devlin, Jennifer R.; Sanij, Elaine; Quin, Jaclyn; Poortinga, Gretchen; Verbrugge, Inge; Baker, Adele; Drygin, Denis; Powell, Jason A.; Johnstone, Ricky W.; Guthridge, Mark A.; Wei, Andrew; McArthur, Grant A.; Pearson, Richard B.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the development of novel drugs, the prospects for many patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remain dismal. This study reveals that the selective inhibitor of RNA polymerase I (Pol I) transcription, CX-5461, effectively treats aggressive AML, including mixed-lineage leukemia-driven AML, and outperforms standard chemotherapies. In addition to the previously characterized mechanism of action of CX-5461 (ie, the induction of p53-dependent apoptotic cell death), the inhibition of Pol I transcription also demonstrates potent efficacy in p53null AML in vivo. This significant survival advantage in both p53WT and p53null leukemic mice treated with CX-5461 is associated with activation of the checkpoint kinases 1/2, an aberrant G2/M cell-cycle progression and induction of myeloid differentiation of the leukemic blasts. The ability to target the leukemic-initiating cell population is thought to be essential for lasting therapeutic benefit. Most strikingly, the acute inhibition of Pol I transcription reduces both the leukemic granulocyte-macrophage progenitor and leukemia-initiating cell (LIC) populations, and suppresses their clonogenic capacity. This suggests that dysregulated Pol I transcription is essential for the maintenance of their leukemia-initiating potential. Together, these findings demonstrate the therapeutic utility of this new class of inhibitors to treat highly aggressive AML by targeting LICs. PMID:28283481

  17. Inhibition of Pol I transcription treats murine and human AML by targeting the leukemia-initiating cell population.

    PubMed

    Hein, Nadine; Cameron, Donald P; Hannan, Katherine M; Nguyen, Nhu-Y N; Fong, Chun Yew; Sornkom, Jirawas; Wall, Meaghan; Pavy, Megan; Cullinane, Carleen; Diesch, Jeannine; Devlin, Jennifer R; George, Amee J; Sanij, Elaine; Quin, Jaclyn; Poortinga, Gretchen; Verbrugge, Inge; Baker, Adele; Drygin, Denis; Harrison, Simon J; Rozario, James D; Powell, Jason A; Pitson, Stuart M; Zuber, Johannes; Johnstone, Ricky W; Dawson, Mark A; Guthridge, Mark A; Wei, Andrew; McArthur, Grant A; Pearson, Richard B; Hannan, Ross D

    2017-05-25

    Despite the development of novel drugs, the prospects for many patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remain dismal. This study reveals that the selective inhibitor of RNA polymerase I (Pol I) transcription, CX-5461, effectively treats aggressive AML, including mixed-lineage leukemia-driven AML, and outperforms standard chemotherapies. In addition to the previously characterized mechanism of action of CX-5461 (ie, the induction of p53-dependent apoptotic cell death), the inhibition of Pol I transcription also demonstrates potent efficacy in p53null AML in vivo. This significant survival advantage in both p53WT and p53null leukemic mice treated with CX-5461 is associated with activation of the checkpoint kinases 1/2, an aberrant G2/M cell-cycle progression and induction of myeloid differentiation of the leukemic blasts. The ability to target the leukemic-initiating cell population is thought to be essential for lasting therapeutic benefit. Most strikingly, the acute inhibition of Pol I transcription reduces both the leukemic granulocyte-macrophage progenitor and leukemia-initiating cell (LIC) populations, and suppresses their clonogenic capacity. This suggests that dysregulated Pol I transcription is essential for the maintenance of their leukemia-initiating potential. Together, these findings demonstrate the therapeutic utility of this new class of inhibitors to treat highly aggressive AML by targeting LICs. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  18. Effect of Soil Clay Content on RNA Isolation and on Detection and Quantification of Bacterial Gene Transcripts in Soil by Quantitative Reverse Transcription-PCR ▿†

    PubMed Central

    Novinscak, A.; Filion, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effect of soil clay content on RNA isolation and on quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) quantification of microbial gene transcripts. The amount of clay significantly altered RNA isolation yields and qRT-PCR analyses. Recommendations are made for quantifying microbial gene transcripts in soil samples varying in clay content. PMID:21724880

  19. Genetic and biochemical interactions between the bacterial replication initiator DnaA and the nucleoid-associated protein Rok in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Seid, Charlotte A; Smith, Janet L; Grossman, Alan D

    2017-03-01

    We identified interactions between the conserved bacterial replication initiator and transcription factor DnaA and the nucleoid-associated protein Rok of Bacillus subtilis. DnaA binds directly to clusters of DnaA boxes at the origin of replication and elsewhere, including the promoters of several DnaA-regulated genes. Rok, an analog of H-NS from gamma-proteobacteria that affects chromosome architecture and of Lsr2 from Mycobacteria, binds A+T-rich sequences throughout the genome and represses expression of many genes. Using crosslinking and immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-seq), we found that DnaA was associated with eight previously identified regions containing clusters of DnaA boxes, plus 36 additional regions that were also bound by Rok. Association of DnaA with these additional regions appeared to be indirect as it was dependent on Rok and independent of the DNA-binding domain of DnaA. Gene expression and mutant analyses support a model in which DnaA and Rok cooperate to repress transcription of yxaJ, the yybNM operon and the sunA-bdbB operon. Our results indicate that DnaA modulates the activity of Rok. We postulate that this interaction might affect nucleoid architecture. Furthermore, DnaA might interact similarly with Rok analogues in other organisms.

  20. Impact of wall shear stress on initial bacterial adhesion in rotating annular reactor

    PubMed Central

    Saur, Thibaut; Morin, Emilie; Habouzit, Frédéric; Bernet, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the bacterial adhesion under different wall shear stresses in turbulent flow and using a diverse bacterial consortium. A better understanding of the mechanisms governing microbial adhesion can be useful in diverse domains such as industrial processes, medical fields or environmental biotechnologies. The impact of wall shear stress—four values ranging from 0.09 to 7.3 Pa on polypropylene (PP) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)—was carried out in rotating annular reactors to evaluate the adhesion in terms of morphological and microbiological structures. A diverse inoculum consisting of activated sludge was used. Epifluorescence microscopy was used to quantitatively and qualitatively characterize the adhesion. Attached bacterial communities were assessed by molecular fingerprinting profiles (CE-SSCP). It has been demonstrated that wall shear stress had a strong impact on both quantitative and qualitative aspects of the bacterial adhesion. ANOVA tests also demonstrated the significant impact of wall shear stress on all three tested morphological parameters (surface coverage, number of objects and size of objects) (p-values < 2.10−16). High wall shear stresses increased the quantity of attached bacteria but also altered their spatial distribution on the substratum surface. As the shear increased, aggregates or clusters appeared and their size grew when increasing the shears. Concerning the microbiological composition, the adhered bacterial communities changed gradually with the applied shear. PMID:28207869

  1. Impact of wall shear stress on initial bacterial adhesion in rotating annular reactor.

    PubMed

    Saur, Thibaut; Morin, Emilie; Habouzit, Frédéric; Bernet, Nicolas; Escudié, Renaud

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the bacterial adhesion under different wall shear stresses in turbulent flow and using a diverse bacterial consortium. A better understanding of the mechanisms governing microbial adhesion can be useful in diverse domains such as industrial processes, medical fields or environmental biotechnologies. The impact of wall shear stress-four values ranging from 0.09 to 7.3 Pa on polypropylene (PP) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)-was carried out in rotating annular reactors to evaluate the adhesion in terms of morphological and microbiological structures. A diverse inoculum consisting of activated sludge was used. Epifluorescence microscopy was used to quantitatively and qualitatively characterize the adhesion. Attached bacterial communities were assessed by molecular fingerprinting profiles (CE-SSCP). It has been demonstrated that wall shear stress had a strong impact on both quantitative and qualitative aspects of the bacterial adhesion. ANOVA tests also demonstrated the significant impact of wall shear stress on all three tested morphological parameters (surface coverage, number of objects and size of objects) (p-values < 2.10-16). High wall shear stresses increased the quantity of attached bacteria but also altered their spatial distribution on the substratum surface. As the shear increased, aggregates or clusters appeared and their size grew when increasing the shears. Concerning the microbiological composition, the adhered bacterial communities changed gradually with the applied shear.

  2. Transcription of adenovirus type 2 genes in a cell-free system: apparent heterogeneity of initiation at some promoters.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, D C; Roeder, R G

    1981-01-01

    We examined the transcription of a variety of adenovirus type 2 genes in a cell-free system containing purified ribonucleic acid polymerase II and a crude extract from cultured human cells. The early EIA, EIB, EIII, and EIV genes and the intermediate polypeptide IX gene, all of which contain a recognizable TATAA sequence upstream from the cap site, were actively transcribed in vitro, albeit with apparently different efficiencies, whereas the early EII (map position 74.9) and IVa2 genes, both of which lack a TATAA sequence, were not actively transcribed. A reverse transcriptase-primer extension analysis showed that the 5' ends of the in vitro transcripts were identical to those of the corresponding in vivo ribonucleic acids and that, in those instances where initiation was heterogeneous in vivo, a similar kind of heterogeneity was observed in the cell-free system. Transcription of the polypeptide IX gene indicated that this transcript was not terminated at, or processed to, the polyadenylic acid addition site in vitro. We also failed to observe, using the in vitro system, any indication of transcriptional regulation based on the use of adenovirus type 2-infected cell extracts. Images PMID:9279377

  3. TFIIH with inactive XPD helicase functions in transcription initiation but is defective in DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Winkler, G S; Araújo, S J; Fiedler, U; Vermeulen, W; Coin, F; Egly, J M; Hoeijmakers, J H; Wood, R D; Timmers, H T; Weeda, G

    2000-02-11

    TFIIH is a multisubunit protein complex involved in RNA polymerase II transcription and nucleotide excision repair, which removes a wide variety of DNA lesions including UV-induced photoproducts. Mutations in the DNA-dependent ATPase/helicase subunits of TFIIH, XPB and XPD, are associated with three inherited syndromes as follows: xeroderma pigmentosum with or without Cockayne syndrome and trichothiodystrophy. By using epitope-tagged XPD we purified mammalian TFIIH carrying a wild type or an active-site mutant XPD subunit. Contrary to XPB, XPD helicase activity was dispensable for in vitro transcription, catalytic formation of trinucleotide transcripts, and promoter opening. Moreover, in contrast to XPB, microinjection of mutant XPD cDNA did not interfere with in vivo transcription. These data show directly that XPD activity is not required for transcription. However, during DNA repair, neither 5' nor 3' incisions in defined positions around a DNA adduct were detected in the presence of TFIIH containing inactive XPD, although substantial damage-dependent DNA synthesis was induced by the presence of mutant XPD both in cells and cell extracts. The aberrant damage-dependent DNA synthesis caused by the mutant XPD does not lead to effective repair, consistent with the discrepancy between repair synthesis and survival in cells from a number of XP-D patients.

  4. Initial community and environment determine the response of bacterial communities to dispersant and oil contamination.

    PubMed

    Ortmann, Alice C; Lu, YueHan

    2015-01-15

    Bioremediation of seawater by natural bacterial communities is one potential response to coastal oil spills, but the success of the approach may vary, depending on geographical location, oil composition and the timing of spill. The short term response of coastal bacteria to dispersant, oil and dispersed oil was characterized using 16S rRNA gene tags in two mesocosm experiments conducted two months apart. Despite differences in the amount of oil-derived alkanes across the treatments and experiments, increases in the contributions of hydrocarbon degrading taxa and decreases in common estuarine bacteria were observed in response to dispersant and/or oil. Between the two experiments, the direction and rates of changes in particulate alkane concentrations differed, as did the magnitude of the bacterial response to oil and/or dispersant. Together, our data underscore large variability in bacterial responses to hydrocarbon pollutants, implying that bioremediation success varies with starting biological and environmental conditions.

  5. Nucleosomes inhibit both transcriptional initiation and elongation by RNA polymerase III in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Morse, R H

    1989-01-01

    To examine the effect of nucleosomes on in vitro transcription, purified chicken erythrocyte core histones and plasmid DNA bearing the Xenopus 5S RNA gene were assembled into nucleosomes and used as templates for transcription in a Xenopus oocyte nuclear extract. Plasmids having a nucleosome incorporating a specific region of the gene were selected by treating the reconstituted molecules with restriction endonucleases. In this way, it was shown that a nucleosome on or close to the internal control region of the 5S RNA gene inhibits transcription. Furthermore, experiments with 5S maxigenes showed that RNA polymerase III, in contrast to SP6 RNA polymerase, will not transcribe through a nucleosome in vitro. Images PMID:2792088

  6. Occlusion of the Ribosome Binding Site Connects the Translational Initiation Frequency, mRNA Stability and Premature Transcription Termination.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Mette; Sneppen, Kim; Pedersen, Steen; Mitarai, Namiko

    2017-01-01

    Protein production is controlled by ribosome binding to the messenger RNA (mRNA), quantified in part by the binding affinity between the ribosome and the ribosome binding sequence on the mRNA. Using the E. coli lac operon as model, Ringquist et al. (1992) found a more than 1,000-fold difference in protein yield when varying the Shine-Dalgarno sequence and its distance to the translation start site. Their proposed model accounted for this large variation by only a variation in the binding affinity and the subsequent initiation rate. Here we demonstrate that the decrease in protein yield with weaker ribosome binding sites in addition is caused by a decreased mRNA stability, and by an increased rate of premature transcription termination. Using different ribosome binding site sequences of the E. coli lacZ gene, we found that an approximately 100-fold span in protein expression could be subdivided into three mechanisms that each affected expression 3- to 6-fold. Our experiments is consistent with a two-step ribosome initiation model, in which occlusion of the initial part of the mRNA by a ribosome simultaneously protects the mRNA from both premature transcription termination and degradation: The premature termination we suggest is coupled to the absence of occlusion that allows binding of transcription termination factor, possibly Rho. The mRNA stability is explained by occlusion that prevents binding of the degrading enzymes. In our proposed scenario, a mRNA with lower translation initiation rate would at the same time be "hit" by an increased premature termination and a shorter life-time. Our model further suggests that the transcription from most if not all natural promoters is substantially influenced by premature termination.

  7. Occlusion of the Ribosome Binding Site Connects the Translational Initiation Frequency, mRNA Stability and Premature Transcription Termination

    PubMed Central

    Eriksen, Mette; Sneppen, Kim; Pedersen, Steen; Mitarai, Namiko

    2017-01-01

    Protein production is controlled by ribosome binding to the messenger RNA (mRNA), quantified in part by the binding affinity between the ribosome and the ribosome binding sequence on the mRNA. Using the E. coli lac operon as model, Ringquist et al. (1992) found a more than 1,000-fold difference in protein yield when varying the Shine-Dalgarno sequence and its distance to the translation start site. Their proposed model accounted for this large variation by only a variation in the binding affinity and the subsequent initiation rate. Here we demonstrate that the decrease in protein yield with weaker ribosome binding sites in addition is caused by a decreased mRNA stability, and by an increased rate of premature transcription termination. Using different ribosome binding site sequences of the E. coli lacZ gene, we found that an approximately 100-fold span in protein expression could be subdivided into three mechanisms that each affected expression 3- to 6-fold. Our experiments is consistent with a two-step ribosome initiation model, in which occlusion of the initial part of the mRNA by a ribosome simultaneously protects the mRNA from both premature transcription termination and degradation: The premature termination we suggest is coupled to the absence of occlusion that allows binding of transcription termination factor, possibly Rho. The mRNA stability is explained by occlusion that prevents binding of the degrading enzymes. In our proposed scenario, a mRNA with lower translation initiation rate would at the same time be “hit” by an increased premature termination and a shorter life-time. Our model further suggests that the transcription from most if not all natural promoters is substantially influenced by premature termination. PMID:28382022

  8. TALE-induced bHLH transcription factors that activate a pectate lyase contribute to water soaking in bacterial spot of tomato

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Allison R.; Morbitzer, Robert; Lahaye, Thomas; Staskawicz, Brian J.

    2017-01-01

    AvrHah1 [avirulence (avr) gene homologous to avrBs3 and hax2, no. 1] is a transcription activator-like (TAL) effector (TALE) in Xanthomonas gardneri that induces water-soaked disease lesions on fruits and leaves during bacterial spot of tomato. We observe that water from outside the leaf is drawn into the apoplast in X. gardneri-infected, but not X. gardneriΔavrHah1 (XgΔavrHah1)-infected, plants, conferring a dark, water-soaked appearance. The pull of water can facilitate entry of additional bacterial cells into the apoplast. Comparing the transcriptomes of tomato infected with X. gardneri vs. XgΔavrHah1 revealed the differential up-regulation of two basic helix–loop–helix (bHLH) transcription factors with predicted effector binding elements (EBEs) for AvrHah1. We mined our RNA-sequencing data for differentially up-regulated genes that could be direct targets of the bHLH transcription factors and therefore indirect targets of AvrHah1. We show that two pectin modification genes, a pectate lyase and pectinesterase, are targets of both bHLH transcription factors. Designer TALEs (dTALEs) for the bHLH transcription factors and the pectate lyase, but not for the pectinesterase, complement water soaking when delivered by XgΔavrHah1. By perturbing transcriptional networks and/or modifying the plant cell wall, AvrHah1 may promote water uptake to enhance tissue damage and eventual bacterial egression from the apoplast to the leaf surface. Understanding how disease symptoms develop may be a useful tool for improving the tolerance of crops from damaging disease lesions. PMID:28100489

  9. Quantitative analysis of initial adhesion of bacterial vaginosis-associated anaerobes to ME-180 cells.

    PubMed

    Machado, António; Salgueiro, Débora; Harwich, Michael; Jefferson, Kimberly Kay; Cerca, Nuno

    2013-10-01

    Bacterial vaginosis is the leading vaginal disorder but the transition from health to this dysbiotic condition remains poorly characterized. Our goal was to quantify the ability of BV-associated anaerobes to adhere to epithelial cells in the presence of lactobacilli. Gardnerella vaginalis outcompeted Lactobacillus crispatus and Lactobacillus iners actually enhanced its adherence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Species sorting and neutral processes are both important during the initial assembly of bacterial communities

    PubMed Central

    Langenheder, Silke; Székely, Anna J

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have shown that species sorting, that is, the selection by local environmental conditions is important for the composition and assembly of bacterial communities. On the other hand, there are other studies that could show that bacterial communities are neutrally assembled. In this study, we implemented a microcosm experiment with the aim to determine, at the same time, the importance of species sorting and neutral processes for bacterial community assembly during the colonisation of new, that is, sterile, habitats, by atmospheric bacteria. For this we used outdoor microcosms, which contained sterile medium from three different rock pools representing different environmental conditions, which were seeded by rainwater bacteria. We found some evidence for neutral assembly processes, as almost every 4th taxon growing in the microcosms was also detectable in the rainwater sample irrespective of the medium. Most of these taxa belonged to widespread families with opportunistic growth strategies, such as the Pseudomonadaceae and Comamonadaceae, indicating that neutrally assembled taxa may primarily be generalists. On the other hand, we also found evidence for species sorting, as one out of three media selected a differently composed bacterial community. Species sorting effects were relatively weak and established themselves via differences in relative abundance of generalists among the different media, as well as media-specific occurrences of a few specific taxa. In summary, our results suggest that neutral and species sorting processes interact during the assembly of bacterial communities and that their importance may differ depending on how many generalists and specialists are present in a community. PMID:21270841

  11. Human ribosomal RNA gene: nucleotide sequence of the transcription initiation region and comparison of three mammalian genes.

    PubMed Central

    Financsek, I; Mizumoto, K; Mishima, Y; Muramatsu, M

    1982-01-01

    The transcription initiation site of the human ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) was located by using the single-strand specific nuclease protection method and by determining the first nucleotide of the in vitro capped 45S preribosomal RNA. The sequence of 1,211 nucleotides surrounding the initiation site was determined. The sequenced region was found to consist of 75% G and C and to contain a number of short direct and inverted repeats and palindromes. By comparison of the corresponding initiation regions of three mammalian species, several conserved sequences were found upstream and downstream from the transcription starting point. Two short A + T-rich sequences are present on human, mouse, and rat ribosomal RNA genes between the initiation site and 40 nucleotides upstream, and a C + T cluster is located at a position around -60. At and downstream from the initiation site, a common sequence, T-AG-C-T-G-A-C-A-C-G-C-T-G-T-C-C-T-CT-T, was found in the three genes from position -1 through +18. The strong conservation of these sequences suggests their functional significance in rDNA. The S1 nuclease protection experiments with cloned rDNA fragments indicated the presence in human 45S RNA of molecules several hundred nucleotides shorter than the supposed primary transcript. The first 19 nucleotides of these molecules appear identical--except for one mismatch--to the nucleotide sequence of the 5' end of a supposed early processing product of the mouse 45S RNA. Images PMID:6954460

  12. Contributions of Sinorhizobium meliloti Transcriptional Regulator DksA to Bacterial Growth and Efficient Symbiosis with Medicago sativa.

    PubMed

    Wippel, Kathrin; Long, Sharon R

    2016-05-01

    The stringent response, mediated by the (p)ppGpp synthetase RelA and the RNA polymerase-binding protein DksA, is triggered by limiting nutrient conditions. For some bacteria, it is involved in regulation of virulence. We investigated the role of two DksA-like proteins from the Gram-negative nitrogen-fixing symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti in free-living culture and in interaction with its host plant Medicago sativa The two paralogs, encoded by the genes SMc00469 and SMc00049, differ in the constitution of two major domains required for function in canonical DksA: the DXXDXA motif at the tip of a coiled-coil domain and a zinc finger domain. Using mutant analyses of single, double, and triple deletions for SMc00469(designated dksA),SMc00049, and relA, we found that the ΔdksA mutant but not the ΔSMc00049 mutant showed impaired growth on minimal medium, reduced nodulation on the host plant, and lower nitrogen fixation activity in early nodules, while its nod gene expression was normal. The ΔrelA mutant showed severe pleiotropic phenotypes under all conditions tested. Only S. meliloti dksA complemented the metabolic defects of an Escherichia coli dksA mutant. Modifications of the DXXDXA motif in SMc00049 failed to establish DksA function. Our results imply a role for transcriptional regulator DksA in the S. meliloti-M. sativa symbiosis. The stringent response is a bacterial transcription regulation process triggered upon nutritional stress.Sinorhizobium meliloti, a soil bacterium establishing agriculturally important root nodule symbioses with legume plants, undergoes constant molecular adjustment during host interaction. Analyzing the components of the stringent response in this alphaproteobacterium helps understand molecular control regarding the development of plant interaction. Using mutant analyses, we describe how the lack of DksA influences symbiosis with Medicago sativa and show that a second paralogous S. meliloti protein cannot substitute for this missing

  13. Contributions of Sinorhizobium meliloti Transcriptional Regulator DksA to Bacterial Growth and Efficient Symbiosis with Medicago sativa

    PubMed Central

    Wippel, Kathrin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The stringent response, mediated by the (p)ppGpp synthetase RelA and the RNA polymerase-binding protein DksA, is triggered by limiting nutrient conditions. For some bacteria, it is involved in regulation of virulence. We investigated the role of two DksA-like proteins from the Gram-negative nitrogen-fixing symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti in free-living culture and in interaction with its host plant Medicago sativa. The two paralogs, encoded by the genes SMc00469 and SMc00049, differ in the constitution of two major domains required for function in canonical DksA: the DXXDXA motif at the tip of a coiled-coil domain and a zinc finger domain. Using mutant analyses of single, double, and triple deletions for SMc00469 (designated dksA), SMc00049, and relA, we found that the ΔdksA mutant but not the ΔSMc00049 mutant showed impaired growth on minimal medium, reduced nodulation on the host plant, and lower nitrogen fixation activity in early nodules, while its nod gene expression was normal. The ΔrelA mutant showed severe pleiotropic phenotypes under all conditions tested. Only S. meliloti dksA complemented the metabolic defects of an Escherichia coli dksA mutant. Modifications of the DXXDXA motif in SMc00049 failed to establish DksA function. Our results imply a role for transcriptional regulator DksA in the S. meliloti-M. sativa symbiosis. IMPORTANCE The stringent response is a bacterial transcription regulation process triggered upon nutritional stress. Sinorhizobium meliloti, a soil bacterium establishing agriculturally important root nodule symbioses with legume plants, undergoes constant molecular adjustment during host interaction. Analyzing the components of the stringent response in this alphaproteobacterium helps understand molecular control regarding the development of plant interaction. Using mutant analyses, we describe how the lack of DksA influences symbiosis with Medicago sativa and show that a second paralogous S. meliloti protein cannot

  14. A real-time fluorescence method to monitor the melting of duplex DNA during transcription initiation by RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Matlock, D L; Heyduk, T

    1999-05-15

    The melting of duplex DNA in the vicinity of the transcription start site is an essential step of transcription initiation. Here we describe a fluorescent promoter technique which allows the melting of promoter DNA to be observed in a real-time manner with high sensitivity. We have constructed a 114-bp lacUV5 promoter fragment (-89 to +25) which contains a fluorescence probe in the region between the -10 consensus hexamer and the transcription start site. This region was chosen to incorporate a fluorescence probe as it undergoes strand separation subsequent to binding RNA polymerase (RNAP) (i.e., open complex formation). Upon mixing RNAP and fluorochrome-labeled promoter a time-dependent biphasic change in fluorescence was observed. The second slower component was shown to be due to the open complex by comparing the fluorescence data with the kinetics of open complex formation as measured by using alternative methods of open complex detection. The rate constants for open complex formation and dissociation were determined and found to be in excellent agreement with previously reported values. The techniques presented herein can generally be applied to other systems. Furthermore, this method will serve as an important research tool as well as it could be used in designing high-throughput assays involving transcription complexes. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  15. Evolution at protein ends: major contribution of alternative transcription initiation and termination to the transcriptome and proteome diversity in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Shabalina, Svetlana A.; Ogurtsov, Aleksey Y.; Spiridonov, Nikolay A.; Koonin, Eugene V.

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS), alternative transcription initiation (ATI) and alternative transcription termination (ATT) create the extraordinary complexity of transcriptomes and make key contributions to the structural and functional diversity of mammalian proteomes. Analysis of mammalian genomic and transcriptomic data shows that contrary to the traditional view, the joint contribution of ATI and ATT to the transcriptome and proteome diversity is quantitatively greater than the contribution of AS. Although the mean numbers of protein-coding constitutive and alternative nucleotides in gene loci are nearly identical, their distribution along the transcripts is highly non-uniform. On average, coding exons in the variable 5′ and 3′ transcript ends that are created by ATI and ATT contain approximately four times more alternative nucleotides than core protein-coding regions that diversify exclusively via AS. Short upstream exons that encompass alternative 5′-untranslated regions and N-termini of proteins evolve under strong nucleotide-level selection whereas in 3′-terminal exons that encode protein C-termini, protein-level selection is significantly stronger. The groups of genes that are subject to ATI and ATT show major differences in biological roles, expression and selection patterns. PMID:24792168

  16. Amplification of plasmids containing a mammalian replication initiation region is mediated by controllable conflict between replication and transcription.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Noriaki; Hashizume, Toshihiko; Shingaki, Kenta; Kawamoto, June-ko

    2003-09-01

    We previously showed that plasmids containing both a mammalian replication initiation region and a matrix attachment region were efficiently amplified in human cancer cells and that they were either integrated into preexisting extrachromosomal double minutes (DMs) or induced the generation of a chromosomal homogeneously staining region (HSR). In this article, we elucidated the mechanism by which such plasmids mimic gene amplification. Hybridization experiments using chromatin fiber, metaphase spread, and genomic Southern blot analysis suggested that a circular molecule comprising a plasmid direct repeat was generated initially. Recombination between this molecule and the preexisting DMs led to the apparent stabilization of the plasmid repeat. If the plasmid repeat was integrated into the chromosome, it initiated the breakage-fusion-bridge cycle, which generated HSR. Importantly, we found that HSR formation was blocked by inserting a poly(A) signal or the orientation-specific replication fork barrier downstream of the drug-resistance gene, where the transcription would meet head to head with the supposed replication fork from the initiation region. The matrix attachment region enhanced HSR formation if it was inserted at the same site. These data suggested that strand breakage generated by the conflict between replication and transcription might trigger the breakage-fusion-bridge cycle. This is the first study suggesting that such a conflict leads to genomic instability in higher eukaryotes.

  17. HFR1 sequesters PIF1 to govern the transcriptional network underlying light-initiated seed germination in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hui; Zhong, Shangwei; Mo, Xiaorong; Liu, Na; Nezames, Cynthia D; Deng, Xing Wang

    2013-10-01

    Seed germination is the first step for seed plants to initiate a new life cycle. Light plays a predominant role in promoting seed germination, where the initial phase is mediated by photoreceptor phytochrome B (phyB). Previous studies showed that phytochrome-interacting factor1 (PIF1) represses seed germination downstream of phyB. Here, we identify a positive regulator of phyB-dependent seed germination, long hypocotyl in far-red1 (HFR1). HFR1 blocks PIF1 transcriptional activity by forming a heterodimer with PIF1 that prevents PIF1 from binding to DNA. Our whole-genomic analysis shows that HFR1 and PIF1 oppositely mediate the light-regulated transcriptome in imbibed seeds. Through the HFR1-PIF1 module, light regulates expression of numerous genes involved in cell wall loosening, cell division, and hormone pathways to initiate seed germination. The functionally antagonistic HFR1-PIF1 pair constructs a fail-safe mechanism for fine-tuning seed germination during low-level illumination, ensuring a rapid response to favorable environmental changes. This study identifies the HFR1-PIF1 pair as a central module directing the whole genomic transcriptional network to rapidly initiate light-induced seed germination.

  18. Convergent transcription initiates from oppositely oriented promoters within the 5 prime end regions of Drosophila melanogaster F elements

    SciTech Connect

    Minchiotti, G. ); Di Nocera, P.P. )

    1991-10-01

    Drosophila melanogaster F elements are mobile, oligo(A)-terminated DNA sequences that likely propagate by the retrotranscription of RNA intermediates. Plasmids bearing DNA segments from the left-hand region of a full-length F element fused to the CAT gene were used as templates for transient expression assays in Drosophila Schneider II cultured cells. Protein and RNA analyses led to the identification of two promoters, F{sub in} and F{sub out}, that transcribe in opposite orientations. Analysis of the template activity of 3{prime} deletion derivatives indicates that the level of accumulation of F{sub in}RNA is also dependent upon the presence of sequences located within the +175 to +218 interval. The F{sub out} promoter drives transcription in the opposite orientation with respect to F{sub in}, F{sub out} transcripts initiate at nearby sites within the +92 to +102 interval. Sequences downstream of these multiple RNA start sites are not required for the activity of the F{sub out} promoter. Deletions knocking out the F{sub in} promoter do not impair F{sub out} transcription; conversely, initiation at the F{sub in} promoter still takes place in templates that lack the F{sub out} promoter. At a low level, both promoters are active in cultured cells.

  19. Temperature-Dependent Model of Multi-step Transcription Initiation in Escherichia coli Based on Live Single-Cell Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd-Price, Jason; Tran, Huy; Ribeiro, Andre S.

    2016-01-01

    Transcription kinetics is limited by its initiation steps, which differ between promoters and with intra- and extracellular conditions. Regulation of these steps allows tuning both the rate and stochasticity of RNA production. We used time-lapse, single-RNA microscopy measurements in live Escherichia coli to study how the rate-limiting steps in initiation of the Plac/ara-1 promoter change with temperature and induction scheme. For this, we compared detailed stochastic models fit to the empirical data in maximum likelihood sense using statistical methods. Using this analysis, we found that temperature affects the rate limiting steps unequally, as nonlinear changes in the closed complex formation suffice to explain the differences in transcription dynamics between conditions. Meanwhile, a similar analysis of the PtetA promoter revealed that it has a different rate limiting step configuration, with temperature regulating different steps. Finally, we used the derived models to explore a possible cause for why the identified steps are preferred as the main cause for behavior modifications with temperature: we find that transcription dynamics is either insensitive or responds reciprocally to changes in the other steps. Our results suggests that different promoters employ different rate limiting step patterns that control not only their rate and variability, but also their sensitivity to environmental changes. PMID:27792724

  20. Effect of malathion on the initiation and elongation steps of transcription.

    PubMed

    Walter, Z; Wiszkowska, H

    1990-01-01

    In isolated cell nuclei of pig thymus malathion, S-1,2-bis(ethoxycarbonyl)-ethyl-O,O-dimethyldithiophosphate inhibited both initiation and elongation of all three classes of nuclear RNA polymerases; proflavin was used as an inhibitor of initiation, and actinomycin, as an inhibitor of elongation.

  1. Formation of DNA:RNA hybrid G-quadruplex in bacterial cells and its dominance over the intramolecular DNA G-quadruplex in mediating transcription termination.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ren-yi; Zheng, Ke-wei; Zhang, Jia-yu; Hao, Yu-hua; Tan, Zheng

    2015-02-16

    DNA with four guanine tracts can fold into G-quadruplexes that are targets of transcription regulation. We recently found that hybrid DNA:RNA G-quadruplexes (HQs) can form during in vitro transcription. However, it is unclear whether they can form in cells. Evidence is presented supporting their formation in plasmids in bacterial cells. The formation of the HQs is indicated by a unique pattern of prematurely terminated transcripts under two conditions where the RNA transcripts do or do not participate in G-quadruplex assembly and further supported by a number of chemical and biochemical analysis. HQs dominate over the intramolecular DNA G-quadruplexes (DQ) in mediating the transcription termination when both structures are able to form. These findings provide the first evidence of HQ formation in cells and suggest that the competition/conversion between HQ and DQ may regulate transcription and serve as drug target in pharmaceutical applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. [Similarities in periodical structures in the position of nucleotides in regions of initiation of replication of bacterial genomes].

    PubMed

    Kravatskaia, G I; Frank, G K; Makeev, V Iu; Esipova, N G

    2002-01-01

    The regions of initiation of replication of some bacterial genomes were studied by the method of Fourier matrix analysis. A generalized spectral portrait of the primary structures of E. coli-like regions of initiation of replication in bacteria was obtained, which reflects the features of their structural and functional organization. It contains well-pronounced peaks that correspond to the periods T = 2, 11, 17, 27, 86-105 of nucleotides. The peaks corresponding to T = 9, 13, 14, 18, 19, 33-35, 45-47, 74-85, 106-110 are less pronounced. The uniqueness of the Fourier spectrum corresponding to the region of initiation of replication of E. coli oriC was considered by the example of the complete genome of E. coli. Some regions of the E. coli genome were identified that differ from oriC in the primary structure but have Fourier spectra resembling the spectrum of oriC. A number of these regions are alternative points of initiation of replication in sdrA(rnh) mutants of E. coli, the others are localized in yet unidentified regions of the E. coli genome but are capable, in our opinion, to participate in the initiation of replication. Thus, from the similarity of spectral portraits of different regions of the genome, it was possible to reveal several regions that have similar functions, i.e., are involved in initiation of replication.

  3. Protein Mis-Termination Initiates Genetic Diseases, Cancers, and Restricts Bacterial Genome Expansion.

    PubMed

    Wong, Tit-Yee; Schwartzbach, Steve D

    2015-01-01

    Protein termination is an important cellular process. Protein termination relies on the stop-codons in the mRNA interacting properly with the releasing factors on the ribosome. One third of inherited diseases, including cancers, are associated with the mutation of the stop-codons. Many pathogens and viruses are able to manipulate their stop-codons to express their virulence. The influence of stop-codons is not limited to the primary reading frame of the genes. Stop-codons in the second and third reading frames are referred as premature stop signals (PSC). Stop-codons and PSCs together are collectively referred as stop-signals. The ratios of the stop-signals (referred as translation stop-signals ratio or TSSR) of genetically related bacteria, despite their great differences in gene contents, are much alike. This nearly identical Genomic-TSSR value of genetically related bacteria may suggest that bacterial genome expansion is limited by their unique stop-signals bias. We review the protein termination process and the different types of stop-codon mutation in plants, animals, microbes, and viruses, with special emphasis on the role of PSCs in directing bacterial evolution in their natural environments. Knowing the limit of genomic boundary could facilitate the formulation of new strategies in controlling the spread of diseases and combat antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

  4. Real-time assembly landscape of bacterial 30S translation initiation complex.

    PubMed

    Milón, Pohl; Maracci, Cristina; Filonava, Liudmila; Gualerzi, Claudio O; Rodnina, Marina V

    2012-05-06

    Initiation factors guide the ribosome in the selection of mRNA and translational reading frame. We determined the kinetically favored assembly pathway of the 30S preinitiation complex (30S PIC), an early intermediate in 30S initiation complex formation in Escherichia coli. IF3 and IF2 are the first factors to arrive, forming an unstable 30S-IF2-IF3 complex. Subsequently, IF1 joins and locks the factors in a kinetically stable 30S PIC to which fMet-tRNA(fMet) is recruited. Binding of mRNA is independent of initiation factors and can take place at any time during 30S PIC assembly, depending on the cellular concentration of the mRNA and the structural determinants at the ribosome-binding site. The kinetic analysis shows both specific and cumulative effects of initiation factors as well as kinetic checkpoints of mRNA selection at the entry into translation.

  5. Transcriptional Profiling the 150 kb Linear Megaplasmid of Borrelia turicatae Suggests a Role in Vector Colonization and Initiating Mammalian Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wilder, Hannah K.; Raffel, Sandra J.; Barbour, Alan G.; Porcella, Stephen F.; Sturdevant, Daniel E.; Vaisvil, Benjamin; Kapatral, Vinayak; Schmitt, Daniel P.; Schwan, Tom G.; Lopez, Job E.

    2016-01-01

    Adaptation is key for survival as vector-borne pathogens transmit between the arthropod and vertebrate, and temperature change is an environmental signal inducing alterations in gene expression of tick-borne spirochetes. While plasmids are often associated with adaptation, complex genomes of relapsing fever spirochetes have hindered progress in understanding the mechanisms of vector colonization and transmission. We utilized recent advances in genome sequencing to generate the most complete version of the Borrelia turicatae 150 kb linear megaplasmid (lp150). Additionally, a transcriptional analysis of open reading frames (ORFs) in lp150 was conducted and identified regions that were up-regulated during in vitro cultivation at tick-like growth temperatures (22°C), relative to bacteria grown at 35°C and infected murine blood. Evaluation of the 3’ end of lp150 identified a cluster of ORFs that code for putative surface lipoproteins. With a microbe’s surface proteome serving important roles in pathogenesis, we confirmed the ORFs expression in vitro and in the tick compared to spirochetes infecting murine blood. Transcriptional evaluation of lp150 indicates the plasmid likely has essential roles in vector colonization and/or initiating mammalian infection. These results also provide a much needed transcriptional framework to delineate the molecular mechanisms utilized by relapsing fever spirochetes during their enzootic cycle. PMID:26845332

  6. Inhibition of RNA polymerase I transcription initiation by CX-5461 activates non-canonical ATM/ATR signaling

    PubMed Central

    Quin, Jaclyn; Chan, Keefe T.; Devlin, Jennifer R.; Cameron, Donald P.; Diesch, Jeannine; Cullinane, Carleen; Ahern, Jessica; Khot, Amit; Hein, Nadine; George, Amee J.; Hannan, Katherine M; Poortinga, Gretchen; Sheppard, Karen E.; Khanna, Kum Kum; Johnstone, Ricky W.; Drygin, Denis; McArthur, Grant A.; Pearson, Richard B.

    2016-01-01

    RNA polymerase I (Pol I)-mediated transcription of the ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) is confined to the nucleolus and is a rate-limiting step for cell growth and proliferation. Inhibition of Pol I by CX-5461 can selectively induce p53-mediated apoptosis of tumour cells in vivo. Currently, CX-5461 is in clinical trial for patients with advanced haematological malignancies (Peter Mac, Melbourne). Here we demonstrate that CX-5461 also induces p53-independent cell cycle checkpoints mediated by ATM/ATR signaling in the absence of DNA damage. Further, our data demonstrate that the combination of drugs targeting ATM/ATR signaling and CX-5461 leads to enhanced therapeutic benefit in treating p53-null tumours in vivo, which are normally refractory to each drug alone. Mechanistically, we show that CX-5461 induces an unusual chromatin structure in which transcriptionally competent relaxed rDNA repeats are devoid of transcribing Pol I leading to activation of ATM signaling within the nucleoli. Thus, we propose that acute inhibition of Pol transcription initiation by CX-5461 induces a novel nucleolar stress response that can be targeted to improve therapeutic efficacy. PMID:27391441

  7. Inhibition of RNA polymerase I transcription initiation by CX-5461 activates non-canonical ATM/ATR signaling.

    PubMed

    Quin, Jaclyn; Chan, Keefe T; Devlin, Jennifer R; Cameron, Donald P; Diesch, Jeannine; Cullinane, Carleen; Ahern, Jessica; Khot, Amit; Hein, Nadine; George, Amee J; Hannan, Katherine M; Poortinga, Gretchen; Sheppard, Karen E; Khanna, Kum Kum; Johnstone, Ricky W; Drygin, Denis; McArthur, Grant A; Pearson, Richard B; Sanij, Elaine; Hannan, Ross D

    2016-08-02

    RNA polymerase I (Pol I)-mediated transcription of the ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) is confined to the nucleolus and is a rate-limiting step for cell growth and proliferation. Inhibition of Pol I by CX-5461 can selectively induce p53-mediated apoptosis of tumour cells in vivo. Currently, CX-5461 is in clinical trial for patients with advanced haematological malignancies (Peter Mac, Melbourne). Here we demonstrate that CX-5461 also induces p53-independent cell cycle checkpoints mediated by ATM/ATR signaling in the absence of DNA damage. Further, our data demonstrate that the combination of drugs targeting ATM/ATR signaling and CX-5461 leads to enhanced therapeutic benefit in treating p53-null tumours in vivo, which are normally refractory to each drug alone. Mechanistically, we show that CX-5461 induces an unusual chromatin structure in which transcriptionally competent relaxed rDNA repeats are devoid of transcribing Pol I leading to activation of ATM signaling within the nucleoli. Thus, we propose that acute inhibition of Pol transcription initiation by CX-5461 induces a novel nucleolar stress response that can be targeted to improve therapeutic efficacy.

  8. An Ancient Transcription Factor Initiates the Burst of piRNA Production During Early Meiosis in Mouse Testes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin Zhiguo; Roy, Christian K.; Dong, Xianjun; Bolcun-Filas, Ewelina; Wang, Jie; Han, Bo W.; Xu, Jia; Moore, Melissa J.; Schimenti, John C.; Weng, Zhiping; Zamore, Phillip D.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Animal germ cells produce PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), small silencing RNAs that suppress transposons and enable gamete maturation. Mammalian transposon-silencing piRNAs accumulate early in spermatogenesis, whereas pachytene piRNAs are produced later during post-natal spermatogenesis and account for >95% of all piRNAs in the adult mouse testis. Mutants defective for pachytene piRNA pathway proteins fail to produce mature sperm, but neither the piRNA precursor transcripts nor the trigger for pachytene piRNA production is known. Here, we show that the transcription factor A-MYB initiates pachytene piRNA production. A-MYB drives transcription of both pachytene piRNA precursor RNAs and the mRNAs for core piRNA biogenesis factors, including MIWI, the protein through which pachytene piRNAs function. A-MYB regulation of piRNA pathway proteins and piRNA genes creates a coherent feed-forward loop that ensures the robust accumulation of pachytene piRNAs. This regulatory circuit, which can be detected in rooster testes, likely predates the divergence of birds and mammals. PMID:23523368

  9. Alternative transcription initiation sites and polyadenylation sites are recruited during Mu suppression at the rf2a locus of maize.

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xiangqin; Hsia, An-Ping; Liu, Feng; Ashlock, Daniel A; Wise, Roger P; Schnable, Patrick S

    2003-01-01

    Even in the absence of excisional loss of the associated Mu transposons, some Mu-induced mutant alleles of maize can lose their capacity to condition a mutant phenotype. Three of five Mu-derived rf2a alleles are susceptible to such Mu suppression. The suppressible rf2a-m9437 allele has a novel Mu transposon insertion (Mu10) in its 5' untranslated region (UTR). The suppressible rf2a-m9390 allele has a Mu1 insertion in its 5' UTR. During suppression, alternative transcription initiation sites flanking the Mu1 transposon yield functional transcripts. The suppressible rf2a-m8110 allele has an rcy/Mu7 insertion in its 3' UTR. Suppression of this allele occurs via a previously unreported mechanism; sequences in the terminal inverted repeats of rcy/Mu7 function as alternative polyadenylation sites such that the suppressed rf2a-m8110 allele yields functional rf2a transcripts. No significant differences were observed in the nucleotide compositions of these alternative polyadenylation sites as compared with 94 other polyadenylation sites from maize genes. PMID:12618406

  10. c-Myc represses transcription in vivo by a novel mechanism dependent on the initiator element and Myc box II.

    PubMed Central

    Li, L H; Nerlov, C; Prendergast, G; MacGregor, D; Ziff, E B

    1994-01-01

    We show that c-Myc, in addition to activating transcription through E-box Myc binding sites (Ems), also represses transcription by a mechanism dependent on initiator (Inr) elements of the basal promoters of susceptible genes. Repression was first observed as a component of c-Myc biphasic regulation of the adenovirus-2 major late promoter (MLP), which contains both Inr and Ems sequences. Two differentiation-specific genes containing Inr, the C/EBP alpha and albumin genes, are repressed through their basal promoters by c-Myc, but are activated by the related B-HLH-LZ factor, USF. Repression requires both the B-HLH-LZ and Myc box II (MBII) domains. Significantly, a MBII deletion mutant which is deficient in repression, but transactivates normally, fails to cooperate with an activated ras gene to transform primary fibroblasts. Thus Myc-dependent transactivation is insufficient for Ras cooperation and the novel transcription repression function is implicated in Ras cooperation as well as the suppression of Inr-dependent genes. Images PMID:8076602

  11. An antisense promoter in mouse L1 retrotransposon open reading frame-1 initiates expression of diverse fusion transcripts and limits retrotransposition

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingfeng; Kannan, Manoj; Trivett, Anna L.; Liao, Hongling; Wu, Xiaolin; Akagi, Keiko; Symer, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Between 6 and 30% of human and mouse transcripts are initiated from transposable elements. However, the promoters driving such transcriptional activity are mostly unknown. We experimentally characterized an antisense (AS) promoter in mouse L1 retrotransposons for the first time, oriented antiparallel to the coding strand of L1 open reading frame-1. We found that AS transcription is mediated by RNA polymerase II. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends cloning mapped transcription start sites adjacent to the AS promoter. We identified >100 novel fusion transcripts, of which many were conserved across divergent mouse lineages, suggesting conservation of potential functions. To evaluate whether AS L1 transcription could regulate L1 retrotransposition, we replaced portions of native open reading frame-1 in donor elements by synonymously recoded sequences. The resulting L1 elements lacked AS promoter activity and retrotransposed more frequently than endogenous L1s. Overexpression of AS L1 transcripts also reduced L1 retrotransposition. This suppression of retrotransposition was largely independent of Dicer. Our experiments shed new light on how AS fusion transcripts are initiated from endogenous L1 elements across the mouse genome. Such AS transcription can contribute substantially both to natural transcriptional variation and to endogenous regulation of L1 retrotransposition. PMID:24493738

  12. Innovative use of a bacterial enzyme involved in sialic acid degradation to initiate sialic acid biosynthesis in glycoengineered insect cells

    PubMed Central

    Geisler, Christoph; Jarvis, Donald L.

    2012-01-01

    The baculovirus/insect cell system is widely used for recombinant protein production, but it is suboptimal for recombinant glycoprotein production because it does not provide sialylation, which is an essential feature of many glycoprotein biologics. This problem has been addressed by metabolic engineering, which has extended endogenous insect cell N-glycosylation pathways and enabled glycoprotein sialylation by baculovirus/insect cell systems. However, further improvement is needed because even the most extensively engineered baculovirus/insect cell systems require media supplementation with N-acetylmannosamine, an expensive sialic acid precursor, for efficient recombinant glycoprotein sialylation. Our solution to this problem focused on E. coli N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate 2′-epimerase (GNPE), which normally functions in bacterial sialic acid degradation. Considering that insect cells have the product, but not the substrate for this enzyme, we hypothesized that GNPE might drive the reverse reaction in these cells, thereby initiating sialic acid biosynthesis in the absence of media supplementation. We tested this hypothesis by isolating transgenic insect cells expressing E. coli GNPE together with a suite of mammalian genes needed for N-glycoprotein sialylation. Various assays showed that these cells efficiently produced sialic acid, CMP-sialic acid, and sialylated recombinant N-glycoproteins even in growth media without N-acetylmannosamine. Thus, this study demonstrated that a eukaryotic recombinant protein production platform can be glycoengineered with a bacterial gene, that a bacterial enzyme which normally functions in sialic acid degradation can be used to initiate sialic acid biosynthesis, and that insect cells expressing this enzyme can produce sialylated N-glycoproteins without N-acetylmannosamine supplementation, which will reduce production costs in glycoengineered baculovirus/insect cell systems. PMID:23022569

  13. The Intersubunit Bridge B1b of the Bacterial Ribosome Facilitates Initiation of Protein Synthesis and Maintenance of Translational Fidelity.

    PubMed

    Lilleorg, Silva; Reier, Kaspar; Remme, Jaanus; Liiv, Aivar

    2017-04-07

    In bacteria, ribosomal subunits are connected via 12 intersubunit bridges involving RNA-RNA, RNA-protein, and protein-protein interactions. The only protein-protein bridge in the ribosome is ribosomal intersubunit bridge 1b (B1b), which is mainly formed by the bacterial protein L31 (bL31) and connects the head domain of 30S subunit and the central protuberance of the 50S subunit. It is known to be the most dynamic intersubunit bridge. Here, we have evaluated the role of bL31 and thereby the bridge B1b in the working cycle of the ribosome. First, bL31-deficient ribosomes are severely compromised in their ability to ensure translational fidelity particularly in reading frame maintenance in vivo. Second, in the absence of bL31, the rate of initiation is significantly reduced both in vivo and in vitro. Third, polysome profile and subunit reassociation assays demonstrate that bL31 is important for stabilizing subunit joining in vivo and in vitro. Together, our results demonstrate that bL31 is important for determining translational fidelity and stabilizing subunit association. We conclude that the only protein-protein intersubunit bridge of the bacterial ribosome facilitates translation initiation and is essential for maintaining the reading frame of mRNA translation.

  14. Structural basis of transcription activation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yu; Zhang, Yu; Ebright, Richard H

    2016-06-10

    Class II transcription activators function by binding to a DNA site overlapping a core promoter and stimulating isomerization of an initial RNA polymerase (RNAP)-promoter closed complex into a catalytically competent RNAP-promoter open complex. Here, we report a 4.4 angstrom crystal structure of an intact bacterial class II transcription activation complex. The structure comprises Thermus thermophilus transcription activator protein TTHB099 (TAP) [homolog of Escherichia coli catabolite activator protein (CAP)], T. thermophilus RNAP σ(A) holoenzyme, a class II TAP-dependent promoter, and a ribotetranucleotide primer. The structure reveals the interactions between RNAP holoenzyme and DNA responsible for transcription initiation and reveals the interactions between TAP and RNAP holoenzyme responsible for transcription activation. The structure indicates that TAP stimulates isomerization through simple, adhesive, stabilizing protein-protein interactions with RNAP holoenzyme. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Transcription initiation at the TATA-less spliced leader RNA gene promoter requires at least two DNA-binding proteins and a tripartite architecture that includes an initiator element.

    PubMed

    Luo, H; Gilinger, G; Mukherjee, D; Bellofatto, V

    1999-11-05

    Eukaryotic transcriptional regulatory signals, defined as core and activator promoter elements, have yet to be identified in the earliest diverging group of eukaryotes, the primitive protozoans, which include the Trypanosomatidae family of parasites. The divergence within this family is highlighted by the apparent absence of the "universal" transcription factor TATA-binding protein. To understand gene expression in these protists, we have investigated spliced leader RNA gene transcription. The RNA product of this gene provides an m(7)G cap and a 39-nucleotide leader sequence to all cellular mRNAs via a trans-splicing reaction. Regulation of spliced leader RNA synthesis is controlled by a tripartite promoter located exclusively upstream from the transcription start site. Proteins PBP-1 and PBP-2 bind to two of the three promoter elements in the trypanosomatid Leptomonas seymouri. They represent the first trypanosome transcription factors with typical double-stranded DNA binding site recognition. These proteins ensure efficient transcription. However, accurate initiation is determined an initiator element with a a loose consensus of CYAC/AYR (+1), which differs from that found in metazoan initiator elements as well as from that identified in one of the earliest diverging protozoans, Trichomonas vaginalis. Trypanosomes may utilize initiator element-protein interactions, and not TATA sequence-TATA-binding protein interactions, to direct proper transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II.

  16. Quiescent center initiation in the Arabidopsis lateral root primordia is dependent on the SCARECROW transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Goh, Tatsuaki; Toyokura, Koichi; Wells, Darren M; Swarup, Kamal; Yamamoto, Mayuko; Mimura, Tetsuro; Weijers, Dolf; Fukaki, Hidehiro; Laplaze, Laurent; Bennett, Malcolm J; Guyomarc'h, Soazig

    2016-09-15

    Lateral root formation is an important determinant of root system architecture. In Arabidopsis, lateral roots originate from pericycle cells, which undergo a program of morphogenesis to generate a new lateral root meristem. Despite its importance for root meristem organization, the onset of quiescent center (QC) formation during lateral root morphogenesis remains unclear. Here, we used live 3D confocal imaging to monitor cell organization and identity acquisition during lateral root development. Our dynamic observations revealed an early morphogenesis phase and a late meristem formation phase as proposed in the bi-phasic growth model. Establishment of lateral root QCs coincided with this developmental phase transition. QC precursor cells originated from the outer layer of stage II lateral root primordia, within which the SCARECROW (SCR) transcription factor was specifically expressed. Disrupting SCR function abolished periclinal divisions in this lateral root primordia cell layer and perturbed the formation of QC precursor cells. We conclude that de novo QC establishment in lateral root primordia operates via SCR-mediated formative cell division and coincides with the developmental phase transition.

  17. Structural Basis of Transcription Initiation: An RNA Polymerase Holoenzyme-DNA Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Katsuhiko S.; Masuda, Shoko; Campbell, Elizabeth A.; Muzzin, Oriana; Darst, Seth A.

    2002-05-01

    The crystal structure of Thermus aquaticus RNA polymerase holoenzyme (α2ββ'ωσA) complexed with a fork-junction promoter DNA fragment has been determined by fitting high-resolution x-ray structures of individual components into a 6.5-angstrom resolution map. The DNA lies across one face of the holoenzyme, completely outside the RNA polymerase active site channel. All sequence-specific contacts with core promoter elements are mediated by the σ subunit. A universally conserved tryptophan is ideally positioned to stack on the exposed face of the base pair at the upstream edge of the transcription bubble. Universally conserved basic residues of the σ subunit provide critical contacts with the DNA phosphate backbone and play a role in directing the melted DNA template strand into the RNA polymerase active site. The structure explains how holoenzyme recognizes promoters containing variably spaced -10 and -35 elements and provides the basis for models of the closed and open promoter complexes.

  18. Fractionation and reconstitution of factors required for accurate transcription of mammalian ribosomal RNA genes: identification of a species-dependent initiation factor.

    PubMed Central

    Mishima, Y; Financsek, I; Kominami, R; Muramatsu, M

    1982-01-01

    Mouse and human cell extracts (S100) can support an accurate and efficient transcription initiation on homologous ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) templates. The cell extracts were fractionated with the aid of a phosphocellulose column into four fractions (termed A, B, C and D), including one containing a major part of the RNA polymerase I activity. Various reconstitution experiments indicate that fraction D is an absolute requirement for the correct and efficient transcription initiation by RNA polymerase I on both mouse and human genes. Fraction B effectively suppresses random initiation on these templates. Fraction A appears to further enhance the transcription which takes place with fractions C and D. Although fractions A, B and C are interchangeable between mouse and human extracts, fraction D is not; i.e. initiation of transcription required the presence of a homologous fraction D for both templates. The factor(s) in fraction D, however, is not literally species-specific, since mouse D fraction is capable of supporting accurate transcription initiation on a rat rDNA template in the presence of all the other fractions from human cell extract under the conditions where human D fraction is unable to support it. We conclude from these experiments that a species-dependent factor in fraction D plays an important role in the initiation of rDNA transcription in each animal species. Images PMID:7177852

  19. Transcription regulation mechanisms of bacteriophages

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Haiquan; Ma, Yingfang; Wang, Yitian; Yang, Haixia; Shen, Wei; Chen, Xianzhong

    2014-01-01

    Phage diversity significantly contributes to ecology and evolution of new bacterial species through horizontal gene transfer. Therefore, it is essential to understand the mechanisms underlying phage-host interactions. After initial infection, the phage utilizes the transcriptional machinery of the host to direct the expression of its own genes. This review presents a view on the transcriptional regulation mechanisms of bacteriophages, and its contribution to phage diversity and classification. Through this review, we aim to broaden the understanding of phage-host interactions while providing a reference source for researchers studying the regulation of phage transcription. PMID:25482231

  20. Foxm1 transcription factor is required for the initiation of lung tumorigenesis by oncogenic Kras(G12D.).

    PubMed

    Wang, I-C; Ustiyan, V; Zhang, Y; Cai, Y; Kalin, T V; Kalinichenko, V V

    2014-11-13

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of deaths in cancer patients in the United States. Identification of new molecular targets is clearly needed to improve therapeutic outcomes of this devastating human disease. Activating mutations in K-Ras oncogene and increased expression of FOXM1 protein are associated with poor prognosis in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. Transgenic expression of activated Kras(G12D) in mouse respiratory epithelium is sufficient to induce lung adenocarcinomas; however, transcriptional mechanisms regulated by K-Ras during the initiation of lung cancer remain poorly understood. Foxm1 transcription factor, a downstream target of K-Ras, stimulates cellular proliferation during embryogenesis, organ repair and tumor growth, but its role in tumor initiation is unknown. In the present study, we used transgenic mice expressing Kras(G12D) under control of Sftpc promoter to demonstrate that Foxm1 was induced in type II epithelial cells before the formation of lung tumors. Conditional deletion of Foxm1 from Kras(G12D)-expressing respiratory epithelium prevented the initiation of lung tumors in vivo. The loss of Foxm1 inhibited expression of K-Ras target genes critical for the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways, including Ikbkb, Nfkb1, Nfkb2, Rela, Jnk1, N-Myc, Pttg1 and Cdkn2a. Transgenic overexpression of activated FOXM1 mutant was sufficient to induce expression of these genes in alveolar type II cells. FOXM1 directly bound to promoter regions of Ikbkb, Nfkb2, N-Myc, Pttg1 and Cdkn2a, indicating that these genes are direct FOXM1 targets. FOXM1 is required for K-Ras-mediated lung tumorigenesis by activating genes critical for the NF-κB and JNK pathways.

  1. Near-atomic structural model for bacterial DNA replication initiation complex and its functional insights.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Masahiro; Noguchi, Yasunori; Sakiyama, Yukari; Kawakami, Hironori; Katayama, Tsutomu; Takada, Shoji

    2016-12-13

    Upon DNA replication initiation in Escherichia coli, the initiator protein DnaA forms higher-order complexes with the chromosomal origin oriC and a DNA-bending protein IHF. Although tertiary structures of DnaA and IHF have previously been elucidated, dynamic structures of oriC-DnaA-IHF complexes remain unknown. Here, combining computer simulations with biochemical assays, we obtained models at almost-atomic resolution for the central part of the oriC-DnaA-IHF complex. This complex can be divided into three subcomplexes; the left and right subcomplexes include pentameric DnaA bound in a head-to-tail manner and the middle subcomplex contains only a single DnaA. In the left and right subcomplexes, DnaA ATPases associated with various cellular activities (AAA+) domain III formed helices with specific structural differences in interdomain orientations, provoking a bend in the bound DNA. In the left subcomplex a continuous DnaA chain exists, including insertion of IHF into the DNA looping, consistent with the DNA unwinding function of the complex. The intervening spaces in those subcomplexes are crucial for DNA unwinding and loading of DnaB helicases. Taken together, this model provides a reasonable near-atomic level structural solution of the initiation complex, including the dynamic conformations and spatial arrangements of DnaA subcomplexes.

  2. A retroviral RNA secondary structure required for efficient initiation of reverse transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Cobrinik, D; Soskey, L; Leis, J

    1988-01-01

    Genetic evidence is presented which suggests the existence of an important structural element in the 5' noncoding region of avian retrovirus RNA. The proposed structure, which we term the U5-leader stem, is composed of sequences in the middle of U5 and in the leader, flanking the primer-binding site. U5 and leader mutations which would disrupt this structure caused a partial replication defect. However, nucleotide substitutions in the leader, which would structurally compensate for a U5 deletion mutation, restored normal replication. Analysis of replication intermediates of viruses with the above mutations suggests that the U5-leader stem is required for efficient DNA synthesis in vivo and for initiation of DNA synthesis from the tRNA(Trp) primer in melittin-activated virions. However, this structure does not appear to be required for binding of the tRNA(Trp) primer to viral RNA. These results support a role for the U5-leader stem structure, independent of its primary sequence, in the initiation of retroviral replication. Images PMID:2458484

  3. Resistance to Streptomyces turgidiscabies in potato involves an early and sustained transcriptional reprogramming at initial stages of tuber formation.

    PubMed

    Dees, Merete Wiken; Lysøe, Erik; Alsheikh, Muath; Davik, Jahn; Brurberg, May Bente

    2016-06-01

    Common scab, caused by species from the bacterial genus Streptomyces, is an important disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum) crops worldwide. Early tuberization is a critical period for pathogen infection; hence, studies of host gene expression responses during this developmental stage can be important to expand our understanding of the infection process and to identify putative resistance genes. In an infection experiment with the highly susceptible potato cultivar Saturna and the relatively resistant cultivar Beate, transcription profiles were obtained by RNA sequencing at two developmental stages: the early hook stage and the early tuber formation stage. Our results indicate that 'Beate' mounts an early and sustained response to infection by S. turgidiscabies, whereas the defence response by 'Saturna' ceases before the early tuber formation stage. Most pronounced were the putative candidate defence-associated genes uniquely expressed in 'Beate'. We observed an increase in alternative splicing on pathogen infection at the early hook stage for both cultivars. A significant down-regulation of genes involved in the highly energy-demanding process of ribosome biogenesis was observed for the infected 'Beate' plants at the early hook stage, which may indicate an allocation of resources that favours the expression of defence-related genes. © 2015 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  4. Bound to Succeed: transcription factor binding-site prediction and its contribution to understanding virulence and environmental adaptation in bacterial plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Saha, Surya; Lindeberg, Magdalen

    2013-10-01

    Bacterial plant pathogens rely on a battalion of transcription factors to fine-tune their response to changing environmental conditions and to marshal the genetic resources required for successful pathogenesis. Prediction of transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) represents an important tool for elucidating regulatory networks and has been conducted in multiple genera of plant-pathogenic bacteria for the purpose of better understanding mechanisms of survival and pathogenesis. The major categories of TFBS that have been characterized are reviewed here, with emphasis on in silico methods used for site identification and challenges therein, their applicability to different types of sequence datasets, and insights into mechanisms of virulence and survival that have been gained through binding-site mapping. An improved strategy for establishing E-value cutoffs when using existing models to screen uncharacterized genomes is also discussed.

  5. Molecular basis of RNA polymerase promoter specificity switch revealed through studies of Thermus bacteriophage transcription regulator

    PubMed Central

    Severinov, Konstantin; Minakhin, Leonid; Sekine, Shun-ichi; Lopatina, Anna; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2014-01-01

    Transcription initiation is the central point of gene expression regulation. Understanding of molecular mechanism of transcription regulation requires, ultimately, the structural understanding of consequences of transcription factors binding to DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP), the enzyme of transcription. We recently determined a structure of a complex between transcription factor gp39 encoded by a Thermus bacteriophage and Thermus RNAP holoenzyme. In this addendum to the original publication, we highlight structural insights that explain the ability of gp39 to act as an RNAP specificity switch which inhibits transcription initiation from a major class of bacterial promoters, while allowing transcription from a minor promoter class to continue. PMID:25105059

  6. Core Promoter Plasticity Between Maize Tissues and Genotypes Contrasts with Predominance of Sharp Transcription Initiation Sites[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Vidal, Mabel; Gray, John; Doseff, Andrea I.; Grotewold, Erich

    2015-01-01

    Core promoters are crucial for gene regulation, providing blueprints for the assembly of transcriptional machinery at transcription start sites (TSSs). Empirically, TSSs define the coordinates of core promoters and other regulatory sequences. Thus, experimental TSS identification provides an essential step in the characterization of promoters and their features. Here, we describe the application of CAGE (cap analysis of gene expression) to identify genome-wide TSSs used in root and shoot tissues of two maize (Zea mays) inbred lines (B73 and Mo17). Our studies indicate that most TSS clusters are sharp in maize, similar to mice, but distinct from Arabidopsis thaliana, Drosophila melanogaster, or zebra fish, in which a majority of genes have broad-shaped TSS clusters. We established that ∼38% of maize promoters are characterized by a broader TATA-motif consensus, and this motif is significantly enriched in genes with sharp TSSs. A noteworthy plasticity in TSS usage between tissues and inbreds was uncovered, with ∼1500 genes showing significantly different dominant TSSs, sometimes affecting protein sequence by providing alternate translation initiation codons. We experimentally characterized instances in which this differential TSS utilization results in protein isoforms with additional domains or targeted to distinct subcellular compartments. These results provide important insights into TSS selection and gene expression in an agronomically important crop. PMID:26628745

  7. Transcription initiation sites within an IS2 insertion in a Gal-constitutive mutant of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Hinton, D M; Musso, R E

    1982-01-01

    Insertion of the insertion sequence Is2(I) directly before the galE gene of the galactose operon results in a Gal minus phenotype (1, 2). The Gal-constitutive allele galc200 (and its deletion derivative galc200 delta 31) arise from such a Gal minus mutant by the insertion of LS2(II) DNA within the LS2(I) sequence (3). We have transcribed in vitro a DNA template representing the IS2-galE region of galc200 delta 31. Gal-directed transcription initiates at two sites within the IS2(I) sequence, 51 and 52 bp from the IS2-galE junction. The promoter for these transcripts, Pgal200 delta 31, is composed of a novel joint between a -10 region from the IS2(I) DNA and a -35 region contributed by the IS2(II) insertion. No promoters intrinsic to the 121 bp of the IS2(II) sequence also present on the template were detected. The relevance of Pgal200 delta 31 to the Galc phenotype of galc200 and to general mechanisms for the constitutive expression of genes adjacent to IS2 is discussed. Images PMID:6291000

  8. Inhibition of adenovirus replication by the E1A antisense transcript initiated from hsp70 and VA-1 promoters.

    PubMed

    Miroshnichenko, O I; Borisenko, A S; Ponomareva, T I; Tikhonenko, T I

    1990-03-01

    The E1A region of the adenoviral genome, important for initiation of virus infection and activation of other viral genes, was chosen as a target for engineering antisense RNA (asRNA) to inhibit adenovirus 5 (Ad5) replication in COS-1 cell culture in vitro. The hsp70 promoter, taken from the appropriate heat-shock-protein gene of Drosophila melanogaster, and the VA-1 RNA promoter, derived from the Ad5 gene coding for low-molecular-mass VA-1 RNA and recognized by RNA polymerase III were used as regulatory elements of transcription. The two types of recombinant constructs contained E1A fragments of 710 bp (hsp70 constructs) or 380 or 740 bp (VA-1 RNA constructs) in reverse orientation relative to the promoter position, as well as a transcription termination signal, the SV40 ori, and the gene controlling Geneticin (antibiotic G418) resistance (G418R). After selection of transfected COS-1 cells in the presence of G418, a number of stable G418R cell lines were raised which expressed engineered asRNAs. Plating of Ad5 suspensions of known titre on monolayers of transfected COS-1 cells clearly showed strong inhibition of adenovirus replication by asRNAs: 75% with the hsp70 promoter and 90% with the VA-1 RNA promoter.

  9. Ovalbumin Messenger RNA: Evidence That the Initial Product of Transcription Is the Same Size as Polysomal Ovalbumin Messenger

    PubMed Central

    McKnight, G. Stanley; Schimke, Robert T.

    1974-01-01

    The messenger RNA for ovalbumin, the major secretory protein of the chick oviduct, appears not to be made as a high-molecular-weight precursor when artifacts due to aggregation are eliminated. No ovalbumin messenger RNA sequences that will hybridize to complementary DNA made against ovalbumin mRNA are found in concentrated samples of hen oviduct RNA larger than 28 S. The sensitivity of the hybridization assay is sufficient to detect less than one molecule of ovalbumin mRNA precursor per tubular gland cell. Newly synthesized ovalbumin messenger RNA isolated from immature chicks stimulated briefly by estrogen is the same size as that found in hen polyribosomes. We conclude that ovalbumin messenger RNA does not undergo any significant change in molecular weight from its initial transcription to its incorporation into polyribosomes. PMID:4530986

  10. Salvage microbiology: opportunities and challenges in the detection of bacterial pathogens following initiation of antimicrobial treatment

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, John J.; Hujer, Andrea M.; Sampath, Rangarajan; Bonomo, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Broad-range 16S ribosomal RNA gene PCR coupled with Sanger sequencing was originally employed by soil scientists and was subsequently adapted for clinical applications. PCR coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry has also progressed from initial applications in the detection of organisms from environmental samples into the clinical realm and has demonstrated promise in detection of pathogens in clinical specimens obtained from patients with suspected infection but negative cultures. We review studies of multiplex PCR, 16S ribosomal RNA gene PCR and sequencing and PCR coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for detection of bacteria in specimens that were obtained from patients during or after administration of antibiotic treatment, and examine the role of each for assisting in antimicrobial treatment and stewardship efforts. Following an exploration of the available data in this field we discuss the opportunities that the preliminary investigations reveal, as well as the challenges faced with implementation of these strategies in clinical practice. PMID:25523281

  11. Cell cycle-independent removal of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers from the promoter and the transcription initiation domain of the human CDC2 gene.

    PubMed

    Tommasi, S; Oxyzoglou, A B; Pfeifer, G P

    2000-10-15

    To assess whether removal of UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) occurs with equal efficiency at different stages of the cell cycle in a cell cycle-regulated gene, we have analyzed repair of CPDs, following a single dose of UV, in normal human fibroblasts that were synchronized in either G(0) or S phase. Based on a single nucleotide resolution analysis, we established a detailed map of DNA repair rates along the promoter region and the transcription initiation area of the human CDC2 gene. The promoter of this gene is covered by an array of sequence-specific transcription factors located between nt -280 and -9 relative to the major transcription start site. In both quiescent and S phase-synchronized fibroblasts the majority of these sequences were poorly repaired even after 24 h, probably as a result of the constitutive binding of transcription factors throughout the cell cycle. A domain of fast repair was found at sequences surrounding the transcription initiation site and continuing downstream for approximately 80 nt. CPD removal from this domain was preferential in both quiescent and proliferating fibroblasts, despite lower levels of global genome repair and a lack of CDC2 transcription in quiescent cells. We suggest that sequences involved in transcription initiation may be book-marked for efficient repair throughout the cell cycle, even when the gene is temporarily not expressed.

  12. Cell cycle-independent removal of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers from the promoter and the transcription initiation domain of the human CDC2 gene

    PubMed Central

    Tommasi, Stella; Oxyzoglou, Alexandros B.; Pfeifer, Gerd P.

    2000-01-01

    To assess whether removal of UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) occurs with equal efficiency at different stages of the cell cycle in a cell cycle-regulated gene, we have analyzed repair of CPDs, following a single dose of UV, in normal human fibroblasts that were synchronized in either G0 or S phase. Based on a single nucleotide resolution analysis, we established a detailed map of DNA repair rates along the promoter region and the transcription initiation area of the human CDC2 gene. The promoter of this gene is covered by an array of sequence-specific transcription factors located between nt –280 and –9 relative to the major transcription start site. In both quiescent and S phase-synchronized fibroblasts the majority of these sequences were poorly repaired even after 24 h, probably as a result of the constitutive binding of transcription factors throughout the cell cycle. A domain of fast repair was found at sequences surrounding the transcription initiation site and continuing downstream for ∼80 nt. CPD removal from this domain was preferential in both quiescent and proliferating fibroblasts, despite lower levels of global genome repair and a lack of CDC2 transcription in quiescent cells. We suggest that sequences involved in transcription initiation may be book-marked for efficient repair throughout the cell cycle, even when the gene is temporarily not expressed. PMID:11024179

  13. Post-transcriptional control by bacteriophage T4: mRNA decay and inhibition of translation initiation.

    PubMed

    Uzan, Marc; Miller, Eric S

    2010-12-03

    Over 50 years of biological research with bacteriophage T4 includes notable discoveries in post-transcriptional control, including the genetic code, mRNA, and tRNA; the very foundations of molecular biology. In this review we compile the past 10-15 year literature on RNA-protein interactions with T4 and some of its related phages, with particular focus on advances in mRNA decay and processing, and on translational repression. Binding of T4 proteins RegB, RegA, gp32 and gp43 to their cognate target RNAs has been characterized. For several of these, further study is needed for an atomic-level perspective, where resolved structures of RNA-protein complexes are awaiting investigation. Other features of post-transcriptional control are also summarized. These include: RNA structure at translation initiation regions that either inhibit or promote translation initiation; programmed translational bypassing, where T4 orchestrates ribosome bypass of a 50 nucleotide mRNA sequence; phage exclusion systems that involve T4-mediated activation of a latent endoribonuclease (PrrC) and cofactor-assisted activation of EF-Tu proteolysis (Gol-Lit); and potentially important findings on ADP-ribosylation (by Alt and Mod enzymes) of ribosome-associated proteins that might broadly impact protein synthesis in the infected cell. Many of these problems can continue to be addressed with T4, whereas the growing database of T4-related phage genome sequences provides new resources and potentially new phage-host systems to extend the work into a broader biological, evolutionary context.

  14. The transcription initiation sites of eggplant latent viroid strands map within distinct motifs in their in vivo RNA conformations.

    PubMed

    López-Carrasco, Amparo; Gago-Zachert, Selma; Mileti, Giuseppe; Minoia, Sofia; Flores, Ricardo; Delgado, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Eggplant latent viroid (ELVd), like other members of family Avsunviroidae, replicates in plastids through a symmetric rolling-circle mechanism in which elongation of RNA strands is most likely catalyzed by a nuclear-encoded polymerase (NEP) translocated to plastids. Here we have addressed where NEP initiates transcription of viroid strands. Because this step is presumably directed by sequence/structural motifs, we have previously determined the conformation of the monomeric linear (+) and (-) RNAs of ELVd resulting from hammerhead-mediated self-cleavage. In silico predictions with 3 softwares led to similar bifurcated conformations for both ELVd strands. In vitro examination by non-denaturing PAGE showed that they migrate as prominent single bands, with the ELVd (+) RNA displaying a more compact conformation as revealed by its faster electrophoretic mobility. In vitro SHAPE analysis corroborated the ELVd conformations derived from thermodynamics-based predictions in silico. Moreover, sequence analysis of 94 full-length natural ELVd variants disclosed co-variations, and mutations converting canonical into wobble pairs or vice versa, which confirmed in vivo most of the stems predicted in silico and in vitro, and additionally helped to introduce minor structural refinements. Therefore, results from the 3 experimental approaches were essentially consistent among themselves. Application to RNA preparations from ELVd-infected tissue of RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends, combined with pretreatments to modify the 5' ends of viroid strands, mapped the transcription initiation sites of ELVd (+) and (-) strands in vivo at different sequence/structural motifs, in contrast with the situation previously observed in 2 other members of the family Avsunviroidae.

  15. The transcription initiation sites of eggplant latent viroid strands map within distinct motifs in their in vivo RNA conformations

    PubMed Central

    López-Carrasco, Amparo; Gago-Zachert, Selma; Mileti, Giuseppe; Minoia, Sofia; Flores, Ricardo; Delgado, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Eggplant latent viroid (ELVd), like other members of family Avsunviroidae, replicates in plastids through a symmetric rolling-circle mechanism in which elongation of RNA strands is most likely catalyzed by a nuclear-encoded polymerase (NEP) translocated to plastids. Here we have addressed where NEP initiates transcription of viroid strands. Because this step is presumably directed by sequence/structural motifs, we have previously determined the conformation of the monomeric linear (+) and (−) RNAs of ELVd resulting from hammerhead-mediated self-cleavage. In silico predictions with 3 softwares led to similar bifurcated conformations for both ELVd strands. In vitro examination by non-denaturing PAGE showed that they migrate as prominent single bands, with the ELVd (+) RNA displaying a more compact conformation as revealed by its faster electrophoretic mobility. In vitro SHAPE analysis corroborated the ELVd conformations derived from thermodynamics-based predictions in silico. Moreover, sequence analysis of 94 full-length natural ELVd variants disclosed co-variations, and mutations converting canonical into wobble pairs or vice versa, which confirmed in vivo most of the stems predicted in silico and in vitro, and additionally helped to introduce minor structural refinements. Therefore, results from the 3 experimental approaches were essentially consistent among themselves. Application to RNA preparations from ELVd-infected tissue of RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends, combined with pretreatments to modify the 5′ ends of viroid strands, mapped the transcription initiation sites of ELVd (+) and (−) strands in vivo at different sequence/structural motifs, in contrast with the situation previously observed in 2 other members of the family Avsunviroidae. PMID:26618399

  16. Overexpression of the yeast transcription activator Msn2 confers furfural resistance and increases the initial fermentation rate in ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Sasano, Yu; Watanabe, Daisuke; Ukibe, Ken; Inai, Tomomi; Ohtsu, Iwao; Shimoi, Hitoshi; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2012-04-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a promising source for bioethanol production, because it is abundant worldwide and has few competing uses. However, the treatment of lignocelllulosic biomass with weak acid to release cellulose and hemicellulose generates many kinds of byproducts including furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, which inhibit fermentation by yeast, because they generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells. In order to acquire high tolerance to oxidative stress in bioethanol yeast strains, we focused on the transcription activator Msn2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which regulates numerous genes involved in antioxidative stress responses, and constructed bioethanol yeast strains that overexpress Msn2 constitutively. The Msn2-overexpressing bioethanol strains showed tolerance to oxidative stress, probably due to the high-level expression of various antioxidant enzyme genes. Unexpectedly, these strains showed ethanol sensitivity compared with the control strain, probably due to imbalance of the expression level between Msn2 and Msn4. In the presence of furfural, the engineered strains exhibited reduced intracellular ROS levels, and showed rapid growth compared with the control strain. The fermentation test in the presence of furfural revealed that the Msn2-overexpressing strains showed improvement of the initial rate of fermentation. Our results indicate that overexpression of the transcription activator Msn2 in bioethanol yeast strains confers furfural tolerance by reducing the intracellular ROS levels and enhances the initial rate of fermentation in the presence of furfural, suggesting that these strains are capable of adapting rapidly to various compounds that inhibit fermentation by inducing ROS accumulation. Our results not only promise to improve bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass, but also provide novel insights for molecular breeding of industrial yeast strains.

  17. Bacterial toxins induce sustained mRNA expression of the silencing transcription factor klf2 via inactivation of RhoA and Rhophilin 1.

    PubMed

    Dach, Kristina; Zovko, Josip; Hogardt, Michael; Koch, Isabel; van Erp, Katrin; Heesemann, Jürgen; Hoffmann, Reinhard

    2009-12-01

    Yersiniae bearing the Yersinia virulence plasmid pYV impact the transcriptome of J774A.1 macrophage-like cells in two distinct ways: (i) by suppressing, in a Yersinia outer protein P (YopP)-dependent manner, the induction of inflammatory response genes and (ii) by mRNA induction of the silencing transcription factor klf2. Here we show that klf2 induction by Yersinia enterocolitica occurs in several cell lines of macrophage and squamous and upper gastrointestinal epithelial origin as well as in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Several strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are equally effective as Y. enterocolitica in inducing klf2 expression. Screening of mutant strains or incubation with recombinant toxins identified the rho-inactivating toxins YopT from Yersinia spp., ExoS from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, EDIN-B from Staphylococcus aureus, and C3bot from Clostridium botulinum as bacterial inducers of klf2 mRNA. klf2 mRNA induction by these toxins does not require de novo protein synthesis. Serum response factor or actin depolymerization does not seem to be involved in regulating klf2 expression in response to bacterial infection. Instead, short hairpin RNA-mediated inactivation of RhoA and its effector rhophilin 1 is sufficient to induce long-term klf2 expression. Thus, bacteria exploit the RhoA-rhophilin signaling cascade to mediate sustained expression of the immunosuppressive transcription factor klf2.

  18. Temporal and Spatial Coexistence of Archaeal and Bacterial amoA Genes and Gene Transcripts in Lake Lucerne

    PubMed Central

    Vissers, Elisabeth W.; Anselmetti, Flavio S.; Bodelier, Paul L. E.; Muyzer, Gerard; Schleper, Christa; Tourna, Maria; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite their crucial role in the nitrogen cycle, freshwater ecosystems are relatively rarely studied for active ammonia oxidizers (AO). This study of Lake Lucerne determined the abundance of both amoA genes and gene transcripts of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) over a period of 16 months, shedding more light on the role of both AO in a deep, alpine lake environment. At the surface, at 42 m water depth, and in the water layer immediately above the sediment, AOA generally outnumbered AOB. However, in the surface water during summer stratification, when both AO were low in abundance, AOB were more numerous than AOA. Temporal distribution patterns of AOA and AOB were comparable. Higher abundances of amoA gene transcripts were observed at the onset and end of summer stratification. In summer, archaeal amoA genes and transcripts correlated negatively with temperature and conductivity. Concentrations of ammonium and oxygen did not vary enough to explain the amoA gene and transcript dynamics. The observed herbivorous zooplankton may have caused a hidden flux of mineralized ammonium and a change in abundance of genes and transcripts. At the surface, AO might have been repressed during summer stratification due to nutrient limitation caused by active phytoplankton. PMID:23533328

  19. Influence of cAMP receptor protein (CRP) on bacterial virulence and transcriptional regulation of allS by CRP in Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jian; Tan, Bin; Yang, Shiya; Luo, Mei; Xia, Huiming; Zhang, Xian; Zhou, Xipeng; Yang, Xianxian; Yang, Ruifu; Li, Yingli; Qiu, Jingfu

    2016-11-15

    cAMP receptor protein (CRP) is one of the most important transcriptional regulators, which can regulate large quantities of operons in different bacteria. The gene allS was well-known as allantoin-utilizing capability and involving in bacterial virulence in Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae). The specific DNA recognition motif of transcription regulator CRP was found in allS promoter region. Therefore, this study is aimed to investigate the function of CRP on virulence and its transcriptional regulation mechanism to gene allS in K. pneumoniae. The wild-type (WT) K. pneumoniae NTUH-2044, crp knockout (Kp-Δcrp) and the complemented knockout (KpC-Δcrp) strains were used to determine the function of crp gene. The lacZ fusion, qRT-PCR, electrophoretic mobility shift and DNase I footprinting assays were performed to study the transcriptional regulation of CRP on allS. The result showed a decreased virulence in crp knockout strain. Complement through supplementing crp fragment in expression plasmid partially restore virulence of knockout bacteria. The CRP could bind to the allS promoter-proximal region and the binding site was further refined to be located from 60bp to 94bp upstream of the allS promoter. Based on these results, we proposed that CRP is an essential virulence regulator and knock out of crp gene will result in reduced virulence in K. pneumoniae. In the meantime, the transcription of gene allS is positively regulated by CRP via directly binding to upstream of allS promoter.

  20. Crosstalk between DnaA Protein, the Initiator of Escherichia coli Chromosomal Replication, and Acidic Phospholipids Present in Bacterial Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Rahul; Fingland, Nicholas; Patil, Digvijay; Sharma, Anjali K.; Crooke, Elliott

    2013-01-01

    Anionic (i.e., acidic) phospholipids such as phosphotidylglycerol (PG) and cardiolipin (CL), participate in several cellular functions. Here we review intriguing in vitro and in vivo evidence that suggest emergent roles for acidic phospholipids in regulating DnaA protein-mediated initiation of Escherichia coli chromosomal replication. In vitro acidic phospholipids in a fluid bilayer promote the conversion of inactive ADP-DnaA to replicatively proficient ATP-DnaA, yet both PG and CL also can inhibit the DNA-binding activity of DnaA protein. We discuss how cellular acidic phospholipids may positively and negatively influence the initiation activity of DnaA protein to help assure chromosomal replication occurs once, but only once, per cell-cycle. Fluorescence microscopy has revealed that PG and CL exist in domains located at the cell poles and mid-cell, and several studies link membrane curvature with sub-cellular localization of various integral and peripheral membrane proteins. E. coli DnaA itself is found at the cell membrane and forms helical structures along the longitudinal axis of the cell. We propose that there is cross-talk between acidic phospholipids in the bacterial membrane and DnaA protein as a means to help control the spatial and temporal regulation of chromosomal replication in bacteria. PMID:23595001

  1. Lysophosphatidic Acid Initiates Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition and Induces β-Catenin-mediated Transcription in Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma*

    PubMed Central

    Burkhalter, Rebecca J.; Westfall, Suzanne D.; Liu, Yueying; Stack, M. Sharon

    2015-01-01

    During tumor progression, epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which influences metastatic success. Mutation-dependent activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been implicated in gain of mesenchymal phenotype and loss of differentiation in several solid tumors; however, similar mutations are rare in most EOC histotypes. Nevertheless, evidence for activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling in EOC has been reported, and immunohistochemical analysis of human EOC tumors demonstrates nuclear staining in all histotypes. This study addresses the hypothesis that the bioactive lipid lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), prevalent in the EOC microenvironment, functions to regulate EMT in EOC. Our results demonstrate that LPA induces loss of junctional β-catenin, stimulates clustering of β1 integrins, and enhances the conformationally active population of surface β1 integrins. Furthermore, LPA treatment initiates nuclear translocation of β-catenin and transcriptional activation of Wnt/β-catenin target genes resulting in gain of mesenchymal marker expression. Together these data suggest that LPA initiates EMT in ovarian tumors through β1-integrin-dependent activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, providing a novel mechanism for mutation-independent activation of this pathway in EOC progression. PMID:26175151

  2. Identification and transcriptional profile of multiple genes in the posterior kidney of Nile tilapia at 6h post bacterial infections

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To understand the molecular mechanisms involved in response of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to bacterial infection, suppression subtractive cDNA hybridization technique was used to identify upregulated genes in the posterior kidney of Nile tilapia at 6h post infection with Aeromonas hydrophi...

  3. Distinct modes of action applied by transcription factors STAT1 and IRF1 to initiate transcription of the IFN-γ-inducible gbp2 gene

    PubMed Central

    Ramsauer, Katrin; Farlik, Matthias; Zupkovitz, Gordin; Seiser, Christian; Kröger, Andrea; Hauser, Hansjörg; Decker, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    A subgroup of genes induced by IFN-γ requires both STAT1 and IRF1 for transcriptional activation. Using WT, stat1−/−, or irf1−/− cells, we analyzed the changes induced by IFN-γ in gbp2 promoter chromatin. STAT1 associated with the promoter independently of IRF1 and played an essential role in the ordered recruitment of the coactivator/histone acetyl transferase CREB-binding protein (CBP) and the histone deacetylase HDAC1. Hyperacetylation of histone 4 also required STAT1. Phosphorylation at S727 in the transactivating domain increased transcriptional activity of STAT1. In cells expressing a STAT1S727A-mutant CBP recruitment, histone 4 hyperacetylation and RNA polymerase II association with the gbp2 promoter were strongly reduced. IRF1 association with the gbp2 promoter followed that of STAT1, but STAT1 association with DNA or histone hyperacetylation were not necessary for IRF1 binding. RNA polymerase II association with the gbp2 promoter required both STAT1 and IRF1, suggesting that both proteins mediate essential steps in transcriptional activation. IRF1, but not STAT1, was found to coimmunoprecipitate with RNA polymerase II. Together, the data support the assumption that the main role of STAT1 in activating gbp2 transcription is to provide transcriptionally competent chromatin, whereas the function of IRF1 may lie in directly contacting RNA polymerase II-containing transcriptional complexes. PMID:17293456

  4. A Novel WRKY transcription factor is required for induction of PR-1a gene expression by salicylic acid and bacterial elicitors.

    PubMed

    van Verk, Marcel C; Pappaioannou, Dimitri; Neeleman, Lyda; Bol, John F; Linthorst, Huub J M

    2008-04-01

    PR-1a is a salicylic acid-inducible defense gene of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). One-hybrid screens identified a novel tobacco WRKY transcription factor (NtWRKY12) with specific binding sites in the PR-1a promoter at positions -564 (box WK(1)) and -859 (box WK(2)). NtWRKY12 belongs to the class of transcription factors in which the WRKY sequence is followed by a GKK rather than a GQK sequence. The binding sequence of NtWRKY12 (WK box TTTTCCAC) deviated significantly from the consensus sequence (W box TTGAC[C/T]) shown to be recognized by WRKY factors with the GQK sequence. Mutation of the GKK sequence in NtWRKY12 into GQK or GEK abolished binding to the WK box. The WK(1) box is in close proximity to binding sites in the PR-1a promoter for transcription factors TGA1a (as-1 box) and Myb1 (MBSII box). Expression studies with PR-1a promoterbeta-glucuronidase (GUS) genes in stably and transiently transformed tobacco indicated that NtWRKY12 and TGA1a act synergistically in PR-1a expression induced by salicylic acid and bacterial elicitors. Cotransfection of Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts with 35SNtWRKY12 and PR-1aGUS promoter fusions showed that overexpression of NtWRKY12 resulted in a strong increase in GUS expression, which required functional WK boxes in the PR-1a promoter.

  5. Expression and Functional Roles of the Pepper Pathogen-Induced bZIP Transcription Factor CabZIP2 in Enhanced Disease Resistance to Bacterial Pathogen Infection.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chae Woo; Baek, Woonhee; Lim, Sohee; Han, Sang-Wook; Lee, Sung Chul

    2015-07-01

    A pepper bZIP transcription factor gene, CabZIP2, was isolated from pepper leaves infected with a virulent strain of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria. Transient expression analysis of the CabZIP2-GFP fusion protein in Nicotiana benthamiana revealed that the CabZIP2 protein is localized in the cytoplasm as well as the nucleus. The acidic domain in the N-terminal region of CabZIP2 that is fused to the GAL4 DNA-binding domain is required to activate the transcription of reporter genes in yeast. Transcription of CabZIP2 is induced in pepper plants inoculated with virulent or avirulent strains of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria. The CabZIP2 gene is also induced by defense-related hormones such as salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, and ethylene. To elucidate the in vivo function of the CabZIP2 gene in plant defense, virus-induced gene silencing in pepper and overexpression in Arabidopsis were used. CabZIP2-silenced pepper plants were susceptible to infection by the virulent strain of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria, which was accompanied by reduced expression of defense-related genes such as CaBPR1 and CaAMP1. CabZIP2 overexpression in transgenic Arabidopsis plants conferred enhanced resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Together, these results suggest that CabZIP2 is involved in bacterial disease resistance.

  6. GlnR negatively regulates the transcription of the alanine dehydrogenase encoding gene ald in Amycolatopsis mediterranei U32 under nitrogen limited conditions via specific binding to its major transcription initiation site.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Li, Chen; Duan, Na; Li, Bin; Ding, Xiao-Ming; Yao, Yu-Feng; Hu, Jun; Zhao, Guo-Ping; Wang, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Ammonium assimilation is catalyzed by two enzymatic pathways, i.e., glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase (GS/GOGAT) and alanine dehydrogenase (AlaDH) in Amycolatopsis mediterranei U32. Under nitrogen-rich conditions, the AlaDH pathway is the major route for ammonium assimilation, while the GS/GOGAT pathway takes over when the extracellular nitrogen supply is limited. The global nitrogen regulator GlnR was previously characterized to activate the transcription of the GS encoding gene glnA in response to nitrogen limitation and is demonstrated in this study as a repressor for the transcription of the AlaDH encoding gene ald, whose regulation is consistent with the switch of the ammonium assimilation pathways from AlaDH to GS/GOGAT responding to nitrogen limitation. Three transcription initiation sites (TISs) of ald were determined with primer extension assay, among which transcription from aldP2 contributed the major transcripts under nitrogen-rich conditions but was repressed to an undetectable level in response to nitrogen limitation. Through DNase I footprinting assay, two separate regions were found to be protected by GlnR within ald promoter, within which three GlnR binding sites (a1, b1 sites in region I and a2 site in region II) were defined. Interestingly, the major TIS aldP2 is located in the middle of a2 site within region II. Therefore, one may easily conclude that GlnR represses the transcription of ald via specific binding to the GlnR binding sites, which obviously blocks the transcription initiation from aldP2 and therefore reduces ald transcripts.

  7. An MSC2 Promoter-lacZ Fusion Gene Reveals Zinc-Responsive Changes in Sites of Transcription Initiation That Occur across the Yeast Genome

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yi-Hsuan; Taggart, Janet; Song, Pamela Xiyao; MacDiarmid, Colin; Eide, David J.

    2016-01-01

    The Msc2 and Zrg17 proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae form a complex to transport zinc into the endoplasmic reticulum. ZRG17 is transcriptionally induced in zinc-limited cells by the Zap1 transcription factor. In this report, we show that MSC2 mRNA also increases (~1.5 fold) in zinc-limited cells. The MSC2 gene has two in-frame ATG codons at its 5’ end, ATG1 and ATG2; ATG2 is the predicted initiation codon. When the MSC2 promoter was fused at ATG2 to the lacZ gene, we found that unlike the chromosomal gene this reporter showed a 4-fold decrease in lacZ mRNA in zinc-limited cells. Surprisingly, β-galactosidase activity generated by this fusion gene increased ~7 fold during zinc deficiency suggesting the influence of post-transcriptional factors. Transcription of MSC2ATG2-lacZ was found to start upstream of ATG1 in zinc-replete cells. In zinc-limited cells, transcription initiation shifted to sites just upstream of ATG2. From the results of mutational and polysome profile analyses, we propose the following explanation for these effects. In zinc-replete cells, MSC2ATG2-lacZ mRNA with long 5’ UTRs fold into secondary structures that inhibit translation. In zinc-limited cells, transcripts with shorter unstructured 5’ UTRs are generated that are more efficiently translated. Surprisingly, chromosomal MSC2 did not show start site shifts in response to zinc status and only shorter 5’ UTRs were observed. However, the shifts that occur in the MSC2ATG2-lacZ construct led us to identify significant transcription start site changes affecting the expression of ~3% of all genes. Therefore, zinc status can profoundly alter transcription initiation across the yeast genome. PMID:27657924

  8. Telomeric Retrotransposon HeT-A Contains a Bidirectional Promoter that Initiates Divergent Transcription of piRNA Precursors in Drosophila Germline.

    PubMed

    Radion, Elizaveta; Ryazansky, Sergei; Akulenko, Natalia; Rozovsky, Yakov; Kwon, Dmitry; Morgunova, Valeriya; Olovnikov, Ivan; Kalmykova, Alla

    2016-12-07

    PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) provide the silencing of transposable elements in the germline. Drosophila telomeres are maintained by transpositions of specialized telomeric retroelements. piRNAs generated from sense and antisense transcripts of telomeric elements provide telomere length control in the germline. Previously, we have found that antisense transcription of the major telomeric retroelement HeT-A is initiated upstream of the HeT-A sense transcription start site. Here, we performed a deletion analysis of the HeT-A promoter and show that common regulatory elements are shared by sense and antisense promoters of HeT-A. Therefore, the HeT-A promoter is a bidirectional promoter capable of processive sense and antisense transcription. Ovarian small RNA data show that a solo HeT-A promoter within an euchromatic transgene initiates the divergent transcription of transgenic reporter genes and subsequent processing of these transcripts into piRNAs. These events lead to the formation of a divergent unistrand piRNA cluster at solo HeT-A promoters, in contrast to endogenous telomeres that represent strong dual-strand piRNA clusters. Solo HeT-A promoters are not immunoprecipitated with heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) homolog Rhino, a marker of the dual-strand piRNA clusters, but are associated with HP1 itself, which provides piRNA-mediated transcriptional repression of the reporter genes. Unlike endogenous dual-strand piRNA clusters, the solo HeT-A promoter does not produce overlapping transcripts. In a telomeric context, however, bidirectional promoters of tandem HeT-A repeats provide a read-through transcription of both genomic strands, followed by Rhi binding. These data indicate that Drosophila telomeres share properties of unistrand and dual-strand piRNA clusters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Expression and functional roles of the pepper pathogen-induced transcription factor RAV1 in bacterial disease resistance, and drought and salt stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Kee Hoon; Lee, Sung Chul; Jung, Ho Won; Hong, Jeum Kyu; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2006-08-01

    A novel pathogen-induced gene encoding the RAV (Related to ABI3/VP1) transcription factor, CARAV1, was isolated from pepper leaves infected with Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria. CARAV1 contains two distinct DNA-binding domains AP2 and B3 uniquely found in higher plants. Transient expression analysis of the smGFP:CARAV1 fusion construct in Arabidopsis protoplasts and pepper epidermal cells revealed the CARAV1 protein to be localized in the nucleus. The N-terminal region of CARAV1 fused to the GAL4 DNA-binding domain was required to activate transcription of reporter genes in yeast. In yeast one-hybrid, the recognition of CAACA and CACCTG motifs also were essential for the CARAV1 protein to bind to a specific target gene and activate the reporter gene. The expression of the CARAV1 gene was strongly induced early in pepper leaves during the pathogen infection, abiotic elicitors and environmental stresses. CARAV1 transcripts were localized in the phloem cells of leaf tissues during pathogen infection and ethylene treatment. Ectopic expression of the CARAV1 gene in transgenic Arabidopsis plants induced some PR genes and enhanced resistance against infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 and osmotic stresses by high salinity and dehydration. The CARAV1 promoter activation was induced by P. syringae pv. tabaci, salicylic acid and abscisic acid. These data suggest that pathogen- and abiotic stress-inducible CARAV1 functions as a transcriptional activator triggering resistance to bacterial infection and tolerance to osmotic stresses.

  10. A high-throughput method to examine protein-nucleotide interactions identifies targets of the bacterial transcriptional regulatory protein fur.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chunxiao; Lopez, Carlos A; Hu, Han; Xia, Yu; Freedman, David S; Reddington, Alexander P; Daaboul, George G; Unlü, M Selim; Genco, Caroline Attardo

    2014-01-01

    The Ferric uptake regulatory protein (Fur) is a transcriptional regulatory protein that functions to control gene transcription in response to iron in a number of pathogenic bacteria. In this study, we applied a label-free, quantitative and high-throughput analysis method, Interferometric Reflectance Imaging Sensor (IRIS), to rapidly characterize Fur-DNA interactions in vitro with predicted Fur binding sequences in the genome of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of the sexually transmitted disease gonorrhea. IRIS can easily be applied to examine multiple protein-protein, protein-nucleotide and nucleotide-nucleotide complexes simultaneously and demonstrated here that seventy percent of the predicted Fur boxes in promoter regions of iron-induced genes bound to Fur in vitro with a range of affinities as observed using this microarray screening technology. Combining binding data with mRNA expression levels in a gonococcal fur mutant strain allowed us to identify five new gonococcal genes under Fur-mediated direct regulation.

  11. Structural basis for RNA recognition by NusB and NusE in the initiation of transcription antitermination

    SciTech Connect

    Stagno, Jason R.; Altieri, Amanda S.; Bubunenko, Mikhail; Tarasov, Sergey G.; Li, Jess; Court, Donald L.; Byrd, R. Andrew; Ji, Xinhua

    2012-03-26

    Processive transcription antitermination requires the assembly of the complete antitermination complex, which is initiated by the formation of the ternary NusB-NusE-BoxA RNA complex. We have elucidated the crystal structure of this complex, demonstrating that the BoxA RNA is composed of 8 nt that are recognized by the NusB-NusE heterodimer. Functional biologic and biophysical data support the structural observations and establish the relative significance of key protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions. Further crystallographic investigation of a NusB-NusE-dsRNA complex reveals a heretofore unobserved dsRNA binding site contiguous with the BoxA binding site. We propose that the observed dsRNA represents BoxB RNA, as both single-stranded BoxA and double-stranded BoxB components are present in the classical lambda antitermination site. Combining these data with known interactions amongst antitermination factors suggests a specific model for the assembly of the complete antitermination complex.

  12. Structural basis for RNA recognition by NusB and NusE in the initiation of transcription antitermination.

    PubMed

    Stagno, Jason R; Altieri, Amanda S; Bubunenko, Mikhail; Tarasov, Sergey G; Li, Jess; Court, Donald L; Byrd, R Andrew; Ji, Xinhua

    2011-09-01

    Processive transcription antitermination requires the assembly of the complete antitermination complex, which is initiated by the formation of the ternary NusB-NusE-BoxA RNA complex. We have elucidated the crystal structure of this complex, demonstrating that the BoxA RNA is composed of 8 nt that are recognized by the NusB-NusE heterodimer. Functional biologic and biophysical data support the structural observations and establish the relative significance of key protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions. Further crystallographic investigation of a NusB-NusE-dsRNA complex reveals a heretofore unobserved dsRNA binding site contiguous with the BoxA binding site. We propose that the observed dsRNA represents BoxB RNA, as both single-stranded BoxA and double-stranded BoxB components are present in the classical lambda antitermination site. Combining these data with known interactions amongst antitermination factors suggests a specific model for the assembly of the complete antitermination complex.

  13. An initiation site of DNA replication with transcriptional enhancer activity present upstream of the c-myc gene.

    PubMed Central

    Iguchi-Ariga, S M; Okazaki, T; Itani, T; Ogata, M; Sato, Y; Ariga, H

    1988-01-01

    We have previously reported that c-myc protein may promote cellular DNA replication by binding to initiation sites of replication. Here we report that a putative origin of human cellular DNA replication (ori) is present at approximately 2 kb upstream of the coding region of the c-myc gene itself. The c-myc protein, or protein(s) complexed with c-myc protein, bind to the upstream region (approximately 200 bp in length) which has transcriptional enhancer activity as well as autonomously replicating activity in human cells, suggesting that the c-myc protein may be an enhancer binding protein as well as a DNA replication protein. Results with deletion mutants suggest that the sequence essential to the origin of DNA replication may be adjacent to, but cannot be clearly separated from, the sequence responsible for enhancer activity. Furthermore, when cloned DNA containing putative c-myc protein binding sequences was transfected as competitor into HL-60 cells, expression of c-myc was inhibited, suggesting that c-myc protein itself may be necessary for c-myc expression. Images PMID:3053161

  14. The Bacterial Effector HopX1 Targets JAZ Transcriptional Repressors to Activate Jasmonate Signaling and Promote Infection in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Gimenez-Ibanez, Selena; Boter, Marta; Fernández-Barbero, Gemma; Chini, Andrea; Rathjen, John P.; Solano, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenicity of Pseudomonas syringae is dependent on a type III secretion system, which secretes a suite of virulence effector proteins into the host cytoplasm, and the production of a number of toxins such as coronatine (COR), which is a mimic of the plant hormone jasmonate-isoleuce (JA-Ile). Inside the plant cell, effectors target host molecules to subvert the host cell physiology and disrupt defenses. However, despite the fact that elucidating effector action is essential to understanding bacterial pathogenesis, the molecular function and host targets of the vast majority of effectors remain largely unknown. Here, we found that effector HopX1 from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci (Pta) 11528, a strain that does not produce COR, interacts with and promotes the degradation of JAZ proteins, a key family of JA-repressors. We show that hopX1 encodes a cysteine protease, activity that is required for degradation of JAZs by HopX1. HopX1 associates with JAZ proteins through its central ZIM domain and degradation occurs in a COI1-independent manner. Moreover, ectopic expression of HopX1 in Arabidopsis induces the expression of JA-dependent genes, represses salicylic acid (SA)-induced markers, and complements the growth of a COR-deficient P. syringae pv. tomato (Pto) DC3000 strain during natural bacterial infections. Furthermore, HopX1 promoted susceptibility when delivered by the natural type III secretion system, to a similar extent as the addition of COR, and this effect was dependent on its catalytic activity. Altogether, our results indicate that JAZ proteins are direct targets of bacterial effectors to promote activation of JA-induced defenses and susceptibility in Arabidopsis. HopX1 illustrates a paradigm of an alternative evolutionary solution to COR with similar physiological outcome. PMID:24558350

  15. Identification of EhTIF-IA: The putative E. histolytica orthologue of the human ribosomal RNA transcription initiation factor-IA.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Ankita; Bhattacharya, Alok; Bhattacharya, Sudha; Jhingan, Gagan Deep

    2016-03-01

    Initiation of rDNA transcription requires the assembly of a specific multi-protein complex at the rDNA promoter containing the RNA Pol I with auxiliary factors. One of these factors is known as Rrn3P in yeast and Transcription Initiation Factor IA (TIF-IA) in mammals. Rrn3p/TIF-IA serves as a bridge between RNA Pol I and the pre-initiation complex at the promoter. It is phosphorylated at multiple sites and is involved in regulation of rDNA transcription in a growth-dependent manner. In the early branching parasitic protist Entamoeba histolytica, the rRNA genes are present exclusively on circular extra chromosomal plasmids. The protein factors involved in regulation of rDNA transcription in E. histolytica are not known. We have identified the E. histolytica equivalent of TIF-1A (EhTIF-IA) by homology search within the database and was further cloned and expressed. Immuno-localization studies showed that EhTIF-IA co-localized partially with fibrillarin in the peripherally localized nucleolus. EhTIF-IA was shown to interact with the RNA Pol I-specific subunit RPA12 both in vivo and in vitro. Mass spectroscopy data identified RNA Pol I-specific subunits and other nucleolar proteins to be the interacting partners of EhTIF-IA. Our study demonstrates for the first time a conserved putative RNA Pol I transcription factor TIF-IA in E. histolytica.

  16. The post-transcriptional regulator CsrA plays a central role in the adaptation of bacterial pathogens to different stages of infection in animal hosts.

    PubMed

    Lucchetti-Miganeh, Céline; Burrowes, Elizabeth; Baysse, Christine; Ermel, Gwennola

    2008-01-01

    The importance of Csr post-transcriptional systems is gradually emerging; these systems control a variety of virulence-linked physiological traits in many pathogenic bacteria. This review focuses on the central role that Csr systems play in the pathogenesis of certain bacteria and in the establishment of successful infections in animal hosts. Csr systems appear to control the 'switch' between different physiological states in the infection process; for example switching pathogens from a colonization state to a persistence state. Csr systems are controlled by two-component sensor/regulator systems and by non-coding RNAs. In addition, recent findings suggest that the RNA chaperone Hfq may play an integral role in Csr-mediated bacterial adaptation to the host environment.

  17. The Phytohormone Ethylene Enhances Cellulose Production, Regulates CRP/FNRKx Transcription and Causes Differential Gene Expression within the Bacterial Cellulose Synthesis Operon of Komagataeibacter (Gluconacetobacter) xylinus ATCC 53582.

    PubMed

    Augimeri, Richard V; Strap, Janice L

    2015-01-01

    Komagataeibacter (formerly Gluconacetobacter) xylinus ATCC 53582 is a plant-associated model organism for bacterial cellulose (BC) biosynthesis. This bacterium inhabits the carposphere where it interacts with fruit through the bi-directional transfer of phytohormones. The majority of research regarding K. xylinus has been focused on identifying and characterizing structural and regulatory factors that control BC biosynthesis, but its ecophysiology has been generally overlooked. Ethylene is a phytohormone that regulates plant development in a variety of ways, but is most commonly known for its positive role on fruit ripening. In this study, we utilized ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid) to produce in situ ethylene to investigate the effects of this phytohormone on BC production and the expression of genes known to be involved in K. xylinus BC biosynthesis (bcsA, bcsB, bcsC, bcsD, cmcAx, ccpAx and bglAx). Using pellicle assays and reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), we demonstrate that ethephon-derived ethylene enhances BC directly in K. xylinus by up-regulating the expression of bcsA and bcsB, and indirectly though the up-regulation of cmcAx, ccpAx, and bglAx. We confirm that IAA directly decreases BC biosynthesis by showing that IAA down-regulates bcsA expression. Similarly, we confirm that ABA indirectly influences BC biosynthesis by showing it does not affect the expression of bcs operon genes. In addition, we are the first to report the ethylene and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) induced differential expression of genes within the bacterial cellulose synthesis (bcs) operon. Using bioinformatics we have identified a novel phytohormone-regulated CRP/FNRKx transcription factor and provide evidence that it influences BC biosynthesis in K. xylinus. Lastly, utilizing current and previous data, we propose a model for the phytohormone-mediated fruit-bacteria interactions that K. xylinus experiences in nature.

  18. The Phytohormone Ethylene Enhances Cellulose Production, Regulates CRP/FNRKx Transcription and Causes Differential Gene Expression within the Bacterial Cellulose Synthesis Operon of Komagataeibacter (Gluconacetobacter) xylinus ATCC 53582

    PubMed Central

    Augimeri, Richard V.; Strap, Janice L.

    2015-01-01

    Komagataeibacter (formerly Gluconacetobacter) xylinus ATCC 53582 is a plant-associated model organism for bacterial cellulose (BC) biosynthesis. This bacterium inhabits the carposphere where it interacts with fruit through the bi-directional transfer of phytohormones. The majority of research regarding K. xylinus has been focused on identifying and characterizing structural and regulatory factors that control BC biosynthesis, but its ecophysiology has been generally overlooked. Ethylene is a phytohormone that regulates plant development in a variety of ways, but is most commonly known for its positive role on fruit ripening. In this study, we utilized ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid) to produce in situ ethylene to investigate the effects of this phytohormone on BC production and the expression of genes known to be involved in K. xylinus BC biosynthesis (bcsA, bcsB, bcsC, bcsD, cmcAx, ccpAx and bglAx). Using pellicle assays and reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), we demonstrate that ethephon-derived ethylene enhances BC directly in K. xylinus by up-regulating the expression of bcsA and bcsB, and indirectly though the up-regulation of cmcAx, ccpAx, and bglAx. We confirm that IAA directly decreases BC biosynthesis by showing that IAA down-regulates bcsA expression. Similarly, we confirm that ABA indirectly influences BC biosynthesis by showing it does not affect the expression of bcs operon genes. In addition, we are the first to report the ethylene and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) induced differential expression of genes within the bacterial cellulose synthesis (bcs) operon. Using bioinformatics we have identified a novel phytohormone-regulated CRP/FNRKx transcription factor and provide evidence that it influences BC biosynthesis in K. xylinus. Lastly, utilizing current and previous data, we propose a model for the phytohormone-mediated fruit-bacteria interactions that K. xylinus experiences in nature. PMID:26733991

  19. Bacterially-Associated Transcriptional Remodelling in a Distinct Genomic Subtype of Colorectal Cancer Provides a Plausible Molecular Basis for Disease Development

    PubMed Central

    Goosen, Ryan W.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of specific microbial colonisation to colorectal cancer (CRC) disease pathogenesis is increasingly recognised, but our understanding of possible underlying molecular mechanisms that may link colonisation to disease in vivo remains limited. Here, we investigate the relationships between the most commonly studied CRC-associated bacteria (Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis, pks+ Escherichia coli, Fusobacterium spp., afaC+ E. coli, Enterococcus faecalis & Enteropathogenic E. coli) and altered transcriptomic and methylation profiles of CRC patients, in order to gain insight into the potential contribution of these bacteria in the aetiopathogenesis of CRC. We show that colonisation by E. faecalis and high levels of Fusobacterium is associated with a specific transcriptomic subtype of CRC that is characterised by CpG island methylation, microsatellite instability and a significant increase in inflammatory and DNA damage pathways. Analysis of the significant, bacterially-associated changes in host gene expression, both at the level of individual genes as well as pathways, revealed a transcriptional remodeling that provides a plausible mechanistic link between specific bacterial colonisation and colorectal cancer disease development and progression in this subtype; these included upregulation of REG3A, REG1A and REG1P in the case of high-level colonization by Fusobacterium, and CXCL10 and BMI1 in the case of colonisation by E. faecalis. The enrichment of both E. faecalis and Fusobacterium in this CRC subtype suggests that polymicrobial colonisation of the colonic epithelium may well be an important aspect of colonic tumourigenesis. PMID:27846243

  20. The broad bacterial blight resistance of rice line CBB23 is triggered by a novel transcription activator-like (TAL) effector of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Lian; Qin, Teng-Fei; Yu, Hong-Man; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Che, Jin-Ying; Gao, Ying; Zheng, Chong-Ke; Yang, Bing; Zhao, Kai-Jun

    2014-05-01

    Bacterial blight (BB), caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), is not only a disease devastating rice production worldwide, but also an ideal model system for the study of the interaction between plants and their bacterial pathogens. The rice near-isogenic line (NIL) CBB23, derived from a cross between a wild rice Oryza rufipogon accession (RBB16) and a susceptible indica rice variety (Jingang 30), is highly resistant to all field Xoo strains tested so far. Although the BB resistance of CBB23 has been widely used in rice breeding programmes, the mechanism of its extremely broad-spectrum resistance remains unknown. Here, we report the molecular cloning of an avirulence gene, designated as avrXa23, from Xoo strain PXO99(A) . We validate that AvrXa23, a novel transcription activator-like effector, specifically triggers the broad-spectrum BB resistance in CBB23. The prevalence of avrXa23 in all 38 Xoo strains surveyed may explain the broad-spectrum feature of BB resistance in CBB23. The results will significantly facilitate the molecular cloning of the corresponding resistance (R) gene in the host, and provide new insights into our understanding of the molecular mechanism for broad-spectrum disease resistance in plants.

  1. YabA of Bacillus subtilis controls DnaA-mediated replication initiation but not the transcriptional response to replication stress.

    PubMed

    Goranov, Alexi I; Breier, Adam M; Merrikh, Houra; Grossman, Alan D

    2009-10-01

    yabA encodes a negative regulator of replication initiation in Bacillus subtilis and homologues are found in many other gram-positive species. YabA interacts with the beta-processivity clamp (DnaN) of DNA polymerase and with the replication initiator and transcription factor DnaA. Because of these interactions, YabA has been proposed to modulate the activity of DnaA. We investigated the role of YabA in regulating replication initiation and the activity of DnaA as a transcription factor. We found that YabA function is mainly limited to replication initiation at oriC. Loss of YabA did not significantly alter expression of genes controlled by DnaA during exponential growth or after replication stress, indicating that YabA is not required for modulating DnaA transcriptional activity. We also found that DnaN activates replication initiation apparently through effects on YabA. Furthermore, association of GFP-YabA with the replisome correlated with the presence of DnaN at replication forks, but was independent of DnaA. Our results are consistent with models in which YabA inhibits replication initiation at oriC, and perhaps DnaA function at oriC, but not with models in which YabA generally modulates the activity of DnaA in response to replication stress.

  2. YabA of Bacillus subtilis controls DnaA-mediated replication initiation but not the transcriptional response to replication stress

    PubMed Central

    Goranov, Alexi I.; Breier, Adam M.; Merrikh, Houra; Grossman, Alan D.

    2009-01-01

    Summary yabA encodes a negative regulator of replication initiation in Bacillus subtilis and homologues are found in many other Gram-positive species. YabA interacts with the β-processivity clamp (DnaN) of DNA polymerase and with the replication initiator and transcription factor DnaA. Because of these interactions, YabA has been proposed to modulate the activity of DnaA. We investigated the role of YabA in regulating replication initiation and the activity of DnaA as a transcription factor. We found that YabA function is mainly limited to replication initiation at oriC. Loss of YabA did not significantly alter expression of genes controlled by DnaA during exponential growth or after replication stress, indicating that YabA is not required for modulating DnaA transcriptional activity. We also found that DnaN activates replication initiation apparently through effects on YabA. Furthermore, association of GFP-YabA with the replisome correlated with the presence of DnaN at replication forks, but was independent of DnaA. Our results are consistent with models in which YabA inhibits replication initiation at oriC, and perhaps DnaA function at oriC, but not with models in which YabA generally modulates the activity of DnaA in response to replication stress. PMID:19737352

  3. A Bioinformatics Analysis Reveals a Group of MocR Bacterial Transcriptional Regulators Linked to a Family of Genes Coding for Membrane Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Milano, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    The MocR bacterial transcriptional regulators are characterized by an N-terminal domain, 60 residues long on average, possessing the winged-helix-turn-helix (wHTH) architecture responsible for DNA recognition and binding, linked to a large C-terminal domain (350 residues on average) that is homologous to fold type-I pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP) dependent enzymes like aspartate aminotransferase (AAT). These regulators are involved in the expression of genes taking part in several metabolic pathways directly or indirectly connected to PLP chemistry, many of which are still uncharacterized. A bioinformatics analysis is here reported that studied the features of a distinct group of MocR regulators predicted to be functionally linked to a family of homologous genes coding for integral membrane proteins of unknown function. This group occurs mainly in the Actinobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria phyla. An analysis of the multiple sequence alignments of their wHTH and AAT domains suggested the presence of specificity-determining positions (SDPs). Mapping of SDPs onto a homology model of the AAT domain hinted at possible structural/functional roles in effector recognition. Likewise, SDPs in wHTH domain suggested the basis of specificity of Transcription Factor Binding Site recognition. The results reported represent a framework for rational design of experiments and for bioinformatics analysis of other MocR subgroups. PMID:27446613

  4. Amplification of pico-scale DNA mediated by bacterial carrier DNA for small-cell-number transcription factor ChIP-seq.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Janus S; Bagger, Frederik O; Hasemann, Marie S; Schuster, Mikkel B; Frank, Anne-Katrine; Waage, Johannes; Vitting-Seerup, Kristoffer; Porse, Bo T

    2015-02-05

    Chromatin-Immunoprecipitation coupled with deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) is used to map transcription factor occupancy and generate epigenetic profiles genome-wide. The requirement of nano-scale ChIP DNA for generation of sequencing libraries has impeded ChIP-seq on in vivo tissues of low cell numbers. We describe a robust, simple and scalable methodology for ChIP-seq of low-abundant cell populations, verified down to 10,000 cells. By employing non-mammalian genome mapping bacterial carrier DNA during amplification, we reliably amplify down to 50 pg of ChIP DNA from transcription factor (CEBPA) and histone mark (H3K4me3) ChIP. We further demonstrate that genomic profiles are highly resilient to changes in carrier DNA to ChIP DNA ratios. This represents a significant advance compared to existing technologies, which involve either complex steps of pre-selection for nucleosome-containing chromatin or pre-amplification of precipitated DNA, making them prone to introduce experimental biases.

  5. Phylogeny of the bacterial superfamily of Crp-Fnr transcription regulators: exploiting the metabolic spectrum by controlling alternative gene programs

    SciTech Connect

    Korner, Heinz; Sofia, Heidi J. ); Zumft, Walter G.

    2003-12-30

    The Crp-Fnr regulators, named after the first two identified members, are DNA-binding proteins which predominantly function as positive transcription factors, though roles of repressors are also important. Among over 1200 proteins with an N-terminally-located nucleotide-binding domain similar to the cAMP receptor protein, the distinctive additional trait of the Crp-Fnr superfamily is a C-terminally-located helix-turn-helix motif for DNA binding. From a curated database of 369 family members exhibiting both features, we provide a protein tree of Crp-Fnr proteins according to their phylogenetic relationships. This results in the assembly of the regulators ArcR, CooA, CprK, Crp, Dnr, FixK, Flp, Fnr, FnrBac, FnrN, MalR, NnrR, NtcA, PrfA, and YeiL and their homologues in distinct clusters. Lead members and representatives of these groups are described, placing emphasis on the less well known regulators and target processes. Several more groups consist of sequence-derived proteins of unknown physiological role; some of them are tight clusters of highly similar members. The Crp-Fnr regulators stand out in responding to a broad spectrum of intracellular and exogenous signals such as cyclic AMP, anoxia, the redox state, oxidative and nitrosative stress, nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), 2-oxoglutarate, or temperature. To accomplish their roles Crp-Fnr members have intrinsic sensory modules allowing the binding of allosteric effector molecules, or have prosthetic groups for the interaction with the signal. The regulatory adaptability and structural flexibility represented in the Crp-Fnr scaffold has led to the evolution of an important group of physiologically versatile transcription factors.

  6. Isolation of flowering genes and seasonal changes in their transcript levels related to flower induction and initiation in apple (Malus domestica).

    PubMed

    Hättasch, Conny; Flachowsky, Henryk; Kapturska, Danuta; Hanke, Magda-Viola

    2008-10-01

    Flower development in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) extends over two consecutive seasons. During the first season, most shoot apical meristems change to reproductive growth and initiate flowers. After winter dormancy, flower development continues during the second season and ends with anthesis in the spring. To determine the beginning of the transition to reproductive growth at the molecular level and to identify genes involved in this critical phase of flower development, we examined transcript levels of the putative flowering genes MdCOL1, MdCOL2, MdFT, MdSOC1, MdMADS2, MdMADS5, MdTFL1-1 and MdTFL1-2 in vegetative terminal buds of the apple cultivar Pinova during the first season by quantitative real-time PCR. Transcript levels of these genes peaked at the end of April during blooming of coexisting floral buds. Subsequently, there was a large increase in transcription, which started on May 22 for AFL2 and MdMADS2, followed by MdFT and AFL1 one week later. We propose that the increased transcription at the end of May marks the beginning of flower induction. Transcript levels of MdSOC1, MdTFL1-1 and MdTFL1-2 increased at the end of June, suggesting that these genes are involved in flower initiation, which follows flower induction. In contrast, MdMADS5 transcription was too weak to be quantified, and the transcript levels of MdCOL1 and MdCOL2 showed no detectable trends during the study.

  7. Impact of Alternative Initiation, Splicing, and Termination on the Diversity of the mRNA Transcripts Encoded by the Mouse Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Zavolan, Mihaela; Kondo, Shinji; Schönbach, Christian; Adachi, Jun; Hume, David A.; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Gaasterland, Terry

    2003-01-01

    We analyzed the FANTOM2 clone set of 60,770 RIKEN full-length mouse cDNA sequences and 44,122 public mRNA sequences. We developed a new computational procedure to identify and classify the forms of splice variation evident in this data set and organized the results into a publicly accessible database that can be used for future expression array construction, structural genomics, and analyses of the mechanism and regulation of alternative splicing. Statistical analysis shows that at least 41% and possibly as much as 60% of multiexon genes in mouse have multiple splice forms. Of the transcription units with multiple splice forms, 49% contain transcripts in which the apparent use of an alternative transcription start (stop) is accompanied by alternative splicing of the initial (terminal) exon. This implies that alternative transcription may frequently induce alternative splicing. The fact that 73% of all exons with splice variation fall within the annotated coding region indicates that most splice variation is likely to affect the protein form. Finally, we compared the set of constitutive (present in all transcripts) exons with the set of cryptic (present only in some transcripts) exons and found statistically significant differences in their length distributions, the nucleotide distributions around their splice junctions, and the frequencies of occurrence of several short sequence motifs. PMID:12819126

  8. A specialized form of RNA polymerase I, essential for initiation and growth-dependent regulation of rRNA synthesis, is disrupted during transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Milkereit, P; Tschochner, H

    1998-01-01

    Only a small proportion (<2%) of RNA polymerase I (pol I) from whole-cell extracts appeared to be competent for specific initiation at the ribosomal gene promoter in a yeast reconstituted transcription system. Initiation-competent pol I molecules were found exclusively in salt-resistant complexes that contain the pol I-specific initiation factor Rrn3p. Levels of initiation-competent complexes in extracts were independent of total Rrn3p content and varied with the growth state of the cells. Although extracts from stationary phase cells contained substantial amounts of Rrn3p and pol I, they lacked the pol I-Rrn3p complex and were inactive in promoter-dependent transcription. Activity was restored by adding purified pol I-Rrn3p complex to extracts from stationary phase cells. The pol I-Rrn3p complex dissociated during transcription and lost its capacity for subsequent reinitiation in vitro, suggesting a stoichiometric rather than a catalytic activity in initiation. We propose that the formation and disruption of the pol I-Rrn3p complex reflects a molecular switch for regulating rRNA synthesis and its growth rate-dependent regulation. PMID:9649439

  9. Sensing Mechanisms in the Redox-Regulated, [2Fe-2S] Cluster-Containing, Bacterial Transcriptional Factor SoxR.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kazuo

    2017-07-18

    Bacteria possess molecular biosensors that enable responses to a variety of stressful conditions, including oxidative stress, toxic compounds, and interactions with other organisms, through elaborately coordinated regulation of gene expression. In Escherichia coli and related bacteria, the transcription factor SoxR functions as a sensor of oxidative stress and nitric oxide (NO). SoxR protein contains a [2Fe-2S] cluster essential for its transcription-enhancing activity, which is regulated by redox changes in the [2Fe-2S] cluster. We have explored the mechanistic and structural basis of SoxR proteins function and determined how the chemistry at the [2Fe-2S] cluster causes the subsequent regulatory response. In this Account, I describe our recent achievements in three different areas using physicochemical techniques, primarily pulse radiolysis. First, redox-dependent conformational changes in SoxR-bound DNA were studied by site-specifically replacing selected bases with the fluorescent probes 2-aminopurine and pyrrolocytosine. X-ray analyses of the DNA-SoxR complex in the oxidized state revealed that the DNA structure is distorted in the center regions, resulting in local untwisting of base pairs. However, the inactive, reduced state had remained uncharacterized. We found that reduction of the [2Fe-2S] cluster in the SoxR-DNA complex weakens the fluorescence intensity within a region confined to the central base pairs in the promoter region. Second, the reactions of NO with [2Fe-2S] clusters of E. coli SoxR were analyzed using pulse radiolysis. The transcriptional activation of SoxR in E. coli occurs through direct modification of [2Fe-2S] by NO to form a dinitrosyl iron complex (DNIC). The reaction of NO with [2Fe-2S] cluster of SoxR proceeded nearly quantitatively with concomitant reductive elimination of two equivalents S(0) atoms. Intermediate nitrosylation products, however, were too unstable to observe. We found that the conversion proceeds through at least two

  10. The role of nano-scale heterogeneous electrostatic interactions in initial bacterial adhesion from flow: a case study with Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Kalasin, Surachate; Dabkowski, Jeffrey; Nüsslein, Klaus; Santore, Maria M

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated the initial adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus from flowing buffer onto modified albumin films with the objective of probing the influence of electrostatic heterogeneity on bacterial adhesion. Electrostatic heterogeneity, on the lengthscale of 10-100 nm, was incorporated into the protein film through the irreversible random deposition of small amounts of polycation coils to produce isolated positive "patches" on the otherwise negative albumin surface before exposure to bacteria, which also possess a net negative surface charge. The system was benchmarked against an appropriate analog using 1 microm silica spheres and the same cationic patches on a silica substrate. Bacterial adhesion from flow was measured with the surface oriented vertically to eliminate gravitational forces between the bacteria and collector. In both systems, a threshold in the surface density of polycation patches needed for bacterial (or silica particle) capture indicated multivalent binding: multiple polycation patches were needed to adhere the bacteria (particles). The shifting of the threshold to greater patch concentrations at lower ionic strengths confirmed that the electrostatic interaction area (zone of influence) was a key factor in modulating the interactions. The role of the contact area in this manner is important because it enables a quantitative explanation of counterintuitive bacterial adhesion onto net negative surfaces. The study further revealed a hydrodynamic crossover from a regime where flow aids bacterial adhesion to one where flow impedes adhesion. An explanation is put forth in terms of the relative hydrodynamic and surface forces. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Oncogene-initiated aberrant signaling engenders the metastatic phenotype: synergistic transcription factor interactions are targets for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Denhardt, D T

    1996-01-01

    Certain p21GTPases (notably Ras) and some of their guanine nucleotide exchange factors (e.g., Ost, Dbl, Tiam) and downstream mediators (e.g., Raf, Myc) have the potential to promote the development of malignancies because they can enhance the transcription of genes that foster the tumorigenic and metastatic phenotype. Among these are genes that stimulate cell proliferation, confer immortality, and facilitate the invasion of normal tissues. Oncogenes upstream of Ras-cell surface receptors such as ErbB2/Neu, Met, or Trk (and their ligands), and nonreceptor cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinases such as Src and Abl-not only can act through Ras but also contribute additional signals. This review presents a synopsis of our understanding of signaling pathways controlled by the p21GTPases, with a focus on transcription factors regulated by the pathways. Mutations in one or more of the elements in these signaling pathways are invariably found in cancer cells. Crosstalk among the pathways may explain how some forms of stress can contribute to the development of a malignancy. Abnormal signaling leads to modified cytoskeletal structures and permanently altered (i.e., self-sustaining or epigenetic) transcription of target genes. A common therne is that genes whose transcription is elevated to the greatest extent by Ras often have in their promoters juxtaposed binding sites for two different transcription factors (particularly those in the Fos/Jun, CREB/ATF, NFkB, and Ets families) each of which is activated and such that together they synergize to augment transcription substantially. Some of these transcription factors can also act as oncogenes in certain cell types when appropriately modified and expressed. This unifying theme among many different cancers suggests that strategies to restore the balance among the signaling pathways or to suppress synergistic interactions between transcription factors may prove broadly useful in reversing the malignant phenotype.

  12. Combined automated PCR cloning, in vitro transcription/translation and two-dimensional electrophoresis for bacterial proteome analysis.

    PubMed

    Norais, N; Nogarotto, R; Lacobini, E T; Garaguso, I; Grifantini, R; Gauli, G; Grandi, G

    2001-11-01

    The most popular approach for proteomics analysis is based on the combination of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry (MS). Although very effective, the method suffers from a number of limitations, the most serious one being the necessity to have expensive and sophisticated instrumentation requiring handling by skilled personnel. Here we propose an alternative approach which may offer some advantages over the current methods, at least for some specific applications. The method is based on two-dimensional gel separation of radiolabeled synthetic proteins derived from transcription/translation reactions of linear polymerase chain reaction amplified genes. The gel is autoradiographed and this is superimposed on the sample gel whose protein spots have to be identified. Matching between autoradiographs and sample gel spots allows immediate protein identification. The method has been validated identifying six proteins from a membrane protein preparation of Neisseria meningitidis MC58 strain. All proteins were correctly identified as judged by confirmation analysis with MS. The approach is particularly useful when a specific subset of proteins needs to be identified in a complex protein mixture.

  13. The Casuarina NIN gene is transcriptionally activated throughout Frankia root infection as well as in response to bacterial diffusible signals.

    PubMed

    Clavijo, Fernando; Diedhiou, Issa; Vaissayre, Virginie; Brottier, Laurent; Acolatse, Jennifer; Moukouanga, Daniel; Crabos, Amandine; Auguy, Florence; Franche, Claudine; Gherbi, Hassen; Champion, Antony; Hocher, Valerie; Barker, David; Bogusz, Didier; Tisa, Louis S; Svistoonoff, Sergio

    2015-11-01

    Root nodule symbioses (RNS) allow plants to acquire atmospheric nitrogen by establishing an intimate relationship with either rhizobia, the symbionts of legumes or Frankia in the case of actinorhizal plants. In legumes, NIN (Nodule INception) genes encode key transcription factors involved in nodulation. Here we report the characterization of CgNIN, a NIN gene from the actinorhizal tree Casuarina glauca using both phylogenetic analysis and transgenic plants expressing either ProCgNIN::reporter gene fusions or CgNIN RNAi constructs. We have found that CgNIN belongs to the same phylogenetic group as other symbiotic NIN genes and CgNIN is able to complement a legume nin mutant for the early steps of nodule development. CgNIN expression is correlated with infection by Frankia, including preinfection stages in developing root hairs, and is induced by culture supernatants. Knockdown mutants were impaired for nodulation and early root hair deformation responses were severely affected. However, no mycorrhizal phenotype was observed and no induction of CgNIN expression was detected in mycorrhizas. Our results indicate that elements specifically required for nodulation include NIN and possibly related gene networks derived from the nitrate signalling pathways. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Model-based Characterization of the Parameters of Dissimilatory Sulfate Reduction Under the Effect of Different Initial Density of Desulfovibrio piger Vib-7 Bacterial Cells.

    PubMed

    Kushkevych, Ivan; Bolis, Marco; Bartos, Milan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to design a model of dissimilatory sulfate reduction process using the Verhulst function, with a particular focus on the kinetics of bacterial growth, sulfate and lactate consumption, and accumulation of hydrogen sulfide and acetate. The effect of the initial density (0.12±0.011, 0.25±0.024, 0.5±0.048 and 1.0±0.096 mg cells/ml of medium) of the sulfate-reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio piger Vib-7 on the growth and dissimilatory sulfate reduction was studied. The exponential growth phase of the D. piger Vib-7 was observed for 72 hours of cultivation at the (0.12 and 0.25 mg/ml) initial concentration of bacterial cells. Sulfate and lactate were consumed incompletely during this time. The increase in the initial concentration of cells to 0.5 and 1 mg/ml led to a shortening of the exponential bacterial growth phase and a shift to the stationary phase of the growth. In the case of 0.5 mg/ml seeding, the stationary growth phase was observed in the 36(th) hour of cultivation. The increase in the initial concentration of cells to 1 mg/ml led to the beginning of the stationary growth phase in 24th hours of cultivation. Under these conditions, sulfate and lactate were consumed completely in the 48th hour of cultivation. The kinetic analysis of the curves of bacterial growth and the process of dissimilatory sulfate reduction by D. piger Vib-7 was carried out.

  15. The Bacillus subtilis Late Competence Operon comE Is Transcriptionally Regulated by yutB and under Post-Transcription Initiation Control by comN (yrzD) ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Ogura, Mitsuo; Tanaka, Teruo

    2009-01-01

    The Bacillus subtilis genome has been sequenced, and disruptants with disruptions in genes that were not characterized previously were systematically generated. We screened these gene disruptants for decreased transformation frequency and identified two genes, yrzD and yutB, whose disruption resulted in severely reduced transformation frequency and modestly reduced transformation frequency, respectively. In the regulation of competence development, various signals affect the expression of comK, which encodes a master regulator of genetic competence that drives late competence gene transcription. Epistatic analyses of both the yrzD and yutB genes revealed no significant differences in the expression of comK. Further analysis of the expression of late competence genes in the yrzD disruptant revealed that yrzD is specifically required for regulation of the comE operon, which is one of the late competence operons, and thus was renamed comN. An analysis of various comE-lacZ fusions revealed that the target cis element for comN action is in the large (approximately 1-kb) 5′ untranslated region of comE, while the activity of the comE promoter was not affected by disruption of comN. These results suggested that there is post-transcription initiation control of comE by comN. A sequential deletion analysis of this region revealed the 35-bp region required for comN action. The yutB gene encodes a putative lipoic acid synthetase and yet is specifically required for transcription of comE, based on the results of lacZ fusion analyses. Therefore, yutB and comN regulate comE at the transcription and post-transcription initiation levels, respectively. These results demonstrate that a comE-specific regulatory mechanism is involved in development of genetic competence. PMID:19028902

  16. A Novel RNA Polymerase I Transcription Initiation Factor, TIF-IE, Commits rRNA Genes by Interaction with TIF-IB, Not by DNA Binding

    PubMed Central

    Al-Khouri, Anna Maria; Paule, Marvin R.

    2002-01-01

    In the small, free-living amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii, rRNA transcription requires, in addition to RNA polymerase I, a single DNA-binding factor, transcription initiation factor IB (TIF-IB). TIF-IB is a multimeric protein that contains TATA-binding protein (TBP) and four TBP-associated factors that are specific for polymerase I transcription. TIF-IB is required for accurate and promoter-specific initiation of rRNA transcription, recruiting and positioning the polymerase on the start site by protein-protein interaction. In A. castellanii, partially purified TIF-IB can form a persistent complex with the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) promoter while homogeneous TIF-IB cannot. An additional factor, TIF-IE, is required along with homogeneous TIF-IB for the formation of a stable complex on the rDNA core promoter. We show that TIF-IE by itself, however, does not bind to the rDNA promoter and thus differs in its mechanism from the upstream binding factor and upstream activating factor, which carry out similar complex-stabilizing functions in vertebrates and yeast, respectively. In addition to its presence in impure TIF-IB, TIF-IE is found in highly purified fractions of polymerase I, with which it associates. Renaturation of polypeptides excised from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels showed that a 141-kDa polypeptide possesses all the known activities of TIF-IE. PMID:11784852

  17. Structure of Thermotoga maritima TM0439: implications for the mechanism of bacterial GntR transcription regulators with Zn{sup 2+}-binding FCD domains

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Meiying; Cooper, David R.; Grossoehme, Nickolas E.; Yu, Minmin; Hung, Li-Wei; Cieslik, Marcin; Derewenda, Urszula; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.; Giedroc, David P.; Derewenda, Zygmunt S.

    2009-04-01

    Here, the crystal structure of TM0439, a GntR regulator with an FCD domain found in the Thermotoga maritima genome, is described. The GntR superfamily of dimeric transcription factors, with more than 6200 members encoded in bacterial genomes, are characterized by N-terminal winged-helix DNA-binding domains and diverse C-terminal regulatory domains which provide a basis for the classification of the constituent families. The largest of these families, FadR, contains nearly 3000 proteins with all-α-helical regulatory domains classified into two related Pfam families: FadR-C and FCD. Only two crystal structures of FadR-family members, those of Escherichia coli FadR protein and LldR from Corynebacterium glutamicum, have been described to date in the literature. Here, the crystal structure of TM0439, a GntR regulator with an FCD domain found in the Thermotoga maritima genome, is described. The FCD domain is similar to that of the LldR regulator and contains a buried metal-binding site. Using atomic absorption spectroscopy and Trp fluorescence, it is shown that the recombinant protein contains bound Ni{sup 2+} ions but that it is able to bind Zn{sup 2+} with K{sub d} < 70 nM. It is concluded that Zn{sup 2+} is the likely physiological metal and that it may perform either structural or regulatory roles or both. Finally, the TM0439 structure is compared with two other FadR-family structures recently deposited by structural genomics consortia. The results call for a revision in the classification of the FadR family of transcription factors.

  18. Crystal structure of Thermotoga maritima TM0439: implications for the mechanism of bacterial GntR transcription regulators with Zn2+-binding FCD domains

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Meiying; Cooper, David; Grossoehmerb, Nickolas; Yu, Minmin; Hung, Li-Wei; Cieslik, Murcin; Derewendaro, Urszula; Lesley, Scott; Wilson, Ian; Giedrocb, David; Derewenda, Zygmunt

    2009-06-06

    The GntR superfamily of dimeric transcription factors, with more than 6200 members encoded in bacterial genomes, are characterized by N-terminal winged helix (WH) DNA-binding domains and diverse C-terminal, regulatory domains, which provide a basis for the classification of the constituent families. The largest of these families, FadR, contains nearly 3000 proteins with all a-helical regulatory domains classified into two related Pfam families: FadR{_}C and FCD. Only two crystal structures of the FadR family members, i.e. the E. coli FadR protein and the LldR from C. glutamicum, have been described to date in literature. Here we describe the crystal structure of TM0439, a GntR regulator with an FCD domain, found in the Thermotoga maritima genome. The FCD domain is similar to that of the LldR regulator, and contains a buried metal binding site. Using atomic absorption spectroscopy and Trp fluorescence, we show that the recombinant protein contains bound Ni{sup 2+} ions, but it is able to bind Zn{sup 2+} with K{sub D} < 70 nM . We conclude that Zn{sup 2+} is the likely physiological metal, where it may perform either or both structural and regulatory roles. Finally, we compare the TM0439 structure to two other FadR family structures recently deposited by Structural Genomics consortia. The results call for a revision in the classification of the FadR family of transcription factors.

  19. The influence of surface texture and wettability on initial bacterial adhesion on titanium and zirconium oxide dental implants.

    PubMed

    Wassmann, Torsten; Kreis, Stefan; Behr, Michael; Buergers, Ralf

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to investigate bacterial adhesion on different titanium and ceramic implant surfaces, to correlate these findings with surface roughness and surface hydrophobicity, and to define the predominant factor for bacterial adhesion for each material. Zirconia and titanium specimens with different surface textures and wettability (5.0 mm in diameter, 1.0 mm in height) were prepared. Surface roughness was measured by perthometer (R a ) and atomic force microscopy, and hydrophobicity according to contact angles by computerized image analysis. Bacterial suspensions of Streptococcus sanguinis and Staphylococcus epidermidis were incubated for 2 h at 37 °C with ten test specimens for each material group and quantified with fluorescence dye CytoX-Violet and an automated multi-detection reader. Variations in surface roughness (R a ) did not lead to any differences in adhering S. epidermidis, but higher R a resulted in increased S. sanguinis adhesion. In contrast, higher bacterial adhesion was observed on hydrophobic surfaces than on hydrophilic surfaces for S. epidermidis but not for S. sanguinis. The potential to adhere S. sanguinis was significantly higher on ceramic surfaces than on titanium surfaces; no such preference could be found for S. epidermidis. Both surface roughness and wettability may influence the adhesion properties of bacteria on biomaterials; in this context, the predominant factor is dependent on the bacterial species. Wettability was the predominant factor for S. epidermidis and surface texture for S. sanguinis. Zirconia did not show any lower bacterial colonization potential than titanium. Arithmetical mean roughness values R a (measured by stylus profilometer) are inadequate for describing surface roughness with regard to its potential influence on microbial adhesion.

  20. Synergistic activation of Arg1 gene by retinoic acid and IL-4 involves chromatin remodeling for transcription initiation and elongation coupling

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bomi; Wu, Cheng-Ying; Lin, Yi-Wei; Park, Sung Wook; Wei, Li-Na

    2016-01-01

    All-trans Retinoic acid (RA) and its derivatives are potent therapeutics for immunological functions including wound repair. However, the molecular mechanism of RA modulation in innate immunity is poorly understood, especially in macrophages. We found that topical application of RA significantly improves wound healing and that RA and IL-4 synergistically activate Arg1, a critical gene for tissue repair, in M2 polarized macrophages. This involves feed forward regulation of Raldh2, a rate-limiting enzyme for RA biosynthesis, and requires Med25 to coordinate RAR, STAT6 and chromatin remodeler, Brg1 to remodel the +1 nucleosome of Arg1 for transcription initiation. By recruiting elongation factor TFIIS, Med25 also facilitates transcriptional initiation-elongation coupling. This study uncovers synergistic activation of Arg1 by RA and IL-4 in M2 macrophages that involves feed forward regulation of RA synthesis and dual functions of Med25 in nucleosome remodeling and transcription initiation-elongation coupling that underlies robust modulatory activity of RA in innate immunity. PMID:27166374

  1. Exploring the active site of acyl homoserine lactones-dependent transcriptional regulators with bacterial quorum sensing modulators using molecular mechanics and docking studies.

    PubMed

    Soulère, Laurent; Frezza, Marine; Queneau, Yves; Doutheau, Alain

    2007-09-01

    A comparative molecular modelling study of acyl homoserine lactones-dependent transcriptional regulators (TraR, SdiA, LuxR and LasR) involved in bacterial quorum sensing (QS) revealed a high structural homology of their active site. Docking studies within the active site of TraR of fixed conformations obtained using molecular mechanics calculations showed that TraR, for which the crystalline structure is known, is a relevant model for the study of other protein-ligand interactions in the same protein family. Structure-activity relationships of AHLs derived QS modulators including carboxamides, sulfonamides and ureas were thus investigated. The results show that Tyr61, a residue conserved in the LuxR-proteins family, is involved in attractive interactions with aromatic carboxamide antagonists. Tyr53, Tyr61 and Asp70, conserved residues, are implicated in both the development of additional hydrogen bonds and attractive interactions with the N-sulfonyl homoserine lactones and AHLs derived ureas antagonists.

  2. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of bacterial spores, molds, pollens, and protein: initial studies of discrimination potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuels, Alan C.; Delucia, Frank C.; McNesby, Kevin L.; Miziolek, Andrzej W.

    2003-10-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been used to study bacterial spores, molds, pollens, and proteins. Biosamples were prepared and deposited onto porous silver substrates. LIBS data from the individual laser shots were analyzed by principal-components analysis and were found to contain adequate information to afford discrimination among the different biomaterials. Additional discrimination within the three bacilli studied appears feasible.

  3. H2-Producing Bacterial Community during Rice Straw Decomposition in Paddy Field Soil: Estimation by an Analysis of [FeFe]-Hydrogenase Gene Transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Baba, Ryuko; Asakawa, Susumu; Watanabe, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    The transcription patterns of [FeFe]-hydrogenase genes (hydA), which encode the enzymes responsible for H2 production, were investigated during rice straw decomposition in paddy soil using molecular biological techniques. Paddy soil amended with and without rice straw was incubated under anoxic conditions. RNA was extracted from the soil, and three clone libraries of hydA were constructed using RNAs obtained from samples in the initial phase of rice straw decomposition (day 1 with rice straw), methanogenic phase of rice straw decomposition (day 14 with rice straw), and under a non-amended condition (day 14 without rice straw). hydA genes related to Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, and Thermotogae were mainly transcribed in paddy soil samples; however, their proportions markedly differed among the libraries. Deltaproteobacteria-related hydA genes were predominantly transcribed on day 1 with rice straw, while various types of hydA genes related to several phyla were transcribed on day 14 with rice straw. Although the diversity of transcribed hydA was significantly higher in the library on day 14 with rice straw than the other two libraries, the composition of hydA transcripts in the library was similar to that in the library on day 14 without rice straw. These results indicate that the composition of active H2 producers and/or H2 metabolic patterns dynamically change during rice straw decomposition in paddy soil. PMID:27319579

  4. H2-Producing Bacterial Community during Rice Straw Decomposition in Paddy Field Soil: Estimation by an Analysis of [FeFe]-Hydrogenase Gene Transcripts.

    PubMed

    Baba, Ryuko; Asakawa, Susumu; Watanabe, Takeshi

    2016-09-29

    The transcription patterns of [FeFe]-hydrogenase genes (hydA), which encode the enzymes responsible for H2 production, were investigated during rice straw decomposition in paddy soil using molecular biological techniques. Paddy soil amended with and without rice straw was incubated under anoxic conditions. RNA was extracted from the soil, and three clone libraries of hydA were constructed using RNAs obtained from samples in the initial phase of rice straw decomposition (day 1 with rice straw), methanogenic phase of rice straw decomposition (day 14 with rice straw), and under a non-amended condition (day 14 without rice straw). hydA genes related to Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, and Thermotogae were mainly transcribed in paddy soil samples; however, their proportions markedly differed among the libraries. Deltaproteobacteria-related hydA genes were predominantly transcribed on day 1 with rice straw, while various types of hydA genes related to several phyla were transcribed on day 14 with rice straw. Although the diversity of transcribed hydA was significantly higher in the library on day 14 with rice straw than the other two libraries, the composition of hydA transcripts in the library was similar to that in the library on day 14 without rice straw. These results indicate that the composition of active H2 producers and/or H2 metabolic patterns dynamically change during rice straw decomposition in paddy soil.

  5. Recent structural insights into transcription preinitiation complexes.

    PubMed

    Nogales, E

    2000-12-01

    Our understanding of the elaborate mechanism of gene transcription initiation in eukaryotes has been widened by recent structural information on some of the key components of the complex preinitiation transcriptional machinery. The high-resolution structures of both bacterial and eukaryotic polymerases are technical landmarks of great biological significance that have given us the first molecular insight into the mechanism of this large enzyme. While new atomic structures of different domains of general transcription factors, such as the double bromodomain of TAF250, have become available by means of X-ray crystallography and NMR studies, more global pictures of multisubunit transcription complexes, such as TFIID, TFIIH or the yeast mediator, have now been obtained by electron microscopy and image-reconstruction techniques. A combination of methodologies may prove essential for a complete structural description of the initial steps in the expression of eukaryotic genes.

  6. Early membrane initiated transcriptional effects of estrogens in breast cancer cells: First pharmacological evidence for a novel membrane estrogen receptor element (ERx).

    PubMed

    Kampa, Marilena; Notas, George; Pelekanou, Vassiliki; Troullinaki, Maria; Andrianaki, Maria; Azariadis, Kalliopi; Kampouri, Errika; Lavrentaki, Katerina; Castanas, Elias

    2012-08-01

    The complexity of estrogen actions mainly relies to the presence of different identified receptors (ERα, ERβ, their isoforms, and GPR30/GPER) and their discrete cellular distribution. Depending on the localization of the receptor that mediates estrogen effects, nuclear and extra-nuclear actions have been described. The latter can trigger a number of signaling events leading also to transcriptional modifications. In an attempt to clarify the nature of the receptor(s) involved in the membrane initiated effect of estrogens on gene expression, we performed a whole transcriptome analysis of breast cancer cell lines with different receptor profiles (T47D, MCF7, MDA-MB-231, SK-BR-3). A pharmacological approach was conducted with the use of estradiol (E(2)) or membrane-impermeable E(2)-BSA in the absence or presence of a specific ERα-β or GPR30/GPER antagonist. Our results clearly show that in addition to the ERα isoforms and/or GPR30/GPER that mainly mediate the transcriptional effect of E(2)-BSA, there is a specific transcriptional signature (found in T47D and MCF-7 cells) suggesting the presence of an unidentified membrane ER element (ERx). Analysis of its signature and phenotypic verification revealed that important cell function such as apoptosis, transcriptional regulation, and growth factor signaling are associated with ERx. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Core promoter-specific gene regulation: TATA box selectivity and Initiator-dependent bi-directionality of serum response factor-activated transcription.

    PubMed

    Xu, Muyu; Gonzalez-Hurtado, Elsie; Martinez, Ernest

    2016-04-01

    Gene-specific activation by enhancers involves their communication with the basal RNA polymerase II transcription machinery at the core promoter. Core promoters are diverse and may contain a variety of sequence elements such as the TATA box, the Initiator (INR), and the downstream promoter element (DPE) recognized, respectively, by the TATA-binding protein (TBP) and TBP-associated factors of the TFIID complex. Core promoter elements contribute to the gene selectivity of enhancers, and INR/DPE-specific enhancers and activators have been identified. Here, we identify a TATA box-selective activating sequence upstream of the human β-actin (ACTB) gene that mediates serum response factor (SRF)-induced transcription from TATA-dependent but not INR-dependent promoters and requires the TATA-binding/bending activity of TBP, which is otherwise dispensable for transcription from a TATA-less promoter. The SRF-dependent ACTB sequence is stereospecific on TATA promoters but activates in an orientation-independent manner a composite TATA/INR-containing promoter. More generally, we show that SRF-regulated genes of the actin/cytoskeleton/contractile family tend to have a TATA box. These results suggest distinct TATA-dependent and INR-dependent mechanisms of TFIID-mediated transcription in mammalian cells that are compatible with only certain stereospecific combinations of activators, and that a TBP-TATA binding mechanism is important for SRF activation of the actin/cytoskeleton-related gene family.

  8. HFR1 Sequesters PIF1 to Govern the Transcriptional Network Underlying Light-Initiated Seed Germination in Arabidopsis[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Hui; Zhong, Shangwei; Mo, Xiaorong; Liu, Na; Nezames, Cynthia D.; Deng, Xing Wang

    2013-01-01

    Seed germination is the first step for seed plants to initiate a new life cycle. Light plays a predominant role in promoting seed germination, where the initial phase is mediated by photoreceptor phytochrome B (phyB). Previous studies showed that PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR1 (PIF1) represses seed germination downstream of phyB. Here, we identify a positive regulator of phyB-dependent seed germination, LONG HYPOCOTYL IN FAR-RED1 (HFR1). HFR1 blocks PIF1 transcriptional activity by forming a heterodimer with PIF1 that prevents PIF1 from binding to DNA. Our whole-genomic analysis shows that HFR1 and PIF1 oppositely mediate the light-regulated transcriptome in imbibed seeds. Through the HFR1–PIF1 module, light regulates expression of numerous genes involved in cell wall loosening, cell division, and hormone pathways to initiate seed germination. The functionally antagonistic HFR1–PIF1 pair constructs a fail-safe mechanism for fine-tuning seed germination during low-level illumination, ensuring a rapid response to favorable environmental changes. This study identifies the HFR1–PIF1 pair as a central module directing the whole genomic transcriptional network to rapidly initiate light-induced seed germination. PMID:24179122

  9. Toll-like receptor 4 signalling through MyD88 is essential to control Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium infection, but not for the initiation of bacterial clearance.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Suzanne; Tötemeyer, Sabine; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Akira, Shizuo; Hughes, Katherine; Gray, David; Barr, Tom; Mastroeni, Pietro; Maskell, Duncan J; Bryant, Clare E

    2009-12-01

    Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) is important in protection against lethal Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) infection. Control of the early stages of sublethal S. Typhimurium infection in mice depends on TLR4-dependent activation of macrophages and natural killer (NK) cells to drive an inflammatory response. TLR4 signals through the adapter proteins Mal/MyD88 and TRIF-related adaptor molecule (TRAM)/TIR-domain-containing adaptor-inducing interferon-b (TRIF). In the mouse typhoid model we showed that TLR4 and MyD88, but not Mal or TRIF, are essential for the control of exponential S. Typhimurium growth. TRIF(-/-) mice have a higher bacterial load in comparison with wild-type mice during a sublethal infection because TRIF is important for bacterial killing during the first day of systemic disease. Minimal pro-inflammatory responses were induced by S. Typhimurium infection of macrophages from TLR4(-/-), MyD88(-/-) and TRIF(-/-) mice in vitro. Pro-inflammatory responses from Mal(-/-) macrophages were similar to those from wild-type cells. The pro-inflammatory responses of TRIF(-/-) macrophages were partially restored by the addition of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), and TRIF(-/-) mice produced markedly enhanced IFN-gamma levels, in comparison to wild-type mice, probably explaining why bacterial growth can be controlled in these mice. TLR4(-/-), MyD88(-/-), TRIF(-/-) and Mal(-/-) mice all initiated clearance of S. Typhimurium, suggesting that TLR4 signalling is not important in driving bacterial clearance in comparison to its critical role in controlling early bacterial growth in mouse typhoid.

  10. Opposing roles for DNA replication initiator proteins ORC1 and CDC6 in control of Cyclin E gene transcription

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Manzar; Stillman, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Newly born cells either continue to proliferate or exit the cell division cycle. This decision involves delaying expression of Cyclin E that promotes DNA replication. ORC1, the Origin Recognition Complex (ORC) large subunit, is inherited into newly born cells after it binds to condensing chromosomes during the preceding mitosis. We demonstrate that ORC1 represses Cyclin E gene (CCNE1) transcription, an E2F1 activated gene that is also repressed by the Retinoblastoma (RB) protein. ORC1 binds to RB, the histone methyltransferase SUV39H1 and to its repressive histone H3K9me3 mark. ORC1 cooperates with SUV39H1 and RB protein to repress E2F1-dependent CCNE1 transcription. In contrast, the ORC1-related replication protein CDC6 binds Cyclin E-CDK2 kinase and in a feedback loop removes RB from ORC1, thereby hyper-activating CCNE1 transcription. The opposing effects of ORC1 and CDC6 in controlling the level of Cyclin E ensures genome stability and a mechanism for linking directly DNA replication and cell division commitment. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12785.001 PMID:27458800

  11. Syn, anti, and finally both conformations of cyclic AMP are involved in the CRP-dependent transcription initiation mechanism in E. coli lac operon.

    PubMed

    Tutar, Yusuf

    2008-06-01

    The cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) of Escherichia coli regulates the activity of more than 150 genes. Allosteric changes in CRP structure accompanied by cAMP binding, initiate transcription through protein binding to specific DNA sequences. Initially, researchers proposed a two-site cAMP-binding model for CRP-dependent transcription activation since biophysical methods showed two transitions during titration experiments. Three conformational states were considered; apo-CRP, CRP:(cAMP)(1) and CRP:(cAMP)(2), and CRP:(cAMP)(1) was proposed as the active form in this initial model. X-ray data indicated an anti conformation and in contrast NMR experiments suggested a syn conformation for bound cAMPs. For years this paradigm about ligand conformation has been ambiguous. When CRP was crystallized with four bound cAMP in the last decade, two cAMPs were assigned to syn and the other two to anti conformations. Again three conformational states were suggested; apo-CRP, CRP:(cAMP)(2), and CRP:(cAMP)(4). This new structure changed the view of CRP allosteric activation from a two-site model to a four-site model in the literature and the new model has been supported by biochemical and genetic data so far. According to the accepted model, binding of the first two cAMP molecules displays positive cooperativity, however, binding of the last two cAMP molecules shows negative cooperativity. This resolved the conflict between dynamic and static experimental observations. However, this new model cannot explain the initiation mechanism as previously proposed because functionally active CRP has only one cAMP equivalent. Gene regulation and transcription factors are involved in regulating both prokaryotic and eukaryotic metabolism. Although gene regulation and expression are much more complex in eukaryotes, CRP-mediated transcription initiation is a model of general interest to life sciences and medicine. Therefore, the aim of this review is to summarize recent works and developments on

  12. UVB Induces a Genome-Wide Acting Negative Regulatory Mechanism That Operates at the Level of Transcription Initiation in Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gyenis, Ákos; Umlauf, David; Újfaludi, Zsuzsanna; Boros, Imre; Ye, Tao; Tora, Làszlò

    2014-01-01

    Faithful transcription of DNA is constantly threatened by different endogenous and environmental genotoxic effects. Transcription coupled repair (TCR) has been described to stop transcription and quickly remove DNA lesions from the transcribed strand of active genes, permitting rapid resumption of blocked transcription. This repair mechanism has been well characterized in the past using individual target genes. Moreover, numerous efforts investigated the fate of blocked RNA polymerase II (Pol II) during DNA repair mechanisms and suggested that stopped Pol II complexes can either backtrack, be removed and degraded or bypass the lesions to allow TCR. We investigated the effect of a non-lethal dose of UVB on global DNA-bound Pol II distribution in human cells. We found that the used UVB dose did not induce Pol II degradation however surprisingly at about 93% of the promoters of all expressed genes Pol II occupancy was seriously reduced 2–4 hours following UVB irradiation. The presence of Pol II at these cleared promoters was restored 5–6 hours after irradiation, indicating that the negative regulation is very dynamic. We also identified a small set of genes (including several p53 regulated genes), where the UVB-induced Pol II clearing did not operate. Interestingly, at promoters, where Pol II promoter clearance occurs, TFIIH, but not TBP, follows the behavior of Pol II, suggesting that at these genes upon UVB treatment TFIIH is sequestered for DNA repair by the TCR machinery. In agreement, in cells where the TCR factor, the Cockayne Syndrome B protein, was depleted UVB did not induce Pol II and TFIIH clearance at promoters. Thus, our study reveals a UVB induced negative regulatory mechanism that targets Pol II transcription initiation on the large majority of transcribed gene promoters, and a small subset of genes, where Pol II escapes this negative regulation. PMID:25058334

  13. Transcriptional Response in Mouse Thyroid Tissue after 211At Administration: Effects of Absorbed Dose, Initial Dose-Rate and Time after Administration

    PubMed Central

    Rudqvist, Nils; Spetz, Johan; Schüler, Emil; Parris, Toshima Z.; Langen, Britta; Helou, Khalil; Forssell-Aronsson, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Background 211At-labeled radiopharmaceuticals are potentially useful for tumor therapy. However, a limitation has been the preferential accumulation of released 211At in the thyroid gland, which is a critical organ for such therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of absorbed dose, dose-rate, and time after 211At exposure on genome-wide transcriptional expression in mouse thyroid gland. Methods BALB/c mice were i.v. injected with 1.7, 7.5 or 100 kBq 211At. Animals injected with 1.7 kBq were killed after 1, 6, or 168 h with mean thyroid absorbed doses of 0.023, 0.32, and 1.8 Gy, respectively. Animals injected with 7.5 and 100 kBq were killed after 6 and 1 h, respectively; mean thyroid absorbed dose was 1.4 Gy. Total RNA was extracted from pooled thyroids and the Illumina RNA microarray platform was used to determine mRNA levels. Differentially expressed transcripts and enriched GO terms were determined with adjusted p-value <0.01 and fold change >1.5, and p-value <0.05, respectively. Results In total, 1232 differentially expressed transcripts were detected after 211At administration, demonstrating a profound effect on gene regulation. The number of regulated transcripts increased with higher initial dose-rate/absorbed dose at 1 or 6 h. However, the number of regulated transcripts decreased with mean absorbed dose/time after 1.7 kBq 211At administration. Furthermore, similar regulation profiles were seen for groups administered 1.7 kBq. Interestingly, few previously proposed radiation responsive genes were detected in the present study. Regulation of immunological processes were prevalent at 1, 6, and 168 h after 1.7 kBq administration (0.023, 0.32, 1.8 Gy). PMID:26177204

  14. Role of multifunctional autonomously replicating sequence binding factor 1 in the initiation of DNA replication and transcriptional control in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Rhode, P R; Elsasser, S; Campbell, J L

    1992-01-01

    Autonomously replicating sequence (ARS) binding factor 1 (ABF1) is an abundant DNA-binding protein that specifically recognizes the motif RTCRYN5ACG at many sites in the yeast genome, including promoter elements, mating-type silencers, and ARSs. Mutational analysis of these sites suggests that ABF1 is involved in constitutive and carbon source-regulated transcriptional activation, transcriptional silencing, and ARS activity. To better assess the role of ABF1 in DNA replication and transcriptional control, temperature-sensitive lethal mutations in the ABF1 gene were isolated. Several of the abf1(Ts) strains show rapid growth arrest at the nonpermissive temperature. At the semipermissive temperature, these strains show an ARS-specific defect in the mitotic stability of ARS-CEN plasmids, such that the abf1 mutants show defects in ARS function identical to those of mutants bearing the mutations in the cis-acting ABF1 binding sites analyzed previously by numerous investigators. Flow cytometric analysis and in vivo DNA labeling experiments on an alpha-factor synchronized abf1(Ts) strain showed that at the nonpermissive temperature, these cells fail to progress efficiently from G1 through S phase and synthesize DNA at 25% of the level seen in the isogenic ABF1 strain. RNA synthesis is also reduced in the abf1(Ts) strains. In addition, transcriptional activation by an ABF1 binding site upstream activation sequence is completely defective in an abf1(Ts) strain at the semipermissive temperature. These phenotypes provide evidence that the same protein, ABF1, functions in the initiation of DNA replication and transcriptional activation. Images PMID:1545789

  15. Transcriptional and metabolic signatures of Arabidopsis responses to chewing damage by an insect herbivore and bacterial infection and the consequences of their interaction

    PubMed Central

    Appel, Heidi M.; Maqbool, Shahina B.; Raina, Surabhi; Jagadeeswaran, Guru; Acharya, Biswa R.; Hanley, John C.; Miller, Kathryn P.; Hearnes, Leonard; Jones, A. Daniel; Raina, Ramesh; Schultz, Jack C.

    2014-01-01

    Plants use multiple interacting signaling systems to identify and respond to biotic stresses. Although it is often assumed that there is specificity in signaling responses to specific pests, this is rarely examined outside of the gene-for-gene relationships of plant-pathogen interactions. In this study, we first compared early events in gene expression and later events in metabolite profiles of Arabidopsis thaliana following attack by either the caterpillar Spodoptera exigua or avirulent (DC3000 avrRpm1) Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato at three time points. Transcriptional responses of the plant to caterpillar feeding were rapid, occurring within 1 h of feeding, and then decreased at 6 and 24 h. In contrast, plant response to the pathogen was undetectable at 1 h but grew larger and more significant at 6 and 24 h. There was a surprisingly large amount of overlap in jasmonate and salicylate signaling in responses to the insect and pathogen, including levels of gene expression and individual hormones. The caterpillar and pathogen treatments induced different patterns of expression of glucosinolate biosynthesis genes and levels of glucosinolates. This suggests that when specific responses develop, their regulation is complex and best understood by characterizing expression of many genes and metabolites. We then examined the effect of feeding by the caterpillar Spodoptera exigua on Arabidopsis susceptibility to virulent (DC3000) and avirulent (DC3000 avrRpm1) P. syringae pv. tomato, and found that caterpillar feeding enhanced Arabidopsis resistance to the avirulent pathogen and lowered resistance to the virulent strain. We conclude that efforts to improve plant resistance to bacterial pathogens are likely to influence resistance to insects and vice versa. Studies explicitly comparing plant responses to multiple stresses, including the role of elicitors at early time points, are critical to understanding how plants organize responses in natural settings. PMID:25278943

  16. Activation of transcription initiation from a stable RNA promoter by a Fis protein-mediated DNA structural transmission mechanism.

    PubMed

    Opel, Michael L; Aeling, Kimberly A; Holmes, Walter M; Johnson, Reid C; Benham, Craig J; Hatfield, G Wesley

    2004-07-01

    The leuV operon of Escherichia coli encodes three of the four genes for the tRNA1Leu isoacceptors. Transcription from this and other stable RNA promoters is known to be affected by a cis-acting UP element and by Fis protein interactions with the carboxyl-terminal domain of the alpha-subunits of RNA polymerase. In this report, we suggest that transcription from the leuV promoter also is activated by a Fis-mediated, DNA supercoiling-dependent mechanism similar to the IHF-mediated mechanism described previously for the ilvP(G) promoter (S. D. Sheridan et al., 1998, J Biol Chem 273: 21298-21308). We present evidence that Fis binding results in the translocation of superhelical energy from the promoter-distal portion of a supercoiling-induced DNA duplex destabilized (SIDD) region to the promoter-proximal portion of the leuV promoter that is unwound within the open complex. A mutant Fis protein, which is defective in contacting the carboxyl-terminal domain of the alpha-subunits of RNA polymerase, remains competent for stimulating open complex formation, suggesting that this DNA supercoiling-dependent component of Fis-mediated activation occurs in the absence of specific protein interactions between Fis and RNA polymerase. Fis-mediated translocation of superhelical energy from upstream binding sites to the promoter region may be a general feature of Fis-mediated activation of transcription at stable RNA promoters, which often contain A+T-rich upstream sequences.

  17. T cell factor 1 initiates the T helper type 2 fate by inducing the transcription factor GATA-3 and repressing interferon-γ

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qing; Sharma, Archna; Oh, Sun Young; Moon, Hyung-Geun; Hossain, M Zulfiquer; Salay, Theresa M; Leeds, Karen E; Du, Hansen; Wu, Beibei; Waterman, Marian L; Zhu, Zhou; Sen, Jyoti Misra

    2010-01-01

    The differentiation of activated CD4+ T cells into the T helper type 1 (TH1) or TH2 fate is regulated by cytokines and the transcription factors T-bet and GATA-3. Whereas interleukin 12 (IL-12) produced by antigen-presenting cells initiates the TH1 fate, signals that initiate the TH2 fate are not completely characterized. Here we show that early GATA-3 expression, required for TH2 differentiation, was induced by T cell factor 1 (TCF-1) and its cofactor β-catenin, mainly from the proximal Gata3 promoter upstream of exon 1b. This activity was induced after T cell antigen receptor (TCR) stimulation and was independent of IL-4 receptor signaling through the transcription factor STAT6. Furthermore, TCF-1 blocked TH1 fate by negatively regulating interferon-γ (IFN-γ) expression independently of β-catenin. Thus, TCF-1 initiates TH2 differentiation of activated CD4+ T cells by promoting GATA-3 expression and suppressing IFN-γ expression. PMID:19648923

  18. Intronic elements in the Na+/I- symporter gene (NIS) interact with retinoic acid receptors and mediate initiation of transcription

    PubMed Central

    Alotaibi, Hani; Yaman, Elif; Salvatore, Domenico; Di Dato, Valeria; Telkoparan, Pelin; Di Lauro, Roberto; Tazebay, Uygar H.

    2010-01-01

    Activity of the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) in lactating breast is essential for iodide (I–) accumulation in milk. Significant NIS upregulation was also reported in breast cancer, indicating a potential use of radioiodide treatment. All-trans-retinoic acid (tRA) is a potent ligand that enhances NIS expression in a subset of breast cancer cell lines and in experimental breast cancer models. Indirect tRA stimulation of NIS in breast cancer cells is very well documented; however, direct upregulation by tRA-activated nuclear receptors has not been identified yet. Aiming to uncover cis-acting elements directly regulating NIS expression, we screened evolutionary-conserved non-coding genomic sequences for responsiveness to tRA in MCF-7. Here, we report that a potent enhancer in the first intron of NIS mediates direct regulation by tRA-stimulated nuclear receptors. In vitro as well as in vivo DNA–protein interaction assays revealed direct association between retinoic acid receptor-α (RARα) and retinoid-X-receptor (RXR) with this enhancer. Moreover, using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) we uncovered early events of NIS transcription in response to tRA, which require the interaction of several novel intronic tRA responsive elements. These findings indicate a complex interplay between nuclear receptors, RNA Pol-II and multiple intronic RAREs in NIS gene, and they establish a novel mechanistic model for tRA-induced gene transcription. PMID:20123735

  19. Intronic elements in the Na+/I- symporter gene (NIS) interact with retinoic acid receptors and mediate initiation of transcription.

    PubMed

    Alotaibi, Hani; Yaman, Elif; Salvatore, Domenico; Di Dato, Valeria; Telkoparan, Pelin; Di Lauro, Roberto; Tazebay, Uygar H

    2010-06-01

    Activity of the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) in lactating breast is essential for iodide (I(-)) accumulation in milk. Significant NIS upregulation was also reported in breast cancer, indicating a potential use of radioiodide treatment. All-trans-retinoic acid (tRA) is a potent ligand that enhances NIS expression in a subset of breast cancer cell lines and in experimental breast cancer models. Indirect tRA stimulation of NIS in breast cancer cells is very well documented; however, direct upregulation by tRA-activated nuclear receptors has not been identified yet. Aiming to uncover cis-acting elements directly regulating NIS expression, we screened evolutionary-conserved non-coding genomic sequences for responsiveness to tRA in MCF-7. Here, we report that a potent enhancer in the first intron of NIS mediates direct regulation by tRA-stimulated nuclear receptors. In vitro as well as in vivo DNA-protein interaction assays revealed direct association between retinoic acid receptor-alpha (RARalpha) and retinoid-X-receptor (RXR) with this enhancer. Moreover, using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) we uncovered early events of NIS transcription in response to tRA, which require the interaction of several novel intronic tRA responsive elements. These findings indicate a complex interplay between nuclear receptors, RNA Pol-II and multiple intronic RAREs in NIS gene, and they establish a novel mechanistic model for tRA-induced gene transcription.

  20. Barley MLA Immune Receptors Directly Interfere with Antagonistically Acting Transcription Factors to Initiate Disease Resistance Signaling[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Cheng; Yu, Deshui; Jiao, Jian; Jing, Shaojuan; Schulze-Lefert, Paul; Shen, Qian-Hua

    2013-01-01

    The nucleotide binding domain and Leucine-rich repeat (NLR)–containing proteins in plants and animals mediate pathogen sensing inside host cells and mount innate immune responses against microbial pathogens. The barley (Hordeum vulgare) mildew A (MLA) locus encodes coiled-coil (CC)–type NLRs mediating disease resistance against the powdery mildew pathogen Blumeria graminis. Here, we report direct interactions between MLA and two antagonistically acting transcription factors, MYB6 and WRKY1. The N-terminal CC signaling domain of MLA interacts with MYB6 to stimulate its DNA binding activity. MYB6 functions as a positive regulator of basal and MLA-mediated immunity responses to B. graminis. MYB6 DNA binding is antagonized by direct association with WRKY1 repressor, which in turn also interacts with the MLA CC domain. The activated form of full-length MLA10 receptor is needed to release MYB6 activator from WRKY1 repression and to stimulate MYB6-dependent gene expression. This implies that, while sequestered by the WRKY1 repressor in the presence of the resting immune receptor, MYB6 acts as an immediate and positive postactivation signaling component of the active state of MLA during transcriptional reprogramming for innate immune responses. PMID:23532068

  1. Medium-dependent regulation of proteinase gene expression in Lactococcus lactis: control of transcription initiation by specific dipeptides.

    PubMed Central

    Marugg, J D; Meijer, W; van Kranenburg, R; Laverman, P; Bruinenberg, P G; de Vos, W M

    1995-01-01

    Transcriptional gene fusions with the Escherichia coli beta-glucuronidase gene (gusA) were used to study the medium- and growth-dependent expression of the divergently transcribed genes involved in proteinase production (prtP and prtM) of Lactococcus lactis SK11. The results show that both the prtP and prtM genes are controlled at the transcriptional level by the peptide content of the medium and, to a lesser extent, by the growth rate. A more than 10-fold regulation in beta-glucuronidase activity was observed for both prtP and prtM promoters in batch and continuous cultures. The level of expression of the prtP and prtM promoters was high in whey permeate medium with relatively low concentrations of peptides, whereas at increased concentrations the expression of the promoters was repressed. The lowest level of expression was observed in peptide- and amino acid-rich laboratory media, such as glucose-M17 and MRS. The addition of specific dipeptides, such as leucylproline and prolylleucine, to the growth medium negatively affected the expression of the prtP-gusA fusions. The repression by dipeptides was not observed in mutants defective in the uptake of di-tripeptides, indicating that the internal concentration of dipeptides or derivatives is important in the regulation of proteinase production. PMID:7768792

  2. Interaction of Eukaryote Initiator Methionyl-tRNA with the Eukaryote Equivalent of Bacterial Elongation Factor T and Guanosine Triphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Dietmar; Lipmann, Fritz; Tarragó, Adela; Allende, Jorge E.

    1971-01-01

    The initiator tRNA, methionyl-tRNAiMet, of yeast and wheat germ forms relatively unstable ternary complexes with their corresponding elongation factors T and GTP. Such complexes can be demonstrated only with fast separation techniques such as Sephadex G-50 and Millipore filtration, but not with the slow Sephadex G-100 method, although both techniques yield stable ternary complexes with all other aminoacyl-tRNAs, including the internal Met-tRNAmMet. To bind yeast-initiating Met-tRNAiMet to ribosomes, initiation factors present in a ribosomal wash fraction from yeast are needed. PMID:5288767

  3. Pseudoalteromonas spp. serve as initial bacterial attractants in mesocosms of coastal waters but have subsequent antifouling capacity in mesocosms and when embedded in paint.

    PubMed

    Bernbom, Nete; Ng, Yoke Yin; Olsen, Stefan Møller; Gram, Lone

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine if the monoculture antifouling effect of several pigmented pseudoalteromonads was retained in in vitro mesocosm systems using natural coastal seawater and when the bacteria were embedded in paint used on surfaces submerged in coastal waters. Pseudoalteromonas piscicida survived on a steel surface and retained antifouling activity for at least 53 days in sterile seawater, whereas P. tunicata survived and had antifouling activity for only 1 week. However, during the first week, all Pseudoalteromonas strains facilitated rather than prevented bacterial attachment when used to coat stainless steel surfaces and submerged in mesocosms with natural seawater. The bacterial density on surfaces coated with sterile growth medium was 10(5) cells/cm(2) after 7 days, whereas counts on surfaces precoated with Pseudoalteromonas were significantly higher, at 10(6) to 10(8) cells/cm(2). However, after 53 days, seven of eight Pseudoalteromonas strains had reduced total bacterial adhesion compared to the control. P. piscicida, P. antarctica, and P. ulvae remained on the surface, at levels similar to those in the initial coating, whereas P. tunicata could not be detected. Larger fouling organisms were observed on all plates precoated with Pseudoalteromonas; however, plates coated only with sterile growth medium were dominated by a bacterial biofilm. Suspensions of a P. piscicida strain and a P. tunicata strain were incorporated into ship paints (Hempasil x3 87500 and Hempasil 77500) used on plates that were placed at the Hempel A/S test site in Jyllinge Harbor. For the first 4 months, no differences were observed between control plates and treated plates, but after 5 to 6 months, the control plates were more fouled than the plates with pseudoalteromonad-based paint. Our study demonstrates that no single laboratory assay can predict antifouling effects and that a combination of laboratory and real-life methods must be used to determine

  4. Pseudoalteromonas spp. Serve as Initial Bacterial Attractants in Mesocosms of Coastal Waters but Have Subsequent Antifouling Capacity in Mesocosms and when Embedded in Paint

    PubMed Central

    Bernbom, Nete; Ng, Yoke Yin; Olsen, Stefan Møller

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine if the monoculture antifouling effect of several pigmented pseudoalteromonads was retained in in vitro mesocosm systems using natural coastal seawater and when the bacteria were embedded in paint used on surfaces submerged in coastal waters. Pseudoalteromonas piscicida survived on a steel surface and retained antifouling activity for at least 53 days in sterile seawater, whereas P. tunicata survived and had antifouling activity for only 1 week. However, during the first week, all Pseudoalteromonas strains facilitated rather than prevented bacterial attachment when used to coat stainless steel surfaces and submerged in mesocosms with natural seawater. The bacterial density on surfaces coated with sterile growth medium was 105 cells/cm2 after 7 days, whereas counts on surfaces precoated with Pseudoalteromonas were significantly higher, at 106 to 108 cells/cm2. However, after 53 days, seven of eight Pseudoalteromonas strains had reduced total bacterial adhesion compared to the control. P. piscicida, P. antarctica, and P. ulvae remained on the surface, at levels similar to those in the initial coating, whereas P. tunicata could not be detected. Larger fouling organisms were observed on all plates precoated with Pseudoalteromonas; however, plates coated only with sterile growth medium were dominated by a bacterial biofilm. Suspensions of a P. piscicida strain and a P. tunicata strain were incorporated into ship paints (Hempasil x3 87500 and Hempasil 77500) used on plates that were placed at the Hempel A/S test site in Jyllinge Harbor. For the first 4 months, no differences were observed between control plates and treated plates, but after 5 to 6 months, the control plates were more fouled than the plates with pseudoalteromonad-based paint. Our study demonstrates that no single laboratory assay can predict antifouling effects and that a combination of laboratory and real-life methods must be used to determine the

  5. Upregulation of the mammalian X chromosome is associated with enhanced transcription initiation, MOF-mediated H4K16 acetylation, and longer RNA half-life

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Xinxian; Berletch, Joel B.; Ma, Wenxiu; Nguyen, Di Kim; Noble, William S.; Shendure, Jay; Disteche, Christine M.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY X upregulation in mammals increases levels of expressed X-linked transcripts to compensate for autosomal bi-allelic expression. Here, we present molecular mechanisms that enhance X expression at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Active mouse X-linked promoters are enriched in the initiation form of RNA polymerase II (PolII-S5p) and in specific histone marks including H4K16ac and histone variant H2AZ. The H4K16 acetyltransferase MOF, known to mediate the Drosophila X upregulation, is also enriched on the mammalian X. Depletion of MOF or MSL1 in mouse ES cells causes a specific decrease in PolII-S5p and in expression of a subset of X-linked genes. Analyses of RNA half-life datasets show increased stability of mammalian X-linked transcripts. Both ancestral X-linked genes, defined as those conserved on chicken autosomes, and newly acquired X-linked genes are upregulated by similar mechanisms but to a different extent, suggesting that subsets of genes are distinctly regulated dependent on their evolutionary history. PMID:23523075

  6. A bacterial homolog YciH of eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF1 regulates stress-related gene expression and is unlikely to be involved in translation initiation fidelity

    PubMed Central

    Osterman, Ilya A; Evfratov, Sergey A; Dzama, Margarita M; Pletnev, Philipp I; Kovalchuk, Sergey I; Butenko, Ivan O; Pobeguts, Olga V; Golovina, Anna Ya; Govorun, Vadim M; Bogdanov, Alexey A; Sergiev, Petr V; Dontsova, Olga A

    2015-01-01

    YciH is a bacterial protein, homologous to eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF1. Preceding evidence obtained with the aid of in vitro translation initiation system suggested that it may play a role of a translation initiation factor, ensuring selection against suboptimal initiation complexes. Here we studied the effect of Escherichia coli yciH gene inactivation on translation of model mRNAs. Neither the translation efficiency of leaderless mRNAs, nor mRNAs with non AUG start codons, was found to be affected by YciH in vivo. Comparative proteome analysis revealed that yciH gene knockout leads to a more than fold2- increase in expression of 66 genes and a more than fold2- decrease in the expression of 20 genes. Analysis of these gene sets allowed us to suggest a role of YciH as an inhibitor of translation in a stress response rather than the role of a translation initiation factor. PMID:26177339

  7. The bacterial enhancer-dependent RNA polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Nan; Darbari, Vidya C.; Glyde, Robert; Zhang, Xiaodong; Buck, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Transcription initiation is highly regulated in bacterial cells, allowing adaptive gene regulation in response to environment cues. One class of promoter specificity factor called sigma54 enables such adaptive gene expression through its ability to lock the RNA polymerase down into a state unable to melt out promoter DNA for transcription initiation. Promoter DNA opening then occurs through the action of specialized transcription control proteins called bacterial enhancer-binding proteins (bEBPs) that remodel the sigma54 factor within the closed promoter complexes. The remodelling of sigma54 occurs through an ATP-binding and hydrolysis reaction carried out by the bEBPs. The regulation of bEBP self-assembly into typically homomeric hexamers allows regulated gene expression since the self-assembly is required for bEBP ATPase activity and its direct engagement with the sigma54 factor during the remodelling reaction. Crystallographic studies have now established that in the closed promoter complex, the sigma54 factor occupies the bacterial RNA polymerase in ways that will physically impede promoter DNA opening and the loading of melted out promoter DNA into the DNA-binding clefts of the RNA polymerase. Large-scale structural re-organizations of sigma54 require contact of the bEBP with an amino-terminal glutamine and leucine-rich sequence of sigma54, and lead to domain movements within the core RNA polymerase necessary for making open promoter complexes and synthesizing the nascent RNA transcript. PMID:27789741

  8. Down-Regulating the Expression of 53 Soybean Transcription Factor Genes Uncovers a Role for SPEECHLESS in Initiating Stomatal Cell Lineages during Embryo Development.

    PubMed

    Danzer, John; Mellott, Eric; Bui, Anhthu Q; Le, Brandon H; Martin, Patrick; Hashimoto, Meryl; Perez-Lesher, Jeanett; Chen, Min; Pelletier, Julie M; Somers, David A; Goldberg, Robert B; Harada, John J

    2015-07-01

    We used an RNA interference screen to assay the function of 53 transcription factor messenger RNAs (mRNAs) that accumulate specifically within soybean (Glycine max) seed regions, subregions, and tissues during development. We show that basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor genes represented by Glyma04g41710 and its paralogs are required for the formation of stoma in leaves and stomatal precursor complexes in mature embryo cotyledons. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that these bHLH transcription factor genes are orthologous to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SPEECHLESS (SPCH) that initiate asymmetric cell divisions in the leaf protoderm layer and establish stomatal cell lineages. Soybean SPCH (GmSPCH) mRNAs accumulate primarily in embryo, seedling, and leaf epidermal layers. Expression of Glyma04g41710 under the control of the SPCH promoter rescues the Arabidopsis spch mutant, indicating that Glyma04g41710 is a functional ortholog of SPCH. Developing soybean embryos do not form mature stoma, and stomatal differentiation is arrested at the guard mother cell stage. We analyzed the accumulation of GmSPCH mRNAs during soybean seed development and mRNAs orthologous to MUTE, FAMA, and inducer of C-repeat/dehydration responsive element-binding factor expression1/scream2 that are required for stoma formation in Arabidopsis. The mRNA accumulation patterns provide a potential explanation for guard mother cell dormancy in soybean embryos. Our results suggest that variation in the timing of bHLH transcription factor gene expression can explain the diversity of stomatal forms observed during plant development.

  9. Down-Regulating the Expression of 53 Soybean Transcription Factor Genes Uncovers a Role for SPEECHLESS in Initiating Stomatal Cell Lineages during Embryo Development1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Danzer, John; Mellott, Eric; Bui, Anhthu Q.; Le, Brandon H.; Martin, Patrick; Hashimoto, Meryl; Perez-Lesher, Jeanett; Chen, Min; Pelletier, Julie M.; Somers, David A.; Goldberg, Robert B.; Harada, John J.

    2015-01-01

    We used an RNA interference screen to assay the function of 53 transcription factor messenger RNAs (mRNAs) that accumulate specifically within soybean (Glycine max) seed regions, subregions, and tissues during development. We show that basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor genes represented by Glyma04g41710 and its paralogs are required for the formation of stoma in leaves and stomatal precursor complexes in mature embryo cotyledons. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that these bHLH transcription factor genes are orthologous to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SPEECHLESS (SPCH) that initiate asymmetric cell divisions in the leaf protoderm layer and establish stomatal cell lineages. Soybean SPCH (GmSPCH) mRNAs accumulate primarily in embryo, seedling, and leaf epidermal layers. Expression of Glyma04g41710 under the control of the SPCH promoter rescues the Arabidopsis spch mutant, indicating that Glyma04g41710 is a functional ortholog of SPCH. Developing soybean embryos do not form mature stoma, and stomatal differentiation is arrested at the guard mother cell stage. We analyzed the accumulation of GmSPCH mRNAs during soybean seed development and mRNAs orthologous to MUTE, FAMA, and INDUCER OF C-REPEAT/DEHYDRATION RESPONSIVE ELEMENT-BINDING FACTOR EXPRESSION1/SCREAM2 that are required for stoma formation in Arabidopsis. The mRNA accumulation patterns provide a potential explanation for guard mother cell dormancy in soybean embryos. Our results suggest that variation in the timing of bHLH transcription factor gene expression can explain the diversity of stomatal forms observed during plant development. PMID:25963149

  10. Rad3-Cds1 mediates coupling of initiation of meiotic recombination with DNA replication. Mei4-dependent transcription as a potential target of meiotic checkpoint.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Keiko; Masai, Hisao

    2006-01-20

    Premeiotic S-phase and meiotic recombination are known to be strictly coupled in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the checkpoint pathway regulating this coupling has been largely unknown. In fission yeast, Rad3 is known to play an essential role in coordination of DNA replication and cell division during both mitotic growth and meiosis. Here we have examined whether the Rad3 pathway also regulates the coupling of DNA synthesis and recombination. Inhibition of premeiotic S-phase with hydroxyurea completely abrogates the progression of meiosis, including the formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). DSB formation is restored in rad3 mutant even in the presence of hydroxyurea, although repair of DSBs does not take place or is significantly delayed, indicating that the subsequent recombination steps may be still inhibited. Examination of the roles of downstream checkpoint kinases reveals that Cds1, but not Chk1 or Mek1, is required for suppression of DSB in the presence of hydroxyurea. Transcriptional induction of some rec+ genes essential for DSB occurs at a normal timing and to a normal level in the absence of DNA synthesis in both the wild-type and cds1delta cells. On the other hand, the transcriptional induction of the mei4+ transcription factor and cdc25+ phosphatase, which is significantly suppressed by hydroxyurea in the wild-type cells, occurs almost to a normal level in cds1delta cells even in the presence of hydroxyurea. These results show that the Rad3-Cds1 checkpoint pathway coordinates initiation of meiotic recombination and meiotic cell divisions with premeiotic DNA synthesis. Because mei4+ is known to be required for DSB formation and cdc25+ is required for activation of meiotic cell divisions, we propose an intriguing possibility that the Rad3-Cds1 meiotic checkpoint pathway may target transcription of these factors.

  11. Roles of bacterial attachment and spontaneous partitioning in the biodegradation of naphthalene initially present in nonaqueous-phase liquids.

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Calvo, J J; Alexander, M

    1994-01-01

    The mineralization by an Arthrobacter sp. of naphthalene initially dissolved in di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate exhibited a slow phase followed by a rapid phase. Triton X-100, which inhibited cell attachment, prevented the onset of the second phase. Triton X-100 increased the extent of mineralization of naphthalene initially present in 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane. Cells attached to the interface mineralized the aromatic hydrocarbon at a rate four times higher than the rate of partitioning in the absence of microorganisms, but this microbial activity was markedly reduced by Triton X-100. We suggest that utilization of naphthalene originally present in nonaqueous-phase liquids may involve a partitioning-limited initial stage carried out by bacteria freely suspended in the aqueous phase and a subsequent, more rapid stage effected by bacteria present directly at the nonaqueous-liquid-water interface. PMID:8074534

  12. Caveolin-1 isoforms are encoded by distinct mRNAs. Identification Of mouse caveolin-1 mRNA variants caused by alternative transcription initiation and splicing.

    PubMed

    Kogo, H; Fujimoto, T

    2000-01-14

    By searching the EST database with the known cDNA sequence encoding alpha-caveolin-1 (full-length: FL), we found a variant having a hitherto unknown sequence in place of the first exon (5'-end variant: 5'V). The expression level of 5'V mRNA was equivalent to that of FL mRNA. The entire sequences of FL and 5'V mRNA were determined by 3'- and 5'-RACE analysis; their sizes were 2484 bp and 2533 bp, respectively, and the sequences were identical except for the region of the first exon. By Northern blotting, FL and 5'V mRNAs showed the same tissue distribution, and were intensely expressed in the lung, heart, and skeletal muscle. Analyzing the protein production from these mRNAs using green fluorescent protein as a tag, we found FL mRNA to produce the alpha-isoform predominantly, but to form little beta-isoform. The production of the beta-isoform from 5'V mRNA was also demonstrated. By sequence analysis of the first intron of the caveolin-1 gene, a TATA box was found at 28 bp upstream of the transcription initiation site for 5'V mRNA. This is the first demonstration of caveolin-1 mRNA variants generated by alternative transcription initiation, and it indicates that the two isoforms of caveolin-1 are produced from two distinct mRNAs.

  13. Initiation and beyond: molecular determinants of gene regulation. Mechanisms of Transcription Control, A Jacques Monod Conference, sponsored by the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Roscoff, France, September 30-October 4, 1991.

    PubMed

    Umek, R M

    1992-03-01

    The study of the mechanisms of transcriptional control continues to be an exciting area of research. The characterization of the constituents of the initiation complex and their interactions are leading to a greater understanding of gene regulation. The findings presented at this meeting emphasized the need to understand these interactions in three-dimensional space to effectively account for the observed regulation of the initiation of transcription.

  14. G Clustering Is Important for the Initiation of Transcription-Induced R-Loops In Vitro, whereas High G Density without Clustering Is Sufficient Thereafter▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Deepankar; Lieber, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    R-loops form cotranscriptionally in vitro and in vivo at transcribed duplex DNA regions when the nascent RNA is G-rich, particularly with G clusters. This is the case for phage polymerases, as used here (T7 RNA polymerase), as well as RNA polymerases in bacteria, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, avians, mice, and humans. The nontemplate strand is left in a single-stranded configuration within the R-loop region. These structures are known to form at mammalian immunoglobulin class switch regions, thus exposing regions of single-stranded DNA for the action of AID, a single-strand-specific cytidine deaminase. R-loops form by thread-back of the RNA onto the template DNA strand, and here we report that G clusters are extremely important for the initiation phase of R-loop formation. Even very short regions with one GGGG sequence can initiate R-loops much more efficiently than random sequences. The high efficiencies observed with G clusters cannot be achieved by having a very high G density alone. Annealing of the transcript, which is otherwise disadvantaged relative to the nontemplate DNA strand because of unfavorable proximity while exiting the RNA polymerase, can offer greater stability if it occurs at the G clusters, thereby initiating an R-loop. R-loop elongation beyond the initiation zone occurs in a manner that is not as reliant on G clusters as it is on a high G density. These results lead to a model in which G clusters are important to nucleate the thread-back of RNA for R-loop initiation and, once initiated, the elongation of R-loops is primarily determined by the density of G on the nontemplate DNA strand. Without both a favorable R-loop initiation zone and elongation zone, R-loop formation is inefficient. PMID:19307304

  15. G clustering is important for the initiation of transcription-induced R-loops in vitro, whereas high G density without clustering is sufficient thereafter.

    PubMed

    Roy, Deepankar; Lieber, Michael R

    2009-06-01

    R-loops form cotranscriptionally in vitro and in vivo at transcribed duplex DNA regions when the nascent RNA is G-rich, particularly with G clusters. This is the case for phage polymerases, as used here (T7 RNA polymerase), as well as RNA polymerases in bacteria, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, avians, mice, and humans. The nontemplate strand is left in a single-stranded configuration within the R-loop region. These structures are known to form at mammalian immunoglobulin class switch regions, thus exposing regions of single-stranded DNA for the action of AID, a single-strand-specific cytidine deaminase. R-loops form by thread-back of the RNA onto the template DNA strand, and here we report that G clusters are extremely important for the initiation phase of R-loop formation. Even very short regions with one GGGG sequence can initiate R-loops much more efficiently than random sequences. The high efficiencies observed with G clusters cannot be achieved by having a very high G density alone. Annealing of the transcript, which is otherwise disadvantaged relative to the nontemplate DNA strand because of unfavorable proximity while exiting the RNA polymerase, can offer greater stability if it occurs at the G clusters, thereby initiating an R-loop. R-loop elongation beyond the initiation zone occurs in a manner that is not as reliant on G clusters as it is on a high G density. These results lead to a model in which G clusters are important to nucleate the thread-back of RNA for R-loop initiation and, once initiated, the elongation of R-loops is primarily determined by the density of G on the nontemplate DNA strand. Without both a favorable R-loop initiation zone and elongation zone, R-loop formation is inefficient.

  16. Transcription and methylation analyses of preleukemic promyelocytes indicate a dual role for PML/RARA in leukemia initiation

    PubMed Central

    Gaillard, Coline; Tokuyasu, Taku A.; Rosen, Galit; Sotzen, Jason; Vitaliano-Prunier, Adeline; Roy, Ritu; Passegué, Emmanuelle; de Thé, Hugues; Figueroa, Maria E.; Kogan, Scott C.

    2015-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia is an aggressive malignancy characterized by the accumulation of promyelocytes in the bone marrow. PML/RARA is the primary abnormality implicated in this pathology, but the mechanisms by which this chimeric fusion protein initiates disease are incompletely understood. Identifying PML/RARA targets in vivo is critical for comprehending the road to pathogenesis. Utilizing a novel sorting strategy, we isolated highly purified promyelocyte populations from normal and young preleukemic animals, carried out microarray and methylation profiling analyses, and compared the results from the two groups of animals. Surprisingly, in the absence of secondary lesions, PML/RARA had an overall limited impact on both the transcriptome and methylome. Of interest, we did identify down-regulation of secondary and tertiary granule genes as the first step engaging the myeloid maturation block. Although initially not sufficient to arrest terminal granulopoiesis in vivo, such alterations set the stage for the later, complete differentiation block seen in leukemia. Further, gene set enrichment analysis revealed that PML/RARA promyelocytes exhibit a subtle increase in expression of cell cycle genes, and we show that this leads to both increased proliferation of these cells and expansion of the promyelocyte compartment. Importantly, this proliferation signature was absent from the poorly leukemogenic p50/RARA fusion model, implying a critical role for PML in the altered cell-cycle kinetics and ability to initiate leukemia. Thus, our findings challenge the predominant model in the field and we propose that PML/RARA initiates leukemia by subtly shifting cell fate decisions within the promyelocyte compartment. PMID:26088929

  17. Inflammation induced NFATc1-STAT3 Transcription Complex Promotes Pancreatic Cancer initiation by KrasG12D

    PubMed Central

    Baumgart, Sandra; Chen, Nai-ming; Siveke, Jens T.; König, Alexander; Zhang, Jin-San; Singh, Shiv K.; Wolf, Elmar; Bartkuhn, Marek; Esposito, Irene; Heßmann, Elisabeth; Reinecke, Johanna; Nikorowitsch, Julius; Brunner, Marius; Singh, Garima; Fernandez-Zapico, Martin E.; Smyrk, Thomas; Bamlet, William R.; Eilers, Martin; Neesse, Albrecht; Gress, Thomas M.; Billadeau, Daniel D.; Tuveson, David; Urrutia, Raul; Ellenrieder, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Summary Cancer-associated inflammation is a molecular key feature in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Oncogenic KRAS in conjunction with persistent inflammation is known to accelerate carcinogenesis, although the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we outline a novel pathway whereby the transcription factors NFATc1 and STAT3 cooperate in pancreatic epithelial cells to promote KrasG12D-driven carcinogenesis. NFATc1 activation is induced by inflammation and itself accelerates inflammation-induced carcinogenesis in KrasG12D mice, whereas genetic or pharmacological ablation of NFATc1 attenuates this effect. Mechanistically, NFATc1 complexes with STAT3 for enhancer-promoter communications at jointly regulated genes involved in oncogenesis, e.g. Cyclin, EGFR and WNT family members. The NFATc1-STAT3 cooperativity is operative in pancreatitis-mediated carcinogenesis as well as in established human pancreatic cancer. Together, these studies unravel new mechanisms of inflammatory driven pancreatic carcinogenesis and suggest beneficial effects of chemopreventive strategies using drugs which are currently available for targeting these factors in clinical trials. PMID:24694735

  18. Initiation binding repressor, a factor that binds to the transcription initiation site of the histone h5 gene, is a glycosylated member of a family of cell growth regulators [corrected

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Cuadrado, A; Martín, M; Noël, M; Ruiz-Carrillo, A

    1995-01-01

    Initiation binding repressor [corrected] (IBR) is a chicken erythrocyte factor (apparent molecular mass, 70 to 73 kDa) that binds to the sequences spanning the transcription initiation site of the histone h5 gene, repressing its transcription. A variety of other cells, including transformed erythroid precursors, do not have IBR but a factor referred to as IBF (68 to 70 kDa) that recognizes the same IBR sites. We have cloned the IBR cDNA and studied the relationship of IBR and IBF. IBR is a 503-amino-acid-long acidic protein which is 99.0% identical to the recently reported human NRF-1/alpha-Pal factor and highly related to the invertebrate transcription factors P3A2 and erected wing gene product (EWG). We present evidence that IBR and IBF are most likely identical proteins, differing in their degree of glycosylation. We have analyzed several molecular aspects of IBR/F and shown that the factor associates as stable homodimers and that the dimer is the relevant DNA-binding species. The evolutionarily conserved N-terminal half of IBR/F harbors the DNA-binding/dimerization domain (outer limits, 127 to 283), one or several casein kinase II sites (37 to 67), and a bipartite nuclear localization signal (89 to 106) which appears to be necessary for nuclear targeting. Binding site selection revealed that the alternating RCGCRYGCGY consensus constitutes high-affinity IBR/F binding sites and that the direct-repeat palindrome TGCGCATGCGCA is the optimal site. A survey of genes potentially regulated by this family of factors primarily revealed genes involved in growth-related metabolism. PMID:8524232

  19. Changes in bacterial community structure correlate with initial operating conditions of a field-scale denitrifying fluidized bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Hwang, C; Wu, W-M; Gentry, T J; Carley, J; Carroll, S L; Schadt, C; Watson, D; Jardine, P M; Zhou, J; Hickey, R F; Criddle, C S; Fields, M W

    2006-08-01

    High levels of nitrate are present in groundwater migrating from the former waste disposal ponds at the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, TN. A field-scale denitrifying fluidized bed reactor (FBR) was designed, constructed, and operated with ethanol as an electron donor for the removal of nitrate. After inoculation, biofilms developed on the granular activated carbon particles. Changes in the bacterial community of the FBR were evaluated with clone libraries (n = 500 partial sequences) of the small-subunit rRNA gene for samples taken over a 4-month start-up period. Early phases of start-up operation were characterized by a period of selection, followed by low diversity and predominance by Azoarcus-like sequences. Possible explanations were high pH and nutrient limitations. After amelioration of these conditions, diversification increased rapidly, with the appearance of Dechloromonas, Pseudomonas, and Hydrogenophaga sequences. Changes in NO3, SO4, and pH also likely contributed to shifts in community composition. The detection of sulfate-reducing-bacteria-like sequences closely related to Desulfovibrio and Desulfuromonas in the FBR have important implications for downstream applications at the field site.

  20. Accuracy of initial codon selection by aminoacyl-tRNAs on the mRNA-programmed bacterial ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingji; Ieong, Ka-Weng; Johansson, Magnus; Ehrenberg, Måns

    2015-01-01

    We used a cell-free system with pure Escherichia coli components to study initial codon selection of aminoacyl-tRNAs in ternary complex with elongation factor Tu and GTP on messenger RNA-programmed ribosomes. We took advantage of the universal rate-accuracy trade-off for all enzymatic selections to determine how the efficiency of initial codon readings decreased linearly toward zero as the accuracy of discrimination against near-cognate and wobble codon readings increased toward the maximal asymptote, the d value. We report data on the rate-accuracy variation for 7 cognate, 7 wobble, and 56 near-cognate codon readings comprising about 15% of the genetic code. Their d values varied about 400-fold in the 200–80,000 range depending on type of mismatch, mismatch position in the codon, and tRNA isoacceptor type. We identified error hot spots (d = 200) for U:G misreading in second and U:U or G:A misreading in third codon position by His-tRNAHis and, as also seen in vivo, Glu-tRNAGlu. We suggest that the proofreading mechanism has evolved to attenuate error hot spots in initial selection such as those found here. PMID:26195797

  1. Accuracy of initial codon selection by aminoacyl-tRNAs on the mRNA-programmed bacterial ribosome.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingji; Ieong, Ka-Weng; Johansson, Magnus; Ehrenberg, Måns

    2015-08-04

    We used a cell-free system with pure Escherichia coli components to study initial codon selection of aminoacyl-tRNAs in ternary complex with elongation factor Tu and GTP on messenger RNA-programmed ribosomes. We took advantage of the universal rate-accuracy trade-off for all enzymatic selections to determine how the efficiency of initial codon readings decreased linearly toward zero as the accuracy of discrimination against near-cognate and wobble codon readings increased toward the maximal asymptote, the d value. We report data on the rate-accuracy variation for 7 cognate, 7 wobble, and 56 near-cognate codon readings comprising about 15% of the genetic code. Their d values varied about 400-fold in the 200-80,000 range depending on type of mismatch, mismatch position in the codon, and tRNA isoacceptor type. We identified error hot spots (d = 200) for U:G misreading in second and U:U or G:A misreading in third codon position by His-tRNA(His) and, as also seen in vivo, Glu-tRNA(Glu). We suggest that the proofreading mechanism has evolved to attenuate error hot spots in initial selection such as those found here.

  2. Initiation of transcription of the MUC3A human intestinal mucin from a TATA-less promoter and comparison with the MUC3B amino terminus.

    PubMed

    Gum, James R; Hicks, James W; Crawley, Suzanne C; Dahl, Christine M; Yang, Stacey C; Roberton, Anthony M; Kim, Young S

    2003-12-05

    Human intestinal mucin genes MUC3A and MUC3B are members of a membrane mucin gene family residing at chromosome 7q22. In this paper, we utilized genomic and cDNA cloning to elucidate the sequence of the 5'-region of the MUC3A gene including the gene promoter and the amino terminus coding sequence. Following its 21-residue signal peptide, the amino terminus of the mucin consists of a 233-residue Thr-, Ser-, and Pro-rich nonrepetitive sequence that is contiguous with its hypervariable domain of 375-residue repeats. RNase protection analysis and 5'-GeneRacer PCR indicated that MUC3A gene transcripts initiate from multiple start sites along a region spanning approximately 180 bases. The 5'-flanking region of the gene had promoter activity when fused to a luciferase reporter gene in all of the tested cell lines. This region contained binding sites for several transcription factors, including those implicated in the regulation of intestinal genes, but lacked a cognate TATA box. These features of the gene promoter may enable the gene to be expressed at variable levels in several cell types with different repertoires of transcription factors. We also utilized 5'-GeneRacer PCR to determine the sequence of the 5'-terminus of the MUC3B message. The amino termini of the MUC3A and MUC3B mucins are 91% conserved at the amino acid level. Thus, MUC3A and MUC3B have highly conserved amino and carboxyl termini, suggesting a recent duplication of the entire ancestral gene. It remains to be determined whether other members of the 7q22 membrane mucin gene family have amino-terminal domains similar to MUC3A and MUC3B.

  3. Transcription regulation mechanisms of bacteriophages: recent advances and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haiquan; Ma, Yingfang; Wang, Yitian; Yang, Haixia; Shen, Wei; Chen, Xianzhong

    2014-01-01

    Phage diversity significantly contributes to ecology and evolution of new bacterial species through horizontal gene transfer. Therefore, it is essential to understand the mechanisms underlying phage-host interactions. After initial infection, the phage utilizes the transcriptional machinery of the host to direct the expression of its own genes. This review presents a view on the transcriptional regulation mechanisms of bacteriophages, and its contribution to phage diversity and classification. Through this review, we aim to broaden the understanding of phage-host interactions while providing a reference source for researchers studying the regulation of phage transcription.

  4. The Novel Bacterial N-Demethylase PdmAB Is Responsible for the Initial Step of N,N-Dimethyl-Substituted Phenylurea Herbicide Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Tao; Zhou, Chaoyang; Sørensen, Sebastian R.; Zhang, Ji; He, Jian; Yu, Peiwen; Li, Shunpeng

    2013-01-01

    The environmental fate of phenylurea herbicides has received considerable attention in recent decades. The microbial metabolism of N,N-dimethyl-substituted phenylurea herbicides can generally be initiated by mono-N-demethylation. In this study, the molecular basis for this process was revealed. The pdmAB genes in Sphingobium sp. strain YBL2 were shown to be responsible for the initial mono-N-demethylation of commonly used N,N-dimethyl-substituted phenylurea herbicides. PdmAB is the oxygenase component of a bacterial Rieske non-heme iron oxygenase (RO) system. The genes pdmAB, encoding the α subunit PdmA and the β subunit PdmB, are organized in a transposable element flanked by two direct repeats of an insertion element resembling ISRh1. Furthermore, this transposable element is highly conserved among phenylurea herbicide-degrading sphingomonads originating from different areas of the world. However, there was no evidence of a gene for an electron carrier (a ferredoxin or a reductase) located in the immediate vicinity of pdmAB. Without its cognate electron transport components, expression of PdmAB in Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas putida, and other sphingomonads resulted in a functional enzyme. Moreover, coexpression of a putative [3Fe-4S]-type ferredoxin from Sphingomonas sp. strain RW1 greatly enhanced the catalytic activity of PdmAB in E. coli. These data suggested that PdmAB has a low specificity for electron transport components and that its optimal ferredoxin may be the [3Fe-4S] type. PdmA exhibited low homology to the α subunits of previously characterized ROs (less than 37% identity) and did not cluster with the RO group involved in O- or N-demethylation reactions, indicating that PdmAB is a distinct bacterial RO N-demethylase. PMID:24123738

  5. A novel transcription initiation factor (TIF), TIF-IE, is required for homogeneous Acanthamoeba castellanii TIF-IB (SL1) to form a committed complex.

    PubMed

    Radebaugh, C A; Kubaska, W M; Hoffman, L H; Stiffler, K; Paule, M R

    1998-10-16

    The fundamental transcription initiation factor (TIF) for ribosomal RNA expression by eukaryotic RNA polymerase I, TIF-IB, has been purified to near homogeneity from Acanthamoeba castellanii using standard techniques. The purified factor consists of the TATA-binding protein and four TATA-binding protein-associated factors with relative molecular weights of 145,000, 99,000, 96,000, and 91,000. This yields a calculated native molecular weight of 460, 000, which compares well with its mass determined by scanning transmission electron microscopy (493,000) and its sedimentation rate, which is close to RNA polymerase I (515,000). Both impure and nearly homogeneous TIF-IB exhibit an apparent equilibrium dissociation constant of 56 +/- 3 pM. However, although impure TIF-IB can form a promoter-DNA complex resistant to challenge by other promoter-containing DNAs, near homogeneous TIF-IB cannot do so. An additional transcription factor, dubbed TIF-IE, restores the ability of near homogeneous TIF-IB to sequester DNA into a committed complex.

  6. Why is initial bacterial colonization of the intestine important to the infant’s and child’s health?

    PubMed Central

    Houghteling, Pearl D.; Walker, W. Allan

    2014-01-01

    Microbial colonization of the infant occurs during a critical time window for immune and gastrointestinal development. Infant colonization sets the stage for the adult microbiome. This review is a broad survey of the factors affecting infant colonization and the downstream effects on gastrointestinal health and disease. Major topics affecting colonization include initial inoculation dependent on birth mode, the impact of breastfeeding, and inside-out modulation of the developing microbiome by the immune system. Major outcomes of colonization include the timing-dependent education of the neonatal immune system, which is interconnected with barrier function and metabolism. These all engage in further continuing cross-talk with the microbiome, genetics and nutrition. This review will also briefly discuss mechanisms of disease resulting from disrupted colonization as well as nutritional and microbial therapies. PMID:25313849

  7. Ada protein-RNA polymerase sigma subunit interaction and alpha subunit-promoter DNA interaction are necessary at different steps in transcription initiation at the Escherichia coli Ada and aidB promoters.

    PubMed

    Landini, P; Bown, J A; Volkert, M R; Busby, S J

    1998-05-22

    The methylated form of the Ada protein (meAda) binds the ada and aidB promoters between 60 and 40 base pairs upstream from the transcription start and activates transcription of the Escherichia coli ada and aidB genes. This region is also a binding site for the alpha subunit of RNA polymerase and resembles the rrnB P1 UP element in A/T content and location relative to the core promoter. In this report, we show that deletion of the C-terminal domain of the alpha subunit severely decreases meAda-independent binding of RNA polymerase to ada and aidB, affecting transcription initiation at these promoters. We provide evidence that meAda activates transcription by direct interaction with the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase sigma70 subunit (amino acids 574-613). Several negatively charged residues in the sigma70 C-terminal domain are important for transcription activation by meAda; in particular, a glutamic acid to valine substitution at position 575 has a dramatic effect on meAda-dependent transcription. Based on these observations, we propose that the role of the alpha subunit at ada and aidB is to allow initial binding of RNA polymerase to the promoters. However, transcription initiation is dependent on meAda-sigma70 interaction.

  8. Rethinking transcription coupled DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Kamarthapu, Venu; Nudler, Evgeny

    2015-04-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is an evolutionarily conserved, multistep process that can detect a wide variety of DNA lesions. Transcription coupled repair (TCR) is a subpathway of NER that repairs the transcribed DNA strand faster than the rest of the genome. RNA polymerase (RNAP) stalled at DNA lesions mediates the recruitment of NER enzymes to the damage site. In this review we focus on a newly identified bacterial TCR pathway in which the NER enzyme UvrD, in conjunction with NusA, plays a major role in initiating the repair process. We discuss the tradeoff between the new and conventional models of TCR, how and when each pathway operates to repair DNA damage, and the necessity of pervasive transcription in maintaining genome integrity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Proteome changes in the initial bacterial colonist during ecological succession in an acid mine drainage biofilm community.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Ryan S; Dill, Brian D; Pan, Chongle; Belnap, Christopher P; Thomas, Brian C; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C; Hettich, Robert L; Banfield, Jillian F

    2011-08-01

    Proteomes of acid mine drainage biofilms at different stages of ecological succession were examined to understand microbial responses to changing community membership. We evaluated the degree of reproducibility of the community proteomes between samples of the same growth stage and found stable and predictable protein abundance patterns across time and sampling space, allowing for a set of 50 classifier proteins to be identified for use in predicting growth stages of undefined communities. Additionally, physiological changes in the dominant species, Leptospirillum Group II, were analysed as biofilms mature. During early growth stages, this population responds to abiotic stresses related to growth on the acid mine drainage solution. Enzymes involved in protein synthesis, cell division and utilization of 1- and 2-carbon compounds were more abundant in early growth stages, suggesting rapid growth and a reorganization of metabolism during biofilm initiation. As biofilms thicken and diversify, external stresses arise from competition for dwindling resources, which may inhibit cell division of Leptospirillum Group II through the SOS response. This population also represses translation and synthesizes more complex carbohydrates and amino acids in mature biofilms. These findings provide unprecedented insight into the physiological changes that may result from competitive interactions within communities in natural environments. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Proteome changes in the initial bacterial colonist during ecological succession in an acid mine drainage biofilm community

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Ryan; Dill, Brian; Pan, Chongle; Belnap, Christopher P.; Thomas, Brian; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2011-01-01

    Proteomes of acid mine drainage biofilms at different stages of ecological succession were examined to understand microbial responses to changing community membership. We evaluated the degree of reproducibility of the community proteomes between samples of the same growth stage and found stable and predictable protein abundance patterns across time and sampling space, allowing for a set of 50 classifier proteins to be identified for use in predicting growth stages of undefined communities. Additionally, physiological changes in the dominant species, Leptospirillum Group II, were analysed as biofilms mature. During early growth stages, this population responds to abiotic stresses related to growth on the acid mine drainage solution. Enzymes involved in protein synthesis, cell division and utilization of 1- and 2-carbon compounds were more abundant in early growth stages, suggesting rapid growth and a reorganization of metabolism during biofilm initiation. As biofilms thicken and diversify, external stresses arise from competition for dwindling resources, which may inhibit cell division of Leptospirillum Group II through the SOS response. This population also represses translation and synthesizes more complex carbohydrates and amino acids in mature biofilms. These findings provide unprecedented insight into the physiological changes that may result from competitive interactions within communities in natural environments.

  11. Non-transcriptional regulatory processes shape transcriptional network dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ray, J Christian J; Tabor, Jeffrey J; Igoshin, Oleg A

    2011-10-11

    Information about the extra- or intracellular environment is often captured as biochemical signals that propagate through regulatory networks. These signals eventually drive phenotypic changes, typically by altering gene expression programmes in the cell. Reconstruction of transcriptional regulatory networks has given a compelling picture of bacterial physiology, but transcriptional network maps alone often fail to describe phenotypes. Cellular response dynamics are ultimately determined by interactions between transcriptional and non-transcriptional networks, with dramatic implications for physiology and evolution. Here, we provide an overview of non-transcriptional interactions that can affect the performance of natural and synthetic bacterial regulatory networks.

  12. Transcriptional pausing at the translation start site operates as a critical checkpoint for riboswitch regulation

    PubMed Central

    Chauvier, Adrien; Picard-Jean, Frédéric; Berger-Dancause, Jean-Christophe; Bastet, Laurène; Naghdi, Mohammad Reza; Dubé, Audrey; Turcotte, Pierre; Perreault, Jonathan; Lafontaine, Daniel A.

    2017-01-01

    On the basis of nascent transcript sequencing, it has been postulated but never demonstrated that transcriptional pausing at translation start sites is important for gene regulation. Here we show that the Escherichia coli thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) thiC riboswitch contains a regulatory pause site in the translation initiation region that acts as a checkpoint for thiC expression. By biochemically probing nascent transcription complexes halted at defined positions, we find a narrow transcriptional window for metabolite binding, in which the downstream boundary is delimited by the checkpoint. We show that transcription complexes at the regulatory pause site favour the formation of a riboswitch intramolecular lock that strongly prevents TPP binding. In contrast, cotranscriptional metabolite binding increases RNA polymerase pausing and induces Rho-dependent transcription termination at the checkpoint. Early transcriptional pausing may provide a general mechanism, whereby transient transcriptional windows directly coordinate the sensing of environmental cues and bacterial mRNA regulation. PMID:28071751

  13. Matrix formulation of a universal microbial transcript profiling system

    SciTech Connect

    Fitch, J P; Ng, J; Sokhansanj, B A

    2000-11-01

    DNA chips and microarrays are used to profile gene transcription. Unfortunately, the initial fabrication cost for a chip and the reagent costs to amplify thousands of open reading frames for a microarray are over $100K for a typical 4 Mbase bacterial genome. To avoid these expensive steps, a matrix formulation of a universal hybrid chip-microarray approach to transcript profiling is demonstrated for synthetic data. Initial considerations for application to the 4.3 Mbase bacterium Yersinia pestis are also presented. This approach can be applied to arbitrary bacteria by recalculating a matrix and pseudoinverse. This approach avoids the large upfront expenses associated with DNA chips and microarrays.

  14. Human transcription factor Sp3: genomic structure, identification of a processed pseudogene, and transcript analysis.

    PubMed

    Moran, Kelly M; Crusio, Robbert H J; Chan, Connie H; Grekova, Maria C; Richert, John R

    2004-10-27

    The human transcription factor Sp3 has been widely studied at the translational level and has been described as a regulatory factor for a number of genes. Sp3 is currently characterized as a bifunctional transcription factor having the ability to behave as both an activator and/or a repressor in various promoter regions. Previous translational studies have attempted to determine the basis for these diverse functions with mostly contradictory evidence to date. Little data are available, however, concerning genomic structure, full-length cDNA, potential transcript variants, or location of translation initiation sites for the large isoform of the Sp3 gene. In this study, bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequencing, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), genomic PCR, and database mining indicate that the Sp3 gene encompasses seven exons spanning more than 55 kb of genomic DNA on Chromosome 2. The 5' end of this sequence contains a large CpG island. This work also detected a processed pseudogene, psiSp3, located on Chromosome 13, spanning approximately 4.0 kb. Northern blot analysis detected three predominant transcripts at 4.0, 6.0 and 2.5 kb. Sequence analysis indicated that alternative splicing of exon 3 allows for multiple transcripts of Sp3. Each sequenced transcript possesses three to five potential translation initiation sites. This diversity at the level of gene expression will likely be key to understanding the diverse functions of Sp3.

  15. Bacterial vaginosis.

    PubMed

    Weaver, C H; Mengel, M B

    1988-08-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (nonspecific vaginitis) is a polymicrobial, superficial vaginal infection caused by an increase in anaerobic organisms and a concomitant decrease in lactobacilli. Gardnerella vaginalis, once thought to be the sole etiologic agent, is probably one of several endogenous members of the vaginal flora that overgrow in women with bacterial vaginosis. Whether the growth of anaerobes or a primary decrease in lactobacilli is the initial pathogenic event remains unclear. Epidemiological studies have revealed that current or previous infections caused by Trichomonas organisms, increased sexual activity, and intrauterine device use are risk factors for this condition. Studies have indicated that bacterial vaginosis, previously thought to be a benign illness, is associated with some morbidity in pregnant women. Symptoms remain unreliable in the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. Diagnostic efficacy is best achieved by utilizing clinical signs. Assessment of cure is best accomplished by Gram stain, not clinical criteria. Metronidazole, 500 mg orally for seven days, remains the treatment of choice; however, a 2-g single dose of metronidazole represents a reasonable alternative if cost and compliance issues predominate in a clinical situation. Although a recent study supports the contention that treatment of the male sexual partner of women with bacterial vaginosis is effective, a general recommendation cannot be made with confidence on the issue of sexual partner treatment until other supporting work is done.

  16. Emx2 homeodomain transcription factor interacts with eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) in the axons of olfactory sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Nédélec, Stéphane; Foucher, Isabelle; Brunet, Isabelle; Bouillot, Colette; Prochiantz, Alain; Trembleau, Alain

    2004-07-20

    We report that Emx2 homeogene is expressed at the mRNA and protein levels in the adult mouse olfactory neuroepithelium. As expected for a transcription factor, Emx2 is present in the nucleus of immature and mature olfactory sensory neurons. However, the protein is also detected in the axonal compartment of these neurons, both in the olfactory mucosa axon bundles and in axon terminals within the olfactory bulb. Emx2 axonal staining is heterogeneous, suggesting an association with particles. Subcellular fractionations of olfactory bulb synaptosomes, combined with chemical lesions of olfactory neurons, confirm the presence of Emx2 in axon terminals. Significant amounts of Emx2 protein cosediment with high density synaptosomal subfractions containing eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E). Nonionic detergents and RNase treatments failed to detach eIF4E and Emx2 from these high-density fractions enriched in vesicles and granular structures. In addition, Emx2 and eIF4E can be coimmunoprecipitated from olfactory mucosa and bulb extracts and interact directly, as demonstrated in pull-down experiments. Emx2 axonal localization, association with high-density particles and interaction with eIF4E strongly suggest that this transcription factor has new nonnuclear functions most probably related to the local control of protein translation in the olfactory sensory neuron axons. Finally, we show that two other brain-expressed homeoproteins, Otx2 and Engrailed 2, also bind eIF4E, indicating that several homeoproteins may modulate eIF4E functions in the developing and adult nervous system.

  17. A bacterial community analysis using reverse transcription (RT) PCR which detects the bacteria with high activity in a wastewater treatment reactor

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This research used reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method to help detect active bacteria in a single-tank deammonification reactor combining partial nitritation and anammox. The single-tank aerobic deammonification reactor effectively removed the ammonia in anaerobically di...

  18. Cloning and characterization of hIF2, a human homologue of bacterial translation initiation factor 2, and its interaction with HIV-1 matrix.

    PubMed

    Wilson, S A; Sieiro-Vazquez, C; Edwards, N J; Iourin, O; Byles, E D; Kotsopoulou, E; Adamson, C S; Kingsman, S M; Kingsman, A J; Martin-Rendon, E

    1999-08-15

    The cDNA for a human homologue (hIF2) of bacterial (bIF2) and yeast (yIF2) translation initiation factor two (IF2) has been identified during a screen for proteins which interact with HIV-1 matrix. The hIF2 cDNA encodes a 1220-amino-acid protein with a predicted relative molecular mass of 139 kDa, though endogeneous hIF2 migrates anomalously on SDS/PAGE at 180 kDa. hIF2 has an extended N-terminus compared with its homologues, although its central GTP-binding domain and C-terminus are highly conserved, with 58% sequence identity with yIF2. We have confirmed that hIF2 is required for general translation in human cells by generation of a point mutation in the P-loop of the GTP-binding domain. This mutant protein behaves in a transdominant manner in transient transfections and leads to a significant decrease in the translation of a reporter gene. hIF2 interacts directly with HIV-1 matrix and Gag in vitro, and the protein complex can be immunoprecipitated from human cells. This interaction appears to block hIF2 function, since purified matrix protein inhibits translation in a reticulocyte lysate. hIF2 does not correspond to any of the previously characterized translation initiation factors identified in mammals, but its essential role in translation appears to have been conserved from bacteria to humans.

  19. Stimulation of the lambda pR promoter by Escherichia coli SeqA protein requires downstream GATC sequences and involves late stages of transcription initiation.

    PubMed

    Łyzeń, Robert; Wegrzyn, Grzegorz; Wegrzyn, Alicja; Szalewska-Pałasz, Agnieszka

    2006-10-01

    Escherichia coli SeqA protein is a major negative regulator of chromosomal DNA replication acting by sequestration, and thus inactivation, of newly formed oriC regions. However, other activities of this protein have been discovered recently, one of which is regulation of transcription. SeqA has been demonstrated to be a specific transcription factor acting at bacteriophage lambda promoters p(I), p(aQ) and p(R). While SeqA-mediated stimulation of p(I) and p(aQ) occurs by facilitating functions of another transcription activator protein, cII, a mechanism for stimulation of p(R) remains largely unknown. Here, it has been demonstrated that two GATC sequences, located 82 and 105 bp downstream of the p(R) transcription start site, are necessary for this stimulation both in vivo and in vitro. SeqA-mediated activation of p(R) was as effective on a linear DNA template as on a supercoiled one, indicating that alterations in DNA topology are not likely to facilitate the SeqA effect. In vitro transcription analysis demonstrated that the most important regulatory effect of SeqA in p(R) transcription occurs after open complex formation, namely during promoter clearance. SeqA did not influence the appearance and level of abortive transcripts or the pausing during transcription elongation. Interestingly, SeqA is one of few known prokaryotic transcription factors which bind downstream of the regulated promoter and still act as transcription activators.

  20. Soybean miR172c Targets the Repressive AP2 Transcription Factor NNC1 to Activate ENOD40 Expression and Regulate Nodule Initiation[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Youning; Wang, Lixiang; Zou, Yanmin; Chen, Liang; Cai, Zhaoming; Zhang, Senlei; Zhao, Fang; Tian, Yinping; Jiang, Qiong; Ferguson, Brett J.; Gresshoff, Peter M.; Li, Xia

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs are noncoding RNAs that act as master regulators to modulate various biological processes by posttranscriptionally repressing their target genes. Repression of their target mRNA(s) can modulate signaling cascades and subsequent cellular events. Recently, a role for miR172 in soybean (Glycine max) nodulation has been described; however, the molecular mechanism through which miR172 acts to regulate nodulation has yet to be explored. Here, we demonstrate that soybean miR172c modulates both rhizobium infection and nodule organogenesis. miR172c was induced in soybean roots inoculated with either compatible Bradyrhizobium japonicum or lipooligosaccharide Nod factor and was highly upregulated during nodule development. Reduced activity and overexpression of miR172c caused dramatic changes in nodule initiation and nodule number. We show that soybean miR172c regulates nodule formation by repressing its target gene, Nodule Number Control1, which encodes a protein that directly targets the promoter of the early nodulin gene, ENOD40. Interestingly, transcriptional levels of miR172c were regulated by both Nod Factor Receptor1α/5α-mediated activation and by autoregulation of nodulation-mediated inhibition. Thus, we established a direct link between miR172c and the Nod factor signaling pathway in addition to adding a new layer to the precise nodulation regulation mechanism of soybean. PMID:25549672

  1. Nucleotide sequence of RNA2 of Lettuce big-vein virus and evidence for a possible transcription termination/initiation strategy similar to that of rhabdoviruses.

    PubMed

    Sasaya, Takahide; Kusaba, Shinnosuke; Ishikawa, Koichi; Koganezawa, Hiroki

    2004-09-01

    Lettuce big-vein virus (LBVV) is the type species of the genus Varicosavirus and is a two-segmented negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus. The larger LBVV genome segment (RNA1) consists of 6797 nt and encodes an L polymerase that resembles that of rhabdoviruses. Here, the nucleotide sequence of the second LBVV genome segment (RNA2) is reported. LBVV RNA2 consisted of 6081 nt and contained antisense information for five major ORFs: ORF1 (nt 210-1403 on the viral RNA), ORF2 (nt 1493-2494), ORF3 (nt 2617-3489), ORF4 (nt 3843-4337) and ORF5 (nt 4530-5636), which had coding capacities of 44, 36, 32, 19 and 41 kDa, respectively. The gene at the 3' end of the viral RNA encoded a coat protein, while the other four genes encoded proteins of unknown functions. The 3'-terminal 11 nt of LBVV RNA2 were identical to those of LBVV RNA1, and the 5'-terminal regions of LBVV RNA1 and RNA2 contained a long common nucleotide stretch of about 100 nt. Northern blot analysis using probes specific to the individual ORFs revealed that LBVV transcribes monocistronic RNAs. Analysis of the terminal sequences, and primer extension and RNase H digestion analysis of LBVV mRNAs, suggested that LBVV utilizes a transcription termination/initiation strategy comparable with that of rhabdoviruses.

  2. Streamlining Safety Data Collection in Hospital-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia and Ventilator-Associated Bacterial Pneumonia Trials: Recommendations of the Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative Antibacterial Drug Development Project Team.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Helen; Alemayehu, Demissie; Botgros, Radu; Comic-Savic, Sabrina; Eisenstein, Barry; Lorenz, Benjamin; Merchant, Kunal; Pelfrene, Eric; Reith, Christina; Santiago, Jonas; Tiernan, Rosemary; Wunderink, Richard; Tenaerts, Pamela; Knirsch, Charles

    2016-08-15

    Resistant bacteria are one of the leading causes of hospital-acquired/ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (HABP/VABP). HABP/VABP trials are complex and difficult to conduct due to the large number of medical procedures, adverse events, and concomitant medications involved. Differences in the legislative frameworks between different regions of the world may also lead to excessive data collection. The Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative (CTTI) seeks to advance antibacterial drug development (ABDD) by streamlining clinical trials to improve efficiency and feasibility while maintaining ethical rigor, patient safety, information value, and scientific validity. In 2013, CTTI engaged a multidisciplinary group of experts to discuss challenges impeding the conduct of HABP/VABP trials. Separate workstreams identified challenges associated with current data collection processes. Experts defined "data collection" as the act of capturing and reporting certain data on the case report form as opposed to recording of data as part of routine clinical care. The ABDD Project Team developed strategies for streamlining safety data collection in HABP/VABP trials using a Quality by Design approach. Current safety data collection processes in HABP/VABP trials often include extraneous information. More targeted strategies for safety data collection in HABP/VABP trials will rely on optimal protocol design and prespecification of which safety data are essential to satisfy regulatory reporting requirements. A consensus and a cultural change in clinical trial design and conduct, which involve recognition of the need for more efficient data collection, are urgently needed to advance ABDD and to improve HABP/VABP trials in particular. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Mapping Transcription Regulatory Networks with ChIP-seq and RNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Wade, Joseph T

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial genomes encode numerous transcription factors, DNA-binding proteins that regulate transcription initiation. Identifying the regulatory targets of transcription factors is a major challenge of systems biology. Here I describe the use of two genome-scale approaches, ChIP-seq and RNA-seq, that are used to map transcription factor regulons. ChIP-seq maps the association of transcription factors with DNA, and RNA-seq determines changes in RNA levels associated with transcription factor perturbation. I discuss the strengths and weaknesses of these and related approaches, and I describe how ChIP-seq and RNA-seq can be combined to map individual transcription factor regulons and entire regulatory networks.

  4. Transcription Regulation in Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Gehring, Alexandra M.; Walker, Julie E.

    2016-01-01

    The known diversity of metabolic strategies and physiological adaptations of archaeal species to extreme environments is extraordinary. Accurate and responsive mechanisms to ensure that gene expression patterns match the needs of the cell necessitate regulatory strategies that control the activities and output of the archaeal transcription apparatus. Archaea are reliant on a single RNA polymerase for all transcription, and many of the known regulatory mechanisms employed for archaeal transcription mimic strategies also employed for eukaryotic and bacterial species. Novel mechanisms of transcription regulation have become apparent by increasingly sophisticated in vivo and in vitro investigations of archaeal species. This review emphasizes recent progress in understanding archaeal transcription regulatory mechanisms and highlights insights gained from studies of the influence of archaeal chromatin on transcription. PMID:27137495

  5. The transcription map of HPV11 in U2OS cells adequately reflects the initial and stable replication phases of the viral genome.

    PubMed

    Isok-Paas, Helen; Männik, Andres; Ustav, Ene; Ustav, Mart

    2015-04-14

    Although prophylactic vaccines have been developed against HPV6, HPV11, HPV16 and HPV18 there is the clear unmet medical need in order to justify the development of drugs targeting human papillomavirus replication. The native host cells of HPVs are human primary keratinocytes which can be cultivated in raft cultures. However, this method is difficult to use in high-throughput screening assays and the need for a cost-effective cellular system for screening potential anti-HPV drug candidates during all stages of HPV genome replication remains. U2OS cells were transfected with HPV11 wt or E8- minicircle genomes and their gene expression was studied via 3' RACE, 5' RACE or via real time PCR methods. The DNA replication of these genomes was detected by Southern blot methods. The analysis of HPV11 transcripts in U2OS cells showed that the patterns of promoter use, splice sites and polyadenylation cleavage sites are identical to those previously characterized in human HPV-related lesions, human squamous carcinoma cell lines (e.g., SSC-4) and laryngeal papillomas. Transcriptional initiation from the three previously described HPV11 promoters in the E6 and E7 ORFs (P90, P264, and P674-714) were functional, and these promoters were used together with two promoter regions in the E1 ORF (P1092 and P1372). Mutating the E8 ORF ATG start codon to ACG eliminated the translation of fusion proteins from the E8 ORF coupled to E1 and E2 proteins C-terminal sequences, leading to the de-repression of gene expression (particularly from the P1092 promoter) and to the activation of genome replication. These data suggested that the expression of the functional E8^E2 protein is used to control viral gene expression and copy number of the HPV11 genome. The analysis of HPV11 E1 expression plasmids showed that the E6/E7 region, together with the E1 coding region, is crucial for the production of functionally active E1 protein. The data presented in this paper suggest that in human osteosarcoma

  6. Transcription and translation of human F11R gene are required for an initial step of atherogenesis induced by inflammatory cytokines

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background - The F11 Receptor (F11R; aka JAM-A, JAM-1) is a cell adhesion protein present constitutively on the membrane surface of circulating platelets and within tight junctions of endothelial cells (ECs). Previous reports demonstrated that exposure of ECs to pro-inflammatory cytokines causes insertion of F11R molecules into the luminal surface of ECs, ensuing with homologous interactions between F11R molecules of platelets and ECs, and a resultant adhesion of platelets to the inflamed ECs. The main new finding of the present report is that the first step in this chain of events is the de-novo transcription and translation of F11R molecules, induced in ECs by exposure to inflammatory cytokines. Methods - The experimental approach utilized isolated, washed human platelet suspensions and cultured human venous endothelial cells (HUVEC) and human arterial endothelial cells (HAEC) exposed to the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and/or IFN-gamma, for examination of the ability of human platelets to adhere to the inflamed ECs thru the F11R. Our strategy was based on testing the effects of the following inhibitors on this activity: general mRNA synthesis inhibitors, inhibitors of the NF-kappaB and JAK/STAT pathways, and small interfering F11R-mRNA (siRNAs) to specifically silence the F11R gene. Results - Treatment of inflamed ECs with the inhibitors actinomycin, parthenolide or with AG-480 resulted in complete blockade of F11R- mRNA expression, indicating the involvement of NF-kappaB and JAK/STAT pathways in this induction. Transfection of ECs with F11R siRNAs caused complete inhibition of the cytokine-induced upregulation of F11R mRNA and inhibition of detection of the newly- translated F11R molecules in cytokine-inflamed ECs. The functional consequence of the inhibition of F11R transcription and translation was the significant blockade of the adhesion of human platelets to inflamed ECs. Conclusion - These results prove that de novo synthesis of F11R in ECs is

  7. Arabidopsis clade IV TGA transcription factors, TGA10 and TGA9, are involved in ROS-mediated responses to bacterial PAMP flg22.

    PubMed

    Noshi, Masahiro; Mori, Daisuke; Tanabe, Noriaki; Maruta, Takanori; Shigeoka, Shigeru

    2016-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in chloroplasts have been proposed to act as signaling molecules for plant immunity through pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), such as flg22. To elucidate this process, we herein conducted genetic screening of flg22-sensitive mutants from T-DNA insertion lines lacking chloroplastic H2O2-responsive genes. The results obtained showed that knockout mutants lacking a clade IV TGA transcription factor, TGA10, were more sensitive to the flg22 treatment than wild-type plants. Furthermore, although no flg22-sensitive phenotype was detected in the knockout mutant of another clade IV TGA9, double knockout tga9 tga10 mutants showed more sensitivity to flg22 than single knockout mutants. Transcripts of TGA10 and TGA9 were strongly induced by flg22 in leaves, and this was facilitated by the double knockout of stromal and thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidases (APX), which are major H2O2 scavengers in chloroplasts. The flg22-induced H2O2 accumulation was maintained at high level in these APXs mutants, indicating the clade IV TGAs may be induced by the ROS. Furthermore, TGA10 was required for the complete activation of the expression of several flg22-responsive genes in plants treated with this PAMP. These have provided a new insight into the relationship between the TGA transcription factors and ROS-mediated signaling in PAMPs responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Novel Roles of SoxR, a Transcriptional Regulator from Xanthomonas campestris, in Sensing Redox-Cycling Drugs and Regulating a Protective Gene That Have Overall Implications for Bacterial Stress Physiology and Virulence on a Host Plant

    PubMed Central

    Mahavihakanont, Aekkapol; Charoenlap, Nisanart; Namchaiw, Poommaree; Eiamphungporn, Warawan; Chattrakarn, Sorayut

    2012-01-01

    In Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, SoxR likely functions as a sensor of redox-cycling drugs and as a transcriptional regulator. Oxidized SoxR binds directly to its target site and activates the expression of xcc0300, a gene that has protective roles against the toxicity of redox-cycling compounds. In addition, SoxR acts as a noninducible repressor of its own expression. X. campestris pv. campestris requires SoxR both for protection against redox-cycling drugs and for full virulence on a host plant. The X. campestris model of the gene regulation and physiological roles of SoxR represents a novel variant of existing bacterial SoxR models. PMID:22056938

  9. Novel roles of SoxR, a transcriptional regulator from Xanthomonas campestris, in sensing redox-cycling drugs and regulating a protective gene that have overall implications for bacterial stress physiology and virulence on a host plant.

    PubMed

    Mahavihakanont, Aekkapol; Charoenlap, Nisanart; Namchaiw, Poommaree; Eiamphungporn, Warawan; Chattrakarn, Sorayut; Vattanaviboon, Paiboon; Mongkolsuk, Skorn

    2012-01-01

    In Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, SoxR likely functions as a sensor of redox-cycling drugs and as a transcriptional regulator. Oxidized SoxR binds directly to its target site and activates the expression of xcc0300, a gene that has protective roles against the toxicity of redox-cycling compounds. In addition, SoxR acts as a noninducible repressor of its own expression. X. campestris pv. campestris requires SoxR both for protection against redox-cycling drugs and for full virulence on a host plant. The X. campestris model of the gene regulation and physiological roles of SoxR represents a novel variant of existing bacterial SoxR models.

  10. Spectrometric study of the folding process of i-motif-forming DNA sequences upstream of the c-kit transcription initiation site.

    PubMed

    Bucek, Pavel; Gargallo, Raimundo; Kudrev, Andrei

    2010-12-17

    The c-kit oncogene shows a cytosine-rich DNA region upstream of the transcription initiation site which forms an i-motif structure at slightly acidic pH values (Bucek et al. [5]). In the present study, the pH-induced formation of i-motif - forming sequences 5'-CCC CTC CCT CGC GCC CGC CCG-3' (ckitC1, native), 5'-CCC TTC CCT TGT GCC CGC CCG-3' (ckitC2) and 5'-CCCTT CCC TTTTT CCC T CCC T-3' (ckitC3) was studied by spectroscopic techniques, such as UV molecular absorption and circular dichroism (CD), in tandem with two multivariate data analysis methods, the hard modelling-based matrix method and the soft modelling-based MCR-ALS approach. Use of the hard chemical modelling enabled us to propose the equilibrium model, which describes spectral changes as functions of solution acidity. Additionally, the intrinsic protonation constant, K(in), and the cooperativity parameters, ω(c), and ω(a), were calculated from the fitting procedure of the coupled CD and molecular absorption spectra. In the case of ckitC2 and ckitC3, the hard model correctly reproduced the spectral variations observed experimentally. The results indicated that folding was accompanied by a cooperative process, i.e. the enhancement of protonated structure stability upon protonation. In contrast, unfolding was accompanied by an anticooperative process. Finally, folding of the native sequence, ckitC1, seemed to follow a more complex mechanism.

  11. Phosphoinositide 3-Kinases Upregulate System xc− via Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2α and Activating Transcription Factor 4 – A Pathway Active in Glioblastomas and Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Paul; Kassubek, Rebecca; Albrecht, Philipp; Van Liefferinge, Joeri; Westhoff, Mike-Andrew; Halatsch, Marc-Eric; Karpel-Massler, Georg; Meakin, Paul J.; Hayes, John D.; Aronica, Eleonora; Smolders, Ilse; Ludolph, Albert C.; Methner, Axel; Conrad, Marcus; Massie, Ann; Hardingham, Giles E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) relay growth factor signaling and mediate cytoprotection and cell growth. The cystine/glutamate antiporter system xc− imports cystine while exporting glutamate, thereby promoting glutathione synthesis while increasing extracellular cerebral glutamate. The aim of this study was to analyze the pathway through which growth factor and PI3K signaling induce the cystine/glutamate antiporter system xc− and to demonstrate its biological significance for neuroprotection, cell growth, and epilepsy. Results: PI3Ks induce system xc− through glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) inhibition, general control non-derepressible-2-mediated eukaryotic initiation factor 2α phosphorylation, and the subsequent translational up-regulation of activating transcription factor 4. This pathway is essential for PI3Ks to modulate oxidative stress resistance of nerve cells and insulin-induced growth in fibroblasts. Moreover, the pathway is active in human glioblastoma cells. In addition, it is induced in primary cortical neurons in response to robust neuronal activity and in hippocampi from patients