Science.gov

Sample records for bacterium myxococcus xanthus

  1. Cell division resets polarity and motility for the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Cameron W; Madukoma, Chinedu S; Mahserejian, Shant; Alber, Mark S; Shrout, Joshua D

    2014-11-01

    Links between cell division and other cellular processes are poorly understood. It is difficult to simultaneously examine division and function in most cell types. Most of the research probing aspects of cell division has experimented with stationary or immobilized cells or distinctly asymmetrical cells. Here we took an alternative approach by examining cell division events within motile groups of cells growing on solid medium by time-lapse microscopy. A total of 558 cell divisions were identified among approximately 12,000 cells. We found an interconnection of division, motility, and polarity in the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. For every division event, motile cells stop moving to divide. Progeny cells of binary fission subsequently move in opposing directions. This behavior involves M. xanthus Frz proteins that regulate M. xanthus motility reversals but is independent of type IV pilus "S motility." The inheritance of opposing polarity is correlated with the distribution of the G protein RomR within these dividing cells. The constriction at the point of division limits the intracellular distribution of RomR. Thus, the asymmetric distribution of RomR at the parent cell poles becomes mirrored at new poles initiated at the site of division.

  2. Natural variation in developmental life-history traits of the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Susanne A; Toups, Melissa A; Velicer, Gregory J

    2010-08-01

    The soil bacterium Myxococcus xanthus is a model for the study of cooperative microbial behaviours such as social motility and fruiting body formation. Several M. xanthus developmental traits that are frequently quantified for laboratory strains are likely to be significant components of fitness in natural populations, yet little is known about the degree to which such traits vary in the wild and may therefore be subject to natural selection. Here, we have tested whether several key M. xanthus developmental life-history traits have diverged significantly among strains both from globally distant origins and from within a sympatric, centimetre-scale population. The isolates examined here were found to vary considerably, in a heritable manner, in their rate of developmental aggregation and in both their rate and efficiency of spore production. Isolates also varied in the nutrient-concentration threshold triggering spore formation and in the heat resistance of spores. The large diversity of developmental phenotypes documented here leads to questions regarding the relative roles of selection and genetic drift in shaping the diversity of local soil populations with respect to these developmental traits. It also raises the question of whether fitness in the wild is largely determined by traits that are expressed independent of social context or by behaviours that are expressed only in genetically heterogeneous social groups.

  3. A barrier to homologous recombination between sympatric strains of the cooperative soil bacterium Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed

    Wielgoss, Sébastien; Didelot, Xavier; Chaudhuri, Roy R; Liu, Xuan; Weedall, Gareth D; Velicer, Gregory J; Vos, Michiel

    2016-10-01

    The bacterium Myxococcus xanthus glides through soil in search of prey microbes, but when food sources run out, cells cooperatively construct and sporulate within multicellular fruiting bodies. M. xanthus strains isolated from a 16 × 16-cm-scale patch of soil were previously shown to have diversified into many distinct compatibility types that are distinguished by the failure of swarming colonies to merge upon encounter. We sequenced the genomes of 22 isolates from this population belonging to the two most frequently occurring multilocus sequence type (MLST) clades to trace patterns of incipient genomic divergence, specifically related to social divergence. Although homologous recombination occurs frequently within the two MLST clades, we find an almost complete absence of recombination events between them. As the two clades are very closely related and live in sympatry, either ecological or genetic barriers must reduce genetic exchange between them. We find that the rate of change in the accessory genome is greater than the rate of amino-acid substitution in the core genome. We identify a large genomic tract that consistently differs between isolates that do not freely merge and therefore is a candidate region for harbouring gene(s) responsible for self/non-self discrimination.

  4. Role for Vitamin B12 in Light Induction of Gene Expression in the Bacterium Myxococcus xanthus

    PubMed Central

    Cervantes, María; Murillo, Francisco J.

    2002-01-01

    A light-inducible promoter (PB) drives the carB operon (carotenoid genes) of the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. A gene encoding a regulator of carotenoid biosynthesis was identified by studying mutant strains carrying a transcriptional fusion to PB and deletions in three candidate genes. Our results prove that the identified gene, named carA, codes for a repressor of the PB promoter in the dark. They also show that the carA gene product does not participate in the light activation of two other promoters connected with carotenoid synthesis or its regulation in M. xanthus. CarA is a novel protein consisting of a DNA-binding domain of the family of MerR helix-turn-helix transcriptional regulators, directly joined to a cobalamin-binding domain. In support of this, we report here that the presence of vitamin B12 or some other cobalamin derivatives is absolutely required for activation of the PB promoter by light. PMID:11914353

  5. A barrier to homologous recombination between sympatric strains of the cooperative soil bacterium Myxococcus xanthus

    PubMed Central

    Wielgoss, Sébastien; Didelot, Xavier; Chaudhuri, Roy R; Liu, Xuan; Weedall, Gareth D; Velicer, Gregory J; Vos, Michiel

    2016-01-01

    The bacterium Myxococcus xanthus glides through soil in search of prey microbes, but when food sources run out, cells cooperatively construct and sporulate within multicellular fruiting bodies. M. xanthus strains isolated from a 16 × 16-cm-scale patch of soil were previously shown to have diversified into many distinct compatibility types that are distinguished by the failure of swarming colonies to merge upon encounter. We sequenced the genomes of 22 isolates from this population belonging to the two most frequently occurring multilocus sequence type (MLST) clades to trace patterns of incipient genomic divergence, specifically related to social divergence. Although homologous recombination occurs frequently within the two MLST clades, we find an almost complete absence of recombination events between them. As the two clades are very closely related and live in sympatry, either ecological or genetic barriers must reduce genetic exchange between them. We find that the rate of change in the accessory genome is greater than the rate of amino-acid substitution in the core genome. We identify a large genomic tract that consistently differs between isolates that do not freely merge and therefore is a candidate region for harbouring gene(s) responsible for self/non-self discrimination. PMID:27046334

  6. Surface motility of Myxococcus Xanthus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibiansky, Maxsim; Hu, William; Jin, Fan; Zhao, Kun; Shi, Wenyuan; Wong, Gerard

    2011-03-01

    We examine the surface motility of Myxococcus Xanthus, a bacterium species found in soil that exhibits a broad range of self-organizing behavior, including predatory ``swarms'' and survival-enhancing ``fruiting bodies.'' To quantify the effects of exopolysaccharides (EPS) on surface adhesion and motility, we use modified versions of particle tracking algorithms from colloid physics to analyze bacterial trajectories, and compare the wild type (WT) strain to EPS knockout and EPS overproducer strains. We find that EPS deficiency leads to an increase in the number of ``standing'' bacteria oriented normal to the surface, attached by one end with minimal motility. EPS overproduction, by contrast, suppresses this phenotype. A detailed investigation of the influence of EPS on Myxococcus social motility will be presented.

  7. Active matter model of Myxococcus xanthus aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patch, Adam; Bahar, Fatmagul; Liu, Guannan; Thutupalli, Shashi; Welch, Roy; Yllanes, David; Shaevitz, Joshua; Marchetti, M. Cristina

    Myxococcus xanthus is a soil-dwelling bacterium that exhibits several fascinating collective behaviors including streaming, swarming, and generation of fruiting bodies. A striking feature of M. xanthus is that it periodically reverses its motility direction. The first stage of fruiting body formation is characterized by the aggregation of cells on a surface into round mesoscopic structures. Experiments have shown that this aggregation relies heavily on regulation of the reversal rate and local mechanical interactions, suggesting motility-induced phase separation may play an important role. We have adapted self-propelled particle models to include cell reversal and motility suppression resulting from sporulation observed in aggregates. Using 2D molecular dynamics simulations, we map the phase behavior in the space of Péclet number and local density and examine the kinetics of aggregation for comparison to experiments.

  8. ihfA Gene of the Bacterium Myxococcus xanthus and Its Role in Activation of Carotenoid Genes by Blue Light

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Alberto J.; Fontes, Marta; Murillo, Francisco J.

    2001-01-01

    Myxococcus xanthus responds to blue light by producing carotenoids. Several regulatory genes are known that participate in the light action mechanism, which leads to the transcriptional activation of the carotenoid genes. We had already reported the isolation of a carotenoid-less, Tn5-induced strain (MR508), whose mutant site was unlinked to the indicated regulatory genes. Here, we show that ΩMR508::Tn5 affects all known light-inducible promoters in different ways. It blocks the activation of two of them by light but makes the activity of a third one light independent. The ΩMR508 locus has been cloned and sequenced. The mutation had occurred at the promoter of a gene we propose is the M. xanthus ortholog of ihfA. This encodes the α subunit of the histone-like integration host factor protein. An in-frame deletion within ihfA causes the same effects as the ΩMR508::Tn5 insertion. Like other IhfA proteins, the deduced amino acid sequence of M. xanthus IhfA shows much similarity to HU, another histone-like protein. Sequence comparison data, however, and the finding that the M. xanthus gene is preceded by gene pheT, as happens in other gram-negative bacteria, strongly argue for the proposed orthology relationship. The M. xanthus ihfA gene shows some unusual features, both from structural and physiological points of view. In particular, the protein is predicted to have a unique, long acidic extension at the carboxyl terminus, and it appears to be necessary for normal cell growth and even vital for a certain wild-type strain of M. xanthus. PMID:11133949

  9. Chromosome replication in Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed Central

    Zusman, D R; Krotoski, D M; Cumsky, M

    1978-01-01

    The rates of DNA synthesis during the cell-division cycle were measured in Myxococcus xanthus growing in three different media permitting a twofold variation in doubling time. In all three media, simple DNA cycles were observed. Synthesis of DNA occurred during 85% of the cell-division cycle, independent of generation time, from 5 to 11 h. Cells were observed to contain one bacterial nucleoid at birth that later divided synchronously midway through the cell cycle. Nucleoid segregation appeared to begin before chromosome replication was completed. The DNA content of exponential-phase bacteria was determined to be about 20 +/- 3 X 10(-9) microgram per cell; newborn bacteria contained about 14 +/- 2 X 10(-9) microgram of DNA per cell. Exponential-phase bacteria showed about a 50% increase in DNA in the presence of chloramphenicol (50 microgram/ml). The number of randomly segregating chromosomes present in exponential-phase bacteria was determined by following the fate of prelabeled DNA during outgrowth in nonradioactive media. The results are consistent with a model in which cells are born with exactly one complete unreplicated chromosome. The molecular weight of such a chromosome is about 8.4 +/- 1.2 X 10(9). PMID:412830

  10. Earthquake-like dynamics in Myxococcus xanthus social motility.

    PubMed

    Gibiansky, Maxsim L; Hu, Wei; Dahmen, Karin A; Shi, Wenyuan; Wong, Gerard C L

    2013-02-05

    Myxococcus xanthus is a bacterium capable of complex social organization. Its characteristic social ("S")-motility mechanism is mediated by type IV pili (TFP), linear actuator appendages that propel the bacterium along a surface. TFP are known to bind to secreted exopolysaccharides (EPS), but it is unclear how M. xanthus manages to use the TFP-EPS technology common to many bacteria to achieve its unique coordinated multicellular movements. We examine M. xanthus S-motility, using high-resolution particle-tracking algorithms, and observe aperiodic stick-slip movements. We show that they are not due to chemotaxis, but are instead consistent with a constant TFP-generated force interacting with EPS, which functions both as a glue and as a lubricant. These movements are quantitatively homologous to the dynamics of earthquakes and other crackling noise systems. These systems exhibit critical behavior, which is characterized by a statistical hierarchy of discrete "avalanche" motions described by a power law distribution. The measured critical exponents from M. xanthus are consistent with mean field theoretical models and with other crackling noise systems, and the measured Lyapunov exponent suggests the existence of highly branched EPS. Such molecular architectures, which are common for efficient lubricants but rare in bacterial EPS, may be necessary for S-motility: We show that the TFP of leading "locomotive" cells initiate the collective motion of follower cells, indicating that lubricating EPS may alleviate the force generation requirements on the lead cell and thus make S-motility possible.

  11. Profiling the outer membrane proteome during growth and development of the social bacterium Myxococcus xanthus by selective biotinylation and analyses of outer membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Kahnt, Jörg; Aguiluz, Kryssia; Koch, Jürgen; Treuner-Lange, Anke; Konovalova, Anna; Huntley, Stuart; Hoppert, Michael; Søgaard-Andersen, Lotte; Hedderich, Reiner

    2010-10-01

    Social behavior in the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus relies on contact-dependent activities involving cell-cell and cell-substratum interactions. To identify outer membrane proteins that have a role in these activities, we profiled the outer membrane proteome of growing and starving cells using two strategies. First, outer membrane proteins were enriched by biotinylation of intact cells using the reagent NHS (N-hydroxysuccinimide)-PEO(12) (polyethylene oxide)-biotin with subsequent membrane solubilization and affinity chromatography. Second, the proteome of outer membrane vesicles (OMV) was determined. Comparisons of detected proteins show that these methods have different detection profiles and together provide a comprehensive view of the outer membrane proteome. From 362 proteins identified, 274 (76%) were cell envelope proteins including 64 integral outer membrane proteins and 85 lipoproteins. The majority of these proteins were of unknown function. Among integral outer membrane proteins with homologues of known function, TonB-dependent transporters comprise the largest group. Our data suggest novel functions for these transporters. Among lipoproteins with homologues of known function, proteins with hydrolytic functions comprise the largest group. The luminal load of OMV was enriched for proteins with hydrolytic functions. Our data suggest that OMV have functions in predation and possibly in transfer of intercellular signaling molecules between cells.

  12. Pili-driven surface motility of Myxococcus xanthus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibiansky, Maxsim; Hu, Wei; Zhao, Kun; Pan, Hongwei; Shi, Wenyuan; Dahmen, Karin; Wong, Gerard

    2012-02-01

    Myxococcus xanthus is a common, rod-shaped soil-dwelling bacterium with complex motility characteristics. In groups, M. xanthus bacteria can move via social ``S'' motility, in which the Type IV Pili (TFP) attach to secreted exopolysaccharides (EPS). We examine this motility mechanism using high-framerate video acquisition, taking data on individual bacteria at 400 frames per second; using particle tracking algorithms, we algorithmically reconstruct the bacterial trajectories. The motion of a single bacterium as it is pulled by its TFP through the EPS layer on the surface is not smooth, but instead displays distinct plateaus and slips, with a wide range of plateau and slip lengths. The distribution of slips exhibits power law scaling, consistent with a crackling noise model; crackling noise has previously been used to model nonbiological systems such as earthquake dynamics and Barkhausen noise. We show quantitative agreement between mean field friction models and observed bacterial dynamics. We demonstrate that the crackling noise behavior of M. xanthus is strongly dependent on the presence of EPS, but is unaffected by the chemotactic behavior of the bacterium; we also demonstrate velocity coupling between pairs of bacteria in the early stages of social motility.

  13. Phase separation dynamics during Myxococcus xanthus fruiting body formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guannan; Bahar, Fatmagul; Patch, Adam; Thutupalli, Shashi; Yllanes, David; Marchetti, M. Cristina; Welch, Roy; Shaevitz, Joshua

    Many living systems take advantage of collective behavior for group survival. We use the soil-dwelling bacterium Myxococcus xanthus as a model to study out-of-equilibrium phase separation during fruiting body formation. M. xanthus cells have the ability to glide on solid surfaces and reverse their direction periodically. When starved, M. xanthus cells aggregate together and form structures called fruiting bodies, inside of which cells sporulate to survive stressful conditions. We show that at high cell density the formation of fruiting bodies is a phase separation process. From experimental data that combines single-cell tracking, population-scale imaging, mutants, and drug applications, we construct the phase diagram of M. xanthus in the space of Péclet number and cell density. When wild type cells are starved, we find that they actively increase their Péclet number by modulating gliding speed and reversal frequency which induces a phase separation from a gas-like state to an aggregated fruiting body state.

  14. Phase separation like dynamics during Myxococcus xanthus fruiting body formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guannan; Thutupalli, Shashi; Wigbers, Manon; Shaevitz, Joshua

    2015-03-01

    Collective motion exists in many living organisms as an advantageous strategy to help the entire group with predation, forage, and survival. However, the principles of self-organization underlying such collective motions remain unclear. During various developmental stages of the soil-dwelling bacterium, Myxococcus xanthus, different types of collective motions are observed. In particular, when starved, M. xanthus cells eventually aggregate together to form 3-dimensional structures (fruiting bodies), inside which cells sporulate in response to the stress. We study the fruiting body formation process as an out of equilibrium phase separation process. As local cell density increases, the dynamics of the aggregation M. xanthus cells switch from a spatio-temporally random process, resembling nucleation and growth, to an emergent pattern formation process similar to a spinodal decomposition. By employing high-resolution microscopy and a video analysis system, we are able to track the motion of single cells within motile collective groups, while separately tuning local cell density, cell velocity and reversal frequency, probing the multi-dimensional phase space of M. xanthus development.

  15. Exopolysaccharides promote Myxococcus xanthus social motility by inhibiting cellular reversals.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tianyi; Nan, Beiyan

    2017-02-01

    The biofilm-forming bacterium Myxococcus xanthus moves on surfaces as structured swarms utilizing type IV pili-dependent social (S) motility. In contrast to isolated cells that reverse their moving direction frequently, individual cells within swarms rarely reverse. The regulatory mechanisms that inhibit cellular reversal and promote the formation of swarms are not well understood. Here we show that exopolysaccharides (EPS), the major extracellular components of M. xanthus swarms, inhibit cellular reversal in a concentration-dependent manner. Thus, individual wild-type cells reverse less frequently in swarms due to high local EPS concentrations. In contrast, cells defective in EPS production hyper-reverse their moving direction and show severe defects in S-motility. Surprisingly, S-motility and wild-type reversal frequency are restored in double mutants that are defective in both EPS production and the Frz chemosensory system, indicating that EPS regulates cellular reversal in parallel to the Frz pathway. Here we clarify that besides functioning as the structural scaffold in biofilms, EPS is a self-produced signal that coordinates the group motion of the social bacterium M. xanthus.

  16. Dual Biochemical Oscillators May Control Cellular Reversals in Myxococcus xanthus

    PubMed Central

    Eckhert, Erik; Rangamani, Padmini; Davis, Annie E.; Oster, George; Berleman, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Myxococcus xanthus is a Gram-negative, soil-dwelling bacterium that glides on surfaces, reversing direction approximately once every 6 min. Motility in M. xanthus is governed by the Che-like Frz pathway and the Ras-like Mgl pathway, which together cause the cell to oscillate back and forth. Previously, Igoshin et al. (2004) suggested that the cellular oscillations are caused by cyclic changes in concentration of active Frz proteins that govern motility. In this study, we present a computational model that integrates both the Frz and Mgl pathways, and whose downstream components can be read as motor activity governing cellular reversals. This model faithfully reproduces wildtype and mutant behaviors by simulating individual protein knockouts. In addition, the model can be used to examine the impact of contact stimuli on cellular reversals. The basic model construction relies on the presence of two nested feedback circuits, which prompted us to reexamine the behavior of M. xanthus cells. We performed experiments to test the model, and this cell analysis challenges previous assumptions of 30 to 60 min reversal periods in frzCD, frzF, frzE, and frzZ mutants. We demonstrate that this average reversal period is an artifact of the method employed to record reversal data, and that in the absence of signal from the Frz pathway, Mgl components can occasionally reverse the cell near wildtype periodicity, but frz- cells are otherwise in a long nonoscillating state. PMID:25468349

  17. Earthquake-like dynamics in Myxococcus xanthus social motility

    PubMed Central

    Gibiansky, Maxsim L.; Hu, Wei; Dahmen, Karin A.; Shi, Wenyuan; Wong, Gerard C. L.

    2013-01-01

    Myxococcus xanthus is a bacterium capable of complex social organization. Its characteristic social (“S”)-motility mechanism is mediated by type IV pili (TFP), linear actuator appendages that propel the bacterium along a surface. TFP are known to bind to secreted exopolysaccharides (EPS), but it is unclear how M. xanthus manages to use the TFP-EPS technology common to many bacteria to achieve its unique coordinated multicellular movements. We examine M. xanthus S-motility, using high-resolution particle-tracking algorithms, and observe aperiodic stick–slip movements. We show that they are not due to chemotaxis, but are instead consistent with a constant TFP-generated force interacting with EPS, which functions both as a glue and as a lubricant. These movements are quantitatively homologous to the dynamics of earthquakes and other crackling noise systems. These systems exhibit critical behavior, which is characterized by a statistical hierarchy of discrete “avalanche” motions described by a power law distribution. The measured critical exponents from M. xanthus are consistent with mean field theoretical models and with other crackling noise systems, and the measured Lyapunov exponent suggests the existence of highly branched EPS. Such molecular architectures, which are common for efficient lubricants but rare in bacterial EPS, may be necessary for S-motility: We show that the TFP of leading “locomotive” cells initiate the collective motion of follower cells, indicating that lubricating EPS may alleviate the force generation requirements on the lead cell and thus make S-motility possible. PMID:23341622

  18. Quantifying aggregation dynamics during Myxococcus xanthus development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiyang; Angus, Stuart; Tran, Michael; Xie, Chunyan; Igoshin, Oleg A; Welch, Roy D

    2011-10-01

    Under starvation conditions, a swarm of Myxococcus xanthus cells will undergo development, a multicellular process culminating in the formation of many aggregates called fruiting bodies, each of which contains up to 100,000 spores. The mechanics of symmetry breaking and the self-organization of cells into fruiting bodies is an active area of research. Here we use microcinematography and automated image processing to quantify several transient features of developmental dynamics. An analysis of experimental data indicates that aggregation reaches its steady state in a highly nonmonotonic fashion. The number of aggregates rapidly peaks at a value 2- to 3-fold higher than the final value and then decreases before reaching a steady state. The time dependence of aggregate size is also nonmonotonic, but to a lesser extent: average aggregate size increases from the onset of aggregation to between 10 and 15 h and then gradually decreases thereafter. During this process, the distribution of aggregates transitions from a nearly random state early in development to a more ordered state later in development. A comparison of experimental results to a mathematical model based on the traffic jam hypothesis indicates that the model fails to reproduce these dynamic features of aggregation, even though it accurately describes its final outcome. The dynamic features of M. xanthus aggregation uncovered in this study impose severe constraints on its underlying mechanisms.

  19. Regulated Exopolysaccharide Production in Myxococcus xanthus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang-Hoon; Ramaswamy, Srinivas; Downard, John

    1999-01-01

    Myxococcus xanthus fibrils are cell surface-associated structures composed of roughly equal amounts of polysaccharide and protein. The level of M. xanthus polysaccharide production under different conditions in the wild type and in several mutants known to have alterations in fibril production was investigated. Wild-type exopolysaccharide increased significantly as cells entered the stationary phase of growth or upon addition of Ca2+ to growing cells, and the polysaccharide-induced cells exhibited an enhanced capacity for cell-cell agglutination. The activity of the key gluconeogenic pathway enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pck) also increased under these conditions. Most fibril-deficient mutants failed to produce polysaccharide in a stationary-phase- or Ca2+-dependent fashion. However, regulation of Pck activity was generally unimpaired in these mutant strains. In an stk mutant, which overproduces fibrils, polysaccharide production and Pck activity were constitutively high under the conditions tested. Polysaccharide production increased in most fibril-deficient strains when an stk mutant allele was present, indicating that these fibril-deficient mutants retained the basic cellular components required for fibril polysaccharide production. In contrast to other divalent cations tested, Sr2+ effectively replaced Ca2+ in stimulating polysaccharide production, and either Ca2+ or Sr2+ was required for fruiting-body formation by wild-type cells. By using transmission electron microscopy of freeze-substituted log-phase wild-type cells, fibril material was observed as a cell surface-associated layer of uniform thickness composed of filaments with an ordered structure. PMID:10049381

  20. Exopolysaccharide biosynthesis genes required for social motility in Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ann; Cho, Kyunyung; Black, Wesley P; Duan, Xue-Yan; Lux, Renate; Yang, Zhaomin; Kaplan, Heidi B; Zusman, David R; Shi, Wenyuan

    2005-01-01

    Social (S)-motility in Myxococcus xanthus is a flagellum-independent gliding motility system that allows bacteria to move in groups on solid surfaces. S-motility has been shown to require type IV pili (TFP), exopolysaccharide (EPS; a component of fibrils) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Previously, information concerning EPS biogenesis in M. xanthus was lacking. In this study, we screened 5000 randomly mutagenized colonies for defects in S-motility and EPS and identified two genetic regions essential for EPS biogenesis: the EPS synthesis (eps) region and the EPS-associated (eas) region. Mutants with insertions in the eps and eas regions were defective in S-motility and fruiting body formation. These mutants failed to bind the dye calcofluor white, indicating that they lacked EPS; however, they retained normal TFP and LPS. Analysis of the eps locus showed several open reading frames (ORFs) that encode homologues to glycosyltransferases, glucanases and EPS transporters as well as regulatory proteins; the eas locus contains two ORFs: one exhibits homology to hypothetical proteins with a conserved domain of unknown function and the other displays no apparent homology to other proteins in the database. Further genetic mutagenesis analysis indicates that the whole eps region is involved in the biosynthesis of fibrils and fibril EPS. The operon at the proximal end of the eps region was analysed by generating in-frame deletion mutations. These mutants showed varying degrees of defects in the bacterium's ability to produce EPS or perform EPS-related functions, confirming the involvement of these genes in M. xanthus EPS biogenesis.

  1. Identification of Enhancer Binding Proteins Important for Myxococcus xanthus Development▿

    PubMed Central

    Giglio, Krista M.; Eisenstatt, Jessica; Garza, Anthony G.

    2010-01-01

    Enhancer binding proteins (EBPs) control the temporal expression of fruiting body development-associated genes in Myxococcus xanthus. Eleven previously uncharacterized EBP genes were inactivated. Six EBP gene mutations produced minor but reproducible defects in fruiting body development. One EBP gene mutation that affected A-motility produced strong developmental defects. PMID:19897655

  2. Identification of enhancer binding proteins important for Myxococcus xanthus development.

    PubMed

    Giglio, Krista M; Eisenstatt, Jessica; Garza, Anthony G

    2010-01-01

    Enhancer binding proteins (EBPs) control the temporal expression of fruiting body development-associated genes in Myxococcus xanthus. Eleven previously uncharacterized EBP genes were inactivated. Six EBP gene mutations produced minor but reproducible defects in fruiting body development. One EBP gene mutation that affected A-motility produced strong developmental defects.

  3. Gliding Motility in Bacteria: Insights from Studies of Myxococcus xanthus

    PubMed Central

    Spormann, Alfred M.

    1999-01-01

    Gliding motility is observed in a large variety of phylogenetically unrelated bacteria. Gliding provides a means for microbes to travel in environments with a low water content, such as might be found in biofilms, microbial mats, and soil. Gliding is defined as the movement of a cell on a surface in the direction of the long axis of the cell. Because this definition is operational and not mechanistic, the underlying molecular motor(s) may be quite different in diverse microbes. In fact, studies on the gliding bacterium Myxococcus xanthus suggest that two independent gliding machineries, encoded by two multigene systems, operate in this microorganism. One machinery, which allows individual cells to glide on a surface, independent of whether the cells are moving alone or in groups, requires the function of the genes of the A-motility system. More than 37 A-motility genes are known to be required for this form of movement. Depending on an additional phenotype, these genes are divided into two subclasses, the agl and cgl genes. Videomicroscopic studies on gliding movement, as well as ultrastructural observations of two myxobacteria, suggest that the A-system motor may consist of multiple single motor elements that are arrayed along the entire cell body. Each motor element is proposed to be localized to the periplasmic space and to be anchored to the peptidoglycan layer. The force to glide which may be generated here is coupled to adhesion sites that move freely in the outer membrane. These adhesion sites provide a specific contact with the substratum. Based on single-cell observations, similar models have been proposed to operate in the unrelated gliding bacteria Flavobacterium johnsoniae (formerly Cytophaga johnsonae), Cytophaga strain U67, and Flexibacter polymorphus (a filamentous glider). Although this model has not been verified experimentally, M. xanthus seems to be the ideal organism with which to test it, given the genetic tools available. The second gliding

  4. Gliding motility in bacteria: insights from studies of Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed

    Spormann, A M

    1999-09-01

    Gliding motility is observed in a large variety of phylogenetically unrelated bacteria. Gliding provides a means for microbes to travel in environments with a low water content, such as might be found in biofilms, microbial mats, and soil. Gliding is defined as the movement of a cell on a surface in the direction of the long axis of the cell. Because this definition is operational and not mechanistic, the underlying molecular motor(s) may be quite different in diverse microbes. In fact, studies on the gliding bacterium Myxococcus xanthus suggest that two independent gliding machineries, encoded by two multigene systems, operate in this microorganism. One machinery, which allows individual cells to glide on a surface, independent of whether the cells are moving alone or in groups, requires the function of the genes of the A-motility system. More than 37 A-motility genes are known to be required for this form of movement. Depending on an additional phenotype, these genes are divided into two subclasses, the agl and cgl genes. Videomicroscopic studies on gliding movement, as well as ultrastructural observations of two myxobacteria, suggest that the A-system motor may consist of multiple single motor elements that are arrayed along the entire cell body. Each motor element is proposed to be localized to the periplasmic space and to be anchored to the peptidoglycan layer. The force to glide which may be generated here is coupled to adhesion sites that move freely in the outer membrane. These adhesion sites provide a specific contact with the substratum. Based on single-cell observations, similar models have been proposed to operate in the unrelated gliding bacteria Flavobacterium johnsoniae (formerly Cytophaga johnsonae), Cytophaga strain U67, and Flexibacter polymorphus (a filamentous glider). Although this model has not been verified experimentally, M. xanthus seems to be the ideal organism with which to test it, given the genetic tools available. The second gliding

  5. Phenotypic profiling of ABC transporter coding genes in Myxococcus xanthus

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jinyuan; Bradley, Michael D.; Friedman, Jannice; Welch, Roy D.

    2014-01-01

    Information about a gene sometimes can be deduced by examining the impact of its mutation on phenotype. However, the genome-scale utility of the method is limited because, for nearly all model organisms, the majority of mutations result in little or no observable phenotypic impact. The cause of this is often attributed to robustness or redundancy within the genome, but that is only one plausible hypothesis. We examined a standard set of phenotypic traits, and applied statistical methods commonly used in the study of natural variants to an engineered mutant strain collection representing disruptions in 180 of the 192 ABC transporters within the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. These strains display continuous variation in their phenotypic distributions, with a small number of “outlier” strains at both phenotypic extremes, and the majority within a confidence interval about the mean that always includes wild type. Correlation analysis reveals substantial pleiotropy, indicating that the traits do not represent independent variables. The traits measured in this study co-cluster with expression profiles, thereby demonstrating that these changes in phenotype correspond to changes at the molecular level, and therefore can be indirectly connected to changes in the genome. However, the continuous distributions, the pleiotropy, and the placement of wild type always within the confidence interval all indicate that this standard set of M. xanthus phenotypic assays is measuring a narrow range of partially overlapping traits that do not directly reflect fitness. This is likely a significant cause of the observed small phenotypic impact from mutation, and is unrelated to robustness and redundancy. PMID:25101061

  6. The high-mobility group A-type protein CarD of the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus as a transcription factor for several distinct vegetative genes.

    PubMed

    Galbis-Martínez, Marisa; Fontes, Marta; Murillo, Francisco J

    2004-08-01

    CarD is the only reported prokaryotic protein showing structural and functional features typical of eukaryotic high-mobility group A transcription factors. In prokaryotes, proteins similar to CarD appear to be confined primarily to myxobacteria. In Myxococcus xanthus, CarD has been previously shown to act as a positive element in two different regulatory networks: one for light-induced synthesis of carotenoids and the other for starvation-induced fruiting body formation. We have now tested the effect of a loss-of-function mutation in the carD gene (carD1) on the expression of a random collection of lacZ-tagged genes, which are normally expressed in the dark during vegetative growth in rich medium. Our results indicate that CarD plays a significant role in the transcriptional regulation of various indicated genes. The carD1 mutation downregulates some genes and upregulates others. Also reported here is the isolation of several mutations that suppress the strong effect of carD1 on the expression of a particular vegetative gene. One of them (sud-2) also suppresses the effect of carD1 on other vegetative genes and on fruiting-body formation. Thus, CarD and the sud-2 gene product appear to participate in a single mechanism, which underlies various apparently diverse regulatory phenomena ascribed to CarD. Copyright 2004 Genetics Society of America

  7. The high-mobility group A-type protein CarD of the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus as a transcription factor for several distinct vegetative genes.

    PubMed Central

    Galbis-Martínez, Marisa; Fontes, Marta; Murillo, Francisco J

    2004-01-01

    CarD is the only reported prokaryotic protein showing structural and functional features typical of eukaryotic high-mobility group A transcription factors. In prokaryotes, proteins similar to CarD appear to be confined primarily to myxobacteria. In Myxococcus xanthus, CarD has been previously shown to act as a positive element in two different regulatory networks: one for light-induced synthesis of carotenoids and the other for starvation-induced fruiting body formation. We have now tested the effect of a loss-of-function mutation in the carD gene (carD1) on the expression of a random collection of lacZ-tagged genes, which are normally expressed in the dark during vegetative growth in rich medium. Our results indicate that CarD plays a significant role in the transcriptional regulation of various indicated genes. The carD1 mutation downregulates some genes and upregulates others. Also reported here is the isolation of several mutations that suppress the strong effect of carD1 on the expression of a particular vegetative gene. One of them (sud-2) also suppresses the effect of carD1 on other vegetative genes and on fruiting-body formation. Thus, CarD and the sud-2 gene product appear to participate in a single mechanism, which underlies various apparently diverse regulatory phenomena ascribed to CarD. PMID:15342500

  8. Growth of Myxococcus xanthus in continuous-flow-cell bioreactors as a method for studying development.

    PubMed

    Smaldone, Gregory T; Jin, Yujie; Whitfield, Damion L; Mu, Andrew Y; Wong, Edward C; Wuertz, Stefan; Singer, Mitchell

    2014-04-01

    Nutrient sensors and developmental timers are two classes of genes vital to the establishment of early development in the social soil bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. The products of these genes trigger and regulate the earliest events that drive the colony from a vegetative state to aggregates, which ultimately leads to the formation of fruiting bodies and the cellular differentiation of the individual cells. In order to more accurately identify the genes and pathways involved in the initiation of this multicellular developmental program in M. xanthus, we adapted a method of growing vegetative populations within a constant controllable environment by using flow cell bioreactors, or flow cells. By establishing an M. xanthus community within a flow cell, we are able to test developmental responses to changes in the environment with fewer concerns for effects due to nutrient depletion or bacterial waste production. This approach allows for greater sensitivity in investigating communal environmental responses, such as nutrient sensing. To demonstrate the versatility of our growth environment, we carried out time-lapse confocal laser scanning microscopy to visualize M. xanthus biofilm growth and fruiting body development, as well as fluorescence staining of exopolysaccharides deposited by biofilms. We also employed the flow cells in a nutrient titration to determine the minimum concentration required to sustain vegetative growth. Our data show that by using a flow cell, M. xanthus can be held in a vegetative growth state at low nutrient concentrations for long periods, and then, by slightly decreasing the nutrient concentration, cells can be allowed to initiate the developmental program.

  9. Stigmergy co-ordinates multicellular collective behaviours during Myxococcus xanthus surface migration

    PubMed Central

    Gloag, Erin S.; Turnbull, Lynne; Javed, Muhammad A.; Wang, Huabin; Gee, Michelle L.; Wade, Scott A.; Whitchurch, Cynthia B.

    2016-01-01

    Surface translocation by the soil bacterium Myxococcus xanthus is a complex multicellular phenomenon that entails two motility systems. However, the mechanisms by which the activities of individual cells are coordinated to manifest this collective behaviour are currently unclear. Here we have developed a novel assay that enables detailed microscopic examination of M. xanthus motility at the interstitial interface between solidified nutrient medium and a glass coverslip. Under these conditions, M. xanthus motility is characterised by extensive micro-morphological patterning that is considerably more elaborate than occurs at an air-surface interface. We have found that during motility on solidified nutrient medium, M. xanthus forges an interconnected furrow network that is lined with an extracellular matrix comprised of exopolysaccharides, extracellular lipids, membrane vesicles and an unidentified slime. Our observations have revealed that M. xanthus motility on solidified nutrient medium is a stigmergic phenomenon in which multi-cellular collective behaviours are co-ordinated through trail-following that is guided by physical furrows and extracellular matrix materials. PMID:27225967

  10. Precipitation of Barite by Myxococcus xanthus: Possible Implications for the Biogeochemical Cycle of Barium

    PubMed Central

    González-Muñoz, Maria Teresa; Fernández-Luque, Belén; Martínez-Ruiz, Francisca; Ben Chekroun, Kaoutar; Arias, José María; Rodríguez-Gallego, Manuel; Martínez-Cañamero, Magdalena; de Linares, Concepción; Paytan, Adina

    2003-01-01

    Bacterial precipitation of barite (BaSO4) under laboratory conditions is reported for the first time. The bacterium Myxococcus xanthus was cultivated in a solid medium with a diluted solution of barium chloride. Crystallization occurred as a result of the presence of live bacteria and the bacterial metabolic activity. A phosphorous-rich amorphous phase preceded the more crystalline barite formation. These experiments may indicate the involvement of bacteria in the barium biogeochemical cycle, which is closely related to the carbon cycle. PMID:12957970

  11. Nanoscale visualization and characterization of Myxococcus xanthus cells with atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Pelling, Andrew E.; Li, Yinuo; Shi, Wenyuan; Gimzewski, James K.

    2005-01-01

    Multicellular microbial communities are the predominant form of existence for microorganisms in nature. As one of the most primitive social organisms, Myxococcus xanthus has been an ideal model bacterium for studying intercellular interaction and multicellular organization. Through previous genetic and EM studies, various extracellular appendages and matrix components have been found to be involved in the social behavior of M. xanthus, but none of them was directly visualized and analyzed under native conditions. Here, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging and in vivo force spectroscopy to characterize these cellular structures under native conditions. AFM imaging revealed morphological details on the extracellular ultrastructures at an unprecedented resolution, and in vivo force spectroscopy of live cells in fluid allowed us to nanomechanically characterize extracellular polymeric substances. The findings provide the basis for AFM as a useful tool for investigating microbial-surface ultrastructures and nanomechanical properties under native conditions. PMID:15840722

  12. Mechanism for Collective Cell Alignment in Myxococcus xanthus Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Balagam, Rajesh; Igoshin, Oleg A.

    2015-01-01

    Myxococcus xanthus cells self-organize into aligned groups, clusters, at various stages of their lifecycle. Formation of these clusters is crucial for the complex dynamic multi-cellular behavior of these bacteria. However, the mechanism underlying the cell alignment and clustering is not fully understood. Motivated by studies of clustering in self-propelled rods, we hypothesized that M. xanthus cells can align and form clusters through pure mechanical interactions among cells and between cells and substrate. We test this hypothesis using an agent-based simulation framework in which each agent is based on the biophysical model of an individual M. xanthus cell. We show that model agents, under realistic cell flexibility values, can align and form cell clusters but only when periodic reversals of cell directions are suppressed. However, by extending our model to introduce the observed ability of cells to deposit and follow slime trails, we show that effective trail-following leads to clusters in reversing cells. Furthermore, we conclude that mechanical cell alignment combined with slime-trail-following is sufficient to explain the distinct clustering behaviors observed for wild-type and non-reversing M. xanthus mutants in recent experiments. Our results are robust to variation in model parameters, match the experimentally observed trends and can be applied to understand surface motility patterns of other bacterial species. PMID:26308508

  13. Mechanism of cell alignment in groups of Myxococcus xanthus bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balgam, Rajesh; Igoshin, Oleg

    2015-03-01

    Myxococcus xanthus is a model for studying self-organization in bacteria. These flexible cylindrical bacteria move along. In groups, M. xanthus cells align themselves into dynamic cell clusters but the mechanism underlying their formation is unknown. It has been shown that steric interactions can cause alignment in self-propelled hard rods but it is not clear how flexibility and reversals affect the alignment and cluster formation. We have investigated cell alignment process using our biophysical model of M. xanthus cell in an agent-based simulation framework under realistic cell flexibility values. We observed that flexible model cells can form aligned cell clusters when reversals are suppressed but these clusters disappeared when reversals frequency becomes similar to the observed value. However, M. xanthus cells follow slime (polysaccharide gel like material) trails left by other cells and we show that implementing this into our model rescues cell clustering for reversing cells. Our results show that slime following along with periodic cell reversals act as positive feedback to reinforce existing slime trails and recruit more cells. Furthermore, we have observed that mechanical cell alignment combined with slime following is sufficient to explain the distinct clustering patterns of reversing and non-reversing cells as observed in recent experiments. This work is supported by NSF MCB 0845919 and 1411780.

  14. The lethal cargo of Myxococcus xanthus outer membrane vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Berleman, James E.; Allen, Simon; Danielewicz, Megan A.; Remis, Jonathan P.; Gorur, Amita; Cunha, Jack; Hadi, Masood Z.; Zusman, David R.; Northen, Trent R.; Witkowska, H. Ewa; Auer, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Myxococcus xanthus is a bacterial micro-predator known for hunting other microbes in a wolf pack-like manner. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are produced in large quantities by M. xanthus and have a highly organized structure in the extracellular milieu, sometimes occurring in chains that link neighboring cells within a biofilm. OMVs may be a vehicle for mediating wolf pack activity by delivering hydrolytic enzymes and antibiotics aimed at killing prey microbes. Here, both the protein and small molecule cargo of the OMV and membrane fractions of M. xanthus were characterized and compared. Our analysis indicates a number of proteins that are OMV-specific or OMV-enriched, including several with putative hydrolytic function. Secondary metabolite profiling of OMVs identifies 16 molecules, many associated with antibiotic activities. Several hydrolytic enzyme homologs were identified, including the protein encoded by MXAN_3564 (mepA), an M36 protease homolog. Genetic disruption of mepA leads to a significant reduction in extracellular protease activity suggesting MepA is part of the long-predicted (yet to date undetermined) extracellular protease suite of M. xanthus. PMID:25250022

  15. Mechanism for Collective Cell Alignment in Myxococcus xanthus Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Balagam, Rajesh; Igoshin, Oleg A

    2015-08-01

    Myxococcus xanthus cells self-organize into aligned groups, clusters, at various stages of their lifecycle. Formation of these clusters is crucial for the complex dynamic multi-cellular behavior of these bacteria. However, the mechanism underlying the cell alignment and clustering is not fully understood. Motivated by studies of clustering in self-propelled rods, we hypothesized that M. xanthus cells can align and form clusters through pure mechanical interactions among cells and between cells and substrate. We test this hypothesis using an agent-based simulation framework in which each agent is based on the biophysical model of an individual M. xanthus cell. We show that model agents, under realistic cell flexibility values, can align and form cell clusters but only when periodic reversals of cell directions are suppressed. However, by extending our model to introduce the observed ability of cells to deposit and follow slime trails, we show that effective trail-following leads to clusters in reversing cells. Furthermore, we conclude that mechanical cell alignment combined with slime-trail-following is sufficient to explain the distinct clustering behaviors observed for wild-type and non-reversing M. xanthus mutants in recent experiments. Our results are robust to variation in model parameters, match the experimentally observed trends and can be applied to understand surface motility patterns of other bacterial species.

  16. Sensory adaptation during negative chemotaxis in Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed Central

    Shi, W; Zusman, D R

    1994-01-01

    Myxococcus xanthus exhibits many tactic movements that require the frz signal transduction system, such as colony swarming and cellular aggregation during fruiting body formation. Previously we demonstrated that the Frz proteins control the chemotactic movements of M. xanthus (W. Shi, T. Köhler, and D. R. Zusman, Mol. Microbiol. 9:601-611, 1993). However it was unclear from that study how chemotaxis might be achieved at the cellular level. In this study, we showed that M. xanthus cells not only modulate the reversal frequency of cell movement in response to repellent stimuli but also exhibit sensory adaptation in response to the continuous presence of nonsaturating repellent stimuli. The sensory adaptation behavior requires FrzF (a putative methyltransferase) and is correlated with the methylation-demethylation of FrzCD, a methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein. These results indicate that negative chemotaxis in M. xanthus is achieved by chemokinesis plus sensory adaptation in a manner analogous to that of the free-swimming enteric bacteria. Images PMID:8113194

  17. Operon required for fruiting body development in Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dohee; Chung, Jinwoo; Hyun, Hyesook; Lee, Chayul; Lee, Kyoung; Cho, Kyungyun

    2009-11-01

    We have used mutational analysis to identify four genes, MXAN3553, MXAN3554, MXAN3555, and MXAN3556, constituting an operon that is essential for normal fruiting body development in Myxococcus xanthus. Deletion of MXAN3553, which encoded a hypothetical protein, resulted in delayed fruiting body development. MXAN3554 was predicted to encode a metallopeptidase, and its deletion caused fruiting body formation to fail. Inactivation of MXAN3555, which encoded a putative NtrC-type response regulator, resulted in delayed aggregation and a severe reduction in sporulation. Fruiting bodies also failed to develop with the deletion of MXAN3556, another gene encoding a hypothetical protein.

  18. Resistance of Vegetative Cells and Microcysts of Myxococcus xanthus

    PubMed Central

    Sudo, Sara Z.; Dworkin, Martin

    1969-01-01

    The resistance of vegetative cells and of microcysts of Myxococcus xanthus to several destructive agents was compared. Fruiting-body microcysts were 300 times more resistant to 60 C, 5.4 times more resistant to ultraviolet light, and 19.3 times more resistant to sonic vibration than were vegetative cells. Whereas resistance to sonic vibration developed during the conversion of rods to refractile spheres, resistance to heat did not appear until after the conversion was complete. Both vegetative cells and microcysts of the yellow variant of this strain were more resistant to ultraviolet irradiation than was the tan variant. PMID:5788715

  19. Rhizobial galactoglucan determines the predatory pattern of Myxococcus xanthus and protects Sinorhizobium meliloti from predation.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Juana; Jiménez-Zurdo, José I; Martínez-Abarca, Francisco; Millán, Vicenta; Shimkets, Lawrence J; Muñoz-Dorado, José

    2014-07-01

    Myxococcus xanthus is a social bacterium that preys on prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms. Co-culture of M. xanthus with reference laboratory strains and field isolates of the legume symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti revealed two different predatory patterns that resemble frontal and wolf-pack attacks. Use of mutants impaired in the two types of M. xanthus surface motility (A or adventurous and S or social motility) and a csgA mutant, which is unable to form macroscopic travelling waves known as ripples, has demonstrated that both motility systems but not rippling are required for efficient predation. To avoid frontal attack and reduce killing rates, rhizobial cells require a functional expR gene. ExpR regulates expression of genes involved in a variety of functions. The use of S. meliloti mutants impaired in several of these functions revealed that the exopolysaccharide galactoglucan (EPS II) is the major determinant of the M. xanthus predatory pattern. The data also suggest that this biopolymer confers an ecological advantage to rhizobial survival in soil, which may have broad environmental implications.

  20. Predation by Myxococcus xanthus Induces Bacillus subtilis To Form Spore-Filled Megastructures

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Susanne; Strack, Sarah N.; Ryan, Sarah E.; Kearns, Daniel B.

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm formation is a common mechanism for surviving environmental stress and can be triggered by both intraspecies and interspecies interactions. Prolonged predator-prey interactions between the soil bacterium Myxococcus xanthus and Bacillus subtilis were found to induce the formation of a new type of B. subtilis biofilm, termed megastructures. Megastructures are tree-like brachiations that are as large as 500 μm in diameter, are raised above the surface between 150 and 200 μm, and are filled with viable endospores embedded within a dense matrix. Megastructure formation did not depend on TasA, EpsE, SinI, RemA, or surfactin production and thus is genetically distinguishable from colony biofilm formation on MSgg medium. As B. subtilis endospores are not susceptible to predation by M. xanthus, megastructures appear to provide an alternative mechanism for survival. In addition, M. xanthus fruiting bodies were found immediately adjacent to the megastructures in nearly all instances, suggesting that M. xanthus is unable to acquire sufficient nutrients from cells housed within the megastructures. Lastly, a B. subtilis mutant lacking the ability to defend itself via bacillaene production formed megastructures more rapidly than the parent. Together, the results indicate that production of the megastructure facilitates B. subtilis escape into dormancy via sporulation. PMID:25326308

  1. Behavior of peripheral rods and their role in the life cycle of Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, K A; Zusman, D R

    1991-01-01

    Myxococcus xanthus is a gram-negative bacterium with a complex life cycle including a developmental phase in which cells aggregate and sporulate in response to starvation. In previous papers, we have described a heretofore unsuspected layer of complexity in the development of M. xanthus: vegetatively growing cells differentiate into two cell types during development. In addition to the differentiation of spores within fruiting bodies, a second cell type, peripheral rods, arises outside fruiting bodies. The pattern of expression of proteins in peripheral rods is different from that of either vegetatively growing cells or spores, and peripheral rods express a number of recognized developmental markers. In this report, we examine four aspects of the biology of peripheral rods: (i) the influence of nutrients on the proportion of peripheral rods in a population of developing cells, (ii) the capacity of peripheral rods to recapitulate development, (iii) the development of peripheral rods on conditioned medium, and (iv) the ability of peripheral rods to resume growth on low amounts of exogenously added nutrients. The results of these studies suggest that peripheral rods play a significant role in the life cycle of M. xanthus by allowing the exploitation of low amounts or transient influxes of nutrients without the investment of energy in spore germination. The differentiation of vegetatively growing cells into two cell types that differ significantly in biology, shape, and localization within the population has been incorporated into a model of the life cycle of M. xanthus. Images PMID:1904432

  2. Rhizobial galactoglucan determines the predatory pattern of Myxococcus xanthus and protects Sinorhizobium meliloti from predation

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Juana; Jiménez-Zurdo, José I.; Martínez-Abarca, Francisco; Millán, Vicenta; Shimkets, Lawrence J.; Muñoz-Dorado, José

    2014-01-01

    Summary Myxococcus xanthus is a social bacterium that preys on prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms. Co-culture of M. xanthus with reference laboratory strains and field isolates of the legume symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti revealed two different predatory patterns that resemble frontal and wolfpack attacks. Use of mutants impaired in the two types of M. xanthus surface motility (A or adventurous and S or social motility) and a csgA mutant, which is unable to form macroscopic travelling waves known as ripples, has demonstrated that both motility systems but not rippling are required for efficient predation. To avoid frontal attack and reduce killing rates, rhizobial cells require a functional expR gene. ExpR regulates expression of genes involved in a variety of functions. The use of S. meliloti mutants impaired in several of these functions revealed that the exopolysaccharide galactoglucan (EPS II) is the major determinant of the M. xanthus predatory pattern. The data also suggest that this biopolymer confers an ecological advantage to rhizobial survival in soil, which may have broad environmental implications. PMID:24707988

  3. Multicellular development in Myxococcus xanthus is stimulated by predator-prey interactions.

    PubMed

    Berleman, James E; Kirby, John R

    2007-08-01

    Myxococcus xanthus is a predatory bacterium that exhibits complex social behavior. The most pronounced behavior is the aggregation of cells into raised fruiting body structures in which cells differentiate into stress-resistant spores. In the laboratory, monocultures of M. xanthus at a very high density will reproducibly induce hundreds of randomly localized fruiting bodies when exposed to low nutrient availability and a solid surface. In this report, we analyze how M. xanthus fruiting body development proceeds in a coculture with suitable prey. Our analysis indicates that when prey bacteria are provided as a nutrient source, fruiting body aggregation is more organized, such that fruiting bodies form specifically after a step-down or loss of prey availability, whereas a step-up in prey availability inhibits fruiting body formation. This localization of aggregates occurs independently of the basal nutrient levels tested, indicating that starvation is not required for this process. Analysis of early developmental signaling relA and asgD mutants indicates that they are capable of forming fruiting body aggregates in the presence of prey, demonstrating that the stringent response and A-signal production are surprisingly not required for the initiation of fruiting behavior. However, these strains are still defective in differentiating to spores. We conclude that fruiting body formation does not occur exclusively in response to starvation and propose an alternative model in which multicellular development is driven by the interactions between M. xanthus cells and their cognate prey.

  4. Induction of beta-lactamase influences the course of development in Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, K A; Zusman, D R

    1999-10-01

    Myxococcus xanthus is a gram-negative bacterium that develops in response to starvation on a solid surface. The cells assemble into multicellular aggregates in which they differentiate from rod-shaped cells into spherical, environmentally resistant spores. Previously, we have shown that the induction of beta-lactamase is associated with starvation-independent sporulation in liquid culture (K. A. O'Connor and D. R. Zusman, Mol. Microbiol. 24:839-850, 1997). In this paper, we show that the chromosomally encoded beta-lactamase of M. xanthus is autogenously induced during development. The specific activity of the enzyme begins to increase during aggregation, before spores are detectable. The addition of inducers of beta-lactamase in M. xanthus, such as ampicillin, D-cycloserine, and phosphomycin, accelerates the onset of aggregation and sporulation in developing populations of cells. In addition, the exogenous induction of beta-lactamase allows M. xanthus to fruit on media containing concentrations of nutrients that are normally too high to support development. We propose that the induction of beta-lactamase is an integral step in the development of M. xanthus and that this induction is likely to play a role in aggregation and in the restructuring of peptidoglycan which occurs during the differentiation of spores. In support of this hypothesis, we show that exogenous induction of beta-lactamase can rescue aggregation and sporulation of certain mutants. Fruiting body spores from a rescued mutant are indistinguishable from wild-type fruiting body spores when examined by transmission electron microscopy. These results show that the signal transduction pathway leading to the induction of beta-lactamase plays an important role in aggregation and sporulation in M. xanthus.

  5. Rippling Is a Predatory Behavior in Myxococcus xanthus

    PubMed Central

    Berleman, James E.; Chumley, Tatiana; Cheung, Patricia; Kirby, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Cells of Myxococcus xanthus will, at times, organize their movement such that macroscopic traveling waves, termed ripples, are formed as groups of cells glide together on a solid surface. The reason for this behavior has long been a mystery, but we demonstrate here that rippling is a feeding behavior which occurs when M. xanthus cells make direct contact with either prey or large macromolecules. Rippling has been observed during two fundamentally distinct environmental conditions: (i) starvation-induced fruiting body development and (ii) predation of other organisms. Our results indicate that case (i) does not occur in all wild-type strains and is dependent on the intrinsic level of autolysis. Analysis of predatory rippling indicates that rippling behavior is inducible during predation on proteobacteria, gram-positive bacteria, yeast (such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae), and phage. Predatory efficiency decreases under genetic and physiological conditions in which rippling is inhibited. Rippling will also occur in the presence of purified macromolecules such as peptidoglycan, protein, and nucleic acid but does not occur in the presence of the respective monomeric components and also does not occur when the macromolecules are physically separated from M. xanthus cells. We conclude that rippling behavior is a mechanism utilized to efficiently consume nondiffusing growth substrates and that developmental rippling is a result of scavenging lysed cell debris. PMID:16885457

  6. Growth of Myxococcus xanthus in Continuous-Flow-Cell Bioreactors as a Method for Studying Development

    PubMed Central

    Smaldone, Gregory T.; Jin, Yujie; Whitfield, Damion L.; Mu, Andrew Y.; Wong, Edward C.; Wuertz, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient sensors and developmental timers are two classes of genes vital to the establishment of early development in the social soil bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. The products of these genes trigger and regulate the earliest events that drive the colony from a vegetative state to aggregates, which ultimately leads to the formation of fruiting bodies and the cellular differentiation of the individual cells. In order to more accurately identify the genes and pathways involved in the initiation of this multicellular developmental program in M. xanthus, we adapted a method of growing vegetative populations within a constant controllable environment by using flow cell bioreactors, or flow cells. By establishing an M. xanthus community within a flow cell, we are able to test developmental responses to changes in the environment with fewer concerns for effects due to nutrient depletion or bacterial waste production. This approach allows for greater sensitivity in investigating communal environmental responses, such as nutrient sensing. To demonstrate the versatility of our growth environment, we carried out time-lapse confocal laser scanning microscopy to visualize M. xanthus biofilm growth and fruiting body development, as well as fluorescence staining of exopolysaccharides deposited by biofilms. We also employed the flow cells in a nutrient titration to determine the minimum concentration required to sustain vegetative growth. Our data show that by using a flow cell, M. xanthus can be held in a vegetative growth state at low nutrient concentrations for long periods, and then, by slightly decreasing the nutrient concentration, cells can be allowed to initiate the developmental program. PMID:24509931

  7. Methylation of macromolecules during development in Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed Central

    Panasenko, S M

    1985-01-01

    Covalent modification of macromolecules can serve to alter their biological activities and is therefore frequently involved in regulation. I examined methylation of proteins and carbohydrates during development and vegetative growth in the procaryote Myxococcus xanthus. Striking differences in the patterns of protein methylation occurred when cell development was induced by nutrient deprivation on solid media and when cells were starved in liquid. In addition, a methylated, protease-resistant macromolecule which contained carbohydrate and which may have been an unusual type of lipopolysaccharide was observed on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. A comparison of methylation patterns in various media and an analysis of the time course of methylation indicated that changes in methylation were part of the developmental pathway which includes aggregation. Induction of development in liquid by glycerol produced no changes in methylation. Images PMID:3932324

  8. Bacterial social networks: structure and composition of Myxococcus xanthus outer membrane vesicle chains.

    PubMed

    Remis, Jonathan P; Wei, Dongguang; Gorur, Amita; Zemla, Marcin; Haraga, Jessica; Allen, Simon; Witkowska, H Ewa; Costerton, J William; Berleman, James E; Auer, Manfred

    2014-02-01

    The social soil bacterium, Myxococcus xanthus, displays a variety of complex and highly coordinated behaviours, including social motility, predatory rippling and fruiting body formation. Here we show that M. xanthus cells produce a network of outer membrane extensions in the form of outer membrane vesicle chains and membrane tubes that interconnect cells. We observed peritrichous display of vesicles and vesicle chains, and increased abundance in biofilms compared with planktonic cultures. By applying a range of imaging techniques, including three-dimensional (3D) focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy, we determined these structures to range between 30 and 60 nm in width and up to 5 μm in length. Purified vesicle chains consist of typical M. xanthus lipids, fucose, mannose, N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactoseamine carbohydrates and a small set of cargo protein. The protein content includes CglB and Tgl outer membrane proteins known to be transferable between cells in a contact-dependent manner. Most significantly, the 3D organization of cells within biofilms indicates that cells are connected via an extensive network of membrane extensions that may connect cells at the level of the periplasmic space. Such a network would allow the transfer of membrane proteins and other molecules between cells, and therefore could provide a mechanism for the coordination of social activities.

  9. Identification of major sporulation proteins of Myxococcus xanthus using a proteomic approach.

    PubMed

    Dahl, John L; Tengra, Farah K; Dutton, David; Yan, Jinyuan; Andacht, Tracy M; Coyne, Lia; Windell, Veronica; Garza, Anthony G

    2007-04-01

    Myxococcus xanthus is a soil-dwelling, gram-negative bacterium that during nutrient deprivation is capable of undergoing morphogenesis from a vegetative rod to a spherical, stress-resistant spore inside a domed-shaped, multicellular fruiting body. To identify proteins required for building stress-resistant M. xanthus spores, we compared the proteome of liquid-grown vegetative cells with the proteome of mature fruiting body spores. Two proteins, protein S and protein S1, were differentially expressed in spores, as has been reported previously. In addition, we identified three previously uncharacterized proteins that are differentially expressed in spores and that exhibit no homology to known proteins. The genes encoding these three novel major spore proteins (mspA, mspB, and mspC) were inactivated by insertion mutagenesis, and the development of the resulting mutant strains was characterized. All three mutants were capable of aggregating, but for two of the strains the resulting fruiting bodies remained flattened mounds of cells. The most pronounced structural defect of spores produced by all three mutants was an altered cortex layer. We found that mspA and mspB mutant spores were more sensitive specifically to heat and sodium dodecyl sulfate than wild-type spores, while mspC mutant spores were more sensitive to all stress treatments examined. Hence, the products of mspA, mspB, and mspC play significant roles in morphogenesis of M. xanthus spores and in the ability of spores to survive environmental stress.

  10. Bacterial Social Networks: Structure and composition of Myxococcus xanthus outer membrane vesicle chains

    PubMed Central

    Remis, Jonathan P.; Wei, Doug; Gorur, Amita; Zemla, Marcin; Haraga, Jessica; Allen, Simon; Witkowska, H. Ewa; Costerton, J. William; Berleman, James E.; Auer, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Summary The social soil bacterium, Myxococcus xanthus, displays a variety of complex and highly coordinated behaviors, including social motility, predatory rippling and fruiting body formation. Here we show that M. xanthus cells produce a network of outer membrane extensions in the form of vesicles and vesicle chains that interconnect cells. We observed peritrichous display of vesicles and vesicle chains and increased abundance in biofilms compared to planktonic cultures. By applying a range of imaging techniques, including 3D Focused Ion Beam Scanning Electron Microscopy (FIB/SEM), we determined these structures to range between 30-60 nm in width and up to 5 μm in length. Purified vesicle chains consist of typical M. xanthus lipids, fucose, mannose, N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and N-acetylgalactoseamine (GalNAc) carbohydrates and a small set of cargo protein. The protein content includes CglB and Tgl membrane proteins transferred in a contact-dependent manner. Most significantly, the 3D organization of cells within biofilms indicates that cells are connected via an extensive network of membrane extensions that may connect cells at the level of the periplasmic space. Such a network would allow the transfer of membrane proteins and other molecules between cells, and likely provides a mechanism for the coordination of social activities. PMID:23848955

  11. Mutants of Myxococcus xanthus dsp defective in fibril binding.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, B Y; Dworkin, M

    1996-01-01

    The dsp mutant of Myxococcus xanthus lacks extracellular fibrils and as a result is unable to undergo cohesion, group motility, or development (J. W. Arnold and L. J. Shimkets, J. Bacteriol. 170:5765-5770, 1983; J. W. Arnold and L. J. Shimkets, J. Bacteriol. 170:5771-5777, 1983; R. M. Behmlander and M. Dworkin, J. Bacteriol. 173:7810-7821, 1991; L. J. Shimkets, J. Bacteriol. 166:837-841, 1986; L. J. Shimkets, J. Bacteriol. 166:842-848, 1986). However, cohesion and development can be phenotypically restored by the addition of isolated fibrils (R. M. Behmlander, Ph.D. thesis, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 1994; B.-Y. Chang and M. Dworkin, J. Bacteriol. 176:7190-7196, 1994). As part of our attempts to examine the interaction of fibrils and cells of M. xanthus, we have isolated a series of secondary mutants of M. xanthus dsp in which cohesion, unlike that of the parent strain, could not be rescued by the addition of isolated fibrils. Cells of M. xanthus dsp were mutagenized either by ethyl methanesulfonate or by Tn5 insertions. Mutagenized cultures were enriched by selection of those cells that could not be rescued, i.e., that failed to cohere in the presence of isolated fibrils. Seven mutants of M. xanthus dsp, designated fbd mutants, were isolated from 6,983 colonies; these represent putative fibril receptor-minus mutants. The fbd mutants, like the parent dsp mutant, still lacked fibrils, but displayed a number of unexpected properties. They regained group motility and the ability to aggregate but not the ability to form mature fruiting bodies. In addition, they partially regained the ability to form myxospores. The fbd mutant was backcrossed into the dsp mutant by Mx4 transduction. Three independently isolated transconjugants showed essentially the same properties as the fbd mutants--loss of fibril rescue of cohesion, partial restoration of myxospore morphogenesis, and restoration of group motility. These results suggest that the physical presence of fibrils

  12. Study of elastic collisions of Myxococcus xanthus in swarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Cameron W.; Morcos, Faruck; Sweet, Christopher R.; Kaiser, Dale; Chatterjee, Santanu; Liu, Xiaomin; Chen, Danny Z.; Alber, Mark

    2011-04-01

    In very low density situations where a single myxobacterial cell is isolated from direct contact with other cells, the slime capsule interaction with the substrate or slime tracks on the substrate produce a viscous drag that results in a smooth gliding motion. Viscoelastic interactions of myxobacteria cells in a low-density domain close to the edge of a swarm are studied using a combination of a cell-based three-dimensional computational model and cell-tracking experiments. The model takes into account the flexible nature of Myxococcus xanthus as well as the effects of adhesion between cells arising from the interaction of the capsular polysaccharide covering two cells in contact with each other. New image and dynamic cell curvature analysis algorithms are used to track and measure the change in cell shapes that occur as flexible cells undergo significant bending during collisions resulting in direct calibration of the model parameters. Like aspect-ratio and directional reversals, the flexibility of cells and the adhesive cell-cell and cell-substrate interactions of M. xanthus play an important role in smooth gliding and more efficient swarming.

  13. Global analysis of phase variation in Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed

    Furusawa, Gou; Dziewanowska, Katarzyna; Stone, Hannah; Settles, Matthew; Hartzell, Patricia

    2011-08-01

    Myxococcus xanthus can vary its phenotype or 'phase' to produce colonies that contain predominantly yellow or tan cells that differ greatly in their abilities to swarm, survive and develop. Yellow variants are proficient at swarming (++) and tend to lyse in liquid during stationary phase. In contrast, tan variants are deficient in swarming (+) and persist beyond stationary phase. The phenotypes and transcriptomes of yellow and tan variants were compared with mutants affected in phase variation. Thirty-seven genes were upregulated specifically in yellow variants including those for production of the yellow pigment, DKxanthene. A mutant in DKxanthene synthesis produced non-pigmented (tan) colonies but still phase varied for swarming suggesting that pigmentation is not the cause of phase variation. Disruption of a gene encoding a HTH-Xre-like regulator, highly expressed in yellow variants, abolished pigment production and blocked the ability of cells to switch from a swarm ++ to a swarm (+) phenotype, showing that HTH-Xre regulates phase variation. Among the four genes whose expression was increased in tan variants was pkn14, which encodes a serine-threonine kinase that regulates programmed cell death in Myxococcus via the MrpC-MazF toxin-antitoxin complex. High levels of phosphorylated Pkn14 may explain why tan cells enjoy enhanced survival.

  14. Global analysis of phase variation in Myxococcus xanthus

    PubMed Central

    Furusawa, Gou; Dziewanowska, Katarzyna; Stone, Hannah; Settles, Matthew; Hartzell, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Myxococcus xanthus can vary its phenotype or “phase” to produce colonies that contain predominantly yellow or tan cells that differ greatly in their abilities to swarm, survive, and develop. Yellow variants are proficient at swarming (++) and tend to lyse in liquid during stationary phase. In contrast, tan variants are deficient in swarming (+) and persist beyond stationary phase. The phenotypes and transcriptomes of yellow and tan variants were compared with mutants affected in phase variation. Thirty-seven genes were upregulated specifically in yellow variants including those for production of the yellow pigment, DKxanthene. A mutant in DKxanthene synthesis produced nonpigmented (tan) colonies but still phase varied for swarming suggesting that pigmentation is not the cause of phase variation. Disruption of a gene encoding a HTH-Xre-like regulator, highly expressed in yellow variants, abolished pigment production and blocked the ability of cells to switch from a swarm ++ to a swarm (+) phenotype, showing that HTH-Xre regulates phase variation. Among the four genes whose expression was increased in tan variants was pkn14, which encodes a serine-threonine kinase that regulates programmed cell death in Myxococcus via the MrpC-MazF toxin-antitoxin complex. High levels of phosphorylated Pkn14 may explain why tan cells enjoy enhanced survival. PMID:21722202

  15. DNA builds and strengthens the extracellular matrix in Myxococcus xanthus biofilms by interacting with exopolysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wei; Li, Lina; Sharma, Shivani; Wang, Jing; McHardy, Ian; Lux, Renate; Yang, Zhe; He, Xuesong; Gimzewski, James K; Li, Yuezhong; Shi, Wenyuan

    2012-01-01

    One intriguing discovery in modern microbiology is the extensive presence of extracellular DNA (eDNA) within biofilms of various bacterial species. Although several biological functions have been suggested for eDNA, including involvement in biofilm formation, the detailed mechanism of eDNA integration into biofilm architecture is still poorly understood. In the biofilms formed by Myxococcus xanthus, a Gram-negative soil bacterium with complex morphogenesis and social behaviors, DNA was found within both extracted and native extracellular matrices (ECM). Further examination revealed that these eDNA molecules formed well organized structures that were similar in appearance to the organization of exopolysaccharides (EPS) in ECM. Biochemical and image analyses confirmed that eDNA bound to and colocalized with EPS within the ECM of starvation biofilms and fruiting bodies. In addition, ECM containing eDNA exhibited greater physical strength and biological stress resistance compared to DNase I treated ECM. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that DNA interacts with EPS and strengthens biofilm structures in M. xanthus.

  16. Biofilm Formation Protects Escherichia coli against Killing by Caenorhabditis elegans and Myxococcus xanthus

    PubMed Central

    DePas, William H.; Syed, Adnan K.; Sifuentes, Margarita; Lee, John S.; Warshaw, David; Saggar, Vinay; Csankovszki, Györgyi; Boles, Blaise R.

    2014-01-01

    Enteric bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, are exposed to a variety of stresses in the nonhost environment. The development of biofilms provides E. coli with resistance to environmental insults, such as desiccation and bleach. We found that biofilm formation, specifically production of the matrix components curli and cellulose, protected E. coli against killing by the soil-dwelling nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the predatory bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. Additionally, matrix-encased bacteria at the air-biofilm interface exhibited ∼40-fold-increased survival after C. elegans and M. xanthus killing compared to the non-matrix-encased cells that populate the interior of the biofilm. To determine if nonhost Enterobacteriaceae reservoirs supported biofilm formation, we grew E. coli on media composed of pig dung or commonly contaminated foods, such as beef, chicken, and spinach. Each of these medium types provided a nutritional environment that supported matrix production and biofilm formation. Altogether, we showed that common, nonhost reservoirs of E. coli supported the formation of biofilms that subsequently protected E. coli against predation. PMID:25192998

  17. The Enhancer Binding Protein Nla6 Regulates Developmental Genes That Are Important for Myxococcus xanthus Sporulation

    PubMed Central

    Giglio, Krista M.; Zhu, Chengjun; Klunder, Courtney; Kummer, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus, starvation triggers the formation of multicellular fruiting bodies containing thousands of stress-resistant spores. Recent work showed that fruiting body development is regulated by a cascade of transcriptional activators called enhancer binding proteins (EBPs). The EBP Nla6 is a key component of this cascade; it regulates the promoters of other EBP genes, including a downstream-functioning EBP gene that is crucial for sporulation. In recent expression studies, hundreds of Nla6-dependent genes were identified, suggesting that the EBP gene targets of Nla6 may be part of a much larger regulon. The goal of this study was to identify and characterize genes that belong to the Nla6 regulon. Accordingly, a direct repeat [consensus, C(C/A)ACGNNGNC] binding site for Nla6 was identified using in vitro and in vivo mutational analyses, and the sequence was subsequently used to find 40 potential developmental promoter (88 gene) targets. We showed that Nla6 binds to the promoter region of four new targets (asgE, exo, MXAN2688, and MXAN3259) in vitro and that Nla6 is important for their normal expression in vivo. Phenotypic studies indicate that all of the experimentally confirmed targets of Nla6 are primarily involved in sporulation. These targets include genes involved in transcriptional regulation, cell-cell signal production, and spore differentiation and maturation. Although sporulation occurs late in development, all of the developmental loci analyzed here show an Nla6-dependent burst in expression soon after starvation is induced. This finding suggests that Nla6 starts preparing cells for sporulation very early in the developmental process. IMPORTANCE Bacterial development yields a remarkable array of complex multicellular forms. One such form, which is commonly found in nature, is a surface-associated aggregate of cells known as a biofilm. Mature biofilms are structurally complex and contain cells that are highly resistant to

  18. The enhancer binding protein Nla6 regulates developmental genes that are important for Myxococcus xanthus sporulation.

    PubMed

    Giglio, Krista M; Zhu, Chengjun; Klunder, Courtney; Kummer, Shelley; Garza, Anthony G

    2015-04-01

    In the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus, starvation triggers the formation of multicellular fruiting bodies containing thousands of stress-resistant spores. Recent work showed that fruiting body development is regulated by a cascade of transcriptional activators called enhancer binding proteins (EBPs). The EBP Nla6 is a key component of this cascade; it regulates the promoters of other EBP genes, including a downstream-functioning EBP gene that is crucial for sporulation. In recent expression studies, hundreds of Nla6-dependent genes were identified, suggesting that the EBP gene targets of Nla6 may be part of a much larger regulon. The goal of this study was to identify and characterize genes that belong to the Nla6 regulon. Accordingly, a direct repeat [consensus, C(C/A)ACGNNGNC] binding site for Nla6 was identified using in vitro and in vivo mutational analyses, and the sequence was subsequently used to find 40 potential developmental promoter (88 gene) targets. We showed that Nla6 binds to the promoter region of four new targets (asgE, exo, MXAN2688, and MXAN3259) in vitro and that Nla6 is important for their normal expression in vivo. Phenotypic studies indicate that all of the experimentally confirmed targets of Nla6 are primarily involved in sporulation. These targets include genes involved in transcriptional regulation, cell-cell signal production, and spore differentiation and maturation. Although sporulation occurs late in development, all of the developmental loci analyzed here show an Nla6-dependent burst in expression soon after starvation is induced. This finding suggests that Nla6 starts preparing cells for sporulation very early in the developmental process. Bacterial development yields a remarkable array of complex multicellular forms. One such form, which is commonly found in nature, is a surface-associated aggregate of cells known as a biofilm. Mature biofilms are structurally complex and contain cells that are highly resistant to antibacterial agents

  19. Identification of Major Sporulation Proteins of Myxococcus xanthus Using a Proteomic Approach▿

    PubMed Central

    Dahl, John L.; Tengra, Farah K.; Dutton, David; Yan, Jinyuan; Andacht, Tracy M.; Coyne, Lia; Windell, Veronica; Garza, Anthony G.

    2007-01-01

    Myxococcus xanthus is a soil-dwelling, gram-negative bacterium that during nutrient deprivation is capable of undergoing morphogenesis from a vegetative rod to a spherical, stress-resistant spore inside a domed-shaped, multicellular fruiting body. To identify proteins required for building stress-resistant M. xanthus spores, we compared the proteome of liquid-grown vegetative cells with the proteome of mature fruiting body spores. Two proteins, protein S and protein S1, were differentially expressed in spores, as has been reported previously. In addition, we identified three previously uncharacterized proteins that are differentially expressed in spores and that exhibit no homology to known proteins. The genes encoding these three novel major spore proteins (mspA, mspB, and mspC) were inactivated by insertion mutagenesis, and the development of the resulting mutant strains was characterized. All three mutants were capable of aggregating, but for two of the strains the resulting fruiting bodies remained flattened mounds of cells. The most pronounced structural defect of spores produced by all three mutants was an altered cortex layer. We found that mspA and mspB mutant spores were more sensitive specifically to heat and sodium dodecyl sulfate than wild-type spores, while mspC mutant spores were more sensitive to all stress treatments examined. Hence, the products of mspA, mspB, and mspC play significant roles in morphogenesis of M. xanthus spores and in the ability of spores to survive environmental stress. PMID:17293425

  20. The mechanistic basis of Myxococcus xanthus rippling behavior and its physiological role during predation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiyang; Vaksman, Zalman; Litwin, Douglas B; Shi, Peng; Kaplan, Heidi B; Igoshin, Oleg A

    2012-01-01

    Myxococcus xanthus cells self-organize into periodic bands of traveling waves, termed ripples, during multicellular fruiting body development and predation on other bacteria. To investigate the mechanistic basis of rippling behavior and its physiological role during predation by this Gram-negative soil bacterium, we have used an approach that combines mathematical modeling with experimental observations. Specifically, we developed an agent-based model (ABM) to simulate rippling behavior that employs a new signaling mechanism to trigger cellular reversals. The ABM has demonstrated that three ingredients are sufficient to generate rippling behavior: (i) side-to-side signaling between two cells that causes one of the cells to reverse, (ii) a minimal refractory time period after each reversal during which cells cannot reverse again, and (iii) physical interactions that cause the cells to locally align. To explain why rippling behavior appears as a consequence of the presence of prey, we postulate that prey-associated macromolecules indirectly induce ripples by stimulating side-to-side contact-mediated signaling. In parallel to the simulations, M. xanthus predatory rippling behavior was experimentally observed and analyzed using time-lapse microscopy. A formalized relationship between the wavelength, reversal time, and cell velocity has been predicted by the simulations and confirmed by the experimental data. Furthermore, the results suggest that the physiological role of rippling behavior during M. xanthus predation is to increase the rate of spreading over prey cells due to increased side-to-side contact-mediated signaling and to allow predatory cells to remain on the prey longer as a result of more periodic cell motility.

  1. Isolation and characterization of a suppressor mutation that restores Myxococcus xanthus exopolysaccharide production

    PubMed Central

    Black, Wesley P.; Xu, Qian; Cadieux, Christena Linn; Suh, Sang-Jin; Shi, Wenyuan; Yang, Zhaomin

    2009-01-01

    Myxococcus xanthus, a Gram-negative soil bacterium, undergoes multicellular development when nutrients become limiting. Aggregation, which is part of the developmental process, requires the surface motility of this organism. One component of M. xanthus motility, the social (S) gliding motility, enables the movement of cells in close physical proximity. Previous studies demonstrated that the cell surface-associated exopolysaccharide (EPS) is essential for S motility and that the Dif proteins form a chemotaxis-like pathway that regulates EPS production in M. xanthus. DifA, a homologue of methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs) in the Dif system, is required for EPS production, S motility and development. In this study, a spontaneous extragenic suppressor of a difA deletion was isolated in order to identify additional regulators of EPS production. The suppressor mutation was found to be a single base pair insertion in cheW7 at the che7 chemotaxis gene cluster. Further examination indicated that mutations in cheW7 may lead to the interaction of Mcp7 with DifC (CheW-like) and DifE (CheA-like) to reconstruct a functional pathway to regulate EPS production in the absence of DifA. In addition, the cheW7 mutation was found to partially suppress a pilA mutation in EPS production in a difA+ background. Further deletion of difA from the pilA cheW7 double mutant resulted in a triple mutant that produced wild-type levels of EPS, implying that DifA (MCP-like) and Mcp7 compete for interactions with DifC and DifE in the modulation of EPS production. PMID:19684067

  2. Isolation and characterization of a suppressor mutation that restores Myxococcus xanthus exopolysaccharide production.

    PubMed

    Black, Wesley P; Xu, Qian; Cadieux, Christena Linn; Suh, Sang-Jin; Shi, Wenyuan; Yang, Zhaomin

    2009-11-01

    Myxococcus xanthus, a Gram-negative soil bacterium, undergoes multicellular development when nutrients become limiting. Aggregation, which is part of the developmental process, requires the surface motility of this organism. One component of M. xanthus motility, the social (S) gliding motility, enables the movement of cells in close physical proximity. Previous studies demonstrated that the cell surface-associated exopolysaccharide (EPS) is essential for S motility and that the Dif proteins form a chemotaxis-like pathway that regulates EPS production in M. xanthus. DifA, a homologue of methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs) in the Dif system, is required for EPS production, S motility and development. In this study, a spontaneous extragenic suppressor of a difA deletion was isolated in order to identify additional regulators of EPS production. The suppressor mutation was found to be a single base pair insertion in cheW7 at the che7 chemotaxis gene cluster. Further examination indicated that mutations in cheW7 may lead to the interaction of Mcp7 with DifC (CheW-like) and DifE (CheA-like) to reconstruct a functional pathway to regulate EPS production in the absence of DifA. In addition, the cheW7 mutation was found to partially suppress a pilA mutation in EPS production in a difA(+) background. Further deletion of difA from the pilA cheW7 double mutant resulted in a triple mutant that produced wild-type levels of EPS, implying that DifA (MCP-like) and Mcp7 compete for interactions with DifC and DifE in the modulation of EPS production.

  3. The Mechanistic Basis of Myxococcus xanthus Rippling Behavior and Its Physiological Role during Predation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haiyang; Vaksman, Zalman; Litwin, Douglas B.; Shi, Peng; Kaplan, Heidi B.; Igoshin, Oleg A.

    2012-01-01

    Myxococcus xanthus cells self-organize into periodic bands of traveling waves, termed ripples, during multicellular fruiting body development and predation on other bacteria. To investigate the mechanistic basis of rippling behavior and its physiological role during predation by this Gram-negative soil bacterium, we have used an approach that combines mathematical modeling with experimental observations. Specifically, we developed an agent-based model (ABM) to simulate rippling behavior that employs a new signaling mechanism to trigger cellular reversals. The ABM has demonstrated that three ingredients are sufficient to generate rippling behavior: (i) side-to-side signaling between two cells that causes one of the cells to reverse, (ii) a minimal refractory time period after each reversal during which cells cannot reverse again, and (iii) physical interactions that cause the cells to locally align. To explain why rippling behavior appears as a consequence of the presence of prey, we postulate that prey-associated macromolecules indirectly induce ripples by stimulating side-to-side contact-mediated signaling. In parallel to the simulations, M. xanthus predatory rippling behavior was experimentally observed and analyzed using time-lapse microscopy. A formalized relationship between the wavelength, reversal time, and cell velocity has been predicted by the simulations and confirmed by the experimental data. Furthermore, the results suggest that the physiological role of rippling behavior during M. xanthus predation is to increase the rate of spreading over prey cells due to increased side-to-side contact-mediated signaling and to allow predatory cells to remain on the prey longer as a result of more periodic cell motility. PMID:23028301

  4. Cyclic Di-GMP Regulates Type IV Pilus-Dependent Motility in Myxococcus xanthus

    PubMed Central

    Skotnicka, Dorota; Petters, Tobias; Heering, Jan; Hoppert, Michael; Kaever, Volkhard

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The nucleotide-based second messenger bis-(3′-5′)-cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) is involved in regulating a plethora of processes in bacteria that are typically associated with lifestyle changes. Myxococcus xanthus undergoes major lifestyle changes in response to nutrient availability, with the formation of spreading colonies in the presence of nutrients and spore-filled fruiting bodies in the absence of nutrients. Here, we investigated the function of c-di-GMP in M. xanthus and show that this bacterium synthesizes c-di-GMP during growth. Manipulation of the c-di-GMP level by expression of either an active, heterologous diguanylate cyclase or an active, heterologous phosphodiesterase correlated with defects in type IV pilus (T4P)-dependent motility, whereas gliding motility was unaffected. An increased level of c-di-GMP correlated with reduced transcription of the pilA gene (which encodes the major pilin of T4P), reduced the assembly of T4P, and altered cell agglutination, whereas a decreased c-di-GMP level correlated with altered cell agglutination. The systematic inactivation of the 24 genes in M. xanthus encoding proteins containing GGDEF, EAL, or HD-GYP domains, which are associated with c-di-GMP synthesis, degradation, or binding, identified three genes encoding proteins important for T4P-dependent motility, whereas all mutants had normal gliding motility. Purified DmxA had diguanylate cyclase activity, whereas the hybrid histidine protein kinases TmoK and SgmT, each of which contains a GGDEF domain, did not have diguanylate cyclase activity. These results demonstrate that c-di-GMP is important for T4P-dependent motility in M. xanthus. IMPORTANCE We provide the first direct evidence that M. xanthus synthesizes c-di-GMP and demonstrate that c-di-GMP is important for T4P-dependent motility, whereas we did not obtain evidence that c-di-GMP regulates gliding motility. The data presented uncovered a novel mechanism for regulation of T4P

  5. Discovering the Hidden Secondary Metabolome of Myxococcus xanthus: a Study of Intraspecific Diversity▿

    PubMed Central

    Krug, Daniel; Zurek, Gabriela; Revermann, Ole; Vos, Michiel; Velicer, Gregory J.; Müller, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    As a monophyletic group, the myxobacteria are known to produce a broad spectrum of secondary metabolites. However, the degree of metabolic diversity that can be found within a single species remains unexplored. The model species Myxococcus xanthus produces several metabolites also present in other myxobacterial species, but only one compound unique to M. xanthus has been found to date. Here, we compare the metabolite profiles of 98 M. xanthus strains that originate from 78 locations worldwide and include 20 centimeter-scale isolates from one location. This screen reveals a strikingly high level of intraspecific diversity in the M. xanthus secondary metabolome. The identification of 37 nonubiquitous candidate compounds greatly exceeds the small number of secondary metabolites previously known to derive from this species. These results suggest that M. xanthus may be a promising source of future natural products and that thorough intraspecific screens of other species could reveal many new compounds of interest. PMID:18378661

  6. CbgA, a Protein Involved in Cortex Formation and Stress Resistance in Myxococcus xanthus Spores▿

    PubMed Central

    Tengra, Farah K.; Dahl, John L.; Dutton, David; Caberoy, Nora B.; Coyne, Lia; Garza, Anthony G.

    2006-01-01

    CbgA plays a role in cortex formation and the acquisition of a subset of stress resistance properties in Myxococcus xanthus spores. The cbgA mutant produces spores with thin or no cortex layers, and these spores are more sensitive to heat and sodium dodecyl sulfate than their wild-type counterparts. PMID:16997953

  7. CbgA, a protein involved in cortex formation and stress resistance in Myxococcus xanthus spores.

    PubMed

    Tengra, Farah K; Dahl, John L; Dutton, David; Caberoy, Nora B; Coyne, Lia; Garza, Anthony G

    2006-12-01

    CbgA plays a role in cortex formation and the acquisition of a subset of stress resistance properties in Myxococcus xanthus spores. The cbgA mutant produces spores with thin or no cortex layers, and these spores are more sensitive to heat and sodium dodecyl sulfate than their wild-type counterparts.

  8. Struvite and calcite crystallization induced by cellular membranes of Myxococcus xanthus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Muñoz, Ma Teresa; Omar, Nabil Ben; Martínez-Cañamero, Magdalena; Rodríguez-Gallego, Manuel; Galindo, Alberto López; Arias, JoséMa

    1996-06-01

    In this work we have proved that struvite and calcite crystals can be obtained in the presence of the cellular membrane fraction of Myxococcus xanthus, when appropriate supersaturated solutions are used. Probably, the negative charged points of the external side of the cellular structures could reduce the metastability field of struvite and calcite, acting as heterogeneous nuclei of crystallization.

  9. CarF mediates signaling by singlet oxygen, generated via photoexcited protoporphyrin IX, in Myxococcus xanthus light-induced carotenogenesis.

    PubMed

    Galbis-Martínez, Marisa; Padmanabhan, S; Murillo, Francisco J; Elías-Arnanz, Montserrat

    2012-03-01

    Blue light triggers carotenogenesis in the nonphototrophic bacterium Myxococcus xanthus by inducing inactivation of an anti-σ factor, CarR, and the consequent liberation of the cognate extracytoplasmic function (ECF) σ factor, CarQ. CarF, the protein implicated earliest in the response to light, does not resemble any known photoreceptor. It interacts physically with CarR and is required for its light-driven inactivation, but the mechanism is unknown. Blue-light sensing in M. xanthus has been attributed to the heme precursor protoporphyrin IX (PPIX), which can generate the highly reactive singlet oxygen species ((1)O(2)) by energy transfer to oxygen. However, (1)O(2) involvement in M. xanthus light-induced carotenogenesis remains to be established. Here, we present genetic evidence of the involvement of PPIX as well as (1)O(2) in light-induced carotenogenesis in M. xanthus and of how these are linked to CarF in the signal transduction pathway. Response to light was examined in carF-bearing and carF-deficient M. xanthus strains lacking endogenous PPIX due to deletion of hemB or accumulating PPIX due to deletion of hemH (hemB and hemH are early- and late-acting heme biosynthesis genes, respectively). This demonstrated that light induction of the CarQ-dependent promoter, P(QRS), correlated directly with cellular PPIX levels. Furthermore, we show that P(QRS) activation is triggered by (1)O(2) and is inhibited by exogenously supplied hemin and that CarF is essential for the action of (1)O(2). Thus, our findings indicate that blue light interaction with PPIX generates (1)O(2), which must be transmitted via CarF to trigger the transcriptional response underlying light-induced carotenogenesis in M. xanthus.

  10. CarF Mediates Signaling by Singlet Oxygen, Generated via Photoexcited Protoporphyrin IX, in Myxococcus xanthus Light-Induced Carotenogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Galbis-Martínez, Marisa; Padmanabhan, S.; Murillo, Francisco J.

    2012-01-01

    Blue light triggers carotenogenesis in the nonphototrophic bacterium Myxococcus xanthus by inducing inactivation of an anti-σ factor, CarR, and the consequent liberation of the cognate extracytoplasmic function (ECF) σ factor, CarQ. CarF, the protein implicated earliest in the response to light, does not resemble any known photoreceptor. It interacts physically with CarR and is required for its light-driven inactivation, but the mechanism is unknown. Blue-light sensing in M. xanthus has been attributed to the heme precursor protoporphyrin IX (PPIX), which can generate the highly reactive singlet oxygen species (1O2) by energy transfer to oxygen. However, 1O2 involvement in M. xanthus light-induced carotenogenesis remains to be established. Here, we present genetic evidence of the involvement of PPIX as well as 1O2 in light-induced carotenogenesis in M. xanthus and of how these are linked to CarF in the signal transduction pathway. Response to light was examined in carF-bearing and carF-deficient M. xanthus strains lacking endogenous PPIX due to deletion of hemB or accumulating PPIX due to deletion of hemH (hemB and hemH are early- and late-acting heme biosynthesis genes, respectively). This demonstrated that light induction of the CarQ-dependent promoter, PQRS, correlated directly with cellular PPIX levels. Furthermore, we show that PQRS activation is triggered by 1O2 and is inhibited by exogenously supplied hemin and that CarF is essential for the action of 1O2. Thus, our findings indicate that blue light interaction with PPIX generates 1O2, which must be transmitted via CarF to trigger the transcriptional response underlying light-induced carotenogenesis in M. xanthus. PMID:22267513

  11. Characterization of asgC a Gene Required for Cell-Cell Signaling Early Development of Myxococcus Xanthus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Plamann, Lynda and Heidi B. Kaplan. 1998. Cell-density sensing during early development in Myxococcus xanthus.. In G. Dunney and S. Winans (ed...and Heidi B. Kaplan. 1998. Cell-density sensing during early development in Myxococcus xanthus.. In G. Dunney and S. Winans (ed.), Cell-cell...conjugative transfer of plasmid RP4. J Bacteriol 176: 4285-4295. Bibb, M.J., Findlay , P.R., and Johnson, M.W. (1984) The relationship between base

  12. Identification and Localization of Myxococcus xanthus Porins and Lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Swapna; Zhu, Xiang; Patel, Ricky P.; Orlando, Ron; Shimkets, Lawrence J.

    2011-01-01

    Myxococcus xanthus DK1622 contains inner (IM) and outer membranes (OM) separated by a peptidoglycan layer. Integral membrane, β-barrel proteins are found exclusively in the OM where they form pores allowing the passage of nutrients, waste products and signals. One porin, Oar, is required for intercellular communication of the C-signal. An oar mutant produces CsgA but is unable to ripple or stimulate csgA mutants to develop suggesting that it is the channel for C-signaling. Six prediction programs were evaluated for their ability to identify β-barrel proteins. No program was reliable unless the predicted proteins were first parsed using Signal P, Lipo P and TMHMM, after which TMBETA-SVM and TMBETADISC-RBF identified β-barrel proteins most accurately. 228 β-barrel proteins were predicted from among 7331 protein coding regions, representing 3.1% of total genes. Sucrose density gradients were used to separate vegetative cell IM and OM fractions, and LC-MS/MS of OM proteins identified 54 β-barrel proteins. Another class of membrane proteins, the lipoproteins, are anchored in the membrane via a lipid moiety at the N-terminus. 44 OM proteins identified by LC-MS/MS were predicted lipoproteins. Lipoproteins are distributed between the IM, OM and ECM according to an N-terminal sorting sequence that varies among species. Sequence analysis revealed conservation of alanine at the +7 position of mature ECM lipoproteins, lysine at the +2 position of IM lipoproteins, and no noticable conservation within the OM lipoproteins. Site directed mutagenesis and immuno transmission electron microscopy showed that alanine at the +7 position is essential for sorting of the lipoprotein FibA into the ECM. FibA appears at normal levels in the ECM even when a +2 lysine is added to the signal sequence. These results suggest that ECM proteins have a unique method of secretion. It is now possible to target lipoproteins to specific IM, OM and ECM locations by manipulating the amino acid

  13. Predatory activity of Myxococcus xanthus outer-membrane vesicles and properties of their hydrolase cargo.

    PubMed

    Evans, Alun G L; Davey, Hazel M; Cookson, Alan; Currinn, Heather; Cooke-Fox, Gillian; Stanczyk, Paulina J; Whitworth, David E

    2012-11-01

    The deltaproteobacterium Myxococcus xanthus predates upon members of the soil microbial community by secreting digestive factors and lysing prey cells. Like other Gram-negative bacteria, M. xanthus produces outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), and we show here that M. xanthus OMVs are able to kill Escherichia coli cells. The OMVs of M. xanthus were found to contain active proteases, phosphatases, other hydrolases and secondary metabolites. Alkaline phosphatase activity was found to be almost exclusively associated with OMVs, implying that there is active targeting of phosphatases into OMVs, while other OMV components appear to be packaged passively. The kinetic properties of OMV alkaline phosphatase suggest that there may have been evolutionary adaptation of OMV enzymes to a relatively indiscriminate mode of action, consistent with a role in predation. In addition, the observed regulation of production, and fragility of OMV activity, may protect OMV-producing cells from exploitation by M. xanthus cheating genotypes and/or other competitors. Killing of E. coli by M. xanthus OMVs was enhanced by the addition of a fusogenic enzyme (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; GAPDH), which triggers fusion of vesicles with target membranes within eukaryotic cells. This suggests that the mechanism of prey killing involves OMV fusion with the E. coli outer membrane. M. xanthus secretes GAPDH, which could potentially modulate the fusion of co-secreted OMVs with prey organisms in nature, enhancing their predatory activity.

  14. Tn5-mediated transposition of plasmid DNA after transduction to Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed Central

    Downard, J S

    1988-01-01

    After coliphage P1-mediated transfer of Tn5-containing plasmid DNA from Escherichia coli to Myxococcus xanthus, transductants were identified which contained plasmid sequences integrated at many sites on the bacterial chromosome. The unaltered plasmid DNA sequences in these transductants were apparently flanked by intact Tn5 or IS50 sequences. These results suggest that Tn5-mediated transposition has occurred and provide a method for integrating plasmid DNA into the M. xanthus chromosome without the requirement for homologous recombination. Images PMID:2844730

  15. Data-driven modeling reveals cell behaviors controlling self-organization during Myxococcus xanthus development.

    PubMed

    Cotter, Christopher R; Schüttler, Heinz-Bernd; Igoshin, Oleg A; Shimkets, Lawrence J

    2017-06-06

    Collective cell movement is critical to the emergent properties of many multicellular systems, including microbial self-organization in biofilms, embryogenesis, wound healing, and cancer metastasis. However, even the best-studied systems lack a complete picture of how diverse physical and chemical cues act upon individual cells to ensure coordinated multicellular behavior. Known for its social developmental cycle, the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus uses coordinated movement to generate three-dimensional aggregates called fruiting bodies. Despite extensive progress in identifying genes controlling fruiting body development, cell behaviors and cell-cell communication mechanisms that mediate aggregation are largely unknown. We developed an approach to examine emergent behaviors that couples fluorescent cell tracking with data-driven models. A unique feature of this approach is the ability to identify cell behaviors affecting the observed aggregation dynamics without full knowledge of the underlying biological mechanisms. The fluorescent cell tracking revealed large deviations in the behavior of individual cells. Our modeling method indicated that decreased cell motility inside the aggregates, a biased walk toward aggregate centroids, and alignment among neighboring cells in a radial direction to the nearest aggregate are behaviors that enhance aggregation dynamics. Our modeling method also revealed that aggregation is generally robust to perturbations in these behaviors and identified possible compensatory mechanisms. The resulting approach of directly combining behavior quantification with data-driven simulations can be applied to more complex systems of collective cell movement without prior knowledge of the cellular machinery and behavioral cues.

  16. Chemosensory Regulation of a HEAT-Repeat Protein Couples Aggregation and Sporulation in Myxococcus xanthus

    PubMed Central

    Darnell, Cynthia L.; Wilson, Janet M.; Tiwari, Nitija; Fuentes, Ernesto J.

    2014-01-01

    Chemosensory systems are complex, highly modified two-component systems (TCS) used by bacteria to control various biological functions ranging from motility to sporulation. Chemosensory systems and TCS both modulate phosphorelays comprised of histidine kinases and response regulators, some of which are single-domain response regulators (SD-RRs) such as CheY. In this study, we have identified and characterized the Che7 chemosensory system of Myxococcus xanthus, a common soil bacterium which displays multicellular development in response to stress. Both genetic and biochemical analyses indicate that the Che7 system regulates development via a direct interaction between the SD-RR CheY7 and a HEAT repeat domain-containing protein, Cpc7. Phosphorylation of the SD-RR affects the interaction with its target, and residues within the α4-β5-α5 fold of the REC domain govern this interaction. The identification of the Cpc7 interaction with CheY7 extends the diversity of known targets for SD-RRs in biological systems. PMID:24957622

  17. Chemosensory regulation of a HEAT-repeat protein couples aggregation and sporulation in Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed

    Darnell, Cynthia L; Wilson, Janet M; Tiwari, Nitija; Fuentes, Ernesto J; Kirby, John R

    2014-09-01

    Chemosensory systems are complex, highly modified two-component systems (TCS) used by bacteria to control various biological functions ranging from motility to sporulation. Chemosensory systems and TCS both modulate phosphorelays comprised of histidine kinases and response regulators, some of which are single-domain response regulators (SD-RRs) such as CheY. In this study, we have identified and characterized the Che7 chemosensory system of Myxococcus xanthus, a common soil bacterium which displays multicellular development in response to stress. Both genetic and biochemical analyses indicate that the Che7 system regulates development via a direct interaction between the SD-RR CheY7 and a HEAT repeat domain-containing protein, Cpc7. Phosphorylation of the SD-RR affects the interaction with its target, and residues within the α4-β5-α5 fold of the REC domain govern this interaction. The identification of the Cpc7 interaction with CheY7 extends the diversity of known targets for SD-RRs in biological systems.

  18. Extracellular polysaccharides mediate pilus retraction during social motility of Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed

    Li, Yinuo; Sun, Hong; Ma, Xiaoyuan; Lu, Ann; Lux, Renate; Zusman, David; Shi, Wenyuan

    2003-04-29

    Myxococcus xanthus is a Gram-negative bacterium with a complex life cycle that includes vegetative swarming and fruiting-body formation. Social (S)-motility (coordinated movement of large cell groups) requires both type IV pili and fibrils (extracellular matrix material consisting of polysaccharides and protein). Little is known about the role of this extracellular matrix, or fibril material, in pilus-dependent motility. In this study, mutants lacking fibril material and, therefore, S-motility were found to be hyperpiliated. We demonstrated that addition of fibril material resulted in pilus retraction and rescued this phenotype. The fibril material was further examined to determine the component(s) that were responsible for triggering pilus retraction. Protein-free fibril material was found to be highly active in correcting hyperpiliation. However, the amine sugars present in hydrolyzed fibril material, e.g., glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) had no effect on fibril(-) mutants, but, interestingly, cause hyperpiliation in wild-type cells. In contrast, chitin, a natural GlcNAc polymer, was found to restore pilus retraction in hyperpiliated mutants, indicating that a polysaccharide containing amine sugars is likely required for pilus retraction. These data suggest that the interaction of type IV pili with amine-containing polysaccharides on cell and slime-trail surfaces may trigger pilus retraction, resulting in S-motility and slime-trailing behaviors.

  19. Comprehensive set of integrative plasmid vectors for copper-inducible gene expression in Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Santos, Nuria; Treuner-Lange, Anke; Moraleda-Muñoz, Aurelio; García-Bravo, Elena; García-Hernández, Raquel; Martínez-Cayuela, Marina; Pérez, Juana; Søgaard-Andersen, Lotte; Muñoz-Dorado, José

    2012-04-01

    Myxococcus xanthus is widely used as a model system for studying gliding motility, multicellular development, and cellular differentiation. Moreover, M. xanthus is a rich source of novel secondary metabolites. The analysis of these processes has been hampered by the limited set of tools for inducible gene expression. Here we report the construction of a set of plasmid vectors to allow copper-inducible gene expression in M. xanthus. Analysis of the effect of copper on strain DK1622 revealed that copper concentrations of up to 500 μM during growth and 60 μM during development do not affect physiological processes such as cell viability, motility, or aggregation into fruiting bodies. Of the copper-responsive promoters in M. xanthus reported so far, the multicopper oxidase cuoA promoter was used to construct expression vectors, because no basal expression is observed in the absence of copper and induction linearly depends on the copper concentration in the culture medium. Four different plasmid vectors have been constructed, with different marker selection genes and sites of integration in the M. xanthus chromosome. The vectors have been tested and gene expression quantified using the lacZ gene. Moreover, we demonstrate the functional complementation of the motility defect caused by lack of PilB by the copper-induced expression of the pilB gene. These versatile vectors are likely to deepen our understanding of the biology of M. xanthus and may also have biotechnological applications.

  20. The Myxococcus xanthus Spore Cuticula Protein C Is a Fragment of FibA, an Extracellular Metalloprotease Produced Exclusively in Aggregated Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bongsoo; Mann, Petra; Grover, Vidhi; Treuner-Lange, Anke; Kahnt, Jörg; Higgs, Penelope I.

    2011-01-01

    Myxococcus xanthus is a soil bacterium with a complex life cycle involving distinct cell fates, including production of environmentally resistant spores to withstand periods of nutrient limitation. Spores are surrounded by an apparently self-assembling cuticula containing at least Proteins S and C; the gene encoding Protein C is unknown. During analyses of cell heterogeneity in M. xanthus, we observed that Protein C accumulated exclusively in cells found in aggregates. Using mass spectrometry analysis of Protein C either isolated from spore cuticula or immunoprecipitated from aggregated cells, we demonstrate that Protein C is actually a proteolytic fragment of the previously identified but functionally elusive zinc metalloprotease, FibA. Subpopulation specific FibA accumulation is not due to transcriptional regulation suggesting post-transcriptional regulation mechanisms mediate its heterogeneous accumulation patterns. PMID:22174937

  1. Myxococcus xanthus twin-arginine translocation system is important for growth and development.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yoshio; Saiga, Hiroyuki; Hamanaka, Hiroko; Matoba, Hideki

    2006-02-01

    The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) system serves to export fully folded proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane. In many bacteria, three major components, TatA, TatB and TatC, are the functionally essential constituents of the Tat system. A Myxococcus xanthus tatB-tatC deletion mutant could aggregate and form mounds, but was unable to form fruiting bodies under nutritionally limiting conditions. When tatB-tatC mutant vegetative cells were cultured with 0.5 M glycerol, the cell morphology changed to spore-like spherical cells, but the spores were not resistant to heat and sonication treatments. In contrast to the wild-type strain, the tatB-tatC mutant also showed a decreased cell growth rate and a lower maximum cell concentration. These results suggest possibility that the Tat system may contribute to export of various important proteins for development and growth for M. xanthus.

  2. A Hybrid Approach for Segmentation and Tracking of Myxococcus xanthus Swarms.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianxu; Alber, Mark S; Chen, Danny Z

    2016-03-30

    Cell segmentation and motion tracking in timelapse images are fundamental problems in computer vision, and are also crucial for various biomedical studies. Myxococcus xanthus is a type of rod-like cells with highly coordinated motion. The segmentation and tracking of M. xanthus are challenging, because cells may touch tightly and form dense swarms that are difficult to identify individually in an accurate manner. The known cell tracking approaches mainly fall into two frameworks, detection association and model evolution, each having its own advantages and disadvantages. In this paper, we propose a new hybrid framework combining these two frameworks into one and leveraging their complementary advantages. Also, we propose an active contour model based on the Ribbon Snake, which is seamlessly integrated with our hybrid framework. Evaluated by 10 different datasets, our approach achieves considerable improvement over the state-of-the-art cell tracking algorithms on identifying complete cell trajectories, and higher segmentation accuracy than performing segmentation in individual 2D images.

  3. A Minimal Threshold of c-di-GMP Is Essential for Fruiting Body Formation and Sporulation in Myxococcus xanthus

    PubMed Central

    Skotnicka, Dorota; Trampari, Eleftheria; Liang, Jennifer; Kaever, Volkhard; Malone, Jacob G.; Singer, Mitchell; Søgaard-Andersen, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    Generally, the second messenger bis-(3’-5’)-cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) regulates the switch between motile and sessile lifestyles in bacteria. Here, we show that c-di-GMP is an essential regulator of multicellular development in the social bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. In response to starvation, M. xanthus initiates a developmental program that culminates in formation of spore-filled fruiting bodies. We show that c-di-GMP accumulates at elevated levels during development and that this increase is essential for completion of development whereas excess c-di-GMP does not interfere with development. MXAN3735 (renamed DmxB) is identified as a diguanylate cyclase that only functions during development and is responsible for this increased c-di-GMP accumulation. DmxB synthesis is induced in response to starvation, thereby restricting DmxB activity to development. DmxB is essential for development and functions downstream of the Dif chemosensory system to stimulate exopolysaccharide accumulation by inducing transcription of a subset of the genes encoding proteins involved in exopolysaccharide synthesis. The developmental defects in the dmxB mutant are non-cell autonomous and rescued by co-development with a strain proficient in exopolysaccharide synthesis, suggesting reduced exopolysaccharide accumulation as the causative defect in this mutant. The NtrC-like transcriptional regulator EpsI/Nla24, which is required for exopolysaccharide accumulation, is identified as a c-di-GMP receptor, and thus a putative target for DmxB generated c-di-GMP. Because DmxB can be—at least partially—functionally replaced by a heterologous diguanylate cyclase, these results altogether suggest a model in which a minimum threshold level of c-di-GMP is essential for the successful completion of multicellular development in M. xanthus. PMID:27214040

  4. Developmental cell interactions in Myxococcus xanthus and the spoC locus.

    PubMed

    Shimkets, L J; Gill, R E; Kaiser, D

    1983-03-01

    The product(s) of the Myxococcus xanthus spoC locus is required for two multicellular activities in fruiting body development, rippling and sporulation. Ripples, which are formed early in development, are spatially separated ridges of cells that move synchronously. Myxospores are heat-resistant resting cells that are formed near the end of the developmental process. To investigate the function of spoC, it was cloned in an Escherichia coli plasmid, then transferred to M. xanthus by specialized transduction with coliphage P1. The plasmid, which cannot replicate in M. xanthus, integrated into the M. xanthus chromosome, producing two copies of the spoC locus in tandem. Cells containing one copy of a mutant allele and one copy of the wild-type allele displayed the wild-type phenotype. Cells containing two different mutant alleles failed to ripple or sporulate, implying that all four independent spoC mutations are in the same gene or unit of transcription. Homozygous mutant duplications arose from constructions in which DNA from a spo(+) donor was transduced into a spoC recipient, or vice versa, at an average frequency of 14%, indicating that gene conversion was a frequent event.

  5. Temperate Myxococcus xanthus phage Mx8 encodes a DNA adenine methylase, Mox.

    PubMed

    Magrini, V; Salmi, D; Thomas, D; Herbert, S K; Hartzell, P L; Youderian, P

    1997-07-01

    Temperate bacteriophage Mx8 of Myxococcus xanthus encapsidates terminally repetitious DNA, packaged as circular permutations of its 49-kbp genome. During both lytic and lysogenic development, Mx8 expresses a nonessential DNA methylase, Mox, which modifies adenine residues in occurrences of XhoI and PstI recognition sites, CTCGAG and CTGCAG, respectively, on both phage DNA and the host chromosome. The mox gene is necessary for methylase activity in vivo, because an amber mutation in the mox gene abolishes activity. The mox gene is the only phage gene required for methylase activity in vivo, because ectopic expression of mox as part of the M. xanthus mglBA operon results in partial methylation of the host chromosome. The predicted amino acid sequence of Mox is related most closely to that of the methylase involved in the cell cycle control of Caulobacter crescentus. We speculate that Mox acts to protect Mx8 phage DNA against restriction upon infection of a subset of natural M. xanthus hosts. One natural isolate of M. xanthus, the lysogenic source of related phage Mx81, produces a restriction endonuclease with the cleavage specificity of endonuclease BstBI.

  6. Mapping of Myxococcus xanthus Social Motility dsp Mutations to the dif Genes

    PubMed Central

    Lancero, Hope; Brofft, Jennifer E.; Downard, John; Birren, Bruce W.; Nusbaum, Chad; Naylor, Jerome; Shi, Wenyuan; Shimkets, Lawrence J.

    2002-01-01

    Myxococcus xanthus dsp and dif mutants have similar phenotypes in that they are deficient in social motility and fruiting body development. We compared the two loci by genetic mapping, complementation with a cosmid clone, DNA sequencing, and gene disruption and found that 16 of the 18 dsp alleles map to the dif genes. Another dsp allele contains a mutation in the sglK gene. About 36.6 kb around the dsp-dif locus was sequenced and annotated, and 50% of the genes are novel. PMID:11844780

  7. DNA replication during aggregation phase is essential for Myxococcus xanthus development.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Linfong; Ellis, Terri N; Singer, Mitchell

    2006-04-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that fruiting body-derived Myxococcus xanthus myxospores contain two fully replicated copies of its genome, implying developmental control of chromosome replication and septation. In this study, we employ DNA replication inhibitors to determine if chromosome replication is essential to development and the exact time frame in which chromosome replication occurs within the developmental cycle. Our results show that DNA replication during the aggregation phase is essential for developmental progression, implying the existence of a checkpoint that monitors chromosome integrity at the end of the aggregation phase.

  8. The Myxobacterium Myxococcus xanthus Can Sense and Respond to the Quorum Signals Secreted by Potential Prey Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, Daniel G.; Whitworth, David E.

    2017-01-01

    The myxobacterium Myxococcus xanthus is a predatory member of the soil microfauna, able to consume bacteria (Gram-negative, Gram-positive), archaea, and fungi. Many potential prey of M. xanthus communicate amongst themselves using acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) as quorum signals. M. xanthus cannot itself produce AHLs, but could potentially benefit by responding to exogenous AHLs produced during signaling between proximal prey. Four AHLs of different side chain length were tested and all found to delay sporulation of M. xanthus vegetative cells, and to stimulate germination of myxospores, increasing the proportion of predatory vegetative cells in the population. The predatory activity and expansion rates of M. xanthus colonies were also found to be stimulated by AHLs. Thermally inactivated AHLs had no effect on M. xanthus cells, and the response to AHLs depended (non-linearly) on the length of AHL side chain, suggesting that the effect of AHLs was mediated by specific signaling within M. xanthus, rather than being a consequence of the chemical or physical properties of AHLs. Therefore, it seems that the presence of xenic quorum signaling molecules enhances the predatory activity of M. xanthus. AHLs increase the proportion of the population capable of predation, and stimulate the motility and predatory activity of vegetative cells. We therefore propose that in the wild, M. xanthus uses AHLs as markers of nearby prey, potentially eavesdropping on the conversations between prey organisms. PMID:28352265

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Myxococcus xanthus Wild-Type Strain DZ2, a Model Organism for Predation and Development

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Susanne; Willett, Jonathan W.; Bahr, Sarah M.; Darnell, Cynthia L.; Hummels, Katherine R.; Dong, Carolyn K.; Vlamakis, Hera C.

    2013-01-01

    Myxococcus xanthus is a member of the Myxococcales order within the Deltaproteobacteria subdivision. The myxobacteria reside in soil, have relatively large genomes, and display complex life cycles. Here, we report the whole-genome shotgun sequence of strain DZ2, which includes unique genes not found previously in strain DK1622. PMID:23661486

  10. Nitrate-Dependent Activation of the Dif Signaling Pathway of Myxococcus xanthus Mediated by a NarX-DifA Interspecies Chimera

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qian; Black, Wesley P.; Ward, Scott M.; Yang, Zhaomin

    2005-01-01

    Myxococcus xanthus fibril exopolysaccharide (EPS), essential for the social gliding motility and development of this bacterium, is regulated by the Dif chemotaxis-like pathway. DifA, an MCP homolog, is proposed to mediate signal input to the Dif pathway. However, DifA lacks a prominent periplasmic domain, which in classical chemoreceptors is responsible for signal perception and for initiating transmembrane signaling. To investigate the signaling properties of DifA, we constructed a NarX-DifA (NafA) chimera from the sensory module of Escherichia coli NarX and the signaling module of M. xanthus DifA. We report here the first functional chimeric signal transducer constructed using genes from organisms in two different phylogenetic subdivisions. When expressed in M. xanthus, NafA restored fruiting body formation, EPS production, and S-motility to difA mutants in the presence of nitrate. Studies with various double mutants indicate that NafA requires the downstream Dif proteins to function. We propose that signal inputs to the Dif pathway and transmembrane signaling by DifA are essential for the regulation of EPS production in M. xanthus. Despite the apparent structural differences, DifA appears to share similar transmembrane signaling mechanisms with enteric sensor kinases and chemoreceptors. PMID:16159775

  11. Genetic studies of mrp, a locus essential for cellular aggregation and sporulation of Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed

    Sun, H; Shi, W

    2001-08-01

    Under starvation conditions, Myxococcus xanthus undergoes a complex developmental process which includes cellular aggregation and sporulation. A transposon insertion mutant (the Tn5-Omega280 mutant) with defects in both aggregation and sporulation was analyzed in this study. The Tn5-Omega280 mutant was found to have a disrupted NtrC-like response regulator designated Myxococcus regulatory protein B (mrpB). Further sequencing analyses revealed a histidine kinase homolog (mrpA) immediately upstream of mrpB and a cyclic AMP receptor protein-like transcriptional regulator (mrpC) downstream of mrpB. In-frame deletion analyses revealed that both the mrpB and mrpC genes were required for cellular aggregation and sporulation but that only mrpA was required for sporulation only. Site-specific mutagenesis of the putative phosphorylation site of MrpB, D58, showed that a D58A mutation caused defects in both aggregation and sporulation but that a D58E mutation resulted in only a sporulation defect. Further genetic and molecular analyses with reporter genes and reverse transcription-PCR indicated that mrpA and mrpB are cotranscribed but that mrpC is transcribed independently and that all of these genes are developmentally regulated. In addition, MrpB is essential for transcription of mrpC and MrpC regulates its own transcription. These data indicate that Mrp proteins are important components required for M. xanthus development. The complicated interaction between Mrp proteins may play an important role in regulating developmental gene expression in M. xanthus.

  12. devI is an evolutionarily young negative regulator of Myxococcus xanthus development.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, Ramya; Wielgoss, Sébastien; Lippert, Gerardo; Velicer, Gregory J; Kroos, Lee

    2015-04-01

    During starvation-induced development of Myxococcus xanthus, thousands of rod-shaped cells form mounds in which they differentiate into spores. The dev locus includes eight genes followed by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs), comprising a CRISPR-Cas system (Cas stands for CRISPR associated) typically involved in RNA interference. Mutations in devS or devR of a lab reference strain permit mound formation but impair sporulation. We report that natural isolates of M. xanthus capable of normal development are highly polymorphic in the promoter region of the dev operon. We show that the dev promoter is predicted to be nonfunctional in most natural isolates and is dispensable for development of a laboratory reference strain. Moreover, deletion of the dev promoter or the small gene immediately downstream of it, here designated devI (development inhibitor), suppressed the sporulation defect of devS or devR mutants in the lab strain. Complementation experiments and the result of introducing a premature stop codon in devI support a model in which DevRS proteins negatively autoregulate expression of devI, whose 40-residue protein product DevI inhibits sporulation if overexpressed. DevI appears to act in a cell-autonomous manner since experiments with conditioned medium and with cell mixtures gave no indication of extracellular effects. Strikingly, we report that devI is entirely absent from most M. xanthus natural isolates and was only recently integrated into the developmental programs of some lineages. These results provide important new insights into both the evolutionary history of the dev operon and its mechanistic role in M. xanthus sporulation. Certain mutations in the dev CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat-associated) system of Myxococcus xanthus impair sporulation. The link between development and a CRISPR-Cas system has been a mystery. Surprisingly, DNA sequencing of natural isolates revealed that

  13. devI Is an Evolutionarily Young Negative Regulator of Myxococcus xanthus Development

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopalan, Ramya; Wielgoss, Sébastien; Lippert, Gerardo; Velicer, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT During starvation-induced development of Myxococcus xanthus, thousands of rod-shaped cells form mounds in which they differentiate into spores. The dev locus includes eight genes followed by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs), comprising a CRISPR-Cas system (Cas stands for CRISPR associated) typically involved in RNA interference. Mutations in devS or devR of a lab reference strain permit mound formation but impair sporulation. We report that natural isolates of M. xanthus capable of normal development are highly polymorphic in the promoter region of the dev operon. We show that the dev promoter is predicted to be nonfunctional in most natural isolates and is dispensable for development of a laboratory reference strain. Moreover, deletion of the dev promoter or the small gene immediately downstream of it, here designated devI (development inhibitor), suppressed the sporulation defect of devS or devR mutants in the lab strain. Complementation experiments and the result of introducing a premature stop codon in devI support a model in which DevRS proteins negatively autoregulate expression of devI, whose 40-residue protein product DevI inhibits sporulation if overexpressed. DevI appears to act in a cell-autonomous manner since experiments with conditioned medium and with cell mixtures gave no indication of extracellular effects. Strikingly, we report that devI is entirely absent from most M. xanthus natural isolates and was only recently integrated into the developmental programs of some lineages. These results provide important new insights into both the evolutionary history of the dev operon and its mechanistic role in M. xanthus sporulation. IMPORTANCE Certain mutations in the dev CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat-associated) system of Myxococcus xanthus impair sporulation. The link between development and a CRISPR-Cas system has been a mystery. Surprisingly, DNA sequencing of natural

  14. Genome Evolution and the Emergence of Fruiting Body Development in Myxococcus xanthus

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Barry; Bhat, Swapna; Shimkets, Lawrence J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Lateral gene transfer (LGT) is thought to promote speciation in bacteria, though well-defined examples have not been put forward. Methodology/Principle Findings We examined the evolutionary history of the genes essential for a trait that defines a phylogenetic order, namely fruiting body development of the Myxococcales. Seventy-eight genes that are essential for Myxococcus xanthus development were examined for LGT. About 73% of the genes exhibit a phylogeny similar to that of the 16S rDNA gene and a codon bias consistent with other M. xanthus genes suggesting vertical transmission. About 22% have an altered codon bias and/or phylogeny suggestive of LGT. The remaining 5% are unique. Genes encoding signal production and sensory transduction were more likely to be transmitted vertically with clear examples of duplication and divergence into multigene families. Genes encoding metabolic enzymes were frequently acquired by LGT. Myxobacteria exhibit aerobic respiration unlike most of the δ Proteobacteria. M. xanthus contains a unique electron transport pathway shaped by LGT of genes for succinate dehydrogenase and three cytochrome oxidase complexes. Conclusions/Significance Fruiting body development depends on genes acquired by LGT, particularly those involved in polysaccharide production. We suggest that aerobic growth fostered innovation necessary for development by allowing myxobacteria access to a different gene pool from anaerobic members of the δ Proteobacteria. Habitat destruction and loss of species diversity could restrict the evolution of new bacterial groups by limiting the size of the prospective gene pool. PMID:18159227

  15. Describing Myxococcus xanthus Aggregation Using Ostwald Ripening Equations for Thin Liquid Films

    PubMed Central

    Bahar, Fatmagül; Pratt-Szeliga, Philip C.; Angus, Stuart; Guo, Jiaye; Welch, Roy D.

    2014-01-01

    When starved, a swarm of millions of Myxococcus xanthus cells coordinate their movement from outward swarming to inward coalescence. The cells then execute a synchronous program of multicellular development, arranging themselves into dome shaped aggregates. Over the course of development, about half of the initial aggregates disappear, while others persist and mature into fruiting bodies. This work seeks to develop a quantitative model for aggregation that accurately simulates which will disappear and which will persist. We analyzed time-lapse movies of M. xanthus development, modeled aggregation using the equations that describe Ostwald ripening of droplets in thin liquid films, and predicted the disappearance and persistence of aggregates with an average accuracy of 85%. We then experimentally validated a prediction that is fundamental to this model by tracking individual fluorescent cells as they moved between aggregates and demonstrating that cell movement towards and away from aggregates correlates with aggregate disappearance. Describing development through this model may limit the number and type of molecular genetic signals needed to complete M. xanthus development, and it provides numerous additional testable predictions. PMID:25231319

  16. Myxococcus xanthus sasS encodes a sensor histidine kinase required for early developmental gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, C; Kaplan, H B

    1997-01-01

    Initiation of Myxococcus xanthus multicellular development requires integration of information concerning the cells' nutrient status and density. A gain-of-function mutation, sasB7, that bypasses both the starvation and high cell density requirements for developmental expression of the 4521 reporter gene, maps to the sasS gene. The wild-type sasS gene was cloned and sequenced. This gene is predicted to encode a sensor histidine protein kinase that appears to be a key element in the transduction of starvation and cell density inputs. The sasS null mutants express 4521 at a basal level, form defective fruiting bodies, and exhibit reduced sporulation efficiencies. These data indicate that the wild-type sasS gene product functions as a positive regulator of 4521 expression and participates in M. xanthus development. The N terminus of SasS is predicted to contain two transmembrane domains that would locate the protein to the cytoplasmic membrane. The sasB7 mutation, an E139K missense mutation, maps to the predicted N-terminal periplasmic region. The C terminus of SasS contains all of the conserved residues typical of the sensor histidine protein kinases. SasS is predicted to be the sensor protein in a two-component system that integrates information required for M. xanthus developmental gene expression. PMID:9401035

  17. Describing Myxococcus xanthus aggregation using Ostwald ripening equations for thin liquid films.

    PubMed

    Bahar, Fatmagül; Pratt-Szeliga, Philip C; Angus, Stuart; Guo, Jiaye; Welch, Roy D

    2014-09-18

    When starved, a swarm of millions of Myxococcus xanthus cells coordinate their movement from outward swarming to inward coalescence. The cells then execute a synchronous program of multicellular development, arranging themselves into dome shaped aggregates. Over the course of development, about half of the initial aggregates disappear, while others persist and mature into fruiting bodies. This work seeks to develop a quantitative model for aggregation that accurately simulates which will disappear and which will persist. We analyzed time-lapse movies of M. xanthus development, modeled aggregation using the equations that describe Ostwald ripening of droplets in thin liquid films, and predicted the disappearance and persistence of aggregates with an average accuracy of 85%. We then experimentally validated a prediction that is fundamental to this model by tracking individual fluorescent cells as they moved between aggregates and demonstrating that cell movement towards and away from aggregates correlates with aggregate disappearance. Describing development through this model may limit the number and type of molecular genetic signals needed to complete M. xanthus development, and it provides numerous additional testable predictions.

  18. PhpA, a tyrosine phosphatase of Myxococcus xanthus, is involved in the production of exopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Mori, Yumi; Maeda, Miri; Takegawa, Kaoru; Kimura, Yoshio

    2012-10-01

    Protein-tyrosine phosphorylation plays a significant role in multiple cellular functions in bacteria. Bacterial tyrosine phosphatases catalyse the dephosphorylation of tyrosyl-phosphorylated proteins. Myxococcus xanthus PhpA shares homology with DNA polymerase and histidinol phosphatase family members. Recombinant His-tagged PhpA requires Mn(2+) or Co(2+) for phosphatase activity, and shows strict specificity for phosphorylated tyrosine residues. The k(m) values of PhpA for p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP) and phosphotyrosine peptide, RRLIEDAEpYAARG, were 803 and 139 µM, respectively. The phosphatase activity of PhpA was inhibited by sodium orthovanadate with a k(i) of 33 µM. phpA gene expression was observed under both vegetative and developmental conditions, but peaked during late fruiting body formation. A phpA mutant exhibited an elevated level of tyrosine phosphorylation of a 79 kDa protein and cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase, BtkA. In M. xanthus, exopolysaccharide (EPS) is essential for cell-cell adhesion and fruiting body formation. phpA mutant cells exhibited enhanced capacity for cell-cell agglutination in agglutination buffer. Under starvation conditions, phpA mutation caused early aggregation and sporulation. The EPS production assay showed that the phpA mutant produced an increased amount of EPS in comparison with the wild-type. These results indicate that PhpA may negatively regulate the production of EPS in M. xanthus.

  19. MglC, a Paralog of Myxococcus xanthus GTPase-Activating Protein MglB, Plays a Divergent Role in Motility Regulation

    PubMed Central

    McLoon, Anna L.; Wuichet, Kristin; Häsler, Michael; Keilberg, Daniela; Szadkowski, Dobromir

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In order to optimize interactions with their environment and one another, bacteria regulate their motility. In the case of the rod-shaped cells of Myxococcus xanthus, regulated motility is essential for social behaviors. M. xanthus moves over surfaces using type IV pilus-dependent motility and gliding motility. These two motility systems are coordinated by a protein module that controls cell polarity and consists of three polarly localized proteins, the small G protein MglA, the cognate MglA GTPase-activating protein MglB, and the response regulator RomR. Cellular reversals are induced by the Frz chemosensory system, and the output response regulator of this system, FrzZ, interfaces with the MglA/MglB/RomR module to invert cell polarity. Using a computational approach, we identify a paralog of MglB, MXAN_5770 (MglC). Genetic epistasis experiments demonstrate that MglC functions in the same pathway as MglA, MglB, RomR, and FrzZ and is important for regulating cellular reversals. Like MglB, MglC localizes to the cell poles asymmetrically and with a large cluster at the lagging pole. Correct polar localization of MglC depends on RomR and MglB. Consistently, MglC interacts directly with MglB and the C-terminal output domain of RomR, and we identified a surface of MglC that is necessary for the interaction with MglB and for MglC function. Together, our findings identify an additional member of the M. xanthus polarity module involved in regulating motility and demonstrate how gene duplication followed by functional divergence can add a layer of control to the complex cellular processes of motility and motility regulation. IMPORTANCE Gene duplication and the subsequent divergence of the duplicated genes are important evolutionary mechanisms for increasing both biological complexity and regulation of biological processes. The bacterium Myxococcus xanthus is a soil bacterium with an unusually large genome that carries out several social processes, including

  20. Alkaline, acid, and neutral phosphatase activities are induced during development in Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, R A; Zusman, D R

    1990-05-01

    One of the signals that has been reported to be important in stimulating fruiting body formation of Myxococcus xanthus is starvation for phosphate. We therefore chose to study phosphatase activity during M. xanthus development. Many phosphatases can cleave the substrate p-nitrophenol phosphate. Using this substrate in buffers at various pHs, we obtained a profile of phosphatase activities during development and germination of M. xanthus. These experiments indicated that there are five patterns of phosphatase activity in M. xanthus: two vegetative and three developmental. The two uniquely vegetative activities have pH optima at 7.2 and 8.5. Both require magnesium and both are inhibited by the reducing agent dithiothreitol. The developmental (spores) patterns of activity have pH optima of 5.2, 7.2, and 8.5. All three activities are Mg independent. Only the alkaline phosphatase activity is inhibited by dithiothreitol. The acid phosphatase activity is induced very early in development, within the first 2 to 4 h. Both the neutral and alkaline phosphatase Mg-independent activities are induced much later, about the time that myxospores become evident (24 to 30 h). The three activities are greatly diminished upon germination; however, the kinetics of loss differ for all three. The acid phosphatase activity declines very rapidly, the neutral activity begins to decline only after spores begin to convert to rods, and the alkaline phosphatase activity remains high until the time the cells begin to divide. All three developmental activities were measured in the developmental signalling mutants carrying asg, csg, and dsg. The pattern of expression obtained in the mutants was consistent with that of other developmentally regulated genes which exhibit similar patterns of expression during development. The ease with which phosphatases can be assayed should make the activities described in this report useful biochemical markers of stages of both fruiting body formation and

  1. LexA-independent DNA damage-mediated induction of gene expression in Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed

    Campoy, Susana; Fontes, Marta; Padmanabhan, S; Cortés, Pilar; Llagostera, Montserrat; Barbé, Jordi

    2003-08-01

    Myxococcus xanthus, a member of the Proteobacteria delta-class, has two independent recA genes, recA1 and recA2, but only recA2 is DNA damage-inducible. The lexA gene has been isolated from M. xanthus by PCR amplification with oligonucleotides designed after sequence identification by tblastn analysis of its genome at the Cereon Microbial Sequence Database. The M. xanthus purified LexA protein is shown to bind specifically to the consensus sequence CTRHAMRYBYGTTCAGS present upstream of lexA and recA2. A degenerate copy of this motif but with important differences can be identified in the region upstream of the recA1 gene. A knock-out lexA(Def) mutant that has been generated does not differ significantly from wild type in morphology, growth rate, light-induced carotenogenesis or development. Using transcriptional lacZ fusions and quantitative RT-PCR analysis, it has been demonstrated that expression of both lexA and recA2 genes is constitutive in the lexA(Def) mutant, whereas the transcription of the DNA damage non-inducible recA1 gene is not affected in this strain. recN and ssb, whose expression in Escherichia coli are LexA-regulated, are induced by DNA damage in the M. xanthus lexA(Def) mutant. These data reveal the existence of different regulatory mechanisms for DNA damage-inducible genes in bacteria belonging to different phyla.

  2. A Clp/Hsp100 Chaperone Functions in Myxococcus xanthus Sporulation and Self-Organization

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jinyuan; Garza, Anthony G.; Bradley, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    The Clp/Hsp100 proteins are chaperones that play a role in protein degradation and reactivation. In bacteria, they exhibit a high degree of pleiotropy, affecting both individual and multicellular phenotypes. In this article, we present the first characterization of a Clp/Hsp100 homolog in Myxococcus xanthus (MXAN_4832 gene locus). Deletion of MXAN_4832 causes defects in both swarming and aggregation related to cell motility and the production of fibrils, which are an important component of the extracellular matrix of a swarm. The deletion also affects the formation of myxospores during development, causing them to become sensitive to heat. The protein product of MXAN_4832 can act as a chaperone in vitro, providing biochemical evidence in support of our hypothesis that MXAN_4832 is a functional Clp/Hsp100 homolog. There are a total of 12 Clp/Hsp100 homologs in M. xanthus, including MXAN_4832, and, based on its mutational and biochemical characterization, they may well represent an important group. PMID:22287524

  3. A Hybrid Approach for Segmentation and Tracking of Myxococcus Xanthus Swarms

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jianxu; Alber, Mark; Chen, Danny Z.

    2017-01-01

    Cell segmentation and motion tracking in time-lapse images are fundamental problems in computer vision, and are also crucial for various biomedical studies. Myxococcus xanthus is a type of rod-like cells with highly coordinated motion. The segmentation and tracking of M. xanthus are challenging, because cells may touch tightly and form dense swarms that are difficult to identify individually in an accurate manner. The known cell tracking approaches mainly fall into two frameworks, detection association and model evolution, each having its own advantages and disadvantages. In this paper, we propose a new hybrid framework combining these two frameworks into one and leveraging their complementary advantages. Also, we propose an active contour model based on the Ribbon Snake, which is seamlessly integrated with our hybrid framework. Evaluated by 10 different datasets, our approach achieves considerable improvement over the state-of-the-art cell tracking algorithms on identifying complete cell trajectories, and higher segmentation accuracy than performing segmentation in individual 2D images. PMID:27046892

  4. A comprehensive insight into the lipid composition of Myxococcus xanthus by UPLC-ESI-MS.

    PubMed

    Lorenzen, Wolfram; Bozhüyük, Kenan A J; Cortina, Niña S; Bode, Helge B

    2014-12-01

    Analysis of whole cell lipid extracts of bacteria by means of ultra-performance (UP)LC-MS allows a comprehensive determination of the lipid molecular species present in the respective organism. The data allow conclusions on its metabolic potential as well as the creation of lipid profiles, which visualize the organism's response to changes in internal and external conditions. Herein, we describe: i) a fast reversed phase UPLC-ESI-MS method suitable for detection and determination of individual lipids from whole cell lipid extracts of all polarities ranging from monoacylglycerophosphoethanolamines to TGs; ii) the first overview of a wide range of lipid molecular species in vegetative Myxococcus xanthus DK1622 cells; iii) changes in their relative composition in selected mutants impaired in the biosynthesis of α-hydroxylated FAs, sphingolipids, and ether lipids; and iv) the first report of ceramide phosphoinositols in M. xanthus, a lipid species previously found only in eukaryotes. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Statistical image analysis reveals features affecting fates of Myxococcus xanthus developmental aggregates.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chunyan; Zhang, Haiyang; Shimkets, Lawrence J; Igoshin, Oleg A

    2011-04-05

    Starving Myxococcus xanthus bacteria use their motility systems to self-organize into multicellular fruiting bodies, large mounds in which cells differentiate into metabolically inert spores. Despite the identification of the genetic pathways required for aggregation and the use of microcinematography to observe aggregation dynamics in WT and mutant strains, a mechanistic understanding of aggregation is still incomplete. For example, it is not clear why some of the initial aggregates mature into fruiting bodies, whereas others disperse, merge, or split into two. Here, we develop high-throughput image quantification and statistical analysis methods to gain insight into M. xanthus developmental aggregation dynamics. A quantitative metric of features characterizing each aggregate is used to deduce the properties of the aggregates that are correlated with each fate. The analysis shows that small aggregate size but not neighbor-related parameters correlate with aggregate dispersal. Furthermore, close proximity is necessary but not sufficient for aggregate merging. Finally, splitting occurs for those aggregates that are unusually large and elongated. These observations place severe constraints on the underlying aggregation mechanisms and present strong evidence against the role of long-range morphogenic gradients or biased cell exchange in the dispersal, merging, or splitting of transient aggregates. This approach can be expanded and adapted to study self-organization in other cellular systems.

  6. A Clp/Hsp100 chaperone functions in Myxococcus xanthus sporulation and self-organization.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jinyuan; Garza, Anthony G; Bradley, Michael D; Welch, Roy D

    2012-04-01

    The Clp/Hsp100 proteins are chaperones that play a role in protein degradation and reactivation. In bacteria, they exhibit a high degree of pleiotropy, affecting both individual and multicellular phenotypes. In this article, we present the first characterization of a Clp/Hsp100 homolog in Myxococcus xanthus (MXAN_4832 gene locus). Deletion of MXAN_4832 causes defects in both swarming and aggregation related to cell motility and the production of fibrils, which are an important component of the extracellular matrix of a swarm. The deletion also affects the formation of myxospores during development, causing them to become sensitive to heat. The protein product of MXAN_4832 can act as a chaperone in vitro, providing biochemical evidence in support of our hypothesis that MXAN_4832 is a functional Clp/Hsp100 homolog. There are a total of 12 Clp/Hsp100 homologs in M. xanthus, including MXAN_4832, and, based on its mutational and biochemical characterization, they may well represent an important group.

  7. A Hybrid Approach for Segmentation and Tracking of Myxococcus Xanthus Swarms.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianxu; Alber, Mark S; Chen, Danny Z

    2016-09-01

    Cell segmentation and motion tracking in time-lapse images are fundamental problems in computer vision, and are also crucial for various biomedical studies. Myxococcus xanthus is a type of rod-like cells with highly coordinated motion. The segmentation and tracking of M. xanthus are challenging, because cells may touch tightly and form dense swarms that are difficult to identify individually in an accurate manner. The known cell tracking approaches mainly fall into two frameworks, detection association and model evolution, each having its own advantages and disadvantages. In this paper, we propose a new hybrid framework combining these two frameworks into one and leveraging their complementary advantages. Also, we propose an active contour model based on the Ribbon Snake, which is seamlessly integrated with our hybrid framework. Evaluated by 10 different datasets, our approach achieves considerable improvement over the state-of-the-art cell tracking algorithms on identifying complete cell trajectories, and higher segmentation accuracy than performing segmentation in individual 2D images.

  8. Tracking of Chromosome and Replisome Dynamics in Myxococcus xanthus Reveals a Novel Chromosome Arrangement

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Dominik; Søgaard-Andersen, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    Cells closely coordinate cell division with chromosome replication and segregation; however, the mechanisms responsible for this coordination still remain largely unknown. Here, we analyzed the spatial arrangement and temporal dynamics of the 9.1 Mb circular chromosome in the rod-shaped cells of Myxococcus xanthus. For chromosome segregation, M. xanthus uses a parABS system, which is essential, and lack of ParB results in chromosome segregation defects as well as cell divisions over nucleoids and the formation of anucleate cells. From the determination of the dynamic subcellular location of six genetic loci, we conclude that in newborn cells ori, as monitored following the ParB/parS complex, and ter regions are localized in the subpolar regions of the old and new cell pole, respectively and each separated from the nearest pole by approximately 1 µm. The bulk of the chromosome is arranged between the two subpolar regions, thus leaving the two large subpolar regions devoid of DNA. Upon replication, one ori region remains in the original subpolar region while the second copy segregates unidirectionally to the opposite subpolar region followed by the rest of the chromosome. In parallel, the ter region of the mother chromosome relocates, most likely passively, to midcell, where it is replicated. Consequently, after completion of replication and segregation, the two chromosomes show an ori-ter-ter-ori arrangement with mirror symmetry about a transverse axis at midcell. Upon completion of segregation of the ParB/parS complex, ParA localizes in large patches in the DNA-free subpolar regions. Using an Ssb-YFP fusion as a proxy for replisome localization, we observed that the two replisomes track independently of each other from a subpolar region towards ter. We conclude that M. xanthus chromosome arrangement and dynamics combine features from previously described systems with new features leading to a novel spatiotemporal arrangement pattern. PMID:24068967

  9. Structural Insights into RNA Polymerase Recognition and Essential Function of Myxococcus xanthus CdnL

    PubMed Central

    Gallego-García, Aránzazu; Mirassou, Yasmina; García-Moreno, Diana; Elías-Arnanz, Montserrat; Jiménez, María Angeles; Padmanabhan, S.

    2014-01-01

    CdnL and CarD are two functionally distinct members of the CarD_CdnL_TRCF family of bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP)-interacting proteins, which co-exist in Myxococcus xanthus. While CarD, found exclusively in myxobacteria, has been implicated in the activity of various extracytoplasmic function (ECF) σ-factors, the function and mode of action of the essential CdnL, whose homologs are widespread among bacteria, remain to be elucidated in M. xanthus. Here, we report the NMR solution structure of CdnL and present a structure-based mutational analysis of its function. An N-terminal five-stranded β-sheet Tudor-like module in the two-domain CdnL mediates binding to RNAP-β, and mutations that disrupt this interaction impair cell growth. The compact CdnL C-terminal domain consists of five α-helices folded as in some tetratricopeptide repeat-like protein-protein interaction domains, and contains a patch of solvent-exposed nonpolar and basic residues, among which a set of basic residues is shown to be crucial for CdnL function. We show that CdnL, but not its loss-of-function mutants, stabilizes formation of transcriptionally competent, open complexes by the primary σA-RNAP holoenzyme at an rRNA promoter in vitro. Consistent with this, CdnL is present at rRNA promoters in vivo. Implication of CdnL in RNAP-σA activity and of CarD in ECF-σ function in M. xanthus exemplifies how two related members within a widespread bacterial protein family have evolved to enable distinct σ-dependent promoter activity. PMID:25272012

  10. Resource level affects relative performance of the two motility systems of Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed

    Hillesland, Kristina L; Velicer, Gregory J

    2005-05-01

    The adventurous (A) and social (S) motility systems of the microbial predator Myxococcus xanthus show differential swarming performance on distinct surface types. Under standard laboratory conditions, A-motility performs well on hard agar but poorly on soft agar, whereas the inverse pattern is shown by S-motility. These properties may allow M. xanthus to swarm effectively across a greater diversity of natural surfaces than would be possible with one motility system alone. Nonetheless, the range of ecological conditions under which dual motility enhances effective swarming across distinct surfaces and how ecological parameters affect the complementarity of A-motility and S-motility remain unclear. Here we have examined the role of nutrient concentration in determining swarming patterns driven by dual motility on distinct agar surfaces, as well as the relative contributions of A-motility and S-motility to these patterns. Swarm expansion rates of dually motile (A+S+), solely A-motile (A+S-), and solely S-motile (A-S+) strains were compared on hard and soft agar across a wide range of casitone concentrations. At low casitone concentrations (0-0.1%), swarming on soft agar driven by S-motility is very poor, and is significantly slower than swarming on hard agar driven by A-motility. This reverses at high casitone concentration (1-3.2%) such that swarming on soft agar is much faster than swarming on hard agar. This pattern greatly constrained the ability of M. xanthus to encounter patches of prey bacteria on a soft agar surface when nutrient levels between the patches were low. The swarming patterns of a strain that is unable to produce extracellular fibrils indicate that these appendages are responsible for the elevated swarming of S-motility at high resource levels. Together, these data suggest that large contributions by S-motility to predatory swarming in natural soils may be limited to soft, wet, high-nutrient conditions that may be uncommon. Several likely benefits

  11. The Phosphatomes of the Multicellular Myxobacteria Myxococcus xanthus and Sorangium cellulosum in Comparison with Other Prokaryotic Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Treuner-Lange, Anke

    2010-01-01

    Background Analysis of the complete genomes from the multicellular myxobacteria Myxococcus xanthus and Sorangium cellulosum identified the highest number of eukaryotic-like protein kinases (ELKs) compared to all other genomes analyzed. High numbers of protein phosphatases (PPs) could therefore be anticipated, as reversible protein phosphorylation is a major regulation mechanism of fundamental biological processes. Methodology Here we report an intensive analysis of the phosphatomes of M. xanthus and S. cellulosum in which we constructed phylogenetic trees to position these sequences relative to PPs from other prokaryotic organisms. Principal Findings Predominant observations were: (i) M. xanthus and S. cellulosum possess predominantly Ser/Thr PPs; (ii) S. cellulosum encodes the highest number of PP2c-type phosphatases so far reported for a prokaryotic organism; (iii) in contrast to M. xanthus only S. cellulosum encodes high numbers of SpoIIE-like PPs; (iv) there is a significant lack of synteny among M. xanthus and S. cellulosum, and (v) the degree of co-organization between kinase and phosphatase genes is extremely low in these myxobacterial genomes. Conclusions We conclude that there has been a greater expansion of ELKs than PPs in multicellular myxobacteria. PMID:20567509

  12. Sibling Rivalry in Myxococcus xanthus Is Mediated by Kin Recognition and a Polyploid Prophage.

    PubMed

    Dey, Arup; Vassallo, Christopher N; Conklin, Austin C; Pathak, Darshankumar T; Troselj, Vera; Wall, Daniel

    2016-01-19

    Myxobacteria form complex social communities that elicit multicellular behaviors. One such behavior is kin recognition, in which cells identify siblings via their polymorphic TraA cell surface receptor, to transiently fuse outer membranes and exchange their contents. In addition, outer membrane exchange (OME) regulates behaviors, such as inhibition of wild-type Myxococcus xanthus (DK1622) from swarming. Here we monitored the fate of motile cells and surprisingly found they were killed by nonmotile siblings. The kill phenotype required OME (i.e., was TraA dependent). The genetic basis of killing was traced to ancestral strains used to construct DK1622. Specifically, the kill phenotype mapped to a large "polyploid prophage," Mx alpha. Sensitive strains contained a 200-kb deletion that removed two of three Mx alpha units. To explain these results, we suggest that Mx alpha expresses a toxin-antitoxin cassette that uses the OME machinery of M. xanthus to transfer a toxin that makes the population "addicted" to Mx alpha. Thus, siblings that lost Mx alpha units (no immunity) are killed by cells that harbor the element. To test this, an Mx alpha-harboring laboratory strain was engineered (by traA allele swap) to recognize a closely related species, Myxococcus fulvus. As a result, M. fulvus, which lacks Mx alpha, was killed. These TraA-mediated antagonisms provide an explanation for how kin recognition specificity might have evolved in myxobacteria. That is, recognition specificity is determined by polymorphisms in traA, which we hypothesize were selected for because OME with non-kin leads to lethal outcomes. The transition from single cell to multicellular life is considered a major evolutionary event. Myxobacteria have successfully made this transition. For example, in response to starvation, individual cells aggregate into multicellular fruiting bodies wherein cells differentiate into spores. To build fruits, cells need to recognize their siblings, and in part, this is

  13. Sibling Rivalry in Myxococcus xanthus Is Mediated by Kin Recognition and a Polyploid Prophage

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Arup; Vassallo, Christopher N.; Conklin, Austin C.; Pathak, Darshankumar T.; Troselj, Vera

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Myxobacteria form complex social communities that elicit multicellular behaviors. One such behavior is kin recognition, in which cells identify siblings via their polymorphic TraA cell surface receptor, to transiently fuse outer membranes and exchange their contents. In addition, outer membrane exchange (OME) regulates behaviors, such as inhibition of wild-type Myxococcus xanthus (DK1622) from swarming. Here we monitored the fate of motile cells and surprisingly found they were killed by nonmotile siblings. The kill phenotype required OME (i.e., was TraA dependent). The genetic basis of killing was traced to ancestral strains used to construct DK1622. Specifically, the kill phenotype mapped to a large “polyploid prophage,” Mx alpha. Sensitive strains contained a 200-kb deletion that removed two of three Mx alpha units. To explain these results, we suggest that Mx alpha expresses a toxin-antitoxin cassette that uses the OME machinery of M. xanthus to transfer a toxin that makes the population “addicted” to Mx alpha. Thus, siblings that lost Mx alpha units (no immunity) are killed by cells that harbor the element. To test this, an Mx alpha-harboring laboratory strain was engineered (by traA allele swap) to recognize a closely related species, Myxococcus fulvus. As a result, M. fulvus, which lacks Mx alpha, was killed. These TraA-mediated antagonisms provide an explanation for how kin recognition specificity might have evolved in myxobacteria. That is, recognition specificity is determined by polymorphisms in traA, which we hypothesize were selected for because OME with non-kin leads to lethal outcomes. IMPORTANCE The transition from single cell to multicellular life is considered a major evolutionary event. Myxobacteria have successfully made this transition. For example, in response to starvation, individual cells aggregate into multicellular fruiting bodies wherein cells differentiate into spores. To build fruits, cells need to recognize their

  14. Nla18, a key regulatory protein required for normal growth and development of Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed

    Diodati, Michelle E; Ossa, Faisury; Caberoy, Nora B; Jose, Ivy R; Hiraiwa, Wataru; Igo, Michele M; Singer, Mitchell; Garza, Anthony G

    2006-03-01

    NtrC-like activators regulate the transcription of a wide variety of adaptive genes in bacteria. Previously, we demonstrated that a mutation in the ntrC-like activator gene nla18 causes defects in fruiting body development in Myxococcus xanthus. In this report, we describe the effect that nla18 inactivation has on gene expression patterns during development and vegetative growth. Gene expression in nla18 mutant cells is altered in the early stages of fruiting body development. Furthermore, nla18 mutant cells are defective for two of the earliest events in development, production of the intracellular starvation signal ppGpp and production of A-signal. Taken together, these results indicate that the developmental program in nla18 mutant cells goes awry very early. Inactivation of nla18 also causes a dramatic decrease in the vegetative growth rate of M. xanthus cells. DNA microarray analysis revealed that the vegetative expression patterns of more than 700 genes are altered in nla18 mutant cells. Genes coding for putative membrane and membrane-associated proteins are among the largest classes of genes whose expression is altered by nla18 inactivation. This result is supported by our findings that the profiles of membrane proteins isolated from vegetative nla18 mutant and wild-type cells are noticeably different. In addition to genes that code for putative membrane proteins, nla18 inactivation affects the expression of many genes that are likely to be important for protein synthesis and gene regulation. Our data are consistent with a model in which Nla18 controls vegetative growth and development by activating the expression of genes involved in gene regulation, translation, and membrane structure.

  15. Identification and characterization of Myxococcus xanthus mutants deficient in calcofluor white binding.

    PubMed Central

    Ramaswamy, S; Dworkin, M; Downard, J

    1997-01-01

    Calcofluor white is a fluorescent dye that binds to glycans and can be used to detect extracellular polysaccharide in Myxococcus xanthus and many other bacteria. We observed that an esg mutant showed less binding to calcofluor white than wild-type cells. Unlike S-motility mutants that share this phenotypic characteristic, the esg mutant exhibited S motility. This led us to identify a collection of nine new transposon insertion mutants, designated Cds (for calcofluor white binding deficient and S motile), which exhibited a phenotype similar to that of the esg strain. The Cds phenotype was found in 0.6% of the random insertion mutants that were screened. The Cds mutants were also found to be defective in cell-cell agglutination and developmental aggregation. Extracellular matrix fibrils composed of roughly equal amounts of polysaccharide and protein have been shown to be involved in agglutination, and electron microscopic examination showed that esg and the other Cds mutants lack the wild-type level of fibrils. Analysis of total M. xanthus carbohydrate demonstrated that polysaccharide content increased by about 50% when wild-type cells entered stationary phase. This induction was reduced or eliminated in all of the Cds mutants. The degree of polysaccharide deficiency in the Cds mutants correlated with the degree of loss of agglutination and dye binding as well as with the severity of the developmental aggregation defect. Preliminary genetic characterization demonstrated that the transposon insertion mutations in three of the Cds mutants (SR53, SR171, and SR200) were loosely linked. The results of this study suggest that many genes are involved in the production of calcofluor white binding polysaccharide material found in the extracellular matrix and that the polysaccharide is fibrillar. These results are also consistent with the findings of earlier studies which indicated that fibrils function to join agglutinating cells and to form multicellular fruiting aggregates

  16. Identification and characterization of Myxococcus xanthus mutants deficient in calcofluor white binding.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, S; Dworkin, M; Downard, J

    1997-05-01

    Calcofluor white is a fluorescent dye that binds to glycans and can be used to detect extracellular polysaccharide in Myxococcus xanthus and many other bacteria. We observed that an esg mutant showed less binding to calcofluor white than wild-type cells. Unlike S-motility mutants that share this phenotypic characteristic, the esg mutant exhibited S motility. This led us to identify a collection of nine new transposon insertion mutants, designated Cds (for calcofluor white binding deficient and S motile), which exhibited a phenotype similar to that of the esg strain. The Cds phenotype was found in 0.6% of the random insertion mutants that were screened. The Cds mutants were also found to be defective in cell-cell agglutination and developmental aggregation. Extracellular matrix fibrils composed of roughly equal amounts of polysaccharide and protein have been shown to be involved in agglutination, and electron microscopic examination showed that esg and the other Cds mutants lack the wild-type level of fibrils. Analysis of total M. xanthus carbohydrate demonstrated that polysaccharide content increased by about 50% when wild-type cells entered stationary phase. This induction was reduced or eliminated in all of the Cds mutants. The degree of polysaccharide deficiency in the Cds mutants correlated with the degree of loss of agglutination and dye binding as well as with the severity of the developmental aggregation defect. Preliminary genetic characterization demonstrated that the transposon insertion mutations in three of the Cds mutants (SR53, SR171, and SR200) were loosely linked. The results of this study suggest that many genes are involved in the production of calcofluor white binding polysaccharide material found in the extracellular matrix and that the polysaccharide is fibrillar. These results are also consistent with the findings of earlier studies which indicated that fibrils function to join agglutinating cells and to form multicellular fruiting aggregates.

  17. Regulation of a Protein Acetyltransferase in Myxococcus xanthus by the Coenzyme NADP.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin-Xin; Liu, Wei-Bing; Ye, Bang-Ce

    2015-11-23

    NADP(+) is a vital cofactor involved in a wide variety of activities, such as redox potential and cell death. Here, we show that NADP(+) negatively regulates an acetyltransferase from Myxococcus xanthus, Mxan_3215 (MxKat), at physiologic concentrations. MxKat possesses an NAD(P)-binding domain fused to the Gcn5-type N-acetyltransferase (GNAT) domain. We used isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and a coupled enzyme assay to show that NADP(+) bound to MxKat and that the binding had strong effects on enzyme activity. The Gly11 residue of MxKat was confirmed to play an important role in NADP(+) binding using site-directed mutagenesis and circular dichroism spectrometry. In addition, using mass spectrometry, site-directed mutagenesis, and a coupling enzymatic assay, we demonstrated that MxKat acetylates acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) synthetase (Mxan_2570) at Lys622 in response to changes in NADP(+) concentration. Collectively, our results uncovered a mechanism of protein acetyltransferase regulation by the coenzyme NADP(+) at physiological concentrations, suggesting a novel signaling pathway for the regulation of cellular protein acetylation. Microorganisms have developed various protein posttranslational modifications (PTMs), which enable cells to respond quickly to changes in the intracellular and extracellular milieus. This work provides the first biochemical characterization of a protein acetyltransferase (MxKat) that contains a fusion between a GNAT domain and NADP(+)-binding domain with Rossmann folds, and it demonstrates a novel signaling pathway for regulating cellular protein acetylation in M. xanthus. We found that NADP(+) specifically binds to the Rossmann fold of MxKat and negatively regulates its acetyltransferase activity. This finding provides novel insight for connecting cellular metabolic status (NADP(+) metabolism) with levels of protein acetylation, and it extends our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms underlying PTMs. Copyright © 2016

  18. Regulation of a Protein Acetyltransferase in Myxococcus xanthus by the Coenzyme NADP+

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin-Xin

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT NADP+ is a vital cofactor involved in a wide variety of activities, such as redox potential and cell death. Here, we show that NADP+ negatively regulates an acetyltransferase from Myxococcus xanthus, Mxan_3215 (MxKat), at physiologic concentrations. MxKat possesses an NAD(P)-binding domain fused to the Gcn5-type N-acetyltransferase (GNAT) domain. We used isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and a coupled enzyme assay to show that NADP+ bound to MxKat and that the binding had strong effects on enzyme activity. The Gly11 residue of MxKat was confirmed to play an important role in NADP+ binding using site-directed mutagenesis and circular dichroism spectrometry. In addition, using mass spectrometry, site-directed mutagenesis, and a coupling enzymatic assay, we demonstrated that MxKat acetylates acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) synthetase (Mxan_2570) at Lys622 in response to changes in NADP+ concentration. Collectively, our results uncovered a mechanism of protein acetyltransferase regulation by the coenzyme NADP+ at physiological concentrations, suggesting a novel signaling pathway for the regulation of cellular protein acetylation. IMPORTANCE Microorganisms have developed various protein posttranslational modifications (PTMs), which enable cells to respond quickly to changes in the intracellular and extracellular milieus. This work provides the first biochemical characterization of a protein acetyltransferase (MxKat) that contains a fusion between a GNAT domain and NADP+-binding domain with Rossmann folds, and it demonstrates a novel signaling pathway for regulating cellular protein acetylation in M. xanthus. We found that NADP+ specifically binds to the Rossmann fold of MxKat and negatively regulates its acetyltransferase activity. This finding provides novel insight for connecting cellular metabolic status (NADP+ metabolism) with levels of protein acetylation, and it extends our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms underlying PTMs. PMID:26598367

  19. Two Ser/Thr protein kinases essential for efficient aggregation and spore morphogenesis in Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed

    Stein, Emily A; Cho, Kyungyun; Higgs, Penelope I; Zusman, David R

    2006-06-01

    Myxococcus xanthus has a complex life cycle that involves vegetative growth and development. Previously, we described the espAB locus that is involved in timing events during the initial stages of fruiting body formation. Deletion of espA caused early aggregation and sporulation, whereas deletion of espB caused delayed aggregation and sporulation resulting in reduced spore yields. In this study, we describe two genes, pktA5 and pktB8, that flank the espAB locus and encode Ser/Thr protein kinase (STPK) homologues. Cells deficient in pktA5 or pktB8 formed translucent mounds and produced low spore yields, similar in many respects to espB mutants. Double mutant analysis revealed that espA was epistatic to pktA5 and pktB8 with respect to aggregation and fruiting body morphology, but that pktA5 and pktB8 were epistatic to espA with respect to sporulation efficiency. Expression profiles of pktA5-lacZ and pktB8-lacZ fusions and Western blot analysis showed that the STPKs are expressed under vegetative and developmental conditions. In vitro kinase assays demonstrated that the RD kinase, PktA5, autophosphorylated on threonine residue(s) and phosphorylated the artificial substrate, myelin basic protein. In contrast, autophosphorylation of the non-RD kinase, PktB8, was not observed in vitro; however, the phenotype of a pktB8 kinase-dead point mutant resembled the pktB8 deletion mutant, indicating that this residue was important for function and that it likely functions as a kinase in vivo. Immunoprecipitation of Tap-tagged PktA5 and PktB8 revealed an interaction with EspA during development in M. xanthus. These results, taken together, suggest that PktA5 and PktB8 are STPKs that function during development by interacting with EspA and EspB to regulate M. xanthus development.

  20. MasABK proteins interact with proteins of the type IV pilin system to affect social motility of Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed

    Fremgen, Sarah; Williams, Amanda; Furusawa, Gou; Dziewanowska, Katarzyna; Settles, Matthew; Hartzell, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Gliding motility is critical for normal development of spore-filled fruiting bodies in the soil bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. Mutations in mgl block motility and development but one mgl allele can be suppressed by a mutation in masK, the last gene in an operon adjacent to the mgl operon. Deletion of the entire 5.5 kb masABK operon crippled gliding and fruiting body development and decreased sporulation. Expression of pilAGHI, which encodes type IV pili (TFP) components essential for social (S) gliding, several cryptic pil genes, and a LuxR family protein were reduced significantly in the Δmas mutant while expression of the myxalamide operon was increased significantly. Localization and two-hybrid analysis suggest that the three Mas proteins form a membrane complex. MasA-PhoA fusions confirmed that MasA is an integral cytoplasmic membrane protein with a ≈100 amino acid periplasmic domain. Results from yeast two-hybrid assays showed that MasA interacts with the lipoprotein MasB and MasK, a protein kinase and that MasB and MasK interact with one another. Additionally, yeast two-hybrid analysis revealed a physical interaction between two gene products of the mas operon, MasA and MasB, and PilA. Deletion of mas may be accompanied by compensatory mutations since complementation of the Δmas social gliding and developmental defects required addition of both pilA and masABK.

  1. MasABK Proteins Interact with Proteins of the Type IV Pilin System to Affect Social Motility of Myxococcus xanthus

    PubMed Central

    Fremgen, Sarah; Williams, Amanda; Furusawa, Gou; Dziewanowska, Katarzyna; Settles, Matthew; Hartzell, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Gliding motility is critical for normal development of spore-filled fruiting bodies in the soil bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. Mutations in mgl block motility and development but one mgl allele can be suppressed by a mutation in masK, the last gene in an operon adjacent to the mgl operon. Deletion of the entire 5.5 kb masABK operon crippled gliding and fruiting body development and decreased sporulation. Expression of pilAGHI, which encodes type IV pili (TFP) components essential for social (S) gliding, several cryptic pil genes, and a LuxR family protein were reduced significantly in the Δmas mutant while expression of the myxalamide operon was increased significantly. Localization and two-hybrid analysis suggest that the three Mas proteins form a membrane complex. MasA-PhoA fusions confirmed that MasA is an integral cytoplasmic membrane protein with a ≈100 amino acid periplasmic domain. Results from yeast two-hybrid assays showed that MasA interacts with the lipoprotein MasB and MasK, a protein kinase and that MasB and MasK interact with one another. Additionally, yeast two-hybrid analysis revealed a physical interaction between two gene products of the mas operon, MasA and MasB, and PilA. Deletion of mas may be accompanied by compensatory mutations since complementation of the Δmas social gliding and developmental defects required addition of both pilA and masABK. PMID:23342171

  2. Conservation of Ornamental Stone by Myxococcus xanthus-Induced Carbonate Biomineralization

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Navarro, Carlos; Rodriguez-Gallego, Manuel; Ben Chekroun, Koutar; Gonzalez-Muñoz, Maria Teresa

    2003-01-01

    Increasing environmental pollution in urban areas has been endangering the survival of carbonate stones in monuments and statuary for many decades. Numerous conservation treatments have been applied for the protection and consolidation of these works of art. Most of them, however, either release dangerous gases during curing or show very little efficacy. Bacterially induced carbonate mineralization has been proposed as a novel and environmentally friendly strategy for the conservation of deteriorated ornamental stone. However, the method appeared to display insufficient consolidation and plugging of pores. Here we report that Myxococcus xanthus-induced calcium carbonate precipitation efficiently protects and consolidates porous ornamental limestone. The newly formed carbonate cements calcite grains by depositing on the walls of the pores without plugging them. Sonication tests demonstrate that these new carbonate crystals are strongly attached to the substratum, mostly due to epitaxial growth on preexisting calcite grains. The new crystals are more stress resistant than the calcite grains of the original stone because they are organic-inorganic composites. Variations in the phosphate concentrations of the culture medium lead to changes in local pH and bacterial productivity. These affect the structure of the new cement and the type of precipitated CaCO3 polymorph (vaterite or calcite). The manipulation of culture medium composition creates new ways of controlling bacterial biomineralization that in the future could be applied to the conservation of ornamental stone. PMID:12676699

  3. A repressor-antirepressor pair links two loci controlling light-induced carotenogenesis in Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed

    López-Rubio, José Juan; Elías-Arnanz, Montserrat; Padmanabhan, S; Murillo, Francisco José

    2002-03-01

    The light-inducible carB operon encodes all but one of the structural genes for carotenogenesis in Myxococcus xanthus. It is transcriptionally controlled by two proteins expressed from two unlinked genetic loci: CarS from the light-inducible carQRS operon, and CarA from the light-independent carA operon. CarA represses transcription from the carB promoter (P(B)) in the dark, and CarS counteracts this on illumination. The CarA sequence revealed a helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motif of the type found in bacterial MerR transcriptional factors, whereas CarS contains no known DNA-binding motif. Here, we examine the molecular interplay between CarA and CarS. We demonstrate the following. (i) Whereas CarS exhibits no DNA binding in vitro, CarA binds specifically to a region encompassing P(B) to form at least two distinct complexes. (ii) A palindrome located between positions -46 and -63 relative to the transcription start point is essential but not sufficient for the formation of the two CarA-DNA complexes observed. (iii) CarS abrogates the specific DNA binding of CarA. CarA is therefore a repressor and CarS an antirepressor. (iv) CarS physically interacts with CarA; thus, the functional interaction between them is mediated by protein-protein interactions.

  4. Pattern formation by a cell surface-associated morphogen in Myxococcus xanthus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelsbak, Lars; Søgaard-Andersen, Lotte

    2002-02-01

    In response to starvation, an unstructured population of identical Myxococcus xanthus cells rearranges into an asymmetric, stable pattern of multicellular fruiting bodies. Central to this pattern formation process are changes in organized cell movements from swarming to aggregation. Aggregation is induced by the cell surface-associated C-signal. To understand how aggregation is accomplished, we have analyzed how C-signal modulates cell behavior. We show that C-signal induces a motility response that includes increases in transient gliding speeds and in the duration of gliding intervals and decreases in stop and reversal frequencies. This response results in a switch in cell behavior from an oscillatory to a unidirectional type of behavior in which the net-distance traveled by a cell per minute is increased. We propose that the C-signal-dependent regulation of the reversal frequency is essential for aggregation and that the remaining C-signal-dependent changes in motility parameters contribute to aggregation by increasing the net-distance traveled by starving cells per minute. In our model for symmetry-breaking and aggregation, C-signal transmission is a local event involving direct contacts between cells that results in a global organization of cells. This pattern formation mechanism does not require a diffusible substance or other actions at a distance. Rather it depends on contact-induced changes in motility behavior to direct cells appropriately

  5. Isolated fibrils rescue cohesion and development in the Dsp mutant of Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, B Y; Dworkin, M

    1994-01-01

    Extracellular fibrils are involved in cell cohesion and cell development in Myxococcus xanthus. One group of social motility mutants, Dsp, is unable to produce extracellular fibrils; these mutants also lose the abilities to cohere and to develop. Extracellular fibrils isolated from vegetative wild-type cells and added to Dsp cells fully restored the abilities of these cells to cohere and to undergo normal morphological development. The fibrils thus mimic the ability of intact, wild-type cells to carry out the same rescue. Optimal cohesion rescue by fibrils required calcium and magnesium ions, did not require protein synthesis, but was energy dependent, i.e., sodium azide and sodium cyanide blocked rescue. Cohesion rescue was also blocked by the diazo dye Congo red. Cohesion rescue is genus specific, i.e., isolated fibrils did not cause the cohesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, or the related myxobacterium Stigmatella aurantiaca. Developmental rescue of Dsp by isolated fibrils included aggregation, fruiting body formation, and myxospore morphogenesis. Developmental gene expression in the Dsp mutant was only partially rescued by the isolated fibrils. Images PMID:7961490

  6. Purification, characterization and the use of recombinant prolyl oligopeptidase from Myxococcus xanthus for gluten hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Kocadag Kocazorbaz, Ebru; Zihnioglu, Figen

    2017-01-01

    Prolyl oligopeptidase (POP, EC 3.4.21.26) is a cytosolic serine protease that hydrolyses proline containing small peptides. The members of prolyl oligopeptidase family play important roles in many physiological processes such as neurodegenerative diseases, maturation and degradation of peptide hormones. Thus the enzyme has been purified and characterized from various sources to elucidate the potential use as therapeutics. In this study recombinant Myxococcus xanthus prolyl oligopeptidase expressed in E. coli was purified 60.3 fold, using metal-chelate affinity and gel permeation chromatography. The recombinant enzyme had a monomeric molecular weight of 70 kDa. Isoelectric point of the enzyme was found to be approximately 6.3 by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The optimum pH and temperature was estimated as 7.5 and 37 °C, respectively. The purified enzyme was stable in a pH range of 6.0-8.5 and thermally stable up to 37 °C. The Km and Vmax values were 0.2 mM and 3.42 μmol/min/mg. The proteolytic activity was inhibited by active-site inhibitors of serine protease, Z-Pro-Prolinal, PMSF, and metal ions, Cd(2+), and Hg(2+). Furthermore, the hydrolysis efficiency of the recombinant prolyl oligopeptidase was investigated with wheat gluten. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic identification and cloning of a gene required for developmental cell interactions in Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed Central

    Gill, R E; Cull, M G; Fly, S

    1988-01-01

    Developmental mutants of Myxococcus xanthus have been previously described which appear to be defective in required cell-cell interactions. These mutants fall into four phenotypic classes, Asg, Bsg, Csg, and Dsg, each of which is unable to differentiate into spores but can be rescued by extracellular complementation by wild-type cells or by mutants of a different class. We report the identification of one of the loci in which mutations result in a Bsg phenotype. The cloned locus was contained on a 12-kilobase EcoRI fragment and then localized by subcloning and a combination of in vitro and transposon mutagenesis. All mutations in this locus behave as a single complementation group, which we designate bsgA (formerly ssbA). Each of the bsgA mutations results in a nonsporulating phenotype, which can be rescued by extracellular complementation. Furthermore, we report that the bsgA mutants have a distinctive interaction with wild-type cells when vegetatively growing, swarming colonies converge. Images PMID:2846514

  8. Mutational Analysis of the Myxococcus xanthus Ω4499 Promoter Region Reveals Shared and Unique Properties in Comparison with Other C-Signal-Dependent Promoters

    PubMed Central

    Yoder, Deborah R.; Kroos, Lee

    2004-01-01

    The bacterium Myxococcus xanthus undergoes multicellular development during times of nutritional stress and uses extracellular signals to coordinate cell behavior. C-signal affects gene expression late in development, including that of Ω4499, an operon identified by insertion of Tn5 lac into the M. xanthus chromosome. The Ω4499 promoter region has several sequences in common with those found previously to be important for expression of other C-signal-dependent promoters. To determine if these sequences are important for Ω4499 promoter activity, the effects of mutations on expression of a downstream reporter gene were tested in M. xanthus. Although the promoter resembles those recognized by Escherichia coli σ54, mutational analysis implied that a σ70-type σ factor likely recognizes the promoter. A 7-bp sequence known as a C box and a 5-bp element located 6 bp upstream of the C box have been shown to be important for expression of other C-signal-dependent promoters. The Ω4499 promoter region has C boxes centered at −33 and −55 bp, with 5-bp elements located 7 and 8 bp upstream, respectively. A multiple-base-pair mutation in any of these sequences reduced Ω4499 promoter activity more than twofold. Single base-pair mutations in the C box centered at −33 bp yielded a different pattern of effects on expression than similar mutations in other C boxes, indicating that each functions somewhat differently. An element from about −81 to −77 bp exerted a twofold positive effect on expression but did not appear to be responsible for the C-signal dependence of the Ω4499 promoter. Mutations in sigD and sigE, which are genes that encode σ factors, reduced expression from the Ω4499 promoter. The results provide further insight into the regulation of C-signal-dependent genes, demonstrating both shared and unique properties among the promoter regions so far examined. PMID:15175290

  9. Fatty Acids from Membrane Lipids Become Incorporated into Lipid Bodies during Myxococcus xanthus Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Swapna; Boynton, Tye O.; Pham, Dan; Shimkets, Lawrence J.

    2014-01-01

    Myxococcus xanthus responds to amino acid limitation by producing fruiting bodies containing dormant spores. During development, cells produce triacylglycerides in lipid bodies that become consumed during spore maturation. As the cells are starved to induce development, the production of triglycerides represents a counterintuitive metabolic switch. In this paper, lipid bodies were quantified in wild-type strain DK1622 and 33 developmental mutants at the cellular level by measuring the cross sectional area of the cell stained with the lipophilic dye Nile red. We provide five lines of evidence that triacylglycerides are derived from membrane phospholipids as cells shorten in length and then differentiate into myxospores. First, in wild type cells, lipid bodies appear early in development and their size increases concurrent with an 87% decline in membrane surface area. Second, developmental mutants blocked at different stages of shortening and differentiation accumulated lipid bodies proportionate with their cell length with a Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.76. Third, peripheral rods, developing cells that do not produce lipid bodies, fail to shorten. Fourth, genes for fatty acid synthesis are down-regulated while genes for fatty acid degradation are up regulated. Finally, direct movement of fatty acids from membrane lipids in growing cells to lipid bodies in developing cells was observed by pulse labeling cells with palmitate. Recycling of lipids released by Programmed Cell Death appears not to be necessary for lipid body production as a fadL mutant was defective in fatty acid uptake but proficient in lipid body production. The lipid body regulon involves many developmental genes that are not specifically involved in fatty acid synthesis or degradation. MazF RNA interferase and its target, enhancer-binding protein Nla6, appear to negatively regulate cell shortening and TAG accumulation whereas most cell-cell signals activate these processes. PMID:24906161

  10. CorE from Myxococcus xanthus Is a Copper-Dependent RNA Polymerase Sigma Factor

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Santos, Nuria; Pérez, Juana; Sánchez-Sutil, María Celestina; Moraleda-Muñoz, Aurelio; Muñoz-Dorado, José

    2011-01-01

    The dual toxicity/essentiality of copper forces cells to maintain a tightly regulated homeostasis for this metal in all living organisms, from bacteria to humans. Consequently, many genes have previously been reported to participate in copper detoxification in bacteria. Myxococcus xanthus, a prokaryote, encodes many proteins involved in copper homeostasis that are differentially regulated by this metal. A σ factor of the ECF (extracytoplasmic function) family, CorE, has been found to regulate the expression of the multicopper oxidase cuoB, the P1B-type ATPases copA and copB, and a gene encoding a protein with a heavy-metal-associated domain. Characterization of CorE has revealed that it requires copper to bind DNA in vitro. Genes regulated by CorE exhibit a characteristic expression profile, with a peak at 2 h after copper addition. Expression rapidly decreases thereafter to basal levels, although the metal is still present in the medium, indicating that the activity of CorE is modulated by a process of activation and inactivation. The use of monovalent and divalent metals to mimic Cu(I) and Cu(II), respectively, and of additives that favor the formation of the two redox states of this metal, has revealed that CorE is activated by Cu(II) and inactivated by Cu(I). The activation/inactivation properties of CorE reside in a Cys-rich domain located at the C terminus of the protein. Point mutations at these residues have allowed the identification of several Cys involved in the activation and inactivation of CorE. Based on these data, along with comparative genomic studies, a new group of ECF σ factors is proposed, which not only clearly differs mechanistically from the other σ factors so far characterized, but also from other metal regulators. PMID:21655090

  11. Identification of heat-stable A-factor from Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed Central

    Kuspa, A; Plamann, L; Kaiser, D

    1992-01-01

    The asg mutants of Myxococcus xanthus fail to produce a set of related substances called A-factor. A-factor is released into the medium and is required early in fruiting body development. Lacking A-factor, the asg mutants are defective in aggregation, sporulation, and expression of most genes whose products appear later than 1 h after development is induced by starvation. Previous work has shown that these defects are reversed when A-factor, released by developing wild-type cells, is added to asg mutant cells. Part of the material in conditioned medium with A-factor activity is heat stable and dialyzable. This low-molecular-weight A-factor consists of a mixture of amino acids and peptides. Fifteen single amino acids have A-factor activity, and 11 of these are found in conditioned medium. Mixtures of amino acids have a total activity approximately equal to the sum of the activities of their constituents. Conditioned medium also contains peptides with A-factor activity. Pure peptides have A-factor activity, and their specific activities are equal to or less than the sum of the activities of their constituent amino acids. There is no evidence for a specialized A-factor peptide in conditioned medium, one with a specific activity greater than the sum of its constituent amino acids. About half of the heat-stable A-factor activity in conditioned medium can be accounted for by free amino acids, and the remaining half can be accounted for by peptides. It is argued that heat-stable A-factor induces A-dependent gene expression not by the nutritional action of amino acids but through a chemosensory circuit. PMID:1577697

  12. Comparative genomics of transport proteins in developmental bacteria: Myxococcus xanthus and Streptomyces coelicolor.

    PubMed

    Getsin, Ilya; Nalbandian, Gina H; Yee, Daniel C; Vastermark, Ake; Paparoditis, Philipp C G; Reddy, Vamsee S; Saier, Milton H

    2013-12-05

    Two of the largest fully sequenced prokaryotic genomes are those of the actinobacterium, Streptomyces coelicolor (Sco), and the δ-proteobacterium, Myxococcus xanthus (Mxa), both differentiating, sporulating, antibiotic producing, soil microbes. Although the genomes of Sco and Mxa are the same size (~9 Mbp), Sco has 10% more genes that are on average 10% smaller than those in Mxa. Surprisingly, Sco has 93% more identifiable transport proteins than Mxa. This is because Sco has amplified several specific types of its transport protein genes, while Mxa has done so to a much lesser extent. Amplification is substrate- and family-specific. For example, Sco but not Mxa has amplified its voltage-gated ion channels but not its aquaporins and mechano-sensitive channels. Sco but not Mxa has also amplified drug efflux pumps of the DHA2 Family of the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) (49 versus 6), amino acid transporters of the APC Family (17 versus 2), ABC-type sugar transport proteins (85 versus 6), and organic anion transporters of several families. Sco has not amplified most other types of transporters. Mxa has selectively amplified one family of macrolid exporters relative to Sco (16 versus 1), consistent with the observation that Mxa makes more macrolids than does Sco. Except for electron transport carriers, there is a poor correlation between the types of transporters found in these two organisms, suggesting that their solutions to differentiative and metabolic needs evolved independently. A number of unexpected and surprising observations are presented, and predictions are made regarding the physiological functions of recognizable transporters as well as the existence of yet to be discovered transport systems in these two important model organisms and their relatives. The results provide insight into the evolutionary processes by which two dissimilar prokaryotes evolved complexity, particularly through selective chromosomal gene amplification.

  13. Comparative genomics of transport proteins in developmental bacteria: Myxococcus xanthus and Streptomyces coelicolor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Two of the largest fully sequenced prokaryotic genomes are those of the actinobacterium, Streptomyces coelicolor (Sco), and the δ-proteobacterium, Myxococcus xanthus (Mxa), both differentiating, sporulating, antibiotic producing, soil microbes. Although the genomes of Sco and Mxa are the same size (~9 Mbp), Sco has 10% more genes that are on average 10% smaller than those in Mxa. Results Surprisingly, Sco has 93% more identifiable transport proteins than Mxa. This is because Sco has amplified several specific types of its transport protein genes, while Mxa has done so to a much lesser extent. Amplification is substrate- and family-specific. For example, Sco but not Mxa has amplified its voltage-gated ion channels but not its aquaporins and mechano-sensitive channels. Sco but not Mxa has also amplified drug efflux pumps of the DHA2 Family of the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) (49 versus 6), amino acid transporters of the APC Family (17 versus 2), ABC-type sugar transport proteins (85 versus 6), and organic anion transporters of several families. Sco has not amplified most other types of transporters. Mxa has selectively amplified one family of macrolid exporters relative to Sco (16 versus 1), consistent with the observation that Mxa makes more macrolids than does Sco. Conclusions Except for electron transport carriers, there is a poor correlation between the types of transporters found in these two organisms, suggesting that their solutions to differentiative and metabolic needs evolved independently. A number of unexpected and surprising observations are presented, and predictions are made regarding the physiological functions of recognizable transporters as well as the existence of yet to be discovered transport systems in these two important model organisms and their relatives. The results provide insight into the evolutionary processes by which two dissimilar prokaryotes evolved complexity, particularly through selective chromosomal gene

  14. Colony Expansion of Socially Motile Myxococcus xanthus Cells Is Driven by Growth, Motility, and Exopolysaccharide Production

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Pintu; Kissoon, Kimberley; Cornejo, Isabel; Kaplan, Heidi B.; Igoshin, Oleg A.

    2016-01-01

    Myxococcus xanthus, a model organism for studies of multicellular behavior in bacteria, moves exclusively on solid surfaces using two distinct but coordinated motility mechanisms. One of these, social (S) motility is powered by the extension and retraction of type IV pili and requires the presence of exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by neighboring cells. As a result, S motility requires close cell-to-cell proximity and isolated cells do not translocate. Previous studies measuring S motility by observing the colony expansion of cells deposited on agar have shown that the expansion rate increases with initial cell density, but the biophysical mechanisms involved remain largely unknown. To understand the dynamics of S motility-driven colony expansion, we developed a reaction-diffusion model describing the effects of cell density, EPS deposition and nutrient exposure on the expansion rate. Our results show that at steady state the population expands as a traveling wave with a speed determined by the interplay of cell motility and growth, a well-known characteristic of Fisher’s equation. The model explains the density-dependence of the colony expansion by demonstrating the presence of a lag phase–a transient period of very slow expansion with a duration dependent on the initial cell density. We propose that at a low initial density, more time is required for the cells to accumulate enough EPS to activate S-motility resulting in a longer lag period. Furthermore, our model makes the novel prediction that following the lag phase the population expands at a constant rate independent of the cell density. These predictions were confirmed by S motility experiments capturing long-term expansion dynamics. PMID:27362260

  15. Division Cycle of Myxococcus xanthus III. Kinetics of Cell Growth and Protein Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Zusman, David; Gottlieb, Peter; Rosenberg, Eugene

    1971-01-01

    The kinetics of cell growth and protein synthesis during the division cycle of Myxococcus xanthus was determined. The distribution of cell size for both septated and nonseptated bacteria was obtained by direct measurement of the lengths of 8,000 cells. The Collins-Richmond equation was modified to consider bacterial growth in two phases: growth and division. From the derived equation, the growth rate of individual cells was computed as a function of size. Nondividing cells (growth phase) comprised 91% of the population and took up 87% of the time of the division cycle. The absolute and specific growth rates of nondividing cells were observed to increase continually throughout the growth phase; the growth rate of dividing cells could not be determined accurately by this technique because of changes in the geometry of cells between the time of septation and physical separation. The rate of protein synthesis during the division cycle was measured by pulselabeling an exponential-phase culture with radio-active valine or arginine and then preparing the cells for quantitative autoradiography. By measuring the size of individual cells as well as the number of grains, the rate of protein synthesis as a function of cell size was obtained. Nondividing cells showed an increase in both the absolute and specific rates of protein synthesis throughout the growth phase; the specific rate of protein synthesis for dividing cells was low when compared to growthphase cells. Cell growth and protein synthesis are compared to the previously reported kinetics of deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid synthesis during the division cycle. PMID:4926683

  16. Ribonucleic Acid and Protein Synthesis During Germination of Myxococcus xanthus Myxospores

    PubMed Central

    Juengst, Fredrick W.; Dworkin, Martin

    1973-01-01

    Ribonucleic acid (RNA) and protein synthesis during myxospore germination were examined. When RNA synthesis was inhibited more than 90% by either actinomycin D (Act D) or rifampin, germination was prevented. The data were consistent with the interpretation that rifampin did not interfere with protein synthesis in any way other than by inhibition of messenger RNA formation. Act D concentrations as high as 20 μg/ml did not totally inhibit RNA synthesis. In the presence of 8 μg of Act D/ml, germinating myxospores synthesized transfer RNA, 16S RNA, and 23S RNA. Evidence was presented which indicated that messenger RNA was also synthesized early in the germination period both in the presence and absence of 8 μg of Act D/ml. One explanation for the escape synthesis of RNA in germinating myxospores is that Act D exerts a differential effect on the transcription of larger versus smaller cistrons, the latter having a lower probability of binding Act D. We have found that in the presence of 8 μg of Act D/ml, escape RNA synthesis in myxospores was 25% for 23S RNA, 55% for 16S RNA, and more than 90% for 4S RNA. We have shown that germination of myxospores requires both RNA and protein synthesis during the first 25 to 35 min in germination medium. This finding does not support the earlier suggestion by Ramsey and Dworkin that a stable germination messenger RNA is required for germination of the myxospores of Myxococcus xanthus. PMID:4690965

  17. A tactile sensory system of Myxococcus xanthus involves an extracellular NAD(P)(+)-containing protein.

    PubMed

    Lee, B U; Lee, K; Mendez, J; Shimkets, L J

    1995-12-01

    CsgA is a cell surface protein that plays an essential role in tactile responses during Myxococcus xanthus fruiting body formation by producing the morphogenic C-signal. The primary amino acid sequence of CsgA exhibits homology with members of the short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase (SCAD) family and several lines of evidence suggest that NAD(P)+ binding is essential for biological activity. First, the predicted CsgA secondary structure based on the 3 alpha/20 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase crystal structure suggests that the amino-terminal portion of the protein contains an NAD(P)+ binding pocket. Second, strains with csgA alleles encoding amino acid substitutions T6A and R10A in the NAD(P)+ binding pocket failed to develop. Third, exogenous MalE-CsgA rescues csgA development, whereas MalE-CsgA with the amino acid substitution CsgA T6A does not. Finally, csgA spore yield increased approximately 20% when containing 100 nM of MalE-CsgA was supplemented with 10 microM of NAD+ or NADP+. Conversely, 10 microM of NADH or NADPH delayed development for approximately 24 hr and depressed spore levels approximately 10%. Together, these results argue that NAD(P)+ binding is critical for C-signaling. S135 and K155 are conserved amino acids in the catalytic domain of SCAD members. Strains with csgA alleles encoding the amino acid substitutions S135T or K155R failed to develop. Furthermore, a MalE-CsgA protein containing CsgA S135T was not able to restore development to csgA cells. In conclusion, amino acids conserved in the coenzyme binding pocket and catalytic site are essential for C-signaling.

  18. Control of asgE Expression during Growth and Development of Myxococcus xanthus

    PubMed Central

    Garza, Anthony G.; Harris, Baruch Z.; Greenberg, Brandon M.; Singer, Mitchell

    2000-01-01

    One of the earliest events in the Myxococcus xanthus developmental cycle is production of an extracellular cell density signal called A-signal (or A-factor). Previously, we showed that cells carrying an insertion in the asgE gene fail to produce normal levels of this cell-cell signal. In this study we found that expression of asgE is growth phase regulated and developmentally regulated. Several lines of evidence indicate that asgE is cotranscribed with an upstream gene during development. Using primer extension analyses, we identified two 5′ ends for this developmental transcript. The DNA sequence upstream of one 5′ end has similarity to the promoter regions of several genes that are A-signal dependent, whereas sequences located upstream of the second 5′ end show similarity to promoter elements identified for genes that are C-signal dependent. Consistent with this result is our finding that mutants failing to produce A-signal or C-signal are defective for developmental expression of asgE. In contrast to developing cells, the large majority of the asgE transcript found in vegetative cells appears to be monocistronic. This finding suggests that asgE uses different promoters for expression during vegetative growth and development. Growth phase regulation of asgE is abolished in a relA mutant, indicating that this vegetative promoter is induced by starvation. The data presented here, in combination with our previous results, indicate that the level of AsgE in vegetative cells is sufficient for this protein to carry out its function during development. PMID:11073904

  19. The Che4 pathway of Myxococcus xanthus regulates type IV pilus-mediated motility.

    PubMed

    Vlamakis, Hera C; Kirby, John R; Zusman, David R

    2004-06-01

    Myxococcus xanthus co-ordinates cell movement during its complex life cycle using multiple chemotaxis-like signal transduction pathways. These pathways regulate both type IV pilus-mediated social (S) motility and adventurous (A) motility. During a search for new chemoreceptors, we identified the che4 operon, which encodes homologues to a MCP (methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein), two CheWs, a hybrid CheA-CheY, a response regulator and a CheR. Deletion of the che4 operon did not cause swarming or developmental defects in either the wild-type (A(+)S(+)) strain or in a strain sustaining only A motility (A(+)S(-)). However, in a strain displaying only S motility (A(-)S(+)), deletion of the che4 operon or the gene encoding the response regulator, cheY4, caused enhanced vegetative swarming and prevented aggregation and sporulation. In contrast, deletion of mcp4 caused reduced vegetative swarming and enhanced development compared with the parent strain. Single-cell analysis of the motility of the A(-)S(+) parent strain revealed a previously unknown inverse correlation between velocity and reversal frequency. Thus, cells that moved at higher velocities showed a reduced reversal frequency. This co-ordination of reversal frequency and velocity was lost in the mcp4 and cheY4 mutants. The structural components of the S motility apparatus were unaffected in the che4 mutants, suggesting that the Che4 system affects reversal frequency of cells by modulating the function of the type IV pilus.

  20. Expression and physiological role of three Myxococcus xanthus copper-dependent P1B-type ATPases during bacterial growth and development.

    PubMed

    Moraleda-Muñoz, Aurelio; Pérez, Juana; Extremera, Antonio Luis; Muñoz-Dorado, José

    2010-09-01

    Myxococcus xanthus is a soil-dwelling bacterium that exhibits a complex life cycle comprising social behavior, morphogenesis, and differentiation. In order to successfully complete this life cycle, cells have to cope with changes in their environment, among which the presence of copper is remarkable. Copper is an essential transition metal for life, but an excess of copper provokes cellular damage by oxidative stress. This dual effect forces the cells to maintain a tight homeostasis. M. xanthus encodes a large number of genes with similarities to others reported previously to be involved in copper homeostasis, most of which are redundant. We have identified three genes that encode copper-translocating P(1B)-ATPases (designated copA, copB, and copC) that exhibit the sequence motifs and modular organizations of those that extrude Cu(+). The expression of the ATPase copC has not been detected, but copA and copB are differentially regulated by the addition of external copper. However, while copB expression peaks at 2 h, copA is expressed at higher levels, and the maximum is reached much later. The fact that these expression profiles are nearly identical to those exhibited by the multicopper oxidases cuoA and cuoB suggests that the pairs CuoB-CopB and CuoA-CopA sequentially function to detoxify the cell. The deletion of any ATPase alters the expression profiles of other genes involved in copper homeostasis, such as the remaining ATPases or the Cus systems, yielding cells that are more resistant to the metal.

  1. The Nla6S protein of Myxococcus xanthus is the prototype for a new family of bacterial histidine kinases.

    PubMed

    Sarwar, Zaara; Garza, Anthony G

    2012-10-01

    Myxococcus xanthus has a large number of histidine kinase (HK) signal transduction proteins and many of these HKs are important for fruiting body development. Nla6S is an uncharacterized HK that lacks many of the conserved sequence motifs of typical HK proteins. In this study, we report that expression of the nla6S gene increases about sixfold during fruiting body development, that the Nla6S protein has the in vitro properties of HKs and that Nla6S is the prototype for a new family of HKs. To date, these Nla6-like HKs are found only in fruiting members of the Cystobacterineae suborder of the myxobacteria. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. FrzCD, a methyl-accepting taxis protein from Myxococcus xanthus, shows modulated methylation during fruiting body formation.

    PubMed

    McBride, M J; Zusman, D R

    1993-08-01

    The frizzy (frz) genes of Myxococcus xanthus are required to control directed motility during vegetative growth and fruiting body formation. FrzCD, a protein homologous to the methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins from enteric bacteria, is modified by methylation in response to environmental conditions. Transfer of cells from rich medium to fruiting medium initially caused rapid demethylation of FrzCD. Subsequently, the amount of FrzCD increased, but most remained unmethylated. At about the time of mound formation (9 h), most of the FrzCD was converted to methylated forms. Dispersal of developing cells (10 h) in buffer led to the demethylation of FrzCD, whereas concentration of these cells caused methylation of FrzCD. Some mutants which were unable to form fruiting bodies still modified their FrzCD during incubation under conditions of starvation on a surface.

  3. Light-induced carotenogenesis in Myxococcus xanthus: evidence that CarS acts as an anti-repressor of CarA.

    PubMed

    Whitworth, D E; Hodgson, D A

    2001-11-01

    In the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus, carotenoids are produced in response to illumination, as a result of expression of the crt carotenoid biosynthesis genes. The majority of crt genes are clustered in the crtEBDC operon, which is repressed in the dark by CarA. Genetic data suggest that, in the light, CarS is synthesized and achieves activation of the crtEBDC operon by removing the repressive action of CarA. As CarS contains no known DNA-binding motif, the relief of CarA-mediated repression was postulated to result from a direct interaction between these two proteins. Use of the yeast two-hybrid system demonstrated direct interaction between CarA and CarS. The two-hybrid system also implied that CarA and, possibly, CarS are capable of homodimerization. Direct evidence for CarS anti-repressor action was provided in vitro. A glutathione S-transferase (GST)-CarA protein fusion was shown to bind specifically to a palindromic operator sequence within the crtEBDC promoter. CarA was prevented from binding to its operator, and prebound CarA was removed by the addition of purified CarS. CarS is therefore an anti-repressor.

  4. The Bactofilin Cytoskeleton Protein BacM of Myxococcus xanthus Forms an Extended β-Sheet Structure Likely Mediated by Hydrophobic Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Kefang; Engelhardt, Harald; Bosch, Jürgen; Hoiczyk, Egbert

    2015-01-01

    Bactofilins are novel cytoskeleton proteins that are widespread in Gram-negative bacteria. Myxococcus xanthus, an important predatory soil bacterium, possesses four bactofilins of which one, BacM (Mxan_7475) plays an important role in cell shape maintenance. Electron and fluorescence light microscopy, as well as studies using over-expressed, purified BacM, indicate that this protein polymerizes in vivo and in vitro into ~3 nm wide filaments that further associate into higher ordered fibers of about 10 nm. Here we use a multipronged approach combining secondary structure determination, molecular modeling, biochemistry, and genetics to identify and characterize critical molecular elements that enable BacM to polymerize. Our results indicate that the bactofilin-determining domain DUF583 folds into an extended β-sheet structure, and we hypothesize a left-handed β-helix with polymerization into 3 nm filaments primarily via patches of hydrophobic amino acid residues. These patches form the interface allowing head-to-tail polymerization during filament formation. Biochemical analyses of these processes show that folding and polymerization occur across a wide variety of conditions and even in the presence of chaotropic agents such as one molar urea. Together, these data suggest that bactofilins are comprised of a structure unique to cytoskeleton proteins, which enables robust polymerization. PMID:25803609

  5. Novel iso-branched ether lipids as specific markers of developmental sporulation in the myxobacterium Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed

    Ring, Michael W; Schwär, Gertrud; Thiel, Verena; Dickschat, Jeroen S; Kroppenstedt, Reiner M; Schulz, Stefan; Bode, Helge B

    2006-12-01

    Iso-fatty acids (FAs) are the dominant FA family in all myxobacteria analyzed. Furthermore, it was postulated that iso-FAs or compounds derived thereof are involved in fruiting body formation in Myxococcus xanthus, since mutants with a reduced level of iso-FA due to a reduced level of the precursor isovaleryl-CoA, are delayed in aggregation and produce only few myxospores. To elucidate the function of iso-FAs and their corresponding lipids we have analyzed the developmental phenotype of mutants having different levels of iso-FAs resulting in a clear correlation between the amount of iso-FAs and the delay of aggregation and reduction in spore yield. Addition of either isovalerate or 13-methyltetradecanoic acid resulted in restoration of the wild-type FA profile and normal development. Detailed analysis of the fatty acid (FA) profile during fruiting body formation in Myxococcus xanthus wild-type revealed the specific accumulation of 13-methyltetradecanal and 1-O-13-methyltetradecylglycerol which were produced specifically in the myxospores and which are derived from 1-O-(13-methyl-1-Z-tetradecenyl)-2-O-(13-methyltetradecanoyl)-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine (VEPE) and 1,2-di-(13-methyltetradecanoyl)-3-(13-methyltetradecyl)glycerol (TG-1), respectively. The structures of these unusual ether lipids have been determined by spectrometric methods and synthesis (for TG-1). Analysis of several mutants blocked at different stages of development indicated that the biosynthesis of TG-1 is developmentally regulated and that VEPE might be an intermediate in the TG-1 biosynthesis. Finally, addition of TG-1 to mutants blocked in the biosynthesis of isovaleryl-CoA could restore aggregation and sporulation emphasizing the important role of iso-branched lipids for myxobacterial development.

  6. Methylation of FrzCD, a methyl-accepting taxis protein of Myxococcus xanthus, is correlated with factors affecting cell behavior.

    PubMed

    McBride, M J; Köhler, T; Zusman, D R

    1992-07-01

    Myxococcus xanthus, a nonflagellated gliding bacterium, exhibits multicellular behavior during vegetative growth and fruiting body formation. The frizzy (frz) genes are required to control directed motility for these interactions. The frz genes encode proteins that are homologous to all of the major enteric chemotaxis proteins, with the exception of CheZ. In this study, we characterized FrzCD, a protein which is homologous to the methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins from the enteric bacteria. FrzCD, unlike the other methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins, was found to be localized primarily in the cytoplasmic fraction of cells. FrzCD migrates as a ladder of bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, reflecting heterogeneity due to methylation or demethylation and to deamidation. FrzCD was shown to be methylated in vivo when cells were exposed to yeast extract or Casitone and demethylated when starved in buffer. We used the methylation state of FrzCD as revealed by Western blot (immunoblot) analyses to search for stimuli that are recognized by the frz signal transduction system. Common amino acids, nucleotides, vitamins, and sugars were not recognized, but certain lipids and alcohols were recognized. For example, the saturated fatty acids capric acid and lauric acid stimulated FrzCD methylation, whereas a variety of other saturated fatty acids did not. Lauryl alcohol and lipoic acid also stimulated methylation, as did phospholipids containing lauric acid. In contrast, several short-chain alcohols, such as isoamyl alcohol, and some other solvents caused demethylation. The relatively high concentrations of the chemicals required for a response may indicate that these chemicals are not the relevant signals recognized by M. xanthus in nature. Isoamyl alcohol and isopropanol also had profound effects on the behavior of wild-type cells, causing them to reverse continuously. Cells of frzB, frzF, and frzG mutants also reversed continuously in the

  7. Two-Component Signal Transduction Systems That Regulate the Temporal and Spatial Expression of Myxococcus xanthus Sporulation Genes

    PubMed Central

    Sarwar, Zaara

    2015-01-01

    When starved for nutrients, Myxococcus xanthus produces a biofilm that contains a mat of rod-shaped cells, known as peripheral rods, and aerial structures called fruiting bodies, which house thousands of dormant and stress-resistant spherical spores. Because rod-shaped cells differentiate into spherical, stress-resistant spores and spore differentiation occurs only in nascent fruiting bodies, many genes and multiple levels of regulation are required. Over the past 2 decades, many regulators of the temporal and spatial expression of M. xanthus sporulation genes have been uncovered. Of these sporulation gene regulators, two-component signal transduction circuits, which typically contain a histidine kinase sensor protein and a transcriptional regulator known as response regulator, are among the best characterized. In this review, we discuss prototypical two-component systems (Nla6S/Nla6 and Nla28S/Nla28) that regulate an early, preaggregation phase of sporulation gene expression during fruiting body development. We also discuss orphan response regulators (ActB and FruA) that regulate a later phase of sporulation gene expression, which begins during the aggregation stage of fruiting body development. In addition, we summarize the research on a complex two-component system (Esp) that is important for the spatial regulation of sporulation. PMID:26369581

  8. Two-Component Signal Transduction Systems That Regulate the Temporal and Spatial Expression of Myxococcus xanthus Sporulation Genes.

    PubMed

    Sarwar, Zaara; Garza, Anthony G

    2015-09-14

    When starved for nutrients, Myxococcus xanthus produces a biofilm that contains a mat of rod-shaped cells, known as peripheral rods, and aerial structures called fruiting bodies, which house thousands of dormant and stress-resistant spherical spores. Because rod-shaped cells differentiate into spherical, stress-resistant spores and spore differentiation occurs only in nascent fruiting bodies, many genes and multiple levels of regulation are required. Over the past 2 decades, many regulators of the temporal and spatial expression of M. xanthus sporulation genes have been uncovered. Of these sporulation gene regulators, two-component signal transduction circuits, which typically contain a histidine kinase sensor protein and a transcriptional regulator known as response regulator, are among the best characterized. In this review, we discuss prototypical two-component systems (Nla6S/Nla6 and Nla28S/Nla28) that regulate an early, preaggregation phase of sporulation gene expression during fruiting body development. We also discuss orphan response regulators (ActB and FruA) that regulate a later phase of sporulation gene expression, which begins during the aggregation stage of fruiting body development. In addition, we summarize the research on a complex two-component system (Esp) that is important for the spatial regulation of sporulation. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Identification of a mutant locus that bypasses the BsgA protease requirement for social development in Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed

    Cusick, John K; Hager, Elizabeth; Gill, Ronald E

    2015-01-01

    The BsgA protease is required for the earliest morphological changes observed in Myxococcus xanthus development. We hypothesize that the BsgA protease is required to cleave an inhibitor of the developmental program, and isolation of genetic bypass suppressors of a bsgA mutant was used to identify signaling components controlling development downstream of the BsgA protease. Strain M955 was created by transposon mutagenesis of a bsgA mutant followed by screening for strains that could develop despite the absence of the BsgA protease. Strain M955 was able to aggregate, form fruiting bodies, and partially restored the production of viable spores in comparison to the parental bsgA mutant. The bsgA Tn5Ω955 strain partially restored developmental expression to a subset of genes normally induced during development, and expressed one developmentally induced fusion at higher amounts during vegetative growth in comparison to wild-type cells. The transposon in strain M955 was localized to a Ribonuclease D homolog that appears to exist in an operon with a downstream aminopeptidase-encoding gene. The identification of a third distinct bypass suppressor of the BsgA protease suggests that the BsgA protease may regulate a potentially complex pathway during the initiation of the M. xanthus developmental program.

  10. Combinatorial Regulation of the dev Operon by MrpC2 and FruA during Myxococcus xanthus Development

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Ashleigh; Viswanathan, Poorna; Barrett, Terry; Son, Bongjun; Saha, Shreya

    2014-01-01

    Proper expression of the dev operon is important for normal development of Myxococcus xanthus. When starved, these bacteria coordinate their gliding movements to build mounds that become fruiting bodies as some cells differentiate into spores. Mutations in the devTRS genes impair sporulation. Expression of the operon occurs within nascent fruiting bodies and depends in part on C signaling. Here, we report that expression of the dev operon, like that of several other C-signal-dependent genes, is subject to combinatorial control by the transcription factors MrpC2 and FruA. A DNA fragment upstream of the dev promoter was bound by a protein in an extract containing MrpC2, protecting the region spanning positions −77 to −54. Mutations in this region impaired binding of purified MrpC2 and abolished developmental expression of reporter fusions. The association of MrpC2 and/or its longer form, MrpC, with the dev promoter region depended on FruA in vivo, based on chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis, and purified FruA appeared to bind cooperatively with MrpC2 to DNA just upstream of the dev promoter in vitro. We conclude that cooperative binding of the two proteins to this promoter-proximal site is crucial for dev expression. 5′ deletion analysis implied a second upstream positive regulatory site, which corresponded to a site of weak cooperative binding of MrpC2 and FruA and boosted dev expression 24 h into development. This site is unique among the C-signal-dependent genes studied so far. Deletion of this site in the M. xanthus chromosome did not impair sporulation under laboratory conditions. PMID:25349159

  11. The Nla28S/Nla28 two-component signal transduction system regulates sporulation in Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed

    Sarwar, Zaara; Garza, Anthony G

    2012-09-01

    The response regulator Nla28 is a key component in a cascade of transcriptional activators that modulates expression of many important developmental genes in Myxococcus xanthus. In this study, we identified and characterized Nla28S, a histidine kinase that modulates the activity of this important regulator of M. xanthus developmental genes. We show that the putative cytoplasmic domain of Nla28S has the in vitro biochemical properties of a histidine kinase protein: it hydrolyzes ATP and undergoes an ATP-dependent autophosphorylation that is acid labile and base stable. We also show that the putative cytoplasmic domain of Nla28S transfers a phosphoryl group to Nla28 in vitro, that the phosphotransfer is specific, and that a substitution in the predicted site of Nla28 phosphorylation (aspartate 53) abolishes the phosphotransfer reaction. In phenotypic studies, we found that a mutation in nla28S produces a developmental phenotype similar to, but weaker than, that produced by a mutation in nla28; both mutations primarily affect sporulation. Together, these data indicate that Nla28S is the in vivo histidine kinase partner of Nla28 and that the primary function of the Nla28S/Nla28 two-component signal transduction system is to regulate sporulation genes. The results of genetic studies suggest that phosphorylation of Nla28S is important for the in vivo sporulation function of the Nla28S/Nla28 two-component system. In addition, the quorum signal known as A-signal is important for full developmental expression of the nla28S-nla28 operon, suggesting that quorum signaling regulates the availability of the Nla28S/Nla28 signal transduction circuit in developing cells.

  12. A novel "four-component" two-component signal transduction mechanism regulates developmental progression in Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed

    Jagadeesan, Sakthimala; Mann, Petra; Schink, Christian W; Higgs, Penelope I

    2009-08-07

    Histidine-aspartate phosphorelays are employed by two-component signal transduction family proteins to mediate responses to specific signals or stimuli in microorganisms and plants. The RedCDEF proteins constitute a novel signaling system in which four two-component proteins comprising a histidine kinase, a histidine-kinase like protein, and two response regulators function together to regulate progression through the elaborate developmental program of Myxococcus xanthus. A combination of in vivo phenotypic analyses of in-frame deletions and non-functional point mutations in each gene as well as in vitro autophosphorylation and phosphotransfer analyses of recombinant proteins indicate that the RedC histidine kinase protein autophosphorylates and donates a phosphoryl group to the single domain response regulator, RedF, to repress progression through the developmental program. To relieve this developmental repression, RedC instead phosphorylates RedD, a dual receiver response regulator protein. Surprisingly, RedD transfers the phosphoryl group to the histidine kinase-like protein RedE, which itself appears to be incapable of autophosphorylation. Phosphorylation of RedE may render RedE accessible to RedF, where it removes the phosphoryl group from RedF-P, which is otherwise an unusually stable phosphoprotein. These analyses reveal a novel "four-component" signaling mechanism that has probably arisen to temporally coordinate signals controlling the developmental program in M. xanthus. The RedCDEF signaling system provides an important example of how the inherent plasticity and modularity of the basic two-component signaling domains comprise a highly adaptable framework well suited to expansion into complex signaling mechanisms.

  13. The Nla28S/Nla28 Two-Component Signal Transduction System Regulates Sporulation in Myxococcus xanthus

    PubMed Central

    Sarwar, Zaara

    2012-01-01

    The response regulator Nla28 is a key component in a cascade of transcriptional activators that modulates expression of many important developmental genes in Myxococcus xanthus. In this study, we identified and characterized Nla28S, a histidine kinase that modulates the activity of this important regulator of M. xanthus developmental genes. We show that the putative cytoplasmic domain of Nla28S has the in vitro biochemical properties of a histidine kinase protein: it hydrolyzes ATP and undergoes an ATP-dependent autophosphorylation that is acid labile and base stable. We also show that the putative cytoplasmic domain of Nla28S transfers a phosphoryl group to Nla28 in vitro, that the phosphotransfer is specific, and that a substitution in the predicted site of Nla28 phosphorylation (aspartate 53) abolishes the phosphotransfer reaction. In phenotypic studies, we found that a mutation in nla28S produces a developmental phenotype similar to, but weaker than, that produced by a mutation in nla28; both mutations primarily affect sporulation. Together, these data indicate that Nla28S is the in vivo histidine kinase partner of Nla28 and that the primary function of the Nla28S/Nla28 two-component signal transduction system is to regulate sporulation genes. The results of genetic studies suggest that phosphorylation of Nla28S is important for the in vivo sporulation function of the Nla28S/Nla28 two-component system. In addition, the quorum signal known as A-signal is important for full developmental expression of the nla28S-nla28 operon, suggesting that quorum signaling regulates the availability of the Nla28S/Nla28 signal transduction circuit in developing cells. PMID:22753068

  14. Error-prone DnaE2 Balances the Genome Mutation Rates in Myxococcus xanthus DK1622

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Ran; Chen, Jiang-he; Feng, Wan-wan; Zhang, Zheng; Yin, Jun; Li, Ze-shuo; Li, Yue-zhong

    2017-01-01

    dnaE is an alpha subunit of the tripartite protein complex of DNA polymerase III that is responsible for the replication of bacterial genome. The dnaE gene is often duplicated in many bacteria, and the duplicated dnaE gene was reported dispensable for cell survivals and error-prone in DNA replication in a mystery. In this study, we found that all sequenced myxobacterial genomes possessed two dnaE genes. The duplicate dnaE genes were both highly conserved but evolved divergently, suggesting their importance in myxobacteria. Using Myxococcus xanthus DK1622 as a model, we confirmed that dnaE1 (MXAN_5844) was essential for cell survival, while dnaE2 (MXAN_3982) was dispensable and encoded an error-prone enzyme for replication. The deletion of dnaE2 had small effects on cellular growth and social motility, but significantly decreased the development and sporulation abilities, which could be recovered by the complementation of dnaE2. The expression of dnaE1 was always greatly higher than that of dnaE2 in either the growth or developmental stage. However, overexpression of dnaE2 could not make dnaE1 deletable, probably due to their protein structural and functional divergences. The dnaE2 overexpression not only improved the growth, development and sporulation abilities, but also raised the genome mutation rate of M. xanthus. We argued that the low-expressed error-prone DnaE2 played as a balancer for the genome mutation rates, ensuring low mutation rates for cell adaptation in new environments but avoiding damages from high mutation rates to cells. PMID:28203231

  15. Combinatorial regulation of the dev operon by MrpC2 and FruA during Myxococcus xanthus development.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Ashleigh; Viswanathan, Poorna; Barrett, Terry; Son, Bongjun; Saha, Shreya; Kroos, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Proper expression of the dev operon is important for normal development of Myxococcus xanthus. When starved, these bacteria coordinate their gliding movements to build mounds that become fruiting bodies as some cells differentiate into spores. Mutations in the devTRS genes impair sporulation. Expression of the operon occurs within nascent fruiting bodies and depends in part on C signaling. Here, we report that expression of the dev operon, like that of several other C-signal-dependent genes, is subject to combinatorial control by the transcription factors MrpC2 and FruA. A DNA fragment upstream of the dev promoter was bound by a protein in an extract containing MrpC2, protecting the region spanning positions -77 to -54. Mutations in this region impaired binding of purified MrpC2 and abolished developmental expression of reporter fusions. The association of MrpC2 and/or its longer form, MrpC, with the dev promoter region depended on FruA in vivo, based on chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis, and purified FruA appeared to bind cooperatively with MrpC2 to DNA just upstream of the dev promoter in vitro. We conclude that cooperative binding of the two proteins to this promoter-proximal site is crucial for dev expression. 5' deletion analysis implied a second upstream positive regulatory site, which corresponded to a site of weak cooperative binding of MrpC2 and FruA and boosted dev expression 24 h into development. This site is unique among the C-signal-dependent genes studied so far. Deletion of this site in the M. xanthus chromosome did not impair sporulation under laboratory conditions.

  16. Error-prone DnaE2 Balances the Genome Mutation Rates in Myxococcus xanthus DK1622.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ran; Chen, Jiang-He; Feng, Wan-Wan; Zhang, Zheng; Yin, Jun; Li, Ze-Shuo; Li, Yue-Zhong

    2017-01-01

    dnaE is an alpha subunit of the tripartite protein complex of DNA polymerase III that is responsible for the replication of bacterial genome. The dnaE gene is often duplicated in many bacteria, and the duplicated dnaE gene was reported dispensable for cell survivals and error-prone in DNA replication in a mystery. In this study, we found that all sequenced myxobacterial genomes possessed two dnaE genes. The duplicate dnaE genes were both highly conserved but evolved divergently, suggesting their importance in myxobacteria. Using Myxococcus xanthus DK1622 as a model, we confirmed that dnaE1 (MXAN_5844) was essential for cell survival, while dnaE2 (MXAN_3982) was dispensable and encoded an error-prone enzyme for replication. The deletion of dnaE2 had small effects on cellular growth and social motility, but significantly decreased the development and sporulation abilities, which could be recovered by the complementation of dnaE2. The expression of dnaE1 was always greatly higher than that of dnaE2 in either the growth or developmental stage. However, overexpression of dnaE2 could not make dnaE1 deletable, probably due to their protein structural and functional divergences. The dnaE2 overexpression not only improved the growth, development and sporulation abilities, but also raised the genome mutation rate of M. xanthus. We argued that the low-expressed error-prone DnaE2 played as a balancer for the genome mutation rates, ensuring low mutation rates for cell adaptation in new environments but avoiding damages from high mutation rates to cells.

  17. Significant enhanced expression and solubility of human proteins in Escherichia coli by fusion with protein S from Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Takeshi; Inouye, Masayori

    2009-08-01

    Protein S is a major spore coat protein of Myxococcus xanthus, consisting of two homologous domains, the N-terminal domain (NTD) and the C-terminal domain, both of which contain a Ca(2+)-binding site. Protein S tightly binds to myxospores in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. Here, we constructed a novel expression vector, pCold-PST, encoding two tandem repeat NTDs (PrS2). By using this vector, a number of human proteins that were expressed at low levels or in insoluble forms by a pET vector were expressed not only at high levels but also in soluble forms. We also demonstrated that an Escherichia coli protein tagged with PrS2 fully retained its function, indicating that it is folded independently from the tag. This technology not only allows simple, one-step protein purification using myxospores, but can also be used for the identification of proteins interacting with a protein of interest and will prove immensely useful for structural studies of proteins which are difficult to produce or are insoluble.

  18. Numerical simulations on active rod like particles as a model for the collective behavior of Myxococcus xanthus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wigbers, Manon; Thutupalli, Shashi; Shaevitz, Joshua

    2015-03-01

    We study collective behavior of Myxococcus xanthus using numerical simulations. Under starvation conditions, these social bacteria organize into multi-cellular structures, called ``fruiting bodies,'' within which cells sporulate. During the process of fruiting body formation, cells show various collective motion patterns. One of the most striking of these patterns is the so called rippling motility, characterized by standing density waves of reversing bacteria. Similar rippling behaviour is also observed during predatory feeding of the bacteria. Until now, the principles underlying this rippling behavior are not fully elucidated. Analogous to the well studied liquid crystalline phases in condensed matter physics, the ordering of the baceria within these rippling waves resembles a smectic like layered structure. In contrast to active nematic liquid crystalline phases widely studied in recent times, this represents the first known empirical example of an active smectic phase. Inspired by single-cell resolution experimental data of the bacteria, we develop a modelof active rod like particles and use numerical simulations to study the organizing principles that drive the transitions between the various active liquid crystalline phases in the myxobacterial collective behavior.

  19. AglZ Is a Filament-Forming Coiled-Coil Protein Required for Adventurous Gliding Motility of Myxococcus xanthus

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ruifeng; Bartle, Sarah; Otto, Rebecca; Stassinopoulos, Angela; Rogers, Matthew; Plamann, Lynda; Hartzell, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    The aglZ gene of Myxococcus xanthus was identified from a yeast two-hybrid assay in which MglA was used as bait. MglA is a 22-kDa cytoplasmic GTPase required for both adventurous and social gliding motility and sporulation. Genetic studies showed that aglZ is part of the A motility system, because disruption or deletion of aglZ abolished movement of isolated cells and aglZ sglK double mutants were nonmotile. The aglZ gene encodes a 153-kDa protein that interacts with purified MglA in vitro. The N terminus of AglZ shows similarity to the receiver domain of two-component response regulator proteins, while the C terminus contains heptad repeats characteristic of coiled-coil proteins, such as myosin. Consistent with this motif, expression of AglZ in Escherichia coli resulted in production of striated lattice structures. Similar to the myosin heavy chain, the purified C-terminal coiled-coil domain of AglZ forms filament structures in vitro. PMID:15342587

  20. Effect of dsp mutations on the cell-to-cell transmission of CsgA in Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed Central

    Li, S F; Shimkets, L J

    1993-01-01

    The dsp locus contains genes involved in the subunit synthesis and/or assembly of fibrils that radiate outward from the Myxococcus xanthus cell surface and attach to other cells. The csgA gene encodes an extracellular protein morphogen which is essential for fruiting body development. The question of whether fibrils are involved in the transmission of CsgA to adjacent cells was investigated in three ways. First, the dsp and csgA mutants were mixed in a ratio of 1:1 and allowed to develop; fruiting bodies containing spores derived from the csgA mutant were formed, suggesting efficient CsgA transfer. Second, the csgA mutation affected expression of many developmentally regulated genes differently from the way dsp affected their expression. Third, the expression of one developmentally regulated gene, which was partially expressed in csgA and dsp backgrounds, was almost completely inhibited in the presence of both mutations, suggesting that its promoter is regulated independently by two distinct stimuli, one that is csgA dependent and one that is dsp dependent. Together these results argue that fibrils are not necessary for cell-to-cell transmission or perception of CsgA, and their precise function remains unknown. Images PMID:8501068

  1. AglZ is a filament-forming coiled-coil protein required for adventurous gliding motility of Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruifeng; Bartle, Sarah; Otto, Rebecca; Stassinopoulos, Angela; Rogers, Matthew; Plamann, Lynda; Hartzell, Patricia

    2004-09-01

    The aglZ gene of Myxococcus xanthus was identified from a yeast two-hybrid assay in which MglA was used as bait. MglA is a 22-kDa cytoplasmic GTPase required for both adventurous and social gliding motility and sporulation. Genetic studies showed that aglZ is part of the A motility system, because disruption or deletion of aglZ abolished movement of isolated cells and aglZ sglK double mutants were nonmotile. The aglZ gene encodes a 153-kDa protein that interacts with purified MglA in vitro. The N terminus of AglZ shows similarity to the receiver domain of two-component response regulator proteins, while the C terminus contains heptad repeats characteristic of coiled-coil proteins, such as myosin. Consistent with this motif, expression of AglZ in Escherichia coli resulted in production of striated lattice structures. Similar to the myosin heavy chain, the purified C-terminal coiled-coil domain of AglZ forms filament structures in vitro.

  2. Coupling of multicellular morphogenesis and cellular differentiation by an unusual hybrid histidine protein kinase in Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Anders Aa; Porter, Steven L; Armitage, Judith P; Søgaard-Andersen, Lotte

    2005-06-01

    We describe an unusual hybrid histidine protein kinase, which is important for spatially coupling cell aggregation and sporulation during fruiting body formation in Myxococcus xanthus. A rodK mutant makes abnormal fruiting bodies and spores develop outside the fruiting bodies. RodK is a soluble, cytoplasmic protein, which contains an N-terminal sensor domain, a histidine protein kinase domain and three receiver domains. In vitro phosphorylation assays showed that RodK possesses kinase activity. Kinase activity is essential for RodK function in vivo. RodK is present in vegetative cells and remains present until the late aggregation stage, after which the level decreases in a manner that depends on the intercellular A-signal. Genetic evidence suggests that RodK may regulate multiple temporally separated events during fruiting body formation including stimulation of early developmental gene expression, inhibition of A-signal production and inhibition of the intercellular C-signal transduction pathway. We speculate that RodK undergoes a change in activity during development, which is reflected in changes in phosphotransfer to the receiver domains.

  3. Fermentation, purification, formulation, and pharmacological evaluation of a prolyl endopeptidase from Myxococcus xanthus: implications for Celiac Sprue therapy.

    PubMed

    Gass, Jonathan; Ehren, Jennifer; Strohmeier, Gregg; Isaacs, Indu; Khosla, Chaitan

    2005-12-20

    Celiac Sprue is a multi-factorial disease characterized by an inflammatory response to ingested wheat gluten and similar proteins in rye and barley. Proline-rich gluten peptides from wheat, rye, and barley are relatively resistant to gastrointestinal digestion, and therefore persist in the intestinal lumen to elicit immunopathology in genetically susceptible individuals. In this study, we characterize the in vitro gluten detoxifying properties of a therapeutically promising prolyl endopeptidase from Myxococcus xanthus (MX PEP), and describe the development of a prototypical enteric-coated capsule containing a pharmacologically useful dose of this enzyme. A high-cell density fed-batch fermentation process was developed for overproduction of recombinant MX PEP in E. coli, yielding 0.25-0.4 g/L purified protein. A simple, scalable purification and lyophilization procedure was established that yields >95% pure, highly active and stable enzyme as a dry powder. The dry powder was blended with excipients and encapsulated in a hard gelatin capsule. The resulting capsule was enteric coated using Eudragit L30-D55 polymer coat, which provided sufficient resistance to gastric conditions (> 1 h in 0.01 M HCl, pH 2 with pepsin) and rapid release under duodenal conditions (15-30 min release in pH 6.0 in the presence of trypsin and chymotrypsin). In conjunction with pancreatic enzymes, MX PEP breaks down whole gluten into a product mixture that is virtually indistinguishable from that generated by the Flavobacterium meningosepticum (FM) PEP as judged by chromatographic assays. Competitive studies involving selected immunogenic peptides mixed with whole gluten reveal that both PEPs have a wide range of substrate specificity. Our results support further in vitro and in vivo evaluation of the MX PEP capsule as an oral therapeutic agent for Celiac Sprue patients.

  4. TodK, a putative histidine protein kinase, regulates timing of fruiting body morphogenesis in Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Anders A; Søgaard-Andersen, Lotte

    2003-09-01

    In response to starvation, Myxococcus xanthus initiates a developmental program that results in the formation of spore-filled multicellular fruiting bodies. Fruiting body formation depends on the temporal and spatial coordination of aggregation and sporulation. These two processes are induced by the cell surface-associated C signal, with aggregation being induced after 6 h and sporulation being induced once cells have completed the aggregation process. We report the identification of TodK, a putative histidine protein kinase of two-component regulatory systems that is important for the correct timing of aggregation and sporulation. Loss of TodK function results in early aggregation and early, as well as increased levels of, sporulation. Transcription of todK decreases 10-fold in response to starvation independently of the stringent response. Loss of TodK function specifically results in increased expression of a subset of C-signal-dependent genes. Accelerated development in a todK mutant depends on the known components in the C-signal transduction pathway. TodK is not important for synthesis of the C signal. From these results we suggest that TodK is part of a signal transduction system which converges on the C-signal transduction pathway to negatively regulate aggregation, sporulation, and the expression of a subset of C-signal-dependent genes. TodK and the SdeK histidine protein kinase, which is part of a signal transduction system that converges on the C-signal transduction pathway to stimulate aggregation, sporulation, and C-signal-dependent gene expression, act in independent genetic pathways. We suggest that the signal transduction pathways defined by TodK and SdeK act in concert with the C-signal transduction pathway to control the timing of aggregation and sporulation.

  5. The Myxococcus xanthus Two-Component System CorSR Regulates Expression of a Gene Cluster Involved in Maintaining Copper Tolerance during Growth and Development

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Sutil, María Celestina; Pérez, Juana; Gómez-Santos, Nuria; Shimkets, Lawrence J.; Moraleda-Muñoz, Aurelio; Muñoz-Dorado, José

    2013-01-01

    Myxococcus xanthus is a soil-dwelling member of the δ–Proteobacteria that exhibits a complex developmental cycle upon starvation. Development comprises aggregation and differentiation into environmentally resistant myxospores in an environment that includes fluctuations in metal ion concentrations. While copper is essential for M. xanthus cells because several housekeeping enzymes use it as a cofactor, high copper concentrations are toxic. These opposing effects force cells to maintain a tight copper homeostasis. A plethora of paralogous genes involved in copper detoxification, all of which are differentially regulated, have been reported in M. xanthus. The use of in-frame deletion mutants and fusions with the reporter gene lacZ has allowed the identification of a two-component system, CorSR, that modulates the expression of an operon termed curA consisting of nine genes whose expression slowly increases after metal addition, reaching a plateau. Transcriptional regulation of this operon is complex because transcription can be initiated at different promoters and by different types of regulators. These genes confer copper tolerance during growth and development. Copper induces carotenoid production in a ΔcorSR mutant at lower concentrations than with the wild-type strain due to lack of expression of a gene product resembling subunit III of cbb3-type cytochrome c oxidase. This data may explain why copper induces carotenoid biosynthesis at suboptimal rather than optimal growth conditions in wild-type strains. PMID:23874560

  6. The Myxococcus xanthus two-component system CorSR regulates expression of a gene cluster involved in maintaining copper tolerance during growth and development.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sutil, María Celestina; Pérez, Juana; Gómez-Santos, Nuria; Shimkets, Lawrence J; Moraleda-Muñoz, Aurelio; Muñoz-Dorado, José

    2013-01-01

    Myxococcus xanthus is a soil-dwelling member of the δ-Proteobacteria that exhibits a complex developmental cycle upon starvation. Development comprises aggregation and differentiation into environmentally resistant myxospores in an environment that includes fluctuations in metal ion concentrations. While copper is essential for M. xanthus cells because several housekeeping enzymes use it as a cofactor, high copper concentrations are toxic. These opposing effects force cells to maintain a tight copper homeostasis. A plethora of paralogous genes involved in copper detoxification, all of which are differentially regulated, have been reported in M. xanthus. The use of in-frame deletion mutants and fusions with the reporter gene lacZ has allowed the identification of a two-component system, CorSR, that modulates the expression of an operon termed curA consisting of nine genes whose expression slowly increases after metal addition, reaching a plateau. Transcriptional regulation of this operon is complex because transcription can be initiated at different promoters and by different types of regulators. These genes confer copper tolerance during growth and development. Copper induces carotenoid production in a ΔcorSR mutant at lower concentrations than with the wild-type strain due to lack of expression of a gene product resembling subunit III of cbb3-type cytochrome c oxidase. This data may explain why copper induces carotenoid biosynthesis at suboptimal rather than optimal growth conditions in wild-type strains.

  7. A response regulator interfaces between the Frz chemosensory system and the MglA/MglB GTPase/GAP module to regulate polarity in Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed

    Keilberg, Daniela; Wuichet, Kristin; Drescher, Florian; Søgaard-Andersen, Lotte

    2012-09-01

    How cells establish and dynamically change polarity are general questions in cell biology. Cells of the rod-shaped bacterium Myxococcus xanthus move on surfaces with defined leading and lagging cell poles. Occasionally, cells undergo reversals, which correspond to an inversion of the leading-lagging pole polarity axis. Reversals are induced by the Frz chemosensory system and depend on relocalization of motility proteins between the poles. The Ras-like GTPase MglA localizes to and defines the leading cell pole in the GTP-bound form. MglB, the cognate MglA GTPase activating protein, localizes to and defines the lagging pole. During reversals, MglA-GTP and MglB switch poles and, therefore, dynamically localized motility proteins switch poles. We identified the RomR response regulator, which localizes in a bipolar asymmetric pattern with a large cluster at the lagging pole, as important for motility and reversals. We show that RomR interacts directly with MglA and MglB in vitro. Furthermore, RomR, MglA, and MglB affect the localization of each other in all pair-wise directions, suggesting that RomR stimulates motility by promoting correct localization of MglA and MglB in MglA/RomR and MglB/RomR complexes at opposite poles. Moreover, localization analyses suggest that the two RomR complexes mutually exclude each other from their respective poles. We further show that RomR interfaces with FrzZ, the output response regulator of the Frz chemosensory system, to regulate reversals. Thus, RomR serves at the functional interface to connect a classic bacterial signalling module (Frz) to a classic eukaryotic polarity module (MglA/MglB). This modular design is paralleled by the phylogenetic distribution of the proteins, suggesting an evolutionary scheme in which RomR was incorporated into the MglA/MglB module to regulate cell polarity followed by the addition of the Frz system to dynamically regulate cell polarity.

  8. A Response Regulator Interfaces between the Frz Chemosensory System and the MglA/MglB GTPase/GAP Module to Regulate Polarity in Myxococcus xanthus

    PubMed Central

    Keilberg, Daniela; Wuichet, Kristin; Drescher, Florian; Søgaard-Andersen, Lotte

    2012-01-01

    How cells establish and dynamically change polarity are general questions in cell biology. Cells of the rod-shaped bacterium Myxococcus xanthus move on surfaces with defined leading and lagging cell poles. Occasionally, cells undergo reversals, which correspond to an inversion of the leading-lagging pole polarity axis. Reversals are induced by the Frz chemosensory system and depend on relocalization of motility proteins between the poles. The Ras-like GTPase MglA localizes to and defines the leading cell pole in the GTP-bound form. MglB, the cognate MglA GTPase activating protein, localizes to and defines the lagging pole. During reversals, MglA-GTP and MglB switch poles and, therefore, dynamically localized motility proteins switch poles. We identified the RomR response regulator, which localizes in a bipolar asymmetric pattern with a large cluster at the lagging pole, as important for motility and reversals. We show that RomR interacts directly with MglA and MglB in vitro. Furthermore, RomR, MglA, and MglB affect the localization of each other in all pair-wise directions, suggesting that RomR stimulates motility by promoting correct localization of MglA and MglB in MglA/RomR and MglB/RomR complexes at opposite poles. Moreover, localization analyses suggest that the two RomR complexes mutually exclude each other from their respective poles. We further show that RomR interfaces with FrzZ, the output response regulator of the Frz chemosensory system, to regulate reversals. Thus, RomR serves at the functional interface to connect a classic bacterial signalling module (Frz) to a classic eukaryotic polarity module (MglA/MglB). This modular design is paralleled by the phylogenetic distribution of the proteins, suggesting an evolutionary scheme in which RomR was incorporated into the MglA/MglB module to regulate cell polarity followed by the addition of the Frz system to dynamically regulate cell polarity. PMID:23028358

  9. Regulation of cell reversal frequency in Myxococcus xanthus requires the balanced activity of CheY-like domains in FrzE and FrzZ.

    PubMed

    Kaimer, Christine; Zusman, David R

    2016-04-01

    The Frz pathway of Myxococcus xanthus controls cell reversal frequency to support directional motility during swarming and fruiting body formation. Previously, we showed that phosphorylation of the response regulator FrzZ correlates with reversal frequencies, suggesting that this activity represents the output of the Frz pathway. Here, we tested the effect of different expression levels of FrzZ and its cognate kinase FrzE on M. xanthus motility. FrzZ overexpression caused a slight increase in phosphorylation and reversals. By contrast, FrzE overexpression abolished phosphorylation of FrzZ; this inhibition required the response regulator domain of FrzE. FrzZ phosphorylation was restored when both FrzE and FrzZ were overexpressed together. Our results show that the response regulator domain of FrzE is a negative regulator of FrzE kinase activity. This inhibition can be modulated by FrzZ, which acts as a positive regulator. Interestingly, fluorescence microscopy revealed that FrzZ and FrzE localize differently: FrzE colocalizes with the FrzCD receptor and the nucleoid, while FrzZ shows dispersed and polar localization. However, FrzZ binds tightly to the truncated variant FrzEΔ(CheY) . This indicates that the response regulator domain of FrzE is required for the interaction between FrzE and FrzZ to be transient, providing an unexpected regulatory output to the Frz pathway.

  10. The Myxococcus xanthus Nla4 Protein Is Important for Expression of Stringent Response-Associated Genes, ppGpp Accumulation, and Fruiting Body Development▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Ossa, Faisury; Diodati, Michelle E.; Caberoy, Nora B.; Giglio, Krista M.; Edmonds, Mick; Singer, Mitchell; Garza, Anthony G.

    2007-01-01

    Changes in gene expression are important for the landmark morphological events that occur during Myxococcus xanthus fruiting body development. Enhancer binding proteins (EBPs), which are transcriptional activators, play prominent roles in the coordinated expression of developmental genes. A mutation in the EBP gene nla4 affects the timing of fruiting body formation, the morphology of mature fruiting bodies, and the efficiency of sporulation. In this study, we showed that the nla4 mutant accumulates relatively low levels of the stringent nucleotide ppGpp. We also found that the nla4 mutant is defective for early developmental events and for vegetative growth, phenotypes that are consistent with a deficiency in ppGpp accumulation. Further studies revealed that nla4 cells produce relatively low levels of GTP, a precursor of RelA-dependent synthesis of (p)ppGpp. In addition, the normal expression patterns of all stringent response-associated genes tested, including the M. xanthus ppGpp synthetase gene relA, are altered in nla4 mutant cells. These findings indicate that Nla4 is part of regulatory pathway that is important for mounting a stringent response and for initiating fruiting body development. PMID:17905995

  11. The Myxococcus xanthus Nla4 protein is important for expression of stringent response-associated genes, ppGpp accumulation, and fruiting body development.

    PubMed

    Ossa, Faisury; Diodati, Michelle E; Caberoy, Nora B; Giglio, Krista M; Edmonds, Mick; Singer, Mitchell; Garza, Anthony G

    2007-12-01

    Changes in gene expression are important for the landmark morphological events that occur during Myxococcus xanthus fruiting body development. Enhancer binding proteins (EBPs), which are transcriptional activators, play prominent roles in the coordinated expression of developmental genes. A mutation in the EBP gene nla4 affects the timing of fruiting body formation, the morphology of mature fruiting bodies, and the efficiency of sporulation. In this study, we showed that the nla4 mutant accumulates relatively low levels of the stringent nucleotide ppGpp. We also found that the nla4 mutant is defective for early developmental events and for vegetative growth, phenotypes that are consistent with a deficiency in ppGpp accumulation. Further studies revealed that nla4 cells produce relatively low levels of GTP, a precursor of RelA-dependent synthesis of (p)ppGpp. In addition, the normal expression patterns of all stringent response-associated genes tested, including the M. xanthus ppGpp synthetase gene relA, are altered in nla4 mutant cells. These findings indicate that Nla4 is part of regulatory pathway that is important for mounting a stringent response and for initiating fruiting body development.

  12. The Hsp70-like StkA functions between T4P and Dif signaling proteins as a negative regulator of exopolysaccharide in Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed

    Moak, Pamela L; Black, Wesley P; Wallace, Regina A; Li, Zhuo; Yang, Zhaomin

    2015-01-01

    Myxococcus xanthus displays a form of surface motility known as social (S) gliding. It is mediated by the type IV pilus (T4P) and requires the exopolysaccharide (EPS) to function. It is clear that T4P retraction powers S motility. EPS on a neighboring cell or deposited on a gliding surface is proposed to anchor the distal end of a pilus and trigger T4P retraction at its proximal end. Inversely, T4P has been shown to regulate EPS production upstream of the Dif signaling pathway. Here we describe the isolation of two Tn insertions at the stk locus which had been known to play roles in cellular cohesion and formation of cell groups. An insertion in stkA (MXAN_3474) was identified based on its ability to restore EPS to a pilA deletion mutant. The stkA encodes a DnaK or Hsp70 homolog and it is upstream of stkB (MXAN_3475) and stkC (MXAN_3476). A stkB insertion was identified in a separate genetic screen because it eliminated EPS production of an EPS(+) parental strain. Our results with in-frame deletions of these three stk genes indicated that the stkA mutant produced increased level of EPS while stkB and stkC mutants produced less EPS relative to the wild type. S motility and developmental aggregation were affected by deletions of stkA and stkB but only minimally by the deletion of stkC. Genetic epistasis indicated that StkA functions downstream of T4P but upstream of the Dif proteins as a negative regulator of EPS production in M. xanthus.

  13. The CarD/CarG regulatory complex is required for the action of several members of the large set of Myxococcus xanthus extracytoplasmic function σ factors.

    PubMed

    Abellón-Ruiz, Javier; Bernal-Bernal, Diego; Abellán, María; Fontes, Marta; Padmanabhan, S; Murillo, Francisco J; Elías-Arnanz, Montserrat

    2014-08-01

    Extracytoplasmic function (ECF) σ factors are critical players in signal transduction networks involved in bacterial response to environmental changes. The Myxococcus xanthus genome reveals ∼45 putative ECF-σ factors, but for the overwhelming majority, the specific signals or mechanisms for selective activation and regulation remain unknown. One well-studied ECF-σ, CarQ, binds to its anti-σ, CarR, and is inactive in the dark but drives its own expression from promoter P(QRS) on illumination. This requires the CarD/CarG complex, the integration host factor (IHF) and a specific CarD-binding site upstream of P(QRS). Here, we show that DdvS, a previously uncharacterized ECF-σ, activates its own expression in a CarD/CarG-dependent manner but is inhibited when specifically bound to the N-terminal zinc-binding anti-σ domain of its cognate anti-σ, DdvA. Interestingly, we find that the autoregulatory action of 11 other ECF-σ factors studied here depends totally or partially on CarD/CarG but not IHF. In silico analysis revealed possible CarD-binding sites that may be involved in direct regulation by CarD/CarG of target promoter activity. CarD/CarG-linked ECF-σ regulation likely recurs in other myxobacteria with CarD/CarG orthologous pairs and could underlie, at least in part, the global regulatory effect of the complex on M. xanthus gene expression. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The Myxococcus xanthus rfbABC operon encodes an ATP-binding cassette transporter homolog required for O-antigen biosynthesis and multicellular development.

    PubMed Central

    Guo, D; Bowden, M G; Pershad, R; Kaplan, H B

    1996-01-01

    A wild-type sasA locus is critical for Myxococcus xanthus multicellular development. Mutations in the sasA locus cause defective fruiting body formation, reduce sporulation, and restore developmental expression of the early A-signal-dependent gene 4521 in the absence of A signal. The wild-type sasA locus has been located on a 14-kb cloned fragment of the M. xanthus chromosome. The nucleotide sequence of a 7-kb region containing the complete sasA locus was determined. Three open reading frames encoded by the genes, designated rfbA, B and C were identified. The deduced amino acid sequences of rfbA and rfbB show identity to the integral membrane domains and ATPase domains, respectively, of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family. The highest identities are to a set of predicted ABC transporters required for the biosynthesis of lipopolysaccharide O-antigen in certain gram-negative bacteria. The rfbC gene encodes a predicted protein of 1,276 amino acids. This predicted protein contains a region of 358 amino acids that is 33.8% identical to the Yersinia enterocolitica O3 rfbH gene product, which is also required for O-antigen biosynthesis. Immunoblot analysis revealed that the sasA1 mutant, which was found to encode a nonsense codon in the beginning of rfbA, produced less O-antigen than sasA+ strains. These data indicate that the sasA locus is required for the biosynthesis of O-antigen and, when mutated, results in A-signal-independent expression of 4521. PMID:8626291

  15. Molecular cloning and characterization of two genes for the biotin carboxylase and carboxyltransferase subunits of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase in Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Y; Miyake, R; Tokumasu, Y; Sato, M

    2000-10-01

    We have cloned a DNA fragment from a genomic library of Myxococcus xanthus using an oligonucleotide probe representing conserved regions of biotin carboxylase subunits of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) carboxylases. The fragment contained two open reading frames (ORF1 and ORF2), designated the accB and accA genes, capable of encoding a 538-amino-acid protein of 58.1 kDa and a 573-amino-acid protein of 61.5 kDa, respectively. The protein (AccA) encoded by the accA gene was strikingly similar to biotin carboxylase subunits of acetyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA carboxylases and of pyruvate carboxylase. The putative motifs for ATP binding, CO(2) fixation, and biotin binding were found in AccA. The accB gene was located upstream of the accA gene, and they formed a two-gene operon. The protein (AccB) encoded by the accB gene showed high degrees of sequence similarity with carboxyltransferase subunits of acetyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA carboxylases and of methylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylase. Carboxybiotin-binding and acyl-CoA-binding domains, which are conserved in several carboxyltransferase subunits of acyl-CoA carboxylases, were found in AccB. An accA disruption mutant showed a reduced growth rate and reduced acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity compared with the wild-type strain. Western blot analysis indicated that the product of the accA gene was a biotinylated protein that was expressed during the exponential growth phase. Based on these results, we propose that this M. xanthus acetyl-CoA carboxylase consists of two subunits, which are encoded by the accB and accA genes, and occupies a position between prokaryotic and eukaryotic acetyl-CoA carboxylases in terms of evolution.

  16. High-mobility-group a-like CarD binds to a DNA site optimized for affinity and position and to RNA polymerase to regulate a light-inducible promoter in Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed

    García-Heras, Francisco; Abellón-Ruiz, Javier; Murillo, Francisco J; Padmanabhan, S; Elías-Arnanz, Montserrat

    2013-01-01

    The CarD-CarG complex controls various cellular processes in the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus including fruiting body development and light-induced carotenogenesis. The CarD N-terminal domain, which defines the large CarD_CdnL_TRCF protein family, binds to CarG, a zinc-associated protein that does not bind DNA. The CarD C-terminal domain resembles eukaryotic high-mobility-group A (HMGA) proteins, and its DNA binding AT hooks specifically recognize the minor groove of appropriately spaced AT-rich tracts. Here, we investigate the determinants of the only known CarD binding site, the one crucial in CarD-CarG regulation of the promoter of the carQRS operon (P(QRS)), a light-inducible promoter dependent on the extracytoplasmic function (ECF) σ factor CarQ. In vitro, mutating either of the 3-bp AT tracts of this CarD recognition site (TTTCCAGAGCTTT) impaired DNA binding, shifting the AT tracts relative to P(QRS) had no effect or marginally lowered DNA binding, and replacing the native site by the HMGA1a binding one at the human beta interferon promoter (with longer AT tracts) markedly enhanced DNA binding. In vivo, however, all of these changes deterred P(QRS) activation in wild-type M. xanthus, as well as in a strain with the CarD-CarG pair replaced by the Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans CarD-CarG (CarD(Ad)-CarG(Ad)). CarD(Ad)-CarG(Ad) is functionally equivalent to CarD-CarG despite the lower DNA binding affinity in vitro of CarD(Ad), whose C-terminal domain resembles histone H1 rather than HMGA. We show that CarD physically associates with RNA polymerase (RNAP) specifically via interactions with the RNAP β subunit. Our findings suggest that CarD regulates a light-inducible, ECF σ-dependent promoter by coupling RNAP recruitment and binding to a specific DNA site optimized for affinity and position.

  17. Nutrient-Regulated Proteolysis of MrpC Halts Expression of Genes Important for Commitment to Sporulation during Myxococcus xanthus Development

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopalan, Ramya

    2014-01-01

    Starved Myxococcus xanthus cells glide to aggregation centers and form fruiting bodies in which rod-shaped cells differentiate into ovoid spores. Commitment to development was investigated by adding nutrients at specific times after starvation and determining whether development halted or proceeded. At 24 h poststarvation, some rod-shaped cells were committed to subsequent shape change and to becoming sonication-resistant spores, but nutrients caused partial disaggregation of fruiting bodies. By 30 h poststarvation, 10-fold more cells were committed to becoming sonication-resistant spores, and compact fruiting bodies persisted after nutrient addition. During the critical period of commitment around 24 to 30 h poststarvation, the transcription factors MrpC and FruA cooperatively regulate genes important for sporulation. FruA responds to short-range C-signaling, which increases as cells form fruiting bodies. MrpC was found to be highly sensitive to nutrient-regulated proteolysis both before and during the critical period of commitment to sporulation. The rapid turnover of MrpC upon nutrient addition to developing cells halted expression of the dev operon, which is important for sporulation. Regulated proteolysis of MrpC appeared to involve ATP-independent metalloprotease activity and may provide a mechanism for monitoring whether starvation persists and halting commitment to sporulation if nutrients reappear. PMID:24837289

  18. Structural requirements of the RNA precursor for the biosynthesis of the branched RNA-linked multicopy single-stranded DNA of Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed

    Hsu, M Y; Inouye, S; Inouye, M

    1989-04-15

    A precursor RNA molecule (pre-msdRNA) of approximately 375 bases is considered to form a stable secondary structure which serves as a primer as well as a template to synthesize the branched RNA-linked multicopy single-stranded DNA (msDNA) of Myxococcus xanthus. When 3-base mismatches were introduced into the stem structure immediately upstream of the branched rG residue to which msDNA is linked by a 2',5'-phosphodiester linkage, the production of msDNA was almost completely blocked. However, if additional 3-base substitutions were made on the other strand to resume the complementary base pairing, msDNA production was restored, being consistent with the proposed model of msDNA synthesis. We also found that the branched rG residue of pre-msdRNA could not be replaced with either rC or rA, while the 5' end (dC) of msDNA which is linked to the branched rG could be substituted with a dG residue. Together with several other mutations, the structural requirements of pre-msdRNA are discussed with respect to the mechanism of msDNA biosynthesis.

  19. In depth analysis of the mechanism of action of metal-dependent sigma factors: characterization of CorE2 from Myxococcus xanthus

    PubMed Central

    Marcos-Torres, Francisco Javier; Pérez, Juana; Gómez-Santos, Nuria; Moraleda-Muñoz, Aurelio; Muñoz-Dorado, José

    2016-01-01

    Extracytoplasmic function sigma factors represent the third pillar of signal-transduction mechanisms in bacteria. The variety of stimuli they recognize and mechanisms of action they use have allowed their classification into more than 50 groups. We have characterized CorE2 from Myxococcus xanthus, which belongs to group ECF44 and upregulates the expression of two genes when it is activated by cadmium and zinc. Sigma factors of this group contain a Cys-rich domain (CRD) at the C terminus which is essential for detecting metals. Point mutations at the six Cys residues of the CRD have revealed the contribution of each residue to CorE2 activity. Some of them are essential, while others are either dispensable or their mutations only slightly affect the activity of the protein. However, importantly, mutation of Cys174 completely shifts the specificity of CorE2 from cadmium to copper, indicating that the Cys arrangement of the CRD determines the metal specificity. Moreover, the conserved CxC motif located between the σ2 domain and the σ4.2 region has also been found to be essential for activity. The results presented here contribute to our understanding of the mechanism of action of metal-dependent sigma factors and help to define new common features of the members of this group of regulators. PMID:26951374

  20. Enzymatic characteristics of an ApaH-like phosphatase, PrpA, and a diadenosine tetraphosphate hydrolase, ApaH, from Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Masashi; Takegawa, Kaoru; Kimura, Yoshio

    2014-09-17

    We characterized the activities of the Myxococcus xanthus ApaH-like phosphatases PrpA and ApaH, which share homologies with both phosphoprotein phosphatases and diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) hydrolases. PrpA exhibited a phosphatase activity towards p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP), tyrosine phosphopeptide and tyrosine-phosphorylated protein, and a weak hydrolase activity towards ApnA and ATP. In the presence of Mn(2+), PrpA hydrolyzed Ap4A into AMP and ATP, whereas in the presence of Co(2+) PrpA hydrolyzed Ap4A into two molecules of ADP. ApaH exhibited high phosphatase activity towards pNPP, and hydrolase activity towards ApnA and ATP. Mn(2+) was required for ApaH-mediated pNPP dephosphorylation and ATP hydrolysis, whereas Co(2+) was required for ApnA hydrolysis. Thus, PrpA and ApaH may function mainly as a tyrosine protein phosphatase and an ApnA hydrolase, respectively.

  1. Nutrient-regulated proteolysis of MrpC halts expression of genes important for commitment to sporulation during Myxococcus xanthus development.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, Ramya; Kroos, Lee

    2014-08-01

    Starved Myxococcus xanthus cells glide to aggregation centers and form fruiting bodies in which rod-shaped cells differentiate into ovoid spores. Commitment to development was investigated by adding nutrients at specific times after starvation and determining whether development halted or proceeded. At 24 h poststarvation, some rod-shaped cells were committed to subsequent shape change and to becoming sonication-resistant spores, but nutrients caused partial disaggregation of fruiting bodies. By 30 h poststarvation, 10-fold more cells were committed to becoming sonication-resistant spores, and compact fruiting bodies persisted after nutrient addition. During the critical period of commitment around 24 to 30 h poststarvation, the transcription factors MrpC and FruA cooperatively regulate genes important for sporulation. FruA responds to short-range C-signaling, which increases as cells form fruiting bodies. MrpC was found to be highly sensitive to nutrient-regulated proteolysis both before and during the critical period of commitment to sporulation. The rapid turnover of MrpC upon nutrient addition to developing cells halted expression of the dev operon, which is important for sporulation. Regulated proteolysis of MrpC appeared to involve ATP-independent metalloprotease activity and may provide a mechanism for monitoring whether starvation persists and halting commitment to sporulation if nutrients reappear.

  2. Contribution of the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases PdeA and PdeB to adaptation of Myxococcus xanthus cells to osmotic or high-temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yoshio; Nakatuma, Hiromi; Sato, Naoko; Ohtani, Mika

    2006-01-01

    A tBLASTn search of the Myxococcus xanthus genome database at The Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR) identified three genes (pdeA, pdeB, and pdeC) that encode proteins homologous to 3',5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. pdeA, pdeB, and pdeC mutants, constructed by replacing a part of the gene with the kanamycin or tetracycline resistance gene, showed normal growth, development, and germination under nonstress conditions. However, the spores of mutants, especially the pdeA and pdeB mutants, placed under osmotic stress germinated earlier than the wild-type spores. The phenotype was the opposite of that of the receptor-type adenylyl cyclase (cyaA or cyaB) mutant. Also, pdeA and pdeB mutants were found to have impaired growth under the condition of high-temperature stress. Intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels of pdeA or pdeB mutant cells under these stressful conditions were about 1.3-fold to 2.0-fold higher than those of wild-type cells. These results suggest that PdeA and PdeB may be involved in osmotic adaptation during spore germination and temperature adaptation during vegetative growth through the regulation of cAMP levels.

  3. Direct live imaging of cell–cell protein transfer by transient outer membrane fusion in Myxococcus xanthus

    PubMed Central

    Ducret, Adrien; Fleuchot, Betty; Bergam, Ptissam; Mignot, Tâm

    2013-01-01

    In bacteria, multicellular behaviors are regulated by cell–cell signaling through the exchange of both diffusible and contact-dependent signals. In a multicellular context, Myxococcus cells can share outer membrane (OM) materials by an unknown mechanism involving the traAB genes and gliding motility. Using live imaging, we show for the first time that transient contacts between two cells are sufficient to transfer OM materials, proteins and lipids, at high efficiency. Transfer was associated with the formation of dynamic OM tubes, strongly suggesting that transfer results from the local fusion of the OMs of two transferring cells. Last, large amounts of OM materials were released in slime trails deposited by gliding cells. Since cells tend to follow trails laid by other cells, slime-driven OM material exchange may be an important stigmergic regulation of Myxococcus social behaviors. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00868.001 PMID:23898400

  4. CdnL, a member of the large CarD-like family of bacterial proteins, is vital for Myxococcus xanthus and differs functionally from the global transcriptional regulator CarD

    PubMed Central

    García-Moreno, Diana; Abellón-Ruiz, Javier; García-Heras, Francisco; Murillo, Francisco J.; Padmanabhan, S.; Elías-Arnanz, Montserrat

    2010-01-01

    CarD, a global transcriptional regulator in Myxococcus xanthus, interacts with CarG via CarDNter, its N-terminal domain, and with DNA via a eukaryotic HMGA-type C-terminal domain. Genomic analysis reveals a large number of standalone proteins resembling CarDNter. These constitute, together with the RNA polymerase (RNAP) interacting domain, RID, of transcription–repair coupling factors, the CarD_TRCF protein family. We show that one such CarDNter-like protein, M. xanthus CdnL, cannot functionally substitute CarDNter (or vice versa) nor interact with CarG. Unlike CarD, CdnL is vital for growth, and lethality due to its absence is not rescued by homologs from various other bacteria. In mycobacteria, with no endogenous DksA, the function of the CdnL homolog mirrors that of Escherichia coli DksA. Our finding that CdnL, like DksA, is indispensable in M. xanthus implies that they are not functionally redundant. Cells are normal on CdnL overexpression, but divide aberrantly on CdnL depletion. CdnL localizes to the nucleoid, suggesting piggyback recruitment by factors such as RNAP, which we show interacts with CdnL, CarDNter and RID. Our study highlights a complex network of interactions involving these factors and RNAP, and points to a vital role for M. xanthus CdnL in an essential DNA transaction that affects cell division. PMID:20371514

  5. A RelA-dependent two-tiered regulated proteolysis cascade controls synthesis of a contact-dependent intercellular signal in Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed

    Konovalova, Anna; Löbach, Stephanie; Søgaard-Andersen, Lotte

    2012-04-01

    Proteolytic cleavage of precursor proteins to generate intercellular signals is a common mechanism in all cells. In Myxococcus xanthus the contact-dependent intercellular C-signal is a 17 kDa protein (p17) generated by proteolytic cleavage of the 25 kDa csgA protein (p25), and is essential for starvation-induced fruiting body formation. p25 accumulates in the outer membrane and PopC, the protease that cleaves p25, in the cytoplasm of vegetative cells. PopC is secreted in response to starvation, therefore, restricting p25 cleavage to starving cells. We focused on identifying proteins critical for PopC secretion in response to starvation. PopC secretion depends on the (p)ppGpp synthase RelA and the stringent response, and is regulated post-translationally. PopD, which is encoded in an operon with PopC, forms a soluble complex with PopC and inhibits PopC secretion whereas the integral membrane AAA+ protease FtsH(D) is required for PopC secretion. Biochemical and genetic evidence suggest that in response to starvation, RelA is activated and induces the degradation of PopD thereby releasing pre-formed PopC for secretion and that FtsH(D) is important for PopD degradation. Hence, regulated PopC secretion depends on regulated proteolysis. Accordingly, p17 synthesis depends on a proteolytic cascade including FtsH(D) -dependent degradation of PopD and PopC-dependent cleavage of p25.

  6. New insights into the function of a versatile class of membrane molecular motors from studies of Myxococcus xanthus surface (gliding) motility.

    PubMed

    Mignot, Tâm; Nöllmann, Marcelo

    2017-03-02

    Cell motility is a central function of living cells, as it empowers colonization of new environmental niches, cooperation, and development of multicellular organisms. This process is achieved by complex yet precise energy-consuming machineries in both eukaryotes and bacteria. Bacteria move on surfaces using extracellular appendages such as flagella and pili but also by a less-understood process called gliding motility. During this process, rod-shaped bacteria move smoothly along their long axis without any visible morphological changes besides occasional bending. For this reason, the molecular mechanism of gliding motility and its origin have long remained a complete mystery. An important breakthrough in the understanding of gliding motility came from single cell and genetic studies in the delta-proteobacterium Myxococcus xanthus. These early studies revealed, for the first time, the existence of bacterial Focal Adhesion complexes (FA). FAs are formed at the bacterial pole and rapidly move towards the opposite cell pole. Their attachment to the underlying surface is linked to cell propulsion, in a process similar to the rearward translocation of actomyosin complexes in Apicomplexans. The protein machinery that forms at FAs was shown to contain up to seventeen proteins predicted to localize in all layers of the bacterial cell envelope, the cytosolic face, the inner membrane (IM), the periplasmic space and the outer membrane (OM). Among these proteins, a proton-gated channel at the inner membrane was identified as the molecular motor. Thus, thrust generation requires the transduction of traction forces generated at the inner membrane through the cell envelope beyond the rigid barrier of the bacterial peptidoglycan.

  7. HthA, a putative DNA-binding protein, and HthB are important for fruiting body morphogenesis in Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Mette; Rasmussen, Anders Aa; Ellehauge, Eva; Treuner-Lange, Anke; Søgaard-Andersen, Lotte

    2004-07-01

    In response to starvation, Myxococcus xanthus initiates a developmental programme that results in the formation of spore-filled multicellular fruiting bodies. Fruiting body formation depends on the temporal and spatial coordination of aggregation and sporulation and involves temporally and spatially coordinated changes in gene expression. This paper reports the identification of two genes, hthA and hthB, that are important for fruiting body formation. hthA and hthB are co-transcribed, and transcription of the two genes decreases strongly during development. Loss of HthA and HthB function results in delayed aggregation, a reduction in the level of sporulation, and abnormal developmental gene expression. Extracellular complementation experiments showed that the developmental defects caused by loss of HthA and HthB function are not due to the inability to synthesize an intercellular signal required for fruiting body formation. HthA, independent of HthB, is required for aggregation. HthB, alone or in combination with HthA, is required for sporulation. HthA is predicted to contain a C-terminal helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domain. Intriguingly, the N-terminal part of HthA does not exhibit significant amino acid similarity to proteins in the databases. The HthB protein lacks homologues in the databases. The results suggest that HthA is a novel DNA-binding protein, which regulates transcription of genes important for aggregation, and that HthB, alone or in combination with HthA, stimulates sporulation.

  8. New insights into the function of a versatile class of membrane molecular motors from studies of Myxococcus xanthus surface (gliding) motility

    PubMed Central

    Mignot, Tâm; Nöllmann, Marcelo

    2017-01-01

    Cell motility is a central function of living cells, as it empowers colonization of new environmental niches, cooperation, and development of multicellular organisms. This process is achieved by complex yet precise energy-consuming machineries in both eukaryotes and bacteria. Bacteria move on surfaces using extracellular appendages such as flagella and pili but also by a less-understood process called gliding motility. During this process, rod-shaped bacteria move smoothly along their long axis without any visible morphological changes besides occasional bending. For this reason, the molecular mechanism of gliding motility and its origin have long remained a complete mystery. An important breakthrough in the understanding of gliding motility came from single cell and genetic studies in the delta-proteobacterium Myxococcus xanthus. These early studies revealed, for the first time, the existence of bacterial Focal Adhesion complexes (FA). FAs are formed at the bacterial pole and rapidly move towards the opposite cell pole. Their attachment to the underlying surface is linked to cell propulsion, in a process similar to the rearward translocation of actomyosin complexes in Apicomplexans. The protein machinery that forms at FAs was shown to contain up to seventeen proteins predicted to localize in all layers of the bacterial cell envelope, the cytosolic face, the inner membrane (IM), the periplasmic space and the outer membrane (OM). Among these proteins, a proton-gated channel at the inner membrane was identified as the molecular motor. Thus, thrust generation requires the transduction of traction forces generated at the inner membrane through the cell envelope beyond the rigid barrier of the bacterial peptidoglycan. PMID:28357395

  9. Proteome analysis of Myxococcus xanthus by off-line two-dimensional chromatographic separation using monolithic poly-(styrene-divinylbenzene) columns combined with ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Schley, Christian; Altmeyer, Matthias O; Swart, Remco; Müller, Rolf; Huber, Christian G

    2006-10-01

    Myxobacteria are potent producers of secondary metabolites exhibiting diverse biological activities and pharmacological potential. The proteome of Myxococcus xanthus DK1622 was characterized by two-dimensional chromatographic separation of tryptic peptides from a lysate followed by tandem mass spectrometric identification. The high degree of orthogonality of the separation system employing polymer-based strong cation-exchange and monolithic reversed-phase stationary phases was clearly demonstrated. Upon automated database searching, 1312 unique peptides were identified, which were associated with 631 unique proteins. High-molecular polyketide synthetases and nonribosomal peptide synthetases, known to be involved in the biosynthesis of various secondary metabolites, were readily detected. Besides the identification of gene products associated with the production of known secondary metabolites, proteins could also be identified for six gene clusters, for which no biosynthetic product has been known so far.

  10. Differential Expression of the Three Multicopper Oxidases from Myxococcus xanthus▿

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Sutil, María Celestina; Gómez-Santos, Nuria; Moraleda-Muñoz, Aurelio; Martins, Lígia O.; Pérez, Juana; Muñoz-Dorado, José

    2007-01-01

    Myxococcus xanthus is a soil bacterium that undergoes a unique life cycle among the prokaryotes upon starvation, which includes the formation of macroscopic structures, the fruiting bodies, and the differentiation of vegetative rods into coccoid myxospores. This peculiarity offers the opportunity to study the copper response in this bacterium in two different stages. In fact, M. xanthus vegetative rods exhibit 15-fold-greater resistance against copper than developing cells. However, cells preadapted to this metal reach the same levels of resistance during both stages. Analysis of the M. xanthus genome reveals that many of the genes involved in copper resistance are redundant, three of which encode proteins of the multicopper oxidase family (MCO). Each MCO gene exhibits a different expression profile in response to external copper addition. Promoters of cuoA and cuoB respond to Cu(II) ions during growth and development; however, they show a 10-fold-increased copper sensitivity during development. The promoter of cuoC shows copper-independent induction upon starvation, but it is copper up-regulated during growth. Phenotypic analyses of deletion mutants reveal that CuoB is involved in the primary copper-adaptive response; CuoA and CuoC are necessary for the maintenance of copper tolerance; and CuoC is required for normal development. These roles seem to be carried out through cuprous oxidase activity. PMID:17483223

  11. The receiver domain of FrzE, a CheA-CheY fusion protein, regulates the CheA histidine kinase activity and downstream signaling to the A- and S-motility systems of Myxococcus xanthus

    PubMed Central

    Inclán, Yuki F.; Laurent, Sophie; Zusman, David R.

    2010-01-01

    The Frz chemosensory system is a two-component signal transduction pathway that controls cell reversals and directional movements for the two motility systems in Myxococcus xanthus. To trigger cell reversals, FrzE, a hybrid CheA-CheY fusion protein, autophosphorylates the kinase domain at His-49 and phosphoryl groups are transferred to aspartate residues (Asp-52 and Asp-220) in the two receiver domains of FrzZ, a dual CheY-like protein that serves as the pathway output. The role of the receiver domain of FrzE was unknown. In this paper, we characterize the FrzE protein in vitro and show that the receiver domain of FrzE negatively regulates the autophosphorylation activity of the kinase domain of FrzE. Unexpectedly, it does not appear to play a direct role in phospho-relay as in most other histidine kinase-receiver domain hybrid systems. The regulatory role of the FrzE receiver domain suggests that it may interact with or be phosphorylated by an unknown protein. We also show the dynamics of motility system specific marker proteins in FrzE mutants as cells move forward and reverse. Our studies indicate that the two motility systems are functionally coordinated and that any system specific branching to the pathway most likely occurs downstream of FrzE. PMID:18430134

  12. Identification of the cglC, cglD, cglE, and cglF Genes and Their Role in Cell Contact-Dependent Gliding Motility in Myxococcus xanthus

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Darshankumar T.

    2012-01-01

    Within Myxococcus xanthus biofilms, cells actively move and exchange their outer membrane (OM) lipoproteins and lipids. Between genetically distinct strains, OM exchange can regulate recipient cell behaviors, including gliding motility and development. Although many different proteins are thought to be exchanged, to date, only two endogenous OM lipoproteins, CglB and Tgl, are known to be transferred. Protein exchange requires the TraAB proteins in recipient and donor cells, where they are hypothesized to facilitate OM fusion for transfer. To better understand the types of proteins exchanged, we identified the genes for the remaining set of cgl gliding motility mutants. These mutants are unique because their motility defect can be transiently restored by physical contact with donor cells that encode the corresponding wild-type protein, a process called stimulation. Similar to CglB and Tgl, the cglC and cglD genes encode type II signal sequences, suggesting that they are also lipoproteins. Surprisingly, the cglE and cglF genes instead encode type I signal sequences, suggesting that nonlipoproteins are also exchanged. Consistent with this idea, the addition of exogenous synthetic CglF protein (71 amino acids) to a cglF mutant rescued its motility defect. In contrast to a live donor cell, stimulation with purified CglF protein occurred independently of TraA. These results also indicate that CglF may localize to the cell surface. The implications of our findings on OM exchange are discussed. PMID:22343295

  13. The Type IV Pilus Assembly ATPase PilB of Myxococcus xanthus Interacts with the Inner Membrane Platform Protein PilC and the Nucleotide-binding Protein PilM*

    PubMed Central

    Bischof, Lisa Franziska; Friedrich, Carmen; Harms, Andrea; Søgaard-Andersen, Lotte; van der Does, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Type IV pili (T4P) are ubiquitous bacterial cell surface structures, involved in processes such as twitching motility, biofilm formation, bacteriophage infection, surface attachment, virulence, and natural transformation. T4P are assembled by machinery that can be divided into the outer membrane pore complex, the alignment complex that connects components in the inner and outer membrane, and the motor complex in the inner membrane and cytoplasm. Here, we characterize the inner membrane platform protein PilC, the cytosolic assembly ATPase PilB of the motor complex, and the cytosolic nucleotide-binding protein PilM of the alignment complex of the T4P machinery of Myxococcus xanthus. PilC was purified as a dimer and reconstituted into liposomes. PilB was isolated as a monomer and bound ATP in a non-cooperative manner, but PilB fused to Hcp1 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa formed a hexamer and bound ATP in a cooperative manner. Hexameric but not monomeric PilB bound to PilC reconstituted in liposomes, and this binding stimulated PilB ATPase activity. PilM could only be purified when it was stabilized by a fusion with a peptide corresponding to the first 16 amino acids of PilN, supporting an interaction between PilM and PilN(1–16). PilM-N(1–16) was isolated as a monomer that bound but did not hydrolyze ATP. PilM interacted directly with PilB, but only with PilC in the presence of PilB, suggesting an indirect interaction. We propose that PilB interacts with PilC and with PilM, thus establishing the connection between the alignment and the motor complex. PMID:26851283

  14. Structure-function dissection of Myxococcus xanthus CarD N-terminal domain, a defining member of the CarD_CdnL_TRCF family of RNA polymerase interacting proteins.

    PubMed

    Bernal-Bernal, Diego; Gallego-García, Aránzazu; García-Martínez, Gema; García-Heras, Francisco; Jiménez, María Angeles; Padmanabhan, S; Elías-Arnanz, Montserrat

    2015-01-01

    Two prototypes of the large CarD_CdnL_TRCF family of bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP)-binding proteins, Myxococcus xanthus CarD and CdnL, have distinct functions whose molecular basis remain elusive. CarD, a global regulator linked to the action of several extracytoplasmic function (ECF) σ-factors, binds to the RNAP β subunit (RNAP-β) and to protein CarG via an N-terminal domain, CarDNt, and to DNA via an intrinsically unfolded C-terminal domain resembling eukaryotic high-mobility-group A (HMGA) proteins. CdnL, a CarDNt-like protein that is essential for cell viability, is implicated in σA-dependent rRNA promoter activation and interacts with RNAP-β but not with CarG. While the HMGA-like domain of CarD by itself is inactive, we find that CarDNt has low but observable ability to activate ECF σ-dependent promoters in vivo, indicating that the C-terminal DNA-binding domain is required to maximize activity. Our structure-function dissection of CarDNt reveals an N-terminal, five-stranded β -sheet Tudor-like domain, CarD1-72, whose structure and contacts with RNAP-β mimic those of CdnL. Intriguingly, and in marked contrast to CdnL, CarD mutations that disrupt its interaction with RNAP-β did not annul activity. Our data suggest that the CarDNt C-terminal segment, CarD61-179, may be structurally distinct from its CdnL counterpart, and that it houses at least two distinct and crucial function determinants: (a) CarG-binding, which is specific to CarD; and (b) a basic residue stretch, which is also conserved and functionally required in CdnL. This study highlights the evolution of shared and divergent interactions in similar protein modules that enable the distinct activities of two related members of a functionally important and widespread bacterial protein family.

  15. Structure-Function Dissection of Myxococcus xanthus CarD N-Terminal Domain, a Defining Member of the CarD_CdnL_TRCF Family of RNA Polymerase Interacting Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Bernal-Bernal, Diego; Gallego-García, Aránzazu; García-Martínez, Gema; García-Heras, Francisco; Jiménez, María Angeles; Padmanabhan, S.; Elías-Arnanz, Montserrat

    2015-01-01

    Two prototypes of the large CarD_CdnL_TRCF family of bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP)-binding proteins, Myxococcus xanthus CarD and CdnL, have distinct functions whose molecular basis remain elusive. CarD, a global regulator linked to the action of several extracytoplasmic function (ECF) σ-factors, binds to the RNAP β subunit (RNAP-β) and to protein CarG via an N-terminal domain, CarDNt, and to DNA via an intrinsically unfolded C-terminal domain resembling eukaryotic high-mobility-group A (HMGA) proteins. CdnL, a CarDNt-like protein that is essential for cell viability, is implicated in σA-dependent rRNA promoter activation and interacts with RNAP-β but not with CarG. While the HMGA-like domain of CarD by itself is inactive, we find that CarDNt has low but observable ability to activate ECF σ-dependent promoters in vivo, indicating that the C-terminal DNA-binding domain is required to maximize activity. Our structure-function dissection of CarDNt reveals an N-terminal, five-stranded β -sheet Tudor-like domain, CarD1–72, whose structure and contacts with RNAP-β mimic those of CdnL. Intriguingly, and in marked contrast to CdnL, CarD mutations that disrupt its interaction with RNAP-β did not annul activity. Our data suggest that the CarDNt C-terminal segment, CarD61–179, may be structurally distinct from its CdnL counterpart, and that it houses at least two distinct and crucial function determinants: (a) CarG-binding, which is specific to CarD; and (b) a basic residue stretch, which is also conserved and functionally required in CdnL. This study highlights the evolution of shared and divergent interactions in similar protein modules that enable the distinct activities of two related members of a functionally important and widespread bacterial protein family. PMID:25811865

  16. Lipolytic Enzymes in Myxococcus xanthus▿

    PubMed Central

    Moraleda-Muñoz, Aurelio; Shimkets, Lawrence J.

    2007-01-01

    The genome of Myxococcus xanthus encodes lipolytic enzymes in three different families: patatin lipases, α/β hydrolases, and GDSL lipases. One member of each family was characterized. The protein encoded by MXAN_3852 contains motifs characteristic of patatins. MXAN_5522 encodes a protein with the G-X-S-X-G motif characteristic of the lipase subfamily of α/β hydrolases. MXAN_4569 encodes a member of the GDSL family of lipolytic enzymes. Strains with deletions of MXAN_5522 and MXAN_4569 undergo faster development and earlier myxospore formation than the wild-type strain. The MXAN_5522 mutation results in spore yields substantially higher than those seen for wild-type cells. Gene expression analysis using translational lacZ fusions indicates that while all three genes are expressed during development, only MXAN_5522 and MXAN_4569 are expressed during vegetative growth. The proteins encoded by these genes were overexpressed using a T7 RNA polymerase transcription (pET102/D-TOPO) system in Escherichia coli BL21 Star (DE3) cells. The substrate specificities of the purified enzymes were investigated using p-nitrophenyl esters with chain lengths from C2 to C16. These enzymes preferentially hydrolyzed esters of short-chain fatty acids, yielding the highest activity with p-nitrophenyl acetate. PMID:17307851

  17. Myxotyrosides A and B, Unusual rhamnosides from Myxococcus sp.

    PubMed

    Ohlendorf, Birgit; Lorenzen, Wolfram; Kehraus, Stefan; Krick, Anja; Bode, Helge B; König, Gabriele M

    2009-01-01

    Myxobacteria are gliding bacteria of the delta-subdivision of the Proteobacteria and known for their unique biosynthetic capabilities. Two examples of a new class of metabolites, myxotyrosides A (1) and B (2), were isolated from a Myxococcus sp. The myxotyrosides have a tyrosine-derived core structure glycosylated with rhamnose and acylated with unusual fatty acids such as (Z)-15-methyl-2-hexadecenoic and (Z)-2-hexadecenoic acid. The fatty acid profile of the investigated Myxococcus sp. (strain 131) is that of a typical myxobacterium with a high similarity to those described for M. fulvus and M. xanthus, with significant concentrations of neither 15-methyl-2-hexadecenoic acid nor 2-hexadecenoic acid being detected.

  18. A New Mechanism for Collective Migration in Myxococcus xanthus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starruß, J.; Bley, Th.; Søgaard-Andersen, L.; Deutsch, A.

    2007-07-01

    Myxobacteria exhibit a complex life cycle characterized by a sequence of cell patterns that culminate in the formation of three-dimensional fruiting bodies. This paper provides indications that the specific cell shape of myxobacteria might play an important role in the different morphogenetic processes during the life cycle. We introduce a new mechanism for collective migration that can explain the formation of aligned cell clusters in myxobacteria. This mechanism does not depend on cell cooperation, and in particular it does not depend on diffusive signals guiding cell motion. A Cellular Potts Model (CPM) that captures the rod cell shape, cell stiffness and active motion of myxobacteria is presented. By means of numerical simulations of model cell populations where cells interact via volume exclusion, we provide evidence of a purely mechanical mechanism for collective migration, which is controlled by the cells' length-to-width aspect ratio.

  19. act Operon Control of Developmental Gene Expression in Myxococcus xanthus

    PubMed Central

    Gronewold, Thomas M. A.; Kaiser, Dale

    2002-01-01

    Cell-bound C-signal guides the building of a fruiting body and triggers the differentiation of myxospores. Earlier work has shown that transcription of the csgA gene, which encodes the C-signal, is directed by four genes of the act operon. To see how expression of the genes encoding components of the aggregation and sporulation processes depends on C-signaling, mutants with loss-of-function mutations in each of the act genes were investigated. These mutations were found to have no effect on genes that are normally expressed up to 3 h into development and are C-signal independent. Neither the time of first expression nor the rate of expression increase was changed in actA, actB, actC, or actD mutant strains. Also, there was no effect on A-signal production, which normally starts before 3 h. By contrast, the null act mutants have striking defects in C-signal production. These mutations changed the expression of four gene reporters that are related to aggregation and sporulation and are expressed at 6 h or later in development. The actA and actB null mutations substantially decreased the expression of all these reporters. The other act null mutations caused either premature expression to wild-type levels (actC) or delayed expression (actD), which ultimately rose to wild-type levels. The pattern of effects on these reporters shows how the C-signal differentially regulates the steps that together build a fruiting body and differentiate spores within it. PMID:11807078

  20. AibA/AibB Induces an Intramolecular Decarboxylation in Isovalerate Biosynthesis by Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed

    Bock, Tobias; Luxenburger, Eva; Hoffmann, Judith; Schütza, Vlad; Feiler, Christian; Müller, Rolf; Blankenfeldt, Wulf

    2017-08-07

    Isovaleryl coenzyme A (IV-CoA) is an important precursor for iso-fatty acids and lipids. It acts in the development of myxobacteria, which can produce this compound from acetyl-CoA through alternative IV-CoA biosynthesis (aib). A central reaction of aib is catalyzed by AibA/AibB, which acts as a cofactor-free decarboxylase despite belonging to the family of CoA-transferases. We developed an efficient expression system for AibA/AibB that allowed the determination of high-resolution crystal structures in complex with different ligands. Through mutational studies, we show that an active-site cysteine previously proposed to be involved in decarboxylation is not required for activity. Instead, AibA/AibB seems to induce an intramolecular decarboxylation by binding its substrate in a hydrophobic cavity and forcing it into a bent conformation. Our study opens opportunities for synthetic biology studies, since AibA/AibB may be suitable for the production of isobutene, a precursor of biofuels and chemicals. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Generation of food-grade recombinant Lactobacillus casei delivering Myxococcus xanthus prolyl endopeptidase.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Sieiro, Patricia; Martin, Maria Cruz; Redruello, Begoña; Del Rio, Beatriz; Ladero, Victor; Palanski, Brad A; Khosla, Chaitan; Fernandez, Maria; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2014-08-01

    Prolyl endopeptidases (PEP) (EC 3.4.21.26), a family of serine proteases with the ability to hydrolyze the peptide bond on the carboxyl side of an internal proline residue, are able to degrade immunotoxic peptides responsible for celiac disease (CD), such as a 33-residue gluten peptide (33-mer). Oral administration of PEP has been suggested as a potential therapeutic approach for CD, although delivery of the enzyme to the small intestine requires intrinsic gastric stability or advanced formulation technologies. We have engineered two food-grade Lactobacillus casei strains to deliver PEP in an in vitro model of small intestine environment. One strain secretes PEP into the extracellular medium, whereas the other retains PEP in the intracellular environment. The strain that secretes PEP into the extracellular medium is the most effective to degrade the 33-mer and is resistant to simulated gastrointestinal stress. Our results suggest that in the future, after more studies and clinical trials, an engineered food-grade Lactobacillus strain may be useful as a vector for in situ production of PEP in the upper small intestine of CD patients.

  2. Generation of food-grade recombinant Lactobacillus casei delivering Myxococcus xanthus prolyl endopeptidase

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Sieiro, Patricia; Martin, Maria Cruz; Redruello, Begoña; del Rio, Beatriz; Ladero, Victor; Palanski, Brad A.; Khosla, Chaitan; Fernandez, Maria; Alvarez, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Prolyl endopeptidases (PEP), a family of serine proteases with the ability to hydrolyze the peptide bond on the carboxyl side of an internal proline residue, are able to degrade immunotoxic peptides responsible for celiac disease (CD), such as a 33-residue gluten peptide (33-mer). Oral administration of PEP has been suggested as a potential therapeutic approach for CD, although delivery of the enzyme to the small intestine requires intrinsic gastric stability or advanced formulation technologies. We have engineered two food-grade Lactobacillus casei strains to deliver PEP in an in vitro model of small intestine environment. One strain secretes PEP into the extracellular medium, whereas the other retains PEP in the intracellular environment. The strain that secretes PEP into the extracellular medium is the most effective to degrade the 33-mer and is resistant to simulated gastrointestinal stress. Our results suggest that in a future, after more studies and clinical trials, an engineered food-grade Lactobacillus strain may be useful as a vector for in situ production of PEP in the upper small intestine of CD patients. PMID:24752841

  3. Stability of a Random Walk Model for Fruiting Body Aggregation in M. xanthus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie-Smith, G. C.; Schüttler, H. B.; Cotter, C.; Shimkets, L.

    2015-03-01

    Myxococcus xanthus exhibits the social starvation behavior of aggregation into a fruiting body containing myxospores able to survive harsh conditions. During fruiting body aggregation, individual bacteria follow random walk paths determined by randomly selected runtimes, turning angles, and speeds. We have simulated this behavior in terms of a continuous-time random walk (CTRW) model, re-formulated as a system of integral equations, describing the angle-resolved cell density, R(r, t, θ), at position r and cell orientation angle θ at time t, and angle-integrated ambient cell density ρ(r, t). By way of a linear stability analysis, we investigated whether a uniform cell density R0 will be unstable for a small non-uniform density perturbation δR(r, t, θ). Such instability indicates aggregate formation, whereas stability indicates absence of aggregation. We show that a broadening of CTRW distributions of the random speed and/or random runtimes strongly favors aggregation. We also show that, in the limit of slowly-varying (long-wavelength) density perturbations, the time-dependent linear density response can be approximated by a drift-diffusion model for which we calculate diffusion and drift coefficients as functions of the CTRW model parameters. Funded by the Fungal Genomics and Computational Biology REU at UGA.

  4. Myxococcus-from single-cell polarity to complex multicellular patterns.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Dale

    2008-01-01

    Myxococcus xanthus creates complex and dynamic multicellular patterns as it swarms. The cells have two polar gliding engines: pulling type IV pili at their leading pole and pushing slime secretory nozzles at their lagging pole. Evidence is presented that slime secretion is vital for cell survival and that the peptidoglycan/cytoskeleton serves as a template to keep both engines oriented in the same direction. Swarming requires that each cell periodically reverse its gliding direction. For the leading pole to become the trailing pole, old engines are inactivated at both ends while new engines are being created at both ends. Reversal is initiated by a small G-protein reversal switch; a pulse of frzE approximately P from a reversal clock triggers MglA to bind GTP. Mgl.GTP then recognizes the engines that are currently in use and inactivates both of them. Meanwhile, new engines appear as instructed by the template, and the cell starts to glide in the opposite direction.

  5. Myxococcus CsgA, Drosophila Sniffer, and human HSD10 are cardiolipin phospholipases

    PubMed Central

    Boynton, Tye O'Hara; Shimkets, Lawrence Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Myxococcus xanthus development requires CsgA, a member of the short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase (SCAD) family of proteins. We show that CsgA and SocA, a protein that can replace CsgA function in vivo, oxidize the 2′-OH glycerol moiety on cardiolipin and phosphatidylglycerol to produce diacylglycerol (DAG), dihydroxyacetone, and orthophosphate. A lipid extract enriched in DAGs from wild-type cells initiates development and lipid body production in a csgA mutant to bypass the mutational block. This novel phospholipase C-like reaction is widespread. SCADs that prevent neurodegenerative disorders, such as Drosophila Sniffer and human HSD10, oxidize cardiolipin with similar kinetic parameters. HSD10 exhibits a strong preference for cardiolipin with oxidized fatty acids. This activity is inhibited in the presence of the amyloid β peptide. Three HSD10 variants associated with neurodegenerative disorders are inactive with cardiolipin. We suggest that HSD10 protects humans from reactive oxygen species by removing damaged cardiolipin before it induces apoptosis. PMID:26338420

  6. Advanced mutasynthesis studies on the natural α-pyrone antibiotic myxopyronin from Myxococcus fulvus.

    PubMed

    Sahner, J Henning; Sucipto, Hilda; Wenzel, Silke C; Groh, Matthias; Hartmann, Rolf W; Müller, Rolf

    2015-04-13

    Myxopyronin is a natural α-pyrone antibiotic from the soil bacterium Myxococcus fulvus Mx f50. Myxopyronin inhibits bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) by binding to a part of the enzyme not targeted by the clinically used rifamycins. This mode of action makes myxopyronins promising molecules for the development of novel broad-spectrum antibacterials. We describe the derivatization of myxopyronins by an advanced mutasynthesis approach as a first step towards this goal. Site-directed mutagenesis of the biosynthetic machinery was used to block myxopyronin biosynthesis at different stages. The resulting mutants were fed with diverse precursors that mimic the biosynthetic intermediates to restore production. Mutasynthon incorporation and production of novel myxopyronin derivatives were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS. This work sets the stage for accessing numerous myxopyronin derivatives, thus significantly expanding the chemical space of f α-pyrone antibiotics. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. The act operon controls the level and time of C-signal production for Myxococcus xanthus development.

    PubMed

    Gronewold, T M; Kaiser, D

    2001-05-01

    The C-signal is a morphogen that controls the assembly of fruiting bodies and the differentiation of myxospores. Production of this signal, which is encoded by the csgA gene, is regulated by the act operon of four genes that are co-transcribed from the same start site. The act A and act B genes regulate the maximum level of the C-signal, which never rises above one-quarter of the maximum wild-type level of CsgA protein in null mutants of either gene. The act A and act B mutants have the same developmental phenotype: both aggregate, neither sporulates, both prolong rippling. By sequence homology, act A encodes a response regulator, and act B encodes a sigma-54 activator protein of the NTRC class. The similar phenotypes of act A and act B deletion mutants suggest that the two gene products are part of the same signal transduction pathway. That pathway responds to C-signal and also regulates the production of CsgA protein, thus creating a positive feedback loop. The act C and act D genes regulate the time pattern of CsgA production, while achieving the same maximum level. An act C null mutant raises CsgA production 15 h earlier than the wild type, whereas an act D null mutant does so 6 h later than wild type. The loop explains how the C-signal rises continuously from early development to a peak at the time of sporulation, and the act genes govern the time course of that rise.

  8. Complete Genome Sequence and Comparative Genomics of a Novel Myxobacterium Myxococcus hansupus.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Gaurav; Narwani, Tarun; Subramanian, Srikrishna

    2016-01-01

    Myxobacteria, a group of Gram-negative aerobes, belong to the class δ-proteobacteria and order Myxococcales. Unlike anaerobic δ-proteobacteria, they exhibit several unusual physiogenomic properties like gliding motility, desiccation-resistant myxospores and large genomes with high coding density. Here we report a 9.5 Mbp complete genome of Myxococcus hansupus that encodes 7,753 proteins. Phylogenomic and genome-genome distance based analysis suggest that Myxococcus hansupus is a novel member of the genus Myxococcus. Comparative genome analysis with other members of the genus Myxococcus was performed to explore their genome diversity. The variation in number of unique proteins observed across different species is suggestive of diversity at the genus level while the overrepresentation of several Pfam families indicates the extent and mode of genome expansion as compared to non-Myxococcales δ-proteobacteria.

  9. Complete Genome Sequence and Comparative Genomics of a Novel Myxobacterium Myxococcus hansupus

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Gaurav; Narwani, Tarun; Subramanian, Srikrishna

    2016-01-01

    Myxobacteria, a group of Gram-negative aerobes, belong to the class δ-proteobacteria and order Myxococcales. Unlike anaerobic δ-proteobacteria, they exhibit several unusual physiogenomic properties like gliding motility, desiccation-resistant myxospores and large genomes with high coding density. Here we report a 9.5 Mbp complete genome of Myxococcus hansupus that encodes 7,753 proteins. Phylogenomic and genome-genome distance based analysis suggest that Myxococcus hansupus is a novel member of the genus Myxococcus. Comparative genome analysis with other members of the genus Myxococcus was performed to explore their genome diversity. The variation in number of unique proteins observed across different species is suggestive of diversity at the genus level while the overrepresentation of several Pfam families indicates the extent and mode of genome expansion as compared to non-Myxococcales δ-proteobacteria. PMID:26900859

  10. Erythrobacter xanthus sp. nov., isolated from surface seawater of the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan-Dan; Zhang, Yan-Qi; Peng, Ming; Wang, Ning; Wang, Xiu-Juan; Zhang, Xi-Ying; Li, Ping-Yi; Xie, Bin-Bin; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; Qin, Qi-Long

    2017-07-01

    A Gram-reaction-negative, aerobic, oxidase- and catalase-positive, yellow-pigmented, non-flagellated, rod-shaped bacterium, designed strain SM1501T, was isolated from surface seawater of the South China Sea. SM1501T grew at 7-42 °C and with 0-11 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that SM1501T represented a member of the genus Erythrobacter, sharing the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (97.4 %) with Erythrobacter luteus and 94.2-96.5 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to other species of the genus Erythrobacterwith validly published names. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) value and in silico DNA-DNA hybridization value between SM1501T and E. luteus were only 74.6 and 20.0 %, respectively. The predominant cellular fatty acids of SM1501T were C17 : 1ω6c, C18 : 1ω7c and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH). The major polar lipids of the strain were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, sphingoglycolipid, diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine and the main respiratory quinone of was Q-10. Polyphasic data presented in this paper support the notion that SM1501T represents a novel species in the genus Erythrobacter, for which the name Erythrobacter xanthus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Erythrobacterxanthus is SM1501T (=KCTC 42669T=CCTCC AB 2015396T).

  11. Xanthusbase: adapting wikipedia principles to a model organism database.

    PubMed

    Arshinoff, Bradley I; Suen, Garret; Just, Eric M; Merchant, Sohel M; Kibbe, Warren A; Chisholm, Rex L; Welch, Roy D

    2007-01-01

    xanthusBase (http://www.xanthusbase.org) is the official model organism database (MOD) for the social bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. In many respects, M.xanthus represents the pioneer model organism (MO) for studying the genetic, biochemical, and mechanistic basis of prokaryotic multicellularity, a topic that has garnered considerable attention due to the significance of biofilms in both basic and applied microbiology research. To facilitate its utility, the design of xanthusBase incorporates open-source software, leveraging the cumulative experience made available through the Generic Model Organism Database (GMOD) project, MediaWiki (http://www.mediawiki.org), and dictyBase (http://www.dictybase.org), to create a MOD that is both highly useful and easily navigable. In addition, we have incorporated a unique Wikipedia-style curation model which exploits the internet's inherent interactivity, thus enabling M.xanthus and other myxobacterial researchers to contribute directly toward the ongoing genome annotation.

  12. Gliding Motility Revisited: How Do the Myxobacteria Move without Flagella?

    PubMed Central

    Mauriello, Emilia M. F.; Mignot, Tâm; Yang, Zhaomin; Zusman, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: In bacteria, motility is important for a wide variety of biological functions such as virulence, fruiting body formation, and biofilm formation. While most bacteria move by using specialized appendages, usually external or periplasmic flagella, some bacteria use other mechanisms for their movements that are less well characterized. These mechanisms do not always exhibit obvious motility structures. Myxococcus xanthus is a motile bacterium that does not produce flagella but glides slowly over solid surfaces. How M. xanthus moves has remained a puzzle that has challenged microbiologists for over 50 years. Fortunately, recent advances in the analysis of motility mutants, bioinformatics, and protein localization have revealed likely mechanisms for the two M. xanthus motility systems. These results are summarized in this review. PMID:20508248

  13. Improving cellular properties for genetic manipulation by dispersed growing mutagenesis in Myxococcus fulvus HW-1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cui-ying; Cai, Ke; Wu, Zhi-hong; Li, Yue-zhong

    2010-06-01

    One of the key limitations to genetic manipulation in myxobacteria is that the cells grow in clumps in liquid. A salt-tolerant strain HW-1 of Myxococcus fulvus was treated with UV irradiation and produced a completely dispersedly growing mutant UV684. There were no significant differences between the parent HW-1 and the mutant UV684 in terms of salt-tolerant growth. The mutant UV684 and the parent strain had the similar abilities of the fruiting body formation and S motility. Interestingly, the mutant exhibited high transformation/transposition efficiency with 10(5)-10(6) colony-forming units per microg DNA, which was about 10(3)-10(5) fold higher than HW-1. The results indicate that the mutation that led to dispersed growth in the UV684 mutant strain had a few impacts on social behavior, but greatly facilitated molecular genetic manipulation.

  14. Characterization of the Partitioning System of Myxococcus Plasmid pMF1

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jing; Zhao, Jing-yi; Li, Yue-zhong

    2011-01-01

    pMF1 is the only autonomously replicating plasmid that has been recently identified in myxobacteria. This study characterized the partitioning (par) system of this plasmid. The fragment that significantly increased the retaining stability of plasmids in Myxococcus cells in the absence of selective antibiotics contained three open reading frames (ORFs) pMF1.21-pMF1.23 (parCAB). The pMF1.22 ORF (parA) is homologous to members of the parA ATPase family, with the highest similarity (56%) to the Sphingobium japonicum ParA-like protein, while the other two ORFs had no homologs in GenBank. DNase I footprinting and electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that the pMF1.23 (parB) product is a DNA-binding protein of iteron DNA sequences, while the product of pMF1.21 (parC) has no binding activity but is able to enhance the DNA-binding activity of ParB to iterons. The ParB protein autogenously repressed the expression of the par genes, consistent with the type Ib par pattern, while the ParC protein has less repressive activity. The ParB-binding iteron sequences are distributed not only near the partitioning gene loci but also along pMF1. These results indicate that the pMF1 par system has novel structural and functional characteristics. PMID:22174771

  15. Project EAGLE (Early Academic Gifted Learning Experience): A Program for Gifted and Talented Students (Grades K-3)--Kindergarten Activity Booklets: Xanthus; Zhack; and Activity Pages H-Z.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merkoski, Kay

    Three activity booklets are presented for implementing Project EAGLE, an enrichment program for gifted and talented kindergarten children. The first activity booklet contains a poem by J. D. Evans titled "In Search of the Xanthus," which describes the search for an imaginary beast that leaves an "X" on the spot where it used to be. The second…

  16. Xanthusbase after five years expands to become Openmods

    PubMed Central

    Pratt-Szeliga, Philip C.; Skewes, Aaron D.; Yan, Jinyuan; Welch, Laura G.; Welch, Roy D.

    2012-01-01

    Xanthusbase (http://www.xanthusbase.org), a model organism database for the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus, functions as a collaborative information repository based on Wikipedia principles. It was created more than 5 years ago to serve as a cost-effective reference database for M. xanthus researchers, an education tool for undergraduate students to learn about genome annotation, and a means for the community of researchers to collaboratively improve their organism’s annotation. We have achieved several goals and are seeking creative solutions to ongoing challenges. Along the way we have made several important improvements to Xanthusbase related to stability, security and usability. Most importantly, we have designed and implemented an installer that enables other microbial model organism communities to use it as a MOD. This version, called Openmods, has already been used to create Xenorhabdusbase (http://xenorhabdusbase.bact.wisc.edu), Caulobacterbase (http://caulobacterbase.bsd.uchicago.edu) and soon Bdellovibriobase. PMID:22116063

  17. Evolution by flight and fight: diverse mechanisms of adaptation by actively motile microbes.

    PubMed

    Rendueles, Olaya; Velicer, Gregory J

    2017-02-01

    Evolutionary adaptation can be achieved by mechanisms accessible to all organisms, including faster growth and interference competition, but self-generated motility offers additional possibilities. We tested whether 55 populations of the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus that underwent selection for increased fitness at the leading edge of swarming colonies adapted by swarming faster toward unused resources or by other means. Populations adapted greatly but diversified markedly in both swarming phenotypes and apparent mechanisms of adaptation. Intriguingly, although many adapted populations swarm intrinsically faster than their ancestors, numerous others do not. Some populations evolved interference competition toward their ancestors, whereas others gained the ability to facultatively increase swarming rate specifically upon direct interaction with ancestral competitors. Our results both highlight the diverse range of mechanisms by which actively motile organisms can adapt evolutionarily and help to explain the high levels of swarming-phenotype diversity found in local soil populations of M. xanthus.

  18. Evolution by flight and fight: diverse mechanisms of adaptation by actively motile microbes

    PubMed Central

    Rendueles, Olaya; Velicer, Gregory J

    2017-01-01

    Evolutionary adaptation can be achieved by mechanisms accessible to all organisms, including faster growth and interference competition, but self-generated motility offers additional possibilities. We tested whether 55 populations of the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus that underwent selection for increased fitness at the leading edge of swarming colonies adapted by swarming faster toward unused resources or by other means. Populations adapted greatly but diversified markedly in both swarming phenotypes and apparent mechanisms of adaptation. Intriguingly, although many adapted populations swarm intrinsically faster than their ancestors, numerous others do not. Some populations evolved interference competition toward their ancestors, whereas others gained the ability to facultatively increase swarming rate specifically upon direct interaction with ancestral competitors. Our results both highlight the diverse range of mechanisms by which actively motile organisms can adapt evolutionarily and help to explain the high levels of swarming-phenotype diversity found in local soil populations of M. xanthus. PMID:27662568

  19. Xanthusbase after five years expands to become Openmods.

    PubMed

    Pratt-Szeliga, Philip C; Skewes, Aaron D; Yan, Jinyuan; Welch, Laura G; Welch, Roy D

    2012-01-01

    Xanthusbase (http://www.xanthusbase.org), a model organism database for the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus, functions as a collaborative information repository based on Wikipedia principles. It was created more than 5 years ago to serve as a cost-effective reference database for M. xanthus researchers, an education tool for undergraduate students to learn about genome annotation, and a means for the community of researchers to collaboratively improve their organism's annotation. We have achieved several goals and are seeking creative solutions to ongoing challenges. Along the way we have made several important improvements to Xanthusbase related to stability, security and usability. Most importantly, we have designed and implemented an installer that enables other microbial model organism communities to use it as a MOD. This version, called Openmods, has already been used to create Xenorhabdusbase (http://xenorhabdusbase.bact.wisc.edu), Caulobacterbase (http://caulobacterbase.bsd.uchicago.edu) and soon Bdellovibriobase.

  20. In Vitro Efficacy of Myxococcus fulvus ANSM068 to Biotransform Aflatoxin B1

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Shu; Zhao, Lihong; Ma, Qiugang; Zhou, Ting; Wang, Ning; Hu, Xinxu; Ji, Cheng

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is commonly found in cereals and animal feeds and causes a significant threat to the food industry and animal production. Several microbial isolates with high AFB1 transformation ability have been identified in our previous studies. The aim of this research was to characterize one of those isolates, Myxococcus fulvus ANSM068, and to explore its biotransformation mechanism. The bacterial isolate of M. fulvus ANSM068, isolated from deer feces, was able to transform AFB1 by 80.7% in liquid VY/2 medium after incubation at 30 °C for 72 h. The supernatant of the bacterial culture was more effective in transforming AFB1 as compared to the cells alone and the cell extract. The transformation activity was significantly reduced and eradicated after the culture supernatant was treated with proteinase K, proteinase K plus SDS and heating. Culture conditions, including nitrogen source, initial pH and incubation temperature were evaluated for an optimal AFB1 transformation. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS) analyses showed that AFB1 was transformed to a structurally different compound. Infrared analysis (IR) indicated that the lactone ring on the AFB1 molecule was modified by the culture supernatant. Chromatographies on DEAE-Ion exchange and Sephadex-Molecular sieve and SDS-PAGE electrophoresis were used to determine active components from the culture supernatant, indicating that enzyme(s) were responsible for the AFB1 biotransformation. This is the first report on AFB1 transformation by a strain of myxobacteria through enzymatic reaction(s). PMID:21152320

  1. The complete genome sequence and analysis of a plasmid-bearing myxobacterial strain Myxococcus fulvus 124B02 (M 206081).

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Jing; Han, Kui; Feng, Jing; Zhuo, Li; Li, Ya-Jie; Li, Yue-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Myxobacteria, phylogenetically located in the delta division of the Proteobacteria, are well known for characterized social behaviors and large genomes of more than 9 Mb in size. Myxococcus fulvus is a typical species of the genus Myxococcus in the family Myxococcaceae. M. fulvus 124B02, originally isolated from a soil sample collected in Northeast China, is the one and only presently known myxobacterial strain that harbors an endogenous autonomously replicating plasmid, named pMF1. The endogenous plasmid is of importance for understanding the genome evolution of myxobacteria, as well as for the development of genetic engineering tools in myxobacteria. Here we describe the complete genome sequence of this organism. M. fulvus 124B02 consists of a circular chromosome with a total length of 11,048,835 bp and a circular plasmid of 18,634 bp. Comparative genomic analyses suggest that pMF1 has a longstanding sustention within myxobacteria, and probably contributes to the genome expansion of myxobacteria.

  2. Deciphering the hunting strategy of a bacterial wolfpack

    PubMed Central

    Berleman, James E.; Kirby, John R.

    2009-01-01

    Myxococcus xanthus is a common soil bacterium with an intricate multicellular lifestyle that continues to challenge the way in which we conceptualize the capabilities of prokaryotic organisms. M. xanthus is the preferred laboratory representative from the Myxobacteria, a family of organisms distinguished by their ability to form highly structured biofilms that include tentacle-like packs of surface-gliding cell groups, synchronized rippling waves of oscillating cells and massive spore-filled aggregates that protrude up from the substratum to form fruiting bodies. But most of the Myxobacteria are also predators that thrive on the degradation of macromolecules released through the lysis of other microbial cells. The aim of this review is to examine our understanding of the predatory life cycle of M. xanthus. We will examine the multicellular structures formed during contact with prey, and the molecular mechanisms utilized by M. xanthus to detect and destroy prey cells. We will also examine our understanding of microbial predator-prey relationships and the prospects for how bacterial predation mechanisms can be exploited to generate new anti-microbial technologies. PMID:19519767

  3. Single Bacterium Detection Using Sers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonchukov, S. A.; Baikova, T. V.; Alushin, M. V.; Svistunova, T. S.; Minaeva, S. A.; Ionin, A. A.; Kudryashov, S. I.; Saraeva, I. N.; Zayarny, D. A.

    2016-02-01

    This work is devoted to the study of a single Staphylococcus aureus bacterium detection using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and resonant Raman spectroscopy (RS). It was shown that SERS allows increasing sensitivity of predominantly low frequency lines connected with the vibrations of Amide, Proteins and DNA. At the same time the lines of carotenoids inherent to this kind of bacterium are well-detected due to the resonance Raman scattering mechanism. The reproducibility and stability of Raman spectra strongly depend on the characteristics of nanostructured substrate, and molecular structure and size of the tested biological object.

  4. Laboratory measurements of biomarkers and individual performances in Chironomus xanthus to evaluate pesticide contamination of sediments in a river of southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Printes, Liane Biehl; Fernandes, Marisa Narciso; Espíndola, Evaldo Luiz Gaeta

    2011-03-01

    This study aimed at evaluating biomarkers, individual and population responses in the native Chironomus xanthus to assess the toxicity of pesticide-contaminated sediments from the Monjolinho River (Southeast Brazil). We measured cholinesterase (ChE) and glutathione S-transferase activities (GST), as biomarkers and survival, individual growth and adult emergence, as individual performances. There was no response of the ChE activity and a tendency to decreased GST activity in contaminated sites, but this was generally not statistically significant. Therefore, there was no association of the biomarker responses with exposure to sediment containing pesticides. In contrast, ash free dry mass was significantly increased and male emergence was decreased in C. xanthus exposed to the same sediments. In conclusion, the selected biomarkers were not sensitive and specific enough to detect and anticipate effects of pesticide contamination at the levels measured in the study area. Nevertheless, individual performances alterations pointed to potential pollution problems and possible ecological consequences. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A "MICROTUBULE" IN A BACTERIUM

    PubMed Central

    van Iterson, Woutera; Hoeniger, Judith F. M.; van Zanten, Eva Nijman

    1967-01-01

    A study of the anchorage of the flagella in swarmers of Proteus mirabilis led to the incidental observation of microtubules. These microtubules were found in thin sections and in whole mount preparations of cells from which most of the content had been released by osmotic shock before staining negatively with potassium phosphotungstate (PTA). The microtubules are in negatively stained preparations about 200 A wide, i.e. somewhat thicker than the flagella (approximately 130 A). They are thus somewhat thinner than most microtubules recorded for other cells. They are referred to as microtubules because of their smooth cylindrical wall, or cortex, surrounding a hollow core which is readily filled with PTA when stained negatively. Since this is probably the first time that such a structure is described inside a bacterium, we do not know for certain whether it represents a normal cell constituent or an abnormality, for instance of the type of "polysheaths" (16). PMID:10976198

  6. A shift from magnitude to sign epistasis during adaptive evolution of a bacterial social trait.

    PubMed

    Zee, Peter C; Mendes-Soares, Helena; Yu, Yuen-Tsu N; Kraemer, Susanne A; Keller, Heike; Ossowski, Stephan; Schneeberger, Korbinian; Velicer, Gregory J

    2014-09-01

    Although the importance of epistasis in evolution has long been recognized, remarkably little is known about the processes by which epistatic interactions evolve in real time in specific biological systems. Here, we have characterized how the epistatic fitness relationship between a social gene and an adapting genome changes radically over a short evolutionary time frame in the social bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. We show that a highly beneficial effect of this social gene in the ancestral genome is gradually reduced--and ultimately reversed into a deleterious effect--over the course of an experimental adaptive trajectory in which a primitive form of novel cooperation evolved. This reduction and reversal of a positive social allelic effect is driven solely by changes in the genetic context in which the gene is expressed as new mutations are sequentially fixed during adaptive evolution, and explicitly demonstrates a significant evolutionary change in the genetic architecture of an ecologically important social trait.

  7. Novel Waddlia Intracellular Bacterium in Artibeus intermedius Fruit Bats, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Pierlé, Sebastián Aguilar; Morales, Cirani Obregón; Martínez, Leonardo Perea; Ceballos, Nidia Aréchiga; Rivero, Juan José Pérez; Díaz, Osvaldo López; Brayton, Kelly A.

    2015-01-01

    An intracellular bacterium was isolated from fruit bats (Artibeus intermedius) in Cocoyoc, Mexico. The bacterium caused severe lesions in the lungs and spleens of bats and intracytoplasmic vacuoles in cell cultures. Sequence analyses showed it is related to Waddlia spp. (order Chlamydiales). We propose to call this bacterium Waddlia cocoyoc. PMID:26583968

  8. New spiral bacterium in gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    McNulty, C A; Dent, J C; Curry, A; Uff, J S; Ford, G A; Gear, M W; Wilkinson, S P

    1989-06-01

    A new spiral bacterium, distinct from Campylobacter pylori, was found in the gastric mucosa of six patients with gastrointestinal symptoms. All patients had chronic active type B gastritis and four had oesophagitis. Culture and microscopy for C pylori infection was negative. These unculturable spiral organisms were probably an incidental finding in patients presenting for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, but it is not possible to say from this small series whether these organisms cause chronic active gastritis. The organism is helical, 3.5-7.5 microns long and 0.9 micron in diameter with truncated ends flattened at the tips, and up to 12 sheathed flagella 28 nm in diameter at each pole. It is proposed that this spiral bacterium should be called "Gastrospirillum hominis Gen.nov., Sp.nov."

  9. New spiral bacterium in gastric mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    McNulty, C A; Dent, J C; Curry, A; Uff, J S; Ford, G A; Gear, M W; Wilkinson, S P

    1989-01-01

    A new spiral bacterium, distinct from Campylobacter pylori, was found in the gastric mucosa of six patients with gastrointestinal symptoms. All patients had chronic active type B gastritis and four had oesophagitis. Culture and microscopy for C pylori infection was negative. These unculturable spiral organisms were probably an incidental finding in patients presenting for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, but it is not possible to say from this small series whether these organisms cause chronic active gastritis. The organism is helical, 3.5-7.5 microns long and 0.9 micron in diameter with truncated ends flattened at the tips, and up to 12 sheathed flagella 28 nm in diameter at each pole. It is proposed that this spiral bacterium should be called "Gastrospirillum hominis Gen.nov., Sp.nov." Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 PMID:2738164

  10. Characterization of a novel extremely alkalophilic bacterium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Souza, K. A.; Deal, P. H.

    1977-01-01

    A new alkalophilic bacterium, isolated from a natural spring of high pH is characterized. It is a Gram-positive, non-sporulating, motile rod requiring aerobic and alkaline conditions for growth. The characteristics of this organism resemble those of the coryneform group of bacteria; however, there are no accepted genera within this group with which this organism can be closely matched. Therefore, a new genus may be warranted.

  11. Pneumonia caused by a previously undescribed bacterium.

    PubMed Central

    Hopfer, R L; Mills, K; Fainstein, V; Fischer, H E; Luna, M P

    1982-01-01

    A new and as yet unidentified bacterium was isolated from the lung tissue of a cancer patient with bilateral pneumonia. Clinically, the pneumonia was consistent with legionellosis; the organism cultured from the lung grew only on the charcoal-yeast extract agar routinely used for Legionella isolation. Subsequent testing, however, showed the organism to be quite distinct from the known Legionella species in its biochemical, antigenic, and growth characteristics. Images PMID:7130363

  12. Paradigms: examples from the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The history of advances in research on Xylella fastidiosa provides excellent examples of how paradigms both advance and limit our scientific understanding of plant pathogens and the plant diseases they cause. I describe this from a personal perspective, having been directly involved with many persons who made paradigm-changing discoveries, beginning with the discovery that a bacterium, not a virus, causes Pierce's disease of grape and other plant diseases in numerous plant species, including important crop and forest species.

  13. Bacteria that glide with helical tracks

    PubMed Central

    Nan, Beiyan; McBride, Mark J.; Chen, Jing; Zusman, David R.; Oster, George

    2014-01-01

    Many bacteria glide smoothly on surfaces, but with no discernable propulsive organelles on their surface. Recent experiments with Myxococcus xanthus and Flavobacterium johnsoniae show that both distantly related bacterial species glide utilizing proteins that move in helical tracks, albeit with significantly different motility mechanisms. Both species utilize proton motive force for movement. However, the motors that power gliding in M. xanthus have been identified, while the F. johnsoniae motors remain to be discovered. PMID:24556443

  14. Reversals and collisions optimize protein exchange in bacterial swarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiri, Aboutaleb; Harvey, Cameron; Buchmann, Amy; Christley, Scott; Shrout, Joshua D.; Aranson, Igor S.; Alber, Mark

    2017-03-01

    Swarming groups of bacteria coordinate their behavior by self-organizing as a population to move over surfaces in search of nutrients and optimal niches for colonization. Many open questions remain about the cues used by swarming bacteria to achieve this self-organization. While chemical cue signaling known as quorum sensing is well-described, swarming bacteria often act and coordinate on time scales that could not be achieved via these extracellular quorum sensing cues. Here, cell-cell contact-dependent protein exchange is explored as a mechanism of intercellular signaling for the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. A detailed biologically calibrated computational model is used to study how M. xanthus optimizes the connection rate between cells and maximizes the spread of an extracellular protein within the population. The maximum rate of protein spreading is observed for cells that reverse direction optimally for swarming. Cells that reverse too slowly or too fast fail to spread extracellular protein efficiently. In particular, a specific range of cell reversal frequencies was observed to maximize the cell-cell connection rate and minimize the time of protein spreading. Furthermore, our findings suggest that predesigned motion reversal can be employed to enhance the collective behavior of biological synthetic active systems.

  15. STUDIES ON THE FILTRABILITY OF BACTERIUM GRANULOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Olitsky, P. K.; Knutti, R. E.; Tyler, J. R.

    1931-01-01

    The evidence hitherto reported concerning the filtration of trachomatous material, and inoculation of man and monkeys with the filtrates points to the conclusion that the incitant of trachoma is not, as a rule, filtrable. Our findings confirm this view and indicate further that no virus causing the disease is adsorbed to Bacterium granulosis. On the other hand, Bacterium granulosis itself in heavy suspensions is irregularly filtrable through Berkefeld V candles, like some other bacteria (14), but it is present in the filtrates in only small numbers. When suspensions were used of trachomatous human and monkey tissues, which contain much fewer organisms than do actual cultures, Bacterium granulosis was never recovered from the filtrates. The conception that trachoma is a disease caused by an ultramicroscopic virus is based on (a) the positive results of filtration in two animals, as reported by Nicolle and his coworkers, and (b) the presence of so called "inclusion bodies" in some of the cells of the lesions. One can state definitely that the evidence is now greatly against the filtrability of the etiological agent of trachoma. Furthermore, filtrability does not in itself suffice for the classification of an agent as an ultramicroscopic virus. Concerning (b), a vast literature has accumulated which indicates that the "inclusion bodies" of trachoma are not specific for the disease and that the bodies themselves may be bacterial in origin (15). We have not as yet found bodies of the kind characteristic of many filtrable viruses in the tissues of man or of monkeys with the experimental disease. PMID:19869939

  16. Detection of Salmonella bacterium in drinking water using microring resonator.

    PubMed

    Bahadoran, Mahdi; Noorden, Ahmad Fakhrurrazi Ahmad; Mohajer, Faeze Sadat; Abd Mubin, Mohamad Helmi; Chaudhary, Kashif; Jalil, Muhammad Arif; Ali, Jalil; Yupapin, Preecha

    2016-01-01

    A new microring resonator system is proposed for the detection of the Salmonella bacterium in drinking water, which is made up of SiO2-TiO2 waveguide embedded inside thin film layer of the flagellin. The change in refractive index due to the binding of the Salmonella bacterium with flagellin layer causes a shift in the output signal wavelength and the variation in through and drop port's intensities, which leads to the detection of Salmonella bacterium in drinking water. The sensitivity of proposed sensor for detecting of Salmonella bacterium in water solution is 149 nm/RIU and the limit of detection is 7 × 10(-4)RIU.

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of the Suttonella ornithocola Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Waldman Ben-Asher, Hiba; Yerushalmi, Rebecca; Wachtel, Chaim; Barbiro-Michaely, Efrat

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT   We report here the draft genome sequence of the Suttonella ornithocola bacterium. To date, this bacterium, found in birds, passed only phylogenetic and phenotypic analyses. To our knowledge, this is the first publication of the Suttonella ornithocola genome sequence. The genetic profile provides a basis for further analysis of its infection pathways. PMID:28209820

  18. Catechol siderophore excretion by magnetotactic bacterium Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1.

    PubMed

    Calugay, Ronie J; Takeyama, Haruko; Mukoyama, Daikichi; Fukuda, Yorikane; Suzuki, Takeyuki; Kanoh, Kaneo; Matsunaga, Tadashi

    2006-05-01

    Siderophore activity was detected in the culture supernatant of the magnetotactic bacterium Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1. Here we report the first structural elucidation of a siderophore produced by a magnetotactic bacterium. The structure of the purified compound was 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid as determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electro-spray ionization mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS).

  19. Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a diazotrophic bacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Kanvinde, L.; Sastry, G.R.K. )

    1990-07-01

    This is the first report that Agrobacterium tumefaciens can fix nitrogen in a free-living condition as shown by its abilities to grown on nitrogen-free medium, reduce acetylene to ethylene, and incorporate {sup 15}N supplied as {sup 15}N{sub 2}. As with most other well-characterized diazotrophic bacteria, the presence of NH{sub 4}{sup +} in the medium and aerobic conditions repress nitrogen fixation by A. tumefaciens. The system requires molybdenum. No evidence for nodulation was found with pea, peanut, or soybean plants. Further understanding of the nitrogen-fixing ability of this bacterium, which has always been considered a pathogen, should cast new light on the evolution of a pathogenic versus symbiotic relationship.

  20. The chemical formula of a magnetotactic bacterium.

    PubMed

    Naresh, Mohit; Das, Sayoni; Mishra, Prashant; Mittal, Aditya

    2012-05-01

    Elucidation of the chemical logic of life is one of the grand challenges in biology, and essential to the progress of the upcoming field of synthetic biology. Treatment of microbial cells explicitly as a "chemical" species in controlled reaction (growth) environments has allowed fascinating discoveries of elemental formulae of a few species that have guided the modern views on compositions of a living cell. Application of mass and energy balances on living cells has proved to be useful in modeling of bioengineering systems, particularly in deriving optimized media compositions for growing microorganisms to maximize yields of desired bio-derived products by regulating intra-cellular metabolic networks. In this work, application of elemental mass balance during growth of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense in bioreactors has resulted in the discovery of the chemical formula of the magnetotactic bacterium. By developing a stoichiometric equation characterizing the formation of a magnetotactic bacterial cell, coupled with rigorous experimental measurements and robust calculations, we report the elemental formula of M. gryphiswaldense cell as CH(2.06)O(0.13)N(0.28)Fe(1.74×10(-3)). Remarkably, we find that iron metabolism during growth of this magnetotactic bacterium is much more correlated individually with carbon and nitrogen, compared to carbon and nitrogen with each other, indicating that iron serves more as a nutrient during bacterial growth rather than just a mineral. Magnetotactic bacteria have not only invoked some interest in the field of astrobiology for the last two decades, but are also prokaryotes having the unique ability of synthesizing membrane bound intracellular organelles. Our findings on these unique prokaryotes are a strong addition to the limited repertoire, of elemental compositions of living cells, aimed at exploring the chemical logic of life. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Characterizations of intracellular arsenic in a bacterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe-Simon, F.; Yannone, S. M.; Tainer, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    Life requires a key set of chemical elements to sustain growth. Yet, a growing body of literature suggests that microbes can alter their nutritional requirements based on the availability of these chemical elements. Under limiting conditions for one element microbes have been shown to utilize a variety of other elements to serve similar functions often (but not always) in similar molecular structures. Well-characterized elemental exchanges include manganese for iron, tungsten for molybdenum and sulfur for phosphorus or oxygen. These exchanges can be found in a wide variety of biomolecules ranging from protein to lipids and DNA. Recent evidence suggested that arsenic, as arsenate or As(V), was taken up and incorporated into the cellular material of the bacterium GFAJ-1. The evidence was interpreted to support As(V) acting in an analogous role to phosphate. We will therefore discuss our ongoing efforts to characterize intracellular arsenate and how it may partition among the cellular fractions of the microbial isolate GFAJ-1 when exposed to As(V) in the presence of various levels of phosphate. Under high As(V) conditions, cells express a dramatically different proteome than when grown given only phosphate. Ongoing studies on the diversity and potential role of proteins and metabolites produced in the presence of As(V) will be reported. These investigations promise to inform the role and additional metabolic potential for As in biology. Arsenic assimilation into biomolecules contributes to the expanding set of chemical elements utilized by microbes in unusual environmental niches.

  2. Characterization of the cellulose-degrading bacterium NCIMB 10462

    SciTech Connect

    Dees, C.; Scott, T.C.; Phelps, T.J.

    1995-12-31

    The gram-negative cellulase-producing bacterium NCIMB 10462 has been previously named Pseudomonas fluorescens subsp. or var. cellulose. Because of renewed interest in cellulose-degrading bacteria for use in the bioconversion of cellulose to chemical feed stocks and fuels, we re-examined the characteristics of this microorganism to determine its true metabolic potential. Metabolic and physical characterization of NCIMB 10462 revealed that this is an alkalophilic, non-fermentative, gram-negative, oxidase-positive, motile, cellulose-degrading bacterium. The aerobic substrate utilization profile of this bacterium has few characteristics consistent with a classification of P. fluorescens and a very low probability match with the genus Sphingomonas. However, total lipid analysis did not reveal that any sphingolipid bases are produced by this bacterium. NCIMB 10462 grows best aerobically, but also grows well in complex media under reducing conditions. NCIMB 10462 grows slowly under anaerobic conditions on complex media, but growth on cellulosic media occurred only under aerobic conditions. Total fatty acid analysis (MIDI) of NCIMB 10462 failed to group this bacterium with a known pseudomonas species. However, fatty acid analysis of the bacteria when grown at temperatures below 37{degrees}C suggest that the organism is a pseudomonad. Since a predominant characteristic of this bacterium is its ability to degrade cellulose, we suggest that it be called Pseudomonas cellulosa.

  3. Taxonomic characterization of the cellulose-degrading bacterium NCIB 10462

    SciTech Connect

    Dees, C.; Ringleberg, D.; Scott, T.C.; Phelps, T.

    1994-06-01

    The gram negative cellulase-producing bacterium NCIB 10462 has been previously named Pseudomonas fluorescens subsp. or var. cellulosa. Since there is renewed interest in cellulose-degrading bacteria for use in bioconversion of cellulose to chemical feed stocks and fuels, we re-examined the characteristics of this microorganism to determine its proper taxonomic characterization and to further define it`s true metabolic potential. Metabolic and physical characterization of NCIB 10462 revealed that this was an alkalophilic, non-fermentative, gram negative, oxidase positive, motile, cellulose-degrading bacterium. The aerobic substrate utilization profile of this bacterium was found to have few characteristics consistent with a classification of P. fluorescens with a very low probability match with the genus Sphingomonas. Total lipid analysis did not reveal that any sphingolipid bases are produced by this bacterium. NCIB 10462 was found to grow best aerobically but also grows well in complex media under reducing conditions. NCIB 10462 grew slowly under full anaerobic conditions on complex media but growth on cellulosic media was found only under aerobic conditions. Total fatty acid analysis (MIDI) of NCIB 10462 failed to group this bacterium with a known pseudomonas species. However, fatty acid analysis of the bacteria when grown at temperatures below 37{degrees}C suggest that the organism is a pseudomonad. Since a predominant characteristic of this bacterium is it`s ability to degrade cellulose, we suggest it be called Pseudomonas cellulosa.

  4. Pangenome Evolution in the Marine Bacterium Alteromonas

    PubMed Central

    López-Pérez, Mario; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    We have examined a collection of the free-living marine bacterium Alteromonas genomes with cores diverging in average nucleotide identities ranging from 99.98% to 73.35%, i.e., from microbes that can be considered members of a natural clone (like in a clinical epidemiological outbreak) to borderline genus level. The genomes were largely syntenic allowing a precise delimitation of the core and flexible regions in each. The core was 1.4 Mb (ca. 30% of the typical strain genome size). Recombination rates along the core were high among strains belonging to the same species (37.7–83.7% of all nucleotide polymorphisms) but they decreased sharply between species (18.9–5.1%). Regarding the flexible genome, its main expansion occurred within the boundaries of the species, i.e., strains of the same species already have a large and diverse flexible genome. Flexible regions occupy mostly fixed genomic locations. Four large genomic islands are involved in the synthesis of strain-specific glycosydic receptors that we have called glycotypes. These genomic regions are exchanged by homologous recombination within and between species and there is evidence for their import from distant taxonomic units (other genera within the family). In addition, several hotspots for integration of gene cassettes by illegitimate recombination are distributed throughout the genome. They code for features that give each clone specific properties to interact with their ecological niche and must flow fast throughout the whole genus as they are found, with nearly identical sequences, in different species. Models for the generation of this genomic diversity involving phage predation are discussed. PMID:27189983

  5. Extreme Ionizing-Radiation-Resistant Bacterium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaishampayan, Parag A.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.; Schwendner, Petra

    2013-01-01

    potential for transfer, and subsequent proliferation, on another solar body such as Mars and Europa. These organisms are more likely to escape planetary protection assays, which only take into account presence of spores. Hence, presences of extreme radiation-resistant Deinococcus in the cleanroom facility where spacecraft are assembled pose a serious risk for integrity of life-detection missions. The microorganism described herein was isolated from the surfaces of the cleanroom facility in which the Phoenix Lander was assembled. The isolated bacterial strain was subjected to a comprehensive polyphasic analysis to characterize its taxonomic position. This bacterium exhibits very low 16SrRNA similarity with any other environmental isolate reported to date. Both phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses clearly indicate that this isolate belongs to the genus Deinococcus and represents a novel species. The name Deinococcus phoenicis was proposed after the Phoenix spacecraft, which was undergoing assembly, testing, and launch operations in the spacecraft assembly facility at the time of isolation. D. phoenicis cells exhibited higher resistance to ionizing radiation (cobalt-60; 14 kGy) than the cells of the D. radiodurans (5 kGy). Thus, it is in the best interest of NASA to thoroughly characterize this organism, which will further assess in determining the potential for forward contamination. Upon the completion of genetic and physiological characteristics of D. phoenicis, it will be added to a planetary protection database to be able to further model and predict the probability of forward contamination.

  6. Extreme Ionizing-Radiation-Resistant Bacterium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaishampayan, Parag A.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.; Schwendner, Petra

    2012-01-01

    potential for transfer, and subsequent proliferation, on another solar body such as Mars and Europa. These organisms are more likely to escape planetary protection assays, which only take into account presence of spores. Hence, presences of extreme radiation-resistant Deinococcus in the cleanroom facility where spacecraft are assembled pose a serious risk for integrity of life-detection missions. The microorganism described herein was isolated from the surfaces of the cleanroom facility in which the Phoenix Lander was assembled. The isolated bacterial strain was subjected to a comprehensive polyphasic analysis to characterize its taxonomic position. This bacterium exhibits very low 16SrRNA similarity with any other environmental isolate reported to date. Both phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses clearly indicate that this isolate belongs to the genus Deinococcus and represents a novel species. The name Deinococcus phoenicis was proposed after the Phoenix spacecraft, which was undergoing assembly, testing, and launch operations in the spacecraft assembly facility at the time of isolation. D. phoenicis cells exhibited higher resistance to ionizing radiation (cobalt-60; 14 kGy) than the cells of the D. radiodurans (5 kGy). Thus, it is in the best interest of NASA to thoroughly characterize this organism, which will further assess in determining the potential for forward contamination. Upon the completion of genetic and physiological characteristics of D. phoenicis, it will be added to a planetary protection database to be able to further model and predict the probability of forward contamination.

  7. Hydrogen Production by the Thermophilic Bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Nirakar; Dipasquale, Laura; d’Ippolito, Giuliana; Panico, Antonio; Lens, Piet N. L.; Esposito, Giovanni; Fontana, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    As the only fuel that is not chemically bound to carbon, hydrogen has gained interest as an energy carrier to face the current environmental issues of greenhouse gas emissions and to substitute the depleting non-renewable reserves. In the last years, there has been a significant increase in the number of publications about the bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana that is responsible for production yields of H2 that are among the highest achievements reported in the literature. Here we present an extensive overview of the most recent studies on this hyperthermophilic bacterium together with a critical discussion of the potential of fermentative production by this bacterium. The review article is organized into sections focused on biochemical, microbiological and technical issues, including the effect of substrate, reactor type, gas sparging, temperature, pH, hydraulic retention time and organic loading parameters on rate and yield of gas production. PMID:26053393

  8. Hydrogen Production by the Thermophilic Bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Nirakar; Dipasquale, Laura; d'Ippolito, Giuliana; Panico, Antonio; Lens, Piet N L; Esposito, Giovanni; Fontana, Angelo

    2015-06-04

    As the only fuel that is not chemically bound to carbon, hydrogen has gained interest as an energy carrier to face the current environmental issues of greenhouse gas emissions and to substitute the depleting non-renewable reserves. In the last years, there has been a significant increase in the number of publications about the bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana that is responsible for production yields of H2 that are among the highest achievements reported in the literature. Here we present an extensive overview of the most recent studies on this hyperthermophilic bacterium together with a critical discussion of the potential of fermentative production by this bacterium. The review article is organized into sections focused on biochemical, microbiological and technical issues, including the effect of substrate, reactor type, gas sparging, temperature, pH, hydraulic retention time and organic loading parameters on rate and yield of gas production.

  9. Bacterially mediated mineralization of vaterite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Navarro, Carlos; Jimenez-Lopez, Concepcion; Rodriguez-Navarro, Alejandro; Gonzalez-Muñoz, Maria Teresa; Rodriguez-Gallego, Manuel

    2007-03-01

    Myxococcus xanthus, a common soil bacterium, plays an active role in the formation of spheroidal vaterite. Bacterial production of CO 2 and NH 3 and the transformation of the NH 3 to NH4+ and OH -, thus increasing solution pH and carbonate alkalinity, set the physicochemical conditions (high supersaturation) leading to vaterite precipitation in the microenvironment around cells, and directly onto the surface of bacterial cells. In the latter case, fossilization of bacteria occurs. Vaterite crystals formed by aggregation of oriented nanocrystals with c-axis normal to the bacterial cell-wall, or to the core of the spherulite when bacteria were not encapsulated. While preferred orientation of vaterite c-axis appears to be determined by electrostatic affinity (ionotropic effect) between vaterite crystal (0001) planes and the negatively charged functional groups of organic molecules on the bacterium cell-wall or on extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), analysis of the changes in the culture medium chemistry as well as high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) observations point to polymorph selection by physicochemical (kinetic) factors (high supersaturation) and stabilization by organics, both connected with bacterial activity. The latter is in agreement with inorganic precipitation of vaterite induced by NH 3 and CO 2 addition in the protein-rich sterile culture medium. Our results as well as recent studies on vaterite precipitation in the presence of different types of bacteria suggest that bacterially mediated vaterite precipitation is not strain-specific, and could be more common than previously thought.

  10. Myxobacteria: Moving, Killing, Feeding, and Surviving Together

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Dorado, José; Marcos-Torres, Francisco J.; García-Bravo, Elena; Moraleda-Muñoz, Aurelio; Pérez, Juana

    2016-01-01

    Myxococcus xanthus, like other myxobacteria, is a social bacterium that moves and feeds cooperatively in predatory groups. On surfaces, rod-shaped vegetative cells move in search of the prey in a coordinated manner, forming dynamic multicellular groups referred to as swarms. Within the swarms, cells interact with one another and use two separate locomotion systems. Adventurous motility, which drives the movement of individual cells, is associated with the secretion of slime that forms trails at the leading edge of the swarms. It has been proposed that cellular traffic along these trails contributes to M. xanthus social behavior via stigmergic regulation. However, most of the cells travel in groups by using social motility, which is cell contact-dependent and requires a large number of individuals. Exopolysaccharides and the retraction of type IV pili at alternate poles of the cells are the engines associated with social motility. When the swarms encounter prey, the population of M. xanthus lyses and takes up nutrients from nearby cells. This cooperative and highly density-dependent feeding behavior has the advantage that the pool of hydrolytic enzymes and other secondary metabolites secreted by the entire group is shared by the community to optimize the use of the degradation products. This multicellular behavior is especially observed in the absence of nutrients. In this condition, M. xanthus swarms have the ability to organize the gliding movements of 1000s of rods, synchronizing rippling waves of oscillating cells, to form macroscopic fruiting bodies, with three subpopulations of cells showing division of labor. A small fraction of cells either develop into resistant myxospores or remain as peripheral rods, while the majority of cells die, probably to provide nutrients to allow aggregation and spore differentiation. Sporulation within multicellular fruiting bodies has the benefit of enabling survival in hostile environments, and increases germination and growth

  11. Complete Genome of the Cellulolytic Ruminal Bacterium Ruminococcus albus 7

    SciTech Connect

    Suen, Garret; Stevenson, David M; Bruce, David; Chertkov, Olga; Copeland, A; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Detter, J. Chris; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Han, Cliff; Hauser, Loren John; Ivanova, N; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Land, Miriam L; Lapidus, Alla L.; Lucas, Susan; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Pitluck, Sam; Tapia, Roxanne; Woyke, Tanja; Boyum, Julie; Mead, David; Weimer, Paul J

    2011-01-01

    Ruminococcus albus 7 is a highly cellulolytic ruminal bacterium that is a member of the phylum Firmicutes. Here, we describe the complete genome of this microbe. This genome will be useful for rumen microbiology and cellulosome biology and in biofuel production, as one of its major fermentation products is ethanol.

  12. Complete Genome of the Cellulolytic Ruminal Bacterium Ruminococcus albus 7

    PubMed Central

    Suen, Garret; Stevenson, David M.; Bruce, David C.; Chertkov, Olga; Copeland, Alex; Cheng, Jan-Feng; Detter, Chris; Detter, John C.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Han, Cliff S.; Hauser, Loren J.; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Land, Miriam L.; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Pitluck, Sam; Tapia, Roxanne; Woyke, Tanja; Boyum, Julie; Mead, David; Weimer, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Ruminococcus albus 7 is a highly cellulolytic ruminal bacterium that is a member of the phylum Firmicutes. Here, we describe the complete genome of this microbe. This genome will be useful for rumen microbiology and cellulosome biology and in biofuel production, as one of its major fermentation products is ethanol. PMID:21914885

  13. Complete genome of the cellulolytic ruminal bacterium Ruminococcus albus 7

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ruminococcus albus 7 is a highly cellulolytic rumen bacterium that is a member of the phylum Firmicutes. Here, we describe the complete genome for this microbe. This genome will be useful for rumen microbiology, cellulosome biology, and in biofuel production, as one of its major fermentation product...

  14. Complete genome of the cellulolytic ruminal bacterium Ruminococcus albus 7.

    PubMed

    Suen, Garret; Stevenson, David M; Bruce, David C; Chertkov, Olga; Copeland, Alex; Cheng, Jan-Feng; Detter, Chris; Detter, John C; Goodwin, Lynne A; Han, Cliff S; Hauser, Loren J; Ivanova, Natalia N; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Land, Miriam L; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Pitluck, Sam; Tapia, Roxanne; Woyke, Tanja; Boyum, Julie; Mead, David; Weimer, Paul J

    2011-10-01

    Ruminococcus albus 7 is a highly cellulolytic ruminal bacterium that is a member of the phylum Firmicutes. Here, we describe the complete genome of this microbe. This genome will be useful for rumen microbiology and cellulosome biology and in biofuel production, as one of its major fermentation products is ethanol.

  15. Further observations on Mima polymorpha and Achromobacter (Bacterium) antiratum

    PubMed Central

    Brodie, J.; Henderson, A.

    1964-01-01

    Further investigations on the morphology, biochemical reactions, and serological relationships of strains of Mima polymorpha and Achromobacter (Bacterium) anitratum are reported. The results seem to indicate such a close relationship that it may yet be necessary to reconsider the nomenclature of these organisms. PMID:14207784

  16. Gut bacterium of Dendrobaena veneta (Annelida: Oligochaeta) possesses antimycobacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Fiołka, Marta J; Zagaja, Mirosław P; Piersiak, Tomasz D; Wróbel, Marek; Pawelec, Jarosław

    2010-09-01

    The new bacterial strain with antimycobacterial activity has been isolated from the midgut of Dendrobaena veneta (Annelida). Biochemical and molecular characterization of isolates from 18 individuals identified all as Raoultella ornithinolytica genus with 99% similarity. The bacterium is a possible symbiont of the earthworm D. veneta. The isolated microorganism has shown the activity against four strains of fast-growing mycobacteria: Mycobacterium butiricum, Mycobacterium jucho, Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium phlei. The multiplication of the gut bacterium on plates with Sauton medium containing mycobacteria has caused a lytic effect. After the incubation of the cell free extract prepared from the gut bacterium with four strains of mycobacteria in liquid Sauton medium, the cells of all tested strains were deformed and divided to small oval forms and sometimes created long filaments. The effect was observed by the use of light, transmission and scanning microscopy. Viability of all examined species of mycobacteria was significantly decreased. The antimycobacterial effect was probably the result of the antibiotic action produced by the gut bacterium of the earthworm. The application of ultrafiltration procedure allowed to demonstrate that antimicrobial substance with strong antimycobacterial activity from bacterial culture supernatant, is a protein with the molecular mass above 100 kDa.

  17. Trichloroethylene Biodegradation by a Methane-Oxidizing Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Little, C. Deane; Palumbo, Anthony V.; Herbes, Stephen E.; Lidstrom, Mary E.; Tyndall, Richard L.; Gilmer, Penny J.

    1988-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE), a common groundwater contaminant, is a suspected carcinogen that is highly resistant to aerobic biodegradation. An aerobic, methane-oxidizing bacterium was isolated that degrades TCE in pure culture at concentrations commonly observed in contaminated groundwater. Strain 46-1, a type I methanotrophic bacterium, degraded TCE if grown on methane or methanol, producing CO2 and water-soluble products. Gas chromatography and 14C radiotracer techniques were used to determine the rate, methane dependence, and mechanism of TCE biodegradation. TCE biodegradation by strain 46-1 appears to be a cometabolic process that occurs when the organism is actively metabolizing a suitable growth substrate such as methane or methanol. It is proposed that TCE biodegradation by methanotrophs occurs by formation of TCE epoxide, which breaks down spontaneously in water to form dichloroacetic and glyoxylic acids and one-carbon products. Images PMID:16347616

  18. A Streamlined Strategy for Biohydrogen Production with an Alkaliphilic Bacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Elias, Dwayne A; Wall, Judy D.; Mormile, Dr. Melanie R.; Begemann, Matthew B

    2012-01-01

    Biofuels are anticipated to enable a shift from fossil fuels for renewable transportation and manufacturing fuels, with biohydrogen considered attractive since it could offer the largest reduction of global carbon budgets. Currently, biohydrogen production remains inefficient and heavily fossil fuel-dependent. However, bacteria using alkali-treated biomass could streamline biofuel production while reducing costs and fossil fuel needs. An alkaliphilic bacterium, Halanaerobium strain sapolanicus, is described that is capable of biohydrogen production at levels rivaling neutrophilic strains, but at pH 11 and hypersaline conditions. H. sapolanicus ferments a variety of 5- and 6- carbon sugars derived from hemicellulose and cellulose including cellobiose, and forms the end products hydrogen and acetate. Further, it can also produce biohydrogen from switchgrass and straw pretreated at temperatures far lower than any previously reported and in solutions compatible with growth. Hence, this bacterium can potentially increase the efficiency and efficacy of biohydrogen production from renewable biomass resources.

  19. Isolation of a bacterium capable of degrading peanut hull lignin

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, T.A.; Kerr, R.D.; Benner, R.

    1983-11-01

    Thirty-seven bacterial strains capable of degrading peanut hull lignin were isolated by using four types of lignin preparations and hot-water-extracted peanut hulls. One of the isolates, tentatively identified as Arthrobacter species, was capable of utilizing all four lignin preparations as well as extracted peanut hulls as a sole source of carbon. The bacterium was also capable of degrading specifically labeled (/sup 14/C) lignin-labeled lignocellulose and (/sup 14/C)cellulose-labeled lignocellulose from the cordgrass Spartina alterniflora and could also degrade (/sup 14/C) Kraft lignin from slash pine. After 10 days of incubation with (/sup 14/C) cellulose-labeled lignocellulose or (/sup 14/C) lignin-labeled lignocellulose from S. alterniflora, the bacterium mineralized 6.5% of the polysaccharide component and 2.9% of the lignin component. (Refs. 24).

  20. Isolation of a Bacterium Capable of Degrading Peanut Hull Lignin

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Thomas J.; Kerr, Robert D.; Benner, Ronald

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-seven bacterial strains capable of degrading peanut hull lignin were isolated by using four types of lignin preparations and hot-water-extracted peanut hulls. One of the isolates, tentatively identified as Arthrobacter sp., was capable of utilizing all four lignin preparations as well as extracted peanut hulls as a sole source of carbon. The bacterium was also capable of degrading specifically labeled [14C]lignin-labeled lignocellulose and [14C]cellulose-labeled lignocellulose from the cordgrass Spartina alterniflora and could also degrade [14C]Kraft lignin from slash pine. After 10 days of incubation with [14C]cellulose-labeled lignocellulose or [14C]lignin-labeled lignocellulose from S. alterniflora, the bacterium mineralized 6.5% of the polysaccharide component and 2.9% of the lignin component. Images PMID:16346424

  1. The biogeography of kin discrimination across microbial neighbourhoods.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Susanne A; Wielgoss, Sébastien; Fiegna, Francesca; Velicer, Gregory J

    2016-10-01

    The spatial distribution of potential interactants is critical to social evolution in all cooperative organisms. Yet the biogeography of microbial kin discrimination at the scales most relevant to social interactions is poorly understood. Here we resolve the microbiogeography of social identity and genetic relatedness in local populations of the model cooperative bacterium Myxococcus xanthus at small spatial scales, across which the potential for dispersal is high. Using two criteria of relatedness-colony-merger compatibility during cooperative motility and DNA-sequence similarity at highly polymorphic loci-we find that relatedness decreases greatly with spatial distance even across the smallest scale transition. Both social relatedness and genetic relatedness are maximal within individual fruiting bodies at the micrometre scale but are much lower already across adjacent fruiting bodies at the millimetre scale. Genetic relatedness was found to be yet lower among centimetre-scale samples, whereas social allotype relatedness decreased further only at the metre scale, at and beyond which the probability of social or genetic identity among randomly sampled isolates is effectively zero. Thus, in M. xanthus, high-relatedness patches form a rich mosaic of diverse social allotypes across fruiting body neighbourhoods at the millimetre scale and beyond. Individuals that migrate even short distances across adjacent groups will frequently encounter allotypic conspecifics and territorial kin discrimination may profoundly influence the spatial dynamics of local migration. Finally, we also found that the phylogenetic scope of intraspecific biogeographic analysis can affect the detection of spatial structure, as some patterns evident in clade-specific analysis were masked by simultaneous analysis of all strains. © 2016 The Authors. Molecular Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The Mosaic Genome of Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans Strain 2CP-C Suggests an Aerobic Common Ancestor to the Delta-Proteobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Sara H.; Wagner, Ryan D.; Arakaki, Adrian K.; Skolnick, Jeffrey; Kirby, John R.; Shimkets, Lawrence J.; Sanford, Robert A.; Löffler, Frank E.

    2008-01-01

    Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans strain 2CP-C is a versaphilic delta-Proteobacterium distributed throughout many diverse soil and sediment environments. 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis groups A. dehalogenans together with the myxobacteria, which have distinguishing characteristics including strictly aerobic metabolism, sporulation, fruiting body formation, and surface motility. Analysis of the 5.01 Mb strain 2CP-C genome substantiated that this organism is a myxobacterium but shares genotypic traits with the anaerobic majority of the delta-Proteobacteria (i.e., the Desulfuromonadales). Reflective of its respiratory versatility, strain 2CP-C possesses 68 genes coding for putative c-type cytochromes, including one gene with 40 heme binding motifs. Consistent with its relatedness to the myxobacteria, surface motility was observed in strain 2CP-C and multiple types of motility genes are present, including 28 genes for gliding, adventurous (A-) motility and 17 genes for type IV pilus-based motility (i.e., social (S-) motility) that all have homologs in Myxococcus xanthus. Although A. dehalogenans shares many metabolic traits with the anaerobic majority of the delta-Proteobacteria, strain 2CP-C grows under microaerophilic conditions and possesses detoxification systems for reactive oxygen species. Accordingly, two gene clusters coding for NADH dehydrogenase subunits and two cytochrome oxidase gene clusters in strain 2CP-C are similar to those in M. xanthus. Remarkably, strain 2CP-C possesses a third NADH dehydrogenase gene cluster and a cytochrome cbb3 oxidase gene cluster, apparently acquired through ancient horizontal gene transfer from a strictly anaerobic green sulfur bacterium. The mosaic nature of the A. dehalogenans strain 2CP-C genome suggests that the metabolically versatile, anaerobic members of the delta-Proteobacteria may have descended from aerobic ancestors with complex lifestyles. PMID:18461135

  3. [Fractionation of sulfur isotopes by phototrophic sulfur bacterium Ectothiorhodospira shaposhnikovii].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, M V; Gogotova, G I; Matrosov, A G; Ziakun, A M

    1976-01-01

    Two processes of sulphur isotope fractionation have been found in experiments with the sulphur purple bacterium Ectothiorhodospira shaposhnikovii. As a result, a light isotope, 32S, is concentrated in residual hydrogen sulphide, and a heavy isotope, 34S, in elementary suphur which is deposited outside the cell. The sulphate produced is lighter than elementary sulphur. Fractionation of sulphur isotopes is observed in natural conditions and is confined to places of mass growth of photosynthetic sulphur bacteria.

  4. Initiation of Chromosomal Replication in Predatory Bacterium Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus

    PubMed Central

    Makowski, Łukasz; Donczew, Rafał; Weigel, Christoph; Zawilak-Pawlik, Anna; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is a small Gram-negative predatory bacterium that attacks other Gram-negative bacteria, including many animal, human, and plant pathogens. This bacterium exhibits a peculiar biphasic life cycle during which two different types of cells are produced: non-replicating highly motile cells (the free-living phase) and replicating cells (the intracellular-growth phase). The process of chromosomal replication in B. bacteriovorus must therefore be temporally and spatially regulated to ensure that it is coordinated with cell differentiation and cell cycle progression. Recently, B. bacteriovorus has received considerable research interest due to its intriguing life cycle and great potential as a prospective antimicrobial agent. Although, we know that chromosomal replication in bacteria is mainly regulated at the initiation step, no data exists about this process in B. bacteriovorus. We report the first characterization of key elements of initiation of chromosomal replication – DnaA protein and oriC region from the predatory bacterium, B. bacteriovorus. In vitro studies using different approaches demonstrate that the B. bacteriovorus oriC (BdoriC) is specifically bound and unwound by the DnaA protein. Sequence comparison of the DnaA-binding sites enabled us to propose a consensus sequence for the B. bacteriovorus DnaA box [5′-NN(A/T)TCCACA-3′]. Surprisingly, in vitro analysis revealed that BdoriC is also bound and unwound by the host DnaA proteins (relatively distantly related from B. bacteriovorus). We compared the architecture of the DnaA–oriC complexes (orisomes) in homologous (oriC and DnaA from B. bacteriovorus) and heterologous (BdoriC and DnaA from prey, Escherichia coli or Pseudomonas aeruginosa) systems. This work provides important new entry points toward improving our understanding of the initiation of chromosomal replication in this predatory bacterium. PMID:27965633

  5. Thermostable purified endoglucanase from thermophilic bacterium acidothermus cellulolyticus

    DOEpatents

    Tucker, Melvin P.; Grohmann, Karel; Himmel, Michael E.; Mohagheghi, Ali

    1992-01-01

    A substantially purified high molecular weight cellulase enzyme having a molecular weight of between about 156,000 to about 203,400 daltons isolated from the bacterium Acidothermus cellulolyticus (ATCC 43068) and a method of producing it are disclosed. The enzyme is water soluble, possesses both C.sub.1 and C.sub.x types of enzymatic activity, has a high degree of stability toward heat and exhibits both a high optimum temperature activity and high inactivation characteristics.

  6. Isolation and Characterization of a Chlorinated-Pyridinol-Degrading Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Y.; Racke, K. D.; Bollag, J.

    1997-01-01

    The isolation of a pure culture of bacteria able to use 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) as a sole source of carbon and energy under aerobic conditions was achieved for the first time. The bacterium was identified as a Pseudomonas sp. and designated ATCC 700113. [2,6-(sup14)C]TCP degradation yielded (sup14)CO(inf2), chloride, and unidentified polar metabolites. PMID:16535719

  7. The Photosynthetic Reaction Center from the Purple Bacterium Rhodopseudomonas viridis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deisenhofer, Johann; Michel, Hartmut

    1989-09-01

    The history and methods of membrane protein crystallization are described. The solution of the structure of the photosynthetic reaction center from the bacterium Rhodopseudomonas viridis is described, and the structure of this membrane protein complex is correlated with its function as a light-driven electron pump across the photosynthetic membrane. Conclusions about the structure of the photosystem II reaction center from plants are drawn, and aspects of membrane protein structure are discussed.

  8. Fast Neutron Irradiation of the Highly Radioresistant Bacterium Deinococcus Radiodurans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Case, Diane Louise

    Fast neutron dose survival curves were generated for the bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans, which is renowned for its unusually high resistance to gamma, x-ray, and ultraviolet radiation, but for which fast neutron response was unknown. The fast neutrons were produced by the University of Massachusetts Lowell 5.5-MV, type CN Van de Graaff accelerator through the ^7Li(p,n)^7 Be reaction by bombarding a thick metallic lithium target with a 4-MeV proton beam. The bacteria were uniformly distributed on 150-mm agar plates and were exposed to the fast neutron beam under conditions of charged particle equilibrium. The plates were subdivided into concentric rings of increasing diameter from the center to the periphery of the plate, within which the average neutron dose was calculated as the product of the precisely known neutron fluence at the average radius of the ring and the neutron energy dependent kerma factor. The neutron fluence and dose ranged from approximately 3 times 1013 n cm^ {-2} to 1 times 1012 n cm^ {-2}, and 200 kilorad to 5 kilorad, respectively, from the center to the periphery of the plate. Percent survival for Deinococcus radiodurans as a function of fast neutron dose was derived from the ability of the irradiated cells to produce visible colonies within each ring compared to that of a nonirradiated control population. The bacterium Escherichia coli B/r (CSH) was irradiated under identical conditions for comparative purposes. The survival response of Deinococcus radiodurans as a result of cumulative fast neutron exposures was also investigated. The quantification of the ability of Deinococcus radiodurans to survive cellular insult from secondary charged particles, which are produced by fast neutron interactions in biological materials, will provide valuable information about damage and repair mechanisms under extreme cellular stress, and may provide new insight into the origin of this bacterium's unprecedented radiation resistance.

  9. Chitin utilization by the insect-transmitted bacterium Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Killiny, Nabil; Prado, Simone S; Almeida, Rodrigo P P

    2010-09-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is an insect-borne bacterium that colonizes xylem vessels of a large number of host plants, including several crops of economic importance. Chitin is a polysaccharide present in the cuticle of leafhopper vectors of X. fastidiosa and may serve as a carbon source for this bacterium. Biological assays showed that X. fastidiosa reached larger populations in the presence of chitin. Additionally, chitin induced phenotypic changes in this bacterium, notably increasing adhesiveness. Quantitative PCR assays indicated transcriptional changes in the presence of chitin, and an enzymatic assay demonstrated chitinolytic activity by X. fastidiosa. An ortholog of the chitinase A gene (chiA) was identified in the X. fastidiosa genome. The in silico analysis revealed that the open reading frame of chiA encodes a protein of 351 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 40 kDa. chiA is in a locus that consists of genes implicated in polysaccharide degradation. Moreover, this locus was also found in the genomes of closely related bacteria in the genus Xanthomonas, which are plant but not insect associated. X. fastidiosa degraded chitin when grown on a solid chitin-yeast extract-agar medium and grew in liquid medium with chitin as the sole carbon source; ChiA was also determined to be secreted. The gene encoding ChiA was cloned into Escherichia coli, and endochitinase activity was detected in the transformant, showing that the gene is functional and involved in chitin degradation. The results suggest that X. fastidiosa may use its vectors' foregut surface as a carbon source. In addition, chitin may trigger X. fastidiosa's gene regulation and biofilm formation within vectors. Further work is necessary to characterize the role of chitin and its utilization in X. fastidiosa.

  10. Regulation of dynamic polarity switching in bacteria by a Ras-like G-protein and its cognate GAP.

    PubMed

    Leonardy, Simone; Miertzschke, Mandy; Bulyha, Iryna; Sperling, Eva; Wittinghofer, Alfred; Søgaard-Andersen, Lotte

    2010-07-21

    The rod-shaped cells of the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus move uni-directionally and occasionally undergo reversals during which the leading/lagging polarity axis is inverted. Cellular reversals depend on pole-to-pole relocation of motility proteins that localize to the cell poles between reversals. We show that MglA is a Ras-like G-protein and acts as a nucleotide-dependent molecular switch to regulate motility and that MglB represents a novel GTPase-activating protein (GAP) family and is the cognate GAP of MglA. Between reversals, MglA/GTP is restricted to the leading and MglB to the lagging pole defining the leading/lagging polarity axis. For reversals, the Frz chemosensory system induces the relocation of MglA/GTP to the lagging pole causing an inversion of the leading/lagging polarity axis. MglA/GTP stimulates motility by establishing correct polarity of motility proteins between reversals and reversals by inducing their pole-to-pole relocation. Thus, the function of Ras-like G-proteins and their GAPs in regulating cell polarity is found not only in eukaryotes, but also conserved in bacteria.

  11. Wet-surface-enhanced ellipsometric contrast microscopy identifies slime as a major adhesion factor during bacterial surface motility.

    PubMed

    Ducret, Adrien; Valignat, Marie-Pierre; Mouhamar, Fabrice; Mignot, Tâm; Theodoly, Olivier

    2012-06-19

    In biology, the extracellular matrix (ECM) promotes both cell adhesion and specific recognition, which is essential for central developmental processes in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. However, live studies of the dynamic interactions between cells and the ECM, for example during motility, have been greatly impaired by imaging limitations: mostly the ability to observe the ECM at high resolution in absence of specific staining by live microscopy. To solve this problem, we developed a unique technique, wet-surface enhanced ellipsometry contrast (Wet-SEEC), which magnifies the contrast of transparent organic materials deposited on a substrate (called Wet-surf) with exquisite sensitivity. We show that Wet-SEEC allows both the observation of unprocessed nanofilms as low as 0.2 nm thick and their accurate 3D topographic reconstructions, directly by standard light microscopy. We next used Wet-SEEC to image slime secretion, a poorly defined property of many prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms that move across solid surfaces in absence of obvious extracellular appendages (gliding). Using combined Wet-SEEC and fluorescent-staining experiments, we observed slime deposition by gliding Myxococcus xanthus cells at unprecedented resolution. Altogether, the results revealed that in this bacterium, slime associates preferentially with the outermost components of the motility machinery and promotes its adhesion to the substrate on the ventral side of the cell. Strikingly, analogous roles have been proposed for the extracellular proteoglycans of gliding diatoms and apicomplexa, suggesting that slime deposition is a general means for gliding organisms to adhere and move over surfaces.

  12. Rapid and widespread de novo evolution of kin discrimination.

    PubMed

    Rendueles, Olaya; Zee, Peter C; Dinkelacker, Iris; Amherd, Michaela; Wielgoss, Sébastien; Velicer, Gregory J

    2015-07-21

    Diverse forms of kin discrimination, broadly defined as alteration of social behavior as a function of genetic relatedness among interactants, are common among social organisms from microbes to humans. However, the evolutionary origins and causes of kin-discriminatory behavior remain largely obscure. One form of kin discrimination observed in microbes is the failure of genetically distinct colonies to merge freely upon encounter. Here, we first use natural isolates of the highly social bacterium Myxococcus xanthus to show that colony-merger incompatibilities can be strong barriers to social interaction, particularly by reducing chimerism in multicellular fruiting bodies that develop near colony-territory borders. We then use experimental laboratory populations to test hypotheses regarding the evolutionary origins of kin discrimination. We show that the generic process of adaptation, irrespective of selective environment, is sufficient to repeatedly generate kin-discriminatory behaviors between evolved populations and their common ancestor. Further, we find that kin discrimination pervasively evolves indirectly between allopatric replicate populations that adapt to the same ecological habitat and that this occurs generically in many distinct habitats. Patterns of interpopulation discrimination imply that kin discrimination phenotypes evolved via many diverse genetic mechanisms and mutation-accumulation patterns support this inference. Strong incompatibility phenotypes emerged abruptly in some populations but strengthened gradually in others. The indirect evolution of kin discrimination in an asexual microbe is analogous to the indirect evolution of reproductive incompatibility in sexual eukaryotes and linguistic incompatibility among human cultures, the commonality being indirect, noncoordinated divergence of complex systems evolving in isolation.

  13. Parallel emergence of negative epistasis across experimental lineages.

    PubMed

    Zee, Peter C; Velicer, Gregory J

    2017-01-27

    Epistatic interactions can greatly impact evolutionary phenomena, particularly the process of adaptation. Here, we leverage four parallel experimentally evolved lineages to study the emergence and trajectories of epistatic interactions in the social bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. A social gene (pilA) necessary for effective group swarming on soft agar had been deleted from the common ancestor of these lineages. During selection for competitiveness at the leading edge of growing colonies, two lineages evolved qualitatively novel mechanisms for greatly increased swarming on soft agar, whereas the other two lineages evolved relatively small increases in swarming. By reintroducing pilA into different genetic backgrounds along the four lineages, we tested whether parallel lineages showed similar patterns of epistasis. In particular, we tested whether a pattern of negative epistasis between accumulating mutations and pilA previously found in the fastest lineage would be found only in the two evolved lineages with the fastest and most striking swarming phenotypes, or rather was due to common epistatic structure across all lineages arising from the generic fixation of adaptive mutations. Our analysis reveals the emergence of negative epistasis across all four independent lineages. Further, we present results showing that the observed negative epistasis is not due exclusively to evolving populations approaching a maximum phenotypic value that inherently limits positive effects of pilA reintroduction, but rather involves direct antagonistic interactions between accumulating mutations and the reintroduced social gene.

  14. Rapid and widespread de novo evolution of kin discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Rendueles, Olaya; Zee, Peter C.; Dinkelacker, Iris; Amherd, Michaela; Wielgoss, Sébastien; Velicer, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    Diverse forms of kin discrimination, broadly defined as alteration of social behavior as a function of genetic relatedness among interactants, are common among social organisms from microbes to humans. However, the evolutionary origins and causes of kin-discriminatory behavior remain largely obscure. One form of kin discrimination observed in microbes is the failure of genetically distinct colonies to merge freely upon encounter. Here, we first use natural isolates of the highly social bacterium Myxococcus xanthus to show that colony-merger incompatibilities can be strong barriers to social interaction, particularly by reducing chimerism in multicellular fruiting bodies that develop near colony-territory borders. We then use experimental laboratory populations to test hypotheses regarding the evolutionary origins of kin discrimination. We show that the generic process of adaptation, irrespective of selective environment, is sufficient to repeatedly generate kin-discriminatory behaviors between evolved populations and their common ancestor. Further, we find that kin discrimination pervasively evolves indirectly between allopatric replicate populations that adapt to the same ecological habitat and that this occurs generically in many distinct habitats. Patterns of interpopulation discrimination imply that kin discrimination phenotypes evolved via many diverse genetic mechanisms and mutation-accumulation patterns support this inference. Strong incompatibility phenotypes emerged abruptly in some populations but strengthened gradually in others. The indirect evolution of kin discrimination in an asexual microbe is analogous to the indirect evolution of reproductive incompatibility in sexual eukaryotes and linguistic incompatibility among human cultures, the commonality being indirect, noncoordinated divergence of complex systems evolving in isolation. PMID:26150498

  15. Evolution of viruses by acquisition of cellular RNA or DNA nucleotide sequences and genes: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Becker, Y

    2000-01-01

    The origins of virus evolution may be traced to Archeabacteria since Inouye and Inouye (6) discovered a retroelement with a gene for reverse transcriptase in the bacterial genome and in the satellite, multiple copy single stranded DNA (msDNA) in the soil bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. It was possible (8) to define the evolution of retroelements in eukaryotic cells of plants, insects (gypsy retrovirus) and vertebrates. The replication of RNA viruses in eukaryotic cells allowed for the viral RNA genome to integrate a cellular ubiquitin mRNA, as reported for BVDV (24). Another example is the integration of 28S ribosomal RNA into the hemagglutinin gene of an influenza virus. This change in the hemagglutinin gene led to an increased pathogenicity of the influenza virus (25). In contrast to RNA viruses, DNA viruses had evolved by inserting cDNA molecules derived from mRNA transcripts of cellular genes or foreign viral RNA. It is of interest that the virus acquired cellular genes in the genomes of DNA viruses represent genes that code for proteins that inhibit cellular molecular processes related to HLA class I and II molecules. The other acquired genes are cellular genes that code for cytokines that are capable of inhibiting antigen presentation to T cells by antigen presenting cells (APC) by dendritic Langerhans cells. The acquisition of cellular genes by DNA viruses enhances their pathogenicity by inhibiting the hosts' defense systems.

  16. Triazine herbicide resistance in the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Alfred E.; Gilbert, Carl W.; Guy, Rachel; Arntzen, Charles J.

    1984-01-01

    The photoaffinity herbicide azidoatrazine (2-azido-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine) selectively labels the L subunit of the reaction center of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides. Herbicide-resistant mutants retain the L subunit and have altered binding properties for methylthio- and chloro-substituted triazines as well as altered equilibrium constants for electron transfer between primary and secondary electron acceptors. We suggest that a subtle alteration in the L subunit is responsible for herbicide resistance and that the L subunit is the functional analog of the 32-kDa QB protein of chloroplast membranes. Images PMID:16593520

  17. Inorganic nitrogen assimilation by the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas capsulata.

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, B C; Gest, H

    1976-01-01

    The photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas capsulata lacks glutamate dehydrogenase and normally uses the glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase sequence of reactions for assimilation of N2 and ammonia. The glutamine synthetase in cell-free extracts of the organism is completely sedimented by centrifugation at 140,000 X g for 2 h, is inhibited by L-alanine but not by adenosine 5'-monophosphate, and exhibits two apparent Km values for ammonia (ca. 13 muM and 1 mM). PMID:10281

  18. Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2004-02-24

    The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

  19. Isolation of an algal morphogenesis inducer from a marine bacterium.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Yoshihide; Imagawa, Hiroshi; Nishizawa, Mugio; Shizuri, Yoshikazu

    2005-03-11

    Ulva and Enteromorpha are cosmopolitan and familiar marine algal genera. It is well known that these green macroalgae lose their natural morphology during short-term cultivation under aseptic conditions and during long-term cultivation in nutrient-added seawater and adopt an unusual form instead. These phenomena led to the belief that undefined morphogenetic factors that were indispensable to the foliaceous morphology of macroalgae exist throughout the oceans. We characterize a causative factor, named thallusin, isolated from an epiphytic marine bacterium. Thallusin induces normal germination and morphogenesis of green macroalgae.

  20. Triazine herbicide resistance in the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, A.E.; Gilbert, C.W.; Guy, R.; Arntzen, C.J.

    1984-10-01

    The photoaffinity herbicide azidoatrazine (2-azido-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine) selectively labels the L subunit of the reaction center of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides. Herbicide-resistant mutants retain the L subunit and have altered binding properties for methylthio- and chloro-substituted triazines as well as altered equilibrium constants for electron transfer between primary and secondary electron acceptors. We suggest that a subtle alteration in the L subunit is responsible for herbicide resistance and that the L subunit is the functional analog of the 32-kDa Q/sub B/ protein of chloroplast membranes. 42 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

  1. Molybdate Reduction to Molybdenum Blue by an Antarctic Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, S. A.; Shukor, M. Y.; Shamaan, N. A.; Mac Cormack, W. P.; Syed, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    A molybdenum-reducing bacterium from Antarctica has been isolated. The bacterium converts sodium molybdate or Mo6+ to molybdenum blue (Mo-blue). Electron donors such as glucose, sucrose, fructose, and lactose supported molybdate reduction. Ammonium sulphate was the best nitrogen source for molybdate reduction. Optimal conditions for molybdate reduction were between 30 and 50 mM molybdate, between 15 and 20°C, and initial pH between 6.5 and 7.5. The Mo-blue produced had a unique absorption spectrum with a peak maximum at 865 nm and a shoulder at 710 nm. Respiratory inhibitors such as antimycin A, sodium azide, potassium cyanide, and rotenone failed to inhibit the reducing activity. The Mo-reducing enzyme was partially purified using ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. The partially purified enzyme showed optimal pH and temperature for activity at 6.0 and 20°C, respectively. Metal ions such as cadmium, chromium, copper, silver, lead, and mercury caused more than 95% inhibition of the molybdenum-reducing activity at 0.1 mM. The isolate was tentatively identified as Pseudomonas sp. strain DRY1 based on partial 16s rDNA molecular phylogenetic assessment and the Biolog microbial identification system. The characteristics of this strain would make it very useful in bioremediation works in the polar and temperate countries. PMID:24381945

  2. Population Structure of the Fish-Pathogenic Bacterium Flavobacterium psychrophilum▿

    PubMed Central

    Nicolas, Pierre; Mondot, Stanislas; Achaz, Guillaume; Bouchenot, Catherine; Bernardet, Jean-François; Duchaud, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum is currently one of the main bacterial pathogens hampering the productivity of salmonid farming worldwide, and its control mainly relies on antibiotic treatments. To better understand the population structure of this bacterium and its mode of evolution, we have examined the nucleotide polymorphisms at 11 protein-coding loci of the core genome in a set of 50 isolates. These isolates were selected to represent the broadest possible diversity, originating from 10 different host fish species and four continents. The nucleotide diversity between pairs of sequences amounted to fewer than four differences per kilobase on average, corresponding to a particularly low level of diversity, possibly indicative of a small effective-population size. The recombination rate, however, seemed remarkably high, and as a consequence, most of the isolates harbored unique combinations of alleles (33 distinct sequence types were resolved). The analysis also showed the existence of several clonal complexes with worldwide geographic distribution but marked association with particular fish species. Such an association could reflect preferential routes of transmission and/or adaptive niche specialization. The analysis provided no clues that the initial range of the bacterium was originally limited to North America. Instead, the historical record of the expansion of the pathogen may reflect the spread of a few clonal complexes. As a resource for future epidemiological surveys, a multilocus sequence typing website based on seven highly informative loci is available. PMID:18424537

  3. Rare bacterium of new genus isolated with prolonged enrichment culture.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Akiko; Fudou, Ryosuke; Jojima, Yasuko; Nakai, Ryohsuke; Hiraishi, Akira; Tabuchi, Akira; Sen, Kikuo; Shibai, Hiroshiro

    2004-01-01

    Dynamic change in microbial flora was monitored with an oxygen electrode. The 1st phase microorganisms, which first grew well in LB medium, were followed by the 2nd phase microorganisms, which supposedly assimilated microbial cells of the 1st phase and their metabolites. In a similar way, a change in microbial flora was observed from the 1st phase to the 4th phase in 84 hr. Based on this observation, prolonged enrichment culture was done for as long as two months to increase the ratio of existence of rare microorganisms. From these culture liquids, four slow-growing bacteria (provisionally named Shinshu-ah1, -ah2, -ah3, and -ah4), which formed scarcely visible small colonies, were isolated. Sequence analysis of their 16S rDNA showed that Shinshu-ah1 had 97% homology with Bradyrhizobium japonicum and uncultured alpha proteobacterium clone blaii 16, Shinshu-ah2 91% with Rasbo bacterium, Alpha proteobacterium 34619, Bradyrhizobium genosp. P, Afipia felis and an unidentified bacterium, Shinshu-ah3 99% with Methylobacterium mesophilicum, and Shinshu-ah4 95% with Agromyces ramosus DSM 43045. Phylogenetic study indicated that Shinshu-ah2 had a possibility to form a new family, Shinshu-ah1 a new genus, and Shinshu-ah4 a new species.

  4. Polysaccharide degradation systems of the saprophytic bacterium Cellvibrio japonicus.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Jeffrey G

    2016-07-01

    Study of recalcitrant polysaccharide degradation by bacterial systems is critical for understanding biological processes such as global carbon cycling, nutritional contributions of the human gut microbiome, and the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. One bacterium that has a robust ability to degrade polysaccharides is the Gram-negative saprophyte Cellvibrio japonicus. A bacterium with a circuitous history, C. japonicus underwent several taxonomy changes from an initially described Pseudomonas sp. Most of the enzymes described in the pre-genomics era have also been renamed. This review aims to consolidate the biochemical, structural, and genetic data published on C. japonicus and its remarkable ability to degrade cellulose, xylan, and pectin substrates. Initially, C. japonicus carbohydrate-active enzymes were studied biochemically and structurally for their novel polysaccharide binding and degradation characteristics, while more recent systems biology approaches have begun to unravel the complex regulation required for lignocellulose degradation in an environmental context. Also included is a discussion for the future of C. japonicus as a model system, with emphasis on current areas unexplored in terms of polysaccharide degradation and emerging directions for C. japonicus in both environmental and biotechnological applications.

  5. Production of microbial cellulose by a bacterium isolated from fruit.

    PubMed

    Jahan, Firdaus; Kumar, Vinod; Rawat, Garima; Saxena, R K

    2012-07-01

    This study presents the production of bacterial cellulose (BC) by a bacterium isolated from a rotten fruit and its process optimization. Here, isolation and screening of potent cellulose producers were carried out from different natural sources, viz., soil, rotten fruits, and vegetables and vinegar. A total of 200 bacterial isolates were obtained, which were screened for cellulose production using Hestrin-Schramm medium. A novel and potent cellulose-producing bacterium was newly isolated from a rotten fruit and identified as Gluconacetobacter sp. F6 through 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing and morphological, cultural, and biochemical characteristics. After optimization of culture conditions, including pH, temperature, agitation, carbon/nitrogen sources, and inducers, the BC production was greatly increased from 0.52 to 4.5 g/l (8.65-fold increase). The optimal culture medium contained 1% (w/v) glucose, 1.5% (w/v) yeast extract, 0.5% (w/v) peptone, 0.27% (w/v) disodium hydrogen phosphate, 0.115% (w/v) citric acid, and 0.4% (w/v) ethanol. BC produced was analyzed for the presence of cellulose fibrils by epiflourescent microscopy using Calcofluor white stain and scanning electron microscopy and confirmed by NMR. There are very scanty reports about the optimization of BC production by bacteria isolated from rotten fruits.

  6. Identification of phenolyl cobamide from the homoacetogenic bacterium Sporomusa ovata.

    PubMed

    Stupperich, E; Eisinger, H J; Kräutler, B

    1989-12-22

    Phenolyl cobamide was isolated from cyanide extractions of the anaerobic eubacterium Sporomusa ovata. The proposed corrinoid structure [Co alpha,Co beta-(monocyano,monoaquo)-phenolyl cobamide] has been deduced from 1H NMR, fast-atom-bombardment mass spectroscopy and ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy data. The complete corrinoid resembled p-cresolyl cobamide [Co alpha,Co beta-(monocyano,monoaquo)-p-cresolyl cobamide], which recently has been obtained from cyanide extractions of the same bacterium. The structures and chemical properties of both cobamides with uncoordinated nucleotides differed significantly from those of vitamin B12 [Co alpha-[alpha-(5,6-dimethylbenzimidazolyl)]-Co beta-cyanocobamide]. Sporomusa synthesized coenzymes of phenolyl cobamide and p-cresolyl cobamide in considerable amounts of 400 nmol/g and 1700 nmol/g dry cells, respectively. More than 90% of the complete corrinoid pool of the homoacetogenic bacterium consisted of these two corrinoids, indicating that they are physiologically important coenzymes of the bacterial metabolism.

  7. Polysaccharide degradation systems of the saprophytic bacterium Cellvibrio japonicus

    DOE PAGES

    Gardner, Jeffrey G.

    2016-06-04

    Study of recalcitrant polysaccharide degradation by bacterial systems is critical for understanding biological processes such as global carbon cycling, nutritional contributions of the human gut microbiome, and the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. One bacterium that has a robust ability to degrade polysaccharides is the Gram-negative saprophyte Cellvibrio japonicus. A bacterium with a circuitous history, C. japonicus underwent several taxonomy changes from an initially described Pseudomonas sp. Most of the enzymes described in the pre-genomics era have also been renamed. Furthermore, this review aims to consolidate the biochemical, structural, and genetic data published on C. japonicus and its remarkablemore » ability to degrade cellulose, xylan, and pectin substrates. Initially, C. japonicus carbohydrate-active enzymes were studied biochemically and structurally for their novel polysaccharide binding and degradation characteristics, while more recent systems biology approaches have begun to unravel the complex regulation required for lignocellulose degradation in an environmental context. Also included is a discussion for the future of C. japonicus as a model system, with emphasis on current areas unexplored in terms of polysaccharide degradation and emerging directions for C. japonicus in both environmental and biotechnological applications.« less

  8. Structure and morphology of magnetite anaerobically-produced by a marine magnetotactic bacterium and a dissimilatory iron-reducing bacterium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparks, N.H.C.; Mann, S.; Bazylinski, D.A.; Lovley, D.R.; Jannasch, H.W.; Frankel, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    Intracellular crystals of magnetite synthesized by cells of the magnetotactic vibroid organism, MV-1, and extracellular crystals of magnetite produced by the non-magnetotactic dissimilatory iron-reducing bacterium strain GS-15, were examined using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction and 57Fe Mo??ssbauer spectroscopy. The magnetotactic bacterium contained a single chain of approximately 10 crystals aligned along the long axis of the cell. The crystals were essentially pure stoichiometric magnetite. When viewed along the crystal long axis the particles had a hexagonal cross-section whereas side-on they appeared as rectangules or truncated rectangles of average dimension, 53 ?? 35 nm. These findings are explained in terms of a three-dimensional morphology comprising a hexagonal prism of {110} faces which are capped and truncated by {111} end faces. Electron diffraction and lattice imaging studies indicated that the particles were structurally well-defined single crystals. In contrast, magnetite particles produced by the strain, GS-15 were irregular in shape and had smaller mean dimensions (14 nm). Single crystals were imaged but these were not of high structural perfection. These results highlight the influence of intracellular control on the crystallochemical specificity of bacterial magnetites. The characterization of these crystals is important in aiding the identification of biogenic magnetic materials in paleomagnetism and in studies of sediment magnetization. ?? 1990.

  9. Halomonas campisalis sp. nov., a denitrifying, moderately haloalkaliphilic bacterium.

    PubMed

    Mormile, M R; Romine, M F; Garcia, M T; Ventosa, A; Bailey, T J; Peyton, B M

    1999-12-01

    The isolation and characterization of a denitrifying bacterium that is both moderately halophilic and alkaliphilic is described. The organism was isolated for use in the development of a bioprocess that could potentially reduce the costs of ion exchange resin regenerant disposal. The process of ion exchange, after resin regeneration, produces a briny, alkaline waste that is difficult and expensive to dispose. The biological removal of nitrate and subsequent reuse of these brines can potentially provide a cost-saving alternative to disposing of this waste product. To achieve our objective, a moderately halophilic, alkaliphilic bacterium was isolated from sediment samples taken from the salt plain of Alkali Lake in Washington State (USA). The haloalkaliphilic bacterium, designated strain 4A, is motile with rod-shaped cells that are 3 to 5 microm long and 1 microm wide. Electron acceptors used include oxygen, nitrate, and nitrite. In addition, it has similar specific nitrate reduction rates and biomass yields as non-halophilic denitrifying bacteria. It is capable of using a variety of electron donors. This organism can grow at NaCl concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 4.5 M with optimum growth occurring at 1.5 M and pH values ranging from 6 to 12 with 9.5 being the optimum pH. The temperature range for growth of strain 4A is 4-50 degrees C with optimal growth occurring at 30 degrees C. The G + C content is 66 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses based upon 16S rDNA gene sequence placed isolate 4A in the genus Halomonas. In addition, DNA-DNA hybridization experiments clearly indicate that it is a unique species. Phenotypic and phylogenetic studies indicate that isolate 4A represents a new species. We propose the name Halomonas campisalis for this species and strain 4A (ATCC 700597) as the type strain. Due to its denitrification ability, broad carbon utilization range and its high salinity and pH tolerance this organism, and similar ones, hold promise for the treatment of saline

  10. Correlated cryogenic photoactivated localization microscopy and electron cryotomography

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yi-Wei; Chen, Songye; Tocheva, Elitza I.; Treuner-Lange, Anke; Löbach, Stephanie; Søgaard-Andersen, Lotte; Jensen, Grant J.

    2014-01-01

    Electron cryotomography (ECT) produces three-dimensional images of cells in a near-native state at macromolecular resolution, but identifying structures of interest can be challenging. Here we describe a correlated "cryo-PALM"-ECT method for localizing objects within cryotomograms to beyond the diffraction limit of the light microscope, and use it to identify multiple and new conformations of the dynamic type VI secretion system in the crowded interior of Myxococcus xanthus. PMID:24813625

  11. Kinetic study of trichloroethylene and toluene degradation by a bioluminescent reporter bacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, C.J.; Sanseverino, J.; Bienkowski, P.R.; Sayler, G.S.

    1995-12-31

    A constructed bioluminescent reporter bacterium, Pseudomonas putida B2, is very briefly described in this paper. The bacterium degrades toluene and trichloroethylene (TCE), and produces light in the presence of toluene. The light response is an indication of cellular viability and expression of the genes encoding toluene and TCE degrading enzymes.

  12. Near-complete genome sequence of the cellulolytic Bacterium Bacteroides (Pseudobacteroides) cellulosolvens ATCC 35603

    DOE PAGES

    Dassa, Bareket; Utturkar, Sagar M.; Hurt, Richard A.; ...

    2015-09-24

    We report the single-contig genome sequence of the anaerobic, mesophilic, cellulolytic bacterium, Bacteroides cellulosolvens. The bacterium produces a particularly elaborate cellulosome system, whereas the types of cohesin-dockerin interactions are opposite of other known cellulosome systems: cell-surface attachment is thus mediated via type-I interactions whereas enzymes are integrated via type-II interactions.

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain RB, a Bacterium Capable of Synthesizing Cadmium Selenide Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ayano, Hiroyuki; Kuroda, Masashi; Soda, Satoshi; Ike, Michihiko

    2014-05-15

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain RB is a bacterium capable of synthesizing cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoparticles and was isolated from a soil sample. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of P. aeruginosa strain RB. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a draft genome of a CdSe-synthesizing bacterium.

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Ensifer adhaerens M78, a Mineral-Weathering Bacterium Isolated from Soil

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuanli; Chen, Wei; He, Linyan; Wang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Ensifer adhaerens M78, a bacterium isolated from soil, can weather potash feldspar and release Fe, Si, and Al from rock under nutrient-poor conditions. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of strain M78, which may facilitate a better understanding of the molecular mechanism involved in mineral weathering by the bacterium. PMID:27609930

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Ensifer adhaerens M78, a Mineral-Weathering Bacterium Isolated from Soil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanli; Chen, Wei; He, Linyan; Wang, Qi; Sheng, Xia-Fang

    2016-09-08

    Ensifer adhaerens M78, a bacterium isolated from soil, can weather potash feldspar and release Fe, Si, and Al from rock under nutrient-poor conditions. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of strain M78, which may facilitate a better understanding of the molecular mechanism involved in mineral weathering by the bacterium.

  16. Genome Sequence of the Antarctic Psychrophile Bacterium Planococcus antarcticus DSM 14505

    PubMed Central

    Margolles, Abelardo; Gueimonde, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Planococcus antarcticus DSM 14505 is a psychrophile bacterium that was isolated from cyanobacterial mat samples, originally collected from ponds in McMurdo, Antarctica. This orange-pigmented bacterium grows at 4°C and may possess interesting enzymatic activities at low temperatures. Here we report the first genomic sequence of P. antarcticus DSM 14505. PMID:22843594

  17. A cellulolytic nitrogen-fixing bacterium cultured from the gland of deshayes in shipworms (bivalvia: teredinidae).

    PubMed

    Waterbury, J B; Calloway, C B; Turner, R D

    1983-09-30

    A novel bacterium has been isolated in pure culture from the gland of Deshayes in six species of teredinid bivalves. It is the first bacterium known to both digest cellulose and fix nitrogen, and it is a participant in a unique symbiotic relation with shipworms that may explain how teredinids are able to use wood as their principal food source.

  18. Isolation of a bacterium that reductively dechlorinates tetrachloroethene to ethene

    SciTech Connect

    Maymo-Gatell, X.; Chien, Yueh-tyng; Zinder, S.H.

    1997-06-06

    Tetrachloroethene is a prominent groundwater pollutant that can be reductively dechlorinated by mixed anaerobic microbial populations to the nontoxic product ethene. Strain 195, a coccoid bacterium that dechlorinates tetrachlorethene to ethene, was isolated and characterized. Growth of strain 195 with H{sub 2} and tetrachloroethene as the electron donor and acceptor pair required extracts from mixed microbial cultures. Growth of strain 195 was resistant to ampicillin and vancomycin; its cell wall did not react with a peptidoglycan-specific lectin and its ultrastructure resembled S-layers of Archaea. Analysis of the 16S ribosomal DNA sequence of strain 195 indicated that it is a eubacterium without close affiliation to any known groups. 24 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Genome analysis of the Anerobic Thermohalophilic bacterium Halothermothrix orenii

    SciTech Connect

    Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Ivanova, Natalia; Anderson, Iain; Lykidis, Athanasios; Hooper, Sean D.; Sun, Hui; Kunin, Victor; Lapidus, Alla; Hugenholtz, Philip; Patel, Bharat; Kyrpides, Nikos C.

    2008-11-03

    Halothermothirx orenii is a strictly anaerobic thermohalophilic bacterium isolated from sediment of a Tunisian salt lake. It belongs to the order Halanaerobiales in the phylum Firmicutes. The complete sequence revealed that the genome consists of one circular chromosome of 2578146 bps encoding 2451 predicted genes. This is the first genome sequence of an organism belonging to the Haloanaerobiales. Features of both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria were identified with the presence of both a sporulating mechanism typical of Firmicutes and a characteristic Gram negative lipopolysaccharide being the most prominent. Protein sequence analyses and metabolic reconstruction reveal a unique combination of strategies for thermophilic and halophilic adaptation. H. orenii can serve as a model organism for the study of the evolution of the Gram negative phenotype as well as the adaptation under thermohalophilic conditions and the development of biotechnological applications under conditions that require high temperatures and high salt concentrations.

  20. Mechanism of anaerobic degradation of triethanolamine by a homoacetogenic bacterium.

    PubMed

    Speranza, Giovanna; Morelli, Carlo F; Cairoli, Paola; Müller, Britta; Schink, Bernhard

    2006-10-20

    Triethanolamine (TEA) is converted into acetate and ammonia by a strictly anaerobic, gram-positive Acetobacterium strain LuTria3. Fermentation experiments with resting cell suspensions and specifically deuterated substrates indicate that in the acetate molecule the carboxylate and the methyl groups correspond to the alcoholic function and to its adjacent methylene group, respectively, of the 2-hydroxyethyl unit of TEA. A 1,2 shift of a hydrogen (deuterium) atom from -CH2-O- to =N-CH2- without exchange with the medium was observed. This fact gives evidence that a radical mechanism occurs involving the enzyme and/or coenzyme molecule as a hydrogen carrier. Such a biodegradation appears analogous to the conversion of 2-phenoxyethanol into acetate mediated by another strain of the anaerobic homoacetogenic bacterium Acetobacterium.

  1. [Composition diversity of the multifunctional bacterium community NSC-7].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang-Li; Wang, Xiao-Fen; Niu, Jun-Ling; Lü, Yu-Cai; Guo, Peng; Shen, Hai-Long; Cui, Zong-Jun

    2009-07-15

    The NSC-7 microbial community could decompose cellulose and lindan with high efficiency. In order to determine the bacterial composition of the community, 11 isolate strains were detected by plate isolation, while a community reset by the 11 isolate strains lost the capacity of degrading cellulose. The capacity of degrading of the filter paper in double deck plate and monolayer plate were determined, only the filter paper in double deck plate were degraded, that means the main or key microbe are anaerobic. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and construction of 16S rDNA clone library were used to identify the composition diversity of NSC-7 community. 195 clones and 25 strains were detected in clone library, and about 60% closest relative among them was known the detailed information which were belonged to Clostridium, Petrobacter, Bacteria, Paenibacillus, Proteobacterium. Furthermore, there were 40% closest relative belonged to uncultured bacterium clone.

  2. Mechanism of anaerobic degradation of triethanolamine by a homoacetogenic bacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Speranza, Giovanna . E-mail: giovanna.speranza@unimi.it; Morelli, Carlo F.; Cairoli, Paola; Mueller, Britta; Schink, Bernhard

    2006-10-20

    Triethanolamine (TEA) is converted into acetate and ammonia by a strictly anaerobic, gram-positive Acetobacterium strain LuTria3. Fermentation experiments with resting cell suspensions and specifically deuterated substrates indicate that in the acetate molecule the carboxylate and the methyl groups correspond to the alcoholic function and to its adjacent methylene group, respectively, of the 2-hydroxyethyl unit of TEA. A 1,2 shift of a hydrogen (deuterium) atom from -CH{sub 2} -O- to =N-CH{sub 2} - without exchange with the medium was observed. This fact gives evidence that a radical mechanism occurs involving the enzyme and/or coenzyme molecule as a hydrogen carrier. Such a biodegradation appears analogous to the conversion of 2-phenoxyethanol into acetate mediated by another strain of the anaerobic homoacetogenic bacterium Acetobacterium.

  3. Endocytosis-like protein uptake in the bacterium Gemmata obscuriglobus.

    PubMed

    Lonhienne, Thierry G A; Sagulenko, Evgeny; Webb, Richard I; Lee, Kuo-Chang; Franke, Josef; Devos, Damien P; Nouwens, Amanda; Carroll, Bernard J; Fuerst, John A

    2010-07-20

    Endocytosis is a process by which extracellular material such as macromolecules can be incorporated into cells via a membrane-trafficking system. Although universal among eukaryotes, endocytosis has not been identified in Bacteria or Archaea. However, intracellular membranes are known to compartmentalize cells of bacteria in the phylum Planctomycetes, suggesting the potential for endocytosis and membrane trafficking in members of this phylum. Here we show that cells of the planctomycete Gemmata obscuriglobus have the ability to uptake proteins present in the external milieu in an energy-dependent process analogous to eukaryotic endocytosis, and that internalized proteins are associated with vesicle membranes. Occurrence of such ability in a bacterium is consistent with autogenous evolution of endocytosis and the endomembrane system in an ancestral noneukaryote cell.

  4. A bacterium that degrades and assimilates poly(ethylene terephthalate).

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Shosuke; Hiraga, Kazumi; Takehana, Toshihiko; Taniguchi, Ikuo; Yamaji, Hironao; Maeda, Yasuhito; Toyohara, Kiyotsuna; Miyamoto, Kenji; Kimura, Yoshiharu; Oda, Kohei

    2016-03-11

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) is used extensively worldwide in plastic products, and its accumulation in the environment has become a global concern. Because the ability to enzymatically degrade PET has been thought to be limited to a few fungal species, biodegradation is not yet a viable remediation or recycling strategy. By screening natural microbial communities exposed to PET in the environment, we isolated a novel bacterium, Ideonella sakaiensis 201-F6, that is able to use PET as its major energy and carbon source. When grown on PET, this strain produces two enzymes capable of hydrolyzing PET and the reaction intermediate, mono(2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalic acid. Both enzymes are required to enzymatically convert PET efficiently into its two environmentally benign monomers, terephthalic acid and ethylene glycol. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. Isolation and characterization of a cellulose-utilizing bacterium.

    PubMed

    Han, Y W; Srinivasan, V R

    1968-08-01

    A cellulose-decomposing aerobic and mesophilic bacterium has been isolated from soils of sugar cane fields. The terminal dilution method was adapted to isolate a single clone of cellulolytic organism from closely related contaminants. The cultural and physiological characteristics of the isolate were studied, and the organism was identified as a member of the genus Cellulomonas. The isolate excreted cellulase into the menstruum, and it hydrolyzed various cellulosic materials producing cellobiose as the final breakdown product in the menstruum. When sugar cane bagasse was properly treated with alkali and heat, the organism could decompose up to 90% of the initial substrate within 5 days. Amino acid analysis of the cell crop revealed a high content of lysine, and the essential amino acid pattern compared favorably with that of Food and Agricultural Organization reference protein.

  6. Endocytosis-like protein uptake in the bacterium Gemmata obscuriglobus

    PubMed Central

    Lonhienne, Thierry G. A.; Sagulenko, Evgeny; Webb, Richard I.; Lee, Kuo-Chang; Franke, Josef; Devos, Damien P.; Nouwens, Amanda; Carroll, Bernard J.; Fuerst, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Endocytosis is a process by which extracellular material such as macromolecules can be incorporated into cells via a membrane-trafficking system. Although universal among eukaryotes, endocytosis has not been identified in Bacteria or Archaea. However, intracellular membranes are known to compartmentalize cells of bacteria in the phylum Planctomycetes, suggesting the potential for endocytosis and membrane trafficking in members of this phylum. Here we show that cells of the planctomycete Gemmata obscuriglobus have the ability to uptake proteins present in the external milieu in an energy-dependent process analogous to eukaryotic endocytosis, and that internalized proteins are associated with vesicle membranes. Occurrence of such ability in a bacterium is consistent with autogenous evolution of endocytosis and the endomembrane system in an ancestral noneukaryote cell. PMID:20566852

  7. Real-time RNA profiling within a single bacterium.

    PubMed

    Le, Thuc T; Harlepp, Sébastien; Guet, Calin C; Dittmar, Kimberly; Emonet, Thierry; Pan, Tao; Cluzel, Philippe

    2005-06-28

    Characterizing the dynamics of specific RNA levels requires real-time RNA profiling in a single cell. We show that the combination of a synthetic modular genetic system with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy allows us to directly measure in real time the activity of any specific promoter in prokaryotes. Using a simple inducible gene expression system, we found that induced RNA levels within a single bacterium of Escherichia coli exhibited a pulsating profile in response to a steady input of inducer. The genetic deletion of an efflux pump system, a key determinant of antibiotic resistance, altered the pulsating transcriptional dynamics and caused overexpression of induced RNA. In contrast with population measurements, real-time RNA profiling permits identifying relationships between genotypes and transcriptional dynamics that are accessible only at the level of the single cell.

  8. Characterization of the quinones in purple sulfur bacterium Thermochromatium tepidum.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yuuka; Kawakami, Tomoaki; Yu, Long-Jiang; Yoshimura, Miku; Kobayashi, Masayuki; Wang-Otomo, Zheng-Yu

    2015-07-08

    Quinone distributions in the thermophilic purple sulfur bacterium Thermochromatium tepidum have been investigated at different levels of the photosynthetic apparatus. Here we show that, on average, the intracytoplasmic membrane contains 18 ubiquinones (UQ) and 4 menaquinones (MQ) per reaction center (RC). About one-third of the quinones are retained in the light-harvesting-reaction center core complex (LH1-RC) with a similar ratio of UQ to MQ. The numbers of quinones essentially remains unchanged during crystallization of the LH1-RC. There are 1-2 UQ and 1 MQ associated with the RC-only complex in the purified solution sample. Our results suggest that a large proportion of the quinones are confined to the core complex and at least five UQs remain invisible in the current LH1-RC crystal structure. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Siderophore production by the magnetic bacterium Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1.

    PubMed

    Calugay, Ronie J; Miyashita, Hideaki; Okamura, Yoshiko; Matsunaga, Tadashi

    2003-01-28

    Siderophore production by the magnetic bacterium Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 is elicited by sufficient iron rather than by iron starvation. In order to clarify this unusual pattern, siderophore production was monitored in parallel to iron assimilation using the chrome azurol sulfonate assay and the ferrozine method respectively. Iron concentration lowered approximately five times less than its initial concentration only within 4 h post-inoculation, rendering the medium iron deficient. A concentration of at least 6 microM Fe(3+) is required to initiate siderophore production. The propensity of M. magneticum AMB-1 for the assimilation of large amounts of iron accounts for the rapid depletion of iron in the medium, thereby triggering siderophore excretion. M. magneticum AMB-1 produces both hydroxamate and catechol siderophores.

  10. Genome sequence of the radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans R1.

    PubMed

    White, O; Eisen, J A; Heidelberg, J F; Hickey, E K; Peterson, J D; Dodson, R J; Haft, D H; Gwinn, M L; Nelson, W C; Richardson, D L; Moffat, K S; Qin, H; Jiang, L; Pamphile, W; Crosby, M; Shen, M; Vamathevan, J J; Lam, P; McDonald, L; Utterback, T; Zalewski, C; Makarova, K S; Aravind, L; Daly, M J; Minton, K W; Fleischmann, R D; Ketchum, K A; Nelson, K E; Salzberg, S; Smith, H O; Venter, J C; Fraser, C M

    1999-11-19

    The complete genome sequence of the radiation-resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans R1 is composed of two chromosomes (2,648,638 and 412,348 base pairs), a megaplasmid (177,466 base pairs), and a small plasmid (45,704 base pairs), yielding a total genome of 3,284, 156 base pairs. Multiple components distributed on the chromosomes and megaplasmid that contribute to the ability of D. radiodurans to survive under conditions of starvation, oxidative stress, and high amounts of DNA damage were identified. Deinococcus radiodurans represents an organism in which all systems for DNA repair, DNA damage export, desiccation and starvation recovery, and genetic redundancy are present in one cell.

  11. The domestication of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus

    PubMed Central

    Bull, Matthew J.; Jolley, Keith A.; Bray, James E.; Aerts, Maarten; Vandamme, Peter; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Marchesi, Julian R.; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus is a Gram-positive lactic acid bacterium that has had widespread historical use in the dairy industry and more recently as a probiotic. Although L. acidophilus has been designated as safe for human consumption, increasing commercial regulation and clinical demands for probiotic validation has resulted in a need to understand its genetic diversity. By drawing on large, well-characterised collections of lactic acid bacteria, we examined L. acidophilus isolates spanning 92 years and including multiple strains in current commercial use. Analysis of the whole genome sequence data set (34 isolate genomes) demonstrated L. acidophilus was a low diversity, monophyletic species with commercial isolates essentially identical at the sequence level. Our results indicate that commercial use has domesticated L. acidophilus with genetically stable, invariant strains being consumed globally by the human population. PMID:25425319

  12. The domestication of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Bull, Matthew J; Jolley, Keith A; Bray, James E; Aerts, Maarten; Vandamme, Peter; Maiden, Martin C J; Marchesi, Julian R; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar

    2014-11-26

    Lactobacillus acidophilus is a Gram-positive lactic acid bacterium that has had widespread historical use in the dairy industry and more recently as a probiotic. Although L. acidophilus has been designated as safe for human consumption, increasing commercial regulation and clinical demands for probiotic validation has resulted in a need to understand its genetic diversity. By drawing on large, well-characterised collections of lactic acid bacteria, we examined L. acidophilus isolates spanning 92 years and including multiple strains in current commercial use. Analysis of the whole genome sequence data set (34 isolate genomes) demonstrated L. acidophilus was a low diversity, monophyletic species with commercial isolates essentially identical at the sequence level. Our results indicate that commercial use has domesticated L. acidophilus with genetically stable, invariant strains being consumed globally by the human population.

  13. Efficient Multiple Object Tracking Using Mutually Repulsive Active Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yi; Coen, Philip; Sun, Mingzhai; Shaevitz, Joshua W.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of social and group behavior in interacting organisms require high-throughput analysis of the motion of a large number of individual subjects. Computer vision techniques offer solutions to specific tracking problems, and allow automated and efficient tracking with minimal human intervention. In this work, we adopt the open active contour model to track the trajectories of moving objects at high density. We add repulsive interactions between open contours to the original model, treat the trajectories as an extrusion in the temporal dimension, and show applications to two tracking problems. The walking behavior of Drosophila is studied at different population density and gender composition. We demonstrate that individual male flies have distinct walking signatures, and that the social interaction between flies in a mixed gender arena is gender specific. We also apply our model to studies of trajectories of gliding Myxococcus xanthus bacteria at high density. We examine the individual gliding behavioral statistics in terms of the gliding speed distribution. Using these two examples at very distinctive spatial scales, we illustrate the use of our algorithm on tracking both short rigid bodies (Drosophila) and long flexible objects (Myxococcus xanthus). Our repulsive active membrane model reaches error rates better than per fly per second for Drosophila tracking and comparable results for Myxococcus xanthus. PMID:23799046

  14. Identification and comparative analysis of microRNAs in barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) in response to rice allelopathy.

    PubMed

    Fang, Changxun; Li, Yingzhe; Li, Chengxun; Li, Biliang; Ren, Yongjie; Zheng, Haiping; Zeng, Xiaomei; Shen, Lihua; Lin, Wenxiong

    2015-07-01

    Rice allelopathy is a hot topic in the field of allelopathy, and behaviour of donor allelopathic rice has been well documented. However, few study addresses response of receiver barnyardgrass (BYG). We found that expression of miRNAs relevant to plant hormone signal transduction, nucleotide excision repair and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and p53 signalling pathways was enhanced in BYG co-cultured with the allelopathic rice cultivar PI312777, the expression levels of these miRNAs in BYG plants were positively correlated with allelopathic potential of the co-cultured rice varieties. Treatment of BYG plants with rice-produced phenolic acids also increased miRNA expression in BYG, while treatment with rice-produced terpenoids had no obvious effect on miRNA expression. In the hydroponic system, the largest number of Myxococcus sp. was found in the growth medium containing rice with the highest allelopathic potential. The addition of phenolic acids in the hydroponic medium also increased the number of Myxococcus sp. More interestingly, inoculation with Myxococcus xanthus significantly increased miRNA expression in the treated BYG. Jointed treatments of ferulic acid and M. xanthus led to strongest growth inhibition of BYG. The results suggest that there exist involvement of Myxococcus sp. and mediation of miRNA expression in rice allelopathy against BYG. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Ecology and metabolism of the beneficial intestinal commensal bacterium Faecalibacterium prausnitzii.

    PubMed

    Miquel, Sylvie; Martín, Rebeca; Bridonneau, Chantal; Robert, Véronique; Sokol, Harry; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Thomas, Muriel; Langella, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is a major commensal bacterium, and its prevalence is often decreased in conditions of intestinal dysbiosis. The phylogenic identity of this bacterium was described only recently. It is still poorly characterized, and its specific growth requirements in the human gastrointestinal tract are not known. In this review, we consider F. prausnitzii metabolism, its ecophysiology in both humans and animals, and the effects of drugs and nutrition on its population. We list important questions about this beneficial and ubiquitous commensal bacterium that it would be valuable to answer.

  16. Self-trapping of a single bacterium in its own chemoattractant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsori, Y.; de Gennes, P.-G.

    2004-05-01

    Bacteria (e.g., E. coli) are very sensitive to certain chemoattractants (e.g., asparate) which they themselves produce. This leads to chemical instabilities in a uniform population. We discuss here the different case of a single bacterium, following the general scheme of Brenner, Levitov and Budrene. We show that in one and two dimensions (in a capillary or in a thin film) the bacterium can become self-trapped in its cloud of attractant. This should occur if a certain coupling constant g is larger than unity. We then estimate the reduced diffusion Deff of the bacterium in the strong-coupling limit, and find Deff ~ g-1.

  17. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE CALCITE PRECIPITATION BASED ON THE UREASE PRODUCTION BACTERIUM ISOLATED FROM PEAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, Toshiro; Sato, Atsuko; Kawasaki, Satoru; Abe, Hirofumi

    In this paper, authors proposed the newly calcite precipitation method for peat. This method can be isolated the urease production bacterium. The main outcomes of this research were: (1) Proposed method can be isolated the urease production bacterium from peat. (2) Urease production bacterium from peat can be accelerate the calcite precipitation at the high pH and high chlorine conditions. (3) Calcite precipitation speed was slower than the B. pasteurii . (4) Proposed method can accelerate the soil strength (Over 400kN/m2 -1D compression test) after 2 week cultivation.

  18. High cell density cultivation of the chemolithoautotrophic bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea.

    PubMed

    Papp, Benedek; Török, Tibor; Sándor, Erzsébet; Fekete, Erzsébet; Flipphi, Michel; Karaffa, Levente

    2016-05-01

    Nitrosomonas europaea is a chemolithoautotrophic nitrifier, a gram-negative bacterium that can obtain all energy required for growth from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite, and this may be beneficial for various biotechnological and environmental applications. However, compared to other bacteria, growth of ammonia oxidizing bacteria is very slow. A prerequisite to produce high cell density N. europaea cultures is to minimize the concentrations of inhibitory metabolic by-products. During growth on ammonia nitrite accumulates, as a consequence, N. europaea cannot grow to high cell concentrations under conventional batch conditions. Here, we show that single-vessel dialysis membrane bioreactors can be used to obtain substantially increased N. europaea biomasses and substantially reduced nitrite levels in media initially containing high amounts of the substrate. Dialysis membrane bioreactor fermentations were run in batch as well as in continuous mode. Growth was monitored with cell concentration determinations, by assessing dry cell mass and by monitoring ammonium consumption as well as nitrite formation. In addition, metabolic activity was probed with in vivo acridine orange staining. Under continuous substrate feed, the maximal cell concentration (2.79 × 10(12)/L) and maximal dry cell mass (0.895 g/L) achieved more than doubled the highest values reported for N. europaea cultivations to date.

  19. Kinetics of a chlorate-accumulating, perchlorate-reducing bacterium.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Margaret; Salamone, Anna; Nerenberg, Robert

    2008-05-01

    Kinetics parameters for perchlorate and chlorate reduction were determined for Dechlorosoma sp. HCAP-C, also known as Dechlorosoma sp. PCC, a novel perchlorate-reducing bacterium (PCRB) that accumulates significant amounts of chlorate during perchlorate reduction. This is the first report of such behavior, and we hypothesized the perchlorate reduction kinetics would be markedly different from other PCRB. In batch tests with initial perchlorate concentrations ranging from 200 to around 1400 mg/L, maximum chlorate accumulation ranged from 41 to 279 mg/L, and were consistently around 20% of the initial perchlorate concentration. For perchlorate, parameters were determined using a competitive inhibition model. The maximum specific substrate degradation rate qmaxP was 11.5mgClO4-/mgdry weight (DW)-d, and the half-maximum rate constant KP was 193 mgClO4-/L. For chlorate, the qmaxC was 8.3 mgClO3-/mgDW-d and the KC was 58.3 mgClO3-/L. The high KP values relative to conventional PCRB, values suggests that HCAP-C does not play a significant role at low perchlorate concentrations. However, the relatively high qmaxP, and the potential for syntrophic relationships with chlorate-reducing bacteria that relieve the effects of chlorate inhibition, suggest that HCAP-C could play a significant role at high perchlorate concentrations.

  20. The lipopolysaccharide of a chloridazon-degrading bacterium.

    PubMed

    Weisshaar, R; Lingens, F

    1983-12-01

    Lipopolysaccharide of a chloridazon-degrading bacterium was obtained by a two-stage extraction procedure with phenol/EDTA in a yield of 0.3% of dried bacteria. The carbohydrate moiety consisted of heptose, 3-deoxyoctulosonic acid and D-glucose in a molar ratio of 1:2:2 X 3. Lipid A was composed of 1 mol 2,3-diamino-2,3-dideoxy-D-glucose, 2 mol amide-bound and 2.6 mol ester-bound fatty acids/mol. Amide-bound fatty acids were 3-hydroxydodecanoic acid and 3-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid; dodecanoic acid and R-(-)-3-hydroxydodec-5-cis-enoic acid were found to be present in ester linkage. Under conditions of acidic hydrolysis, the latter was converted into the cis and trans isomers of 5-hexyltetrahydrofuran-2-acetic acid. Dodecanoic acid was demonstrated to be linked with the hydroxy groups of the amide-bound fatty acids. The taxonomic significance of these results, especially the demonstration of 2,3-diamino-2, 3-dideoxy-D-glucose, is discussed.

  1. Heavy Metal Induced Antibiotic Resistance in Bacterium LSJC7.

    PubMed

    Chen, Songcan; Li, Xiaomin; Sun, Guoxin; Zhang, Yingjiao; Su, Jianqiang; Ye, Jun

    2015-09-29

    Co-contamination of antibiotics and heavy metals prevails in the environment, and may play an important role in disseminating bacterial antibiotic resistance, but the selective effects of heavy metals on bacterial antibiotic resistance is largely unclear. To investigate this, the effects of heavy metals on antibiotic resistance were studied in a genome-sequenced bacterium, LSJC7. The results showed that the presence of arsenate, copper, and zinc were implicated in fortifying the resistance of LSJC7 towards tetracycline. The concentrations of heavy metals required to induce antibiotic resistance, i.e., the minimum heavy metal concentrations (MHCs), were far below (up to 64-fold) the minimum inhibition concentrations (MIC) of LSJC7. This finding indicates that the relatively low heavy metal levels in polluted environments and in treated humans and animals might be sufficient to induce bacterial antibiotic resistance. In addition, heavy metal induced antibiotic resistance was also observed for a combination of arsenate and chloramphenicol in LSJC7, and copper/zinc and tetracycline in antibiotic susceptible strain Escherichia coli DH5α. Overall, this study implies that heavy metal induced antibiotic resistance might be ubiquitous among various microbial species and suggests that it might play a role in the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance in metal and antibiotic co-contaminated environments.

  2. Mechanisms of gold biomineralization in the bacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans

    PubMed Central

    Reith, Frank; Etschmann, Barbara; Grosse, Cornelia; Moors, Hugo; Benotmane, Mohammed A.; Monsieurs, Pieter; Grass, Gregor; Doonan, Christian; Vogt, Stefan; Lai, Barry; Martinez-Criado, Gema; George, Graham N.; Nies, Dietrich H.; Mergeay, Max; Pring, Allan; Southam, Gordon; Brugger, Joël

    2009-01-01

    While the role of microorganisms as main drivers of metal mobility and mineral formation under Earth surface conditions is now widely accepted, the formation of secondary gold (Au) is commonly attributed to abiotic processes. Here we report that the biomineralization of Au nanoparticles in the metallophillic bacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 is the result of Au-regulated gene expression leading to the energy-dependent reductive precipitation of toxic Au(III)-complexes. C. metallidurans, which forms biofilms on Au grains, rapidly accumulates Au(III)-complexes from solution. Bulk and microbeam synchrotron X-ray analyses revealed that cellular Au accumulation is coupled to the formation of Au(I)-S complexes. This process promotes Au toxicity and C. metallidurans reacts by inducing oxidative stress and metal resistances gene clusters (including a Au-specific operon) to promote cellular defense. As a result, Au detoxification is mediated by a combination of efflux, reduction, and possibly methylation of Au-complexes, leading to the formation of Au(I)-C-compounds and nanoparticulate Au0. Similar particles were observed in bacterial biofilms on Au grains, suggesting that bacteria actively contribute to the formation of Au grains in surface environments. The recognition of specific genetic responses to Au opens the way for the development of bioexploration and bioprocessing tools. PMID:19815503

  3. Taxonomic status of the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia pipientis.

    PubMed

    Lo, N; Paraskevopoulos, C; Bourtzis, K; O'Neill, S L; Werren, J H; Bordenstein, S R; Bandi, C

    2007-03-01

    Wolbachia pipientis is a maternally inherited, intracellular bacterium found in more than 20 % of all insects, as well as numerous other arthropods and filarial nematodes. It has been the subject of a growing number of studies in recent decades, because of the remarkable effects it has on its arthropod hosts, its potential as a tool for biological control of arthropods of agricultural and medical importance and its use as a target for treatment of filariasis. W. pipientis was originally discovered in cells of the mosquito Culex pipiens and is the only formally described member of the genus. Molecular sequence-based studies have revealed a number of phylogenetically diverse strains of W. pipientis. Owing to uncertainty about whether W. pipientis comprises more than one species, researchers in the field now commonly refer to W. pipientis simply as Wolbachia. In this note, we briefly review higher-level phylogenetic and recombination studies of W. pipientis and propose that all the intracellular symbionts known to cluster closely with the type strain of W. pipientis, including those in the currently recognized supergroups (A-H), are officially given this name.

  4. Bioconversion of methane to lactate by an obligate methanotrophic bacterium

    DOE PAGES

    Henard, Calvin A.; Smith, Holly; Dowe, Nancy; ...

    2016-02-23

    Methane is the second most abundant greenhouse gas (GHG), with nearly 60% of emissions derived from anthropogenic sources. Microbial conversion of methane to fuels and value-added chemicals offers a means to reduce GHG emissions, while also valorizing this otherwise squandered high-volume, high-energy gas. However, to date, advances in methane biocatalysis have been constrained by the low-productivity and limited genetic tractability of natural methane-consuming microbes. Here, leveraging recent identification of a novel, tractable methanotrophic bacterium, Methylomicrobium buryatense, we demonstrate microbial biocatalysis of methane to lactate, an industrial platform chemical. Heterologous overexpression of a Lactobacillus helveticus L-lactate dehydrogenase in M. buryatense resultedmore » in an initial titer of 0.06 g lactate/L from methane. Cultivation in a 5 L continuously stirred tank bioreactor enabled production of 0.8 g lactate/L, representing a 13-fold improvement compared to the initial titer. The yields (0.05 g lactate/g methane) and productivity (0.008 g lactate/L/h) indicate the need and opportunity for future strain improvement. Additionally, real-time analysis of methane utilization implicated gas-to-liquid transfer and/or microbial methane consumption as process limitations. This work opens the door to develop an array of methanotrophic bacterial strain-engineering strategies currently employed for biocatalytic sugar upgrading to “green” chemicals and fuels.« less

  5. Bioconversion of methane to lactate by an obligate methanotrophic bacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Henard, Calvin A.; Smith, Holly; Dowe, Nancy; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G.; Pienkos, Philip T.; Guarnieri, Michael T.

    2016-02-23

    Methane is the second most abundant greenhouse gas (GHG), with nearly 60% of emissions derived from anthropogenic sources. Microbial conversion of methane to fuels and value-added chemicals offers a means to reduce GHG emissions, while also valorizing this otherwise squandered high-volume, high-energy gas. However, to date, advances in methane biocatalysis have been constrained by the low-productivity and limited genetic tractability of natural methane-consuming microbes. Here, leveraging recent identification of a novel, tractable methanotrophic bacterium, Methylomicrobium buryatense, we demonstrate microbial biocatalysis of methane to lactate, an industrial platform chemical. Heterologous overexpression of a Lactobacillus helveticus L-lactate dehydrogenase in M. buryatense resulted in an initial titer of 0.06 g lactate/L from methane. Cultivation in a 5 L continuously stirred tank bioreactor enabled production of 0.8 g lactate/L, representing a 13-fold improvement compared to the initial titer. The yields (0.05 g lactate/g methane) and productivity (0.008 g lactate/L/h) indicate the need and opportunity for future strain improvement. Additionally, real-time analysis of methane utilization implicated gas-to-liquid transfer and/or microbial methane consumption as process limitations. This work opens the door to develop an array of methanotrophic bacterial strain-engineering strategies currently employed for biocatalytic sugar upgrading to “green” chemicals and fuels.

  6. Hydrodynamics and collective behavior of the tethered bacterium Thiovulum majus.

    PubMed

    Petroff, Alexander; Libchaber, Albert

    2014-02-04

    The ecology and dynamics of many microbial systems, particularly in mats and soils, are shaped by how bacteria respond to evolving nutrient gradients and microenvironments. Here we show how the response of the sulfur-oxidizing bacterium Thiovulum majus to changing oxygen gradients causes cells to organize into large-scale fronts. To study this phenomenon, we develop a technique to isolate and enrich these bacteria from the environment. Using this enrichment culture, we observe the formation and dynamics of T. majus fronts in oxygen gradients. We show that these dynamics can be understood as occurring in two steps. First, chemotactic cells moving up the oxygen gradient form a front that propagates with constant velocity. We then show, through observation and mathematical analysis, that this front becomes unstable to changes in cell density. Random perturbations in cell density create oxygen gradients. The response of cells magnifies these gradients and leads to the formation of millimeter-scale fluid flows that actively pull oxygenated water through the front. We argue that this flow results from a nonlinear instability excited by stochastic fluctuations in the density of cells. Finally, we show that the dynamics by which these modes interact can be understood from the chemotactic response of cells. These results provide a mathematically tractable example of how collective phenomena in ecological systems can arise from the individual response of cells to a shared resource.

  7. Cellobiose and cellodextrin metabolism by the ruminal bacterium Ruminococcus albus.

    PubMed

    Lou, J; Dawson, K A; Strobel, H J

    1997-10-01

    Ruminococcus albus is an important fibrolytic bacterium in the rumen. Cellobiose is metabolized by this organism via hydrolytic and well as phosphorylytic enzymes, but the relative contributions of each pathway were not clear. The cellobiose consumption rate by exponentially growing cells was less than that of crude extracts (75 versus 243 nmol/min/mg protein). Cellobiose phosphorolytic cleavage was much greater than hydrolytic activity (179 versus 19 nmol/min/mg protein) indicating that phosphorylases were key enzymes in the initial metabolism of the soluble products of cellulose degradation. Cellodextrin phosphorylase appeared to be active against substrates as large as cellohexaose. Phosphorylase activities were cytoplasmic, but hydrolytic activities were associated with both the membrane and cytoplasmic fractions. Free glucose was phosphorylated with a GTP-dependent glucokinase, and this enzyme showed 20-fold higher activity with GTP or ITP (>324 nmol/min/mg protein) than with ATP, UTP, CTP, GDP, or PEP. The activity was decreased at least 57% when mannose, 2-deoxyglucose, or fructose was used as substrate compared with glucose. The Kms for glucose and GTP were 321 and 247 microM, respectively. Since phosphorolytic cleavage conserves more metabolic energy than simple hydrolysis, it is likely that such pathways provide for more efficient growth of R. albus in substrate-limiting conditions like those found in the rumen.

  8. Fermentative degradation of triethanolamine by a homoacetogenic bacterium.

    PubMed

    Frings, J; Wondrak, C; Schink, B

    1994-01-01

    With triethanolamine as sole source of energy and organic carbon, a strictly anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium, strain LuTria 3, was isolated from sewage sludge and was assigned to the genus Acetobacterium on the basis of morphological and physiological properties. The G+C content of the DNA was 34.9 +/- 1.0 mol %. The new isolate fermented triethanolamine to acetate and ammonia. In cell-free extracts, a triethanolamine-degrading enzyme activity was detected that formed acetaldehyde as reaction product. Triethanolamine cleavage was stimulated 30-fold by added adenosylcobalamin (co-enzyme B12) and inhibited by cyanocobalamin or hydroxocobalamin. Ethanolamine ammonia lyase, acetaldehyde:acceptor oxidoreductase, phosphate acetyltransferase, acetate kinase, and carbon monoxide dehydrogenase were measured in cell-free extracts of this strain. Our results establish that triethanolamine is degraded by a corrinoid-dependent shifting of the terminal hydroxyl group to the subterminal carbon atom, analogous to a diol dehydratase reaction, to form an unstable intermediate that releases acetaldehyde. No anaerobic degradation of triethylamine was observed in similar enrichment assays.

  9. Castellaniella ginsengisoli sp. nov., a beta-glucosidase-producing bacterium.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myung Kyum; Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2009-09-01

    A Gram-negative, motile bacterium, designated DCY36T, was isolated from soil of a ginseng field in South Korea and was characterized using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain DCY36T belongs to genus Castellaniella in the family Alcaligenaceae of the class Betaproteobacteria. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities between strain DCY36T and the three recognized representatives of the genus, Castellaniella caeni Ho-11T, Castellaniella defragrans 54PinT and Castellaniella denitrificans NKNTAUT, were 98.4, 97.5 and 98.1%, respectively. Strain DCY36T exhibited relatively low levels of DNA-DNA relatedness with respect to these three species. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 63.7 mol%. Strain DCY36T contained ubiquinone Q-8. The major fatty acids were C16:0 (27.4%), C18:1omega7c (16.9%) and summed feature 4 (C16:1omega7c and C15:0 iso 2-OH, 32.5%). On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic properties and phylogenetic distinctiveness, strain DCY36T (=KCTC 22398T=JCM 15515T) should be classified in the genus Castellaniella as the type strain of a novel species, for which the name Castellaniella ginsengisoli sp. nov. is proposed.

  10. Novel Trypanosomatid-Bacterium Association: Evolution of Endosymbiosis in Action

    PubMed Central

    Kostygov, Alexei Y.; Dobáková, Eva; Grybchuk-Ieremenko, Anastasiia; Váhala, Dalibor; Maslov, Dmitri A.; Votýpka, Jan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We describe a novel symbiotic association between a kinetoplastid protist, Novymonas esmeraldas gen. nov., sp. nov., and an intracytoplasmic bacterium, “Candidatus Pandoraea novymonadis” sp. nov., discovered as a result of a broad-scale survey of insect trypanosomatid biodiversity in Ecuador. We characterize this association by describing the morphology of both organisms, as well as their interactions, and by establishing their phylogenetic affinities. Importantly, neither partner is closely related to other known organisms previously implicated in eukaryote-bacterial symbiosis. This symbiotic association seems to be relatively recent, as the host does not exert a stringent control over the number of bacteria harbored in its cytoplasm. We argue that this unique relationship may represent a suitable model for studying the initial stages of establishment of endosymbiosis between a single-cellular eukaryote and a prokaryote. Based on phylogenetic analyses, Novymonas could be considered a proxy for the insect-only ancestor of the dixenous genus Leishmania and shed light on the origin of the two-host life cycle within the subfamily Leishmaniinae. PMID:26980834

  11. Bioconversion of methane to lactate by an obligate methanotrophic bacterium.

    PubMed

    Henard, Calvin A; Smith, Holly; Dowe, Nancy; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G; Pienkos, Philip T; Guarnieri, Michael T

    2016-02-23

    Methane is the second most abundant greenhouse gas (GHG), with nearly 60% of emissions derived from anthropogenic sources. Microbial conversion of methane to fuels and value-added chemicals offers a means to reduce GHG emissions, while also valorizing this otherwise squandered high-volume, high-energy gas. However, to date, advances in methane biocatalysis have been constrained by the low-productivity and limited genetic tractability of natural methane-consuming microbes. Here, leveraging recent identification of a novel, tractable methanotrophic bacterium, Methylomicrobium buryatense, we demonstrate microbial biocatalysis of methane to lactate, an industrial platform chemical. Heterologous overexpression of a Lactobacillus helveticus L-lactate dehydrogenase in M. buryatense resulted in an initial titer of 0.06 g lactate/L from methane. Cultivation in a 5 L continuously stirred tank bioreactor enabled production of 0.8 g lactate/L, representing a 13-fold improvement compared to the initial titer. The yields (0.05 g lactate/g methane) and productivity (0.008 g lactate/L/h) indicate the need and opportunity for future strain improvement. Additionally, real-time analysis of methane utilization implicated gas-to-liquid transfer and/or microbial methane consumption as process limitations. This work opens the door to develop an array of methanotrophic bacterial strain-engineering strategies currently employed for biocatalytic sugar upgrading to "green" chemicals and fuels.

  12. Hydrodynamics and collective behavior of the tethered bacterium Thiovulum majus

    PubMed Central

    Petroff, Alexander; Libchaber, Albert

    2014-01-01

    The ecology and dynamics of many microbial systems, particularly in mats and soils, are shaped by how bacteria respond to evolving nutrient gradients and microenvironments. Here we show how the response of the sulfur-oxidizing bacterium Thiovulum majus to changing oxygen gradients causes cells to organize into large-scale fronts. To study this phenomenon, we develop a technique to isolate and enrich these bacteria from the environment. Using this enrichment culture, we observe the formation and dynamics of T. majus fronts in oxygen gradients. We show that these dynamics can be understood as occurring in two steps. First, chemotactic cells moving up the oxygen gradient form a front that propagates with constant velocity. We then show, through observation and mathematical analysis, that this front becomes unstable to changes in cell density. Random perturbations in cell density create oxygen gradients. The response of cells magnifies these gradients and leads to the formation of millimeter-scale fluid flows that actively pull oxygenated water through the front. We argue that this flow results from a nonlinear instability excited by stochastic fluctuations in the density of cells. Finally, we show that the dynamics by which these modes interact can be understood from the chemotactic response of cells. These results provide a mathematically tractable example of how collective phenomena in ecological systems can arise from the individual response of cells to a shared resource. PMID:24459183

  13. Presence of an Unusual Methanogenic Bacterium in Coal Gasification Waste

    PubMed Central

    Tomei, Francisco A.; Rouse, Dwight; Maki, James S.; Mitchell, Ralph

    1988-01-01

    Methanogenic bacteria growing on a pilot-scale, anaerobic filter processing coal gasification waste were enriched in a mineral salts medium containing hydrogen and acetate as potential energy sources. Transfer of the enrichments to methanol medium resulted in the initial growth of a strain of Methanosarcina barkeri, but eventually small cocci became dominant. The cocci growing on methanol produced methane and exhibited the typical fluorescence of methanogenic bacteria. They grew in the presence of the cell wall synthesis-inhibiting antibiotics d-cycloserine, fosfomycin, penicillin G, and vancomycin as well as in the presence of kanamycin, an inhibitor of protein synthesis in eubacteria. The optimal growth temperature was 37°C, and the doubling time was 7.5 h. The strain lysed after reaching stationary phase. The bacterium grew poorly with hydrogen as the energy source and failed to grow on acetate. Morphologically, the coccus shared similarities with Methanosarcina sp. Cells were 1 μm wide, exhibited the typical thick cell wall and cross-wall formation, and formed tetrads. Packets and cysts were not formed. Images PMID:16347791

  14. Yersinia ruckeri sp. nov., the redmouth (RM) bacterium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ewing, W.H.; Ross, A.J.; Brenner, Don J.; Fanning, G. R.

    1978-01-01

    Cultures of the redmouth (RM) bacterium, one of the etiological agents of redmouth disease in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) and certain other fishes, were characterized by means of their biochemical reactions, by deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) hybridization, and by determination of guanine-plus-cytosine (G+C) ratios in DNA. The DNA relatedness studies confirmed the fact that the RM bacteria are members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and that they comprise a single species that is not closely related to any other species of Enterobacteriaceae. They are about 30% related to species of both Serratia and Yersinia. A comparison of the biochemical reactions of RM bacteria and serratiae indicated that there are many differences between these organisms and that biochemically the RM bacteria are most closely related to yersiniae. The G+C ratios of RM bacteria were approximated to be between 47.5 and 48.5% These values are similar to those of yersiniae but markedly different from those of serratiae. On the basis of their biochemical reactions and their G+C ratios, the RM bacteria are considered to be a new species of Yersinia, for which the name Yersinia ruckeri is proposed. Strain 2396-61 (= ATCC 29473) is designated the type strain of the species.

  15. Bioconversion of methane to lactate by an obligate methanotrophic bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Henard, Calvin A.; Smith, Holly; Dowe, Nancy; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G.; Pienkos, Philip T.; Guarnieri, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Methane is the second most abundant greenhouse gas (GHG), with nearly 60% of emissions derived from anthropogenic sources. Microbial conversion of methane to fuels and value-added chemicals offers a means to reduce GHG emissions, while also valorizing this otherwise squandered high-volume, high-energy gas. However, to date, advances in methane biocatalysis have been constrained by the low-productivity and limited genetic tractability of natural methane-consuming microbes. Here, leveraging recent identification of a novel, tractable methanotrophic bacterium, Methylomicrobium buryatense, we demonstrate microbial biocatalysis of methane to lactate, an industrial platform chemical. Heterologous overexpression of a Lactobacillus helveticus L-lactate dehydrogenase in M. buryatense resulted in an initial titer of 0.06 g lactate/L from methane. Cultivation in a 5 L continuously stirred tank bioreactor enabled production of 0.8 g lactate/L, representing a 13-fold improvement compared to the initial titer. The yields (0.05 g lactate/g methane) and productivity (0.008 g lactate/L/h) indicate the need and opportunity for future strain improvement. Additionally, real-time analysis of methane utilization implicated gas-to-liquid transfer and/or microbial methane consumption as process limitations. This work opens the door to develop an array of methanotrophic bacterial strain-engineering strategies currently employed for biocatalytic sugar upgrading to “green” chemicals and fuels. PMID:26902345

  16. Novel Rickettsiella bacterium in the leafhopper Orosius albicinctus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Iasur-Kruh, Lilach; Weintraub, Phyllis G; Mozes-Daube, Netta; Robinson, Wyatt E; Perlman, Steve J; Zchori-Fein, Einat

    2013-07-01

    Bacteria in the genus Rickettsiella (Coxiellaceae), which are mainly known as arthropod pathogens, are emerging as excellent models to study transitions between mutualism and pathogenicity. The current report characterizes a novel Rickettsiella found in the leafhopper Orosius albicinctus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), a major vector of phytoplasma diseases in Europe and Asia. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing were used to survey the main symbionts of O. albicinctus, revealing the obligate symbionts Sulcia and Nasuia, and the facultative symbionts Arsenophonus and Wolbachia, in addition to Rickettsiella. The leafhopper Rickettsiella is allied with bacteria found in ticks. Screening O. albicinctus from the field showed that Rickettsiella is highly prevalent, with over 60% of individuals infected. A stable Rickettsiella infection was maintained in a leafhopper laboratory colony for at least 10 generations, and fluorescence microscopy localized bacteria to accessory glands of the female reproductive tract, suggesting that the bacterium is vertically transmitted. Future studies will be needed to examine how Rickettsiella affects host fitess and its ability to vector phytopathogens.

  17. A serine sensor for multicellularity in a bacterium.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Arvind R; Deloughery, Aaron; Bradshaw, Niels; Chen, Yun; O'Shea, Erin; Losick, Richard; Chai, Yunrong

    2013-12-17

    We report the discovery of a simple environmental sensing mechanism for biofilm formation in the bacterium Bacillus subtilis that operates without the involvement of a dedicated RNA or protein. Certain serine codons, the four TCN codons, in the gene for the biofilm repressor SinR caused a lowering of SinR levels under biofilm-inducing conditions. Synonymous substitutions of these TCN codons with AGC or AGT impaired biofilm formation and gene expression. Conversely, switching AGC or AGT to TCN codons upregulated biofilm formation. Genome-wide ribosome profiling showed that ribosome density was higher at UCN codons than at AGC or AGU during biofilm formation. Serine starvation recapitulated the effect of biofilm-inducing conditions on ribosome occupancy and SinR production. As serine is one of the first amino acids to be exhausted at the end of exponential phase growth, reduced translation speed at serine codons may be exploited by other microbes in adapting to stationary phase. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01501.001.

  18. Acquisition of polyamines by the obligate intracytoplasmic bacterium Rickettsia prowazekii.

    PubMed Central

    Speed, R R; Winkler, H H

    1990-01-01

    Both the polyamine content and the route of acquisition of polyamines by Rickettsia prowazekii, an obligate intracellular parasitic bacterium, were determined. The rickettsiae grew normally in an ornithine decarboxylase mutant of the Chinese hamster ovary (C55.7) cell line whether or not putrescine, which this host cell required in order to grow, was present. The rickettsiae contained approximately 6 mM putrescine, 5 mM spermidine, and 3 mM spermine when cultured in the presence or absence of putrescine. Neither the transport of putrescine and spermidine by the rickettsiae nor a measurable rickettsial ornithine decarboxylase activity could be demonstrated. However, we demonstrated the de novo synthesis of polyamines from arginine by the rickettsiae. Arginine decarboxylase activity (29 pmol of 14CO2 released per h per 10(8) rickettsiae) was measured in the rickettsiae growing within their host cell. A markedly lower level of this enzymatic activity was observed in cell extracts of R. prowazekii and could be completely inhibited with 1 mM difluoromethylarginine, an irreversible inhibitor of the enzyme. R. prowazekii failed to grow in C55.7 cells that had been cultured in the presence of 1 mM difluoromethylarginine. After rickettsiae were grown in C55.7 in the presence of labeled arginine, the specific activities of arginine in the host cell cytoplasm and polyamines in the rickettsiae were measured; these measurements indicated that 100% of the total polyamine content of R. prowazekii was derived from arginine. PMID:2120188

  19. P450 enzymes from the bacterium Novosphingobium aromaticivorans

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Stephen G. . E-mail: stephen.bell@chem.ox.ac.uk; Wong, Luet-Lok

    2007-08-31

    Twelve of the fifteen potential P450 enzymes from the bacterium Novosphingobium aromaticivorans, which is known to degrade a wide range of aromatic hydrocarbons, have been produced via heterologous expression in Escherichia coli. The enzymes were tested for their ability to bind a range of substrates including polyaromatic hydrocarbons. While two of the enzymes were found to bind aromatic compounds (CYP108D1 and CYP203A2), the others show binding with a variety of compounds including linear alkanes (CYP153C1) and mono- and sesqui-terpenoid compounds (CYP101B1, CYP101C1, CYP101D1, CYP101D2, CYP111A1, and CYP219A1). A 2Fe-2S ferredoxin (Arx-A), which is associated with CYP101D2, was also produced. The activity of five of the P450 enzymes (CYP101B1, CYP101C1, CYP101D1, CYP101D2, and CYP111A2) was reconstituted with Arx-A and putidaredoxin reductase (of the P450cam system from Pseudomonas putida) in a Class I type electron transfer system. Preliminary characterisation of the majority of the substrate oxidation products is reported.

  20. Anaerobic degradation of toluene by a denitrifying bacterium.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, P J; Mang, D T; Kim, K S; Young, L Y

    1991-01-01

    A denitrifying bacterium, designated strain T1, that grew with toluene as the sole source of carbon under anaerobic conditions was isolated. The type of agar used in solid media and the toxicity of toluene were determinative factors in the successful isolation of strain T1. Greater than 50% of the toluene carbon was oxidized to CO2, and 29% was assimilated into biomass. The oxidation of toluene to CO2 was stoichiometrically coupled to nitrate reduction and denitrification. Strain T1 was tolerant of and grew on 3 mM toluene after a lag phase. The rate of toluene degradation was 1.8 mumol min-1 liter-1 (56 nmol min-1 mg of protein-1) in a cell suspension. Strain T1 was distinct from other bacteria that oxidize toluene anaerobically, but it may utilize a similar biochemical pathway of oxidation. In addition, o-xylene was transformed to a metabolite in the presence of toluene but did not serve as the sole source of carbon for growth of strain T1. This transformation was dependent on the degradation of toluene. Images PMID:2059037

  1. Presence of an unusual methanogenic bacterium in coal gasification waste.

    PubMed

    Tomei, F A; Rouse, D; Maki, J S; Mitchell, R

    1988-12-01

    Methanogenic bacteria growing on a pilot-scale, anaerobic filter processing coal gasification waste were enriched in a mineral salts medium containing hydrogen and acetate as potential energy sources. Transfer of the enrichments to methanol medium resulted in the initial growth of a strain of Methanosarcina barkeri, but eventually small cocci became dominant. The cocci growing on methanol produced methane and exhibited the typical fluorescence of methanogenic bacteria. They grew in the presence of the cell wall synthesis-inhibiting antibiotics d-cycloserine, fosfomycin, penicillin G, and vancomycin as well as in the presence of kanamycin, an inhibitor of protein synthesis in eubacteria. The optimal growth temperature was 37 degrees C, and the doubling time was 7.5 h. The strain lysed after reaching stationary phase. The bacterium grew poorly with hydrogen as the energy source and failed to grow on acetate. Morphologically, the coccus shared similarities with Methanosarcina sp. Cells were 1 mum wide, exhibited the typical thick cell wall and cross-wall formation, and formed tetrads. Packets and cysts were not formed.

  2. Kinetics of a hydrogen-oxidizing, perchlorate-reducing bacterium.

    PubMed

    Nerenberg, Robert; Kawagoshi, Yasunori; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2006-10-01

    This paper provides the first kinetic parameters for a hydrogen-oxidizing perchlorate-reducing bacterium (PCRB), Dechloromonas sp. PC1. The qmax for perchlorate and chlorate were 3.1 and 6.3 mg/mgDW-day, respectively. The K for perchlorate was 0.14 mg/L, an order of magnitude lower than reported for other PCRB. The yields Y on perchlorate and chlorate were 0.23 and 0.22 mgDW/mg, respectively, and the decay constant b was 0.055/day. The growth-threshold, Smin, for perchlorate was 14 microg/L, suggesting that perchlorate cannot be reduced below this level when perchlorate is the primary electron-acceptor, although it may be possible when oxygen or nitrate is the primary acceptor. Chlorate accumulated at maximum concentrations of 0.6-4.3 mg/L in batch tests with initial perchlorate concentrations ranging from 100 to 600 mg/L. Furthermore, 50 mg/L chlorate inhibited perchlorate reduction with perchlorate at 100 mg/L. This is the first report of chlorate accumulation and inhibition for a pure culture of PCRB. These Chlorate effects are consistent with competitive inhibition between perchlorate and chlorate for the (per)chlorate reductase enzyme.

  3. Heavy Metal Induced Antibiotic Resistance in Bacterium LSJC7

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Songcan; Li, Xiaomin; Sun, Guoxin; Zhang, Yingjiao; Su, Jianqiang; Ye, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Co-contamination of antibiotics and heavy metals prevails in the environment, and may play an important role in disseminating bacterial antibiotic resistance, but the selective effects of heavy metals on bacterial antibiotic resistance is largely unclear. To investigate this, the effects of heavy metals on antibiotic resistance were studied in a genome-sequenced bacterium, LSJC7. The results showed that the presence of arsenate, copper, and zinc were implicated in fortifying the resistance of LSJC7 towards tetracycline. The concentrations of heavy metals required to induce antibiotic resistance, i.e., the minimum heavy metal concentrations (MHCs), were far below (up to 64-fold) the minimum inhibition concentrations (MIC) of LSJC7. This finding indicates that the relatively low heavy metal levels in polluted environments and in treated humans and animals might be sufficient to induce bacterial antibiotic resistance. In addition, heavy metal induced antibiotic resistance was also observed for a combination of arsenate and chloramphenicol in LSJC7, and copper/zinc and tetracycline in antibiotic susceptible strain Escherichia coli DH5α. Overall, this study implies that heavy metal induced antibiotic resistance might be ubiquitous among various microbial species and suggests that it might play a role in the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance in metal and antibiotic co-contaminated environments. PMID:26426011

  4. Thiosulphate oxidation in the phototrophic sulphur bacterium Allochromatium vinosum.

    PubMed

    Hensen, Daniela; Sperling, Detlef; Trüper, Hans G; Brune, Daniel C; Dahl, Christiane

    2006-11-01

    Two different pathways for thiosulphate oxidation are present in the purple sulphur bacterium Allochromatium vinosum: oxidation to tetrathionate and complete oxidation to sulphate with obligatory formation of sulphur globules as intermediates. The tetrathionate:sulphate ratio is strongly pH-dependent with tetrathionate formation being preferred under acidic conditions. Thiosulphate dehydrogenase, a constitutively expressed monomeric 30 kDa c-type cytochrome with a pH optimum at pH 4.2 catalyses tetrathionate formation. A periplasmic thiosulphate-oxidizing multienzyme complex (Sox) has been described to be responsible for formation of sulphate from thiosulphate in chemotrophic and phototrophic sulphur oxidizers that do not form sulphur deposits. In the sulphur-storing A. vinosum we identified five sox genes in two independent loci (soxBXA and soxYZ). For SoxA a thiosulphate-dependent induction of expression, above a low constitutive level, was observed. Three sox-encoded proteins were purified: the heterodimeric c-type cytochrome SoxXA, the monomeric SoxB and the heterodimeric SoxYZ. Gene inactivation and complementation experiments proved these proteins to be indispensable for thiosulphate oxidation to sulphate. The intermediary formation of sulphur globules in A. vinosum appears to be related to the lack of soxCD genes, the products of which are proposed to oxidize SoxY-bound sulphane sulphur. In their absence the latter is instead transferred to growing sulphur globules.

  5. Fungal lysis by a soil bacterium fermenting cellulose.

    PubMed

    Tolonen, Andrew C; Cerisy, Tristan; El-Sayyed, Hafez; Boutard, Magali; Salanoubat, Marcel; Church, George M

    2015-08-01

    Recycling of plant biomass by a community of bacteria and fungi is fundamental to carbon flow in terrestrial ecosystems. Here we report how the plant fermenting, soil bacterium Clostridium phytofermentans enhances growth on cellulose by simultaneously lysing and consuming model fungi from soil. We investigate the mechanism of fungal lysis to show that among the dozens of different glycoside hydrolases C. phytofermentans secretes on cellulose, the most highly expressed enzymes degrade fungi rather than plant substrates. These enzymes, the GH18 Cphy1799 and Cphy1800, synergize to hydrolyse chitin, a main component of the fungal cell wall. Purified enzymes inhibit fungal growth and mutants lacking either GH18 grow normally on cellulose and other plant substrates, but have a reduced ability to hydrolyse chitinous substrates and fungal hyphae. Thus, C. phytofermentans boosts growth on cellulose by lysing fungi with its most highly expressed hydrolases, highlighting the importance of fungal interactions to the ecology of cellulolytic bacteria. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Isolation of Bacteriophages of the Marine Bacterium Beneckea natriegens from Coastal Salt Marshes1

    PubMed Central

    Zachary, Arthur

    1974-01-01

    Bacteriophages of the marine bacterium Beneckea natriegens were isolated from coastal marshes where they were limited to brackish and marine waters. The phages were widely distributed and morphologically diverse in the marshes. Images PMID:4133830

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of the Fast-Growing Bacterium Vibrio natriegens Strain DSMZ 759.

    PubMed

    Maida, Isabel; Bosi, Emanuele; Perrin, Elena; Papaleo, Maria Cristiana; Orlandini, Valerio; Fondi, Marco; Fani, Renato; Wiegel, Juergen; Bianconi, Giovanna; Canganella, Francesco

    2013-08-22

    Vibrio natriegens is a Gram-negative bacterium known for its extremely short doubling time. Here we present the annotated draft genome sequence of Vibrio natriegens strain DSMZ 759, with the aim of providing insights about its high growth rate.

  8. Characterization of a Neochlamydia-like Bacterium Associated with Epitheliocystis in Cultured Artic Char Salvelinus alpinus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Infections of branchial epithelium by intracellular gram-negative bacteria, termed epitheliocystis, have limited culture of Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus). To characterize a bacterium associated with epitheliocystis in cultured char, gills were sampled for histopathologic examination, conventional...

  9. O-allyl decoration on alpha-glucan isolated from the haloalkaliphilic Halomonas pantelleriensis bacterium.

    PubMed

    Corsaro, Maria Michela; Gambacorta, Agata; Lanzetta, Rosa; Nicolaus, Barbara; Pieretti, Giuseppina; Romano, Ida; Parrilli, Michelangelo

    2007-07-02

    An alpha-glucan containing the unprecedented peculiar O-allyl substituent was isolated from the haloalkaliphilic Gram-negative Halomonas pantelleriensis bacterium. Its dextran-like structure was deduced from chemical degradative and spectroscopic methods.

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of the Versatile Alkane-Degrading Bacterium Aquabacterium sp. Strain NJ1.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Hisako; Shiwa, Yuh; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Zylstra, Gerben J

    2014-12-04

    The draft genome sequence of a soil bacterium, Aquabacterium sp. strain NJ1, capable of utilizing both liquid and solid alkanes, was deciphered. This is the first report of an Aquabacterium genome sequence.

  11. Pneumonia and meningitis caused by a new nonfermentative unknown gram-negative bacterium.

    PubMed Central

    Casalta, J P; Peloux, Y; Raoult, D; Brunet, P; Gallais, H

    1989-01-01

    Seven isolates of an unclassified bacterium resembling Flavobacterium spp. were characterized by growth requirements, microscopic examination, biochemical characteristics, antimicrobial susceptibility tests, protein profile analysis, and serologic data. The unclassified isolates were differentiated from Flavobacterium meningosepticum, Flavobacterium odoratum, Flavobacterium balustinum, Flavobacterium strain IIb, Chromobacterium violaceum, Aquaspirillum serpens, and Pseudomonas spp. The bacterium was a gram-negative rod with a polar flagellum. Protein profile analysis demonstrated two major protein bands present in the unclassified isolates that were absent from the Flavobacterium and Pseudomonas controls but present in the Aquaspirillum and Chromobacterium controls. However, no serologic cross-reactions were observed. Our results showed that the unclassified bacterium was distinct from any previously known genus of bacterium. Images PMID:2504766

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of the Versatile Alkane-Degrading Bacterium Aquabacterium sp. Strain NJ1

    PubMed Central

    Shiwa, Yuh; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Zylstra, Gerben J.

    2014-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of a soil bacterium, Aquabacterium sp. strain NJ1, capable of utilizing both liquid and solid alkanes, was deciphered. This is the first report of an Aquabacterium genome sequence. PMID:25477416

  13. IN SITU RT-PCR WITH A SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIUM ISOLATED FROM SEAGRASS ROOTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bacteria considered to be obligate anaerobes internally colonize roots of the submerged macrophyte Halodule wrightii. A sulfate reducing bacterium, Summer lac 1, was isolated on lactate from H. wrightii roots. The isolate has physiological characteristics typical of Desulfovibri...

  14. Naphthalecin, a novel antibiotic produced by the anaerobic bacterium, Sporotalea colonica sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Ezaki, Masami; Muramatsu, Hideyuki; Takase, Shigehiro; Hashimoto, Michizane; Nagai, Koji

    2008-04-01

    A novel antibiotic naphthalecin was purified and isolated from the cells of an anaerobic bacterium isolated from a soil sample. This antibiotic contained a naphthalene moiety, so named as naphthalecin, and showed antibacterial activity against gram positive species. The producing strain, an obligate anaerobe, was identified as a new species of the genus Sporotalea. Identification of the bacterium, cultivation, purification, structure determination, and antibacterial activity are shown.

  15. Vibrio damsela, a Marine Bacterium, Causes Skin Ulcers on the Damselfish Chromis punctipinnis.

    PubMed

    Love, M; Teebken-Fisher, D; Hose, J E; Farmer, J J; Hickman, F W; Fanning, G R

    1981-12-04

    A previously undescribed marine bacterium, Vibrio damsela, was isolated from naturally occurring skin ulcers on a species of temperate-water damselfish, the blacksmith (Chromis punctipinnis). Laboratory infection of the blacksmith with Vibrio damsela produced similar ulcers. Vibrio damsela was pathogenic for four other species of damselfish but not for members of other families of fish. The bacterium has also been isolated from water and from two human wounds and may be a cause of human disease.

  16. Genome sequence of Pseudomonas parafulva CRS01-1, an antagonistic bacterium isolated from rice field.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qunen; Zhang, Yingxin; Yu, Ning; Bi, Zhenzhen; Zhu, Aike; Zhan, Xiaodeng; Wu, Weixun; Yu, Ping; Chen, Daibo; Cheng, Shihua; Cao, Liyong

    2015-07-20

    Pseudomonas parafulva (formerly known as Pseudomonas fulva) is an antagonistic bacterium against several rice bacterial and fungal diseases. The total genome size of P. parafulva CRS01-1 is 5,087,619 bp with 4389 coding sequences (CDSs), 77 tRNAs, and 7 rRNAs. The annotated full genome sequence of the P. parafulva CRS01-1 strain might shed light on its role as an antagonistic bacterium.

  17. Treatment of common warts with the immune stimulant Propionium bacterium parvum.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Nilton

    2012-01-01

    Warts are epithelial proliferations in the skin and mucous membrane caused by various types of HPV. They can decrease spontaneously or increase in size and number according to the patient's immune status. The Propionium bacterium parvum is a strong immune stimulant and immune modulator and has important effects in the immune system and it is able to produce antibodies in the skin. To show the efficacy of the Propionium bacterium parvum in saline solution in the treatment of skin warts. A randomized double-blind study. Twenty patients with multiple warts were divided into two groups: one received 0,1 ml intradermal injection of placebo solution in just one of the warts and the other received 0,1 ml of saline solution of Propionium bacterium parvum, one dose a month, for 3 to 5 months. Among the 20 patients who participated in the study, ten received the placebo and ten received the saline solution with Propionium bacterium parvum. In 9 patients treated with the Propionium bacterium parvum solution the warts disappeared without scars and in 1 patient it decreased in size. In 9 patients who received the placebo no change to the warts was observed and in 1 it decreased in size. The immune modulator and immune stimulant Propionium bacterium parvum produced antibodies in the skin which destroyed the warts without scars, with statistically significant results (P<0,001), and cured 90 % of the patients. We suggest the use of the immune stimulant in the treatment of warts.

  18. Endohyphal Bacterium Enhances Production of Indole-3-Acetic Acid by a Foliar Fungal Endophyte

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Michele T.; Gunatilaka, Malkanthi K.; Wijeratne, Kithsiri; Gunatilaka, Leslie; Arnold, A. Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Numerous plant pathogens, rhizosphere symbionts, and endophytic bacteria and yeasts produce the important phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), often with profound effects on host plants. However, to date IAA production has not been documented among foliar endophytes -- the diverse guild of primarily filamentous Ascomycota that live within healthy, above-ground tissues of all plant species studied thus far. Recently bacteria that live within hyphae of endophytes (endohyphal bacteria) have been detected, but their effects have not been studied previously. Here we show not only that IAA is produced in vitro by a foliar endophyte (here identified as Pestalotiopsis aff. neglecta, Xylariales), but that IAA production is enhanced significantly when the endophyte hosts an endohyphal bacterium (here identified as Luteibacter sp., Xanthomonadales). Both the endophyte and the endophyte/bacterium complex appear to rely on an L-tryptophan dependent pathway for IAA synthesis. The bacterium can be isolated from the fungus when the symbiotic complex is cultivated at 36°C. In pure culture the bacterium does not produce IAA. Culture filtrate from the endophyte-bacterium complex significantly enhances growth of tomato in vitro relative to controls and to filtrate from the endophyte alone. Together these results speak to a facultative symbiosis between an endophyte and endohyphal bacterium that strongly influences IAA production, providing a new framework in which to explore endophyte-plant interactions. PMID:24086270

  19. Metabolomics evaluation of the impact of smokeless tobacco exposure on the oral bacterium Capnocytophaga sputigena.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jinchun; Jin, Jinshan; Beger, Richard D; Cerniglia, Carl E; Yang, Maocheng; Chen, Huizhong

    2016-10-01

    The association between exposure to smokeless tobacco products (STP) and oral diseases is partially due to the physiological and pathological changes in the composition of the oral microbiome and its metabolic profile. However, it is not clear how STPs affect the physiology and ecology of oral microbiota. A UPLC/QTof-MS-based metabolomics study was employed to analyze metabolic alterations in oral bacterium, Capnocytophaga sputigena as a result of smokeless tobacco exposure and to assess the capability of the bacterium to metabolize nicotine. Pathway analysis of the metabolome profiles indicated that smokeless tobacco extracts caused oxidative stress in the bacterium. The metabolomics data also showed that the arginine-nitric oxide pathway was perturbed by the smokeless tobacco treatment. Results also showed that LC/MS was useful in identifying STP constituents and additives, including caffeine and many flavoring compounds. No significant changes in levels of nicotine and its major metabolites were found when C. sputigena was cultured in a nutrient rich medium, although hydroxylnicotine and cotinine N-oxide were detected in the bacterial metabolites suggesting that nicotine metabolism might be present as a minor degradation pathway in the bacterium. Study results provide new insights regarding the physiological and toxicological effects of smokeless tobacco on oral bacterium C. sputigena and associated oral health as well as measuring the ability of the oral bacterium to metabolize nicotine.

  20. Capsule-Transmitted Gut Symbiotic Bacterium of the Japanese Common Plataspid Stinkbug, Megacopta punctatissima

    PubMed Central

    Fukatsu, Takema; Hosokawa, Takahiro

    2002-01-01

    The Japanese common plataspid stinkbug, Megacopta punctatissima, deposits small brown particles, or symbiont capsules, on the underside of the egg mass for the purpose of transmission of symbiotic bacteria to the offspring. We investigated the microbiological aspects of the bacteria contained in the capsule, such as microbial diversity, phylogenetic placement, localization in vivo, and fitness effects on the host insect. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA clones revealed that a single bacterial species dominates the microbiota in the capsule. The bacterium was not detected in the eggs but in the capsules, which unequivocally demonstrated that the bacterium is transmitted to the offspring of the insect orally rather than transovarially, through probing of the capsule content. Molecular phylogenetic analysis showed that the bacterium belongs to the γ-subdivision of the Proteobacteria. In adult insects the bacterium was localized in the posterior section of the midgut. Deprivation of the bacterium from the nymphs resulted in retarded development, arrested growth, abnormal body coloration, and other symptoms, suggesting that the bacterium is essential for normal development and growth of the host insect. PMID:11772649

  1. Capsule-transmitted gut symbiotic bacterium of the Japanese common plataspid stinkbug, Megacopta punctatissima.

    PubMed

    Fukatsu, Takema; Hosokawa, Takahiro

    2002-01-01

    The Japanese common plataspid stinkbug, Megacopta punctatissima, deposits small brown particles, or symbiont capsules, on the underside of the egg mass for the purpose of transmission of symbiotic bacteria to the offspring. We investigated the microbiological aspects of the bacteria contained in the capsule, such as microbial diversity, phylogenetic placement, localization in vivo, and fitness effects on the host insect. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA clones revealed that a single bacterial species dominates the microbiota in the capsule. The bacterium was not detected in the eggs but in the capsules, which unequivocally demonstrated that the bacterium is transmitted to the offspring of the insect orally rather than transovarially, through probing of the capsule content. Molecular phylogenetic analysis showed that the bacterium belongs to the gamma-subdivision of the Proteobacteria. In adult insects the bacterium was localized in the posterior section of the midgut. Deprivation of the bacterium from the nymphs resulted in retarded development, arrested growth, abnormal body coloration, and other symptoms, suggesting that the bacterium is essential for normal development and growth of the host insect.

  2. Genetic control for light-induced carotenoid production in non-phototrophic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Takano, Hideaki; Asker, Dalal; Beppu, Teruhiko; Ueda, Kenji

    2006-02-01

    Carotenoids are naturally occurring yellow or orange pigments that serve as a protectant against photo-oxidative damages. Among the wide variety of producers, the prokaryotes generate a broad spectrum of carotenoids with diverse chemical structures that are expected to have a high potential in biotechnological applications. Bacterial carotenogenesis occurs in a constitutive or light-induced manner, which suggests the diversity of the regulatory mechanism. The mechanism for light-induced carotenoid production in non-phototrophic bacteria has been studied in detail in Myxococcus xanthus, a Gram-negative gliding bacterium. The complicated mechanism involves the activation of an extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor (CarQ), which leads to the sequestration of a MerR family transcriptional regulator (CarA) that represses the expression of the carotenoid biosynthesis genes in the dark. Recently, we identified another regulatory mechanism for light-induced carotenogenesis in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), a Gram-positive soil bacterium. In this organism, the transcription of the carotenoid biosynthesis gene cluster is specified by LitS, a photo-inducible ECF sigma factor. The evidence indicates that the photo-dependent transcription of litS is mediated by LitR, a MerR family transcriptional regulator. In addition, it is suggested that the conformational alteration of LitR upon receiving the illumination signal determines its binding to DNA. The carboxy-terminal domain of LitR contains a possible binding site for Vitamin B12, which may serve as a capturing apparatus for the illumination signal.

  3. Interaction of Cadmium With the Aerobic Bacterium Pseudomonas Mendocina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schramm, P. J.; Haack, E. A.; Maurice, P. A.

    2006-05-01

    The fate of toxic metals in the environment can be heavily influenced by interaction with bacteria in the vadose zone. This research focuses on the interactions of cadmium with the strict aerobe Pseudomonas mendocina. P. mendocina is a gram-negative bacterium that has shown potential in the bioremediation of recalcitrant organic compounds. Cadmium is a common environmental contaminant of wide-spread ecological consequence. In batch experiments P. mendocina shows typical bacterial growth curves, with an initial lag phase followed by an exponential phase and a stationary to death phase; concomitant with growth was an increase in pH from initial values of 7 to final values at 96 hours of 8.8. Cd both delays the onset of the exponential phase and decreases the maximum population size, as quantified by optical density and microscopic cell counts (DAPI). The total amount of Cd removed from solution increases over time, as does the amount of Cd removed from solution normalized per bacterial cell. Images obtained with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the production of a cadmium, phosphorus, and iron containing precipitate that was similar in form and composition to precipitates formed abiotically at elevated pH. However, by late stationary phase, the precipitate had been re-dissolved, perhaps by biotic processes in order to obtain Fe. Stressed conditions are suggested by TEM images showing the formation of pili, or nanowires, when 20ppm Cd was present and a marked decrease in exopolysaccharide and biofilm material in comparison to control cells (no cadmium added).

  4. Carbonate biomineralization induced by soil bacterium Bacillus megaterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Bin; Hu, Qiaona; Chen, Jun; Ji, Junfeng; Teng, H. Henry

    2006-11-01

    Biogenic carbonates spawned from microbial activities are common occurrences in soils. Here, we investigate the carbonate biomineralization mediated by the bacterium Bacillus megaterium, a dominant strain separated from a loess profile in China. Upon completing bacterial cultivation, the ensuring products are centrifuged, and the resultant supernatant and the concentrated bacterial sludge as well as the un-separated culture are added separately into a Ca-CO 3 containing solution for crystallization experiments. Results of XRD and SEM analysis indicate that calcite is the dominant mineral phase formed when the bacteria are present. When the supernatant alone is used, however, a significant portion of vaterite is also precipitated. Experimental results further reveal that the bacteria have a strong tendency to colonize the center area of the calcite {1 0 1¯ 4} faces. Observed crystal morphology suggests that the bacterial colony may promote the growth normal to each individual {1 0 1¯ 4} face of calcite when the cell concentration is high, but may retard it or even cause dissolution of the immediate substrate surfaces when the concentration is low. SEM images taken at earlier stages of the crystallization experiments demonstrate the nucleation of calcite on the bacterial cell walls but do not show obvious morphological changes on the nanometer- to submicron-sized nuclei. δ 13C measurements unveil that the crystals grown in the presence of bacteria are further enriched in the heavy carbon isotope, implying that the bacterial metabolism may not be the carbon sources for the mineralization. Based upon these findings, we propose a mechanism for the B. megaterium mediated calcite mineralization and conclude that the whole process involves epi- and inter-cellular growth in the local microenvironments whose conditions may be controlled by cell sequestration and proton pumping during bacterial respiration.

  5. Metabolic evolution of a deep-branching hyperthermophilic chemoautotrophic bacterium.

    PubMed

    Braakman, Rogier; Smith, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Aquifex aeolicus is a deep-branching hyperthermophilic chemoautotrophic bacterium restricted to hydrothermal vents and hot springs. These characteristics make it an excellent model system for studying the early evolution of metabolism. Here we present the whole-genome metabolic network of this organism and examine in detail the driving forces that have shaped it. We make extensive use of phylometabolic analysis, a method we recently introduced that generates trees of metabolic phenotypes by integrating phylogenetic and metabolic constraints. We reconstruct the evolution of a range of metabolic sub-systems, including the reductive citric acid (rTCA) cycle, as well as the biosynthesis and functional roles of several amino acids and cofactors. We show that A. aeolicus uses the reconstructed ancestral pathways within many of these sub-systems, and highlight how the evolutionary interconnections between sub-systems facilitated several key innovations. Our analyses further highlight three general classes of driving forces in metabolic evolution. One is the duplication and divergence of genes for enzymes as these progress from lower to higher substrate specificity, improving the kinetics of certain sub-systems. A second is the kinetic optimization of established pathways through fusion of enzymes, or their organization into larger complexes. The third is the minimization of the ATP unit cost to synthesize biomass, improving thermodynamic efficiency. Quantifying the distribution of these classes of innovations across metabolic sub-systems and across the tree of life will allow us to assess how a tradeoff between maximizing growth rate and growth efficiency has shaped the long-term metabolic evolution of the biosphere.

  6. Quorum Sensing in a Methane-Oxidizing Bacterium.

    PubMed

    Puri, Aaron W; Schaefer, Amy L; Fu, Yanfen; Beck, David A C; Greenberg, E Peter; Lidstrom, Mary E

    2017-03-01

    Aerobic methanotrophic bacteria use methane as their sole source of carbon and energy and serve as a major sink for the potent greenhouse gas methane in freshwater ecosystems. Dissecting the molecular details of how these organisms interact in the environment may increase our understanding of how they perform this important ecological role. Many bacterial species use quorum sensing (QS) systems to regulate gene expression in a cell density-dependent manner. We have identified a QS system in the genome of Methylobacter tundripaludum, a dominant methane oxidizer in methane enrichments of sediment from Lake Washington (Seattle, WA). We determined that M. tundripaludum produces primarily N-3-hydroxydecanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (3-OH-C10-HSL) and that its production is governed by a positive feedback loop. We then further characterized this system by determining which genes are regulated by QS in this methane oxidizer using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) and discovered that this system regulates the expression of a putative nonribosomal peptide synthetase biosynthetic gene cluster. Finally, we detected an extracellular factor that is produced by M. tundripaludum in a QS-dependent manner. These results identify and characterize a mode of cellular communication in an aerobic methane-oxidizing bacterium.IMPORTANCE Aerobic methanotrophs are critical for sequestering carbon from the potent greenhouse gas methane in the environment, yet the mechanistic details of chemical interactions in methane-oxidizing bacterial communities are not well understood. Understanding these interactions is important in order to maintain, and potentially optimize, the functional potential of the bacteria that perform this vital ecosystem function. In this work, we identify a quorum sensing system in the aerobic methanotroph Methylobacter tundripaludum and use both chemical and genetic methods to characterize this system at the molecular level. Copyright © 2017 American Society for

  7. Biogeography of the purple nonsulfur bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris.

    PubMed

    Oda, Yasuhiro; Star, Bastiaan; Huisman, Louis A; Gottschal, Jan C; Forney, Larry J

    2003-09-01

    The biogeography of the purple nonsulfur bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris on a local scale was investigated. Thirty clones of phototrophic bacteria were isolated from each of five unevenly spaced sampling locations in freshwater marsh sediments along a linear 10-m transect, and a total of 150 clones were characterized by BOX-PCR genomic DNA fingerprinting. Cluster analysis of 150 genomic fingerprints yielded 26 distinct genotypes, and 106 clones constituted four major genotypes that were repeatedly isolated. Representatives of these four major genotypes were tentatively identified as R. palustris based on phylogentic analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences. The differences in the genomic fingerprint patterns among the four major genotypes were accompanied by differences in phenotypic characteristics. These phenotypic differences included differences in the kinetics of carbon source use, suggesting that there may be functional differences with possible ecological significance among these clonal linages. Morisita-Horn similarity coefficients (C(MH)), which were used to compare the numbers of common genotypes found at pairs of sampling locations, showed that there was substantial similarity between locations that were 1 cm apart (C(MH), >/=0.95) but there was almost no similarity between locations that were >/=9 m apart (C(MH),

  8. Metabolic Evolution of a Deep-Branching Hyperthermophilic Chemoautotrophic Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Braakman, Rogier; Smith, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Aquifex aeolicus is a deep-branching hyperthermophilic chemoautotrophic bacterium restricted to hydrothermal vents and hot springs. These characteristics make it an excellent model system for studying the early evolution of metabolism. Here we present the whole-genome metabolic network of this organism and examine in detail the driving forces that have shaped it. We make extensive use of phylometabolic analysis, a method we recently introduced that generates trees of metabolic phenotypes by integrating phylogenetic and metabolic constraints. We reconstruct the evolution of a range of metabolic sub-systems, including the reductive citric acid (rTCA) cycle, as well as the biosynthesis and functional roles of several amino acids and cofactors. We show that A. aeolicus uses the reconstructed ancestral pathways within many of these sub-systems, and highlight how the evolutionary interconnections between sub-systems facilitated several key innovations. Our analyses further highlight three general classes of driving forces in metabolic evolution. One is the duplication and divergence of genes for enzymes as these progress from lower to higher substrate specificity, improving the kinetics of certain sub-systems. A second is the kinetic optimization of established pathways through fusion of enzymes, or their organization into larger complexes. The third is the minimization of the ATP unit cost to synthesize biomass, improving thermodynamic efficiency. Quantifying the distribution of these classes of innovations across metabolic sub-systems and across the tree of life will allow us to assess how a tradeoff between maximizing growth rate and growth efficiency has shaped the long-term metabolic evolution of the biosphere. PMID:24516572

  9. Biogeography of the Purple Nonsulfur Bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris

    PubMed Central

    Oda, Yasuhiro; Star, Bastiaan; Huisman, Louis A.; Gottschal, Jan C.; Forney, Larry J.

    2003-01-01

    The biogeography of the purple nonsulfur bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris on a local scale was investigated. Thirty clones of phototrophic bacteria were isolated from each of five unevenly spaced sampling locations in freshwater marsh sediments along a linear 10-m transect, and a total of 150 clones were characterized by BOX-PCR genomic DNA fingerprinting. Cluster analysis of 150 genomic fingerprints yielded 26 distinct genotypes, and 106 clones constituted four major genotypes that were repeatedly isolated. Representatives of these four major genotypes were tentatively identified as R. palustris based on phylogentic analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences. The differences in the genomic fingerprint patterns among the four major genotypes were accompanied by differences in phenotypic characteristics. These phenotypic differences included differences in the kinetics of carbon source use, suggesting that there may be functional differences with possible ecological significance among these clonal linages. Morisita-Horn similarity coefficients (CMH), which were used to compare the numbers of common genotypes found at pairs of sampling locations, showed that there was substantial similarity between locations that were 1 cm apart (CMH, ≥0.95) but there was almost no similarity between locations that were ≥9 m apart (CMH, ≤0.25). These calculations showed there was a gradual decrease in similarity among the five locations as a function of distance and that clones of R. palustris were lognormally distributed along the linear 10-m transect. These data indicate that natural populations of R. palustris are assemblages of genetically distinct ecotypes and that the distribution of each ecotype is patchy. PMID:12957900

  10. Phenotypic Variation in the Plant Pathogenic Bacterium Acidovorax citrulli

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Ram Kumar; Rosenberg, Tally; Makarovsky, Daria; Eckshtain-Levi, Noam; Zelinger, Einat; Kopelowitz, June; Sikorski, Johannes; Burdman, Saul

    2013-01-01

    Acidovorax citrulli causes bacterial fruit blotch (BFB) of cucurbits, a disease that threatens the cucurbit industry worldwide. Despite the economic importance of BFB, little is known about pathogenicity and fitness strategies of the bacterium. We have observed the phenomenon of phenotypic variation in A. citrulli. Here we report the characterization of phenotypic variants (PVs) of two strains, M6 and 7a1, isolated from melon and watermelon, respectively. Phenotypic variation was observed following growth in rich medium, as well as upon isolation of bacteria from inoculated plants or exposure to several stresses, including heat, salt and acidic conditions. When grown on nutrient agar, all PV colonies possessed a translucent appearance, in contrast to parental strain colonies that were opaque. After 72 h, PV colonies were bigger than parental colonies, and had a fuzzy appearance relative to parental strain colonies that are relatively smooth. A. citrulli colonies are generally surrounded by haloes detectable by the naked eye. These haloes are formed by type IV pilus (T4P)-mediated twitching motility that occurs at the edge of the colony. No twitching haloes could be detected around colonies of both M6 and 7a1 PVs, and microscopy observations confirmed that indeed the PVs did not perform twitching motility. In agreement with these results, transmission electron microscopy revealed that M6 and 7a1 PVs do not produce T4P under tested conditions. PVs also differed from their parental strain in swimming motility and biofilm formation, and interestingly, all assessed variants were less virulent than their corresponding parental strains in seed transmission assays. Slight alterations could be detected in some DNA fingerprinting profiles of 7a1 variants relative to the parental strain, while no differences at all could be seen among M6 variants and parental strain, suggesting that, at least in the latter, phenotypic variation is mediated by slight genetic and/or epigenetic

  11. Genomes of “Spiribacter”, a streamlined, successful halophilic bacterium

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Thalassosaline waters produced by the concentration of seawater are widespread and common extreme aquatic habitats. Their salinity varies from that of sea water (ca. 3.5%) to saturation for NaCl (ca. 37%). Obviously the microbiota varies dramatically throughout this range. Recent metagenomic analysis of intermediate salinity waters (19%) indicated the presence of an abundant and yet undescribed gamma-proteobacterium. Two strains belonging to this group have been isolated from saltern ponds of intermediate salinity in two Spanish salterns and were named “Spiribacter”. Results The genomes of two isolates of “Spiribacter” have been fully sequenced and assembled. The analysis of metagenomic datasets indicates that microbes of this genus are widespread worldwide in medium salinity habitats representing the first ecologically defined moderate halophile. The genomes indicate that the two isolates belong to different species within the same genus. Both genomes are streamlined with high coding densities, have few regulatory mechanisms and no motility or chemotactic behavior. Metabolically they are heterotrophs with a subgroup II xanthorhodopsin as an additional energy source when light is available. Conclusions This is the first bacterium that has been proven by culture independent approaches to be prevalent in hypersaline habitats of intermediate salinity (half a way between the sea and NaCl saturation). Predictions from the proteome and analysis of transporter genes, together with a complete ectoine biosynthesis gene cluster are consistent with these microbes having the salt-out-organic-compatible solutes type of osmoregulation. All these features are also consistent with a well-adapted fully planktonic microbe while other halophiles with more complex genomes such as Salinibacter ruber might have particle associated microniches. PMID:24225341

  12. Molecular characterization of the nonphotosynthetic partner bacterium in the consortium "Chlorochromatium aggregatum".

    PubMed

    Kanzler, Birgit E M; Pfannes, Kristina R; Vogl, Kajetan; Overmann, Jörg

    2005-11-01

    Phototrophic consortia represent valuable model systems for the study of signal transduction and coevolution between different bacteria. The phototrophic consortium "Chlorochromatium aggregatum" consists of a colorless central rod-shaped bacterium surrounded by about 20 green-pigmented epibionts. Although the epibiont was identified as a member of the green sulfur bacteria, and recently isolated and characterized in pure culture, the central colorless bacterium has been identified as a member of the beta-Proteobacteria but so far could not be characterized further. In the present study, "C. aggregatum" was enriched chemotactically, and the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the central bacterium was elucidated. Based on the sequence information, fluorescence in situ hybridization probes targeting four different regions of the 16S rRNA were designed and shown to hybridize exclusively to cells of the central bacterium. Phylogenetic analyses of the 1,437-bp-long sequence revealed that the central bacterium of "C. aggregatum" represents a so far isolated phylogenetic lineage related to Rhodoferax spp., Polaromonas vacuolata, and Variovorax paradoxus within the family Comamonadaceae. The majority of relatives of this lineage are not yet cultured and were found in low-temperature aquatic environments or aquatic environments containing xenobiotica or hydrocarbons. In CsCl-bisbenzimidazole equilibrium density gradients, genomic DNA of the central bacterium of "Chlorochromatium aggregatum" formed a distinct band which could be detected by quantitative PCR using specific primers. Using this method, the G+C content of the central bacterium was determined to be 55.6 mol%.

  13. Regulation of Polyhydroxybutyrate Synthesis in the Soil Bacterium Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens.

    PubMed

    Quelas, J I; Mesa, S; Mongiardini, E J; Jendrossek, D; Lodeiro, A R

    2016-07-15

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a carbon and energy reserve polymer in various prokaryotic species. We determined that, when grown with mannitol as the sole carbon source, Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens produces a homopolymer composed only of 3-hydroxybutyrate units (PHB). Conditions of oxygen limitation (such as microoxia, oxic stationary phase, and bacteroids inside legume nodules) were permissive for the synthesis of PHB, which was observed as cytoplasmic granules. To study the regulation of PHB synthesis, we generated mutations in the regulator gene phaR and the phasin genes phaP1 and phaP4 Under permissive conditions, mutation of phaR impaired PHB accumulation, and a phaP1 phaP4 double mutant produced more PHB than the wild type, which was accumulated in a single, large cytoplasmic granule. Moreover, PhaR negatively regulated the expression of phaP1 and phaP4 as well as the expression of phaA1 and phaA2 (encoding a 3-ketoacyl coenzyme A [CoA] thiolases), phaC1 and phaC2 (encoding PHB synthases), and fixK2 (encoding a cyclic AMP receptor protein [CRP]/fumarate and nitrate reductase regulator [FNR]-type transcription factor of genes for microoxic lifestyle). In addition to the depressed PHB cycling, phaR mutants accumulated more extracellular polysaccharides and promoted higher plant shoot dry weight and competitiveness for nodulation than the wild type, in contrast to the phaC1 mutant strain, which is defective in PHB synthesis. These results suggest that phaR not only regulates PHB granule formation by controlling the expression of phasins and biosynthetic enzymes but also acts as a global regulator of excess carbon allocation and symbiosis by controlling fixK2 IMPORTANCE: In this work, we investigated the regulation of polyhydroxybutyrate synthesis in the soybean-nodulating bacterium Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens and its influence in bacterial free-living and symbiotic lifestyles. We uncovered a new interplay between the synthesis of this carbon reserve polymer

  14. Regulation of Polyhydroxybutyrate Synthesis in the Soil Bacterium Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens

    PubMed Central

    Quelas, J. I.; Mesa, S.; Mongiardini, E. J.; Jendrossek, D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a carbon and energy reserve polymer in various prokaryotic species. We determined that, when grown with mannitol as the sole carbon source, Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens produces a homopolymer composed only of 3-hydroxybutyrate units (PHB). Conditions of oxygen limitation (such as microoxia, oxic stationary phase, and bacteroids inside legume nodules) were permissive for the synthesis of PHB, which was observed as cytoplasmic granules. To study the regulation of PHB synthesis, we generated mutations in the regulator gene phaR and the phasin genes phaP1 and phaP4. Under permissive conditions, mutation of phaR impaired PHB accumulation, and a phaP1 phaP4 double mutant produced more PHB than the wild type, which was accumulated in a single, large cytoplasmic granule. Moreover, PhaR negatively regulated the expression of phaP1 and phaP4 as well as the expression of phaA1 and phaA2 (encoding a 3-ketoacyl coenzyme A [CoA] thiolases), phaC1 and phaC2 (encoding PHB synthases), and fixK2 (encoding a cyclic AMP receptor protein [CRP]/fumarate and nitrate reductase regulator [FNR]-type transcription factor of genes for microoxic lifestyle). In addition to the depressed PHB cycling, phaR mutants accumulated more extracellular polysaccharides and promoted higher plant shoot dry weight and competitiveness for nodulation than the wild type, in contrast to the phaC1 mutant strain, which is defective in PHB synthesis. These results suggest that phaR not only regulates PHB granule formation by controlling the expression of phasins and biosynthetic enzymes but also acts as a global regulator of excess carbon allocation and symbiosis by controlling fixK2. IMPORTANCE In this work, we investigated the regulation of polyhydroxybutyrate synthesis in the soybean-nodulating bacterium Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens and its influence in bacterial free-living and symbiotic lifestyles. We uncovered a new interplay between the synthesis of this carbon reserve

  15. A plant growth-promoting bacterium that decreases nickel toxicity in seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Burd, G.I.; Dixon, D.G.; Glick, B.R.

    1998-10-01

    A plant growth-promoting bacterium, Kluyvera ascorbata SUD165, that contained high levels of heavy metals was isolated from soil collected near Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. The bacterium was resistant to the toxic effects of Ni{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, and CrO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, produced a siderophore(s), and displayed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity. Canola seeds inoculated with this bacterium and then grown under gnotobiotic conditions in the presence of high concentrations of nickel chloride were partially protected against nickel toxicity. In addition, protection by the bacterium against nickel toxicity was evident in pot experiments with canola and tomato seeds. The presence of K. ascorbata SUD165 had no measurable influence on the amount of nickel accumulated per milligram (dry weight) of either roots or shoots of canola plants. Therefore, the bacterial plant growth-promoting effect in the presence of nickel was probably not attributable to the reduction of nickel uptake by seedlings. Rather, it may reflect the ability of the bacterium to lower the level of stress ethylene induced by the nickel.

  16. Studying the Transfer of Optical Orbital Angular Momentum to a Helical Bacterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Dana; Horton, Timothy; Reichman, Steven; Link, Justin; Schmitzer, Heidrun; Robbins, Jennifer; Engle, Dorothy

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to study how the angular momentum of an optical vortex created by a 1064 nm laser is transferred to a helical shaped bacterium. When under the influence of a laser in optical tweezers, the helical shape of the bacteria causes it to spin in the trap. A spatial light modulator reshapes the beam and is twisted either into a left handed or right handed helix. This results in an optical vortex with a diameter which can be adjusted from roughly half a micron to three microns. The rotational speed of a helical bacterium in this type of optical trap should depend on the handedness of the vortex and the handedness of the bacterium being tweezed. When both the tweezing beam and the bacterium have the same handedness, a slight reduction in rotational speed should be observed; when the tweezing beam has the opposite handedness of the bacterium, a slight increase in rotational speed should be expected. We present our first experiments with magnetospirillum magnetotacticum and rhodospirillum rubrum.

  17. Further studies on a human intestinal bacterium Ruminococcus sp. END-1 for transformation of plant lignans to mammalian lignans.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jong-Sik; Hattori, Masao

    2009-08-26

    A human intestinal bacterium Ruminococcus (R.) sp. END-1 capable of oxidizing (-)-enterodiol to (-)-enterolactone, enantioselectively, was further investigated from the perspective of transformation of plant lignans to mammalian lignans; A cell-free extract of the bacterium transformed (-)-enterodiol to (-)-enterolactone through an intermediate, enterolactol. The bacterium showed not only oxidation but also demethylation and deglucosylation activities for plant lignans. Arctiin and secoisolariciresinol diglucoside were converted to (-)-dihydroxyenterolactone and (+)-dihydroxyenterodiol, respectively. Moreover, by coincubation with Eggerthella sp. SDG-2, the bacterium transformed arctiin and secoisolariciresinol diglucoside to (-)-enterolactone and (+)-enterodiol, respectively.

  18. [Isolation of endophytic antagonistic bacterium from Amorphophallus konjac and research on its antibacterial metabolite].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Chen, Lin; Chai, Xin-Li; Yu, Zi-Niu; Sun, Ming

    2007-12-01

    An endophytic antagonistic bacterium was isolated from Amorphophallus konjac calli. In order to identify this bacterium, 16S rDNA was amplified and partially sequenced. Sequence comparison showed that this sequence has the highest similarity to that in Bacillus subtilis, with 99.0% identities. That demonstrated this bacterium belongs to Bacillus subtili , named BSn5. The extracted extracellular protein from strain BSn5 had antibacterial activity against Erwinia carotovora subp. carotovora, which was unstable after heated, sensitive to proteinase K and resistant to trypsin. There was only a 31.6kDa protein component as by SDS-PAGE detection. Nondenaturing polyacrylaminde gel was used to purify this protein. The purified 31.6kDa protein exhibited inhibitory activity against Erwinia carotovora subp. carotovora. This protein is different from all known metabolites from Bacillus subtilis, suggesting that it may be a novel antibacterial protein.

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of a thermotolerant sporogenic lactic acid bacterium, Bacillus coagulans strain 36D1

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Mun Su; Moritz, Brélan E.; Xie, Gary; Glavina del Rio, T.; Dalin, E.; Tice, H.; Bruce, D.; Goodwin, L.; Chertkov, O.; Brettin, T.; Han, C.; Detter, C.; Pitluck, S.; Land, Miriam L.; Patel, Milind; Ou, Mark; Harbrucker, Roberta; Ingram, Lonnie O.; Shanmugam, K. T.

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus coagulans is a ubiquitous soil bacterium that grows at 50-55 °C and pH 5.0 and ferments various sugars that constitute plant biomass to L (+)-lactic acid. The ability of this sporogenic lactic acid bacterium to grow at 50-55 °C and pH 5.0 makes this organism an attractive microbial biocatalyst for production of optically pure lactic acid at industrial scale not only from glucose derived from cellulose but also from xylose, a major constituent of hemicellulose. This bacterium is also considered as a potential probiotic. Complete genome sequence of a representative strain, B. coagulans strain 36D1, is presented and discussed. PMID:22675583

  20. Anaerobic Degradation of Cyanuric Acid, Cysteine, and Atrazine by a Facultative Anaerobic Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Jessee, J. A.; Benoit, R. E.; Hendricks, A. C.; Allen, G. C.; Neal, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    A facultative anaerobic bacterium that rapidly degrades cyanuric acid (CA) was isolated from the sediment of a stream that received industrial wastewater effluent. CA decomposition was measured throughout the growth cycle by using a high-performance liquid chromatography assay, and the concomitant production of ammonia was also measured. The bacterium used CA or cysteine as a major, if not the sole, carbon and energy source under anaerobic, but not aerobic, conditions in a defined medium. The cell yield was greatly enhanced by the simultaneous presence of cysteine and CA in the medium. Cysteine was preferentially used rather than CA early in the growth cycle, but all of the CA was used without an apparent lag after the cysteine was metabolized. Atrazine was also degraded by this bacterium under anaerobic conditions in a defined medium. PMID:16346187

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of a thermotolerant sporogenic lactic acid bacterium, Bacillus coagulans strain 36D1

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Gary; Dalin, Eileen; Tice, Hope; Chertkov, Olga; Land, Miriam L

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus coagulans is a ubiquitous soil bacterium that grows at 50-55 C and pH 5.0 and fer-ments various sugars that constitute plant biomass to L (+)-lactic acid. The ability of this sporogenic lactic acid bacterium to grow at 50-55 C and pH 5.0 makes this organism an attractive microbial biocatalyst for production of optically pure lactic acid at industrial scale not only from glucose derived from cellulose but also from xylose, a major constituent of hemi-cellulose. This bacterium is also considered as a potential probiotic. Complete genome squence of a representative strain, B. coagulans strain 36D1, is presented and discussed.

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of a thermotolerant sporogenic lactic acid bacterium, Bacillus coagulans strain 36D1

    SciTech Connect

    Rhee, Mun Su; Moritz, Brelan E.; Xie, Gary; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Dalin, Eileen; Tice, Hope; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Chertkov, Olga; Brettin, Thomas S; Han, Cliff; Detter, J. Chris; Pitluck, Sam; Land, Miriam L; Patel, Milind; Ou, Mark; Harbrucker, Roberta; Ingram, Lonnie O.; Shanmugam, Keelnathan T.

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus coagulans is a ubiquitous soil bacterium that grows at 50-55 C and pH 5.0 and fer- ments various sugars that constitute plant biomass to L (+)-lactic acid. The ability of this spo- rogenic lactic acid bacterium to grow at 50-55 C and pH 5.0 makes this organism an attrac- tive microbial biocatalyst for production of optically pure lactic acid at industrial scale not only from glucose derived from cellulose but also from xylose, a major constituent of hemi- cellulose. This bacterium is also considered as a potential probiotic. Complete genome se- quence of a representative strain, B. coagulans strain 36D1, is presented and discussed.

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of a thermotolerant sporogenic lactic acid bacterium, Bacillus coagulans strain 36D1.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Mun Su; Moritz, Brélan E; Xie, Gary; Glavina Del Rio, T; Dalin, E; Tice, H; Bruce, D; Goodwin, L; Chertkov, O; Brettin, T; Han, C; Detter, C; Pitluck, S; Land, Miriam L; Patel, Milind; Ou, Mark; Harbrucker, Roberta; Ingram, Lonnie O; Shanmugam, K T

    2011-12-31

    Bacillus coagulans is a ubiquitous soil bacterium that grows at 50-55 °C and pH 5.0 and ferments various sugars that constitute plant biomass to L (+)-lactic acid. The ability of this sporogenic lactic acid bacterium to grow at 50-55 °C and pH 5.0 makes this organism an attractive microbial biocatalyst for production of optically pure lactic acid at industrial scale not only from glucose derived from cellulose but also from xylose, a major constituent of hemicellulose. This bacterium is also considered as a potential probiotic. Complete genome sequence of a representative strain, B. coagulans strain 36D1, is presented and discussed.

  4. Investigations of Iron Minerals Formed by Dissimilatory Alkaliphilic Bacterium with {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Chistyakova, N. I.; Rusakov, V. S.; Shapkin, A. A.; Zhilina, T. N.; Zavarzina, D. G.; Kohout, J.

    2010-07-13

    Anaerobic alkaliphilic bacterium of Geoalkalibacter ferrihydriticus type (strain Z-0531), isolated from a bottom sediment sample from the weakly mineralized soda Lake Khadyn, have been analyzed. The strain uses the amorphous Fe(III)-hydroxide (AFH) as an electron acceptor and acetate CH{sub 3}COO{sup -} as an electron donor. Moessbauer investigations of solid phase samples obtained during the process of the bacterium growth were carried out at room temperature, 77.8 K, 4.2 K without and with the presence of an external magnetic field (6 T) applied perpendicular to the {gamma}-bebam.

  5. Expression of the Bacillus thuringiensis mosquitocidal toxin Cry11Aa in the aquatic bacterium Asticcacaulis excentricus.

    PubMed

    Armengol, Gemma; Guevara, Oscar Enrique; Orduz, Sergio; Crickmore, Neil

    2005-12-01

    A mosquitocidal aquatic bacterium has been developed by introducing an operon containing the cry11Aa, and p20 genes from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) into the gram-negative aquatic bacterium Asticcacaulis excentricus. After transformation, the cry11Aa gene was successfully expressed in recombinant A. excentricus under the tac promoter, at the level of 0.04 pg/cell. The recombinant bacteria were toxic to Aedes aegypti larvae with an LC(50) of 6.83 x 10(5) cells/mL. We believe that these bacteria may have potential as genetically engineered microorganisms for the control of mosquito larvae.

  6. Ammonificins C and D, Hydroxyethylamine Chromene Derivatives from a Cultured Marine Hydrothermal Vent Bacterium, Thermovibrio ammonificans

    PubMed Central

    Andrianasolo, Eric H.; Haramaty, Liti; Rosario-Passapera, Richard; Vetriani, Costantino; Falkowski, Paul; White, Eileen; Lutz, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Chemical and biological investigation of the cultured marine hydrothermal vent bacterium, Thermovibrio ammonifican led to the isolation of two hydroxyethylamine chromene derivatives, ammonificins C and D. Their structures were elucidated using combination of NMR and mass spectrometry. Absolute stereochemistry was ascertained by comparison of experimental and calculated CD spectra. Biological evaluation and assessment were determined using the patented ApopScreen cell-based screen for apoptosis-induction. Ammonificins C and D induce apoptosis in micromolar concentrations. To our knowledge, this finding is the first report of chemical compounds that induce apoptosis from the cultured deep-sea marine organism, hydrothermal vent bacterium, Thermovibrio ammonificans. PMID:23170085

  7. Ammonificins C and D, hydroxyethylamine chromene derivatives from a cultured marine hydrothermal vent bacterium, Thermovibrio ammonificans.

    PubMed

    Andrianasolo, Eric H; Haramaty, Liti; Rosario-Passapera, Richard; Vetriani, Costantino; Falkowski, Paul; White, Eileen; Lutz, Richard

    2012-10-01

    Chemical and biological investigation of the cultured marine hydrothermal vent bacterium, Thermovibrio ammonifican led to the isolation of two hydroxyethylamine chromene derivatives, ammonificins C and D. Their structures were elucidated using combination of NMR and mass spectrometry. Absolute stereochemistry was ascertained by comparison of experimental and calculated CD spectra. Biological evaluation and assessment were determined using the patented ApopScreen cell-based screen for apoptosis-induction. Ammonificins C and D induce apoptosis in micromolar concentrations. To our knowledge, this finding is the first report of chemical compounds that induce apoptosis from the cultured deep-sea marine organism, hydrothermal vent bacterium, Thermovibrio ammonificans.

  8. Description of a bacterium associated with redmouth disease of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, A.J.; Rucker, R.R.; Ewing, W.H.

    1966-01-01

    A description was given of a gram-negative, peritrichously flagellated, fermentative bacterium that was isolated on numerous occasions from kidney tissues of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) afflicted with redmouth disease. Although the bacteria apparently were members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, it was impossible to determine their taxonomic position within the family with certainty. Hence it was recommended that their taxonomic position remain sub judice for the present. As a temporary designation RM bacterium was used. Redmouth disease was transmitted from infected to normal fish through the medium of water.

  9. Polaromonas vacuolata gen. nov., sp. nov., a psychrophilic, marine, gas vacuolate bacterium from Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Irgens, R L; Gosink, J J; Staley, J T

    1996-07-01

    Several strains of a novel heterotrophic gas vacuolate bacterium were isolated from antarctic marine waters. The results of phylogenetic analyses in which 16S ribosomal DAN sequencing was used, coupled with phenotypic tests, indicated that strain 34-P(T) (T = type strain) belongs to a new genus and species of the beta subgroup of the Proteobacteria, for which the name Polaromonas vacuolata is proposed. Although the other four strains studied probably belong to this new species, DNA-DNA hybridization tests were not conducted. The closest phylogenetic relatives of P. vacuolata are the photosynthetic nonsulfur purple bacterium Rhodoferax fermentans and the hydrogen autotroph Variovorax paradoxus.

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of the Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing Bacterium “Candidatus Brocadia sp. 40”

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Muhammad; Haroon, Mohamed Fauzi; Narita, Yuko; Zhang, Lei; Rangel Shaw, Dario; Okabe, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    The anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacterium “Candidatus Brocadia sp. 40” demonstrated the fastest growth rate compared to others in this taxon. Here, we report the 2.93-Mb draft genome sequence of this bacterium, which has 2,565 gene-coding regions, 41 tRNAs, and a single rrn operon. PMID:27932661

  11. Cadherin domains in the polysaccharide-degrading marine bacterium Saccharophagus degradans 2-40 are carbohydrate-binding modules.

    PubMed

    Fraiberg, Milana; Borovok, Ilya; Bayer, Edward A; Weiner, Ronald M; Lamed, Raphael

    2011-01-01

    The complex polysaccharide-degrading marine bacterium Saccharophagus degradans strain 2-40 produces putative proteins that contain numerous cadherin and cadherin-like domains involved in intercellular contact interactions. The current study reveals that both domain types exhibit reversible calcium-dependent binding to different complex polysaccharides which serve as growth substrates for the bacterium.

  12. Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis CNRZ327, a Dairy Bacterium with Anti-Inflammatory Properties

    PubMed Central

    El Kafsi, Hela; Binesse, Johan; Loux, Valentin; Buratti, Julien; Boudebbouze, Samira; Dervyn, Rozenn; Hammani, Amal; Maguin, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis CNRZ327 is a dairy bacterium with anti-inflammatory properties both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we report the genome sequence of this bacterium, which appears to contain no less than 215 insertion sequence (IS) elements, an exceptionally high number regarding the small genome size of the strain. PMID:25035318

  13. Cadherin Domains in the Polysaccharide-Degrading Marine Bacterium Saccharophagus degradans 2-40 Are Carbohydrate-Binding Modules▿

    PubMed Central

    Fraiberg, Milana; Borovok, Ilya; Bayer, Edward A.; Weiner, Ronald M.; Lamed, Raphael

    2011-01-01

    The complex polysaccharide-degrading marine bacterium Saccharophagus degradans strain 2-40 produces putative proteins that contain numerous cadherin and cadherin-like domains involved in intercellular contact interactions. The current study reveals that both domain types exhibit reversible calcium-dependent binding to different complex polysaccharides which serve as growth substrates for the bacterium. PMID:21036994

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of an Anaerobic and Extremophilic Bacterium, Caldanaerobacter yonseiensis, Isolated from a Geothermal Hot Stream

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Jae; Lee, Yong-Jik; Park, Gun-Seok; Kim, Byoung-Chan; Lee, Sang Jun; Shin, Jae-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Caldanaerobacter yonseiensis is a strictly anaerobic, thermophilic, spore-forming bacterium, which was isolated from a geothermal hot stream in Indonesia. This bacterium utilizes xylose and produces a variety of proteases. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of C. yonseiensis, which reveals insights into the pentose phosphate pathway and protein degradation metabolism in thermophilic microorganisms. PMID:24201201

  15. Genome Sequence of Sphingobium indicum B90A, a Hexachlorocyclohexane-Degrading Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Shailly; Sangwan, Naseer; Lata, Pushp; Kaur, Jasvinder; Dua, Ankita; Singh, Amit Kumar; Verma, Mansi; Kaur, Jaspreet; Khurana, Jitendra P.; Khurana, Paramjit; Mathur, Saloni

    2012-01-01

    Sphingobium indicum B90A, an efficient degrader of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, was isolated in 1990 from sugarcane rhizosphere soil in Cuttack, India. Here we report the draft genome sequence of this bacterium, which has now become a model system for understanding the genetics, biochemistry, and physiology of HCH degradation. PMID:22843598

  16. Genome Sequence of the Butyrate-Producing Anaerobic Bacterium Anaerostipes hadrus PEL 85.

    PubMed

    Kant, Ravi; Rasinkangas, Pia; Satokari, Reetta; Pietilä, Taija E; Palva, Airi

    2015-04-02

    Anaerostipes hadrus PEL 85, which was isolated from human feces, is a Gram-positive rod-shaped bacterium. The species may play an important role in gut health, as it was previously reported to produce butyric acid. Here, we present the genome assembly of PEL 85, a novel strain of A. hadrus.

  17. Response to comments on "A bacterium that can grow using arsenic instead of phosphorus"

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfe-Simon, Felisa; Blum, Jodi Switzer; Kulp, Thomas R.; Gordon, Gwyneth W.; Hoeft, Shelley E.; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Stolz, John F.; Webb, Samuel M.; Weber, Peter K.; Davies, Paul C.W.; Anbar, Ariel D.; Oremland, Ronald S.

    2011-01-01

    Concerns have been raised about our recent study suggesting that arsenic (As) substitutes for phosphorus in major biomolecules of a bacterium that tolerates extreme As concentrations. We welcome the opportunity to better explain our methods and results and to consider alternative interpretations. We maintain that our interpretation of As substitution, based on multiple congruent lines of evidence, is viable.

  18. Effect of tannic acid on the transcriptome of the soil bacterium Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tannins are plant-produced organic compounds that are found in soils, are able to sequester iron, and have antimicrobial properties. We studied the effect of tannic acid on the molecular physiology of the soil-inhabiting biocontrol bacterium Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 (formerly Pseudomonas fluoresce...

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of the Fast-Growing Bacterium Vibrio natriegens Strain DSMZ 759

    PubMed Central

    Maida, Isabel; Bosi, Emanuele; Perrin, Elena; Papaleo, Maria Cristiana; Orlandini, Valerio; Fondi, Marco; Fani, Renato; Wiegel, Juergen; Bianconi, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    Vibrio natriegens is a Gram-negative bacterium known for its extremely short doubling time. Here we present the annotated draft genome sequence of Vibrio natriegens strain DSMZ 759, with the aim of providing insights about its high growth rate. PMID:23969053

  20. Regulation by carbon source of enzyme expression and slime production in bacterium W3A1.

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, V L

    1985-01-01

    Slime production by bacterium W3A1 was greatly enhanced during growth on methanol and, to a lesser extent, during growth on trimethylamine. Of the major dehydrogenases synthesized, trimethylamine and methylamine dehydrogenases were induced to different levels by certain carbon sources, while methanol dehydrogenase was expressed during growth on all carbon sources. PMID:3902804

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of a Bacillus Bacterium from the Atacama Desert Wetlands Metagenome

    PubMed Central

    Vilo, Claudia; Galetovic, Alexandra; Araya, Jorge E.; Dong, Qunfeng

    2015-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of a Bacillus bacterium isolated from the microflora of Nostoc colonies grown at the Andean wetlands in northern Chile. We consider this genome sequence to be a molecular tool for exploring microbial relationships and adaptation strategies to the prevailing extreme conditions at the Atacama Desert. PMID:26294639

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Burkholderia cenocepacia Strain 869T2, a Plant-Beneficial Endophytic Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Ying-Ning

    2015-01-01

    An endophytic bacterium, Burkholderia cenocepacia 869T2, isolated from vetiver grass, has shown its abilities for both in planta biocontrol and plant growth promotion. Its draft genome sequence was determined to provide insights into those metabolic pathways involved in plant-beneficial activity. This is the first genome report for endophytic B. cenocepacia. PMID:26564046

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Burkholderia cenocepacia Strain 869T2, a Plant-Beneficial Endophytic Bacterium.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ying-Ning; Huang, Chieh-Chen

    2015-11-12

    An endophytic bacterium, Burkholderia cenocepacia 869T2, isolated from vetiver grass, has shown its abilities for both in planta biocontrol and plant growth promotion. Its draft genome sequence was determined to provide insights into those metabolic pathways involved in plant-beneficial activity. This is the first genome report for endophytic B. cenocepacia.

  4. Genome Sequence of the Acetogenic Bacterium Moorella mulderi DSM 14980T

    PubMed Central

    Castillo Villamizar, Genis Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Moorella mulderi DSM 14980T, a thermophilic acetogenic bacterium, which is able to grow autotrophically on H2 plus CO2 using the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. The genome consists of a circular chromosome (2.99 Mb). PMID:27231372

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of the Moderately Thermophilic Bacterium Schleiferia thermophila Strain Yellowstone (Bacteroidetes).

    PubMed

    Thiel, Vera; Hamilton, Trinity L; Tomsho, Lynn P; Burhans, Richard; Gay, Scott E; Ramaley, Robert F; Schuster, Stephan C; Steinke, Laurey; Bryant, Donald A

    2014-08-28

    The draft genome sequence of the moderately thermophilic bacterium Schleiferia thermophila strain Yellowstone (Bacteroidetes), isolated from Octopus Spring (Yellowstone National Park, WY, USA) was sequenced and comprises 2,617,694 bp in 35 contigs. The draft genome is predicted to encode 2,457 protein coding genes and 37 tRNA encoding genes and two rRNA operons.

  6. Genome Sequence of Citrobacter sp. Strain A1, a Dye-Degrading Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Giek Far; Gan, Han Ming

    2012-01-01

    Citrobacter sp. strain A1, isolated from a sewage oxidation pond, is a facultative aerobe and mesophilic dye-degrading bacterium. This organism degrades azo dyes efficiently via azo reduction and desulfonation, followed by the successive biotransformation of dye intermediates under an aerobic environment. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Citrobacter sp. A1. PMID:22965102

  7. First Insights into the Genome of the Amino Acid-Metabolizing Bacterium Clostridium litorale DSM 5388

    PubMed Central

    Poehlein, Anja; Alghaithi, Hamed S.; Chandran, Lenin; Chibani, Cynthia M.; Davydova, Elena; Dhamotharan, Karthikeyan; Ge, Wanwan; Gutierrez-Gutierrez, David A.; Jagirdar, Advait; Khonsari, Bahar; Nair, Kamal Prakash P. R.

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium litorale is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, and spore-forming bacterium, which is able to use amino acids such as glycine, sarcosine, proline, and betaine as single carbon and energy sources via Stickland reactions. The genome consists of a circular chromosome (3.41 Mb) and a circular plasmid (27 kb). PMID:25081264

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of the Deinococcus-Thermus Bacterium Meiothermus ruber Strain A

    SciTech Connect

    Thiel, Vera; Tomsho, Lynn P.; Burhans, Richard; Gay, Scott E.; Schuster, Stephan C.; Ward, David M.; Bryant, Donald A.

    2015-03-26

    The draft genome sequence of the Deinococcus-Thermus group bacterium Meiothermus ruber strain A, isolated from a cyanobacterial enrichment culture obtained from Octopus Spring (Yellowstone National Park, WY), comprises 2,968,099 bp in 170 contigs. It is predicted to contain 2,895 protein-coding genes, 44 tRNA-coding genes, and 2 rRNA operons.

  9. Genome Sequence of the Butyrate-Producing Anaerobic Bacterium Anaerostipes hadrus PEL 85

    PubMed Central

    Rasinkangas, Pia; Satokari, Reetta; Pietilä, Taija E.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerostipes hadrus PEL 85, which was isolated from human feces, is a Gram-positive rod-shaped bacterium. The species may play an important role in gut health, as it was previously reported to produce butyric acid. Here, we present the genome assembly of PEL 85, a novel strain of A. hadrus. PMID:25838483

  10. Complete genome sequence of Pandoraea thiooxydans DSM 25325(T), a thiosulfate-oxidizing bacterium.

    PubMed

    Yong, Delicia; Ee, Robson; Lim, Yan-Lue; Yu, Choo-Yee; Ang, Geik-Yong; How, Kah-Yan; Tee, Kok-Keng; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2016-01-10

    Pandoraea thiooxydans DSM 25325(T) is a thiosulfate-oxidizing bacterium isolated from rhizosphere soils of a sesame plant. Here, we present the first complete genome of P. thiooxydans DSM 25325(T). Several genes involved in thiosulfate oxidation and biodegradation of aromatic compounds were identified.

  11. Complete genome sequence of oxalate-degrading bacterium Pandoraea vervacti DSM 23571(T).

    PubMed

    Ee, Robson; Yong, Delicia; Lim, Yan Lue; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2015-06-20

    Pandoraea vervacti DSM 23571(T) is an oxalate metabolizing bacterium isolated from an uncultivated field soil in Mugla, Turkey. Here, we present the first complete genome sequence of P. vervacti DSM 23571(T). A complete pathway for degradation of oxalate was revealed from the genome analysis. These data are important to path new opportunities for genetic engineering in the field of biotechnology.

  12. Complete genome sequence of the xylan-degrading subseafloor bacterium Microcella alkaliphila JAM-AC0309.

    PubMed

    Kurata, Atsushi; Hirose, Yuu; Misawa, Naomi; Wakazuki, Sachiko; Kishimoto, Noriaki; Kobayashi, Tohru

    2016-03-10

    Here we report the complete genome sequence of Microcella alkaliphila JAM-AC0309, which was newly isolated from the deep subseafloor core sediment from offshore of the Shimokita Peninsula of Japan. An array of genes related to utilization of xylan in this bacterium was identified by whole genome analysis.

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of Flavobacteriales Bacterium Strain UJ101 Isolated from a Xanthid Crab

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jhung-Ahn; Kwon, Kae Kyoung

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Flavobacteriales bacterium strain UJ101 was isolated from a xanthid crab species collected from the East Sea of Korea. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of strain UJ101 for the study of major metabolic pathways related to microbial species from marine invertebrate species. PMID:28153900

  14. Distribution, abundance and diversity of the extremely halophilic bacterium Salinibacter ruber

    PubMed Central

    Antón, Josefa; Peña, Arantxa; Santos, Fernando; Martínez-García, Manuel; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Rosselló-Mora, Ramon

    2008-01-01

    Since its discovery in 1998, representatives of the extremely halophilic bacterium Salinibacter ruber have been found in many hypersaline environments across the world, including coastal and solar salterns and solar lakes. Here, we review the available information about the distribution, abundance and diversity of this member of the Bacteroidetes. PMID:18957079

  15. Hydrogen Production by Co-cultures of Rhizopus oryzae and a Photosynthetic Bacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides RV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asada, Yasuo; Ishimi, Katsuhiro; Nagata, Yoko; Wakayama, Tatsuki; Miyake, Jun; Kohno, Hideki

    Hydrogen production with glucose by using co-immobilized cultures of a fungus, Rhizopus oryzae NBRC5384, and a photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides RV, in agar gels was studied. The co-immobilized cultures converted glucose to hydrogen via lactate in a high molar yield of about 8moles of hydrogen per glucose at a maximum under illuminated conditions.

  16. Study on EDTA-degrading bacterium Burkholderia cepacia YL-6 for bioaugmentation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shih-Chin; Chen, Szu-Lin; Fang, Hung-Yuan

    2005-11-01

    Bioaugmentation production of EDTA-degrading bacterium Burkholderia cepacia YL-6 was carried out in an aerobic fermentor. Three different carbon sources (ferric-ethylenediaminetetraacetate (Fe-EDTA), potassium acetate, and ethylamine) were used. The bacterium cultivated with Fe-EDTA and maintained in the growth phase could reach the maximum cell concentration on the 38th day. Whereas, the bacterium cultivated with potassium acetate and ethylamine reach the maximum cell concentration at the 76th and 100th hour. The viable-cell counts of the augmentation agents made by feeding Fe-EDTA, potassium acetate, and ethylamine were 8.2x10(10), 6.8x10(11), and 4.3x10(11) CFU/g agent, respectively. The EDTA-degradation time required for the afore-mentioned bioaugmentation agents made by feeding various carbon sources lay in the following order: ethylaminebacterium B. cepacia YL-6.

  17. Genome sequence of the mycorrhizal helper bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens BBc6R8

    SciTech Connect

    Deveau, Aurelie; Grob, Harald; Morin, Emmanuelle; Karpinets, Tatiana V; Utturkar, Sagar M; Mehnaz, Samina; Kurz, Sven; Martin, Francis; Frey-Klett, Pascale; Labbe, Jessy L

    2014-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of the mycorrhiza helper bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain BBc6R8 . Several traits which could be involved in the mycorrhiza helper ability of the bacterial strain such as multiple secretion systems, auxin metabolism and phosphate mobilization were evidenced in the genome.

  18. The construction of an engineered bacterium to remove cadmium from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chang, S; Shu, H

    2014-01-01

    The removal of cadmium (Cd) from wastewater before it is released from factories is important for protecting human health. Although some researchers have developed engineered bacteria, the resistance of these engineered bacteria to Cd have not been improved. In this study, two key genes involved in glutathione synthesis (gshA and gshB), a serine acetyltransferase gene (cysE), a Thlaspi caerulescens phytochelatin synthase gene (TcPCS1), and a heavy metal ATPase gene (TcHMA3) were transformed into Escherichia coli BL21. The resistance of the engineered bacterium to Cd was significantly greater than that of the initial bacterium and the Cd accumulation in the engineered bacterium was much higher than in the initial bacterium. In addition, the Cd resistance of the bacteria harboring gshB, gshA, cysE, and TcPCS1 was higher than that of the bacteria harboring gshA, cysE, and TcPCS1. This finding demonstrated that gshB played an important role in glutathione synthesis and that the reaction catalyzed by glutathione synthase was the limiting step for producing phytochelatins. Furthermore, TcPCS1 had a greater specificity and a higher capacity for removing Cd than SpPCS1, and TcHMA3 not only played a role in T. caerulescens but also functioned in E. coli.

  19. Complete genome sequence of the cellulose-degrading bacterium Cellulosilyticum lentocellum.

    PubMed

    Miller, David A; Suen, Garret; Bruce, David; Copeland, Alex; Cheng, Jan-Feng; Detter, Chris; Goodwin, Lynne A; Han, Cliff S; Hauser, Loren J; Land, Miriam L; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Meincke, Linda; Pitluck, Sam; Tapia, Roxanne; Teshima, Hazuki; Woyke, Tanja; Fox, Brian G; Angert, Esther R; Currie, Cameron R

    2011-05-01

    Cellulosilyticum lentocellum DSM 5427 is an anaerobic, endospore-forming member of the Firmicutes. We describe the complete genome sequence of this cellulose-degrading bacterium, which was originally isolated from estuarine sediment of a river that received both domestic and paper mill waste. Comparative genomics of cellulolytic clostridia will provide insight into factors that influence degradation rates.

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of "Candidatus Phytoplasma pruni" Strain CX, a Plant-Pathogenic Bacterium.

    PubMed

    Lee, I-M; Shao, J; Bottner-Parker, K D; Gundersen-Rindal, D E; Zhao, Y; Davis, R E

    2015-10-15

    "Candidatus Phytoplasma pruni" strain CX, belonging to subgroup 16SrIII-A, is a plant-pathogenic bacterium causing economically important diseases in many fruit crops. Here, we report the draft genome sequence, which consists of 598,508 bases, with a G+C content of 27.21 mol%. Copyright © 2015 Lee et al.

  1. Robinsoniella peoriensis: A model anaerobic commensal bacterium for acquisition of antibiotic resistance?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: R. peoriensis was characterized in our laboratories from swine manure and feces as a Gram-positive, anaerobic bacterium. Since then strains of this species have been identified from a variety of mammalian and other gastrointestinal (GI) tracts, suggesting it is a member of the commensal ...

  2. Complete genome sequence of the haloalkaliphilic, hydrogen-producing bacterium Halanaerobium hydrogeniformans.

    PubMed

    Brown, Steven D; Begemann, Matthew B; Mormile, Melanie R; Wall, Judy D; Han, Cliff S; Goodwin, Lynne A; Pitluck, Samuel; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren J; Elias, Dwayne A

    2011-07-01

    Halanaerobium hydrogenoformans is an alkaliphilic bacterium capable of biohydrogen production at pH 11 and 7% (wt/vol) salt. We present the 2.6-Mb genome sequence to provide insights into its physiology and potential for bioenergy applications.

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of the Pyrene-Degrading Bacterium Cycloclasticus sp. Strain P1

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Qiliang; Li, Weiwei; Wang, Baojiang; Yu, Zhiwei

    2012-01-01

    Cycloclasticus sp. strain P1 was isolated from deep-sea sediments of the Pacific Ocean and characterized as a unique bacterium in the degradation of pyrene, a four-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Here we report the complete genome of P1 and genes associated with PAH degradation. PMID:23144416

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Desulfuromonas acetexigens Strain 2873, a Novel Anode-Respiring Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Albertsen, Mads

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Desulfuromonas acetexigens strain 2873, which was originally isolated from digester sludge from a sewage treatment plant in Germany. This bacterium is capable of anode respiration with high electrochemical activity in microbial electrochemical systems. The draft genome contains 3,376 predicted protein-coding genes and putative multiheme c-type cytochromes. PMID:28254969

  5. Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas citronellolis SJTE-3, an Estrogen- and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Daning; Wang, Xiuli; Wang, Pingping; Peng, Wanli; Ji, Nannan

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas citronellolis SJTE-3, isolated from the active sludge of a wastewater treatment plant in China, can utilize a series of environmental estrogens and estrogen-like toxicants. Here, we report its whole-genome sequence, containing one circular chromosome and one circular plasmid. Genes involved in estrogen biodegradation in this bacterium were predicted. PMID:27932659

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of the Thermophilic Bacterium Geobacillus thermoleovorans CCB_US3_UF5

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Rahman, Ahmad Yamin; Saito, Jennifer A.; Hou, Shaobin

    2012-01-01

    Geobacillus thermoleovorans CCB_US3_UF5 is a thermophilic bacterium isolated from a hot spring in Malaysia. Here, we report the complete genome of G. thermoleovorans CCB_US3_UF5, which shows high similarity to the genome of Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA 426 in terms of synteny and orthologous genes. PMID:22328744

  7. Genome Sequence of a Strain of the Human Pathogenic Bacterium Pseudomonas alcaligenes That Caused Bloodstream Infection.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Masato; Suzuki, Satowa; Matsui, Mari; Hiraki, Yoichi; Kawano, Fumio; Shibayama, Keigo

    2013-10-31

    Pseudomonas alcaligenes, a Gram-negative aerobic bacterium, is a rare opportunistic human pathogen. Here, we report the whole-genome sequence of P. alcaligenes strain MRY13-0052, which was isolated from a bloodstream infection in a medical institution in Japan and is resistant to antimicrobial agents, including broad-spectrum cephalosporins and monobactams.

  8. Genome Sequence of the Acetogenic Bacterium Acetobacterium wieringae DSM 1911T

    PubMed Central

    Schiel-Bengelsdorf, Bettina; Daniel, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Acetobacterium wieringae DSM 1911T, an anaerobic, autotrophic, acetogenic, d,l-lactate-utilizing bacterium. The genome consists of a chromosome (3.88 Mb) and 3,620 predicted protein-encoding genes. PMID:28007862

  9. Draft genome sequence of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma pruni’ strain CX, a plant pathogenic bacterium

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma pruni’ strain CX, belonging to subgroup 16SrIII-A, is a plant pathogenic bacterium causing economically important diseases in many fruit crops. Here we report the draft genome sequence that consists of 598,508 bases, with a G+C content of 27.21 mol%. ...

  10. Comment on "A bacterium that degrades and assimilates poly(ethylene terephthalate)".

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu; Yang, Jun; Jiang, Lei

    2016-08-19

    Yoshida et al (Report, 11 March 2016, p. 1196) reported that the bacterium Ideonella sakaiensis 201-F6 can degrade and assimilate poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). However, the authors exaggerated degradation efficiency using a low-crystallinity PET and presented no straightforward experiments to verify depolymerization and assimilation of PET. Thus, the authors' conclusions are rather misleading.

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Sphingobium yanoikuyae TJ, a Halotolerant Di-n-Butyl-Phthalate-Degrading Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Decai; Zhu, Ying; Wang, Xinxin; Kong, Xiao; Liu, Huijun; Wang, Yafeng

    2016-01-01

    Sphingobium yanoikuyae TJ is a halotolerant di-n-butyl-phthalate-degrading bacterium, isolated from the Haihe estuary in Bohai Bay, Tianjin, China. Here, we report the 5.1-Mb draft genome sequence of this strain, which will provide insights into the diversity of Sphingobium spp. and the mechanism of phthalate ester degradation in the estuary. PMID:27313307

  12. Genome Sequence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens Strain F2, a Bioflocculant-Producing Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ang; Geng, Jianing; Cui, Di; Shu, Chang; Zhang, Si; Yang, Jixian; Xing, Jie; Wang, Jinna; Ma, Fang; Hu, Songnian

    2011-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens F2 is an efficient bioflocculant-producing bacterium. But the genes related to the metabolic pathway of bioflocculant biosynthesis in strain F2 are unknown. We present the draft genome of A. tumefaciens F2. It could provide further insight into the biosynthetic mechanism of polysaccharide-like bioflocculant in strain F2. PMID:21914861

  13. Genome sequence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain F2, a bioflocculant-producing bacterium.

    PubMed

    Li, Ang; Geng, Jianing; Cui, Di; Shu, Chang; Zhang, Si; Yang, Jixian; Xing, Jie; Wang, Jinna; Ma, Fang; Hu, Songnian

    2011-10-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens F2 is an efficient bioflocculant-producing bacterium. But the genes related to the metabolic pathway of bioflocculant biosynthesis in strain F2 are unknown. We present the draft genome of A. tumefaciens F2. It could provide further insight into the biosynthetic mechanism of polysaccharide-like bioflocculant in strain F2.

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of the Efficient Bioflocculant-Producing Bacterium Paenibacillus sp. Strain A9

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jin-liang; Hu, Xiao-min

    2013-01-01

    Paenibacillus sp. strain A9 is an important bioflocculant-producing bacterium, isolated from a soil sample, and is pale pink-pigmented, aerobic, and Gram-positive. Here, we report the draft genome sequence and the initial findings from a preliminary analysis of strain A9, which is a novel species of Paenibacillus. PMID:23618713

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of the Efficient Bioflocculant-Producing Bacterium Paenibacillus sp. Strain A9.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bin-Hui; Liu, Jin-Liang; Hu, Xiao-Min

    2013-04-25

    Paenibacillus sp. strain A9 is an important bioflocculant-producing bacterium, isolated from a soil sample, and is pale pink-pigmented, aerobic, and Gram-positive. Here, we report the draft genome sequence and the initial findings from a preliminary analysis of strain A9, which is a novel species of Paenibacillus.

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of Enterobacter cloacae B2-DHA, a Chromium-Resistant Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Aminur; Nahar, Noor; Olsson, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we reported a chromium-resistant bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae B2-DHA, isolated from the landfills of tannery industries in Bangladesh. Here, we investigated its genetic composition using massively parallel sequencing and comparative analysis with other known Enterobacter genomes. Assembly of the sequencing reads revealed a genome of ~4.21 Mb in size. PMID:27257201

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of Enterobacter cloacae B2-DHA, a Chromium-Resistant Bacterium.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Aminur; Nahar, Noor; Olsson, Björn; Mandal, Abul

    2016-06-02

    Previously, we reported a chromium-resistant bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae B2-DHA, isolated from the landfills of tannery industries in Bangladesh. Here, we investigated its genetic composition using massively parallel sequencing and comparative analysis with other known Enterobacter genomes. Assembly of the sequencing reads revealed a genome of ~4.21 Mb in size.

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Alcaligenes faecalis Strain IITR89, an Indole-Oxidizing Bacterium.

    PubMed

    Regar, Raj Kumar; Gaur, Vivek Kumar; Mishra, Gayatri; Jadhao, Sudhir; Kamthan, Mohan; Manickam, Natesan

    2016-03-03

    We report the draft genome sequence of Alcaligenes faecalis strain IITR89, a bacterium able to form indigo by utilizing indole as the sole carbon source. The Alcaligenes species is increasingly reported for biodegradation of diverse toxicants and thus complete sequencing may provide insight into biodegradation capabilities and other phenotypes.

  19. Genome sequence of the highly efficient arsenite-oxidizing bacterium Achromobacter arsenitoxydans SY8.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangyang; Hu, Yao; Gong, Jing; Lin, Yanbing; Johnstone, Laurel; Rensing, Christopher; Wang, Gejiao

    2012-03-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Achromobacter arsenitoxydans SY8, the first reported arsenite-oxidizing bacterium belonging to the genus Achromobacter and containing a genomic arsenic island, an intact type III secretion system, and multiple metal(loid) transporters. The genome may be helpful to explore the mechanisms intertwining metal(loid) resistance and pathogenicity.

  20. Genome Sequence of the Highly Efficient Arsenite-Oxidizing Bacterium Achromobacter arsenitoxydans SY8

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiangyang; Hu, Yao; Gong, Jing; Lin, Yanbing; Johnstone, Laurel; Rensing, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Achromobacter arsenitoxydans SY8, the first reported arsenite-oxidizing bacterium belonging to the genus Achromobacter and containing a genomic arsenic island, an intact type III secretion system, and multiple metal(loid) transporters. The genome may be helpful to explore the mechanisms intertwining metal(loid) resistance and pathogenicity. PMID:22328747

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. laumondii HP88, an Entomopathogenic Bacterium Isolated from Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Ghazal, Shimaa; Oshone, Rediet; Simpson, Stephen; Morris, Krystalynne; Abebe-Akele, Feseha; Thomas, W. Kelley; Khalil, Kamal M.

    2016-01-01

    Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. laumondii HP88 is an entomopathogenic bacterium that forms a symbiotic association with Heterorhabditis nematodes. We report here a 5.27-Mbp draft genome sequence for P. luminescens subsp. laumondii HP88, with a G+C content of 42.4% and containing 4,243 candidate protein-coding genes. PMID:26988056

  2. Complete genome sequence of a novel chlorpyrifos degrading bacterium, Cupriavidus nantongensis X1.

    PubMed

    Fang, Lian-Cheng; Chen, Yi-Fei; Zhou, Yan-Long; Wang, Dao-Sheng; Sun, Le-Ni; Tang, Xin-Yun; Hua, Ri-Mao

    2016-06-10

    Cupriavidus nantongensis X1 is a chlorpyrifos degrading bacterium, which was isolated from sludge collected at the drain outlet of a chlorpyrifos manufacture plant. It is the first time to report the complete genome sequence of C. nantongensis species, which has been reported as a novel species of Cupriavidus genus. It could provide further pathway information in chlorpyrifos degradation.

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of the Deinococcus-Thermus Bacterium Meiothermus ruber Strain A

    DOE PAGES

    Thiel, Vera; Tomsho, Lynn P.; Burhans, Richard; ...

    2015-03-26

    The draft genome sequence of the Deinococcus-Thermus group bacterium Meiothermus ruber strain A, isolated from a cyanobacterial enrichment culture obtained from Octopus Spring (Yellowstone National Park, WY), comprises 2,968,099 bp in 170 contigs. It is predicted to contain 2,895 protein-coding genes, 44 tRNA-coding genes, and 2 rRNA operons.

  4. Complete genome sequence of the cellulase-producing bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis PF008.

    PubMed

    Bae, Chungyun; Oh, Eom-Ji; Lee, Han-Beoyl; Kim, Byung-Yong; Oh, Chang-Sik

    2015-11-20

    The Gram-positive Actinobacterium Clavibacter michiganensis strain PF008 produces a cellulase of biotechnological interest, which is used for degradation of cellulose, a major component of plant cell walls. Here we report the complete genome sequence of this bacterium for better understanding of cellulase production and its virulence mechanism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Fluoroacetate biosynthesis from the marine-derived bacterium Streptomyces xinghaiensis NRRL B-24674.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sheng; Ma, Long; Tong, Ming Him; Yu, Yi; O'Hagan, David; Deng, Hai

    2014-07-21

    Genome sequencing identified a fluorinase gene in the marine bacterium Streptomyces xinghaiensis NRRL B-24674. Fermentation of the organism with inorganic fluoride (2 mM) demonstrated that the organism could biosynthesise fluoroacetate and that fluoroacetate production is sea-salt dependent. This is the first fluorometabolite producing microorganism identified from the marine environment.

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Geobacter pelophilus Strain Dfr2, a Ferric Iron-Reducing Bacterium.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, Tomo; Koike, Hideaki; Morita, Tomotake; Sato, Yuya; Habe, Hiroshi; Hori, Tomoyuki

    2017-06-15

    Here, we report a draft genome sequence of Geobacter pelophilus strain Dfr2, a ferric iron-reducing bacterium. This genome information will further our understanding of the mechanisms underlying electron transfer from microorganisms to ferric iron oxides. Copyright © 2017 Aoyagi et al.

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of a Benzo[a]pyrene-Degrading Bacterium, Olleya sp. Strain ITB9

    PubMed Central

    Okai, Masahiko; Watanabe, Akihiro; Ishida, Masami

    2015-01-01

    Olleya sp. ITB9 is a benzo[a]pyrene-degrading bacterium, isolated from surface water near a waste treatment plant at Tokyo Bay, Japan. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of this strain, which consists of 58 contigs corresponding to 3.4 Mb and a G+C content of 31.2%. PMID:26564047

  8. Genome Sequence of a Plant-Associated Bacterium, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain UCMB5036

    PubMed Central

    Manzoor, Shahid; Bejai, Sarosh; Meijer, Johan; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik

    2013-01-01

    We announce here the genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain UCMB5036, a plant growth-promoting bacterium isolated from a cotton plant. Its genome contains gene clusters involved in nonribosomal synthesis of secondary metabolites known for their antimicrobial activities. The availability of this genome will provide novel insights into plant-bacterium–associated activities. PMID:23516223

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa FA-HZ1, an Efficient Dibenzofuran-Degrading Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Fawad; Hu, Haiyang; Xu, Ping

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pseudomonas sp. FA-HZ1, an efficient dibenzofuran-degrading bacterium, was isolated from landfill leachate. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of strain FA-HZ1, which contains only one circular chromosome. The complete genome sequence will be essential for revealing the molecular mechanisms of dibenzofuran degradation. PMID:28209830

  10. Complete genome sequence of the bioleaching bacterium Leptospirillum sp. group II strain CF-1.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Alonso; Bunk, Boyke; Spröer, Cathrin; Biedendieck, Rebekka; Valdés, Natalia; Jahn, Martina; Jahn, Dieter; Orellana, Omar; Levicán, Gloria

    2016-03-20

    We describe the complete genome sequence of Leptospirillum sp. group II strain CF-1, an acidophilic bioleaching bacterium isolated from an acid mine drainage (AMD). This work provides data to gain insights about adaptive response of Leptospirillum spp. to the extreme conditions of bioleaching environments.

  11. Genome Sequence of the Homoacetogenic, Gram-Negative, Endospore-Forming Bacterium Sporomusa acidovorans DSM 3132

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, Jonathan R.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sporomusa acidovorans DSM 3132 is a strictly anaerobic, spore-forming and acetogenic bacterium, which was isolated from effluent of an alcohol distillation fermenter. The genome harbors genes involved in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway for carbon fixation and several genes for glycerol metabolism. The genome (6.06 Mb) contains 4,506 predicted protein-encoding genes. PMID:28935740

  12. Isolation of Laribacter hongkongensis, a novel bacterium associated with gastroenteritis, from Chinese tiger frog.

    PubMed

    Lau, Susanna K P; Lee, Leo C K; Fan, Rachel Y Y; Teng, Jade L L; Tse, Cindy W S; Woo, Patrick C Y; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2009-01-31

    Laribacter hongkongensis is a recently discovered novel bacterium associated with community-acquired gastroenteritis. Although the bacterium has been isolated from freshwater fish and natural freshwater environments, it is not known if other freshwater animals could also be a source of L. hongkongensis. In a surveillance study on freshwater food animals (other than fish) in Hong Kong, L. hongkongensis was isolated from eight of 10 Chinese tiger frogs (Hoplobatrachus chinensis), a widespread frog species commonly consumed in China and southeast Asia. The large intestine was the site with the highest recovery rate, followed by the small intestine and stomach. None of the 30 Malaysian prawns, 20 pieces of sand shrimp, 20 Chinese mystery snails or 10 Chinese soft-shelled turtles was found to harbor the bacterium. Among the eight positive frogs, a total of 26 isolates of L. hongkongensis, confirmed by phenotypic tests and PCR, were obtained. As with human, freshwater fish and natural water isolates, a heterogeneous population of L. hongkongensis in frogs was identified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, with 6 different patterns among the 26 isolates and a single frog often carrying different strains. The present report represents the first to describe the isolation of L. hongkongensis from amphibians. The high isolation rate and genetic heterogeneity of L. hongkongensis among the Chinese tiger frogs suggested that these animals are also natural reservoir for the bacterium. Caution should be exercised in handling and cooking these frogs.

  13. Draft Genome Sequence and Gene Annotation of the Uropathogenic Bacterium Proteus mirabilis Pr2921

    PubMed Central

    Giorello, F. M.; Romero, V.; Farias, J.; Scavone, P.; Umpiérrez, A.; Zunino, P.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the genome sequence of Proteus mirabilis Pr2921, a uropathogenic bacterium that can cause severe complicated urinary tract infections. After gene annotation, we identified two additional copies of ucaA, one of the most studied fimbrial protein genes, and other fimbriae related-proteins that are not present in P. mirabilis HI4320. PMID:27340058

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of Sphingomonas sp. Strain NIC1, an Efficient Nicotine-Degrading Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiongyu; Wang, Weiwei; Xu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Sphingomonas sp. strain NIC1, an efficient nicotine-degrading bacterium, was isolated from tobacco leaves. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of strain NIC1, which contains one circular chromosome and two circular plasmids. The genomic information will provide insights into its molecular mechanism for nicotine degradation. PMID:27417841

  15. Genome Sequence of Bacillus mycoides B38V, a Growth-Promoting Bacterium of Sunflower

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosini, Adriana; Sant’Anna, Fernando Hayashi; de Souza, Rocheli; Tadra-Sfeir, Michele; Faoro, Helisson; Alvarenga, Samuel M.; Pedrosa, Fabio Oliveira; Souza, Emanuel Maltempi

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus mycoides B38V is a bacterium isolated from the sunflower rhizosphere that is able to promote plant growth and N uptake. The genome of the isolate has approximately 5.80 Mb and presents sequence codifiers for plant growth-promoting characteristics, such as nitrate reduction and ammonification and iron-siderophore uptake. PMID:25838494

  16. Genome Sequence of Marichromatium gracile YL-28, a Purple Sulfur Bacterium with Bioremediation Potential.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaobo; Zhao, Chungui; Hong, Xuan; Chen, Shicheng; Yang, Suping

    2016-05-05

    The draft genome sequence of Marichromatium gracile YL-28 contains 3,840,251 bp, with a G+C content of 68.84%. The annotated genome sequence provides the genetic basis for revealing its role as a purple sulfur bacterium in the harvesting of energy and the development of bioremediation applications.

  17. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens: a mosquitocidal bacterium from mangrove forests of Andaman & Nicobar islands, India.

    PubMed

    Geetha, I; Manonmani, A M; Prabakaran, G

    2011-12-01

    Samples collected from the mangrove forests of Andaman & Nicobar islands yielded a mosquitocidal bacterium, whose extracellular metabolite(s) exhibited mosquito larvicidal and pupicidal activity. The bacterium was isolated using standard microbiological methods and identified using classical biochemical tests and rpoB gene sequences. The mosquitocidal bacterium was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Mosquitocidal metabolite(s) was separated from the culture supernatant of the bacterium and its efficacy against the larval and pupal stages of different species of mosquitoes was determined in terms of LC(50) and LC(90). Mosquito larvicidal activity in terms of LC(50) against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti was respectively, 26.4μg, 22.2μg and 20.5μg/ml and its pupicidal activity was 4.4μg, 8.2μg and 14.5μg/ml respectively. The mosquitocidal metabolite(s) was found to be a biosurfactant. This is the first report of the mosquitocidal activity of B. amyloliquefaciens and it is a new weapon which can be added to the array of microbial agents for use against mosquitoes.

  18. Genome Sequence of the Solvent-Producing Bacterium Clostridium carboxidivorans Strain P7T▿

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Debarati; Austin, Frank W.; Arick, Tony; Bridges, Susan M.; Burgess, Shane C.; Dandass, Yoginder S.; Lawrence, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    Clostridium carboxidivorans strain P7T is a strictly anaerobic acetogenic bacterium that produces acetate, ethanol, butanol, and butyrate. The C. carboxidivorans genome contains all the genes for the carbonyl branch of the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway for CO2 fixation, and it encodes enzymes for conversion of acetyl coenzyme A into butanol and butyrate. PMID:20729368

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of a Thermophilic Desulfurization Bacterium, Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius Strain W-2

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lin; Li, Mingchang; Guo, Shuyi

    2016-01-01

    Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius strain W-2 is a thermophilic bacterium isolated from a deep-subsurface oil reservoir in northern China, which is capable of degrading organosulfur compounds. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of G. thermoglucosidasius strain W-2, which may help to elucidate the genetic basis of biodegradation of organosulfur pollutants under heated conditions. PMID:27491977

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of the Human-Pathogenic Bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus E0666.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yuan; Liu, Xiao-Fei; Zhang, He-Lin; Chen, Ying-Jian; Hu, Cheng-Jin

    2013-08-29

    Vibrio alginolyticus is a Gram-negative halophilic bacterium with worldwide distribution. In this work, we report the draft genome sequence of a V. alginolyticus strain (E0666) isolated from Epinephelus coioides ascites in the Shantou city of Guangdong Province, China.

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Potato ‘Zebra Chip’ Associated Bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new species of Candidatus Liberibacter, ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’ (Lso) was recently confirmed to be associated with potato zebra chip (ZC) disease. The bacterium belongs to gram negative, phloem-limited, a-Proteobacteria. Because Koch’s postulates have not been fulfilled, information regarding the et...

  2. Physiological characterization of an anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacterium belonging to the "Candidatus scalindua" group.

    PubMed

    Awata, Takanori; Oshiki, Mamoru; Kindaichi, Tomonori; Ozaki, Noriatsu; Ohashi, Akiyoshi; Okabe, Satoshi

    2013-07-01

    The phylogenetic affiliation and physiological characteristics (e.g., Ks and maximum specific growth rate [μmax]) of an anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacterium, "Candidatus Scalindua sp.," enriched from the marine sediment of Hiroshima Bay, Japan, were investigated. "Candidatus Scalindua sp." exhibits higher affinity for nitrite and a lower growth rate and yield than the known anammox species.

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of the Cellulose-Degrading Bacterium Cellulosilyticum lentocellum

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David A; Suen, Garret; Bruce, David; Copeland, A; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Detter, J. Chris; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Han, Cliff; Hauser, Loren John; Land, Miriam L; Lapidus, Alla L.; Lucas, Susan; Meincke, Linda; Pitluck, Sam; Tapia, Roxanne; Teshima, Hazuki; Woyke, Tanja; Fox, Brian G.; Angert, Esther R.; Currie, Cameron

    2011-01-01

    Cellulosilyticum lentocellum DSM 5427 is an anaerobic, endospore-forming member of the Firmicutes. We describe the complete genome sequence of this cellulose-degrading bacterium; originally isolated from estuarine sediment of a river that received both domestic and paper mill waste. Comparative genomics of cellulolytic clostridia will provide insight into factors that influence degradation rates.

  4. Colwellia agarivorans sp. nov., an agar-digesting marine bacterium isolated from coastal seawater

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A novel Gram-stain-negative, facultatively anaerobic, yellowish and agar-digesting marine bacterium, designated strain QM50**T, was isolated from coastal seawater in an aquaculture site near Qingdao, China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequences revealed that the novel isolate represented...

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Pontibacter sp. nov. BAB1700, a Halotolerant, Industrially Important Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, M. N.; Sharma, A. C.; Pandya, R. V.; Patel, R. P.; Saiyed, Z. M.; Saxena, A. K.

    2012-01-01

    Pontibacter sp. nov. BAB1700 is a halotolerant, Gram-negative, rod-shaped, pink-pigmented, menaquinone-7-producing bacterium isolated from sediments of a drilling well. The draft genome sequence of the strain, consisting of one chromosome of 4.5 Mb, revealed vital gene clusters involved in vitamin biosynthesis and resistance against various metals and antibiotics. PMID:23105068

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa NA04 Bacterium Isolated from an Entomopathogenic Nematode.

    PubMed

    Salgado-Morales, Rosalba; Rivera-Gómez, Nancy; Lozano-Aguirre Beltrán, Luis Fernando; Hernández-Mendoza, Armando; Dantán-González, Edgar

    2017-09-07

    We report the draft genome sequence of Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa NA04, isolated from the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis indica MOR03. The draft genome consists of 54 contigs, a length of 6.37 Mb, and a G+C content 66.49%. Copyright © 2017 Salgado-Morales et al.

  7. Genome Sequence of Formosa haliotis Strain MA1, a Brown Alga-Degrading Bacterium Isolated from the Gut of Abalone Haliotis gigantea

    PubMed Central

    Mizutani, Yukino; Shibata, Toshiyuki; Miyake, Hideo; Iehata, Shunpei; Mori, Tetsushi; Kuroda, Kouichi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Formosa haliotis is a brown alga-degrading bacterium isolated from the gut of abalone Haliotis gigantea. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this bacterium and pointed out possible important features related to alginate degradation. PMID:27856598

  8. Isolation, identification, and biocontrol of antagonistic bacterium against Botrytis cinerea after tomato harvest.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jun-Feng; Sun, Chang-Qing

    2017-06-03

    Tomato is one of the most important vegetables in the world. Decay after harvest is a major issue in the development of tomato industry. Currently, the most effective method for controlling decay after harvest is storage of tomato at low temperature combined with usage of chemical bactericide; however, long-term usage of chemical bactericide not only causes pathogen resistance but also is harmful for human health and environment. Biocontrol method for the management of disease after tomato harvest has great practical significance. In this study, antagonistic bacterium B-6-1 strain was isolated from the surface of tomato and identified as Enterobacter cowanii based on morphological characteristics and physiological and biochemical features combined with sequence analysis of 16SrDNA and ropB gene and construction of dendrogram. Effects of different concentrations of antagonistic bacterium E. cowanii suspension on antifungal activity after tomato harvest were analyzed by mycelium growth rate method. Results revealed that antifungal activity was also enhanced with increasing concentrations of antagonistic bacterium; inhibitory rates of 1×10(5) colony-forming units (cfu)/mL antagonistic bacterial solution on Fusarium verticillioides, Alternaria tenuissima, and Botrytis cinerea were 46.31%, 67.48%, and 75.67%, respectively. By using in vivo inoculation method, it was further confirmed that antagonistic bacterium could effectively inhibit the occurrence of B. cinerae after tomato harvest, biocontrol effect of 1×10(9)cfu/mL zymotic fluid reached up to 95.24%, and antagonistic bacterium E. cowanii has biocontrol potential against B. cinerea after harvest of fruits and vegetables. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Bioconservation of deteriorated monumental calcarenite stone and identification of bacteria with carbonatogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Jroundi, Fadwa; Fernández-Vivas, Antonia; Rodriguez-Navarro, Carlos; Bedmar, Eulogio J; González-Muñoz, María Teresa

    2010-07-01

    The deterioration of the stone built and sculptural heritage has prompted the search and development of novel consolidation/protection treatments that can overcome the limitations of traditional ones. Attention has been drawn to bioconservation, particularly bacterial carbonatogenesis (i.e. bacterially induced calcium carbonate precipitation), as a new environmentally friendly effective conservation strategy, especially suitable for carbonate stones. Here, we study the effects of an in situ bacterial bioconsolidation treatment applied on porous limestone (calcarenite) in the sixteenth century San Jeronimo Monastery in Granada, Spain. The treatment consisted in the application of a nutritional solution (with and without Myxococcus xanthus inoculation) on decayed calcarenite stone blocks. The treatment promoted the development of heterotrophic bacteria able to induce carbonatogenesis. Both the consolidation effect of the treatment and the response of the culturable bacterial community present in the decayed stone were evaluated. A significant surface strengthening (consolidation) of the stone, without altering its surface appearance or inducing any detrimental side effect, was achieved upon application of the nutritional solution. The treatment efficacy was independent of the presence of M. xanthus (which is known as an effective carbonatogenic bacterium). The genetic diversity of 116 bacterial strains isolated from the stone, of which 113 strains showed carbonatogenic activity, was analysed by repetitive extragenic palindromic-polymerase chain reaction (REP-PCR) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The strains were distributed into 31 groups on the basis of their REP-PCR patterns, and a representative strain of each group was subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Analysis of these sequences showed that isolates belong to a wide variety of phylogenetic groups being closely related to species of 15 genera within the Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and the Actinobacteria. This

  10. Wet-surface–enhanced ellipsometric contrast microscopy identifies slime as a major adhesion factor during bacterial surface motility

    PubMed Central

    Ducret, Adrien; Valignat, Marie-Pierre; Mouhamar, Fabrice; Mignot, Tâm; Theodoly, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    In biology, the extracellular matrix (ECM) promotes both cell adhesion and specific recognition, which is essential for central developmental processes in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. However, live studies of the dynamic interactions between cells and the ECM, for example during motility, have been greatly impaired by imaging limitations: mostly the ability to observe the ECM at high resolution in absence of specific staining by live microscopy. To solve this problem, we developed a unique technique, wet-surface enhanced ellipsometry contrast (Wet-SEEC), which magnifies the contrast of transparent organic materials deposited on a substrate (called Wet-surf) with exquisite sensitivity. We show that Wet-SEEC allows both the observation of unprocessed nanofilms as low as 0.2 nm thick and their accurate 3D topographic reconstructions, directly by standard light microscopy. We next used Wet-SEEC to image slime secretion, a poorly defined property of many prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms that move across solid surfaces in absence of obvious extracellular appendages (gliding). Using combined Wet-SEEC and fluorescent-staining experiments, we observed slime deposition by gliding Myxococcus xanthus cells at unprecedented resolution. Altogether, the results revealed that in this bacterium, slime associates preferentially with the outermost components of the motility machinery and promotes its adhesion to the substrate on the ventral side of the cell. Strikingly, analogous roles have been proposed for the extracellular proteoglycans of gliding diatoms and apicomplexa, suggesting that slime deposition is a general means for gliding organisms to adhere and move over surfaces. PMID:22665761

  11. An intersubunit disulfide bridge stabilizes the tetrameric nucleoside diphosphate kinase of Aquifex aeolicus.

    PubMed

    Boissier, Fanny; Georgescauld, Florian; Moynié, Lucile; Dupuy, Jean-William; Sarger, Claude; Podar, Mircea; Lascu, Ioan; Giraud, Marie-France; Dautant, Alain

    2012-06-01

    The nucleoside diphosphate kinase (Ndk) catalyzes the reversible transfer of the γ-phosphate from nucleoside triphosphate to nucleoside diphosphate. Ndks form hexamers or two types of tetramers made of the same building block, namely, the common dimer. The secondary interfaces of the Type I tetramer found in Myxococcus xanthus Ndk and of the Type II found in Escherichia coli Ndk involve the opposite sides of subunits. Up to now, the few available structures of Ndk from thermophiles were hexameric. Here, we determined the X-ray structures of four crystal forms of the Ndk from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus (Aa-Ndk). Aa-Ndk displays numerous features of thermostable proteins and is made of the common dimer but it is a tetramer of Type I. Indeed, the insertion of three residues in a surface-exposed spiral loop, named the Kpn-loop, leads to the formation of a two-turn α-helix that prevents both hexamer and Type II tetramer assembly. Moreover, the side chain of the cysteine at position 133, which is not present in other Ndk sequences, adopts two alternate conformations. Through the secondary interface, each one forms a disulfide bridge with the equivalent Cys133 from the neighboring subunit. This disulfide bridge was progressively broken during X-ray data collection by radiation damage. Such crosslinks counterbalance the weakness of the common-dimer interface. A 40% decrease of the kinase activity at 60°C after reduction and alkylation of the protein corroborates the structural relevance of the disulfide bridge on the tetramer assembly and enzymatic function.

  12. Strict specificity for high-mannose type N-glycans and primary structure of a red alga Eucheuma serra lectin.

    PubMed

    Hori, Kanji; Sato, Yuichiro; Ito, Kaori; Fujiwara, Yoshifumi; Iwamoto, Yasumasa; Makino, Hiroyuki; Kawakubo, Akihiro

    2007-05-01

    We have elucidated the carbohydrate-binding profile of a non-monosaccharide-binding lectin named Eucheuma serra lectin (ESA)-2 from the red alga Eucheuma serra using a lectin-immobilized column and a centrifugal ultrafiltration-high performance liquid chromatography method with a variety of fluorescence-labeled oligosaccharides. In both methods, ESA-2 exclusively bound with high-mannose type (HM) N-glycans, but not with any of other N-glycans including complex type, hybrid type and core pentasaccharides, and oligosaccharides from glycolipids. These findings indicate that ESA-2 recognizes the branched oligomannosides of the N-glycans. However, ESA-2 did not bind with any of the free oligomannoses examined that are constituents of the branched oligomannosides implying that the portion of the core N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) residue(s) of the N-glycans is also essential for binding. Thus, the algal lectin was strictly specific for HM N-glycans and recognized the extended carbohydrate structure with a minimum size of the pentasaccharide, Man(alpha1-3)Man(alpha1-6)Man(beta1-4)GlcNAc(beta1-4) GlcNAc. Kinetic analysis of binding with a HM heptasaccharide (M5) showed that ESA-2 has four carbohydrate-binding sites per polypeptide with a high association constant of 1.6x10(8) M-1. Sequence analysis, by a combination of Edman degradation and mass analyses of the intact protein and of peptides produced by its enzymic digestions, showed that ESA-2 is composed of 268 amino acids (molecular weight 27950) with four tandemly repeated domains of 67 amino acids. The number of repeats coincided with the number of carbohydrate-binding sites in the monomeric molecule. Surprisingly, the marine algal lectin was homologous to hemagglutinin from the soil bacterium Myxococcus xanthus.

  13. Cell rejuvenation and social behaviors promoted by LPS exchange in myxobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Vassallo, Christopher; Pathak, Darshankumar T.; Cao, Pengbo; Zuckerman, David M.; Hoiczyk, Egbert; Wall, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial cells in their native environments must cope with factors that compromise the integrity of the cell. The mechanisms of coping with damage in a social or multicellular context are poorly understood. Here we investigated how a model social bacterium, Myxococcus xanthus, approaches this problem. We focused on the social behavior of outer membrane exchange (OME), in which cells transiently fuse and exchange their outer membrane (OM) contents. This behavior requires TraA, a homophilic cell surface receptor that identifies kin based on similarities in a polymorphic region, and the TraB cohort protein. As observed by electron microscopy, TraAB overexpression catalyzed a prefusion OM junction between cells. We then showed that damage sustained by the OM of one population was repaired by OME with a healthy population. Specifically, LPS mutants that were defective in motility and sporulation were rescued by OME with healthy donors. In addition, a mutant with a conditional lethal mutation in lpxC, an essential gene required for lipid A biosynthesis, was rescued by Tra-dependent interactions with a healthy population. Furthermore, lpxC cells with damaged OMs, which were more susceptible to antibiotics, had resistance conferred to them by OME with healthy donors. We also show that OME has beneficial fitness consequences to all cells. Here, in merged populations of damaged and healthy cells, OME catalyzed a dilution of OM damage, increasing developmental sporulation outcomes of the combined population by allowing it to reach a threshold density. We propose that OME is a mechanism that myxobacteria use to overcome cell damage and to transition to a multicellular organism. PMID:26038568

  14. Enhancement of Fe (III), Co (III), and Cr (VI) reduction at elevated temperatures and by a thermophilic bacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, C.; Liu, Shi; Logan, J.; Mazumder, R.; Phelps, T.J.

    1995-07-01

    An unusual thermophilic bacterium has been isolated from deep subsurface sediments and tested for its ability to enhance Fe(III), Co(III), and Cr(VI) reduction. Without the bacterium, abiotic metal reduction was insignificant at temperatures below 45{degrees}C but became a major process at 75{degrees}C. Addition of the bacterium enhanced the reduction of these metals up to fourfold. This study demonstrates abiotic and biotic metal reduction under organic-rich thermic conditions and suggest that thermally and/or biologically enhanced metal reduction may provide an alternative for remediating metal contamination.

  15. Characterization of chimeric and mutated isocitrate lyases of a mesophilic nitrogen-fixing bacterium, Azotobacter vinelandii, and a psychrophilic bacterium, Colwellia maris.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Tomofumi; Matsuzaki, Wataru; Takada, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Chimeric enzymes between a cold-adapted isocitrate lyase (ICL) of a psychrophilic bacterium, Colwellia maris, (CmICL) and a mesophilic ICL of a nitrogen-fixing bacterium, Azotobacter vinelandii, (AvICL) were constructed by dividing the ICL genes into four regions of almost equal length and exchanging regions in various combinations. The chimeric ICL, which was replaced C-terminal region 4 of AvICL by the corresponding region of CmICL, showed much lower specific activity and lower optimum temperature and thermostability for activity than wild-type AvICL, indicating that region 4 is involved in its thermal properties. Furthermore, mutual substitution between the Met501 residue in region 4 of CmICL and the corresponding Ile504 residue of AvICL influenced the temperature dependence of their activities, suggesting that these amino acid residues are important to the respective mesophilic and cold-adapted properties of AvICL and CmICL.

  16. Analysis of the amino acid residues involved in the thermal properties of the monomeric isocitrate dehydrogenases of the psychrophilic bacterium Colwellia maris and the mesophilic bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Takayuki; Takada, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Cold-adapted monomeric isocitrate dehydrogenase of a psychrophilic bacterium, Colwellia maris, (CmIDH) showed a high degree of amino acid sequential identity (69.5%) to a mesophilic nitrogen-fixing bacterium, Azotobacter vinelandii, (AvIDH). In this study, three Ala residues of CmIDH and the corresponding Pro residues of AvIDH were exchanged by site-directed mutagenesis, and several properties of single, double, and triple mutants of the two enzymes were investigated. The mutated CmIDHs, which replaced Ala719 with Pro, showed increased activity and elevation of the optimum temperature and thermostability for activity. In contrast, mutants of AvIDH, in which Pro717 was replaced by Ala, decreased the thermostability for activity. These results indicate that Ala719 of CmIDH and Pro717 of AvIDH are involved in thermostability. On the other hand, mutated CmIDH, in which Ala710 was replaced by Pro, and the corresponding AvIDH mutant, which replaced Pro708 with Ala, showed higher and lower specific activity than the corresponding wild-type enzymes, suggesting that Pro708 of AvIDH is involved in its high catalytic ability. Furthermore, the exchange mutations between Ala740 in CmIDH and the corresponding Pro738 in AvIDH resulted in decreased and increased thermostability for CmIDH and AvIDH activity respectively, suggesting that the native Ala740 and Pro738 residues make the enzymes thermostable and thermolabile.

  17. A Streamlined Strategy for Biohydrogen Production with Halanaerobium hydrogeniformans, an Alkaliphilic Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Begemann, Matthew B.; Mormile, Melanie R.; Sitton, Oliver C.; Wall, Judy D.; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2012-01-01

    Biofuels are anticipated to enable a shift from fossil fuels for renewable transportation and manufacturing fuels, with biohydrogen considered attractive since it could offer the largest reduction of global carbon budgets. Currently, lignocellulosic biohydrogen production remains inefficient with pretreatments that are heavily fossil fuel-dependent. However, bacteria using alkali-treated biomass could streamline biofuel production while reducing costs and fossil fuel needs. An alkaliphilic bacterium, Halanaerobium hydrogeniformans, is described that is capable of biohydrogen production at levels rivaling neutrophilic strains, but at pH 11 and hypersaline conditions. H. hydrogeniformans ferments a variety of 5- and 6-carbon sugars derived from hemicellulose and cellulose including cellobiose, and forms the end products hydrogen, acetate, and formate. Further, it can also produce biohydrogen from switchgrass and straw pretreated at temperatures far lower than any previously reported and in solutions compatible with growth. Hence, this bacterium can potentially increase the efficiency and efficacy of biohydrogen production from renewable biomass resources. PMID:22509174

  18. Melanin from the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azotobacter chroococcum: a spectroscopic characterization.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Aulie; Supakar, Subhrangshu; Banerjee, Raja

    2014-01-01

    Melanins, the ubiquitous hetero-polymer pigments found widely dispersed among various life forms, are usually dark brown/black in colour. Although melanins have variety of biological functions, including protection against ultraviolet radiation of sunlight and are used in medicine, cosmetics, extraction of melanin from the animal and plant kingdoms is not an easy task. Using complementary physicochemical techniques (i.e. MALDI-TOF, FTIR absorption and cross-polarization magic angle spinning solid-state (13)C NMR), we report here the characterization of melanins extracted from the nitrogen-fixing non-virulent bacterium Azotobacter chroococcum, a safe viable source. Moreover, considering dihydroxyindole moiety as the main constituent, an effort is made to propose the putative molecular structure of the melanin hetero-polymer extracted from the bacterium. Characterization of the melanin obtained from Azotobacter chroococcum would provide an inspiration in extending research activities on these hetero-polymers and their use as protective agent against UV radiation.

  19. Inflammasomes Coordinate Pyroptosis and Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxicity to Clear Infection by a Ubiquitous Environmental Bacterium.

    PubMed

    Maltez, Vivien I; Tubbs, Alan L; Cook, Kevin D; Aachoui, Youssef; Falcone, E Liana; Holland, Steven M; Whitmire, Jason K; Miao, Edward A

    2015-11-17

    Defective neutrophils in patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) cause susceptibility to extracellular and intracellular infections. Microbes must first be ejected from intracellular niches to expose them to neutrophil attack, so we hypothesized that inflammasomes detect certain CGD pathogens upstream of neutrophil killing. Here, we identified one such ubiquitous environmental bacterium, Chromobacterium violaceum, whose extreme virulence was fully counteracted by the NLRC4 inflammasome. Caspase-1 protected via two parallel pathways that eliminated intracellular replication niches. Pyroptosis was the primary bacterial clearance mechanism in the spleen, but both pyroptosis and interleukin-18 (IL-18)-driven natural killer (NK) cell responses were required for liver defense. NK cells cleared hepatocyte replication niches via perforin-dependent cytotoxicity, whereas interferon-γ was not required. These insights suggested a therapeutic approach: exogenous IL-18 restored perforin-dependent cytotoxicity during infection by the inflammasome-evasive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. Therefore, inflammasomes can trigger complementary programmed cell death mechanisms, directing sterilizing immunity against intracellular bacterial pathogens.

  20. Isolation and biological characteristics of aerobic marine magnetotactic bacterium YSC-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jun; Pan, Hongmiao; Yue, Haidong; Song, Tao; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Guanjun; Wu, Longfei; Xiao, Tian

    2006-12-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria have become a hot spot of research in microbiology attracting intensive interest of researchers in multiple disciplinary fields. However, the studies were limited in few fastidious bacteria. The objective of this study aims at isolating new marine magnetic bacteria and better comprehension of magnetotactic bacteria. In this study, an aerobic magnetotactic bacterium YSC-1 was isolated from sediments in the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass (YSCWM). In TEM, magnetic cells have one or several circular magnetosomes in diameter of 100nm, and consist of Fe and Co shown on energy dispersive X-ray spectrum. The biological and physiological characteristics of this bacterium were also described. The colour of YSC-1 colony is white in small rod. The gram stain is negative. Results showed that Strain YSC-1 differs from microaerophile magnetotactic bacteria MS-1 and WD-1 in biology.

  1. Single-bacterium nanomechanics in biomedicine: unravelling the dynamics of bacterial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguayo, S.; Donos, N.; Spratt, D.; Bozec, L.

    2015-02-01

    The use of the atomic force microscope (AFM) in microbiology has progressed significantly throughout the years since its first application as a high-resolution imaging instrument. Modern AFM setups are capable of characterizing the nanomechanical behaviour of bacterial cells at both the cellular and molecular levels, where elastic properties and adhesion forces of single bacterium cells can be examined under different experimental conditions. Considering that bacterial and biofilm-mediated infections continue to challenge the biomedical field, it is important to understand the biophysical events leading towards bacterial adhesion and colonization on both biological and non-biological substrates. The purpose of this review is to present the latest findings concerning the field of single-bacterium nanomechanics, and discuss future trends and applications of nanoindentation and single-cell force spectroscopy techniques in biomedicine.

  2. Ferredoxin-NADP reductase from the thermophilic hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium, Hydrogenobacter thermophilus TK-6.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Takeshi; Nakamura, Miyuki; Arai, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Masaharu; Igarashi, Yasuo

    2009-08-01

    The thermophilic, obligately chemolithoautotrophic hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium, Hydrogenobacter thermophilus TK-6, assimilates carbon dioxide via the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle. Small iron-sulfur proteins, ferredoxins, play a central role as low-potential electron donors for this cycle. The fpr gene of this bacterium, encoding a putative ferredoxin-NADP(+) reductase (FNR, EC 1.18.1.2), was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant protein was purified to homogeneity. Unexpectedly, the monomeric Fpr protein contained one molecule of FMN as a prosthetic group, although FNRs from other organisms are known to contain FAD. The FMN-containing Fpr was shown to be a bona fide FNR that catalyzes a reversible redox reaction between NADP(+)/NADPH and ferredoxins.

  3. A partial proteome reference map of the wine lactic acid bacterium Oenococcus oeni ATCC BAA-1163.

    PubMed

    Mohedano, María de la Luz; Russo, Pasquale; de Los Ríos, Vivian; Capozzi, Vittorio; Fernández de Palencia, Pilar; Spano, Giuseppe; López, Paloma

    2014-02-26

    Oenococcus oeni is the main lactic acid bacterium that carries out the malolactic fermentation in virtually all red wines and in some white and sparkling wines. Oenococcus oeni possesses an array of metabolic activities that can modify the taste and aromatic properties of wine. There is, therefore, industrial interest in the proteins involved in these metabolic pathways and related transport systems of this bacterium. In this work, we report the characterization of the O. oeni ATCC BAA-1163 proteome. Total and membrane protein preparations from O. oeni were standardized and analysed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Using tandem mass spectrometry, we identified 224 different spots corresponding to 152 unique proteins, which have been classified by their putative function and subjected to bioinformatics analysis.

  4. Economic Game Theory to Model the Attenuation of Virulence of an Obligate Intracellular Bacterium.

    PubMed

    Tago, Damian; Meyer, Damien F

    2016-01-01

    Diseases induced by obligate intracellular pathogens have a large burden on global human and animal health. Understanding the factors involved in the virulence and fitness of these pathogens contributes to the development of control strategies against these diseases. Based on biological observations, a theoretical model using game theory is proposed to explain how obligate intracellular bacteria interact with their host. The equilibrium in such a game shows that the virulence and fitness of the bacterium is host-triggered and by changing the host's defense system to which the bacterium is confronted, an evolutionary process leads to an attenuated strain. Although, the attenuation procedure has already been conducted in practice in order to develop an attenuated vaccine (e.g., with Ehrlichia ruminantium), there was a lack of understanding of the theoretical basis behind this process. Our work provides a model to better comprehend the existence of different phenotypes and some underlying evolutionary mechanisms for the virulence of obligate intracellular bacteria.

  5. Adhesion of a Cylindrical Bacterium in the Presence of DLVO Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jiayi; Muftu, Sinan; Gu, April; Wan, Kai-Tak

    2012-02-01

    A single cigar shape bacterium attaches to a rigid substrate (e.g. sand surface). In the presence of electrostatic double layers and van der Waals attraction according to the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory, the bacterium glycoprotein shell deforms and may settle in either the primary or secondary energy minimum depending on whether it has sufficient energy to overcome the repulsive energy barrier. The adhesion-detachment mechanics is derived using a computational approach, and the followings are obtained: (i) relation between the applied load and contact area with the substrate, (ii) deformed profile at equilibrium, (iii) mechanical stress distribution in the shell, (iv) critical compressive load to force the shell going from secondary energy minimum to primary, and (v) ``pull-off'' forces to detach the shell from substrate. The model leads to better understanding of bacteria adhesion-aggregation-transportation, and has significant relevance to environmental and medical sciences.

  6. Economic Game Theory to Model the Attenuation of Virulence of an Obligate Intracellular Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Tago, Damian; Meyer, Damien F.

    2016-01-01

    Diseases induced by obligate intracellular pathogens have a large burden on global human and animal health. Understanding the factors involved in the virulence and fitness of these pathogens contributes to the development of control strategies against these diseases. Based on biological observations, a theoretical model using game theory is proposed to explain how obligate intracellular bacteria interact with their host. The equilibrium in such a game shows that the virulence and fitness of the bacterium is host-triggered and by changing the host's defense system to which the bacterium is confronted, an evolutionary process leads to an attenuated strain. Although, the attenuation procedure has already been conducted in practice in order to develop an attenuated vaccine (e.g., with Ehrlichia ruminantium), there was a lack of understanding of the theoretical basis behind this process. Our work provides a model to better comprehend the existence of different phenotypes and some underlying evolutionary mechanisms for the virulence of obligate intracellular bacteria. PMID:27610355

  7. Single-bacterium nanomechanics in biomedicine: unravelling the dynamics of bacterial cells.

    PubMed

    Aguayo, S; Donos, N; Spratt, D; Bozec, L

    2015-02-13

    The use of the atomic force microscope (AFM) in microbiology has progressed significantly throughout the years since its first application as a high-resolution imaging instrument. Modern AFM setups are capable of characterizing the nanomechanical behaviour of bacterial cells at both the cellular and molecular levels, where elastic properties and adhesion forces of single bacterium cells can be examined under different experimental conditions. Considering that bacterial and biofilm-mediated infections continue to challenge the biomedical field, it is important to understand the biophysical events leading towards bacterial adhesion and colonization on both biological and non-biological substrates. The purpose of this review is to present the latest findings concerning the field of single-bacterium nanomechanics, and discuss future trends and applications of nanoindentation and single-cell force spectroscopy techniques in biomedicine.

  8. A Streamlined Strategy for Biohydrogen Production with Halanaerobium hydrogeniformans, an Alkaliphilic Bacterium.

    PubMed

    Begemann, Matthew B; Mormile, Melanie R; Sitton, Oliver C; Wall, Judy D; Elias, Dwayne A

    2012-01-01

    Biofuels are anticipated to enable a shift from fossil fuels for renewable transportation and manufacturing fuels, with biohydrogen considered attractive since it could offer the largest reduction of global carbon budgets. Currently, lignocellulosic biohydrogen production remains inefficient with pretreatments that are heavily fossil fuel-dependent. However, bacteria using alkali-treated biomass could streamline biofuel production while reducing costs and fossil fuel needs. An alkaliphilic bacterium, Halanaerobiumhydrogeniformans, is described that is capable of biohydrogen production at levels rivaling neutrophilic strains, but at pH 11 and hypersaline conditions. H. hydrogeniformans ferments a variety of 5- and 6-carbon sugars derived from hemicellulose and cellulose including cellobiose, and forms the end products hydrogen, acetate, and formate. Further, it can also produce biohydrogen from switchgrass and straw pretreated at temperatures far lower than any previously reported and in solutions compatible with growth. Hence, this bacterium can potentially increase the efficiency and efficacy of biohydrogen production from renewable biomass resources.

  9. The bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila inhibits phospholipases A2 from insect, prokaryote, and vertebrate sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Youngjin; Kim, Yonggyun; Stanley, David

    The bacterium, Xenorhabdus nematophila, is a virulent insect pathogen. Part of its pathogenicity is due to impairing cellular immunity by blocking biosynthesis of eicosanoids, the major recognized signal transduction system in insect cellular immunity. X. nematophila inhibits the first step in eicosanoid biosynthesis, phospholipase A2 (PLA2). Here we report that the bacterium inhibits PLA2 from two insect immune tissues, hemocytes and fat body, as well as PLA2s selected to represent a wide range of organisms, including prokaryotes, insects, reptiles, and mammals. Our finding on a bacterial inhibitor of PLA2 activity contributes new insight into the chemical ecology of microbe-host interactions, which usually involve actions rather than inhibitors of PLA2s.

  10. Characterization of a copper-resistant symbiotic bacterium isolated from Medicago lupulina growing in mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lian-Mei; Ma, Zhan-Qiang; Liang, Jian-Qiang; Li, Hui-Fen; Wang, En-Tao; Wei, Ge-Hong

    2011-01-01

    A root nodule bacterium, Sinorhizobium meliloti CCNWSX0020, resistant to 1.4 mM Cu2+ was isolated from Medicago lupulina growing in mine tailings. In medium supplied with copper, this bacterium showed cell deformation and aggregation due to precipitation of copper on the cell surface. Genes similar to the copper-resistant genes, pcoR and pcoA from Escherichia coli, were amplified by PCR from a 1.4-Mb megaplasmid. Inoculation with S. meliloti CCNWSX0020 increased the biomass of M. lupulina grown in medium added 0 and 100 mg Cu2+ kg(-1) by 45.8% and 78.2%, respectively, and increased the copper concentration inside the plant tissues grown in medium supplied with 100 μM Cu2+ by 39.3%, demonstrating that it is a prospective symbiotic system for bioremediation purposes.

  11. "Bacillus hackensackii" sp. nov., a novel carbon dioxide sensitive bacterium isolated from blood culture.

    PubMed

    Hong, Tao; Heibler, Nueda; Tang, Y i-Wei

    2003-02-01

    An endospore-forming, gram-positive bacillus was isolated from a patient's blood culture. This bacillus did not grow in the presence of 5% carbon dioxide although it grew well in ambient air at 37 degrees C. Although the organism thus is an aerobic bacterium, its sensitivity to increased carbon dioxide concentration places it in a distinct category of gaseous atmospheric requirement: capnophobic. Based on its morphology, growth characteristics, biochemical reactions and a complete 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequence analysis, this microorganism represents a novel Bacillus species. The clinical significance of this isolate is unknown. It is proposed that the bacterium be classified in the genus Bacillus as "Bacillus hackensackii".

  12. Copper-binding characteristics of exopolymers from a freshwater-sediment bacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Mittelman, M.W.; Geesey, G.G.

    1985-04-01

    Copper-binding activity by exopolymers from adherent cells of freshwater-sediment bacterium was demonstrated by a combination of equilibrium dialysis and flameless atomic absorption spectrometry. Crude, cell-free exopolymer preparations containing protein and polysaccharide components bound up to 37 nmol of Cu per mg (dry weight). A highly purified exopolysaccharide preparation bound up to 253 nmol of Cu per mg of carbohydrate. The conditional stability constant for the crude exopolymer-Cu complex was 7.3 x 10/sup 8/. This value was similar to those obtained for Cu complexes formed with humic acids and xanthan, an exopolysaccharide produced by Xanthomonas campestris. Studies conducted at copper concentrations, pHs, and temperatures found in sediments from which the bacterium was isolated indicated that the exopolymers were capable of binding copper under natural conditions.

  13. Discovery of clostrubin, an exceptional polyphenolic polyketide antibiotic from a strictly anaerobic bacterium.

    PubMed

    Pidot, Sacha; Ishida, Keishi; Cyrulies, Michael; Hertweck, Christian

    2014-07-21

    Genome mining of the strictly anaerobic bacterium Clostridium beijerinckii, an industrial producer of solvents, revealed the presence of several cryptic gene clusters for secondary metabolite biosynthesis. To unearth its metabolic potential, a C. beijerinckii strain was cultured under various conditions, which led to the discovery of a deep purple pigment. This novel metabolite, named clostrubin (1), was isolated and its structure was fully elucidated. The pentacyclic polyphenol features a benzo[a]tetraphene ring topology that is unprecedented for natural products. Stable-isotope labeling experiments showed that 1 is an aromatic polyketide that folds in a noncanonical manner to form the unusual perifused ring system. In addition to being the first reported polyketide from an anaerobic bacterium, 1 is a potent antibiotic with pronounced activity against various pathogenic bacteria, such as MRSA, VRE, and mycobacteria, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 0.12-0.97 μM.

  14. The bacterium endosymbiont of Crithidia deanei undergoes coordinated division with the host cell nucleus.

    PubMed

    Motta, Maria Cristina Machado; Catta-Preta, Carolina Moura Costa; Schenkman, Sergio; de Azevedo Martins, Allan Cezar; Miranda, Kildare; de Souza, Wanderley; Elias, Maria Carolina

    2010-08-26

    In trypanosomatids, cell division involves morphological changes and requires coordinated replication and segregation of the nucleus, kinetoplast and flagellum. In endosymbiont-containing trypanosomatids, like Crithidia deanei, this process is more complex, as each daughter cell contains only a single symbiotic bacterium, indicating that the prokaryote must replicate synchronically with the host protozoan. In this study, we used light and electron microscopy combined with three-dimensional reconstruction approaches to observe the endosymbiont shape and division during C. deanei cell cycle. We found that the bacterium replicates before the basal body and kinetoplast segregations and that the nucleus is the last organelle to divide, before cytokinesis. In addition, the endosymbiont is usually found close to the host cell nucleus, presenting different shapes during the protozoan cell cycle. Considering that the endosymbiosis in trypanosomatids is a mutualistic relationship, which resembles organelle acquisition during evolution, these findings establish an excellent model for the understanding of mechanisms related with the establishment of organelles in eukaryotic cells.

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Sphingobium ummariense Strain RL-3, a Hexachlorocyclohexane-Degrading Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Kohli, Puneet; Dua, Ankita; Sangwan, Naseer; Oldach, Phoebe; Khurana, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH)-degrading bacterium Sphingobium ummariense strain RL-3, which was isolated from the HCH dumpsite located in Lucknow, India (27°00′N and 81°09′E). The annotated draft genome sequence (4.75 Mb) of strain RL-3 consisted of 139 contigs, 4,645 coding sequences, and 65% G+C content. PMID:24233594

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of the Deinococcus-Thermus Bacterium Meiothermus ruber Strain A

    PubMed Central

    Thiel, Vera; Tomsho, Lynn P.; Burhans, Richard; Gay, Scott E.; Schuster, Stephan C.; Ward, David M.

    2015-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of the Deinococcus-Thermus group bacterium Meiothermus ruber strain A, isolated from a cyanobacterial enrichment culture obtained from Octopus Spring (Yellowstone National Park, WY), comprises 2,968,099 bp in 170 contigs. It is predicted to contain 2,895 protein-coding genes, 44 tRNA-coding genes, and 2 rRNA operons. PMID:25814606

  17. Halobacterium saccharovorum sp. nov., a carbohydrate-metabolizing, extremely halophilic bacterium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomlinson, G. A.; Hochstein, L. I.

    1976-01-01

    The previously described extremely halophilic bacterium, strain M6, metabolizes a variety of carbohydrates with the production of acid. In addition, the organism produces nitrite (but no gas) from nitrate, is motile, and grows most rapidly at about 50 C. These characteristics distinguish it from all previously described halophilic bacteria in the genus Halobacterium. It is suggested that it be designated as a new species, Halobacterium saccharovorum.

  18. Draft genome sequence of a strictly anaerobic dichloromethane-degrading bacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Kleindienst, Sara; Higgins, Steven A.; Tsementzi, Despina; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T.; Mack, E. Erin; Loffler, Frank E.

    2016-03-03

    Here, an anaerobic, dichloromethane-degrading bacterium affiliated with novel Peptococcaceae was maintained in a microbial consortium. The organism originated from pristine freshwater sediment collected from Rio Mameyes in Luquillo, Puerto Rico, in October 2009 (latitude 18°21'43.9", longitude –65°46'8.4"). The draft genome sequence is 2.1 Mb and has a G+C content of 43.5%.

  19. Draft genome sequence of a strictly anaerobic dichloromethane-degrading bacterium

    DOE PAGES

    Kleindienst, Sara; Higgins, Steven A.; Tsementzi, Despina; ...

    2016-03-03

    Here, an anaerobic, dichloromethane-degrading bacterium affiliated with novel Peptococcaceae was maintained in a microbial consortium. The organism originated from pristine freshwater sediment collected from Rio Mameyes in Luquillo, Puerto Rico, in October 2009 (latitude 18°21'43.9", longitude –65°46'8.4"). The draft genome sequence is 2.1 Mb and has a G+C content of 43.5%.

  20. [Isolation, identification and enzyme characterization of a thermophilic cellulolytic anaerobic bacterium].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yinping; Ma, Shichun; Sun, Yingjie; Huang, Yan; Deng, Yu

    2012-09-04

    To identify a thermophilic bacterium from horse manure to degrade cellulose efficiently, and to enrich microbial resources producing cellulolytic ethanol by co-culturing with thermophilic ethanol producing bacterium. We used Hungate anaerobic technique to isolate a strain named as HCp from horse manure mixed culture; its phylogeny was identified through 16S rDNA sequencing. Enzymatic assays were determined using DNS method. The isolated HCp cells were straight with rods size of(0.35-0.50) microm x (2.42-6.40) microm, in the form of single or paring. This strain belongs to a strictly anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium, it is able to form spores, shows motile ability and resistance to neomycin. The strain could degrade filter paper cellulose, cellulose powder, microcrystalline cellulose, cotton wool, rice straw and gelatin, and it was also able to utilize abundant saccharides as substrates such as cellobiose, glucose, xylose, xylan, raffinose, maltose, sorbose, fructose and galactose. The growth pH ranges from 6.5 to 8.5, temperature from 35 to 70 degrees C and concentration of NaCl on cellulose from 0% to 1.0%, while the optima of pH 6.85, 60 degreesC and 0.2% NaCl. Under the optimal growth conditions, the filter paper cellulose degradation rate was up to 90.40% after 10 days. The optimum temperatures for FPA, CMCase, beta-glucosidase and xylanase were 70 degrees C, 70 degrees C, 70 degrees C, and 60 degrees C respectively. CMCase activity was found with high thermal stability. The phylogenetic analysis based on partial 16S rDNA revealed that HCp was close to Acetivibrio cellulolyticus and A. cellulosolvens with 97.5% sequence similarities. Strain HCp is thermophilic, efficiently cellulolytic anaerobe. It is able to utilize vast substrates and produce highly thermostable enzymes. It is a potential bacterium that can be used for cellulolytic ethanol production.