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Sample records for bacterium flavobacterium columnare

  1. VIRULENCE OF Flavobacterium columnare GENOMOVARS IN RAINBOW TROUT (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flavobacterium columnare is the causative agent of columnaris disease and is responsible for significant economic losses in aquaculture. F. columnare is a Gram-negative bacterium, and five genetic types or genomovars have been described based on restriction fragment length polymorphism of the 16S rR...

  2. Formalin treatment of Trichondina sp. reduced Flavobacterium columnare infection in tilapia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bacterium Flavobacterium columnare and protozoan Trichodina spp. are common pathogens of cultured fish. Recent studies on parasite-bacterium interaction show evidence that concurrent infections increase severity of some infectious diseases, especially bacterial diseases. The effect of parasite treat...

  3. Antibacterial activity of acylglucinol derivatives against Flavobacterium columnare

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Columnaris disease is one of the most common bacterial diseases of pond-raised channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) in the southeastern United States of America. The Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium Flavobacterium columnare is the cause of columnaris disease. Direct economic losses to catfish pr...

  4. Identification of four distinct phylogenetic groups in Flavobacterium columnare with fish host associations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Columnaris disease, caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Flavobacterium columnare, is one of the most prevalent fish diseases worldwide. An exceptionally high level of genetic diversity among isolates of F. columnare has long been recognized, whereby six established genomovars have been described t...

  5. Ungeremine and its hemisynthetic analogues as bactericides against Flavobacterium columnare

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Gram-negative bacterium Flavobacterium columunare is the cause of colmunaris disease in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). In a previous study, the betaine-type alkaloid ungeremine, 1 obtained from Pancratium maritimum L. was found to have strong antibacterial activity against F. columnare. ...

  6. Compounds from Terminalli brownii extracts with toxicity against the fish pathogenic bacterium Flavobacterium columnare

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The pond-raised channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) industry in the United States of America can incur losses of over a $100 million annually due to bacterial diseases including columnaris disease caused by Flavobacterium columnare. One management approach available to catfish producers is the use...

  7. Fish mucus alters the Flavobacterium columnare transcriptome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Columnaris disease which is caused by Flavobacterium columnare severely impacts the production of freshwater finfish species. Due to the impact on the aquaculture industry, research efforts to better understand the biological processes of F. columnare including the formation of biofilms and their co...

  8. Spleen size and plasma levels of mannose binding lectin in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus families exhibiting different susceptibilities to Flavobacterium columnare and Edwardsiella ictaluri

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two major problems in the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) aquaculture industry have been high disease losses to enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC), caused by the bacterium Edwardsiella ictaluri and columnaris disease, caused by the bacterium Flavobacterium columnare. Methods to control these...

  9. Complete genome sequence of the fish pathogen Flavobacterium columnare strain C#2

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flavobacterium columnare is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that causes columnaris disease of freshwater fish. Flavobacterium columnare strain C#2 was isolated from a diseased warm water fish and is typed as genomovar II. The genome consists of a single 3.33 Mb circular chromosome with 2,689 pred...

  10. Efficacy of a modified live Flavobacterium columnare vaccine in fish.

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, Craig A; Klesius, Phillip H; Drennan, John D; Evans, Joyce J

    2011-01-01

    Flavobacterium columnare is an aquatic bacterium that is responsible for columnaris disease. This aquatic pathogen has a worldwide distribution and is highly infectious to both warm and cold water fish. A modified live F. columnare vaccine was developed by repeated passage of a virulent strain on increasing concentrations of rifampicin that resulted in attenuation. Here we report vaccination/challenge trials to evaluate efficacy and safety. In separate laboratory trials, immersion vaccination of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fry between 10 to 48 days post hatch (DPH) with experimental vaccine or licensed product resulted in relative percent survival (RPS) between 57-94% following challenge. Similarly, a vaccination/challenge trial using largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) fry at 10 DPH was performed using various doses of licensed product under laboratory conditions. Results demonstrated safety of the vaccine and significant protection following challenge with RPS values between 74-94%, depending on vaccine dose. Together, these trials demonstrate the vaccine administered to early life-stage channel catfish and largemouth bass is safe and reduces mortality following challenge with F. columnare. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Comparative analysis of the Flavobacterium columnare genomovar I and II genomes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Columnaris disease caused by Gram-negative rod Flavobacterium columnare is one of the most common diseases of catfish. F. columnare is also a common problem in other cultured fish species worldwide. F. columnare has three major genomovars; we have sequenced a representative strain from genomovar I (...

  12. Water hardness influences Flavobacterium columnare pathogenesis in channel catfish

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies were conducted to determine aspects of water chemistry responsible for large differences in pathogenesis and mortality rates in challenges of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus with Flavobacterium columnare; challenges were conducted in water supplying the Stuttgart National Aquaculture Res...

  13. Gene expression analysis between planktonic and biofilm states of Flavobacterium columnare

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris disease causes substantial mortality worldwide in numerous freshwater finfish species. Due to its global significance and impact on the aquaculture industry continual efforts to better understand basic mechanisms that contribute to disease ...

  14. Sickeningly sweet: L-rhamnose stimulates Flavobacterium columnare biofilm formation and virulence

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris disease causes substantial mortality worldwide in numerous freshwater finfish species. Due to its global significance and impact on the aquaculture industry continual efforts to better understand basic mechanisms that contribute to disease ...

  15. Isolation and characterization of Flavobacterium columnare strains infecting fishes inhabiting the Laurentian Great Lakes basin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flavobacterium columnare, the etiological agent of columnaris disease, causes significant losses in fish worldwide. In this study, F. columnare infection prevalence was assessed in representative Great Lakes fish species. Over 2,000 wild, feral, and hatchery-propagated salmonids, percids, centrarc...

  16. Evaluating innate resistance to Flavobacterium Columnare in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flavobacterium columnare (Fc) is the causative agent for columnaris disease and a problem for several fish species. Recently, columnaris has been recognized as an emerging problem in farmed trout cultured within the Hagerman valley of Idaho. A long term breeding program at the NCCCWA has produced ...

  17. The carbohydrate L-rhamnose promotes biofilm formation which enhances Flavobacterium columnare virulence

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris disease causes substantial mortality worldwide in numerous freshwater finfish species. Due to its global significance and impact on the aquaculture industry, continual efforts to better understand basic mechanisms that contribute to disease...

  18. Phenotypic characterization and genetic diversity of Flavobacterium columnare isolated from red tilapia, Oreochromis sp. in Thailand

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flavobacterium columnare is the etiologic agent of columnaris disease and severely affects various freshwater aquaculture fish species worldwide. The objectives of this study were to determine the phenotypic characteristics and genetic variability among F. columnare isolates isolated from red tilapi...

  19. Influence of native catfish mucus on Flavobacterium columnare growth and proteolytic activity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flavobacterium columnare causes columnaris disease of farmed and wild freshwater fish. Skin mucus is an important factor in early stages of columnaris pathogenesis, albeit little studied. Our objectives were to 1) characterize the terminal glycosylation pattern (TGP) of catfish mucus, 2) determine t...

  20. Evaluation of potassium permanganate against an experimental subacute infection of Flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish, Icatlurus punctatus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The efficacy of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) as a prophylactic and therapeutic treatment for subacute infection of Flavobacterium columnare was demonstrated in experimentally infected channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Catfish experimentally infected with F. columnare to mimic a subacute infec...

  1. Kaolinitic clay protects against Flavobacterium columnare infection in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Columnaris disease, caused by the bacterial pathogen Flavobacterium columnare, continues to be a major problem worldwide in aquaculture settings. Despite the far-reaching negative impacts of columnaris disease, safe and efficacious preventatives and curatives for this disease remain limited. In th...

  2. Assessment of Flavobacterium columnare from golden shiners Notemingonus crysoleucas subject to crowding stress

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Intensive aquaculture practices and exposure to environmental stressors can trigger outbreaks of Flavobacterium columnare, a bacterial pathogen that causes columnaris disease in commercially important fish including Golden Shiners. A rapid assessment of the bacterial load is essential to prevent out...

  3. Composition of Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS) produced by Flavobacterium columnare isolated from tropical fish in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Alexandre Sebastião, Fernanda; Pilarski, Fabiana; Lemos, Manoel Victor Franco

    2013-01-01

    Thirty nine isolates of Flavobacterium columnare from Brazilian fish farms had their carbohydrate composition of EPS evaluated by high efficiency liquid chromatography, using the phenol-sulfuric acid method of EPS. The occurrence of capsules on F. columnare cells was not directly related to biofilm formation, and the predominant monosaccharide is glucose.

  4. Composition of Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS) produced by Flavobacterium columnare isolated from tropical fish in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Alexandre Sebastião, Fernanda; Pilarski, Fabiana; Lemos, Manoel Victor Franco

    2013-01-01

    Thirty nine isolates of Flavobacterium columnare from Brazilian fish farms had their carbohydrate composition of EPS evaluated by high efficiency liquid chromatography, using the phenol-sulfuric acid method of EPS. The occurrence of capsules on F. columnare cells was not directly related to biofilm formation, and the predominant monosaccharide is glucose. PMID:24516426

  5. New hosts and genetic diversity of Flavobacterium columnare isolated from Brazilian native species and Nile tilapia.

    PubMed

    Barony, G M; Tavares, G C; Assis, G B N; Luz, R K; Figueiredo, H C P; Leal, C A G

    2015-11-17

    Flavobacterium columnare is responsible for disease outbreaks in freshwater fish farms. Several Brazilian native fish have been commercially exploited or studied for aquaculture purposes, including Amazon catfish Leiarius marmoratus × Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum and pacamã Lophiosilurus alexandri. This study aimed to identify the aetiology of disease outbreaks in Amazon catfish and pacamã hatcheries and to address the genetic diversity of F. columnare isolates obtained from diseased fish. Two outbreaks in Amazon catfish and pacamã hatcheries took place in 2010 and 2011. Four F. columnare strains were isolated from these fish and identified by PCR. The disease was successfully reproduced under experimental conditions for both fish species, fulfilling Koch's postulates. The genomovar of these 4 isolates and of an additional 11 isolates from Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus was determined by 16S rRNA restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR. The genetic diversity was evaluated by phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (REP-PCR). Most isolates (n = 13) belonged to genomovar II; the remaining 2 isolates (both from Nile tilapia) were assigned to genomovar I. Phylogenetic analysis and REP-PCR were able to demonstrate intragenomovar diversity. This is the first report of columnaris in Brazilian native Amazon catfish and pacamã. The Brazilian F. columnare isolates showed moderate diversity, and REP-PCR was demonstrated to be a feasible method to evaluate genetic variability in this bacterium.

  6. Evaluation of the antibody response to the LV-359-01 strain of flavobacterium columnare

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris disease produces substantial mortality worldwide among numerous freshwater farmed finfish species. As aquaculture production continues to increase the frequency of columnaris disease will only continue to rise. Add to this an increase in re...

  7. Effectiveness of copper sulfate and potassium permanganate on channel catfish infected with Flavobacterium columnare

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Copper sulfate (CuSO4) and potassium permanganate (KMnO4) were evaluated for their effectiveness to curtail mortality and decrease bacterial load in fish tissues and water in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus naturally infected with Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris. Fis...

  8. Draft genome sequence of the fish pathogen Flavobacterium columnare strain CSF-298-10

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We announce the genome assembly of Flavobacterium columnare strain CSF-298-10, a strain isolated from an outbreak of Columnaris disease at a commercial trout farm in Snake River Valley Idaho, USA. The complete genome consists of 13 contigs totaling 3,284,579 bp, average G+C content of 31.5% and 2933...

  9. More than just antibodies: protective mechanisms of a mucosal vaccine against fish pathogen Flavobacterium columnare

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A recently developed attenuated vaccine (17-23) for Flavobacterium columnare has been demonstrated to provide superior protection for channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, against genetically diverse columnaris isolates. First, we were interested in elucidating the host responses generated by a viru...

  10. More than just antibodies: protective mechanisms of a muscosal vaccine against fish pathogen Flavobacterium columnare

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A recently developed attenuated vaccine (17-23) for Flavobacterium columnare has been demonstrated to provide superior protection for channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, against genetically diverse columnaris isolates (Mohammed et al. 2013). We were interested in examining the mechanisms of this p...

  11. Flavobacterium columnare isolated from red tilapia (Oreochromis sp.): emphasis on genetic characterization and virulence of rhizoid and non-rhizoid morphotypes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flavobacterium columnare is the causative agent of columnaris disease and severely affects various freshwater fish species worldwide. Here, we described the phenotypic and genetic characterization of F. columnare isolates isolated from farmed red tilapia in Thailand. Additionally, the virulence as w...

  12. Columnaris (Flavobacterium columnare) challenge using fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) in an ultra-low flow system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Arkansas baitfish farms routinely struggle with columnaris disease, which is caused by Flavobacterium columnare. Columnaris is ubiquitous in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) especially after harvest while they are being held in vats and during the transport prior to being sold. Columnaris disea...

  13. The type IX secretion system is required for virulence of the fish pathogen Flavobacterium columnare

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flavobacterium columnare, a member of the phylum Bacteroidetes, causes columnaris disease in wild and aquaculture-reared freshwater fish. The mechanisms responsible for columnaris disease are not known. Many members of the phylum Bacteroidetes use type IX secretion systems (T9SSs) to secrete enzymes...

  14. Impact of oral and waterborne administration of rhamnolipids on the susceptibility of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) to Flavobacterium columnare infection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flavobacterium columnare is the causative agent of columnaris disease and causes tremendous morbidity and mortality of farmed fish globally. Previously, we identified a potential lectin-mediator (a rhamnose-binding lectin; RBL1a) of F. columnare adhesion and showed higher RBL1a expression in suscept...

  15. The stress hormone cortisol: a (co)regulator of biofilm formation in Flavobacterum columnare?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previously, we demonstrated a direct effect of cortisol on Flavobacterium columnare, a notorious fish pathogenic bacterium, engendering a new perspective to bacteria-host communication in aquaculture. As stressed fish harbour increased cortisol levels in the skin and gill mucus, highly virulent F. c...

  16. Quality control ranges for testing broth microdilution susceptibility of Flavobacterium columnare and F. psychrophilium to nine antimicrobials

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A multi-laboratory broth microdilution method trial was performed to standardize the specialized test conditions required for fish pathogens Flavobacterium columnare and F. pyschrophilum. Nine laboratories tested the quality control (QC) strains Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Aeromonas salmonicid...

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of the Fish Pathogen Flavobacterium columnare Genomovar III Strain PH-97028 (=CIP 109753).

    PubMed

    Criscuolo, Alexis; Chesneau, Olivier; Clermont, Dominique; Bizet, Chantal

    2018-04-05

    Flavobacterium columnare strain PH-97028 (=CIP 109753) is a genomovar III reference strain that was isolated from a diseased Ayu fish in Japan. We report here the analysis of the first available genomovar III sequence of this species to aid in identification, epidemiological tracking, and virulence studies. Copyright © 2018 Criscuolo et al.

  18. The effect of high total ammonia concentration on the survival of channel catfish experimentally infected with Flavobacterium columnare

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although it is generally accepted that elevated ammonia levels in the water increase mortalities of Flavobacterium columnare infected fish, recent observation at our laboratory indicated otherwise. Two trials were conducted to determine the effect of a single immersion flush treatment of total ammo...

  19. Characterization of tlr-4 in fathead minnow challenged with columnaris (flavobacterium columnare) in an ultra-low flow system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Columnaris disease, caused by the bacteria Flavobacterium columnare, is one of the most serious bacterial infections affecting the aquaculture industry today. Columnaris is transmitted horizontally from fish to fish. The disease is highly contagious and may be spread through contaminated nets, speci...

  20. Evaluation of the therapeutic effect of potassium permanganate at early stages of an experimental acute infection of Flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The efficacy of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) against early stages of an experimental acute infection of Flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) was evaluated. Fish were experimentally challenged, by waterborne exposure for 2 h to F. columnare after cutaneous abrasion, an...

  1. Identification of genes encoding the type IX secretion system and secreted proteins in Flavobacterium columnare IA-S-4

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flavobacterium columnare, a member of the phylum Bacteroidetes, causes columnaris disease in wild and aquaculture-reared freshwater fish. The mechanisms responsible for columnaris disease are not known. Many members of the phylum Bacteroidetes use type IX secretion systems (T9SSs) to secrete enzymes...

  2. Comparative effects of copper sulfate or potassium permanganate on channel catfish concurrently infected with Flavobacterium columnare and Ichthyobodo necator

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An opportunistic study was conducted to determine the effects of two chemical therapeutants on channel catfish (CCF) Ictalurus punctatus concurrently infected Flavobacterium columnare and Ichthyobodo necator. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) and potassium permanganate (KMnO4) were investigated for their abil...

  3. Comparative challenge model of Flavobacterium columnare using abraded and unabraded channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque).

    PubMed

    Bader, J A; Nusbaum, K E; Shoemaker, C A

    2003-08-01

    The early entry of the fish pathogen Flavobacterium columnare and enhancement by abrasion was studied in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), using the polymerase chain reaction and a species-specific primer set for a bacterial 16S rRNA gene product. Evaluations were conducted following an abrasion bath immersion challenge with F. columnare. Abrasion, a practice which has historically been used prior to bacterial challenge, had significant effects on the early entry of the pathogen and on cumulative percent survival (CPS). The FvpF1-FvpR1 primer set was useful in detecting the early entry of F. columnare in mucus, skin, gill, blood, liver and trunk kidney tissues in both abraded and unabraded fish following immersion challenge at 29 +/- 2 degrees C. Bacteria were detected earlier in all tissues in abraded fish, except in the trunk kidney. These differences were not significant, except in the case of blood. Mucus, skin and gill tissues were positive for F. columnare earliest regardless of treatment (after 5 min in abraded fish and after 15 min in unabraded fish). CPS following challenge with F. columnare was significantly affected by abrasion, which supports the use of abrasion for the F. columnare challenge model for channel catfish.

  4. In vitro comparisons of the inhibitory activity of florfenicol copper sulfate and potassium permanganate towards Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare, the etiological agents of motile aeromonas septicemia (MAS) and columnaris disease, respectively, have been recently causing crippling moralities to the sunshine bass, Morone chrysops female X Morone saxatilis male (Percichthyidae), industry in the ...

  5. Colorimetric Method of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification with the Pre-Addition of Calcein for Detecting Flavobacterium columnare and its Assessment in Tilapia Farms.

    PubMed

    Suebsing, Rungkarn; Kampeera, Jantana; Sirithammajak, Sarawut; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Turner, Warren; Kiatpathomchai, Wansika

    2015-03-01

    Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris disease in fish, affects many economically important freshwater fish species. A colorimetric method of loop-mediated isothermal amplification with the pre-addition of calcein (LAMP-calcein) was developed and used to detect the presence of F. columnare in farmed tilapia (Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and red tilapia [Nile Tilapia × Mozambique Tilapia O. mossambicus]) and rearing water. The detection method, based on a change in color from orange to green, could be performed within 45 min at 63°C. The method was highly specific, as it had no cross-detections with 14 other bacterial species, including other fish pathogens and two Flavobacterium species. The method has a minimum detection limit of 2.2 × 10(2) F. columnare CFU; thus, it is about 10 times more sensitive than conventional PCR. With this method, F. columnare was detected in gonad, gill, and blood samples from apparently healthy tilapia broodstock as well as in samples of fertilized eggs, newly hatched fry, and rearing water. The bacteria isolated from the blood were further characterized biochemically and found to be phenotypically identical to F. columnare. The amplified products from the LAMP-calcein method had 97% homology with the DNA sequence of F. columnare.

  6. Bioassay-directed isolation and evaluation of Harmine from the terrestrial plant Peganum harmala L. for antibacterial activity against Flavobacterium columnare

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The antibacterial activities of crude extracts obtained from the aerial portions and roots of Peganum harmala L. were evaluated against the common fish pathogenic bacteria species Edwardsiella ictaluri, Flavobacterium columnare, and Streptococcus iniae using a rapid bioassay. Enteric septicemia of c...

  7. Missing the target: DNAk is a dominant epitope in the humoral immune response of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) to Flavobacterium columnare

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vaccination remains a viable alternative for bacterial disease protection in fish; however additional work is required to understand the mechanisms of adaptive immunity in the channel catfish. To assess the humoral immune response to Flavobacterium columnare; a group of channel catfish were first im...

  8. Complete genome sequence analysis of the fish pathogen Flavobacterium columnare provides insights into antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity related genes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yulei; Zhao, Lijuan; Chen, Wenjie; Huang, Yunmao; Yang, Ling; Sarathbabu, V; Wu, Zaohe; Li, Jun; Nie, Pin; Lin, Li

    2017-10-01

    We analyzed here the complete genome sequences of a highly virulent Flavobacterium columnare Pf1 strain isolated in our laboratory. The complete genome consists of a 3,171,081 bp circular DNA with 2784 predicted protein-coding genes. Among these, 286 genes were predicted as antibiotic resistance genes, including 32 RND-type efflux pump related genes which were associated with the export of aminoglycosides, indicating inducible aminoglycosides resistances in F. columnare. On the other hand, 328 genes were predicted as pathogenicity related genes which could be classified as virulence factors, gliding motility proteins, adhesins, and many putative secreted proteases. These genes were probably involved in the colonization, invasion and destruction of fish tissues during the infection of F. columnare. Apparently, our obtained complete genome sequences provide the basis for the explanation of the interactions between the F. columnare and the infected fish. The predicted antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity related genes will shed a new light on the development of more efficient preventional strategies against the infection of F. columnare, which is a major worldwide fish pathogen. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Extremophile extracts and enhancement techniques show promise for the development of a live vaccine against Flavobacterium columnare

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, D.B.; Palm, R.C.; MacKenzie, A.P.; Winton, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of temperature, ionic strength, and new cryopreservatives derived from polar ice bacteria were investigated to help accelerate the development of economical, live attenuated vaccines for aquaculture. Extracts of the extremophile Gelidibacter algens functioned very well as part of a lyophilization cryoprotectant formulation in a 15-week storage trial. The bacterial extract and trehalose additives resulted in significantly higher colony counts of columnaris bacteria (Flavobacterium columnare) compared to nonfat milk or physiological saline at all time points measured. The bacterial extract combined with trehalose appeared to enhance the relative efficiency of recovery and growth potential of columnaris in flask culture compared to saline, nonfat milk, or trehalose-only controls. Pre-lyophilization temperature treatments significantly affected F. columnare survival following rehydration. A 30-min exposure at 0 ??C resulted in a 10-fold increase in bacterial survival following rehydration compared to mid-range temperature treatments. The brief 30 and 35 ??C pre-lyophilization exposures appeared to be detrimental to the rehydration survival of the bacteria. The survival of F. columnare through the lyophilization process was also strongly affected by changes in ionic strength of the bacterial suspension. Changes in rehydration constituents were also found to be important in promoting increased survival and growth. As the sodium chloride concentration increased, the viability of rehydrated F. columnare decreased. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.

  10. Assessment of Aquaflor (c), copper sulfate and potassium permanganate for control of Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare infection in sunshine bass, Morone chrysops female x Morone saxatilis male

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two experiments were conducted to assess different therapeutants against a mixed infection of Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare in sunshine bass (SB) (Morone chrysops female x Morone saxatilis male). Experiment 1 assessed the efficacy of copper sulfate (CuSO4), florfenicol-medicated...

  11. Efficacy of florfenicol, copper sulfate and potassium permanganate in controlling a natural infection of Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare in sunshine bass, Morone chrysops female x Morone saxatilis male

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sunshine bass (Morone chrysops female ' Morone saxatilis male) naturally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare were randomly assigned to six treatments: 1) two treatments of waterborne exposures to copper sulfate (CuSO4), at 2.1 and at 4.2 mg/L (approximately one and two pe...

  12. Columnaris disease in fish: a review with emphasis on bacterium-host interactions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Flavobacterium columnare (F. columnare) is the causative agent of columnaris disease. This bacterium affects both cultured and wild freshwater fish including many susceptible commercially important fish species. F. columnare infections may result in skin lesions, fin erosion and gill necrosis, with a high degree of mortality, leading to severe economic losses. Especially in the last decade, various research groups have performed studies aimed at elucidating the pathogenesis of columnaris disease, leading to significant progress in defining the complex interactions between the organism and its host. Despite these efforts, the pathogenesis of columnaris disease hitherto largely remains unclear, compromising the further development of efficient curative and preventive measures to combat this disease. Besides elaborating on the agent and the disease it causes, this review aims to summarize these pathogenesis data emphasizing the areas meriting further investigation. PMID:23617544

  13. Development of Similar Broth Microdilution Methods to Determine the Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Flavobacterium columnare and F. psychrophilum.

    PubMed

    Gieseker, Charles M; Crosby, Tina C; Mayer, Tamara D; Bodeis, Sonya M; Stine, Cynthia B

    2016-03-01

    Flavobacterium columnare and F. psychrophilum are major fish pathogens that cause diseases that may require antimicrobial therapy. Choice of appropriate treatment is dependent upon determining the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates. Therefore we optimized methods for broth microdilution testing of F. columnare and F. psychrophilum to facilitate standardizing an antimicrobial susceptibility test. We developed adaptations to make reproducible broth inoculums and confirmed the proper incubation time and media composition. We tested the stability of potential quality-control bacteria and compared test results between different operators. Log phase occurred at 48 h for F. columnare and 72-96 h for F. psychrophilum, confirming the test should be incubated at 28°C for approximately 48 h and at 18°C for approximately 96 h, respectively. The most consistent susceptibility results were achieved with plain, 4-g/L, dilute Mueller-Hinton broth supplemented with dilute calcium and magnesium. Supplementing the broth with horse serum did not improve growth. The quality-control strains, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida ATCC 33658, yielded stable minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) against all seven antimicrobials tested after 30 passes at 28°C and 15 passes at 18°C. In comparison tests, most MICs of the isolates agreed 100% within one drug dilution for ampicillin, florfenicol, and oxytetracycline. The agreement was lower with the ormetoprim-sulfdimethoxine combination, but there was at least 75% agreement for all but one isolate. These experiments have provided methods to help standardize antimicrobial susceptibility testing of these nutritionally fastidious aquatic bacteria. Received June 24, 2015; accepted October 2, 2015.

  14. Lytic bacteriophages specific to Flavobacterium columnare rescue catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linn.) from columnaris disease.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Yogendra; Arpana; Kumar, Dinesh; Sharma, A K

    2011-03-01

    This investigation was aimed to find out appropriate strategy against antibiotic resistant bacterial fish pathogen, F. columnare. This pathogen was found persistently associated with fishes causing columnaris disease and ensuing mass mortality in hatchery and culture system of Sub - Himalayan region. Nine lytic F. columnare phages (FCP1 - FCP9) specific to its fifteen isolates were isolated from the water and bottom sediments of various geo-climatic regions of North India. The F. columnare phage FCP1 (made of hexagonal head and non contractile long tail belonging to family Podovariedae, a member of DNA virus) exhibited broader host range to lyse 9 out of 15 isolates of F. columnare. Therapeutic ability of FCP1 phage was assessed in C. batrachus inoculated intramuscularly (im) with virulent bacterial isolate FC8 and post inoculated (PI) with FCP1 phage (@ 10(8) : 10(6):: cfu : pfu) through intramuscular (im), immersion (bath) and oral (phage impregnated feed) treatment. Significant (p < 0.001) reduction (less than 10(-3) cfu ml(-1)) in host bacterium in the sera, gill, liver and kidney of challenged fishes was noted after 6 hr of phage treatment. Quantum of phage played a significant role in bringing down bacterial population as in the sera of dose 1 (@ 4.55 x 10(6) pfu ml(-1)) and dose 2 (@ 9.15 x 10(6) pfu ml(-1)) treated fishes mean log10 cfu value reduced by 3 logs (58.39%) and 5 logs (73.77%) at 96 hr, respectively. Phage treatment led to disappearance of gross symptoms, negative bacteriological test, detectable phage and 100% survival in experimentally infected C. batrachus. Result of this study provides evidence of profound lytic impact of FCP1 phage and represents its interesting therapeutic importance against antibiotic resistant F. columnare.

  15. Involvement of two glycoside hydrolase family 19 members in colony morphotype and virulence in Flavobacterium columnare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaolin; Li, Nan; Qin, Ting; Huang, Bei; Nie, Pin

    2017-11-01

    Flavobacterium columnare is the pathogenic agent of columnaris disease in aquaculture. Using a recently developed gene deletion strategy, two genes that encode the Glyco_hydro_19 domain (GH19 domain) containing proteins, ghd-1 and ghd-2, were deleted separately and together from the F. columnare G4 wild type strain. Surprisingly, the single-, Δ ghd-1 and Δ ghd-2, and double-gene mutants, Δ ghd-1 Δghd -2, all had rhizoid and non-rhizoid colony morphotypes, which we named Δ ghd-1, Δ ghd-2, Δ ghd-1 Δ ghd-2, and NΔ ghd-1, NΔ ghd-2, and NΔ ghd-1 Δ ghd-2. However, chitin utilization was not detected in either these mutants or in the wild type. Instead, skimmed milk degradation was observed for the mutants and the wild type; the non-rhizoid strain NΔ ghd-2 exhibited higher degradation activity as revealed by the larger transparent circle on the skimmed milk plate. Using zebrafish as the model organism, we found that non-rhizoid mutants had higher LD50 values and were less virulent because zebrafish infected with these survived longer. Transcriptome analysis between the non-rhizoid and rhizoid colony morphotypes of each mutant, i.e., NΔ ghd -1 versus (vs) Δ ghd-1, NΔ ghd-2 vs Δ ghd-2, and NΔ ghd-1 Δ ghd-2 vs Δ ghd-1 Δ ghd-2, revealed a large number of differentially expressed genes, among which 39 genes were common in three of the pairs compared. Although most of these genes encode hypothetical proteins, a few molecules such as phage tail protein, rhs element Vgr protein, thiol-activated cytolysin, and TonB-dependent outer membrane receptor precursor, expression of which was down-regulated in non-rhizoid mutants but up-regulated in rhizoid mutants, may play a role F. columnare virulence.

  16. Effect of Pseudomonas sp. MT5 baths on Flavobacterium columnare infection of rainbow trout and on microbial diversity on fish skin and gills.

    PubMed

    Suomalainen, L R; Tiirola, M A; Valtonen, E T

    2005-01-25

    Use of Pseudomonas sp. strain MT5 to prevent and treat Flavobacterium columnare infection was studied in 2 experiments with fingerling rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. In the first experiment, length heterogeneity analysis of PCR-amplified DNA fragments (LH-PCR) was used to assess the effect of antagonistic baths on the microbial diversity of healthy and experimentally infected fish. In the 148 samples studied, no difference was found between bathed and unbathed fish, and 3 fragment lengths were detected most frequently: 500 (in 75.7% of the samples), 523 (62.2%) and 517 bp (40.5%). The species contributing to these fragment sizes were Pseudomonas sp., Rhodococcus sp. and F. columnare, respectively. A specific PCR for detection of Pseudomonas sp. MT5 was designed, but none of the tissue samples were found to be positive, most likely indicating poor adhesion of the strain during bathing. LH-PCR was found to be a more powerful tool for detecting F. columnare in fish tissue than traditional culture methods (chi2 = 3.9, df = 1, p < 0.05). Antagonistic baths had no effect on the outbreak of infection or on fish mortality. F. columnare was also detected in healthy fish prior to and after experimental infection, indicating that these fish were carriers of the disease. In the second experiment, intensive Pseudomonas sp. MT5 antagonistic baths were given daily to rainbow trout suffering from a natural columnaris infection. Again, the antagonistic bacteria had no effect on fish mortality, which reached 95 % in both control and antagonist-treated groups in 7 d.

  17. Commercial demonstration of kaolinitic clay for protection of Flavobacterium columnaris in sportfish

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sportfish farms in Arkansas routinely battle Columnaris disease, which is caused by Flavobacterium columnare. Columnaris is especially prevalent during the feed training of centrarchids such as largemouth bass and immediately following harvest of crappie, redear sunfish, and bluegill while they are ...

  18. A thermostable serralysin inhibitor from marine bacterium Flavobacterium sp. YS-80-122

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Pengjuan; Li, Shangyong; Wang, Kun; Wang, Fang; Xing, Mengxin; Hao, Jianhua; Sun, Mi

    2017-06-01

    Serralysin inhibitors have been proposed as potent drugs against many diseases and may help to prevent further development of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria. In this study, a novel serralysin inhibitor gene, lupI, was cloned from the marine bacterium Flavobacterium sp. YS-80-122 and expressed in Escherichia coli. The deduced serralysin inhibitor, LupI, shows <40% amino acid identity to other reported serralysin inhibitors. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis of LupI with other serralysin inhibitors indicated that LupI was a novel type of serralysin inhibitor. The inhibitory constant for LupI towards its target metalloprotease was 0.64 μmol/L. LupI was thermostable at high temperature, in which 35.6%-90.7% of its inhibitory activity was recovered after treatment at 100°C for 1-60 min followed by incubation at 0°C. This novel inhibitor may represent a candidate drug for the treatment of serralysin-related infections.

  19. A thermostable serralysin inhibitor from marine bacterium Flavobacterium sp. YS-80-122

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Pengjuan; Li, Shangyong; Wang, Kun; Wang, Fang; Xing, Mengxin; Hao, Jianhua; Sun, Mi

    2018-03-01

    Serralysin inhibitors have been proposed as potent drugs against many diseases and may help to prevent further development of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria. In this study, a novel serralysin inhibitor gene, lupI, was cloned from the marine bacterium Flavobacterium sp. YS-80-122 and expressed in Escherichia coli. The deduced serralysin inhibitor, LupI, shows <40% amino acid identity to other reported serralysin inhibitors. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis of LupI with other serralysin inhibitors indicated that LupI was a novel type of serralysin inhibitor. The inhibitory constant for LupI towards its target metalloprotease was 0.64 μmol/L. LupI was thermostable at high temperature, in which 35.6%-90.7% of its inhibitory activity was recovered after treatment at 100°C for 1-60 min followed by incubation at 0°C. This novel inhibitor may represent a candidate drug for the treatment of serralysin-related infections.

  20. Immunogenicity and protective role of antigenic regions from five outer membrane proteins of Flavobacterium columnare in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zhang; Liu, Zhixin; Fu, Jianping; Zhang, Qiusheng; Huang, Bei; Nie, Pin

    2016-11-01

    Flavobacterium columnare causes columnaris disease in freshwater fish. In the present study, the antigenic regions of five outer membrane proteins (OMPs), including zinc metalloprotease, prolyl oligopeptidase, thermolysin, collagenase and chondroitin AC lyase, were bioinformatically analyzed, fused together, and then expressed as a recombinant fusion protein in Escherichia coli. The expressed protein of 95.6 kDa, as estimated by 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was consistent with the molecular weight deduced from the amino acid sequence. The purified recombinant protein was used to vaccinate the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella. Following vaccination of the fish their IgM antibody levels were examined, as was the expression of IgM, IgD and IgZ immunoglobulin genes and other genes such as MHC Iα and MHC IIβ, which are also involved in adaptive immunity. Interleukin genes ( IL), including IL-1β, IL-8 and IL-10, and type I and type II interferon ( IFN) genes were also examined. At 3 and 4 weeks post-vaccination (wpv), significant increases in IgM antibody levels were observed in the fish vaccinated with the recombinant fusion protein, and an increase in the expression levels of IgM, IgD and IgZ genes was also detected following the vaccinations, thus indicating that an adaptive immune response was induced by the vaccinations. Early increases in the expression levels of IL and IFN genes were also observed in the vaccinated fish. At four wpv, the fish were challenged with F. columnare, and the vaccinated fish showed a good level of protection against this pathogen, with 39% relative percent survival (RPS) compared with the control group. It can be concluded, therefore, that the five OMPs, in the form of a recombinant fusion protein vaccine, induced an immune response in fish and protection against F. columnare.

  1. Impact of oral and waterborne administration of rhamnolipids on the susceptibility of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) to Flavobacterium columnare infection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongdong; Beck, Benjamin H; Lange, Miles; Zhao, Honggang; Thongda, Wilawan; Ye, Zhi; Li, Chao; Peatman, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Flavobacterium columnare is the causative agent of columnaris disease and causes tremendous morbidity and mortality of farmed fish globally. Previously, we identified a potential lectin-mediator (a rhamnose-binding lectin; RBL1a) of F. columnare adhesion and showed higher RBL1a expression in susceptible channel catfish under basal conditions and following infection. Exposure of challenged fish to the carbohydrate ligand l-rhamnose just prior to a challenge substantially decreased columnaris mortality and pathogen adherence via the down-regulation of RBL1a. While highly effective in protecting fish from columnaris, l-rhamnose is prohibitively expensive, underscoring the need for alternative cost-effective sources of rhamnose for disease control. One such alternative may be microbially produced glycolipid compounds termed rhamnolipids (RLs), which feature abundant l-rhamnose moieties and are readily available from commercial sources. In the present study, we examined whether commercially available RLs (administered either by immersion or via feed) would function similarly to l-rhamnose in affording host protection against F. columnare. A four-week feeding trial with basal and RL top-coated diets (basal diet + RLs) was conducted in channel catfish fingerlings. Surprisingly, columnaris challenges revealed significantly lower survival following the 10 d challenge period in RL diet fed fish when compared with the basal treatment group (p < 0.001). In fish fed RLs, we observed a rapid and large-scale upregulation of RBL1a immediately after challenge combined with a suppression of mucin and lysozyme transcripts. Similarly, fish that were briefly pre-exposed to RLs by immersion and then challenged exhibited lower survival as compared to unexposed fish during a 4 d trial. In conclusion, RLs do not represent an alternative to rhamnose as an experimental treatment for protecting catfish from columnaris mortality. Further research is needed to find other affordable and

  2. Flavobacterium cloacae sp. nov., isolated from waste water.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongming; Lu, Peng; Zhu, Guoping

    2017-04-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped, non-motile bacterium, named wh15T, was isolated from the waste water of a municipal wastewater treatment plant in Wuhu, PR China. The taxonomic status of the strain was characterized using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Growth occurred at 15-45 °C (optimum, 25-40 °C), at pH 5.0-8.0 (optimum, pH 7.0) and with 0-4 % NaCl (optimum, 1-2 %). Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that wh15T represented a member of genus Flavobacterium and shared the highest similarity with Flavobacterium ummariense DS-12T (93.93 %), Flavobacterium ceti 454-2T (93.71 %) and Flavobacterium marinum SW105T (93.63 %). The major respiratory quinone of wh15T was MK-6 and major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 3-OH, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c) and summed feature 9 (iso-C17 : 1ω9c and/or C16 : 0 10-methyl). The DNA G+C content of wh15T was 32.3 mol%. Phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic evidence indicated that wh15T represents a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, the name Flavobacterium cloacae is proposed. The type strain is wh15T (=CCTCC AB 2015420T=JCM 31173T).

  3. Flavobacterium aurantiibacter sp. nov., an orange-pigmented bacterium isolated from cyanobacterial aggregates in a eutrophic lake.

    PubMed

    Cai, Haiyuan; He, Weihong; Yanan, Wang; Yan, Zaisheng; Wang, Changhui; Xu, Huacheng; Shao, Keqiang

    2018-06-01

    A bacterial strain, designated TH167 T , was isolated from cyanobacterial aggregates in eutrophic Lake Taihu in China. Cells were observed to be slightly curved rod-shaped, motile by gliding, aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, proteorhodopsin-containing. Optimal growth was obtained at pH 7.0 (range: 6.0-9.0), 28 °C (range: 4-32 °C) and 0 % (w/v) NaCl (range: 0-2.0 %) in Reasoner's 2A broth. No growth was observed at 37 °C. The cells were found to be positive for catalase and oxidase activities. The major fatty acids (>10 %) were identified as iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 1 G and anteiso-C15 : 0. The major polar lipids of the isolate comprised phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified phospholipid and two unidentified aminolipids. The major respiratory quinone was menaquinone-6. The genomic G+C content of strain TH167 T was 40.4 mol% based on total genome calculations. Based on similarities of 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain TH167 T was affiliated with the genus Flavobacterium, exhibiting the highest sequence similarities to Flavobacterium eburneum SA31 T (94.16 %), Flavobacterium yanchengensehg T (94.09 %) and Flavobacterium lacus NP180 T (93.95 %). The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties, and genome analysis suggested that strain TH167 T represented a novel species within the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium aurantiibacter sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TH167 T (=CGMCC 1.15805 T =LMG 29719 T ).

  4. Profilings of MicroRNAs in the Liver of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Infected with Flavobacterium columnare

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lijuan; Lu, Hong; Meng, Qinglei; Wang, Jinfu; Wang, Weimin; Yang, Ling; Lin, Li

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in regulation of many biological processes in eukaryotes, including pathogen infection and host interactions. Flavobacterium columnare (FC) infection can cause great economic loss of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) which is one of the most important cultured fish in the world. However, miRNAs in response to FC infection in common carp has not been characterized. To identify specific miRNAs involved in common carp infected with FC, we performed microRNA sequencing using livers of common carp infected with and without FC. A total of 698 miRNAs were identified, including 142 which were identified and deposited in the miRbase database (Available online: http://www.mirbase.org/) and 556 had only predicted miRNAs. Among the deposited miRNAs, eight miRNAs were first identified in common carp. Thirty of the 698 miRNAs were differentially expressed miRNAs (DIE-miRNAs) between the FC infected and control samples. From the DIE-miRNAs, seven were selected randomly and their expression profiles were confirmed to be consistent with the microRNA sequencing results using RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. In addition, a total of 27,363 target genes of the 30 DIE-miRNAs were predicted. The target genes were enriched in five Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways, including focal adhesion, extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction, erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog (ErbB) signaling pathway, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, and adherent junction. The miRNA expression profile of the liver of common carp infected with FC will pave the way for the development of effective strategies to fight against FC infection. PMID:27092486

  5. Flavobacterium olei sp. nov., a novel psychrotolerant bacterium isolated from oil-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Dhiraj Kumar; Kim, Jaisoo

    2017-07-01

    During a study of psychrophilic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria, two yellow, Gram-staining-negative, non-motile, and rod shaped bacteria, designated R-10-9T and K-4-2 were isolated from oil-contaminated soil from Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Both strains were able to grow at 0-32 °C, pH 5.0-9.5, and 0-1 % (w/v) NaCl concentration. These strains were taxonomically characterized by a polyphasic approach. On the basis of the results of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, R-10-9T and K-4-2 belong to the genus Flavobacterium and are closely related to Flavobacterium oncorhynchi 631-08T (97.80 and 98.09 % sequence similarity, respectively). The pairwise sequence similarity between R-10-9T and K-4-2 was observed to be 99.72 %. In both strains, the predominant respiratory quinone was menaquinone-6; the major polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine; and the major fatty acids were summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), iso-C15 : 0, C16 : 0 3-OH, antesio-C15 : 0, C16 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, and iso-C15 : 0 3-OH. The genomic DNA G+C contents of R-10-9T and K-4-2 were 35.9 and 35.4 mol%, respectively. The DNA-DNA relatedness between R-10-9T and K-4-2 was higher than 70 % but relatedness values with closely related reference strains were less than 35 %. The morphological, physiological, chemotaxonomic, and phylogenetic analyses clearly distinguished R-10-9T from its closest phylogenetic neighbours. Thus, R-10-9T represents a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium olei sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is R-10-9T (=KEMB 9005-447T=KACC 18997T=JCM 31673T), and strain K-4-2 as an additional strain.

  6. Isolation and characterization of a novel chlorpyrifos degrading flavobacterium species EMBS0145 by 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

    PubMed

    Amareshwari, P; Bhatia, Mayuri; Venkatesh, K; Roja Rani, A; Ravi, G V; Bhakt, Priyanka; Bandaru, Srinivas; Yadav, Mukesh; Nayarisseri, Anuraj; Nair, Achuthsankar S

    2015-03-01

    Indiscriminate application of pesticides like chlorpyrifos, diazinon, or malathion contaminate the soil in addition has being unsafe often it has raised severe health concerns. Conversely, microorganisms like Trichoderma, Aspergillus and Bacteria like Rhizobium Bacillus, Azotobacter, Flavobacterium etc have evolved that are endowed with degradation of pesticides aforementioned to non-toxic products. The current study pitches into identification of a novel species of Flavobacterium bacteria capable to degrade the Organophosphorous pesticides. The bacterium was isolated from agricultural soil collected from Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh, India. The samples were serially diluted and the aliquots were incubated for a suitable time following which the suspected colony was subjected to 16S rDNA sequencing. The sequence thus obtained was aligned pairwise against Flavobacterium species, which resulted in identification of novel specie of Flavobacterium later named as EMBS0145, the sequence of which was deposited in in GenBank with accession number JN794045.

  7. Evolution of interleukin-1 receptor-like 1 and its role in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) resistance to Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rainbow trout exhibit extensive phenotypic variation in innate disease resistance and we have divergently selected lines with either increased or reduced survival following exposure to the gram-negative bacterium, Flavobacterium psychrophilum (Fp). Following five generations of selection, gene expr...

  8. Identification and Characterization of a Pesticide Degrading Flavobacterium Species EMBS0145 by 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Nayarisseri, Anuraj; Suppahia, Anjana; Nadh, Anuroopa G; Nair, Achuthsankar S

    2015-06-01

    Organophosphates like chlorpyrifos, diazinon, or malathion have become most common and indisputably most toxic pest control agents that adversely affects the human nervous system even at low levels of exposure. Because of their relatively low cost and ability to be applied on a wide range of target insects and crop, organophosphorus pesticides account for a large share of all insecticides used in India, and this in turn raises severe health concerns. In this view, the present investigation was aimed to identify novel species of Flavobacterium bacteria which is bestowed with the capacity to degrade pesticides like chlorpyrifos, diazinon, or malathion. The bacterium was isolated from agricultural soil collected from Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh, India. The samples were serially diluted, and the aliquots were incubated for a suitable time following which the suspected colony was subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The sequence thus obtained was aligned pairwise against Flavobacterium species, which resulted in identification of novel species of Flavobacterium later which was named as EMBS0145 and sequence was deposited in GenBank with Accession Number: JN794045.

  9. Identification and characterization of a pesticide degrading flavobacterium species EMBS0145 by 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

    PubMed

    Nayarisseri, Anuraj; Suppahia, Anjana; Nadh, Anuroopa G; Nair, Achuthsankar S

    2014-08-09

    Organophosphates (OPs) like chlorpyrifos, diazinon, or malathion have become most common and indisputably most toxic pest-control agents that adversely affects the human nervous system even at low levels of exposure. Because of their relatively low cost and ability to be applied on a wide range of target insects and crop, organophosphorus pesticides account for a large share of all insecticides used in India, this in turn raises severe health concerns. In this view, the present investigation was aimed to identify novel species of Flavobacterium bacteria which is bestowed with the capacity to degrade pesticides like chlorpyrifos, diazinon or malathion. The bacterium was isolated from agricultural soil collected from Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh, India. The samples were serially diluted and the aliquots were incubated for a suitable time following which the suspected colony was subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The sequence thus obtained was aligned pairwise against Flavobacterium species, which resulted in identification of novel species of Flavobacterium later which was named as EMBS0145 and sequence was deposited in GenBank with accession number JN794045.

  10. Flavobacterium xueshanense sp. nov. and Flavobacterium urumqiense sp. nov., two psychrophilic bacteria isolated from glacier ice.

    PubMed

    Dong, Kun; Liu, Hongcan; Zhang, Jianli; Zhou, Yuguang; Xin, Yuhua

    2012-05-01

    Two Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped bacteria, designated strains Sr22(T) and Sr25(T), were isolated from water of melted ice from the China No.1 glacier, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. Cells formed yellow, circular, convex colonies. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strains Sr22(T) and Sr25(T) belong to the genus Flavobacterium, sharing ≤99.1  and ≤99.6 % similarity, respectively, with the type strains of recognized species of the genus. Strain Sr22(T) shared highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Flavobacterium tiangeerense CGMCC 1.6847(T) (98.6 %), Flavobacterium fryxellicola LMG 22022(T) (98.1 %) and Flavobacterium omnivorum CGMCC 1.2747(T) (99.1 %). Strain Sr25(T) shared highest similarity with Flavobacterium sinopsychrotolerans CGMCC 1.8704(T) (98.5 %), Flavobacterium degerlachei NBRC 102677(T) (98.4 %) and Flavobacterium xinjiangense CGMCC 1.2749(T) (99.5 %). The predominant fatty acids of strain Sr22(T) were iso-C(15 : 1) G (6.01 %), iso-C(15 : 0) (8.93 %), iso-C(16 : 1) H (12.68 %), iso-C(16 : 0) (10.4 %), C(15 : 1)ω6c (8.97 %), C(17 : 1)ω6c (5.96 %), iso-C(16 : 0) 3-OH (11.14 %) and summed feature 3 (comprising C(16 : 1)ω7c and/or C(16 : 1)ω6c, 12.33 %). The major fatty acids of strain Sr25(T) were iso-C(15 : 0) (10.8 %), anteiso-C(15 : 0) (5.23 %), C(15 : 1)ω6c (11.79 %), C(17 : 1)ω6c (5.43 %), iso-C(16 : 0) 3-OH (7.04 %) and summed feature 3 (20.42 %). The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains Sr22(T) and Sr25(T) were 37.2 and 35.1 mol%. On the basis of differential phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, these strains are considered to represent two novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the names Flavobacterium xueshanense sp. nov. (type strain Sr22(T)  = CGMCC 1.9227(T)  = NBRC 106479(T)) and Flavobacterium urumqiense sp. nov. (type strain Sr25(T)  = CGMCC 1.9230(T)  = NBRC 106480

  11. A BCWD-resistant line of rainbow trout exhibits higher abundance of IgT+ B cells and heavy chain tau transcripts compared to a susceptible line following challenge with Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bacterial Cold Water Disease (BCWD) is a common, chronic disease in rainbow trout, and is caused by the gram-negative bacterium Flavobacterium psychrophilum (Fp). Through selective breeding, the National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture has generated a genetic line that is highly resistant...

  12. Cloning and characterization of a new cold-adapted and thermo-tolerant ι-carrageenase from marine bacterium Flavobacterium sp. YS-80-122.

    PubMed

    Li, Shangyong; Hao, Jianhua; Sun, Mi

    2017-09-01

    ι-Carrageenases play a role in marine ι-carrageenan degradation, and their enzymatic hydrolysates are thought to be excellent antioxidants. In this study, we identified a new ι-carrageenase, encoded by cgiF, in psychrophilic bacterium Flavobacterium sp. YS-80-122. The deduced ι-carrageenase, CgiF, belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 82 and shows less than 40% amino acid identity with characterized ι-carrageenases. The activity of recombinant CgiF peaked at 30°C (1,207.8U/mg). Notably, CgiF is a cold-adapted ι-carrageenase, which showed 36.5% and 57% of the maximum activity at 10°C and 15°C, respectively. In addition, it is a thermo-tolerant enzyme that recovered 58.2% of its initial activity after heat shock. Furthermore, although the activity of CgiF was enhanced by NaCl, the enzyme is active in absence of NaCl. This study also shows that CgiF is an endo-type ι-carrageenase that hydrolyzes β-1,4-linkages of ι-carrageenan, yielding neo-ι-carratetraose as the main product. Its cold-adaptation, thermo-tolerance, NaCl independence and high neo-ι-carratetraose yield make CgiF an excellent candidate for industrial applications in production of ι-carrageen oligosaccharides from seaweed polysaccharides. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. [Purulent meningitis due to flavobacterium meningosepticum in Cameroonian children].

    PubMed

    Kokindombo, P O; Nko'o Amvenne, S; Ndjitoyap Ndam, E C; Wouaffo Ndayo, M; Tangam Ouambo, T; Tietche, F; Foumbi, J; Borderon, J C; Laugier, J; Mbede, J

    1991-09-01

    Following a number of reports of purulent CSF specimens positive for Flavobacterium meningosepticum in pediatric patients in Yaoundé, a prospective study was carried out in the Department of Pediatrics of the Central Yaoundé Hospital from December 1988 through December 1989. The goals of this study were to determine the incidence of Flavobacterium meningosepticum among infants and children with purulent meningitis, to discover the origin of this pathogen, and to examine its susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. Flavobacterium meningosepticum (18.4% of cases) was second by order of incidence, after pneumococci (50%). Incidences were low for the other pathogens usually described in purulent meningitis (H. influenzae, meningococcus...). All the pneumococcus strains recovered were susceptible to ampicillin. In contrast, 21.43% of strains of Flavobacterium meningosepticum were resistant to both ampicillin and chloramphenicol (the combination currently used as first line therapy in the Department), and 14.25% of strains were resistant to cefotaxime. The origin of the Flavobacterium meningosepticum strains found remains to be discovered. The low incidence of H. influenzae deserves to be reevaluated over the next few years.

  14. Flavobacterium panacis sp. nov., isolated from rhizosphere of Panax ginseng.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Singh, Priyanka; Farh, Mohamed El-Agamy; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Nguyen, Ngoc-Lan; Lee, Hyun A; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2016-09-01

    A novel bacterial strain, designated DCY106(T), was isolated from soil collected from the rhizosphere of ginseng (Panax ginseng), in Gochang, Republic of Korea. Strain DCY106(T) is Gram-negative, yellow-pigmented, non-flagellate, motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped, and strictly aerobic. The strain grows optimally at 25-30 °C and pH 6.5-7.5. Phylogenetically, strain DCY106(T) is closely related to Flavobacterium arsenitoxidans KCTC 22507(T) (98.41 %), followed by Flavobacterium cutihirudini LMG 26922(T) (97.67 %), Flavobacterium nitrogenifigens LMG 28694(T) (97.59 %), Flexibacter auranticus LMG 3987(T) (97.38 %), Flavobacterium defluvi KCTC 12612(T) (97.21 %) and Flavobacterium chilense LMG 26360(T) (97.05 %). The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to all other Flavobacterium species were below 97 %. The DNA G+C content of strain DCY106(T) is 34.2 mol% and the DNA-DNA relatedness between strain DCY106(T) and F. cutihirudini LMG 26922(T), F. auranticus LMG 3987(T), F. defluvi KCTC 12612(T) and F. chilense LMG 26360(T) were below 40.0 %. The menaquinone of the type MK-6 was found to be the predominant respiratory quinone. The major polar lipids were identified as phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, two unidentified aminolipids (APL1, APL6) and one unidentified lipid L2. C15:0, iso-C15:0 and summed feature 3 (iso-C15:0 2OH/C16:1 ω7c) were identified as the major fatty acids present in DCY106(T). The results of physiological and biochemical tests allowed strain DCY106(T) to be differentiated phenotypically from other recognized species belonging to the genus Flavobacterium. Therefore, it is suggested that the newly isolated organism represents a novel species, for which the name Flavobacterium panacis sp. nov. is proposed with the type strain designated as DCY106(T) (= JCM 31468(T)= KCTC 42747(T)).

  15. Dietary vitamin C deficiency depressed the gill physical barriers and immune barriers referring to Nrf2, apoptosis, MLCK, NF-κB and TOR signaling in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) under infection of Flavobacterium columnare.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui-Jun; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Feng, Lin; Liu, Yang; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Jun; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2016-11-01

    This study explored the effects of vitamin C on the physical barriers and immune barriers, and relative mRNA levels of signaling molecules in the gill of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) under infection of Flavobacterium columnare. The results indicated that compared with optimal vitamin C supplementation, vitamin C deficiency (2.9 mg/kg diet) (1) increased reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl (PC) contents (P < 0.05), decreased the copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, manganese superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities and mRNA levels (P < 0.05), and glutathione and vitamin C contents (P < 0.05), down-regulated NF-E2-related factor 2 mRNA level (P < 0.05), and up-regulated Kelch-like ECH-associating protein (Keap) 1a (rather than Keap1b) mRNA level (P < 0.05) in the gill of grass carp under infection of F. columnare, suggesting that vitamin C deficiency induced oxidative injury in fish gill; (2) up-regulated caspase-3, -7, -8, -9, Fas ligand, B-cell lymphoma protein 2 associated X protein, apoptotic protease activating factor-1 mRNA levels (P < 0.05), and down-regulated inhibitor of apoptosis protein and B-cell lymphoma-2 (rather than myeloid cell leukemia-1) mRNA level (P < 0.05) in the gill of grass carp under infection of F. columnare, suggesting that vitamin C deficiency aggravated cell apoptosis in fish gill; (3) up-regulated pore-forming TJs Claudin-12, 15a, -15b, and related signaling molecules myosin light chain kinase, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (rather than c-Jun N-terminal kinases) mRNA levels (P < 0.05), and down-regulated barrier-forming TJs Occludin, zonula occludens (ZO) 1, ZO-2, Claudin-c, -3c, -7a, -7b mRNA levels (P < 0.05) in the gill of grass carp under infection of F. columnare, suggesting that vitamin C deficiency disrupted tight junctional complexes in fish gill; (4) decreased lysozyme and acid phosphatase (ACP) activities, and

  16. Flavobacterium lacicola sp. nov., isolated from a freshwater lake.

    PubMed

    Park, Miri; Song, Jaeho; Nam, Gi Gyun; Kim, Suhyun; Joung, Yochan; Cho, Jang-Cheon

    2018-05-01

    A bacterial strain, designated IMCC25901 T , was isolated from a freshwater lake, Soyang, in the Republic of Korea. The strain was Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-motile, orange-coloured and short rod-shaped. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain IMCC25901 T was most closely related to Flavobacterium yonginense HMD1001 T (97.0 %) and formed a robust phylogenetic clade with other species of the genus Flavobacterium. Growth of strain IMCC25901 T was observed at 10-30 °C (optimum, 20 °C), pH 6-8 (optimum, pH 7) and 0-1.0 % NaCl (optimum, 0 %). The DNA G+C content of strain IMCC25901 T was 34.2 mol%. The major fatty acid constituents of the strain were anteiso-C15 : 0, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω6c and/or C16 : 1ω7c) and iso-C15 : 0. Cells of strain IMCC25901 T contained phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified phospholipid, two unidentified aminolipids and two unidentified lipids. The isoprenoid quinone detected in the strain was MK-6. On the basis of the taxonomic data obtained in this study, it was concluded that strain IMCC25901 T represented a novel species in the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium lacicola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Flavobacterium lacicola is IMCC25901 T (=KCTC 52571 T =NBRC 112883 T ).

  17. Development of genetic techniques for the psychrotrophic fish pathogen Flavobacterium psychrophilum.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, B; Secades, P; McBride, M J; Guijarro, J A

    2004-01-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum, a member of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides group, is an important pathogen of salmonid fish. Previous attempts to develop genetic techniques for this fastidious, psychrotrophic bacterium have met with failure. Here we describe the development of techniques for the genetic manipulation of F. psychrophilum and the identification of plasmids, selectable markers, a reporter system, and a transposon that function in several isolates of this fish pathogen. The antibiotic resistance genes ermF, cfxA, and tetQ function in F. psychrophilum. Cloning vectors based on the F. psychrophilum cryptic plasmid pCP1 which carried these selectable markers were introduced by conjugation from E. coli, resulting in antibiotic-resistant colonies of F. psychrophilum. Conjugative transfer of DNA into F. psychrophilum was strain dependent. Efficient transfer was observed for two of the seven strains tested (THC02-90 and THC04-90). E. coli lacZY functioned in F. psychrophilum when expressed from a pCP1 promoter, allowing its development as a reporter for studies of gene expression. Plasmids isolated from F. psychrophilum were efficiently introduced into F. psychrophilum by electroporation, but plasmids isolated from E. coli were not suitable for transfer by this route, suggesting the presence of a restriction barrier. DNA isolated from F. psychrophilum was resistant to digestion by Sau3AI and BamHI, indicating that a Sau3AI-like restriction modification system may constitute part of this barrier. Tn4351 was introduced into F. psychrophilum from E. coli and transposed with apparent randomness, resulting in erythromycin-resistant colonies. The techniques developed in this study allow for genetic manipulation and analysis of this important fish pathogen.

  18. Yield surface evolution for columnar ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhiwei; Ma, Wei; Zhang, Shujuan; Mu, Yanhu; Zhao, Shunpin; Li, Guoyu

    A series of triaxial compression tests, which has capable of measuring the volumetric strain of the sample, were conducted on columnar ice. A new testing approach of probing the experimental yield surface was performed from a single sample in order to investigate yield and hardening behaviors of the columnar ice under complex stress states. Based on the characteristic of the volumetric strain, a new method of defined the multiaxial yield strengths of the columnar ice is proposed. The experimental yield surface remains elliptical shape in the stress space of effective stress versus mean stress. The effect of temperature, loading rate and loading path in the initial yield surface and deformation properties of the columnar ice were also studied. Subsequent yield surfaces of the columnar ice have been explored by using uniaxial and hydrostatic paths. The evolution of the subsequent yield surface exhibits significant path-dependent characteristics. The multiaxial hardening law of the columnar ice was established experimentally. A phenomenological yield criterion was presented for multiaxial yield and hardening behaviors of the columnar ice. The comparisons between the theoretical and measured results indicate that this current model is capable of giving a reasonable prediction for the multiaxial yield and post-yield properties of the columnar ice subjected to different temperature, loading rate and path conditions.

  19. Diversity and relative abundance of the bacterial pathogen, Flavobacterium spp., infecting reproductive ecotypes of kokanee salmon.

    PubMed

    Lemay, Matthew A; Russello, Michael A

    2014-11-04

    Understanding the distribution and abundance of pathogens can provide insight into the evolution and ecology of their host species. Previous research in kokanee, the freshwater form of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), found evidence that populations spawning in streams may experience a greater pathogen load compared with populations that spawn on beaches. In this study we tested for differences in the abundance and diversity of the gram-negative bacteria, Flavobacterium spp., infecting tissues of kokanee in both of these spawning habitats (streams and beaches). Molecular assays were carried out using primers designed to amplify a ~200 nucleotide region of the gene encoding the ATP synthase alpha subunit (AtpA) within the genus Flavobacterium. Using a combination of DNA sequencing and quantitative PCR (qPCR) we compared the diversity and relative abundance of Flavobacterium AtpA amplicons present in DNA extracted from tissue samples of kokanee collected from each spawning habitat. We identified 10 Flavobacterium AtpA haplotypes among the tissues of stream-spawning kokanee and seven haplotypes among the tissues of beach-spawning kokanee, with only two haplotypes shared between spawning habitats. Haplotypes occurring in the same clade as F. psychrophilum were the most prevalent (92% of all reads, 60% of all haplotypes), and occurred in kokanee from both spawning habitats (streams and beaches). Subsequent qPCR assays did not find any significant difference in the relative abundance of Flavobacterium AtpA amplicons between samples from the different spawning habitats. We confirmed the presence of Flavobacterium spp. in both spawning habitats and found weak evidence for increased Flavobacterium diversity in kokanee sampled from stream-spawning sites. However, the quantity of Flavobacterium DNA did not differ between spawning habitats. We recommend further study aimed at quantifying pathogen diversity and abundance in population-level samples of kokanee combined with

  20. Genomic diversity of bacteriophages infecting the fish pathogen Flavobacterium psychrophilum.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Daniel; Middelboe, Mathias

    2016-12-01

    Bacteriophages infecting the fish pathogen Flavobacterium psychrophilum can potentially be used to prevent and control outbreaks of this bacterium in salmonid aquaculture. However, the application of bacteriophages in disease control requires detailed knowledge on their genetic composition. To explore the diversity of F. pyschrophilum bacteriophages, we have analyzed the complete genome sequences of 17 phages isolated from two distant geographic areas (Denmark and Chile), including the previously characterized temperate bacteriophage 6H. Phage genome size ranged from 39 302 to 89 010 bp with a G+C content of 27%-32%. None of the bacteriophages isolated in Denmark contained genes associated with lysogeny, whereas the Chilean isolates were all putative temperate phages and similar to bacteriophage 6H. Comparative genome analysis showed that phages grouped in three different genetic clusters based on genetic composition and gene content, indicating a limited genetic diversity of F. psychrophilum-specific bacteriophages. However, amino acid sequence dissimilarity (25%) was found in putative structural proteins, which could be related to the host specificity determinants. This study represents the first analysis of genomic diversity and composition among bacteriophages infecting the fish pathogen F. psychrophilum and discusses the implications for the application of phages in disease control. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Discovery of columnar jointing on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milazzo, M.P.; Keszthelyi, L.P.; Jaeger, W.L.; Rosiek, M.; Mattson, S.; Verba, C.; Beyer, R.A.; Geissler, P.E.; McEwen, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    We report on the discovery of columnar jointing in Marte Valles, Mars. These columnar lavas were discovered in the wall of a pristine, 16-km-diameter impact crater and exhibit the features of terrestrial columnar basalts. There are discontinuous outcrops along the entire crater wall, suggesting that the columnar rocks covered a surface area of at least 200 km2, assuming that the rocks obliterated by the impact event were similarly jointed. We also see columns in the walls of other fresh craters in the nearby volcanic plains of Elysium Planitia-Amazonis Planitia, which include Marte Vallis, and in a well-preserved crater in northeast Hellas. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  2. The discovery of columnar jointing on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milazzo, M.P.; Keszthelyi, L.P.; Jaeger, W.L.; Rosiek, M.; Mattson, S.; Verba, C.; Beyer, R.A.; Geissler, P.E.; McEwen, A.S.; ,

    2009-01-01

    We report on the discovery of columnar jointing in Marte Valles, Mars. These columnar lavas were discovered in the wall of a pristine, 16-km-diameter impact crater and exhibit the features of terrestrial columnar basalts. There are discontinuous outcrops along the entire crater wall, suggesting that the columnar rocks covered a surface area of at least 200 km2, assuming that the rocks obliterated by the impact event were similarly jointed. We also see columns in the walls of other fresh craters in the nearby volcanic plains of Elysium Planitia–Amazonis Planitia, which include Marte Vallis, and in a well-preserved crater in northeast Hellas.

  3. 21 CFR 866.3270 - Flavobacterium spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Flavobacterium spp. serological reagents. 866.3270 Section 866.3270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3270...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3270 - Flavobacterium spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Flavobacterium spp. serological reagents. 866.3270 Section 866.3270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3270...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3270 - Flavobacterium spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Flavobacterium spp. serological reagents. 866.3270 Section 866.3270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3270...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3270 - Flavobacterium spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flavobacterium spp. serological reagents. 866.3270 Section 866.3270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3270...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3270 - Flavobacterium spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Flavobacterium spp. serological reagents. 866.3270 Section 866.3270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3270...

  8. New host record of five Flavobacterium species associated with tropical fresh water farmed fishes from North India

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Dev Kumar; Rathore, Gaurav

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Yellow pigmented, filamentous, Gram-negative bacteria belonging to genus Flavobacterium are commonly associated with infections in stressed fish. In this study, inter-species diversity of Flavobacterium was studied in apparently healthy freshwater farmed fishes. For this, ninety one yellow pigmented bacteria were isolated from skin and gill samples (n = 38) of three farmed fish species i.e. Labeo rohita, Catla catla and Cyprinus carpio. Among them, only twelve bacterial isolates (13.18%) were identified as Flavobacterium spp. on the basis of morphological, biochemical tests, partial 16S rDNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. On the basis of 16S rDNA gene sequencing, all the 12 isolates were 97.6-100% similar to six different formally described species of genus Flavobacterium. The 16S rDNA based phylogenetic analysis grouped these strains into six different clades. Of the 12 isolates, six strains (Fl9S1-6) grouped with F. suncheonense, two strains (Fl6I2, Fl6I3) with F. indicum and the rest four strains (Fl1A1, Fl2G1, Fl3H1 and Fl10T1) clustered with F. aquaticum, F. granuli, F. hercynium and F. terrae, respectively. None of these species except, F. hercynium were previously reported from fish. All the isolated Flavobacterium species possessed the ability of adhesion and biofilm formation to colonize the external surface of healthy fish. The present study is the first record of tropical freshwater farmed fishes as hosts to five environmentally associated species of the Flavobacterium. PMID:26691454

  9. Development of a waterborne challenge model for Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the causative agent of bacterial coldwater disease and can cause significant mortality in salmonid aquaculture. To better evaluate disease prevention or treatment methods for F. psychrophilum in the laboratory, a waterborne challenge model that mimics a natural outbre...

  10. Flavobacterium kingsejongi sp. nov., a carotenoid-producing species isolated from Antarctic penguin faeces.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jun Young; Kim, Jin Ho; Lee, Pyung Cheon

    2018-03-01

    Taxonomic studies were carried out on a carotenoid-producing strain, designated WV39 T , isolated from the faeces of Antarctic penguins. Cells of strain WV39 T were Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, yellow and rod-shaped. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain WV39 T was closely related to Flavobacterium qiangtangense JCM 19739 T (96.3 % similarity), Flavobacterium noncentrifugens NBRC 108844 T (95.5 %) and Flavobacterium aquatile LMG 4008 T (94.9 %). The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 3-OH and summed feature 3 (comprising iso-C15 : 0 2-OH and/or C16 : 1ω7c). Menaquinone-6 was the sole quinone identified, and the major pigment was zeaxanthin. The major polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine. DNA-DNA relatedness of strain WV39 T with respect to its closest phylogenetic neighbours was 41.8 % for F. qiangtangense JCM 19739 T , 25.5 % for F. aquatile LMG 4008 T and 25.2 % for F. noncentrifugens NBRC 108844 T . The DNA G+C content of strain WV39 T was 39.8 mol%. Based on the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain WV39 T is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacteriumkingsejongi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is WV39 T (=KCTC 42908 T =CECT 9085 T ).

  11. Complementary DNA sequences of the constant regions of T-cell antigen receptors α, β and γ in mandarin fish, Siniperca chuatsi Basilewsky, and their transcriptional changes after stimulation with Flavobacterium columnare.

    PubMed

    Tian, J Y; Qi, Z T; Wu, N; Chang, M X; Nie, P

    2014-02-01

    In this study, the constant-region genes (Cα, Cβ and Cγ) that encode the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) α, β and γ chains were cloned from mandarin fish, Siniperca chuatsi Basilewsky, an important freshwater fish species in China. The complementary DNA sequences of Cα, Cβ and Cγ were 843, 716 and 906 base pairs (bp) in length and had a 465-, 289- and 360-bp 3' untranslated region, encoding 125, 142 and 182 amino acids, respectively. The amino-acid sequences of the constant regions of mandarin fish TCR α, β and γ chains (encoded by Cα, Cβ and Cγ, respectively) were most similar to those of their teleost counterparts, showing 60% similarity with pufferfish, 48% similarity with Atlantic salmon and 57% similarity with flounder, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the mandarin fish Cα, Cβ and Cγ were clustered, respectively, with their vertebrate counterparts. The mandarin fish Cα, Cβ and Cγ could also be separated into four domains: immunoglobulin; connecting peptide (CP); transmembrane (TM); and cytoplasmic tail. Several conserved features in mammalian TCRs were also found in those of mandarin fish, such as a conserved cysteine residue in the CP domain of Cα, necessary for creating an interchain disulphide bond with the TCR β chain, and a conserved antigen receptor TM motif in Cα and Cβ. Meanwhile, transcripts of Cα, Cβ and Cγ were detectable in all examined organs, with a stronger signal observed in lymphoid organs. In addition, the temporal transcriptional changes for Cα and Cγ were investigated, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 8 weeks after stimulation with Flavobacterium columnare, in head kidney, spleen, blood, thymus, gill and intestine, using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results demonstrated stimulation-dependent up-regulations in almost all tissues examined, which indicates that T cells may play important roles in preventing mandarin fish from bacterial invasion. In particular, apart from thymus, T cells were

  12. Mucinous breast carcinoma with tall columnar cells.

    PubMed

    Tsoukalas, N; Kiakou, M; Tolia, M; Kostakis, I D; Galanopoulos, M; Nakos, G; Tryfonopoulos, D; Kyrgias, G; Koumakis, G

    2018-05-01

    Mucinous carcinoma of the breast represents 1%-4% of all breast cancers. The World Health Organization classification divides this type of tumour into three different subtypes: mucinous carcinoma, mucinous carcinoma with tall columnar cells (mucinous cystadenocarcinoma and columnar cell mucinous carcinoma) and signet ring cell carcinoma. A 74-year-old woman presented a tumour with inflammatory features in the upper outer quadrant of her left breast, 7 cm in diameter. The core biopsy showed infiltrating ductal carcinoma of no specific type. The tumour-node-metastasis clinical staging was T4cN3M0 (Stage IIIC). She received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, underwent left mastectomy with radical axillary resection and subsequently received radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The histological examination of the surgical specimen revealed two solid tumors in the tail of Spence, which corresponded to adenocarcinoma with high columnar cells. The patient died 16 months after the diagnosis, suffering from pulmonary metastases and anterior chest wall infiltration. A review of the literature revealed only 21 reports of mucinous carcinoma of the breast with tall columnar cells, including our case. This is only the third time that the specific histological type of columnar cell mucinous carcinoma has been reported in the literature.

  13. Spacer length controlled lamello-columnar to oblique-columnar mesophase transition in liquid crystalline DNA - discotic cationic lipid complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lei; Cui, Li; Miao, Jianjun

    2006-03-01

    A series of asymmetric triphenylene imidazolium salts with different spacer lengths (C5, C8, and C11) were synthesized and their ionic complexes with double-strand DNA were prepared in aqueous solution. The molecular composition of the complexes was determined by FTIR analysis. The liquid crystalline morphology was characterized by polarized light microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscope. 2D XRD results indicated an oblique columnar phase for the complex with a short spacer length of C5, while lamello-columnar phases for those with longer spacer lengths (C8 and C11). Thin film circular dichroism results showed the disappearing of any helical conformation in the DNA in all the complexes. Instead, the complexation between single-strand RNA and discotic cationic lipids did not show columnar morphology; therefore, the columnar liquid crystalline morphology in the DNA-discotic cationic lipid complexes was attributed to the DNA double-strand chain rigidity.

  14. Disclosing the temperature of columnar jointing in lavas.

    PubMed

    Lamur, Anthony; Lavallée, Yan; Iddon, Fiona E; Hornby, Adrian J; Kendrick, Jackie E; von Aulock, Felix W; Wadsworth, Fabian B

    2018-04-12

    Columnar joints form by cracking during cooling-induced contraction of lava, allowing hydrothermal fluid circulation. A lack of direct observations of their formation has led to ambiguity about the temperature window of jointing and its impact on fluid flow. Here we develop a novel thermo-mechanical experiment to disclose the temperature of columnar jointing in lavas. Using basalts from Eyjafjallajökull volcano (Iceland) we show that contraction during cooling induces stress build-up below the solidus temperature (980 °C), resulting in localised macroscopic failure between 890 and 840 °C. This temperature window for incipient columnar jointing is supported by modelling informed by mechanical testing and thermal expansivity measurements. We demonstrate that columnar jointing takes place well within the solid state of volcanic rocks, and is followed by a nonlinear increase in system permeability of <9 orders of magnitude during cooling. Columnar jointing may promote advective cooling in magmatic-hydrothermal environments and fluid loss during geothermal drilling and thermal stimulation.

  15. Flavobacterium meningosepticum sepsis in an infant with a diarrheal prodrome.

    PubMed

    Springer, S C; Johnson, G M

    1999-02-01

    A full term, previously normal 2 1/2-month-old black boy was transferred to our hospital from an outlying facility on hospital day 5 for failure to thrive. Three weeks before transfer, the infant was hospitalized for a diarrheal illness with fever. The baby received 3 days of ceftriaxone empirically and was discharged home after the sepsis evaluation was negative. Mild diarrhea and steady weight loss continued and the baby was readmitted. Blood culture done on admission grew Flavobacterium meningosepticum, an organism previously described as an uncommon cause of sepsis in neonates and immunocompromised individuals. As it is water-borne, it has been associated with infection via contaminated water. This organism is usually resistant to antibiotics commonly used for empiric treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Flavobacterium bacteremia associated with a prodromal and concurrent diarrheal illness.

  16. Flavobacterium hibisci sp. nov., isolated from the rhizosphere of Hibiscus syriacus L.

    PubMed

    Moya, Gabriela; Yan, Zheng-Fei; Trinh, Huan; Won, Kyung-Hwa; Yang, Jung-Eun; Kook, Moo-Chang; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2017-04-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, smooth, bright-yellow-pigmented, rod-shaped bacterial strain, slightly motile by gliding, catalase- and oxidase-positive and aerobic, but growing weakly under anaerobic conditions, was isolated from the rhizosphere of the flower mugunghwa (Hibiscus syriacus L.) located in Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi, South Korea. The strain named THG-HG1.4T grew at 15-35 °C, pH 6.5-9.0 and in the presence of 0-2.5 % (w/v) NaCl. The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain THG-HG1.4T was most closely related to Flavobacterium gyeonganense HME7524T (98.83 %) and Flavobacterium arsenitoxidans S2-3HT (97.28 %). The DNA G+C content of strain THG-HG1.4T was 41.2 mol%. In DNA-DNA hybridization, the DNA-DNA relatedness between strain THG-HG1.4T and its closest phylogenetic neighbour was below 64.1 %. The predominant isoprenoid quinone detected in strain THG-HG1.4T was menaquinone-6 (MK-6). The major polar lipids were found to be phosphatidylethanolamine, three unidentified lipids, two unidentified glycolipids and an unidentified aminolipid. The major fatty acids were identified as iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 3-OH, C16 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH and summed feature 3. Thus, based on the report of the phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic characterization of strain THG-HG1.4T, it has been concluded that the novel isolate represents a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium.Flavobacterium hibisci sp. nov. is proposed, with THG-HG1.4T (=KACC 18852T=CCTCC AB 2016178T) as the type strain.

  17. Intraovum infection caused by Flavobacterium psychrophilum among eggs from captive Atlantic salmon broodfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cipriano, R.C.

    2005-01-01

    This study indicated that the bacterium Flavobacterium psychrophilum induced an infection within eggs of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar that were held at federal New England restoration facilities. The pathogen, which originated from the Connecticut, Penobscot, Machias, East Machias, Dennys, Narraguagus, and Sheepscot rivers, was obtained from these eggs at concentrations that ranged from 5.0 ?? 102 to 2.5 ?? 108 colony-forming units per gram of egg, despite successive treatments with povidone iodine (I2). Treatments consisted of 50 mg/L of water for 30 min, then 100 mg/L for 10 min, followed at the eyed egg stage by 100 mg/L for 60 min. Collectively, 63% of the egg lots (77 of 122) obtained from paired matings of these captive broodfish were infected; 39% of these lots contained 10 or fewer infected eggs (60 eggs sampled per lot), and less than 10% of the lots contained more than 20 positive eggs. Consequently, standard iodophor disinfection procedures were ineffective. Eggs were positive from each of the river-specific captive brood populations during both of the spawning cycles that were studied. I concluded that F. psychrophilum established an intraovum infection that was prevalent among captive brood lots from different New England watersheds.

  18. Genomic diversity and evolution of the fish pathogen Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the etiological agent of rainbow trout fry syndrome and bacterial cold-water disease in salmonid fish, is currently one of the main bacterial pathogens hampering the productivity of salmonid farming worldwide. In this study, the genomic diversity of the F. psychrophilum...

  19. Comparative proteomic analysis of virulent and rifampicin attenuated Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the etiologic agent of bacterial coldwater disease and rainbow trout fry syndrome. In this study we compared a wild-type strain (CSF 259.93) with a rifampicin resistant and virulence attenuated strain of F. psychrophilum (CSF 259.93B.17). The attenuated strain harbour...

  20. Research on non-direct reflection columnar microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, B. Q.; Wang, X. Z.; Dong, L. H.

    2015-10-01

    To minimize the risk of laser accidents, especially those involving eye and skin injuries, it is crucial to pay more attention to laser safety. To control the risk of injury, depending on the laser power and wavelength, a number of required safety measures have been put forward, such as specific protection walls, and wearing safety goggles when operating lasers. The direct reflection columnar microstructure can also be used for laser safety. Based on mathematical foundations , a columnar microstructure is designed by the optical design software LightTools. Simulation showed that there is a tilt angle between the emergent and incident light, the incident light being perpendicular to the microstructure, as well as the phenomenon of no direct reflection happened. A novel testing platform was built for the columnar microstructure after it was machined. The applied testing method can measure the angle between the emergent and incident light. The method lays the condition for the further research. It is shown that the columnar microstructure with no direct reflection can be utilized in laser protection systems.

  1. Digital mammography: more microcalcifications, more columnar cell lesions without atypia.

    PubMed

    Verschuur-Maes, Anoek H J; van Gils, Carla H; van den Bosch, Maurice A A J; De Bruin, Peter C; van Diest, Paul J

    2011-09-01

    The incidence of columnar cell lesions in breast core needle biopsies since full-field digital mammography in comparison with screen-filmed mammography was analyzed. As tiny microcalcifications characterize columnar cell lesions at mammography, we hypothesized that more columnar cell lesions are diagnosed since full-field digital mammography due to its higher sensitivity for microcalcifications. In all, 3437 breast core needle biopsies performed in three hospitals and resulting from in total 55 159 mammographies were revised: 1424 taken in the screen-filmed mammography and 2013 in the full-field digital mammography period. Between the screen-filmed mammography and full-field digital mammography periods, we compared the proportion of mammographies that led to core needle biopsies, the mammographic indication for core needle biopsies (density, microcalcifications, or both) and the proportion of columnar cell lesions with or without atypia. The columnar cell lesions were graded according to Schnitt, and we included atypical ductal hyperplasia arising in the context of columnar cell lesions. Proportions were compared using χ(2) tests and prevalence ratios were adjusted for age and hospital. We found that more core needle biopsies per mammogram were taken in the full-field digital mammography period (7.6%) compared with the screen-filmed mammography period (5.0%, P<0.0001). Microcalcifications were more often diagnosed with full-field digital mammography than with screen-filmed mammography (adjusted prevalence ratio: 1.14, confidence interval 95%: 1.01-1.28). Core needle biopsies from the full-field digital mammography era showed more columnar cell lesions (10.8%) than those from the screen-filmed mammography era (4.9%; adjusted prevalence ratio: 1.93, confidence interval 95%: 1.48-2.51), particularly due to more columnar cell lesions without atypia (8.2% respectively 2.8%) while the proportion of columnar cell lesions with atypia remained nearly constant (2.0 vs 2

  2. Antimicrobial activity of chitosan and a chitosan oligomer against bacterial pathogens of warmwater fish

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aim: The antibacterial activities of chitosan (CS) and its derivative chitosan oligosaccharide lactate (COL) were evaluated against Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella ictaluri and Flavobacterium columnare, three highly pathogenic bacteria of warmwater finfish. Methods and Results: The kinetics of ce...

  3. Plant Natural Compounds with Antibacterial Activity Towards Common Pathogens of Pond-Cultured Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The bacteria Edwardsiella ictaluri and Flavobacterium columnare cause enteric septicemia and columnaris disease, respectively, in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Natural therapeutants may provide an alternative to current management approaches used by producers. In this study, a rapid bioas...

  4. Potential mechanisms of attenuation for rifampicin-passaged strains of Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the etiologic agent of bacterial coldwater disease in salmonids. Earlier research showed that a rifampicin-passaged strain of F. psychrophilum (CSF 259-93B 17) caused no disease in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) while inducing a protective im...

  5. Short-term feed deprivation alters immune status of surface mucosa in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Short-term feed deprivation (or fasting) is a common occurrence in aquacultured fish species whether due to season, production strategies, or disease. In channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fasting impacts susceptibility to several bacterial pathogens including Flavobacterium columnare, the causat...

  6. Kaolin clay protects fish from columnaris disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Columnaris disease, caused by the bacterial pathogen Flavobacterium columnare, continues to be a major problem worldwide in cultured freshwater finfish. Despite the far-reaching negative impacts of columnaris disease, safe and efficacious preventatives and curatives for this disease remain limited....

  7. Columnar organization of orientation domains in V1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liedtke, Joscha; Wolf, Fred

    In the primary visual cortex (V1) of primates and carnivores, the functional architecture of basic stimulus selectivities appears similar across cortical layers (Hubel & Wiesel, 1962) justifying the use of two-dimensional cortical models and disregarding organization in the third dimension. Here we show theoretically that already small deviations from an exact columnar organization lead to non-trivial three-dimensional functional structures. We extend two-dimensional random field models (Schnabel et al., 2007) to a three-dimensional cortex by keeping a typical scale in each layer and introducing a correlation length in the third, columnar dimension. We examine in detail the three-dimensional functional architecture for different cortical geometries with different columnar correlation lengths. We find that (i) topological defect lines are generally curved and (ii) for large cortical curvatures closed loops and reconnecting topological defect lines appear. This theory extends the class of random field models by introducing a columnar dimension and provides a systematic statistical assessment of the three-dimensional functional architecture of V1 (see also (Tanaka et al., 2011)).

  8. Identification of immunogenic proteins within distinct molecular mass fractions of Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the etiologic agent of bacterial coldwater disease (CWD) and this pathogen has large economic impacts on salmonid aquaculture worldwide. Previously, it was demonstrated that high levels of protection against F. psychrophilum challenge were conferred to rainbow trout,...

  9. Using kaolin clay to combat columnaris disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Columnaris disease, caused by the bacterial pathogen Flavobacterium columnare, continues to be a major problem in cultured freshwater finfish. Despite the far-reaching negative impacts of columnaris disease, safe and effective preventatives and curatives for this disease remain limited. In the pre...

  10. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF FRESHWATER BACTERIA ANTAGONISTIC TO GIARDIA INTESTINALIS CYSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have isolated three freshwater bacterial strains that demonstrate the ability to degrade Giardia intestinalis cysts. These strains have been identified by 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis as belonging to the Flavobacterium columnare clade of the ...

  11. Unlocking the secrets of columnaris disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Columnaris disease, caused by the bacterial pathogen Flavobacterium columnare, continues to be a major problem worldwide and commonly leads to tremendous losses of both wild and cultured freshwater fish, particularly in intensively farmed aquaculture species such as channel catfish. Despite its ecol...

  12. Columnar lined Barrett's oesophagus.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Neel; Ho, Khek Yu

    2015-12-01

    Over the past few years, the definition of Barrett's oesophagus has altered with no real agreement on histological understanding. This article highlights the increasing confusion regarding Barrett's oesophagus with a focus on the all-too-frequently ignored aspect of the columnar lined oesophagus.

  13. Columnar joint morphology and cooling rate: A starch-water mixture experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toramaru, A.; Matsumoto, T.

    2004-02-01

    An analogue experiment using a starch-water mixture has been carried out in order to understand the effect of cooling rate on the morphological characteristics of a basalt columnar joint. If the contraction of material is essential for the formation of columnar joint structure, the water loss rate by desiccation (hereafter referred to as desiccation rate) in the experiment is analogous to the cooling rate in solidifying basalt. In the experiment the desiccation rate is controlled by varying the distance between the starch-water mixture and a lamp used as the heat source. We find that there are three regimes in the relation between joint formation and desiccation rate: (1) At desiccation rates higher than ˜1.4 × 10-2 (g cm-2 h-1) (normal columnar joint regime), the average cross-sectional area S of a column is inversely proportional to the average desiccation rate, (i.e., S ∝ -δ, with δ = 1). (2) Between that desiccation rate and a critical desiccation rate, 0.8 × 10-2 (g/cm2h), S approaches infinity as decreases close to a critical desiccation rate (i.e., exponent δ monotonically increases from unity to infinity) (critical regime). (3) Below the critical desiccation rate, no columnar structure forms (no columnar joint regime forms). Applying the present experimental result to the formation of basalt column, the basalt columnar cross-sectional area is inversely proportional to the cooling rate with factors including elasticity, crack growth coefficient, thermal expansion, glass transition temperature, and crack density ratio at stress maximum. Also, it can be predicted that there exists a critical cooling rate below which the columnar joint does not form; the presence of a critical regime between the normal columnar jointing and no columnar jointing during a certain cooling rate range can also be predicted. We find that at higher cooling rate the preferred column shape is a pentagon, whereas at lower cooling rate it is a hexagon.

  14. Detection of QTL in rainbow trout affecting survival when challenged with Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) causes significant economic loss in salmonid aquaculture. We previously detected genetic variation in survival following challenge with Flavobacterium psychrophilum (Fp), the causative agent of BCWD in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A family-based selectio...

  15. The role of basal cells in adhesion of columnar epithelium to airway basement membrane.

    PubMed

    Evans, M J; Plopper, C G

    1988-08-01

    In this report, we present a new concept of the role of the basal cell in airway epithelium. Previously, the basal cell was thought to be the progenitor cell for the columnar epithelium. However, several studies have shown that this concept may not be correct. The morphologic aspects of the basal cell suggest that it could play a role in adhesion of the columnar epithelium to the basement membrane. Basal cells form attachments with columnar cells (desmosomes) and with the basement membrane (hemidesmosomes). Columnar cells do not form hemidesmosome attachments with the basement membrane. Basal cells could strengthen the adhesion of columnar cells to the basement membrane by forming hemidesmosome attachments to the basement membrane and desmosome attachments with adjacent columnar cells. Incidental evidence from 2 existing publications concerning airway microanatomy support this concept. As columnar cells grow taller, the proportion of the cell surface in contact with the basement membrane becomes progressively smaller, and thus the cell surface area related to adhesion also becomes smaller. It was found that the number of basal cells per millimeter of basement membrane was closely related to the height of the columnar cell epithelium (r = 0.98), but not to the number of columnar cells (r = 0.42). The consistency of the relationship between increased columnar cell height (and thus decreased surface area for adhesion) and the number of basal cells present (r = 0.98) supports the concept that the basal cell plays a role in adhesion of columnar cells to the basement membrane.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Antibacterial activity of plant extracts from Brazil against fish pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Castro, S.B.R.; Leal, C.A.G.; Freire, F.R.; Carvalho, D.A.; Oliveira, D.F.; Figueiredo, H.C.P.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Brazilian plants extracts against fish pathogenic bacteria. Forty six methanolic extracts were screened to identify their antibacterial properties against Streptococcus agalactiae, Flavobacterium columnare and Aeromonas hydrophila. Thirty one extracts showed antibacterial activity. PMID:24031303

  17. Mucosal polyamine metabolism in the columnar lined oesophagus.

    PubMed Central

    Gray, M R; Wallace, H M; Goulding, H; Hoffman, J; Kenyon, W E; Kingsnorth, A N

    1993-01-01

    Mucosal ornithine decarboxylase activity and polyamine content has been proposed as a possible marker for malignant potential in gastrointestinal mucosa. Polyamine content and histological findings were examined in 107 pairs of endoscopic biopsy specimens taken from gastric fundus, fundic and specialised Barrett's oesophagus and Barrett's adenocarcinoma. The content of putrescine (median nmol/mg protein, range) the primary product of ornithine decarboxylase showed a progressive increase from gastric fundus (0.41, 0.15-1.5); fundic (0.45, 0.01-4.08); specialised Barrett's oesophagus (0.54, 0.01-2.0); dysplastic columnar lined oesophagus (0.56, 0.31-3.1) to adenocarcinoma (1.23, 0.29-8.98). Adenocarcinoma putrescine content was significantly greater than gastric fundus (p < 0.018) and fundic (p < 0.03). Mucosal spermine, spermidine, and total polyamine values were greater in gastric fundus than fundic, specialised Barrett's oesophagus, and dysplastic columnar lined oesophagus (all p < 0.001) suggesting failure to further metabolise putrescine to its higher polyamines in the metaplastic epithelium. Although metaplastic columnar lined oesophagus shows significant differences in polyamine metabolic activity from the stomach the important distinction between specialised and dysplastic columnar lined oesophagus cannot be made by measuring the polyamine content. PMID:8504955

  18. Radiating columnar joints in Gyeongju, Korea as a educational site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, H.; Kim, J. H.; Jang, Y. D.

    2015-12-01

    Gyeongju is located in the central eastern part of South Korea. There are various directional columnar joint sets in Tertiary trachytic basalt formation along the shore. In particular, rare radiating columnar joints occur in this area. Columnar joints are parallel, prismatic columns that are formed as a result of contraction during the rapid cooling of lava flow, forming a three dimensional fracture network. In general, the radius and direction of the rock column represent the cooling rate and surface respectively. Radiating direction of columns here indicates that dome- or lobe-shaped lava was cooled from its surface to the core during the viscous lava flow. The fact that the trachytic textures of plagioclase laths are indistinct suggests that the radiating columnar joints are equivalent to the frontal end of the lava lobes. This area is currently has a shore trail course, which is being developed into a picturesque educational park. There are corresponding information boards on the trail near each type of columnar joints to explain not only the forming process and geological mechanisms but the importance of nature conservation to visitors, especially students. A variety of educational materials and educational programs linked to regular school curriculum are also being developed.

  19. Enhanced efficacy of an attenuated Flavobacterium psychrophilum strain cultured under iron-limited conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An attenuated strain of Flavobacterium psychrophilum (CSF259-93B.17) has shown potential as a vaccine for prevention of bacterial coldwater disease (BCWD) in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Because BCWD outbreaks can result in high mortality in other salmonid species, specifically coho...

  20. Columnar to Nematic Mesophase Transition: Binary Mixtures of Copper Soaps with Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seghrouchni, R.; Skoulios, A.

    1995-09-01

    Copper (II) soaps are known to produce columnar mesophases at high temperatures. The polar groups of the soap molecules are stacked over one another within columns surrounded by the paraffin chains in a disordered conformation and laterally arranged according to a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice. Upon addition of a hydrocarbon, the mesophases swell homogeneously. The hydrocarbon molecules locate themselves among the disordered chains of the soap molecules, the columnar cores remain perfectly unchanged, keeping a constant intra-columnar stacking period, and the hexagonal lattice expands in proportion to the amount of hydrocarbon added to the system. Beyond a certain degree of swelling, the columnar mesophases suddenly turn into a nematic mesophase through a first-order phase transition. The structural elements that align parallel to the nematic director are the very same molecular columns that are involved in the columnar mesophases. The columnar to nematic mesophase transition was studied systematically as a function of the molecular size of the soaps and hydrocarbons used as diluents and discussed on a molecular level, emphasizing such aspects as the persistence length of the paraffin chains and the location of the solvent molecules among the columns.

  1. The immunophenotypic relationship between the submucosal gland unit, columnar metaplasia and squamous islands in the columnar-lined oesophagus.

    PubMed

    Lörinc, Ester; Mellblom, Lennart; Öberg, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    To characterize the immunophenotypic relationship between the squamous and the glandular compartments in the oesophagus of patients with columnar-lined oesophagus (CLO). Eight tissue blocks from three oesophageal resection specimens from patients who underwent oesophagectomy for adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus were selected for immunohistochemical analysis. The markers of intestinal differentiation [CK20, CDX2 and MUC2] were all expressed in the expected pattern, solely in the glandular compartment of the resection specimens. CK4, CK17 and lysozyme were expressed in both the glandular and the squamous compartments. In addition, CK17 expression was found on both the squamous and glandular margins of the squamocolumnar transformation zones and in the submucosal gland (SMG) intraglandular and excretory ducts. There is an immunophenotypic relationship between the squamous and the glandular compartments of the CLO, with expression of lysozyme, CK4 and CK17 in both squamous and columnar cells. These overlapping immunophenotypes indicate similar differentiation paths, and link the SMG unit with the columnar metaplasia and the neosquamous islands in CLO. Our findings support the theory of a cellular origin of CLO and neosquamous islands from the SMG unit. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Optical and structural properties of cobalt-permalloy slanted columnar heterostructure thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekora, Derek; Briley, Chad; Schubert, Mathias; Schubert, Eva

    2017-11-01

    Optical and structural properties of sequential Co-column-NiFe-column slanted columnar heterostructure thin films with an Al2O3 passivation coating are reported. Electron-beam evaporated glancing angle deposition is utilized to deposit the sequential multiple-material slanted columnar heterostructure thin films. Mueller matrix generalized spectroscopic ellipsometry data is analyzed with a best-match model approach employing the anisotropic Bruggeman effective medium approximation formalism to determine bulk-like and anisotropic optical and structural properties of the individual Co and NiFe slanted columnar material sub-layers. Scanning electron microscopy is applied to image the Co-NiFe sequential growth properties and to verify the results of the ellipsometric analysis. Comparisons to single-material slanted columnar thin films and optically bulk solid thin films are presented and discussed. We find that the optical and structural properties of each material sub-layer of the sequential slanted columnar heterostructure film are distinct from each other and resemble those of their respective single-material counterparts.

  3. Immunization of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) with a crude lipopolysaccharide extract from Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Control methods for Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the etiologic agent of bacterial coldwater disease (CWD) and rainbow trout fry syndrome, are limited and oftentimes ineffective; hence, research efforts have focused on vaccine development. This study tested the hypothesis that a crude lipopolysacch...

  4. Degradation of pentachlorophenol by polyurethane-immobilized Flavobacterium cells.

    PubMed Central

    O'Reilly, K T; Crawford, R L

    1989-01-01

    Polyurethane-immobilized Flavobacterium cells (ATCC 39723) degraded pentachlorophenol (PCP) at initial concentrations as high as 300 mg liter-1. The reversible binding of PCP to the polyurethane was shown to be important in the protection of the cells from inhibition of PCP degradation. The degradation activity of the bacteria was monitored for 150 days in semicontinuous batch reactors. The degradation rate dropped by about 0.6% per day. PCP was degraded in a continuous-culture bioreactor at a rate of 3.5 to 4 mg g of foam-1 day-1 for 25 days. Electron micrographs of the polyurethane suggested that the cells were entrapped within 50- to 500-microns-diameter pockets in the foam. PMID:2508552

  5. Relationship between columnar cell changes and low-grade carcinoma in situ of the breast--a cytogenetic study.

    PubMed

    Go, Edna May L; Tsang, Julia Y S; Ni, Yun-Bi; Yu, Alex M; Mendoza, Paulo; Chan, Siu-Ki; Lam, Christopher C; Lui, Philip C; Tan, Puay-Hoon; Tse, Gary M

    2012-11-01

    Columnar cell lesions of the breast include columnar cell changes without atypia and columnar cell changes with atypia. The latter frequently coexist and share molecular changes with low-grade carcinoma in situ and invasive carcinoma, suggesting that columnar cell changes may be precursors to progression of low-grade advanced lesions. In this study, we assessed chromosomal aberrations at 16q, hallmark for low-grade lesions, in columnar cell changes with or without atypia and their adjacent carcinoma in situ by fluorescent in situ hybridization using 3 region-specific probes spanning the entire chromosomal arm. The results were correlated with the histomorphological features of the corresponding lesions. Forty-four percent of low-grade carcinoma in situ and 31% of high-grade carcinoma in situ were associated with columnar cell changes with atypia, suggesting a link between columnar cell changes with atypia and low-grade carcinoma in situ. For the genetic aberrations, heterozygous deletion of 16q was present in 56% of low-grade carcinoma in situ but only in 19% of high-grade carcinoma in situ. Conversely, aneuploidy was found mostly in high-grade carcinoma in situ (88%). Twenty percent of columnar cell changes with atypia but none of the columnar cell changes without atypia showed heterozygous deletion of 16q. Interestingly, the same changes in 16q were observed in the columnar cell changes and their associated low-grade carcinoma in situ lesions. These findings demonstrated a genetic commonality between columnar cell changes with atypia and low-grade carcinoma in situ and substantiated the precursor role of columnar cell changes with atypia for low-grade carcinoma in situ but not high-grade carcinoma in situ of the breast. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Flavobacterium psychrophilum isolated from cultured rainbow trout, Onchorynchus mykiss (Walbaum), in Spain.

    PubMed

    Del Cerro, A; Márquez, I; Prieto, J M

    2010-04-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the causative agent of bacterial cold-water disease (CWD) and rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS) in salmonids. These diseases are a major problem in the aquaculture industry in Spain, and a better understanding of the epidemiology of F. psychrophilum isolates is necessary to improve management strategies. In this study, to investigate genetic variability of this bacterium, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis after DNA digestion with endonuclease StuI, plasmid profiling analysis and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were undertaken with 25 isolates of F. psychrophilum from Spain. These isolates were classified into 17 patterns by PFGE analysis, which were grouped into four clusters and seven independent branches. Twenty isolates (80%) possessed plasmids of 3.5 kb (n = 13) or 5.5 kb (n = 7). No plasmids were associated with antibiotic resistance to oxytetracycline (OTC) or florfenicol (FLO). Twenty isolates (80%) had minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to OTC of between 2.4 and 9.7 microg mL(-1), and all isolates were susceptible to FLO. A relationship between the origin of the isolates and PFGE genotypes was found. Plasmid profile typing correlated with PFGE profile typing, whereas no correlation was found between antimicrobial susceptibility testing and PFGE profiles. These results suggest that the population of F. psychrophilum with pathogenic potential in northern Spain is quite heterogeneous.

  7. ISS-Experiments of Columnar-to-Equiaxed Transition in Solidification Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturz, Laszlo; Zimmermann, Gerhard; Gandin, Charles, Andre; Billia, Bernard; Magelinck, Nathalie; Nguyen-Thi, Henry; Browne, David John; Mirihanage, Wajira U.; Voss, Daniela; Beckermann, Christoph; hide

    2012-01-01

    The main topic of the research project CETSOL in the framework of the Microgravity Application Promotion (MAP) programme of the European Space Agency (ESA) is the investigation of the transition from columnar to equiaxed grain growth during solidification. Microgravity environment allows for suppression of buoyancy-driven melt flow and for growth of equiaxed grains free of sedimentation and buoyancy effects. This contribution will present first experimental results obtained in microgravity using hypo-eutectic AlSi alloys in the Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) on-board the International Space Station (ISS). The analysis of the experiments confirms the existence of a columnar to equiaxed transition, especially in the refined alloy. Temperature evolution and grain structure analysis provide critical values for the position, the temperature gradient and the solidification velocity at the columnar to equiaxed transition. These data will be used to improve modeling of solidification microstructures and grain structure on different lengths scales.

  8. Columnar to Nematic Mesophase Transition: Binary Mixtures of Unlike Copper Soaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seghrouchni, R.; Skoulios, A.

    1995-10-01

    Copper (II) soaps are known to produce columnar mesophases at high temperature. The polar groups of the soap molecules are stacked over one another within columns surrounded by the alkyl chains in a disordered conformation and laterally arranged according to a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice. The present work studies the mesomorphic behaviour of binary mixtures of copper soaps using differential scanning calorimetry, polarizing microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. When the soaps are of comparable molecular sizes the mixtures are homogeneous and columnar at all compositions. The columns of the two soaps, remaining intact in the mixture, are distributed randomly on the nodes of a hexagonal Bravais lattice. Crystallographic homogeneity is obtained by transfer of methylene groups from cell to cell. When, on the other hand, the soaps are different enough in molecular sizes, the columnar structure of the mixtures is interrupted in the middle range of compositions for the benefit of a nematic one. The transfer of methylene groups gets indeed harder to achieve and the distortion of the hexagonal units cells becomes important. The columnar to nematic phase transition is discussed on a molecular and a topological level.

  9. Columnar Self-Assembly of Electron-Deficient Dendronized Bay-Annulated Perylene Bisimides.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ravindra Kumar; Shankar Rao, Doddamane S; Prasad, S Krishna; Achalkumar, Ammathnadu S

    2018-03-07

    Three new heteroatom bay-annulated perylene bisimides (PBIs) have been synthesized by microwave-assisted synthesis in excellent yield. N-annulated and S-annulated perylene bisimides exhibited columnar hexagonal phase, whereas Se-annulated perylene bisimide exhibited low temperature columnar oblique phase in addition to the high temperature columnar hexagonal phase. The cup shaped bay-annulated PBIs pack into columns with enhanced intermolecular interactions. In comparison to PBI, these molecules exhibited lower melting and clearing temperature, with good solubility. A small red shift in the absorption was seen in the case of N-annulated PBI, whereas S- and Se-annulated PBIs exhibited blue-shifted absorption spectra. Bay-annulation increased the HOMO and LUMO levels of the N-annulated perylene bisimide, whereas a slight increase in the LUMO level and a decrease in the HOMO levels were observed in the case of S- and Se-annulated perylene bisimides, in comparison to the simple perylene bisimide. The band gaps of PBI and PBI-N were almost same, whereas an increase in the band gaps were observed in the case of S- and Se-annulated PBIs. The tendency to freeze in the ordered glassy columnar phase for PBI-N and PBI-S will help to overcome the charge traps due to crystallization, which are detrimental to one-dimensional charge carrier mobility. These solution processable electron deficient columnar semiconductors possessing good thermal stability may form an easily accessible promising class of n-type materials. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. High quality draft genome sequence of Flavobacterium rivuli type strain WB 3.3-2T (DSM 21788T), a valuable source of polysaccharide decomposing enzymes

    DOE PAGES

    Hahnke, Richard L.; Stackebrandt, Erko; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P.; ...

    2015-07-30

    Flavobacterium rivuli Ali et al. 2009 emend. Dong et al. 2013 is one of about 100 species in the genus Flavobacterium (family Flavobacteriacae, phylum Bacteroidetes) with a validly published name, and has been isolated from the spring of a hard water rivulet in Northern Germany. Including all type strains of the genus Myroides and Flavobacterium into the 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogeny revealed a clustering of members of the genus Myroides as a monophyletic group within the genus Flavobacterium. Furthermore, F. rivuli WB 3.3-2T and its next relatives seem more closely related to the genus Myroides than to the typemore » species of the genus Flavobacterium, F. aquatile. The 4,489,248 bp long genome with its 3,391 protein-coding and 65 RNA genes is part of the G enomic E ncyclopedia of B acteria and A rchaea project. The genome of F. rivuli has almost as many genes encoding carbohydrate active enzymes (151 CAZymes) as genes encoding peptidases (177). Peptidases comprised mostly metallo (M) and serine (S) peptidases. Among CAZymes, 30 glycoside hydrolase families, 10 glycosyl transferase families, 7 carbohydrate binding module families and 7 carbohydrate esterase families were identified. Furthermore, we found four polysaccharide utilization loci (PUL) and one large CAZy rich gene cluster that might enable strain WB 3.3-2T to decompose plant and algae derived polysaccharides. In conclusion, based on these results we propose F. rivuli as an interesting candidate for further physiological studies and the role of Bacteroidetes in the decomposition of complex polymers in the environment.« less

  11. High quality draft genome sequence of Flavobacterium rivuli type strain WB 3.3-2T (DSM 21788T), a valuable source of polysaccharide decomposing enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Hahnke, Richard L.; Stackebrandt, Erko; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P.

    Flavobacterium rivuli Ali et al. 2009 emend. Dong et al. 2013 is one of about 100 species in the genus Flavobacterium (family Flavobacteriacae, phylum Bacteroidetes) with a validly published name, and has been isolated from the spring of a hard water rivulet in Northern Germany. Including all type strains of the genus Myroides and Flavobacterium into the 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogeny revealed a clustering of members of the genus Myroides as a monophyletic group within the genus Flavobacterium. Furthermore, F. rivuli WB 3.3-2T and its next relatives seem more closely related to the genus Myroides than to the typemore » species of the genus Flavobacterium, F. aquatile. The 4,489,248 bp long genome with its 3,391 protein-coding and 65 RNA genes is part of the G enomic E ncyclopedia of B acteria and A rchaea project. The genome of F. rivuli has almost as many genes encoding carbohydrate active enzymes (151 CAZymes) as genes encoding peptidases (177). Peptidases comprised mostly metallo (M) and serine (S) peptidases. Among CAZymes, 30 glycoside hydrolase families, 10 glycosyl transferase families, 7 carbohydrate binding module families and 7 carbohydrate esterase families were identified. Furthermore, we found four polysaccharide utilization loci (PUL) and one large CAZy rich gene cluster that might enable strain WB 3.3-2T to decompose plant and algae derived polysaccharides. In conclusion, based on these results we propose F. rivuli as an interesting candidate for further physiological studies and the role of Bacteroidetes in the decomposition of complex polymers in the environment.« less

  12. Does flat epithelial atypia have rounder nuclei than columnar cell change/hyperplasia? A morphometric approach to columnar cell lesions of the breast.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Yoshiko; Ichihara, Shu; Moritani, Suzuko; Yoon, Han-Seung; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2016-06-01

    Columnar cell lesions of the breast encompass columnar cell change/hyperplasia (CCC/CCH) and flat epithelial atypia (FEA). These have attracted researchers because emerging data suggest that FEA may represent the earliest histologically detectable non-obligate precursor of breast cancer. However, it is occasionally difficult to distinguish FEA from CCC/CCH because of similar histology. Although the nuclei of FEA are frequently described as relatively round compared with those of CCC/CCH, there are few morphometric studies to support this statement. The aim of this study was to provide objective data as to the nuclear shape in columnar cell lesions. As a shape descriptor, we adopted ellipticity that is defined by the formula 2b/2a, where a is the length of the long axis of the ellipse and b is the length of the short axis. Contrary to circularity, ellipticity reflects the overall configuration of an ellipse irrespective of surface irregularity. Our image analysis included generating whole slide images, extracting glandular cell nuclei, measuring nuclear ellipticity, and superimposing graded colors based on execution of results on the captured images. A total of 7917 nuclei extracted from 22 FEA images and 5010 nuclei extracted from 13 CCC/CCH images were analyzed. There was a significant difference in nuclear roundness between FEA and CCC/CCH with mean ellipticity values of 0.723 and 0.679, respectively (p < 0.001, Welch's t test). Furthermore, FEA with malignancy had significantly rounder nuclei than FEA without malignancy (p < 0.001). Our preliminary results suggest that nuclear ellipticity is a key parameter in reproducibly classifying columnar cell lesions of the breast.

  13. Applicability of endochitinase of Flavobacterium johnsoniae with transglycosylation activity in generating long-chain chitooligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Vaikuntapu, Papa Rao; Mallakuntla, Mohan Krishna; Das, Subha Narayan; Bhuvanachandra, Bhoopal; Ramakrishna, Bellamkonda; Nadendla, Sandhya Rani; Podile, Appa Rao

    2018-05-22

    Chitin and its derivatives are used for a variety of applications. Flavobacterium johnsoniae UW101 is an aerobic Gram-negative bacterium. Genome analysis of F. johnsoniae UW101 revealed the presence of 10 glycoside hydrolases (GHs) that may degrade or modify chitin. The gene encoding chitinase B (FjchiB), which encodes a single catalytic GH18 domain has been cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. FjChiB was optimally active in 50 mM sodium citrate buffer (pH 6.0) at 40 °C. FjChiB was salt-tolerant and catalytically versatile, with substrate specificity towards 75% DDA (degree of de-acetylation) chitosan, followed by colloidal chitin. Chitotetraose (DP4) was the shortest of the oligomeric substrates used by FjChiB. The K m and V max values of FjChiB for colloidal chitin were 49.38 mg/ml and 11.2 nanokat mg -1 , respectively. The overall catalytic efficiency (k c at /K m ) of FjChiB was 1.40 × 10 3  mg -1  ml s -1 . FjChiB exhibited transglycosylation (TG) with chitopentaose (DP5) and chitohexaose (DP6) substrates. The TG by FjChiB was fine-tuned by introducing a tryptophan (G106W) and asparagine (D148N) in the highly conserved catalytic groove and catalytic center, respectively. Hydrolytic products profile and homology modelling indicated that FjChiB is an endochitinase that holds promise for the conversion of chitin into useful products through both TG and/or hydrolysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A comparative study on phyllosphere nitrogen fixation by newly isolated Corynebacterium sp. & Flavobacterium sp. and their potentialities as biofertilizer.

    PubMed

    Giri, S; Pati, B R

    2004-01-01

    A number of nitrogen fixing bacteria has been isolated from forest phyllosphere on the basis of nitrogenase activity. Among them two best isolates are selected and identified as Corynebacterium sp. AN1 & Flavobacterium sp. TK2 able to reduce 88 and 132 n mol of acetylene (10(8)cells(-1)h(-1)) respectively. They were grown in large amount and sprayed on the phyllosphere of maize plants as a substitute for nitrogenous fertilizer. Marked improvements in growth and total nitrogen content of the plant have been observed by the application of these nitrogen-fixing bacteria. An average 30-37% increase in yield was obtained, which is nearer to chemical fertilizer treatment. Comparatively better effect was obtained by application of Flavobacterium sp.

  15. Anomalous columnar order of charged colloidal platelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales-Anda, L.; Wensink, H. H.; Galindo, A.; Gil-Villegas, A.

    2012-01-01

    Monte Carlo computer simulations are carried out for a model system of like-charged colloidal platelets in the isothermal-isobaric ensemble (NpT). The aim is to elucidate the role of electrostatic interactions on the structure of synthetic clay systems at high particle densities. Short-range repulsions between particles are described by a suitable hard-core model representing a discotic particle. This potential is supplemented with an electrostatic potential based on a Yukawa model for the screened Coulombic potential between infinitely thin disklike macro-ions. The particle aspect-ratio and electrostatic parameters were chosen to mimic an aqueous dispersion of thin, like-charged, rigid colloidal platelets at finite salt concentration. An examination of the fluid phase diagram reveals a marked shift in the isotropic-nematic transition compared to the hard cut-sphere reference system. Several statistical functions, such as the pair correlation function for the center-of-mass coordinates and structure factor, are obtained to characterize the structural organization of the platelets phases. At low salinity and high osmotic pressure we observe anomalous hexagonal columnar structures characterized by interpenetrating columns with a typical intercolumnar distance corresponding to about half of that of a regular columnar phase. Increasing the ionic strength leads to the formation of glassy, disordered structures consisting of compact clusters of platelets stacked into finite-sized columns. These so-called "nematic columnar" structures have been recently observed in systems of charge-stabilized gibbsite platelets. Our findings are corroborated by an analysis of the static structure factor from a simple density functional theory.

  16. Evolution of oesophageal adenocarcinoma from metaplastic columnar epithelium without goblet cells in Barrett's oesophagus.

    PubMed

    Lavery, Danielle L; Martinez, Pierre; Gay, Laura J; Cereser, Biancastella; Novelli, Marco R; Rodriguez-Justo, Manuel; Meijer, Sybren L; Graham, Trevor A; McDonald, Stuart A C; Wright, Nicholas A; Jansen, Marnix

    2016-06-01

    Barrett's oesophagus commonly presents as a patchwork of columnar metaplasia with and without goblet cells in the distal oesophagus. The presence of metaplastic columnar epithelium with goblet cells on oesophageal biopsy is a marker of cancer progression risk, but it is unclear whether clonal expansion and progression in Barrett's oesophagus is exclusive to columnar epithelium with goblet cells. We developed a novel method to trace the clonal ancestry of an oesophageal adenocarcinoma across an entire Barrett's segment. Clonal expansions in Barrett's mucosa were identified using cytochrome c oxidase enzyme histochemistry. Somatic mutations were identified through mitochondrial DNA sequencing and single gland whole exome sequencing. By tracing the clonal origin of an oesophageal adenocarcinoma across an entire Barrett's segment through a combination of histopathological spatial mapping and clonal ordering, we find that this cancer developed from a premalignant clonal expansion in non-dysplastic ('cardia-type') columnar metaplasia without goblet cells. Our data demonstrate the premalignant potential of metaplastic columnar epithelium without goblet cells in the context of Barrett's oesophagus. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Flavobacterium sepsis outbreak due to contaminated distilled water in a neonatal intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Mosayebi, Z; Movahedian, A H; Soori, T

    2011-07-01

    Outbreaks of sepsis due to water or contaminated equipment can cause significant mortality and morbidity in neonatal intensive care units. We studied an outbreak among neonates caused by flavobacterium and investigated the characteristics of the infected neonates, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and the source of the outbreak. Forty-five neonates with documented flavobacterium sepsis were evaluated in this descriptive study. Data including sex, vaginal delivery or caesarean, preterm or term, birth weight, results of blood cultures and antibiograms were recorded and cases followed up until death or recovery. Environmental sampling for detecting the source of contamination was performed. Among the 45 patients, 28 (62.2%) were male and 17 (37.8%) female (P<0.001). The commonest clinical manifestation was respiratory distress (60%). Eighteen neonates (40%) were low birth weight. Thirty-seven neonates (82.2%) were born via caesarean section. Twenty (44.4%) of them were preterm whereas 25 (55.6%) were term (P<0.001). Mortality was 17.7%. All strains were resistant to ampicillin, and susceptible to amikacin. The source of outbreak was contaminated distilled water. Copyright © 2010 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Transitional basal cells at the squamous-columnar junction generate Barrett's oesophagus.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ming; Li, Haiyan; Zhang, Yongchun; Yang, Ying; Lu, Rong; Liu, Kuancan; Lin, Sijie; Lan, Xiaopeng; Wang, Haikun; Wu, Han; Zhu, Jian; Zhou, Zhongren; Xu, Jianming; Lee, Dong-Kee; Zhang, Lanjing; Lee, Yuan-Cho; Yuan, Jingsong; Abrams, Julian A; Wang, Timothy C; Sepulveda, Antonia R; Wu, Qi; Chen, Huaiyong; Sun, Xin; She, Junjun; Chen, Xiaoxin; Que, Jianwen

    2017-10-26

    In several organ systems, the transitional zone between different types of epithelium is a hotspot for pre-neoplastic metaplasia and malignancy, but the cells of origin for these metaplastic epithelia and subsequent malignancies remain unknown. In the case of Barrett's oesophagus, intestinal metaplasia occurs at the gastro-oesophageal junction, where stratified squamous epithelium transitions into simple columnar cells. On the basis of a number of experimental models, several alternative cell types have been proposed as the source of this metaplasia but in all cases the evidence is inconclusive: no model completely mimics Barrett's oesophagus in terms of the presence of intestinal goblet cells. Here we describe a transitional columnar epithelium with distinct basal progenitor cells (p63 + KRT5 + KRT7 + ) at the squamous-columnar junction of the upper gastrointestinal tract in a mouse model. We use multiple models and lineage tracing strategies to show that this squamous-columnar junction basal cell population serves as a source of progenitors for the transitional epithelium. On ectopic expression of CDX2, these transitional basal progenitors differentiate into intestinal-like epithelium (including goblet cells) and thereby reproduce Barrett's metaplasia. A similar transitional columnar epithelium is present at the transitional zones of other mouse tissues (including the anorectal junction) as well as in the gastro-oesophageal junction in the human gut. Acid reflux-induced oesophagitis and the multilayered epithelium (believed to be a precursor of Barrett's oesophagus) are both characterized by the expansion of the transitional basal progenitor cells. Our findings reveal a previously unidentified transitional zone in the epithelium of the upper gastrointestinal tract and provide evidence that the p63 + KRT5 + KRT7 + basal cells in this zone are the cells of origin for multi-layered epithelium and Barrett's oesophagus.

  19. Single Upconversion Nanoparticle-Bacterium Cotrapping for Single-Bacterium Labeling and Analysis.

    PubMed

    Xin, Hongbao; Li, Yuchao; Xu, Dekang; Zhang, Yueli; Chen, Chia-Hung; Li, Baojun

    2017-04-01

    Detecting and analyzing pathogenic bacteria in an effective and reliable manner is crucial for the diagnosis of acute bacterial infection and initial antibiotic therapy. However, the precise labeling and analysis of bacteria at the single-bacterium level are a technical challenge but very important to reveal important details about the heterogeneity of cells and responds to environment. This study demonstrates an optical strategy for single-bacterium labeling and analysis by the cotrapping of single upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) and bacteria together. A single UCNP with an average size of ≈120 nm is first optically trapped. Both ends of a single bacterium are then trapped and labeled with single UCNPs emitting green light. The labeled bacterium can be flexibly moved to designated locations for further analysis. Signals from bacteria of different sizes are detected in real time for single-bacterium analysis. This cotrapping method provides a new approach for single-pathogenic-bacterium labeling, detection, and real-time analysis at the single-particle and single-bacterium level. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Microseismic monitoring of columnar jointed basalt fracture activity: a trial at the Baihetan Hydropower Station, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bing-Rui; Li, Qing-Peng; Feng, Xia-Ting; Xiao, Ya-Xun; Feng, Guang-Liang; Hu, Lian-Xing

    2014-10-01

    Severe stress release has occurred to the surrounding rocks of the typically columnar jointed basalt after excavation at the Baihetan Hydropower Station, Jinsha River, China, where cracking, collapse, and other types of failure may take place occasionally due to relaxation fracture. In order to understand the relaxation fracture characteristics of the columnar jointed basalt in the entire excavation process at the diversion tunnel of the Baihetan Hydropower Station, real-time microseismic monitoring tests were performed. First, the applicability of a geophone and accelerometer was analyzed in the columnar jointed basalt tunnel, and the results show that the accelerometer was more applicable to the cracking monitoring of the columnar jointed basalt. Next, the waveform characteristics of the microseismic signals were analyzed, and the microseismic signals were identified as follows: rock fracture signal, drilling signal, electrical signal, heavy vehicle passing signal, and blast signal. Then, the attenuation characteristics of the microseismic signals in the columnar jointed basalt tunnel were studied, as well as the types and characteristics of the columnar jointed basalt fracture. Finally, location analysis was conducted on the strong rock fracture events, in which four or more sensors were triggered, to obtain the temporal and spatial evolution characteristics and laws of the columnar jointed basalt relaxation fracture after excavation. The test results are not only of important reference value to the excavation and support of diversion tunnel at the Baihetan Hydropower Station, but also of great referential significance and value to the conduction of similar tests.

  1. Genetic variation among Flavobacterium psychrophilum isolates from wild and farmed salmonids in Norway and Chile.

    PubMed

    Apablaza, P; Løland, A D; Brevik, Ø J; Ilardi, P; Battaglia, J; Nylund, A

    2013-04-01

    To aim of the study was to describe the genetic relationship between isolates of Flavobacterium psychrophilum with a main emphasis of samples from Chile and Norway. The isolates have been obtained from farmed salmonids in Norway and Chile, and from wild salmonids in Norway, but isolates from North America and European countries are also included in the analysis. The study is based on phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and seven housekeeping genes (HG), gyrB, atpA, dnaK, trpB, fumC, murG and tuf, and the use of a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) system, based on nucleotide polymorphism in the HG, as an alternative to the phylogenies. The variation within the selected genes was limited, and the phylogenetic analysis gave little resolution between the isolates. The MLST gave a much better resolution resulting in 53 sequence types where the same sequences types could be found in Chile, North America and European countries, and in different host species. Multilocus sequence typing give a relatively good separation of different isolates of Fl. psychrophilum and show that there are no distinct geographical or host-specific isolates in the studied material from Chile, North America and Europe. Nor was it possible to separate between isolates from ulcers and systemic infections vs isolates from the surface of healthy salmonids. This study shows a wide geographical distribution of Fl. psychrophilum, indicating that the bacterium has a large potential for transmission over long distances, and between different salmonid hosts species. This knowledge will be important for future management of salmonids diseases connected to Fl. psychrophilum. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Columnar cell lesions and pseudoangiomatous hyperplasia like stroma: is there an epithelial-stromal interaction?

    PubMed

    Recavarren, Rosemary A; Chivukula, Mamatha; Carter, Gloria; Dabbs, David J

    2009-10-10

    The significance of association between cancer and its microenvironment has been increasingly recognized. It has been shown in animal models that interaction between neoplastic epithelial cells and adjacent stroma can modulate tumor behavior. Carcinoma associated stromal cells can transform normal epithelial cells into neoplastic cells. In breast, columnar cell lesions are non-obligate precursors of low grade ductal carcinoma in situ. Columnar cell lesions can be seen intimately associated with PASH-like-stroma, a lesion we termed as CCPLS. Our aim is to investigate epithelial-stromal interactions in CCPLS and compare them to PASH without columnar cell lesions in breast core needle biopsies. Normal terminal duct lobular unit (TDLU) epithelium was seen in association with columnar cell lesions as well as PASH. Eight (8) cases of each category were examined by a panel of immunostains: CD117 (C-kit), CD34, CD105, bFGF, AR, ER-beta, MIB-1. We observed a markedly decreased expression of c-kit in columnar cell lesions compared to TDLU-epithelium. CD105 showed a quantitative increase in activated vessels in CCPLS compared to PASH. A subset of CCPLS and PASH were androgen receptor positive. A strong nuclear positivity for ER-beta is observed in the epithelium and stroma of all CCPLS cases. We conclude that (1) activated blood vessels predominate in CCPLS; (2) A molecular alteration is signified by c-kit loss in columnar cell lesions; (3) ER-beta and androgen receptor positivity indicate CCPLS are hormonally responsive lesions. Our study suggests an intimate vascular and hormone dependent epithelial-stromal interaction exists in CCPLS lesions.

  3. Submucosal glands in the columnar-lined oesophagus: evidence of an association with metaplasia and neosquamous epithelium.

    PubMed

    Lörinc, Ester; Öberg, Stefan

    2012-07-01

    A multipotential stem cell, possibly located in the submucosal gland ducts, has been suggested as the origin of metaplastic mucosa in the oesophagus. The topographic distribution of these glands and their excretory ducts (SMG) within the columnar lined oesophagus (CLO) is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the distribution of SMG in relation to the type of overlying epithelium in patients with CLO. Seven oesophageal resection specimens were examined histologically in toto. The median frequency of SMG was similar in the metaplastic segments (0.12 SMG/mm) and the normal squamous segments (0.10 SMG/mm). Within the metaplastic segments, the median frequency of SMG beneath the squamous islands was significantly higher than that observed under the columnar lined parts (0.22 versus 0.08 SMG/mm, P = 0.046), There was a strong accumulation of SMG at the squamo-columnar transition zones (0.53 SMG/mm), which was significantly greater than that found in the columnar and squamous parts (P = 0.001 and 0.002, respectively). The relative accumulation of SMG beneath squamous islands and the squamo-columnar junctions within the metaplastic segment supports the hypothesis that both metaplastic columnar mucosa and neosquamous epithelium originate from a progenitor in the SMG. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Functional trade-offs in succulent stems predict responses to climate change in columnar cacti.

    PubMed

    Williams, David G; Hultine, Kevin R; Dettman, David L

    2014-07-01

    Columnar cacti occur naturally in many habitats and environments in the Americas but are conspicuously dominant in very dry desert regions. These majestic plants are widely regarded for their cultural, economic, and ecological value and, in many ecosystems, support highly diverse communities of pollinators, seed dispersers, and frugivores. Massive amounts of water and other resources stored in the succulent photosynthetic stems of these species confer a remarkable ability to grow and reproduce during intensely hot and dry periods. Yet many columnar cacti are potentially under severe threat from environmental global changes, including climate change and loss of habitat. Stems in columnar cacti and other cylindrical-stemmed cacti are morphologically diverse; stem volume-to-surface area ratio (V:S) across these taxa varies by almost two orders of magnitude. Intrinsic functional trade-offs are examined here across a broad range of V:S in species of columnar cacti. It is proposed that variation in photosynthetic gas exchange, growth, and response to stress is highly constrained by stem V:S, establishing a mechanistic framework for understanding the sensitivity of columnar cacti to climate change and drought. Specifically, species that develop stems with low V:S, and thus have little storage capacity, are expected to express high mass specific photosynthesis and growth rates under favourable conditions compared with species with high V:S. But the trade-off of having little storage capacity is that low V:S species are likely to be less tolerant of intense or long-duration drought compared with high V:S species. The application of stable isotope measurements of cactus spines as recorders of growth, water relations, and metabolic responses to the environment across species of columnar cacti that vary in V:S is also reviewed. Taken together, our approach provides a coherent theory and required set of observations needed for predicting the responses of columnar cacti to

  5. Evidence for regulation of columnar habit in apple by a putative 2OG-Fe(II) oxygenase.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Pieter J; Schouten, Henk J; Velasco, Riccardo; Si-Ammour, Azeddine; Baldi, Paolo

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the genetic mechanisms controlling columnar-type growth in the apple mutant 'Wijcik' will provide insights on how tree architecture and growth are regulated in fruit trees. In apple, columnar-type growth is controlled by a single major gene at the Columnar (Co) locus. By comparing the genomic sequence of the Co region of 'Wijcik' with its wild-type 'McIntosh', a novel non-coding DNA element of 1956 bp specific to Pyreae was found to be inserted in an intergenic region of 'Wijcik'. Expression analysis of selected genes located in the vicinity of the insertion revealed the upregulation of the MdCo31 gene encoding a putative 2OG-Fe(II) oxygenase in axillary buds of 'Wijcik'. Constitutive expression of MdCo31 in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in compact plants with shortened floral internodes, a phenotype reminiscent of the one observed in columnar apple trees. We conclude that MdCo31 is a strong candidate gene for the control of columnar growth in 'Wijcik'. No claim to original European Union works. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Columnar Transitions in Microscale Evaporating Liquid Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Hanif; Glezer, Ari

    2007-11-01

    Microscale evaporating liquid jets that are injected into a quiescent gaseous medium having adjustable ambient pressure are investigated over a range of jet speeds using a shadowgraph technique. The jets are formed by a laser-drilled 10 μm nozzle from a small-scale pressurized reservoir, and sub-atmospheric ambient pressure is maintained using a controllable, metered Venturi pump. The near-field jet features are captured by shadowgraph imaging using a pulsed ND-Yag laser and a 12 bit CCD camera where the field of view measured 200 μm on the side. As the ambient pressure is reduced, the jet column undergoes a series of spectacular transitions that are first marked by the appearance of vapor bubbles within the jet column. The transitions progress from columnar instabilities to series of column bifurcations to high-order branching and film formation and culminate in conical atomization of the jet column. In addition to the effects of the ambient pressure, the present investigation also considers effects of the liquid surface tension and vapor pressure on the onset, evolution, and hysteresis of the columnar transitions.

  7. Plant Natural compounds with antibacterial activity towards common pathogens of pond-cultured channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

    PubMed

    Schrader, Kevin K

    2010-07-01

    The bacteria Edwardsiella ictaluri and Flavobacterium columnare cause enteric septicemia and columnaris disease, respectively, in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Natural therapeutants may provide an alternative to current management approaches used by producers. In this study, a rapid bioassay identified plant compounds as potential therapeutants. Chelerythrine chloride and ellagic acid were the most toxic toward E. ictaluri, with 24-h IC50 of 7.3 mg/L and 15.1 mg/L, respectively, and MIC of 2.1 mg/L and 6.5 mg/L, respectively. Chelerythrine chloride, ellagic acid, β-glycyrrhetinic acid, sorgoleone, and wogonin were the most toxic towards two genomovars of F. columnare, and wogonin had the strongest antibacterial activity (MIC = 0.3 mg/L).

  8. Evaluation of the hormonal state of columnar apple trees (Malus x domestica) based on high throughput gene expression studies.

    PubMed

    Krost, Clemens; Petersen, Romina; Lokan, Stefanie; Brauksiepe, Bastienne; Braun, Peter; Schmidt, Erwin R

    2013-02-01

    The columnar phenotype of apple trees (Malus x domestica) is characterized by a compact growth habit with fruit spurs instead of lateral branches. These properties provide significant economic advantages by enabling high density plantings. The columnar growth results from the presence of a dominant allele of the gene Columnar (Co) located on chromosome 10 which can appear in a heterozygous (Co/co) or homozygous (Co/Co) state. Although two deep sequencing approaches could shed some light on the transcriptome of columnar shoot apical meristems (SAMs), the molecular mechanisms of columnar growth are not yet elaborated. Since the influence of phytohormones is believed to have a pivotal role in the establishment of the phenotype, we performed RNA-Seq experiments to study genes associated with hormone homeostasis and clearly affected by the presence of Co. Our results provide a molecular explanation for earlier findings on the hormonal state of columnar apple trees. Additionally, they allow hypotheses on how the columnar phenotype might develop. Furthermore, we show a statistically approved enrichment of differentially regulated genes on chromosome 10 in the course of validating RNA-Seq results using additional gene expression studies.

  9. Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR) analysis of Flavobacterium psychrophilum from salmonids in Chile and Norway.

    PubMed

    Apablaza, Patricia; Brevik, Øyvind J; Mjøs, Svein; Valdebenito, Samuel; Ilardi, Pedro; Battaglia, Juan; Dalsgaard, Inger; Nylund, Are

    2015-07-14

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum causes serious fish diseases such RTFS and BCWD, affecting the aquaculture industry worldwide. Commercial vaccines are not available and control of the disease depends on the use of antibiotics. Reliable methods for detection and identification of different isolates of this bacterium could play an important role in the development of good management strategies. The aim of this study was to identify genetic markers for discrimination between isolates. A selection of eight VNTRs from 53 F. psychrophilum isolates from Norway, Chile, Denmark and Scotland were analyzed. The results were compared with previous work on the same pathogen using MLST for genetic differentiation. The VNTR analysis gave a separation between the F. psychrophilum isolates supporting the results of previous MLST work. A higher diversity was found among the Chilean isolates compared to those from Norway, which suggests a more homogenous reservoir in Norway. Transgenerational transmission of F. psychrophilum from other countries, exporting salmon embryos to Chile, may explain the differences in diversity. The same transmission mechanisms could also explain the wide geographical distribution of identical isolates in Norway. But, this could also be a result of movement of smolts and embryos. The selected VNTRs are stable genetic markers and no variation was observed after several passages on agar plates at different temperatures. These VNTRs are important additions for genotyping of F. psychrophilum isolates. Future studies on VNTRs of F. psychrophilum should include isolates from more host species from a wider geographical area. To get a more robust genotyping the VNTRs should be used in concert with MLST. Future studies of isolates with high and low virulence should focus on identifying virulence markers using VTNRs and MLST.

  10. Columnar mesophases of hexabenzocoronene derivatives. II. Charge carrier mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, James; Marcon, Valentina; Kremer, Kurt; Nelson, Jenny; Andrienko, Denis

    2008-09-01

    Combining atomistic molecular dynamic simulations, Marcus-Hush theory description of charge transport rates, and master equation description of charge dynamics, we correlate the temperature-driven change of the mesophase structure with the change of charge carrier mobilities in columnar phases of hexabenzocoronene derivatives. The time dependence of fluctuations in transfer integrals shows that static disorder is predominant in determining charge transport characteristics. Both site energies and transfer integrals are distributed because of disorder in the molecular arrangement. It is shown that the contributions to the site energies from polarization and electrostatic effects are of opposite sign for positive charges. We look at three mesophases of hexabenzocoronene: herringbone, discotic, and columnar disordered. All results are compared to time resolved microwave conductivity data and show excellent agreement with no fitting parameters.

  11. Columnar mesophases of hexabenzocoronene derivatives. II. Charge carrier mobility.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, James; Marcon, Valentina; Kremer, Kurt; Nelson, Jenny; Andrienko, Denis

    2008-09-07

    Combining atomistic molecular dynamic simulations, Marcus-Hush theory description of charge transport rates, and master equation description of charge dynamics, we correlate the temperature-driven change of the mesophase structure with the change of charge carrier mobilities in columnar phases of hexabenzocoronene derivatives. The time dependence of fluctuations in transfer integrals shows that static disorder is predominant in determining charge transport characteristics. Both site energies and transfer integrals are distributed because of disorder in the molecular arrangement. It is shown that the contributions to the site energies from polarization and electrostatic effects are of opposite sign for positive charges. We look at three mesophases of hexabenzocoronene: herringbone, discotic, and columnar disordered. All results are compared to time resolved microwave conductivity data and show excellent agreement with no fitting parameters.

  12. Flavobacterium johnsoniae gldN and gldO Are Partially Redundant Genes Required for Gliding Motility and Surface Localization of SprB▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Ryan G.; Samarasam, Mudiarasan Napoleon; Shrivastava, Abhishek; van Baaren, Jessica M.; Pochiraju, Soumya; Bollampalli, Sreelekha; McBride, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    Cells of the gliding bacterium Flavobacterium johnsoniae move rapidly over surfaces. Mutations in gldN cause a partial defect in gliding. A novel bacteriophage selection strategy was used to aid construction of a strain with a deletion spanning gldN and the closely related gene gldO in an otherwise wild-type F. johnsoniae UW101 background. Bacteriophage transduction was used to move a gldN mutation into F. johnsoniae UW101 to allow phenotypic comparison with the gldNO deletion mutant. Cells of the gldN mutant formed nonspreading colonies on agar but retained some ability to glide in wet mounts. In contrast, cells of the gldNO deletion mutant were completely nonmotile, indicating that cells require GldN, or the GldN-like protein GldO, to glide. Recent results suggest that Porphyromonas gingivalis PorN, which is similar in sequence to GldN, has a role in protein secretion across the outer membrane. Cells of the F. johnsoniae gldNO deletion mutant were defective in localization of the motility protein SprB to the cell surface, suggesting that GldN may be involved in secretion of components of the motility machinery. Cells of the gldNO deletion mutant were also deficient in chitin utilization and were resistant to infection by bacteriophages, phenotypes that may also be related to defects in protein secretion. PMID:20038590

  13. Genetic diversity of Flavobacterium psychrophilum isolates from three Oncorhynchus spp. in the United States, as revealed by multilocus sequence typing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum is an important pathogen of salmonids worldwide. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) has identified a recombinogenic population structure from which emerged a few epidemic clonal complexes particularly threatening for salmonid aquaculture. To date, MLST genotypes for this ...

  14. Evolution of three tandem copies of the interleukin-1 receptor-like 1 gene in salmonid fish and their contribution to rainbow trout bacterial cold water disease resistant phenotype

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rainbow trout exhibit extensive phenotypic variation in innate disease resistance. Five generations of family based selection has resulted in rainbow trout lines with either increased or reduced survival following exposure to the gram-negative bacterium, Flavobacterium psychrophilum (Fp), the causa...

  15. Dielectrophoretic columnar focusing device

    SciTech Connect

    James, Conrad D; Galambos, Paul C; Derzon, Mark S

    2010-05-11

    A dielectrophoretic columnar focusing device uses interdigitated microelectrodes to provide a spatially non-uniform electric field in a fluid that generates a dipole within particles in the fluid. The electric field causes the particles to either be attracted to or repelled from regions where the electric field gradient is large, depending on whether the particles are more or less polarizable than the fluid. The particles can thereby be forced into well defined stable paths along the interdigitated microelectrodes. The device can be used for flow cytometry, particle control, and other process applications, including cell counting or other types of particle counting,more » and for separations in material control.« less

  16. Columnar jointing - the mechanics of thermal contraction in cooling lavas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavallée, Y.; Iddon, F.; Hornby, A. J.; Kendrick, J. E.; von Aulock, F. W.; Wadsworth, F. B.

    2014-12-01

    Columnar joints are spectacular features of volcanic rocks, which form by cracking during cooling-induced contraction of lava. The process, and resultant geometry, manifests a complex interplay between heat dissipation, contraction and tensile strength, yet the formation temperature of such joints remains elusive. Here, we present results from a combination of field survey, thermo-analytical characterisation and mechanical investigation to constrain conditions favourable for columnar jointing. Columnar joints at Seljavellir, a basaltic lava flow at the base of Eyjafjallajökull volcano (Iceland) produce quadratic to heptagonal cross sectional patterns with column widths ranging from 20 to 70 cm in size. The fracture surfaces are characterised by striae with spacing (between 1 to 6 cm) that shares a positive linear relationship to the joint spacing. The striae exhibit both a rough and smooth portion, interpreted to express a change in deformation regime from a ductile response as stress builds up to a fully brittle, mode-I fracture propagation at high stress accumulation. To test the thermo-mechanics of columnar joints we developed an experimental setup to investigate the stress, strain-to-failure and temperature at which basalts undergo tensile failure during cooling from the solidus temperature of 980 °C. We find that fractures initiate at ~800 °C, revealed by a change in stress accumulation (i.e., Young modulus), and complete failure completes after some 0.4% strain at ~670 °C. We interpret the two-stage fracture dynamics as the cause for the change in fracture surface roughness observed in nature. We coupled this dataset with Brazil tensile tests at 30, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 °C. We note that the strain to failure decrease from 1% (>800 °C) to 0.4% (<800 °C). Complementary dilatometric measurements (at 3mN of normal stress and a rate of 2 C/min) constrain the expansion coefficient to be linear and equal to 10-5/°C below the solid temperature. Simple ratio

  17. Columnar metaplasia in a surgical mouse model of gastro-esophageal reflux disease is not derived from bone marrow-derived cell.

    PubMed

    Aikou, Susumu; Aida, Junko; Takubo, Kaiyo; Yamagata, Yukinori; Seto, Yasuyuki; Kaminishi, Michio; Nomura, Sachiyo

    2013-09-01

    The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma has increased in the last 25 years. Columnar metaplasia in Barrett's mucosa is assumed to be a precancerous lesion for esophageal adenocarcinoma. However, the induction process of Barrett's mucosa is still unknown. To analyze the induction of esophageal columnar metaplasia, we established a mouse gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) model with associated development of columnar metaplasia in the esophagus. C57BL/6 mice received side-to-side anastomosis of the esophagogastric junction with the jejunum, and mice were killed 10, 20, and 40 weeks after operation. To analyze the contribution of bone marrow-derived cells to columnar metaplasia in this surgical GERD model, some mice were transplanted with GFP-marked bone marrow after the operation. Seventy-three percent of the mice (16/22) showed thickened mucosa in esophagus and 41% of mice (9/22) developed columnar metaplasia 40 weeks after the operation with a mortality rate of 4%. Bone marrow-derived cells were not detected in columnar metaplastic epithelia. However, scattered epithelial cells in the thickened squamous epithelia in regions of esophagitis did show bone marrow derivation. The results demonstrate that reflux induced by esophago-jejunostomy in mice leads to the development of columnar metaplasia in the esophagus. However, bone marrow-derived cells do not contribute directly to columnar metaplasia in this mouse model. © 2013 Japanese Cancer Association.

  18. Investigations of electromagnetic scattering by columnar ice crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weil, H.; Senior, T. B. A.

    1976-01-01

    An integral equation approach was developed to determine the scattering and absorption of electromagnetic radiation by thin walled cylinders of arbitrary cross-section and refractive index. Based on this method, extensive numerical data was presented at infrared wavelengths for hollow hexagonal cross section cylinders which simulate columnar sheath ice crystals.

  19. Shape-Persistent, Sterically Crowded Star Mesogens: From Exceptional Columnar Dimer Stacks to Supermesogens.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Matthias; Maier, Philipp

    2015-08-10

    Hexasubstituted C3 -symmetric benzenes with three oligophenylenevinylene (OPV) arms and three pyridyl or phenyl substituents are shape-persistent star mesogens that are sterically crowded in the center. Such molecular structures possess large void spaces between their arms, which have to be filled in condensed phases. For the neat materials, this is accomplished by an exceptional formation of dimers and short-range helical packing in columnar mesophases. The mesophase is thermodynamically stable for the pyridyl compound. Only this derivative forms filled star-shaped supermesogens in the presence of various carboxylic acids. The latter do not arrange as dimers, but as monomers along the columnar stacks. In this liquid crystal (LC) phase, the guests are completely enclosed by the hosts. Therefore, the host can be regarded as a new LC endoreceptor, which allows the design of columnar functional structures in the future. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Analysis of EDZ Development of Columnar Jointed Rock Mass in the Baihetan Diversion Tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Xian-Jie; Feng, Xia-Ting; Yang, Cheng-Xiang; Jiang, Quan; Li, Shao-Jun

    2016-04-01

    Due to the time dependency of the crack propagation, columnar jointed rock masses exhibit marked time-dependent behaviour. In this study, in situ measurements, scanning electron microscope (SEM), back-analysis method and numerical simulations are presented to study the time-dependent development of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) around underground diversion tunnels in a columnar jointed rock mass. Through in situ measurements of crack propagation and EDZ development, their extent is seen to have increased over time, despite the fact that the advancing face has passed. Similar to creep behaviour, the time-dependent EDZ development curve also consists of three stages: a deceleration stage, a stabilization stage, and an acceleration stage. A corresponding constitutive model of columnar jointed rock mass considering time-dependent behaviour is proposed. The time-dependent degradation coefficient of the roughness coefficient and residual friction angle in the Barton-Bandis strength criterion are taken into account. An intelligent back-analysis method is adopted to obtain the unknown time-dependent degradation coefficients for the proposed constitutive model. The numerical modelling results are in good agreement with the measured EDZ. Not only that, the failure pattern simulated by this time-dependent constitutive model is consistent with that observed in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and in situ observation, indicating that this model could accurately simulate the failure pattern and time-dependent EDZ development of columnar joints. Moreover, the effects of the support system provided and the in situ stress on the time-dependent coefficients are studied. Finally, the long-term stability analysis of diversion tunnels excavated in columnar jointed rock masses is performed.

  1. Columnar transmitter based wireless power delivery system for implantable device in freely moving animals.

    PubMed

    Eom, Kyungsik; Jeong, Joonsoo; Lee, Tae Hyung; Lee, Sung Eun; Jun, Sang Bum; Kim, Sung June

    2013-01-01

    A wireless power delivery system is developed to deliver electrical power to the neuroprosthetic devices that are implanted into animals freely moving inside the cage. The wireless powering cage is designed for long-term animal experiments without cumbersome wires for power supply or the replacement of batteries. In the present study, we propose a novel wireless power transmission system using resonator-based inductive links to increase power efficiency and to minimize the efficiency variations. A columnar transmitter coil is proposed to provide lateral uniformity of power efficiency. Using this columnar transmitter coil, only 7.2% efficiency fluctuation occurs from the maximum transmission efficiency of 25.9%. A flexible polymer-based planar type receiver coil is fabricated and assembled with a neural stimulator and an electrode. Using the designed columnar transmitter coil, the implantable device successfully operates while it moves freely inside the cage.

  2. Do breast columnar cell lesions with atypia need to be excised?

    PubMed

    Datrice, Nicole; Narula, Navneet; Maggard, Melinda; Butler, John; Hsiang, David; Baick, Choong; Lane, Karen

    2007-10-01

    Columnar cell lesion with atypia (CCLA) is a newly recognized pathologic entity seen in breast specimens. The breast cancer risk associated with this finding is unclear, although CCLA had been found adjacent to both in situ and invasive carcinomas, but the incidence is unknown. Breast specimens from patients with a columnar cell lesion were reviewed by a pathologist for atypia. Twenty-one specimens with CCLA were identified [core biopsy (8), excisional biopsy (11), and simple mastectomy (2)]. Six of eight specimens with CCLA on core had adjacent abnormal pathology: infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC)/lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) (1), ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)/LCIS (1), DCIS (1), LCIS (1), and papillomatosis (2). Five of 11 specimens with CCLA on excisional biopsy had adjacent abnormal pathology: IDC (3), DCIS/LCIS (1), and atypical ductal hyperplasia/papilloma (1). Two of two simple mastectomy specimens had CCLA associated with IDC (1) and DCIS (1). Overall, abnormal pathology was found adjacent to CCLA in 62 per cent of specimens (13/21). Breast pathologic specimens containing a columnar cell lesion should be carefully examined for atypia. Surgical excision is warranted for CCLA found on core biopsy. The future risk of breast cancer based on the finding of CCLA alone requires further investigation.

  3. Epidemiological cut-off values for Flavobacterium psychrophilum MIC data generated by a standard test protocol.

    PubMed

    Smith, P; Endris, R; Kronvall, G; Thomas, V; Verner-Jeffreys, D; Wilhelm, C; Dalsgaard, I

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiological cut-off values were developed for application to antibiotic susceptibility data for Flavobacterium psychrophilum generated by standard CLSI test protocols. The MIC values for ten antibiotic agents against Flavobacterium psychrophilum were determined in two laboratories. For five antibiotics, the data sets were of sufficient quality and quantity to allow the setting of valid epidemiological cut-off values. For these agents, the cut-off values, calculated by the application of the statistically based normalized resistance interpretation method, were ≤16 mg L(-1) for erythromycin, ≤2 mg L(-1) for florfenicol, ≤0.025 mg L(-1) for oxolinic acid (OXO), ≤0.125 mg L(-1) for oxytetracycline and ≤20 (1/19) mg L(-1) for trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole. For ampicillin and amoxicillin, the majority of putative wild-type observations were 'off scale', and therefore, statistically valid cut-off values could not be calculated. For ormetoprim/sulphadimethoxine, the data were excessively diverse and a valid cut-off could not be determined. For flumequine, the putative wild-type data were extremely skewed, and for enrofloxacin, there was inadequate separation in the MIC values for putative wild-type and non-wild-type strains. It is argued that the adoption of OXO as a class representative for the quinolone group would be a valid method of determining susceptibilities to these agents. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Retaining {1 0 0} texture from initial columnar grains in 6.5 wt% Si electrical steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Ruiyang; Yang, Ping; Mao, Weimin

    2017-11-01

    6.5 wt% Si electrical steel is a superior soft magnetic material with excellent magnetic properties which highly depends on texture. In this study, based on the heredity of 〈0 0 1〉 orientation in columnar grains, columnar grains are used as the initial material to prepare non-oriented 6.5 wt% Si electrical steel with excellent magnetic properties. EBSD and XRD techniques are adopted to explore the structure and texture evolution during hot rolling, warm rolling, cold rolling and annealing. The results show that, due to the heredity of "structure and texture" from the initial strong {1 0 0} columnar grains, annealed sheet with {1 0 0}〈0 0 1〉 texture had better magnetic properties, which can be used as non-oriented high-silicon electrical steel. Both preferred cube grain nucleation in deformed {1 1 3}〈3 6 1〉 grains in subsurface and coarse {1 0 0}〈0 0 1〉 deformed grains in center layer show the effect of initial columnar grains with {1 0 0} texture.

  5. Vapor-Deposited Glasses with Long-Range Columnar Liquid Crystalline Order

    DOE PAGES

    Gujral, Ankit; Gomez, Jaritza; Ruan, Shigang; ...

    2017-10-04

    Anisotropic molecular packing, particularly in highly ordered liquid crystalline arrangements, has the potential for optimizing performance in organic electronic and optoelectronic applications. Here we show that physical vapor deposition can be used to prepare highly organized glassy solids of discotic liquid crystalline systems. Using grazing incidence X-ray scattering, atomic force microscopy, and UV–vis spectroscopy, we compare three systems: a rectangular columnar liquid crystal, a hexagonal columnar liquid crystal, and a nonmesogen. The packing motifs accessible by vapor deposition are highly organized for the liquid crystalline systems with columns propagating either in-plane or out-of-plane depending upon the substrate temperature during deposition.more » As a result, the structures formed at a given substrate temperature can be understood as resulting from partial equilibration toward the structure of the equilibrium liquid crystal surface during the deposition process.« less

  6. Vapor-Deposited Glasses with Long-Range Columnar Liquid Crystalline Order

    SciTech Connect

    Gujral, Ankit; Gomez, Jaritza; Ruan, Shigang

    Anisotropic molecular packing, particularly in highly ordered liquid crystalline arrangements, has the potential for optimizing performance in organic electronic and optoelectronic applications. Here we show that physical vapor deposition can be used to prepare highly organized glassy solids of discotic liquid crystalline systems. Using grazing incidence X-ray scattering, atomic force microscopy, and UV–vis spectroscopy, we compare three systems: a rectangular columnar liquid crystal, a hexagonal columnar liquid crystal, and a nonmesogen. The packing motifs accessible by vapor deposition are highly organized for the liquid crystalline systems with columns propagating either in-plane or out-of-plane depending upon the substrate temperature during deposition.more » As a result, the structures formed at a given substrate temperature can be understood as resulting from partial equilibration toward the structure of the equilibrium liquid crystal surface during the deposition process.« less

  7. Columnar alterations of NADH fluorescence during hypoxia-ischemia in immature rat brain.

    PubMed

    Welsh, F A; Vannucci, R C; Brierley, J B

    1982-01-01

    Cerebral hypoxia-ischemia was produced in 7-day postnatal rats by unilateral carotid artery ligation combined with systemic hypoxia (8% O2). Levels of high energy phosphates, which were only slightly altered in the contralateral hemisphere, were nearly depleted in the ipsilateral hemisphere during the 3-h hypoxic insult. With hypoxia of between 1 and 3 hours' duration, columnar alterations of cortical NADH fluorescence occurred in the same location and regional pattern as did histologic damage demonstrated previously (Rice et al., 1981). In regions exhibiting columns of NADH fluorescence, there was no evidence of a columnar reduction of high energy phosphates as levels of ATP and phosphocreatine were nearly zero. Recovery from 3 h of hypoxia was accompanied by partial and regionally heterogeneous restoration of ATP within the ipsilateral hemisphere. Columnar variations of NADH fluorescence were not detected in the recovery period; rather, regions with impaired restitution of high energy phosphates exhibited NADH fluorescence that was diminished diffusely compared to the contralateral hemisphere. The correlation between depressed NADH fluorescence and depleted ATP, present as cortical columns during hypoxia and as larger regions during recovery, suggests that decreased formation of NADH may be limiting the resynthesis of high energy phosphates.

  8. Effect of boundary heat flux on columnar formation in binary alloys: A phase-field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Lifei; Zhang, Peng; Yang, Shaomei; Chen, Jie; Du, Huiling

    2018-02-01

    A non-isothermal phase-field model was employed to simulate the columnar formation during rapid solidification in binary Ni-Cu alloy. Heat flux at different boundaries was applied to investigate the temperature gradient effect on the morphology, concentration and temperature distributions during directional solidifications. With the heat flux input/extraction from boundaries, coupling with latent heat release and initial temperature gradient, temperature distributions are significantly changed, leading to solute diffusion changes during the phase-transition. Thus, irregular columnar structures are formed during the directional solidification, and the concentration distribution in solid columnar arms could also be changed due to the different growing speeds and temperature distributions at the solid-liquid interfaces. Therefore, applying specific heat conditions at the solidifying boundaries could be an efficient way to control the microstructure during solidifications.

  9. Purification, characterization and specificity of chondroitin lyases and glycuronidase from Flavobacterium heparinum.

    PubMed Central

    Gu, K; Linhardt, R J; Laliberté, M; Gu, K; Zimmermann, J

    1995-01-01

    The chondroitin lyases from Flavobacterium heparinum (Cytophaga heparinia) have been widely used in depolymerization of glycosaminoglycan and proteoglycan chondroitin sulphates. Oligosaccharide products derived from chondroitin sulphate can be further degraded by glycuronidases and sulphatases obtained from the same organism. There has been no reported purification of these enzymes to homogeneity nor is there any information on their physical and kinetic characteristics. The absence of pure enzymes has resulted in a lack of understanding of the optimal conditions for their catalytic activity and their substrate specificity. This has limited the use of these enzymes as reagents for preparation of oligosaccharides for structure and activity studies. Reproducible schemes to purify a chondroitin AC lyase, a glycuronidase and chondroitin B lyase from Flavobacterium heparinum to apparent homogeneity are described. Chondroitin AC lyase (chondroitinase AC, EC 4.2.2.5), glycuronidase [chondro-(1-->3)-glycuronidase, no EC number] and chondroitin B lyase (chondroitinase B, no EC number) have M(r) values (assessed by SDS/PAGE) of 74,000, 41,800 and 55,200 respectively, and isoelectric points (determined by isoelectric focusing) of 8.85, 9.28 and 9.05 respectively. Chondroitin lyase AC and B contain pyroglutamic acid at their N-termini precluding their analysis by Edman degradation. Deblocking with pyroglutamate aminopeptidase facilitated the determination of their N-terminal sequences. The kinetic properties of these enzymes have been determined as well as the optimum conditions for their catalytic activity. The specificity of the glycouronidase, determined using 17 different disaccharide substrates, shows that it only acts on unsulphated or 6-O-sulphated 1-->3 linkages. The chondroitin lyases are both endolytic enzymes, and oligosaccharide mapping shows their expected specificity towards the chondroitin and dermatan sulphate polymers. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:8526872

  10. [Effect of antagonistic bacteria and soil disinfectant on soil bacterium community in banana Fusarium wilt disease area].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dengbo; Jing, Tao; Tan, Xin; Chen, Bo; Zhang, Xiyan; Gao, Zhufen

    2013-08-04

    The objective of the present study is to elucidate the effects of the application of cake fertilizer fermentation fluid with antagonistic bacteria and soil disinfectant chlorine dioxide on the occurrence of banana fusarium wilt disease and soil bacterium community. Under the field cultivation conditions, the Biolog and T-RFLP method was used to investigate the soil bacterium diversity and community features in different treatments at different periods. The results show that both cake fertilizer fermentation fluid with antagonistic bacteria and soil disinfectant could reduce disease index of banana fusarium wilt disease significantly, the highest control effect could reach 60.82% with the combined application of these two methods. The result of Biolog eco plate shows that the application of cake fertilizer fermentation fluid with antagonistic bacteria could improve soil microbial AWCD (average well color development) and population uniformity, the use of soil disinfectant significantly reduced the soil microbial population's abundance and the uniformity. Principal component analysis shows that the soil microbial population using carbon source had an increasing trend throughout the banana growing season, the main carbon sources in the early stage were amino acids, carboxylic acids, amphiphilic compounds and carbohydrates, and the increased main carbon sources in the later stage were carboxylic acids and amphiphilic compounds. Soil bacterial diversity analysis by T-RFLP shows that the treatments of cake fertilizer fermentation fluid with antagonistic bacteria had the highest bacterial TRFs (Terminal restriction fragment) fragments, which resulted from the increase of Flavobacterium, Pseudomona and Lactobacillus population in the soil. The application of cake fertilizer fermentation fluid with antagonistic bacteria combining soil disinfectant could increase antagonistic microorganisms species, enhance soil microbial diversity, improve soil microbial ecological

  11. B cell signatures of BCWD-resistant and susceptible lines of rainbow trout: a shift towards more EBF-expressing progenitors and fewer mature B cells in resistant animals

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bacterial Cold Water Disease (BCWD) is a chronic disease of rainbow trout, and is caused by the gram-negative bacterium Flavobacterium psychrophilum (Fp), a common aquaculture pathogen. The National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture has bred two genetic lines of rainbow trout: a line of Fp...

  12. Transitional basal cells at the squamous-columnar junction generate Barrett’s oesophagus

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ming; Li, Haiyan; Zhang, Yongchun; Yang, Ying; Lu, Rong; Liu, Kuancan; Lin, Sijie; Lan, Xiaopeng; Wang, Haikun; Wu, Han; Zhu, Jian; Zhou, Zhongren; Xu, Jianming; Lee, Dong-Kee; Zhang, Lanjing; Lee, Yuan-Cho; Yuan, Jingsong; Abrams, Julian A.; Wang, Timothy G.; Sepulveda, Antonia R.; Wu, Qi; Chen, Huaiyong; Sun, Xin; She, Junjun; Chen, Xiaoxin; Que, Jianwen

    2017-01-01

    In several organ systems the transitional zone between different types of epithelia is a hotspot for pre-neoplastic metaplasia and malignancy1–3. However, the cell-of-origin for the metaplastic epithelium and subsequent malignancy, remains obscure1–3. In the case of Barrett’s oesophagus (BE), intestinal metaplasia occurs at the gastro-oesophageal junction, where stratified squamous epithelium transitions into simple columnar cells4. Based on different experimental models, several alternative cell types have been proposed as the source of the metaplasia, but in all cases the evidence is inconclusive and no model completely mimics BE with the presence of intestinal goblet cells5–8. Here, we describe a novel transitional columnar epithelium with distinct basal progenitor cells (p63+ KRT5+ KRT7+) in the squamous-columnar junction (SCJ) in the upper gastrointestinal tract of the mouse. We use multiple models and lineage tracing strategies to show that this unique SCJ basal cell population serves as a source of progenitors for the transitional epithelium. Moreover, upon ectopic expression of CDX2 these transitional basal progenitors differentiate into intestinal-like epithelium including goblet cells, thus reproducing Barrett’s metaplasia. A similar transitional columnar epithelium is present at the transitional zones of other mouse tissues, including the anorectal junction, and, importantly, at the gastro-oesophageal junction in the human gut. Acid reflux-induced oesophagitis and the multilayered epithelium (MLE) believed to be a precursor of BE are both characterized by the expansion of the transitional basal progenitor cells. Taken together our findings reveal the presence of a previously unidentified transitional zone in the epithelium of the upper gastrointestinal tract and provide evidence that the p63+ KRT7+ basal cells in this zone are the cell-of-origin for MLE and BE. PMID:29019984

  13. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of an ice-binding protein (FfIBP) from Flavobacterium frigoris PS1.

    PubMed

    Do, Hackwon; Lee, Jun Hyuck; Lee, Sung Gu; Kim, Hak Jun

    2012-07-01

    Ice growth in a cold environment is fatal for polar organisms, not only because of the physical destruction of inner cell organelles but also because of the resulting chemical damage owing to processes such as osmotic shock. The properties of ice-binding proteins (IBPs), which include antifreeze proteins (AFPs), have been characterized and IBPs exhibit the ability to inhibit ice growth by binding to specific ice planes and lowering the freezing point. An ice-binding protein (FfIBP) from the Gram-negative bacterium Flavobacterium frigoris PS1, which was isolated from the Antarctic, has recently been overexpressed. Interestingly, the thermal hysteresis activity of FfIBP was approximately 2.5 K at 50 µM, which is ten times higher than that of the moderately active IBP from Arctic yeast (LeIBP). Although FfIBP closely resembles LeIBP in its amino-acid sequence, the antifreeze activity of FfIBP appears to be much greater than that of LeIBP. In an effort to understand the reason for this difference, an attempt was made to solve the crystal structure of FfIBP. Here, the crystallization and X-ray diffraction data of FfIBP are reported. FfIBP was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with 0.1 M sodium acetate pH 4.4 and 3 M sodium chloride as precipitant. A complete diffraction data set was collected to a resolution of 2.9 Å. The crystal belonged to space group P4(1)22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 69.4, c = 178.2 Å. The asymmetric unit contained one monomer.

  14. Activity of lycorine analogs against the fish bacterial pathogen Flavobacterium columnare

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In a continuing effort to discover natural products and natural product-based compounds for the control of columnaris disease in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), seventeen lycorine analogs were synthesized, including new benzoyl analogs 6 – 16, and evaluated for antibacterial activity against ...

  15. Dietary copper effects survival of channel catfish challenged with Flavobacterium columnare

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Columnaris disease is one of the most important bacterial diseases of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, commercially grown in the US. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) has also been shown to be both therapeutic and prophylactic as a water treatment for columnaris disease. As copper is an essential dietar...

  16. Role of intragastric and intraoesophageal alkalinisation in the genesis of complications in Barrett's columnar lined lower oesophagus.

    PubMed Central

    Attwood, S E; Ball, C S; Barlow, A P; Jenkinson, L; Norris, T L; Watson, A

    1993-01-01

    Patients with Barrett's columnar lined lower oesophagus have severe acid gastrooesophageal reflux and may develop complications, including ulceration, stricture, and carcinoma. The aim of this study was to establish if a relationship exists between the pH profile in the oesophagus and stomach and the development of complications in patients with Barrett's columnar lined lower oesophagus. Twenty four hour ambulatory oesophageal pH monitoring was performed in 26 patients with Barrett's columnar lined lower oesophagus and combined with 24 hour ambulatory gastric pH monitoring in 16. Ten of the 26 with Barrett's columnar lined lower oesophagus had complications including stricture (eight), deep ulceration (one), and carcinoma (one). Oesophageal acid exposure (% time < pH 4) was similar in patients with or without complications (19.2% v 19.3% p > 0.05). Oesophageal alkaline exposure (% time > pH 7) was greater in patients with complications (24.2% v 8.4% p > 0.05). Of the 16 patients who underwent gastric pH monitoring there was a clear relationship between gastric and oesophageal alkalinisation in 13. These results support the hypothesis that complications in Barrett's columnar lined lower oesophagus develop in association with increased exposure of the oesophagus to an alkaline environment which appears to be secondary to duodenogastric reflux. The routine use of 24 hour ambulatory gastric pH monitoring in conjunction with oesophageal pH monitoring can help identify those patients at risk. PMID:8432439

  17. Biodegradation of the herbicide bromoxynil (3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzonitrile) by purified pentachlorophenol hydroxylase and whole cells of Flavobacterium sp. strain ATCC 39723 is accompanied by cyanogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Topp, E; Xun, L Y; Orser, C S

    1992-01-01

    A pentachlorophenol (PCP)-degrading Flavobacterium sp. (strain ATCC 39723) degraded bromoxynil with the production of bromide and cyanide. No aromatic intermediates were detected in the spent culture fluid. The cyanide produced upon bromoxynil metabolism was inhibitory to the Flavobacterium sp. Whole cells degraded PCP more rapidly than they did bromoxynil. Bromoxynil metabolism and PCP metabolism were coinduced, either substrate serving as the inducer. Purified PCP hydroxylase degraded bromoxynil with stoichiometric accumulation of cyanide and without bromide production. A product accumulated which was more hydrophilic than bromoxynil upon high-pressure liquid chromatographic analysis and which, when analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, had a mass spectrum consistent with that expected for dibromohydroquinone. PCP hydroxylase consumed NADPH, oxygen, and bromoxynil in a 2:1:1 molar ratio, producing 1 mol of cyanide per mol of bromoxynil degraded. We propose a pathway by which bromoxynil is metabolized by the same enzymes which degrade PCP. The initial step in the pathway is the conversion of bromoxynil to 2,6-dibromohydroquinone by PCP hydroxylase. In addition to its utility for decontaminating PCP-polluted sites, the Flavobacterium sp. may be useful for decontaminating bromoxynil spills. This is the first report of cyanide production accompanying the metabolism of a benzonitrile derivative. PMID:1610174

  18. Bacteriophage remediation of bacterial pathogens in aquaculture: a review of the technology

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Gary P

    2014-01-01

    Bacteriophages have been proposed as an alternative to antibiotic usage and several studies on their application in aquaculture have been reported. This review highlights progress to date on phage therapies for the following fish and shellfish diseases and associated pathogens: hemorrhagic septicemia (Aeromonas hydrophila) in loaches, furunculosis (Aeromonas salmonicida) in trout and salmon, edwardsiellosis (Edwardsiella tarda) in eel, columnaris disease (Flavobacterium columnare) in catfish, rainbow trout fry syndrome or cold water disease (Flavobacterium psychrophilum) in trout and salmon, lactococcosis (Lactococcus spp.) in yellowtail, ulcerative skin lesions (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) in freshwater catfish, bacterial hemorrhagic ascites disease (Pseudomonas plecoglossicida) in ayu fish, streptococcosis (Streptococcus iniae) in flounder, and luminescent vibriosis (Vibrio harveyi) in shrimp. Information is reviewed on phage specificity, host resistance, routes of administration, and dosing of fish and shellfish. Limitations in phage research are described and recommended guidelines are provided for conducting future phage studies involving fish and shellfish. PMID:26713223

  19. Columnar domains and anisotropic growth laws in dipolar systems.

    PubMed

    Bupathy, Arunkumar; Banerjee, Varsha; Puri, Sanjay

    2017-06-01

    Magnetic and dielectric solids are well-represented by the Ising model with dipolar interactions (IM+DI). The latter are long-ranged, fluctuating in sign, and anisotropic. Equilibrium studies have revealed novel consequences of these complicated interactions, but their effect on nonequilibrium behavior is not explored. We perform a deep temperature quench to study the kinetics of domain growth in the d=3 IM+DI. Our main observations are (i) the emergence of columnar domains along the z axis (Ising axis) with a transient periodicity in the xy plane; (ii) anisotropic growth laws: ℓ_{ρ}(t)∼t^{ϕ}; ℓ_{z}(t)∼t^{ψ}, where ρ[over ⃗]=(x,y) and ℓ is the characteristic length scale; (iii) generalized dynamical scaling for the correlation function: C(ρ,z;t)=g(ρ/ℓ_{ρ},z/ℓ_{z}); and (iv) an asymptotic Porod tail in the corresponding structure factor: S(k_{ρ},0;t)∼k_{ρ}^{-3}; S(0,k_{z};t)∼k_{z}^{-2}. Our results explain the experimentally observed columnar morphologies in a wide range of dipolar systems, and they have important technological implications.

  20. Scales of columnar jointing in igneous rocks: field measurements and controlling factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetényi, György; Taisne, Benoît; Garel, Fanny; Médard, Étienne; Bosshard, Sonja; Mattsson, Hannes B.

    2012-03-01

    Columnar jointing is a common feature of solidified lavas, sills and dikes, but the factors controlling the characteristic stoutness of columns remain debated, and quantitative field observations are few in number. In this paper, we provide quantitative measurements on sizing of columnar joint sets and our assessment of the principal factors controlling it. We focus on (1) chemistry, as it is the major determinant of the physical (mechanical and thermal) properties of the lava, and (2) geology, as it influences the style of emplacement and lava geometry, setting boundary conditions for the cooling process and the rate of heat loss. In our analysis, we cover lavas with a broad range of chemical compositions (from basanite to phonolite, for six of which we provide new geochemical analyses) and of geological settings. Our field measurements cover 50 columnar jointing sites in three countries. We provide reliable, manually digitized data on the size of individual columns and focus the mathematical analysis on their geometry (23,889 data on side length, of which 17,312 are from full column sections and 3,033 data on cross-sectional area and order of polygonality). The geometrical observations show that the variation in characteristic size of columns between different sites exceeds one order of magnitude (side length ranging from 8 to 338 cm) and that the column-bounding polygons' average order is less than 6. The network of fractures is found to be longer than required by a minimum-energy hexagonal configuration, indicating a non-equilibrium, geologically quick process. In terms of the development and characteristic sizing of columnar joint sets, our observations suggest that columns are the result of an interplay between the geological setting of emplacement and magma chemistry. When the geological setting constrains the geometry of the emplaced body, it exerts a stronger control on characteristic column stoutness. At unconstrained geometries (e.g. unconfined lava

  1. Immunohistochemical analysis of metaplastic non-goblet columnar lined oesophagus shows phenotypic similarities to Barrett's oesophagus: a study in an Asian population.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Supriya; Liew, Mei Shan; McKeon, Frank; Xian, Wa; Yeoh, Khay Guan; Ho, Khek Yu; Teh, Ming

    2014-02-01

    Barrett's oesophagus is a premalignant condition, predisposing to oesophageal adenocarcinoma. However, some adenocarcinoma may arise in columnar lined oesophagus without goblet cells. Our aim was to evaluate the biological properties of non-goblet columnar lined oesophagus only and elucidate its relationship with Barrett's oesophagus and associated neoplasia. Endoscopic biopsies from patients with Barrett's oesophagus (n=30), non-goblet columnar lined oesophagus (n=14), Barrett's oesophagus associated high grade dysplasia (n=6) and adenocarcinoma (n=4) were selected. Immunostaining for villin, claudin 3 and MUC4 was performed. Statistical analysis was performed and a p value <0.05 was considered significant. Villin and MUC4 were positive in 42%, 100% each and 50% in non-goblet columnar lined oesophagus, Barrett's oesophagus, high grade dysplasia and adenocarcinoma respectively, while claudin 3 was 100% positive in all the groups. In non-goblet columnar lined oesophagus, six cases that were villin immunopositive, showed positive expression for claudin 3 and/or MUC4 and there was no difference from the high grade dysplasia or adenocarcinoma (p>0.05). Our results indicate that a subset of non-goblet columnar lined oesophagus shows an intestinal phenotype representing an early stage of Barrett's oesophagus. This subset probably harbours the potential to change into adenocarcinoma in the long term. Copyright © 2013 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of columnar defects on the thermodynamic properties of BSCCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Beek, C. J.; Indenbom, M. V.; Berseth, V.; Konczykowski, M.; Li, T. W.; Kes, P. H.; Benoit, W.

    1996-03-01

    Amorphous columnar defects strongly affect the reversible magnetization of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ single crystals both in the vortex solid, where the change reflects the change in vortex energy due to pinning, and in the vortex liquid, where the randomly positioned columns disrupt the interaction between superconducting fluctuations.

  3. Direct comparison of Viking 2.3-GHz signal phase fluctuation and columnar electron density between 2 and 160 solar radii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, A. L.; Wackley, J. A.; Hietzke, W. H.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between solar wind induced signal phase fluctuation and solar wind columnar electron density has been the subject of intensive analysis during the last two decades. In this article, a sizeable volume of 2.3-GHz signal phase fluctuation and columnar electron density measurements separately and concurrently inferred from Viking spacecraft signals are compared as a function of solar geometry. These data demonstrate that signal phase fluctuation and columnar electron density are proportional over a very wide span of solar elongation angle. A radially dependent electron density model which provides a good fit to the columnar electron density measurements and, when appropriately scaled, to the signal phase fluctuation measurements, is given. This model is also in good agreement with K-coronameter observations at 2 solar radii (2r0), with pulsar time delay measurements at 10r0, and with spacecraft in situ electron density measurements at 1 AU.

  4. Vortex Escape from Columnar Defect in a Current-Loaded Superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedirko, V. A.; Kasatkin, A. L.; Polyakov, S. V.

    2018-06-01

    The problem of Abrikosov vortices depinning from extended linear (columnar) defect in 3D-anisotropic superconductor film under non-uniformly distributed Lorentz force is studied for the case of low temperatures, disregarding thermal activation processes. We treat it as a problem of mechanical behavior of an elastic vortex string settled in a potential well of a linear defect and exerted to Lorentz force action within the screening layer about the London penetration depth near the specimen surface. The stability problem for the vortex pinning state is investigated by means of numerical modeling, and conditions for the instability threshold are obtained as well as the critical current density j_c and its dependence on the film thickness and magnetic field orientation. The instability leading to vortex depinning from extended linear defect first emerges near the surface and then propagates inside the superconductor. This scenario of vortex depinning mechanism at low temperatures is strongly supported by some recent experiments on high-Tc superconductors and other novel superconducting materials, containing columnar defects of various nature.

  5. A New Columnar CsI(Tl) Scintillator for iQID detectors

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ling; Miller, Brian W.; Barber, H. Bradford; Nagarkar, Vivek V.; Furenlid, Lars R.

    2015-01-01

    A 1650 μm thick columnar CsI(Tl) scintillator for upgrading iQID detectors, which is a high-resolution photon-counting gamma-ray and x-ray detector recently developed at the Center for Gamma-Ray Imaging (CGRI), has been studied in terms of sensitivity, spatial resolution and depth-of-interaction effects. To facilitate these studies, a new frame-parsing algorithm for processing raw event data is also proposed that has more degrees of freedom in data processing and can discriminate against a special kind of noise present in some low-cost intensifiers. The results show that in comparison with a 450 μm-thickness columnar CsI(Tl) scintillator, the 1650 μm thick CsI(Tl) scintillator provides more than twice the sensitivity at the expense of some spatial resolution degradation. The depth-of-interaction study also shows that event size and amplitude vary with scintillator thickness, which can assist in future detector simulations and 3D-interaction-position estimation. PMID:26146444

  6. A New Columnar CsI(Tl) Scintillator for iQID detectors.

    PubMed

    Han, Ling; Miller, Brian W; Barber, H Bradford; Nagarkar, Vivek V; Furenlid, Lars R

    2014-09-12

    A 1650 μm thick columnar CsI(Tl) scintillator for upgrading iQID detectors, which is a high-resolution photon-counting gamma-ray and x-ray detector recently developed at the Center for Gamma-Ray Imaging (CGRI), has been studied in terms of sensitivity, spatial resolution and depth-of-interaction effects. To facilitate these studies, a new frame-parsing algorithm for processing raw event data is also proposed that has more degrees of freedom in data processing and can discriminate against a special kind of noise present in some low-cost intensifiers. The results show that in comparison with a 450 μm-thickness columnar CsI(Tl) scintillator, the 1650 μm thick CsI(Tl) scintillator provides more than twice the sensitivity at the expense of some spatial resolution degradation. The depth-of-interaction study also shows that event size and amplitude vary with scintillator thickness, which can assist in future detector simulations and 3D-interaction-position estimation.

  7. Methylation of DAPK and THBS1 genes in esophageal gastric-type columnar metaplasia

    PubMed Central

    Herrera-Goepfert, Roberto; Oñate-Ocaña, Luis F; Mosqueda-Vargas, José Luis; Herrera, Luis A; Castro, Clementina; Mendoza, Julia; González-Barrios, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To explore methylation of DAPK, THBS1, CDH-1, and p14 genes, and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) status in individuals harboring esophageal columnar metaplasia. METHODS: Distal esophageal mucosal samples obtained by endoscopy and histologically diagnosed as gastric-type (non-specialized) columnar metaplasia, were studied thoroughly. DNA was extracted from paraffin blocks, and methylation status of death-associated protein kinase (DAPK), thrombospondin-1 (THBS1), cadherin-1 (CDH1), and p14 genes, was examined using a methyl-sensitive polymerase chain reaction (MS-PCR) and sodium bisulfite modification protocol. H. pylori cagA status was determined by PCR. RESULTS: In total, 68 subjects (33 females and 35 males), with a mean age of 52 years, were included. H. pylori cagA positive was present in the esophageal gastric-type metaplastic mucosa of 18 individuals. DAPK, THSB1, CDH1, and p14 gene promoters were methylated by MS-PCR in 40 (58.8%), 33 (48.5%), 46 (67.6%), and 23 (33.8%) cases of the 68 esophageal samples. H. pylori status was associated with methylation of DAPK (P = 0.003) and THBS1 (P = 0.019). CONCLUSION: DNA methylation occurs in cases of gastric-type (non-specialized) columnar metaplasia of the esophagus, and this modification is associated with H. pylori cagA positive infection. PMID:27182166

  8. There must be something in the water (for F. columnare pathogenesis)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Why can we routinely produce columnaris infections in our lab, while the lab on the other side of the ditch can't? Anecdotal reports suggest that tannins may inhibit F. columnare. Do tannins in their water prevent this, or are other water chemistry parameters involved? In the first experiment, tw...

  9. Complete genome sequence of Flavobacterium psychrophilum strain CSF259-93 used to select rainbow trout for increased genetic resistance against bacterial cold water disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genome sequence of Flavobacterium psychrophilum strain CSF259-93, isolated from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), consists of a single circular genome of 2,900,735 bp and 2,701 predicted open reading frames (ORFs). Strain CSF259-93 has been used to select a line of rainbow trout with increase...

  10. Antibacterial compounds from Rutaceae with activities against Flavobacterium columnare and Streptococcus iniae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract of Murraya koenegii (Rutaceae) leaves yielded isomahanine (1) and mahanine (2) with antibacterial activity towards bacteria species that cause columnaris disease and streptococcosis, common diseases in pond-raised channel catfish (Ictalurus ...

  11. The influence of water chemistries on Flavobacterium columnare pathogenesis in channel catfish

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Columnaris disease can cause tremendous losses of freshwater fish. While it has been studied exhaustively, little is known about its affinity to specific water chemistries that affects attachment. Recent studies in our labs have illuminated this subject. In the first experiment, two waters were u...

  12. Modelling the viscoplastic behavior and the heterogeneous intracrystalline deformation of columnar ice polycrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Lebensohn, Ricardo A; Montagnat, Maurine; Mansuy, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    A full-field formulation based on Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT) has been adapted and used to predict the micromechanical fields that develop in columnar Ih ice polycrystals deforming in compression by dislocation creep. The predicted intragranular mechanical fields are in qualitative good agreement with experimental observations, in particular those involving the formation of shear and kink bands. These localization bands are associated with the large internal stresses that develop during creep in such anisotropic material, and their location, intensity, morphology and extension are found to depend strongly on the crystallographic orientation of the grains and on their interaction with neighbor crystals.more » The predictions of the model are also discussed in relation with the deformation of columnar sea and lake ice, and with the mechanical behavior of granular ice of glaciers and polar ice sheets, as well.« less

  13. Tracing a key player in the regulation of plant architecture: the columnar growth habit of apple trees (Malus × domestica).

    PubMed

    Petersen, Romina; Krost, Clemens

    2013-07-01

    Plant architecture is regulated by a complex interplay of some key players (often transcription factors), phytohormones and other signaling molecules such as microRNAs. The columnar growth habit of apple trees is a unique form of plant architecture characterized by thick and upright stems showing a compaction of internodes and carrying short fruit spurs instead of lateral branches. The molecular basis for columnar growth is a single dominant allele of the gene Columnar, whose identity, function and gene product are unknown. As a result of marker analyses, this gene has recently been fine-mapped to chromosome 10 at 18.51-19.09 Mb [according to the annotation of the apple genome by Velasco (2010)], a region containing a cluster of quantitative trait loci associated with plant architecture, but no homologs to the well-known key regulators of plant architecture. Columnar apple trees have a higher auxin/cytokinin ratio and lower levels of gibberellins and abscisic acid than normal apple trees. Transcriptome analyses corroborate these results and additionally show differences in cell membrane and cell wall function. It can be expected that within the next year or two, an integration of these different research methodologies will reveal the identity of the Columnar gene. Besides enabling breeders to efficiently create new apple (and maybe related pear, peach, cherry, etc.) cultivars which combine desirable characteristics of commercial cultivars with the advantageous columnar growth habit using gene technology, this will also provide new insights into an elevated level of plant growth regulation.

  14. Complete genome sequence of the fish pathogen Flavobacterium psychrophilum ATCC 49418(T.).

    PubMed

    Wu, Anson Kk; Kropinski, Andrew M; Lumsden, John S; Dixon, Brian; MacInnes, Janet I

    2015-01-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the causative agent of bacterial cold water disease and rainbow trout fry mortality syndrome in salmonid fishes and is associated with significant losses in the aquaculture industry. The virulence factors and molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis of F. psychrophilum are poorly understood. Moreover, at the present time, there are no effective vaccines and control using antimicrobial agents is problematic due to growing antimicrobial resistance and the fact that sick fish don't eat. In the hopes of identifying vaccine and therapeutic targets, we sequenced the genome of the type strain ATCC 49418 which was isolated from the kidney of a Coho salmon (Oncorhychus kisutch) in Washington State (U.S.A.) in 1989. The genome is 2,715,909 bp with a G+C content of 32.75%. It contains 6 rRNA operons, 49 tRNA genes, and is predicted to encode 2,329 proteins.

  15. Complete genome sequence of the fish pathogen Flavobacterium psychrophilum ATCC 49418T

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the causative agent of bacterial cold water disease and rainbow trout fry mortality syndrome in salmonid fishes and is associated with significant losses in the aquaculture industry. The virulence factors and molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis of F. psychrophilum are poorly understood. Moreover, at the present time, there are no effective vaccines and control using antimicrobial agents is problematic due to growing antimicrobial resistance and the fact that sick fish don’t eat. In the hopes of identifying vaccine and therapeutic targets, we sequenced the genome of the type strain ATCC 49418 which was isolated from the kidney of a Coho salmon (Oncorhychus kisutch) in Washington State (U.S.A.) in 1989. The genome is 2,715,909 bp with a G+C content of 32.75%. It contains 6 rRNA operons, 49 tRNA genes, and is predicted to encode 2,329 proteins. PMID:25685258

  16. Biofilm Formation by a Metabolically Versatile Bacterium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-19

    ABSTRACT Rhodopseudomonas palustris is a photosynthetic bacterium that has good potential as a biocatalyst for the production ofhydrogen gas, a biofuel...Biofilm formation by a metabolically versatile bacterium: final report Report Title ABSTRACT Rhodopseudomonas palustris is a photosynthetic bacterium...agricultural waste. We characterized five new Rhodopseudomonas genome sequences and isolated and described R. palustris mutant strains that produce

  17. Effect of Suspension Plasma-Sprayed YSZ Columnar Microstructure and Bond Coat Surface Preparation on Thermal Barrier Coating Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, Benjamin; Quet, Aurélie; Bianchi, Luc; Schick, Vincent; Joulia, Aurélien; Malié, André; Rémy, Benjamin

    2017-08-01

    Suspension plasma spraying (SPS) is identified as promising for the enhancement of thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems used in gas turbines. Particularly, the emerging columnar microstructure enabled by the SPS process is likely to bring about an interesting TBC lifetime. At the same time, the SPS process opens the way to a decrease in thermal conductivity, one of the main issues for the next generation of gas turbines, compared to the state-of-the-art deposition technique, so-called electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). In this paper, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings presenting columnar structures, performed using both SPS and EB-PVD processes, were studied. Depending on the columnar microstructure readily adaptable in the SPS process, low thermal conductivities can be obtained. At 1100 °C, a decrease from 1.3 W m-1 K-1 for EB-PVD YSZ coatings to about 0.7 W m-1 K-1 for SPS coatings was shown. The higher content of porosity in the case of SPS coatings increases the thermal resistance through the thickness and decreases thermal conductivity. The lifetime of SPS YSZ coatings was studied by isothermal cyclic tests, showing equivalent or even higher performances compared to EB-PVD ones. Tests were performed using classical bond coats used for EB-PVD TBC coatings. Thermal cyclic fatigue performance of the best SPS coating reached 1000 cycles to failure on AM1 substrates with a β-(Ni,Pt)Al bond coat. Tests were also performed on AM1 substrates with a Pt-diffused γ-Ni/γ'-Ni3Al bond coat for which more than 2000 cycles to failure were observed for columnar SPS YSZ coatings. The high thermal compliance offered by both the columnar structure and the porosity allowed the reaching of a high lifetime, promising for a TBC application.

  18. Heparin/heparan sulfate 6-O-sulfatase from Flavobacterium heparinum: integrated structural and biochemical investigation of enzyme active site and substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Myette, James R; Soundararajan, Venkataramanan; Shriver, Zachary; Raman, Rahul; Sasisekharan, Ram

    2009-12-11

    Heparin and heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans (HSGAGs) comprise a chemically heterogeneous class of sulfated polysaccharides. The development of structure-activity relationships for this class of polysaccharides requires the identification and characterization of degrading enzymes with defined substrate specificity and enzymatic activity. Toward this end, we report here the molecular cloning and extensive structure-function analysis of a 6-O-sulfatase from the Gram-negative bacterium Flavobacterium heparinum. In addition, we report the recombinant expression of this enzyme in Escherichia coli in a soluble, active form and identify it as a specific HSGAG sulfatase. We further define the mechanism of action of the enzyme through biochemical and structural studies. Through the use of defined substrates, we investigate the kinetic properties of the enzyme. This analysis was complemented by homology-based molecular modeling studies that sought to rationalize the substrate specificity of the enzyme and mode of action through an analysis of the active-site topology of the enzyme including identifying key enzyme-substrate interactions and assigning key amino acids within the active site of the enzyme. Taken together, our structural and biochemical studies indicate that 6-O-sulfatase is a predominantly exolytic enzyme that specifically acts on N-sulfated or N-acetylated 6-O-sulfated glucosamines present at the non-reducing end of HSGAG oligosaccharide substrates. This requirement for the N-acetyl or N-sulfo groups on the glucosamine substrate can be explained through eliciting favorable interactions with key residues within the active site of the enzyme. These findings provide a framework that enables the use of 6-O-sulfatase as a tool for HSGAG structure-activity studies as well as expand our biochemical and structural understanding of this important class of enzymes.

  19. Simulation of the as-cast structure of Al-4.0wt.%Cu ingots with a 5-phase mixed columnar-equiaxed solidification model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, M.; Ahmadein, M.; Kharicha, A.; Ludwig, A.; Li, J. H.; Schumacher, P.

    2012-07-01

    Empirical knowledge about the formation of the as-cast structure, mostly obtained before 1980s, has revealed two critical issues: one is the origin of the equiaxed crystals; one is the competing growth of the columnar and equiaxed structures, and the columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET). Unfortunately, the application of empirical knowledge to predict and control the as-cast structure was very limited, as the flow and crystal transport were not considered. Therefore, a 5-phase mixed columnar-equiaxed solidification model was recently proposed by the current authors based on modeling the multiphase transport phenomena. The motivation of the recent work is to determine and evaluate the necessary modeling parameters, and to validate the mixed columnar-equiaxed solidification model by comparison with laboratory castings. In this regard an experimental method was recommended for in-situ determination of the nucleation parameters. Additionally, some classical experiments of the Al-Cu ingots were conducted and the as-cast structural information including distinct columnar and equiaxed zones, macrosegregation, and grain size distribution were analysed. The final simulation results exhibited good agreement with experiments in the case of high pouring temperature, whereas disagreement in the case of low pouring temperature. The reasons for the disagreement are discussed.

  20. Columnar Metaplasia in Three Types of Surgical Mouse Models of Esophageal Reflux.

    PubMed

    Terabe, Fabio; Aikou, Susumu; Aida, Junko; Yamamichi, Nobutake; Kaminishi, Michio; Takubo, Kaiyo; Seto, Yasuyuki; Nomura, Sachiyo

    2017-07-01

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma develops in the setting of gastroesophageal reflux and columnar metaplasia in distal esophagus. Columnar metaplasia arising in gastroesophageal reflux models has developed in rat; however, gastroesophageal reflux models in mice have not been well-characterized. One hundred thirty-five C57Bl/6J mice aged 8 weeks old were divided into the following operations: esophagogastrojejunostomy (side-to-side) (EGJ), esophageal separation and esophagojejunostomy (end-to-side) (EJ), and EJ and gastrectomy (end-to-side) (EJ/TG). The animals were euthanized after 40 weeks and the histology of the junction was examined. Immunohistochemistry for p53, PDX-1, and CDX-2 was performed. Metaplasia developed in 15/33 (45.5%) of EGJ, 0/38 (0%) of EJ, and 6/39 (15.4%) of EJ/TG ( P < .05) and dysplasia developed 7/33 (21.2%) of EGJ, 0% of EJ, and 1/39 (2.6%) of EJ/TG. p53 was positive in all of the dysplastic regions, 12/15 (80%) metaplasias in the EGJ model, and 1/6 (16.7%) metaplasia in the EJ/TG model. CDX-2 was positive in all cases of metaplasias, but decreased in some cases of dysplasia. PDX-1 was positive in 7/8 (88%) cases of dysplasia and in 15/21 (71%) cases of metaplasia ( P < .05). The EGJ model, which causes reflux of gastric acid and duodenal content, developed metaplasia and dysplasia most frequently. No metaplasia developed in the EJ model in which gastric juice and duodenal content mixed before reflux. Thus, duodenal contents alone can induce columnar metaplasia and dysplasia; however, the combination of gastric acid with duodenal content reflux can cause metaplasia and dysplasia more efficiently.

  1. Volumetric and x-ray investigations of the crystalline and columnar phases of copper (II) soaps under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibn-Elhaj, M.; Guillon, D.; Skoulios, A.

    1992-12-01

    Binuclear copper (II) carboxylates, Cu2(CnH2n+1O2)4, crystallize at room temperature in layered systems in which planes of polar cores are separated by a double layer of alkyl chains. These compounds are mesomorphic in nature above ca. 100 °C. Pseudopolymeric chains of regularly stacked binuclear cores are located at the nodes of a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice and are surrounded by disordered aliphatic chains. The transition from the crystal to the columnar mesophase is characterized by a change in the repeat distance of the binuclear cores along the pseudopolymeric axis. In the crystalline phase, these cores are all oriented in the same direction with a repeat distance of 5.2 Å in the columnar mesophase, the polar cores are perpendicular to the columnar axis and superposed in a fourfold helicoidal fashion, at least on a local scale, with a repeat distance of 4.7 Å. We present here the effect of pressure on these anisotropic systems in a direction parallel to the columnar axis, and in the plane of the two-dimensional lattice. In a first part, we report the pressure-volume-temperature (P-V-T) relationship of these compounds (n=12, 18, and 24) in the temperature range from 30 to 200 °C, and in the pressure range from 1 to 2000 bars. Isothermal compressibility and isobaric expansion are determined in the crystalline and mesomorphic phases. In the mesophase, pressure-volume isotherms can be described by the Tait equation, as in most liquids or molten polymers. In a second part, we discuss the x-ray-diffraction experiments performed under pressure. In the mesophase, the area of the two-dimensional lattice decreases with increasing pressure and, at sufficiently high pressure, the columnar mesophase transforms into a crystalline lamellar phase. By combining P-V-T and x-ray results, we deduce an increase of the stacking period of the binuclear cores as a function of increasing pressure.

  2. Immunohistochemical/histochemical double staining method in the study of the columnar metaplasia of the oesophagus.

    PubMed

    Cabibi, D; Giannone, A G; Mascarella, C; Guarnotta, C; Castiglia, M; Pantuso, G; Fiorentino, E

    2014-03-05

    Intestinal metaplasia in Barrett's oesophagus (BO) represents an important risk factor for oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Instead, few and controversial data are reported about the progression risk of columnar-lined oesophagus without intestinal metaplasia (CLO), posing an issue about its clinical management. The aim was to evaluate if some immunophenotypic changes were present in CLO independently of the presence of the goblet cells. We studied a series of oesophageal biopsies from patients with endoscopic finding of columnar metaplasia, by performing some immunohistochemical stainings (CK7, p53, AuroraA) combined with histochemistry (Alcian-blue and Alcian/PAS), with the aim of simultaneously assess the histochemical features in cells that shows an aberrant expression of such antigens. We evidenced a cytoplasmic expression of CK7 and a nuclear expression of Aurora A and p53,  both in goblet cells of BO and in non-goblet cells of CLO, some of which showing mild dysplasia. These findings suggest that some immunophenotypic changes are present in CLO and they can precede the appearance of the goblet cells or can be present independently of them, confirming the conception of BO as the condition characterized by any extention of columnar epithelium. This is the first study in which a combined immunohistochemical/histochemical method has been applied to Barrett pathology.

  3. Structural studies in columnar basalts from crystallographic and magnetic fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiphaine, Boiron; Jérôme, Bascou; Pierre, Camps; Eric, Ferre; Claire, Maurice; Bernard, Guy; Marie-Christine, Gerbe

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to better characterize the columnar and the associated microstructure development in basalt flows. The thermal contraction (O'Reilly, 1879) is the main hypothesis to explain the columnar formation. However, neither the structures which appear in basalt flow constituted of three levels (Tomkeieff, 1940) nor circular and radial structures within the prisms (for which weathering nor fracturing can account for) can be explained by the thermal contraction theory alone. An early structuring process during solidification (Guy and Le Coze, 1990) could play for a part that must be discussed (Guy, 2010). We studied two recent basalt flows (75 000 years) from the French Massif Central, in which the three flow levels are clearly observed. In the first basalt flow (La Palisse, Ardèche), the emission centre and the flow direction are known. In the second one (Saint Arcons d'Allier, Haute Loire), the prismatic columns are particularly well developed. In order to characterize the flow structure at different scales, from the flow to the grain scale, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) measurements were performed. The AMS data were coupled with crystallographic preferred orientation measurements of magnetite, plagioclase and clinopyroxene using Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD) and image analyses from perpendicular thin sections. Magnetic mineralogy studies of the La Palisse basalts, in particular the thermomagnetic curves, indicate that the main carrier of AMS is high-Ti titanomagnetite (Tc≈130°C). AMS measurements of about a hundred samples show a higher degree of AMS (P parameter) in the middle level in comparison to the base. Inversely, the bulk magnetic susceptibility (Km) is higher at the flow base. Distinctive parameters for the different levels of the basaltic flows could be then provided by AMS measurements.. Moreover, the comparison between AMS and EBSD data indicate that the magnetic susceptibility carried by the magnetic

  4. Discotic columnar liquid crystal studied in the bulk and nanoconfined states by molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busselez, Rémi; Cerclier, Carole V.; Ndao, Makha; Ghoufi, Aziz; Lefort, Ronan; Morineau, Denis

    2014-10-01

    A prototypical Gay Berne discotic liquid crystal was studied by means of molecular dynamics simulations both in the bulk state and under confinement in a nanoporous channel. The phase behavior of the confined system strongly differs from its bulk counterpart: the bulk isotropic-to-columnar transition is replaced by a continuous ordering from a paranematic to a columnar phase. Moreover, a new transition is observed at a lower temperature in the confined state, which corresponds to a reorganization of the intercolumnar order. It reflects the competing effects of pore surface interaction and genuine hexagonal packing of the columns. The translational molecular dynamics in the different phases has been thoroughly studied and discussed in terms of collective relaxation modes, non-Gaussian behavior, and hopping processes.

  5. Growing large columnar grains of CH3NH3PbI3 using the solid-state reaction method enhanced by less-crystallized nanoporous PbI2 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Huifeng; Wang, Weiqi; Liu, Yangqiao; Sun, Jing

    2017-03-01

    Compact, pinhole-free and PbI2-free perovskite films, are desirable for high-performance perovskite solar cells (PSCs), especially if large columnar grains are obtained in which the adverse effects of grain boundaries will be minimized. However, the conventional solid-state reaction methods, originated from the two-step method, failed to grow columnar grains of CH3NH3PbI3 in a facile way. Here, we demonstrate a strategy for growing large columnar grains of CH3NH3PbI3, by less-crystallized nanoporous PbI2 (ln-PbI2) film enhanced solid-state reaction method. We demonstrated columnar grains were obtainable only when ln-PbI2 films were applied. Therefore, the replacement of compact PbI2 by ln-PbI2 in the solid-sate reaction, leads to higher power conversion efficiency, better reproducibility, better stability and less hysteresis. Furthermore, by systematically investigating the effects of annealing temperature and duration, we found that an annealing temperature ≥120 °C was also critical for growing columnar grains. With the optimal process, a champion efficiency of 16.4% was obtained and the average efficiency reached 14.2%. Finally, the mechanism of growing columnar grains was investigated, in which a VPb″ -assisted hooping model was proposed. This work reveals the origins of grain growth in the solid-state reaction method, which will contribute to preparing high quality perovskite films with much larger columnar grains.

  6. Columnar and Equiaxed Solidification of Al-7 wt.% Si Alloys in Reduced Gravity in the Framework of the CETSOL Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, G.; Sturz, L.; Nguyen-Thi, H.; Mangelinck-Noel, N.; Li, Y. Z.; Gandin, C.-A.; Fleurisson, R.; Guillemot, G.; McFadden, S.; Mooney, R. P.; Voorhees, P.; Roosz, A.; Ronaföldi, A.; Beckermann, C.; Karma, A.; Chen, C.-H.; Warnken, N.; Saad, A.; Grün, G.-U.; Grohn, M.; Poitrault, I.; Pehl, T.; Nagy, I.; Todt, D.; Minster, O.; Sillekens, W.

    2017-08-01

    During casting, often a dendritic microstructure is formed, resulting in a columnar or an equiaxed grain structure, or leading to a transition from columnar to equiaxed growth (CET). The detailed knowledge of the critical parameters for the CET is important because the microstructure affects materials properties. To provide unique data for testing of fundamental theories of grain and microstructure formation, solidification experiments in microgravity environment were performed within the European Space Agency Microgravity Application Promotion (ESA MAP) project Columnar-to-Equiaxed Transition in SOLidification Processing (CETSOL). Reduced gravity allows for purely diffusive solidification conditions, i.e., suppressing melt flow and sedimentation and floatation effects. On-board the International Space Station, Al-7 wt.% Si alloys with and without grain refiners were solidified in different temperature gradients and with different cooling conditions. Detailed analysis of the microstructure and the grain structure showed purely columnar growth for nonrefined alloys. The CET was detected only for refined alloys, either as a sharp CET in the case of a sudden increase in the solidification velocity or as a progressive CET in the case of a continuous decrease of the temperature gradient. The present experimental data were used for numerical modeling of the CET with three different approaches: (1) a front tracking model using an equiaxed growth model, (2) a three-dimensional (3D) cellular automaton-finite element model, and (3) a 3D dendrite needle network method. Each model allows for predicting the columnar dendrite tip undercooling and the growth rate with respect to time. Furthermore, the positions of CET and the spatial extent of the CET, being sharp or progressive, are in reasonably good quantitative agreement with experimental measurements.

  7. Pathogen Screening of Naturally Produced Yakima River Spring Chinook Smolts; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation Report 6 of 7, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Joan B.

    2004-05-01

    In 1999 the Cle Elum Hatchery began releasing spring chinook salmon smolts into the upper Yakima River to increase natural production. Part of the evaluation of this program is to monitor whether introduction of hatchery produced smolts would impact the prevalence of specific pathogens in the naturally produced spring chinook smolts. Increases in prevalence of any of these pathogens could negatively impact the survival of these fish. In 1998 and 2000 through 2003 naturally produced smolts were collected for monitoring at the Chandler smolt collection facility on the lower Yakima River. Smolts were collected from mid to late outmigration, withmore » a target of 200 fish each year. The pathogens monitored were infectious hematopoeitic necrosis virus, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Flavobacterium columnare, Aeromonas salmonicida, Yersinia ruckeri, Edwardsiella ictaluri, Renibacterium salmoninarum and Myxobolus cerebralis. To date, only the bacterial pathogens have been detected and prevalences have been low. Prevalences have varied each year and these changes are attributed to normal fluctuation of prevalence. All of the pathogens detected are widely distributed in Washington State.« less

  8. NREL Researchers Discover How a Bacterium, Clostridium thermocellum,

    Science.gov Websites

    containing the bacterium actually promotes the growth of C. thermocellum, yet its mechanistic details remained a puzzle. This enhanced growth implied the bacterium had the ability to use CO2 and prompted NREL researchers to investigate the phenomena enhancing the bacterium's growth. "It took us by surprise that

  9. Habitat and taxon as driving forces of carbohydrate catabolism in marine heterotrophic bacteria: example of the model algae-associated bacterium Zobellia galactanivorans DsijT.

    PubMed

    Barbeyron, Tristan; Thomas, François; Barbe, Valérie; Teeling, Hanno; Schenowitz, Chantal; Dossat, Carole; Goesmann, Alexander; Leblanc, Catherine; Oliver Glöckner, Frank; Czjzek, Mirjam; Amann, Rudolf; Michel, Gurvan

    2016-12-01

    The marine flavobacterium Zobellia galactanivorans Dsij T was isolated from a red alga and by now constitutes a model for studying algal polysaccharide bioconversions. We present an in-depth analysis of its complete genome and link it to physiological traits. Z. galactanivorans exhibited the highest gene numbers for glycoside hydrolases, polysaccharide lyases and carbohydrate esterases and the second highest sulfatase gene number in a comparison to 125 other marine heterotrophic bacteria (MHB) genomes. Its genome contains 50 polysaccharide utilization loci, 22 of which contain sulfatase genes. Catabolic profiling confirmed a pronounced capacity for using algal polysaccharides and degradation of most polysaccharides could be linked to dedicated genes. Physiological and biochemical tests revealed that Z. galactanivorans stores and recycles glycogen, despite loss of several classic glycogen-related genes. Similar gene losses were observed in most Flavobacteriia, suggesting presence of an atypical glycogen metabolism in this class. Z. galactanivorans features numerous adaptive traits for algae-associated life, such as consumption of seaweed exudates, iodine metabolism and methylotrophy, indicating that this bacterium is well equipped to form profitable, stable interactions with macroalgae. Finally, using statistical and clustering analyses of the MHB genomes we show that their carbohydrate catabolism correlates with both taxonomy and habitat. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Hyperplasia of the submucosal glands of the columnar-lined oesophagus.

    PubMed

    Lörinc, Ester; Öberg, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the presence of multi-layered epithelium (ME) and to compare the distribution, size and morphology of the oesophageal submucosal glands (SMG) beneath reflux exposed metaplastic columnar mucosa with those of normal squamous epithelium in patients with columnar-lined oesophagus (CLO). In eight oesophageal resection specimens, the SMG of the metaplastic segments were significantly larger than those in the squamous segments of patients with CLO (0.81 versus 0.56 mm(2) , P = <0.001). There was an accumulation of SMG close to the neosquamocolumnar junction (NSCJ), as indicated by a higher median frequency of SMG (0.080 SMG/mm) compared with that of the squamous (0.013 SMG/mm) and metaplastic segments (0.031 SMG/mm) (P = 0.022). The frequency of ME was significantly higher in the metaplastic compared with the normal squamous segments (1/158 mm and 1/341 mm, respectively, P = 0.028) and ME was found almost exclusively (96%) in direct connection with the excretory ducts of SMG. Hyperplasia of SMG in the metaplastic segment, accumulation of SMG near the NSCJ, the presence of ME in connection with the excretory ducts of SMG and metaplasia are all reflux-induced morphological changes, possibly induced by stimulation of progenitors in the excretory ducts of the SMG. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Stable Isotopic Variations in Columnar Cacti: are Responses to Climate Recorded in Spines?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, N. B.; Dettman, D. L.; Williams, D. G.

    2004-12-01

    The behavior of the North American monsoon (NAM), particularly with respect to times of continental drought and its relationship to the Pacific-North American (PNA) teleconnection pattern and the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is of great interest to paleoclimatologists and water managers. Long-term instrumental precipitation and tree ring records in the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico at low elevations are sparse and this has hindered research on NAM variability at interannual timescales. Saguaro cacti (Carnegiea gigantea) and other columnar cacti in North and South America are long-lived and have the potential to record climate variability on land with high temporal and spatial resolution. The vertical sequence of spines on the saguaro's exterior represents a high resolution (4 to 6 per year), and long (over 150 years) record of environmental change. We present results from an experiment where we tracked the oxygen isotopic values in the source waters, stem tissue waters and spine tissue for three treatments over the course of three months. These data are then compared to a previously developed mechanistic model of isotopic variation that reflects the physiological responses of Saguaro to climate variation over seasonal to century long time-scales. We also present the rationale for a new method to determine the growth rate of columnar cacti using the radiocarbon bomb spike. Our measurements reveal that oxygen and hydrogen isotopic variation among the sequentially produced and persistent spines covering the saguaro body record fluctuations in saguaro water balance. The model successfully predicts isotopic variation in spines and constrains controlling variables, yielding a powerful and high-resolution stable isotope index of water stress in the low desert. The development and refinement of an isotopic model for saguaro will serve as the basis for models applied to other species of columnar cacti in North and South America. The role of the

  12. Development of a waterborne challenge model for Flavobacterium psychrophilum.

    PubMed

    Long, Amy; Fehringer, Tyson R; LaFrentz, Benjamin R; Call, Douglas R; Cain, Kenneth D

    2014-10-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the causative agent of bacterial coldwater disease and can cause significant mortality in salmonid aquaculture. To better evaluate disease prevention or treatment methods for F. psychrophilum in the laboratory, a waterborne challenge model that mimics a natural outbreak is needed. Here we report on the development of a waterborne challenge model for F. psychrophilum in which we incorporated variables that may influence challenge success: specifically, scarification prior to bacterial exposure and culture of F. psychrophilum under iron-limited culture conditions to potentially increase the probability of establishing disease. Additionally, two F. psychrophilum strains, CSF 259-93 and THC 02-90, were used in this model to test whether there were virulence differences between strains. Mortality was significantly higher in scarred fish than unscarred fish (81.5 vs. 19.4%), supporting the hypothesis that disruptions in the dermal layer enhance mortality in F. psychrophilum waterborne challenges. Although mortality differences were not significant between iron-replete and iron-limited treatments, mortality was high overall (> 30%). There was a significant difference in mortality between CSF 259-93 and THC 02-90 treatments, although both strains caused high mortality in injection challenges. In conclusion, this waterborne challenge model can be used to evaluate potential disease prevention and treatment methods. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ultraviolet spectrophotometer for measuring columnar atmospheric ozone from aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanser, F. A.; Sellers, B.; Briehl, D. C.

    1978-01-01

    An ultraviolet spectrophotometer (UVS) to measure downward solar fluxes from an aircraft or other high altitude platform is described. The UVS uses an ultraviolet diffuser to obtain large angular response with no aiming requirement, a twelve-position filter wheel with narrow (2-nm) and broad (20-nm) bandpass filters, and an ultraviolet photodiode. The columnar atmospheric ozone above the UVS (aircraft) is calculated from the ratios of the measured ultraviolet fluxes. Comparison with some Dobson station measurements gives agreement to 2%. Some UVS measured ozone profiles over the Pacific Ocean for November 1976 are shown to illustrate the instrument's performance.

  14. Virulence and molecular variation of Flavobacterium columnare affecting rainbow trout in ID, USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Columnaris disease is an emerging problem in the rainbow trout (Oncorhychus mykiss) aquaculture industry of Idaho. The epidemiology of this pathogen in the area, and for rainbow trout, is all isolates taken from disease outbreaks are genomovar I and similar based on basic typing protocols. Virulence...

  15. Architecture of Columnar Nacre, and Implications for Its Formation Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Metzler, Rebecca A.; Olabisi, Ronke M.; Coppersmith, Susan N.

    2007-06-29

    We analyze the structure of Haliotis rufescens nacre, or mother-of-pearl, using synchrotron spectromicroscopy and x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy. We observe imaging contrast between adjacent individual nacre tablets, arising because different tablets have different crystal orientations with respect to the radiation's polarization vector. Comparing previous data and our new data with models for columnar nacre growth, we find the data are most consistent with a model in which nacre tablets are nucleated by randomly distributed sites in the organic matrix layers.

  16. Estimation of columnar concentrations of absorbing and scattering fine mode aerosol components using AERONET data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yongjoo; Ghim, Young Sung

    2016-11-01

    Columnar concentrations of absorbing and scattering components of fine mode aerosols were estimated using Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data for a site downwind of Seoul. The study period was between March 2012 and April 2013 including the period of the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON)-Asia campaign in March to May 2012. The Maxwell Garnett mixing rule was assumed for insoluble components embedded in a host solution, while the volume average mixing rule was assumed for the aqueous solution of soluble components. During the DRAGON-Asia campaign the surface concentrations of major components of fine particles were measured. The columnar mass fractions of black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), mineral dust (MD), and ammonium sulfate (AS) were 1.5, 5.9, 6.6, and 52%, respectively, which were comparable to the mass fractions measured at the surface for BC, OC, and secondary inorganic aerosols at 2.3, 18, and 55%. The vertical distributions of BC and AS were investigated by employing the concept of a column height. While the column height for BC was similar to the planetary boundary layer (PBL) height, that for AS was 4.4 times higher than the PBL height and increased with air temperature from March to May. The monthly variations of the columnar mass concentrations during the study period were generally well explained in term of meteorology and emission characteristics. However, certain variations of MD were different from those typically observed primarily because only fine mode aerosols were considered.

  17. Effect of grain-boundary flux pinning in MgB 2 with columnar structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D. H.; Hwang, T. J.; Cha, Y. J.; Seong, W. K.; Kang, W. N.

    2009-10-01

    We studied the flux pinning properties by grain boundaries in MgB 2 films prepared by using a hybrid physical chemical vapor deposition method on the c-axis oriented sapphire substrates. All the films we report here had the columnar grains with the growth direction perpendicular to the substrates and the grain sizes in the range of a few hundred nanometers. At very low magnetic fields, no discernable grain-boundary (GB) pinning effect was observed in all measuring temperatures, but above those fields, the effect of GB flux pinning was observed as enhanced critical current densities ( Jcs) and reduced resistances when an external magnetic field ( B) was aligned parallel to the c-axis. We interpret the B dependence of Jc in the terms of flux line lattice shear inside the columnar grains activated by dislocations of Frank-Read source while the flux lines pinned by GB act as anchors for dislocations. Magnetic field dependence of flux pinning force density for B parallel to the c-axis was reasonably explained by the above model.

  18. Influence of Nutritional Conditions on Production of l-Glutamine by Flavobacterium rigense

    PubMed Central

    Nabe, Koichi; Ujimaru, Toshihiko; Yamada, Shigeki; Chibata, Ichiro

    1981-01-01

    The nutritional conditions for the production of l-glutamine by Flavobacterium rigense strain 703 were investigated. The optimum concentration of ammonia for achieving the highest yield of l-glutamine (25 mg/ml of broth) was relatively broad, from 0.9 to 1.6%, whereas fumaric acid had a narrow optimum range, near 5.5%. High concentration of inorganic ions such as chloride or sulfate ion clearly inhibited cell growth. Therefore, ammonium salts other than (NH4)2-fumarate were unsuitable for the highest production. The optimum concentration of (NH4)2-fumarate was 7%. To reduce the concentration of fumaric acid in the medium, many substances were evaluated as substitutes. The fumaric acid concentration required for highest l-glutamine yield could not be replaced by any one of the compounds tested. However, part of fumaric acid could be replaced with succinic acid and cupric ion; 4% (NH4)2-fumarate plus 2.5% succinic acid or 5% (NH4)2-fumarate plus 1 mM cupric ion produced results similar to 7% (NH4)2-fumarate in the fermentation medium. PMID:16345682

  19. Dependence of columnar aerosol size distribution, optical properties, and chemical components on regional transport in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuo; Zhao, Weixiong; Xu, Xuezhe; Fang, Bo; Zhang, Qilei; Qian, Xiaodong; Zhang, Weijun; Chen, Weidong; Pu, Wei; Wang, Xin

    2017-11-01

    Seasonal dependence of the columnar aerosol optical and chemical properties on regional transport in Beijing over 10 years (from January 2005 to December 2014) were analyzed by using the ground-based remote sensing combined with backward trajectory analysis. Daily air mass backward trajectories terminated in Beijing were computed with HYSPLIT-4 model and were categorized into five clusters. The columnar mass concentrations of black carbon (BC), brown carbon (BrC), dust (DU), aerosol water content (AW), and ammonium sulfate like aerosol (AS) of each cluster were retrieved from the optical data obtained from the Aerosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET) with five-component model. It was found that the columnar aerosol properties in different seasons were changed, and they were related to the air mass origins. In spring, aerosol was dominated by coarse particles. Summer was characterized by higher single scattering albedo (SSA), lower real part of complex refractive index (n), and obvious hygroscopic growth due to humid air from the south. During autumn and winter, there was an observable increase in absorption aerosol optical thickness (AAOT) and the imaginary part of complex refraction (k), with high levels of retrieved BC and BrC. However, concentrations of BC showed less dependence on the clusters during the two seasons owing to the widely spread coal heating in north China.

  20. Efficacy of oxytetracycline hydrochloride bath immersion to control external columnaris disease on walleye and channel catfish fingerlings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rach, J.J.; Johnson, Aaron H.; Rudacille, J.B.; Schleis, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    The efficacy of oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC-HCl) in controlling external columnaris disease caused by Flavobacterium columnare on fingerling walleyes Sander vitreus and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was evaluated in two on-site hatchery trials. Microscopic examination of skin scrapings before treatment confirmed the presence of bacteria with characteristics indicative of F. columnare.in separate trials, walleyes (4.4 g) and channel catfish (1.5 g) were exposed to 60-min static bath treatments of OTC-HCl at 0, 10, and 20 mg/L (walleyes) or 0, 10, 20, and 40 mg/L (channel catfish) on three consecutive days. Each treatment regimen was tested in triplicate, and each replicate contained either 30 walleyes or 55 channel catfish. Posttreatment presumptive disease diagnosis indicated that F. columnare was the disease agent causing the mortality in both species of fish. Walleye survival at 10 d posttreatment was greater in the 10- and 20-mg/L treatment groups than in the control group; however, only the 10-mg/L treatment significantly (P < 0.05) increased walleye survival in comparison with controls. In the channel catfish trial, survival at 10 d posttreatment was significantly (P < 0.05) greater for all OTC-HCl treatment groups relative to controls. Results from these trials indicated that OTC-HCl treatments effectively reduced mortality in walleyes (10 mg/L only) and channel catfish infected with F. columnare. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  1. Intensive fish farming and the evolution of pathogen virulence: the case of columnaris disease in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Pulkkinen, K.; Suomalainen, L.-R.; Read, A. F.; Ebert, D.; Rintamäki, P.; Valtonen, E. T.

    2010-01-01

    Ecological changes affect pathogen epidemiology and evolution and may trigger the emergence of novel diseases. Aquaculture radically alters the ecology of fish and their pathogens. Here we show an increase in the occurrence of the bacterial fish disease Flavobacterium columnare in salmon fingerlings at a fish farm in northern Finland over 23 years. We hypothesize that this emergence was owing to evolutionary changes in bacterial virulence. We base this argument on several observations. First, the emergence was associated with increased severity of symptoms. Second, F. columnare strains vary in virulence, with more lethal strains inducing more severe symptoms prior to death. Third, more virulent strains have greater infectivity, higher tissue-degrading capacity and higher growth rates. Fourth, pathogen strains co-occur, so that strains compete. Fifth, F. columnare can transmit efficiently from dead fish, and maintain infectivity in sterilized water for months, strongly reducing the fitness cost of host death likely experienced by the pathogen in nature. Moreover, this saprophytic infectiousness means that chemotherapy strongly select for strains that rapidly kill their hosts: dead fish remain infectious; treated fish do not. Finally, high stocking densities of homogeneous subsets of fish greatly enhance transmission opportunities. We suggest that fish farms provide an environment that promotes the circulation of more virulent strains of F. columnare. This effect is intensified by the recent increases in summer water temperature. More generally, we predict that intensive fish farming will lead to the evolution of more virulent pathogens. PMID:19864284

  2. Orientation Dependence of Columnar Dendritic Growth with Sidebranching Behaviors in Directional Solidification: Insights from Phase-Field Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Hui; Dong, Xianglei; Wang, Jianyuan; Jin, Kexin

    2018-04-01

    In this study, a thin-interface phase-field model was employed to study the orientation dependence of the columnar dendritic growth with sidebranching behaviors in directional solidification. It was found that the dimensionless tip undercooling increases with the increase of misorientation angle for three pulling velocities. The primary spacing is found to be a function of misorientation angle, and the dimensionless primary spacing with respect to the misorientation angle follows the orientation correction given by Gandin and Rappaz (Acta. Metall. 42:2233-2246, 1994). For the analysis of the dendritic tip, the two-dimensional (2-D) form of the nonaxisymmetric needle crystal was used to determine the radius of the tilted columnar dendrite. Based on the definitions of open side and constrained side of the dendrite, the analysis of the width active sidebranches and the dendritic area in 2-D with respect to the distance from the dendritic tip was carried out to investigate the asymmetrical dendrite envelop and sidebranching behaviors on the two sides in directional solidification. The obtained prefactor and exponent with respect to misorientation angle are discussed, showing that the sidebranching behaviors of a tilted columnar dendritic array obey a similar power-law relationship with that of a free dendritic growth.

  3. Simulation and observation of line-slip structures in columnar structures of soft spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelmann, J.; Haffner, B.; Weaire, D.; Mughal, A.; Hutzler, S.

    2017-07-01

    We present the computed phase diagram of columnar structures of soft spheres under pressure, of which the main feature is the appearance and disappearance of line slips, the shearing of adjacent spirals, as pressure is increased. A comparable experimental observation is made on a column of bubbles under forced drainage, clearly exhibiting the expected line slip.

  4. Simulation and observation of line-slip structures in columnar structures of soft spheres.

    PubMed

    Winkelmann, J; Haffner, B; Weaire, D; Mughal, A; Hutzler, S

    2017-07-01

    We present the computed phase diagram of columnar structures of soft spheres under pressure, of which the main feature is the appearance and disappearance of line slips, the shearing of adjacent spirals, as pressure is increased. A comparable experimental observation is made on a column of bubbles under forced drainage, clearly exhibiting the expected line slip.

  5. IDENTIFICATION OF A FLAVOBACTERIUM STRAIN VIRULENT AGAINT GIARDIA LAMBLIA CYSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have isolated a bacterial strain capable of killing the cyst form of Giardia lamblia, from a Kentucky stream. This bacterium, designated Sun4, is a Gram negative, aerobic rod which produces a yellow pigment, but not of the flexirubin-type. Although true gliding motility has no...

  6. [Effects of Guilin Watermelon Frost on the mRNA expressions of basic fibroblast growth factor in patients with uterine cervical columnar ectopy].

    PubMed

    Qiu-Yan, Jiang; Jin-Ling, Song; Hai-Xia, Mo

    2012-01-01

    To study the molecular biological effects of Guilin Watermelon Frost (GWF) on the mRNA expressions of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in patients with uterine uterine cervical columnar ectopy. One hundred and sixty patients with uterine cervical columnar ectopy were assigned to two groups by the random digit table. Patients in the treatment group were treated with local spray of GWF, while those in the control group were local applied with bFGF-collagen sponge. The mRNA expressions of bFGF of the uterine tissue were detected in the two groups before and after treatment using RT-PCR. Before treatment the mRNA expression of bFGF in the uterine cervical columnar ectopy was 0.55 +/- 0.10 in the treatment group and 0.58 +/- 0.13 in the control group, without insignificant difference (P > 0.05). After treatment it significantly increased in the two groups, being 0.82 +/- 0.17 and 0.78 +/- 0.15 respectively, showing statistical difference from before treatment (P < 0.01). But no statistical difference existed between the two groups after treatment (P > 0.05). GWF showed enhancement on the mRNA expressions of bFGF in patients with uterine cervical columnar ectopy.

  7. Columnar to nematic mesophase transition in mixtures of rhodium or copper soaps with hydrocarbon solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibn-Elhaj, M.; Guillon, D.; Skoulios, A.; Giroud-Godquin, A. M.; Marchon, J.-C.

    1992-12-01

    This paper describes observations of the mesomorphic behaviour of mixtures of rhodium eicosanoate or copper dodecanoate with solvents such as toluene, decahydronaphthalene, and (+) camphene. The mesophase found with these compounds at high temperatures turns from columnar to nematic when the weight fraction of the solvent (toluene, decahydronaphthalene is increased beyond a value of about 50%. The binary phase diagram of the copper compound with toluene was experimentally determined using polarizing optical microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The novel feature of the nematic phase is that the basic physical object which align parallel to the nematic director are not individual molecules, but columns of molecules (one-dimensional supramolecular assemblies) which have lost the long-range lateral positional order characteristic of the columnar mesophase. These observations are discussed on the grounds of recent theoretical calculations. Cholesteric-like textures are observed for mixtures of rhodium eicosanoate with the chiral solvent (+) camphene.

  8. Expression of a putative dioxygenase gene adjacent to an insertion mutation is involved in the short internodes of columnar apples (Malus × domestica).

    PubMed

    Okada, Kazuma; Wada, Masato; Moriya, Shigeki; Katayose, Yuichi; Fujisawa, Hiroko; Wu, Jianzhong; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Kurita, Kanako; Sasaki, Harumi; Fujii, Hiroshi; Terakami, Shingo; Iwanami, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Toshiya; Abe, Kazuyuki

    2016-11-01

    Determining the molecular mechanism of fruit tree architecture is important for tree management and fruit production. An apple mutant 'McIntosh Wijcik', which was discovered as a bud mutation from 'McIntosh', exhibits a columnar growth phenotype that is controlled by a single dominant gene, Co. In this study, the mutation and the Co gene were analyzed. Fine mapping narrowed the Co region to a 101 kb region. Sequence analysis of the Co region and the original wild-type co region identified an insertion mutation of an 8202 bp long terminal repeat (LTR) retroposon in the Co region. Segregation analysis using a DNA marker based on the insertion polymorphism showed that the LTR retroposon was closely associated with the columnar growth phenotype. RNA-seq and RT-PCR analysis identified a promising Co candidate gene (91071-gene) within the Co region that is specifically expressed in 'McIntosh Wijcik' but not in 'McIntosh'. The 91071-gene was located approximately 16 kb downstream of the insertion mutation and is predicted to encode a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase involved in an unknown reaction. Overexpression of the 91071-gene in transgenic tobaccos and apples resulted in phenotypes with short internodes, like columnar apples. These data suggested that the 8202 bp retroposon insertion in 'McIntosh Wijcik' is associated with the short internodes of the columnar growth phenotype via upregulated expression of the adjacent 91071-gene. Furthermore, the DNA marker based on the insertion polymorphism could be useful for the marker-assisted selection of columnar apples.

  9. Columnar processing in primate pFC: evidence for executive control microcircuits.

    PubMed

    Opris, Ioan; Hampson, Robert E; Gerhardt, Greg A; Berger, Theodore W; Deadwyler, Sam A

    2012-12-01

    A common denominator for many cognitive disorders of human brain is the disruption of neural activity within pFC, whose structural basis is primarily interlaminar (columnar) microcircuits or "minicolumns." The importance of this brain region for executive decision-making has been well documented; however, because of technological constraints, the minicolumnar basis is not well understood. Here, via implementation of a unique conformal multielectrode recording array, the role of interlaminar pFC minicolumns in the executive control of task-related target selection is demonstrated in nonhuman primates performing a visuomotor DMS task. The results reveal target-specific, interlaminar correlated firing during the decision phase of the trial between multielectrode recording array-isolated minicolumnar pairs of neurons located in parallel in layers 2/3 and layer 5 of pFC. The functional significance of individual pFC minicolumns (separated by 40 μm) was shown by reduced correlated firing between cell pairs within single minicolumns on error trials with inappropriate target selection. To further demonstrate dependence on performance, a task-disrupting drug (cocaine) was administered in the middle of the session, which also reduced interlaminar firing in minicolumns that fired appropriately in the early (nondrug) portion of the session. The results provide a direct demonstration of task-specific, real-time columnar processing in pFC indicating the role of this type of microcircuit in executive control of decision-making in primate brain.

  10. Characterization of the cellulose-degrading bacterium NCIMB 10462

    SciTech Connect

    Dees, C.; Scott, T.C.; Phelps, T.J.

    The gram-negative cellulase-producing bacterium NCIMB 10462 has been previously named Pseudomonas fluorescens subsp. or var. cellulose. Because of renewed interest in cellulose-degrading bacteria for use in the bioconversion of cellulose to chemical feed stocks and fuels, we re-examined the characteristics of this microorganism to determine its true metabolic potential. Metabolic and physical characterization of NCIMB 10462 revealed that this is an alkalophilic, non-fermentative, gram-negative, oxidase-positive, motile, cellulose-degrading bacterium. The aerobic substrate utilization profile of this bacterium has few characteristics consistent with a classification of P. fluorescens and a very low probability match with the genus Sphingomonas. However, total lipid analysismore » did not reveal that any sphingolipid bases are produced by this bacterium. NCIMB 10462 grows best aerobically, but also grows well in complex media under reducing conditions. NCIMB 10462 grows slowly under anaerobic conditions on complex media, but growth on cellulosic media occurred only under aerobic conditions. Total fatty acid analysis (MIDI) of NCIMB 10462 failed to group this bacterium with a known pseudomonas species. However, fatty acid analysis of the bacteria when grown at temperatures below 37{degrees}C suggest that the organism is a pseudomonad. Since a predominant characteristic of this bacterium is its ability to degrade cellulose, we suggest that it be called Pseudomonas cellulosa.« less

  11. High-quality draft genome sequence of Flavobacterium suncheonense GH29-5 T (DSM 17707 T) isolated from greenhouse soil in South Korea, and emended description of Flavobacterium suncheonense GH29-5 T

    DOE PAGES

    Tashkandy, Nisreen; Sabban, Sari; Fakieh, Mohammad; ...

    2016-06-16

    Flavobacterium suncheonense is a member of the family Flavobacteriaceae in the phylum Bacteroidetes. Strain GH29-5 T (DSM 17707 T ) was isolated from greenhouse soil in Suncheon, South Korea. F. suncheonense GH29-5 T is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project. The 2,880,663 bp long draft genome consists of 54 scaffolds with 2739 protein-coding genes and 82 RNA genes. The genome of strain GH29-5 T has 117 genes encoding peptidases but a small number of genes encoding carbohydrate active enzymes (51 CAZymes). Metallo and serine peptidases were found most frequently. Among CAZymes, eight glycoside hydrolase families, ninemore » glycosyl transferase families, two carbohydrate binding module families and four carbohydrate esterase families were identified. Suprisingly, polysaccharides utilization loci (PULs) were not found in strain GH29-5 T . Based on the coherent physiological and genomic characteristics we suggest that F. suncheonense GH29-5 T feeds rather on proteins than saccharides and lipids.« less

  12. Self-assembly Columnar Structure in Active Layer of Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Cheng; Segui, Jennifer; Yu, Yingjie; Li, Hongfei; Akgun, Bulent; Satijia, Sushil. K.; Gersappe, Dilip; Nam, Chang-Yong; Rafailovich, Miriam

    2012-02-01

    Bulk Heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells are an area of intense interest due to their flexibility and relatively low cost. However, due to the disordered inner structure in active layer, the power conversion efficiency of BHJ solar cell is relatively low. Our research provides the method to produce ordered self-assembly columnar structure within active layer of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cell by introducing polystyrene (PS) into the active layer. The blend thin film of polystyrene, poly (3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) at different ratio are spin coated on substrate and annealed in vacuum oven for certain time. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images show uniform phase segregation on the surface of polymer blend thin film and highly ordered columnar structure is then proven by etching the film with ion sputtering. TEM cross-section technology is also used to investigate the column structure. Neutron reflectometry was taken to establish the confinement of PCBM at the interface of PS and P3HT. The different morphological structures formed via phase segregation will be correlated with the performance of the PEV cells to be fabricated at the BNL-CFN.

  13. Hierarchical columnar silicon anode structures for high energy density lithium sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piwko, Markus; Kuntze, Thomas; Winkler, Sebastian; Straach, Steffen; Härtel, Paul; Althues, Holger; Kaskel, Stefan

    2017-05-01

    Silicon is a promising anode material for next generation lithium secondary batteries. To significantly increase the energy density of state of the art batteries with silicon, new concepts have to be developed and electrode structuring will become a key technology. Structuring is essential to reduce the macroscopic and microscopic electrode deformation, caused by the volume change during cycling. We report pulsed laser structuring for the generation of hierarchical columnar silicon films with outstanding high areal capacities up to 7.5 mAh cm-2 and good capacity retention. Unstructured columnar electrodes form a micron-sized block structure during the first cycle to compensate the volume expansion leading to macroscopic electrode deformation. At increased silicon loading, without additional structuring, pronounced distortion and the formation of cracks through the current collector causes cell failure. Pulsed laser ablation instead is demonstrated to avoid macroscopic electrode deformation by initial formation of the block structure. A full cell with lithiated silicon versus a carbon-sulfur cathode is assembled with only 15% overbalanced anode and low electrolyte amount (8 μl mgsulfur-1). While the capacity retention over 50 cycles is identical to a cell with high excess lithium anode, the volumetric energy density could be increased by 30%.

  14. Single Bacterium Detection Using Sers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonchukov, S. A.; Baikova, T. V.; Alushin, M. V.; Svistunova, T. S.; Minaeva, S. A.; Ionin, A. A.; Kudryashov, S. I.; Saraeva, I. N.; Zayarny, D. A.

    2016-02-01

    This work is devoted to the study of a single Staphylococcus aureus bacterium detection using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and resonant Raman spectroscopy (RS). It was shown that SERS allows increasing sensitivity of predominantly low frequency lines connected with the vibrations of Amide, Proteins and DNA. At the same time the lines of carotenoids inherent to this kind of bacterium are well-detected due to the resonance Raman scattering mechanism. The reproducibility and stability of Raman spectra strongly depend on the characteristics of nanostructured substrate, and molecular structure and size of the tested biological object.

  15. Water availability and the competitive effect of a columnar cactus on its nurse plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Martínez, Arturo; Ezcurra, Exequiel; Sánchez-Colón, Salvador

    1998-02-01

    A field study was conducted in a semi-arid tropical ecosystem in Mexico to test whether competition for soil water is the causal mechanism underlying the negative effect of the columnar cactus Neobuxbaumia tetetzo on its nurse plant Mimosa luisana and to examine how this relationship varies over time. The effect of irrigation was evaluated by recording the production of leaves, modules (i.e. internodes with an axillary bud), inflorescences and fruits in shrubs growing either isolated or associated with juvenile or adult columnar cacti. 4 001 of water, in five doses of 801 each every 15 d, were added to the treatment plants; no water other than rainfall was added to control plants. Additionally, to evaluate how the effect of the columnar cacti on the shrubs may vary among years we made a comparison of the production of plant structures between 2 years of contrasting rainfall. The irrigation treatment increased the production of modules, inflorescences and fruits, but not of leaves. Shrub response to watering was also dependent on class of association: those associated with juvenile cacti showed a higher response to irrigation than any other treatment. Our results show that water addition increases the production of structures and partially reduces the negative effect of the cactus on nurse shrub, thus supporting the hypothesis of competition for water. The negative effect of the cacti on their nurse plants was present during both years of observations, but the intensity of the negative effect varies from relatively wet to dry years. The results are discussed in relation to how temporal changes in resource availability affect the results of competitive interactions and the importance of this mechanism in the structure and dynamics of this dryland community.

  16. Interobserver reproducibility in pathologist interpretation of columnar-lined esophagus.

    PubMed

    Mastracci, Luca; Piol, Nataniele; Molinaro, Luca; Pitto, Francesca; Tinelli, Carmine; De Silvestri, Annalisa; Fiocca, Roberto; Grillo, Federica

    2016-02-01

    Confirmation of endoscopically suspected esophageal metaplasia (ESEM) requires histology, but confusion in the histological definition of columnar-lined esophagus (CLE) is a longstanding problem. The aim of this study is to evaluate interpathologist variability in the interpretation of CLE. Thirty pathologists were invited to review three ten-case sets of CLE biopsies. In the first set, the cases were provided with descriptive endoscopy only; in the second and the third sets, ESEM extent using Prague criteria was provided. Moreover, participants were required to refer to a diagnostic chart for evaluation of the third set. Agreement was statistically assessed using Randolph's free-marginal multirater kappa. While substantial agreement in recognizing columnar epithelium (K = 0.76) was recorded, the overall concordance in clinico-pathological diagnosis was low (K = 0.38). The overall concordance rate improved from the first (K = 0.27) to the second (K = 0.40) and third step (K = 0.46). Agreement was substantial when diagnosing Barrett's esophagus (BE) with intestinal metaplasia or inlet patch (K = 0.65 and K = 0.89), respectively, in the third step, while major problems in interpretation of CLE were observed when only cardia/cardia-oxyntic atrophic-type epithelium was present (K = 0.05-0.29). In conclusion, precise endoscopic description and the use of a diagnostic chart increased consistency in CLE interpretation of esophageal biopsies. Agreement was substantial for some diagnostic categories (BE with intestinal metaplasia and inlet patch) with a well-defined clinical profile. Interpretation of cases with cardia/cardia-oxyntic atrophic-type epithelium, with or without ESEM, was least consistent, which reflects lack of clarity of definition and results in variable management of this entity.

  17. Pathogen Screening of Naturally Produced Yakima River Spring Chinook Smolts; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Joan B.

    2003-05-01

    In 1999 the Cle Elem Hatchery began releasing spring chinook smolts into the upper Yakima River for restoration and supplementation. This project was designed to evaluate whether introduction of intensively reared hatchery produced smolts would impact the prevalence of specific pathogens in the naturally produced spring chinook smolts. Increases in prevalence of any of these pathogens could negatively impact the survival of these fish. Approximately 200 smolts were collected at the Chandler smolt collection facility on the lower Yakima River during 1998, 2000 and 2001 and 130 smolts were collected in 2002 for monitoring for specific pathogens. The pathogens monitoredmore » were infectious hematopoeitic necrosis virus, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Flavobacterium columnare, Aeromonas salmonicida, Yersinia ruckeri, Edwardsiella ictaluri, Renibacterium salmoninarum and Myxobolus cerebralis. In addition the fish were tested for Ceratomyxa shasta spores in 2000 and 2001 (a correction from the 2001 report). To date, the only changes have been in the levels the bacterial pathogens in the naturally produced smolts and they have been minimal. These changes are attributed to normal fluctuation of prevalence.« less

  18. A Columnar Storage Strategy with Spatiotemporal Index for Big Climate Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, F.; Bowen, M. K.; Li, Z.; Schnase, J. L.; Duffy, D.; Lee, T. J.; Yang, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    Large collections of observational, reanalysis, and climate model output data may grow to as large as a 100 PB in the coming years, so climate dataset is in the Big Data domain, and various distributed computing frameworks have been utilized to address the challenges by big climate data analysis. However, due to the binary data format (NetCDF, HDF) with high spatial and temporal dimensions, the computing frameworks in Apache Hadoop ecosystem are not originally suited for big climate data. In order to make the computing frameworks in Hadoop ecosystem directly support big climate data, we propose a columnar storage format with spatiotemporal index to store climate data, which will support any project in the Apache Hadoop ecosystem (e.g. MapReduce, Spark, Hive, Impala). With this approach, the climate data will be transferred into binary Parquet data format, a columnar storage format, and spatial and temporal index will be built and attached into the end of Parquet files to enable real-time data query. Then such climate data in Parquet data format could be available to any computing frameworks in Hadoop ecosystem. The proposed approach is evaluated using the NASA Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) climate reanalysis dataset. Experimental results show that this approach could efficiently overcome the gap between the big climate data and the distributed computing frameworks, and the spatiotemporal index could significantly accelerate data querying and processing.

  19. Protonospheric columnar electron content determination. I - Analysis.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Almeida, O. G.

    1973-01-01

    A combination of phase-path length difference and Faraday rotation angle data obtained from geostationary satellite transmissions is used to determine the integration constant necessary to convert phase-path length difference information into absolute values of total slant columnar electron content. The total content thus determined, which is the sum of the ionospheric and protonospheric contents, is measured with uncertainties about one order of magnitude smaller than the value of the protonospheric content. It is thus, in principle, possible to determine the latter by subtracting from the measurement the so-called 'Faraday content.' This idea, proposed by several authors in the past, is critically examined in the present paper. It is impossible to totally eliminate the ionospheric contribution to the measurements; however, it is shown that the degree of elimination depends on the type of distribution of the longitudinal component of the geomagnetic field along the path of observation. Satisfactory minimization of the ionospheric contribution can be accomplished only under certain geometries of observation.

  20. Columnar cell lesions without atypia initially diagnosed on breast needle biopsies: is imaging follow-up enough?

    PubMed

    Seo, Mirinae; Chang, Jung Min; Kim, Won Hwa; Park, In-Ae; Lee, Su Hyun; Cho, Nariya; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the underestimation rate and predictive factor of underestimation of columnar cell lesions (CCLs) without atypia diagnosed through breast core needle biopsies (CNBs). From January 2007 through December 2011, 141 CCLs without atypia, including columnar cell change and columnar cell hyperplasia, were diagnosed in 138 women by CNB. Excisional (n = 16) or imaging follow-up (n = 125) findings were available in all cases. On a per-lesion basis, the underestimation rate and predictive factor of underestimation were evaluated. Among the 16 surgically excised lesions, there were two malignancies (one ductal carcinoma in situ and one invasive ductal carcinoma) and one lobular carcinoma in situ. Overall, the pooled underestimation rate of malignancy was 1.4% (2/141). With regard to lesion variables, the mean lesion size was significantly larger in the underestimation group of CCLs (p = 0.007). Fine pleomorphic morphology of microcalcifications (p < 0.001), the distribution of the microcalcifications (p = 0.007), BI-RADS final assessment (p = 0.001), and imaging-pathologic correlation (p < 0.001) were significantly associated with underestimation. Multivariate analysis showed that fine pleomorphic morphology of microcalcifications (p < 0.0001) was an independent predictor of underestimation in 58 lesions with microcalcifications on mammography. The overall underestimation rate of malignancy was 1.4%. Imaging follow-up is reasonable for CCLs without atypia at CNB, especially in small lesions with less suspicious imaging findings. Fine pleomorphic microcalcifications and higher BI-RADS category might be helpful in the prediction of underestimation of a high-risk lesion or malignancy.

  1. Development of Columnar Topography in the Excitatory Layer 4 to Layer 2/3 Projection in Rat Barrel Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Kevin J.; Rangel, Juliana; Feldman, Daniel E.

    2011-01-01

    The excitatory feedforward projection from layer (L) 4 to L2/3 in rat primary somatosensory (S1) cortex exhibits precise, columnar topography that is critical for columnar processing of whisker inputs. Here, we characterize the development of axonal topography in this projection using single-cell reconstructions in S1 slices. In the mature projection [postnatal day (P) 14 –26], axons of L4 cells extending into L2/3 were confined almost entirely to the home barrel column, consistent with previous results. At younger ages (P8 –11), however, axonal topography was significantly less columnar, with a large proportion of branches innervating neighboring barrel columns representing adjacent whisker rows. Mature topography developed from this initial state by targeted axonal growth within the home column and by growth of barrel columns themselves. Raising rats with all or a subset of whiskers plucked from P8 –9, manipulations that induce reorganization of functional whisker maps and synaptic depression at L4 to L2/3 synapses, did not alter normal anatomical development of L4 to L2/3 axons. Thus, development of this projection does not require normal sensory experience after P8, and deprivation-induced reorganization of whisker maps at this age is unlikely to involve physical remodeling of L4 to L2/3 axons. PMID:14507976

  2. Columnar epitaxy of hexagonal and orthorhombic silicides on Si(111)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fathauer, R. W.; Nieh, C. W.; Xiao, Q. F.; Hashimoto, Shin

    1990-01-01

    Columnar grains of PtSi and CrSi2 surrounded by high-quality epitaxial silicon are obtained by ultrahigh vacuum codeposition of Si and metal in an approximately 10:1 ratio on Si(111) substrates heated to 610-840 C. This result is similar to that found previously for CoSi2 (a nearly-lattice-matched cubic-fluorite crystal) on Si(111), in spite of the respective orthorhombic and hexagonal structures of PtSi and CrSi2. The PtSi grains are epitaxial and have one of three variants of the relation defined by PtSi(010)/Si(111), with PtSi 001 line/Si 110 line type.

  3. Detection of Salmonella bacterium in drinking water using microring resonator.

    PubMed

    Bahadoran, Mahdi; Noorden, Ahmad Fakhrurrazi Ahmad; Mohajer, Faeze Sadat; Abd Mubin, Mohamad Helmi; Chaudhary, Kashif; Jalil, Muhammad Arif; Ali, Jalil; Yupapin, Preecha

    2016-01-01

    A new microring resonator system is proposed for the detection of the Salmonella bacterium in drinking water, which is made up of SiO2-TiO2 waveguide embedded inside thin film layer of the flagellin. The change in refractive index due to the binding of the Salmonella bacterium with flagellin layer causes a shift in the output signal wavelength and the variation in through and drop port's intensities, which leads to the detection of Salmonella bacterium in drinking water. The sensitivity of proposed sensor for detecting of Salmonella bacterium in water solution is 149 nm/RIU and the limit of detection is 7 × 10(-4)RIU.

  4. Identification of 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-Gluconate Kinase and 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-Phosphogluconate Aldolase in an Alginate-Assimilating Bacterium, Flavobacterium sp. Strain UMI-01

    PubMed Central

    Nishiyama, Ryuji; Inoue, Akira; Ojima, Takao

    2017-01-01

    Recently, we identified an alginate-assimilating gene cluster in the genome of Flavobacterium sp. strain UMI-01, a member of Bacteroidetes. Alginate lyase genes and a 4-deoxy-l-erythro-5-hexoseulose uronic acid (DEH) reductase gene in the cluster have already been characterized; however, 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-gluconate (KDG) kinase and 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate (KDPG) aldolase genes, i.e., flkin and flald, still remained uncharacterized. The amino acid sequences deduced from flkin and flald showed low identities with those of corresponding enzymes of Saccharophagus degradans 2-40T, a member of Proteobacteria (Kim et al., Process Biochem., 2016). This led us to consider that the DEH-assimilating enzymes of Bacteroidetes species are somewhat deviated from those of Proteobacteria species. Thus, in the present study, we first assessed the characteristics in the primary structures of KDG kinase and KDG aldolase of the strain UMI-01, and then investigated the enzymatic properties of recombinant enzymes, recFlKin and recFlAld, expressed by an Escherichia coli expression system. Multiple-sequence alignment among KDG kinases and KDG aldolases from several Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes species indicated that the strain UMI-01 enzymes showed considerably low sequence identities (15%–25%) with the Proteobacteria enzymes, while they showed relatively high identities (47%–68%) with the Bacteroidetes enzymes. Phylogenetic analyses for these enzymes indicated the distant relationship between the Proteobacteria enzymes and the Bacteroidetes enzymes, i.e., they formed distinct clusters in the phylogenetic tree. recFlKin and recFlAld produced with the genes flkin and flald, respectively, were confirmed to show KDG kinase and KDPG aldolase activities. Namely, recFlKin produced 1.7 mM KDPG in a reaction mixture containing 2.5 mM KDG and 2.5 mM ATP in a 90-min reaction, while recFlAld produced 1.2 mM pyruvate in the reaction mixture containing 5 mM KDPG at the equilibrium

  5. Columnar and ground-level aerosol optical properties: sensitivity to the transboundary pollution, daily and weekly patterns, and relationships.

    PubMed

    Perrone, M R; Romano, S; Orza, J A G

    2015-11-01

    Columnar and ground-level aerosol optical properties co-located in space and time and retrieved from sun/sky photometer and nephelometer measurements, respectively, have been analyzed to investigate the impact of local and transboundary pollution, to analyze their relationships, and hence to contribute to the aerosol load characterization over the Central Mediterranean. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 440 nm, the Ångström exponent (Å) calculated from the AOD at 440 and 675 nm, and the asymmetry parameter (g col ) at 440 nm represent the investigated columnar aerosol parameters. The scattering coefficient (σ p) at 450 nm, the scattering Ångström exponent (å) calculated from σ p at 450 and 635 nm, and the asymmetry parameter (g) at 450 nm are the corresponding ground-level parameters. It is shown that the columnar and ground-level aerosol properties were significantly and similarly affected by the main airflows identified with backtrajectory cluster analysis. The yearly averaged daily evolution of σ p, å, and g was fairly correlated to the one of the AOD, Å, and g col , respectively. These results indicate that the aerosol particles were on average characterized by similar yearly averaged optical properties up to the ground level. In particular, the yearly means of columnar and ground-level Ångström exponents, 1.3 ± 0.4 and 1.1 ± 0.4, respectively, which are close to one, reveal a coarse-mode aerosol contribution in addition to the fine-mode particle contribution up to the ground level. Hourly means, day-by-day, and seasonal daily patterns of ground-level parameters were, however, very weakly correlated with the corresponding columnar parameters. The large impact of the local meteorology on the daily evolution of the ground-level aerosol properties, which makes the impact of long-range transported particles less apparent, was mainly responsible for these last results. It has also been found that columnar Ångström exponents much smaller

  6. Taxonomic characterization of the cellulose-degrading bacterium NCIB 10462

    SciTech Connect

    Dees, C.; Ringleberg, D.; Scott, T.C.

    The gram negative cellulase-producing bacterium NCIB 10462 has been previously named Pseudomonas fluorescens subsp. or var. cellulosa. Since there is renewed interest in cellulose-degrading bacteria for use in bioconversion of cellulose to chemical feed stocks and fuels, we re-examined the characteristics of this microorganism to determine its proper taxonomic characterization and to further define it`s true metabolic potential. Metabolic and physical characterization of NCIB 10462 revealed that this was an alkalophilic, non-fermentative, gram negative, oxidase positive, motile, cellulose-degrading bacterium. The aerobic substrate utilization profile of this bacterium was found to have few characteristics consistent with a classification of P. fluorescensmore » with a very low probability match with the genus Sphingomonas. Total lipid analysis did not reveal that any sphingolipid bases are produced by this bacterium. NCIB 10462 was found to grow best aerobically but also grows well in complex media under reducing conditions. NCIB 10462 grew slowly under full anaerobic conditions on complex media but growth on cellulosic media was found only under aerobic conditions. Total fatty acid analysis (MIDI) of NCIB 10462 failed to group this bacterium with a known pseudomonas species. However, fatty acid analysis of the bacteria when grown at temperatures below 37{degrees}C suggest that the organism is a pseudomonad. Since a predominant characteristic of this bacterium is it`s ability to degrade cellulose, we suggest it be called Pseudomonas cellulosa.« less

  7. Influence of chirality on the thermal and electric properties of the columnar mesophase exhibited by homomeric dipeptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parthasarathi, Srividhya; Shankar Rao, D. S.; Prabhu, Rashmi; Yelamaggad, C. V.; Krishna Prasad, S.

    2017-10-01

    We present the first investigation of the influence of chirality on the thermal and electric properties in a biologically important homomeric dipeptide that exhibits a hexagonal columnar liquid crystal mesophase. The peptide employed has two chiral centres, and thus the two possible enantiopures are the (R,R) and (S,S) forms having opposite chirality. The measurements reported the span of the binary phase space between these two enantiopures. Any point in the binary diagram is identified by the enantiomeric excess Xee (the excess content of the R,R enantiopure over its S,S counterpart). We observe that the magnitude of Xee plays a pivotal role in governing the properties as evidenced by X-ray diffraction (XRD), electric polarization (Ps), dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS) measurements, and the isotropic-columnar transition temperature. For example, XRD shows that while other features pointing to a hexagonal columnar phase remain the same, additional short-range ordering, indicating correlated discs within the column, is present for the enantiopures (Xee = ±1) but not for the racemate (Xee = 0). Similarly, an electric-field driven switching whose profile suggests the phase structure to be antiferroelectric is seen over the entire binary space, but the magnitude is dependent on Xee; interestingly the polarization direction is axial, i.e., along the column axis. DRS studies display two dielectric modes over a limited temperature range and one mode (mode 2) connected with the antiferroelectric nature of the columnar structure covering the entire mesophase. The relaxation frequency and the thermal behaviour of mode 2 are strongly influenced by Xee. The most attractive effect of chirality is its influence on the polar order, a measure of which is the magnitude of the axial polarization. This result can be taken to be a direct evidence of the manifestation of molecular recognition and the delicate interplay between chiral perturbations and the magnitude of the

  8. Ribotyping for differentiating Flavobacterium meningosepticum isolates from clinical and environmental sources.

    PubMed Central

    Colding, H; Bangsborg, J; Fiehn, N E; Bennekov, T; Bruun, B

    1994-01-01

    On the basis of DNA-DNA hybridization data, two main genomic relatedness groups (I and II) have been reported for a geographically varied collection of 52 strains of Flavobacterium meningosepticum. Herein, we have shown that genomic group II can be further divided into four subgroups (II:1 to II:4). To examine the taxonomic relevance of the ribosomal patterns of the 52 F. meningosepticum strains, the patterns were compared with existing DNA-DNA hybridization data with restriction enzymes PstI and HindIII. Ribotyping of the 52 F. meningosepticum strains showed banding patterns that could identify them correctly to one of the five genomic groups or subgroups. To assess the value of ribotyping for the interpretation of epidemiological data, the discriminatory power of the method was investigated for the 52 F. meningosepticum strains. With one to four restriction enzymes (PstI, HindIII, ClaI, EcoRI), a discriminatory index of 0.95 to 0.97 was found. The value of ribotyping in an epidemiological setting was assessed for three clinical isolates of F. meningosepticum from an outbreak of meningitis and bacteremia in the neonatal intensive care unit, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. The three clinical isolates were shown to belong to the same ribotype, characteristic of genomic subgroup II:1. This ribotyping method will prove to be a useful tool for epidemiological studies concerning F. meningosepticum in the future. Images PMID:8150962

  9. PCR-RFLP genotypes associated with quinolone resistance in isolates of Flavobacterium psychrophilum.

    PubMed

    Izumi, S; Ouchi, S; Kuge, T; Arai, H; Mito, T; Fujii, H; Aranishi, F; Shimizu, A

    2007-03-01

    A novel genotyping method for epizootiological studies of bacterial cold-water disease caused by Flavobacterium psychrophilum and associated with quinolone resistance was developed. Polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was performed on 244 F. psychrophilum isolates from various fish species. PCR was performed with primer pair GYRA-FP1F and GYRA-FP1R amplifying the A subunit of the DNA gyrase (GyrA) gene, which contained the quinolone resistance determining region. Digestion of PCR products with the restriction enzyme Mph1103I showed two genotypes, QR and QS. The difference between these genotypes was amino acid substitutions at position 83 of GyrA (Escherichia coli numbering). The genotype QR indicated an alanine residue at this position associated with quinolone resistance in F. psychrophilum isolates. Of the 244 isolates tested in this study, the number of QR genotype isolates was 153 (62.7%). In isolates from ayu (n=177), 146 (82.5%) were genotype QR. With combination of this technique and previously reported PCR-RFLP genotyping, eight genotypes were observed in F. psychrophilum isolates. Using this genotyping system, the relationships between genotype and host fish species, or locality of isolation, were analysed and are discussed.

  10. Columnar-thin-film acquisition of fingerprint topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaler, Robert C.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Rogers, Jessica W.; Pulsifer, Drew P.; Martín-Palma, Raúl J.

    2011-01-01

    Fingerprint visualization obtained from physical evidence taken from crime scenes for subsequent comparison typically requires the use of physical and chemical techniques. One physical technique to visualize or develop sebaceous fingerprints on various surfaces employs the deposition of metals such as gold and zinc thereon. We have developed a different vacuum technology: the conformal-evaporated-film-by-rotation technique to deposit dense columnar thin films (CTFs) on latent fingerprints on different types of surfaces. Sample fingerprints, acting as nonplanar substrates, deposited on different surfaces were placed in a vacuum chamber with the fingerprint side facing a boat containing an evaporant material such as chalcogenide glass. Thermal evaporation of the solid material led to the formation of a dense CTF on the fingerprint, thereby capturing the topographical texture with high resolution. Our results show that it is possible to acquire the topology of latent fingerprints on nonporous surfaces. Additionally, deposition of CTFs on overlapping fingerprints suggested ours may be a technique for elucidating the sequence of deposition of the fingerprints at the scene.

  11. Columnar-thin-film acquisition of fingermark topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaler, Robert C.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Rogers, Jessica W.; Pulsifer, Drew P.; Martín-Palma, Raúl J.

    2010-08-01

    Fingerprint visualization obtained from physical evidence taken from crime scenes for subsequent comparison typically requires the use of physical and chemical techniques. One physical technique to visualize or develop sebaceous fingerprints on various surfaces employs the deposition of metals such as gold and zinc thereon. We have developed a different vacuum technology: the conformal-evaporated-film-by-rotation technique to deposit dense columnar thin films (CTFs) on latent fingerprints on different types of surfaces. Sample fingerprints, acting as nonplanar substrates, deposited on different surfaces were placed in a vacuum chamber with the fingerprint side facing a boat containing an evaporant material such as chalcogenide glass. Thermal evaporation of the solid material led to the formation of a dense CTF on the fingerprint, thereby capturing the topographical texture with high resolution. Our results show that it is possible to acquire the topology of latent fingerprints on non-porous surfaces. Additionally, deposition of CTFs on overlapping fingerprints suggested ours may be a technique for elucidating the sequence of deposition of the fingerprints at the scene.

  12. Coordinative nanoporous polymers synthesized with hydrogen-bonded columnar liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Shinsuke; Furuki, Yusuke; Hill, Jonathan P; Ariga, Katsuhiko; Takeoka, Shinji

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we report the development of nanoporous polymer which demonstrates the coordination property toward zinc porphyrin. A hydrogen-bonded columnar liquid crystalline precursor composed of a triphenylene template and three equivalent of the surrounding dendric amphiphile bearing a pyridyl head group and a polymerizable aliphatic chain, was covalently fixed by photopolymerization, and then the subsequent selective removal of the template successively resulted in a nanoporous polymer in which the pore wall is modified with pyridyl groups. The nanoporous polymer reflected the conformation of template, and displayed considerable coordination ability of the pyridyl groups towards zinc porphyrin. The coordinative nanoporous polymer is promising as a nano-scaled scaffold for the organization of dyes into functional supramolecular architectures.

  13. Ubiquitous marine bacterium inhibits diatom cell division.

    PubMed

    van Tol, Helena M; Amin, Shady A; Armbrust, E Virginia

    2017-01-01

    Intricate relationships between microorganisms structure the exchange of molecules between taxa, driving their physiology and evolution. On a global scale, this molecular trade is an integral component of biogeochemical cycling. As important microorganisms in the world's oceans, diatoms and bacteria have a large impact on marine biogeochemistry. Here, we describe antagonistic effects of the globally distributed flavobacterium Croceibacter atlanticus on a phylogenetically diverse group of diatoms. We used the model diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana to study the antagonistic impact in more detail. In co-culture, C. atlanticus attaches to T. pseudonana and inhibits cell division, inducing diatom cells to become larger and increase in chlorophyll a fluorescence. These changes could be explained by an absence of cytokinesis that causes individual T. pseudonana cells to elongate, accumulate more plastids and become polyploid. These morphological changes could benefit C. atlanticus by augmenting the colonizable surface area of the diatom, its photosynthetic capabilities and possibly its metabolic secretions.

  14. Columnar interactions determine horizontal propagation of recurrent network activity in neocortex

    PubMed Central

    Wester, Jason C.; Contreras, Diego

    2012-01-01

    The cortex is organized in vertical and horizontal circuits that determine the spatiotemporal properties of distributed cortical activity. Despite detailed knowledge of synaptic interactions among individual cells in the neocortex, little is known about the rules governing interactions among local populations. Here we used self-sustained recurrent activity generated in cortex, also known as up-states, in rat thalamocortical slices in vitro to understand interactions among laminar and horizontal circuits. By means of intracellular recordings and fast optical imaging with voltage sensitive dyes, we show that single thalamic inputs activate the cortical column in a preferential L4→L2/3→L5 sequence, followed by horizontal propagation with a leading front in supra and infragranular layers. To understand the laminar and columnar interactions, we used focal injections of TTX to block activity in small local populations, while preserving functional connectivity in the rest of the network. We show that L2/3 alone, without underlying L5, does not generate self-sustained activity and is inefficient propagating activity horizontally. In contrast, L5 sustains activity in the absence of L2/3 and is necessary and sufficient to propagate activity horizontally. However, loss of L2/3 delays horizontal propagation via L5. Finally, L5 amplifies activity in L2/3. Our results show for the first time that columnar interactions between supra and infragranular layers are required for the normal propagation of activity in the neocortex. Our data suggest that supra and infragranular circuits with their specific and complex set of inputs and outputs, work in tandem to determine the patterns of cortical activation observed in vivo. PMID:22514308

  15. A novel serrated columnar phased array ultrasonic transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Cheng; Sun, Zhenguo; Cai, Dong; Song, Hongwei; Chen, Qiang

    2016-02-01

    Traditionally, wedges are required to generate transverse waves in a solid specimen and mechanical rotation device is needed for interrogation of a specimen with a hollow bore, such as high speed railway locomotive axles, turbine rotors, etc. In order to eliminate the mechanical rotation process, a novel array pattern of phased array ultrasonic transducers named as serrated columnar phased array ultrasonic transducer (SCPAUT) is designed. The elementary transducers are planar rectangular, located on the outside surface of a cylinder. This layout is aimed to generate electrically rotating transverse waveforms so as to inspect the longitudinal cracks on the outside surface of a specimen which has a hollow bore at the center, such as the high speed railway locomotive axles. The general geometry of the SCPAUT and the inspection system are illustrated. A FEM model and mockup experiment has been carried out. The experiment results are in good agreement with the FEM simulation results.

  16. The tumor suppressor PTEN and the PDK1 kinase regulate formation of the columnar neural epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Grego-Bessa, Joaquim; Bloomekatz, Joshua; Castel, Pau; Omelchenko, Tatiana; Baselga, José; Anderson, Kathryn V

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial morphogenesis and stability are essential for normal development and organ homeostasis. The mouse neural plate is a cuboidal epithelium that remodels into a columnar pseudostratified epithelium over the course of 24 hr. Here we show that the transition to a columnar epithelium fails in mutant embryos that lack the tumor suppressor PTEN, although proliferation, patterning and apical-basal polarity markers are normal in the mutants. The Pten phenotype is mimicked by constitutive activation of PI3 kinase and is rescued by the removal of PDK1 (PDPK1), but does not depend on the downstream kinases AKT and mTORC1. High resolution imaging shows that PTEN is required for stabilization of planar cell packing in the neural plate and for the formation of stable apical-basal microtubule arrays. The data suggest that appropriate levels of membrane-associated PDPK1 are required for stabilization of apical junctions, which promotes cell elongation, during epithelial morphogenesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12034.001 PMID:26809587

  17. Pathogen Screening of Naturally Produced Yakima River Spring Chinook Smolts; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Pearsons, Todd N.; Thomas, Joan B.

    2003-01-01

    The change in pathogens prevalence to wild fish is probably the least studied ecological interaction associated with hatchery operations. In 1999, the Cle Elum Hatchery began releasing spring chinook smolts into the upper Yakima River to increase natural production. Part of the evaluation of this program is to evaluate whether introduction of hatchery produced smolts would impact the prevalence of specific pathogens in the naturally produced spring chinook smolts. Increases in prevalence of any of these pathogens could negatively impact the survival of these fish. Approximately 200 smolts were collected at the Chandler smolt collection facility on the lower Yakimamore » River during 1998, 2000 and 2001 and monitored for specific pathogens. The pathogens monitored were infectious hematopoeitic necrosis virus, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Flavobacterium columnare, Aeromonas salmonicida, Yersinia ruckeri, Edwardsiella ictaluri, Renibacterium salmoninarum and Myxobolus cerebralis. In addition, the fish were tested for Ceratomyxa shasta spores in 2001. Not all testing has been completed for every year, but to date, there have only been minimal changes in levels of the bacterial pathogens in the naturally produced smolts. At this point, due to the limited testing so far, these changes are attributed to normal fluctuation of prevalence.« less

  18. A BCWD-resistant line of rainbow trout exhibits higher abundance of IgT+ B cells and heavy chain tau transcripts compared to a susceptible line following challenge with Flavobacterium psychrophilum.

    PubMed

    Zwollo, Patty; Hennessey, Erin; Moore, Catherine; Marancik, David P; Wiens, Gregory D; Epp, Lidia

    2017-09-01

    Bacterial Cold Water Disease (BCWD) is a common, chronic disease in rainbow trout, and is caused by the gram-negative bacterium Flavobacterium psychrophilum (Fp). Through selective breeding, the National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture has generated a genetic line that is highly resistant to Fp challenge, designated ARS-Fp-R (or R-line), as well as a susceptible "control" line, ARS-Fp-S (S-line). In previous studies, resistance to Fp had been shown to correlate with naive animal spleen size, and further, naïve R-line trout had been shown to have a lower abundance of IgM + and IgM ++ cells compared to S-line fish. Here we wished to first determine whether the abundance of IgT + and/or IgT ++ cells differed between the two lines in naïve fish, and if so, how these patterns differed after in vivo challenge with Fp. Fp challenge was by intramuscular injection of live Fp and tissue collections were on days 5, 6, and/or 28 post-challenge, in two independent challenge experiments. Flow cytometric and gene expression analyses revealed that naïve R-line fish had a higher abundance of IgT + B cells in their anterior kidney, spleen, and blood, compared to S line fish. Further, that after Fp challenge, this difference was maintained between the two lines. Lastly, abundance of IgT + B cells and expression of secHCtau correlated with lower Fp pathogen loads in challenged fish. In the anterior kidney, IgM + B cell abundance correlated with increased Fp loads. Together, these results suggest that IgT + B lineage cells may have a protective function in the immune response to Fp. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of the columnar-thin-film and vacuum-metal-deposition techniques to develop sebaceous fingermarks on nonporous substrates.

    PubMed

    Williams, Stephanie F; Pulsifer, Drew P; Shaler, Robert C; Ramotowski, Robert S; Brazelle, Shelly; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2015-03-01

    Both the columnar-thin-film (CTF) and the vacuum-metal-deposition (VMD) techniques for visualizing sebaceous fingermarks require the deposition of a material thereon in a vacuum chamber. Despite that similarity, there are many differences between the two techniques. The film deposited with the CTF technique has a columnar morphology, but the film deposited with the VMD technique comprises discrete islands. A split-print methodology on a variety of fingermarked substrates was used to determine that the CTF technique is superior for developing fingermarks on clear sandwich bags and partial bloody fingermarks on stainless steel. Both techniques are similar in their ability to develop fingermarks on glass but the CTF technique yields higher contrast. The VMD technique is superior for developing fingermarks on white grocery bags and the smooth side of Gloss Finish Scotch Multitask(™) tape. Neither technique worked well for fingermarks on black garbage bags. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  20. Oxidation of Ethylene Glycol by a Salt-Requiring Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Caskey, William H.; Taber, Willard A.

    1981-01-01

    Bacterium T-52, cultured on ethylene glycol, readily oxidized glycolate and glyoxylate and exhibited elevated activities of ethylene glycol dehydrogenase and glycolate oxidase. Labeled glyoxylate was identified in reaction mixtures containing [14C]-ethylene glycol, but no glycolate was detected. The most likely pathway of ethylene glycol catabolism by bacterium T-52 is sequential oxidation to glycolate and glyoxylate. PMID:16345810

  1. Columnar-Structured Mg-Al-Spinel Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs) by Suspension Plasma Spraying (SPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlegel, N.; Ebert, S.; Mauer, G.; Vaßen, R.

    2015-01-01

    The suspension plasma spraying (SPS) process has been developed to permit the feeding of sub-micrometer-sized powder into the plasma plume. In contrast to electron beam-physical vapor deposition and plasma spray-physical vapor deposition, SPS enables the cost-efficient deposition of columnar-structured coatings. Due to their strain tolerance, these coatings play an important role in the field of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). In addition to the cost-efficient process, attention was turned to the TBC material. Nowadays, yttria partially stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is used as standard TBC material. However, its long-term application at temperatures higher than 1200 °C is problematic. At these high temperatures, phase transitions and sintering effects lead to the degradation of the TBC system. To overcome those deficits of YSZ, Mg-Al-spinel was chosen as TBC material. Even though it has a lower melting point (~2135 °C) and a higher thermal conductivity (~2.5 W/m/K) than YSZ, Mg-Al-spinel provides phase stability at high temperatures in contrast to YSZ. The Mg-Al-spinel deposition by SPS resulted in columnar-structured coatings, which have been tested for their thermal cycling lifetime. Furthermore, the influence of substrate cooling during the spraying process on thermal cycling behavior, phase composition, and stoichiometry of the Mg-Al-spinel has been investigated.

  2. The Influence of Ionic Environment and Histone Tails on Columnar Order of Nucleosome Core Particles

    PubMed Central

    Berezhnoy, Nikolay V.; Liu, Ying; Allahverdi, Abdollah; Yang, Renliang; Su, Chun-Jen; Liu, Chuan-Fa; Korolev, Nikolay; Nordenskiöld, Lars

    2016-01-01

    The nucleosome core particle (NCP) is the basic building block of chromatin. Nucleosome-nucleosome interactions are instrumental in chromatin compaction, and understanding NCP self-assembly is important for understanding chromatin structure and dynamics. Recombinant NCPs aggregated by multivalent cations form various ordered phases that can be studied by x-ray diffraction (small-angle x-ray scattering). In this work, the effects on the supramolecular structure of aggregated NCPs due to lysine histone H4 tail acetylations, histone H2A mutations (neutralizing the acidic patch of the histone octamer), and the removal of histone tails were investigated. The formation of ordered mainly hexagonal columnar NCP phases is in agreement with earlier studies; however, the highly homogeneous recombinant NCP systems used in this work display a more compact packing. The long-range order of the NCP columnar phase was found to be abolished or reduced by acetylation of the H4 tails, acidic patch neutralization, and removal of the H3 and H2B tails. Loss of nucleosome stacking upon removal of the H3 tails in combination with other tails was observed. In the absence of the H2A tails, the formation of an unknown highly ordered phase was observed. PMID:27119633

  3. Effects of aging treatment on the microstructure and superelasticity of columnar-grained Cu71Al18Mn11 shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ji-li; Huang, Hai-you; Xie, Jian-xin

    2016-10-01

    The effect of aging treatment on the superelasticity and martensitic transformation critical stress in columnar-grained Cu71Al18Mn11 shape memory alloy (SMA) at the temperature ranging from 250°C to 400°C was investigated. The microstructure evolution during the aging treatment was characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The results show that the plate-like bainite precipitates distribute homogeneously within austenitic grains and at grain boundaries. The volume fraction of bainite increases with the increase in aging temperature and aging time, which substantially improves the martensitic transformation critical stress of the alloy, whereas the bainite only slightly affects the superelasticity. This behavior is attributed to a coherent relationship between the bainite and the austenite, as well as to the bainite and the martensite exhibiting the same crystal structure. The variations of the martensitic transformation critical stress and the superelasticity of columnar-grained Cu71Al18Mn11 SMA with aging temperature and aging time are described by the Austin-Rickett equation, where the activation energy of bainite precipitation is 77.2 kJ·mol-1. Finally, a columnar-grained Cu71Al18Mn11 SMA with both excellent superelasticity (5%-9%) and high martensitic transformation critical stress (443-677 MPa) is obtained through the application of the appropriate aging treatments.

  4. Columnar characteristics of aerosols by spectroradiometer measurements in the maritime area of the Cadiz Gulf (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergaz, Ricardo; Cachorro, Victoria E.; de Frutos, Ángel M.; Vilaplana, José M.; de La Morena, Benito A.

    2005-11-01

    Atmospheric aerosol characteristics represented by the spectral aerosol optical depth AOD) and the Ångström turbidity parameter were determined in the coastal area of the Gulf of Cádiz, (southwest of Spain). The columnar aerosol properties presented here correspond to the 1996-1999 period, and were obtained by solar direct irradiance measurements carried out by a Licor1800 spectroradiometer. The performance of this type of medium-spectral resolution radiometric system is analysed over the measured period. The detailed spectral information of these irradiance measurements enabled the use of selected non-absorption gases spectral windows to determine the columnar spectral AOD that was modelled by Ångström formula to obtain the coefficient. Temporal evolutions of instantaneous values together with a general statistical analysis represented by seasonal values, frequency distributions and some representative correlations for the AOD and the derived Ångström coefficient gave us the first insight of aerosol characteristics in this coastal area. Special attention was paid to the analysis of these aerosol properties at the nominal wavelengths of 440 nm, 670 nm, 870 nm and 1020 nm for the near-future comparisons with the Cimel sun-photometer data. However, taking the most representative aerosol wavelength of 500 nm, the variability of the AOD ranges from 0.005 to 0.53, with a mean of 0.12 (s.d = 0.07) and that of the parameter is given by a mean value of 0.93 (s.d. = 0.58) falling inside the range of marine aerosols. A quantitative discrimination of aerosol types was conducted on the basis of the spectral aerosol properties and air mass back trajectory analysis, which resulted in a mixed type because of the specificity of this area, given by very frequent desert dust episodes, continental and polluted local influences. This study represents the first extended data characterization about columnar properties of aerosols in Spain which has been continued by Cimel

  5. Capsule-Transmitted Gut Symbiotic Bacterium of the Japanese Common Plataspid Stinkbug, Megacopta punctatissima

    PubMed Central

    Fukatsu, Takema; Hosokawa, Takahiro

    2002-01-01

    The Japanese common plataspid stinkbug, Megacopta punctatissima, deposits small brown particles, or symbiont capsules, on the underside of the egg mass for the purpose of transmission of symbiotic bacteria to the offspring. We investigated the microbiological aspects of the bacteria contained in the capsule, such as microbial diversity, phylogenetic placement, localization in vivo, and fitness effects on the host insect. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA clones revealed that a single bacterial species dominates the microbiota in the capsule. The bacterium was not detected in the eggs but in the capsules, which unequivocally demonstrated that the bacterium is transmitted to the offspring of the insect orally rather than transovarially, through probing of the capsule content. Molecular phylogenetic analysis showed that the bacterium belongs to the γ-subdivision of the Proteobacteria. In adult insects the bacterium was localized in the posterior section of the midgut. Deprivation of the bacterium from the nymphs resulted in retarded development, arrested growth, abnormal body coloration, and other symptoms, suggesting that the bacterium is essential for normal development and growth of the host insect. PMID:11772649

  6. Swimming efficiency of bacterium Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Suddhashil; Moldovan, Radu; Yeung, Chuck; Wu, X. L.

    2006-01-01

    We use measurements of swimming bacteria in an optical trap to determine fundamental properties of bacterial propulsion. In particular, we directly measure the force required to hold the bacterium in the optical trap and determine the propulsion matrix, which relates the translational and angular velocity of the flagellum to the torques and forces propelling the bacterium. From the propulsion matrix, dynamical properties such as torques, swimming speed, and power can be obtained by measuring the angular velocity of the motor. We find significant heterogeneities among different individuals even though all bacteria started from a single colony. The propulsive efficiency, defined as the ratio of the propulsive power output to the rotary power input provided by the motors, is found to be ≈2%, which is consistent with the efficiency predicted theoretically for a rigid helical coil. PMID:16954194

  7. Derivation of Aerosol Columnar Mass from MODIS Optical Depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasso, Santiago; Hegg, Dean A.

    2003-01-01

    In order to verify performance, aerosol transport models (ATM) compare aerosol columnar mass (ACM) with those derived from satellite measurements. The comparison is inherently indirect since satellites derive optical depths and they use a proportionality constant to derive the ACM. Analogously, ATMs output a four dimensional ACM distribution and the optical depth is linearly derived. In both cases, the proportionality constant requires a direct intervention of the user by prescribing the aerosol composition and size distribution. This study introduces a method that minimizes the direct user intervention by making use of the new aerosol products of MODIS. A parameterization is introduced for the derivation of columnar aerosol mass (AMC) and CCN concentration (CCNC) and comparisons between sunphotometer, MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) and in-measurements are shown. The method still relies on the scaling between AMC and optical depth but the proportionality constant is dependent on the MODIS derived r$_{eff}$,\\eta (contribution of the accumulation mode radiance to the total radiance), ambient RH and an assumed constant aerosol composition. The CCNC is derived fkom a recent parameterization of CCNC as a function of the retrieved aerosol volume. By comparing with in-situ data (ACE-2 and TARFOX campaigns), it is shown that retrievals in dry ambient conditions (dust) are improved when using a proportionality constant dependent on r$ {eff}$ and \\eta derived in the same pixel. In high humidity environments, the improvement inthe new method is inconclusive because of the difficulty in accounting for the uneven vertical distribution of relative humidity. Additionally, two detailed comparisons of AMC and CCNC retrieved by the MAS algorithm and the new method are shown. The new method and MAS retrievals of AMC are within the same order of magnitude with respect to the in-situ measurements of aerosol mass. However, the proposed method is closer to the in-situ measurements than

  8. Coiled to diffuse: Brownian motion of a helical bacterium.

    PubMed

    Butenko, Alexander V; Mogilko, Emma; Amitai, Lee; Pokroy, Boaz; Sloutskin, Eli

    2012-09-11

    We employ real-time three-dimensional confocal microscopy to follow the Brownian motion of a fixed helically shaped Leptospira interrogans (LI) bacterium. We extract from our measurements the translational and the rotational diffusion coefficients of this bacterium. A simple theoretical model is suggested, perfectly reproducing the experimental diffusion coefficients, with no tunable parameters. An older theoretical model, where edge effects are neglected, dramatically underestimates the observed rates of translation. Interestingly, the coiling of LI increases its rotational diffusion coefficient by a factor of 5, compared to a (hypothetical) rectified bacterium of the same contour length. Moreover, the translational diffusion coefficients would have decreased by a factor of ~1.5, if LI were rectified. This suggests that the spiral shape of the spirochaete bacteria, in addition to being employed for their active twisting motion, may also increase the ability of these bacteria to explore the surrounding fluid by passive Brownian diffusion.

  9. [Partial biological characteristics and algicidal activity of an algicidal bacterium].

    PubMed

    Li, San-Hua; Zhang, Qi-Ya

    2013-02-01

    An algicidal bacterium was isolated from freshwater (Lake Donghu in Wuhan) and coded as A01. The morphology of the algicidal bacterium was observed using optical microscope and electron microscopes, the results showed that A01 was rod-shaped, approximately 1.5 microm in length and 0.45 microm in width and with no flagella structure. A01 was Gram-negative and belongs to the family Acinetobacter sp. though identification by Gram's staining and 16S rDNA gene analysis. A01 exhibited strong algicidal activity on the bloom-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena eucompacta under laboratory conditions. The removal rate of chlorophyll a after 7-day incubation with the culture supernatant of A01 and thalli were 77% and 61%, respectively. Microscopic observation showed that almost all cyanobacterial cells were destroyed within 3 d of co-incubation with the supernatant of algicidal bacterium, but a mass of the cyanobacterial cell lysis was observed only after 5 d of co-incubation with the thalli of algicidal bacterium. These results indicated that the main algicidal component of A01 was in its culture supernatant. In other words, the strain A01 could secrete algicidal component against Anabaena eucompacta.

  10. Pathogen Screening of Naturally Produced Yakima River Spring Chinook Smolts; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Joan B.

    2005-05-01

    In the spring of 2004 naturally produced smolts outmigrating from the Yakima River Basin were collected for the sixth year of pathogen screening. This component of the evaluation is to monitor whether introduction of hatchery produced smolts would impact the prevalence of specific pathogens in the naturally produced spring chinook smolts. Increases in prevalence of any of these pathogens could negatively impact the survival of these fish. Since 1999 the Cle Elum Hatchery has been releasing spring chinook salmon smolts into the upper Yakima River to increase natural production. In 1998 and 2000 through 2004 naturally produced smolts were collectedmore » for monitoring at the Chandler smolt collection facility on the lower Yakima River. Smolts were collected from mid to late outmigration, with a target of 200 fish each year. The pathogens monitored were infectious hematopoeitic necrosis virus, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Flavobacterium columnare, Aeromonas salmonicida, Yersinia ruckeri, Edwardsiella ictaluri, Renibacterium salmoninarum and Myxobolus cerebralis. Of these pathogens, only R. salmoninarum was detected in very low levels in the naturally produced smolts outmigrating in 2004. To date, only bacterial pathogens have been detected and prevalences have been low. There have been small variations each year and these changes are attributed to normal fluctuations in prevalence. All of the pathogens detected are widely distributed in Washington State.« less

  11. Dispersal and survival of Flavobacterium psychrophilum phages in vivo in rainbow trout and in vitro under laboratory conditions: implications for their use in phage therapy.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Lone; Bertelsen, Sif K; Dalsgaard, Inger; Middelboe, Mathias

    2013-08-01

    Attention has been drawn to phage therapy as an alternative approach for controlling pathogenic bacteria such as Flavobacterium psychrophilum in salmonid aquaculture, which can give rise to high mortalities, especially in rainbow trout fry. Recently, phages have been isolated with a broad host range and a strong lytic potential against pathogenic F. psychrophilum under experimental conditions. However, little is known about the fate of phages at environmental conditions. Here, we quantified the dispersal and fate of F. psychrophilum phages and hosts in rainbow trout fry after intraperitoneal injection. Both phages and bacteria were isolated from the fish organs for up to 10 days after injection, and coinjection with both bacteria and phages resulted in a longer persistence of the phage in the fish organs, than when the fish had been injected with the phages only. The occurrence of both phage and bacterium was most prevalent in the kidney and spleen, with only minor occurrence in the brain. The experiment showed that injected phages were rapidly spread in the internal organs of the fish, also in the absence of bacteria. Parallel examination of the regulation of bacteriophage infectivity in controlled laboratory experiments at various environmental conditions showed that pH had only minor effects on long-term (3 months) phage infectivity within a pH range of 4.5 to 7.5, whereas phage infectivity was immediately lost at pH 3. In the absence of host cells, phage infectivity decreased by a factor of 10,000 over 55 days in untreated pond water, while the sterilization and removal of particles caused a 100-fold increase in phage survival relative to the control. In addition, F. psychrophilum-specific phages maintained their infectivity for ∼2 months in glycerol at -80°C, whereas infectivity decreased by a factor 10 when kept in a buffer at 20°C. Only a very small degradation in infectivity was seen when bacteriophages were added and dried on fish feed pellets

  12. Gut bacterium of Dendrobaena veneta (Annelida: Oligochaeta) possesses antimycobacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Fiołka, Marta J; Zagaja, Mirosław P; Piersiak, Tomasz D; Wróbel, Marek; Pawelec, Jarosław

    2010-09-01

    The new bacterial strain with antimycobacterial activity has been isolated from the midgut of Dendrobaena veneta (Annelida). Biochemical and molecular characterization of isolates from 18 individuals identified all as Raoultella ornithinolytica genus with 99% similarity. The bacterium is a possible symbiont of the earthworm D. veneta. The isolated microorganism has shown the activity against four strains of fast-growing mycobacteria: Mycobacterium butiricum, Mycobacterium jucho, Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium phlei. The multiplication of the gut bacterium on plates with Sauton medium containing mycobacteria has caused a lytic effect. After the incubation of the cell free extract prepared from the gut bacterium with four strains of mycobacteria in liquid Sauton medium, the cells of all tested strains were deformed and divided to small oval forms and sometimes created long filaments. The effect was observed by the use of light, transmission and scanning microscopy. Viability of all examined species of mycobacteria was significantly decreased. The antimycobacterial effect was probably the result of the antibiotic action produced by the gut bacterium of the earthworm. The application of ultrafiltration procedure allowed to demonstrate that antimicrobial substance with strong antimycobacterial activity from bacterial culture supernatant, is a protein with the molecular mass above 100 kDa. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Microwave nonlinearity and photoresponse of superconducting resonators with columnar defect micro-channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remillard, S. K.; Kirkendall, D.; Ghigo, G.; Gerbaldo, R.; Gozzelino, L.; Laviano, F.; Yang, Z.; Mendelsohn, N. A.; Ghamsari, B. G.; Friedman, B.; Jung, P.; Anlage, S. M.

    2014-09-01

    Micro-channels of nanosized columnar tracks were planted by heavy-ion irradiation into superconducting microwave microstrip resonators that were patterned from YBa2Cu3O7 - x thin films on LaAlO3 substrates. Three different ion fluences were used, producing different column densities, with each fluence having a successively greater impact on the microwave nonlinearity of the device, as compared to a control sample. Photoresponse (PR) images made with a 638 nm rastered laser beam revealed that the channel is a location of enhanced PR and a hot spot for the generation of intermodulation distortion. The microwave PR technique was also advanced in this work by investigating the role of coupling strength on the distribution of PR between inductive and resistive components.

  14. Annealing dependent evolution of columnar nanostructures in RF magnetron sputtered PTFE films for hydrophobic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, S.; De, Rajnarayan; Maidul Haque, S.; Divakar Rao, K.; Misal, J. S.; Prathap, C.; Das, S. C.; Patidar, Manju M.; Ganesan, V.; Sahoo, N. K.

    2018-01-01

    Present communication focuses on a relatively less explored direction of producing rough polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) surfaces for possible hydrophobic applications. The experiments were carried out to make rough PTFE films without losing much of the transmission, which is an important factor while designing futuristic solar cell protection covers. After annealing temperature optimization, as grown RF magnetron sputtered PTFE films (prepared at 160 W RF power) were subjected to vacuum annealing at 200 °C for different time durations ranging from 1 to 4 h. The films show morphological evolution exhibiting formation and growth of columnar nanostructures that are responsible for roughening of the films due to annealing induced molecular migration and rearrangement. In agreement with this, qualitative analysis of corresponding x-ray reflectivity data shows modification in film thickness, which may again be attributed to the growth of columns at the expense of the atoms of remaining film molecules. However, the observations reveal that the film annealed at 200 °C for 2 h gives a combination of patterned columnar structures and reasonable transmission of >85% (in 500-1000 nm wavelength range), both of which are deteriorated when the films are annealed either at high temperature beyond 200 °C or for long durations >3 h. In addition, attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results reveal that the molecular bonds remain intact upon annealing at any temperature within the studied range indicating the stable nature of the films.

  15. The structures of the crystalline phase and columnar mesophase of rhodium (II) heptanoate and of its binary mixture with copper (II) heptanoate probed by EXAFS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inb-Elhaj, M.; Guillon, D.; Skoulios, A.; Maldivi, P.; Giroud-Godquin, A. M.; Marchon, J.-C.

    1992-12-01

    EXAFS was used to investigate the local structure of the polar spines of rhodium (II) soaps in the columnar liquid crystalline state. It was also used to ascertain the degree of blending of the cores in binary mixtures of rhodium (II) and copper (II) soaps. For the pure rhodium soaps, the columns are shown to result from the stacking of binuclear metal-metal bonded dirhodium tetracarboxylate units bonded to one another by apical ligation of the metal atom of each complex with one of the oxygen atoms of the adjacent molecule. Mixtures of rhodium (II) and copper (II) soaps give a hexagonal columnar mesophase in which pure rhodium and pure copper columns are randomly distributed.

  16. Wong-Type Dermatomyositis Showing Porokeratosis-Like Changes (Columnar Dyskeratosis): A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Umanoff, Nicole; Fisher, Ari; Carlson, J. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background Wong-type dermatomyositis (DM) exhibits simultaneous pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) features. Case Report A 50-year-old woman presented with a heliotrope rash, Gottron's papules, and a poikilodermic, erythematous rash in shawl distribution without evidence of muscle weakness. Despite topical corticosteroids, the eruption progressed 9 months later to include generalized hyperkeratotic follicular papules, islands of sparing, and atrophic macules with a collarette of scale suggestive of porokeratosis. Mild dysphonia was the only sign of muscle weakness. Serology showed positive ANA. Histopathology revealed interface dermatitis with dermal mucin and melanophages, irregular psoriasiform hyperplasia, alternating mounds of para- and orthokeratosis, and tiers of dyskeratotic cells (columnar dyskeratosis). Systemic corticosteroid therapy was not tolerated; acitretin diminished the hyperkeratosis. While hyperpigmentation persisted, no progression of cutaneous or muscular symptoms has occurred after 22 months of follow-up and cessation of the therapy. Overall, her course did not differ from the natural history documented in the literature review of Wong-type DM. The most similar case also exhibited pseudocornoid lamella changes. Conclusion Wong-type DM is a clinicopathologic DM-PRP hybrid that can also exhibit porokeratosis-like features best described as columnar dyskeratosis. Recognizing these types of lesions in DM is warranted in order to make an accurate assessment of their prognostic significance. PMID:27047930

  17. Columnar shifts as symmetry-breaking degrees of freedom in molecular perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boström, Hanna L. B.; Hill, Joshua A.; Goodwin, Andrew L.

    We introduce columnar shifts---collective rigid-body translations---as a structural degree of freedom relevant to the phase behaviour of molecular perovskites ABX$_{\\textrm3}$ (X = molecular anion). Like the well-known octahedral tilts of conventional perovskites, shifts also preserve the octahedral coordination geometry of the B-site cation in molecular perovskites, and so are predisposed to influencing the low-energy dynamics and displacive phase transitions of these topical systems. We present a qualitative overview of the interplay between shift activation and crystal symmetry breaking, and introduce a generalised terminology to allow characterisation of simple shift distortions, drawing analogy to the "Glazer notation" for octahedral tilts. We apply our approach to the interpretation of a representative selection of azide and formate perovskite structures, and discuss the implications for functional exploitation of shift degrees of freedom in negative thermal expansion materials and hybrid ferroelectrics.

  18. Characterization of the promising poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) producing halophilic bacterium Halomonas halophila.

    PubMed

    Kucera, Dan; Pernicová, Iva; Kovalcik, Adriana; Koller, Martin; Mullerova, Lucie; Sedlacek, Petr; Mravec, Filip; Nebesarova, Jana; Kalina, Michal; Marova, Ivana; Krzyzanek, Vladislav; Obruca, Stanislav

    2018-05-01

    This work explores molecular, morphological as well as biotechnological features of the highly promising polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) producer Halomonas halophila. Unlike many other halophiles, this bacterium does not require expensive complex media components and it is capable to accumulate high intracellular poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) fractions up to 82% of cell dry mass. Most remarkably, regulating the concentration of NaCl apart from PHB yields influences also the polymer's molecular mass and polydispersity. The bacterium metabolizes various carbohydrates including sugars predominant in lignocelluloses and other inexpensive substrates. Therefore, the bacterium was employed for PHB production on hydrolysates of cheese whey, spent coffee grounds, sawdust and corn stover, which were hydrolyzed by HCl; required salinity of cultivation media was set up during neutralization by NaOH. The bacterium was capable to use all the tested hydrolysates as well as sugar beet molasses for PHB biosynthesis, indicating its potential for industrial PHB production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Supramolecularly engineered perylene bisimide assemblies exhibiting thermal transition from columnar to multilamellar structures.

    PubMed

    Yagai, Shiki; Usui, Mari; Seki, Tomohiro; Murayama, Haruno; Kikkawa, Yoshihiro; Uemura, Shinobu; Karatsu, Takashi; Kitamura, Akihide; Asano, Atsushi; Seki, Shu

    2012-05-09

    Perylene 3,4:9,10-tetracarboxylic acid bisimide (PBI) was functionalized with ditopic cyanuric acid to organize it into complex columnar architectures through the formation of hydrogen-bonded supermacrocycles (rosette) by complexing with ditopic melamines possessing solubilizing alkoxyphenyl substituents. The aggregation study in solution using UV-vis and NMR spectroscopies showed the formation of extended aggregates through hydrogen-bonding and π-π stacking interactions. The cylindrical fibrillar nanostructures were visualized by microscopic techniques (AFM, TEM), and the formation of lyotropic mesophase was confirmed by polarized optical microscopy and SEM. X-ray diffraction study revealed that a well-defined hexagonal columnar (Col(h)) structure was formed by solution-casting of fibrillar assemblies. All of these results are consistent with the formation of hydrogen-bonded PBI rosettes that spontaneously organize into the Col(h) structure. Upon heating the Col(h) structure in the bulk state, a structural transition to a highly ordered lamellar (Lam) structure was observed by variable-temperature X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and AFM studies. IR study showed that the rearrangement of the hydrogen-bonding motifs occurs during the structural transition. These results suggest that such a striking structural transition is aided by the reorganization in the lowest level of self-organization, i.e., the rearrangement of hydrogen-bonded motifs from rosette to linear tape. A remarkable increase in the transient photoconductivity was observed by the flash-photolysis time-resolved microwave conductivity (FP-TRMC) measurements upon converting the Col(h) structure to the Lam structure. Transient absorption spectroscopy revealed that electron transfer from electron-donating alkoxyphenyl groups of melamine components to electron-deficient PBI moieties takes place, resulting in a higher probability of charge carrier generation in the Lam structure

  20. Fabrication of field-effect transistor utilizing oriented thin film of octahexyl-substituted phthalocyanine and its electrical anisotropy based on columnar structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmori, Masashi; Nakatani, Mitsuhiro; Kajii, Hirotake; Miyamoto, Ayano; Yoneya, Makoto; Fujii, Akihiko; Ozaki, Masanori

    2018-03-01

    Field-effect transistors with molecularly oriented thin films of metal-free non-peripherally octahexyl-substituted phthalocyanine (C6PcH2), which characteristically form a columnar structure, have been fabricated, and the electrical anisotropy of C6PcH2 has been investigated. The molecularly oriented thin films of C6PcH2 were prepared by the bar-coating technique, and the uniform orientation in a large area and the surface roughness at a molecular level were observed by polarized spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy, respectively. The field effect mobilities parallel and perpendicular to the column axis of C6PcH2 were estimated to be (1.54 ± 0.24) × 10-2 and (2.10 ± 0.23) × 10-3 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively. The electrical anisotropy based on the columnar structure has been discussed by taking the simulated results obtained by density functional theory calculation into consideration.

  1. [Study on anti-bacterium activity of ginkgolic acids and their momomers].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoming; Zhu, Wei; Chen, Jun; Qian, Zhiyu; Xie, Jimin

    2004-09-01

    Ginkgolic acids and their three monomers were separated from ginkgo sarcotestas. The anti-bacterium activity of ginkgolic acids were tested. The relation between the anti-bacterium activity and side chain of ginkgolic acid were studied. The MIC of ginkgolic acids and their three monomers and salicylic acid were tested. Ginkgolic acid has strong inhibitive effect on G+-bacterium. Salicylic acid has no side chain, so no anti-bacterial activity. When the length of gingkolic acid side chain is C13:0, it has the strongest anti-bacterial activity in three monomers. The side chain of ginkgolic acid is the key functional group that possessed anti-bacterial activity. The length of Ginkgolic acid was the main effective factor of anti-bacterial activity.

  2. Strongly Enhanced Piezoelectric Response in Lead Zirconate Titanate Films with Vertically Aligned Columnar Grains.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Minh D; Houwman, Evert P; Dekkers, Matthijn; Rijnders, Guus

    2017-03-22

    Pb(Zr 0.52 Ti 0.48 )O 3 (PZT) films with (001) orientation were deposited on Pt(111)/Ti/SiO 2 /Si(100) substrates using pulsed laser deposition. Variation of the laser pulse rate during the deposition of the PZT films was found to play a key role in the control of the microstructure and to change strongly the piezoelectric response of the thin film. The film deposited at low pulse rate has a denser columnar microstructure, which improves the transverse piezoelectric coefficient (d 31f ) and ferroelectric remanent polarization (P r ), whereas the less densely packed columnar grains in the film deposited at high pulse rates give rise to a significantly higher longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient (d 33f ) value. The effect of film thickness on the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of the PZT films was also investigated. With increasing film thickness, the grain column diameter gradually increases, and also the average P r and d 33f values become larger. The largest piezoelectric coefficient of d 33f = 408 pm V -1 was found for a 4-μm film thickness. From a series of films in the thickness range 0.5-5 μm, the z-position dependence of the piezoelectric coefficient could be deduced. A local maximum value of 600 pm V -1 was deduced in the 3.5-4.5 μm section of the thickest films. The dependence of the film properties on film thickness is attributed to the decreasing effect of the clamping constraint imposed by the substrate and the increasing spatial separation between the grains with increasing film thickness.

  3. Strongly Enhanced Piezoelectric Response in Lead Zirconate Titanate Films with Vertically Aligned Columnar Grains

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) films with (001) orientation were deposited on Pt(111)/Ti/SiO2/Si(100) substrates using pulsed laser deposition. Variation of the laser pulse rate during the deposition of the PZT films was found to play a key role in the control of the microstructure and to change strongly the piezoelectric response of the thin film. The film deposited at low pulse rate has a denser columnar microstructure, which improves the transverse piezoelectric coefficient (d31f) and ferroelectric remanent polarization (Pr), whereas the less densely packed columnar grains in the film deposited at high pulse rates give rise to a significantly higher longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient (d33f) value. The effect of film thickness on the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of the PZT films was also investigated. With increasing film thickness, the grain column diameter gradually increases, and also the average Pr and d33f values become larger. The largest piezoelectric coefficient of d33f = 408 pm V–1 was found for a 4-μm film thickness. From a series of films in the thickness range 0.5–5 μm, the z-position dependence of the piezoelectric coefficient could be deduced. A local maximum value of 600 pm V–1 was deduced in the 3.5–4.5 μm section of the thickest films. The dependence of the film properties on film thickness is attributed to the decreasing effect of the clamping constraint imposed by the substrate and the increasing spatial separation between the grains with increasing film thickness. PMID:28247756

  4. Columnar recombination for X-ray generated electron-holes in amorphous selenium and its significance in a-Se x-ray detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bubon, O.; Thunder Bay Regional Research Institute, Thunder Bay, Ontario, P7A 7T1; Jandieri, K.

    Although amorphous selenium (a-Se) has a long and successful history of application in optical and X-ray imaging, some of its fundamental properties are still puzzling. In particularly, the mechanism of carrier recombination following x-ray excitation and electric field and temperature dependences of the electron-hole pair creation energy (W{sub ehp}) remain unclear. Using the combination of X-ray photocurrent and pulse height spectroscopy measurements, we measure W{sub ehp} in a wide range of temperatures (218–320 K) and electric fields (10–100 V/µm) and show that the conventional columnar recombination model which assumes Langevin recombination within a column (a primary electron track) fails to explain experimentalmore » results in a wide range of electric fields and temperatures. The reason for the failure of the conventional model is revealed in this work, and the theory of the columnar recombination is modified to include the saturation of the recombination rate at high electric field in order to account for the experimental results in the entire range of fields and temperatures.« less

  5. Endohyphal Bacterium Enhances Production of Indole-3-Acetic Acid by a Foliar Fungal Endophyte

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Michele T.; Gunatilaka, Malkanthi K.; Wijeratne, Kithsiri; Gunatilaka, Leslie; Arnold, A. Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Numerous plant pathogens, rhizosphere symbionts, and endophytic bacteria and yeasts produce the important phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), often with profound effects on host plants. However, to date IAA production has not been documented among foliar endophytes -- the diverse guild of primarily filamentous Ascomycota that live within healthy, above-ground tissues of all plant species studied thus far. Recently bacteria that live within hyphae of endophytes (endohyphal bacteria) have been detected, but their effects have not been studied previously. Here we show not only that IAA is produced in vitro by a foliar endophyte (here identified as Pestalotiopsis aff. neglecta, Xylariales), but that IAA production is enhanced significantly when the endophyte hosts an endohyphal bacterium (here identified as Luteibacter sp., Xanthomonadales). Both the endophyte and the endophyte/bacterium complex appear to rely on an L-tryptophan dependent pathway for IAA synthesis. The bacterium can be isolated from the fungus when the symbiotic complex is cultivated at 36°C. In pure culture the bacterium does not produce IAA. Culture filtrate from the endophyte-bacterium complex significantly enhances growth of tomato in vitro relative to controls and to filtrate from the endophyte alone. Together these results speak to a facultative symbiosis between an endophyte and endohyphal bacterium that strongly influences IAA production, providing a new framework in which to explore endophyte-plant interactions. PMID:24086270

  6. Genetic and serological diversity of Flavobacterium psychrophilum isolates from salmonids in United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Thao P H; Bartie, Kerry L; Thompson, Kim D; Verner-Jeffreys, David W; Hoare, Rowena; Adams, Alexandra

    2017-03-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum is one of the most important bacterial pathogens affecting cultured rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and is increasingly causing problems in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) hatcheries. Little is known about the heterogeneity of F. psychrophilum isolates on UK salmonid farms. A total of 315 F. psychrophilum isolates, 293 of which were collected from 27 sites within the UK, were characterised using four genotyping methods and a serotyping scheme. A high strain diversity was identified among the isolates with 54 pulsotypes, ten (GTG) 5 -PCR types, two 16S rRNA allele lineages, seven plasmid profiles and three serotypes. Seven PFGE groups and 27 singletons were formed at a band similarity of 80%. PFGE group P (n=75) was found to be numerically predominant in eight sites within the UK. Two major PFGE clusters and 13 outliers were found at the band similarity of 40%. The predominant profileobserved within the F. psychrophilum isolates examined was PFGE cluster II - (GTG) 5 -PCR type r1-16S rRNA lineage II - serotype Th (70/156 isolates examined, 45%). Co-existence of genetically and serologically heterogeneous isolates within each farm was detected, confounding the ability to control RTFS outbreaks. The occurrence over time (up to 11 years) of F. psychrophilum pulsotypes in three representative sites (Scot I, Scot III and Scot V) within Scotland was examined, potentially providing important epidemiological data for farm management and the development of site-specific vaccines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Homeotropic alignment of dendritic columnar liquid crystal induced by hydrogen-bonded triphenylene core bearing fluoroalkyl chains.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Shinsuke; Furuki, Yusuke; Hill, Jonathan P; Ariga, Katsuhiko; Takeoka, Shinji

    2014-07-01

    A 1:3 molar complex of the fluoroalkyl side chain-substituted 2,6,10-tris-carboxymethoxy-3,7,11-tris(4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,7-nonafluoroheptyloxy)triphenylene (TPF4) with the second generation dendron 3,5-bis(3,4-bis-dodecyloxybenzyloxy)-N-pyridin-4-yl-benzamide (DN) assembled through complementary hydrogen bonding to form a supramolecular columnar liquid crystal, which exhibited homeotropic alignment when sandwiched between octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS)-coated or indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass plates due to specific interactions between the fluoroalkyl side chains and the substrates.

  8. Direct measurement of interaction forces between a single bacterium and a flat plate.

    PubMed

    Klein, Jonah D; Clapp, Aaron R; Dickinson, Richard B

    2003-05-15

    A technique for precisely measuring the equilibrium and viscous interaction forces between a single bacterium and a flat surface as functions of separation distance is described. A single-beam gradient optical trap was used to micromanipulate the bacterium against a flat surface while evanescent wave light scattering was used to measure separation distances. Calibrating the optical trap far from the surface allowed the trapped bacterium to be used as a force probe. Equilibrium force-distance profiles were determined by measuring the deflection of the cell from the center of the optical trap at various trap positions. Simultaneously, viscous forces were determined by measuring the relaxation time for the fluctuating bacterium. Absolute distances were determined using a best-fit approximation to the theoretical prediction for the hindered mobility of a diffusing sphere near a wall. Using this approach, forces in the range from 0.01 to 4 pN were measured at near-nanometer resolution between Staphylococcus aureus and glass that was bare or coated with adsorbed protein.

  9. Solid-state acquisition of fingermark topology using dense columnar thin films.

    PubMed

    Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Shaler, Robert C; Martín-Palma, Raúl J; Motyka, Michael A; Pulsifer, Drew P

    2011-05-01

    Various vacuum techniques are employed to develop fingermarks on evidentiary items. In this work, a vacuum was used to deposit columnar thin films (CTFs) on untreated, cyanoacrylate-fumed or dusted fingermarks on a limited selection of nonporous surfaces (microscope glass slides and evidence tape). CTF deposition was not attempted on fingermarks deposited on porous surfaces. The fingermarks were placed in a vacuum chamber with the fingermark side facing an evaporating source boat containing either chalcogenide glass or MgF(2). Thermal evaporation of chalcogenide glass or MgF(2) under a 1 μTorr vacuum for 30 min formed dense CTFs on fingermark ridges, capturing the topographical features. The results show that it is possible to capture fingermark topology using CTFs on selected untreated, vacuumed cyanoacrylate-fumed or black powder-dusted nonporous surfaces. Additionally, the results suggested this might be a mechanism to help elucidate the sequence of deposition. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Corrected Article: Simulation and observation of line-slip structures in columnar structures of soft spheres [Phys. Rev. E 96, 012610 (2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelmann, J.; Haffner, B.; Weaire, D.; Mughal, A.; Hutzler, S.

    2017-07-01

    We present the computed phase diagram of columnar structures of soft spheres under pressure, of which the main feature is the appearance and disappearance of line slips, the shearing of adjacent spirals, as pressure is increased. A comparable experimental observation is made on a column of bubbles under forced drainage, clearly exhibiting the expected line slip.

  11. The construction of an engineered bacterium to remove cadmium from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chang, S; Shu, H

    2014-01-01

    The removal of cadmium (Cd) from wastewater before it is released from factories is important for protecting human health. Although some researchers have developed engineered bacteria, the resistance of these engineered bacteria to Cd have not been improved. In this study, two key genes involved in glutathione synthesis (gshA and gshB), a serine acetyltransferase gene (cysE), a Thlaspi caerulescens phytochelatin synthase gene (TcPCS1), and a heavy metal ATPase gene (TcHMA3) were transformed into Escherichia coli BL21. The resistance of the engineered bacterium to Cd was significantly greater than that of the initial bacterium and the Cd accumulation in the engineered bacterium was much higher than in the initial bacterium. In addition, the Cd resistance of the bacteria harboring gshB, gshA, cysE, and TcPCS1 was higher than that of the bacteria harboring gshA, cysE, and TcPCS1. This finding demonstrated that gshB played an important role in glutathione synthesis and that the reaction catalyzed by glutathione synthase was the limiting step for producing phytochelatins. Furthermore, TcPCS1 had a greater specificity and a higher capacity for removing Cd than SpPCS1, and TcHMA3 not only played a role in T. caerulescens but also functioned in E. coli.

  12. Columnar jointing in vapor-phase-altered, non-welded Cerro Galán Ignimbrite, Paycuqui, Argentina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Heather M.; Lesti, Chiara; Cas, Ray A.F.; Porreca, Massimiliano; Viramonte, Jose G.; Folkes, Christopher B.; Giordano, Guido

    2011-01-01

    Columnar jointing is thought to occur primarily in lavas and welded pyroclastic flow deposits. However, the non-welded Cerro Galán Ignimbrite at Paycuqui, Argentina, contains well-developed columnar joints that are instead due to high-temperature vapor-phase alteration of the deposit, where devitrification and vapor-phase crystallization have increased the density and cohesion of the upper half of the section. Thermal remanent magnetization analyses of entrained lithic clasts indicate high emplacement temperatures, above 630°C, but the lack of welding textures indicates temperatures below the glass transition temperature. In order to remain below the glass transition at 630°C, the minimum cooling rate prior to deposition was 3.0 × 10−3–8.5 × 10−2°C/min (depending on the experimental data used for comparison). Alternatively, if the deposit was emplaced above the glass transition temperature, conductive cooling alone was insufficient to prevent welding. Crack patterns (average, 4.5 sides to each polygon) and column diameters (average, 75 cm) are consistent with relatively rapid cooling, where advective heat loss due to vapor fluxing increases cooling over simple conductive heat transfer. The presence of regularly spaced, complex radiating joint patterns is consistent with fumarolic gas rise, where volatiles originated in the valley-confined drainage system below. Joint spacing is a proxy for cooling rates and is controlled by depositional thickness/valley width. We suggest that the formation of joints in high-temperature, non-welded deposits is aided by the presence of underlying external water, where vapor transfer causes crystallization in pore spaces, densifies the deposit, and helps prevent welding.

  13. CAFE simulation of columnar-to-equiaxed transition in Al-7wt%Si alloys directionally solidified under microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D. R.; Mangelinck-Noël, N.; Gandin, Ch-A.; Zimmermann, G.; Sturz, L.; Nguyen Thi, H.; Billia, B.

    2016-03-01

    A two-dimensional multi-scale cellular automaton - finite element (CAFE) model is used to simulate grain structure evolution and microsegregation formation during solidification of refined Al-7wt%Si alloys under microgravity. The CAFE simulations are first qualitatively compared with the benchmark experimental data under microgravity. Qualitative agreement is obtained for the position of columnar to equiaxed transition (CET) and the CET transition mode (sharp or progressive). Further comparisons of the distributions of grain elongation factor and equivalent diameter are conducted and reveal a fair quantitative agreement.

  14. Metabolomics evaluation of the impact of smokeless tobacco exposure on the oral bacterium Capnocytophaga sputigena

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jinchun; Jin, Jinshan; Beger, Richard D.; Cerniglia, Carl E.; Yang, Maocheng; Chen, Huizhong

    2017-01-01

    The association between exposure to smokeless tobacco products (STP) and oral diseases is partially due to the physiological and pathological changes in the composition of the oral microbiome and its metabolic profile. However, it is not clear how STPs affect the physiology and ecology of oral microbiota. A UPLC/QTof-MS-based metabolomics study was employed to analyze metabolic alterations in oral bacterium, Capnocytophaga sputigena as a result of smokeless tobacco exposure and to assess the capability of the bacterium to metabolize nicotine. Pathway analysis of the metabolome profiles indicated that smokeless tobacco extracts caused oxidative stress in the bacterium. The metabolomics data also showed that the argininenitric oxide pathway was perturbed by the smokeless tobacco treatment. Results also showed that LC/MS was useful in identifying STP constituents and additives, including caffeine and many flavoring compounds. No significant changes in levels of nicotine and its major metabolites were found when C. sputigena was cultured in a nutrient rich medium, although hydroxylnicotine and cotinine N-oxide were detected in the bacterial metabolites suggesting that nicotine metabolism might be present as a minor degradation pathway in the bacterium. Study results provide new insights regarding the physiological and toxicological effects of smokeless tobacco on oral bacterium C. sputigena and associated oral health as well as measuring the ability of the oral bacterium to metabolize nicotine. PMID:27480511

  15. Metabolomics evaluation of the impact of smokeless tobacco exposure on the oral bacterium Capnocytophaga sputigena.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jinchun; Jin, Jinshan; Beger, Richard D; Cerniglia, Carl E; Yang, Maocheng; Chen, Huizhong

    2016-10-01

    The association between exposure to smokeless tobacco products (STP) and oral diseases is partially due to the physiological and pathological changes in the composition of the oral microbiome and its metabolic profile. However, it is not clear how STPs affect the physiology and ecology of oral microbiota. A UPLC/QTof-MS-based metabolomics study was employed to analyze metabolic alterations in oral bacterium, Capnocytophaga sputigena as a result of smokeless tobacco exposure and to assess the capability of the bacterium to metabolize nicotine. Pathway analysis of the metabolome profiles indicated that smokeless tobacco extracts caused oxidative stress in the bacterium. The metabolomics data also showed that the arginine-nitric oxide pathway was perturbed by the smokeless tobacco treatment. Results also showed that LC/MS was useful in identifying STP constituents and additives, including caffeine and many flavoring compounds. No significant changes in levels of nicotine and its major metabolites were found when C. sputigena was cultured in a nutrient rich medium, although hydroxylnicotine and cotinine N-oxide were detected in the bacterial metabolites suggesting that nicotine metabolism might be present as a minor degradation pathway in the bacterium. Study results provide new insights regarding the physiological and toxicological effects of smokeless tobacco on oral bacterium C. sputigena and associated oral health as well as measuring the ability of the oral bacterium to metabolize nicotine. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Near-complete genome sequence of the cellulolytic Bacterium Bacteroides ( Pseudobacteroides) cellulosolvens ATCC 35603

    DOE PAGES

    Dassa, Bareket; Utturkar, Sagar M.; Hurt, Richard A.; ...

    2015-09-24

    We report the single-contig genome sequence of the anaerobic, mesophilic, cellulolytic bacterium, Bacteroides cellulosolvens. The bacterium produces a particularly elaborate cellulosome system, whereas the types of cohesin-dockerin interactions are opposite of other known cellulosome systems: cell-surface attachment is thus mediated via type-I interactions whereas enzymes are integrated via type-II interactions.

  17. [A rarely isolated bacterium in microbiology laboratories: Streptococcus uberis].

    PubMed

    Eryıldız, Canan; Bukavaz, Şebnem; Gürcan, Şaban; Hatipoğlu, Osman

    2017-04-01

    Streptococcus uberis is a gram-positive bacterium that is mostly responsible for mastitis in cattle. The bacterium rarely has been associated with human infections. Conventional phenotyphic methods can be inadequate for the identification of S.uberis; and in microbiology laboratories S.uberis is confused with the other streptococci and enterococci isolates. Recently, molecular methods are recommended for the accurate identification of S.uberis isolates. The aim of this report is to present a lower respiratory tract infection case caused by S.uberis and the microbiological methods for identification of this bacterium. A 66-year-old male patient with squamous cell lung cancer who received radiotherapy was admitted in our hospital for the control. According to the chest X-Ray, patient was hospitalized with the prediagnosis of ''cavitary tumor, pulmonary abscess''. In the first day of the hospitalization, blood and sputum cultures were drawn. Blood culture was negative, however, Candida albicans was isolated in the sputum culture and it was estimated to be due to oral lesions. After two weeks from the hospitalization, sputum sample was taken from the patient since he had abnormal respiratory sounds and cough complaint. In the Gram stained smear of the sputum there were abundant leucocytes and gram-positive cocci, and S.uberis was isolated in both 5% sheep blood and chocolate agar media. Bacterial identification and antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed by VITEK 2 (Biomerieux, France) and also, the bacterium was identified by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) based VITEK MS system as S.uberis. The isolate was determined susceptible to ampicillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, levofloxacin, linezolid, penicillin, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, tetracycline and vancomycin. 16S, 23S ribosomal RNA and 16S-23S intergenic spacer gene regions were amplified with specific primers and partial DNA sequence analysis of 16S

  18. Trichloroethylene Biodegradation by a Methane-Oxidizing Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Little, C. Deane; Palumbo, Anthony V.; Herbes, Stephen E.; Lidstrom, Mary E.; Tyndall, Richard L.; Gilmer, Penny J.

    1988-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE), a common groundwater contaminant, is a suspected carcinogen that is highly resistant to aerobic biodegradation. An aerobic, methane-oxidizing bacterium was isolated that degrades TCE in pure culture at concentrations commonly observed in contaminated groundwater. Strain 46-1, a type I methanotrophic bacterium, degraded TCE if grown on methane or methanol, producing CO2 and water-soluble products. Gas chromatography and 14C radiotracer techniques were used to determine the rate, methane dependence, and mechanism of TCE biodegradation. TCE biodegradation by strain 46-1 appears to be a cometabolic process that occurs when the organism is actively metabolizing a suitable growth substrate such as methane or methanol. It is proposed that TCE biodegradation by methanotrophs occurs by formation of TCE epoxide, which breaks down spontaneously in water to form dichloroacetic and glyoxylic acids and one-carbon products. Images PMID:16347616

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of the Cellulolytic Bacterium Clostridium papyrosolvens C7 (ATCC 700395).

    PubMed

    Zepeda, Veronica; Dassa, Bareket; Borovok, Ilya; Lamed, Raphael; Bayer, Edward A; Cate, Jamie H D

    2013-09-12

    We report the draft genome sequence of the cellulose-degrading bacterium Clostridium papyrosolvens C7, originally isolated from mud collected below a freshwater pond in Massachusetts. This Gram-positive bacterium grows in a mesophilic anaerobic environment with filter paper as the only carbon source, and it has a simple cellulosome system with multiple carbohydrate-degrading enzymes.

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of the Cellulolytic Bacterium Clostridium papyrosolvens C7 (ATCC 700395)

    PubMed Central

    Zepeda, Veronica; Dassa, Bareket; Borovok, Ilya; Lamed, Raphael; Bayer, Edward A.

    2013-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of the cellulose-degrading bacterium Clostridium papyrosolvens C7, originally isolated from mud collected below a freshwater pond in Massachusetts. This Gram-positive bacterium grows in a mesophilic anaerobic environment with filter paper as the only carbon source, and it has a simple cellulosome system with multiple carbohydrate-degrading enzymes. PMID:24029755

  1. Applications of a pnCCD detector coupled to columnar structure CsI(Tl) scintillator system in ultra high energy X-ray Laue diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokr, M.; Schlosser, D.; Abboud, A.; Algashi, A.; Tosson, A.; Conka, T.; Hartmann, R.; Klaus, M.; Genzel, C.; Strüder, L.; Pietsch, U.

    2017-12-01

    Most charge coupled devices (CCDs) are made of silicon (Si) with typical active layer thicknesses of several microns. In case of a pnCCD detector the sensitive Si thickness is 450 μm. However, for silicon based detectors the quantum efficiency for hard X-rays drops significantly for photon energies above 10 keV . This drawback can be overcome by combining a pixelated silicon-based detector system with a columnar scintillator. Here we report on the characterization of a low noise, fully depleted 128×128 pixels pnCCD detector with 75×75 μm2 pixel size coupled to a 700 μm thick columnar CsI(Tl) scintillator in the photon range between 1 keV to 130 keV . The excellent performance of the detection system in the hard X-ray range is demonstrated in a Laue type X-ray diffraction experiment performed at EDDI beamline of the BESSY II synchrotron taken at a set of several GaAs single crystals irradiated by white synchrotron radiation. With the columnar structure of the scintillator, the position resolution of the whole system reaches a value of less than one pixel. Using the presented detector system and considering the functional relation between indirect and direct photon events Laue diffraction peaks with X-ray energies up to 120 keV were efficiently detected. As one of possible applications of the combined CsI-pnCCD system we demonstrate that the accuracy of X-ray structure factors extracted from Laue diffraction peaks can be significantly improved in hard X-ray range using the combined CsI(Tl)-pnCCD system compared to a bare pnCCD.

  2. Preliminary analysis of columnar aerosol properties in relation to surface PM measurements in the DAMOCLES 2006 field campaign (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estelles, V.; Esteve, A.; Pey, J.; Martinez-Lozano, J. A.; Utrillas, M. P.; Querol, X.; de La Rosa, J.; Gonzalez-Castanedo, Y.; Alastuey, A.; Gangoiti, G.

    2009-04-01

    The DAMOCLES network is a Spanish thematic network, started in 2004, whose main objective is the establishment of a link among the different groups that perform research on atmospheric aerosols in Spain. Under the DAMOCLES coordination, a field campaign was held in summer 2006 at the INTA installations (El Arenosillo, Huelva) for the intercomparison of different kind of instruments devoted to in - situ and columnar aerosol measurement. During this field campaign, two daily meteorological soundings were carried out at noon and midnight for characterization of the atmospheric condition. A plane was also flown by the National Institute of Aerospace Technology (INTA) to carry airborne sensors for measuring different atmospheric factors: meteorological parameters, ozone with a 2BTech analyzer, and aerosol particle size distributions in the range (0.01-2) microns, by using a PCASP probe. The columnar aerosol properties were measured by seven CIMEL CE318 sun photometers. For in situ aerosol characterization, high volume collectors (DIGITEL and MCV) with DIGITEL for PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 measurement were used, with two cascade impactors for particulate matter measurement in 7 -8 granulometric fractions. For the PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 measurement, quartz fibre filters of 150 mm diameter were adapted. Other in situ deployed instruments were a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS, Model 3936), two Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS Model 3321) and one Grimm Spectrometer (Model #190). For characterization of the aerosol scattering at ground level, three integrating nephelometers TSI-3563 were used. For the columnar profiling we deployed five LIDAR instruments. In this study we have related the columnar aerosol measurements retrieved with one CE318 sun photometer to the surface PM measurements, mainly in some interesting situations where nearby pollution sources were influencing the local atmosphere. For the sun photometric analysis, we have applied the EuroSkyRad package (ESR

  3. Improved husbandry to control an outbreak of rainbow trout fry syndrome caused by infection with Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bebak, J.A.; Welch, T.J.; Starliper, C.E.; Baya, A.M.; Garner, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Case Description - A cohort of 35,200, 13-week-old, female rainbow trout at a fish farm was evaluated because of a 2-week history of anorexia and lethargy and a mortality rate of approximately 100 fish/d. Clinical Findings - Affected fish were lethargic and thin and had disequilibrium, bilateral exophthalmia, pale red gills and kidneys, red-tinged coelomic fluid, and pale brown livers. Some fish were differentially pigmented bilaterally. The presumptive diagnosis was bacterial or viral septicemia. The definitive diagnosis was rainbow trout fry syndrome caused by infection with Flavobacterium psychrophilum. Treatment and Outcome - A strategy for controlling the outbreak based on reducing pathogen numbers in affected tanks and reducing pathogen spread among tanks was developed. The option of treating with antimicrobial-medicated feed was discussed with the farmer, but was declined. After changes were made, mortality rate declined quickly, with no more deaths within 10 days after the initial farm visit. Clinical Relevance - Bacterial coldwater disease is the most common manifestation of infection with F psychrophilum in fingerling and adult rainbow trout. However, the organism can also cause rainbow trout fry syndrome. This condition should be included on a list of differential diagnoses for septicemia in hatchery-reared rainbow trout fry.

  4. Survival of vaccinated,feed-trained largemouth bass fry (Micropterus Salmoides Floridanus) during natural exposure to Flavobacterium columnare

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides floridanus; Centrarchidae) are often reared in government hatchery programs, then stocked to supplement wild fish populations. After the eggs obtained from broodstock are hatched, fry are stocked into ponds to feed on zooplankton and other small invertebrates....

  5. Overproduction of Hydrogen From an Anaerobic Bacterium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    fixation of nitrogen ( Haber - Bosch process), mostly to produce fertilizer. Nitrogenase provides a catalytic alternative to the commercial fixation of...the culture and suggests a uniquely simple hydrogen reactor design based on renewable feedstocks. 1. INTRODUCTION Hydrogen is an ideal... renewable feedstocks. Clostridium phytofermentans is a recently- discovered anaerobic bacterium, reported to possess cellulase enzymes that degrade

  6. Protection against Flavobacterium psychrophilum infection (cold water disease) in Ayu fish (Plecoglossus altivelis) by oral administration of humus extract.

    PubMed

    NAKAGAWA, Jun; IWASAKI, Tadashi; KODAMA, Hiroshi

    2009-11-01

    Humic substances are formed during the decomposition of organic matter in humus, and are found in many natural environments in which organic materials and microorganisms have been present. In the present study, oral administration of humus extract to ayu fish (Plecoglossus altivelis) induced effective protection against experimental Flavobacterium psychrophilum infection (cold water disease). Mortality of fish and development of skin lesions, such as erosion and hemorrhages on the skin, gill cover or mouth, were significantly suppressed in fish treated with 10%, 5% or 1% humus extract adsorbed on dry pellets. Although F. psychrophilum was not re-isolated from gills and erosion lesions of the skin of dead fish, bacterial gyrB DNA could be amplified in these specimens from dead fish and surviving control fish using the polymerase chain reaction. The protective effect of the extract was not the results of direct killing of bacteria or antibiotic activity of the extract since no obvious reduction in the bacterial number was observed at 5 times to 5,000 times dilution of the humus extract having pH 5.45 to 7.40. These results clearly show that treating fish with humus extract is effective in preventing cold water disease.

  7. Determination of phenanthrene bioavailability by using a self-dying reporter bacterium: test with model solids and soil.

    PubMed

    Shin, Doyun; Nam, Kyoungphile

    2012-02-20

    The present study was conducted to investigate the performance and feasibility of a self-dying reporter bacterium to visualize and quantify phenanthrene bioavailability in soil. The self-dying reporter bacterium was designed to die on the initiation of phenanthrene biodegradation. The viability of the reporter bacterium was determined by a fluorescence live/dead cell staining method and visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopic observation. Phenanthrene was spiked into four types of model solids and a sandy loam. The bioavailability of phenanthrene to the reporter bacterium was remarkably declined with the hydrophobicity of the model solids: essentially no phenanthrene was biodegraded in the presence of 9-nm pores and about 35.8% of initial phenanthrene was biodegraded without pores. Decrease in bioavailability was not evident in the nonporous hydrophilic bead, but a small decrease was observed in the porous hydrophilic bead at 1000 mg/kg of phenanthrene. The fluorescence intensity was commensurate with the extent of phenanthrene biodegradation by the reporter bacterium at the concentration range from 50 to 500 mg/kg. Such a quantitative relationship was also confirmed with a sandy loam spiked up to 1000 mg/kg of phenanthrene. This reporter bacterium may be a useful means to determine phenanthrene bioavailability in soil. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Phosphate enhances levan production in the endophytic bacterium Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5

    PubMed Central

    Idogawa, Nao; Amamoto, Ryuta; Murata, Kousaku; Kawai, Shigeyuki

    2014-01-01

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a gram-negative and endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacterium that has several beneficial effects in host plants; thus, utilization of this bacterium as a biofertilizer in agriculture may be possible. G. diazotrophicus synthesizes levan, a D-fructofuranosyl polymer with β-(2→6) linkages, as an exopolysaccharide and the synthesized levan improves the stress tolerance of the bacterium. In this study, we found that phosphate enhances levan production by G. diazotrophicus Pal5, a wild type strain that showed a stronger mucous phenotype on solid medium containing 28 mM phosphate than on solid medium containing 7 mM phosphate. A G. diazotrophicus Pal5 levansucrase disruptant showed only a weak mucous phenotype regardless of the phosphate concentration, indicating that the mucous phenotype observed on 28 mM phosphate medium was caused by levan. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the effect of a high concentration of phosphate on exopolysaccharide production. PMID:24717418

  9. Materials Science Laboratory - Columnar-to-Equiaxed Transition in Solidification Processing and Microstructure Formation in Casting of Technical Alloys under Diffusive and Magnetically Controlled Convective Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gandin, Charles-Andre; Ratke, Lorenz

    2008-01-01

    The Materials Science Laboratory - Columnar-to-Equiaxed Transition in Solidification Processing and Microstructure Formation in Casting of Technical Alloys under Diffusive and Magnetically Controlled Convective Conditions (MSL-CETSOL and MICAST) are two investigations which supports research into metallurgical solidification, semiconductor crystal growth (Bridgman and zone melting), and measurement of thermo-physical properties of materials. This is a cooperative investigation with the European Space Agency (ESA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for accommodation and operation aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Research Summary: Materials Science Laboratory - Columnar-to-Equiaxed Transition in Solidification Processing (CETSOL) and Microstructure Formation in Casting of Technical Alloys under Diffusive and Magnetically Controlled Convective Conditions (MICAST) are two complementary investigations which will examine different growth patterns and evolution of microstructures during crystallization of metallic alloys in microgravity. The aim of these experiments is to deepen the quantitative understanding of the physical principles that govern solidification processes in cast alloys by directional solidification.

  10. Feral livestock threatens landscapes dominated by columnar cacti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malo, J. E.; Acebes, P.; Giannoni, S. M.; Traba, J.

    2011-05-01

    The introduction and naturalization of alien species represents a serious threat to many natural protected areas. One such case of worldwide concern is the impact of feral livestock on arid ecosystems. Damage suffered by Echinopsis (= Trichocereus) terscheckii dominating the landscape of rocky slopes was surveyed in seven locations within the Ischigualasto-Talampaya World Heritage Site (Argentina) by measuring the frequency, position on the plant and extent of damage. At the same time we employed transects to estimate the abundance of autochtonous and feral large herbivores ( Lama guanicoe, Bos taurus, Equus asinus) from their dung. Our results show relatively high damage levels (40-77% of individuals damaged, more than 5 dm 3 removed by plant in some sites), particularly within 0.50-1.75 m above the ground, showing herbivores to be the main responsible for them. We also found significant differences between sites in variables measuring damage level and in the intensity of use by the two feral livestock species but not by guanacos. The frequency of damaged cacti below 1.75 m (but not above) was significantly positively correlated among locations with the frequencies of cattle and donkey dung, and the damage suffered by individual cacti was also correlated with donkey and cattle dung in their surroundings after correcting for spatial effects. However, all correlations were non-significant in the case of guanacos. We conclude that the continued presence of feral livestock, particularly donkeys, leads to damages to columnar cacti with potential effects on their populations and the physiognomy of this protected landscape.

  11. [Diversity analysis of desulfuration bacterium from the oxidation ditch of city sewage treatment plant with SO2 gas].

    PubMed

    Huang, Bing; Zhang, Shi-Ling; Zhang, Jiang-Hong; Ao, Yong; Shi, Zhe

    2011-07-01

    A group of removing SO2 bacterium was obtained from the oxidation ditch of city sewage treatment plant by inductive domestication over 6 d with low concentration SO2 gas, and they have an ability with biodegradation rate of 888 mg x (L x h)(-1) and a degradation efficiency of 85% during 1.5 h for SO2 dissolved in water with their synergy. The clone library and two phylogenetic trees of the removing SO2 bacterium communities were obtained based on 16S rRNA DNA comparison by DNA extraction of the sample and in situ polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The phylogenetic analysis showed that 8 dominant desulfuration bacterium occupy about 69% of all removing SO2 bacterium, and some of them have a kindred with discovered desulfuration bacterium but not homogeneity, and there are four belong to alpha-Proteobacteria, another four belong to beta-Proteobacteria in them. The gene information about 16S rRNA sequence of the dominant desulfuration bacteria and domestication method provide a basic of looking for or domesticating removing SO2 bacterium for development microbial desulfurization technology of contained SO2 tail gas.

  12. Characterization of a bacterium of the genus Azospirillum from cellulolytic nitrogen-fixing mixed cultures.

    PubMed

    Wong, P P; Stenberg, N E; Edgar, L

    1980-03-01

    A bacterium with the taxonomic characteristics of the genus Azospirillum was isolated from celluloytic N2-fixing mixed cultures. Its characteristics fit the descriptions of both Azopirillum lipoferum (Beijerinck) comb. nov. and Azospirillum brasilense sp. nov. It may be a variant strain of A. lipoferum. In mixed cultures with cellulolytic organisms, the bacterium grew and fixed N2 with cellelose as a sole source of energy and carbon. The mixed cultures used cellulose from leaves of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), corn (Zea mays L.), and big bluestem grass (Andropogon gerardii Vitm). Microaerophilic N2-fixing bacteria of the genus Azospirillum, such as the bacterium we isolated, may be important contributors of fixed N2 in soil with partial anaerobiosis and cellulose decomposition.

  13. Biofilm Formation by a Metabolically Versatile Bacterium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-02

    Rhodopseudomonas palustris is a photosynthetic bacterium that has good potential to be developed as a biocatalyst for the production of hydrogen, a...A for none) Samanta, S. K and C. S. Harwood. 2005. Use of the Rhodopseudomonas palustris genome to identify a single amino acid that contributes to...operon from Rhodopseudomonas palustris mediates dicarboxylic acid degradation and participates in anaerobic benzoate degradation. Microbiology 151

  14. Diverse C-Terminal Sequences Involved in Flavobacterium johnsoniae Protein Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Surashree S.; Zhu, Yongtao; Brendel, Colton J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Flavobacterium johnsoniae and many related bacteria secrete proteins across the outer membrane using the type IX secretion system (T9SS). Proteins secreted by T9SSs have amino-terminal signal peptides for export across the cytoplasmic membrane by the Sec system and carboxy-terminal domains (CTDs) targeting them for secretion across the outer membrane by the T9SS. Most but not all T9SS CTDs belong to the family TIGR04183 (type A CTDs). We functionally characterized diverse CTDs for secretion by the F. johnsoniae T9SS. Attachment of the CTDs from F. johnsoniae RemA, AmyB, and ChiA to the foreign superfolder green fluorescent protein (sfGFP) that had a signal peptide at the amino terminus resulted in secretion across the outer membrane. In each case, approximately 80 to 100 amino acids from the extreme carboxy termini were needed for efficient secretion. Several type A CTDs from distantly related members of the phylum Bacteroidetes functioned in F. johnsoniae, supporting the secretion of sfGFP by the F. johnsoniae T9SS. F. johnsoniae SprB requires the T9SS for secretion but lacks a type A CTD. It has a conserved C-terminal domain belonging to the family TIGR04131, which we refer to as a type B CTD. The CTD of SprB was required for its secretion, but attachment of C-terminal regions of SprB of up to 1,182 amino acids to sfGFP failed to result in secretion. Additional features outside the C-terminal region of SprB may be required for its secretion. IMPORTANCE Type IX protein secretion systems (T9SSs) are common in but limited to members of the phylum Bacteroidetes. Most proteins that are secreted by T9SSs have conserved carboxy-terminal domains that belong to the protein domain family TIGR04183 (type A CTDs) or TIGR04131 (type B CTDs). Here, we identify features of T9SS CTDs of F. johnsoniae that are required for protein secretion and demonstrate that type A CTDs from distantly related members of the phylum function with the F. johnsoniae T9SS to secrete the

  15. Columnar travertines: bio-influenced genesis, Porcelana Geysers, Northern Patagonia, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, B. S.; Morata, D.; Díez, B.; Daniele, L.

    2017-12-01

    Porcelana Geysers are located on the slopes of Barranco Colorado volcano, southern Chile, and is characterized by having a lateral hydrothermal fluid transport and an important CO2 content, having high gas exsolution rates on the surface at temperatures above 80°C. But it does not seem to be enough to explain the genesis of columnar travertines more than 3 meters high, considering that precipitation rates counteracts erosive rates due to rainy climate of the zone and the high slope gradient (>10 mm/h). The presence of extremophilic microbial diversity could explain this exceptional travertine morphology, particularly Phyla Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Order Thermales, which is evidenced by the vast visible presence of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), reducing conditions in hot springs waters, microscopic and macroscopic textures and isotopic compositions of travertines, which are lower than the values that thermogenic travertines usually present (δ13C values from -4.85‰ to -3.37‰). These biotic processes would increase total dissolved gas pressure and [CO2]AQ values (over 0.05 mmol/L), and hence making the hydrostatic and bubbling pressure lower in the geysers vent fluids, which increases the amount of bubbles and their size and precipitation total rate of calcium carbonate (about 0.003 mm/h)

  16. Boron nitride nanotube-based biosensing of various bacterium/viruses: continuum modelling-based simulation approach.

    PubMed

    Panchal, Mitesh B; Upadhyay, Sanjay H

    2014-09-01

    In this study, the feasibility of single walled boron nitride nanotube (SWBNNT)-based biosensors has been ensured considering the continuum modelling-based simulation approach, for mass-based detection of various bacterium/viruses. Various types of bacterium or viruses have been taken into consideration at the free-end of the cantilevered configuration of the SWBNNT, as a biosensor. Resonant frequency shift-based analysis has been performed with the adsorption of various bacterium/viruses considered as additional mass to the SWBNNT-based sensor system. The continuum mechanics-based analytical approach, considering effective wall thickness has been considered to validate the finite element method (FEM)-based simulation results, based on continuum volume-based modelling of the SWBNNT. As a systematic analysis approach, the FEM-based simulation results are found in excellent agreement with the analytical results, to analyse the SWBNNTs for their wide range of applications such as nanoresonators, biosensors, gas-sensors, transducers and so on. The obtained results suggest that by using the SWBNNT of smaller size the sensitivity of the sensor system can be enhanced and detection of the bacterium/virus having mass of 4.28 × 10⁻²⁴ kg can be effectively performed.

  17. Structural and optical properties of glancing angle deposited In2O3 columnar arrays and Si/In2O3 photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, A.; Shougaijam, B.; Goswami, T.; Dhar, J. C.; Singh, N. K.; Choudhury, S.; Chattopadhay, K. K.

    2014-04-01

    Ordered and perpendicular columnar arrays of In2O3 were synthesized on conducting ITO electrode by a simple glancing angle deposition (GLAD) technique. The as-deposited In2O3 columns were investigated by field emission gun-scanning electron microscope (FEG-SEM). The average length and diameter of the columns were estimated ˜400 nm and ˜100 nm, respectively. The morphology of the structure was examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis shows the polycrystalline nature of the sample which was verified by selective area electron diffraction (SAED) analysis. The growth mechanism and optical properties of the columns were also discussed. Optical absorption shows that In2O3 columns have a high band to band transition at ˜3.75 eV. The ultraviolet and green emissions were obtained from the In2O3 columnar arrays. The P-N junction was formed between In2O3 and P-type Si substrate. The GLAD synthesized In2O3 film exhibits low current conduction compared to In2O3 TF. However, the Si/GLAD-In2O3 detector shows ˜1.5 times enhanced photoresponsivity than that of Si/In2O3 TF.

  18. Biochemical investigations and mapping of the calcium-binding sites of heparinase I from Flavobacterium heparinum.

    PubMed

    Shriver, Z; Liu, D; Hu, Y; Sasisekharan, R

    1999-02-12

    The heparinases from Flavobacterium heparinum are lyases that specifically cleave heparin-like glycosaminoglycans. Previously, amino acids located in the active site of heparinase I have been identified and mapped. In an effort to further understand the mechanism by which heparinase I cleaves its polymer substrate, we sought to understand the role of calcium, as a necessary cofactor, in the enzymatic activity of heparinase I. Specifically, we undertook a series of biochemical and biophysical experiments to answer the question of whether heparinase I binds to calcium and, if so, which regions of the protein are involved in calcium binding. Using the fluorescent calcium analog terbium, we found that heparinase I tightly bound divalent and trivalent cations. Furthermore, we established that this interaction was specific for ions that closely approximate the ionic radius of calcium. Through the use of the modification reagents N-ethyl-5-phenylisoxazolium-3'-sulfonate (Woodward's reagent K) and 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride, we showed that the interaction between heparinase I and calcium was essential for proper functioning of the enzyme. Preincubation with either calcium alone or calcium in the presence of heparin was able to protect the enzyme from inactivation by these modifying reagents. In addition, through mapping studies of Woodward's reagent K-modified heparinase I, we identified two putative calcium-binding sites, CB-1 (Glu207-Ala219) and CB-2 (Thr373-Arg384), in heparinase I that not only are specifically modified by Woodward's reagent K, leading to loss of enzymatic activity, but also conform to the calcium-coordinating consensus motif.

  19. Effect of arsenite-oxidizing bacterium B. laterosporus on arsenite toxicity and arsenic translocation in rice seedlings.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gui-Di; Xie, Wan-Ying; Zhu, Xi; Huang, Yi; Yang, Xiao-Jun; Qiu, Zong-Qing; Lv, Zhen-Mao; Wang, Wen-Na; Lin, Wen-Xiong

    2015-10-01

    Arsenite [As (III)] oxidation can be accelerated by bacterial catalysis, but the effects of the accelerated oxidation on arsenic toxicity and translocation in rice plants are poorly understood. Herein we investigated how an arsenite-oxidizing bacterium, namely Brevibacillus laterosporus, influences As (III) toxicity and translocation in rice plants. Rice seedlings of four cultivars, namely Guangyou Ming 118 (GM), Teyou Hang II (TH), Shanyou 63 (SY) and Minghui 63 (MH), inoculated with or without the bacterium were grown hydroponically with As (III) to investigate its effects on arsenic toxicity and translocation in the plants. Percentages of As (III) oxidation in the solutions with the bacterium (100%) were all significantly higher than those without (30-72%). The addition of the bacterium significantly decreased As (III) concentrations in SY root, GM root and shoot, while increased the As (III) concentrations in the shoot of SY, MH and TH and in the root of MH. Furthermore, the As (III) concentrations in the root and shoot of SY were both the lowest among the treatments with the bacterium. On the other hand, its addition significantly alleviated the As (III) toxicity on four rice cultivars. Among the treatments amended with B. laterosporus, the bacterium showed the best remediation on SY seedlings, with respect to the subdued As (III) toxicity and decreased As (III) concentration in its roots. These results indicated that As (III) oxidation accelerated by B. laterosporus could be an effective method to alleviate As (III) toxicity on rice seedlings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of a novel extremely alkalophilic bacterium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Souza, K. A.; Deal, P. H.

    1977-01-01

    A new alkalophilic bacterium, isolated from a natural spring of high pH is characterized. It is a Gram-positive, non-sporulating, motile rod requiring aerobic and alkaline conditions for growth. The characteristics of this organism resemble those of the coryneform group of bacteria; however, there are no accepted genera within this group with which this organism can be closely matched. Therefore, a new genus may be warranted.

  1. Extracellular nucleic acids of the marine bacterium Rhodovulum sulfidophilum and recombinant RNA production technology using bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Yo; Umekage, So

    2018-02-01

    Extracellular nucleic acids of high molecular weight are detected ubiquitously in seawater. Recent studies have indicated that these nucleic acids are, at least in part, derived from active production by some bacteria. The marine bacterium Rhodovulum sulfidophilum is one of those bacteria. Rhodovulumsulfidophilum is a non-sulfur phototrophic marine bacterium that is known to form structured communities of cells called flocs, and to produce extracellular nucleic acids in culture media. Recently, it has been revealed that this bacterium produces gene transfer agent-like particles and that this particle production may be related to the extracellular nucleic acid production mechanism. This review provides a summary of recent physiological and genetic studies of these phenomena and also introduces a new method for extracellular production of artificial and biologically functional RNAs using this bacterium. In addition, artificial RNA production using Escherichia coli, which is related to this topic, will also be described. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of the p-Nitrophenol-Degrading Bacterium Pseudomonas putida DLL-E4

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaojun; Wang, Jue; Wang, Fei; Chen, Qiongzhen; Huang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    The first complete genome sequence of a p-nitrophenol (PNP)-degrading bacterium is reported here. Pseudomonas putida DLL-E4, a Gram-negative bacterium isolated from methyl-parathion-polluted soil, can utilize PNP as the sole carbon and nitrogen source. P. putida DLL-E4 has a 6,484,062 bp circular chromosome that contains 5,894 genes, with a G+C content of 62.46%. PMID:24948765

  3. Pathogenicity of Moraxella osloensis, a bacterium associated with the nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita, to the slug Deroceras reticulatum.

    PubMed

    Tan, L; Grewal, P S

    2001-11-01

    Moraxella osloensis, a gram-negative bacterium, is associated with Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita, a nematode parasite of slugs. This bacterium-feeding nematode has potential for the biological control of slugs, especially the grey garden slug, Deroceras reticulatum. Infective juveniles of P. hermaphrodita invade the shell cavity of the slug, develop into self-fertilizing hermaphrodites, and produce progeny, resulting in host death. However, the role of the associated bacterium in the pathogenicity of the nematode to the slug is unknown. We discovered that M. osloensis alone is pathogenic to D. reticulatum after injection into the shell cavity or hemocoel of the slug. The bacteria from 60-h cultures were more pathogenic than the bacteria from 40-h cultures, as indicated by the higher and more rapid mortality of the slugs injected with the former. Coinjection of penicillin and streptomycin with the 60-h bacterial culture reduced its pathogenicity to the slug. Further work suggested that the reduction and loss of pathogenicity of the aged infective juveniles of P. hermaphrodita to D. reticulatum result from the loss of M. osloensis from the aged nematodes. Also, axenic J1/J2 nematodes were nonpathogenic after injection into the shell cavity. Therefore, we conclude that the bacterium is the sole killing agent of D. reticulatum in the nematode-bacterium complex and that P. hermaphrodita acts only as a vector to transport the bacterium into the shell cavity of the slug. The identification of the toxic metabolites produced by M. osloensis is being pursued.

  4. A technique for evaluating the influence of spatial sampling on the determination of global mean total columnar ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolson, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    A technique is described for providing a means of evaluating the influence of spatial sampling on the determination of global mean total columnar ozone. A finite number of coefficients in the expansion are determined, and the truncated part of the expansion is shown to contribute an error to the estimate, which depends strongly on the spatial sampling and is relatively insensitive to data noise. First and second order statistics are derived for each term in a spherical harmonic expansion which represents the ozone field, and the statistics are used to estimate systematic and random errors in the estimates of total ozone.

  5. Cycling Performance of a Columnar-Structured Complex Perovskite in a Temperature Gradient Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlegel, N.; Sebold, D.; Sohn, Y. J.; Mauer, G.; Vaßen, R.

    2015-10-01

    To increase the efficiency of turbines for the power generation and the aircraft industry, advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are required. They need to be long-term stable at temperatures higher than 1200 °C. Nowadays, yttria partially stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is applied as standard TBC material. But its long-term application at temperatures higher than 1200 °C leads to detrimental phase changes and sintering effects. Therefore, new materials have to be investigated, for example, complex perovskites. They provide high melting points, high thermal expansion coefficients and thermal conductivities of approx. 2.0 W/(m K). In this work, the complex perovskite La(Al1/4Mg1/2Ta1/4)O3 (LAMT) was investigated. It was deposited by the suspension plasma spraying (SPS) process, resulting in a columnar microstructure of the coating. The coatings were tested in thermal cycling gradient tests and they show excellent results, even though some phase decomposition was found.

  6. Enabling electrolyte compositions for columnar silicon anodes in high energy secondary batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piwko, Markus; Thieme, Sören; Weller, Christine; Althues, Holger; Kaskel, Stefan

    2017-09-01

    Columnar silicon structures are proven as high performance anodes for high energy batteries paired with low (sulfur) or high (nickel-cobalt-aluminum oxide, NCA) voltage cathodes. The introduction of a fluorinated ether/sulfolane solvent mixture drastically improves the capacity retention for both battery types due to an improved solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on the surface of the silicon electrode which reduces irreversible reactions normally causing lithium loss and rapid capacity fading. For the lithium silicide/sulfur battery cycling stability is significantly improved as compared to a frequently used reference electrolyte (DME/DOL) reaching a constant coulombic efficiency (CE) as high as 98%. For the silicon/NCA battery with higher voltage, the addition of only small amounts of fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) to the novel electrolyte leads to a stable capacity over at least 50 cycles and a CE as high as 99.9%. A high volumetric energy density close to 1000 Wh l-1 was achieved with the new electrolyte taking all inactive components of the stack into account for the estimation.

  7. Halomonas maura is a physiologically versatile bacterium of both ecological and biotechnological interest.

    PubMed

    Llamas, Inmaculada; del Moral, Ana; Martínez-Checa, Fernando; Arco, Yolanda; Arias, Soledad; Quesada, Emilia

    2006-01-01

    Halomonas maura is a bacterium of great metabolic versatility. We summarise in this work some of the properties that make it a very interesting microorganism both from an ecological and biotechnological point of view. It plays an active role in the nitrogen cycle, is capable of anaerobic respiration in the presence of nitrate and has recently been identified as a diazotrophic bacterium. Of equal interest is mauran, the exopolysaccharide produced by H. maura, which contributes to the formation of biofilms and thus affords the bacterium advantages in the colonisation of its saline niches. Mauran is highly viscous, shows thixotropic and pseudoplastic behaviour, has the capacity to capture heavy metals and exerts a certain immunomodulator effect in medicine. All these attributes have prompted us to make further investigations into its molecular characteristics. To date we have described 15 open reading frames (ORF's) related to exopolysaccharide production, nitrogen fixation and nitrate reductase activity among others.

  8. Deinococcus mumbaiensis sp. nov., a radiation-resistant pleomorphic bacterium isolated from Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Shashidhar, Ravindranath; Bandekar, Jayant R

    2006-01-01

    A radiation-resistant, Gram-negative and pleomorphic bacterium (CON-1) was isolated from a contaminated tryptone glucose yeast extract agar plate in the laboratory. It was red pigmented, nonmotile, nonsporulating, and aerobic, and contained MK-8 as respiratory quinone. The cell wall of this bacterium contained ornithine. The major fatty acids were C16:0, C16:1, C17:0, C18:1 and iso C18:0. The DNA of CON-1 had a G+C content of 70 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that CON-1 exhibited a maximum similarity (94.72%) with Deinococcus grandis. Based on the genotypic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, the bacterium CON-1 was identified as a new species of the genus Deinococcus, for which the name Deinococcus mumbaiensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of D. mumbaiensis is CON-1 (MTCC 7297(T)=DSM 17424(T)).

  9. From Genome to Function: Systematic Analysis of the Soil Bacterium Bacillus Subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Crawshaw, Samuel G.; Wipat, Anil

    2001-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis is a sporulating Gram-positive bacterium that lives primarily in the soil and associated water sources. Whilst this bacterium has been studied extensively in the laboratory, relatively few studies have been undertaken to study its activity in natural environments. The publication of the B. subtilis genome sequence and subsequent systematic functional analysis programme have provided an opportunity to develop tools for analysing the role and expression of Bacillus genes in situ. In this paper we discuss analytical approaches that are being developed to relate genes to function in environments such as the rhizosphere. PMID:18628943

  10. Micron-sized columnar grains of CH3NH3PbI3 grown by solvent-vapor assisted low-temperature (75 °C) solid-state reaction: The role of non-coordinating solvent-vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Huifeng; Liu, Yangqiao; Sun, Jing

    2018-04-01

    The preparation of hybrid perovskite films with large columnar grains via low-temperature solid-state reaction remains a big challenge. Conventional solvent annealing using DMF, DMSO and ethanol, etc. fails to work effectively at low temperature (<100 °C). Here, we comprehensively investigated the effects of non-coordinating solvent vapor on the properties of perovskite film, and obtained micron-sized columnar grains (with an average grain size of 1.4 μm) of CH3NH3PbI3 even at a low temperature of 75 °C when annealed with benzyl alcohol vapor. The perovskite solar cells based on benzyl-alcohol-vapor annealing (75 °C), delivered much higher photovoltaic performance, better stability and smaller hysteresis than those based on conventional thermal annealing. Additionally, a champion power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.1% was obtained and the average PCE reached 12.2% with a tiny deviation. Finally, the mechanism of solvent annealing with non-coordinating solvent was discussed. Moreover, we revealed that high polarity and high boiling point of the solvent used for generating vapor, was critical to grow micron-sized columnar grains at such a low temperature (75 °C). This work will contribute to understanding the mechanism of grain growth in solvent annealing and improving its facility and effectiveness.

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of a thermotolerant sporogenic lactic acid bacterium, Bacillus coagulans strain 36D1

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Gary; Dalin, Eileen; Tice, Hope

    Bacillus coagulans is a ubiquitous soil bacterium that grows at 50-55 C and pH 5.0 and fer-ments various sugars that constitute plant biomass to L (+)-lactic acid. The ability of this sporogenic lactic acid bacterium to grow at 50-55 C and pH 5.0 makes this organism an attractive microbial biocatalyst for production of optically pure lactic acid at industrial scale not only from glucose derived from cellulose but also from xylose, a major constituent of hemi-cellulose. This bacterium is also considered as a potential probiotic. Complete genome squence of a representative strain, B. coagulans strain 36D1, is presented and discussed.

  12. Genome Sequence of the Soil Bacterium Janthinobacterium sp. KBS0711

    PubMed Central

    Shoemaker, William R.; Muscarella, Mario E.

    2015-01-01

    We present a draft genome of Janthinobacterium sp. KBS0711 that was isolated from agricultural soil. The genome provides insight into the ecological strategies of this bacterium in free-living and host-associated environments. PMID:26089434

  13. Structure and morphology of magnetite anaerobically-produced by a marine magnetotactic bacterium and a dissimilatory iron-reducing bacterium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparks, N.H.C.; Mann, S.; Bazylinski, D.A.; Lovley, D.R.; Jannasch, H.W.; Frankel, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    Intracellular crystals of magnetite synthesized by cells of the magnetotactic vibroid organism, MV-1, and extracellular crystals of magnetite produced by the non-magnetotactic dissimilatory iron-reducing bacterium strain GS-15, were examined using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction and 57Fe Mo??ssbauer spectroscopy. The magnetotactic bacterium contained a single chain of approximately 10 crystals aligned along the long axis of the cell. The crystals were essentially pure stoichiometric magnetite. When viewed along the crystal long axis the particles had a hexagonal cross-section whereas side-on they appeared as rectangules or truncated rectangles of average dimension, 53 ?? 35 nm. These findings are explained in terms of a three-dimensional morphology comprising a hexagonal prism of {110} faces which are capped and truncated by {111} end faces. Electron diffraction and lattice imaging studies indicated that the particles were structurally well-defined single crystals. In contrast, magnetite particles produced by the strain, GS-15 were irregular in shape and had smaller mean dimensions (14 nm). Single crystals were imaged but these were not of high structural perfection. These results highlight the influence of intracellular control on the crystallochemical specificity of bacterial magnetites. The characterization of these crystals is important in aiding the identification of biogenic magnetic materials in paleomagnetism and in studies of sediment magnetization. ?? 1990.

  14. A new spectroscopic imager for X-rays from 0.5 keV to 150 keV combining a pnCCD and a columnar CsI(Tl) scintillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlosser, D. M.; Hartmann, R.; Kalok, D.; Bechteler, A.; Abboud, A.; Shokr, M.; Çonka, T.; Pietsch, U.; Strüder, L.

    2017-04-01

    By combining a low noise fully depleted pnCCD detector with a columnar CsI(Tl) scintillator an energy dispersive spatial resolving detector can be realized with a high quantum efficiency in the range from below 0.5 keV to above 150 keV. The used scintillator system increases the pulse height of gamma-rays converted in the CsI(Tl), due to focusing properties of the columnar scintillator structure by reducing the event size in indirect detection mode (conversion in the scintillator). In case of direct detection (conversion in the silicon of the pnCCD) the relative energy resolution is 0.7% at 122 keV (FWHM = 850 eV) and the spatial resolution is less than 75 μm. In case of indirect detection the relative energy resolution, integrated over all event sizes is about 9% at 122 keV with an expected spatial precision of below 75 μm.

  15. Transcriptome analysis of the rhizosphere bacterium Azospirillum brasilense reveals an extensive auxin response.

    PubMed

    Van Puyvelde, Sandra; Cloots, Lore; Engelen, Kristof; Das, Frederik; Marchal, Kathleen; Vanderleyden, Jos; Spaepen, Stijn

    2011-05-01

    The rhizosphere bacterium Azospirillum brasilense produces the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) through the indole-3-pyruvate pathway. As we previously demonstrated that transcription of the indole-3-pyruvate decarboxylase (ipdC) gene is positively regulated by IAA, produced by A. brasilense itself or added exogenously, we performed a microarray analysis to study the overall effects of IAA on the transcriptome of A. brasilense. The transcriptomes of A. brasilense wild-type and the ipdC knockout mutant, both cultured in the absence and presence of exogenously added IAA, were compared.Interfering with the IAA biosynthesis/homeostasis in A. brasilense through inactivation of the ipdC gene or IAA addition results in much broader transcriptional changes than anticipated. Based on the multitude of changes observed by comparing the different transcriptomes, we can conclude that IAA is a signaling molecule in A. brasilense. It appears that the bacterium, when exposed to IAA, adapts itself to the plant rhizosphere, by changing its arsenal of transport proteins and cell surface proteins. A striking example of adaptation to IAA exposure, as happens in the rhizosphere, is the upregulation of a type VI secretion system (T6SS) in the presence of IAA. The T6SS is described as specifically involved in bacterium-eukaryotic host interactions. Additionally, many transcription factors show an altered regulation as well, indicating that the regulatory machinery of the bacterium is changing.

  16. Pathogenicity of Moraxella osloensis, a Bacterium Associated with the Nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita, to the Slug Deroceras reticulatum

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Li; Grewal, Parwinder S.

    2001-01-01

    Moraxella osloensis, a gram-negative bacterium, is associated with Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita, a nematode parasite of slugs. This bacterium-feeding nematode has potential for the biological control of slugs, especially the grey garden slug, Deroceras reticulatum. Infective juveniles of P. hermaphrodita invade the shell cavity of the slug, develop into self-fertilizing hermaphrodites, and produce progeny, resulting in host death. However, the role of the associated bacterium in the pathogenicity of the nematode to the slug is unknown. We discovered that M. osloensis alone is pathogenic to D. reticulatum after injection into the shell cavity or hemocoel of the slug. The bacteria from 60-h cultures were more pathogenic than the bacteria from 40-h cultures, as indicated by the higher and more rapid mortality of the slugs injected with the former. Coinjection of penicillin and streptomycin with the 60-h bacterial culture reduced its pathogenicity to the slug. Further work suggested that the reduction and loss of pathogenicity of the aged infective juveniles of P. hermaphrodita to D. reticulatum result from the loss of M. osloensis from the aged nematodes. Also, axenic J1/J2 nematodes were nonpathogenic after injection into the shell cavity. Therefore, we conclude that the bacterium is the sole killing agent of D. reticulatum in the nematode-bacterium complex and that P. hermaphrodita acts only as a vector to transport the bacterium into the shell cavity of the slug. The identification of the toxic metabolites produced by M. osloensis is being pursued. PMID:11679319

  17. Understanding the interaction between an obligate hyperparasitic bacterium, Pasteuria penetrans and its obligate plant-parasitic nematode host, Meloidogyne spp.

    PubMed

    Davies, Keith G

    2009-01-01

    Pasteuria penetrans is an endospore-forming bacterium, which is a hyperparasite of root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne spp. that are economically important pests of a wide range of crops. The life cycle of the bacterium and nematode are described with emphasis on the bacterium's potential as a biocontrol agent. Two aspects that currently prohibit the commercial development of the bacterium as a biocontrol agent are the inability to culture it outside its host and its host specificity. Vegetative growth of the bacterium is possible in vitro; however, getting the vegetative stages of the bacterium to enter sporogenesis has been problematic. Insights from genomic survey sequences regarding the role of cation concentration and the phosphorylation of Spo0F have proved useful in inducing vegetative bacteria to sporulate. Similarly, genomic data have also proved useful in understanding the attachment of endospores to the cuticle of infective nematode juveniles, and a Velcro-like model of spore attachment is proposed that involves collagen-like fibres on the surface of the endospore interacting with mucins on the nematode cuticle. Ecological studies of the interactions between Daphnia and Pasteuria ramosa are examined and similarities are drawn between the co-evolution of virulence in the Daphnia system and that of plant-parasitic nematodes.

  18. Description of a bacterium associated with redmouth disease of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, A.J.; Rucker, R.R.; Ewing, W.H.

    1966-01-01

    A description was given of a gram-negative, peritrichously flagellated, fermentative bacterium that was isolated on numerous occasions from kidney tissues of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) afflicted with redmouth disease. Although the bacteria apparently were members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, it was impossible to determine their taxonomic position within the family with certainty. Hence it was recommended that their taxonomic position remain sub judice for the present. As a temporary designation RM bacterium was used. Redmouth disease was transmitted from infected to normal fish through the medium of water.

  19. Cadherin Domains in the Polysaccharide-Degrading Marine Bacterium Saccharophagus degradans 2-40 Are Carbohydrate-Binding Modules▿

    PubMed Central

    Fraiberg, Milana; Borovok, Ilya; Bayer, Edward A.; Weiner, Ronald M.; Lamed, Raphael

    2011-01-01

    The complex polysaccharide-degrading marine bacterium Saccharophagus degradans strain 2-40 produces putative proteins that contain numerous cadherin and cadherin-like domains involved in intercellular contact interactions. The current study reveals that both domain types exhibit reversible calcium-dependent binding to different complex polysaccharides which serve as growth substrates for the bacterium. PMID:21036994

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of a thermotolerant sporogenic lactic acid bacterium, Bacillus coagulans strain 36D1

    SciTech Connect

    Rhee, Mun Su; Moritz, Brelan E.; Xie, Gary

    Bacillus coagulans is a ubiquitous soil bacterium that grows at 50-55 C and pH 5.0 and fer- ments various sugars that constitute plant biomass to L (+)-lactic acid. The ability of this spo- rogenic lactic acid bacterium to grow at 50-55 C and pH 5.0 makes this organism an attrac- tive microbial biocatalyst for production of optically pure lactic acid at industrial scale not only from glucose derived from cellulose but also from xylose, a major constituent of hemi- cellulose. This bacterium is also considered as a potential probiotic. Complete genome se- quence of a representative strain, B. coagulans strainmore » 36D1, is presented and discussed.« less

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of a thermotolerant sporogenic lactic acid bacterium, Bacillus coagulans strain 36D1

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Mun Su; Moritz, Brélan E.; Xie, Gary; Glavina del Rio, T.; Dalin, E.; Tice, H.; Bruce, D.; Goodwin, L.; Chertkov, O.; Brettin, T.; Han, C.; Detter, C.; Pitluck, S.; Land, Miriam L.; Patel, Milind; Ou, Mark; Harbrucker, Roberta; Ingram, Lonnie O.; Shanmugam, K. T.

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus coagulans is a ubiquitous soil bacterium that grows at 50-55 °C and pH 5.0 and ferments various sugars that constitute plant biomass to L (+)-lactic acid. The ability of this sporogenic lactic acid bacterium to grow at 50-55 °C and pH 5.0 makes this organism an attractive microbial biocatalyst for production of optically pure lactic acid at industrial scale not only from glucose derived from cellulose but also from xylose, a major constituent of hemicellulose. This bacterium is also considered as a potential probiotic. Complete genome sequence of a representative strain, B. coagulans strain 36D1, is presented and discussed. PMID:22675583

  2. Paradigms: examples from the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The history of advances in research on Xylella fastidiosa provides excellent examples of how paradigms both advance and limit our scientific understanding of plant pathogens and the plant diseases they cause. I describe this from a personal perspective, having been directly involved with many persons who made paradigm-changing discoveries, beginning with the discovery that a bacterium, not a virus, causes Pierce's disease of grape and other plant diseases in numerous plant species, including important crop and forest species.

  3. Correlation between thermal parameters, structures, dendritic spacing and corrosion behavior of Zn Al alloys with columnar to equiaxed transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ares, A. E.; Gassa, L. M.; Gueijman, S. F.; Schvezov, C. E.

    2008-04-01

    The columnar to equiaxed transition (CET) has been examined for many years and the significance of CET has been treated in several articles. Experimental observations in different alloy systems have shown that the position of the transition is dependent on parameters like cooling rate, velocity of the liquidus and solidus fronts, local solidification time, temperature gradients and recalescence. The dendritic structure in alloys results in microsegregation of solute species which affects significantly the mechanical properties of the material. The main parameters characterizing the microstructure and the length range of microsegregation is the spacing which is classified as primary, secondary and tertiary. Properties like mechanical resistance and ductility are influenced by the dimensions and continuity of the primary branches, while the secondary and tertiary branches permit the isolation of interdendritic phases which can deteriorate the mechanical behavior of the material. Since the morphology and dimensions of the dendritic structure is related to the solidification parameters mentioned above, for each type of alloy it is essential to correlate dimensions and solidification conditions in order to control the structure. The objective of the present research consists on studying the influence of solidification thermal parameters with the type of structure (columnar, equiaxial or with the CET); and with grain size and dendritic spacing (primary and secondary) in Zn-Al (ZA) alloys (Zn—4 wt%Al, Zn—16 wt%Al and Zn—27 wt%Al, weight percent). Also, correlate the thermal parameters, type of structure, grain size and dendritic spacing with the corrosion resistance of these alloys.

  4. Optimization of nested polymerase chain reaction assays for identification of Aeromonas salmonicida, Yersinia ruckeri and Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, P.W.; Winton, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were developed using first-round primers complementary to highly conserved regions within the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene (universal eubacterial primers) and second-round primers specific for sequences within the 16S rRNA genes of Aeromonas salmonicida, Yersinia ruckeri, andFlavobacterium psychrophilum. Following optimization of the MgCl2 concentration and primer annealing temperature, PCR employing the universal eubacterial primers was used to amplify a 1,500-base-pair (bp) product visible in agarose gels stained with ethidium bromide. The calculated detection limit of this single-round assay was less than 1.4 × 104 colony-forming units (CFU) per reaction for all bacterial species tested. Single-round PCR using primer sets specific for A. salmonicida, Y. ruckeri, and F. psychrophilumamplified bands of 271, 575, and 1,100 bp, respectively, with detection limits of less than 1.4 × 104, 1.4 × 105, and 1.4 × 105 CFU per reaction. Using the universal eubacterial primers in the first round and the species-specific primer sets in the second round of nested PCR assays improved the detection ability by approximately four orders of magnitude to fewer than 14 CFU per sample for each of the three bacterial species. Such nested assays could be adapted to a wide variety of bacterial fish pathogens for which 16S sequences are available.

  5. Alkaline active cyanide dihydratase of Flavobacterium indicum MTCC 6936: Growth optimization, purification, characterization and in silico analysis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Virender; Kumar, Vijay; Bhalla, Tek Chand

    2018-05-15

    The present work explores a rare cyanide dihydratase of Flavobacterium indicum MTCC 6936 for its potential of cyanide degradation. The enzyme is purified to 12 fold with a yield of 76%. SDS and native-PAGE analysis revealed that enzyme was monomer of 40 kDa size. The enzyme works well in mesophilic range at wide array of pH. The thermostability profile of cyanide dihydratase revealed that the enzyme is quite stable at 30 °C and 35 °C with half-life of 6 h 30 min and 5 h respectively. K m and V max for cyanide dihydratase of F. indicum was measured to be 4.76 mM and 45 U mg -1 with k cat calculated to be 27.3 s -1 and specificity constant (k cat /K m ) to be around 5.67 mM -1  s -1 . MALDI-TOF analysis of purified protein revealed that the amino acid sequence has 50% and 43% sequence identity with putative amino acid sequence of F. indicum and earlier reported cyanide dihydratase of Bacillus pumilus respectively. Homology modeling studies of cyanide dihydratase of F. indicum predicted the catalytic triad of the enzyme indicating Cys at 164, Glu at 46 and Lys at 130th position. The purified enzyme has potential applications in bioremediation and analytical sector. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Genomic makeup of the marine flavobacterium Nonlabens (Donghaeana) dokdonensis and identification of a novel class of rhodopsins.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon-Kyeong; Kim, Byung Kwon; Song, Ju Yeon; Kwak, Min-Jung; Lee, Choong Hoon; Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Oh, Tae Kwang; Kim, Jihyun F

    2013-01-01

    Rhodopsin-containing marine microbes such as those in the class Flavobacteriia play a pivotal role in the biogeochemical cycle of the euphotic zone (Fuhrman JA, Schwalbach MS, Stingl U. 2008. Proteorhodopsins: an array of physiological roles? Nat Rev Microbiol. 6:488-494). Deciphering the genome information of flavobacteria and accessing the diversity and ecological impact of microbial rhodopsins are important in understanding and preserving the global ecosystems. The genome sequence of the orange-pigmented marine flavobacterium Nonlabens dokdonensis (basonym: Donghaeana dokdonensis) DSW-6 was determined. As a marine photoheterotroph, DSW-6 has written in its genome physiological features that allow survival in the oligotrophic environments. The sequence analysis also uncovered a gene encoding an unexpected type of microbial rhodopsin containing a unique motif in addition to a proteorhodopsin gene and a number of photolyase or cryptochrome genes. Homologs of the novel rhodopsin gene were found in other flavobacteria, alphaproteobacteria, a species of Cytophagia, a deinococcus, and even a eukaryote diatom. They all contain the characteristic NQ motif and form a phylogenetically distinct group. Expression analysis of this rhodopsin gene in DSW-6 indicated that it is induced at high NaCl concentrations, as well as in the presence of light and the absence of nutrients. Genomic and metagenomic surveys demonstrate the diversity of the NQ rhodopsins in nature and the prevalent occurrence of the encoding genes among microbial communities inhabiting hypersaline niches, suggesting its involvement in sodium metabolism and the sodium-adapted lifestyle.

  7. Characterization of the first alginolytic operons in a marine bacterium: from their emergence in marine Flavobacteriia to their independent transfers to marine Proteobacteria and human gut Bacteroides.

    PubMed

    Thomas, François; Barbeyron, Tristan; Tonon, Thierry; Génicot, Sabine; Czjzek, Mirjam; Michel, Gurvan

    2012-09-01

    Alginate constitutes a significant part of seaweed biomass and thus a crucial nutrient for numerous marine heterotrophic bacteria. However, the mechanisms for alginate assimilation remain largely unknown in marine microorganisms. We show here that the genome of the marine flavobacterium Zobellia galactanivorans contains seven putative alginate lyase genes, five of them localized within two clusters comprising additional carbohydrate-related genes. The transcription of these genes and the alginolytic activity were strongly induced when Z. galactanivorans used alginate as sole carbon source. These clusters were shown to be transcribed as polycistronic mRNAs and thus to constitute operons. Several candidate enzymes were successfully overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and their activity tested. Particularly, AlyA1, AlyA4, AlyA5 and AlyA7 are confirmed as active alginate lyases. Zg2622 and Zg2614 are a dehydrogenase and a kinase, respectively, further converting the terminal unsaturated monosaccharides released by alginate lyases into 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate. In-depth phylogenomic analyses reveal that such alginolytic operons originated from an ancestral marine flavobacterium and were independently transferred to marine proteobacteria and Japanese gut Bacteroides. These bacteria thus gained the capacity to assimilate the main polysaccharide of brown algae, an adaptive advantage in coastal environments but also in the gut microbiota of specific human population. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Supramolecular aggregates of metallo-organic acids with stilbazoles. Formation of columnar mesophases and Langmuir films.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Cristina; Donnio, Bertrand; Coco, Silverio; Espinet, Pablo

    2013-11-28

    Supramolecular metal complexes formed through hydrogen bonding between tris(3,4,5-decyloxy)stilbazole and several metallo-organic acids of the type [Au(R)(CNC6H4CO2H)] (R = C6F5, C6F4OC10H21), [cis-[MCl2(CNC6H4COOH)2] and [trans-[MI2(CNC6H4COOH)2] (M = Pd, Pt) have been synthesized. All the supramolecular palladium and platinum polycatenar aggregates display a hexagonal columnar mesophase at temperatures close to room temperature. Most of the supramolecular trisalkoxystilbazole complexes exhibit luminescent behaviour. Aggregates of [Au(C6F4OC10H21)(CNC6H4CO2H)] and [trans-[MI2(CNC6H4COOH)2] (M = Pd, Pt) form stable Langmuir films at the air-water interface.

  9. Who knows not where an anemone does wear his sting? Could polypeptides released from the columnar vesicles of Bunodosoma cangicum induce apoptosis in the ZF-L cell line?

    PubMed

    Bastos, Claudio L Q; Varela, Antonio Sergio; Ferreira, Shana Pires; Nornberg, Bruna Felix; Boyle, Robert Tew

    2016-12-15

    We provide ultrastructural and cytological evidence that the tentacles of the sea anemone Bunodosoma cangicum does not contain cytotoxic venom. However, we show that the stimulated secretion of an apparent mixture of biomolecules containing polypeptides from the columnar vesicles of Bunodosoma cangicum is apparently a potent inducer of apoptosis in the zebrafish cell line, ZF-L. Microscopic fluorescence, cell morphology and flow cytometric assays confirm the apoptotic activity. Crude vesicle venom was partially purified by size exclusion chromatography. PAGE analysis shows that this venom contains low weight polypeptides but no measurable protein. The apoptotic activity is heat labile, and the observed peptides concurrent with this activity have a molecular weight of approximately 2000 Da. This manuscript is the first report of biologically active molecules and peptides associated with columnar vesicles of anemones, and the first to confirm that the tentacles of B. cangicum do not contain cytotoxic venom, and express spirocytes exclusively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A novel strategy for acetonitrile wastewater treatment by using a recombinant bacterium with biofilm-forming and nitrile-degrading capability.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunyan; Yue, Zhenlei; Feng, Fengzhao; Xi, Chuanwu; Zang, Hailian; An, Xuejiao; Liu, Keran

    2016-10-01

    There is a great need for efficient acetonitrile removal technology in wastewater treatment to reduce the discharge of this pollutant in untreated wastewater. In this study, a nitrilase gene (nit) isolated from a nitrile-degrading bacterium (Rhodococcus rhodochrous BX2) was cloned and transformed into a biofilm-forming bacterium (Bacillus subtilis N4) that expressed the recombinant protein upon isopropylthio-β-galactoside (IPTG) induction. The recombinant bacterium (B. subtilis N4-pHT01-nit) formed strong biofilms and had nitrile-degrading capability. Further testing demonstrated that biofilms formed by B. subtilis N4-pHT01-nit were highly resistant to loading shock from acetonitrile and almost completely degraded the initial concentration of acetonitrile (800 mg L(-1)) within 24 h in a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) after operation for 35 d. The bacterial composition of the biofilm, identified by high-throughput sequencing, in a reactor in which the B. subtilis N4-pHT01-nit bacterium was introduced indicated that the engineered bacterium was successfully immobilized in the reactor and became dominant genus. This work demonstrates that an engineered bacterium with nitrile-degrading and biofilm-forming capacity can improve the degradation of contaminants in wastewater. This approach offers a novel strategy for enhancing the biological oxidation of toxic pollutants in wastewater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis CNRZ327, a Dairy Bacterium with Anti-Inflammatory Properties.

    PubMed

    El Kafsi, Hela; Binesse, Johan; Loux, Valentin; Buratti, Julien; Boudebbouze, Samira; Dervyn, Rozenn; Hammani, Amal; Maguin, Emmanuelle; van de Guchte, Maarten

    2014-07-17

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis CNRZ327 is a dairy bacterium with anti-inflammatory properties both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we report the genome sequence of this bacterium, which appears to contain no less than 215 insertion sequence (IS) elements, an exceptionally high number regarding the small genome size of the strain. Copyright © 2014 El Kafsi et al.

  12. Chitin utilization by the insect-transmitted bacterium Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Killiny, Nabil; Prado, Simone S; Almeida, Rodrigo P P

    2010-09-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is an insect-borne bacterium that colonizes xylem vessels of a large number of host plants, including several crops of economic importance. Chitin is a polysaccharide present in the cuticle of leafhopper vectors of X. fastidiosa and may serve as a carbon source for this bacterium. Biological assays showed that X. fastidiosa reached larger populations in the presence of chitin. Additionally, chitin induced phenotypic changes in this bacterium, notably increasing adhesiveness. Quantitative PCR assays indicated transcriptional changes in the presence of chitin, and an enzymatic assay demonstrated chitinolytic activity by X. fastidiosa. An ortholog of the chitinase A gene (chiA) was identified in the X. fastidiosa genome. The in silico analysis revealed that the open reading frame of chiA encodes a protein of 351 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 40 kDa. chiA is in a locus that consists of genes implicated in polysaccharide degradation. Moreover, this locus was also found in the genomes of closely related bacteria in the genus Xanthomonas, which are plant but not insect associated. X. fastidiosa degraded chitin when grown on a solid chitin-yeast extract-agar medium and grew in liquid medium with chitin as the sole carbon source; ChiA was also determined to be secreted. The gene encoding ChiA was cloned into Escherichia coli, and endochitinase activity was detected in the transformant, showing that the gene is functional and involved in chitin degradation. The results suggest that X. fastidiosa may use its vectors' foregut surface as a carbon source. In addition, chitin may trigger X. fastidiosa's gene regulation and biofilm formation within vectors. Further work is necessary to characterize the role of chitin and its utilization in X. fastidiosa.

  13. Dicyanamide Salts that Adopt Smectic, Columnar, or Bicontinuous Cubic Liquid-Crystalline Mesophases.

    PubMed

    Park, Geonhui; Goossens, Karel; Shin, Tae Joo; Bielawski, Christopher W

    2018-04-25

    Although dicyanamide (i.e., [N(CN) 2 ] - ) has been commonly used to obtain low-viscosity, halogen-free, room-temperature ionic liquids, liquid-crystalline salts containing such anions have remained virtually unexplored. Here we report a series of amphiphilic dicyanamide salts that, depending on their structures and compositions, adopt smectic, columnar, or bicontinuous cubic thermotropic liquid-crystalline mesophases, even at room temperature in some cases. Their thermal properties were explored by polarized light optical microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis (including evolved gas analysis), and variable-temperature synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Comparison of the thermal phase characteristics of these new liquid-crystalline salts featuring "V-shaped" [N(CN) 2 ] - anions with those of structural analogues containing [SCN] - , [BF 4 ] - , [PF 6 ] - , or [CF 3 SO 3 ] - anions indicated that not only the size of the counterion but also its shape should be considered in the development of mesomorphic salts. Collectively, these discoveries may be expected to facilitate the design of thermotropic ionic liquid crystals that form inverted-type bicontinuous cubic and other sophisticated liquid-crystalline phases. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Light-melt adhesive based on dynamic carbon frameworks in a columnar liquid-crystal phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Shohei; Nobusue, Shunpei; Tsuzaka, Eri; Yuan, Chunxue; Mori, Chigusa; Hara, Mitsuo; Seki, Takahiro; Camacho, Cristopher; Irle, Stephan; Yamaguchi, Shigehiro

    2016-07-01

    Liquid crystal (LC) provides a suitable platform to exploit structural motions of molecules in a condensed phase. Amplification of the structural changes enables a variety of technologies not only in LC displays but also in other applications. Until very recently, however, a practical use of LCs for removable adhesives has not been explored, although a spontaneous disorganization of LC materials can be easily triggered by light-induced isomerization of photoactive components. The difficulty of such application derives from the requirements for simultaneous implementation of sufficient bonding strength and its rapid disappearance by photoirradiation. Here we report a dynamic molecular LC material that meets these requirements. Columnar-stacked V-shaped carbon frameworks display sufficient bonding strength even during heating conditions, while its bonding ability is immediately lost by a light-induced self-melting function. The light-melt adhesive is reusable and its fluorescence colour reversibly changes during the cycle, visualizing the bonding/nonbonding phases of the adhesive.

  15. Complete genome of Martelella sp. AD-3, a moderately halophilic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-degrading bacterium.

    PubMed

    Cui, Changzheng; Li, Zhijie; Qian, Jiangchao; Shi, Jie; Huang, Ling; Tang, Hongzhi; Chen, Xin; Lin, Kuangfei; Xu, Ping; Liu, Yongdi

    2016-05-10

    Martelella sp. strain AD-3, a moderate halophilic bacterium, was isolated from a petroleum-contaminated soil with high salinity in China. Here, we report the complete genome of strain AD-3, which contains one circular chromosome and two circular plasmids. An array of genes related to metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and halophilic mechanism in this bacterium was identified by the whole genome analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Hemolytic activity in Flavobacterium psychrophilum is a contact-dependent, two-step mechanism and differently expressed in smooth and rough phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Högfors-Rönnholm, Eva; Wiklund, Tom

    2010-12-01

    The hemolytic activity of cells of smooth and rough phenotypic variants of the Gram-negative fish pathogen Flavobacterium psychrophilum was investigated in two different assays, a microplate and an agarose hemolysis assay, using rainbow trout erythrocytes. The smooth cells showed a high and the rough cells a negligible, concentration dependent, hemolytic activity in the microplate assay. Both smooth and rough cells showed a rather weak hemolytic activity, with two distinct hemolytic patterns, in the agarose assay. The hemolytic activity of the cells was not regulated by iron availability and cell-free extracellular products did not show any hemolytic activity. The smooth cells, in contrast to the rough cells, showed a high ability to agglutinate erythrocytes and both hemagglutination and hemolytic activity was impaired by treatment of the cells with sialic acid. The hemolytic activity was furthermore reduced after proteolytic and heat treatment of the cells. The results from the present study suggest that the hemolytic activity in F. psychrophilum is highly expressed in the smooth phenotype, and that it is a contact-dependent and two-step mechanism that is initiated by the binding of the bacterial cells to the erythrocytes through sialic acid-binding lectins and then executed by thermolabile proteinaceous hemolysins. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Complete genome of the cellulolytic ruminal bacterium Ruminococcus albus 7

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ruminococcus albus 7 is a highly cellulolytic rumen bacterium that is a member of the phylum Firmicutes. Here, we describe the complete genome for this microbe. This genome will be useful for rumen microbiology, cellulosome biology, and in biofuel production, as one of its major fermentation product...

  18. Population Genetic Structure of a Widespread Bat-Pollinated Columnar Cactus

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, Enriquena; Búrquez, Alberto; Scheinvar, Enrique; Eguiarte, Luis Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Bats are the main pollinators and seed dispersers of Stenocereus thurberi, a xenogamous columnar cactus of northwestern Mexico and a good model to illustrate spatial dynamics of gene flow in long-lived species. Previous studies in this cactus showed differences among populations in the type and abundance of pollinators, and in the timing of flowering and fruiting. In this study we analyzed genetic variability and population differentiation among populations. We used three primers of ISSR to analyze within and among populations genetic variation from eight widely separated populations of S. thurberi in Sonora, Mexico. Sixty-six out of 99 of the ISSR bands (P = 66.7%) were polymorphic. Total heterozygosity for all populations sampled revealed high genetic diversity (Hsp = 0.207, HBT = 0.224). The AMOVA showed that most of the genetic variation was within populations (80.5%). At the species level, estimates of population differentiation, θ = 0.175 and θB = 0.194, indicated moderate gene flow among populations. The absence of a significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances indicated little isolation by geographic distance. The large genetic variation and diversity found in S. thurberi is consistent with its open reproductive system and the high mobility of bats, a major pollinator. However, small changes in number or kind of pollinators and seed dispersal agents, in the directionality of migratory routes, and/or in the timing of flowering and fruiting among populations, can critically affect gene flow dynamics. PMID:27015281

  19. Population Genetic Structure of a Widespread Bat-Pollinated Columnar Cactus.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Enriquena; Búrquez, Alberto; Scheinvar, Enrique; Eguiarte, Luis Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Bats are the main pollinators and seed dispersers of Stenocereus thurberi, a xenogamous columnar cactus of northwestern Mexico and a good model to illustrate spatial dynamics of gene flow in long-lived species. Previous studies in this cactus showed differences among populations in the type and abundance of pollinators, and in the timing of flowering and fruiting. In this study we analyzed genetic variability and population differentiation among populations. We used three primers of ISSR to analyze within and among populations genetic variation from eight widely separated populations of S. thurberi in Sonora, Mexico. Sixty-six out of 99 of the ISSR bands (P = 66.7%) were polymorphic. Total heterozygosity for all populations sampled revealed high genetic diversity (Hsp = 0.207, HBT = 0.224). The AMOVA showed that most of the genetic variation was within populations (80.5%). At the species level, estimates of population differentiation, θ = 0.175 and θB = 0.194, indicated moderate gene flow among populations. The absence of a significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances indicated little isolation by geographic distance. The large genetic variation and diversity found in S. thurberi is consistent with its open reproductive system and the high mobility of bats, a major pollinator. However, small changes in number or kind of pollinators and seed dispersal agents, in the directionality of migratory routes, and/or in the timing of flowering and fruiting among populations, can critically affect gene flow dynamics.

  20. Broad hexagonal columnar mesophases formation in bioinspired transition-metal complexes of simple fatty acid meta-octaester derivatives of meso-tetraphenyl porphyrins.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bin; Chen, Keyang; Deng, Yuchen; Chen, Jian; Liu, Chengjie; Cheng, Rongshi; Chen, Dongzhong

    2015-02-23

    A series of meta-substituted fatty acid octaester derivatives and their transition-metal complexes of meso- tetraphenyl porphyrins (TPP-8OOCR, with R = C(n-1)H(2n-1), n = 8, 12, or 16) have been prepared through very simple synthesis protocols. The thermotropic phase behavior and the liquid crystalline (LC) organization structures of the synthesized porphyrin derivatives were systematically investigated by a combination of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarized optical microscopy (POM), and variable-temperature small-angle X-ray scattering/wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) techniques. The shorter octanoic acid ester substituted porphyrin (C8-TPP) did not show liquid crystallinity and its metal porphyrins exhibited an uncommon columnar mesophase. The lauric acid octaester (C12-TPP) and the palmitic acid octaester (C16-TPP) series porphyrins generated hexagonal columnar mesophase Colh. Moreover, the metal porphyrins C12-TPPM and C16-TPPM with M = Zn, Cu, or Ni, exhibited well-organized Colh mesophases of broad LC temperature ranges increasing in the order of TPPNi

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of an Anaerobic and Extremophilic Bacterium, Caldanaerobacter yonseiensis, Isolated from a Geothermal Hot Stream

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Jae; Lee, Yong-Jik; Park, Gun-Seok; Kim, Byoung-Chan; Lee, Sang Jun; Shin, Jae-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Caldanaerobacter yonseiensis is a strictly anaerobic, thermophilic, spore-forming bacterium, which was isolated from a geothermal hot stream in Indonesia. This bacterium utilizes xylose and produces a variety of proteases. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of C. yonseiensis, which reveals insights into the pentose phosphate pathway and protein degradation metabolism in thermophilic microorganisms. PMID:24201201

  2. Population genetics and phylogenetic relationships of beetles (Coleoptera: Histeridae and Staphylinidae) from the Sonoran Desert associated with rotting columnar cacti.

    PubMed

    Pfeiler, Edward; Johnson, Sarah; Richmond, Maxi Polihronakis; Markow, Therese A

    2013-12-01

    Dozens of arthropod species are known to feed and breed in the necrotic tissues (rots) of columnar cacti in the Sonoran Desert. Because the necrotic patches are ephemeral, the associated arthropods must continually disperse to new cacti and therefore the populations of any given species are expected to show very little local genetic differentiation. While this has been found to be true for the cactophilic Drosophila, the evolutionary histories and characteristics of other arthropods inhabiting the same necrotic patches, especially the beetles, have yet to be examined. Here we used nucleotide sequence data from segments of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) genes to examine population structure and demographic history of three sympatric beetle species (Coleoptera: Histeridae and Staphylinidae) collected on senita cactus (Lophocereus schottii) from six widely-separated localities on the Baja California peninsula of northwestern Mexico. Two histerids, Iliotona beyeri and Carcinops gilensis, and an unidentified staphylinid, Belonuchus sp., showed little or no population structure over a broad geographic area on the peninsula, consistent with the prediction that these beetles should show high dispersal ability. Demographic tests revealed varying levels of historical population expansion among the beetle species analyzed, which are discussed in light of their ecologies and concurrent biogeographic events. Additionally, phylogenetic analyses of COI sequences in Carcinops collected on a variety of columnar cacti from both peninsular and mainland Mexico localities revealed several species-level partitions, including a putative undescribed peninsular species that occurred sympatrically with C. gilensis on senita. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Fine Structure and Host-Virus Relationship of a Marine Bacterium and Its Bacteriophage

    PubMed Central

    Valentine, Artrice F.; Chapman, George B.

    1966-01-01

    Valentine, Artrice F. (Georgetown University, Washington, D.C.), and George B. Chapman. Fine structure and host-virus relationship of a marine bacterium and its bacteriophage. J. Bacteriol. 92:1535–1554. 1966.—The fine structure of a gram-negative marine bacterium, Cytophaga marinoflava sp. n., has been revealed by ultrathin sectioning and electron microscopy. Stages in the morphogenesis of the bacterial virus NCMB 385, which has been shown to be highly specific for this organism, were also demonstrated in bacterial cells fixed according to the Kellenberger technique. The bacterium possessed a cell wall, cytoplasmic membrane, and nuclear and cytoplasmic regions typical of bacterial cells. Both the cell wall and the cytoplasmic membrane showed a tripartite structure, i.e., each was composed of two dense layers separated by a low-density zone. Intracytoplasmic membrane systems were also observed, especially in dividing cells and in cells in which new viruses were being formed. As many as 18 hexagonally shaped, empty phage heads (membranes only) were observed in untreated, infected bacterial cells. Phage heads, intermediate in density to empty heads and fully condensed ones, possibly representing stages in the morphological development of the virus, were also seen. Images PMID:5924277

  4. Complete genome sequence of the haloalkaliphilic, hydrogen-producing bacterium Halanaerobium hydrogeniformans.

    PubMed

    Brown, Steven D; Begemann, Matthew B; Mormile, Melanie R; Wall, Judy D; Han, Cliff S; Goodwin, Lynne A; Pitluck, Samuel; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren J; Elias, Dwayne A

    2011-07-01

    Halanaerobium hydrogenoformans is an alkaliphilic bacterium capable of biohydrogen production at pH 11 and 7% (wt/vol) salt. We present the 2.6-Mb genome sequence to provide insights into its physiology and potential for bioenergy applications.

  5. Isolation and biological characteristics of aerobic marine magnetotactic bacterium YSC-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jun; Pan, Hongmiao; Yue, Haidong; Song, Tao; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Guanjun; Wu, Longfei; Xiao, Tian

    2006-12-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria have become a hot spot of research in microbiology attracting intensive interest of researchers in multiple disciplinary fields. However, the studies were limited in few fastidious bacteria. The objective of this study aims at isolating new marine magnetic bacteria and better comprehension of magnetotactic bacteria. In this study, an aerobic magnetotactic bacterium YSC-1 was isolated from sediments in the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass (YSCWM). In TEM, magnetic cells have one or several circular magnetosomes in diameter of 100nm, and consist of Fe and Co shown on energy dispersive X-ray spectrum. The biological and physiological characteristics of this bacterium were also described. The colour of YSC-1 colony is white in small rod. The gram stain is negative. Results showed that Strain YSC-1 differs from microaerophile magnetotactic bacteria MS-1 and WD-1 in biology.

  6. Spectroscopic ellipsometry of columnar porous Si thin films and Si nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fodor, Bálint; Defforge, Thomas; Agócs, Emil; Fried, Miklós; Gautier, Gaël; Petrik, Péter

    2017-11-01

    Columnar mesoporous Si thin films and dense nanowire (SiNW) carpets were investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry in the visible-near-infrared wavelength range. Porous Si layers were formed by electrochemical etching while structural anisotropy was controlled by the applied current. Layers of highly oriented SiNWs, with length up to 4.1 μm were synthesized by metal-assisted chemical etching. Ellipsometric spectra were fitted with different multi-layered, effective medium approximation-based (EMA) models. Isotropic, in-depth graded, anisotropic and hybrid EMA models were investigated with the help of the root mean square errors obtained from the fits. Ellipsometric-fitted layer thicknesses were also cross-checked by scanning electron microscopy showing an excellent agreement. Furthermore, in the case of mesoporous silicon, characterization also revealed that, at low current densities (<100 mA/cm2), in-depth inhomogeneity shows a more important feature in the ellipsometric spectra than anisotropy. On the other hand, at high current densities (>100 mA/cm2) this behavior turns around, and anisotropy becomes the dominant feature describing the spectra. Characterization of SiNW layers showed a very high geometrical anisotropy. However, the highest fitted geometrical anisotropy was obtained for the layer composed of ∼1 μm long SiNWs indicating that for thicker layers, collapse of the nanowires occurs.

  7. Columnar and subsurface silicide growth with novel molecular beam epitaxy techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fathauer, R. W.; George, T.; Pike, W. T.

    1992-01-01

    We have found novel growth modes for epitaxial CoSi2 at high temperatures coupled with Si-rich flux ratios or low deposition rates. In the first of these modes, codeposition of metal and Si at 600-800 C with excess Si leads to the formation of epitaxial silicide columns surrounded by single-crystal Si. During the initial stages of the deposition, the excess Si grows homoepitaxially in between the silicide, which forms islands, so that the lateral growth of the islands is confined. Once a template layer is established by this process, columns of silicide form as a result of selective epitaxy of silicide on silicide and Si on Si. This growth process allows nanometer control over silicide particles in three dimensions. In the second of these modes, a columnar silicide seed layer is used as a template to nucleate subsurface growth of CoSi2. With a 100 nm Si layer covering CoSi2 seeds, Co deposited at 800C and 0.01 nm/s diffuses down to grow on the buried seeds rather than nucleating surface silicide islands. For thicker Si caps or higher deposition rates, the surface concentration of Co exceeds the critical concentration for nucleation of islands, preventing this subsurface growth mode from occurring. Using this technique, single-crystal layers of CoSi2 buried under single-crystal Si caps have been grown.

  8. Polysaccharide degradation systems of the saprophytic bacterium Cellvibrio japonicus

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, Jeffrey G.

    Study of recalcitrant polysaccharide degradation by bacterial systems is critical for understanding biological processes such as global carbon cycling, nutritional contributions of the human gut microbiome, and the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. One bacterium that has a robust ability to degrade polysaccharides is the Gram-negative saprophyte Cellvibrio japonicus. A bacterium with a circuitous history, C. japonicus underwent several taxonomy changes from an initially described Pseudomonas sp. Most of the enzymes described in the pre-genomics era have also been renamed. Furthermore, this review aims to consolidate the biochemical, structural, and genetic data published on C. japonicus and its remarkablemore » ability to degrade cellulose, xylan, and pectin substrates. Initially, C. japonicus carbohydrate-active enzymes were studied biochemically and structurally for their novel polysaccharide binding and degradation characteristics, while more recent systems biology approaches have begun to unravel the complex regulation required for lignocellulose degradation in an environmental context. Also included is a discussion for the future of C. japonicus as a model system, with emphasis on current areas unexplored in terms of polysaccharide degradation and emerging directions for C. japonicus in both environmental and biotechnological applications.« less

  9. Polysaccharide degradation systems of the saprophytic bacterium Cellvibrio japonicus

    DOE PAGES

    Gardner, Jeffrey G.

    2016-06-04

    Study of recalcitrant polysaccharide degradation by bacterial systems is critical for understanding biological processes such as global carbon cycling, nutritional contributions of the human gut microbiome, and the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. One bacterium that has a robust ability to degrade polysaccharides is the Gram-negative saprophyte Cellvibrio japonicus. A bacterium with a circuitous history, C. japonicus underwent several taxonomy changes from an initially described Pseudomonas sp. Most of the enzymes described in the pre-genomics era have also been renamed. Furthermore, this review aims to consolidate the biochemical, structural, and genetic data published on C. japonicus and its remarkablemore » ability to degrade cellulose, xylan, and pectin substrates. Initially, C. japonicus carbohydrate-active enzymes were studied biochemically and structurally for their novel polysaccharide binding and degradation characteristics, while more recent systems biology approaches have begun to unravel the complex regulation required for lignocellulose degradation in an environmental context. Also included is a discussion for the future of C. japonicus as a model system, with emphasis on current areas unexplored in terms of polysaccharide degradation and emerging directions for C. japonicus in both environmental and biotechnological applications.« less

  10. Biodegradation of polyethylene by the thermophilic bacterium Brevibacillus borstelensis.

    PubMed

    Hadad, D; Geresh, S; Sivan, A

    2005-01-01

    To select a polyethylene-degrading micro-organism and to study the factors affecting its biodegrading activity. A thermophilic bacterium Brevibaccillus borstelensis strain 707 (isolated from soil) utilized branched low-density polyethylene as the sole carbon source and degraded it. Incubation of polyethylene with B. borstelensis (30 days, 50 degrees C) reduced its gravimetric and molecular weights by 11 and 30% respectively. Brevibaccillus borstelensis also degraded polyethylene in the presence of mannitol. Biodegradation of u.v. photo-oxidized polyethylene increased with increasing irradiation time. Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) analysis of photo-oxidized polyethylene revealed a reduction in carbonyl groups after incubation with the bacteria. This study demonstrates that polyethylene--considered to be inert--can be biodegraded if the right microbial strain is isolated. Enrichment culture methods were effective for isolating a thermophilic bacterium capable of utilizing polyethylene as the sole carbon and energy source. Maximal biodegradation was obtained in combination with photo-oxidation, which showed that carbonyl residues formed by photo-oxidation play a role in biodegradation. Brevibaccillus borstelensis also degraded the CH2 backbone of nonirradiated polyethylene. Biodegradation of polyethylene by a single bacterial strain contributes to our understanding of the process and the factors affecting polyethylene biodegradation.

  11. Aerobic Reduction of Arsenate by a Bacterium Isolated From Activated Sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozai, N.; Ohnuki, T.; Hanada, S.; Nakamura, K.; Francis, A. J.

    2006-12-01

    Microlunatus phosphovorus strain NM-1 is a polyphosphate-accumulating bacterium isolated from activated sludge. This bacterium takes up a large amount of polyphosphate under aerobic conditions and release phosphate ions by hydrolysis of polyphosphate to orthophosphate under anaerobic conditions to derive energy for taking up substrates. To understand the nature of this strain, especially, influence of potential contaminants in sewage and wastewater on growth, we have been investigating behavior of this bacterium in media containing arsenic. The present paper mainly reports reduction of arsenate by this bacterium under aerobic conditions. The strain NM-1 (JCM 9379) was aerobically cultured at 30 °C in a nutrient medium containing 2.5 g/l peptone, 0.5 g/l glucose, 1.5 g/l yeast extract, and arsenic [Na2HAsO4 (As(V)) or Na3AsO3 (As(III))] at concentrations between 0 and 50 mM. The cells collected from arsenic-free media were dispersed in buffer solutions containing 2mM HEPES, 10mM NaCl, prescribed concentrations of As(V), and 0-0.2 percent glucose. Then, this cell suspension was kept at 20 °C under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. The speciation of arsenic was carried out by ion chromatography and ICP-MS. The growth of the strain under aerobic conditions was enhanced by the addition of As(V) at the concentration between 1 and 10 mM. The maximum optical density of the culture in the medium containing 5mM As(V) was 1.4 times greater than that of the control culture. Below the As(V) concentration of 10mM, most of the As(V) was reduced to As(III). The growth of the strain under anaerobic conditions has not been observed so far. The cells in the buffer solutions reduced As(V) under aerobic condition. The reduction was enhanced by the addition of glucose. However, the cell did not reduce As(V) under anaerobic conditions. The strain NM-1 showed high resistance to As(V) and As(III). The maximum optical density of the culture grown in a medium containing 50 mM As(V) was only

  12. Thermostable purified endoglucanase from thermophilic bacterium acidothermus cellulolyticus

    DOEpatents

    Tucker, Melvin P.; Grohmann, Karel; Himmel, Michael E.; Mohagheghi, Ali

    1992-01-01

    A substantially purified high molecular weight cellulase enzyme having a molecular weight of between about 156,000 to about 203,400 daltons isolated from the bacterium Acidothermus cellulolyticus (ATCC 43068) and a method of producing it are disclosed. The enzyme is water soluble, possesses both C.sub.1 and C.sub.x types of enzymatic activity, has a high degree of stability toward heat and exhibits both a high optimum temperature activity and high inactivation characteristics.

  13. Genome sequence of the algicidal bacterium Kordia algicida OT-1.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Sook; Kang, Sung Gyun; Kwon, Kae Kyoung; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Sang-Jin

    2011-08-01

    Kordia algicida OT-1 is an algicidal bacterium against the bloom-forming microalgae. The genome sequence of K. algicida revealed a number of interesting features, including the degradation of macromolecules, the biosynthesis of carotenoid pigment and secondary metabolites, and the capacity for gliding motility, which might facilitate the understanding of algicidal mechanisms.

  14. Evidence of carbon fixation pathway in a bacterium from candidate phylum SBR1093 revealed with genomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiping; Guo, Feng; Liu, Lili; Zhang, Tong

    2014-01-01

    Autotrophic CO2 fixation is the most important biotransformation process in the biosphere. Research focusing on the diversity and distribution of relevant autotrophs is significant to our comprehension of the biosphere. In this study, a draft genome of a bacterium from candidate phylum SBR1093 was reconstructed with the metagenome of an industrial activated sludge. Based on comparative genomics, this autotrophy may occur via a newly discovered carbon fixation path, the hydroxypropionate-hydroxybutyrate (HPHB) cycle, which was demonstrated in a previous work to be uniquely possessed by some genera from Archaea. This bacterium possesses all of the thirteen enzymes required for the HPHB cycle; these enzymes share 30∼50% identity with those in the autotrophic species of Archaea that undergo the HPHB cycle and 30∼80% identity with the corresponding enzymes of the mixotrophic species within Bradyrhizobiaceae. Thus, this bacterium might have an autotrophic growth mode in certain conditions. A phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene reveals that the phylotypes within candidate phylum SBR1093 are primarily clustered into 5 clades with a shallow branching pattern. This bacterium is clustered with phylotypes from organically contaminated environments, implying a demand for organics in heterotrophic metabolism. Considering the types of regulators, such as FnR, Fur, and ArsR, this bacterium might be a facultative aerobic mixotroph with potential multi-antibiotic and heavy metal resistances. This is the first report on Bacteria that may perform potential carbon fixation via the HPHB cycle, thus may expand our knowledge of the distribution and importance of the HPHB cycle in the biosphere.

  15. Antibacterial activity of antibacterial cutting boards in household kitchens.

    PubMed

    Kounosu, Masayuki; Kaneko, Seiichi

    2007-12-01

    We examined antibacterial cutting boards with antibacterial activity values of either "2" or "4" in compliance with the JIS Z 2801 standard, and compared their findings with those of cutting boards with no antibacterial activity. These cutting boards were used in ten different households, and we measured changes in the viable cell counts of several types of bacteria with the drop plate method. We also identified the detected bacterial flora and measured the minimum antimicrobial concentrations of several commonly used antibacterial agents against the kinds of bacteria identified to determine the expected antibacterial activity of the respective agents. Cutting boards with activity values of both "2" and "4" proved to be antibacterial in actual use, although no correlation between the viable cell counts and the antibacterial activity values was observed. In the kitchen environment, large quantities of Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Micrococcus, and Bacillus were detected, and it was confirmed that common antibacterial agents used in many antibacterial products are effective against these bacterial species. In addition, we measured the minimum antimicrobial concentrations of the agents against lactobacillus, a typical good bacterium, and discovered that this bacterium is less sensitive to these antibacterial agents compared to more common bacteria.

  16. Fatigue properties for the fracture strength of columnar accessory minerals embedded within metamorphic tectonites: implications for stress magnitude in continental crust at the depth of the brittle-plastic transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, N.; Iwashita, N.; Masuda, T.

    2009-04-01

    1. Introduction Previous studies have compiled yield-strength profiles of continental lithosphere based on the results of laboratory measurements and numerical calculations; however, yield-strength values remain poorly constrained, especially at depths below the brittle-plastic transition zone. Recent studies by the authors have refined the microboudin technique for estimating palaeostress magnitude in the deep crust (> 10 km depth). This technique has the potential to provide important information on stress levels in the deep continental crust, an environment to which available in situ stress measurements and palaeopiezometric methods cannot be applied. In applying the microboudinage technique, obtaining an estimate of the palaeostress magnitude requires knowledge of the fracture strength of columnar accessory minerals (e.g., tourmaline, amphibole, and epidote) that are subjected to brittle fracturing during plastic deformation of the surrounding matrix minerals. The absolute magnitude of fracture strength is known to show a marked reduction in the case of fatigue fracture. Fatigue fracture falls into two categories: static fatigue and cyclic fatigue. In the field of experimental rock deformation, stress corrosion by water molecules (static fatigue) is commonly invoked as the mechanism of fatigue fracture; however, evidence of both static and cyclic fatigue has been reported from studies of natural geological samples. The present study focused on the fatigue properties of columnar accessory minerals at high temperatures, with the aim of improving the accuracy of estimates of natural palaeostress magnitude at depth in the crust. 2. Constant stress-rate test A constant stress-rate test was performed to determine the influence of static fatigue on the strength of columnar accessory minerals. The test was conducted under three-point bending with a span distance of 10 mm. Temperature conditions and the crosshead speed were set in the ranges of ambient to 600°C, and 0

  17. Characterization of a potentially novel 'blown pack' spoilage bacterium isolated from bovine hide.

    PubMed

    Moschonas, G; Bolton, D J

    2013-03-01

    To characterize a psychrotrophic bacterium, designated TC1, previously isolated from a cattle hide in Ireland, and to investigate the ability of this strain to cause 'blown pack' spoilage (BPS) of vacuum-packaged beef primals. TC1 was characterized using a combination of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic analyses and was assessed for its ability to spoil vacuum-packaged beef at refrigerated temperatures. TC1 was Gram-positive and formed elliptical subterminal endospores. The strain was able to grow between 0 and 33 °C, with optimal growth between 23 and 24 °C. TC1 could be differentiated from its phylogenetically closest neighbour (Clostridium lituseburense DSM 797(T)) by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and cellular fatty acid composition. TC1 spoiled (BPS) beef within 42 days when inoculated in cold-stored (1 °C) vacuum-packed beef. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic characterization indicated that TC1 may represent a potentially novel, cold-tolerant, gas-producing bacterium of considerable economic significance to the beef industry. This study reports and characterizes an emerging BPS bacterium, which should be considered in future activities designed to minimize the psychrophilic and psychrotrophic spoilage of vacuum-packaged beef. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. The gene transfer agent-like particle of the marine phototrophic bacterium Rhodovulum sulfidophilum.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Nobuyoshi; Yamamoto, Junya; Komatsu, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiromichi; Hirose, Yuu; Umekage, So; Ohyama, Takashi; Kikuchi, Yo

    2015-12-01

    Gene transfer agents (GTAs) are shaped like bacteriophage particles but have many properties that distinguish them from bacteriophages. GTAs play a role in horizontal gene transfer in nature and thus affect the evolution of prokaryotic genomes. In the course of studies on the extracellular production of designed RNAs using the marine bacterium Rhodovulum sulfidophilum , we found that this bacterium produces a GTA-like particle. The particle contains DNA fragments of 4.5 kb, which consist of randomly fragmented genomic DNA from the bacterium. This 4.5-kb DNA production was prevented while quorum sensing was inhibited. Direct observation of the particle by transmission electron microscopy revealed that the particle resembles a tailed phage and has a head diameter of about 40 nm and a tail length of about 60 nm. We also identified the structural genes for the GTA in the genome. Translated amino acid sequences and gene positions are closely related to those of the genes that encode the Rhodobacter capsulatus GTA. This is the first report of a GTA-like particle from the genus Rhodovulum . However, gene transfer activity of this particle has not yet been confirmed. The differences between this particle and other GTAs are discussed.

  19. Chitin Utilization by the Insect-Transmitted Bacterium Xylella fastidiosa▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Killiny, Nabil; Prado, Simone S.; Almeida, Rodrigo P. P.

    2010-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is an insect-borne bacterium that colonizes xylem vessels of a large number of host plants, including several crops of economic importance. Chitin is a polysaccharide present in the cuticle of leafhopper vectors of X. fastidiosa and may serve as a carbon source for this bacterium. Biological assays showed that X. fastidiosa reached larger populations in the presence of chitin. Additionally, chitin induced phenotypic changes in this bacterium, notably increasing adhesiveness. Quantitative PCR assays indicated transcriptional changes in the presence of chitin, and an enzymatic assay demonstrated chitinolytic activity by X. fastidiosa. An ortholog of the chitinase A gene (chiA) was identified in the X. fastidiosa genome. The in silico analysis revealed that the open reading frame of chiA encodes a protein of 351 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 40 kDa. chiA is in a locus that consists of genes implicated in polysaccharide degradation. Moreover, this locus was also found in the genomes of closely related bacteria in the genus Xanthomonas, which are plant but not insect associated. X. fastidiosa degraded chitin when grown on a solid chitin-yeast extract-agar medium and grew in liquid medium with chitin as the sole carbon source; ChiA was also determined to be secreted. The gene encoding ChiA was cloned into Escherichia coli, and endochitinase activity was detected in the transformant, showing that the gene is functional and involved in chitin degradation. The results suggest that X. fastidiosa may use its vectors' foregut surface as a carbon source. In addition, chitin may trigger X. fastidiosa's gene regulation and biofilm formation within vectors. Further work is necessary to characterize the role of chitin and its utilization in X. fastidiosa. PMID:20656858

  20. Investigations of Iron Minerals Formed by Dissimilatory Alkaliphilic Bacterium with 57Fe Mössbauer Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chistyakova, N. I.; Rusakov, V. S.; Shapkin, A. A.; Zhilina, T. N.; Zavarzina, D. G.; Lančok, A.; Kohout, J.

    2010-07-01

    Anaerobic alkaliphilic bacterium of Geoalkalibacter ferrihydriticus type (strain Z-0531), isolated from a bottom sediment sample from the weakly mineralized soda Lake Khadyn, have been analyzed. The strain uses the amorphous Fe(III)-hydroxide (AFH) as an electron acceptor and acetate CH3COO- as an electron donor. Mössbauer investigations of solid phase samples obtained during the process of the bacterium growth were carried out at room temperature, 77.8 K, 4.2 K without and with the presence of an external magnetic field (6 T) applied perpendicular to the γ-bebam.

  1. Diversity of Flavobacterium psychrophilum and the potential use of its phages for protection against bacterial cold water disease in salmonids.

    PubMed

    Castillo, D; Higuera, G; Villa, M; Middelboe, M; Dalsgaard, I; Madsen, L; Espejo, R T

    2012-03-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum causes rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS) and cold water disease (CWD) in salmonid aquaculture. We report characterization of F. psychrophilum strains and their bacteriophages isolated in Chilean salmonid aquaculture. Results suggest that under laboratory conditions phages can decrease mortality of salmonids from infection by their F. psychrophilum host strain. Twelve F. psychrophilum isolates were characterized, with DNA restriction patterns showing low diversity between strains despite their being obtained from different salmonid production sites and from different tissues. We isolated 15 bacteriophages able to infect some of the F. psychrophilum isolates and characterized six of them in detail. DNA genome sizes were close to 50 Kbp and corresponded to the Siphoviridae and Podoviridae families. One isolate, 6H, probably contains lipids as an essential virion component, based on its chloroform sensitivity and low buoyant density in CsCl. Each phage isolate rarely infected F. psychrophilum strains other than the strain used for its enrichment and isolation. Some bacteriophages could decrease mortality from intraperitoneal injection of its host strain when added together with the bacteria in a ratio of 10 plaque-forming units per colony-forming unit. While we recognize the artificial laboratory conditions used for these protection assays, this work is the first to demonstrate that phages might be able protect salmonids from RTFS or CWD. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Studying the Symbiotic Bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila in Individual, Living Steinernema carpocapsae Nematodes Using Microfluidic Systems.

    PubMed

    Stilwell, Matthew D; Cao, Mengyi; Goodrich-Blair, Heidi; Weibel, Douglas B

    2018-01-01

    Animal-microbe symbioses are ubiquitous in nature and scientifically important in diverse areas, including ecology, medicine, and agriculture. Steinernema nematodes and Xenorhabdus bacteria compose an established, successful model system for investigating microbial pathogenesis and mutualism. The bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila is a species-specific mutualist of insect-infecting Steinernema carpocapsae nematodes. The bacterium colonizes a specialized intestinal pocket within the infective stage of the nematode, which transports the bacteria between insects that are killed and consumed by the pair for reproduction. Current understanding of the interaction between the infective-stage nematode and its bacterial colonizers is based largely on population-level, snapshot time point studies on these organisms. This limitation arises because investigating temporal dynamics of the bacterium within the nematode is impeded by the difficulty of isolating and maintaining individual living nematodes and tracking colonizing bacterial cells over time. To overcome this challenge, we developed a microfluidic system that enables us to spatially isolate and microscopically observe individual, living Steinernema nematodes and monitor the growth and development of the associated X. nematophila bacterial communities-starting from a single cell or a few cells-over weeks. Our data demonstrate, to our knowledge, the first direct, temporal, in vivo visual analysis of a symbiosis system and the application of this system to reveal continuous dynamics of the symbiont population in the living host animal. IMPORTANCE This paper describes an experimental system for directly investigating population dynamics of a symbiotic bacterium, Xenorhabdus nematophila , in its host-the infective stage of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae . Tracking individual and groups of bacteria in individual host nematodes over days and weeks yielded insight into dynamic growth and topology changes

  3. Meteorite organics in planetary environments: hydrothermal release, surface activity, and microbial utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mautner, M. N.; Leonard, R. L.; Deamer, D. W.

    1995-01-01

    Up to 50% of the organics in the Murchison meteorite, possibly including some of the polymer, is released in high temperature and pressure aqueous environments, to 350 degrees C and 250 bar, that simulate submarine volcanic, hydrothermal or impact-induced conditions. Meteorite organics of prebiotic significance, such as nonanoic acid, glycine, and pyrene survive the hydrothermal conditions. The released material is surface active with surface pressures up to 19.8 x 10(-3) N m-1, and exhibits an extended surface tension isotherm which suggests a mixture of amphiphilic components. One component, nonanoic acid, is shown to form vesicles. The materials extracted under mild conditions, at 120 degrees C, are nutrients for the humic acid bacterium Pseudomonas maltophilia and efficient nutrients for the oligotroph Flavobacterium oryzihabitans, demonstrating the capability of microorganisms to metabolize extraterrestrial organics.

  4. Tyrosine sulfation in a Gram-negative bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sang-Wook; Lee, Sang-Won; Bahar, Ofir; Schwessinger, Benjamin; Robinson, Michelle R.; Shaw, Jared B.; Madsen, James A.; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.; Ronald, Pamela C.

    2015-01-01

    Tyrosine sulfation, a well-characterized post-translation modification in eukaryotes, has not previously been reported in prokaryotes. Here we demonstrate that the RaxST protein from the Gram-negative bacterium, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, is a tyrosine sulfotransferase. We used a newly developed sulfotransferase assay and ultraviolet photodissociation mass spectrometry (UVPD) to demonstrate that RaxST catalyzes sulfation of tyrosine 22 of the Xoo Ax21 (activator of XA21-mediated immunity). These results demonstrate a previously undescribed post-translational modification in a prokaryotic species with implications extending to host immune response and bacterial cell-cell communication system. PMID:23093190

  5. Large effect of columnar defects on the thermodynamic properties of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Beek, C. J.; Konczykowski, M.; Li, T. W.; Kes, P. H.; Benoit, W.

    1996-07-01

    The introduction of columnar defects by irradiation with 5.8-GeV Pb ions is shown to affect significantly the reversible magnetic properties of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ single crystals. Notably, the suppression of superconducting fluctuations on length scales greater than the separation between columns leads to the disappearance of the ``crossing point'' in the critical fluctuation regime. At lower temperatures, the strong modification of the vortex energy due to pinning leads to an important change of the reversible magnetization. The analysis of the latter permits the direct determination of the pinning energy.

  6. Partial proteome of the corynetoxin-producing Gram-positive bacterium, Rathayibacter toxicus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rathayibacter toxicus is a Gram-positive bacterium that is the causative agent of annual ryegrass toxicity (ARGT), a disease that causes devastating losses in the Australian livestock industry. R. toxicus exhibits a complex life cycle, using the nematode Anguina funesta as a physical vector to carry...

  7. Application of agglomerative clustering for analyzing phylogenetically on bacterium of saliva

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustamam, A.; Fitria, I.; Umam, K.

    2017-07-01

    Analyzing population of Streptococcus bacteria is important since these species can cause dental caries, periodontal, halitosis (bad breath) and more problems. This paper will discuss the phylogenetically relation between the bacterium Streptococcus in saliva using a phylogenetic tree of agglomerative clustering methods. Starting with the bacterium Streptococcus DNA sequence obtained from the GenBank, then performed characteristic extraction of DNA sequences. The characteristic extraction result is matrix form, then performed normalization using min-max normalization and calculate genetic distance using Manhattan distance. Agglomerative clustering technique consisting of single linkage, complete linkage and average linkage. In this agglomerative algorithm number of group is started with the number of individual species. The most similar species is grouped until the similarity decreases and then formed a single group. Results of grouping is a phylogenetic tree and branches that join an established level of distance, that the smaller the distance the more the similarity of the larger species implementation is using R, an open source program.

  8. Melanin from the Nitrogen-Fixing Bacterium Azotobacter chroococcum: A Spectroscopic Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Raja

    2014-01-01

    Melanins, the ubiquitous hetero-polymer pigments found widely dispersed among various life forms, are usually dark brown/black in colour. Although melanins have variety of biological functions, including protection against ultraviolet radiation of sunlight and are used in medicine, cosmetics, extraction of melanin from the animal and plant kingdoms is not an easy task. Using complementary physicochemical techniques (i.e. MALDI-TOF, FTIR absorption and cross-polarization magic angle spinning solid-state 13C NMR), we report here the characterization of melanins extracted from the nitrogen-fixing non-virulent bacterium Azotobacter chroococcum, a safe viable source. Moreover, considering dihydroxyindole moiety as the main constituent, an effort is made to propose the putative molecular structure of the melanin hetero-polymer extracted from the bacterium. Characterization of the melanin obtained from Azotobacter chroococcum would provide an inspiration in extending research activities on these hetero-polymers and their use as protective agent against UV radiation. PMID:24416247

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Arthrobacter sp. Strain SPG23, a Hydrocarbon-Degrading and Plant Growth-Promoting Soil Bacterium.

    PubMed

    Gkorezis, Panagiotis; Bottos, Eric M; Van Hamme, Jonathan D; Thijs, Sofie; Rineau, Francois; Franzetti, Andrea; Balseiro-Romero, Maria; Weyens, Nele; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2015-12-23

    We report here the 4.7-Mb draft genome of Arthrobacter sp. SPG23, a hydrocarbonoclastic Gram-positive bacterium belonging to the Actinobacteria, isolated from diesel-contaminated soil at the Ford Motor Company site in Genk, Belgium. Strain SPG23 is a potent plant growth promoter useful for diesel fuel remediation applications based on plant-bacterium associations. Copyright © 2015 Gkorezis et al.

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus licheniformis Strain GB2, a Hydrocarbon-Degrading and Plant Growth-Promoting Soil Bacterium.

    PubMed

    Gkorezis, Panagiotis; Van Hamme, Jonathan; Bottos, Eric; Thijs, Sofie; Balseiro-Romero, Maria; Monterroso, Carmela; Kidd, Petra Suzan; Rineau, Francois; Weyens, Nele; Sillen, Wouter; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2016-06-23

    We report the 4.39 Mb draft genome of Bacillus licheniformis GB2, a hydrocarbonoclastic Gram-positive bacterium of the family Bacillaceae, isolated from diesel-contaminated soil at the Ford Motor Company site in Genk, Belgium. Strain GB2 is an effective plant-growth promoter useful for diesel fuel remediation applications based on plant-bacterium associations. Copyright © 2016 Gkorezis et al.

  11. Columnar cell change with atypia (flat epithelial atypia) on breast core biopsy-outcomes following open excision.

    PubMed

    Biggar, Magdalena A; Kerr, Kris M; Erzetich, Lisa M; Bennett, Ian C

    2012-01-01

    Columnar cell change with atypia (CCCA) is a relatively recently recognized pathologic breast entity considered to be a risk factor for subsequent development of breast carcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the significance of finding CCCA on breast core biopsy, by establishing the frequency of other breast pathology on subsequently performed surgical excision specimens. All cases with CCCA as the most advanced lesion on core biopsy were reviewed. After excision, another advanced proliferative lesion was identified in 17 (33%) patients, including three patients (6%) with in situ or invasive carcinoma. An additional five patients (10%) were concurrently diagnosed with primary breast carcinoma at other sites. These findings indicate that when CCCA is found on core biopsy, open surgical biopsy of the relevant area should be performed and that workup of both breasts should be undertaken to exclude coexistent breast carcinoma at alternative sites. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. VHF/UHF technique for the determination of the columnar electron contents of the plasmasphere and of the protonosphere using geostationary satellite transmission: Observations during magnetic storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Almeida, O. G.

    1972-01-01

    Measurements of the total electron content of the plasmasphere up to geostationary heights were made using the beacon transmitters aboard the satellite ATS-3. The technique employed is a combination of the phase-path length difference and the Faraday rotation angle methods. Such a combination permits very accurate determination of the integration constant necessary to convert phase-path length difference data into information about the absolute value of the columnar content.

  13. Columnar Aerosol Properties from Sun-and-star Photometry: Statistical Comparisons and Day-to-night Dynamic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramirez, Daniel Perez; Lyamani, H.; Olmo, F. J.; Whiteman, D. N.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the first analysis of longterm correlative day-to-night columnar aerosol optical properties. The aim is to better understand columnar aerosol dynamic from ground-based observations, which are poorly studied until now. To this end we have used a combination of sun-and-star photometry measurements acquired in the city of Granada (37.16 N, 3.60 W, 680 ma.s.l.; South-East of Spain) from 2007 to 2010. For the whole study period, mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) around 440 nm (+/-standard deviation) is 0.18 +/- 0.10 and 0.19 +/- 0.11 for daytime and nighttime, respectively, while the mean Angstr¨om exponent (alpha ) is 1.0 +/- 0.4 and 0.9 +/- 0.4 for daytime and nighttime. The ANOVA statistical tests reveal that there are no significant differences between AOD and obtained at daytime and those at nighttime. Additionally, the mean daytime values of AOD and obtained during this study period are coherent with the values obtained in the surrounding AERONET stations. On the other hand, AOD around 440 nm present evident seasonal patterns characterised by large values in summer (mean value of 0.20 +/- 0.10 both at daytime and nighttime) and low values in winter (mean value of 0.15 +/- 0.09 at daytime and 0.17 +/- 0.10 at nighttime). The Angstr¨om exponents also present seasonal patterns, but with low values in summer (mean values of 0.8 +/- 0.4 and 0.9 +/- 0.4 at dayand night-time) and relatively large values in winter (mean values of 1.2 +/- 0.4 and 1.0 +/- 0.3 at daytime and nighttime). These seasonal patterns are explained by the differences in the meteorological conditions and by the differences in the strength of the aerosol sources. To take more insight about the changes in aerosol particles between day and night, the spectral differences of the Angstrom exponent as function of the Angstr¨om exponent are also studied. These analyses reveal increases of the fine mode radius and of the fine mode contribution to AOD during nighttime, being more

  14. Characterisation of columnar inertial modes in rapidly rotating spheres and spheroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maffei, S.; Jackson, A.; Livermore, P. W.

    2017-12-01

    We consider fluid-filled spheres and spheroidal containers of eccentricity ɛ in rapid rotation, as a proxy for the interior dynamics of stars and planets. The fluid motion is assumed to be quasi-geostrophic (QG): horizontal motions are invariant parallel to the rotation axis z, a characteristic which is handled by use of a stream function formulation which additionally enforces mass conservation and non-penetration at the boundary. By linearising about a quiescent background state, we investigate a variety of methods to study the QG inviscid inertial wave modes which are compared with fully 3-D calculations. We consider the recently-proposed weak formulation of the inviscid system valid in spheroids of arbitrary eccentricity, to which we present novel closed-form polynomial solutions. Our modal solutions accurately represent, in both spatial structure and frequency, the most z-invariant of the inertial wave modes in a spheroid, and constitute a simple basis set for the analysis of rotationally- dominated fluids. We further show that these new solutions are more accurate than those of the classical axial-vorticity equation, which is independent of ɛ and thus fails to properly encode the container geometry. We also consider the effects of viscosity for the cases of both no-slip and stress-free boundary conditions for a spherical container. Calculations performed under the columnar approximation are compared with 3-D solutions and excellent agreement has been found despite fundamental differences in the two formulations.

  15. ["Candidatus contubernalis alkalaceticum," an obligately syntrophic alkaliphilic bacterium capable of anaerobic acetate oxidation in a coculture with Desulfonatronum cooperativum].

    PubMed

    Zhilina, T N; Zavarzina, D G; Kolganova, T V; Turova, T P; Zavarzin, G A

    2005-01-01

    From the silty sediments of the Khadyn soda lake (Tuva), a binary sulfidogenic bacterial association capable of syntrophic acetate oxidation at pH 10.0 was isolated. An obligately syntrophic, gram-positive, spore-forming alkaliphilic rod-shaped bacterium performs acetate oxidation in a syntrophic association with a hydrogenotrophic, alkaliphilic sulfate-reducing bacterium; the latter organism was previously isolated and characterized as the new species Desulfonatronum cooperativum. Other sulfate-reducing bacteria of the genera Desulfonatronum and Desulfonatronovibrio can also act as the hydrogenotrophic partner. Apart from acetate, the syntrophic culture can oxidize ethanol, propanol, isopropanol, serine, fructose, and isobutyric acid. Selective amplification of 16S rRNA gene fragments of the acetate-utilizing syntrophic component of the binary culture was performed; it was found to cluster with clones of uncultured gram-positive bacteria within the family Syntrophomonadaceae. The acetate-oxidizing bacterium is thus the first representative of this cluster obtained in a laboratory culture. Based on its phylogenetic position, the new acetate-oxidizing syntrophic bacterium is proposed to be assigned, in a Candidate status, to a new genus and species: "Candidatus Contubernalis alkalaceticum."

  16. Isolation and characterization of Leu[7]-Surfactin from the endophytic bacterium Bacillus mojavensis RRC 101, a biocontrol agent for Fusarium verticillioides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bacillus mojavensis is an endophytic bacterium patented for control of fungal diseases in maize and other plants. Culture extracts and filtrates from this bacterium were antagonistic to the pathogenic and mycotoxic fungus Fusarium verticillioides. However, the identity of the inhibitory substance ...

  17. hybrid\\scriptsize{{MANTIS}}: a CPU-GPU Monte Carlo method for modeling indirect x-ray detectors with columnar scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Diksha; Badal, Andreu; Badano, Aldo

    2012-04-01

    The computational modeling of medical imaging systems often requires obtaining a large number of simulated images with low statistical uncertainty which translates into prohibitive computing times. We describe a novel hybrid approach for Monte Carlo simulations that maximizes utilization of CPUs and GPUs in modern workstations. We apply the method to the modeling of indirect x-ray detectors using a new and improved version of the code \\scriptsize{{MANTIS}}, an open source software tool used for the Monte Carlo simulations of indirect x-ray imagers. We first describe a GPU implementation of the physics and geometry models in fast\\scriptsize{{DETECT}}2 (the optical transport model) and a serial CPU version of the same code. We discuss its new features like on-the-fly column geometry and columnar crosstalk in relation to the \\scriptsize{{MANTIS}} code, and point out areas where our model provides more flexibility for the modeling of realistic columnar structures in large area detectors. Second, we modify \\scriptsize{{PENELOPE}} (the open source software package that handles the x-ray and electron transport in \\scriptsize{{MANTIS}}) to allow direct output of location and energy deposited during x-ray and electron interactions occurring within the scintillator. This information is then handled by optical transport routines in fast\\scriptsize{{DETECT}}2. A load balancer dynamically allocates optical transport showers to the GPU and CPU computing cores. Our hybrid\\scriptsize{{MANTIS}} approach achieves a significant speed-up factor of 627 when compared to \\scriptsize{{MANTIS}} and of 35 when compared to the same code running only in a CPU instead of a GPU. Using hybrid\\scriptsize{{MANTIS}}, we successfully hide hours of optical transport time by running it in parallel with the x-ray and electron transport, thus shifting the computational bottleneck from optical to x-ray transport. The new code requires much less memory than \\scriptsize{{MANTIS}} and, as a result

  18. Stress of algicidal substances from a bacterium Exiguobacterium sp. h10 on Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Liu, L; Xu, Y; Li, P; Zhang, K; Jiang, X; Zheng, T; Wang, H

    2017-01-01

    Microcystis aeruginosa is a cyanobacterial bloom-causing species and is considered a serious threat to human health and biological safety. In this study, the algicidal bacterium h10 showed high algicidal effects on M. aeruginosa 7820, and strain h10 was confirmed to belong to the genus Exiguobacterium, for which the name Exiguobacterium sp. h10 is proposed. Algicidal activity and mode analysis revealed that the supernatant, rather than the bacterial cells, was responsible for the algicidal activity, indicating that the algicidal mode of strain h10 is by indirect attack through the production of algicidal substances. Analysis of the algicidal substance characteristics showed a molecular weight of <1000 Da and that algicidal substances exhibit high thermal stability and pH instability, and the characteristic functional groups of the algicidal substance mainly included carbonyl, amino and hydroxyl groups. Under the effects of the algicidal substance, the cellular pigment content was significantly decreased, and the algal cell structure and morphology were seriously damaged. The results indicate that the algicidal bacterium Exiguobacterium sp. h10 could be a potential bio-agent for controlling cyanobacterial blooms of M. aeruginosa. In this study, the effects of algicidal substances from an algicidal bacterium Exiguobacterium sp. h10 on the toxic cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa 7820, were first investigated. The algicidal mode of action was confirmed as an indirect attack through the production of algicidal substances. The characteristics of the algicidal substance were determined, especially the functional groups analysis that confirmed the algicidal substances were glycolipid mixtures. With the stress of algicidal substances, the algal chlorophyll a synthesis, cell structure and morphology were seriously damaged. This study proved that algicidal bacteria are promising sources of potential cyanobacterial bloom-control, and provided good procedures for the

  19. Toward understanding atmospheric physics impacting the relationship between columnar aerosol optical depth and near-surface PM2.5 mass concentrations in Nevada and California, U.S.A., during 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loría-Salazar, S. Marcela; Panorska, Anna; Arnott, W. Patrick; Barnard, James C.; Boehmler, Jayne M.; Holmes, Heather A.

    2017-12-01

    Determining the relationship between columnar aerosol optical depth (τext) and surface particulate matter concentrations (PM2.5) is desired to estimate surface aerosol concentrations over broad spatial and temporal scales using satellite remote sensing. However, remote sensing studies incur challenges when surface aerosol pollution (i.e. PM2.5) is not correlated with columnar conditions (i.e., τext). PM2.5 data fusion models that rely on satellite data and statistical relationships of τext and PM2.5 may not be able to capture the physical conditions impacting the relationships that cause columnar and surface aerosols to not be correlated in the western U.S. Therefore, an extensive examination of the atmospheric conditions is required to improve surface estimates of PM2.5 that rely on columnar aerosol measurements. This investigation uses datasets from both routine monitoring networks and models of meteorological variables and aerosol physical parameters to understand the atmospheric conditions under which surface aerosol pollution can be explained by column measurements in California and Nevada during 2013. A novel quadrant method, that utilizes statistical analysis, was developed to investigate the relationship between τext and PM2.5. The results from this investigation show that τext and PM2.5 had a positive association (τext and PM2.5 increase together) when local sources of pollution or wildfires dominated aerosol pollution in the presence of a deep and well-mixed planetary boundary layer (PBL). Moreover, τext and PM2.5 had no association (where the variables are not related) when stable conditions, long-range transport, or entrainment of air from above the PBL were observed. It was found that seasonal categorization of the relationship between τext and PM2.5, an approach commonly used in statistical models to estimate surface concentrations with satellite remote sensing, may not be enough to account for the atmospheric conditions that drive the

  20. Aggressive Variants of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: Hobnail, Tall Cell, Columnar, and Solid.

    PubMed

    Nath, Meryl C; Erickson, Lori A

    2018-05-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinomas are the most common endocrine cancer and are usually associated with good survival. However, some variants of papillary thyroid carcinomas may behave more aggressively than classic papillary thyroid carcinomas. The tall cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common aggressive variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. The aggressive behavior has been ascribed to the histologic subtype and/or to the clinicopathologic features, an issue that remains controversial. The columnar variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma can be aggressive, particularly in older patients, with larger tumors showing a diffusely infiltrative growth pattern and extrathyroidal extension. A papillary thyroid carcinoma is designated as solid/trabecular variant when all or nearly all of a tumor not belonging to any of the other variants has a solid, trabecular, or nested (insular) appearance. This tumor must be distinguished from poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma which has the same growth pattern but lacks nuclear features of papillary thyroid carcinoma and may show tumor necrosis and high mitotic activity. New to the fourth edition of the WHO Classification of Tumours of Endocrine Organs, the hobnail variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma is a moderately differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma variant with aggressive clinical behavior and significant mortality. All of these variants are histologically unique and important to recognize due to their aggressive behavior.

  1. Generation of DNA profiles from fingerprints developed with columnar thin film technique.

    PubMed

    Plazibat, Stephanie L; Roy, Reena; Swiontek, Stephen E; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2015-12-01

    Partial-bloody fingerprints and partial fingerprints with saliva are often encountered at crime scenes, potentially enabling the combination of fingerprint and DNA analyses for absolute identification, provided that the development technique for fingerprint analysis does not inhibit DNA analysis. 36 partial-bloody fingerprints and 30 fingerprints wetted with saliva, all deposited on brass, were first developed using the columnar-thin-film (CTF) technique and then subjected to short tandem repeat (STR) DNA analysis. Equal numbers of samples were subjected to the same DNA analysis without development. Tris (8-hydroxyquinolinato) aluminum, or Alq3, was evaporated to deposit CTFs for development of the prints. DNA was extracted from all 132 samples, quantified, and amplified with AmpFlSTR(®) Identifiler Plus Amplification Kit. Additionally, DNA analyses were conducted on four blood smears on un-fingerprinted brass that had been subjected to CTF deposition and four blood smears on un-fingerprinted brass that had not been subjected to CTF deposition. Complete and concordant autosomal STR profiles of the same quality were obtained from both undeveloped and CTF-developed fingerprints, indicating that CTF development of fingerprints preserves DNA and does not inhibit subsequent DNA analysis. Even when there were no fingerprints, CTF deposition did not lead to inhibition of DNA analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Biodegradation of Ethylene Glycol by a Salt-Requiring Bacterium1

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Carlos F.; Taber, Willard A.; Zeitoun, M. A.

    1972-01-01

    A gram-negative nonmotile rod which was capable of using 1,2-14C-ethylene glycol as a sole carbon source for growth was isolated from a brine pond, Great Salt Lake, Utah. The bacterium (ATCC 27042) required at least 0.85% NaCl for growth and, although the chloride ion was replaceable by sulfate ion, the sodium ion was not replaceable by potassium ion. The maximal concentration of salt tolerated for growth was approximately 12%. The bacterium was oxidase-negative when N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine was used and weakly positive when N,N,N′,N′-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine was used. It grows on many sugars but does not ferment them, it does not have an exogenous vitamin requirement, and it possesses a guanine plus cytosine ratio of 64.3%. Incorporation of ethylene glycol carbon into cell and respired CO2 was quantitated by use of radioactive ethylene glycol and a force-aerated fermentor. Glucose suppressed ethylene glycol metabolism. Cells grown on ethylene and propylene glycol respired ethylene glycol in a Warburg respirometer more rapidly than cells grown on glucose. Spectrophotometric evidence was obtained for oxidation of glycolate to glyoxylate by a dialyzed cell extract. PMID:4568254

  3. Chromatin organization and radio resistance in the bacterium Gemmata obscuriglobus.

    PubMed

    Lieber, Arnon; Leis, Andrew; Kushmaro, Ariel; Minsky, Abraham; Medalia, Ohad

    2009-03-01

    The organization of chromatin has a major impact on cellular activities, such as gene expression. For bacteria, it was suggested that the spatial organization of the genetic material correlates with transcriptional levels, implying a specific architecture of the chromosome within the cytoplasm. Accordingly, recent technological advances have emphasized the organization of the genetic material within nucleoid structures. Gemmata obscuriglobus, a member of the phylum Planctomycetes, exhibits a distinctive nucleoid structure in which chromatin is encapsulated within a discrete membrane-bound compartment. Here, we show that this soil and freshwater bacterium tolerates high doses of UV and ionizing radiation. Cryoelectron tomography of frozen hydrated sections and electron microscopy of freeze-substituted cells have indicated a more highly ordered condensed-chromatin organization in actively dividing and stationary-phase G. obscuriglobus cells. These three-dimensional analyses revealed a complex network of double membranes that engulf the condensed DNA. Bioinformatics analysis has revealed the existence of a putative component involved in nonhomologous DNA end joining that presumably plays a role in maintaining chromatin integrity within the bacterium. Thus, our observations further support the notion that packed chromatin organization enhances radiation tolerance.

  4. Isolation of a New Polysaccharide-Digesting Bacterium from a Salt Marsh

    PubMed Central

    Andrykovitch, George; Marx, Irene

    1988-01-01

    A new marine bacterium that digested a variety of storage and structural polysaccharides, including agar, was isolated. Strain 2-40 is a nonfermentative gram-negative, polarly flagellated rod that sometimes grew as a filamentous helix and secreted a melaninlike pigment. Its characteristics conform to those of no previously described species. PMID:16347602

  5. Impact of feed additives on surface mucosal health and columnaris susceptibility in channel catfish fingerlings, Ictalurus punctatus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Honggang; Li, Chao; Beck, Benjamin H; Zhang, Ran; Thongda, Wilawan; Davis, D Allen; Peatman, Eric

    2015-10-01

    One of the highest priority areas for improvement in aquaculture is the development of dietary additives and formulations which provide for complete mucosal health and protection of fish raised in intensive systems. Far greater attention has been paid to dietary impact on gut health than to protective effects at other mucosal surfaces such as skin and gill. These exterior surfaces, however, are important primary targets for pathogen attachment and invasion. Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris disease, is among the most prevalent of all freshwater disease-causing bacteria, impacting global aquaculture of catfish, salmonids, baitfish and aquaria-trade species among others. This study evaluated whether the feeding of a standard catfish diet supplemented with Alltech dietary additives Actigen(®), a concentrated source of yeast cell wall-derived material and/or Allzyme(®) SSF, a fermented strain of Aspergillus niger, could offer protection against F. columnare mortality. A nine-week feeding trial of channel catfish fingerlings with basal diet (B), B + Allzyme(®) SSF, B + Actigen(®) and B + Actigen(®)+Allzyme(®) SSF revealed good growth in all conditions (FCR < 1.0), but no statistical differences in growth between the treatments were found. At nine weeks, based on pre-challenge trial results, basal, B + Actigen(®), and B + Allzyme(®) SSF groups of fish were selected for further challenges with F. columnare. Replicated challenge with a virulent F. columnare strain, revealed significantly longer median days to death in B + Allzyme(®) SSF and B + Actigen(®) when compared with the basal diet (P < 0.05) and significantly higher survival following the eight day challenge period in B + Actigen(®) when compared with the other two diets (P < 0.05). Given the superior protection provided by the B + Actigen(®) diet, we carried out transcriptomic comparison of gene expression of fish fed that diet and the basal diet before and after columnaris

  6. An Endohyphal Bacterium (Chitinophaga, Bacteroidetes) Alters Carbon Source Use by Fusarium keratoplasticum (F. solani Species Complex, Nectriaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, Justin P.; U'Ren, Jana M.; Gallery, Rachel E.; Baltrus, David A.; Arnold, A. Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial endosymbionts occur in diverse fungi, including members of many lineages of Ascomycota that inhabit living plants. These endosymbiotic bacteria (endohyphal bacteria, EHB) often can be removed from living fungi by antibiotic treatment, providing an opportunity to assess their effects on functional traits of their fungal hosts. We examined the effects of an endohyphal bacterium (Chitinophaga sp., Bacteroidetes) on substrate use by its host, a seed-associated strain of the fungus Fusarium keratoplasticum, by comparing growth between naturally infected and cured fungal strains across 95 carbon sources with a Biolog® phenotypic microarray. Across the majority of substrates (62%), the strain harboring the bacterium significantly outperformed the cured strain as measured by respiration and hyphal density. These substrates included many that are important for plant- and seed-fungus interactions, such as D-trehalose, myo-inositol, and sucrose, highlighting the potential influence of EHB on the breadth and efficiency of substrate use by an important Fusarium species. Cases in which the cured strain outperformed the strain harboring the bacterium were observed in only 5% of substrates. We propose that additive or synergistic substrate use by the fungus-bacterium pair enhances fungal growth in this association. More generally, alteration of the breadth or efficiency of substrate use by dispensable EHB may change fungal niches in short timeframes, potentially shaping fungal ecology and the outcomes of fungal-host interactions. PMID:28382021

  7. Effects of an equol-producing bacterium isolated from human faeces on isoflavone and lignan metabolism in mice.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Motoi; Hori, Sachiko; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki; Yamauchi, Satoshi; Sugahara, Takuya

    2016-07-01

    Equol is a metabolite of daidzein that is produced by intestinal microbiota. The oestrogenic activity of equol is stronger than daidzein. Equol-producing bacteria are believed to play an important role in the gut. The rod-shaped and Gram-positive anaerobic equol-producing intestinal bacterium Slackia TM-30 was isolated from healthy human faeces and its effects on urinary phyto-oestrogen, plasma and faecal lipids were assessed in adult mice. The urinary amounts of equol in urine were significantly higher in mice receiving the equol-producing bacterium TM-30 (BAC) group than in the control (CO) group (P < 0.05). However, no significant differences were observed between the urinary amounts of daidzein, dihydrodaidzein, enterodiol, and enterolactone between the BAC and CO groups. No significant differences in the plasma lipids were observed between the two groups. The lipid content (% dry weight) in the faeces sampled on the final day of the experiment tended to be higher in the BAC group than in the CO group (P = 0.07). Administration of equol-producing bacterium TM-30 affected the urinary amounts of phyto-oestrogens and the faecal lipid contents of mice. The equol-producing bacterium TM-30 likely influences the metabolism of phyto-oestrogen via changes in the gastrointestinal environment. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Immersion exposure of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry to wildtype Flavobacterium psychrophilum induces no mortality, but protects against later intraperitoneal challenge.

    PubMed

    Lorenzen, E; Brudeseth, B E; Wiklund, T; Lorenzen, N

    2010-03-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the causative agent of RTFS or rainbow trout fry syndrome, causes high mortality among hatchery reared rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry in Europe and the USA. Despite several attempts, no efficient vaccines have yet been developed, the main obstacle being that the fry have to be vaccinated very early, i.e. around 0.2-0.5 g, where RTFS usually starts to give problems in the fish farms. Consequently, only oral or bath vaccines are relevant. Immersion of fry in inactivated or attenuated bacteria has resulted in RPS values of less than 50%. However, the results are biased by the fact that the fish have been challenged by intraperitoneal (ip) or subcutaneous (sc) injection against which an immersion/oral vaccine may not protect. Therefore, the present study was undertaken in order to investigate whether the presumably most potent immersion immunization, i.e. bathing in high titres of non-attenuated isolates of F. psychrophilum, was able to induce immunity to a subsequent ip challenge. Immersion in live bacteria for 30 or 50 min caused no mortality and protected a major fraction of the fry against challenges 26 and 47 days later with RPS values of 88.2 and 60.3%, respectively. Increased specific antibody titres suggested that adaptive immune mechanisms were involved in the protection. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Halobacterium saccharovorum sp. nov., a carbohydrate-metabolizing, extremely halophilic bacterium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomlinson, G. A.; Hochstein, L. I.

    1976-01-01

    The previously described extremely halophilic bacterium, strain M6, metabolizes a variety of carbohydrates with the production of acid. In addition, the organism produces nitrite (but no gas) from nitrate, is motile, and grows most rapidly at about 50 C. These characteristics distinguish it from all previously described halophilic bacteria in the genus Halobacterium. It is suggested that it be designated as a new species, Halobacterium saccharovorum.

  10. Draft genome sequence of a strictly anaerobic dichloromethane-degrading bacterium

    DOE PAGES

    Kleindienst, Sara; Higgins, Steven A.; Tsementzi, Despina; ...

    2016-03-03

    Here, an anaerobic, dichloromethane-degrading bacterium affiliated with novel Peptococcaceae was maintained in a microbial consortium. The organism originated from pristine freshwater sediment collected from Rio Mameyes in Luquillo, Puerto Rico, in October 2009 (latitude 18°21'43.9", longitude –65°46'8.4"). The draft genome sequence is 2.1 Mb and has a G+C content of 43.5%.

  11. Enhancement of survival and electricity production in an engineered bacterium by light-driven proton pumping.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ethan T; Baron, Daniel B; Naranjo, Belén; Bond, Daniel R; Schmidt-Dannert, Claudia; Gralnick, Jeffrey A

    2010-07-01

    Microorganisms can use complex photosystems or light-dependent proton pumps to generate membrane potential and/or reduce electron carriers to support growth. The discovery that proteorhodopsin is a light-dependent proton pump that can be expressed readily in recombinant bacteria enables development of new strategies to probe microbial physiology and to engineer microbes with new light-driven properties. Here, we describe functional expression of proteorhodopsin and light-induced changes in membrane potential in the bacterium Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1. We report that there were significant increases in electrical current generation during illumination of electrochemical chambers containing S. oneidensis expressing proteorhodopsin. We present evidence that an engineered strain is able to consume lactate at an increased rate when it is illuminated, which is consistent with the hypothesis that proteorhodopsin activity enhances lactate uptake by increasing the proton motive force. Our results demonstrate that there is coupling of a light-driven process to electricity generation in a nonphotosynthetic engineered bacterium. Expression of proteorhodopsin also preserved the viability of the bacterium under nutrient-limited conditions, providing evidence that fulfillment of basic energy needs of organisms may explain the widespread distribution of proteorhodopsin in marine environments.

  12. Genome Sequence of the Algicidal Bacterium Kordia algicida OT-1 ▿

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Sook; Kang, Sung Gyun; Kwon, Kae Kyoung; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Sang-Jin

    2011-01-01

    Kordia algicida OT-1 is an algicidal bacterium against the bloom-forming microalgae. The genome sequence of K. algicida revealed a number of interesting features, including the degradation of macromolecules, the biosynthesis of carotenoid pigment and secondary metabolites, and the capacity for gliding motility, which might facilitate the understanding of algicidal mechanisms. PMID:21622754

  13. Physiological characterization of strain DCB-1, a unique dehalogenating sulfidogenic bacterium.

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, T O; Linkfield, T G; Tiedje, J M

    1988-01-01

    Strain DCB-1 is an obligately anaerobic bacterium which carries out the reductive dehalogenation of halobenzoates and was previously known to grow only on pyruvate plus 20% ruminal fluid. When various electron acceptors were supplied, thiosulfate and sulfite were found to stimulate growth. Sulfide was produced from thiosulfate. Cytochrome c and desulfoviridin were detected. The mol% G+C was 49 (at the thermal denaturation temperature). Of 55 carbon sources tested, only pyruvate supported growth as the sole carbon source in mineral medium. Lactate, acetate, L- and D-malate, glycerol, and L- and D-arabinose stimulated growth when supplemented with 10% ruminal fluid and 20 mM thiosulfate. In mineral medium, pyruvate was converted to acetate and lactate, with small amounts of succinate and fumarate accumulating transiently. During growth with thiosulfate, all of these products accumulated transiently. Addition of excess hydrogen to pyruvate-grown cultures resulted in diversion of carbon to formate, lactate, and butyrate, which caused a decrease in cell yield. We conclude that strain DCB-1 is a new type of sulfidogenic bacterium. PMID:3223760

  14. A novel marine bacterium algicidal to the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense.

    PubMed

    Wang, B X; Zhou, Y Y; Bai, S J; Su, J Q; Tian, Y; Zheng, T L; Yang, X R

    2010-11-01

    This work is aiming at investigating algicidal characterization of a bacterium isolate DHQ25 against harmful alga Alexandrium tamarense. 16S rDNA sequence analysis showed that the most probable affiliation of DHQ25 belongs to the γ-proteobacteria subclass and the genus Vibrio. Bacterial isolate DHQ25 showed algicidal activity through an indirect attack. Xenic culture of A. tamarense was susceptible to the culture filtrate of DHQ25 by algicidal activity assay. Algicidal process demonstrated that the alga cell lysed and cellular substances released under the visual field of microscope. DHQ25 was a challenge controller of A. tamarense by the above characterizations of algicidal activity assay and algicidal process. Interactions between bacteria and harmful algal bloom (HAB) species proved to be an important factor regulating the population of these algae. This is the first report of a Vibrio sp. bacterium algicidal to the toxic dinoflagellate A. tamarense. The findings increase our knowledge of the role of bacteria in algal-bacterial interaction. © 2010 The Authors. © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of the Algicidal Bacterium Mangrovimonas yunxiaonensis Strain LY01

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Zhu, Hong; Li, Chongping; Zhang, Huajun; Chen, Zhangran; Zheng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Mangrovimonas yunxiaonensis LY01, a novel bacterium isolated from mangrove sediment, showed high algicidal effects on harmful algal blooms of Alexandrium tamarense. Here, we present the first draft genome sequence of this strain to further understanding of the functional genes related to algicidal activity. PMID:25428978

  16. Robinsoniella peoriensis: A model anaerobic commensal bacterium for acquisition of antibiotic resistance?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: R. peoriensis was characterized in our laboratories from swine manure and feces as a Gram-positive, anaerobic bacterium. Since then strains of this species have been identified from a variety of mammalian and other gastrointestinal (GI) tracts, suggesting it is a member of the commensal ...

  17. Sexual Transmission of a Plant Pathogenic Bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, between Conspecific Insect Vectors during Mating

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Rajinder S.; Pelz-Stelinski, Kirsten; Hermann, Sara L.; Tiwari, Siddharth; Stelinski, Lukasz L.

    2011-01-01

    Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus is a fastidious, phloem-inhabiting, gram-negative bacterium transmitted by Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). The bacterium is the presumed causal agent of huanglongbing (HLB), one of the most destructive and economically important diseases of citrus. We investigated whether Las is transmitted between infected and uninfected D. citri adults during courtship. Our results indicate that Las was sexually transmitted from Las-infected male D. citri to uninfected females at a low rate (<4%) during mating. Sexual transmission was not observed following mating of infected females and uninfected males or among adult pairs of the same sex. Las was detected in genitalia of both sexes and also in eggs of infected females. A latent period of 7 days or more was required to detect the bacterium in recipient females. Rod shaped as well as spherical structures resembling Las were observed in ovaries of Las-infected females with transmission electron microscopy, but were absent in ovaries from uninfected D. citri females. The size of the rod shaped structures varied from 0.39 to 0.67 µm in length and 0.19 to 0.39 µm in width. The spherical structures measured from 0.61 to 0.80 µm in diameter. This investigation provides convincing evidence that a plant pathogenic bacterium is sexually transmitted from male to female insects during courtship and established evidence that bacteria persist in reproductive organs. Moreover, these findings provide an alternative sexually horizontal mechanism for the spread of Las within populations of D. citri, even in the absence of infected host trees. PMID:22216209

  18. Isolation and Characterization of a Novel, Highly Selective Astaxanthin-Producing Marine Bacterium.

    PubMed

    Asker, Dalal

    2017-10-18

    A high-throughput screening approach for astaxanthin-producing bacteria led to the discovery of a novel, highly selective astaxanthin-producing marine bacterium (strain N-5). Phylogenetic analysis based on partial 16S rRNA gene and phenotypic metabolic testing indicated it belongs to the genus Brevundimonas. Therefore, it was designated as Brevundimonas sp. strain N-5. To identify and quantify carotenoids produced by strain N-5, HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS methods were used. The culture conditions including media, shaking, and time had significant effects on cell growth and carotenoids production including astaxanthin. The total carotenoids were ∼601.2 μg g -1 dry cells including a remarkable amount (364.6 μg g -1 dry cells) of optically pure astaxanthin (3S, 3'S) isomer, with high selectivity (∼60.6%) under medium aeration conditions. Notably, increasing the culture aeration enhanced astaxanthin production up to 85% of total carotenoids. This is the first report that describes a natural, highly selective astaxanthin-producing marine bacterium.

  19. IN SITU RT-PCR WITH A SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIUM ISOLATED FROM SEAGRASS ROOTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bacteria considered to be obligate anaerobes internally colonize roots of the submerged macrophyte Halodule wrightii. A sulfate reducing bacterium, Summer lac 1, was isolated on lactate from H. wrightii roots. The isolate has physiological characteristics typical of Desulfovibri...

  20. The chemical formula of a magnetotactic bacterium.

    PubMed

    Naresh, Mohit; Das, Sayoni; Mishra, Prashant; Mittal, Aditya

    2012-05-01

    Elucidation of the chemical logic of life is one of the grand challenges in biology, and essential to the progress of the upcoming field of synthetic biology. Treatment of microbial cells explicitly as a "chemical" species in controlled reaction (growth) environments has allowed fascinating discoveries of elemental formulae of a few species that have guided the modern views on compositions of a living cell. Application of mass and energy balances on living cells has proved to be useful in modeling of bioengineering systems, particularly in deriving optimized media compositions for growing microorganisms to maximize yields of desired bio-derived products by regulating intra-cellular metabolic networks. In this work, application of elemental mass balance during growth of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense in bioreactors has resulted in the discovery of the chemical formula of the magnetotactic bacterium. By developing a stoichiometric equation characterizing the formation of a magnetotactic bacterial cell, coupled with rigorous experimental measurements and robust calculations, we report the elemental formula of M. gryphiswaldense cell as CH(2.06)O(0.13)N(0.28)Fe(1.74×10(-3)). Remarkably, we find that iron metabolism during growth of this magnetotactic bacterium is much more correlated individually with carbon and nitrogen, compared to carbon and nitrogen with each other, indicating that iron serves more as a nutrient during bacterial growth rather than just a mineral. Magnetotactic bacteria have not only invoked some interest in the field of astrobiology for the last two decades, but are also prokaryotes having the unique ability of synthesizing membrane bound intracellular organelles. Our findings on these unique prokaryotes are a strong addition to the limited repertoire, of elemental compositions of living cells, aimed at exploring the chemical logic of life. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Five new amicoumacins isolated from a marine-derived bacterium Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongxin; Xu, Ying; Liu, Lingli; Han, Zhuang; Lai, Pok Yui; Guo, Xiangrong; Zhang, Xixiang; Lin, Wenhan; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2012-02-01

    Four novel amicoumacins, namely lipoamicoumacins A-D (1-4), and one new bacilosarcin analog (5) were isolated from culture broth of a marine-derived bacterium Bacillus subtilis, together with six known amicoumacins. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic (2D NNR, IR, CD and MS) analysis and in comparison with data in literature.

  2. Anisotropic propagation imaging of elastic waves in oriented columnar thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffy, E.; Dodane, G.; Euphrasie, S.; Mosset, A.; Vairac, P.; Martin, N.; Baida, H.; Rampnoux, J. M.; Dilhaire, S.

    2017-12-01

    We report on the observation of strongly anisotropic surface acoustic wave propagation on nanostructured thin films. Two kinds of tungsten samples were prepared by sputtering on a silicon substrate: a conventional thin film with columns normal to the substrate surface, and an oriented columnar architecture using the glancing angle deposition (GLAD) process. Pseudo-Rayleigh waves (PRWs) were imaged as a function of time in x and y directions for both films thanks to a femtosecond heterodyne pump-probe setup. A strong anisotropic propagation as well as a high velocity reduction of the PRWs were exhibited for the GLAD sample. For the wavevector k/2π  =  3  ×  105 m-1 the measured group velocities v x and v y equal 2220 m s-1 for the sample prepared with conventional sputtering, whereas a strong anisotropy appears (v x   =  1600 m s-1 and v y   =  870 m s-1) for the sample prepared with the GLAD process. Using the finite element method, the anisotropy is related to the structural anisotropy of the thin film’s architecture. The drop of PRWs group velocities is mainly assigned to the porous microstructure, especially favored by atomic shadowing effects which appear during the growth of the inclined columns. Such GLAD thin films constitute a new tool for the control of the propagation of surface elastic waves and for the design of new devices with useful properties.

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Sphingobium fuliginis OMI, a Bacterium That Degrades Alkylphenols and Bisphenols

    PubMed Central

    Ogata, Yuka; Yahara, Tatsuya; Yokoyama, Takashi; Ishizawa, Hidehiro; Takada, Kazuki; Inoue, Daisuke; Sei, Kazunari

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sphingobium fuliginis OMI is a bacterium that can degrade a variety of recalcitrant alkylphenols and bisphenols. This study reports the draft genome sequence of S. fuliginis OMI. PMID:29167253

  4. A pathway closely related to the (D)-tagatose pathway of gram-negative enterobacteria identified in the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus licheniformis.

    PubMed

    Van der Heiden, Edwige; Delmarcelle, Michaël; Lebrun, Sarah; Freichels, Régine; Brans, Alain; Vastenavond, Christian M; Galleni, Moreno; Joris, Bernard

    2013-06-01

    We report the first identification of a gene cluster involved in d-tagatose catabolism in Bacillus licheniformis. The pathway is closely related to the d-tagatose pathway of the Gram-negative bacterium Klebsiella oxytoca, in contrast to the d-tagatose 6-phosphate pathway described in the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus.

  5. Growth of modern branched columnar stromatolites in Lake Joyce, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Mackey, T J; Sumner, D Y; Hawes, I; Jungblut, A D; Andersen, D T

    2015-07-01

    Modern decimeter-scale columnar stromatolites from Lake Joyce, Antarctica, show a change in branching pattern during a period of lake level rise. Branching patterns correspond to a change in cyanobacterial community composition as preserved in authigenic calcite crystals. The transition in stromatolite morphology is preserved by mineralized layers that contain microfossils and cylindrical molds of cyanobacterial filaments. The molds are composed of two populations with different diameters. Large diameter molds (>2.8 μm) are abundant in calcite forming the oldest stromatolite layers, but are absent from younger layers. In contrast, <2.3 μm diameter molds are common in all stromatolites layers. Loss of large diameter molds corresponds to the transition from smooth-sided stromatolitic columns to branched and irregular columns. Mold diameters are similar to trichome diameters of the four most abundant living cyanobacteria morphotypes in Lake Joyce: Phormidium autumnale morphotypes have trichome diameters >3.5 μm, whereas Leptolyngbya antarctica, L. fragilis, and Pseudanabaena frigida morphotypes have diameters <2.3 μm. P. autumnale morphotypes were only common in mats at <12 m depth. Mats containing abundant P. autumnale morphotypes were smooth, whereas mats with few P. autumnale morphotypes contained small peaks and protruding bundles of filaments, suggesting that the absence of P. autumnale morphotypes allowed small-scale topography to develop on mats. Comparisons of living filaments and mold diameters suggest that P. autumnale morphotypes were present early in stromatolite growth, but disappeared from the community through time. We hypothesize that the mat-smoothing behavior of P. autumnale morphotypes inhibited nucleation of stromatolite branches. When P. autumnale morphotypes were excluded from the community, potentially reflecting a rise in lake level, short-wavelength roughness provided nuclei for stromatolite branches. This growth history provides a

  6. Magnetic guidance of the magnetotactic bacterium Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense.

    PubMed

    Loehr, Johannes; Pfeiffer, Daniel; Schüler, Dirk; Fischer, Thomas M

    2016-04-21

    Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense is a magnetotactic bacterium with a permanent magnetic moment capable of swimming using two bipolarly located flagella. In their natural environment these bacteria swim along the field lines of the homogeneous geomagnetic field in a typical run and reversal pattern and thereby create non-differentiable trajectories with sharp edges. In the current work we nevertheless achieve stable guidance along curved lines of mechanical instability by using a heterogeneous magnetic field of a garnet film. The successful guidance of the bacteria depends on the right balance between motility and the magnetic moment of the magnetosome chain.

  7. Bacterium-Induced CXCL10 Secretion by Osteoblasts Can Be Mediated in Part through Toll-Like Receptor 4

    PubMed Central

    Gasper, Nancy A.; Petty, Cynthia C.; Schrum, Laura W.; Marriott, Ian; Bost, Kenneth L.

    2002-01-01

    Two common pathogens known to cause bone infection, Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus, were investigated to determine their abilities to induce chemokine expression in cultured mouse and human osteoblasts. While these cells are responsible for bone formation, we were surprised to find that they could respond to bacterial infection by upregulating expression of the chemokine CXCL10 (IP-10). However, there were significant differences in the abilities of the gram-negative bacterium Salmonella and the gram-positive bacterium S. aureus to induce expression of CXCL10. Reverse transcription-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analyses showed high levels of Salmonella-induced CXCL10 mRNA and protein expression, respectively, whereas the osteoblast response to S. aureus was significantly less. Consistent with these findings, Salmonella-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS), but not S. aureus-derived peptidoglycan, could induce expression of CXCL10. An antibody against toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) could block the LPS-induced CXCL10 production, demonstrating the functional expression of TLR4 by osteoblasts. Despite the inducible nature of TLR2 mRNA expression by bacterium-infected osteoblasts, peptidoglycan failed to stimulate CXCL10 secretion. Immunofluorescent staining of bacterium-infected calvaria (i.e., skull bone) demonstrated the presence of CXCL10 in osteoblasts. The fact that osteoblasts did not express CXCR3 mRNA, whereas T lymphocytes can express high levels of this receptor, suggests that osteoblast-derived CXCL10 may recruit T lymphocytes to the sites of bone infections. PMID:12117914

  8. Diversity in bacterium-host interactions within the species Helicobacter heilmannii sensu stricto

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter (H.) heilmannii sensu stricto (s.s.) is a zoonotic bacterium that naturally colonizes the stomach of dogs and cats. In humans, this microorganism has been associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Little information is available about the pathogenesis of H. heilmannii s.s. infections in humans and it is unknown whether differences in virulence exist within this species. Therefore, a Mongolian gerbil model was used to study bacterium-host interactions of 9 H. heilmannii s.s. strains. The colonization ability of the strains, the intensity of gastritis and gene expression of various inflammatory cytokines in the stomach were determined at 9 weeks after experimental infection. The induction of an antrum-dominant chronic active gastritis with formation of lymphocytic aggregates was shown for 7 strains. High-level antral colonization was seen for 4 strains, while colonization of 4 other strains was more restricted and one strain was not detected in the stomach at 9 weeks post infection. All strains inducing a chronic active gastritis caused an up-regulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β in the antrum. A reduced antral expression of H+/K+ ATPase was seen in the stomach after infection with 3 highly colonizing strains and 2 highly colonizing strains caused an increased gastrin expression in the fundus. In none of the H. heilmannii s.s.-infected groups, IFN-γ expression was up-regulated. This study demonstrates diversity in bacterium-host interactions within the species H. heilmannii s.s. and that the pathogenesis of gastric infections with this microorganism is not identical to that of an H. pylori infection. PMID:23895283

  9. Antimicrobial polyketide furanoterpenoids from seaweed-associated heterotrophic bacterium Bacillus subtilis MTCC 10403.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Kajal; Thilakan, Bini; Raola, Vamshi Krishna

    2017-10-01

    Brown seaweed Anthophycus longifolius (Turner) Kützing (family Sargassaceae) associated heterotrophic bacterium Bacillus subtilis MTCC 10403 was found to be a potent isolate with broad range of antibacterial activity against important perceptive food pathogens Vibrio parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, and Aeromonas hydrophila. This bacterium was positive for polyketide synthetase gene (KC589397), and therefore, was selected to bioprospect specialized metabolites bearing polyketide backbone. Bioactivity-guided chromatographic fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract of the seaweed-associated bacterium segregated four homologous polyketide furanoterpenoids with potential antibacterial activities against clinically important pathogens. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay showed that the referral antibiotics tetracycline and ampicillin were active at 25 μg/mL against the test pathogens, whereas the previously undescribed (4E)-methyl 13-((16-(furan-2-yl) ethyl)-octahydro-7-hydroxy-4-((E)-23-methylbut-21-enyl)-2H-chromen-6-yl)-4-methylpent-4-enoate (compound 1) and methyl 3-(hexahydro-9-((E)-3-methylpent-1-enyl)-4H-furo[3,2-g]isochromen-6-yl) propanoate (compound 3) displayed antibacterial activities against the test pathogens at a lesser concentration (MIC < 7 μg/mL). The title compounds were characterized by comprehensive nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopic experiments. Polyketide synthase catalyzed putative biosynthetic mechanism additionally corroborated the structural ascriptions of the hitherto undescribed furanoterpenoids from seaweed-associated bacterial symbiont. The electronic and hydrophobic parameters appeared to hold a conspicuous part in directing the antibacterial properties of the compounds. Seaweed-associated B. subtilis MTCC 10403 demonstrated to represent a potential source of antimicrobial polyketides for pharmaceutical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Pathway Closely Related to the d-Tagatose Pathway of Gram-Negative Enterobacteria Identified in the Gram-Positive Bacterium Bacillus licheniformis

    PubMed Central

    Van der Heiden, Edwige; Lebrun, Sarah; Freichels, Régine; Brans, Alain; Vastenavond, Christian M.; Galleni, Moreno; Joris, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    We report the first identification of a gene cluster involved in d-tagatose catabolism in Bacillus licheniformis. The pathway is closely related to the d-tagatose pathway of the Gram-negative bacterium Klebsiella oxytoca, in contrast to the d-tagatose 6-phosphate pathway described in the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:23524682

  11. Geovibrio ferrireducens, a phylogenetically distinct dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacterium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caccavo, F.; Coates, J.D.; Rossello-Mora, R. A.; Ludwig, W.; Schleifer, K.H.; Lovley, D.R.; McInerney, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    A new, phylogenetically distinct, dissimilatory, Fe(III)-reducing bacterium was isolated from surface sediment of a hydrocarbon-contaminated ditch. The isolate, designated strain PAL-1, was an obligately anaerobic, non-fermentative, motile, gram-negative vibrio. PAL-1 grew in a defined medium with acetate as electron donor and ferric pyrophosphate, ferric oxyhydroxide, ferric citrate, Co(III)-EDTA, or elemental sulfur as sole electron acceptor. PAL-1 also used proline, hydrogen, lactate, propionate, succinate, fumarate, pyruvate, or yeast extract as electron donors for Fe(III) reduction. It is the first bacterium known to couple the oxidation of an amino acid to Fe(III) reduction. PAI-1 did not reduce oxygen, Mn(IV), U(VI), Cr(VI), nitrate, sulfate, sulfite, or thiosulfate with acetate as the electron donor. Cell suspensions of PAL-1 exhibited dithionite-reduced minus air-oxidized difference spectra that were characteristic of c-type cytochromes. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of PAL-1 showed that the strain is not related to any of the described metal-reducing bacteria in the Proteobacteria and, together with Flexistipes sinusarabici, forms a separate line of descent within the Bacteria. Phenotypically and phylogenetically, strain PAI-1 differs from all other described bacteria, and represents the type strain of a new genus and species. Geovibrio ferrireducens.

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of the Algicidal Bacterium Mangrovimonas yunxiaonensis Strain LY01.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Zhu, Hong; Li, Chongping; Zhang, Huajun; Chen, Zhangran; Zheng, Wei; Xu, Hong; Zheng, Tianling

    2014-11-26

    Mangrovimonas yunxiaonensis LY01, a novel bacterium isolated from mangrove sediment, showed high algicidal effects on harmful algal blooms of Alexandrium tamarense. Here, we present the first draft genome sequence of this strain to further understanding of the functional genes related to algicidal activity. Copyright © 2014 Li et al.

  13. Aerobic mineralization of vinyl chlorides by a bacterium of the order Actinomycetales

    SciTech Connect

    Phelps, T.J.; Malachowsky, K.; Schram, R.M.

    1991-04-01

    A gram-positive branched bacterium isolated from a trichloroethylene-degrading consortium mineralized vinyl chloride in growing cultures and cell suspensions. Greater than 67% of the (1,2-{sup 14}C)vinyl chloride was mineralized to carbon dioxide, with approximately 10% of the radioactivity appearing in {sup 14}C-aqueous-phase products.

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Sphingobium fuliginis OMI, a Bacterium That Degrades Alkylphenols and Bisphenols.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Masashi; Ogata, Yuka; Yahara, Tatsuya; Yokoyama, Takashi; Ishizawa, Hidehiro; Takada, Kazuki; Inoue, Daisuke; Sei, Kazunari; Ike, Michihiko

    2017-11-22

    Sphingobium fuliginis OMI is a bacterium that can degrade a variety of recalcitrant alkylphenols and bisphenols. This study reports the draft genome sequence of S. fuliginis OMI. Copyright © 2017 Kuroda et al.

  15. Inter-observer variability between general pathologists and a specialist in breast pathology in the diagnosis of lobular neoplasia, columnar cell lesions, atypical ductal hyperplasia and ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to assess inter-observer variability between the original diagnostic reports and later review by a specialist in breast pathology considering lobular neoplasias (LN), columnar cell lesions (CCL), atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH), and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast. Methods A retrospective, observational, cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 610 breast specimens that had been formally sent for consultation and/or second opinions to the Breast Pathology Laboratory of Federal University of Minas Gerais were analysed between January 2005 and December 2010. The inter-observer variability between the original report and later review was compared regarding the diagnoses of LN, CCL, ADH, and DCIS. Statistical analyses were conducted using the Kappa index. Results Weak correlations were observed for the diagnoses of columnar cell change (CCC; Kappa = 0.38), columnar cell hyperplasia (CCH; Kappa = 0.32), while a moderate agreement (Kappa = 0.47) was observed for the diagnoses of flat epithelial atypia (FEA). Good agreement was observed in the diagnoses of atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH; Kappa = 0.62) and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS; Kappa = 0.66). However, poor agreement was observed for the diagnoses of pleomorphic LCIS (Kappa = 0.22). Moderate agreement was observed for the diagnoses of ADH (Kappa = 0.44), low-grade DCIS (Kappa = 0.47), intermediate-grade DCIS (Kappa = 0.45), and DCIS with microinvasion (Kappa = 0.56). Good agreement was observed between the diagnoses of high-grade DCIS (Kappa = 0.68). Conclusions According to our data, the best diagnostic agreements were observed for high-grade DCIS, ALH, and LCIS. CCL without atypia and pleomorphic LCIS had the worst agreement indices. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1640072350119725. PMID:24948027

  16. Inter-observer variability between general pathologists and a specialist in breast pathology in the diagnosis of lobular neoplasia, columnar cell lesions, atypical ductal hyperplasia and ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Douglas S; Porto, Simone S; Balabram, Débora; Gobbi, Helenice

    2014-06-19

    This study aimed to assess inter-observer variability between the original diagnostic reports and later review by a specialist in breast pathology considering lobular neoplasias (LN), columnar cell lesions (CCL), atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH), and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast. A retrospective, observational, cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 610 breast specimens that had been formally sent for consultation and/or second opinions to the Breast Pathology Laboratory of Federal University of Minas Gerais were analysed between January 2005 and December 2010. The inter-observer variability between the original report and later review was compared regarding the diagnoses of LN, CCL, ADH, and DCIS. Statistical analyses were conducted using the Kappa index. Weak correlations were observed for the diagnoses of columnar cell change (CCC; Kappa=0.38), columnar cell hyperplasia (CCH; Kappa=0.32), while a moderate agreement (Kappa=0.47) was observed for the diagnoses of flat epithelial atypia (FEA). Good agreement was observed in the diagnoses of atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH; Kappa=0.62) and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS; Kappa=0.66). However, poor agreement was observed for the diagnoses of pleomorphic LCIS (Kappa=0.22). Moderate agreement was observed for the diagnoses of ADH (Kappa=0.44), low-grade DCIS (Kappa=0.47), intermediate-grade DCIS (Kappa=0.45), and DCIS with microinvasion (Kappa=0.56). Good agreement was observed between the diagnoses of high-grade DCIS (Kappa=0.68). According to our data, the best diagnostic agreements were observed for high-grade DCIS, ALH, and LCIS. CCL without atypia and pleomorphic LCIS had the worst agreement indices. The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1640072350119725.

  17. Isolation of Bacteriophages of the Marine Bacterium Beneckea natriegens from Coastal Salt Marshes1

    PubMed Central

    Zachary, Arthur

    1974-01-01

    Bacteriophages of the marine bacterium Beneckea natriegens were isolated from coastal marshes where they were limited to brackish and marine waters. The phages were widely distributed and morphologically diverse in the marshes. Images PMID:4133830

  18. Enhancement of Survival and Electricity Production in an Engineered Bacterium by Light-Driven Proton Pumping▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Ethan T.; Baron, Daniel B.; Naranjo, Belén; Bond, Daniel R.; Schmidt-Dannert, Claudia; Gralnick, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Microorganisms can use complex photosystems or light-dependent proton pumps to generate membrane potential and/or reduce electron carriers to support growth. The discovery that proteorhodopsin is a light-dependent proton pump that can be expressed readily in recombinant bacteria enables development of new strategies to probe microbial physiology and to engineer microbes with new light-driven properties. Here, we describe functional expression of proteorhodopsin and light-induced changes in membrane potential in the bacterium Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1. We report that there were significant increases in electrical current generation during illumination of electrochemical chambers containing S. oneidensis expressing proteorhodopsin. We present evidence that an engineered strain is able to consume lactate at an increased rate when it is illuminated, which is consistent with the hypothesis that proteorhodopsin activity enhances lactate uptake by increasing the proton motive force. Our results demonstrate that there is coupling of a light-driven process to electricity generation in a nonphotosynthetic engineered bacterium. Expression of proteorhodopsin also preserved the viability of the bacterium under nutrient-limited conditions, providing evidence that fulfillment of basic energy needs of organisms may explain the widespread distribution of proteorhodopsin in marine environments. PMID:20453141

  19. Haloanaerobium salsugo sp. nov., a moderately halophilic, anaerobic bacterium from a subterranean brine

    SciTech Connect

    Bhupathiraju, V.K.; Sharma, P.K.; Tanner, R.S.

    A strictly anaerobic, moderately halophilic, gram-negative bacterium was isolated from a highly saline oil field brine. The bacterium was a non-spore-forming, nonmotile rod, appearing singly, in pairs, or occasionally as long chains, and measured 0.3 to 0.4 by 2.6 to 4 {micro}m. The bacterium had a specific requirement for NaCl and grew at NaCl concentrations of between 6 and 24%, with optimal growth at 9% NaCl. The isolate grew at temperatures of between 22 and 51 C and pH values of between 5.6 and 8.0. The doubling time in a complex medium containing 10% NaCl was 9 h. Growth wasmore » inhibited by chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and penicillin but not by cycloheximide or azide. Fermentable substrates were predominantly carbohydrates. The end products of glucose fermentation were acetate, ethanol, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}. The major components of the cellular fatty acids were C{sub 14:0}, C{sub 16:0}, C{sub 16:1}, and C{sub 17:0 cyc} acids. The DNA base composition of the isolate was 34 mol% G+C. Oligonucleotide catalog and sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA showed that strain VS-752{sup T} was most closely related to Haloanaerobium praevalens GSL{sup T} (ATCC 33744), the sole member of the genus Haloanaerobium. The authors propose that strain VS-752 (ATCC 51327) by established as the type strain of a new species, Haloanaerobium salsugo, in the genus Haloanaerobium. 40 refs., 3 figs, 5 tabs.« less

  20. Genome Sequence of Sphingobium indicum B90A, a Hexachlorocyclohexane-Degrading Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Shailly; Sangwan, Naseer; Lata, Pushp; Kaur, Jasvinder; Dua, Ankita; Singh, Amit Kumar; Verma, Mansi; Kaur, Jaspreet; Khurana, Jitendra P.; Khurana, Paramjit; Mathur, Saloni

    2012-01-01

    Sphingobium indicum B90A, an efficient degrader of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, was isolated in 1990 from sugarcane rhizosphere soil in Cuttack, India. Here we report the draft genome sequence of this bacterium, which has now become a model system for understanding the genetics, biochemistry, and physiology of HCH degradation. PMID:22843598

  1. Ammonificins C and D, Hydroxyethylamine Chromene Derivatives from a Cultured Marine Hydrothermal Vent Bacterium, Thermovibrio ammonificans

    PubMed Central

    Andrianasolo, Eric H.; Haramaty, Liti; Rosario-Passapera, Richard; Vetriani, Costantino; Falkowski, Paul; White, Eileen; Lutz, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Chemical and biological investigation of the cultured marine hydrothermal vent bacterium, Thermovibrio ammonifican led to the isolation of two hydroxyethylamine chromene derivatives, ammonificins C and D. Their structures were elucidated using combination of NMR and mass spectrometry. Absolute stereochemistry was ascertained by comparison of experimental and calculated CD spectra. Biological evaluation and assessment were determined using the patented ApopScreen cell-based screen for apoptosis-induction. Ammonificins C and D induce apoptosis in micromolar concentrations. To our knowledge, this finding is the first report of chemical compounds that induce apoptosis from the cultured deep-sea marine organism, hydrothermal vent bacterium, Thermovibrio ammonificans. PMID:23170085

  2. Vector potential of houseflies for the bacterium Aeromonas caviae.

    PubMed

    Nayduch, D; Noblet, G Pittman; Stutzenberger, F J

    2002-06-01

    Houseflies, Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera: Muscidae), have been implicated as vectors or transporters of numerous gastrointestinal pathogens encountered during feeding and ovipositing on faeces. The putative enteropathogen Aeromonas caviae (Proteobacteria: Aeromonadaceae) may be present in faeces of humans and livestock. Recently A. caviae was detected in houseflies by PCR and isolated by culture methods. In this study, we assessed the vector potential of houseflies for A. caviae relative to multiplication and persistence of the bacterium in the fly and to contamination of other flies and food materials. In experimentally fed houseflies, the number of bacteria increased up to 2 days post-ingestion (d PI) and then decreased significantly 3 d PI. A large number of bacteria was detected in the vomitus and faeces of infected flies at 2-3 d PI. The bacteria persisted in flies for up to 8 d PI, but numbers were low. Experimentally infected flies transmitted A. caviae to chicken meat, and transmissibility was directly correlated with exposure time. Flies contaminated the meat for up to 7 d PI; however, a significant decrease in contamination was observed 2-3 d PI. In the fly-to-fly transmission experiments, the transmission of A. caviae was observed and was apparently mediated by flies sharing food. These results support houseflies as potential vectors for A. caviae because the bacterium multiplied, persisted in flies for up to 8 d PI, and could be transmitted to human food items.

  3. Extreme furfural tolerance of a soil bacterium Enterobacter cloacae GGT036.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sun Young; Gong, Gyeongtaek; Park, Hong-Sil; Um, Youngsoon; Sim, Sang Jun; Woo, Han Min

    2015-01-10

    Detoxification process of cellular inhibitors including furfural is essential for production of bio-based chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass. Here we isolated an extreme furfural-tolerant bacterium Enterobacter cloacae GGT036 from soil sample collected in Mt. Gwanak, Republic of Korea. Among isolated bacteria, only E. cloacae GGT036 showed cell growth with 35 mM furfural under aerobic culture. Compared to the maximal half inhibitory concentration (IC50) of well-known industrial strains Escherichia coli (24.9 mM furfural) and Corynebacterium glutamicum (10 mM furfural) based on the cell density, IC50 of E. cloacae GGT036 (47.7 mM) was significantly higher after 24 h, compared to E. coli and C. glutamicum. Since bacterial cell growth was exponentially inhibited depending on linearly increased furfural concentrations in the medium, we concluded that E. cloacae GGT036 is an extreme furfural-tolerant bacterium. Recently, the complete genome sequence of E. cloacae GGT036 was announced and this could provide an insight for engineering of E. cloacae GGT036 itself or other industrially relevant bacteria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Colwellia agarivorans sp. nov., an agar-digesting marine bacterium isolated from coastal seawater

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A novel Gram-stain-negative, facultatively anaerobic, yellowish and agar-digesting marine bacterium, designated strain QM50**T, was isolated from coastal seawater in an aquaculture site near Qingdao, China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequences revealed that the novel isolate represented...

  5. Silicon crystals: Process for manufacturing wafer-like silicon crystals with a columnar structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Authier, B.

    1978-01-01

    Wafer-like crystals suitable for making solar cells are formed by pouring molten Si containing suitable dopants into a mold of the desired shape and allowing it to solidify in a temperature gradient, whereby the large surface of the melt in contact with the mold is kept at less than 200 D and the free surface is kept at a temperature of 200-1000 D higher, but below the melting point of Si. The mold can also be made in the form of a slit, whereby the 2 sides of the mold are kept at different temperatures. A mold was milled in the surface of a cylindrical graphite block 200 mm in diameter. The granite block was induction heated and the bottom of the mold was cooled by means of a water-cooled Cu plate, so that the surface of the mold in contact with one of the largest surfaces of the melt was held at approximately 800 D. The free surface of the melt was subjected to thermal radiation from a graphite plate located 2 mm from the surface and heated to 1500 D. The Si crystal formed after slow cooling to room temperature had a columnar structure and was cut with a diamond saw into wafers approximately 500 mm thick. Solar cells prepared from these wafers had efficiencies of 10 to 11%.

  6. Comparison of Columnar Water Vapor Measurements During The Fall 1997 ARM Intensive Observation Period: Optical Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, Beat; Michalsky, J.; Slater, D.; Barnard, J.; Halthore, R.; Liljegren, J.; Holben, B.; Eck, T.; Livingston, J.; Russell, P.; hide

    2000-01-01

    In the fall of 1997 the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM program conducted an intensive Observation Period (IOP) to study water vapor at its Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Among the large number of instruments, four sun-tracking radiometers were present to measure the columnar water vapor (CWV). All four solar radiometers retrieve CWV by measuring solar transmittance in the 0.94-micrometer water vapor absorption band. As one of the steps in the CWV retrievals the aerosol component is subtracted from the total transmittance, in the 0.94-micrometer band. The aerosol optical depth comparisons among the same four radiometers are presented elsewhere. We have used three different methods to retrieve CWV. Without attempting to standardize on the same radiative transfer model and its underlying water vapor spectroscopy we found the CWV to agree within 0.13 cm (rms) for CWV values ranging from 1 to 5 cm. Preliminary results obtained when using the same updated radiative transfer model with updated spectroscopy for all instruments will also be shown. Comparisons to the microwave radiometer results will be included in the comparisons.

  7. Catalytic Biomineralization of Fluorescent Calcite by the Thermophilic Bacterium Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius▿

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Naoto; Higashimura, Eiji; Saeki, Yuichi

    2010-01-01

    The thermophilic Geobacillus bacterium catalyzed the formation of 100-μm hexagonal crystals at 60°C in a hydrogel containing sodium acetate, calcium chloride, and magnesium sulfate. Under fluorescence microscopy, crystals fluoresced upon excitation at 365 ± 5, 480 ± 20, or 545 ± 15 nm. X-ray diffraction indicated that the crystals were magnesium-calcite in calcite-type calcium carbonate. PMID:20851984

  8. Comment on "A bacterium that degrades and assimilates poly(ethylene terephthalate)".

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu; Yang, Jun; Jiang, Lei

    2016-08-19

    Yoshida et al (Report, 11 March 2016, p. 1196) reported that the bacterium Ideonella sakaiensis 201-F6 can degrade and assimilate poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). However, the authors exaggerated degradation efficiency using a low-crystallinity PET and presented no straightforward experiments to verify depolymerization and assimilation of PET. Thus, the authors' conclusions are rather misleading. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of the Deinococcus-Thermus Bacterium Meiothermus ruber Strain A

    DOE PAGES

    Thiel, Vera; Tomsho, Lynn P.; Burhans, Richard; ...

    2015-03-26

    The draft genome sequence of the Deinococcus-Thermus group bacterium Meiothermus ruber strain A, isolated from a cyanobacterial enrichment culture obtained from Octopus Spring (Yellowstone National Park, WY), comprises 2,968,099 bp in 170 contigs. It is predicted to contain 2,895 protein-coding genes, 44 tRNA-coding genes, and 2 rRNA operons.

  10. Aerobic mineralization of vinyl chloride by a bacterium of the order Actinomycetales.

    PubMed Central

    Phelps, T J; Malachowsky, K; Schram, R M; White, D C

    1991-01-01

    A gram-positive branched bacterium isolated from a trichloroethylene-degrading consortium mineralized vinyl chloride in growing cultures and cell suspensions. Greater than 67% of the [1,2-14C]vinyl chloride was mineralized to carbon dioxide, with approximately 10% of the radioactivity appearing in cell biomass and another 10% appearing in 14C-aqueous-phase products. PMID:1905522

  11. Isolation and characterization of a novel simazine-degrading bacterium from agricultural soil of central Chile, Pseudomonas sp. MHP41.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Marcela; Villalobos, Patricio; Morgante, Verónica; González, Myriam; Reiff, Caroline; Moore, Edward; Seeger, Michael

    2008-09-01

    s-Triazine herbicides are used extensively in South America in agriculture and forestry. In this study, a bacterium designated as strain MHP41, capable of degrading simazine and atrazine, was isolated from agricultural soil in the Quillota valley, central Chile. Strain MHP41 is able to grow in minimal medium, using simazine as the sole nitrogen source. In this medium, the bacterium exhibited a growth rate of mu=0.10 h(-1), yielding a high biomass of 4.2 x 10(8) CFU mL(-1). Resting cells of strain MHP41 degrade more than 80% of simazine within 60 min. The atzA, atzB, atzC, atzD, atzE and atzF genes encoding the enzymes of the simazine upper and lower pathways were detected in strain MHP41. The motile Gram-negative bacterium was identified as a Pseudomonas sp., based on the Biolog microplate system and comparative sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA gene. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis allowed the differentiation of strain MHP41 from Pseudomonas sp. ADP. The comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses suggested that strain MHP41 is closely related to Pseudomonas nitroreducens and Pseudomonas multiresinovorans. This is the first s-triazine-degrading bacterium isolated in South America. Strain MHP41 is a potential biocatalyst for the remediation of s-triazine-contaminated environments.

  12. The use of warmed water treatment to induce protective immunity against the bacterial cold-water disease pathogen Flavobacterium psychrophilum in ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis).

    PubMed

    Sugahara, K; Eguchi, M

    2012-03-01

    We investigated the induction of protective immunity against bacterial cold-water disease (BCWD) caused by Flavobacterium psychrophilum by warmed water treatment in ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis). Fish were immersed in a live bacterial suspension (10⁷ CFU mL⁻¹) for 30 min and placed in 700 L concrete tanks. The 28 °C warmed water treatment lasted 3 days and began 1, 6, and 24 h after immersion in the live bacterial suspension. A naïve control fish group was immersed in a sterilized modified Cytophaga (MCY) broth instead of the bacterial suspension. Fourteen days after the immersion, agglutination antibody titers against F. psychrophilum were measured by using micro-titer methods. Fish were then exposed to a bacterial bath to infect them with live F. psychrophilum, and cumulative mortality was monitored. Fish treated with warmed water at 1, 6, and 24 h after immersion in the live bacterial suspension had cumulative mortalities of 36%, 30%, and 18%, respectively, all of which were significantly lower than the cumulative mortality of the naïve control fish (90%). Treated fish also showed high antibody titers against F. psychrophilum in agglutination tests. These results demonstrate that warmed water treatment could not only cure BCWD but also immunize the fish against the causative agent F. psychrophilum. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bacterium induces cryptic meroterpenoid pathway in the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    König, Claudia C; Scherlach, Kirstin; Schroeckh, Volker; Horn, Fabian; Nietzsche, Sandor; Brakhage, Axel A; Hertweck, Christian

    2013-05-27

    Stimulating encounter: The intimate, physical interaction between the soil-derived bacterium Streptomyces rapamycinicus and the human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus led to the activation of an otherwise silent polyketide synthase (PKS) gene cluster coding for an unusual prenylated polyphenol (fumicycline A). The meroterpenoid pathway is regulated by a pathway-specific activator gene as well as by epigenetic factors. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Multiple cellobiohydrolases and cellobiose phosphorylases cooperate in the ruminal bacterium Ruminococcus albus 8 to degrade cellooligosaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devendran, Saravanan; Abdel-Hamid, Ahmed M.; Evans, Anton F.; Iakiviak, Michael; Kwon, In Hyuk; Mackie, Roderick I.; Cann, Isaac

    2016-10-01

    Digestion of plant cell wall polysaccharides is important in energy capture in the gastrointestinal tract of many herbivorous and omnivorous mammals, including humans and ruminants. The members of the genus Ruminococcus are found in both the ruminant and human gastrointestinal tract, where they show versatility in degrading both hemicellulose and cellulose. The available genome sequence of Ruminococcus albus 8, a common inhabitant of the cow rumen, alludes to a bacterium well-endowed with genes that target degradation of various plant cell wall components. The mechanisms by which R. albus 8 employs to degrade these recalcitrant materials are, however, not clearly understood. In this report, we demonstrate that R. albus 8 elaborates multiple cellobiohydrolases with multi-modular architectures that overall enhance the catalytic activity and versatility of the enzymes. Furthermore, our analyses show that two cellobiose phosphorylases encoded by R. albus 8 can function synergistically with a cognate cellobiohydrolase and endoglucanase to completely release, from a cellulosic substrate, glucose which can then be fermented by the bacterium for production of energy and cellular building blocks. We further use transcriptomic analysis to confirm the over-expression of the biochemically characterized enzymes during growth of the bacterium on cellulosic substrates compared to cellobiose.

  15. A newly discovered bacterium associated with parthenogenesis and a change in host selection behavior in parasitoid wasps.

    PubMed

    Zchori-Fein, E; Gottlieb, Y; Kelly, S E; Brown, J K; Wilson, J M; Karr, T L; Hunter, M S

    2001-10-23

    The symbiotic bacterium Wolbachia pipientis has been considered unique in its ability to cause multiple reproductive anomalies in its arthropod hosts. Here we report that an undescribed bacterium is vertically transmitted and associated with thelytokous parthenogenetic reproduction in Encarsia, a genus of parasitoid wasps. Although Wolbachia was found in only one of seven parthenogenetic Encarsia populations examined, the "Encarsia bacterium" (EB) was found in the other six. Among seven sexually reproducing populations screened, EB was present in one, and none harbored Wolbachia. Antibiotic treatment did not induce male production in Encarsia pergandiella but changed the oviposition behavior of females. Cured females accepted one host type at the same rate as control females but parasitized significantly fewer of the other host type. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rDNA gene sequence places the EB in a unique clade within the Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroid group and shows EB is unrelated to the Proteobacteria, where Wolbachia and most other insect symbionts are found. These results imply evolution of the induction of parthenogenesis in a lineage other than Wolbachia. Importantly, these results also suggest that EB may modify the behavior of its wasp carrier in a way that enhances its transmission.

  16. Experimental study of the quasi 1d motion of a ``robot bacterium'' within a tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kai; Jiao, Yusheng; Li, Shutong; Ding, Yang; Xu, Xinliang; Complex Fluids Team

    2017-11-01

    Understanding how solid boundary influences the motion of a micro-swimmer can be quite important. Here we experimentally study the problem with a system of centi-meter size ``robot bacterium'' immersed in the solvent silicon oil. Equipped with build-in battery and motor, the robot mimics a free swimmer and the overall Reynolds number of the system is kept very small as we use silicon oil with very high viscosity. The motion of centi-meter size ``robot bacterium'' within cylindrical tube is experimentally studied in detail. Our results show that robot bacteria with different shapes respond very different to the solid boundary. For certain shapes the swimmers actually swim much faster within a tube, when compared to their motions without any confinement, in good agreement with our numerical evaluations of the hydrodynamics of the system.

  17. Comparisons of Internal Behavior after Exposure to Flavobacterium psychrophilum between Two Ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis) Strains Showing Different Cumulative Mortality to Bacterial Cold Water Disease

    PubMed Central

    KAGEYAMA, Tetsushi; KUWADA, Tomonori; OHARA, Kenichi; NOUNO, Aya; UMINO, Tetsuya; FURUSAWA, Shuichi

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) in ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis) has a serious impact on aquaculture and fisheries. There is known to be a significant difference among ayu strains with regard to mortality caused by BCWD. In this study, the immune response of different ayu strains against Flavobacterium psychrophilum infection was observed. One strain was resistant to infection by F. psychrophilum, and the other was susceptible to infection by the same bacteria. The number of bacteria in the body was observed in each ayu strain, and the change in bacterial counts was similar. However, there was a significant difference in bacterial count in the spleen between the two strains on days 6, 9, 12 and 15 after exposure. To observe the immune response against F. psychrophilum, agglutination assay using serum was performed. An agglutination reaction in the resistant ayu strain was observed in 4 out of 6 ayu on day 6 after exposure, while no reactions in the susceptible ayu strain were observed in any sampled fish until day 12. However, some reactions in the susceptible ayu strain were observed in surviving ayu. These results indicate that there is a correlation between the presence of bacterial multiplication and agglutination reaction against F. psychrophilum. PMID:23902927

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of the Endophytic Bacterium Burkholderia sp. Strain KJ006

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Min-Jung; Song, Ju Yeon; Kim, Seon-Young; Jeong, Haeyoung; Kang, Sung Gyun; Kim, Byung Kwon; Kwon, Soon-Kyeong; Lee, Choong Hoon; Yu, Dong Su

    2012-01-01

    Endophytes live inside plant tissues without causing any harm and may even benefit plants. Here, we provide the high-quality genome sequence of Burkholderia sp. strain KJ006, an endophytic bacterium of rice with antifungal activity. The 6.6-Mb genome, consisting of three chromosomes and a single plasmid, contains genes related to plant growth promotion or degradation of aromatic compounds. PMID:22843575

  19. Nematode-bacterium symbioses--cooperation and conflict revealed in the "omics" age.

    PubMed

    Murfin, Kristen E; Dillman, Adler R; Foster, Jeremy M; Bulgheresi, Silvia; Slatko, Barton E; Sternberg, Paul W; Goodrich-Blair, Heidi

    2012-08-01

    Nematodes are ubiquitous organisms that have a significant global impact on ecosystems, economies, agriculture, and human health. The applied importance of nematodes and the experimental tractability of many species have promoted their use as models in various research areas, including developmental biology, evolutionary biology, ecology, and animal-bacterium interactions. Nematodes are particularly well suited for the investigation of host associations with bacteria because all nematodes have interacted with bacteria during their evolutionary history and engage in a variety of association types. Interactions between nematodes and bacteria can be positive (mutualistic) or negative (pathogenic/parasitic) and may be transient or stably maintained (symbiotic). Furthermore, since many mechanistic aspects of nematode-bacterium interactions are conserved, their study can provide broader insights into other types of associations, including those relevant to human diseases. Recently, genome-scale studies have been applied to diverse nematode-bacterial interactions and have helped reveal mechanisms of communication and exchange between the associated partners. In addition to providing specific information about the system under investigation, these studies also have helped inform our understanding of genome evolution, mutualism, and innate immunity. In this review we discuss the importance and diversity of nematodes, "omics"' studies in nematode-bacterial systems, and the wider implications of the findings.

  20. Nematode-Bacterium Symbioses - Cooperation and Conflict Revealed in the 'Omics' Age

    PubMed Central

    Murfin, Kristen E.; Dillman, Adler R.; Foster, Jeremy M.; Bulgheresi, Silvia; Slatko, Barton E.; Sternberg, Paul W.; Goodrich-Blair, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    Nematodes are ubiquitous organisms that have a significant global impact on ecosystems, economies, agriculture, and human health. The applied importance of nematodes and the experimental tractability of many species have promoted their use as models in various research areas, including developmental biology, evolutionary biology, ecology, and animal-bacterium interactions. Nematodes are particularly well suited for investigating host associations with bacteria because all nematodes have interacted with bacteria during their evolutionary history and engage in a diversity of association types. Interactions between nematodes and bacteria can be positive (mutualistic) or negative (pathogenic/parasitic) and may be transient or stably maintained (symbiotic). Furthermore, since many mechanistic aspects of nematode-bacterium interactions are conserved their study can provide broader insights into other types of associations, including those relevant to human diseases. Recently, genome-scale studies have been applied to diverse nematode-bacterial interactions, and have helped reveal mechanisms of communication and exchange between the associated partners. In addition to providing specific information about the system under investigation, these studies also have helped inform our understanding of genome evolution, mutualism, and innate immunity. In this review we will discuss the importance and diversity of nematodes, 'omics' studies in nematode-bacterial systems, and the wider implications of the findings. PMID:22983035

  1. Improvement of perpendicular anisotropy of columnar FePt-ZrO2-C films with FePt insert layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Kaifeng; Mo, Wenqin; Jin, Fang; Song, Junlei; Cheng, Weimin; Wang, Haiwei

    2018-05-01

    The effects of various thicknesses of FePt insert layer on the microstructure and magnetic properties of FePt-ZrO2-C thin films have been investigated. It is found that with inserting 0.4 nm FePt films between the TiON intermediate layer and FePt-ZrO2-C layer, the perpendicular anisotropy indicated by Hc⊥/Hc//ratio would increase from 4 to 13.1, suggesting the perpendicular anisotropy could be improved a lot with using FePt insert layer. Simultaneously, the FePt grains of FePt-ZrO2-C thin films maintained columnar structure and the grain isolation could also be improved in a certain degree. With further increase of the FePt insert layer thickness, although the perpendicular anisotropy was still larger than that without FePt insert layer, the grain size of the FePt-ZrO2-C films would increase and the isolation would be deteriorated.

  2. Triazine herbicide resistance in the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Alfred E.; Gilbert, Carl W.; Guy, Rachel; Arntzen, Charles J.

    1984-01-01

    The photoaffinity herbicide azidoatrazine (2-azido-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine) selectively labels the L subunit of the reaction center of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides. Herbicide-resistant mutants retain the L subunit and have altered binding properties for methylthio- and chloro-substituted triazines as well as altered equilibrium constants for electron transfer between primary and secondary electron acceptors. We suggest that a subtle alteration in the L subunit is responsible for herbicide resistance and that the L subunit is the functional analog of the 32-kDa QB protein of chloroplast membranes. Images PMID:16593520

  3. Studies of the Extracellular Glycocalyx of the Anaerobic Cellulolytic Bacterium Ruminococcus albus 7▿

    PubMed Central

    Weimer, Paul J.; Price, Neil P. J.; Kroukamp, Otini; Joubert, Lydia-Marie; Wolfaardt, Gideon M.; Van Zyl, Willem H.

    2006-01-01

    Anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria are thought to adhere to cellulose via several mechanisms, including production of a glycocalyx containing extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). As the compositions and structures of these glycocalyces have not been elucidated, variable-pressure scanning electron microscopy (VP-SEM) and chemical analysis were used to characterize the glycocalyx of the ruminal bacterium Ruminococcus albus strain 7. VP-SEM revealed that growth of this strain was accompanied by the formation of thin cellular extensions that allowed the bacterium to adhere to cellulose, followed by formation of a ramifying network that interconnected individual cells to one another and to the unraveling cellulose microfibrils. Extraction of 48-h-old whole-culture pellets (bacterial cells plus glycocalyx [G] plus residual cellulose [C]) with 0.1 N NaOH released carbohydrate and protein in a ratio of 1:5. Boiling of the cellulose fermentation residue in a neutral detergent solution removed almost all of the adherent cells and protein while retaining a residual network of adhering noncellular material. Trifluoroacetic acid hydrolysis of this residue (G plus C) released primarily glucose, along with substantial amounts of xylose and mannose, but only traces of galactose, the most abundant sugar in most characterized bacterial exopolysaccharides. Linkage analysis and characterization by nuclear magnetic resonance suggested that most of the glucosyl units were not present as partially degraded cellulose. Calculations suggested that the energy demand for synthesis of the nonprotein fraction of EPS by this organism represents only a small fraction (<4%) of the anabolic ATP expenditure of the bacterium. PMID:17028224

  4. Characterization of a Neochlamydia-like Bacterium Associated with Epitheliocystis in Cultured Artic Char Salvelinus alpinus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Infections of branchial epithelium by intracellular gram-negative bacteria, termed epitheliocystis, have limited culture of Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus). To characterize a bacterium associated with epitheliocystis in cultured char, gills were sampled for histopathologic examination, conventional...

  5. Wintertime Experimental investigation of Morphology, Mixing States and Columnar Optical Properties of Aerosols over a Desert location in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S.; Kumar, T.; Sharma, C.; Prasad, M. V. S. N.; Singh, S.; Agnihotri, R.; Arya, B. C.; Gupta, B.; Naaraayanan, T.; Gautam, S.; Kumar, D.; Sood, K. N.; Tawale, J. S.; Sharma, A. K.; Mitra, A. K.

    2014-12-01

    Indian Desert (The Thar Desert) is considered as the source of mineral dust in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) especially in pre-monsoon period due to large scale convective activities during hot summer. To study the physico-chemical characteristics of aerosols over the Thar Desert (Jaisalmer, Rajasthan) during winter (December, 2013), a field campaign has been carried out in Jaisalmer in Rajasthan state. Experiments were conducted inside the city as well as far from the city. The faraway location is close to international border of another country i.e. Pakistan. PM2.5 and PM10 were collected within the city while PM5 was collected far from the city. Particles were collected on Teflon filters for bulk analysis with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), on Tin substrate for individual particle morphology and elemental composition analysis with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) and on the Cu-TEM grid for individual particle morphology and mixing state characterization using High Resolution-Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM). Together with this, aerosol size distribution observation and columnar spectral aerosol optical properties have been carried out with OPC (Optical Particle Counter, GRIMM Model 1.108) and hand held Microtops-II, respectively. HRTEM analysis reveals occurrence of carbonaceous fractals found in various mixing states 1) aged with some hygroscopic species 2) embedded in sulfate host 3) semi-externally mixed with sulfate and other species. Core-shell particles were also observed with varying core composition (carbon, typical mineral dust, and calcite) and shell thickness (shell comprising of water). The back trajectory analysis reveals the source of wind from Karachi and Islamabad from Pakistan which may be the potential source of carbonaceous species over the sampling site. SEM-EDS analysis reveals occurrence of mineral dust 1) pure mineral dust (Ca and Si rich) 2) polluted mineral

  6. Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2004-02-24

    The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

  7. Novel Prospects for Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition of Columnar Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwaar, Aleem; Wei, Lianglinag; Guo, Qian; Zhang, Baopeng; Guo, Hongbo

    2017-12-01

    Plasma spray-physical vapor deposition (PS-PVD) is an emerging coating technique that can produce columnar thermal barrier coatings from vapor phase. Feedstock treatment at the start of its trajectory in the plasma torch nozzle is important for such vapor-phase deposition. This study describes the effects of the plasma composition (Ar/He) on the plasma characteristics, plasma-particle interaction, and particle dynamics at different points spatially distributed inside the plasma torch nozzle. The results of calculations show that increasing the fraction of argon in the plasma gas mixture enhances the momentum and heat flow between the plasma and injected feedstock. For the plasma gas combination of 45Ar/45He, the total enthalpy transferred to a representative powder particle inside the plasma torch nozzle is highest ( 9828 kJ/kg). Moreover, due to the properties of the plasma, the contribution of the cylindrical throat, i.e., from the feed injection point (FIP) to the start of divergence (SOD), to the total transferred energy is 69%. The carrier gas flow for different plasma gas mixtures was also investigated by optical emission spectroscopy (OES) measurements of zirconium emissions. Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coating microstructures were produced when using selected plasma gas compositions and corresponding carrier gas flows; structural morphologies were found to be in good agreement with OES and theoretical predictions. Quasicolumnar microstructure was obtained with porosity of 15% when applying the plasma composition of 45Ar/45He.

  8. A Comparative biochemical study on two marine endophytes, Bacterium SRCnm and Bacillus sp. JS, Isolated from red sea algae.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Eman Fadl; Hassan, Hossam Mokhtar; Rateb, Mostafa Ezzat; Abdel-Wahab, Noha; Sameer, Somayah; Aly Taie, Hanan Anwar; Abdel-Hameed, Mohammed Sayed; Hammouda, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Two marine endophytic bacteria were isolated from the Red Sea algae; a red alga; Acanthophora dendroides and the brown alga Sargassum sabrepandum. The isolates were identified based on their 16SrRNA sequences as Bacterium SRCnm and Bacillus sp. JS. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential anti-microbial and antioxidant activities of the extracts of the isolated bacteria grown in different nutrient conditions. Compared to amoxicillin (25μg/disk) and erythromycin (15μg/disk), the extracts of Bacterium SRCn min media II, III, IV and V were potent inhibitors of the gram-positive bacterium Sarcina maxima even at low concentrations. Also, the multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) was more sensitive to the metabolites produced in medium (II) of the same endophyte than erythromycin (15μg/disk). A moderate activity of the Bacillus sp. JS extracts of media I and II was obtained against the same pathogen. The total compounds (500ug/ml) of both isolated endophytes showed moderate antioxidant activities (48.9% and 46.1%, respectively). LC/MS analysis of the bacterial extracts was carried out to investigate the likely natural products produced. Cyclo(D-cis-Hyp-L-Leu), dihydrosphingosine and 2-Amino-1,3-hexadecanediol were identified in the fermentation medium of Bacterium SRCnm, whereas cyclo (D-Pro-L-Tyr) and cyclo (L-Leu-L-Pro) were the suggested compounds of Bacillus sp. JS.

  9. Soil-Bacterium Compatibility Model as a Decision-Making Tool for Soil Bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Horemans, Benjamin; Breugelmans, Philip; Saeys, Wouter; Springael, Dirk

    2017-02-07

    Bioremediation of organic pollutant contaminated soil involving bioaugmentation with dedicated bacteria specialized in degrading the pollutant is suggested as a green and economically sound alternative to physico-chemical treatment. However, intrinsic soil characteristics impact the success of bioaugmentation. The feasibility of using partial least-squares regression (PLSR) to predict the success of bioaugmentation in contaminated soil based on the intrinsic physico-chemical soil characteristics and, hence, to improve the success of bioaugmentation, was examined. As a proof of principle, PLSR was used to build soil-bacterium compatibility models to predict the bioaugmentation success of the phenanthrene-degrading Novosphingobium sp. LH128. The survival and biodegradation activity of strain LH128 were measured in 20 soils and correlated with the soil characteristics. PLSR was able to predict the strain's survival using 12 variables or less while the PAH-degrading activity of strain LH128 in soils that show survival was predicted using 9 variables. A three-step approach using the developed soil-bacterium compatibility models is proposed as a decision making tool and first estimation to select compatible soils and organisms and increase the chance of success of bioaugmentation.

  10. Isolation of a thermophilic bacterium capable of low-molecular-weight polyethylene degradation.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hyun Jeong; Kim, Mal Nam

    2013-02-01

    A thermophilic bacterium capable of low-molecular-weight polyethylene (LMWPE) degradation was isolated from a compost sample, and was identified as Chelatococcus sp. E1, through sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. LMWPE was prepared by thermal degradation of commercial PE in a strict nitrogen atmosphere. LMWPE with a weight-average-molecular-weight (Mw) in the range of 1,700-23,700 was noticeably mineralized into CO(2) by the bacterium. The biodegradability of LMWPE decreased as the Mw increased. The low molecular weight fraction of LMWPE decreased significantly as a result of the degradation process, and thereby both the number-average-molecular-weight and Mw increased after biodegradation. The polydispersity of LMWPE was either narrowed or widened, depending on the initial Mw of LMWPE, due to the preferential elimination of the low molecular weight fraction, in comparison to the high molecular weight portion. LMWPE free from an extremely low molecular weight fraction was also mineralized by the strain at a remarkable rate, and FTIR peaks assignable to C-O stretching appeared as a result of microbial action. The FTIR peaks corresponding to alkenes also became more intense, indicating that dehydrogenations occurred concomitantly with microbial induced oxidation.

  11. A highly infective plant-associated bacterium influences reproductive rates in pea aphids

    PubMed Central

    Hendry, Tory A.; Clark, Kelley J.; Baltrus, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum, have the potential to increase reproduction as a defence against pathogens, though how frequently this occurs or how infection with live pathogens influences this response is not well understood. Here we determine the minimum infective dose of an environmentally common bacterium and possible aphid pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, to determine the likelihood of pathogenic effects to pea aphids. Additionally, we used P. syringae infection to investigate how live pathogens may alter reproductive rates. We found that oral bacterial exposure decreased subsequent survival of aphids in a dose-dependent manner and we estimate that ingestion of less than 10 bacterial cells is sufficient to increase aphid mortality. Pathogen dose was positively related to aphid reproduction. Aphids exposed to low bacterial doses showed decreased, although statistically indistinguishable, fecundity compared to controls. Aphids exposed to high doses reproduced significantly more than low dose treatments and also more, but not significantly so, than controls. These results are consistent with previous studies suggesting that pea aphids may use fecundity compensation as a response to pathogens. Consequently, even low levels of exposure to a common plant-associated bacterium may therefore have significant effects on pea aphid survival and reproduction. PMID:26998321

  12. A highly infective plant-associated bacterium influences reproductive rates in pea aphids.

    PubMed

    Hendry, Tory A; Clark, Kelley J; Baltrus, David A

    2016-02-01

    Pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum, have the potential to increase reproduction as a defence against pathogens, though how frequently this occurs or how infection with live pathogens influences this response is not well understood. Here we determine the minimum infective dose of an environmentally common bacterium and possible aphid pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, to determine the likelihood of pathogenic effects to pea aphids. Additionally, we used P. syringae infection to investigate how live pathogens may alter reproductive rates. We found that oral bacterial exposure decreased subsequent survival of aphids in a dose-dependent manner and we estimate that ingestion of less than 10 bacterial cells is sufficient to increase aphid mortality. Pathogen dose was positively related to aphid reproduction. Aphids exposed to low bacterial doses showed decreased, although statistically indistinguishable, fecundity compared to controls. Aphids exposed to high doses reproduced significantly more than low dose treatments and also more, but not significantly so, than controls. These results are consistent with previous studies suggesting that pea aphids may use fecundity compensation as a response to pathogens. Consequently, even low levels of exposure to a common plant-associated bacterium may therefore have significant effects on pea aphid survival and reproduction.

  13. Diversity and geographical distribution of Flavobacterium psychrophilum isolates and their phages: patterns of susceptibility to phage infection and phage host range.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Daniel; Christiansen, Rói Hammershaimb; Espejo, Romilio; Middelboe, Mathias

    2014-05-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum is an important fish pathogen worldwide that causes cold water disease (CWD) or rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS). Phage therapy has been suggested as an alternative method for the control of this pathogen in aquaculture. However, effective use of bacteriophages in disease control requires detailed knowledge about the diversity and dynamics of host susceptibility to phage infection. For this reason, we examined the genetic diversity of 49 F. psychrophilum strains isolated in three different areas (Chile, Denmark, and USA) through direct genome restriction enzyme analysis (DGREA) and their susceptibility to 33 bacteriophages isolated in Chile and Denmark, thus covering large geographical (>12,000 km) and temporal (>60 years) scales of isolation. An additional 40 phage-resistant isolates obtained from culture experiments after exposure to specific phages were examined for changes in phage susceptibility against the 33 phages. The F. psychrophilum and phage populations isolated from Chile and Denmark clustered into geographically distinct groups with respect to DGREA profile and host range, respectively. However, cross infection between Chilean phage isolates and Danish host isolates and vice versa was observed. Development of resistance to certain bacteriophages led to susceptibility to other phages suggesting that "enhanced infection" is potentially an important cost of resistance in F. psychrophilum, possibly contributing to the observed co-existence of phage-sensitive F. psychrophilum strains and lytic phages across local and global scales. Overall, our results showed that despite the identification of local communities of phages and hosts, some key properties determining phage infection patterns seem to be globally distributed.

  14. Novel insights into the algicidal bacterium DH77-1 killing the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoru; Li, Xinyi; Zhou, Yanyan; Zheng, Wei; Yu, Changping; Zheng, Tianling

    2014-06-01

    Algicidal bacteria may play a major role in controlling harmful algal blooms (HABs) dynamics. Bacterium DH77-1 was isolated with high algicidal activity against the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense and identified as Joostella sp. DH77-1. The results showed that DH77-1 exhibited algicidal activity through indirect attack, which excreted active substance into the filtrate. It had a relatively wide host range and the active substance of DH77-1 was relatively stable since temperature, pH and storage condition had no obvious effect on the algicidal activity. The algicidal compound from bacterium DH77-1 was isolated based on activity-guided bioassay and the molecular weight was determined to be 125.88 by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer, however further identification via nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra is ongoing. The physiological responses of algal cells after exposure to the DH77-1 algicidal substances were as follows: the antioxidant system of A. tamarense responded positively in self-defense; total protein content decreased significantly as did the photosynthetic pigment content; superoxide dismutase, peroxidase enzyme and malondialdehyde content increased extraordinarily and algal cell nucleic acid leaked seriously ultimately inducing cell death. Furthermore, DH77-1 is the first record of a Joostella sp. bacterium being algicidal to the harmful dinoflagellate A. tamarense, and the bacterial culture and the active compounds might be potentially used as a bio-agent for controlling harmful algal blooms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Purification and Characterization of Haloalkaline, Organic Solvent Stable Xylanase from Newly Isolated Halophilic Bacterium-OKH

    PubMed Central

    Sanghvi, Gaurav; Jivrajani, Mehul; Patel, Nirav; Jivrajani, Heta; Bhaskara, Govinal Badiger; Patel, Shivani

    2014-01-01

    A novel, alkali-tolerant halophilic bacterium-OKH with an ability to produce extracellular halophilic, alkali-tolerant, organic solvent stable, and moderately thermostable xylanase was isolated from salt salterns of Mithapur region, Gujarat, India. Identification of the bacterium was done based upon biochemical tests and 16S rRNA sequence. Maximum xylanase production was achieved at pH 9.0 and 37°C temperature in the medium containing 15% NaCl and 1% (w/v) corn cobs. Sugarcane bagasse and wheat straw also induce xylanase production when used as carbon source. The enzyme was active over a range of 0–25% sodium chloride examined in culture broth. The optimum xylanase activity was observed at 5% sodium chloride. Xylanase was purified with 25.81%-fold purification and 17.1% yield. Kinetic properties such as Km and Vmax were 4.2 mg/mL and 0.31 μmol/min/mL, respectively. The enzyme was stable at pH 6.0 and 50°C with 60% activity after 8 hours of incubation. Enzyme activity was enhanced by Ca2+, Mn2+, and Mg2+ but strongly inhibited by heavy metals such as Hg2+, Fe3+, Ni2+, and Zn2+. Xylanase was found to be stable in organic solvents like glutaraldehyde and isopropanol. The purified enzyme hydrolysed lignocellulosic substrates. Xylanase, purified from the halophilic bacterium-OKH, has potential biotechnological applications. PMID:27350996

  16. Treatment of Alkaline Cr(VI)-Contaminated Leachate with an Alkaliphilic Metal-Reducing Bacterium.

    PubMed

    Watts, Mathew P; Khijniak, Tatiana V; Boothman, Christopher; Lloyd, Jonathan R

    2015-08-15

    Chromium in its toxic Cr(VI) valence state is a common contaminant particularly associated with alkaline environments. A well-publicized case of this occurred in Glasgow, United Kingdom, where poorly controlled disposal of a cementitious industrial by-product, chromite ore processing residue (COPR), has resulted in extensive contamination by Cr(VI)-contaminated alkaline leachates. In the search for viable bioremediation treatments for Cr(VI), a variety of bacteria that are capable of reduction of the toxic and highly soluble Cr(VI) to the relatively nontoxic and less mobile Cr(III) oxidation state, predominantly under circumneutral pH conditions, have been isolated. Recently, however, alkaliphilic bacteria that have the potential to reduce Cr(VI) under alkaline conditions have been identified. This study focuses on the application of a metal-reducing bacterium to the remediation of alkaline Cr(VI)-contaminated leachates from COPR. This bacterium, belonging to the Halomonas genus, was found to exhibit growth concomitant to Cr(VI) reduction under alkaline conditions (pH 10). Bacterial cells were able to rapidly remove high concentrations of aqueous Cr(VI) (2.5 mM) under anaerobic conditions, up to a starting pH of 11. Cr(VI) reduction rates were controlled by pH, with slower removal observed at pH 11, compared to pH 10, while no removal was observed at pH 12. The reduction of aqueous Cr(VI) resulted in the precipitation of Cr(III) biominerals, which were characterized using transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (TEM-EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The effectiveness of this haloalkaliphilic bacterium for Cr(VI) reduction at high pH suggests potential for its use as an in situ treatment of COPR and other alkaline Cr(VI)-contaminated environments. Copyright © 2015, Watts et al.

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of a Bacillus Bacterium from the Atacama Desert Wetlands Metagenome

    PubMed Central

    Vilo, Claudia; Galetovic, Alexandra; Araya, Jorge E.; Dong, Qunfeng

    2015-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of a Bacillus bacterium isolated from the microflora of Nostoc colonies grown at the Andean wetlands in northern Chile. We consider this genome sequence to be a molecular tool for exploring microbial relationships and adaptation strategies to the prevailing extreme conditions at the Atacama Desert. PMID:26294639

  18. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of bacterium RJAUTHB 14 associated with marine sponge Haliclona Grant against Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Jacob Inbaneson, Samuel; Ravikumar, Sundaram

    2012-06-01

    Malaria is the most important parasitic disease, leading to annual death of about one million people, and the Plasmodium falciparum develops resistance to well-established antimalarial drugs. The newest antiplasmodial drug from a marine microorganism helps in addressing this problem. In the present study, Haliclona Grant were collected and subjected for enumeration and isolation of associated bacteria. The count of bacterial isolates was maximum in November 2007 (18 × 10(4) colony-forming units (CFU) g(-1), and the average count was maximum during the monsoon season (117 × 10(3) CFU g(-1)). Thirty-three morphologically different bacterial isolates were isolated from Haliclona Grant, and the extracellular ethyl acetate extracts were screened for antiplasmodial activity against P. falciparum. The antiplasmodial activity of bacterium RJAUTHB 14 (11.98 μg[Symbol: see text]ml(-1)) is highly comparable with the positive control chloroquine (IC(50) 19.59 μg[Symbol: see text]ml(-1)), but the other 21 bacterial extracts showed an IC(50) value of more than 100 μg[Symbol: see text]ml(-1). Statistical analysis reveals that significant in vitro antiplasmodial activity (P < 0.05) was observed between the concentrations and time of exposure. The chemical injury to erythrocytes showed no morphological changes in erythrocytes by the ethyl acetate extract of bacterial isolates after 48 h of incubation. The in vitro antiplasmodial activity might be due to the presence of reducing sugars and alkaloids in the ethyl acetate extracts of bacterium RJAUTHB 14. The 16S rRNA gene partial sequence of bacterium RJAUTHB 14 is deposited in NCBI (GenBank accession no. GU269569). It is concluded from the present study that the ethyl acetate extracts of bacterium RJAUTHB 14 possess lead compounds for the development of antiplasmodial drugs.

  19. Functional diversity of carbohydrate-active enzymes enabling a bacterium to ferment plant biomass.

    PubMed

    Boutard, Magali; Cerisy, Tristan; Nogue, Pierre-Yves; Alberti, Adriana; Weissenbach, Jean; Salanoubat, Marcel; Tolonen, Andrew C

    2014-11-01

    Microbial metabolism of plant polysaccharides is an important part of environmental carbon cycling, human nutrition, and industrial processes based on cellulosic bioconversion. Here we demonstrate a broadly applicable method to analyze how microbes catabolize plant polysaccharides that integrates carbohydrate-active enzyme (CAZyme) assays, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), and anaerobic growth screening. We apply this method to study how the bacterium Clostridium phytofermentans ferments plant biomass components including glucans, mannans, xylans, galactans, pectins, and arabinans. These polysaccharides are fermented with variable efficiencies, and diauxies prioritize metabolism of preferred substrates. Strand-specific RNA-seq reveals how this bacterium responds to polysaccharides by up-regulating specific groups of CAZymes, transporters, and enzymes to metabolize the constituent sugars. Fifty-six up-regulated CAZymes were purified, and their activities show most polysaccharides are degraded by multiple enzymes, often from the same family, but with divergent rates, specificities, and cellular localizations. CAZymes were then tested in combination to identify synergies between enzymes acting on the same substrate with different catalytic mechanisms. We discuss how these results advance our understanding of how microbes degrade and metabolize plant biomass.

  20. Optimization of liquid media and biosafety assessment for algae-lysing bacterium NP23.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chunli; Liu, Xiaobo; Shan, Linna

    2014-09-01

    To control algal bloom caused by nutrient pollution, a wild-type algae-lysing bacterium was isolated from the Baiguishan reservoir in Henan province of China and identified as Enterobacter sp. strain NP23. Algal culture medium was optimized by applying a Placket-Burman design to obtain a high cell concentration of NP23. Three minerals (i.e., 0.6% KNO3, 0.001% MnSO4·H2O, and 0.3% K2HPO4) were found to be independent factors critical for obtaining the highest cell concentration of 10(13) CFU/mL, which was 10(4) times that of the control. In the algae-lysing experiment, the strain exhibited a high lysis rate for the 4 algae test species, namely, Chlorella vulgari, Scenedesmus, Microcystis wesenbergii, and Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Acute toxicity and mutagenicity tests showed that the bacterium NP23 had no toxic and mutagenic effects on fish, even in large doses such as 10(7) or 10(9) CFU/mL. Thus, Enterobacter sp. strain NP23 has strong potential application in the microbial algae-lysing project.

  1. Massilia sp. BS-1, a novel violacein-producing bacterium isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Agematu, Hitosi; Suzuki, Kazuya; Tsuya, Hiroaki

    2011-01-01

    A novel bacterium, Massilia sp. BS-1, producing violacein and deoxyviolacein was isolated from a soil sample collected from Akita Prefecture, Japan. The 16S ribosomal DNA of strain BS-1 displayed 93% homology with its nearest violacein-producing neighbor, Janthinobacterium lividum. Strain BS-1 grew well in a synthetic medium, but required both L-tryptophan and a small amount of L-histidine to produce violacein.

  2. Economic Game Theory to Model the Attenuation of Virulence of an Obligate Intracellular Bacterium.

    PubMed

    Tago, Damian; Meyer, Damien F

    2016-01-01

    Diseases induced by obligate intracellular pathogens have a large burden on global human and animal health. Understanding the factors involved in the virulence and fitness of these pathogens contributes to the development of control strategies against these diseases. Based on biological observations, a theoretical model using game theory is proposed to explain how obligate intracellular bacteria interact with their host. The equilibrium in such a game shows that the virulence and fitness of the bacterium is host-triggered and by changing the host's defense system to which the bacterium is confronted, an evolutionary process leads to an attenuated strain. Although, the attenuation procedure has already been conducted in practice in order to develop an attenuated vaccine (e.g., with Ehrlichia ruminantium), there was a lack of understanding of the theoretical basis behind this process. Our work provides a model to better comprehend the existence of different phenotypes and some underlying evolutionary mechanisms for the virulence of obligate intracellular bacteria.

  3. Economic Game Theory to Model the Attenuation of Virulence of an Obligate Intracellular Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Tago, Damian; Meyer, Damien F.

    2016-01-01

    Diseases induced by obligate intracellular pathogens have a large burden on global human and animal health. Understanding the factors involved in the virulence and fitness of these pathogens contributes to the development of control strategies against these diseases. Based on biological observations, a theoretical model using game theory is proposed to explain how obligate intracellular bacteria interact with their host. The equilibrium in such a game shows that the virulence and fitness of the bacterium is host-triggered and by changing the host's defense system to which the bacterium is confronted, an evolutionary process leads to an attenuated strain. Although, the attenuation procedure has already been conducted in practice in order to develop an attenuated vaccine (e.g., with Ehrlichia ruminantium), there was a lack of understanding of the theoretical basis behind this process. Our work provides a model to better comprehend the existence of different phenotypes and some underlying evolutionary mechanisms for the virulence of obligate intracellular bacteria. PMID:27610355

  4. Hot deformation characteristics of as-cast high-Cr ultra-super-critical rotor steel with columnar grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Zong-ye; Hu, Qiao-dan; Zeng, Long; Li, Jian-guo

    2016-11-01

    Isothermal hot compression tests of as-cast high-Cr ultra-super-critical (USC) rotor steel with columnar grains perpendicular to the compression direction were carried out in the temperature range from 950 to 1250°C at strain rates ranging from 0.001 to 1 s-1. The softening mechanism was dynamic recovery (DRV) at 950°C and the strain rate of 1 s-1, whereas it was dynamic recrystallization (DRX) under the other conditions. A modified constitutive equation based on the Arrhenius model with strain compensation reasonably predicted the flow stress under various deformation conditions, and the activation energy was calculated to be 643.92 kJ•mol-1. The critical stresses of dynamic recrystallization under different conditions were determined from the work-hardening rate ( θ)-flow stress ( σ) and -∂ θ/∂ σ-σ curves. The optimum processing parameters via analysis of the processing map and the softening mechanism were determined to be a deformation temperature range from 1100 to 1200°C and a strain-rate range from 0.001 to 0.08 s-1, with a power dissipation efficiency η greater than 31%.

  5. Whole-body transcriptome of selectively bred, resistant-, control-, and susceptible-line rainbow trout following experimental challenge with Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    PubMed Central

    Marancik, David; Gao, Guangtu; Paneru, Bam; Ma, Hao; Hernandez, Alvaro G.; Salem, Mohamed; Yao, Jianbo; Palti, Yniv; Wiens, Gregory D.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic improvement for enhanced disease resistance in fish is an increasingly utilized approach to mitigate endemic infectious disease in aquaculture. In domesticated salmonid populations, large phenotypic variation in disease resistance has been identified but the genetic basis for altered responsiveness remains unclear. We previously reported three generations of selection and phenotypic validation of a bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) resistant line of rainbow trout, designated ARS-Fp-R. This line has higher survival after infection by either standardized laboratory challenge or natural challenge as compared to two reference lines, designated ARS-Fp-C (control) and ARS-Fp-S (susceptible). In this study, we utilized 1.1 g fry from the three genetic lines and performed RNA-seq to measure transcript abundance from the whole body of naive and Flavobacterium psychrophilum infected fish at day 1 (early time-point) and at day 5 post-challenge (onset of mortality). Sequences from 24 libraries were mapped onto the rainbow trout genome reference transcriptome of 46,585 predicted protein coding mRNAs that included 2633 putative immune-relevant gene transcripts. A total of 1884 genes (4.0% genome) exhibited differential transcript abundance between infected and mock-challenged fish (FDR < 0.05) that included chemokines, complement components, tnf receptor superfamily members, interleukins, nod-like receptor family members, and genes involved in metabolism and wound healing. The largest number of differentially expressed genes occurred on day 5 post-infection between naive and challenged ARS-Fp-S line fish correlating with high bacterial load. After excluding the effect of infection, we identified 21 differentially expressed genes between the three genetic lines. In summary, these data indicate global transcriptome differences between genetic lines of naive animals as well as differentially regulated transcriptional responses to infection. PMID:25620978

  6. (Per)chlorate Reduction by the Thermophilic Bacterium Moorella perchloratireducens sp. nov., Isolated from Underground Gas Storage▿

    PubMed Central

    Balk, Melike; van Gelder, Ton; Weelink, Sander A.; Stams, Alfons J. M.

    2008-01-01

    A thermophilic bacterium, strain An10, was isolated from underground gas storage with methanol as a substrate and perchlorate as an electron acceptor. Cells were gram-positive straight rods, 0.4 to 0.6 μm in diameter and 2 to 8 μm in length, growing as single cells or in pairs. Spores were terminal with a bulged sporangium. The temperature range for growth was 40 to 70°C, with an optimum at 55 to 60°C. The pH optimum was around 7. The salinity range for growth was between 0 and 40 g NaCl liter−1 with an optimum at 10 g liter−1. Strain An10 was able to grow on CO, methanol, pyruvate, glucose, fructose, cellobiose, mannose, xylose, and pectin. The isolate was able to respire with (per)chlorate, nitrate, thiosulfate, neutralized Fe(III) complexes, and anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate. The G+C content of the DNA was 57.6 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA analysis, strain An10 was most closely related to Moorella thermoacetica and Moorella thermoautotrophica. The bacterium reduced perchlorate and chlorate completely to chloride. Key enzymes, perchlorate reductase and chlorite dismutase, were detected in cell extracts. Strain An10 is the first thermophilic and gram-positive bacterium with the ability to use (per)chlorate as a terminal electron acceptor. PMID:17981952

  7. [Practical problems in breast screening. Columnar cell lesions including flat epithelial atypia and lobular neoplasia].

    PubMed

    Nährig, J

    2008-11-01

    Columnar cell lesions (CCL) and lobular neoplasia (LN) are encountered with increasing frequency in breast screening biopsies. CCLs are frequently associated with microcalcifications, whereas LN is an incidental finding in most cases. Flat epithelia atypia (FEA) the atypical variant of CLL, LN and atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) are frequently associated lesions. Molecular genetic studies of CCL, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and low grade invasive carcinomas revealed similar chromosomal alterations supporting the assumption that CCLs are neoplastic proliferations. The frequent association of FEA together with well differentiated invasive carcinomas provides further evidence of this concept. There is no internationally accepted classification of CCLs at present. CDH1-gene mutations are the cardinal feature of LN and invasive lobular carcinoma. In immunohistochemically CDH1-positive cases, alternative genetic alterations of the CDH1 pathway can lead to functional loss of CDH1. In our opinion morphologically and immunohistochemically hybrid lesions may represent this group of lobular lesions. Recent follow-up data suggest a higher rate of ipsilateral carcinomas in patients with previously diagnosed LN. It is currently an open question whether FEA and LN are members of a common family of intralobular proliferations, which are non-obligatory precursors of a low nuclear grade breast neoplasia family.

  8. Isolation and Characterization of a Human Intestinal Bacterium Eggerthella sp. AUH-JLD49s for the Conversion of (-)-3'-Desmethylarctigenin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ye; Yu, Fei; Liu, Ming-Yue; Zhao, Yi-Kai; Wang, Dong-Ming; Hao, Qing-Hong; Wang, Xiu-Ling

    2017-05-24

    Arctiin is the most abundant bioactive compound contained in the Arctium lappa plant. In our previous study, we isolated one single bacterium capable of bioconverting arctigenin, an aglycone of arctiin, to 3'-desmethylarctigenin (3'-DMAG) solely. However, to date, a specific bacterium capable of producing other arctiin metabolites has not been reported. In this study, we isolated one single bacterium, which we named Eggerthella sp. AUH-JLD49s, capable of bioconverting 3'-DMAG under anaerobic conditions. The metabolite of 3'-DMAG by strain AUH-JLD49s was identified as 3'-desmethyl-4'-dehydroxyarctigenin (DMDH-AG) based on electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and 1 H and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The bioconversion kinetics and bioconversion capacity of strain AUH-JLD49s were investigated. In addition, the metabolite DMDH-AG showed an inhibitory effect on cell growth of human colon cancer cell line HCT116 and human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231.

  9. Genome Sequence of Lysinibacillus sphaericus, a Lignin-Degrading Bacterium Isolated from Municipal Solid Waste Soil.

    PubMed

    Persinoti, Gabriela F; Paixão, Douglas A A; Bugg, Timothy D H; Squina, Fabio M

    2018-05-03

    We report here the draft genome sequence of Lysinibacillus sphaericus strain A1, a potential lignin-degrading bacterium isolated from municipal solid waste (MSW) soil and capable of enhancing gas release from lignocellulose-containing soil. Copyright © 2018 Persinoti et al.

  10. Draft genome sequence of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma pruni’ strain CX, a plant pathogenic bacterium

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma pruni’ strain CX, belonging to subgroup 16SrIII-A, is a plant pathogenic bacterium causing economically important diseases in many fruit crops. Here we report the draft genome sequence that consists of 598,508 bases, with a G+C content of 27.21 mol%. ...

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of the Complex Carbohydrate-Degrading Marine Bacterium, Saccharophagus degradans Strain 2-40T

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Ronald M.; Taylor, Larry E.; Henrissat, Bernard; Hauser, Loren; Land, Miriam; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Rancurel, Corinne; Saunders, Elizabeth H.; Longmire, Atkinson G.; Zhang, Haitao; Bayer, Edward A.; Gilbert, Harry J.; Larimer, Frank; Zhulin, Igor B.; Ekborg, Nathan A.; Lamed, Raphael; Richardson, Paul M.; Borovok, Ilya; Hutcheson, Steven

    2008-01-01

    The marine bacterium Saccharophagus degradans strain 2-40 (Sde 2-40) is emerging as a vanguard of a recently discovered group of marine and estuarine bacteria that recycles complex polysaccharides. We report its complete genome sequence, analysis of which identifies an unusually large number of enzymes that degrade >10 complex polysaccharides. Not only is this an extraordinary range of catabolic capability, many of the enzymes exhibit unusual architecture including novel combinations of catalytic and substrate-binding modules. We hypothesize that many of these features are adaptations that facilitate depolymerization of complex polysaccharides in the marine environment. This is the first sequenced genome of a marine bacterium that can degrade plant cell walls, an important component of the carbon cycle that is not well-characterized in the marine environment. PMID:18516288

  12. 'Cand. Actinochlamydia clariae' gen. nov., sp. nov., a unique intracellular bacterium causing epitheliocystis in catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Steigen, Andreas; Nylund, Are; Karlsbakk, Egil; Akoll, Peter; Fiksdal, Ingrid U; Nylund, Stian; Odong, Robinson; Plarre, Heidrun; Semyalo, Ronald; Skår, Cecilie; Watanabe, Kuninori

    2013-01-01

    Epitheliocystis, caused by bacteria infecting gill epithelial cells in fish, is common among a large range of fish species in both fresh- and seawater. The aquaculture industry considers epitheliocystis an important problem. It affects the welfare of the fish and the resulting gill disease may lead to mortalities. In a culture facility in Kampala, Uganda, juveniles of the African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus) was observed swimming in the surface, sometimes belly up, showing signs of respiratory problems. Histological examination of gill tissues from this fish revealed large amounts of epitheliocysts, and also presence of a few Ichthyobodo sp. and Trichodina sp. Sequencing of the epitheliocystis bacterium 16S rRNA gene shows 86.3% similarity with Candidatus Piscichlamydia salmonis causing epitheliocystis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Transmission electron microscopy showed that the morphology of the developmental stages of the bacterium is similar to that of members of the family Chlamydiaceae. The similarity of the bacterium rRNA gene sequences compared with other chlamydia-like bacteria ranged between 80.5% and 86.3%. Inclusions containing this new bacterium have tubules/channels (termed actinae) that are radiating from the inclusion membrane and opening on the cell surface or in neighbouring cells. Radiation of tubules/channels (actinae) from the inclusion membrane has never been described in any of the other members of Chlamydiales. It seems to be a completely new character and an apomorphy. We propose the name Candidatus Actinochlamydia clariae gen. nov., sp. nov. (Actinochlamydiaceae fam. nov., order Chlamydiales, phylum Chlamydiae) for this new agent causing epitheliocystis in African sharptooth catfish.

  13. Isolation of an unidentified pink-pigmented bacterium in a clinical specimen.

    PubMed Central

    Odugbemi, T; Nwofor, C; Joiner, K T

    1988-01-01

    An unidentified pink-pigmented bacterium isolated from a clinical specimen is reported. The organism was oxidase, urease, and catalase positive; it grew on Thayer-Martin and MacConkey media. The isolate is possibly similar to an unnamed taxon (G.L. Gilardi and Y.C. Faur, J. Clin. Microbiol. 20:626-629, 1984); however, it had unique characteristics of nonmotility with no flagellum detectable and was a gram-negative coccoid with a few rods in pairs and negative for starch hydrolysis. PMID:3384903

  14. Isolation of an unidentified pink-pigmented bacterium in a clinical specimen.

    PubMed

    Odugbemi, T; Nwofor, C; Joiner, K T

    1988-05-01

    An unidentified pink-pigmented bacterium isolated from a clinical specimen is reported. The organism was oxidase, urease, and catalase positive; it grew on Thayer-Martin and MacConkey media. The isolate is possibly similar to an unnamed taxon (G.L. Gilardi and Y.C. Faur, J. Clin. Microbiol. 20:626-629, 1984); however, it had unique characteristics of nonmotility with no flagellum detectable and was a gram-negative coccoid with a few rods in pairs and negative for starch hydrolysis.

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of the Thermophilic Bacterium Geobacillus thermoleovorans CCB_US3_UF5

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Rahman, Ahmad Yamin; Saito, Jennifer A.; Hou, Shaobin

    2012-01-01

    Geobacillus thermoleovorans CCB_US3_UF5 is a thermophilic bacterium isolated from a hot spring in Malaysia. Here, we report the complete genome of G. thermoleovorans CCB_US3_UF5, which shows high similarity to the genome of Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA 426 in terms of synteny and orthologous genes. PMID:22328744

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of the Efficient Bioflocculant-Producing Bacterium Paenibacillus sp. Strain A9

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jin-liang; Hu, Xiao-min

    2013-01-01

    Paenibacillus sp. strain A9 is an important bioflocculant-producing bacterium, isolated from a soil sample, and is pale pink-pigmented, aerobic, and Gram-positive. Here, we report the draft genome sequence and the initial findings from a preliminary analysis of strain A9, which is a novel species of Paenibacillus. PMID:23618713

  17. Large piezoelectric strain with ultra-low strain hysteresis in highly c-axis oriented Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 films with columnar growth on amorphous glass substrates.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Minh D; Houwman, Evert P; Rijnders, Guus

    2017-10-10

    Thin films of PbZr 0 . 52 Ti 0 . 48 O 3 (PZT) with largely detached columnar grains, deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on amorphous glass substrates covered with Ca 2 Nb 3 O 10 nanosheets as growth template and using LaNiO 3 electrode layers, are shown to exhibit very high unipolar piezoelectric strain and ultra-low strain hysteresis. The observed increase of the piezoelectric coefficient with increasing film thickness is attributed to the reduction of clamping, because of the increasingly less dense columnar microstructure (more separation between the grains) with across the film thickness. A very large piezoelectric coefficient (490 pm/V) and a high piezoelectric strain (~0.9%) are obtained in 4-µm-thick film under an applied electric field of 200 kV/cm, which is several times larger than in usual PZT ceramics. Further very low strain hysteresis (H≈2-4%) is observed in 4 to 5 µm thick films. These belong to the best values demonstrated so far in piezoelectric films. Fatigue testing shows that the piezoelectric properties are stable up to 10 10 cycles. The growth of high quality PZT films with very large strain and piezoelectric coefficients, very low hysteresis and with long-term stability on a technologically important substrate as glass is of great significance for the development of practical piezo driven microelectromechanical actuator systems.

  18. Effects of annealing and conformal alumina passivation on anisotropy and hysteresis of magneto-optical properties of cobalt slanted columnar thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briley, Chad; Mock, Alyssa; Korlacki, Rafał; Hofmann, Tino; Schubert, Eva; Schubert, Mathias

    2017-11-01

    We present magneto-optical dielectric tensor data of cobalt and cobalt oxide slanted columnar thin films obtained by vector magneto-optical generalized ellipsometry. Room-temperature hysteresis magnetization measurements were performed in longitudinal and polar Kerr geometries on samples prior to and after a heat treatment process with and without a conformal Al2O3 passivation coating. The samples have been characterized by generalized ellipsometry, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy in conjuncture with density functional theory. We observe strongly anisotropic hysteresis behaviors, which depend on the nanocolumn and magnetizing field orientations. We find that deposited cobalt films that have been exposed to heat treatment and subsequent atmospheric oxidation into Co3O4, when not conformally passivated, reveal no measurable magneto-optical properties while cobalt films with passivation coatings retain highly anisotropic magneto-optical properties.

  19. The domestication of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus

    PubMed Central

    Bull, Matthew J.; Jolley, Keith A.; Bray, James E.; Aerts, Maarten; Vandamme, Peter; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Marchesi, Julian R.; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus is a Gram-positive lactic acid bacterium that has had widespread historical use in the dairy industry and more recently as a probiotic. Although L. acidophilus has been designated as safe for human consumption, increasing commercial regulation and clinical demands for probiotic validation has resulted in a need to understand its genetic diversity. By drawing on large, well-characterised collections of lactic acid bacteria, we examined L. acidophilus isolates spanning 92 years and including multiple strains in current commercial use. Analysis of the whole genome sequence data set (34 isolate genomes) demonstrated L. acidophilus was a low diversity, monophyletic species with commercial isolates essentially identical at the sequence level. Our results indicate that commercial use has domesticated L. acidophilus with genetically stable, invariant strains being consumed globally by the human population. PMID:25425319

  20. The domestication of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Bull, Matthew J; Jolley, Keith A; Bray, James E; Aerts, Maarten; Vandamme, Peter; Maiden, Martin C J; Marchesi, Julian R; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar

    2014-11-26

    Lactobacillus acidophilus is a Gram-positive lactic acid bacterium that has had widespread historical use in the dairy industry and more recently as a probiotic. Although L. acidophilus has been designated as safe for human consumption, increasing commercial regulation and clinical demands for probiotic validation has resulted in a need to understand its genetic diversity. By drawing on large, well-characterised collections of lactic acid bacteria, we examined L. acidophilus isolates spanning 92 years and including multiple strains in current commercial use. Analysis of the whole genome sequence data set (34 isolate genomes) demonstrated L. acidophilus was a low diversity, monophyletic species with commercial isolates essentially identical at the sequence level. Our results indicate that commercial use has domesticated L. acidophilus with genetically stable, invariant strains being consumed globally by the human population.