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Sample records for bacterium propionibacterium acnes

  1. Biopolymer scaffolds for use in delivering antimicrobial Sophorolipids to the acne-causing bacterium propionibacterium acnes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sophorolipids (SLs) are known to possess antimicrobial properties towards many species (particularly Gram-positive, or Gram+) of bacteria. However, they can only be exerted if the SLs can be introduced to the bacterial cells in an acceptable manner. Propionibacterium acnes is the common bacterial ...

  2. Propionibacterium acnes and antimicrobial resistance in acne.

    PubMed

    Dessinioti, Clio; Katsambas, Andreas

    The human commensal bacterium Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) resides in the pilosebaceous duct of the skin. It has been long implicated in the pathogenesis of acne, although its exact role in the development of inflammatory acne lesions and in the formation of the microcomedo in the early stages of acne remains controversial. The worldwide prevalence of antibiotic-resistant P. acnes is increasing, with rates varying in different parts of the world. The reason for the difference in the antibiotic resistance patterns of P. acnes among different countries is not clear, although it may be attributed to different antibiotic prescribing habits, concomitant use of topical agents (retinoids, benzoyl peroxide, or other antibiotics), varying methods of bacterial sampling, or even different P. acnes populations. Although the relative abundances of P. acnes may be similar among patients with acne and individuals without acne, P. acnes populations and the presence of P. acnes biofilms differ, with different potential virulence properties and antimicrobial resistance patterns. Implications of the use of antibiotics and of antimicrobial resistance in patients with acne include the decreased efficacy of antibiotic treatments for acne, and the possible emergence of other resistant bacterial species via selective pressure by antibiotic use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Propionibacterium acnes in the pathogenesis and immunotherapy of acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pei-Feng; Hsieh, Yao-Dung; Lin, Ya-Ching; Two, Aimee; Shu, Chih-Wen; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Acne vulgaris, a multi-factorial disease, is one of the most common skin diseases, affecting an estimated 80% of Americans at some point during their lives. The gram-positive and anaerobic Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) bacterium has been implicated in acne inflammation and pathogenesis. Therapies for acne vulgaris using antibiotics generally lack bacterial specificity, promote the generation of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains, and cause adverse effects. Immunotherapy against P. acnes or its antigens (sialidase and CAMP factor) has been demonstrated to be effective in mice, attenuating P. acnes-induced inflammation; thus, this method may be applied to develop a potential vaccine targeting P. acnes for acne vulgaris treatment. This review summarizes reports describing the role of P. acnes in the pathogenesis of acne and various immunotherapy-based approaches targeting P. acnes, suggesting the potential effectiveness of immunotherapy for acne vulgaris as well as P. acnes-associated diseases.

  4. The Skin Bacterium Propionibacterium acnes Employs Two Variants of Hyaluronate Lyase with Distinct Properties

    PubMed Central

    Nazipi, Seven; Stødkilde, Kristian; Scavenius, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) and other glycosaminoglycans are extracellular matrix components in the human epidermis and dermis. One of the most prevalent skin microorganisms, Propionibacterium acnes, possesses HA-degrading activity, possibly conferred by the enzyme hyaluronate lyase (HYL). In this study, we identified the HYL of P. acnes and investigated the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. Investigations include the generation of a P. acnes hyl knockout mutant and HYL activity assays to determine the substrate range and formed products. We found that P. acnes employs two distinct variants of HYL. One variant, HYL-IB/II, is highly active, resulting in complete HA degradation; it is present in strains of the phylotypes IB and II. The other variant, HYL-IA, has low activity, resulting in incomplete HA degradation; it is present in type IA strains. Our findings could explain some of the observed differences between P. acnes phylotype IA and IB/II strains. Whereas type IA strains are primarily found on the skin surface and associated with acne vulgaris, type IB/II strains are more often associated with soft and deep tissue infections, which would require elaborate tissue invasion strategies, possibly accomplished by a highly active HYL-IB/II. PMID:28895889

  5. Bacteriophages Infecting Propionibacterium acnes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Viruses specifically infecting bacteria, or bacteriophages, are the most common biological entity in the biosphere. As such, they greatly influence bacteria, both in terms of enhancing their virulence and in terms of killing them. Since the first identification of bacteriophages in the beginning of the 20th century, researchers have been fascinated by these microorganisms and their ability to eradicate bacteria. In this review, we will cover the history of the Propionibacterium acnes bacteriophage research and point out how bacteriophage research has been an important part of the research on P. acnes itself. We will further discuss recent findings from phage genome sequencing and the identification of phage sequence signatures in clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs). Finally, the potential to use P. acnes bacteriophages as a therapeutic strategy to combat P. acnes-associated diseases will be discussed. PMID:23691509

  6. Over a Decade of recA and tly Gene Sequence Typing of the Skin Bacterium Propionibacterium acnes: What Have We Learnt?

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The Gram-positive, anaerobic bacterium Propionibacterium acnes forms part of the normal microbiota on human skin and mucosal surfaces. While normally associated with skin health, P. acnes is also an opportunistic pathogen linked with a range of human infections and clinical conditions. Over the last decade, our knowledge of the intraspecies phylogenetics and taxonomy of this bacterium has increased tremendously due to the introduction of DNA typing schemes based on single and multiple gene loci, as well as whole genomes. Furthermore, this work has led to the identification of specific lineages associated with skin health and human disease. In this review we will look back at the introduction of DNA sequence typing of P. acnes based on recA and tly loci, and then describe how these methods provided a basic understanding of the population genetic structure of the bacterium, and even helped characterize the grapevine-associated lineage of P. acnes, known as P. acnes type Zappe, which appears to have undergone a host switch from humans-to-plants. Particular limitations of recA and tly sequence typing will also be presented, as well as a detailed discussion of more recent, higher resolution, DNA-based methods to type P. acnes and investigate its evolutionary history in greater detail. PMID:29267255

  7. Growth curve for Propionibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Hall, G S; Pratt-Rippin, K; Meisler, D M; Washington, J A; Roussel, T J; Miller, D

    1994-06-01

    We established growth curves for Propionibacterium acnes isolates recovered from eyes with chronic postoperative endophthalmitis. The growth curve plotted the average of the duplicate bacterial concentration against time. The generation time for P. acnes calculated from the growth curves was approximately 5.1 hours. The growth of P. acnes is slower than other anaerobic bacteria. This may account for its delayed appearance in culture of ocular specimens. It may also explain treatment failure if the concentration of an antibiotic injected into the vitreous does not remain at an effective level during the critical replicative phase of the organism.

  8. Photodynamic-induced inactivation of Propionibacterium acnes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Karsten; Teschke, M.; Eick, Stephen G.; Pfister, W.; Meyer, Herbert; Halbhuber, Karl-Juergen

    1998-05-01

    We report on photodynamically induced inactivation of the skin bacterium Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) using endogenous as well as exogenous photosensitizers and red light sources. P. acnes is involved in the pathogenesis of the skin disease acne vulgaris. The skin bacterium is able to synthesize the metal-free fluorescent porphyrins protoporphyrin IX (PP) and coproporphyrin (CP) as shown by in situ spectrally-resolved detection of natural autofluorescence of human skin and bacteria colonies. These naturally occurring intracellular porphyrins act as efficient endogenous photosensitizers. Inactivation of P. acnes suspensions was achieved by irradiation with He-Ne laser light in the red spectral region (632.8 nm). We monitored the photodynamically-induced death of single bacteria using a fluorescent viability kit in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy. In addition, the photo-induced inactivation was calculated by CFU (colony forming units) determination. We found 633 nm-induced inactivation (60 mW, 0.12 cm2 exposure area, 1 hour irradiation) of 72% in the case of non-incubated bacteria based on the destructive effect of singlet oxygen produced by red light excited endogenous porphyrins and subsequent energy transfer to molecular oxygen. In order to achieve a nearly complete inactivation within one exposure procedure, the exogenous photosensitizer Methylene Blue (Mb) was added. Far red exposure of Mb-labeled bacteria using a krypton ion laser at 647 nm and 676 nm resulted in 99% inactivation.

  9. Fermentation of Propionibacterium acnes, a Commensal Bacterium in the Human Skin Microbiome, as Skin Probiotics against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jinghua; Kuo, Sherwin; Coda, Alvin; Jiang, Yong; Gallo, Richard L.; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial interference creates an ecological competition between commensal and pathogenic bacteria. Through fermentation of milk with gut-friendly bacteria, yogurt is an excellent aid to balance the bacteriological ecosystem in the human intestine. Here, we demonstrate that fermentation of glycerol with Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), a skin commensal bacterium, can function as a skin probiotic for in vitro and in vivo growth suppression of USA300, the most prevalent community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA). We also promote the notion that inappropriate use of antibiotics may eliminate the skin commensals, making it more difficult to fight pathogen infection. This study warrants further investigation to better understand the role of fermentation of skin commensals in infectious disease and the importance of the human skin microbiome in skin health. PMID:23405142

  10. Properties of herbal extracts against Propionibacterium acnes for biomedical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Youn-Mook; Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Yong Soo; Shin, Young Min; Jeong, Sung In; Jo, Sun-Young; Gwon, Hui-Jeong; Park, Jong-seok; Nho, Young-Chang; Kim, Jong-Cheol; Kim, Seong-Jang; Shin, HeungSoo

    2012-10-01

    Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), one of the anaerobic bacterium, causes inflammatory acne. To find a novel medication for treating the inflammation caused by P. acnes, we investigated the anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of several herbal extracts against P. acnes. The aqueous extracts from five dried herbs, Phellodendron amurense Rupr., Paeonia lactiflora Pallas., Houttuynia cordata Thunb., Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., were prepared and mixed. In this experiment, 1 mg/ml of the herbal extract mixture caused a decrease in the growth of P. acnes and reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-8, IL-1β and IL-6, in human monocytic THP-1 cells treated with heat-killed P. acnes. Therefore, this herbal extract mixture may possess both anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities against P. acnes and can be a novel therapeutic agent for treating inflammatory acne.

  11. Propionibacterium acnes endophthalmitis in Ahmed glaucoma valve.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Díaz, E; Montero-Rodríguez, M; Mencía-Gutiérrez, E; Fernández-González, M C; Pérez-Blázquez, E

    2001-01-01

    To report a case of Propionibacterium acnes endophthalmitis in a patient with an Ahmed glaucoma valve. A nine-year-old boy with bilateral congenital glaucoma, with an Ahmed glaucoma valve implanted in the left eye, had recurrent conjunctival dehiscence and endophthalmitis. Vitreous cultures demonstrated the presence of Propionibacterium acnes. This is the first reported case of Propionibacterium acnes endophthalmitis in an Ahmed glaucoma valve and the second one in a glaucoma drainage device. We strongly recommend using a patch graft to prevent and treat tube exposure. Conjunctival grafts may be useful to close the conjunctiva when there is marked scarring to prevent patch exposure and melting or extrusion.

  12. Deciphering the Intracellular Fate of Propionibacterium acnes in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Natalie; Mak, Tim N.; Shinohara, Debika Biswal; Sfanos, Karen S.; Meyer, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a Gram-positive bacterium that colonizes various niches of the human body, particularly the sebaceous follicles of the skin. Over the last years a role of this common skin bacterium as an opportunistic pathogen has been explored. Persistence of P. acnes in host tissue has been associated with chronic inflammation and disease development, for example, in prostate pathologies. This study investigated the intracellular fate of P. acnes in macrophages after phagocytosis. In a mouse model of P. acnes-induced chronic prostatic inflammation, the bacterium could be detected in prostate-infiltrating macrophages at 2 weeks postinfection. Further studies performed in the human macrophage cell line THP-1 revealed intracellular survival and persistence of P. acnes but no intracellular replication or escape from the host cell. Confocal analyses of phagosome acidification and maturation were performed. Acidification of P. acnes-containing phagosomes was observed at 6 h postinfection but then lost again, indicative of cytosolic escape of P. acnes or intraphagosomal pH neutralization. No colocalization with the lysosomal markers LAMP1 and cathepsin D was observed, implying that the P. acnes-containing phagosome does not fuse with lysosomes. Our findings give first insights into the intracellular fate of P. acnes; its persistency is likely to be important for the development of P. acnes-associated inflammatory diseases. PMID:23862148

  13. Propionibacterium acnes endocarditis: a case series.

    PubMed

    Banzon, J M; Rehm, S J; Gordon, S M; Hussain, S T; Pettersson, G B; Shrestha, N K

    2017-06-01

    Propionibacterium acnes remains a rare cause of infective endocarditis (IE). It is challenging to diagnose due to the organism's fastidious nature and the indolent presentation of the disease. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical presentation and management of P. acnes IE with an emphasis on the methods of diagnosis. We identified patients from the Cleveland Clinic Infective Endocarditis Registry who were admitted from 2007 to 2015 with definite IE by Duke Criteria. Propionibacterium acnes was defined as the causative pathogen if it was identified in at least two culture specimens, or identified with at least two different modalities: blood culture, valve culture, valve sequencing or histopathological demonstration of microorganisms. We identified 24 cases of P. acnes IE, 23 (96%) of which were either prosthetic valve endocarditis or IE on an annuloplasty ring. Invasive disease (71%) and embolic complications (29%) were common. All but one patient underwent surgery. Propionibacterium acnes was identified in 12.5% of routine blood cultures, 75% of blood cultures with extended incubation, 55% of valve cultures, and 95% of valve sequencing specimens. In 11 of 24 patients (46%), no causative pathogen would have been identified without valve sequencing. Propionibacterium acnes almost exclusively causes prosthetic valve endocarditis and patients often present with advanced disease. The organism may not be readily cultured, and extended cultures appear to be necessary. In patients who have undergone surgery, valve sequencing is most reliable in establishing the diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Isolation, identification and rumen fermentation characteristics of Propionibacterium acnes].

    PubMed

    Wu, Ling; Zhao, Mingjuan; Xia, Cheng; Ni, Hongbo; Zhang, Hongyou

    2009-02-01

    Characteristic of energy metabolism in ruminant is a negative energy balance in perinatal period. Propionic acid from ruminal microbe fermentation is a vital glyconeogenesis substrate for preventing negative energy balance. We isolated and screened a Propionibacterium acnes strain from health cow rumen fluid, and studied its rumen fermentation characteristics. A Propionibacterium acnes strain from rumen fluid of health cow with permanent rumen fistula under sterile condition was isolated by segregation procedure of anaerobic bacterium and Sodium Lactate Broth (SLB), and identified by extraction of the genome DNA, cloning of the 16S rRNA gene, and sequencing. We studied the effect of the strain on pH, volatile fatty acid and lactic acid in rumen fluid in vitro and in vivo. A bacterium isolated from health cow rumen fluid was identified as Propionibacterium acnes by morphology, biochemical characteristics and sequence homology. In vitro, pH in rumen fluid decreased to the lowest after rumen fermentation of the strain for 12 h, then increased gradually. However, concentration of volatile fatty acid, such as acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid, increased to the highest after rumen fermentation of the strain for 12 h, then decreased gradually in vitro. The concentration of lactic acid and ratio of acetate to propionate decreased overall in vitro. In vivo, pH in rumen fluid decreased overall, concentration, of the volatile fatty acid increased overall. A strain of Propionibacterium acnes was isolated successfully from health cow rumen fluid. It is an important basis to develop microecological preparation for preventing cows' negative energy balance in perinatal period in future.

  15. Dissecting the taxonomic heterogeneity within Propionibacterium acnes: proposal for Propionibacterium acnes subsp. acnes subsp. nov. and Propionibacterium acnes subsp. elongatum subsp. nov.

    PubMed

    Dekio, Itaru; Culak, Renata; Misra, Raju; Gaulton, Tom; Fang, Min; Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Ohkuma, Moriya; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Rajendram, Dunstan; Gharbia, Saheer E; Shah, Haroun N

    2015-12-01

    Propionibacterium acnes subsp. acnes subsp. nov. and Propionibacterium acnes subsp. elongatum subsp. nov. are described. These emanate from the three known phylotypes of P. acnes, designated types I, II and III. Electron microscopy confirmed the filamentous cell shape of type III, showing a striking difference from types I/II, which were short rods. Biochemical tests indicated that, in types I/II, either the pyruvate, l-pyrrolidonyl arylamidase or d-ribose 2 test was positive, whereas all of these were negative among type III strains. Matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) spectra, which profile mainly their ribosomal proteins, were different between these two groups. Surface-enhanced laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) spectra of all phylotypes revealed a specific protein biomarker that was overexpressed in type III strains compared with types I/II only when grown aerobically. Reference strains had high whole-genome similarity between types I (>91 %) and II (>75 %), but a considerably lower level of 72 % similarity with type III. recA and gyrB sequence dendrograms confirmed the distant relatedness of type III, indicating the presence of two distinct centres of variation within the species P. acnes. On the other hand, cellular fatty acid profiles and 16S rRNA gene sequence relatedness (>99.3 %) circumscribed the species. Thus, we propose two subspecies, Propionibacterium acnes subsp. acnes subsp. nov. for types I/II and Propionibacterium acnes subsp. elongatum subsp. nov. for type III. The type strain of Propionibacterium acnes subsp. acnes is NCTC 737T ( = ATCC 6919T = JCM 6425T = DSM 1897T = CCUG 1794T), while the type strain of Propionibacterium acnes subsp. elongatum is K124T ( = NCTC 13655T = JCM 18919T).

  16. Propionibacterium acnes infection after shoulder surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kadler, Benjamin K.; Mehta, Saurabh S.; Funk, Lennard

    2015-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes has been implicated as a cause of infection following shoulder surgery, may occur up to 2 years after the index operation and has been shown to be responsible for up to 56% of shoulder infections after orthopedic implant. Male patients within the population undergoing shoulder surgery are particularly at risk, especially if their shoulder surgery involved prosthesis or was posttraumatic. P. acnes infection can be difficult to diagnose clinically and laboratory techniques require prolonged and specialized cultures. Usual inflammatory markers are not raised in infection with this low virulence organism. Delayed diagnosis with P. acnes infection can result in significant morbidity prior to prosthesis failure. Early diagnosis of P. acnes infection and appropriate treatment can improve clinical outcomes. It is important to be aware of P. acnes infection in shoulder surgery, to evaluate risk factors, to recognize the signs of P. acnes infection, and to promptly initiate treatment. The signs and symptoms of P. acnes infection are described and discussed. Data were collected from PubMed™, Web of Science, and the NICE Evidence Healthcare Databases - AMED (Ovid), BNI (Ovid), CINAHL (EBSCO), Embase (Ovid), HMIC: DH-Data and Kings Fund (Ovid), Medline (Ovid), and PsycINFO (Ovid). The search terms used were “P. acnes,” “infection,” “shoulder,” and “surgery.” In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the prevention and management of P. acnes infection following shoulder surgery. PMID:26622132

  17. [Chronic postoperative endophthalmitis caused by Propionibacterium acnes].

    PubMed

    Kocur, I; Baráková, D; Kuchynka, P; Fiser, I

    1998-07-01

    There is a report of three cases of chronic postoperative endophthalmitis following cataract operations. In two patients there was proven Propionibacterium acnes. There is presented a technique to obtain specimens for microbiological examination and an overview of clinical experience in treatment of the mentioned less common types of endophthalmitis. Early surgical treatment as well as intraocular injection of vancomycin can help to restore a good visual acuity despite of longlasting inflammation.

  18. Dynamic interactions between prophages induce lysis in Propionibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    L Brown, Teagan; Tucci, Joseph; Dyson, Zoe A; Lock, Peter; Adda, Christopher G; Petrovski, Steve

    Progress in next-generation sequencing technologies has facilitated investigations into microbial dynamics. An important bacterium in the dairy industry is Propionibacterium freudenreichii, which is exploited to manufacture Swiss cheeses. A healthy culture of these bacteria ensures a consistent cheese with formed 'eyes' and pleasant flavour profile, and the investigation of prophages and their interactions with these bacteria could assist in the maintenance of the standard of this food product. Two bacteriophages, termed PFR1 and PFR2, were chemically induced using mitomycin C from two different dairy strains of P. freudenreichii. Both phages have identical genomes; however, PFR2 was found to contain an insertion sequence, IS204. Host range characterisation showed that PFR1 was able to form plaques on a wild type Propionibacterium acnes strain, whereas PFR2 could not. The lytic plaques observed on P. acnes were a result of PFR1 inducing the lytic cycle of a pseudolysogenic phage in P. acnes. Further investigation revealed that both PFR1 and PFR2 could infect P. acnes but not replicate. This study demonstrates the dynamic interactions between phages, which may alter their lytic capacity under certain conditions. To our knowledge, this is the first report of two phages interacting to kill their host. Copyright © 2016 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Prosthetic valve endocarditis due to Propionibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    van Valen, Richard; de Lind van Wijngaarden, Robert A F; Verkaik, Nelianne J; Mokhles, Mostafa M; Bogers, Ad J J C

    2016-07-01

    To study the characteristics of patients with Propionibacterium acnes prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) who required surgery. A single-centre retrospective cohort study was conducted during a 7-year period. Patients with definite infective P. acnes endocarditis, according to the modified Duke criteria, were included. An extended culture protocol was applied. Information on medical health status, surgery, antibiotic treatment and mortality was obtained. Thirteen patients fulfilled the criteria for P. acnes endocarditis (0.53% of 2466 patients with valve replacement in a 7-year period). All patients were male and had a previous valve replacement. The health status of patients was poor at diagnosis of P. acnes PVE. Most patients (11 of 13, 85%) were admitted with signs of heart failure due to a significant paravalvular leak; 2 of 13 (15%) patients presented with septic emboli. Twelve patients needed redo surgery, whereas one could be treated with antibiotic therapy only. The time between the index surgery and presentation with P. acnes PVE varied between 5 and 135 months (median 26.5 months). Replacement and reconstruction of the dysfunctional valve and affected anatomical structures was mainly performed with a mechanical valve (n = 5, 42%) or a (bio-) Bentall prosthesis (n = 6, 50%). Antibiotic therapy consisted of penicillin with or without rifampicin for 6 weeks after surgery. The mortality in this series was low (n = 1, 8%) and no recurrent endocarditis was found during a median follow-up of 38 months. Propionibacterium acnes PVE is a rare complication after valve surgery. Redo surgery is often required. Treatment of the dysfunctional prosthetic aortic valve most often consists of root replacement, in combination with antibiotic therapy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  20. Overview: the role of Propionibacterium acnes in nonpyogenic intervertebral discs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhe; Cao, Peng; Zhou, Zezhu; Yuan, Ye; Jiao, Yucheng; Zheng, Yuehuan

    2016-06-01

    Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), an important opportunistic anaerobic Gram-positive bacterium, causes bone and joint infections, discitis and spondylodiscitis. Accumulated evidence suggested that this microbe can colonise inside intervertebral discs without causing symptoms of discitis. Epidemiological investigation shows that the prevalence ranges from 13 % to 44 %. Furthermore, colonisation by P. acnes inside nonpyogenic intervertebral discs is thought to be one pathogen causing sciatica, Modic changes and nonspecific low back pain. Specially, patients can attain significant relief of low back pain, amelioration of Modic changes and alleviation of sciatica after antibiotic therapy, indicating the role of P. acnes in these pathological changes. However, until now, there were hypotheses only to explain problems such as how P. acnes access intervertebral discs and what the exact pathological mechanism it employs during its latent infection period. In addition, research regarding diagnostic procedures and treatment strategies were also rare. Overall, the prevalence and possible pathological role that P. acnes plays inside nonpyogenic intervertebral discs is summarised in this paper.

  1. In vitro evaluation of bioactive potential of Bacillus methylotrophicus YML008 against Propionibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Uk-Han; Nam, Eun Sook; Ahmad, Rather Irfan; Park, Yong-Ha

    2016-05-01

    Acne vulgaris is the most common skin diseases that people experience during their lives. Thirteen rhizosphere isolates were screened against Propionibacterium acnes. The bacterium exhibited the highest activity against P. acnes was identified as Bacillus methylotrophicus YML008 by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Scanning electron microscopy was used to assess the changes in morphology of P. acnes. Preliminary studies on the antimicrobial substance demonstrated the hydrophilic nature of compound with MIC of 0.17mg/ml and MBC of 0.3mg/ml. The cytotoxic effect of the extract was least (80% survival) as compared to benzyperoxide (40% survival). These results suggest YML008 as a promising bioresource and may be useful as a lead bacterium to develop a new type of anti-acne skin care prep to cure or prevent acne. Further, mechanism of action and proper clinical trials may be promising for this research.

  2. Porphyrin metabolisms in human skin commensal Propionibacterium acnes bacteria: potential application to monitor human radiation risk.

    PubMed

    Shu, M; Kuo, S; Wang, Y; Jiang, Y; Liu, Y-T; Gallo, R L; Huang, C-M

    2013-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), a Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium, is a commensal organism in human skin. Like human cells, the bacteria produce porphyrins, which exhibit fluorescence properties and make bacteria visible with a Wood's lamp. In this review, we compare the porphyrin biosynthesis in humans and P. acnes. Also, since P. acnes living on the surface of skin receive the same radiation exposure as humans, we envision that the changes in porphyrin profiles (the absorption spectra and/or metabolism) of P. acnes by radiation may mirror the response of human cells to radiation. The porphyrin profiles of P. acnes may be a more accurate reflection of radiation risk to the patient than other biodosimeters/biomarkers such as gene up-/down-regulation, which may be non-specific due to patient related factors such as autoimmune diseases. Lastly, we discuss the challenges and possible solutions for using the P. acnes response to predict the radiation risk.

  3. Thiazolidinedione derivatives as novel agents against Propionibacterium acnes biofilms.

    PubMed

    Brackman, G; Forier, K; Al Quntar, A A A; De Canck, E; Enk, C D; Srebnik, M; Braeckmans, K; Coenye, T

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of two thiazolidinedione derivatives on Propionibacterium acnes biofilm formation in vitro and to assess their effect on the susceptibility of P. acnes biofilms towards antimicrobials. The compounds were shown to have a moderate to strong antibiofilm activity when used in subinhibitory concentrations. These compounds do not affect P. acnes attachment but lead to increased dispersal of biofilm cells. This dispersal results in an increased killing of the P. acnes biofilm cells by conventional antimicrobials. The antibiofilm effect and the effect on biofilm susceptibility of the thiazolidinedione-derived quorum sensing inhibitors were clearly demonstrated. Propionibacterium acnes infections are difficult to treat due to the presence of biofilms at the infection site and the associated resistance towards conventional antimicrobials. Our results indicate that these thiazolidinedione derivatives can be promising leads used for the treatment of P. acnes infections and as anti-acne drugs. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Etiologic Aspect of Sarcoidosis as an Allergic Endogenous Infection Caused by Propionibacterium acnes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. Propionibacterium acnes is the only microorganism that has been isolated from sarcoid lesions. Many P. acnes have been detected in sarcoid lymph nodes using quantitative PCR and in sarcoid granulomas by in situ hybridization. P. acnes trigger factor protein causes a cellular immune response only in sarcoid patients and induces pulmonary granulomas in mice sensitized with the protein and adjuvant, but only those with latent P. acnes infection in their lungs. Eradication of P. acnes by antibiotics prevents the development of granulomas in this experimental model. Although P. acnes is the most common commensal bacterium in the lungs and lymph nodes, P. acnes-specific antibody detected the bacterium within sarcoid granulomas of these organs. P. acnes can cause latent infection in the lung and lymph node and persist in a cell-wall-deficient form. The dormant form is activated endogenously under certain conditions and proliferates at the site of latent infection. In patients with P. acnes hypersensitivity, granulomatous inflammation is triggered by intracellular proliferation of the bacterium. Proliferating bacteria may escape granulomatous isolation, spreading to other organs. Latent P. acnes infection in systemic organs can be reactivated by another triggering event, leading to systemic sarcoidosis. PMID:23844371

  5. The diversity and host interactions of Propionibacterium acnes bacteriophages on human skin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jared; Yan, Riceley; Zhong, Qiao; Ngo, Sam; Bangayan, Nathanael J; Nguyen, Lin; Lui, Timothy; Liu, Minghsun; Erfe, Marie C; Craft, Noah; Tomida, Shuta; Li, Huiying

    2015-09-01

    The viral population, including bacteriophages, is an important component of the human microbiota, yet is poorly understood. We aim to determine whether bacteriophages modulate the composition of the bacterial populations, thus potentially playing a role in health or disease. We investigated the diversity and host interactions of the bacteriophages of Propionibacterium acnes, a major human skin commensal implicated in acne pathogenesis. By sequencing 48 P. acnes phages isolated from acne patients and healthy individuals and by analyzing the P. acnes phage populations in healthy skin metagenomes, we revealed that P. acnes phage populations in the skin microbial community are often dominated by one strain. We also found phage strains shared among both related and unrelated individuals, suggesting that a pool of common phages exists in the human population and that transmission of phages may occur between individuals. To better understand the bacterium-phage interactions in the skin microbiota, we determined the outcomes of 74 genetically defined Propionibacterium strains challenged by 15 sequenced phages. Depending on the Propionibacterium lineage, phage infection can result in lysis, pseudolysogeny, or resistance. In type II P. acnes strains, we found that encoding matching clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat spacers is insufficient to confer phage resistance. Overall, our findings suggest that the prey-predator relationship between bacteria and phages may have a role in modulating the composition of the microbiota. Our study also suggests that the microbiome structure of an individual may be an important factor in the design of phage-based therapy.

  6. A Precision Microbiome Approach Using Sucrose for Selective Augmentation of Staphylococcus epidermidis Fermentation against Propionibacterium acnes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanhan; Kao, Ming-Shan; Yu, Jinghua; Huang, Stephen; Marito, Shinta; Gallo, Richard L.; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Acne dysbiosis happens when there is a microbial imbalance of the over-growth of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) in the acne microbiome. In our previous study, we demonstrated that Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis, a probiotic skin bacterium) can exploit glycerol fermentation to produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) which have antimicrobial activities to suppress the growth of P. acnes. Unlike glycerol, sucrose is chosen here as a selective fermentation initiator (SFI) that can specifically intensify the fermentation activity of S. epidermidis, but not P. acnes. A co-culture of P. acnes and fermenting S. epidermidis in the presence of sucrose significantly led to a reduction in the growth of P. acnes. The reduction was abolished when P. acnes was co-cultured with non-fermenting S. epidermidis. Results from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis revealed four SCFAs (acetic acid, butyric acid, lactic acid, and succinic acid) were detectable in the media of S. epidermidis sucrose fermentation. To validate the interference of S. epidermidis sucrose fermentation with P. acnes, mouse ears were injected with both P. acnes and S. epidermidis plus sucrose or phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The level of macrophage-inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and the number of P. acnes in ears injected with two bacteria plus sucrose were considerably lower than those in ears injected with two bacteria plus PBS. Our results demonstrate a precision microbiome approach by using sucrose as a SFI for S. epidermidis, holding future potential as a novel modality to equilibrate dysbiotic acne. PMID:27834859

  7. A Precision Microbiome Approach Using Sucrose for Selective Augmentation of Staphylococcus epidermidis Fermentation against Propionibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhan; Kao, Ming-Shan; Yu, Jinghua; Huang, Stephen; Marito, Shinta; Gallo, Richard L; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2016-11-09

    Acne dysbiosis happens when there is a microbial imbalance of the over-growth of Propionibacterium acne s ( P. acnes ) in the acne microbiome. In our previous study, we demonstrated that Staphylococcus epidermidis ( S. epidermidis , a probiotic skin bacterium) can exploit glycerol fermentation to produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) which have antimicrobial activities to suppress the growth of P. acnes . Unlike glycerol, sucrose is chosen here as a selective fermentation initiator (SFI) that can specifically intensify the fermentation activity of S. epidermidis , but not P. acnes . A co-culture of P. acnes and fermenting S. epidermidis in the presence of sucrose significantly led to a reduction in the growth of P. acnes . The reduction was abolished when P. acnes was co-cultured with non-fermenting S. epidermidis . Results from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis revealed four SCFAs (acetic acid, butyric acid, lactic acid, and succinic acid) were detectable in the media of S. epidermidis sucrose fermentation. To validate the interference of S. epidermidis sucrose fermentation with P. acnes , mouse ears were injected with both P. acnes and S. epidermidis plus sucrose or phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The level of macrophage-inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and the number of P. acnes in ears injected with two bacteria plus sucrose were considerably lower than those in ears injected with two bacteria plus PBS. Our results demonstrate a precision microbiome approach by using sucrose as a SFI for S. epidermidis , holding future potential as a novel modality to equilibrate dysbiotic acne.

  8. In vivo treatment of Propionibacterium acnes infection with liposomal lauric acids.

    PubMed

    Pornpattananangkul, Dissaya; Fu, Victoria; Thamphiwatana, Soracha; Zhang, Li; Chen, Michael; Vecchio, James; Gao, Weiwei; Huang, Chun-Ming; Zhang, Liangfang

    2013-10-01

    Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) is a Gram-positive bacterium strongly associated with acne infection. While many antimicrobial agents have been used in clinic to treat acne infection by targeting P. acnes, these existing anti-acne agents usually produce considerable side effects. Herein, the development and evaluation of liposomal lauric acids (LipoLA) is reported as a new, effective and safe therapeutic agent for the treatment of acne infection. By incorporating lauric acids into the lipid bilayer of liposomes, it is observed that the resulting LipoLA readily fuse with bacterial membranes, causing effective killing of P. acnes by disrupting bacterial membrane structures. Using a mouse ear model, we demonstrated that the bactericidal property of LipoLA against P. acne is well preserved at physiological conditions. Topically applying LipoLA in a gel form onto the infectious sites leads to eradication of P. acnes bacteria in vivo. Further skin toxicity studies show that LipoLA does not induce acute toxicity to normal mouse skin, while benzoyl peroxide and salicylic acid, the two most popular over-the-counter acne medications, generate moderate to severe skin irritation within 24 h. These results suggest that LipoLA hold a high therapeutic potential for the treatment of acne infection and other P. acnes related diseases. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. In vitro LED and laser light photoinactivation of Propionibacterium acnes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuchina, Elena S.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2008-06-01

    Acne is a genetic, hormonal disease characterized by overproduction of oil by the sebaceous glands, plugging of the sebaceous glands to form micro- and macro- comedons and, finally, action of skin bacteria on oil trapped underneath the skin to red inflammatory cystic lesions. It was shown, that Propionibacterium acnes, the bacteria responsible for acne, was rather subjected to action of red and infrared radiation. The effect of the given radiation amplified at this bacteria by various solutions of photosensitizes.

  10. Platelet activation and aggregation by the opportunistic pathogen Cutibacterium (Propionibacterium) acnes

    PubMed Central

    Petersson, Frida; Kilsgård, Ola; Shannon, Oonagh

    2018-01-01

    Cutibacterium (Propionibacterium) acnes, considered a part of the skin microbiota, is one of the most commonly isolated anaerobic bacteria from medical implants in contact with plasma. However, the precise interaction of C. acnes with blood cells and plasma proteins has not been fully elucidated. Herein, we have investigated the molecular interaction of C. acnes with platelets and plasma proteins. We report that the ability of C. acnes to aggregate platelets is dependent on phylotype, with a significantly lower ability amongst type IB isolates, and the interaction of specific donor-dependent plasma proteins (or concentrations thereof) with C. acnes. Pretreatment of C. acnes with plasma reduces the lag time before aggregation demonstrating that pre-deposition of plasma proteins on C. acnes is an important step in platelet aggregation. Using mass spectrometry we identified several plasma proteins deposited on C. acnes, including IgG, fibrinogen and complement factors. Inhibition of IgG, fibrinogen or complement decreased C. acnes-mediated platelet aggregation, demonstrating the importance of these plasma proteins for aggregation. The interaction of C. acnes and platelets was visualized using fluorescence microscopy, verifying the presence of IgG and fibrinogen as components of the aggregates, and co-localization of C. acnes and platelets in the aggregates. Here, we have demonstrated the ability of C. acnes to activate and aggregate platelets in a bacterium and donor-specific fashion, as well as added mechanistic insights into this interaction. PMID:29385206

  11. Platelet activation and aggregation by the opportunistic pathogen Cutibacterium (Propionibacterium) acnes.

    PubMed

    Petersson, Frida; Kilsgård, Ola; Shannon, Oonagh; Lood, Rolf

    2018-01-01

    Cutibacterium (Propionibacterium) acnes, considered a part of the skin microbiota, is one of the most commonly isolated anaerobic bacteria from medical implants in contact with plasma. However, the precise interaction of C. acnes with blood cells and plasma proteins has not been fully elucidated. Herein, we have investigated the molecular interaction of C. acnes with platelets and plasma proteins. We report that the ability of C. acnes to aggregate platelets is dependent on phylotype, with a significantly lower ability amongst type IB isolates, and the interaction of specific donor-dependent plasma proteins (or concentrations thereof) with C. acnes. Pretreatment of C. acnes with plasma reduces the lag time before aggregation demonstrating that pre-deposition of plasma proteins on C. acnes is an important step in platelet aggregation. Using mass spectrometry we identified several plasma proteins deposited on C. acnes, including IgG, fibrinogen and complement factors. Inhibition of IgG, fibrinogen or complement decreased C. acnes-mediated platelet aggregation, demonstrating the importance of these plasma proteins for aggregation. The interaction of C. acnes and platelets was visualized using fluorescence microscopy, verifying the presence of IgG and fibrinogen as components of the aggregates, and co-localization of C. acnes and platelets in the aggregates. Here, we have demonstrated the ability of C. acnes to activate and aggregate platelets in a bacterium and donor-specific fashion, as well as added mechanistic insights into this interaction.

  12. Propionibacterium acnes Has Low Susceptibility to Chlorhexidine Digluconate.

    PubMed

    Nakase, Keisuke; Fukushima, Hanae; Yukawa, Tomoko; Nakaminami, Hidemasa; Fujii, Takeshi; Noguchi, Norihisa

    2018-04-01

    The skin bacterium Propionibacterium acnes has been reported to be responsible for surgical site infections (SSIs). Skin disinfection before surgery therefore is of the utmost importance in the prevention of SSIs caused by skin bacteria. We assessed the susceptibility of clinical isolates of two skin bacteria, P. acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis, to disinfectants. The range of chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for P. acnes isolates was 0.25-1 mcg/mL. Furthermore, the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) for a range of disinfectants were determined to evaluate their rapid bactericidal activity. The MBC range of CHG against the P. acnes isolates was 4,096->32,768 mcg/mL (MBC 80 16,384 mcg/mL) after one minute of exposure and 1,024-32,768 mcg/mL (MBC 80 8,192 mcg/mL) after five minutes, indicating that some strains required a CHG MBC higher than the commercial concentration of 2% (20,000 mcg/mL). In contrast, the MBCs of glutaraldehyde, sodium hypochlorite, povidone-iodine, ethanol, benzalkonium chloride, and olanexidine gluconate were all sufficiently lower than their commercial concentrations. In S. epidermidis, the MBC range of CHG was 128-1,024 mcg/mL at one minute of exposure and 4-8 mcg/mL at five minutes. Different skin bacteria have different susceptibilities to disinfectants. To prevent SSIs, the selected disinfectant agent and the disinfection time should have bactericidal activity toward all the bacteria that pose a risk of infection.

  13. Analysis of Complete Genomes of Propionibacterium acnes Reveals a Novel Plasmid and Increased Pseudogenes in an Acne Associated Strain

    PubMed Central

    Fitz-Gibbon, Sorel; Tomida, Shuta; Li, Huiying

    2013-01-01

    The human skin harbors a diverse community of bacteria, including the Gram-positive, anaerobic bacterium Propionibacterium acnes. P. acnes has historically been linked to the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris, a common skin disease affecting over 80% of all adolescents in the US. To gain insight into potential P. acnes pathogenic mechanisms, we previously sequenced the complete genome of a P. acnes strain HL096PA1 that is highly associated with acne. In this study, we compared its genome to the first published complete genome KPA171202. HL096PA1 harbors a linear plasmid, pIMPLE-HL096PA1. This is the first described P. acnes plasmid. We also observed a five-fold increase of pseudogenes in HL096PA1, several of which encode proteins in carbohydrate transport and metabolism. In addition, our analysis revealed a few island-like genomic regions that are unique to HL096PA1 and a large genomic inversion spanning the ribosomal operons. Together, these findings offer a basis for understanding P. acnes virulent properties, host adaptation mechanisms, and its potential role in acne pathogenesis at the strain level. Furthermore, the plasmid identified in HL096PA1 may potentially provide a new opportunity for P. acnes genetic manipulation and targeted therapy against specific disease-associated strains. PMID:23762865

  14. Propionibacterium acnes, an emerging pathogen: from acne to implant-infections, from phylotype to resistance.

    PubMed

    Aubin, G G; Portillo, M E; Trampuz, A; Corvec, S

    2014-06-01

    Propionibacterium acnes colonizes the lipid-rich sebaceous glands of the skin. This preferential anaerobic bacterium is easily identified if cultures are prolonged. It is involved in the inflammation process of acne, but until recently, it was neglected in other clinical presentations. Despite a reported low virulence, the new genomic, transcriptomic, and phylogenetic studies have allowed better understanding of this pathogen's importance that causes many chronic and recurrent infections, including orthopedic and cardiac prosthetic, and breast or eye implant-infections. These infections, facilitated by the ability of P. acnes to produce a biofilm, require using anti-biofilm active antibiotics such as rifampicin. The antibiogram of P. acnes is not systematically performed in microbiology laboratories because of its susceptibility to a wide range of antibiotics. However, in the last 10 years, the rate of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has increased, especially for macrolides and tetracyclines. Recently, rpoB gene mutations conferring resistance to rifampicin have been also reported. Thus in case of a biofilm growth mode, the therapeutic strategy should be discussed, according to the resistance phylotype and phenotype so as to optimize the treatment of these severe infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. A novel enzyme with antioxidant capacity produced by the ubiquitous skin colonizer Propionibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Allhorn, Maria; Arve, Sabine; Brüggemann, Holger; Lood, Rolf

    2016-11-02

    The role of the skin microbiota in human health is poorly understood. Here, we identified and characterized a novel antioxidant enzyme produced by the skin microbiota, designated RoxP for radical oxygenase of Propionibacterium acnes. RoxP is uniquely produced by the predominant skin bacterium P. acnes, with no homologs in other bacteria; it is highly expressed and strongly secreted into culture supernatants. We show that RoxP binds heme, reduces free radicals, and can protect molecules from oxidation. Strikingly, RoxP is crucial for the survival of P. acnes in oxic conditions and for skin colonization of P. acnes ex vivo. Taken together, our study strongly suggests that RoxP facilitates P. acnes' survival on human skin, and is an important beneficial factor for the host-commensal interaction. Thus, RoxP is the first described skin microbiota-derived mutualistic factor that potentially can be exploited for human skin protection.

  16. Formulation of antiacne serum based on lime peel essential oil and in vitro antibacterial activity test against Propionibacterium acnes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitri, Noor; Fatimah, Ifat; Chabib, Lutfi; Fajarwati, Febi Indah

    2017-03-01

    Propionibacterium acnes are a normal bacterium in human skin but it can become primary pathogens that can cause inflammation on the skin. Research about new antibacterial compounds is important because resistance of bacteria acne to antibiotics. Some of Essential oils have antibacterial properties. Lime peel essential oil and patchouli essential oil have some terpenoids that act as antibacterial compounds such as Linalool and Seychellene. The purpose of this research was to formulate anti acne serum based on lime peel essential oil and patchouli oil and to determine the zone of inhibition against of Propionibacterium acnes. This study made 21 variations of formulation of anti acne serum, consisted of lime peel essential oil, patchouli oil and olive oil. Anti acne serum was evaluated i.e. in vitro antibacterial activity test against Propionibacterium acnes for 5 days, organoleptic, stability test, pH test, viscosity test and GC-MS analysis. Nine serum formulations had been selected, which based on their most favorite order. Those favorite serums had antibacterial inhibitory against Propionibacterium acnes between 20.80 - 26.12 mm, whereas control positive only 12.47 mm and control negative 5.78 mm. The most favorite serum with the best antibacterial activity was serum formula A. The composition of serum A consist of lime peel essential oil: patchouli oil: olive oil (11:1:18).

  17. Proteomic analysis of extracellular vesicles derived from Propionibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jinseong; Mok, Hyuck Jun; Choi, Youngwoo; Park, Seung Cheol; Jo, Hunho; Her, Jin; Han, Jin-Kwan; Kim, Yoon-Keun; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Ban, Changill

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular vesicle (EV) has been reported to conduct critical pathophysiological functions as an emerging mode of communication in bacteria. Recently, Propionibacterium acnes, an anaerobic Gram-positive human commensal found in the skin and gastrointestinal tract, has drawn increasing attention as an underestimated pathogen in a variety of diseases. For the comprehensive understanding of P. acnes, here we report the isolation of P. acnes EVs for the first time and identification of 252 vesicular proteins with high confidence using triplicate LC-MS/MS analyses. Comprehensive proteomic profiling reveals that P. acnes EVs harbor various proteins involved in biochemical processes, antibiotic resistance, bacterial competition, cell adherence, virulence, and immunogenicity. We believe that this report will provide valuable information for investigating the biological role of P. acnes EVs and effective targets for developing clinical applications against P. acnes. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Propionic Acid Produced by Propionibacterium acnes Strains Contri-butes to Their Pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Tax, Gábor; Urbán, Edit; Palotás, Zsuzsanna; Puskás, Róbert; Kónya, Zoltán; Bíró, Tamás; Kemény, Lajos; Szabó, Kornélia

    2016-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is an important member of the skin microbiome. The bacterium can initiate signalling events and changes in cellular properties in keratinocytes. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of the bacterium on an immortalized human keratinocyte cell line. The results show that various P. acnes strains affect the cell-growth properties of these cells differentially, inducing cytotoxicity in a strain-specific and dose-dependent manner. We propose that bacterially secreted propionic acid may contribute to the cytotoxic effect. This acid has a role in maintaining skin pH and exhibits antimicrobial properties, but may also have deleterious effects when the local concentration rises due to excessive bacterial growth and metabolism. These results, together with available data from the literature, may provide insight into the dual role of P. acnes in healthy skin and during pathogenic conditions, as well as the key molecules involved in these functions.

  19. Recognition of Propionibacterium acnes by human TLR2 heterodimers.

    PubMed

    Su, Qi; Grabowski, Maria; Weindl, Günther

    2017-02-01

    Propionibacterium acnes has been considered as a crucial contributor to the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. The interaction between P. acnes and the host is mainly mediated by Toll like receptor (TLR) 2 recognition. TLR2 homodimers recognize P. acnes in mice, but here we describe the prerequisite of TLR2/1 and TLR2/6 heterodimers in human cells for P. acnes recognition. P. acnes-induced NF-κB and AP-1activation observed in HEK hTLR2-transfected but not control cells confirmed the specificity of TLR2 recognition. The activation was blocked by neutralizing antibodies against TLR2, TLR1 and TLR6, as well as the TLR2 antagonist CU-CPT22, which showed no selectivity towards human TLR2 heterodimers. The combination of anti-TLR1 and anti-TLR6 antibodies completely abrogated activation by P. acnes. In primary human keratinocytes, P. acnes-increased NF-κB phosphorylation was inhibited by anti-TLR6 and anti-TLR2 antibodies. Furthermore, P. acnes-induced inflammatory responses were impaired by anti-TLR2 neutralizing antibodies and fully blocked by CU-CPT22. Our study suggests species-specific recognition of P. acnes by TLR2 heterodimers which can be exploited therapeutically by small molecules targeting TLR2 for the control of inflammatory responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Emendation of Propionibacterium acnes subsp. acnes (Deiko et al. 2015) and proposal of Propionibacterium acnes type II as Propionibacterium acnes subsp. defendens subsp. nov.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Andrew; Barnard, Emma; Liu, Jared; Li, Huiying; Patrick, Sheila

    2016-12-01

    Recently, it has been proposed that strains of Propionibacterium acnes from the type III genetic division should be classified as P. acnessubsp. elongatum subsp. nov., with strains from the type I and II divisions collectively classified as P. acnessubsp. acnes subsp. nov. Under such a taxonomic re-appraisal, we believe that types I and II should also have their own separate rank of subspecies. In support of this, we describe a polyphasic taxonomic study based on the analysis of publicly available multilocus and whole-genome sequence datasets, alongside a systematic review of previously published phylogenetic, genomic, phenotypic and clinical data. Strains of types I and II form highly distinct clades on the basis of multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) and whole-genome phylogenetic reconstructions. In silico or digital DNA-DNA similarity values also fall within the 70-80 % boundary recommended for bacterial subspecies. Furthermore, we see important differences in genome content, including the presence of an active CRISPR/Cas system in type II strains, but not type I, and evidence for increasing linkage equilibrium within the separate divisions. Key biochemical differences include positive test results for β-haemolytic, neuraminidase and sorbitol fermentation activities with type I strains, but not type II. We now propose that type I strains should be classified as P. acnessubsp. acnes subsp. nov., and type II as P. acnessubsp. defendens subsp. nov. The type strain of P. acnessubsp. acnes subsp. nov. is NCTC 737T (=ATCC 6919T=JCM 6425T=DSM 1897T=CCUG 1794T), while the type strain of P. acnessubsp. defendens subsp. nov. is ATCC 11828 (=JCM 6473=CCUG 6369).

  1. Propionibacterium acnes bacteriophages display limited genetic diversity and broad killing activity against bacterial skin isolates.

    PubMed

    Marinelli, Laura J; Fitz-Gibbon, Sorel; Hayes, Clarmyra; Bowman, Charles; Inkeles, Megan; Loncaric, Anya; Russell, Daniel A; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Cokus, Shawn; Pellegrini, Matteo; Kim, Jenny; Miller, Jeff F; Hatfull, Graham F; Modlin, Robert L

    2012-01-01

    Investigation of the human microbiome has revealed diverse and complex microbial communities at distinct anatomic sites. The microbiome of the human sebaceous follicle provides a tractable model in which to study its dominant bacterial inhabitant, Propionibacterium acnes, which is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of the human disease acne. To explore the diversity of the bacteriophages that infect P. acnes, 11 P. acnes phages were isolated from the sebaceous follicles of donors with healthy skin or acne and their genomes were sequenced. Comparative genomic analysis of the P. acnes phage population, which spans a 30-year temporal period and a broad geographic range, reveals striking similarity in terms of genome length, percent GC content, nucleotide identity (>85%), and gene content. This was unexpected, given the far-ranging diversity observed in virtually all other phage populations. Although the P. acnes phages display a broad host range against clinical isolates of P. acnes, two bacterial isolates were resistant to many of these phages. Moreover, the patterns of phage resistance correlate closely with the presence of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat elements in the bacteria that target a specific subset of phages, conferring a system of prokaryotic innate immunity. The limited diversity of the P. acnes bacteriophages, which may relate to the unique evolutionary constraints imposed by the lipid-rich anaerobic environment in which their bacterial hosts reside, points to the potential utility of phage-based antimicrobial therapy for acne. Propionibacterium acnes is a dominant member of the skin microflora and has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of acne; however, little is known about the bacteriophages that coexist with and infect this bacterium. Here we present the novel genome sequences of 11 P. acnes phages, thereby substantially increasing the amount of available genomic information about this phage population

  2. Propionibacterium acnes biofilm - A sanctuary for Staphylococcus aureus?

    PubMed

    Tyner, Harmony; Patel, Robin

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of combined culture of Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus on biofilm formation under different oxygen concentrations. We measured planktonic growth and biofilm formation of P. acnes and S. aureus alone and together under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Both P. acnes and S. aureus grew under anaerobic conditions. When grown under anaerobic conditions, P. acnes with or without S. aureus formed a denser biomass biofilm than did S. aureus alone. Viable S. aureus was recovered from a16-day old combined P. acnes and S. aureus biofilm, but not a monomicrobial S. aureus biofilm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Propionibacterium acnes is developing gradual increase in resistance to oral tetracyclines.

    PubMed

    Nakase, Keisuke; Nakaminami, Hidemasa; Takenaka, Yuko; Hayashi, Nobukazu; Kawashima, Makoto; Noguchi, Norihisa

    2017-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is an anaerobic bacterium that causes deep infection in organs and prosthetic joints, in addition to acne vulgaris. Many tetracycline-resistant P. acnes strains have been isolated because oral tetracyclines are frequently used as an acne treatment against P. acnes. In this study, we found a novel tetracycline resistance mechanism in P. acnes. Three doxycycline-resistant (MIC: 16 µg ml-1) strains were isolated from 69 strains in acne patients in Japan between 2010 and 2011. Additionally, six insusceptible strains (MIC: 1-2 µg ml-1) that had reduced susceptibility compared to susceptible strains (MIC: ≤0.5 µg ml-1) were identified. All doxycycline-resistant strains had a G1036C mutation in the 16S rRNA gene in addition to an amino acid substitution in the ribosomal S10 protein encoded by rpsJ. By contrast, insusceptible strains had an amino acid substitution in the S10 protein but no mutation in the 16S rRNA. When the mutant with decreased susceptibility to doxycycline was obtained in vitro, only the mutated S10 protein was found (MIC: 4 µg ml-1), not the mutated 16S rRNA gene. This result shows that the S10 protein amino acid substitution contributes to reduced doxycycline susceptibility in P. acnes and suggests that tetracycline resistance is acquired through a 16S rRNA mutation after the S10 protein amino acid substitution causes reduced susceptibility.

  4. Complete genomic sequences of Propionibacterium freudenreichii phages from Swiss cheese reveal greater diversity than Cutibacterium (formerly Propionibacterium) acnes phages.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lucy; Marinelli, Laura J; Grosset, Noël; Fitz-Gibbon, Sorel T; Bowman, Charles A; Dang, Brian Q; Russell, Daniel A; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Shi, Baochen; Pellegrini, Matteo; Miller, Jeff F; Gautier, Michel; Hatfull, Graham F; Modlin, Robert L

    2018-03-01

    A remarkable exception to the large genetic diversity often observed for bacteriophages infecting a specific bacterial host was found for the Cutibacterium acnes (formerly Propionibacterium acnes) phages, which are highly homogeneous. Phages infecting the related species, which is also a member of the Propionibacteriaceae family, Propionibacterium freudenreichii, a bacterium used in production of Swiss-type cheeses, have also been described and are common contaminants of the cheese manufacturing process. However, little is known about their genetic composition and diversity. We obtained seven independently isolated bacteriophages that infect P. freudenreichii from Swiss-type cheese samples, and determined their complete genome sequences. These data revealed that all seven phage isolates are of similar genomic length and GC% content, but their genomes are highly diverse, including genes encoding the capsid, tape measure, and tail proteins. In contrast to C. acnes phages, all P. freudenreichii phage genomes encode a putative integrase protein, suggesting they are capable of lysogenic growth. This is supported by the finding of related prophages in some P. freudenreichii strains. The seven phages could further be distinguished as belonging to two distinct genomic types, or 'clusters', based on nucleotide sequences, and host range analyses conducted on a collection of P. freudenreichii strains show a higher degree of host specificity than is observed for the C. acnes phages. Overall, our data demonstrate P. freudenreichii bacteriophages are distinct from C. acnes phages, as evidenced by their higher genetic diversity, potential for lysogenic growth, and more restricted host ranges. This suggests substantial differences in the evolution of these related species from the Propionibacteriaceae family and their phages, which is potentially related to their distinct environmental niches.

  5. Propionibacterium acnes Enhances the Immunogenicity of HIVBr18 Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Daniela; Ishimura, Mayari Eika; Apostólico, Juliana de Souza; Viel, Jacqueline Miyuki; Passarelli, Victor Cabelho; Cunha-Neto, Edecio; Rosa, Daniela Santoro; Longo-Maugéri, Ieda Maria

    2018-01-01

    Immunization of BALB/c mice with HIVBr18, a DNA vaccine containing 18 CD4+ T cell epitopes from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), induced specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses in a broad, polyfunctional and persistent manner. With the aim of increasing the immunogenicity of this vaccine, the effect of Propionibacterium acnes as an adjuvant was evaluated. The adjuvant effects of this bacterium have been extensively demonstrated in both experimental and clinical settings. Herein, administration of two doses of HIVBr18, in the presence of P. acnes, increased the proliferation of HIV-1-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, the polyfunctional profile of CD4+ T cells, the production of IFN-γ, and the number of recognized vaccine-encoded peptides. One of the bacterial components responsible for most of the adjuvant effects observed was a soluble polysaccharide extracted from the P. acnes cell wall. Furthermore, within 10 weeks after immunization, the proliferation of specific T cells and production of IFN-γ were maintained when the whole bacterium was administered, demonstrating a greater effect on the longevity of the immune response by P. acnes. Even with fewer immunization doses, P. acnes was found to be a potent adjuvant capable of potentiating the effects of the HIVBr18 vaccine. Therefore, P. acnes may be a potential adjuvant to aid this vaccine in inducing immunity or for therapeutic use. PMID:29467764

  6. Neutrophil chemotaxis by Propionibacterium acnes lipase and its inhibition.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, W L; Shalita, A R; Suntharalingam, K; Fikrig, S M

    1982-01-01

    The chemoattraction of Propionibacterium acnes lipase for neutrophils and the effect of lipase inhibitor and two antibiotic agents on the chemotaxis were evaluated. Of the various fractions tested, partially purified lipase (fraction 2c) was the most active cytotaxin produced by P. acnes. Serum mediators were not required for the generation of chemotaxis by lipase in vitro. Diisopropyl phosphofluoridate at low concentration (10(-4) mM) completely inhibited lipase activity as well as polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemotaxis generated by lipase. Tetracycline hydrochloride and erythromycin base at concentrations of 10(-1) mM and 1 mM, respectively, caused 100% inhibition of PMN migration toward lipase or zymosan-activated serum. The inhibiting activity of the antibiotics was directed against cells independently of any effect on lipase. Chemotaxis by P. acnes lipase suggests a wider role for this enzyme in the inflammatory process and the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. Images PMID:7054130

  7. Transcriptomic analysis of Propionibacterium acnes biofilms in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jahns, Anika C; Eilers, Hinnerk; Alexeyev, Oleg A

    2016-12-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a well-known commensal of the human skin connected to acne vulgaris and joint infections. It is extensively studied in planktonic cultures in the laboratory settings but occurs naturally in biofilms. In this study we have developed an in vitro biofilm model of P. acnes and studied growth features, matrix composition, matrix penetration by fluorescent-labeled antibiotics as well as gene expression. Antibiotic susceptibility of biofilms was studied and could be enhanced by increased glucose concentrations. Biofilm cells were characterized by up-regulated stress-induced genes and up-regulation of genes coding for the potential virulence-associated CAMP factors. P. acnes can generate persister cells showing a reversible tolerance to 50 fold MIC of common antibiotics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Simultaneous visualization of Propionibacterium acnes and Propionibacterium granulosum with immunofluorescence and fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Jahns, Anika C; Oprica, Cristina; Vassilaki, Ismini; Golovleva, Irina; Palmer, Ruth H; Alexeyev, Oleg A

    2013-10-01

    Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) and Propionibacterium granulosum (P. granulosum) are common skin colonizers that are implicated as possible contributing factors in acne vulgaris development. We have established direct visualization tools for the simultaneous detection of these closely related species with immunofluorescence assay and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). As proof of principle, we were able to distinguish P. acnes and P. granulosum bacteria in multi-species populations in vitro as well as in a mock skin infection model upon labelling with 16S rRNA probes in combinatorial FISH as well as with antibodies. Furthermore, we report the co-localization of P. acnes and P. granulosum in the stratum corneum and hair follicles from patients with acne vulgaris as well as in healthy individuals. Further studies on the spatial distribution of these bacteria in skin structures in various skin disorders are needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Histological Identification of Propionibacterium acnes in Nonpyogenic Degenerated Intervertebral Discs.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ye; Zhou, Zezhu; Jiao, Yucheng; Li, Changwei; Zheng, Yuehuan; Lin, Yazhou; Xiao, Jiaqi; Chen, Zhe; Cao, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Purpose . Low-virulence anaerobic bacteria, especially the Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) , have been thought to be a new pathogeny for a series of disc diseases. However, until now, there has been no histological evidence to confirm this link. The purpose of this study was to confirm the presence of P. acnes in nonpyogenic intervertebral discs via histological observation. Method . Degenerated intervertebral discs were harvested from 76 patients with low back pain and/or sciatica but without any symptoms of discitis or spondylodiscitis. The samples were cultured under anaerobic conditions and then examined using 16S rDNA PCR to screen for P. acnes . Samples found to be positive for P. acnes were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and modified Brown-Brenn staining and observed under a microscope. Results . Here, 16 intervertebral discs were found to be positive for P. acnes via 16S rDNA PCR and the prevalence was 21.05% (16/76). Among them, 7 samples had visible microbes stained with HE and modified Brown-Brenn staining. Morphological examination showed the bacteria to be Gram-positive and rod-shaped, so they were considered P. acnes . Conclusion . P. acnes is capable of colonizing some degenerated intervertebral discs without causing discitis, and its presence could be further confirmed by histological evidence. Targeting these bacteria may be a promising therapy method for some disc diseases.

  10. Clinical Features of Infectious Keratitis Caused by Propionibacterium Acnes.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sung A; Na, Kyung-Sun; Joo, Choun-Ki

    2017-09-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a commensal bacteria whose pathogenicity in infectious keratitis is unclear. In this study, we report infectious keratitis cultured with P. acnes and evaluate its clinical characteristics. All cases of infectious keratitis submitted to the microbiology laboratory of St. Mary's Hospital of Seoul between January 2013 and April 2014 were reviewed. Nonpretreated cases that were positive for P. acnes were identified, and clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes were studied. Of 132 cultures submitted to the microbiology laboratory, 89 (67.4%) were positive for growth, and a total of 16 (17.9%) of the 89 cases yielded P. acnes in culture medium. Infectious keratitis that was positive for P. acnes was generally small (62.5%) with deep stromal infiltration (81.25%) and a peripheral location (56.25%). The average incubation period was 11.06±5.76 days, and the average time to reepithelialization was 23.50+13.52 days. All the cases of P. acnes evaluated in this report responded well to medical treatment. Infectious keratitis with P. acnes is not uncommon and can be confused with other Gram-positive cocci. Thus, P. acnes should be suspected in small-sized keratitis with an unusually long incubation period.

  11. Propionibacterium acnes inhibits FOXM1 and induces cell cycle alterations in human primary prostate cells.

    PubMed

    Sayanjali, Behnam; Christensen, Gitte J M; Al-Zeer, Munir A; Mollenkopf, Hans-Joachim; Meyer, Thomas F; Brüggemann, Holger

    2016-11-01

    Propionibacterium acnes has been detected in diseased human prostate tissue, and cell culture experiments suggest that the bacterium can establish a low-grade inflammation. Here, we investigated its impact on human primary prostate epithelial cells. Microarray analysis confirmed the inflammation-inducing capability of P. acnes but also showed deregulation of genes involved in the cell cycle. qPCR experiments showed that viable P. acnes downregulates a master regulator of cell cycle progression, FOXM1. Flow cytometry experiments revealed that P. acnes increases the number of cells in S-phase. We tested the hypothesis that a P. acnes-produced berninamycin-like thiopeptide is responsible for this effect, since it is related to the FOXM1 inhibitor siomycin. The thiopeptide biosynthesis gene cluster was strongly expressed; it is present in subtype IB of P. acnes, but absent from type IA, which is most abundant on human skin. A knock-out mutant lacking the gene encoding the berninamycin-like peptide precursor was unable to downregulate FOXM1 and to halt the cell cycle. Our study reveals a novel host cell-interacting activity of P. acnes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  12. Propionibacterium acnes lacks the capability to proliferate in platelet concentrates.

    PubMed

    Störmer, M; Kleesiek, K; Dreier, J

    2008-04-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is considered to be one of the most frequent contaminants of platelet concentrates (PCs) when anaerobic culture-based detection methods are used. But Propionibacteria are often detected too late when blood products have already been transfused. Therefore, its transfusion relevance is still demanding clarification because studies of the outcome of patients transfused with P. acnes-contaminated PCs are still uncommon. In this study, we monitored clinical effects in patients after transfusion of PCs, which were detected too late in sterility testing. Furthermore, we assessed the bacterial proliferation of Propionibacterium species seeded into PCs to clarify their significance for platelet bacteria screening. In the look-back process, we followed the route of the putative contaminated PC units from storage to transfusion. In the in vitro study, PCs were inoculated with 1-100 colony-forming unit (CFU)/ml of clinical isolates of Propionibacteria (n = 10). Sampling was performed during 10-day aerobic storage at 22 degrees C. The presence of bacteria was assessed by plating culture and automated BacT/Alert culture system. Propionibacterium acnes shows slow or no growth under PC storage conditions. Clinical signs of adverse events after transfusion of potentially contaminated PC units were not reported. Propionibacteria do not proliferate under PC storage conditions and therefore may be missed or detected too late when blood products have already been transfused.

  13. Prospects of Phage Application in the Treatment of Acne Caused by Propionibacterium acnes

    PubMed Central

    Jończyk-Matysiak, Ewa; Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Żaczek, Maciej; Międzybrodzki, Ryszard; Letkiewicz, Sławomir; Łusiak-Szelchowska, Marzanna; Górski, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is associated with purulent skin infections, and it poses a global problem for both patients and doctors. Acne vulgaris (acne) remains a problem due to its chronic character and difficulty of treatment, as well as its large impact on patients' quality of life. Due to the chronic course of the disease, treatment is long lasting, and often ineffective. Currently there are data regarding isolation of P. acnes phages, and there have been numerous studies on phage killing of P. acnes, but no data are available on phage application specifically in acne treatment. In this review, we have summarized the current knowledge on the phages active against P. acnes described so far and their potential application in the treatment of acne associated with P. acnes. The treatment of acne with phages may be important in order to reduce the overuse of antibiotics, which are currently the main acne treatment. However, more detailed studies are first needed to understand phage functioning in the skin microbiome and the possibility to use phages to combat P. acnes. PMID:28228751

  14. Propionibacterium acnes as a cause of lung abscess in a cardiac transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Veitch, David; Abioye, Abu; Morris-Jones, Stephen; McGregor, Alastair

    2015-12-16

    A 29-year-old man was admitted with fevers, cough, left-sided chest pain and lethargy for 1 week. He had a cardiac transplant 10 years prior and was on immunosuppressive drugs. He was found to have a pulmonary lesion and went on to develop a lung abscess. Propionibacterium acnes was identified on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation mass spectrometry-time of flight and 16s rRNA gene sequencing after drainage. He was curatively treated with co-trimoxazole and co-amoxiclav. He divulged a longstanding history of seborrhoeic dermatitis with frequent flares leading to large volumes of squames collecting on his bed sheets. We hypothesise this was a possible route of entry: inhalation of the Propionibacterium. This case highlights how a common commensal bacterium, P. acnes, was able to cause pathology in an immunosuppressed patient. This is the only case of a patient with transplantation developing a P. acnes pulmonary infection and the only case of P. acnes causing these clinical features to be reported in the literature. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  15. Propionibacterium Acnes Infection of a Metacarpophalangeal Joint Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Bacle, Guillaume; Sikora, Sheena K; Ek, Eugene T H

    2017-05-01

    Neglected and underestimated in the past, Propionibacterium acnes is currently the most prevalent organism associated with deep prosthetic infections around the shoulder. Surprisingly, it has never been reported as a cause of infection in the hand. Here we report a case of a late presentation of a P. acnes infection in a metacarpophalangeal joint replacement, resulting in chronic low-grade pain with movement. The patient underwent a 2-stage revision, with initial removal of the prosthesis. Positive cultures for P. acnes required 15 days of extended incubation. The patient subsequently had 6 weeks of oral antibiotics followed by a second-stage revision with a Silastic implant. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Propionibacterium acnes infection in shoulder arthroscopy patients with postoperative pain.

    PubMed

    Horneff, John G; Hsu, Jason E; Voleti, Pramod B; O'Donnell, Judith; Huffman, G Russell

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies have identified Propionibacterium acnes as the causal organism in an increasing number of postoperative shoulder infections. Most reports have found a high rate of P acnes infection after open surgery, particularly shoulder arthroplasty. However, there are limited data regarding P acnes infections after shoulder arthroscopy. We prospectively collected data on all shoulder arthroscopies performed by the senior author from January 1, 2009, until April 1, 2013. Cultures were taken in all revision shoulder arthroscopy cases performed for pain, stiffness, or weakness. In addition, 2 cultures were taken from each of a cohort of 32 primary shoulder arthroscopy cases without concern for infection to determine the false-positive rate. A total of 1,591 shoulder arthroscopies were performed during this period, 68 (4.3%) of which were revision procedures performed for pain, stiffness, or weakness. A total of 20 revision arthroscopies (29.4%) had positive culture findings, and 16 (23.5%) were positive for P acnes. In the control group, 1 patient (3.2%) had P acnes growth. The rate of P acnes infection in patients undergoing revision shoulder arthroscopy is higher than previously published and should be considered in cases characterized by refractory postoperative pain and stiffness. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The challenge of Propionibacterium acnes and revision shoulder arthroplasty: a review of current diagnostic options.

    PubMed

    Shields, Margaret V; Abdullah, Leath; Namdari, Surena

    2016-06-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is the most common cause of infection after shoulder arthroplasty. Whereas there are several methods that can aid in the diagnosis of P. acnes infection, there is not a single "gold standard" because of the difficulties inherent in identifying this bacterium. We present an evidence-based discussion of the demographic, clinical, and radiographic predictors of P. acnes infection and review the current options for diagnosis. This review was written after a comprehensive analysis of the current literature related to shoulder periprosthetic joint infection and P. acnes identification. Of the techniques reviewed, α-defensin had the highest sensitivity in detecting P. acnes infection (63%). C-reactive protein level and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were often normal in cases of infection. Whereas P. acnes can be challenging to successfully diagnose, there are several options that are considered preferable because of their higher sensitivities and specificities. The current gold standard is intraoperative culture, but major advances in molecular techniques may provide future improvements in diagnostic accuracy. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Staphylococcus epidermidis in the human skin microbiome mediates fermentation to inhibit the growth of Propionibacterium acnes: Implications of probiotics in acne vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanhan; Kuo, Sherwin; Shu, Muya; Yu, Jinghua; Huang, Stephen; Dai, Ashley; Two, Aimee; Gallo, Richard L.; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence demonstrates that commensal microorganisms in the human skin microbiome help fight pathogens and maintain homeostasis of the microbiome. However, it is unclear how these microorganisms maintain biological balance when one of them overgrows. The overgrowth of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), a commensal skin bacterium, has been associated with the progression of acne vulgaris. Our results demonstrate that skin microorganisms can mediate fermentation of glycerol, which is naturally produced in skin, to enhance their inhibitory effects on P. acnes growth. The skin microorganisms, most of which have been identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), in the microbiome of human fingerprints can ferment glycerol and create inhibition zones to repel a colony of overgrown P. acnes. Succinic acid, one of four short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) detected in fermented media by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis, effectively inhibits the growth of P. acnes in vitro and in vivo. Both intralesional injection and topical application of succinic acid to P. acnes-induced lesions markedly suppress the P. acnes-induced inflammation in mice. We demonstrate for the first time that bacterial members in the skin microbiome can undergo fermentation to rein in the overgrowth of P. acnes. The concept of bacterial interference between P. acnes and S. epidermidis via fermentation can be applied to develop probiotics against acne vulgaris and other skin diseases. In addition, it will open up an entirely new area of study for the biological function of the skin microbiome in promoting human health. PMID:24265031

  19. Chronic prostatic infection and inflammation by Propionibacterium acnes in a rat prostate infection model.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Jan; Drott, Johanna Bergh; Laurantzon, Lovisa; Laurantzon, Oscar; Bergh, Anders; Elgh, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    Chronic inflammation in the prostate, seen as infiltration of inflammatory cells into the prostate gland in histological samples, affects approximately half the male population without indication of prostate disease, and is almost ubiquitous in patients diagnosed with benign prostate hyperplasia and cancer. Several studies have demonstrated the gram-positive bacterium Propionibacterium acnes to be frequently present in prostate tissue from men suffering from prostate disease. P. acnes has been shown to be associated with histological inflammation in human prostatectomy specimens, and also to induce strong inflammatory response in prostate-derived tissue culture models. The present paper describes a rat model for assessment of the pathogenic potential of P. acnes in prostate. Prostate glands of Sprague Dawley rats (n = 98) were exposed via an abdominal incision and live P. acnes or, in control rats, saline were injected into the ventral and dorso-lateral lobes. Rats were sacrificed 5 days, 3 weeks, 3 months and 6 months post infection, and prostate tissue was analyzed for bacterial content and histological inflammation. Rat sera were assessed for levels of CRP and anti-P. acnes IgG. Live P. acnes could be recovered from the dorso-lateral lobes up to 3 months post infection, while the ventral lobes were cleared from bacteria at that time. In samples up to 3 months post infection, the dorso-lateral lobes exhibited intense focal inflammation. CRP and IgG levels were elevated throughout the span of the experiment, and reached maximum levels 3 weeks and 3 months post infection, respectively. We show that P. acnes have the potential to cause chronic infection in previously healthy prostate, and that the infection has potential to cause chronic histological inflammation in the infected tissue. The high prevalence of P. acnes in human prostate tissue calls for resolution of pathogenic details. The present rat model suggests that complications such as chronic

  20. Chronic Prostatic Infection and Inflammation by Propionibacterium acnes in a Rat Prostate Infection Model

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, Jan; Drott, Johanna Bergh; Laurantzon, Lovisa; Laurantzon, Oscar; Bergh, Anders; Elgh, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    Chronic inflammation in the prostate, seen as infiltration of inflammatory cells into the prostate gland in histological samples, affects approximately half the male population without indication of prostate disease, and is almost ubiquitous in patients diagnosed with benign prostate hyperplasia and cancer. Several studies have demonstrated the Gram-positive bacterium Propionibacterium acnes to be frequently present in prostate tissue from men suffering from prostate disease. P. acnes has been shown to be associated with histological inflammation in human prostatectomy specimens, and also to induce strong inflammatory response in prostate-derived tissue culture models. The present paper describes a rat model for assessment of the pathogenic potential of P. acnes in prostate. Prostate glands of Sprague Dawley rats (n = 98) were exposed via an abdominal incision and live P. acnes or, in control rats, saline were injected into the ventral and dorso-lateral lobes. Rats were sacrificed 5 days, 3 weeks, 3 months and 6 months post infection, and prostate tissue was analyzed for bacterial content and histological inflammation. Rat sera were assessed for levels of CRP and anti-P. acnes IgG. Live P. acnes could be recovered from the dorso-lateral lobes up to 3 months post infection, while the ventral lobes were cleared from bacteria at that time. In samples up to 3 months post infection, the dorso-lateral lobes exhibited intense focal inflammation. CRP and IgG levels were elevated throughout the span of the experiment, and reached maximum levels 3 weeks and 3 months post infection, respectively. We show that P. acnes have the potential to cause chronic infection in previously healthy prostate, and that the infection has potential to cause chronic histological inflammation in the infected tissue. The high prevalence of P. acnes in human prostate tissue calls for resolution of pathogenic details. The present rat model suggests that complications such as chronic

  1. Autophagy Induced by Intracellular Infection of Propionibacterium acnes

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Teruko; Furukawa, Asuka; Uchida, Keisuke; Ogawa, Tomohisa; Tamura, Tomoki; Sakonishi, Daisuke; Wada, Yuriko; Suzuki, Yoshimi; Ishige, Yuki; Minami, Junko; Akashi, Takumi

    2016-01-01

    Background Sarcoidosis is caused by Th1-type immune responses to unknown agents, and is linked to the infectious agent Propionibacterium acnes. Many strains of P. acnes isolated from sarcoid lesions cause intracellular infection and autophagy may contribute to the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis. We examined whether P. acnes induces autophagy. Methods Three cell lines from macrophages (Raw264.7), mesenchymal cells (MEF), and epithelial cells (HeLa) were infected by viable or heat-killed P. acnes (clinical isolate from sarcoid lymph node) at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 100 or 1000 for 1 h. Extracellular bacteria were killed by washing and culturing infected cells with antibiotics. Samples were examined by colony assay, electron-microscopy, and fluorescence-microscopy with anti-LC3 and anti-LAMP1 antibodies. Autophagy-deficient (Atg5-/-) MEF cells were also used. Results Small and large (≥5 μm in diameter) LC3-positive vacuoles containing few or many P. acnes cells (LC3-positive P. acnes) were frequently found in the three cell lines when infected by viable P. acnes at MOI 1000. LC3-positive large vacuoles were mostly LAMP1-positive. A few small LC3-positive/LAMP1-negative vacuoles were consistently observed in some infected cells for 24 h postinfection. The number of LC3-positive P. acnes was decreased at MOI 100 and completely abolished when heat-killed P. acnes was used. LC3-positive P. acnes was not found in autophagy-deficient Atg5-/- cells where the rate of infection was 25.3 and 17.6 times greater than that in wild-type Atg5+/+ cells at 48 h postinfection at MOI 100 and 1000, respectively. Electron-microscopic examination revealed bacterial cells surrounded mostly by a single-membrane including the large vacuoles and sometimes a double or multi-layered membrane, with occasional undigested bacterial cells in ruptured late endosomes or in the cytoplasm. Conclusion Autophagy was induced by intracellular P. acnes infection and contributed to intracellular

  2. Clinical impact of positive Propionibacterium acnes cultures in orthopedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Lavergne, V; Malo, M; Gaudelli, C; Laprade, M; Leduc, S; Laflamme, P; Rouleau, D M

    2017-04-01

    The clinical significance of a positive culture to Propionibacterium acnes in orthopedic specimens remains unclear, whether about its role as a contaminant or a pathogen, or its impact as a coinfectant. Therefore, we performed a retrospective study to provide a more accurate description of the clinical impact of P. acnes in an orthopedic population aiming to determine: 1) if there is a clinical difference between P. acnes infection and contamination? 2) If there is a clinical difference between P. acnes monoinfection, and coinfection. There is a clinical difference between P. acnes infection and contamination. Patients were selected over a five-year period, and those with a minimum of one positive culture for P. acnes, from any intraoperative orthopedic tissue sample, were included in the study. P. acnes infection was defined as the isolation of P. acnes from≥2 specimens, or in only one specimen, in the presence of typical perioperative findings and/or local signs of infection. A total of 68 patients had a positive P. acnes culture, 35 of which were considered to be infected. The infections affected mostly males (29/35-83%), occurred mostly in shoulders (22/35-63%), and at a site already containing an orthopedic implant (32/35-91%). Local inflammatory signs were present in half of the cases when an infection was diagnosed. Coinfection with other pathogens was present in 31% of patients (11/35). When comparing patients coinfected with P. acnes, and those who were monoinfected, the latter presented less often with local inflammatory signs. Recurrence rate was 24% (8/35) and the only risk factor for recurrence was the presence of a monoinfection. This study confirms the pathogenicity of P. acnes in an orthopedic population, as it is present in multiple samples in the same patient, and because it is present in cultures from cases with clinical recurrence. Our study showed that monoinfections differ from coinfections mainly by their higher risk of recurrence

  3. Clinical Analysis of Propionibacterium acnes Infection After Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Nodzo, Scott R; Westrich, Geoffrey H; Henry, Michael W; Miller, Andy O

    2016-09-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a common cause of upper extremity arthroplasty infection and usually presents in an indolent subacute fashion. It is not well described how total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients infected with P acnes present. We retrospectively compared patients undergoing revision TKA for infection from P acnes and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcal aureus (MSSA) in our institutional infection database. Patients were classified as having a periprosthetic joint infection based on the Musculoskeletal Infection Society criteria and were excluded if they had a polymicrobial culture. Patient demographics, preoperative laboratory values, microbiology data, and synovial fluid white blood cell (WBC) counts were analyzed. Sixteen patients with a P acnes and 30 with an MSSA TKA periprosthetic joint infection were identified. Median erythrocyte sedimentation rate was significantly higher in the MSSA group compared to the P acnes group (56.0 mm/h; interquartile range [IQR], 44.3-72.9 vs 23.0 mm/h; IQR, 18.5-52.0; respectively, P = .03) as were C-reactive protein levels (5.9 mg/dL; IQR, 3.7-26.9 vs 2.0 mg/dL; IQR, 0.5-14.0; respectively, P = .04). WBC count, synovial fluid WBC, and percentage of synovial polymorphonuclear cells were similar between groups. Mean time to culture was 8.3 ± 2.0 days in the P acnes group and 1.8 ± 0.8 days in the MSSA group. P acnes TKA infections are associated with more acute inflammatory symptoms than typically appreciated, and long hold anaerobic cultures up to 14 days are necessary to accurately identify this organism as the causative agent of TKA periprosthetic infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Detection of the relatively slow-growing Propionibacterium acnes in seven matrices of blood components and advanced therapeutical medicinal products.

    PubMed

    Arlt, Nicole; Rothe, Remo; Juretzek, Thomas; Peltroche, Heidrun; Tonn, Torsten; Moog, Rainer

    2017-06-01

    Relatively slow-growing bacteria like Propionibacterium acnes represent a challenge for quality control investigations in sterility release testing of blood components and advanced therapeutic medicinal products (ATMPs). A convenient validation with 7 matrices was performed using buffy coat, stem cells, islet cells, natural killer cells, red blood cells, platelets and plasma in the microbial detection system Bact/Alert ® 3D incubator. All matrix samples were spiked twofold with Propionibacterium acnes with approximately 50 colony forming units (CFUs) per bottle in iAST and iNST culture bottles for 14days using a multishot bioball. Additionally, the stem cell preparations were also incubated in iFAplus and iFNplus culture bottles, which include neutralizing polymers. The Bact/Alert ® 3D-System detected Propionibacterium acnes in anaerobic culture bottles in buffy coat [3.3 d (=positive signal day to detection as mean value)], red blood cells [3.2 d], platelets [3.3], plasma [3.7 d], natural killer cells [3.3 d] and islet cells [4.9 d], resp. No growth of Propionibacterium was found in autologous stem cells using iAST and iNST culture bottles. However, Propionibacterium was safely detected in the iFNplus culture bottle with polymers in the stem cell matrix. A successful validation of media was performed. Our study shows that Bact/Alert ® 3D-System safely detects the relatively slow-growing bacterium Propionibacterium acnes in different matrices in a practical way except stem cells. Using the iFNplus culture bottle for stem cell products positive signals were observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Propionibacterium acnes: Disease-Causing Agent or Common Contaminant? Detection in Diverse Patient Samples by Next-Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Friis-Nielsen, Jens; Vinner, Lasse; Hansen, Thomas Arn; Richter, Stine Raith; Fridholm, Helena; Herrera, Jose Alejandro Romero; Lund, Ole; Brunak, Søren; Izarzugaza, Jose M. G.; Mourier, Tobias; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2016-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is the most abundant bacterium on human skin, particularly in sebaceous areas. P. acnes is suggested to be an opportunistic pathogen involved in the development of diverse medical conditions but is also a proven contaminant of human clinical samples and surgical wounds. Its significance as a pathogen is consequently a matter of debate. In the present study, we investigated the presence of P. acnes DNA in 250 next-generation sequencing data sets generated from 180 samples of 20 different sample types, mostly of cancerous origin. The samples were subjected to either microbial enrichment, involving nuclease treatment to reduce the amount of host nucleic acids, or shotgun sequencing. We detected high proportions of P. acnes DNA in enriched samples, particularly skin tissue-derived and other tissue samples, with the levels being higher in enriched samples than in shotgun-sequenced samples. P. acnes reads were detected in most samples analyzed, though the proportions in most shotgun-sequenced samples were low. Our results show that P. acnes can be detected in practically all sample types when molecular methods, such as next-generation sequencing, are employed. The possibility of contamination from the patient or other sources, including laboratory reagents or environment, should therefore always be considered carefully when P. acnes is detected in clinical samples. We advocate that detection of P. acnes always be accompanied by experiments validating the association between this bacterium and any clinical condition. PMID:26818667

  6. Compressive spinal epidural mass caused by Propionibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Ha, Austin Y; DePasse, J Mason; Piskorski, Anna; Treaba, Diana O; Kojic, Erna M; Daniels, Alan H

    2016-05-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a gram-positive and facultative anaerobe bacillus that is found within sebaceous follicles of the human skin and recognized as a cause of infections after spinal surgery. To our knowledge, there has been no previously reported case of symptomatic compressive chronic inflammatory epidural mass caused by P. acnes in a patient with no prior spinal procedures. This study aimed to describe a case of primary spinal infection by P. acnes. This study is a case report of a condition not previously described in the literature. We present the history, physical examination, laboratory, radiographic, and histopathologic findings of a chronic inflammatory epidural mass caused by P. acnes in an immunocompetent adult male with no history of spinal surgery. A 51-year-old man presented to our clinic with sudden onset bilateral lower extremity weakness, inability to ambulate, and urinary retention. His past clinical history was remarkable only for hernia and left knee surgery but no spinal surgery. A year earlier, he had an infected draining abscess of the right axilla that was successfully managed medically. At presentation, his serum erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein were moderately elevated. Pan-spine magnetic resonance imaging was notable for a circumferential epidural mass from C5 to T6. He underwent emergent decompression; the mass was removed and sent for culture and pathologic evaluation. Cultures from all three specimens collected during surgery grew P. acnes, and the patient was successfully managed on intravenous ceftriaxone, while pathology revealed a chronic inflammatory reactive process. This is the first reported case of a primary spinal mass with chronic inflammatory features caused by P. acnes. In cases of epidural mass of unknown origin, both pathologic specimens and cultures should be obtained as slow-growing organisms may mimic oncologic processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Intracellular Propionibacterium acnes Infection in Glandular Epithelium and Stromal Macrophages of the Prostate with or without Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Yuan; Ito, Takashi; Iida, Tadatsune; Uchida, Keisuke; Sekine, Masaki; Nakajima, Yutaka; Kumagai, Jiro; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Kawachi, Hiroshi; Akashi, Takumi; Eishi, Yoshinobu

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent reports on Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) suggest that this bacterium is prevalent in the prostate, is associated with acute and chronic prostatic inflammation, and might have a role in prostate carcinogenesis. Methods To evaluate the pathogenic role of this indigenous bacterium, we screened for the bacterium in radical prostatectomy specimens using enzyme immunohistochemistry with a novel P. acnes-specific monoclonal antibody (PAL antibody), together with an anti-nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) antibody. We examined formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue sections of radical prostatectomy specimens from 28 patients with prostate cancer and 18 age-matched control patients with bladder cancer, but without prostate cancer. Results Immunohistochemistry with the PAL antibody revealed small round bodies within some non-cancerous glandular epithelium and stromal macrophages in most prostate samples. Prostate cancer samples had higher frequencies of either cytoplasmic P. acnes or nuclear NF-κB expression of glandular epithelium and higher numbers of stromal macrophages with P. acnes than control samples. These parameters were also higher in the peripheral zone than in the transitional zone of the prostate, especially in prostate cancer samples. Nuclear NF-κB expression was more frequent in glands with P. acnes than in glands without P. acnes. The number of stromal macrophages with the bacterium correlated with the grade of chronic inflammation in both the PZ and TZ areas and with the grade of acute inflammation in the TZ area. Conclusions Immunohistochemical analysis with a novel monoclonal antibody for detecting P. acnes in the prostate suggested that intraepithelial P. acnes infection in non-cancerous prostate glands and inflammation caused by the bacterium may contribute to the development of prostate cancer. PMID:24587325

  8. Recent progress in the research about Propionibacterium acnes strain diversity and acne: pathogen or bystander?

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyuck Hoon; Suh, Dae Hun

    2016-11-01

    Recent progress has steadily reported the existence of the diverse strains of Propionibacterium acnes, and these studies have contributed to the elucidation of their contradictory roles between normal commensals and pathogens. In this review, the authors aimed to provide an update on the recent understanding of research about P. acnes strain diversity and acne, analyzing the potential implications for clinical applications. Before the era of genomic research, P. acnes was known to be distinguished based on serological agglutination tests, cell wall sugar analysis, or fermentation traits. Since the complete genome sequence of P. acnes was first deciphered, genetic studies based on sequence data have expanded with the introduction of more refined and precise DNA-based typing methods, including multilocus sequence typing and metagenomics. These sophisticated techniques have revealed that P. acnes consists of phylogenetically distinct cluster groups with various pathogenic traits, including elicitation of inflammation, protein secretome profile, and unique distribution patterns in various skin loci. In following large-scale studies from patients' acne samples have revealed that specific sequence types are included within the phylogenetic divisions and further suggested that particular P. acnes strains play an etiologic role in acne while others are associated with health, providing a firm platform for evidential-based research into the exact role of this organism in acne. We strongly believe that future research would provide fruitful results in not only clarifying the apparent controversy with respect to roles of P. acnes but also developing therapeutic drugs by pinpointing specific targets of the pathogenic strain only. © 2016 The International Society of Dermatology.

  9. Suppression of Propionibacterium acnes Infection and the Associated Inflammatory Response by the Antimicrobial Peptide P5 in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Sunhyo; Han, Hyo Mi; Song, Peter I.

    2015-01-01

    The cutaneous inflammation associated with acne vulgaris is caused by the anaerobic bacterium Propionibacterium acnes through activation of the innate immune system in the skin. Current standard treatments for acne have limitations that include adverse effects and poor efficacy in many patients, making development of a more effective therapy highly desirable. In the present study, we demonstrate the protective effects of a novel customized α-helical cationic peptide, P5, against P. acnes-induced inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo. Application of P5 significantly reduced expression of two inflammatory cytokines IL-8 and TNF-α in P. acnes-treated primary human keratinocytes, where P5 appeared to act in part by binding to bacterial lipoteichoic acid, thereby suppressing TLR2-to-NF-κB signaling. In addition, in a mouse model of acne vulgaris, P5 exerted both anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects against P. acnes, but exerted no cytotoxic effects against skin cells. These results demonstrate that P5, and perhaps other cationic antimicrobial peptides, offer the unique ability to reduce numbers P. acnes cells in the skin and to inhibit the inflammation they trigger. This suggests these peptides could potentially be used to effectively treat acne without adversely affecting the skin. PMID:26197393

  10. Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties of nostocionone isolated from Nostoc commune Vauch and its derivatives against Propionibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Tomohiro; Tsuchida, Akihiro; Muramatsu, Yuji; Ninomiya, Masayuki; Ando, Masashi; Tsukamasa, Yasuyuki; Koketsu, Mamoru

    2014-06-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is the primary pathogenic agent responsible for acne vulgaris on the skin and hair follicles. Overgrowth of this bacterium inhibits growth and promotes follicular inflammation, with an associated increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine production. P. acnes has therefore been considered the main target for the prevention and medical treatment of acne vulgaris. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro anti-P. acnes and anti-inflammatory properties of 6 compounds isolated from Nostoc commune. One of these compounds, nostocionone (Nost), and one of its derivatives, NostD3 [(1E,4E)-1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-enyl)penta-1,4-dien-3-one], significantly inhibited P. acnes growth. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of Nost and NostD3 on heat-killed (hk) P. acnes-induced inflammation in macrophages. Both Nost and NostD3 suppressed hk P. acnes-induced nitric oxide (NO) production through the suppression of inducible NO synthase expression, following inactivation of nuclear factor kappa B. Taken together, our findings suggested that both Nost and NostD3 were promising agents for the treatment of acne vulgaris, and that NostD3 showed higher efficacy than Nost. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Incidence of Propionibacterium acnes in Shoulder Arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Michael J; Jancosko, Jason J; Mendoza, Vivian; Nottage, Wesley M

    2015-09-01

    To document the skin colonization and deep tissue inoculation rates associated with arthroscopic shoulder surgery and how these rates differ with procedural and demographic factors. We prospectively recruited outpatient shoulder arthroscopy patients who agreed to participate and met the inclusion criteria from February 2013 to May 2014. All patients received routine antibiotic prophylaxis intravenously. Initial cultures were obtained before the skin preparation by swabbing the skin at the 3 standard portal sites: posterior, anterosuperior, and anterolateral. The skin preparation used 4% chlorhexidine scrub and 2% chlorhexidine gluconate/70% isopropyl alcohol paint applied to the entire shoulder. After completion of the arthroscopic procedure, a second culture was obtained through a cannula at the surgical site. All cultures were plated for 21 days using Brucella medium. We enrolled 51 patients over a 15-month period. Cultures showed a 72.5% Propionibacterium acnes superficial colonization rate: 46.1% of female and 81.6% of male patients (P = .027). We identified a deep culture-positive inoculation rate of 19.6%, all with positive P acnes skin colonization. No correlation could be made concerning diagnosis, procedure, suture anchor use, age, or sex. The rate of skin colonization with P acnes is high at arthroscopic portals, especially in men. Despite standard skin preparation and prophylactic antibiotics, the rate of deep tissue inoculation with P acnes in shoulder arthroscopy is much higher than the rate of infection reported in the literature. Shoulder arthroscopy introduces a significant amount of P acnes into the deep tissues. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A comparative study of Cutibacterium (Propionibacterium) acnes clones from acne patients and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Lomholt, H B; Scholz, C F P; Brüggemann, H; Tettelin, H; Kilian, M

    2017-10-01

    Cutibacterium (Propionibacterium) acnes is assumed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of acne. To examine if clones with distinct virulence properties are associated with acne. Multiple C. acnes isolates from follicles and surface skin of patients with moderate to severe acne and healthy controls were characterized by multilocus sequence typing. To determine if CC18 isolates from acne patients differ from those of controls in the possession of virulence genes or lack of genes conducive to a harmonious coexistence the full genomes of dominating CC18 follicular clones from six patients and five controls were sequenced. Individuals carried one to ten clones simultaneously. The dominating C. acnes clones in follicles from acne patients were exclusively from the phylogenetic clade I-1a and all belonged to clonal complex CC18 with the exception of one patient dominated by the worldwide-disseminated and often antibiotic resistant clone ST3. The clonal composition of healthy follicles showed a more heterogeneous pattern with follicles dominated by clones representing the phylogenetic clades I-1a, I-1b, I-2 and II. Comparison of follicular CC18 gene contents, allelic versions of putative virulence genes and their promoter regions, and 54 variable-length intragenic and inter-genic homopolymeric tracts showed extensive conservation and no difference associated with the clinical origin of isolates. The study supports that C. acnes strains from clonal complex CC18 and the often antibiotic resistant clone ST3 are associated with acne and suggests that susceptibility of the host rather than differences within these clones may determine the clinical outcome of colonization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Propionibacterium acnes in shoulder surgery: true infection, contamination, or commensal of the deep tissue?

    PubMed

    Hudek, Robert; Sommer, Frank; Kerwat, Martina; Abdelkawi, Ayman F; Loos, Franziska; Gohlke, Frank

    2014-12-01

    Propionibacterium acnes has been linked to chronic infections in shoulder surgery. Whether the bacterium is a contaminant or commensal of the deep tissue is unclear. We aimed to assess P. acnes in intraoperative samples of different tissue layers in patients undergoing first-time shoulder surgery. In 118 consecutive patients (mean age, 59.2 years; 75 men, 43 women), intraoperative samples were correlated to preoperative subacromial injection, the type of surgical approach, and gender. One skin, one superficial, one deep tissue, and one test sample were cultured for each patient. The cultures were positive for P. acnes in 36.4% (n = 43) of cases. Subacromial injection was not associated with bacterial growth rates (P = .88 for P. acnes; P = .20 for bacteria other than P. acnes; P = .85 for the anterolateral approach; P = .92 for the deltopectoral approach; P = .56 for men; P = .51 for women). Skin samples were positive for P. acnes in 8.5% (n = 10), superficial samples were positive in 7.6% (n = 9), deep samples were positive in 13.6% (n = 16), and both samples (superficial and deep) were positive in 15.3% (n = 18) of cases (P < .0001). P. acnes was detected in the anterolateral approach in 27.1% (n = 32) of cases and in the deltopectoral approach in 9.3% (n = 11) of cases (P = .01; relative risk, 1.93; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-3.43). Thirty-five of the P. acnes-positive patients were men (81.4%), and 8 patients were women (18.6%; P = .001; relative risk, 2.51; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-4.90). P. acnes was detected in more than one third of patients undergoing first-time shoulder surgery. Preoperative subacromial injection was not associated with bacterial growth. P. acnes was observed more frequently in the deep tissues than in the superficial tissues. The relative risk for obtaining a positive P. acnes culture was 2-fold greater for the anterolateral approach than for the deltopectoral approach, and the risk was 2.5-fold greater

  14. Propionibacterium acnes-derived insoluble immune complexes in sinus macrophages of lymph nodes affected by sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yoshimi; Uchida, Keisuke; Takemura, Tamiko; Sekine, Masaki; Tamura, Tomoki; Furukawa, Asuka; Hebisawa, Akira; Sakakibara, Yumi; Awano, Nobuyasu; Amano, Tomonari; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Negi, Mariko; Kakegawa, Tomoya; Wada, Yuriko; Ito, Takashi; Suzuki, Takashige; Akashi, Takumi; Eishi, Yoshinobu

    2018-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is thought to be a causative agent of sarcoidosis. Patients with sarcoidosis have circulating immune complexes. We attempted to detect P. acnes-derived immune complexes in sarcoid lesions. We evaluated formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded lymph node samples from 38 sarcoidosis patients and 90 non-sarcoidosis patients (27 patients with necrotizing lymphadenitis, 28 patients with reactive lymphadenitis, 16 patients with colon cancer, 19 patients with gastric cancer) by immunohistochemistry using anti-human immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, and IgM) and complement (C1q and C3c) antibodies, and a P. acnes-specific monoclonal antibody (PAB antibody) that reacts with the membrane-bound lipoteichoic acid of P. acnes. Small round bodies (SRBs) bound to IgA, IgM, or IgG were detected in sinus macrophages, in 32 (84%), 32 (84%), or 11 (29%) sarcoid samples, respectively, and in 19 (21%), 26 (29%), or no (0%) control samples, respectively. Some of these insoluble immune complexes (IICs) also bound to C1q and C3c. We developed a microwave treatment followed by brief trypsin digestion (MT treatment) to detect PAB-reactive SRBs bound to immunoglobulins (IIC-forming P. acnes). MT treatment revealed abundant IIC-forming P. acnes in most (89%) of the sarcoid samples and sparse distribution in some (20%) of the control samples with lymphadenitis, but no IIC-forming P. acnes was detected in control samples without inflammation. IIC-forming P. acnes were mostly bound to both IgA and IgM. The PAB-reactive antigen and immunoglobulins were both located at the peripheral rim of the IIC-forming P. acnes. Conventional electron microscopy identified many SRBs (0.5-2.0 μm diameter) in sinus macrophages of sarcoid lymph nodes with many IIC-forming P. acnes, some of which were in phagolysosomes with a degraded and lamellar appearance. P. acnes-derived IICs in sinus macrophages were frequent and abundant in sarcoid lymph nodes, suggesting a potential etiologic link between

  15. Interkingdom transfer of the acne-causing agent, Propionibacterium acnes, from human to grapevine.

    PubMed

    Campisano, Andrea; Ometto, Lino; Compant, Stéphane; Pancher, Michael; Antonielli, Livio; Yousaf, Sohail; Varotto, Claudio; Anfora, Gianfranco; Pertot, Ilaria; Sessitsch, Angela; Rota-Stabelli, Omar

    2014-05-01

    Here, we report the surprising and, to our knowledge, unique example of horizontal interkingdom transfer of a human opportunistic pathogen (Propionibacterium acnes) to a crop plant (the domesticated grapevine Vitis vinifera L.). Humans, like most organisms, have established a long-lasting cohabitation with a variety of microbes, including pathogens and gut-associated bacteria. Studies which have investigated the dynamics of such associations revealed numerous cases of bacterial host switches from domestic animals to humans. Much less is, however, known about the exchange of microbial symbionts between humans and plants. Fluorescent in situ hybridization localized P. acnes in the bark, in xylem fibers, and, more interestingly, inside pith tissues. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses suggest that the establishment of the grapevine-associated P. acnes as obligate endophyte is compatible with a recent transfer event, likely during the Neolithic, when grapevine was domesticated.

  16. In-vitro investigation of anti-acne properties of Mangifera indica L. kernel extract and its mechanism of action against Propionibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Poomanee, Worrapan; Chaiyana, Wantida; Mueller, Monika; Viernstein, Helmut; Khunkitti, Watcharee; Leelapornpisid, Pimporn

    2018-05-17

    Propionibacterium acnes has been recognized as a main target for medical treatment of acne since this bacterium promotes acne inflammation by inducing upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines production, resulting in an accumulation of neutrophils and oxygen-free radicals produced by neutrophils within acne lesion. The aims of this study were to evaluate the biological activities of Mangifera indica kernel extracts grown in Northern Thailand (Kaew-Moragot cultivar), related to anti-acne properties including antimicrobial effect against acne-inducing bacteria together with the first elucidation of the mechanism of action against Propionibacterium acnes, anti-oxidation, and anti-inflammation. The kernels of M. indica, obtained from raw and ripe fruits, were macerated using various solvents. Agar diffusion and broth microdilution methods were performed to investigate the antibacterial activities of the extracts against P. acnes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The ethanolic fractions exhibited the strongest antimicrobial effect against P. acnes with minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of 1.56 mg/mL and 12.50 mg/mL, respectively. Bactericidal effect against P. acnes of these extracts could be observed after 3 h of incubation from time-kill curve. The chromatograms of high-performance liquid chromatography showed that the extracts existed gallic acid with high total phenolic content. These extracts additionally showed strong free radical scavenging properties on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) as well as a notable inhibitory effect on linoleic acid peroxidation, which highly correlated to their antimicrobial effect, total phenolic, and gallic acid contents. The images, studied through using transmission electron microscopy, revealed that the extract certainly disrupted P. acnes cell membrane after exposure for 1 h as well as

  17. Association Between Lumbar Disc Degeneration and Propionibacterium acnes Infection: Clinical Research and Preliminary Exploration of Animal Experiment.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Dong, Zhe; Wu, Yongchao; Zeng, Ji; Zheng, Qixin; Xiao, Baojun; Cai, Xianyi; Xiao, Zhiyong

    2016-07-01

    Clinical research and animal experiment. To investigate whether lumbar disc degeneration is associated with Propionibacterium acnes (P acnes) infection. The hypothesis that herniated discs may be infected with P acnes by way of bacteremia is remarkable. This may bring a tremendous change in treatment of lumbar disc herniation (LDH). However, this hypothesis is still controversial. Since P acnes isolated may be related to contamination. Nucleus pulposus from 22 patients (30 discs) with lumbar disc herniation was collected during discectomy, following aerobic and anaerobic cultures for 10 days.Twenty-four rabbits were divided into four groups. After L3-L6 being exposed, an incision was made into the three discs in groups A and B. While in groups C and D, two random segments were operated. Six weeks later, 0.05 mL of 5 × 10 CFU/mL P acnes was inoculated into operated discs in group A and sterile physiological saline in group B. In group C, 0.2 mL of 5 × 10 CFU/mL P acnes was injected through ear vein. Sterile saline was used in group D. Six weeks later, MRI was performed. Then, nucleus pulposus and paraspinal muscles were harvested for aerobic and anaerobic cultures. Clinical research: Anaerobic cultures were positive in three cases: two coagulase-negative staphylococci, one particles chain bacterium. No P acnes was found. Staphylococcus epidermidis was isolated in one aerobic culture.Animal experiment: P acnes was found in 11 out of 18 (61%) discs in group A. There was no P acnes found in the other three groups. Degenerated discs were suitable for P acnes growth. This research did not find the evidence of the symptomatic degenerated lumbar discs infected with P acnes or that P acnes could infect the degenerated lumbar discs by way of bacteremia. N/A.

  18. Inhibition of Propionibacterium acnes lipase activity by the antifungal agent ketoconazole.

    PubMed

    Unno, Mizuki; Cho, Otomi; Sugita, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    The common skin disease acne vulgaris is caused by Propionibacterium acnes. A lipase secreted by this microorganism metabolizes sebum and the resulting metabolites evoke inflammation in human skin. The antifungal drug ketoconazole inhibits P. acnes lipase activity. We previously showed that the drug also inhibits the growth of P. acnes. Thus, ketoconazole may serve as an alternative treatment for acne vulgaris, which is important because the number of antibiotic-resistant P. acnes strains has been increasing. © 2017 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Microorganisms inhabiting follicular contents of facial acne are not only Propionibacterium but also Malassezia spp.

    PubMed

    Akaza, Narifumi; Akamatsu, Hirohiko; Numata, Shigeki; Yamada, Shunji; Yagami, Akiko; Nakata, Satoru; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2016-08-01

    To clarify the relationship between major cutaneous microorganisms (Propionibacterium, Staphylococcus and Malassezia spp.) and acne vulgaris (acne), we examined the microbiota quantitatively in the follicular contents of inflammatory acne and on the facial skin of patients with acne. Fifteen Japanese untreated acne outpatients were studied. The follicular contents from inflammatory acne lesions of the face were collected using a comedo extractor. The skin surface samples were obtained by the swab method from 10 cm(2) of facial skin. The microbiota was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction. The microbiota in follicular contents was similar to that on the skin surface, namely, there were large populations of Propionibacterium spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Malassezia spp. Moreover, the number of Malassezia spp. on the skin surface was correlated with that of inflammatory acne and that in follicular contents. This study clarified that there are large populations of Propionibacterium spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Malassezia spp. in follicular contents. These results suggest the possibility that not only Propionibacterium acnes but also other cutaneous resident microorganisms are related to acne. Particularly, we considered that Malassezia spp. is closely related. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  20. Association between Propionibacterium acnes and frozen shoulder: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bunker, Tim D; Boyd, Matthew; Gallacher, Sian; Auckland, Cressida R; Kitson, Jeff; Smith, Chris D

    2014-10-01

    Frozen shoulder has not previously been shown to be associated with infection. The present study set out to confirm the null hypothesis that there is no relationship between infection and frozen shoulder using two modern scientific methods, extended culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for bacterial nucleic acids. A prospective cohort of 10 patients undergoing arthroscopic release for stage II idiopathic frozen shoulder had two biopsies of tissue taken from the affected shoulder joint capsule at the time of surgery, along with control biopsies of subdermal fat. The biopsies and controls were examined with extended culture and PCR for microbial nucleic acid. Eight of the 10 patients had positive findings on extended culture in their shoulder capsule and, in six of these, Propionibacterium acnes was present. The findings mean that we must reject the null hypothesis that there is no relationship between infection and frozen shoulder. More studies are urgently needed to confirm or refute these findings. If they are confirmed, this could potentially lead to new and effective treatments for this common, painful and disabling condition. Could P. acnes be the Helicobacter of frozen shoulder?

  1. Chronic Subdural Hematoma Infected by Propionibacterium Acnes: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Shusuke; Asahi, Takashi; Akioka, Naoki; Kashiwazaki, Daina; Kuwayama, Naoya; Kuroda, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    We present a very rare case of a patient with an infected subdural hematoma due to Propionibacterium acnes. A 63-year-old male complained of dizziness and was admitted to our hospital. He had a history of left chronic subdural hematoma due to a traffic accident, which had been conservatively treated. Physical, neurological and laboratory examinations revealed no definite abnormality. Plain CT scan demonstrated a hypodense crescentic fluid collection over the surface of the left cerebral hemisphere. The patient was diagnosed with chronic subdural hematoma and underwent burr hole surgery three times and selective embolization of the middle meningeal artery, but the lesion easily recurred. Repeated culture examinations of white sedimentation detected P. acnes. Therefore, he underwent craniotomy surgery followed by intravenous administration of antibiotics. The infected subdural hematoma was covered with a thick, yellowish outer membrane, and the large volume of pus and hematoma was removed. However, the lesion recurred again and a low-density area developed in the left frontal lobe. Craniotomy surgery was performed a second time, and two Penrose drainages were put in both the epidural and subdural spaces. Subsequently, the lesions completely resolved and he was discharged without any neurological deficits. Infected subdural hematoma may be refractory to burr hole surgery or craniotomy alone, in which case aggressive treatment with craniotomy and continuous drainage should be indicated before the brain parenchyma suffers irreversible damage. PMID:25759659

  2. Association between Propionibacterium acnes and frozen shoulder: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Bunker, Tim D; Gallacher, Sian; Auckland, Cressida R; Kitson, Jeff; Smith, Chris D

    2014-01-01

    Background Frozen shoulder has not previously been shown to be associated with infection. The present study set out to confirm the null hypothesis that there is no relationship between infection and frozen shoulder using two modern scientific methods, extended culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for bacterial nucleic acids. Methods A prospective cohort of 10 patients undergoing arthroscopic release for stage II idiopathic frozen shoulder had two biopsies of tissue taken from the affected shoulder joint capsule at the time of surgery, along with control biopsies of subdermal fat. The biopsies and controls were examined with extended culture and PCR for microbial nucleic acid. Results Eight of the 10 patients had positive findings on extended culture in their shoulder capsule and, in six of these, Propionibacterium acnes was present. Conclusions The findings mean that we must reject the null hypothesis that there is no relationship between infection and frozen shoulder. More studies are urgently needed to confirm or refute these findings. If they are confirmed, this could potentially lead to new and effective treatments for this common, painful and disabling condition. Could P. acnes be the Helicobacter of frozen shoulder? PMID:27582943

  3. Correlation of Propionibacterium acnes Populations with the Presence of Triglycerides on Nonhuman Skin

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Guy F.; Ruggieri, Michael R.; McGinley, Kenneth J.

    1981-01-01

    The skins of mice, rats, rabbits, sheep, guinea pigs, and dogs were cultured for Propionibacterium acnes. Only the sebaceous regions (perianal gland) of guinea pigs harbored a significant P. acnes population. Analysis of the lipid from this region revealed a significant percentage of triglycerides, compounds lacking in the sebum of the other animals. PMID:7259157

  4. Nonunion After Clavicle Osteosynthesis: High Incidence of Propionibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Gausden, Elizabeth B; Villa, Jordan; Warner, Stephen J; Redko, Mariya; Pearle, Andrew; Miller, Andy; Henry, Michael; Lorich, Dean G; Helfet, David L; Wellman, David S

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to review the etiology of clavicle nonunions after osteosynthesis and investigate the outcomes of a treatment with a single-stage revision. Retrospective case series. Orthopaedic specialty hospital. Twenty cases of nonunion after osteosynthesis of the clavicle were identified. The average age was 44 years (±13 years). In 9 cases, there was catastrophic implant failure that prompted the revision surgery. In the 18 cases in which cultures were taken, 15 of the 18 (83%) were treated as infections with a course of antibiotics. In 14 cases, the cultures were positive for Propionibacterium acnes. Fifteen patients were treated with a prolonged course of antibiotics. Eighteen patients had follow-up, and the average time to radiographic union was 22 weeks. There were no cases of nonunion after revision surgery. There is a high rate of positive cultures in cases of nonunion after osteosynthesis of the clavicle. This suggests the etiology of midshaft clavicle nonunions may result from a combination of suboptimal mechanical fixation and latent infection. Our treatment protocol of superior and anterior plating, interfragmentary fixation, bone grafting, and appropriate antimicrobial treatment of latent infections has resulted in 100% union rate. Prognostic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  5. Photodynamic action of the red laser on Propionibacterium acnes*

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Rogério Rodrigo; de Paiva, Jeferson Leandro; Gomes, José Paulo Franco dos Santos; Boer, Nagib Pezati; de Godoy, José Maria Pereira; Batigalia, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Background Photodynamic therapy is a therapeutic modality that has consolidated its activity in the photooxidation of organic matter, which arises from the activity of reactive oxygen species. Objective To evaluate the effect of red laser 660nm with the photosensitizer methylene blue on Propionibacterium acnes in vitro. Method The experimental design was distributed into four groups (1 - control group without the application of light and without photosensitizer, 2 - application of light, 3 - methylene blue without light, and 4 - methylene blue with light). Tests were subjected to red laser irradiation 660nm by four cycles of 5 minutes at 3-minute intervals. Results It was evidenced the prominence of the fourth cycle (20 minutes) groups 2, 3 and 4. Study limitations Despite the favorable results, the laser irradiation time photosensitizer associated with methylene blue were not sufficient to to completely inhibit the proliferation of bacteria. Conclusion Further studies in vitro are recommended to enable the clinical application of this photosensitizer in photodynamic therapy. PMID:29166495

  6. Induction of Pulmonary Granuloma Formation by Propionibacterium acnes Is Regulated by MyD88 and Nox2.

    PubMed

    Werner, Jessica L; Escolero, Sylvia G; Hewlett, Jeff T; Mak, Tim N; Williams, Brian P; Eishi, Yoshinobu; Núñez, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is characterized by noncaseating granulomas with an unknown cause that present primarily in the lung. Propionibacterium acnes, an immunogenic commensal skin bacterium involved in acne vulgaris, has been implicated as a possible causative agent of sarcoidosis. Here, we demonstrate that a viable strain of P. acnes isolated from a patient with sarcoidosis and instilled intratracheally into wild-type mice can generate pulmonary granulomas similar to those observed in patients with sarcoidosis. The formation of these granulomas is dependent on the administration of viable P. acnes. We also found that mice deficient in the innate immunity adapter protein MyD88 had a greater number and a larger area of granuloma lesions compared with wild-type mice administered P. acnes. Early after P. acnes administration, wild-type mice produced proinflammatory mediators and recruited neutrophils into the lung, a response that is dependent on MyD88. In addition, there was an increase in granuloma number and size after instillation with P. acnes in mice deficient in CybB, a critical component of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase required for the production of reactive oxygen species in the phagosome. Myd88 -/- or Cybb -/- mice both had increased persistence of P. acnes in the lung, together with enhanced granuloma formation. In conclusion, we have generated a mouse model of early granuloma formation induced by a clinically relevant strain of P. acnes isolated from a patient with sarcoidosis, and, using this model, we have shown that a deficiency in MyD88 or CybB is associated with impaired bacterial clearance and increased granuloma formation in the lung.

  7. Induction of Pulmonary Granuloma Formation by Propionibacterium acnes Is Regulated by MyD88 and Nox2

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Jessica L.; Escolero, Sylvia G.; Hewlett, Jeff T.; Mak, Tim N.; Williams, Brian P.; Eishi, Yoshinobu

    2017-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is characterized by noncaseating granulomas with an unknown cause that present primarily in the lung. Propionibacterium acnes, an immunogenic commensal skin bacterium involved in acne vulgaris, has been implicated as a possible causative agent of sarcoidosis. Here, we demonstrate that a viable strain of P. acnes isolated from a patient with sarcoidosis and instilled intratracheally into wild-type mice can generate pulmonary granulomas similar to those observed in patients with sarcoidosis. The formation of these granulomas is dependent on the administration of viable P. acnes. We also found that mice deficient in the innate immunity adapter protein MyD88 had a greater number and a larger area of granuloma lesions compared with wild-type mice administered P. acnes. Early after P. acnes administration, wild-type mice produced proinflammatory mediators and recruited neutrophils into the lung, a response that is dependent on MyD88. In addition, there was an increase in granuloma number and size after instillation with P. acnes in mice deficient in CybB, a critical component of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase required for the production of reactive oxygen species in the phagosome. Myd88−/− or Cybb−/− mice both had increased persistence of P. acnes in the lung, together with enhanced granuloma formation. In conclusion, we have generated a mouse model of early granuloma formation induced by a clinically relevant strain of P. acnes isolated from a patient with sarcoidosis, and, using this model, we have shown that a deficiency in MyD88 or CybB is associated with impaired bacterial clearance and increased granuloma formation in the lung. PMID:27607191

  8. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis of Propionibacterium acnes isolates from radical prostatectomy specimens.

    PubMed

    Mak, Tim N; Yu, Shu-Han; De Marzo, Angelo M; Brüggemann, Holger; Sfanos, Karen S

    2013-05-01

    Inflammation is commonly observed in radical prostatectomy specimens, and evidence suggests that inflammation may contribute to prostate carcinogenesis. Multiple microorganisms have been implicated in serving as a stimulus for prostatic inflammation. The pro-inflammatory anaerobe, Propionibacterium acnes, is ubiquitously found on human skin and is associated with the skin disease acne vulgaris. Recent studies have shown that P. acnes can be detected in prostatectomy specimens by bacterial culture or by culture-independent molecular techniques. Radical prostatectomy tissue samples were obtained from 30 prostate cancer patients and subject to both aerobic and anaerobic culture. Cultured species were identified by 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Propionibacterium acnes isolates were typed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Our study confirmed that P. acnes can be readily cultured from prostatectomy tissues (7 of 30 cases, 23%). In some cases, multiple isolates of P. acnes were cultured as well as other Propionibacterium species, such as P. granulosum and P. avidum. Overall, 9 of 30 cases (30%) were positive for Propionibacterium spp. MLST analyses identified eight different sequence types (STs) among prostate-derived P. acnes isolates. These STs belong to two clonal complexes, namely CC36 (type I-2) and CC53/60 (type II), or are CC53/60-related singletons. MLST typing results indicated that prostate-derived P. acnes isolates do not fall within the typical skin/acne STs, but rather are characteristic of STs associated with opportunistic infections and/or urethral flora. The MLST typing results argue against the likelihood that prostatectomy-derived P. acnes isolates represent contamination from skin flora. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Propionibacterium acnes Augments Antitumor, Anti-Angiogenesis and Immunomodulatory Effects of Melatonin on Breast Cancer Implanted in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Talib, Wamidh H.; Saleh, Suhair

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most invasive cancers with high mortality. The immune stimulating Propionibacterium acnes is a Gram positive bacterium that has the ability to cause inflammation and activate Th1-type cytokine immune response. Antitumor response was associated with the inflammation induced by P. acnes, but the antitumor effect of this bacterium was not evaluated in combination with other agents. The aim of this study was to test the antitumor potential of a combination of melatonin and P. acnes against breast cancer implanted in mice. Balb/C mice were transplanted with EMT6/P cell line and in vivo antitumor effect was assessed for P. acnes, melatonin, and a combination of melatonin and P. acnes. Tumor and organs sections were examined using hematoxylin/eosin staining protocol, and TUNEL colorimetric assay was used to detect apoptosis. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was measured in tumor sections and serum levels of INF-γ, and IL-4 were measured to evaluate the immune system function. To evaluate the toxicity of our combination, AST and ALT levels were measured in the serum of treated mice. The combination of melatonin and P. acnes has high efficiency in targeting breast cancer in mice. Forty percent of treated mice were completely cured using this combination and the combination inhibited metastasis of cancer cells to other organs. The combination therapy reduced angiogenesis, exhibited no toxicity, induced apoptosis, and stimulates strong Th1-type cytokine antitumor immune response. The combination of melatonin and P. acnes represents a promising option to treat breast cancer. However, carful preclinical and clinical evaluation is needed before considering this combination for human therapy. PMID:25919398

  10. Sensitivity of frozen section histology for identifying Propionibacterium acnes infections in revision shoulder arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Grosso, Matthew J; Frangiamore, Salvatore J; Ricchetti, Eric T; Bauer, Thomas W; Iannotti, Joseph P

    2014-03-19

    Propionibacterium acnes is a clinically relevant pathogen with total shoulder arthroplasty. The purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivity of frozen section histology in identifying patients with Propionibacterium acnes infection during revision total shoulder arthroplasty and investigate various diagnostic thresholds of acute inflammation that may improve frozen section performance. We reviewed the results of forty-five patients who underwent revision total shoulder arthroplasty. Patients were divided into the non-infection group (n = 15), the Propionibacterium acnes infection group (n = 18), and the other infection group (n = 12). Routine preoperative testing was performed and intraoperative tissue culture and frozen section histology were collected for each patient. The histologic diagnosis was determined by one pathologist for each of the four different thresholds. The absolute maximum polymorphonuclear leukocyte concentration was used to construct a receiver operating characteristics curve to determine a new potential optimal threshold. Using the current thresholds for grading frozen section histology, the sensitivity was lower for the Propionibacterium acnes infection group (50%) compared with the other infection group (67%). The specificity of frozen section was 100%. Using a receiver operating characteristics curve, an optimized threshold was found at a total of ten polymorphonuclear leukocytes in five high-power fields (400×). Using this threshold, the sensitivity of frozen section for Propionibacterium acnes was increased to 72%, and the specificity remained at 100%. Using current histopathology grading systems, frozen sections were specific but showed low sensitivity with respect to the Propionibacterium acnes infection. A new threshold value of a total of ten or more polymorphonuclear leukocytes in five high-power fields may increase the sensitivity of frozen section, with minimal impact on specificity.

  11. Risk factors for Propionibacterium acnes infection after neurosurgery: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Haruki, Yuto; Hagiya, Hideharu; Takahashi, Yu; Yoshida, Hideyuki; Kobayashi, Kazuki; Yukiue, Tadato; Tsuboi, Nobushige; Sugiyama, Tetsuhiro

    2017-04-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is increasingly known as a causative organism for post-neurosurgical infection; however, no clinical studies have examined the risk factors associated with P. acnes infections. Clinical data obtained from 14 cases of P. acnes infection and 28 controls infected with other pathogens were analyzed. Craniotomy, malignancy, and prolonged duration of operation were significantly associated with the onset of P. acnes infection. No fatal cases were reported. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The diversity and host interactions of Propionibacterium acnes bacteriophages on human skin

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jared; Yan, Riceley; Zhong, Qiao; Ngo, Sam; Bangayan, Nathanael J; Nguyen, Lin; Lui, Timothy; Liu, Minghsun; Erfe, Marie C; Craft, Noah; Tomida, Shuta; Li, Huiying

    2015-01-01

    The viral population, including bacteriophages, is an important component of the human microbiota, yet is poorly understood. We aim to determine whether bacteriophages modulate the composition of the bacterial populations, thus potentially playing a role in health or disease. We investigated the diversity and host interactions of the bacteriophages of Propionibacterium acnes, a major human skin commensal implicated in acne pathogenesis. By sequencing 48 P. acnes phages isolated from acne patients and healthy individuals and by analyzing the P. acnes phage populations in healthy skin metagenomes, we revealed that P. acnes phage populations in the skin microbial community are often dominated by one strain. We also found phage strains shared among both related and unrelated individuals, suggesting that a pool of common phages exists in the human population and that transmission of phages may occur between individuals. To better understand the bacterium–phage interactions in the skin microbiota, we determined the outcomes of 74 genetically defined Propionibacterium strains challenged by 15 sequenced phages. Depending on the Propionibacterium lineage, phage infection can result in lysis, pseudolysogeny, or resistance. In type II P. acnes strains, we found that encoding matching clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat spacers is insufficient to confer phage resistance. Overall, our findings suggest that the prey–predator relationship between bacteria and phages may have a role in modulating the composition of the microbiota. Our study also suggests that the microbiome structure of an individual may be an important factor in the design of phage-based therapy. PMID:25848871

  13. MLST typing of antimicrobial-resistant Propionibacterium acnes isolates from patients with moderate to severe acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulos, Lambros; Papaparaskevas, Joseph; Refene, Eirini; Daikos, Georgios; Stavrianeas, Nikolaos; Tsakris, Athanassios

    2015-02-01

    Molecular typing data on antimicrobial-resistant Propionibacterium strains are limited in the literature. We examined antimicrobial resistance profiles and the underlying resistance mechanisms in Propionibacterium spp. isolates recovered from patients with moderate to severe acne vulgaris in Greece. The clonallity of the resistant Propionibacterium acnes isolates was also investigated. Propionibacterium spp. isolates were detected using Tryptone-Yeast Extract-Glucose (TYG) agar plates supplemented with 4% furazolidone. Erythromycin, clindamycin, vancomycin, penicillin, co-trimoxazole, doxycycline, minocycline and ciprofloxacin MICs were determined using the gradient strip method. Erythromycin, clindamycin and tetracycline mechanisms of resistance were determined using PCR and sequencing of the domain V of 23S rRNA and 16S rRNA, as well as the presence of the ermX gene. Typing was performed using the multi locus sequence typing (MLST) methodology. Seventy nine isolates from 76 patients were collected. Twenty-three isolates (29.1%) exhibited resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin, while two additional isolates (2.5%) were resistant only to erythromycin. Resistance to tetracycline was not detected. The underlying molecular mechanisms were point mutations A2059G and A2058G. MLST typing of the P. acnes resistant isolates revealed that lineage type IA1 (ST-1, 3 and 52) prevailed (12/18; 66.7%), whilst lineage type IA2 (ST-2 and 22) accounted for five more isolates (27.8%). Susceptible isolates were more evenly distributed between ST types. Propionibacterium spp. from moderate to severe acne vulgaris in Greece are frequently resistant to erythromycin/clindamycin but not to tetracyclines, mainly due to the point mutations A2059G and A2058G. P. acnes resistant isolates were more clonally related than susceptible ones and belonged to a limited number of MLST types. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Immunohistochemical identification of Propionibacterium acnes in granuloma and inflammatory cells of myocardial tissues obtained from cardiac sarcoidosis patients.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, Naoya; Uchida, Keisuke; Sakakibara, Mamoru; Omote, Kazunori; Noguchi, Keiji; Tokuda, Yusuke; Kamiya, Kiwamu; Hatanaka, Kanako C; Matsuno, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Shiro; Asakawa, Kyoko; Fukasawa, Yuichiro; Nagai, Toshiyuki; Anzai, Toshihisa; Ikeda, Yoshihiko; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Hirota, Masanori; Orii, Makoto; Akasaka, Takashi; Uto, Kenta; Shingu, Yasushige; Matsui, Yoshiro; Morimoto, Shin-Ichiro; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki; Eishi, Yoshinobu

    2017-01-01

    Although rare, cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) is potentially fatal. Early diagnosis and intervention are essential, but histopathologic diagnosis is limited. We aimed to detect Propionibacterium acnes, a commonly implicated etiologic agent of sarcoidosis, in myocardial tissues obtained from CS patients. We examined formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded myocardial tissues obtained by surgery or autopsy and endomyocardial biopsy from patients with CS (n = 26; CS-group), myocarditis (n = 15; M-group), or other cardiomyopathies (n = 39; CM-group) using immunohistochemistry (IHC) with a P. acnes-specific monoclonal antibody. We found granulomas in 16 (62%) CS-group samples. Massive (≥14 inflammatory cells) and minimal (<14 inflammatory cells) inflammatory foci, respectively, were detected in 16 (62%) and 11 (42%) of the CS-group samples, 10 (67%) and 10 (67%) of the M-group samples, and 1 (3%) and 18 (46%) of the CM-group samples. P. acnes-positive reactivity in granulomas, massive inflammatory foci, and minimal inflammatory foci were detected in 10 (63%), 10 (63%), and 8 (73%) of the CS-group samples, respectively, and in none of the M-group and CM-group samples. Frequent identification of P. acnes in sarcoid granulomas of originally aseptic myocardial tissues suggests that this indigenous bacterium causes granuloma in many CS patients. IHC detection of P. acnes in massive or minimal inflammatory foci of myocardial biopsy samples without granulomas may be useful for differentiating sarcoidosis from myocarditis or other cardiomyopathies.

  15. Antimicrobial Activity of Pomegranate and Green Tea Extract on Propionibacterium Acnes, Propionibacterium Granulosum, Staphylococcus Aureus and Staphylococcus Epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaoping; Summanen, Paula H; Downes, Julia; Corbett, Karen; Komoriya, Tomoe; Henning, Susanne M; Kim, Jenny; Finegold, Sydney M

    2015-06-01

    We used pomegranate extract (POMx), pomegranate juice (POM juice) and green tea extract (GT) to establish in vitro activities against bacteria implicated in the pathogenesis of acne. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 94 Propionibacterium acnes, Propionibacterium granulosum, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis strains were determined by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute-approved agar dilution technique. Total phenolics content of the phytochemicals was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu method and the polyphenol composition by HPLC. Bacteria were identified by 16S rRNA sequence analysis. GT MIC of 400 μg/ml or less was obtained for 98% of the strains tested. 64% of P. acnes strains had POMx MICs at 50 μg/ml whereas 36% had MIC >400 μg/ml. POMx, POM juice, and GT showed inhibitory activity against all the P. granulosum strains at ≤100 μg/ml. POMx and GT inhibited all the S. aureus strains at 400 μg/ml or below, and POM juice had an MIC of 200 μg/ml against 17 S. aureus strains. POMx inhibited S. epidermidis strains at 25 μg/ml, whereas POM juice MICs were ≥200 μg/ml. The antibacterial properties of POMx and GT on the most common bacteria associated with the development and progression of acne suggest that these extracts may offer a better preventative/therapeutic regimen with fewer side effects than those currently available.

  16. Propionibacterium acnes CAMP Factor and Host Acid Sphingomyelinase Contribute to Bacterial Virulence: Potential Targets for Inflammatory Acne Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Nakatsuji, Teruaki; Tang, De-chu C.; Zhang, Liangfang; Gallo, Richard L.; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Background In the progression of acne vulgaris, the disruption of follicular epithelia by an over-growth of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) permits the bacteria to spread and become in contact with various skin and immune cells. Methodology/Principal Findings We have demonstrated in the present study that the Christie, Atkins, Munch-Peterson (CAMP) factor of P. acnes is a secretory protein with co-hemolytic activity with sphingomyelinase that can confer cytotoxicity to HaCaT keratinocytes and RAW264.7 macrophages. The CAMP factor from bacteria and acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) from the host cells were simultaneously present in the culture supernatant only when the cells were co-cultured with P. acnes. Either anti-CAMP factor serum or desipramine, a selective ASMase inhibitor, significantly abrogated the P. acnes-induced cell death of HaCaT and RAW264.7 cells. Intradermal injection of ICR mouse ears with live P. acnes induced considerable ear inflammation, macrophage infiltration, and an increase in cellular soluble ASMase. Suppression of ASMase by systemic treatment with desipramine significantly reduced inflammatory reaction induced by intradermal injection with P. acnes, suggesting the contribution of host ASMase in P. acnes-induced inflammatory reaction in vivo. Vaccination of mice with CAMP factor elicited a protective immunity against P. acnes-induced ear inflammation, indicating the involvement of CAMP factor in P. acnes-induced inflammation. Most notably, suppression of both bacterial CAMP factor and host ASMase using vaccination and specific antibody injection, respectively, cooperatively alleviated P. acnes-induced inflammation. Conclusions/Significance These findings envision a novel infectious mechanism by which P. acnes CAMP factor may hijack host ASMase to amplify bacterial virulence to degrade and invade host cells. This work has identified both CAMP factor and ASMase as potential molecular targets for the development of drugs and vaccines against

  17. Bactericidal activity and post-antibiotic effect of ozenoxacin against Propionibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Kanayama, Shoji; Okamoto, Kazuaki; Ikeda, Fumiaki; Ishii, Ritsuko; Matsumoto, Tatsumi; Hayashi, Naoki; Gotoh, Naomasa

    2017-06-01

    Ozenoxacin, a novel non-fluorinated topical quinolone, is used for the treatment of acne vulgaris in Japan. We investigated bactericidal activity and post-antibiotic effect (PAE) of ozenoxacin against Propionibacterium acnes, a major causative bacterium of acne vulgaris. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ozenoxacin against 3 levofloxacin-susceptible strains (MIC of levofloxacin; ≤4 μg/mL) and 3 levofloxacin-resistant strains (MIC of levofloxacin; ≥8 μg/mL) ranged from 0.03 to 0.06 μg/mL and from 0.25 to 0.5 μg/mL, respectively. These MICs of ozenoxacin were almost the same or lower than nadifloxacin and clindamycin. The minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of ozenoxacin against the levofloxacin-susceptible and -resistant strains were from 0.06 to 8 μg/mL and from 0.5 to 4 μg/mL, respectively. These MBCs were lower than those of nadifloxacin and clindamycin. In time-kill assay, ozenoxacin at 1/4, 1 and 4 times the respective MIC against both levofloxacin-susceptible and -resistant strains showed a concentration-dependent bactericidal activity. Ozenoxacin at 4 times the MICs against the levofloxacin-susceptible strains showed more potent and more rapid onset of bactericidal activity compared to nadifloxacin and clindamycin at 4 times the respective MICs. The PAEs of ozenoxacin at 4 times the MICs against the levofloxacin-susceptible strains were from 3.3 to 17.1 h, which were almost the same or longer than nadifloxacin and clindamycin. In contrast, the PAEs were hardly induced by any antimicrobial agents against the levofloxacin-resistant strains. The present findings suggest that ozenoxacin has a potent bactericidal activity against both levofloxacin-susceptible and -resistant P. acnes, and a long-lasting PAE against levofloxacin-susceptible P. acnes. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory properties of capric acid against Propionibacterium acnes: a comparative study with lauric acid.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Cheng; Tsai, Tsung-Hsien; Chuang, Lu-Te; Li, You-Yi; Zouboulis, Christos C; Tsai, Po-Jung

    2014-03-01

    Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) is a commensal bacterium which is possibly involved in acne inflammation. The saturated fatty acid, lauric acid (C12:0) has been shown to possess antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties against P. acnes. Little is known concerning the potential effects of its decanoic counterpart, capric acid (C10:0). To examine the antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of capric acid against P. acnes and to investigate the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory action. The antimicrobial activity of fatty acids was detected using the broth dilution method. An evaluation of P. acnes-induced ear edema in mice was conducted to evaluate the in vivo anti-inflammatory effect. To elucidate the in vitro anti-inflammatory effect, human SZ95 sebocytes and monocytic THP-1 cells were treated with P. acnes alone or in the presence of a fatty acid. The mRNA levels and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured by qRT-PCR and enzyme immunoassay, respectively. NF-κB activation and MAPK expression were analyzed by ELISA and Western blot, respectively. Lauric acid had stronger antimicrobial activity against P. acnes than capric acid in vitro and in vivo. However, both fatty acids attenuated P. acnes-induced ear swelling in mice along with microabscess and significantly reduced interleukin (IL)-6 and CXCL8 (also known as IL-8) production in P. acnes-stimulated SZ95 sebocytes. P. acnes-induced mRNA levels and secretion of IL-8 and TNF-α in THP-1 cells were suppressed by both fatty acids, which inhibited NF-κB activation and the phosphorylation of MAP kinases. Our data demonstrate that both capric acid and lauric acid exert bactericidal and anti-inflammatory activities against P. acnes. The anti-inflammatory effect may partially occur through the inhibition of NF-κB activation and the phosphorylation of MAP kinases. Copyright © 2013 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Different strains of Propionibacterium acnes modulate differently the cutaneous innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Jasson, Fiona; Nagy, Istvan; Knol, Anne Chantal; Zuliani, Thomas; Khammari, Amir; Dréno, Brigitte

    2013-09-01

    Acne is a chronic inflammatory illness of the pilosebaceous follicle where innate immunity plays a central role. In acne, the density of Propionibacterium acnes is increased in the pilosebaceous unit. We hypothesized that the severity of acne is not only dependent on the proliferation of P. acnes but also dependent on the pro-inflammatory potential of P. acnes strains and consequently constitutes potential triggering factor for acne scarring. We investigated pro-inflammatory potential of five different strains of P. acnes and P. avidum in skin explants and the preventive effect of zinc gluconate. The expression of immune markers was studied by immunohistochemistry, RT-qPCR and ELISA. P. acnes strains modulate differently the expression of immune markers both at gene and at protein levels. P. acnes type III had the highest pro-inflammatory potential by up-regulating the expression of PAR-2, TNF-alpha, MMP-13 and TIMP-2, whereas P. avidum had the weakest by up-regulating only MMP-13 and TIMP-2. Preincubation of zinc gluconate, which is a modulator of innate immunity, down-regulates the expression of most immune markers induced by P. acnes, PAR-2, TIMP-2, up-regulates MMP-1, TIMP-1. Our results demonstrate that different P. acnes strains have different inflammatory potential targeting markers of cutaneous innate immunity, and that inflammatory potential can be down-regulated by zinc gluconate. As such, the inflammatory potential of P. acnes strains on acne skin may influence the severity of inflammatory acne lesions and scars. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Propionibacterium acnes Bacteriophages Display Limited Genetic Diversity and Broad Killing Activity against Bacterial Skin Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Marinelli, Laura J.; Fitz-Gibbon, Sorel; Hayes, Clarmyra; Bowman, Charles; Inkeles, Megan; Loncaric, Anya; Russell, Daniel A.; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Cokus, Shawn; Pellegrini, Matteo; Kim, Jenny; Miller, Jeff F.; Hatfull, Graham F.; Modlin, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Investigation of the human microbiome has revealed diverse and complex microbial communities at distinct anatomic sites. The microbiome of the human sebaceous follicle provides a tractable model in which to study its dominant bacterial inhabitant, Propionibacterium acnes, which is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of the human disease acne. To explore the diversity of the bacteriophages that infect P. acnes, 11 P. acnes phages were isolated from the sebaceous follicles of donors with healthy skin or acne and their genomes were sequenced. Comparative genomic analysis of the P. acnes phage population, which spans a 30-year temporal period and a broad geographic range, reveals striking similarity in terms of genome length, percent GC content, nucleotide identity (>85%), and gene content. This was unexpected, given the far-ranging diversity observed in virtually all other phage populations. Although the P. acnes phages display a broad host range against clinical isolates of P. acnes, two bacterial isolates were resistant to many of these phages. Moreover, the patterns of phage resistance correlate closely with the presence of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat elements in the bacteria that target a specific subset of phages, conferring a system of prokaryotic innate immunity. The limited diversity of the P. acnes bacteriophages, which may relate to the unique evolutionary constraints imposed by the lipid-rich anaerobic environment in which their bacterial hosts reside, points to the potential utility of phage-based antimicrobial therapy for acne. PMID:23015740

  1. C1-C2 arthrodesis after spontaneous Propionibacterium acnes spondylodiscitis: Case report and literature analysis

    PubMed Central

    di Russo, Paolo; Tascini, Carlo; Benini, Maria Elena; Martini, Carlotta; Lepori, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    Background: Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) is a microaerophilic anaerobic Gram-positive rod responsible for acne vulgaris. Although it is often considered to be a skin contaminant, it may act as a virulent agent in implant-associated infections. Conversely, spontaneous infectious processes have been rarely described. Case Description: Here, we describe a 43-year-old female with C1-C2 spondylodiscitis attributed to P. acnes infection. Despite long-term antibiotic treatment, computed tomography demonstrated erosion of the C1 and C2 vertebral complex that later warranted a fusion. One year postoperatively, the patient was asymptomatic. Conclusions: Clinical knowledge of P. acnes virulence in spontaneous cervical spondylodiscitis allows early diagnosis, which is necessary to prevent or reduce complications such as cervical deformity with myelopathy or mediastinitis. PMID:29497567

  2. Cutibacterium (formerly Propionibacterium) acnes infections associated with implantable devices.

    PubMed

    Gharamti, Amal A; Kanafani, Zeina A

    2017-12-01

    Cutibacterium acnes (C. acnes), a Gram-positive biofilm-forming rod implicated in acne vulgaris, is increasingly recognized for its role in implant-associated infections. The diagnosis of C. acnes implant-associated infections remains challenging. The optimal treatment is a combination of both surgical intervention and antibiotic therapy. Areas covered: In this review, we discuss the different types of implant-associated infections caused by C. acnes. We also highlight the clinical manifestations pertaining to the various sites of infection, and identify several risk factors previously reported in the literature. We then cover the diagnostic laboratory markers, such as IL-6 and AD-1, optimizing C. acnes recovery in culture, and the specific molecular techniques. Finally, we examine the various effective antibiotic regimens and identify some preventive methods against C. acnes infections. Expert commentary: Biomarkers such as IL-6 and AD-1 should be further investigated for the diagnosis of C. acnes implant-associated infections. The use of 16S rRNA gene sequencing and other molecular techniques should be further explored in this setting. Longer incubation periods should be requested whenever C. acnes infection is suspected. If the clinical suspicion is high, sonication of the excised implant should be encouraged. Research should focus on developing effective anti-biofilm agents. Finally, preventive methods such as hair removal prior to surgery should be further explored.

  3. Propionibacterium acnes Recovered from Atherosclerotic Human Carotid Arteries Undergoes Biofilm Dispersion and Releases Lipolytic and Proteolytic Enzymes in Response to Norepinephrine Challenge In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Lanter, Bernard B.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, human atherosclerotic carotid arteries were examined following endarterectomy for the presence of the Gram-positive bacterium Propionibacterium acnes and its potential association with biofilm structures within the arterial wall. The P. acnes 16S rRNA gene was detectable in 4 of 15 carotid artery samples, and viable P. acnes was one among 10 different bacterial species recoverable in culture. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of 5 additional atherosclerotic carotid arteries demonstrated biofilm bacteria within all samples, with P. acnes detectable in 4 samples. We also demonstrated that laboratory-grown cultures of P. acnes biofilms were susceptible to induction of a biofilm dispersion response when challenged with physiologically relevant levels of norepinephrine in the presence of iron-bound transferrin or with free iron. The production and release of lipolytic and proteolytic extracellular enzymes by P. acnes were shown to increase in iron-induced dispersed biofilms, and these dispersion-induced P. acnes VP1 biofilms showed increased expression of mRNAs for the triacylglycerol lipases PPA2105 and PPA1796 and the hyaluronate lyase PPA380 compared to that in untreated biofilms. These results demonstrate that P. acnes can infect the carotid arteries of humans with atherosclerosis as a component of multispecies biofilms and that dispersion is inducible for this organism, at least in vitro, with physiologically relevant levels of norepinephrine resulting in the production and release of degradative enzymes. PMID:26216428

  4. Propionibacterium acnes Recovered from Atherosclerotic Human Carotid Arteries Undergoes Biofilm Dispersion and Releases Lipolytic and Proteolytic Enzymes in Response to Norepinephrine Challenge In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Lanter, Bernard B; Davies, David G

    2015-10-01

    In the present study, human atherosclerotic carotid arteries were examined following endarterectomy for the presence of the Gram-positive bacterium Propionibacterium acnes and its potential association with biofilm structures within the arterial wall. The P. acnes 16S rRNA gene was detectable in 4 of 15 carotid artery samples, and viable P. acnes was one among 10 different bacterial species recoverable in culture. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of 5 additional atherosclerotic carotid arteries demonstrated biofilm bacteria within all samples, with P. acnes detectable in 4 samples. We also demonstrated that laboratory-grown cultures of P. acnes biofilms were susceptible to induction of a biofilm dispersion response when challenged with physiologically relevant levels of norepinephrine in the presence of iron-bound transferrin or with free iron. The production and release of lipolytic and proteolytic extracellular enzymes by P. acnes were shown to increase in iron-induced dispersed biofilms, and these dispersion-induced P. acnes VP1 biofilms showed increased expression of mRNAs for the triacylglycerol lipases PPA2105 and PPA1796 and the hyaluronate lyase PPA380 compared to that in untreated biofilms. These results demonstrate that P. acnes can infect the carotid arteries of humans with atherosclerosis as a component of multispecies biofilms and that dispersion is inducible for this organism, at least in vitro, with physiologically relevant levels of norepinephrine resulting in the production and release of degradative enzymes. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Propionibacterium acnes biofilm is present in intervertebral discs of patients undergoing microdiscectomy.

    PubMed

    Capoor, Manu N; Ruzicka, Filip; Schmitz, Jonathan E; James, Garth A; Machackova, Tana; Jancalek, Radim; Smrcka, Martin; Lipina, Radim; Ahmed, Fahad S; Alamin, Todd F; Anand, Neel; Baird, John C; Bhatia, Nitin; Demir-Deviren, Sibel; Eastlack, Robert K; Fisher, Steve; Garfin, Steven R; Gogia, Jaspaul S; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Kuo, Calvin C; Lee, Yu-Po; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Michu, Elleni; Noskova, Hana; Raz, Assaf; Sana, Jiri; Shamie, A Nick; Stewart, Philip S; Stonemetz, Jerry L; Wang, Jeffrey C; Witham, Timothy F; Coscia, Michael F; Birkenmaier, Christof; Fischetti, Vincent A; Slaby, Ondrej

    2017-01-01

    In previous studies, Propionibacterium acnes was cultured from intervertebral disc tissue of ~25% of patients undergoing microdiscectomy, suggesting a possible link between chronic bacterial infection and disc degeneration. However, given the prominence of P. acnes as a skin commensal, such analyses often struggled to exclude the alternate possibility that these organisms represent perioperative microbiologic contamination. This investigation seeks to validate P. acnes prevalence in resected disc cultures, while providing microscopic evidence of P. acnes biofilm in the intervertebral discs. Specimens from 368 patients undergoing microdiscectomy for disc herniation were divided into several fragments, one being homogenized, subjected to quantitative anaerobic culture, and assessed for bacterial growth, and a second fragment frozen for additional analyses. Colonies were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and P. acnes phylotyping was conducted by multiplex PCR. For a sub-set of specimens, bacteria localization within the disc was assessed by microscopy using confocal laser scanning and FISH. Bacteria were cultured from 162 discs (44%), including 119 cases (32.3%) with P. acnes. In 89 cases, P. acnes was cultured exclusively; in 30 cases, it was isolated in combination with other bacteria (primarily coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp.) Among positive specimens, the median P. acnes bacterial burden was 350 CFU/g (12 - ~20,000 CFU/g). Thirty-eight P. acnes isolates were subjected to molecular sub-typing, identifying 4 of 6 defined phylogroups: IA1, IB, IC, and II. Eight culture-positive specimens were evaluated by fluorescence microscopy and revealed P. acnes in situ. Notably, these bacteria demonstrated a biofilm distribution within the disc matrix. P. acnes bacteria were more prevalent in males than females (39% vs. 23%, p = 0.0013). This study confirms that P. acnes is prevalent in herniated disc tissue. Moreover, it provides the first visual evidence of P

  6. Propionibacterium acnes biofilm is present in intervertebral discs of patients undergoing microdiscectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ruzicka, Filip; Schmitz, Jonathan E.; James, Garth A.; Machackova, Tana; Jancalek, Radim; Smrcka, Martin; Lipina, Radim; Ahmed, Fahad S.; Alamin, Todd F.; Anand, Neel; Baird, John C.; Bhatia, Nitin; Demir-Deviren, Sibel; Eastlack, Robert K.; Fisher, Steve; Garfin, Steven R.; Gogia, Jaspaul S.; Gokaslan, Ziya L.; Kuo, Calvin C.; Lee, Yu-Po; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Michu, Elleni; Noskova, Hana; Raz, Assaf; Sana, Jiri; Shamie, A. Nick; Stewart, Philip S.; Stonemetz, Jerry L.; Wang, Jeffrey C.; Witham, Timothy F.; Coscia, Michael F.; Birkenmaier, Christof; Fischetti, Vincent A.; Slaby, Ondrej

    2017-01-01

    Background In previous studies, Propionibacterium acnes was cultured from intervertebral disc tissue of ~25% of patients undergoing microdiscectomy, suggesting a possible link between chronic bacterial infection and disc degeneration. However, given the prominence of P. acnes as a skin commensal, such analyses often struggled to exclude the alternate possibility that these organisms represent perioperative microbiologic contamination. This investigation seeks to validate P. acnes prevalence in resected disc cultures, while providing microscopic evidence of P. acnes biofilm in the intervertebral discs. Methods Specimens from 368 patients undergoing microdiscectomy for disc herniation were divided into several fragments, one being homogenized, subjected to quantitative anaerobic culture, and assessed for bacterial growth, and a second fragment frozen for additional analyses. Colonies were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and P. acnes phylotyping was conducted by multiplex PCR. For a sub-set of specimens, bacteria localization within the disc was assessed by microscopy using confocal laser scanning and FISH. Results Bacteria were cultured from 162 discs (44%), including 119 cases (32.3%) with P. acnes. In 89 cases, P. acnes was cultured exclusively; in 30 cases, it was isolated in combination with other bacteria (primarily coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp.) Among positive specimens, the median P. acnes bacterial burden was 350 CFU/g (12 - ~20,000 CFU/g). Thirty-eight P. acnes isolates were subjected to molecular sub-typing, identifying 4 of 6 defined phylogroups: IA1, IB, IC, and II. Eight culture-positive specimens were evaluated by fluorescence microscopy and revealed P. acnes in situ. Notably, these bacteria demonstrated a biofilm distribution within the disc matrix. P. acnes bacteria were more prevalent in males than females (39% vs. 23%, p = 0.0013). Conclusions This study confirms that P. acnes is prevalent in herniated disc tissue. Moreover, it

  7. The antimicrobial effect of CEN1HC-Br against Propionibacterium acnes and its therapeutic and anti-inflammatory effects on acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Han, Rui; Blencke, Hans-Matti; Cheng, Hao; Li, Chun

    2018-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a commensal bacterium, which is involved in acne inflammation. An antimicrobial peptide named CEN1HC-Br, which was isolated and characterized form the green sea urchin, has been shown to possess broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. Little is known concerning the potential effects of its antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties against P. acnes. To examine the potency of CEN1HC-Br in acne treatment, we conducted experiments to analyze the antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of CEN1HC-Br both in vitro and in vivo. The antimicrobial activity of CEN1HC-Br was evaluated by minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays using the broth dilution method. To elucidate the in vitro anti-inflammatory effect, HaCaT cells and human monocytes were treated with different concentration of CEN1HC-Br after stimulation by P. acnes. The expression of TLR2 and the secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-12, respectively, were measured by enzyme immunoassays. An evaluation of P. acnes-induced ear edema in rat ear was conducted to compare the in vivo antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effect of CEN1HC-Br, the expression of IL-8, TNF-α, MMP-2 and TLR2 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and real time-PCR. CEN1HC-Br showed stronger antimicrobial activity against P. acnes than clindamycin. CEN1HC-Br significantly reduced the expression of interleukin IL-12p40, IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α and TLR2 in monocytes, but they were not influenced by clindamycin. Both CEN1HC-Br and Clindamycin attenuated P. acnes-induced ear swelling in rat along with pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-8, TNF-α, MMP-2 and TLR2. Our data demonstrates that CEN1HC-Br is bactericidal against P. acnes and that it has an anti-inflammatory effect on monocytes. The anti-inflammatory effect may partially occur through TLR2 down-regulation, triggering an innate immune response and the inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Copyright © 2017 The

  8. Heterogeneity and antibiotic resistance in Propionibacterium acnes isolates and its therapeutic implications: blurring the lines between commensal and pathogenic phylotypes.

    PubMed

    Sadhasivam, Suresh; Sinha, Mau; Saini, Swamini; Kaur, Simar Preet; Gupta, Tanvi; Sengupta, Shiladitya; Ghosh, Shamik; Sardana, Kabir

    2016-11-01

    Acne vulgaris is a multifactorial skin disease associated with the colonization of Propionibacterium acnes. Antibiotics are a mainstay of treatment for acne, yet the emergence of resistance against the currently approved antibiotics is a serious concern. In this case report, a slow responder had multiple Propionibacterium acnes isolates with varied levels of sensitivity to the conventional antibiotics. The bacterial isolates obtained from acne samples collected from the patient were analyzed for phylogeny, and was found to be largely restricted to two different lineage patterns. Propionibacterium acnes phylotype IA1, which is considered to be pathogenic, displayed clindamycin sensitivity, but phylotype IB, which is associated with commensals, exhibited high clindamycin resistance. Sensitivity analysis revealed uniform resistance to macrolides, but susceptibility to tetracycline and nadifloxacin. These results implicate Propionibacterium acnes in the pathophysiology of acne vulgaris, although the lines between commensal and pathological phylotypes may be blurred. Switching the patient to a combination of minocycline and nadifloxacin resulted in a significant improvement in the clinical lesions. Such a science-driven judicious selection of antibiotics can minimize the probability of development of resistance, and might be the way forward in the treatment of acne. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Delayed Propionibacterium acnes surgical site infections occur only in the presence of an implant

    PubMed Central

    Shiono, Yuta; Ishii, Ken; Nagai, Shigenori; Kakinuma, Hiroaki; Sasaki, Aya; Funao, Haruki; Kuramoto, Tetsuya; Yoshioka, Kenji; Ishihama, Hiroko; Isogai, Norihiro; Takeshima, Kenichiro; Tsuji, Takashi; Okada, Yasunori; Koyasu, Shigeo; Nakamura, Masaya; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Aizawa, Mamoru; Matsumoto, Morio

    2016-01-01

    Whether Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) causes surgical-site infections (SSI) after orthopedic surgery is controversial. We previously reported that we frequently find P. acnes in intraoperative specimens, yet none of the patients have clinically apparent infections. Here, we tracked P. acnes for 6 months in a mouse osteomyelitis model. We inoculated P. acnes with an implant into the mouse femur in the implant group; the control group was treated with the bacteria but no implant. We then observed over a 6-month period using optical imaging system. During the first 2 weeks, bacterial signals were detected in the femur in the both groups. The bacterial signal completely disappeared in the control group within 28 days. Interestingly, in the implant group, bacterial signals were still present 6 months after inoculation. Histological and scanning electron-microscope analyses confirmed that P. acnes was absent from the control group 6 months after inoculation, but in the implant group, the bacteria had survived in a biofilm around the implant. PCR analysis also identified P. acnes in the purulent effusion from the infected femurs in the implant group. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that P. acnes causes SSI only in the presence of an implant. PMID:27615686

  10. Specific Humoral Immune Response Induced by Propionibacterium acnes Can Prevent Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Feng; Ma, Qiuyue; Huang, Jing; Ji, Qun; Zhai, Ruidong; Wang, Lei; Wang, Yu; Li, Linxi; Sun, Changjiang; Feng, Xin; Han, Wenyu

    2014-01-01

    Porcine contagious pleuropneumonia, caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, has a major impact on economics, ecology, and animal welfare in the pig-rearing industry. Propionibacterium acnes, a facultative anaerobic Gram-positive corynebacterium, exists widely in normal healthy adult animals. We have shown previously that P. acnes can prevent A. pleuropneumoniae infections in mice and pigs. To elucidate the mechanism of this effect and to identify novel A. pleuropneumoniae vaccines, the role of anti-P. acnes antibodies in preventing infection was analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence and opsonophagocytosis assays in vitro. The role of the specific humoral immune response induced by P. acnes was confirmed in a B cell depletion mouse model. The survival rates of mice challenged with A. pleuropneumoniae exhibited a highly significant positive rank correlation with the levels of anti-P. acnes antibodies. The specific antibodies induced by P. acnes had the ability to combine with A. pleuropneumoniae and increase opsonization of A. pleuropneumoniae for phagocytosis. Furthermore, analysis in the murine B cell depletion model confirmed that the humoral immune response induced by P. acnes played an important role in resistance to A. pleuropneumoniae infection. In this study, we further elucidated the reasons that P. acnes can prevent A. pleuropneumoniae infection, which provides useful evidence for the development of heterologous vaccines for the control of porcine contagious pleuropneumonia. PMID:24429068

  11. Immunoproteomic Identification of In Vivo-Produced Propionibacterium acnes Proteins in a Rabbit Biofilm Infection Model.

    PubMed

    Achermann, Yvonne; Tran, Bao; Kang, Misun; Harro, Janette M; Shirtliff, Mark E

    2015-05-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is well-known as a human skin commensal but can also act as an invasive pathogen causing implant-associated infections. In order to resolve these types of P. acnes infections, the implants must be removed, due to the presence of an established biofilm that is recalcitrant to antibiotic therapy. In order to identify those P. acnes proteins produced in vivo during a biofilm infection, we established a rabbit model of implant-associated infection with this pathogen. P. acnes biofilms were anaerobically grown on dextran beads that were then inoculated into the left tibias of rabbits. At 4 weeks postinoculation, P. acnes infection was confirmed by radiograph, histology, culture, and PCR. In vivo-produced and immunogenic P. acnes proteins were detected on Western blot using serum samples from rabbits infected with P. acnes after these bacterial proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Those proteins that bound host antibodies were then isolated and identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Radiographs and histology demonstrated a disruption in the normal bone architecture and adherent biofilm communities in those animals with confirmed infections. A total of 24 immunogenic proteins were identified; 13 of these proteins were upregulated in both planktonic and biofilm modes, including an ABC transporter protein. We successfully adapted a rabbit model of implant-associated infection for P. acnes to identify P. acnes proteins produced during a chronic biofilm-mediated infection. Further studies are needed to evaluate the potential of these proteins for either a diagnostic test or a vaccine to prevent biofilm infections caused by P. acnes. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Immunoproteomic Identification of In Vivo-Produced Propionibacterium acnes Proteins in a Rabbit Biofilm Infection Model

    PubMed Central

    Achermann, Yvonne; Tran, Bao; Kang, Misun; Harro, Janette M.

    2015-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is well-known as a human skin commensal but can also act as an invasive pathogen causing implant-associated infections. In order to resolve these types of P. acnes infections, the implants must be removed, due to the presence of an established biofilm that is recalcitrant to antibiotic therapy. In order to identify those P. acnes proteins produced in vivo during a biofilm infection, we established a rabbit model of implant-associated infection with this pathogen. P. acnes biofilms were anaerobically grown on dextran beads that were then inoculated into the left tibias of rabbits. At 4 weeks postinoculation, P. acnes infection was confirmed by radiograph, histology, culture, and PCR. In vivo-produced and immunogenic P. acnes proteins were detected on Western blot using serum samples from rabbits infected with P. acnes after these bacterial proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Those proteins that bound host antibodies were then isolated and identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Radiographs and histology demonstrated a disruption in the normal bone architecture and adherent biofilm communities in those animals with confirmed infections. A total of 24 immunogenic proteins were identified; 13 of these proteins were upregulated in both planktonic and biofilm modes, including an ABC transporter protein. We successfully adapted a rabbit model of implant-associated infection for P. acnes to identify P. acnes proteins produced during a chronic biofilm-mediated infection. Further studies are needed to evaluate the potential of these proteins for either a diagnostic test or a vaccine to prevent biofilm infections caused by P. acnes. PMID:25694647

  13. Periprosthetic joint infection by Propionibacterium acnes: Clinical differences between monomicrobial versus polymicrobial infection.

    PubMed

    Figa, Raúl; Muñetón, David; Gómez, Lucía; Matamala, Alfredo; Lung, Mayli; Cuchi, Eva; Corona, Pablo S

    2017-04-01

    To compare a series of monomicrobial Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) knee and hip periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) cases with cases of polymicrobial PJI which included P. acnes. We hypothesized that the presence of a polymicrobial P. acnes infection would lead to worse outcomes than those in cases of monomicrobial P. acnes PJI. Retrospective multicentre study. All patients with hip or knee PJIs including P. acnes diagnosed from August-2002 to July-2013 in two university hospitals were included. We collected demographic data, McPherson classification, local signs of infection (swelling or wound drainage), laboratory and histological data, surgical management, antibiotic treatment and outcomes. Data were compared between two groups: cases of monomicrobial P. acnes PJI, and cases of polymicrobial PJI involving P. acnes. Thirty-eight patients who presented with 38 PJIs were included; median age was 71 (IQR:62.5-79); 21 were men (55%); median follow-up was 42 months (IQR:17.5-58). Local signs of infection were present in 14 patients (36.8%); ESR>30 mm/h in 14 patients (36.8%); CRP>1 mg/dl in 15 patients (39.5%); 11 out of 25 patients (44%) had positive preoperative cultures from joint aspiration. Positive histologic studies (Feldman's criteria) were found in 5 out of 28 patients (17.8%). Twenty-four patients (63%) had monomicrobial PJIs; 14 patients (37%) had polymicrobial PJIs. There were no significant outcome differences between monomicrobial and polymicrobial PJIs cases; overall, the success rates were 79.2% and 85.7% respectively (P > 0.05). We did not find any significant differences between monomicrobial and polymicrobial P. acnes PJI outcomes. ESR, CRP and histologic study are established parameters for diagnosing PJI which did not prove useful in P. acnes PJI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. First case of Propionibacterium acnes urinary tract infection in a dog.

    PubMed

    Harada, Kazuki; Shimizu, Takae; Tsuka, Takeshi; Imagawa, Tomohiro; Takeuchi, Takashi

    2015-12-21

    Propionibacterium acnes has been rarely isolated as a commensal from dogs, but there is little evidence of pathogenicity. Urinary tract infections are common in dogs and are typically caused by various commensal bacteria. Here we present the first case report of a urinary tract infection caused by P. acnes. A 6-year-old female Japanese Shiba Inu was hospitalized for polyuria, polydipsia, and severe hematuria. At admission, blood tests revealed leukocytosis, slight anemia, decreased albumin, and slightly elevated blood urea nitrogen. Computerized tomography showed gas accumulation on the inner side of the bladder wall. Urinalysis revealed proteinuria and bilirubinuria without glycosuria. The urine sediment contained large numbers of erythrocytes and leukocytes. Additionally, rod-shaped bacteria were detected by Diff-Quik staining. Enrofloxacin and metronidazole were administered empirically; however, the renal function declined sharply and the patient died 2 days later. Bacteriological examination revealed that the causative agent was Propionibacterium acnes, which was identified as sequence type 53 via multilocus sequence typing. This isolate showed high susceptibility to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefoxitin, imipenem, clindamycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and enrofloxacin, but was resistant to metronidazole. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of a dog with urinary tract infection caused by P. acnes.

  15. Frequency of Propionibacterium acnes Infection in Prostate Glands with Negative Biopsy Results Is an Independent Risk Factor for Prostate Cancer in Patients with Increased Serum PSA Titers.

    PubMed

    Kakegawa, Tomoya; Bae, Yuan; Ito, Takashi; Uchida, Keisuke; Sekine, Masaki; Nakajima, Yutaka; Furukawa, Asuka; Suzuki, Yoshimi; Kumagai, Jiro; Akashi, Takumi; Eishi, Yoshinobu

    2017-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes has recently been implicated as a cause of chronic prostatitis and this commensal bacterium may be linked to prostate carcinogenesis. The occurrence of intracellular P. acnes infection in prostate glands and the higher frequency of P. acnes-positive glands in radical prostatectomy specimens from patients with prostate cancer (PCa) than in those from patients without PCa led us to examine whether the P. acnes-positive gland frequency can be used to assess the risk for PCa in patients whose first prostate biopsy, performed due to an increased prostate-specific antigen (PSA) titer, was negative. We retrospectively collected the first and last prostate biopsy samples from 44 patients that were diagnosed PCa within 4 years after the first negative biopsy and from 36 control patients with no PCa found in repeated biopsy for at least 3 years after the first biopsy. We evaluated P. acnes-positive gland frequency and P. acnes-positive macrophage number using enzyme-immunohistochemistry with a P. acnes-specific monoclonal antibody (PAL antibody). The frequency of P. acnes-positive glands was higher in PCa samples than in control samples in both first biopsy samples and in combined first and last biopsy samples (P < 0.001). A frequency greater than the threshold (18.5 and 17.7, respectively) obtained by each receiver operating characteristic curve was an independent risk factor for PCa (P = 0.003 and 0.001, respectively) with odds ratios (14.8 and 13.9, respectively) higher than those of serum PSA titers of patients just before each biopsy (4.6 and 2.3, respectively). The number of P. acnes-positive macrophages did not differ significantly between PCa and control samples. These results suggested that the frequency of P. acnes-positive glands in the first negative prostate biopsy performed due to increased PSA titers can be supportive information for urologists in planning repeated biopsy or follow-up strategies.

  16. Antagonism between Staphylococcus epidermidis and Propionibacterium acnes and its genomic basis.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Gitte J M; Scholz, Christian F P; Enghild, Jan; Rohde, Holger; Kilian, Mogens; Thürmer, Andrea; Brzuszkiewicz, Elzbieta; Lomholt, Hans B; Brüggemann, Holger

    2016-02-29

    Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis live in close proximity on human skin, and both bacterial species can be isolated from normal and acne vulgaris-affected skin sites. The antagonistic interactions between the two species are poorly understood, as well as the potential significance of bacterial interferences for the skin microbiota. Here, we performed simultaneous antagonism assays to detect inhibitory activities between multiple isolates of the two species. Selected strains were sequenced to identify the genomic basis of their antimicrobial phenotypes. First, we screened 77 P. acnes strains isolated from healthy and acne-affected skin, and representing all known phylogenetic clades (I, II, and III), for their antimicrobial activities against 12 S. epidermidis isolates. One particular phylogroup (I-2) exhibited a higher antimicrobial activity than other P. acnes phylogroups. All genomes of type I-2 strains carry an island encoding the biosynthesis of a thiopeptide with possible antimicrobial activity against S. epidermidis. Second, 20 S. epidermidis isolates were examined for inhibitory activity against 25 P. acnes strains. The majority of S. epidermidis strains were able to inhibit P. acnes. Genomes of S. epidermidis strains with strong, medium and no inhibitory activities against P. acnes were sequenced. Genome comparison underlined the diversity of S. epidermidis and detected multiple clade- or strain-specific mobile genetic elements encoding a variety of functions important in antibiotic and stress resistance, biofilm formation and interbacterial competition, including bacteriocins such as epidermin. One isolate with an extraordinary antimicrobial activity against P. acnes harbors a functional ESAT-6 secretion system that might be involved in the antimicrobial activity against P. acnes via the secretion of polymorphic toxins. Taken together, our study suggests that interspecies interactions could potentially jeopardize balances in the skin

  17. Propionibacterium acnes in shoulder surgery: is loss of hair protective for infection?

    PubMed

    Hudek, Robert; Sommer, Frank; Abdelkawi, Ayman F; Kerwat, Martina; Müller, Hans-Helge; Gohlke, Frank

    2016-06-01

    Propionibacterium acnes (P acnes) has been linked to chronic infections in shoulder surgery. It was recently observed during first-time shoulder surgery in healthy patients at a rate between 36% and 56%. Male gender and the anterolateral approach were reported risk factors. Because the skin biology greatly differs, we aimed to correlate skin complaints with P acnes-positive intraoperative cultures from different tissue layer samples in patients undergoing shoulder surgery for the first time. Intraoperative samples (1 skin, 1 superficial, 1 deep tissue, and 1 control sample) from 112 patients (70 men, 42 women; aged 59.2 years) were cultured. The association between the presence of P acnes in the deep or superficial tissue, or both, and 10 items of a validated preoperative questionnaire for skin pathology was explored. The cultures were positive for P acnes in 38.4% (n = 43) of the cases. Skin samples were positive for P acnes in 8% (n = 9), superficial samples were positive in 23% (n = 26), and deep samples were positive in 30% (n = 34). Self-reported "loss of hair" was significantly negatively associated with the presence of P acnes in the superficial or deep tissue sample (P = .00028). Patients who report having "loss of hair" show fewer P acnes-positive cultures in intraoperative tissue samples taken during open shoulder surgery. Whether this subgroup is at a lesser risk for P acnes infections remains to be substantiated. Basic Science Study; Microbiology. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Isolation of Propionibacterium acnes among the microbiota of primary endodontic infections with and without intraoral communication.

    PubMed

    Niazi, Sadia Ambreen; Al Kharusi, Hana Suleiman; Patel, Shanon; Bruce, Kenneth; Beighton, David; Foschi, Federico; Mannocci, Francesco

    2016-11-01

    The presence of opportunistic pathogens such as Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) may contribute to the endodontic pathology. The presence of P. acnes may be influenced by different endodontic conditions. The aims of the study were firstly, to identify P. acnes within the whole cultivable microbiota of primary endodontic infections, to investigate which P. acnes phylotypes predominate in such infections and secondly to determine if the presence of an "open" communication (e.g. a sinus) can be associated with the isolation of P. acnes from the root canal. The predominant cultivable microbiota of 15 primary endodontic lesions (7 without communication with the oral environment and 8 with an open communication) were identified using partial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequence analysis. The identification of the organism was determined by interrogating the Human Oral Microbiome Database. The P. acnes isolates were typed on the basis of the recA gene sequence comparison. A neighbor-joining tree was constructed using MEGA 4.1 with the inclusion of known recA sequences. There was no difference in the number of species identified from lesions without communication (5.86 ± 3.7) and those with communication (5.37 ± 3.6) (P > 0.05). PCR-based 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed P. acnes as the most prevalent isolate recovered from lesions with communication. recA gene sequencing revealed two phylogenetic lineages present in lesion with communication, with mainly type I (further split into type IA and type IB) and type II. The presence of P. acnes as opportunistic pathogens has been confirmed and may sustain the traits observed in specific clinical presentations. Clinical management of open lesions may require further disinfection to eliminate opportunistic bacteria.

  19. Propionibacterium acnes populations involved in deep pathological samples and their dynamics along the cardiac surgical pathway.

    PubMed

    Romano-Bertrand, S; Beretta, M; Jean-Pierre, H; Frapier, J-M; Calvet, B; Parer, S; Jumas-Bilak, E

    2015-02-01

    Propionibacterium acnes belongs to the normal skin microbiota, but it is also responsible for acne vulgaris and causes serious infections such as endocarditis and surgical site infections (SSI). The P. acnes population is structured into phylogenetic groups, with phylotype I being associated with acne. Herein, we explore the link between phylotypes and clinical origins in a collection of P. acnes isolated from different body sites, involved in deep infections or healthcare-associated infections (HAI), with particular emphasis on strains from cardiac SSI. Cardiac SSI have been further studied in terms of P. acnes population dynamics during the care pathway. The recA and tly genes phylotypes were compared to hemolytic behavior, susceptibility to antimicrobial agents, and clinical origins. An original approach of recA polymerase chain reaction temporal temperature gel electrophoresis (PCR-TTGE) was developed and applied for the direct identification of P. acnes phylotypes in surgical samples, in order to assess their temporal dynamics during the surgical course. Our results underlined the preferential involvement of IA-2/IB and II phylogroups in HAI and SSI. Unlike IA and II, type IA-2/IB presented a gradual increase with the depth of sampling in the peroperative phase of cardiac surgery. Phylotypes IA and IA-2/IB were both predominant in scar tissues and on postoperative skin, suggesting a specific predisposition to recolonize skin. Particular association of the phylotype IA-2/IB with SSI and its propensity to colonize wounds in cardiac surgery was observed. We assumed that the follow-up of P. acnes phylotypes during pathological processes could give new clues for P. acnes pathogenicity.

  20. TLR-2 Recognizes Propionibacterium acnes CAMP Factor 1 from Highly Inflammatory Strains.

    PubMed

    Lheure, Coralie; Grange, Philippe Alain; Ollagnier, Guillaume; Morand, Philippe; Désiré, Nathalie; Sayon, Sophie; Corvec, Stéphane; Raingeaud, Jöel; Marcelin, Anne-Geneviève; Calvez, Vincent; Khammari, Amir; Batteux, Frédéric; Dréno, Brigitte; Dupin, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) is an anaerobic, Gram-positive bacteria encountered in inflammatory acne lesions, particularly in the pilosebaceous follicle. P. acnes triggers a strong immune response involving keratinocytes, sebocytes and monocytes, the target cells during acne development. Lipoteicoic acid and peptidoglycan induce the inflammatory reaction, but no P. acnes surface protein interacting with Toll-like receptors has been identified. P. acnes surface proteins have been extracted by lithium stripping and shown to induce CXCL8 production by keratinocytes. Far-western blotting identified two surface proteins, of 24.5- and 27.5-kDa in size, specifically recognized by TLR2. These proteins were characterized, by LC-MS/MS, as CAMP factor 1 devoid of its signal peptide sequence, as shown by N-terminal sequencing. Purified CAMP factor 1 induces CXCL8 production by activating the CXCL8 gene promoter, triggering the synthesis of CXCL8 mRNA. Antibodies against TLR2 significantly decreased the CXCL8 response. For the 27 P. acnes strains used in this study, CAMP1-TLR2 binding intensity was modulated and appeared to be strong in type IB and II strains, which produced large amounts of CXCL8, whereas most of the type IA1 and IA2 strains presented little or no CAMP1-TLR2 binding and low levels of CXCL8 production. The nucleotide sequence of CAMP factor displays a major polymorphism, defining two distinct genetic groups corresponding to CAMP factor 1 with 14 amino-acid changes from strains phylotyped II with moderate and high levels of CAMP1-TLR2 binding activity, and CAMP factor 1 containing 0, 1 or 2 amino-acid changes from strains phylotyped IA1, IA2, or IB presenting no, weak or moderate CAMP1-TLR2 binding. Our findings indicate that CAMP factor 1 may contribute to P. acnes virulence, by amplifying the inflammation reaction through direct interaction with TLR2.

  1. The detection of Propionibacterium acnes signatures in granulomas of lupus miliaris disseminatus faciei.

    PubMed

    Nishimoto, Junko; Amano, Masahiro; Setoyama, Mitsuru

    2015-04-01

    Lupus miliaris disseminatus faciei (LMDF) is a papular eruption that occurs on adults' faces, predominantly on the lower eyelids. Histologically, the granulomatous lesions are primarily situated around the hair follicles, particularly the superficial region/infundibula. Its etiology remains to be elucidated. Recently, Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) has been suspected as a cause of sarcoidosis. In light of the sarcoid-like reactions that are present in LMDF, we hypothesized that P. acnes may also be implicated in granulomas associated with the disease. We evaluated nine DNA samples from granulomatous lesions from the skin of patients with LMDF. We used laser capture microdissection to extract DNA from these regions. Polymerase chain reaction was performed to amplify segments of the 16S ribosomal RNA of P. acnes, and the P. acnes gene was clearly detectable in all nine DNA samples. The gene was also detected in samples from normal-appearing skin, but these bands were faint in all samples. The results of the present study suggest that P. acnes plays a pathogenetic roles in LMDF. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  2. The Composition and Structure of Biofilms Developed by Propionibacterium acnes Isolated from Cardiac Pacemaker Devices.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Ken-Ichi; Nagahori, Ryuichi; Yamada, Satomi; Sugimoto, Shinya; Sato, Chikara; Sato, Mari; Iwase, Tadayuki; Hashimoto, Kazuhiro; Mizunoe, Yoshimitsu

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to understand the biofilm formation mechanism of Propionibacterium acnes by analyzing the components and structure of the biofilms. P. acnes strains were isolated from the surface of explanted cardiac pacemaker devices that exhibited no clinical signs of infection. Culture tests using a simple stamp culture method (pressing pacemakers against the surface of agar plates) revealed frequent P. acnes colonization on the surface of cardiac pacemaker devices. P . acnes was isolated from 7/31 devices, and the isolates were categorized by multilocus sequence typing into five different sequence types (STs): ST4 (JK18.2), ST53 (JK17.1), ST69 (JK12.2 and JK13.1), ST124 (JK5.3), ST125 (JK6.2), and unknown ST (JK19.3). An in vitro biofilm formation assay using microtiter plates demonstrated that 5/7 isolates formed biofilms. Inhibitory effects of DNase I and proteinase K on biofilm formation varied among isolates. In contrast, dispersin B showed no inhibitory activity against all isolates. Three-dimensional live/dead imaging of P. acnes biofilms with different biochemical properties using confocal laser microscopy demonstrated different distributions and proportions of living and dead cells. Additionally, it was suggested that extracellular DNA (eDNA) plays a role in the formation of biofilms containing living cells. Ultrastructural analysis of P. acnes biofilms using a transmission electron microscope and atmospheric scanning electron microscope revealed leakage of cytoplasmic components along with cell lysis and fibrous structures of eDNA connecting cells. In conclusion, the biochemical properties and structures of the biofilms differed among P. acnes isolates. These findings may provide clues for establishing countermeasures against biofilm-associated infection by P. acnes .

  3. The Composition and Structure of Biofilms Developed by Propionibacterium acnes Isolated from Cardiac Pacemaker Devices

    PubMed Central

    Okuda, Ken-ichi; Nagahori, Ryuichi; Yamada, Satomi; Sugimoto, Shinya; Sato, Chikara; Sato, Mari; Iwase, Tadayuki; Hashimoto, Kazuhiro; Mizunoe, Yoshimitsu

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to understand the biofilm formation mechanism of Propionibacterium acnes by analyzing the components and structure of the biofilms. P. acnes strains were isolated from the surface of explanted cardiac pacemaker devices that exhibited no clinical signs of infection. Culture tests using a simple stamp culture method (pressing pacemakers against the surface of agar plates) revealed frequent P. acnes colonization on the surface of cardiac pacemaker devices. P. acnes was isolated from 7/31 devices, and the isolates were categorized by multilocus sequence typing into five different sequence types (STs): ST4 (JK18.2), ST53 (JK17.1), ST69 (JK12.2 and JK13.1), ST124 (JK5.3), ST125 (JK6.2), and unknown ST (JK19.3). An in vitro biofilm formation assay using microtiter plates demonstrated that 5/7 isolates formed biofilms. Inhibitory effects of DNase I and proteinase K on biofilm formation varied among isolates. In contrast, dispersin B showed no inhibitory activity against all isolates. Three-dimensional live/dead imaging of P. acnes biofilms with different biochemical properties using confocal laser microscopy demonstrated different distributions and proportions of living and dead cells. Additionally, it was suggested that extracellular DNA (eDNA) plays a role in the formation of biofilms containing living cells. Ultrastructural analysis of P. acnes biofilms using a transmission electron microscope and atmospheric scanning electron microscope revealed leakage of cytoplasmic components along with cell lysis and fibrous structures of eDNA connecting cells. In conclusion, the biochemical properties and structures of the biofilms differed among P. acnes isolates. These findings may provide clues for establishing countermeasures against biofilm-associated infection by P. acnes. PMID:29491850

  4. Propionibacterium acnes: from Commensal to Opportunistic Biofilm-Associated Implant Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Achermann, Yvonne; Goldstein, Ellie J. C.; Coenye, Tom

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Propionibacterium acnes is known primarily as a skin commensal. However, it can present as an opportunistic pathogen via bacterial seeding to cause invasive infections such as implant-associated infections. These infections have gained more attention due to improved diagnostic procedures, such as sonication of explanted foreign materials and prolonged cultivation time of up to 14 days for periprosthetic biopsy specimens, and improved molecular methods, such as broad-range 16S rRNA gene PCR. Implantassociated infections caused by P. acnes are most often described for shoulder prosthetic joint infections as well as cerebrovascular shunt infections, fibrosis of breast implants, and infections of cardiovascular devices. P. acnes causes disease through a number of virulence factors, such as biofilm formation. P. acnes is highly susceptible to a wide range of antibiotics, including beta-lactams, quinolones, clindamycin, and rifampin, although resistance to clindamycin is increasing. Treatment requires a combination of surgery and a prolonged antibiotic treatment regimen to successfully eliminate the remaining bacteria. Most authors suggest a course of 3 to 6 months of antibiotic treatment, including 2 to 6 weeks of intravenous treatment with a beta-lactam. While recently reported data showed a good efficacy of rifampin against P. acnes biofilms, prospective, randomized, controlled studies are needed to confirm evidence for combination treatment with rifampin, as has been performed for staphylococcal implant-associated infections. PMID:24982315

  5. TLR9-Dependent and Independent Pathways Drive Activation of the Immune System by Propionibacterium Acnes

    PubMed Central

    Tchaptchet, Sandrine; Gumenscheimer, Marina; Kalis, Christoph; Freudenberg, Nikolaus; Hölscher, Christoph; Kirschning, Carsten J.; Lamers, Marinus; Galanos, Chris; Freudenberg, Marina A.

    2012-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is usually a relatively harmless commensal. However, under certain, poorly understood conditions it is implicated in the etiology of specific inflammatory diseases. In mice, P. acnes exhibits strong immunomodulatory activity leading to splenomegaly, intrahepatic granuloma formation, hypersensitivity to TLR ligands and endogenous cytokines, and enhanced resistance to infection. All these activities reach a maximum one week after P. acnes priming and require IFN-γ and TLR9. We report here the existence of a markedly delayed (1–2 weeks), but phenotypically similar TLR9-independent immunomodulatory response to P. acnes. This alternative immunomodulation is also IFN-γ dependent and requires functional MyD88. From our experiments, a role for MyD88 in the IFN-γ-mediated P. acnes effects seems unlikely and the participation of the known MyD88-dependent receptors, including TLR5, Unc93B-dependent TLRs, IL-1R and IL-18R in the development of the alternative response has been excluded. However, the crucial role of MyD88 can partly be attributed to TLR2 and TLR4 involvement. Either of these two TLRs, activated by bacteria and/or endogenously generated ligands, can fulfill the required function. Our findings hint at an innate immune sensitizing mechanism, which is potentially operative in both infectious and sterile inflammatory disorders. PMID:22745710

  6. Prevention of Propionibacterium acnes biofilm formation in prosthetic infections in vitro.

    PubMed

    Howlin, Robert P; Winnard, Christopher; Angus, Elizabeth M; Frapwell, Connor J; Webb, Jeremy S; Cooper, John J; Aiken, Sean S; Bishop, Julie Y; Stoodley, Paul

    2017-04-01

    The role of Propionibacterium acnes in shoulder arthroplasty and broadly in orthopedic prosthetic infections has historically been underestimated, with biofilm formation identified as a key virulence factor attributed to invasive isolates. With an often indolent clinical course, P acnes infection can be difficult to detect and treat. This study investigates absorbable cements loaded with a broad-spectrum antibiotic combination as an effective preventive strategy to combat P acnes biofilms. P acnes biofilm formation on an unloaded synthetic calcium sulfate (CaSO 4 ) bone void filler cement bead was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy over a period of 14 days. Beads loaded with tobramycin alone or vancomycin alone (as comparative controls) and beads loaded with a vancomycin-tobramycin dual treatment were assessed for their ability to eradicate planktonic P acnes, prevent biofilm formation, and eradicate preformed biofilms using a combination of viable-cell counts, confocal microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. P acnes surface colonization and biofilm formation on unloaded CaSO 4 beads was slow. Beads loaded with antibiotics were able to kill planktonic cultures of 10 6  colony-forming units/mL, prevent bacterial colonization, and significantly reduce biofilm formation over periods of weeks. Complete eradication of established biofilms was achieved with a contact time of 1 week. This study demonstrates that antibiotic-loaded CaSO 4 beads may represent an effective antibacterial and antibiofilm strategy to combat prosthetic infections in which P acnes is involved. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Rhodomyrtone inhibits lipase production, biofilm formation, and disorganizes established biofilm in Propionibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Wunnoo, Suttiwan; Saising, Jongkon; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan

    2017-02-01

    Virulence enzymes and biofilm a play crucial role in the pathogenesis of Propionibacterium acnes, a major causative agent of acne vulgaris. In the present study, the effects of rhodomyrtone, a pure compound identified from Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk. leaves extract against enzyme production and biofilm formation production by 5 clinical isolates and a reference strain were evaluated. The degree of hydrolysis by both lipase and protease enzymes significantly decreased upon treatment with the compound at 0.125-0.25 μg/mL (p < 0.05). Lipolytic zones significantly reduced in all isolates while decrease in proteolytic activities was found only in 50% of the isolates. Rhodomyrtone at 1/16MIC and 1/8MIC caused significant reduction in biofilm formation of the clinical isolates (p < 0.05). Percentage viability of P. acnes within mature biofilm upon treated with the compound at 4MIC and 8MIC ranged between 40% and 85%. Pronounced properties of rhodomyrtone suggest a path towards developing a novel anti-acne agent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Propionibacterium acnes as a possible pathogen of granuloma in patients with ocular sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Goto, Hiroshi; Usui, Yoshihiko; Umazume, Akihiko; Uchida, Keisuke; Eishi, Yoshinobu

    2017-11-01

    To detect Propionibacterium acnes from intraocular granuloma in patients with ocular sarcoidosis. Ten patients (10 eyes) with uveitis associated with sarcoidosis, who underwent vitrectomy to remove the epiretinal membrane were analysed. The patients were 70.4±7.6 (mean±SD) years of age, and the observation period from diagnosis of sarcoidosis until vitrectomy was 27.6±15.1 months. Histopathological examination of paraffin-embedded sections of the excised epiretinal membranes was conducted by H&E staining and immunohistochemical staining using PAB antibody, which is a monoclonal antibody against P. acnes . Four patients with idiopathic epiretinal membrane and four patients with epiretinal membrane caused by chronic uveitis other than sarcoidosis were included as control. Granuloma in the epiretinal membrane was observed in 4 of 10 patients with sarcoidosis, and all the granulomas were positive for PAB. In one patient without granuloma in the epiretinal membrane, PAB immunoreactivity was found in inflammatory cells, presumably macrophages. No granuloma and no PAB immunoreactivity were detected in all control patients, except one with chronic uveitis in whom faint PAB immunoreactivity was detected in inflammatory cells. P. acnes was detected from granulomas formed in the epiretinal membrane of patients with sarcoidosis. The significance of P. acnes in the pathogenesis of uveitis associated with sarcoidosis remains to be determined. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Benzoyl peroxide and clindamycin topical skin preparation decreases Propionibacterium acnes colonization in shoulder arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dizay, Hailey H; Lau, Diana G; Nottage, Wesley M

    2017-07-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a gram-positive anaerobe that can lead to devastating postoperative shoulder infections. The objective of this study was to investigate whether a benzoyl peroxide and clindamycin preoperative skin preparation reduces the incidence of P. acnes colonization during shoulder arthroscopy. Sixty-five shoulder arthroscopy patients were prospectively enrolled. A skin culture specimen was taken at the preoperative visit from standard arthroscopic portal sites. Topical benzoyl peroxide 5% and clindamycin 1.2% (BPO/C) gel was applied to the shoulder every night before surgery. Skin culture was repeated in the operating room before preparation with chlorhexidine gluconate. Shoulder arthroscopy proceeded, with final culture specimens obtained from within the shoulder. P. acnes skin colonization remained similar to prior studies at 47.7% (31 of 65 patients.) With >1 application, BPO/C was 78.9% (15 of 19 patients) effective in eliminating P. acnes superficial colonization. With 1 application, it was 66.7% (8 of 12 patients) effective in eliminating superficial colonization. Deep colonization was reduced to 3.1% (2 of 65 patients) compared with previous studies of 15% to 20% (P = .006). BPO/C was 100% effective at decreasing deep colonization with >1 application. P. acnes skin colonization is high at arthroscopic shoulder portals, especially in men. Despite standard skin preparation and prophylactic antibiotics, the rate of joint inoculation is much higher than the rate of infection reported in the literature. BPO/C effectively reduces P. acnes colonization in shoulder arthroscopy. It should be considered for use before shoulder procedures with a time-related trend of >1 application. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A study on the characterization of Propionibacterium acnes isolated from ocular clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Sowmiya, Murali; Malathi, Jambulingam; Swarnali, Sen; Priya, Jeyavel Padma; Therese, Kulandai Lily; Madhavan, Hajib N

    2015-10-01

    There are only a few reports available on characterization of Propionibacterium acnes isolated from various ocular clinical specimens. We undertook this study to evaluate the role of P. acnes in ocular infections and biofilm production, and also do the phylogenetic analysis of the bacilli. One hundred isolates of P. acnes collected prospectively from ocular clinical specimens at a tertiary care eye hospital between January 2010 and December 2011, were studied for their association with various ocular disease conditions. The isolates were also subjected to genotyping and phylogenetic analysis, and were also tested for their ability to produce biofilms. Among preoperative conjunctival swabs, P. acnes was a probably significant pathogen in one case; a possibly significant pathogen in two cases. In other clinical conditions, 13 per cent isolates were probably significant pathogens and 38 per cent as possibly significant pathogens. The analysis of 16S rRNA gene revealed four different phylogenies whereas analysis of recA gene showed two phylogenies confirming that recA gene was more reliable than 16S rRNA with less sequence variation. Results of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) had 100 per cent concordance with phylogenetic results. No association was seen between P. acnes subtypes and biofilm production. RecA gene phylogenetic studies revealed two different phylogenies. RFLP technique was found to be cost-effective with high sensitivity and specificity in phylogenetic analysis. No association between P. acnes subtypes and pathogenetic ability was observed. Biofilm producing isolates showed increased antibiotic resistance compared with non-biofilm producing isolates.

  11. Determination of the Mutant Prevention Concentration and the Mutant Selection Window of Topical Antimicrobial Agents against Propionibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Nakase, Keisuke; Nakaminami, Hidemasa; Toda, Yuta; Noguchi, Norihisa

    2017-01-01

    Determination of the mutant prevention concentration (MPC) and the mutant selection window (MSW) of antimicrobial agents used to treat pathogenic bacteria is important in order to apply effective antimicrobial therapies. Here, we determined the MPCs of the major topical antimicrobial agents against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus which cause skin infections and compared their MSWs. Among the MPCs of nadifloxacin and clindamycin, the clindamycin MPC was determined to be the lowest against P. acnes. In contrast, the nadifloxacin MPC was the lowest against S. aureus. Calculations based on the minimum inhibitory concentrations and MPCs showed that clindamycin has the lowest MSW against both P. acnes and S. aureus. Nadifloxacin MSWs were 4-fold higher against P. acnes than against S. aureus. It is more likely for P. acnes to acquire resistance to fluoroquinolones than S. aureus. Therefore, topical application of clindamycin contributes very little to the emergence of resistant P. acnes and S. aureus strains. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. TLR-2 Recognizes Propionibacterium acnes CAMP Factor 1 from Highly Inflammatory Strains

    PubMed Central

    Ollagnier, Guillaume; Désiré, Nathalie; Sayon, Sophie; Raingeaud, Jöel; Marcelin, Anne-Geneviève; Calvez, Vincent; Khammari, Amir; Batteux, Frédéric; Dréno, Brigitte; Dupin, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Background Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) is an anaerobic, Gram-positive bacteria encountered in inflammatory acne lesions, particularly in the pilosebaceous follicle. P. acnes triggers a strong immune response involving keratinocytes, sebocytes and monocytes, the target cells during acne development. Lipoteicoic acid and peptidoglycan induce the inflammatory reaction, but no P. acnes surface protein interacting with Toll-like receptors has been identified. P. acnes surface proteins have been extracted by lithium stripping and shown to induce CXCL8 production by keratinocytes. Methodology and principal findings Far-western blotting identified two surface proteins, of 24.5- and 27.5-kDa in size, specifically recognized by TLR2. These proteins were characterized, by LC-MS/MS, as CAMP factor 1 devoid of its signal peptide sequence, as shown by N-terminal sequencing. Purified CAMP factor 1 induces CXCL8 production by activating the CXCL8 gene promoter, triggering the synthesis of CXCL8 mRNA. Antibodies against TLR2 significantly decreased the CXCL8 response. For the 27 P. acnes strains used in this study, CAMP1-TLR2 binding intensity was modulated and appeared to be strong in type IB and II strains, which produced large amounts of CXCL8, whereas most of the type IA1 and IA2 strains presented little or no CAMP1-TLR2 binding and low levels of CXCL8 production. The nucleotide sequence of CAMP factor displays a major polymorphism, defining two distinct genetic groups corresponding to CAMP factor 1 with 14 amino-acid changes from strains phylotyped II with moderate and high levels of CAMP1-TLR2 binding activity, and CAMP factor 1 containing 0, 1 or 2 amino-acid changes from strains phylotyped IA1, IA2, or IB presenting no, weak or moderate CAMP1-TLR2 binding. Conclusions Our findings indicate that CAMP factor 1 may contribute to P. acnes virulence, by amplifying the inflammation reaction through direct interaction with TLR2. PMID:27902761

  13. Contamination of the Surgical Field with Propionibacterium acnes in Primary Shoulder Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Falconer, Travis M; Baba, Mohammed; Kruse, Lisa M; Dorrestijn, Oscar; Donaldson, Matthew J; Smith, Margaret M; Figtree, Melanie C; Hudson, Bernard J; Cass, Benjamin; Young, Allan A

    2016-10-19

    Propionibacterium acnes is a common pathogen identified in postoperative shoulder infection. It has been shown to be present in culture specimens during primary shoulder arthroplasty; however, recent work has suggested that it is most likely to be a contaminant. Our aim was to identify the potential sources of contamination in shoulder arthroplasty. Tissue swabs were obtained for microbiological analysis from consecutive patients undergoing primary shoulder arthroplasty. Routine surgical technique was maintained, and 5 specimens were taken from different sites: (1) the subdermal layer, (2) the tip of the surgeon's glove, (3) the inside scalpel blade (used for deeper incision), (4) the forceps, and (5) the outside scalpel blade (used for the skin incision). Forty patients (25 female patients and 15 male patients) were included. Thirteen (33%) of the 40 patients had at least 1 culture specimen positive for P. acnes. Two (8%) of the 25 female patients and 11 (73%) of the 15 male patients had ≥1 culture specimen positive for P. acnes. The most common site of growth of P. acnes was the subdermal layer (12 positive samples), followed by the forceps (7 positive samples), the tip of the surgeon's glove (7 positive samples), the outside scalpel blade (4 positive samples), and the inside scalpel blade (1 positive sample). There were 27 of 75 swabs that were positive on culture for P. acnes in male patients compared with 4 of 125 swabs in female patients. Male patients had 66 times (95% confidence interval, 6 to 680 times) higher odds of having a positive culture indicating subdermal colonization compared with female patients (p < 0.001). P. acnes is a common contaminant of the surgical field in primary shoulder arthroplasty. The subdermal layer may be the source of this contamination, and the prevalence of P. acnes in the surgical wound may be due to the surgeon's manipulation with gloves and instruments. Our findings are consistent with those regarding the increased rates

  14. Interaction of Cutibacterium ( formerly Propionibacterium) acnes with bone cells: a step toward understanding bone and joint infection development

    PubMed Central

    Aubin, Guillaume Ghislain; Baud’huin, Marc; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Brion, Régis; Gouin, François; Lepelletier, Didier; Jacqueline, Cédric; Heymann, Dominique; Asehnoune, Karim; Corvec, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    Cutibacterium acnes (formerly Propionibacterium acnes) is recognized as a pathogen in foreign-body infections (arthroplasty or spinal instrumentation). To date, the direct impact of C. acnes on bone cells has never been explored. The clade of 11 C. acnes clinical isolates was determined by MLST. Human osteoblasts and osteoclasts were infected by live C. acnes. The whole genome sequence of six isolates of this collection was analyzed. CC36 C. acnes strains were significantly less internalized by osteoblasts and osteoclasts than CC18 and CC28 C. acnes strains (p ≤ 0.05). The CC18 C. acnes ATCC6919 isolate could survive intracellularly for at least 96 hours. C. acnes significantly decreased the resorption ability of osteoclasts with a major impact by the CC36 strain (p ≤ 0.05). Genome analysis revealed 27 genes possibly linked to these phenotypic behaviors. We showed a direct impact of C. acnes on bone cells, providing new explanations about the development of C. acnes foreign-body infections. PMID:28218305

  15. CRISPR/cas Loci of Type II Propionibacterium acnes Confer Immunity against Acquisition of Mobile Elements Present in Type I P. acnes

    PubMed Central

    Brüggemann, Holger; Lomholt, Hans B.; Tettelin, Hervé; Kilian, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a skin commensal that occasionally acts as an opportunistic pathogen. The population structure of this species shows three main lineages (I–III). While type I strains are mainly associated with sebaceous follicles of human skin and inflammatory acne, types II and III strains are more often associated with deep tissue infections. We investigated the occurrence and distribution of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) in P. acnes, assessed their immunological memory, and addressed the question if such a system could account for type-specific properties of the species. A collection of 108 clinical isolates covering all known phylotypes of P. acnes was screened for the existence of CRISPR/cas loci. We found that CRISPR loci are restricted to type II P. acnes strains. Sequence analyses of the CRISPR spacers revealed that the system confers immunity to P. acnes-specific phages and to two mobile genetic elements. These elements are found almost exclusively in type I P. acnes strains. Genome sequencing of a type I P. acnes isolate revealed that one element, 54 kb in size, encodes a putative secretion/tight adherence (TAD) system. Thus, CRISPR/cas loci in P. acnes recorded the exposure of type II strains to mobile genetic elements of type I strains. The CRISPR/cas locus is deleted in type I strains, which conceivably accounts for their ability to horizontally acquire fitness or virulence traits and might indicate that type I strains constitute a younger subpopulation of P. acnes. PMID:22479553

  16. Antibiotic susceptibility of Propionibacterium acnes isolated from orthopaedic implant-associated infections.

    PubMed

    Khassebaf, Jasmine; Hellmark, Bengt; Davidsson, Sabina; Unemo, Magnus; Nilsdotter-Augustinsson, Åsa; Söderquist, Bo

    2015-04-01

    Prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) caused by Propionibacterium acnes account for a larger proportion of the total number of PJIs than previously assumed and thus knowledge of the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of P. acnes is of great value in everyday clinical practice. Using Etest, the present study investigated the susceptibility of 55 clinical isolates of P. acnes, obtained from orthopaedic implant-associated infections of the knee joint (n = 5), hip joint (n = 17), and shoulder joint (n = 33), to eight antimicrobial agents: benzylpenicillin, clindamycin, metronidazole, fusidic acid, doxycycline, moxifloxacin, linezolid and rifampicin. Synergy testing was also conducted, in which rifampicin was combined with each of the remaining seven antibiotics. All isolates (n = 55) were susceptible to most of the antibiotics tested, with the exception of 100% resistance to metronidazole, five (9.1%) isolates displaying decreased susceptibility to clindamycin, and one (1.8%) to moxifloxacin. None of the antimicrobial agents investigated were synergistic with each other when combined and nine isolates were antagonistic for various antimicrobial combinations. The majority of the antimicrobial combinations had an indifferent effect on the isolates of P. acnes. However, the combination of rifampicin and benzylpenicillin showed an additive effect on nearly half of the isolates. Almost all P. acnes, isolated from orthopaedic implant-associated infections, predominantly PJIs, were susceptible to the antibiotics tested, with the exception of complete resistance to metronidazole. Synergy test could not demonstrate any synergistic effect but additive effects were found when combining various antibiotics. Antagonistic effects were rare. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. High throughput 16SrRNA gene sequencing reveals the correlation between Propionibacterium acnes and sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Meng-Meng; Du, Shan-Shan; Li, Qiu-Hong; Chen, Tao; Qiu, Hui; Wu, Qin; Chen, Shan-Shan; Zhou, Ying; Zhang, Yuan; Hu, Yang; Su, Yi-Liang; Shen, Li; Zhang, Fen; Weng, Dong; Li, Hui-Ping

    2017-02-01

    This study aims to use high throughput 16SrRNA gene sequencing to examine the bacterial profile of lymph node biopsy samples of patients with sarcoidosis and to further verify the association between Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) and sarcoidosis. A total of 36 mediastinal lymph node biopsy specimens were collected from 17 cases of sarcoidosis, 8 tuberculosis (TB group), and 11 non-infectious lung diseases (control group). The V4 region of the bacterial 16SrRNA gene in the specimens was amplified and sequenced using the high throughput sequencing platform MiSeq, and bacterial profile was established. The data analysis software QIIME and Metastats were used to compare bacterial relative abundance in the three patient groups. Overall, 545 genera were identified; 38 showed significantly lower and 29 had significantly higher relative abundance in the sarcoidosis group than in the TB and control groups (P < 0.01). P. acnes 16SrRNA was exclusively found in all the 17 samples of the sarcoidosis group, whereas was not detected in the TB and control groups. The relative abundance of P. acnes in the sarcoidosis group (0.16% ± 0. 11%) was significantly higher than that in the TB (Metastats analysis: P = 0.0010, q = 0.0044) and control groups (Metastats analysis: P = 0.0010, q = 0.0038). The relative abundance of P. granulosum was only 0.0022% ± 0. 0044% in the sarcoidosis group. P. granulosum 16SrRNA was not detected in the other two groups. High throughput 16SrRNA gene sequencing appears to be a useful tool to investigate the bacterial profile of sarcoidosis specimens. The results suggest that P. acnes may be involved in sarcoidosis development.

  18. Prevalence of Propionibacterium acnes in the glenohumeral compared with the subacromial space in primary shoulder arthroscopies.

    PubMed

    Patzer, Thilo; Petersdorf, Sabine; Krauspe, Ruediger; Verde, Pablo Emilio; Henrich, Birgit; Hufeland, Martin

    2018-05-01

    We hypothesized that the prevalence of Propionibacterium acnes in patients undergoing primary shoulder arthroscopy is equal in the glenohumeral space compared with the subacromial space. Patients aged 18 years or older with shoulder arthroscopies were included. The exclusion criteria were prior shoulder operations, complete rotator cuff tears, systemic inflammatory diseases, tumors, shoulder injections within 6 months of surgery, and antibiotic therapy within 14 days preoperatively. After standardized skin disinfection with Kodan Tinktur Forte Gefärbt, a skin swab was taken at the posterior portal. Arthroscopy was performed without cannulas, prospectively randomized to start either in the glenohumeral space or in the subacromial space, with direct harvesting of a soft-tissue biopsy specimen. Sample cultivation was conducted according to standardized criteria for bone and joint aspirate samples and incubated for 14 days. Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight spectrometry was used for specimen identification in positive culture results. The study prospectively included 115 consecutive patients with normal C-reactive protein levels prior to surgery (54.8% men; mean age, 47.2 ± 14.6 years). P acnes was detected on the skin after disinfection in 36.5% of patients, in the glenohumeral space in 18.9%, and in the subacromial space in 3.5% (P = .016). The prevalence of P acnes is significantly higher in the glenohumeral space compared with the subacromial space in primary shoulder arthroscopies. The results do not confirm the contamination theory but also cannot clarify whether P acnes is a commensal or enters the joint hematologically or even lymphatically or via an unknown pathway. Despite standardized surgical skin disinfection, P acnes can be detected in skin swab samples in more than one-third of patients. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A combination of ellagic acid and tetracycline inhibits biofilm formation and the associated virulence of Propionibacterium acnes in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sivasankar, Chandran; Maruthupandiyan, Shanmugam; Balamurugan, Krishnaswamy; James, Prabhanand Bhaskar; Krishnan, Venkat; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2016-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is an opportunistic pathogen which has become notorious owing to its ability to form a recalcitrant biofilm and to develop drug resistance. The current study aimed to develop anti-biofilm treatments against clinical isolates of P. acnes under in vitro and in vivo conditions. A combination of ellagic acid and tetracycline (ETC; 250 μg ml(-1) + 0.312 μg ml(-1)) was determined to effectively inhibit biofilm formation by P. acnes (80-91%) without affecting its growth, therefore potentially limiting the possibility of the bacterium attaining resistance. In addition, ETC reduced the production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) (20-26%), thereby making P. acnes more susceptible to the human immune system and antibiotics. The anti-biofilm potential of ETC was further substantiated under in vivo conditions using Caenorhabditis elegans. This study reports a novel anti-biofilm combination that could be developed as an ideal therapeutic agent with broad cosmeceutical and pharmaceutical applicability in the era of antibiotic resistance.

  20. Adjuvant Effect of Killed Propionibacterium acnes on Mouse Peritoneal B-1 Lymphocytes and Their Early Phagocyte Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Mussalem, Juliana Sekeres; Squaiella-Baptistão, Carla Cristina; Teixeira, Daniela; Yendo, Tatiana Mina; Thies, Felipe Garutti; Popi, Ana Flavia; Mariano, Mario; Longo-Maugéri, Ieda

    2012-01-01

    B-1 lymphocytes are the predominant cells in mouse peritoneal cavity. They express macrophage and lymphocyte markers and are divided into B-1a, B-1b and B-1c subtypes. The role of B-1 cells is not completely clear, but they are responsible for natural IgM production and seem to play a regulatory role. An enriched B-1b cell population can be obtained from non-adherent peritoneal cell cultures, and we have previously demonstrated that these cells undergo differentiation to acquire a mononuclear phagocyte phenotype upon attachment to the substrate in vitro. Nevertheless, the B-1 cell response to antigens or adjuvants has been poorly investigated. Because killed Propionibacterium acnes exhibits immunomodulatory effects on both macrophages and B-2 lymphocytes, we analyzed whether a killed bacterial suspension or its soluble polysaccharide (PS) could modulate the absolute number of peritoneal B-1 cells in BALB/c mice, the activation status of these cells and their ability to differentiate into phagocytes in vitro. In vivo, P. acnes treatment elevated the absolute number of all B-1 subsets, whereas PS only increased B-1c. Moreover, the bacterium increased the number of B-1b cells that were positive for MHC II, TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-12, in addition to up-regulating TLR9, CD80 and CD86 expression. PS increased B-1b cell expression of TLR4, TLR9, CD40 and CD86, as well as IL-10 and IL-12 synthesis. Both of the treatments decreased the absolute number of B-1b cells in vitro, suggesting their early differentiation into B-1 cell-derived phagocytes (B-1CDP). We also observed a higher phagocytic activity from the phagocytes that were derived from B-1b cells after P. acnes and PS treatment. The adjuvant effect that P. acnes has on B-1 cells, mainly the B-1b subtype, reinforces the importance of B-1 cells in the innate and adaptive immune responses. PMID:22448280

  1. Adjuvant effect of killed Propionibacterium acnes on mouse peritoneal B-1 lymphocytes and their early phagocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Mussalem, Juliana Sekeres; Squaiella-Baptistão, Carla Cristina; Teixeira, Daniela; Yendo, Tatiana Mina; Thies, Felipe Garutti; Popi, Ana Flavia; Mariano, Mario; Longo-Maugéri, Ieda

    2012-01-01

    B-1 lymphocytes are the predominant cells in mouse peritoneal cavity. They express macrophage and lymphocyte markers and are divided into B-1a, B-1b and B-1c subtypes. The role of B-1 cells is not completely clear, but they are responsible for natural IgM production and seem to play a regulatory role. An enriched B-1b cell population can be obtained from non-adherent peritoneal cell cultures, and we have previously demonstrated that these cells undergo differentiation to acquire a mononuclear phagocyte phenotype upon attachment to the substrate in vitro. Nevertheless, the B-1 cell response to antigens or adjuvants has been poorly investigated. Because killed Propionibacterium acnes exhibits immunomodulatory effects on both macrophages and B-2 lymphocytes, we analyzed whether a killed bacterial suspension or its soluble polysaccharide (PS) could modulate the absolute number of peritoneal B-1 cells in BALB/c mice, the activation status of these cells and their ability to differentiate into phagocytes in vitro. In vivo, P. acnes treatment elevated the absolute number of all B-1 subsets, whereas PS only increased B-1c. Moreover, the bacterium increased the number of B-1b cells that were positive for MHC II, TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-12, in addition to up-regulating TLR9, CD80 and CD86 expression. PS increased B-1b cell expression of TLR4, TLR9, CD40 and CD86, as well as IL-10 and IL-12 synthesis. Both of the treatments decreased the absolute number of B-1b cells in vitro, suggesting their early differentiation into B-1 cell-derived phagocytes (B-1CDP). We also observed a higher phagocytic activity from the phagocytes that were derived from B-1b cells after P. acnes and PS treatment. The adjuvant effect that P. acnes has on B-1 cells, mainly the B-1b subtype, reinforces the importance of B-1 cells in the innate and adaptive immune responses.

  2. The Incidence of Propionibacterium acnes in Open Shoulder Surgery: A Controlled Diagnostic Study.

    PubMed

    Mook, William R; Klement, Mitchell R; Green, Cynthia L; Hazen, Kevin C; Garrigues, Grant E

    2015-06-17

    Propionibacterium acnes has arisen as the most common microorganism identified at the time of revision shoulder arthroplasty. There is limited evidence to suggest how frequently false-positive cultures occur. The purpose of this prospective controlled study was to evaluate culture growth from specimens obtained during open shoulder surgery. Patients undergoing an open deltopectoral approach to the shoulder were prospectively enrolled. Patients with a history of shoulder surgery or any concern for active or previous shoulder infection were excluded. Three pericapsular soft-tissue samples were taken from the shoulder for bacterial culture and were incubated for fourteen days. A sterile sponge was also analyzed in parallel with the tissue cultures. In addition, similar cultures were obtained from patients who had undergone previous shoulder surgery. Overall, 20.5% of surgeries (twenty-four of 117) yielded at least one specimen removed for culture that was positive for bacterial growth, and 13.0% of sterile control specimens (seven of fifty-four) had positive culture growth (p = 0.234). P. acnes represented 83.0% of all positive cultures (thirty-nine of forty-seven) at a median incubation time of fourteen days. Among the subjects who had not undergone previous surgery, 17.1% (fourteen of eighty-two) had at least one positive P. acnes culture. Male sex was univariably associated with a greater likelihood of bacterial growth (p < 0.01), and patients who had not undergone previous surgery and had received two or more preoperative corticosteroid injections had a higher likelihood of bacterial growth (p = 0.047). The clinical importance of positive P. acnes cultures from specimens obtained from open shoulder surgery remains uncertain. Male sex and preoperative corticosteroid injections were associated with a higher likelihood of bacterial growth on culture and are risk factors that merit further investigation. Previously reported incidences of positive P. acnes culture

  3. Activity of Electrical Current in Experimental Propionibacterium acnes Foreign-Body Osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Malan, Suzannah M; Brinkman, Cassandra L; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E; Karau, Melissa J; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Patel, Robin

    2017-02-01

    Foreign-body-associated infections are often difficult to treat, given that the associated microorganisms are in a biofilm state. Previously, we showed that a low-amperage direct electrical current (DC) reduces Propionibacterium acnes biofilms formed on implant-associated materials in vitro In this study, low-amperage DC was compared to ceftriaxone treatment or no treatment in a novel rat femur model of foreign-body osteomyelitis. A platinum implant seeded with a P. acnes biofilm (10 7 CFU/cm 2 ) and 10 9 CFU of planktonic P. acnes was placed in the femoral medullary cavity. One week later, rats were assigned to one of three treatment groups: no treatment, ceftriaxone treatment, or 200-μA-DC treatment. After 2 weeks of treatment, there were fewer bacteria in the bones of the ceftriaxone group (3.06 log 10 CFU/g of bone [P = 0.0209]) and the 200-μA-DC group (0.5 log 10 CFU/g [P = 0.0015]) than in those of the control group (6.58 log 10 CFU/g). The DC-exposed animals exhibited fewer bacteria than the ceftriaxone-treated animals (P = 0.0330). There were fewer bacteria on the implanted wires in the groups treated with ceftriaxone (0.1 log 10 CFU/cm 2 ) or a 200-μA DC (0.1 log 10 CFU/cm 2 ) than in the control group (2.53 log 10 CFU/cm 2 [P, 0.0003 for both comparisons]). Low-amperage DC may be useful for treating, or aiding in the treatment of, foreign-body infections caused by P. acnes. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  4. Frequency of Propionibacterium acnes Infection in Prostate Glands with Negative Biopsy Results Is an Independent Risk Factor for Prostate Cancer in Patients with Increased Serum PSA Titers

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Takashi; Uchida, Keisuke; Sekine, Masaki; Nakajima, Yutaka; Furukawa, Asuka; Suzuki, Yoshimi; Kumagai, Jiro; Akashi, Takumi

    2017-01-01

    Background Propionibacterium acnes has recently been implicated as a cause of chronic prostatitis and this commensal bacterium may be linked to prostate carcinogenesis. The occurrence of intracellular P. acnes infection in prostate glands and the higher frequency of P. acnes-positive glands in radical prostatectomy specimens from patients with prostate cancer (PCa) than in those from patients without PCa led us to examine whether the P. acnes-positive gland frequency can be used to assess the risk for PCa in patients whose first prostate biopsy, performed due to an increased prostate-specific antigen (PSA) titer, was negative. Methods We retrospectively collected the first and last prostate biopsy samples from 44 patients that were diagnosed PCa within 4 years after the first negative biopsy and from 36 control patients with no PCa found in repeated biopsy for at least 3 years after the first biopsy. We evaluated P. acnes-positive gland frequency and P. acnes-positive macrophage number using enzyme-immunohistochemistry with a P. acnes-specific monoclonal antibody (PAL antibody). Results The frequency of P. acnes-positive glands was higher in PCa samples than in control samples in both first biopsy samples and in combined first and last biopsy samples (P < 0.001). A frequency greater than the threshold (18.5 and 17.7, respectively) obtained by each receiver operating characteristic curve was an independent risk factor for PCa (P = 0.003 and 0.001, respectively) with odds ratios (14.8 and 13.9, respectively) higher than those of serum PSA titers of patients just before each biopsy (4.6 and 2.3, respectively). The number of P. acnes-positive macrophages did not differ significantly between PCa and control samples. Conclusions These results suggested that the frequency of P. acnes-positive glands in the first negative prostate biopsy performed due to increased PSA titers can be supportive information for urologists in planning repeated biopsy or follow-up strategies

  5. Low rate of Propionibacterium acnes in arthritic shoulders undergoing primary total shoulder replacement surgery using a strict specimen collection technique.

    PubMed

    Maccioni, Cristobal B; Woodbridge, Adam B; Balestro, Jean-Christian Y; Figtree, Melanie C; Hudson, Bernard J; Cass, Benjamin; Young, Allan A

    2015-08-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a recognized pathogen in postoperative shoulder infections. A recent study reported growth of P acnes in 42% of glenohumeral joints in primary shoulder arthroplasty, concluding that P acnes may cause shoulder osteoarthritis. Whether these results reflect true bacterial infection or specimen contamination is unclear. Our prospective study aimed to determine the rate of P acnes infection in arthritic shoulders using a strict specimen collection technique. We used modified Oxford protocol to collect tissue specimens from the glenohumeral joint of 32 consecutive patients undergoing primary shoulder arthroplasty. Specimens were cultured specifically for P acnes. Diagnosis of P acnes infection required 2 or more positive cultures and histopathology compatible with infection. Three of 32 patients had a positive culture for P acnes. Overall, 3.125% of specimens grew P acnes without histologic evidence of infection. There were no patients with P acnes infection. The difference in culture rates between patients with idiopathic osteoarthritis and those with a predisposing cause for osteoarthritis was not significant. We found a low rate of positive cultures for P acnes, but no P acnes infection and no difference between types of osteoarthritis. These results do not support a cause-and-effect relationship between P acnes and osteoarthritis. The differing results from previous studies are likely explained by our strict specimen collection technique, reflecting different rates of contamination rather than infection. That P acnes contamination occurs in primary shoulder arthroplasty is concerning. Further studies are needed to assess the rates of contamination in shoulder surgery, its clinical effect, and to determine optimal antibiotic prophylaxis. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Propionibacterium acnes in primary shoulder arthroplasty: rates of colonization, patient risk factors, and efficacy of perioperative prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Koh, Chuan Kong; Marsh, Jonathan P; Drinković, Dragana; Walker, Cameron G; Poon, Peter C

    2016-05-01

    Recent literature has shown that Propionibacterium acnes can be cultured from superficial and deep layers of the shoulder. Our aims were to assess the rate of P. acnes colonization in patients undergoing primary shoulder arthroplasty, to identify patient-related risk factors, and to evaluate the efficacy of our perioperative antisepsis protocol. Thirty consecutive patients undergoing primary shoulder arthroplasty were included in our study. Swabs were taken perioperatively (4 superficial and 2 deep wound swabs) and analyzed quantitatively for P. acnes. Cefazolin minimum inhibitory concentration was determined for P. acnes isolates from positive deep cultures. Twenty-two patients (73%) had positive cultures for P. acnes. Male gender (P = .024) and presence of hair (P = .005) had significantly higher rates of P. acnes superficial cultures. Subjects with positive superficial P. acnes cultures (P = .076) and presence of hair with a history of steroid injection (P = .092) were more likely to have deep P. acnes-positive cultures, but this was not statistically significant. Local topical antisepsis measures did not eradicate P. acnes (P = .12). Mean cefazolin minimum inhibitory concentration for P. acnes was 0.32 μg/mL. P. acnes is commonly isolated from the skin and deep surgical wounds of patients undergoing primary total shoulder arthroplasty who have not had previous shoulder surgery. Male gender and presence of hair were significant risk factors for P. acnes colonization. Perioperative local topical antisepsis and cefazolin administration were not effective in eliminating P. acnes colonization. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Antibacterial activity of gold nanorods against Staphylococcus aureus and Propionibacterium acnes: misinterpretations and artifacts.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Nouf N; Alkilany, Alaaldin M; Khalil, Enam A; Al-Bakri, Amal G

    2017-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of gold nanorod (GNR) suspensions of different surface functionalities was investigated against standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Propionibacterium acnes , taking into consideration two commonly "overlooked" factors: the colloidal stability of GNR suspensions upon mixing with bacterial growth media and the possible contribution of "impurities/molecules" in GNR suspensions to the observed antibacterial activity. The results demonstrated that cationic polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH)-GNR were severely aggregated when exposed to bacterial growth media compared to other GNR suspensions. In addition, the free cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) present in GNR suspensions is most likely the origin of the observed antibacterial activity. However, the antibacterial activity of GNR themselves could not be excluded. Probing these two critical control studies prevents misinterpretations and artifacts of the antibacterial activity of nanoparticles. Unfortunately, these practices are usually ignored in the published studies and may explain the significant conflicting results. In addition, this study indicates that GNR could be a promising candidate for the treatment of skin follicular diseases such as acne vulgaris.

  8. The study of Bacteriocin of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Citrus limon effects against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis in acne patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Mais E.

    2018-05-01

    Research was carried out on the antibacterial effect of (Citrus limon) juice on Acnevulgaris. Samples were obtained from individuals with pimples by swabbing their faces. Natural substances that derive from plants are promising to treat disease cause Acnevulgaris, the study in vitro biological activity of the juice, as well as bacterocin cultivated and fruits was investigated on two strains of bacteria (Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus epidermidis). The new antimicrobial (bacteriocin and Citrus juice) is an ongoing search. This study used juice at different concentrations at (20%, 30%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100%). The bacteriocin produced from local P. fluorescens isolates from wound infection and majority of isolates were found to produce crude bacteriocin were (P1 and P2) in Pseudomonas agar at 37°C for 24 hrs. Crude bacteriocin and Citrus limon juice against some pathogenic skin bacteria was find to be effective juice Citrus limon aganist S. epidermidis at 100% Concentrations with a range of inhibition zone (18) mm. The isolates of P. fluorescens (P2) was positive as producer of bacteriocin with a wide inhibition growth against gram positive pathogenic bacteria with a range between (10-12) mm.

  9. Susceptibility of Enterococcus faecalis and Propionibacterium acnes to antimicrobial photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    de Annunzio, Sarah Raquel; de Freitas, Laura Marise; Blanco, Ana Lígia; da Costa, Mardoqueu Martins; Carmona-Vargas, Christian C; de Oliveira, Kleber Thiago; Fontana, Carla Raquel

    2018-01-01

    Bacterial resistance to available antibiotics nowadays is a global threat leading researchers around the world to study new treatment modalities for infections. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has been considered an effective and promising therapeutic alternative in this scenario. Briefly, this therapy is based on the activation of a non-toxic photosensitizing agent, known as photosensitizer (PS), by light at a specific wavelength generating cytotoxic singlet oxygen and free radicals. Virtually all studies related to aPDT involve a huge screening to identify ideal PS concentration and light dose combinations, a laborious and time-consuming process that is hardly disclosed in the literature. Herein, we describe an antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy (aPDT) study against Enterococcus faecalis and Propionibacterium acnes employing methylene blue, chlorin-e6 or curcumin as PS. Similarities and discrepancies between the two bacterial species were pointed out in an attempt to speed up and facilitate futures studies against those clinical relevant strains. Susceptibility tests were performed by the broth microdilution method. Our results demonstrate that aPDT mediated by the three above-mentioned PS was effective in eliminating both gram-positive bacteria, although P. acnes showed remarkably higher susceptibility to aPDT when compared to E. faecalis. PS uptake assays revealed that P. acnes is 80 times more efficient than E. faecalis in internalizing all three PS molecules. Our results evidence that the cell wall structure is not a limiting feature when predicting bacterial susceptibility to aPDT treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Prevalence of Propionibacterium acnes in Intervertebral Discs of Patients Undergoing Lumbar Microdiscectomy: A Prospective Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Capoor, Manu N; Ruzicka, Filip; Machackova, Tana; Jancalek, Radim; Smrcka, Martin; Schmitz, Jonathan E; Hermanova, Marketa; Sana, Jiri; Michu, Elleni; Baird, John C; Ahmed, Fahad S; Maca, Karel; Lipina, Radim; Alamin, Todd F; Coscia, Michael F; Stonemetz, Jerry L; Witham, Timothy; Ehrlich, Garth D; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Birkenmaier, Christof; Fischetti, Vincent A; Slaby, Ondrej

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between intervertebral disc degeneration and chronic infection by Propionibacterium acnes is controversial with contradictory evidence available in the literature. Previous studies investigating these relationships were under-powered and fraught with methodical differences; moreover, they have not taken into consideration P. acnes' ability to form biofilms or attempted to quantitate the bioburden with regard to determining bacterial counts/genome equivalents as criteria to differentiate true infection from contamination. The aim of this prospective cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of P. acnes in patients undergoing lumbar disc microdiscectomy. The sample consisted of 290 adult patients undergoing lumbar microdiscectomy for symptomatic lumbar disc herniation. An intraoperative biopsy and pre-operative clinical data were taken in all cases. One biopsy fragment was homogenized and used for quantitative anaerobic culture and a second was frozen and used for real-time PCR-based quantification of P. acnes genomes. P. acnes was identified in 115 cases (40%), coagulase-negative staphylococci in 31 cases (11%) and alpha-hemolytic streptococci in 8 cases (3%). P. acnes counts ranged from 100 to 9000 CFU/ml with a median of 400 CFU/ml. The prevalence of intervertebral discs with abundant P. acnes (≥ 1x103 CFU/ml) was 11% (39 cases). There was significant correlation between the bacterial counts obtained by culture and the number of P. acnes genomes detected by real-time PCR (r = 0.4363, p<0.0001). In a large series of patients, the prevalence of discs with abundant P. acnes was 11%. We believe, disc tissue homogenization releases P. acnes from the biofilm so that they can then potentially be cultured, reducing the rate of false-negative cultures. Further, quantification study revealing significant bioburden based on both culture and real-time PCR minimize the likelihood that observed findings are due to contamination and supports the

  11. Neer Award 2017: A rapid method for detecting Propionibacterium acnes in surgical biopsy specimens from the shoulder.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Scott; Pena Diaz, Ana M; Athwal, George S; Faber, Kenneth J; O'Gorman, David B

    2017-02-01

    Propionibacterium (P) acnes infection of the shoulder after arthroplasty is a common and serious complication. Current detection methods for P acnes involve anaerobic cultures that require prolonged incubation periods (typically 7-14 days). We have developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) approach that sensitively and specifically identifies P acnes in tissue specimens within a 24-hour period. Primers were designed to amplify a unique region of the 16S rRNA gene in P acnes that contained a unique HaeIII restriction enzyme site. PCR and RFLP analyses were optimized to detect P acnes DNA in in vitro cultures and in arthroscopic surgical biopsy specimens from patients with P acnes infections. A 564 base-pair PCR amplicon was derived from all of the known P acnes strains. HaeIII digests of the amplicon yielded a restriction fragment pattern that was unique to P acnes. P acnes-specific amplicons were detected in as few as 10 bacterial cells and in clinical biopsy specimens of infected shoulder tissues. This PCR-RFLP assay combines the sensitivity of PCR with the specificity of RFLP mapping to identify P acnes in surgical isolates. The assay is robust and rapid, and a P acnes-positive tissue specimen can be confirmed within 24 hours of sampling, facilitating treatment decision making, targeted antibiotic therapy, and monitoring to minimize implant failure and revision surgery. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification of proteins of Propionibacterium acnes for use as vaccine candidates to prevent infection by the pig pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Li, Linxi; Sun, Changjiang; Yang, Feng; Yang, Shuxin; Feng, Xin; Gu, Jingmin; Han, Wenyu; Langford, Paul R; Lei, Liancheng

    2013-10-25

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the causative agent of acute and chronic pleuroneumonia that is responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality in the pig industry. New improved vaccines that can protect against all serotypes and prevent colonization are required. In a previous study we showed that whole cells of Propionibacterium acnes protected pigs from A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 and 5 and, therefore, the basis for a promising heterologous vaccine. The aim of this study was to identify those protein antigens of P. acnes responsible for protection against A. pleuropneumoniae infection. Six P. acnes protein antigens that were recognized by sera raised against A. pleuropneumoniae were identified by 2-DE and immunoblotting. Recombinant versions of all P. acnes proteins gave partial protection (10-80%) against A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 and/or 5 infection in a mouse challenge model. The best protection (80% serotype 1; 60% serotype 5) was obtained using recombinant P. acnes single-stranded DNA-binding protein. In part, protection against A. pleuropneumoniae infection may be mediated by small peptide sequences present in P. acnes single-stranded DNA-binding protein that are cross-reactive with those present in the A. pleuropneumoniae-specific RTX toxin ApxIV and the zinc-binding protein ZnuA. The results suggest that P. acnes may be a useful vaccine to protect against different serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Curcumin attenuated acute Propionibacterium acnes-induced liver injury through inhibition of HMGB1 expression in mice.

    PubMed

    Gu, Qiaoli; Guan, Honggeng; Shi, Qin; Zhang, Yanyun; Yang, Huilin

    2015-02-01

    Curcumin is a phenolic product isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma longa and has protective effects on inflammatory diseases. Here we investigated the protective effect of curcumin in acute Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes)-induced inflammatory liver injury. C57BL/6 mice were primed with P. acnes followed by LPS challenge to induce fulminant hepatitis. Curcumin or vehicle control was administered perorally by gavage once daily starting 2days before P. acnes priming. We found that curcumin significantly improved mouse mortality. Then, to investigate the underlying mechanisms of curcumin in this acute inflammatory liver injury model, we primed C57BL/6 mice with P. acnes only. We found that curcumin treatment attenuated P. acnes-induced liver injury as evidenced by decreased production of ALT. In addition, curcumin treatment reduced the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IFN-γ, accompanied by reduced hepatocyte apoptosis. Furthermore, curcumin treatment significantly reduced HMGB1 cytoplasmic translocation and expression by down-regulating acetylation of lysine. Taken together, our results suggest that curcumin protects mice from P. acnes-induced liver injury through reduction of HMGB1 cytoplasmic translocation and expression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantification of the antibody response to Propionibacterium acnes in a patient with prosthetic valve endocarditis: - a case report.

    PubMed

    Herren, T; Middendorp, M A; Zbinden, R

    2016-04-29

    The isolation of Propionibacterium acnes in blood cultures is often considered a contaminant. On rare occasions, P. acnes can cause severe infections, including endocarditis and intravascular prosthesis-associated infections. To evaluate the discrimination between a contaminant and a clinically relevant infection we used an Ouchterlony test system to quantify the antibody response to P. acnes in a patient with a proven P. acnes endocarditis. We report on a 64-year-old Caucasian man who developed P. acnes endocarditis four years following a composite valve-graft conduit replacement of the aortic root. Bacterial growth in blood cultures was detected after an incubation period of 6 days. However, the antibody titer to P. acnes was 1:8 at the time of diagnosis and declined slowly thereafter over 2½ years. The patient's response to the antibiotic treatment was excellent, and no surgical re-intervention was necessary. The working hypothesis of infective endocarditis can be substantiated by serologic testing, which, if positive, provides one additional minor criterion. Moreover, quantification of the antibody response to P. acnes, though not specific, may assist in the differentiation between contaminants and an infection. This quantification may have implications for the patient management, e.g. indication for and choice of the antibiotic therapy.

  15. Comparative study of the bactericidal effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid with blue and red light on Propionibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Myoung-Soon; Yun, Sook Jung; Beom, Hee Ju; Park, Hyoung Ryun; Lee, Jee-Bum

    2011-07-01

    Propionibacterium acnes naturally produces endogenous porphyrins that are composed of coproporphyrin III (CPIII) and protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). Red light alone and photodynamic therapy (PDT) improve acne vulgaris clinically, but there remains a paucity of quantitative data that directly examine the bactericidal effects that result from PDT on P. acnes itself in vitro. The purpose of this study was to measure the difference of bactericidal effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-PDT with red and blue light on P. acnes. P. acnes were cultured under anaerobic conditions and divided into two groups (ALA-treated group and control group), and were then illuminated with blue (415 nm) and red (635 nm) lights using a light-emitting diode (LED). The cultured P. acnes were killed with both blue and red LED light illumination. The efficacy increased with larger doses of light and a greater number of consecutive illuminations. We demonstrated that red light phototherapy was less effective for the eradication of P. acnes than blue light phototherapy without the addition of ALA. However, pretreatment with ALA could enhance markedly the efficacy of red light phototherapy. © 2010 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  16. Prognostic factors for bacterial cultures positive for Propionibacterium acnes and other organisms in a large series of revision shoulder arthroplasties performed for stiffness, pain, or loosening.

    PubMed

    Pottinger, Paul; Butler-Wu, Susan; Neradilek, Moni Blazej; Merritt, Andrew; Bertelsen, Alexander; Jette, Jocelyn L; Warme, Winston J; Matsen, Frederick A

    2012-11-21

    Propionibacterium acnes has been grown on culture in half of the reported cases of chronic infection associated with shoulder arthroplasty. The presence of this organism can be overlooked because its subtle presentation may not suggest the need for culture or because, in contrast to many orthopaedic infections, multiple tissue samples and weeks of culture incubation are often necessary to recover this organism. Surgical decisions regarding implant revision and antibiotic therapy must be made before the results of intraoperative cultures are known. In the present study, we sought clinically relevant prognostic evidence that could help to guide treatment decisions. We statistically correlated preoperative and intraoperative observations on 193 shoulder arthroplasty revisions that were performed because of pain, loosening, or stiffness with the results of a Propionibacterium acnes-specific culture protocol. Regression models were used to identify factors predictive of a positive culture for Propionibacterium acnes. One hundred and eight of the 193 revision arthroplasties were associated with positive cultures; 70% of the positive cultures demonstrated growth of Propionibacterium acnes. The rate of positive cultures per shoulder increased with the number of culture specimens obtained from each shoulder. Fifty-five percent of the positive cultures required observation for more than one week. Male sex, humeral osteolysis, and cloudy fluid were each associated with significant increases of ≥ 600% in the likelihood of obtaining a positive Propionibacterium acnes culture. Humeral loosening, glenoid wear, and membrane formation were associated with significant increases of >300% in the likelihood of obtaining a positive Propionibacterium acnes culture. Preoperative and intraoperative factors can be used to help to predict the risk of a positive culture for Propionibacterium acnes. This evidence is clinically relevant to decisions regarding prosthesis removal or retention

  17. In vitro antimicrobial activity of benzoyl peroxide against Propionibacterium acnes assessed by a novel susceptibility testing method.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Kazuaki; Ikeda, Fumiaki; Kanayama, Shoji; Nakajima, Akiko; Matsumoto, Tatsumi; Ishii, Ritsuko; Umehara, Masatoshi; Gotoh, Naomasa; Hayashi, Naoki; Iyoda, Takako; Matsuzaki, Kaoru; Matsumoto, Satoru; Kawashima, Makoto

    2016-06-01

    Benzoyl peroxide (BPO), a therapeutic agent for acne vulgaris, was assessed for in vitro antimicrobial activity against Propionibacterium acnes using a novel broth microdilution testing that improved BPO solubility. We searched for a suitable culture medium to measure the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of BPO against P. acnes and finally found the Gifu anaerobic medium (GAM) broth supplemented with 0.1(v/v)% glycerol and 2(v/v)% Tween 80, in which BPO dissolved up to 1250 μg/mL and P. acnes grew well. The MICs and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of BPO against 44 clinical isolates of P. acnes collected from Japanese patients with acne vulgaris were determined by our testing method using the supplemented GAM broth. The MICs of BPO were 128 or 256 μg/mL against all isolates of P. acnes regardless of susceptibility to nadifloxacin or clindamycin. The MBCs of BPO were also 128 or 256 μg/mL against the same isolates. Moreover, BPO at the MIC showed a rapid bactericidal activity against P. acnes ATCC11827 in time-kill assay. In conclusion, we could develop a novel assay for the MIC and MBC determinations of BPO against P. acnes, which is reliable and reproducible as a broth microdilution testing and the present results suggest that BPO has a potent bactericidal activity against P. acnes. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Frequent isolation of Propionibacterium acnes from the shoulder dermis despite skin preparation and prophylactic antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Phadnis, Joideep; Gordon, David; Krishnan, Jeganath; Bain, Gregory Ian

    2016-02-01

    In vitro, Propionibacterium acnes (P acnes) is highly susceptible to commonly used antibiotics and antiseptics, yet in vivo, it still causes postsurgical infections of the shoulder. We hypothesized that the local environment within the pilosebaceous glands protects P acnes and that incision of the skin transects these glands, exposing viable P acnes to the wound. Fifty consecutive patients undergoing open shoulder surgery were prospectively studied. Prophylactic antibiotics were administered to all patients. Microbiologic swabs of the skin surface were taken before and after skin preparation with 70% alcoholic chlorhexidine. The skin was incised, and a further swab and dermal biopsy specimen were taken. P acnes was cultured in 21 of 50 prepreparation skin surface swabs (42%), 7 of 50 postpreparation skin surface swabs (14%), 26 of 50 dermal swabs (52%), and 20 of 50 dermal biopsy specimens (40%). There was a significantly higher incidence of P acnes growth from the skin surface (P = .009) and dermis (P = .01) of patients aged ≤50 years old and in the dermal biopsy specimens of patients undergoing revision surgery (P = .01) and a trend toward increased incidence of P acnes in men. P acnes growth from a prepreparation skin surface swab had a sensitivity of 69%, specificity of 88%, positive predictive value of 86%, and negative predictive value of 72% at predicting subsequent P acnes growth from the dermal swab or biopsy specimen. Viable P acnes persists within the skin dermis, despite standard antimicrobial precautions. These findings suggest that incising the skin is likely to lead to deep seeding of the surgical wound, which has implications for the pathogenesis and prevention of postsurgical shoulder infections. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Multiplex Touchdown PCR for Rapid Typing of the Opportunistic Pathogen Propionibacterium acnes

    PubMed Central

    Barnard, Emma; Nagy, István; Hunyadkürti, Judit; Patrick, Sheila

    2015-01-01

    The opportunistic human pathogen Propionibacterium acnes is composed of a number of distinct phylogroups, designated types IA1, IA2, IB, IC, II, and III, which vary in their production of putative virulence factors, their inflammatory potential, and their biochemical, aggregative, and morphological characteristics. Although multilocus sequence typing (MLST) currently represents the gold standard for unambiguous phylogroup classification and individual strain identification, it is a labor-intensive and time-consuming technique. As a consequence, we developed a multiplex touchdown PCR assay that in a single reaction can confirm the species identity and phylogeny of an isolate based on its pattern of reaction with six primer sets that target the 16S rRNA gene (all isolates), ATPase (types IA1, IA2, and IC), sodA (types IA2 and IB), atpD (type II), and recA (type III) housekeeping genes, as well as a Fic family toxin gene (type IC). When applied to 312 P. acnes isolates previously characterized by MLST and representing types IA1 (n = 145), IA2 (n = 20), IB (n = 65), IC (n = 7), II (n = 45), and III (n = 30), the multiplex displayed 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity for detecting isolates within each targeted phylogroup. No cross-reactivity with isolates from other bacterial species was observed. This multiplex assay will provide researchers with a rapid, high-throughput, and technically undemanding typing method for epidemiological and phylogenetic investigations. It will facilitate studies investigating the association of lineages with various infections and clinical conditions, and it will serve as a prescreening tool to maximize the number of genetically diverse isolates selected for downstream higher-resolution sequence-based analyses. PMID:25631794

  20. Macrophages largely contribute to heterologous anti-Propionibacterium acnes antibody-mediated protection from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qiuyue; Sun, Changjiang; Yang, Feng; Wang, Lei; Qin, Wanhai; Xia, Xiaojing; Feng, Xin; Du, Chongtao; Gu, Jingmin; Han, Wenyu; Lei, Liancheng

    2015-03-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the causative agent of acute and chronic pleuropneumonia. Propionibacterium acnes is a facultative anaerobic gram-positive corynebacterium. We have previously found that anti-P. acnes antibodies can prevent A. pleuropneumoniae infections in mice. To investigate the role of macrophages in this process, affinity-purified anti-P. acnes IgG and anti-A. pleuropneumoniae IgG were used in opsonophagocytosis assays. Additionally, the efficacy of passive immunization with P. acnes serum against A. pleuropneumoniae was tested in macrophage-depleted mice. It was found that anti-P. acnes IgG had an effect similar to that of anti-A. pleuropneumoniae IgG (P > 0.05), which significantly promotes phagocytosis of A. pleuropneumoniae by macrophages (P < 0.01). It was also demonstrated that, after passive immunization with anti-P. acnes serum, macrophage-replete mice had the highest survival rate (90%), whereas the survival rate of macrophage-depleted mice was only 40% (P < 0.05). However, macrophage-depleted mice that had been passively immunized with naïve serum had the lowest survival rate (20%), this rate being lower than that of macrophage-replete mice that had been passively immunized with naïve serum. Overall, anti-P. acnes antibodies did not prevent A. pleuropneumoniae infection under conditions of macrophage depletion (P > 0.05). Furthermore, in mice that had been passively immunized with anti-P. acnes serum, macrophage depletion resulted in a greater A. pleuropneumoniae burden and more severe pathological features of pneumonia in lung tissues than occurred in macrophage-replete mice. It was concluded that macrophages are essential for the process by which anti-P. acnes antibody prevents A. pleuropneumoniae infection in mice. © 2015 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Flavones Isolated from Scutellariae radix Suppress Propionibacterium Acnes-Induced Cytokine Production In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Po-Jung; Huang, Wen-Cheng; Hsieh, Ming-Chi; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Wu, Wen-Huey

    2015-12-24

    Scutellariae radix, the root of Scutellaria baicalensis, has long been applied in traditional formulations and modern herbal medications. Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) in follicles can trigger inflammation and lead to the symptom of inflammatory acnes vulgaris. This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of Scutellariae radix extract and purified components isolated from it on inflammation induced by P. acnes in vitro and in vivo. The results showed the ethyl acetate (EA) soluble fraction from the partition of crude ethanolic extract from Scutellariae radix inhibited P. acnes-induced interleukin IL-8 and IL-1β production in human monocytic THP-1 cells. Seven flavones were isolated from the EA fraction by repeated chromatographies, and identified as 5,7-dihydroxy-6-methoxyflavone (FL1, oroxylin), 5,7-dihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone (FL2, wogonin), 5-hydroxy-7,8-dimethoxyflavone (FL3, 7-O-methylwogonin), 5,6'-dihydroxy-6,7,8,2'-tetramethoxy flavone (FL4, skullcapflavone II), 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone (FL5), 5,2',6'-trihydroxy-7,8-dimethoxyflavone (FL6, viscidulin II), and 5,7,2',5'-tetrahydroxy-8,6'-dimethoxyflavone (FL7, ganhuangenin). They all significantly suppressed P. acnes-induced IL-8 and IL-1β production in THP-1 cells, and FL2 exerted the strongest effect with half maximal inhibition (IC50) values of 8.7 and 4.9 μM, respectively. Concomitant intradermal injection of each of the seven flavones (20 μg) with P. acnes effectively attenuated P. acnes-induced ear swelling, and decreased the production of IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α in ear homogenates. Our results suggested that all the seven flavones can be potential therapeutic agents against P. acnes-induced skin inflammation.

  2. In-house SIRAS phasing of the polyunsaturated fatty-acid isomerase from Propionibacterium acnes

    SciTech Connect

    Liavonchanka, Alena; Hornung, Ellen; Feussner, Ivo

    2006-02-01

    Low iodide concentrations were sufficient to allow SAD and SIRAS phasing of cubic crystals of a novel fatty acid isomerase using Cu Kα radiation. The polyenoic fatty-acid isomerase from Propionibacterium acnes (PAI) catalyzes the double-bond isomerization of linoleic acid to conjugated linoleic acid, which is a dairy- or meat-derived fatty acid in the human diet. PAI was overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity as a yellow-coloured protein. The nature of the bound cofactor was analyzed by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. Single crystals of PAI were obtained in two crystal forms. Cubic shaped crystals belong to space group I2{submore » 1}3, with a unit-cell parameter of 160.4 Å, and plate-like crystals belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 133.7, b = 60.8, c = 72.2 Å, β = 115.8°. Both crystal forms contain one molecule per asymmetric unit and diffract to a resolution of better than 2.0 Å. Initial phases were obtained by SIRAS from in-house data from a cubic crystal that was soaked with an unusually low KI concentration of 0.25 M.« less

  3. The Opportunistic Pathogen Propionibacterium acnes: Insights into Typing, Human Disease, Clonal Diversification and CAMP Factor Evolution

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, Andrew; Nagy, István; Magyari, Márta; Barnard, Emma; Patrick, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    We previously described a Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) scheme based on eight genes that facilitates population genetic and evolutionary analysis of P. acnes. While MLST is a portable method for unambiguous typing of bacteria, it is expensive and labour intensive. Against this background, we now describe a refined version of this scheme based on two housekeeping (aroE; guaA) and two putative virulence (tly; camp2) genes (MLST4) that correctly predicted the phylogroup (IA1, IA2, IB, IC, II, III), clonal complex (CC) and sequence type (ST) (novel or described) status for 91% isolates (n = 372) via cross-referencing of the four gene allelic profiles to the full eight gene versions available in the MLST database (http://pubmlst.org/pacnes/). Even in the small number of cases where specific STs were not completely resolved, the MLST4 method still correctly determined phylogroup and CC membership. Examination of nucleotide changes within all the MLST loci provides evidence that point mutations generate new alleles approximately 1.5 times as frequently as recombination; although the latter still plays an important role in the bacterium's evolution. The secreted/cell-associated ‘virulence’ factors tly and camp2 show no clear evidence of episodic or pervasive positive selection and have diversified at a rate similar to housekeeping loci. The co-evolution of these genes with the core genome might also indicate a role in commensal/normal existence constraining their diversity and preventing their loss from the P. acnes population. The possibility that members of the expanded CAMP factor protein family, including camp2, may have been lost from other propionibacteria, but not P. acnes, would further argue for a possible role in niche/host adaption leading to their retention within the genome. These evolutionary insights may prove important for discussions surrounding camp2 as an immunotherapy target for acne, and the effect such treatments may have on commensal

  4. Comparison of antibacterial activity of Talok (Muntingia calabura L) leaves ethanolic and n-hexane extracts on Propionibacterium acnes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desrini, Sufi; Ghiffary, Hifzhan Maulana

    2018-04-01

    Muntingia calabura L., also known locally as Talok or Kersen, is a plant which has been widely used as traditional medicine in Indonesia. In this study, we evaluated the antibacterial activity of Muntingia calabura L. Leaves ethanolic and n-hexane extract extract on Propionibacterium acnes. Antibacterial activity was determined in the extracts using agar well diffusion method. The antibacterial activities of each extract (2 mg/mL, 8 mg/ml, 20 mg/mL 30 mg/mL, and 40 mg/mL) were tested against to Propionibacterium acnes. Zone of inhibition of ethanolic extract and n-hexane extract was measured, compared, and analyzed by using a statistical programme. The phytochemical analyses of the plants were carried out using thin chromatography layer (TLC). The average diameter zone of inhibition at the concentration of 2 mg/mL of the ethanolic extract is 9,97 mm while n-Hexane extract at the same concentration showed 0 mm. Statistical test used was non-parametric test using Kruskal Wallis test which was continued to the Mann-Whitney to see the magnitude of the difference between concentration among groups. Kruskal-Wallis test revealed a significant value 0,000. Based on the result of Post Hoc test using Mann - Whitney test, there is the statistically significant difference between each concentration of ethanolic extract and n-hexane as well as positive control group (p-value < 0,05). Both extracts have antibacterial activity on P.acne. However, ethanolic extract of Muntingia calabura L. is better in inhibiting Propionibacterium acnes growth than n-hexane extract.

  5. Blue light for infectious diseases: Propionibacterium acnes, Helicobacter pylori, and beyond?

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Tianhong; Gupta, Asheesh; Murray, Clinton K.; Vrahas, Mark S.; Tegos, George P.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Blue light, particularly in the wavelength range of 405–470 nm, has attracted increasing attention due to its intrinsic antimicrobial effect without the addition of exogenous photosensitizers. In addition, it is commonly accepted that blue light is much less detrimental to mammalian cells than ultraviolet irradiation, which is another light-based antimicrobial approach being investigated. In this review, we discussed the blue light sensing systems in microbial cells, antimicrobial efficacy of blue light, the mechanism of antimicrobial effect of blue light, the effects of blue light on mammalian cells, and the effects of blue light on wound healing. It has been reported that blue light can regulate multi-cellular behavior involving cell-to-cell communication via blue light receptors in bacteria, and inhibit biofilm formation and subsequently potentiate light inactivation. At higher radiant exposures, blue light exhibits a broad-spectrum antimicrobial effect against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Blue light therapy is a clinically accepted approach for Propionibacterium acnes infections. Clinical trials have also been conducted to investigate the use of blue light for Helicobacter pylori stomach infections and have shown promising results. Studies on blue light inactivation of important wound pathogenic bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa have also been reported. The mechanism of blue light inactivation of P. acnes, H. pylori, and some oral bacteria is the photo-excitation of intracellular porphyrins and the subsequent production of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species. Although it may be the case that the mechanism of blue light inactivation of wound pathogens (e.g., S. aureus, P. aeruginosa) is the same as that of P. acnes, this hypothesis has not been rigorously tested. Limited and discordant results have been reported regarding the effects of blue light on mammalian cells and wound healing. Under certain wavelengths

  6. Multicenter cross-sectional observational study of antibiotic resistance and the genotypes of Propionibacterium acnes isolated from Chinese patients with acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yukun; Hao, Fei; Wang, Weizhen; Lu, Yonghong; He, Li; Wang, Gang; Chen, Wenchieh

    2016-04-01

    Antibiotics are widely applied in management of acne vulgaris, which raises the issue of antibiotic resistance. Due to improper application and supervision of antibiotics, antibiotic resistance has become a serious problem in China. So, the efficacy of antimicrobial therapy in acne is unclear without an objective monitor of antibiotic resistance of Propionibacterium acnes. This cross-sectional, multicenter observational study is aimed at understanding the status of antibiotic resistance in P. acnes, investigating the measures of acne management in China and analyzing the genotypes of antibiotic-resistant strains of P. acnes. Altogether, 312 strains of P. acnes were collected from patients in five medical centers across central China after reviewing the corresponding medical history in detail. The samples underwent antibiotic susceptibility assays by agar dilution method with a total of 11 classes of antibiotics being tested. The antibiotic-resistant strains were screened and further analyzed by investigation of the genotypes regarding 23S rRNA, 16S rRNA and erm(X). The predominant resistance occurred in macrolides and lincomycin with an overall resistance rate of 47.8%. The resistance to tetracyclines was scarce with only two cases identified. The emergence of minimum inhibitory concentration elevation for tetracyclines is associated with its application history (P < 0.005). The genotypes of the reported macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance strains were also spotted in Chinese subjects while other resistance determinants may also exist. The tetracyclines have been proved to be vastly susceptible while macrolides and lincomycin face a serious resistance status in China. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  7. Investigating the Stability of Benzoyl Peroxide in Over-the-Counter Acne Medications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittredge, Marina Canepa; Kittredge, Kevin W.; Sokol, Melissa S.; Sarquis, Arlyne M.; Sennet, Laura M.

    2008-01-01

    One of the most commonly used ingredients in over-the-counter acne treatments in cream, gel, and wash form is benzoyl peroxide. It is an anti-bacterial agent that kills the bacterium ("Propionibacterium acne") involved in the formation of acne. The formulation of these products is extremely difficult owing to the instability of benzoyl peroxide.…

  8. Persistent extra-axial post-surgical collections and Propionibacterium acnes infection. Presentation of two cases and literature review.

    PubMed

    González, Pedro; Thenier, José; Galárraga, Raúl; de la Lama, Adolfo; Azevedo, Eva; Conde, Cesáreo

    It is common to observe the persistence of extra-axial collections after craniotomies. Most of these disappear in weeks or months but some remain. The onset of focal symptoms or the growth of these persistent collections months or years after surgery may indicate the presence of a chronic and latent infection by germs of low virulence such as Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes). We present two clinical cases with persistent extra-axial collections, which required surgery years after diagnosis, in which P. acnes was isolated as an aetiological agent and we reviewed the literature published in this regard. These are two patients who, following surgical procedures (decompressive craniectomy for severe TBI and craniotomy for right parietal meningioma) and extra-axial collections were kept, which were monitored over time and then were infected and required emergency evacuation. In these collections P. acnes grew as a causal agent and required targeted antibiotics. We must consider P. acnes as an infectious agent of post-surgical collections of long evolution. Atypical presentation and radiological changes may be helpful in diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Temporomandibular Prosthetic Joint Infections Associated With Propionibacterium acnes: A Case Series, and a Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Khader, Ruba; Tingey, Joseph; Sewall, Steven

    2017-12-01

    The orthopedic literature has shown an increasing incidence of prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) associated with Propionibacterium acnes (P acnes). These infections present serious diagnostic and management challenges to the treating surgeons. In this review, the authors report on cases of P acnes-related temporomandibular joint (TMJ) PJIs that have been diagnosed and treated at their institution. After approval by the institutional review board, information was obtained through a retrospective chart review. Records were retrieved from clinic visits from January 1, 2010 through January 1, 2015 using appropriate International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes. Data extracted included patient demographics, prostheses details, prosthetic infection history, interventions, diagnostic procedures, and culture processing methods. Of the 7 patients who met the search criteria, 4 (1 with bilateral prostheses) had cultures positive for P acnes. For the 5 TMJ PJIs with cultures positive for P acnes, tissue cultures were obtained in the operating room and processed using mass spectrometry. Symptoms identified in these 4 patients were vague and included pain and intermittent swelling; clinical and radiographic findings were nonspecific. Treatment regimens included oral and parenteral antibiotics and operative interventions. In this case series, the authors report on the management of 4 cases of P acnes-related TMJ PJI. When patients with TMJ prostheses report vague symptoms of swelling and pain that do not fit the typical infection scenario, the surgeon should consider P acnes as a source of infection. Additional case series and retrospective reviews will be necessary before developing prospective trials that could aid in the prevention and management of this infection. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Preliminary study of a new intraocular method in the diagnosis and treatment of Propionibacterium acnes endophthalmitis following cataract extraction.

    PubMed

    Owens, S L; Lam, S; Tessler, H H; Deutsch, T A

    1993-04-01

    Late endophthalmitis, due to Propionibacterium acnes, developed in three patients following uncomplicated extracapsular cataract extraction and posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC-IOL) insertion. Cultures from the capsular bag yielded P. acnes in all three. With topical anesthesia and through an anterior chamber paracentesis, culture specimens were taken from and clindamycin irrigated into the capsular bag. Filtered 100% oxygen was introduced into the anterior chamber in two; the third also received an injection of gentamicin and dexamethasone into the capsular bag. After treatment, two patients received oral antibiotics; one received hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Visual acuity was improved and inflammation reduced in all three. However, after treatment, ocular toxic effects due to clindamycin were suspected in one. This approach offers several clear advantages, including topical anesthesia, outpatient management, elimination of the need for vitrectomy, and retention of the intraocular lens (IOL).

  11. Comparative study of the bactericidal effects of indocyanine green- and methyl aminolevulinate-based photodynamic therapy on Propionibacterium acnes as a new treatment for acne.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seung-Hwan; Seo, Jeong-Wan; Kim, Ki-Ho

    2018-05-03

    Acne vulgaris is one of the most common dermatological problems, and its therapeutic options include topical and systemic retinoids and antibiotics. However, increase in problems associated with acne treatment, such as side-effects from conventional agents and bacterial resistance to antibiotics, has led to greater use of photodynamic therapy. The purpose of this study was to compare the bactericidal effects of indocyanine green- and methyl aminolevulinate-based photodynamic therapy on Propionibacterium acnes. P. acnes were cultured under anaerobic conditions; then they were divided into three groups (control, treated with indocyanine green and treated with methyl aminolevulinate) and illuminated with different lights (630-nm light-emitting diode, 805-nm diode laser and 830-nm light-emitting diode). The bactericidal effects were evaluated by comparing each group's colony-forming units. The cultured P. acnes were killed with an 805-nm diode laser and 830-nm light-emitting diode in the indocyanine green group. No bactericidal effects of methyl aminolevulinate-based photodynamic therapy were identified. The clinical efficacy of indocyanine green-based photodynamic therapy in 21 patients was retrospectively analyzed. The Korean Acne Grading System was used to evaluate treatment efficacy, which was significantly decreased after treatment. The difference in the efficacy of the 805-nm diode laser and 830-nm light-emitting diode was not statistically significant. Although the methyl aminolevulinate-based photodynamic therapy showed no bactericidal effect, the indocyanine green-based photodynamic therapy has bactericidal effect and clinical efficacy. © 2018 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  12. Prevalence of Propionibacterium acnes in Intervertebral Discs of Patients Undergoing Lumbar Microdiscectomy: A Prospective Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Capoor, Manu N.; Ruzicka, Filip; Machackova, Tana; Jancalek, Radim; Smrcka, Martin; Schmitz, Jonathan E.; Hermanova, Marketa; Sana, Jiri; Michu, Elleni; Baird, John C.; Ahmed, Fahad S.; Maca, Karel; Lipina, Radim; Alamin, Todd F.; Coscia, Michael F.; Stonemetz, Jerry L.; Witham, Timothy; Ehrlich, Garth D.; Gokaslan, Ziya L.; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Birkenmaier, Christof; Fischetti, Vincent A.; Slaby, Ondrej

    2016-01-01

    Background The relationship between intervertebral disc degeneration and chronic infection by Propionibacterium acnes is controversial with contradictory evidence available in the literature. Previous studies investigating these relationships were under-powered and fraught with methodical differences; moreover, they have not taken into consideration P. acnes’ ability to form biofilms or attempted to quantitate the bioburden with regard to determining bacterial counts/genome equivalents as criteria to differentiate true infection from contamination. The aim of this prospective cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of P. acnes in patients undergoing lumbar disc microdiscectomy. Methods and Findings The sample consisted of 290 adult patients undergoing lumbar microdiscectomy for symptomatic lumbar disc herniation. An intraoperative biopsy and pre-operative clinical data were taken in all cases. One biopsy fragment was homogenized and used for quantitative anaerobic culture and a second was frozen and used for real-time PCR-based quantification of P. acnes genomes. P. acnes was identified in 115 cases (40%), coagulase-negative staphylococci in 31 cases (11%) and alpha-hemolytic streptococci in 8 cases (3%). P. acnes counts ranged from 100 to 9000 CFU/ml with a median of 400 CFU/ml. The prevalence of intervertebral discs with abundant P. acnes (≥ 1x103 CFU/ml) was 11% (39 cases). There was significant correlation between the bacterial counts obtained by culture and the number of P. acnes genomes detected by real-time PCR (r = 0.4363, p<0.0001). Conclusions In a large series of patients, the prevalence of discs with abundant P. acnes was 11%. We believe, disc tissue homogenization releases P. acnes from the biofilm so that they can then potentially be cultured, reducing the rate of false-negative cultures. Further, quantification study revealing significant bioburden based on both culture and real-time PCR minimize the likelihood that observed

  13. Propionibacterium acnes induces an adjuvant effect in B-1 cells and affects their phagocyte differentiation via a TLR2-mediated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Gambero, Monica; Teixeira, Daniela; Butin, Liane; Ishimura, Mayari Eika; Mariano, Mario; Popi, Ana Flavia; Longo-Maugéri, Ieda Maria

    2016-09-01

    B-1 lymphocytes are present in large numbers in the mouse peritoneal cavity, as are macrophages, and are responsible for natural IgM production. These lymphocytes migrate to inflammatory foci and are also involved in innate immunity. It was also demonstrated that B-1 cells are able to differentiated into phagocytes (B-1CDP), which is characterized by expression of F4/80 and increased phagocytic activity. B-1 cell responses to antigens and adjuvants are poorly characterized. It has been shown that Propionibacterium acnes suspensions induce immunomodulatory effects in both macrophages and B-2 lymphocytes. We recently demonstrated that this bacterium has the ability to increase B-1 cell populations both in vitro and in vivo. P. acnes induces B-1CDP differentiation, increases the expression of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 and augments the expression of CD80, CD86 and CD40 in B-1 and B-1CDP cells. Because P. acnes has been shown to modulate TLR expression, in this study, we investigated the role of TLR2 and TLR4 in B-1 cell population, including B-1CDP differentiation and phagocytic activity in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, we have demonstrated that TLR2 signaling could be involved in the increase in the B-1 cell population induced by P. acnes. Furthermore, the early differentiation of B-1CDP is also dependent of TLR2. It was also observed that TLR signals also interfere in the phagocytic ability of B-1 cells and their phagocytes. According to these data, it is clear that P. acnes promotes an important adjuvant effect in B-1 cells by inducing them to differentiate into B-1CDP cells and modulates their phagocytic functions both in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, most of these effects are mediated primarily via TLR2. These data reinforce the findings that such bacterial suspensions have powerful adjuvant properties. The responses of B-1 cells to exogenous stimulation indicate that these cells are important to the innate immune response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights

  14. Reduced expression of dermcidin, a peptide active against propionibacterium acnes, in sweat of patients with acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Toshiaki; Yoshino, Takashi; Fujimura, Takao; Arai, Satoru; Mukuno, Akira; Sato, Naoya; Katsuoka, Kensei

    2015-09-01

    Dermcidin (DCD), an antimicrobial peptide with a broad spectrum of activity against bacteria such as Propionibacterum acnes, is expressed constitutively in sweat in the absence of stimulation due to injury or inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between DCD expression and acne vulgaris associated with P. acnes. The antimicrobial activity of recombinant full-length DCD (50 μg/ml) was 97% against Escherichia coli and 100% against Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrobial activity against P. acnes ranged from 68% at 50 μg/ml DCD to 83% at 270 μg/ml DCD. DCD concentration in sweat from patients with acne vulgaris (median 9.8 μg/ml, range 6.9-95.3 μg/ml) was significantly lower than in healthy subjects (median 136.7 μg/ml, range 45.4-201.6 μg/ml) (p = 0.001). DCD demonstrated concentration-dependent, but partial, microbicidal activity against P. acnes. These results suggest that reduced DCD concentration in sweat in patients with inflammatory acne may permit proliferation of P. acnes in pilosebaceous units, resulting in progression of inflammatory acne.

  15. The Influence of Direct Inoculation of Propionibacterium acnes on Modic Changes in the Spine: Evidence from a Rabbit Model.

    PubMed

    Shan, Zhi; Zhang, Xuyang; Li, Shengyun; Yu, Tianming; Mamuti, Maiwulanjiang; Zhao, Fengdong

    2017-03-15

    Modic changes (inflammatory-like changes visible on magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] scans of a vertebral end plate) are common and are associated with low back pain, but their origin is unclear. To our knowledge, there have been no previous in vivo animal models of Modic changes. We hypothesized that Modic changes may be related to Propionibacterium acnes. Ten New Zealand White rabbits were injected percutaneously with 1 mL of P. acnes (1.6 × 10 colony forming units/mL) into the subchondral bone superior to the L4-L5 and L5-L6 discs; 10 other control rabbits received sham injections at L4-L5 and 1 mL of normal saline solution (vehicle) at L5-L6. The subchondral bone superior to L3-L4 discs was untreated (blank). Development of Modic changes was investigated with MRI studies before the operation and at 2 weeks and 1, 2, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. Following sacrifice of the rabbits, histological analysis and microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) were performed, and blood samples were analyzed. Cytokine expression in end-plate tissues was quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The group that received P. acnes showed significantly increased T1-weighted signal intensity at 6 months (mean and standard deviation, 3.43 ± 0.41 [range, 2.42 to 4.44] compared with 2.43 ± 0.66 [range, 1.98 to 2.87] before the injection) and higher T2-weighted signal intensity at 6 months. Positive culture results were obtained from 9 of 20 samples injected with P. acnes. Specimens with positive cultures had a higher prevalence of Modic changes (4 of 9 samples positive for P. acnes compared with 3 of 11 samples negative for P. acnes). Real-time PCR showed significantly increased expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interferon-γ following injection of P. acnes, but no changes were seen on histological analysis, micro-CT, or blood analysis. P. acnes can survive within the end-plate region and can initiate mild inflammatory-like responses from

  16. In vivo antibacterial effects of tretinoin-clindamycin and clindamycin alone on Propionibacterium acnes with varying clindamycin minimum inhibitory.

    PubMed

    Leyden, James J

    2012-12-01

    To quantify the antimicrobial effect of clindamycin phosphate 1.2% and tretinoin 0.025% gel and 1% clindamycin phosphate gel in patients with Propionibacterium acnes of varying sensitivity to clindamycin. Study 1 was an initial range-finding study that was neither blinded nor randomized. Study 2 was an open-label, randomized, splitface, single-center study. Both studies were conducted in Pennsylvania. Study 1 (n=20) and study 2 (n=22) involved healthy patients aged 18 years or older with initial P acnes levels #104/cm2 and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) #8 μg/mL for clindamycin. Study 1, clindamycin gel applied twice daily for 6 weeks. Study 2; once-daily application with the combination gel to one cheek and clindamycin gel to the other side for 6 weeks. The comparative effectiveness of each product vs P acnes of varying sensitivity to clindamycin at 3 and 6 weeks posttreatment. For study 1, at 3 and 6 weeks, clindamycin-treated patients with MICs of %256 μg/mL showed greater reductions than those with MICs #512 μg/mL (P=.0001). Study 2 showed a significant reduction in P acnes for both products, with no differences found. Clindamycin alone was more effective in vivo in patients with MIC levels of %256 μg/mL than patients with higher MIC levels. The combination product produced a greater reduction than clindamycin alone after 6 weeks in patients with high MICs #512 μg/mL (P=.0047). These studies suggest that 1% clindamycin alone produces a varying in vivo antimicrobial effect, with a breakpoint at %256 μg/mL. Use of clindamycin phosphate 1.2% and tretinoin 0.025% gel resulted in a significantly greater in vivo antimicrobial effect than clindamycin alone in patients carrying P acnes with MICs of #512 μg/mL (P=.0047).

  17. Emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Propionibacterium acnes caused by amino acid substitutions of DNA gyrase but not DNA topoisomerase IV.

    PubMed

    Nakase, Keisuke; Sakuma, Yui; Nakaminami, Hidemasa; Noguchi, Norihisa

    2016-12-01

    With the aim of elucidating the mechanisms of fluoroquinolones resistance in Propionibacterium acnes, we determined the susceptibility of fluoroquinolones in 211 isolates from patients with acne vulgaris. We identified five isolates (2.4%) with reduced susceptibility to nadifloxacin (minimum inhibitory concentration ≥ 4 μg/ml). Determination of the sequences of the DNA gyrase (gyrA and gyrB) and DNA topoisomerase (parC and parE) genes showed the amino acid substitutions Ser101Leu and Asp105Gly of GyrA in four and one of the isolates, respectively. In vitro mutation experiments showed that low-level fluoroquinolone-resistant mutants with the Ser101Leu or Asp105Gly substitution in GyrA could be obtained from selection with ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin. The pattern of substitution (Ser101Trp in GyrA) caused by nadifloxacin selection was different from that induced by the other fluoroquinolones. In the isolation of further high-level resistant mutants, acquisition of another amino acid substitution of GyrB in addition to those of GyrA was detected, but there were no substitutions of ParC and ParE. In addition, the mutant prevention concentration and mutation frequency of nadifloxacin were lowest among the tested fluoroquinolones. The growth of the Ser101Trp mutant was lower than that of the other mutants. Our findings suggest that the Ser101Trp mutant of P. acnes emerges rarely and disappears immediately, and the risk for the prevalence of fluoroquinolones-resistant P. acnes differs according to the GyrA mutation type. To our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate the mechanisms of resistance to fluoroquinolones in P. acnes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Propionibacterium acnes overabundance and natural killer group 2 member D system activation in corpus-dominant lymphocytic gastritis.

    PubMed

    Montalban-Arques, Ana; Wurm, Philipp; Trajanoski, Slave; Schauer, Silvia; Kienesberger, Sabine; Halwachs, Bettina; Högenauer, Christoph; Langner, Cord; Gorkiewicz, Gregor

    2016-12-01

    Corpus-dominant lymphocytic gastritis (LyG) is characterized by CD8 + T-cell infiltration of the stomach epithelium by a so far uncharacterized mechanism. Although Helicobacter pylori is typically undetectable in LyG, patients respond to H. pylori antibiotic eradication therapy, suggesting a non-H. pylori microbial trigger for the disease. Comparative microbiota analysis of specimens from LyG, H. pylori gastritis and healthy controls precluded involvement of H. pylori in LyG but identified Propionibacterium acnes as a possible disease trigger. In addition, the natural killer group 2 member D (NKG2D) system and the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-15 are significantly upregulated in the gastric mucosa of LyG patients, and gastric epithelial cells respond to microbe-derived stimuli, including live P. acnes and the microbial products short-chain fatty acids, with induction of NKG2D ligands. In contrast, H. pylori infection does not activate or even repress NKG2D ligands. Together, our findings identify P. acnes as a possible causative agent for LyG, which is dependent on the NKG2D system and IL-15 activation. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  19. Evaluation of anti-microbial activities of ZnO, citric acid and a mixture of both against Propionibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Bae, J Y; Park, S N

    2016-12-01

    In this study, anti-microbial activities of ZnO of three different particle sizes of citric acid (CA) and of mixtures of ZnO and CA were confirmed against Propionibacterium acnes. ZnO with the smallest particle size showed relatively high anti-microbial activity by disc diffusion assay and broth macrodilution assay. The mixtures of ZnO and CA also showed relatively high anti-microbial activity when the particle size of ZnO was the smallest. Furthermore, anti-microbial activities of ZnO, CA and the mixtures of ZnO and CA were compared through the checkerboard assay. The results indicated that a 1 : 1 ratio of ZnO and CA resulted in the highest anti-microbial activity. The substances were confirmed to have synergic anti-microbial effects. With the time-kill curve assay, the mixture of ZnO-containing CA reduced the surviving microbial content the most after 24 h. The results of our study suggest that ZnO may not only be an anti-microbial ingredient for the prevention of and treatment of acne. The results of our study suggest that ZnO may be an anti-microbial ingredient for the prevention of and treatment of acne when mixed with CA. © 2016 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  20. Tropism and virulence of Cutibacterium (formerly Propionibacterium) acnes involved in implant-associated infection.

    PubMed

    Aubin, Guillaume Ghislain; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Foucher, Yohan; Dellière, Sarah; Lepelletier, Didier; Gouin, François; Corvec, Stéphane

    2017-10-01

    The recognition of the pathogenicity of Cutibacterium acnes in implant-associated infection is not always obvious. In this paper, we aimed to distinguish pathogenic and non-pathogenic C. acnes isolates. To reach this goal, we investigated the clonal complex (CC) of a large collection of C. acnes clinical isolates through Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST), we established a Caenorhabditis elegans model to assess C. acnes virulence and we investigated the presence of virulence factors in our collection. Ours results showed that CC36 and CC53 C. acnes isolates were more frequently observed in prosthetic joint infections (PJI) than CC18 and CC28 C. acnes isolates (p = 0.021). The C. elegans model developed here showed two distinct virulence groups of C. acnes (p < 0.05). These groups were not correlated to CC or clinical origin. Whole genome sequencing allowed us to identify a putative gene linked to low virulent strains. In conclusion, MLST remains a good method to screen pathogenic C. acnes isolates according to their clinical context but mechanisms of C. acnes virulence need to be assess thought transcriptomic analysis to investigate regulatory process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Myrtus communis extract enriched in myrtucummulones and ursolic acid reduces resistance of Propionibacterium acnes biofilms to antibiotics used in acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Feuillolay, Catherine; Pecastaings, Sophie; Le Gac, Céline; Fiorini-Puybaret, Christel; Luc, Joëlle; Joulia, Philippe; Roques, Christine

    2016-03-15

    Recent works present evidence of Propionibacterium acnes growing as a biofilm in cutaneous follicles. This formation of clusters is now considered as an explanation for the in vivo resistance of P. acnes to the main antimicrobials prescribed in acne vulgaris. Our objective was to explore this hypothesis and propose a new therapeutic approach focusing on anti-biofilm activity of Myrtacine(®) New Generation (Mediterranean Myrtle extract-Botanical Expertise P. Fabre) alone or combined with antibiotics. Using in vitro models able to promote the growth of adhered bacteria, the loss of sensitivity of P. acnes biofilms (48 h) towards erythromycin and clindamycin was checked considering either sensitive or resistant strains. In the same time, the activity of Myrtacine(®) New Generation against biofilm formation and mature biofilm (48 h) was evaluated. Using a dynamic model of biofilm formation, we noted an inhibition of biofilm formation (addition of Myrtacine(®) New Generation at T 0) and a significant effect on mature biofilm (48 h) for 5 min of contact. This effect was also checked using the static model of biofilm formation for Myrtacine(®) New Generation concentrations ranging from 0.03% to 0.0001%. A significant, dose-dependent anti-biofilm effect was observed and notable even at a concentration lower than the active concentration on planktonic cells, i.e. 0.001%. Finally, the interest of the combination of Myrtacine(®) New Generation with antibiotics was explored. An enhanced efficacy was noted when erythromycin (1000 mg/l) or clindamycin (500 mg/l) was added to 0.001% Myrtacine(®), leading to significant differences in comparison to each compound used alone. The efficiency of Myrtacine(®) New Generation on P. acnes biofilm alone or combined with antibiotics was demonstrated and can lead to consider it as a potent adjunctive product efficient during the antibiotic course for acne vulgaris treatment. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Gmb

  2. Preoperative doxycycline does not decolonize Propionibacterium acnes from the skin of the shoulder: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Namdari, Surena; Nicholson, Thema; Parvizi, Javad; Ramsey, Matthew

    2017-09-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is frequently cultured in patients undergoing both primary and revision shoulder surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of preoperative oral administration of doxycycline in decreasing the colonization of skin around the shoulder by P. acnes. This was a single-institution, prospective, randomized controlled trial of male patients undergoing shoulder arthroscopy. Patients were randomized to receive oral doxycycline (100 mg twice a day) for 7 days or to the standard of care (no drug). Before skin incision, 2 separate 3-mm punch biopsy specimens were obtained from the sites of the anterior and posterior arthroscopic portals and were sent for culture in anaerobic and aerobic medium held for 13 days. There were 22 of 37 (59.5%) patients in the no-drug group and 16 of 37 (43.2%) patients in the doxycycline group who had at least 1 dermal culture positive for P. acnes (P = .245). In the no-drug group, 10 patients (45.5%) had 1 positive culture and 12 (54.5%) had 2 positive cultures (34 total positive cultures [45.9%]). In the doxycycline group, 6 (37.5%) patients had 1 positive culture and 10 (62.5%) had 2 positive cultures (26 total positive cultures [35.1%]; P = .774). Administration of oral doxycycline for 7 days before surgery did not reduce colonization of P. acnes significantly. Given the potential risk for emergence of bacterial resistance and the adverse effects associated with administration of antibiotics, we do not recommend routine use of oral doxycycline for preoperative decolonization of the shoulder. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Rapid diagnosis of Propionibacterium acnes infection in patient with hyperpyrexia after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation by next-generation sequencing: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ye, Mingzhi; Wei, Wei; Yang, Zhikai; Li, Yingzhen; Cheng, Shaomin; Wang, Kang; Zhou, Tianliangwen; Sun, Jingmeng; Liu, Sha; Ni, Na; Jiang, Hui; Jiang, Hua

    2016-01-08

    The rapid determination of pathogenic agent is very important to clinician for guiding their clinical medication. However, current diagnostic methods are of limitation in many aspects, such as detecting range, time-consuming, specificity and sensitivity. In this report, we apply our new-developing pathogen detection method to clarify that Propionibacterium acnes is the causative agent of a two-year-old boy with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia presenting clinical symptoms including serious rash and hyperpyrexia while traditional clinical methods of diagnosis fail to detect the pathogenic agent and multiple antimicrobial drugs are almost ineffective Propionibacterium acnes is confirmed to be the infectious agent by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. After haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, a two-year-old boy with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia presented to a pediatrist in a medical facility with hyperpyrexia and red skin rash which later changed to black skin rash all over his body. Traditional diagnostic assays were unrevealing, and several routine antimicrobial treatments were ineffective, including the vancomycin, meropenem, tobramycin, cefepime and rifampin. In this case, pediatrist resorted to the next-generation sequencing technology for uncovering potential pathogens so as to direct their use of specific drugs against pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, based on the BGISEQ100 (Ion Proton System) which performed sequencing-by-synthesis, with electrochemical detection of synthesis, and each such reaction coupled to its own sensor, which are in turn organized into a massively parallel sensor array on a complementary metal-oxidesemiconductor chip, we detect and identify the potential pathogens. As a result, we detected a significantly higher abundance of skin bacteria Propionibacterium acnes in patient's blood than controls. It had been reported that patients infected by Propionibacterium acnes almost always had history of

  4. Activities of ten essential oils towards Propionibacterium acnes and PC-3, A-549 and MCF-7 cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zu, Yuangang; Yu, Huimin; Liang, Lu; Fu, Yujie; Efferth, Thomas; Liu, Xia; Wu, Nan

    2010-04-30

    Ten essential oils, namely, mint (Mentha spicata L., Lamiaceae), ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc., Zingiberaceae), lemon (Citrus limon Burm.f., Rutaceae), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf., Rutaceae), jasmine (Jasminum grandiflora L., Oleaceae), lavender (Mill., Lamiaceae), chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L., Compositae), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., Lamiaceae), rose (Rosa damascena Mill., Rosaceae) and cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum N. Lauraceae) were tested for their antibacterial activities towards Propionibacterium acnes and in vitro toxicology against three human cancer cell lines. Thyme, cinnamon and rose essential oils exhibited the best antibacterial activities towards P. acnes, with inhibition diameters of 40 +/- 1.2 mm, 33.5 +/- 1.5 mm and 16.5 +/- 0.7 mm, and minimal inhibitory concentrations of 0.016% (v/v), 0.016% (v/v) and 0.031% (v/v), respectively. Time-kill dynamic procedures showed that thyme, cinnamon, rose, and lavender essential oils exhibited the strongest bactericidal activities at a concentration of 0.25% (v/v), and P. acnes was completely killed after 5 min. The thyme essential oil exhibited the strongest cytotoxicity towards three human cancer cells. Its inhibition concentration 50% (IC(50)) values on PC-3, A549 and MCF-7 tumor cell lines were 0.010% (v/v), 0.011% (v/v) and 0.030% (v/v), respectively. The cytotoxicity of 10 essential oils on human prostate carcinoma cell (PC-3) was significantly stronger than on human lung carcinoma (A549) and human breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lines.

  5. Glove Contamination during Endodontic Treatment Is One of the Sources of Nosocomial Endodontic Propionibacterium acnes Infections.

    PubMed

    Niazi, Sadia Ambreen; Vincer, Louise; Mannocci, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    The opportunistic Propionibacterium acnes recovered frequently from failed endodontic treatments might be the result of nosocomial endodontic infections. The study was aimed to determine if gloves worn by dentists could be one of the sources of these nosocomial infections and to investigate the P. acnes phylotypes involved. The cultivable microbiota of gloves (n = 8) at 4 time points (T1, immediately after wearing gloves; T2, after access cavity preparation; T3, after taking a working length/master cone radiograph; and T4, before sealing the cavity) were identified using 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. recA gene sequencing of P. acnes isolates was done. The phylogenetic relationship was determined using MEGA 6 (http://www.megasoftware.net/fixedbugs.html; Megasoftware, Tempe, AZ). Data distributions were compared using the Fisher exact test; means were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test in SPSSPC (version 21; IBM, Armonk, NY). The quantitative viable counts at T4 (aerobically [2.93 ± 0.57], anaerobically [3.35 ± 0.43]) were greater (P < .001) than at T1 [(aerobically [0.48 ± 0.73], anaerobically [0.66 ± 0.86]) and T2 (aerobically [1.80 ± 0.54], anaerobically [2.41 ± 0.71]). Eighty cultivable bacterial taxa (5 phyla) were identified. The most prevalent ones were P. acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis (100%). recA gene sequencing (n = 88) revealed 2 phylogenetic lineages with type I split into type IA and type IB. Type II was prevalent on gloves. Contamination of the gloves was detected at the final stages of the treatment. P. acnes and S. epidermidis are the prevalent taxa on gloves and are opportunistic endodontic pathogens. Changing gloves frequently, after gaining access into the pulp space and also after taking the working length/master gutta-percha point radiographs, is likely to reduce the risk of root canal reinfection. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cell-free extracts of Propionibacterium acnes stimulate cytokine production through activation of p38 MAPK and Toll-like receptor in SZ95 sebocytes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Chun; Yang, Chao-Hsun; Li, Ting-Ting; Zouboulis, Christos C; Hsu, Han-Chi

    2015-10-15

    Propionibacterium acnes has been considered to influence the acne lesions. The present study intended to elucidate the underlying signaling pathways of P. acnes in human sebaceous gland cells relative to the generation of proinflammatory cytokines. Cell-free extracts of P. acnes under stationary growth phase were co-incubated with human immortalized SZ95 sebocytes. Then, cell-free P. acnes extracts-induced cytokine expression was evaluated by measuring mRNA and protein levels using quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA. Changes of phosphorylated cell signaling proteins and transcription factors were measured by Western blots and Milliplex assay. The interactive molecular mechanisms of P. acnes and sebocytes were examined through use of shRNA and the specific inhibitors of signaling pathways. Cell-free extracts of P. acnes significantly stimulated secretion of interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-6 in SZ95 sebocytes. The degradation of IκB-α and increased phosphorylation of IκB-α, p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), CREB, and STAT3 were demonstrated. Quantitative RT-PCR measurements revealed that gene expression of IL-8 and Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) was enhanced by cell-free extracts of P. acnes. In addition, the NF-κB inhibitor BMS345541, p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580, or anti-TLR2 neutralizing antibody prevented cell-free P. acnes extracts-induced secretion of IL-8. Knockdown of TLR2 using shRNA exerted similar inhibitory effects on IL-8 expression. Moreover, inhibition of STAT3 activity by STA-21 enhanced P. acnes-mediated secretion of IL-8. Cell-free extracts of P. acnes are capable to activate NF-κB and p38 MAPK pathways and up-regulate secretion of IL-8 through TLR2-dependent signaling in human SZ95 sebocytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Propionibacterium acnes infected intervertebral discs cause vertebral bone marrow lesions consistent with Modic changes.

    PubMed

    Dudli, Stefan; Liebenberg, Ellen; Magnitsky, Sergey; Miller, Steve; Demir-Deviren, Sibel; Lotz, Jeffrey C

    2016-08-01

    Modic type I change (MC1) are vertebral bone marrow lesions adjacent to degenerated discs that are specific for discogenic low back pain. The etiopathogenesis is unknown, but occult discitis, in particular with Propionibacteria acnes (P. acnes), has been suggested as a possible etiology. If true, antibiotic therapy should be considered for patients with MC1. However, this hypothesis is controversial. While some studies report up to 40% infection rate in herniated discs, others fail to detect infected discs and attribute reports of positive cultures to contamination during sampling procedure. Irrespective of the clinical controversy, whether it is biologically plausible for P. acnes to cause MC1 has never been investigated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to test if P. acnes can proliferate within discs and cause reactive changes in the adjacent bone marrow. P. acnes was aseptically isolated from a symptomatic human L4/5 disc with MC1 and injected into rat tail discs. We demonstrate proliferation of P. acnes and up-regulation of IL-1 and IL-6 within three days of inoculation. At day-7, disc degeneration was apparent along with fibrotic endplate erosion. TNF-α immunoreactivity was enhanced within the effected endplates along with cellular infiltrates. The bone marrow appeared normal. At day-14, endplates and trabecular bone close to the disc were almost completely resorbed and fibrotic tissue extended into the bone marrow. T-cells and TNF-α immunoreactivity were identified at the disc/marrow junction. On MRI, bone marrow showed MC1-like changes. In conclusion, P. acnes proliferate within the disc, induce degeneration, and cause MC1-like changes in the adjacent bone marrow. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1447-1455, 2016. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The colonisation of the glenohumeral joint by Propionibacterium acnes is not associated with frozen shoulder but is more likely to occur after an injection into the joint.

    PubMed

    Booker, S J; Boyd, M; Gallacher, S; Evans, J P; Auckland, C; Kitson, J; Thomas, W; Smith, C D

    2017-08-01

    Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of Propionibacterium (P.) acnes in the subcutaneous fat and capsule of patients undergoing shoulder surgery for frozen shoulder or instability. A total of 46 patients undergoing either an arthroscopic capsular release or stabilisation had biopsies taken from the subcutaneous fat and capsule of the shoulder at the time of surgery. These samples were sent for culture in enrichment, and also for Nucleic Acid Amplification testing. The prevalence of P. acnes and other microbes was recorded. Fisher's exact test of binary variables was used to calculate the association with significance set at p < 0.05. Assessment of influence of independent variables including a pre-operative glenohumeral injection, fat colonisation and gender, was undertaken using binary linear regression. A total of 25 patients (53%) had P. acnes in one or more tissue samples and 35 (74%) had other bacterial species. The same microbe was found in the subcutaneous fat and the capsule in 13 patients (28%). There was no statistically significant association between the surgical pathology and capsular colonisation with P. acnes (p = 0.18) or mixed identified bacterial species (p = 0.77). Male gender was significantly associated with an increased capsular colonisation of P. acnes (odds ratio (OR) 12.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.43 to 106.77, p = 0.02). A pre-operative glenohumeral injection was significantly associated with capsular P. acnes colonisation (OR 5.63, 95% CI 1.07 to 29.61, p = 0.04. Positive fat colonisation with P. acnes was significantly associated with capsular P. acnes (OR 363, 95% CI 20.90 to 6304.19, p < 0.01). Regression models pseudo R 2 found fat colonisation with P. acnes to explain 70% of the variance of the model. Patients who had a pre-operative glenohumeral injection who were found intra-operatively to have fat colonisation with P. acnes had a statistically significant association with colonisation of their capsule with P. acnes

  9. Optimal Length of Cultivation Time for Isolation of Propionibacterium acnes in Suspected Bone and Joint Infections Is More than 7 Days.

    PubMed

    Bossard, Daniel A; Ledergerber, Bruno; Zingg, Patrick O; Gerber, Christian; Zinkernagel, Annelies S; Zbinden, Reinhard; Achermann, Yvonne

    2016-12-01

    Diagnosis of Propionibacterium acnes bone and joint infection is challenging due to the long cultivation time of up to 14 days. We retrospectively studied whether reducing the cultivation time to 7 days allows accurate diagnosis without losing sensitivity. We identified patients with at least one positive P. acnes sample between 2005 and 2015 and grouped them into "infection" and "no infection." An infection was defined when at least two samples from the same case were positive. Clinical and microbiological data, including time to positivity for different cultivation methods, were recorded. We found 70 cases of proven P. acnes infection with a significant faster median time to positivity of 6 days (range, 2 to 11 days) compared to 9 days in 47 cases with P. acnes identified as a contamination (P < 0.0001). In 15 of 70 (21.4%) patients with an infection, tissue samples were positive after day 7 and in 6 patients (8.6%) after day 10 when a blind subculture of the thioglycolate broth was performed. The highest sensitivity was detected for thioglycolate broth (66.3%) and the best positive predictive values for anaerobic agar plates (96.5%). A prolonged transportation time from the operating theater to the microbiological laboratory did not influence time to positivity of P. acnes growth. By reducing the cultivation time to 7 days, false-negative diagnoses would increase by 21.4%; thus, we recommend that biopsy specimens from bone and joint infections be cultivated to detect P. acnes for 10 days with a blind subculture at the end. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Incidence of Propionibacterium acnes in initially culture-negative thioglycollate broths-a prospective cohort study at a Danish University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Kvich, L; Jensen, P Ø; Justesen, U S; Bjarnsholt, T

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate the incidence of Propionibacterium acnes in thioglycollate broths reported as culture-negative at the Department of Clinical Microbiology, Rigshospitalet, to evaluate whether 5 days of incubation was enough to find all relevant cases. Five hundred thioglycollate broths reported as culture-negative after 5 days were consecutively collected and incubated for at least a further 9 days (at least 14 days of incubation in total). Only tissue samples from sterile sites of the body (n = 298), bone tissue (n = 197) and foreign material (n = 5) were included in this study. Samples were divided into two groups: infected group and control group. This made it possible to compare findings between groups, thereby making it possible to estimate the level of true-positive findings and contamination. Samples from 296 participants were included in this study. After exclusion criteria were met, P. acnes was cultured from ten out of 151 patients (6.6%) in the infected group and from one out of 138 participants (0.7%) in the control group. This resulted in more findings of P. acnes in the infected group on day 14 than on day 5 (p 0.002). Furthermore, P. acnes was cultured more often from bone tissue and tissue surrounding foreign materials on day 14 than on day 5 (p 0.04). Clinical microbiology laboratories should consider incubating thioglycollate broths for at least 14 days to find all relevant cases of P. acnes, especially when it comes to bone tissue and tissue surrounding foreign materials. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Acne

    MedlinePlus

    Acne is a common skin disease that causes pimples. Pimples form when hair follicles under your skin ... neck, back, chest, and shoulders. Anyone can get acne, but it is common in teenagers and young ...

  12. Antimicrobial activity of topical agents against Propionibacterium acnes: an in vitro study of clinical isolates from a hospital in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ying; Zhang, Nanxue; Wu, Shi; Huang, Haihui; Cao, Yanpei

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to compare the antimicrobial activities of topical agents against Propionibacterium acnes isolated from patients admitted to a hospital in Shanghai, China. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of the cultured P. acnes were determined in accordance with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Susceptibilities to clindamycin and erythromycin were compared in terms of gender, age, disease duration, previous treatment, and disease severity. A total of 69 P. acnes strains were isolated from 98 patients (70.41%). The susceptibility to triple antibiotic ointment (neomycin/bacitracin/polymyxin B) and bacitracin was 100%. The susceptibility to fusidic acid was 92.7%. The resistance rates to neomycin sulfate, erythromycin, and clindamycin were 11.7%, 49.3%, and 33.4%, respectively. The high resistance rate to clindamycin and erythromycin was significantly affected by gender, previous treatment, and disease severity rather than by age and disease duration. Topical antibiotics should not be used separately for long-term therapy to avoid multiresistance. The use of topical antibiotics should be determined by clinicians on the basis of clinical conditions.

  13. Low-intensity LED (625 and 405 nm) and laser (805 nm) killing of Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuchina, Elena S.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2009-02-01

    In the present work we have investigated in vitro sensitivity of microorganisms P. acnes and S. epidermidis to action of red (625 nm and 405 nm) and infrared (805 nm) radiations in combination with photosensitizes Methylene Blue and Indocyanine Green.

  14. Acne

    MedlinePlus

    ... squeezing existing pimples. Scrubbing your skin too harshly. Chocolate, dirt, and sexual activity do not cause acne. ... of Sun ExposureIt is important to know the benefits and dangers of sun exposure.How to Protect ...

  15. Acne

    MedlinePlus

    ... may contain benzoyl peroxide, sulfur, resorcinol, adapalene, or salicylic acid. They work by killing bacteria, drying up skin ... Prescription formulas of benzoyl peroxide, sulfur, resorcinol, or salicylic acid Topical azelaic acid For women whose acne is ...

  16. Acne

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sweating Bad breath Acne Hair care Douching Makeup Tanning Tattoos and piercing Cosmetic surgery Points about shoes ... at your pimples Scrubbing your skin too hard Tanning Stress Wearing things that press against your skin, ...

  17. Anti-Propionibacterium acnes assay-guided purification of brazilin and preparation of brazilin rich extract from Caesalpinia sappan heartwood.

    PubMed

    Nirmal, Nilesh Prakash; Panichayupakaranant, Pharkphoom

    2014-09-01

    Caesalpinia sappan L. (Leguminosae or Fabaceae) heartwood has been used as a coloring agent, with antibacterial activity in food, beverages, cosmetics, and garments. To purify brazilin from C. sappan heartwood and use it as a standard marker for the preparation and standardization of an active constituent-rich extract. Crude ethanol extracts of C. sappan heartwood (CSE) were fractionated to isolate brazilin by an anti-P. acnes assay-guided isolation. Quantitative analysis was performed by HPLC. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were determined by the broth microdilution method. Brazilin isolated from CSE possessed antibacterial activity against P. acnes with MIC and MBC values of 15.6 and 31.2 µg/mL, respectively. Brazilin was, therefore, used as a standard marker for standardization and preparation of a brazilin rich extract (BRE). BRE was prepared from CSE using a simple one-step purification using a macroporous resin column eluted with 35% v/v ethanol. This method increased the brazilin content in the BRE up to 39.9% w/w. The antibacterial activity of the standardized BRE against acne involved bacteria was higher than for the CSE but lower than brazilin. However, for industrial applications, a large-scale one-step preparation of BRE has more advantages than the use of pure brazilin in terms of convenience and a low-cost production process. Therefore, BRE is considered as a potential coloring agent with antibacterial activity which is used for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and nutraceutical applications.

  18. B cell cross-epitope of Propionibacterium acnes and Actinobacillus pleuropneumonia selected by phage display library can efficiently protect from Actinobacillus pleuropneumonia infection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianfang; Ma, Qiuyue; Yang, Feng; Zhu, Rining; Gu, Jingmin; Sun, Changjiang; Feng, Xin; Du, Chongtao; Langford, Paul R; Han, Wenyu; Yang, Junling; Lei, Liancheng

    2017-06-01

    Contagious porcine pleuropneumonia (CPP), caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP), is a highly transmissible and fatal respiratory illness that causes tremendous economic losses for the pig breeding industry worldwide. Propionibacterium acnes (PA) has a strong cross-reaction with anti-APP1 and anti-APP5 serum and can efficiently prevent APP infection, which was fortuitously found in researching the differential gene between the different APP serotypes. There seems to be some natural cross-protection between PA and APP. To identify the common epitope, the phage display library of a PA whole genome was constructed, whose size is 10 5 . The DNA sequence of the positive clone was determined after three rounds of biopanning, and ten common protein types were identified and the epitope was predicted by computer software. Six peptide epitopes were selected and synthesized for further analysis. Among these epitopes, Ba1, Bb5 and C1 could bind to anti-PA serum and anti-APP1 serum and vice versa. Furthermore, the IgG and IL-4 levels and CD4 + /CD8 + T cell ratios in the Ba1, Bb5 and C1 groups were significantly higher than that in the control group, indicating that the epitopes could trigger an immune response, which was mainly humoral immunity. Moreover, Ba1 and Bb5 equally protected 80% of mice from a fatal dose of APP1 infection compared with the control group. Mice could resist APP1 and APP5 challenge after being treated with the combination of Ba1 and Bb5, with survival rates of 80% and 90%, respectively. These findings suggest that the PA epitope confers antigenicity and can heterologously resist to the APP infection. This finding provides a novel strategy for preventing APP infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Acne phototherapy using UV-free high-intensity narrow-band blue light: a three-center clinical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalita, Alan R.; Harth, Yoram; Elman, Monica; Slatkine, Michael; Talpalariu, Gerry; Rosenberg, Yitzhak; Korman, Avner; Klein, Arieh

    2001-05-01

    Propionibacterium. acnes is a Gram positive, microaerophilic bacterium which takes a part in the pathogenesis of inflammatory acne. P. acnes is capable to produce high amounts endogenic porphyrins with no need of any trigger molecules. Light in the violet-blue range (407-420 nm) has been shown to exhibit a phototoxic effect on Propionibacterium acnes when irradiated in vitro. The purpose of our study was to test the clinical effects of a high intensity narrowband blue light source on papulo pustular acne. A total of 35 patients in 3 centers were treated twice a week with a high intensity metal halide lamp illuminating the entire face (20x20 cm2) or the back with visible light in the 407-420 nm range at an intensity of 90 mW/cm2 (CureLight Ltd.) for a total of 4 weeks. UV is totally cut off. In each treatment the patient was exposed to light for 8-15 minutes. After 8 treatments, 80% of the patients with mild to moderate papulo-pustular acne showed significant improvement at reducing the numbers of non- inflammatory, inflammatory and total facial lesions. Inflammatory lesion count decrease by a mean of 68%. No side effects to the treatment were noticed. In conclusion, full face or back illumination with the high intensity pure blue light we used exhibits a rapid significant decrease in acne lesions counts in 8 biweekly treatments.

  20. A combination of improved differential and global RNA-seq reveals pervasive transcription initiation and events in all stages of the life-cycle of functional RNAs in Propionibacterium acnes, a major contributor to wide-spread human disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sequencing of the genome of Propionibacterium acnes produced a catalogue of genes many of which enable this organism to colonise skin and survive exposure to the elements. Despite this platform, there was little understanding of the gene regulation that gives rise to an organism that has a major impact on human health and wellbeing and causes infections beyond the skin. To address this situation, we have undertaken a genome–wide study of gene regulation using a combination of improved differential and global RNA-sequencing and an analytical approach that takes into account the inherent noise within the data. Results We have produced nucleotide-resolution transcriptome maps that identify and differentiate sites of transcription initiation from sites of stable RNA processing and mRNA cleavage. Moreover, analysis of these maps provides strong evidence for ‘pervasive’ transcription and shows that contrary to initial indications it is not biased towards the production of antisense RNAs. In addition, the maps reveal an extensive array of riboswitches, leaderless mRNAs and small non-protein-coding RNAs alongside vegetative promoters and post-transcriptional events, which includes unusual tRNA processing. The identification of such features will inform models of complex gene regulation, as illustrated here for ribonucleotide reductases and a potential quorum-sensing, two-component system. Conclusions The approach described here, which is transferable to any bacterial species, has produced a step increase in whole-cell knowledge of gene regulation in P. acnes. Continued expansion of our maps to include transcription associated with different growth conditions and genetic backgrounds will provide a new platform from which to computationally model the gene expression that determines the physiology of P. acnes and its role in human disease. PMID:24034785

  1. Prevalence of Flp Pili-Encoding Plasmids in Cutibacterium acnes Isolates Obtained from Prostatic Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Davidsson, Sabina; Carlsson, Jessica; Mölling, Paula; Gashi, Natyra; Andrén, Ove; Andersson, Swen-Olof; Brzuszkiewicz, Elzbieta; Poehlein, Anja; Al-Zeer, Munir A.; Brinkmann, Volker; Scavenius, Carsten; Nazipi, Seven; Söderquist, Bo; Brüggemann, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation is one of the hallmarks of prostate cancer. The origin of inflammation is unknown, but microbial infections are suspected to play a role. In previous studies, the Gram-positive, low virulent bacterium Cutibacterium (formerly Propionibacterium) acnes was frequently isolated from prostatic tissue. It is unclear if the presence of the bacterium represents a true infection or a contamination. Here we investigated Cutibacterium acnes type II, also called subspecies defendens, which is the most prevalent type among prostatic C. acnes isolates. Genome sequencing of type II isolates identified large plasmids in several genomes. The plasmids are highly similar to previously identified linear plasmids of type I C. acnes strains associated with acne vulgaris. A PCR-based analysis revealed that 28.4% (21 out of 74) of all type II strains isolated from cancerous prostates carry a plasmid. The plasmid shows signatures for conjugative transfer. In addition, it contains a gene locus for tight adherence (tad) that is predicted to encode adhesive Flp (fimbrial low-molecular weight protein) pili. In subsequent experiments a tad locus-encoded putative pilin subunit was identified in the surface-exposed protein fraction of plasmid-positive C. acnes type II strains by mass spectrometry, indicating that the tad locus is functional. Additional plasmid-encoded proteins were detected in the secreted protein fraction, including two signal peptide-harboring proteins; the corresponding genes are specific for type II C. acnes, thus lacking from plasmid-positive type I C. acnes strains. Further support for the presence of Flp pili in C. acnes type II was provided by electron microscopy, revealing cell appendages in tad locus-positive strains. Our study provides new insight in the most prevalent prostatic subspecies of C. acnes, subsp. defendens, and indicates the existence of Flp pili in plasmid-positive strains. Such pili may support colonization and persistent infection of human

  2. In vitro emergence of fluoroquinolone resistance in Cutibacterium (formerly Propionibacterium) acnes and molecular characterization of mutations in the gyrA gene.

    PubMed

    Takoudju, Eve-Marie; Guillouzouic, Aurélie; Kambarev, Stanimir; Pecorari, Frédéric; Corvec, Stéphane

    2017-10-01

    In vitro occurrence of levofloxacin (LVX) resistance in C. acnes and characterization of its molecular background were investigated. The mutation frequency was determined by inoculation of 10 8  cfu of C. acnes ATCC 11827 (LVX MIC = 0.25 mg/L) on LVX-containing agar plates. The progressive emergence of resistance was studied by a second exposure to increasing LVX concentrations. For mutants, the QRDR regions including the gyrA and parC genes were sequenced and compared to both C. acnes ATCC 11827 and C. acnes KPA171202 reference sequences (NC006085). The importance of the efflux pump system in resistance was investigated by using inhibitors on selected resistant mutants with no mutation in the QRDR. C. acnes growth was observed on LVX-containing plates with mutation frequencies of 3. 8 cfu × 10 -8 (8 × MIC) and 1.6 cfu × 10 -7 (4 × MIC). LVX resistance emerged progressively after one-step or two-step assays. In LVX-resistant isolates, the MIC ranged from 0.75 to >32 mg/L. Mutations were detected exclusively in the gyrA gene. Ten genotypes were identified: G99 C, G99 D, D100N, D100 H, D100 G, S101L, S101W, A102 P, D105 H and A105 G. Mutants S101L and S101W were always associated with a high level of resistance. Mutants with no mutation in the QRDR were more susceptible when incubated with an efflux pump inhibitor (phenyl-arginine β-naphthylamide) only, suggesting, for the first time, the expression of such a system in C. acnes LVX-resistant mutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The stimulation of the vaginal immune system with short-term administration of a vaginal gel containing fraction of Propionibacterium acnes, hyaluronic acid and polycarbophil is efficacious in vaginal infections dependent on disorders in the vaginal ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Melis, Gian Benedetto; Piras, Bruno; Marotto, Maria Francesca; Neri, Manuela; Corda, Valentina; Vallerino, Valerio; Saba, Alessandra; Lello, Stefano; Pilloni, Monica; Zedda, Pierina; Paoletti, Anna Maria; Mais, Valerio

    2018-04-12

    The vaginal immune system (VIS) is the first defense against antigens recognized as foreign. Substances capable of locally activating the VIS could be a valid strategy to treat vulvo-vaginal infections (VVI), caused by changes in the vaginal ecosystem, such as bacterial vaginosis (BV), vulvo-vaginal candidiasis (CA), and mixed vaginitis (MV). Bacterial lysates, obtained by crushing bacterial cultures, exert immuno-modulatory activities. The parietal fraction from Propionibacterium acnes is a patent of Depofarma (MoglianoVeneto, Italy). The preparation that associates such fraction to hyaluronic acid and polycarbophil is a registered trademark, commercially available in Italy as vaginal gel, Immunovag ® . The study aimed to evaluate whether a 5-day-treatment with Immunovag ® improves the symptoms and signs of VVI, in 60 women with Gardnerella vaginalis (GV), 154 with CA, 95 with MV, diagnosed with vulvar vaginal swab (VVS), and in 283 with BV, diagnosed with the Amsel criteria. At the end of the treatment (visit 2), the symptoms and signs of VVI disappeared in a significant number of subjects (χ 2 p < .02 vs pre-treatment) in all VVI groups, and their intensity was significantly (p < .0002) reduced in the subjects in which they were still present. Immunovag ® represents a valid treatment of VVI induced by changes in the vaginal ecosystem.

  4. Antimicrobial and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Endophytic Fungi Talaromyces wortmannii Extracts against Acne-Inducing Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Schwendinger, Katja; Kreiseder, Birgit; Wiederstein, Martina; Pretsch, Dagmar; Genov, Miroslav; Hollaus, Ralph; Zinssmeister, Daniela; Debbab, Abdesamad; Hundsberger, Harald; Eger, Andreas; Proksch, Peter; Wiesner, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is the most common skin disease, causing significant psychosocial problems such as anxiety and depression similar to a chronic illness for those afflicted. Currently, obtainable agents for acne treatment have limited use. Thus, development of novel agents to treat this disease is a high medical need. The anaerobic bacterium Propionibacterium acnes has been implicated in the inflammatory phase of acne vulgaris by activating pro-inflammatory mediators such as the interleukin-8 (IL-8) via the NF-κB and MAPK pathways. Talaromyces wortmannii is an endophytic fungus, which is known to produce high bioactive natural compounds. We hypothesize that compound C but also the crude extract from T. wortmannii may possess both antibacterial activity especially against P. acnes and also anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 expression and P. acnes-induced IL-8 release. Treatment of keratinocytes (HaCaT) with P. acnes significantly increased NF-κB and activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation, as well as IL-8 release. Compound C inhibited P. acnes-mediated activation of NF-κB and AP-1 by inhibiting IκB degradation and the phosphorylation of ERK and JNK MAP kinases, and IL-8 release in a dose-dependent manner. Based on these results, compound C has effective antimicrobial activity against P. acnes and anti-inflammatory activity, and we suggest that this substance or the crude extract are alternative treatments for antibiotic/anti-inflammatory therapy for acne vulgaris. PMID:24887557

  5. Propionibacterium namnetense sp. nov., isolated from a human bone infection.

    PubMed

    Aubin, Guillaume Ghislain; Bémer, Pascale; Kambarev, Stanimir; Patel, Nisha B; Lemenand, Olivier; Caillon, Jocelyne; Lawson, Paul A; Corvec, Stéphane

    2016-09-01

    A polyphasic taxonomic study was performed on two Gram-positive-staining, anaerobic, pleomorphic, rod-shaped strains isolated from human bone and tissue samples. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes revealed that the strains belong to a novel species within the genus Propionibacterium, most closely related to Propionibacterium acnes subsp. acnes and Propionibacterium acnes subsp. elongatum with similarity values of 98.4 % and 98.1 %, respectively. In addition, protein-coding genes for rpoB, recA and gyrB clearly separated the novel organism from all species and subspecies of the genus Propionibacterium. However, a DNA-DNA hybridization analysis between the novel organism and the type strain P. acnes ATCC 6919T revealed a value of only 61.1 %. Furthermore, whole genome analysis using the program OrthoANI gave a value of 88.5 %, which is significantly below the cut-off value of 95 % for species delineation. The major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0. The DNA G+C content of the type strain was 59.7 mol%. When taken collectively, phenotypic, molecular genetic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic information demonstrate that the organism represents a distinct, albeit close relative of P. acnes On the basis of the results presented, the organism represents a novel member of the genus Propionibacterium for which the name Propionibacterium namnetense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NTS 31307302T (=DSM 29427T=CCUG 66358T).

  6. Acne and diet: truth or myth?

    PubMed

    Costa, Adilson; Lage, Denise; Moisés, Thaís Abdalla

    2010-01-01

    Numerous studies were published over the last 50 years to investigate whether diet is associated with the etiology of acne. Although older studies well known by dermatologists that refute the association between acne and diet exist, their scientific foundation is weak. New articles have recently brought to light evidence contrary to previous findings. Therefore, we would like to investigate whether diet, directly or indirectly, influences one or more of the four fundamental etiopathogenic pillars of acne: (1) hyperproliferation of basal keratinocytes, (2) increase of sebaceous production, (3) colonization by Propionibacterium acnes, and (4) inflammation.

  7. [Diet in pathogenesis of acne vulgaris].

    PubMed

    Ozdarska, Katarzyna; Osucha, Karolina; Savitskyi, Stepan; Malejczyk, Jacek; Galus, Ryszard

    2017-10-23

    Acne vulgaris is one of the most common dermatologic condition especially among adolescents. Acne is related to excess sebum production by sebaceous glands, inflammation both within and adjacent to the comedones, hyperproliferation of Propionibacterium acnes. Some of investigations show association between acne and diet. Milk increases the level of IGF-1 leading to the synthesis of androgen-mediated increases sebum production. Chocolate predispose to hyperglycemia and insulinemia which aggravate of acne vulgaris. High levels of omega-6 fatty acids have been associated with increase of acne in contrast to omega-3 fatty acids, which decrease inflammation. Food have huge impact on development and severity of acne and may exert beneficial effect in the treatment of this disorder.

  8. Effects of cosmetics containing purified honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) venom on acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang Mi; Lee, Kwang Gill; Pak, Sok Cheon

    2013-09-01

    Acne vulgaris is a chronic dermatologic problem with multiple factors involved in its pathogenesis. Alternative solutions to acne treatment were instigated by antibiotic resistance despite of its extensive use. Purified bee venom (PBV) has been proposed as a promising candidate for that purpose. The present study was designed to confirm the antibacterial effect of PBV and access the efficacy of cosmetics containing PBV in subjects with acne vulgaris. The skin bacterium Propionibacterium acnes was incubated with PBV at various concentrations and bacterial growth was evaluated using the colony forming unit (CFU) assay. The mechanism of PBV employed in killing P. acnes was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In addition, a total of 12 subjects were randomized in a double-blind, controlled trial to receive either cosmetics containing PBV or cosmetics without PBV for two weeks. Evaluations included lesion counts and skin microorganism. PBV exhibited antimicrobial activity in a concentration-dependent manner, reducing the number of P. acnes CFU by approximately 6 logs at a concentration of 0.5 mg. When PBV concentration was higher than 1.0 mg, no P. acnes colonies were spotted on an agar. TEM and SEM of untreated P. acnes illustrated the normal pleomorphic structure, whereas the PBV-treated bacterium lost the integrity of surface architecture. Significant difference (P=0.027) in the grading levels based on numbers of lesion counts for inflammatory and noninflammatory was observed in favour of the PBV group compared with the control group. In terms of average decrement of skin microorganism, subjects receiving cosmetics containing PBV experienced a significant 57.5% decrease of adenosine triphosphate levels, whereas participants receiving cosmetics without PBV experienced a nonsignificant decrease of 4.7%. These results show that the in vitro actions of antimicrobial activity of PBV were translated in vivo. Cosmetics

  9. Antimicrobial effects of Thai medicinal plants against acne-inducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Chomnawang, Mullika Traidej; Surassmo, Suvimol; Nukoolkarn, Veena S; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2005-10-03

    Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis have been recognized as pus-forming bacteria triggering an inflammation in acne. The present study was conducted to evaluate antimicrobial activities of Thai medicinal plants against these etiologic agents of acne vulgaris. Crude extracts were tested for antimicrobial activities by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. The results from the disc diffusion method showed that 13 medicinal plants could inhibit the growth of Propionibacterium acnes. Among those, Senna alata, Eupatorium odoratum, Garcinia mangostana, and Barleria lupulina had strong inhibitory effects. Based on a broth dilution method, the Garcinia mangostana extract had the greatest antimicrobial effect. The MIC values were the same (0.039 mg/ml) for both bacterial species and the MBC values were 0.039 and 0.156 mg/ml against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis, respectively. In bioautography assay, the Garcinia mangostana extract produced strong inhibition zones against Propionibacterium acnes. Antimicrobial activity from fractions of column chromatography revealed one of the active compounds in Garcinia mangostana could be mangostin, a xanthone derivative. Taken together, our data indicated that Garcinia mangostana had a strong inhibitory effect on Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Therefore, this plant would be an interesting topic for further study and possibly for an alternative treatment for acne.

  10. Photodynamic therapy of acne vulgaris.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ershova, Ekaterina Y.; Karimova, Lubov N.; Kharnas, Sergey S.; Kuzmin, Sergey G.; Loschenov, Victor B.

    2003-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) was tested for the treatment of acne vulgaris. Patients with acne were treated with ALA plus red light. Ten percent water solution of ALA was applied with 1,5-2 h occlusion and then 18-45 J/cm2 630 nm light was given. Bacterial endogenous porphyrins fluorescence also was used for acne therapy. Treatment control and diagnostics was realized by fluorescence spectra and fluorescence image. Light sources and diagnostic systems were used: semiconductor laser (λ=630 nm, Pmax=1W), (LPhT-630-01-BIOSPEC); LED system for PDT and diagnostics with fluorescent imager (λ=635 nm, P=2W, p=50 mW/cm2), (UFPh-630-01-BIOSPEC); high sensitivity CCD video camera with narrow-band wavelength filter (central wavelength 630 nm); laser electronic spectrum analyzer for fluorescent diagnostics and photodynamic therapy monitoring (LESA-01-BIOSPEC). Protoporphyrin IX (PP IX) and endogenous porphyrins concentrations were measured by fluorescence at wavelength, correspondingly, 700 nm and 650 nm. It was shown that topical ALA is converted into PP IX in hair follicles, sebaceous glands and acne scars. The amount of resulting PP IX is sufficient for effective PDT. There was good clinical response and considerable clearance of acne lesion. ALA-PDT also had good cosmetic effect in treatment acne scars. PDT with ALA and red light assist in opening corked pores, destroying Propionibacterium acnes and decreasing sebum secretion. PDT treatment associated with several adverse effects: oedema and/or erytema for 3-5 days after PDT, epidermal exfoliation from 5th to 10th day and slight pigmentation during 1 month after PDT. ALA-PDT is effective for acne and can be used despite several side effects.

  11. Formulation and evaluation of herbal anti-acne moisturizer.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Arun; Shama, Shaik Neelufar; Joy, Jyothi Mulanjananiyil; Reddy, Bobbu Sravya; Roja, Chirra

    2012-10-01

    The moisture content present in human skin makes it look young and the use of moisturizer results in fastening the moisture with a surface film of oil. Acne vulgaris is one of the most commonly seen diseases among the youth. The present study is focused on the use of herbs as moisturizer for acne treatment. The anti-acne moisturizer was formulated from herbal crude extracts and investigated the physico-chemical parameters as well as antibacterial activity of the formulation. The study revealed that ethanol extract of Andrographis paniculata, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Ocimum sanctum, Azadiracta indica and Green tea possessed the potential for inhibiting acne. It was observed that the optimal formula of anti-acne moisturizer was satisfactorily effective to control acne inducing bacteria i.e., Staphylococcus epidermis and Propionibacterium. The physico-chemical parameters of the formulation were also optimal with no signs of irritation.

  12. Fluorescence guided evaluation of photodynamic therapy as acne treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ericson, Marica B.; Horfelt, Camilla; Cheng, Elaine; Larsson, Frida; Larko, Olle; Wennberg, Ann-Marie

    2005-08-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an attractive alternative treatment for patients with acne because of its efficiency and few side effects. Propionibacterium acnes (P.acnes) are bacteria present in the skin, which produce endogenous porphyrins that act as photosensitisers. In addition, application of aminolaevulinic acid or its methyl ester (mALA) results in increased accumulation of porphyrins in the pilosebaceous units. This makes it possible to treat acne with PDT. This initial study investigates the possibility of fluorescence imaging as assessment tool in adjunct to PDT of patients with acne. Twenty-four patients with acne on the cheeks have been treated with PDT with and without mALA. Fluorescence images have been obtained before and after treatment. The clinical acne score was assessed as base line before PDT, and at every follow up visit. Additionally the amount of P.acnes was determined. The clinical evaluation showed a general improvement of acne, even though no difference between treatment with and without mALA was observed. By performing texture analysis and multivariate data analsysis on the fluorescence images, the extracted texture features were found to correlate with the corresponding clinical assessment (67%) and amount of P.acnes (72%). The analysis showed that features describing the highly fluorescent pores could be related to the clinical assessment. This result suggests that fluorescence imaging can be used as an objective assessment of acne, but further improvement of the technique is possible, for example by including colour images.

  13. Acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Moradi Tuchayi, Sara; Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Ganceviciene, Ruta; Dessinioti, Clio; Feldman, Steven R; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2015-09-17

    Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease - rather than a natural part of the life cycle as colloquially viewed - of the pilosebaceous unit (comprising the hair follicle, hair shaft and sebaceous gland) and is among the most common dermatological conditions worldwide. Some of the key mechanisms involved in the development of acne include disturbed sebaceous gland activity associated with hyperseborrhoea (that is, increased sebum production) and alterations in sebum fatty acid composition, dysregulation of the hormone microenvironment, interaction with neuropeptides, follicular hyperkeratinization, induction of inflammation and dysfunction of the innate and adaptive immunity. Grading of acne involves lesion counting and photographic methods. However, there is a lack of consensus on the exact grading criteria, which hampers the conduction and comparison of randomized controlled clinical trials evaluating treatments. Prevention of acne relies on the successful management of modifiable risk factors, such as underlying systemic diseases and lifestyle factors. Several treatments are available, but guidelines suffer from a lack of data to make evidence-based recommendations. In addition, the complex combination treatment regimens required to target different aspects of acne pathophysiology lead to poor adherence, which undermines treatment success. Acne commonly causes scarring and reduces the quality of life of patients. New treatment options with a shift towards targeting the early processes involved in acne development instead of suppressing the effects of end products will enhance our ability to improve the outcomes for patients with acne.

  14. Multiple Activities of Punica granatum Linne against Acne Vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chia-Jung; Chen, Lih-Geeng; Liang, Wen-Li; Wang, Ching-Chiung

    2017-01-12

    Acne is a common skin condition with sebum overproduction, hyperkeratosis, Propionibacterium acnes ( P . acnes ) and Staphylococcus aureus , and inflammation. Punica granatum (pomegranate) is well-known for its anti-inflammatory effects; however, few studies have discussed the anti-acne effects of pomegranate. In this study, we found that pomegranate extract (PG-E) significantly reduced P . acnes -induced edema in Wistar rat ears. Therefore, an evaluation platform using multiple pathogenic mechanisms of acne was established to explore the anti-acne effects of pomegranate. Results showed that PG-E inhibited bacterial growth and lipase activity. Through a bioguided-fractionation-isolation system, four hydrolysable tannins, punicalagin ( 1 ), punicalin ( 2 ), strictinin A ( 3 ), and granatin B ( 4 ), were isolated. Compounds 1 and 2 had greater anti-bacterial activities and anti-testosterone-induced HaCaT proliferative effects than the others. Compounds 1 , 3 , and 4 displayed lipase inhibitory effects. Compound 4 decreased cyclooxygenase-2 expression and downregulated prostaglandin E₂ production in heat-killed P . acnes -treated RAW 246.7 cells. In conclusion, PG-E is abundant in hydrolysable tannins that display multiple anti-acne capacities, including anti-bacterial, anti-lipase, anti-keratinocyte proliferation, and anti-inflammatory actions. Hence, PG-E has great potential in the application of anti-acne and skin-care products, and punicalagin ( 1 ), the most effective component in PG-E, can be employed as a quality control marker.

  15. Multiple Activities of Punica granatum Linne against Acne Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chia-Jung; Chen, Lih-Geeng; Liang, Wen-Li; Wang, Ching-Chiung

    2017-01-01

    Acne is a common skin condition with sebum overproduction, hyperkeratosis, Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) and Staphylococcus aureus, and inflammation. Punica granatum (pomegranate) is well-known for its anti-inflammatory effects; however, few studies have discussed the anti-acne effects of pomegranate. In this study, we found that pomegranate extract (PG-E) significantly reduced P. acnes-induced edema in Wistar rat ears. Therefore, an evaluation platform using multiple pathogenic mechanisms of acne was established to explore the anti-acne effects of pomegranate. Results showed that PG-E inhibited bacterial growth and lipase activity. Through a bioguided-fractionation-isolation system, four hydrolysable tannins, punicalagin (1), punicalin (2), strictinin A (3), and granatin B (4), were isolated. Compounds 1 and 2 had greater anti-bacterial activities and anti-testosterone-induced HaCaT proliferative effects than the others. Compounds 1, 3, and 4 displayed lipase inhibitory effects. Compound 4 decreased cyclooxygenase-2 expression and downregulated prostaglandin E2 production in heat-killed P. acnes-treated RAW 246.7 cells. In conclusion, PG-E is abundant in hydrolysable tannins that display multiple anti-acne capacities, including anti-bacterial, anti-lipase, anti-keratinocyte proliferation, and anti-inflammatory actions. Hence, PG-E has great potential in the application of anti-acne and skin-care products, and punicalagin (1), the most effective component in PG-E, can be employed as a quality control marker. PMID:28085116

  16. New aspects in acne inflammation.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Masahiko; Morohashi, Masaaki

    2003-01-01

    There is ample clinical evidence suggesting that the nervous system such as emotional stress can influence the course of acne. We examined possible participation of cutaneous neurogenic factors including neuropeptides, neuropeptide-degrading enzymes and neurotrophic factors, in association with inflammation in the pathogenesis of acne. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that substance P (SP)-immunoreactive nerve fibers were in close apposition to the sebaceous glands, and that neutral endopeptidase (NEP) was expressed in the germinative cells of the sebaceous glands in the skin from acne patients. Nerve growth factor showed immunoreactivity only within the germinative cells. In addition, an increase in the number of mast cells and a strong expression of endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 on the postcapillary venules were observed in adjacent areas to the sebaceous glands. In vitro, the levels and the expression of stem cell factor by fibroblasts were upregulated by SP. When organ-cultured normal skin specimens were exposed to SP, we observed significant increases in the sizes of the sebaceous glands and in the number of sebum vacuoles in sebaceous cells. Furthermore, supplementation of SP to organ-cultured skin induced expression of NEP, and we demonstrated the subcellular localization of NEP in the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus within the sebaceous germinative cells using preembedding immunoelectron microscopy. These findings suggest that SP may stimulate lipogenesis of the sebaceous glands which may be followed by proliferation of Propionibacterium acnes, and may yield a potent influence on the sebaceous glands by provocation of inflammatory reactions via mast cells. Thus, cutaneous neurogenic factors should contribute to onset and/or exacerbation of acne inflammation. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. Community-based study of acne vulgaris in adolescents in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Tan, H-H; Tan, A W H; Barkham, T; Yan, X-Y; Zhu, M

    2007-09-01

    There are few studies on the prevalence of acne vulgaris among Asian teenagers. To determine the epidemiology of acne in teenagers in Singapore. A community-based cross-sectional study in 1045 adolescents aged 13-19 years. Of these respondents, 88% identified themselves as having acne. Eight hundred and six of these respondents were examined by a dermatologist, and 51.4% were classified as having mild acne, 40% moderate acne and 8.6% severe acne. Isolation of Propionibacterium acnes was attempted in 262 subjects. Cultures were positive in 174 subjects, giving an isolation rate of 66.4%. Antibiotic-resistant strains of P. acnes were detected in 26 isolates (14.9%). Eleven of these 26 subjects (42%) had previously been treated or were presently on antibiotic treatment for acne, but the other 58% of students who had antibiotic-resistant strains of P. acnes did not give a history of prior antibiotic therapy. Teenagers expressed psychological distress over acne, and believed that hormonal factors, diet and hygiene were important factors in causing acne. There is a need for accessible, accurate education on acne and its appropriate treatment.

  18. Acne: a new model of immune-mediated chronic inflammatory skin disease.

    PubMed

    Antiga, E; Verdelli, A; Bonciani, D; Bonciolini, V; Caproni, M; Fabbri, P

    2015-04-01

    Acne is a chronic inflammatory disease of the sebaceous-pilosebaceous unit. Interestingly, inflammation can be detected by histopathological examination and immuohistochemical analysis even in the apparently non-inflammatory acneic lesions, such as comedones. In the last years, it has been clearly demonstrated that acne development is linked to the combination of predisposing genetic factors and environmental triggers, among which a prominent role is played by the follicular colonization by Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes). P. acnes displays several activities able to promote the development of acne skin lesions, including the promotion of follicular hyperkeratinisation, the induction of sebogenesis, and the stimulation of an inflammatory response by the secretion of proinflammatory molecules and by the activation of innate immunity, that is followed by a P. acnes-specific adaptive immune response. In addition, P. acnes-independent inflammation mediated by androgens or by a neurogenic activation, followed by the secretion in the skin of pro-inflammatory neuropeptides, can occur in acne lesions. In conclusion, acne can be considered as a model of immune-mediated chronic inflammatory skin disease, characterized by an innate immune response that is not able to control P. acnes followed by a Th1-mediated adaptive immune response, that becomes self-maintaining independently from P. acnes itself.

  19. Acne vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Acne vulgaris affects over 80% of teenagers, and persists beyond the age of 25 years in 3% of men and 12% of women. Typical lesions of acne include comedones, inflammatory papules, and pustules. Nodules and cysts occur in more severe acne and can cause scarring and psychological distress. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of topical and oral treatments in people with acne vulgaris? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to February 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 69 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: topical treatments (adapalene, azelaic acid, benzoyl peroxide, clindamycin, erythromycin [alone or plus zinc]; isotretinoin, tetracycline, tretinoin); and oral treatments (doxycycline, isotretinoin, lymecycline, minocycline, oxytetracycline, tetracycline). PMID:21477388

  20. Acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Purdy, Sarah; de Berker, David

    2011-01-05

    Acne vulgaris affects over 80% of teenagers, and persists beyond the age of 25 years in 3% of men and 12% of women. Typical lesions of acne include comedones, inflammatory papules, and pustules. Nodules and cysts occur in more severe acne and can cause scarring and psychological distress. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of topical and oral treatments in people with acne vulgaris? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to February 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 69 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: topical treatments (adapalene, azelaic acid, benzoyl peroxide, clindamycin, erythromycin [alone or plus zinc]; isotretinoin, tetracycline, tretinoin); and oral treatments (doxycycline, isotretinoin, lymecycline, minocycline, oxytetracycline, tetracycline).

  1. Can I Prevent Acne?

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Educators Search English Español Can I Prevent Acne? KidsHealth / For Teens / Can I Prevent Acne? Print en español ¿Puedo prevenir el acné? What Causes Acne? Contrary to what you may have heard, acne ...

  2. Nanoparticle Stabilized Liposomes for Acne Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Victoria

    Acne vulgaris is a common skin disease that affects over 40 million people in the United States alone. The main cause of acne vulgaris is Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), resides deep in the pores and follicles of the skin in order to feed on oil produced by the sebaceous glands. The liposome is a lipid based nanoparticle with numerous advantages over free drug molecules as an acne treatment alternative. Bare liposomes loaded with lauric acid (LipoLA) were found to show strong antimicrobial activity against P. acnes while generating minimal toxicity. However, the platform is limited by the spontaneous tendency of liposomes to fuse with each other. Attaching nanoparticles to the surface of liposomes can overcome this challenge by providing steric repulsion and reduce surface tension. Thus, carboxyl-functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuC) were attached to the surface of liposomes (AuC-liposomes) loaded with doxycycline, a general tetracycline antibiotic. These particles were found to have a diameter of 120 nm and a zeta potential of 20.0 mV. Both fluorescent and antimicrobial studies demonstrated that based on electrostatic interaction, negatively charged AuC attached to the liposome's positively charged surface and stabilized liposomes in a neutral pH environment (pH = 7.4). Upon entering the skin's acidic environment (pH = 4), AuC detached from the liposome's surface and liposomes could fuse with P. acnes residing in the pores. Furthermore, toxicity studies showed that AuC-liposomes did not induce any significant toxicity, while two of the leading over-the-counter therapies, benzoyl peroxide and salicylic acid, generated substantial skin irritation.

  3. The use of oral antibiotics in treating acne vulgaris: a new approach.

    PubMed

    Farrah, Georgia; Tan, Ernest

    2016-09-01

    Although acne is not an infectious disease, oral antibiotics have remained a mainstay of treatment over the last 40 years. The anti-inflammatory properties of oral antibiotics, particularly the tetracyclines, are efficacious in treating inflammatory acne lesions. Common prescribing practices in Dermatology exert significant selection pressure on bacteria, contributing to the development of antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic use for acne not only promotes resistance in Propionibacterium acnes, but also affects other host bacteria with pathogenic potential. This review will summarize the commonly used treatments for acne vulgaris, and how they should be combined as rational treatment. The indications for using oral antibiotics in acne will be highlighted. Strategies described in the literature to conserve the utility of oral antibiotics will be summarized. These include limiting the duration of antibiotic therapy, concomitant use of a topical non-antibiotic agent, use of subantimicrobial dose doxycycline, and the introduction of topical dapsone. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Rosmarinus officinalis Extract Suppresses Propionibacterium acnes–Induced Inflammatory Responses

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Tsung-Hsien; Chuang, Lu-Te; Lien, Tsung-Jung; Liing, Yau-Rong; Chen, Wei-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Propionibacterium acnes is a key pathogen involved in the progression of acne inflammation. The development of a new agent possessing antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity against P. acnes is therefore of interest. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extract on P. acnes–induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that ethanolic rosemary extract (ERE) significantly suppressed the secretion and mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α in P. acnes–stimulated monocytic THP-1 cells. In an in vivo mouse model, concomitant intradermal injection of ERE attenuated the P. acnes–induced ear swelling and granulomatous inflammation. Since ERE suppressed the P. acnes–induced nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation and mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, the suppressive effect of ERE might be due, at least partially, to diminished NF-κB activation and TLR2-mediated signaling pathways. Furthermore, three major constituents of ERE, carnosol, carnosic acid, and rosmarinic acid, exerted different immumodulatory activities in vitro. In brief, rosmarinic acid significantly suppressed IL-8 production, while the other two compounds inhibited IL-1β production. Further study is needed to explore the role of bioactive compounds of rosemary in mitigation of P. acnes–induced inflammation. PMID:23514231

  5. In-vivo fluorescence detection and imaging of porphyrin-producing bacteria in the human skin and in the oral cavity for diagnosis of acne vulgaris, caries, and squamous cell carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Karsten; Schneckenburger, Herbert; Hemmer, Joerg; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Steiner, Rudolf W.

    1994-05-01

    Certain bacteria are able to synthesize metal-free fluorescent porphyrins and can therefore be detected by sensitive autofluorescence measurements in the red spectral region. The porphyrin-producing bacterium Propionibacterium acnes, which is involved in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris, was localized in human skin. Spectrally resolved fluorescence images of bacteria distribution in the face were obtained by a slow-scan CCD camera combined with a tunable liquid crystal filter. The structured autofluorescence of dental caries and dental plaque in the red is caused by oral bacteria, like Bacteroides or Actinomyces odontolyticus. `Caries images' were created by time-gated imaging in the ns-region after ultrashort laser excitation. Time-gated measurements allow the suppression of backscattered light and non-porphyrin autofluorescence. Biopsies of oral squamous cell carcinoma exhibited red autofluorescence in necrotic regions and high concentrations of the porphyrin-producing bacterium Pseudomonas aerigunosa. These studies suggest that the temporal and spectral characteristics of bacterial autofluorescence can be used in the diagnosis and treatment of a variety of diseases.

  6. Synchronizing Pharmacotherapy in Acne with Review of Clinical Care

    PubMed Central

    Sacchidanand, Sarvajnamurthy Aradhya; Lahiri, Koushik; Godse, Kiran; Patwardhan, Narendra Gajanan; Ganjoo, Anil; Kharkar, Rajendra; Narayanan, Varsha; Borade, Dhammraj; D’souza, Lyndon

    2017-01-01

    Acne is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that involves the pathogenesis of four major factors, such as androgen-induced increased sebum secretion, altered keratinization, colonization of Propionibacterium acnes, and inflammation. Several acne mono-treatment and combination treatment regimens are available and prescribed in the Indian market, ranging from retinoids, benzoyl peroxide (BPO), anti-infectives, and other miscellaneous agents. Although standard guidelines and recommendations overview the management of mild, moderate, and severe acne, relevance and positioning of each category of pharmacotherapy available in Indian market are still unexplained. The present article discusses the available topical and oral acne therapies and the challenges associated with the overall management of acne in India and suggestions and recommendations by the Indian dermatologists. The experts opined that among topical therapies, the combination therapies are preferred over monotherapy due to associated lower efficacy, poor tolerability, safety issues, adverse effects, and emerging bacterial resistance. Retinoids are preferred in comedonal acne and as maintenance therapy. In case of poor response, combination therapies BPO-retinoid or retinoid-antibacterials in papulopustular acne and retinoid-BPO or BPO-antibacterials in pustular-nodular acne are recommended. Oral agents are generally recommended for severe acne. Low-dose retinoids are economical and have better patient acceptance. Antibiotics should be prescribed till the inflammation is clinically visible. Antiandrogen therapy should be given to women with high androgen levels and are added to regimen to regularize the menstrual cycle. In late-onset hyperandrogenism, oral corticosteroids should be used. The experts recommended that an early initiation of therapy is directly proportional to effective therapeutic outcomes and prevent complications. PMID:28794543

  7. Cosmeceuticals based on Rhealba(®) Oat plantlet extract for the treatment of acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Fabbrocini, G; Saint Aroman, M

    2014-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that acne vulgaris begins as an inflammation in and around the sebaceous gland and alterations in the lipid content of sebum, which drive hyperproliferation and increased desquamation of keratinocytes within sebaceous follicles. This prevents sebum drainage, causing the formation of microcomedones, which spontaneously regress or become acne lesions when the pilosebaceous unit is further blocked by the accumulation of corneocytes. These conditions are favourable for the proliferation of Propionibacterium acnes, which further aggravates acne by enhancing abnormal desquamation, sebum production and inflammation. Also, skin fragility due to inflammation or irritation by anti-comedogenic agents can worsen the situation. Rhealba(®) Oat plantlet extract (Pierre Fabre Dermo Cosmetique) soothes and restores fragile skin in acne by reducing inflammation and inhibits bacterial adhesion of Propionibacterium acnes. Cosmeceuticals combining Rhealba(®) Oat plantlet extract and hydro-compensating actives, which are available with or without anti-comedogenic hydroxy acids, provide a balanced, multifaceted approach for acne patients. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  8. Evaluation of anti-acne properties of phloretin in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kum, H; Roh, K-B; Shin, S; Jung, K; Park, D; Jung, E

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the anti-acne properties of phloretin in vitro and in vivo. Anti-microbial activity against Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), Propionibacterium granulosum (P. granulosum) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) were observed by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and disc diffusion methods. The anti-inflammatory effects were studied in HaCaT cells based on P. acnes-induced inflammatory mediators, including PGE2 and COX-2, examined through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and luciferase reporter gene assay. Thirty healthy subjects with whiteheads participated in the clinical study. Comedo counting, and the amount of sebum and porphyrin were measured before treatment and following 4 consecutive weeks of treatment with phloretin. Phloretin showed anti-microbial activities against P. acnes, P. granulosum, S. epidermidis with the MIC of 0.5, 0.5 and 0.25 mg mL(-1) , respectively. P. acnes-induced activation of the COX-2 promoter was markedly attenuated by phloretin treatment. Consistent with these results, inhibition of PGE2 production was also observed. In 1-month, placebo-controlled trials, phloretin showed clinically and statistically significant reduction of comedo counts and sebum output level. Compared to before treatment, whiteheads, blackheads, papules, sebum output level and amount of sebum and porphyrin were significantly decreased at 4 weeks in the test group. This study revealed that phloretin inhibits the growth of P. acnes, P. granulosum, and S. epidermidis. In addition, we demonstrated that phloretin attenuates COX-2 and PGE2 expression during the P. acnes-induced upregulation of inflammatory signalling. Clinical studies further suggested that treatment with formulations containing phloretin confers anti-acne benefits. Based on these results, we suggest that phloretin may be introduced as a possible acne-mitigating agent. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  9. Novel pharmacological approaches for the treatment of acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Valente Duarte de Sousa, Isabel Cristina

    2014-10-01

    Acne vulgaris is the most common skin disease worldwide; yet, current treatment options, although effective, are associated with unwanted side effects, chronicity, relapses and recurrences. The adequate control of the four pathogenic mechanisms, involved in the appearance of acne lesions, is paramount to treatment success. The authors discuss and evaluate the pathogenic pathways related to the mechanisms of action of novel molecules, which are currently under investigation for the treatment of acne vulgaris. The manuscript is based on comprehensive searches made through PubMed, GoogleScholar and ClinicalTrial.gov, using different combination of key words, which include acne vulgaris, pathogenesis, treatment, sebogenesis and Propionibacterium acnes. In the near future, more effective treatments with fewer side effects are expected. The use of topical antiandrogens, acetylcholine inhibitors and PPAR modulators seem to be promising options for controlling sebum production. Retinoic acid metabolism-blocking agents and IL-1α inhibitors have the potential to become legitimate alternative options to retinoid therapy in the management of infundibular dyskeratosis. Indeed, the authors believe that there will likely be a decline in the use of antibiotics for controlling P. acnes colonization and targeting the inflammation cascade.

  10. Dark chocolate exacerbates acne.

    PubMed

    Vongraviopap, Saivaree; Asawanonda, Pravit

    2016-05-01

    The effects of chocolate on acne exacerbations have recently been reevaluated. For so many years, it was thought that it had no role in worsening acne. To investigate whether 99% dark chocolate, when consumed in regular daily amounts, would cause acne to worsen in acne-prone male subjects, twenty-five acne prone male subjects were asked to consume 25 g of 99% dark chocolate daily for 4 weeks. Assessments which included Leeds revised acne scores as well as lesion counts took place weekly. Food frequency questionnaire was used, and daily activities were recorded. Statistically significant changes of acne scores and numbers of comedones and inflammatory papules were detected as early as 2 weeks into the study. At 4 weeks, the changes remained statistically significant compared to baseline. Dark chocolate when consumed in normal amounts for 4 weeks can exacerbate acne in male subjects with acne-prone skin. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  11. Fatty acid compositions of triglycerides and free fatty acids in sebum depend on amount of triglycerides, and do not differ in presence or absence of acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Akaza, Narifumi; Akamatsu, Hirohiko; Numata, Shigeki; Matsusue, Miyuki; Mashima, Yasuo; Miyawaki, Masaaki; Yamada, Shunji; Yagami, Akiko; Nakata, Satoru; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2014-12-01

    To clarify the influence of the fatty acid composition of sebum in acne vulgaris, we investigated the amounts and fatty acid compositions of triglycerides (TG) and free fatty acids (FFA), and the amounts of cutaneous superficial Propionibacterium acnes in acne patients and healthy subjects. The foreheads of 18 female patients, 10 male patients, 10 healthy females and 10 healthy males were studied in a Japanese population. There were significant differences in the amounts of sebum, TG and cutaneous superficial P. acnes, as well as the fatty acid compositions of TG and FFA between acne patients and healthy subjects in females. Their fatty acid compositions were correlated with the amount of TG with or without acne. It was clarified that the fatty acid compositions of TG and FFA depended on the amount of TG, and there were no differences in the fatty acid composition in the presence and absence of acne. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  12. Proteome Analysis of Human Sebaceous Follicle Infundibula Extracted from Healthy and Acne-Affected Skin

    PubMed Central

    Bek-Thomsen, Malene; Lomholt, Hans B.; Scavenius, Carsten; Enghild, Jan J.; Brüggemann, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a very common disease of the pilosebaceous unit of the human skin. The pathological processes of acne are not fully understood. To gain further insight sebaceous follicular casts were extracted from 18 healthy and 20 acne-affected individuals by cyanoacrylate-gel biopsies and further processed for mass spectrometry analysis, aiming at a proteomic analysis of the sebaceous follicular casts. Human as well as bacterial proteins were identified. Human proteins enriched in acne and normal samples were detected, respectively. Normal follicular casts are enriched in proteins such as prohibitins and peroxiredoxins which are involved in the protection from various stresses, including reactive oxygen species. By contrast, follicular casts extracted from acne-affected skin contained proteins involved in inflammation, wound healing and tissue remodeling. Among the most distinguishing proteins were myeloperoxidase, lactotransferrin, neutrophil elastase inhibitor and surprisingly, vimentin. The most significant biological process among all acne-enriched proteins was ‘response to a bacterium’. Identified bacterial proteins were exclusively from Propionibacterium acnes. The most abundant P. acnes proteins were surface-exposed dermatan sulphate adhesins, CAMP factors, and a so far uncharacterized lipase in follicular casts extracted from normal as well as acne-affected skin. This is a first proteomic study that identified human proteins together with proteins of the skin microbiota in sebaceous follicular casts. PMID:25238151

  13. Antimicrobial efficacy of granulysin-derived synthetic peptides in acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hee-Sun; Chun, Seung-Min; Soung, Min-Gyu; Kim, Jenny; Kim, Seong-Jin

    2015-07-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are considered as a potential alternative to antibiotic treatment in acne vulgaris because the development of a resistant strain of Propionibacterium acnes is problematic. Granulysin can be regarded as an ideal substance with which to treat acne because it has antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects. This study was performed to explore the effectiveness of granulysin-derived peptides (GDPs) in killing P. acnes in vitro under a standard microbiologic assay and to evaluate their potential use in a topical agent for the treatment of acne vulgaris. Twenty different peptides based on the known sequence of a GDP were synthesized and tested in vitro for antimicrobial activity. Thirty patients with facial acne vulgaris were instructed to apply a topical formulation containing synthetic GDP to acne lesions twice per day for 12 weeks. A newly synthesized peptide in which aspartic acid was substituted with arginine, and methionine was substituted with cysteine, showed the highest antimicrobial activity against P. acnes. Moreover, it was effective against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in vitro. After treatment with the topical formulation containing 50 ppm of synthetic peptide for 12 weeks, a significant reduction in the number of pustules was observed, regardless of the increase in the number of comedones. In addition, a significant reduction in the clinical grade of acne based on the Korean Acne Grading System (KAGS) was evident. Synthesized GDP shows strong antimicrobial activity against P. acnes in vitro. The clinical improvement observed suggests a topical formulation containing the GDP has therapeutic potential for the improvement of inflammatory-type acne vulgaris by its antimicrobial activity. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  14. Antibacterial activity of Thai herbal extracts on acne involved microorganism.

    PubMed

    Niyomkam, P; Kaewbumrung, S; Kaewnpparat, S; Panichayupakaranant, P

    2010-04-01

    Ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of 18 Thai medicinal plants were investigated for their antibacterial activity against Propionibacterium acnes, Stapylococcus aureus, and S. epidermidis. Thirteen plant extracts were capable of inhibiting the growth of P. acnes and S. epidermidis, while 14 plant extracts exhibited an inhibitory effect on S. aureus. Based on the broth dilution method, the ethyl acetate extract of Alpinia galanga (L.) Wild. (Zingiberaceae) rhizome showed the strongest antibacterial effect against P. acnes, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of 156.0 and 312.0 microg/mL, respectively. On the basis of bioassay-guided purification, the ethyl acetate extract was isolated to afford the antibacterial active compound, which was identified as 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (1'-ACA). 1'-ACA had a strong inhibitory effect on P. acnes with MIC and MBC values of 62.0 and 250.0 microg/mL, respectively. Thus, 1'-ACA was used as an indicative marker for standardization of A. galanga extract using high performance liquid chromatography. These results suggest that A. galanga extract could be an interesting agent for further studies on an alternative treatment of acne.

  15. Hydrogel patches containing triclosan for acne treatment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae Wan; Kim, Jin Chul; Hwang, Sung Joo

    2003-11-01

    Adhesive hydrogel patches containing Triclosan (TS) were prepared as an anti-acne dosage form. Sodium polyacrylate and carboxymethylcellulose (sodium salt) were used as matrix polymers, and Al(3+), produced by the reaction of dihydroxy aluminum aminoacetate and L(+)-tartaric acid, was employed as a crosslinking agent for the negatively charged polymers. The crosslinking reactions were done at 25, 40 and 50 degrees C for predetermined time intervals. The semi-solid gels were obtained only when the reaction period was more than 12 h, but the polymer gels were fluidic with a shorter reaction. The swelling ratios increased as the reaction period was prolonged and the reaction temperature increased, indicating that the degree of the crosslinking is proportional to the reaction period and the temperature. On a scanning electron microphotograph, the crosslinked gel exhibited a honeycomb-like structure having pores of a few micrometers. The adhesive force of a patch, which could be easily attached to and peeled off facial skin, was 45.5 gmf and it increased by adding poly acrylic acid into the patch formulations. Propionibacterium acnes (ATCC 6919) growth inhibition area around the patch was not significant on an agar plate when TS content was 0.01 wt.%, but the antibacterial activity was apparent when the content was 0.05 wt.%. In vitro permeation revealed that up to 5 wt.% of Transcutol (TC) content in patch, TC, a permeation enhancer, significantly increased the amount of TS transported into hairless mouse skins but it did not substantially accelerate TS transportation into the receptors of Franz diffusion cells. Since our patches for the treatment of acne was aimed to localize TS into skins, TC content of 5 wt.% seems to be adequate for the dermal delivery of TS. The model patches in this study would be applicable to facial skins for the treatment of acne.

  16. Cutibacterium acnes Septic Arthritis of the Nonoperated Knee: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Okoroha, Kelechi R.; Gabbard, Michael D.; Fitts, Jamal; Banka, Trevor R.

    2017-01-01

    Cutibacterium (Propionibacterium) acnes , a gram-positive bacillus with low pathogenicity, is an uncommon but known cause of prosthetic joint infections, particularly related to shoulder surgery. C. acnes , however, is an extremely rare pathogen in the nonoperated knee joint. This report details an uncommon case of C. acnes septic knee arthritis after multiple intra-articular steroid injections in a 56-year-old male patient. After an indolent presentation and late diagnosis, the patient underwent surgical debridement with IV antibiotic management. This case illustrates that intra-articular corticosteroid injections for the management of osteoarthritis are not without risk. Literature supporting their use remains limited and clinicians should use proficient clinical judgment for appropriate patient selection for these injections. Vigilance following injections or aspirations of the knee should be maintained to identify the indolent clinical presentation of C. acnes septic arthritis. PMID:28825032

  17. Acne in women.

    PubMed

    Ramos-e-Silva, M; Ramos-e-Silva, S; Carneiro, S

    2015-07-01

    This review focuses on the subject of acne in women, a disease that is increasingly common and that can also affect men. Adult acne differs from the type of acne that occurs in teenagers, and it may persist beyond adolescence or have its onset at an older age (adult-onset acne or late acne). Acne can have a negative impact on the quality of life of patients at any age, leading to a negative body image and decrease in self-esteem, and in older patients it can result in discrimination in the workplace and in other social environments. Acne in women must be understood as a specific problem, and here we discuss the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, psychology and treatment of this very prevalent problem. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  18. Propionibacterium-Produced Coproporphyrin III Induces Staphylococcus aureus Aggregation and Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Wollenberg, Michael S.; Claesen, Jan; Escapa, Isabel F.; Aldridge, Kelly L.; Fischbach, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The majority of bacteria detected in the nostril microbiota of most healthy adults belong to three genera: Propionibacterium, Corynebacterium, and Staphylococcus. Among these staphylococci is the medically important bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. Almost nothing is known about interspecies interactions among bacteria in the nostrils. We observed that crude extracts of cell-free conditioned medium from Propionibacterium spp. induce S. aureus aggregation in culture. Bioassay-guided fractionation implicated coproporphyrin III (CIII), the most abundant extracellular porphyrin produced by human-associated Propionibacterium spp., as a cause of S. aureus aggregation. This aggregation response depended on the CIII dose and occurred during early stationary-phase growth, and a low pH (~4 to 6) was necessary but was not sufficient for its induction. Additionally, CIII induced plasma-independent S. aureus biofilm development on an abiotic surface in multiple S. aureus strains. In strain UAMS-1, CIII stimulation of biofilm depended on sarA, a key biofilm regulator. This study is one of the first demonstrations of a small-molecule-mediated interaction among medically relevant members of the nostril microbiota and the first description of a role for CIII in bacterial interspecies interactions. Our results indicate that CIII may be an important mediator of S. aureus aggregation and/or biofilm formation in the nostril or other sites inhabited by Propionibacterium spp. and S. aureus. PMID:25053784

  19. Can Acne Scars Be Removed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Can Acne Scars Be Removed? KidsHealth / For Teens / Can Acne ... eliminar las cicatrices del acné? Different Types of Acne Scars from acne can seem like double punishment — ...

  20. Labdane-type diterpenes active against acne from pine cones (Pinus densiflora).

    PubMed

    Sultan, Md Zakir; Jeon, Young-Min; Moon, Surk-Sik

    2008-03-01

    Bioassay-guided extraction and fractionation of the aqueous methanolic extract of the cones of Pinus densiflora (Pinaceae) afforded one new labdane-type diterpene aldehyde, 15-nor-14-oxolabda-8(17),12 E-diene-18-oic acid, along with eight known diterpenes. Their structures were elucidated using spectroscopic methods as well as by comparison with previously reported data. The isolates showed antibacterial (Propionibacterium acnes) and antifungal activities.

  1. Acne and anticonvulsants.

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, R; Fenwick, P B; Cunliffe, W J

    1983-01-01

    The severity of acne and rate of excretion of sebum were assessed in 243 patients with epilepsy taking various anticonvulsants who were in hospital long term and in matched controls derived from a normal population of 2176 people. Neither the prevalence of acne nor the sebum excretion rate significantly increased in the patients compared with the controls or in patients taking phenytoin compared with those not. It is concluded that anticonvulsant treatment does not cause acne. PMID:6227369

  2. Antibacterial Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Cinnamon Bark, Honey, and Their Combination Effects against Acne-Causing Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Julianti, Elin; Rajah, Kasturi K.; Fidrianny, Irda

    2017-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis are the major skin bacteria that cause the formation of acne. The present study was conducted to investigate antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of cinnamon bark, honey, and their combination against acne bacteria. The antibacterial activity of extract of cinnamon bark and honey were investigated against P. acnes and S. epidermidis using disc diffusion. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were attained using Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) methods. The interaction between cinnamon bark extract and honey was determined using a checkerboards method. The results showed that the MICs of cinnamon bark extract and honey against P. acne were 256 µg/mL and 50% v/v, respectively, while those against S. epidermidis were 1024 µg/mL and 50% v/v, respectively. The MBC of cinnamon bark extract against P. acnes and S. epidermidis were more than 2048 µg/mL, whereas the MBC for honey against P. acnes and S. epidermidis were 100%. The combination of cinnamon bark extract and honey against P. acnes and S. epidermidis showed additive activity with a fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) value of 0.625. Therefore, the combination of cinnamon bark extract and honey has potential activity against acne-causing bacteria. PMID:28398231

  3. Synergistic Antibacterial Effects of Chitosan-Caffeic Acid Conjugate against Antibiotic-Resistant Acne-Related Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Hoon; Yu, Daeung; Eom, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Song-Hee; Oh, Junghwan; Jung, Won-Kyo; Kim, Young-Mog

    2017-06-08

    The object of this study was to discover an alternative therapeutic agent with fewer side effects against acne vulgaris, one of the most common skin diseases. Acne vulgaris is often associated with acne-related bacteria such as Propionibacterium acnes , Staphylococcus epidermidis , Staphylococcus aureus , and Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Some of these bacteria exhibit a resistance against commercial antibiotics that have been used in the treatment of acne vulgaris (tetracycline, erythromycin, and lincomycin). In the current study, we tested in vitro antibacterial effect of chitosan-phytochemical conjugates on acne-related bacteria. Three chitosan-phytochemical conjugates used in this study exhibited stronger antibacterial activity than that of chitosan (unmodified control). Chitosan-caffeic acid conjugate (CCA) showed the highest antibacterial effect on acne-related bacteria along with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC; 8 to 256 μg/mL). Additionally, the MIC values of antibiotics against antibiotic-resistant P. acnes and P. aeruginosa strains were dramatically reduced in combination with CCA, suggesting that CCA would restore the antibacterial activity of the antibiotics. The analysis of fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices clearly revealed a synergistic antibacterial effect of CCA with antibiotics. Thus, the median sum of FIC (∑FIC) values against the antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains ranged from 0.375 to 0.533 in the combination mode of CCA and antibiotics. The results of the present study suggested a potential possibility of chitosan-phytochemical conjugates in the control of infections related to acne vulgaris.

  4. Hormone therapy in acne.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, Chembolli

    2013-01-01

    Underlying hormone imbalances may render acne unresponsive to conventional therapy. Relevant investigations followed by initiation of hormonal therapy in combination with regular anti-acne therapy may be necessary if signs of hyperandrogenism are present. In addition to other factors, androgen-stimulated sebum production plays an important role in the pathophysiology of acne in women. Sebum production is also regulated by other hormones, including estrogens, growth hormone, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, glucocorticoids, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and melanocortins. Hormonal therapy may also be beneficial in female acne patients with normal serum androgen levels. An understanding of the sebaceous gland and the hormonal influences in the pathogenesis of acne would be essential for optimizing hormonal therapy. Sebocytes form the sebaceous gland. Human sebocytes express a multitude of receptors, including receptors for peptide hormones, neurotransmitters and the receptors for steroid and thyroid hormones. Various hormones and mediators acting through the sebocyte receptors play a role in the orchestration of pathogenetic lesions of acne. Thus, the goal of hormonal treatment is a reduction in sebum production. This review shall focus on hormonal influences in the elicitation of acne via the sebocyte receptors, pathways of cutaneous androgen metabolism, various clinical scenarios and syndromes associated with acne, and the available therapeutic armamentarium of hormones and drugs having hormone-like actions in the treatment of acne.

  5. Sonography of acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Wortsman, Ximena; Claveria, Pedro; Valenzuela, Fernando; Molina, Maria Teresa; Wortsman, Jacobo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the sonographic morphology of the clinical and subclinical pathology of facial acne vulgaris. We studied patients with facial acne vulgaris diagnosed by certified dermatologists, and using a standardized protocol for sonographic examinations, we sequentially described the sonographic pathomorphologic characteristics. Lesions of particular interest to the referring clinician were also analyzed separately. Additionally, acne involvement was staged clinically and sonographically (SOS-Acne) using morphologic definitions of the relevant lesions and predefined scoring systems for gradation of the severity of acne lesions. A total of 245 acne lesions in 20 consecutive patients were studied. Sonographic abnormalities consisted of pseudocysts, folliculitis, fistulas, and calcinosis. Most conditions were subclinical and mostly due to lesion extensions deep into the dermis and hypodermis (52% of pseudocysts and 68% of fistulas). The statistical concordance between acne severity scores assigned by two separate clinicians was strong (κ = 0.8020), but the corresponding sonographic scores generally showed more severe and clinically occult involvement. Facial acne vulgaris often involves deeper tissues, beyond the reach of the spatially restricted clinical examination; these subclinical conditions can be detected and defined with sonography. Additionally, acne vulgaris is amenable to sonographic scoring.

  6. Moisturizers for Acne

    PubMed Central

    Chularojanamontri, Leena; Tuchinda, Papapit; Kulthanan, Kanokvalai

    2014-01-01

    Acne is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit that affects almost all teenagers. Different treatments offer different modes of action, but aim to target acne pathology. Topical therapies, such as benzoyl peroxide, retinoids, antibiotics with alcohol-based preparations, and salicylic acid, can cause skin irritation resulting in a lack of patient adherence. Some physicians recommend patients use moisturizers as adjunctive treatment of acne, especially when either topical benzoyl peroxide or a retinoid is prescribed. Furthermore, some evidence shows that moisturizers can contribute independently to improve signs and symptoms of acne. Moisturizers contain three main properties, which are occlusive, humectant, and emollient effects. Currently, many moisturizers claim to be suitable for acne treatment. This article aims to provide a review of the active ingredients and properties of those moisturizers. Fifty-two moisturizers for acne were included for analysis. Most of the products (92%) have anti-inflammatory properties apart from occlusive, humectant, and emollient effects. Anti-acne medications, including salicylic acid, benzoyl peroxide, and retinol, were found respectively in 35, 10, and 8 percent of the moisturizer products containing anti-inflammatory properties. More than half of the products contain dimethicone and/or glycerin for its moisturizer property. Aloe vera and witch hazel are botanical anti-inflammatories that were commonly found in this study. Scientific data regarding some ingredients are discussed to provide a guide for physicians in selecting moisturizers for acne patients. PMID:24847408

  7. Management strategies for acne vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Whitney, Kristen M; Ditre, Chérie M

    2011-01-01

    Clinical question: What are the most effective treatment(s) for mild, moderate, severe, and hormonally driven acne? Results: Mild acne responds favorably to topical treatments such as benzoyl peroxide, salicylic acid, and a low-dose retinoid. Moderate acne responds well to combination therapy comprising-topical benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, and/or retinoids, as well as oral antibiotics in refractory cases and oral contraceptive pills for female acne patients. Severe nodulocystic acne vulgaris responds best to oral isotretinoin therapy. In female patients with moderate to severe acne, facial hair, loss of scalp hair and irregular periods, polycystic ovarian syndrome should be considered and appropriate treatment with hormonal modulation given. Adjunctive procedures can also be considered for all acne patients. Implementation: Pitfalls to avoid when treating acne: treatment of acne in women of child-bearing age; familiarization of all acne treatments in order to individualize management for patients; indications for specialist referral. PMID:21691566

  8. Isotretinoin therapy changes the expression of antimicrobial peptides in acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Borovaya, Alena; Dombrowski, Yvonne; Zwicker, Stephanie; Olisova, Olga; Ruzicka, Thomas; Wolf, Ronald; Schauber, Jürgen; Sárdy, Miklós

    2014-10-01

    In acne vulgaris, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) could play a dual role; i.e., protective by acting against Propionibacterium acnes, pro-inflammatory by acting as signalling molecules. The cutaneous expression of 15 different AMPs was investigated in acne patients; furthermore, the impact of isotretinoin therapy on AMP expression was analysed in skin biopsies from 13 patients with acne vulgaris taken before, during and after a 6-month treatment cycle with isotretinoin using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cutaneous expression of the AMPs cathelicidin, human β-defensin-2 (HBD-2), lactoferrin, lysozyme, psoriasin (S100A7), koebnerisin (S100A15), and RNase 7 was upregulated in untreated acne vulgaris, whereas α-defensin-1 (HNP-1) was downregulated compared to controls. While relative expression levels of cathelicidin, HBD-2, lactoferrin, psoriasin (S100A7), and koebnerisin (S100A15) decreased during isotretinoin treatment, only those of cathelicidin and koebnerisin returned to normal after 6 months of isotretinoin therapy. The increased expression of lysozyme and RNase 7 remained unaffected by isotretinoin treatment. The levels of granulysin, RANTES (CCL5), perforin, CXCL9, substance P, chromogranin B, and dermcidin were not regulated in untreated acne patients and isotretinoin had no effect on these AMPs. In conclusion, the expression of various AMPs is altered in acne vulgaris. Isotretinoin therapy normalizes the cutaneous production of distinct AMPs while the expression of others is still increased in healing acne. Considering the antimicrobial and pro-inflammatory role of AMPs, these molecules could serve as specific targets for acne therapy and maintenance of clinical remission.

  9. In-vitro evaluation of marine derived fungi against Cutibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Shivankar; Adholeya, Alok; Barrow, Colin J; Deshmukh, Sunil Kumar

    2018-02-01

    Cutibacterium acnes (or Propionibacterium acnes) is the main target for the prevention and medical treatment of acne vulgaris. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro anti-C. acnes and anti-S. epidermidis properties of some marine fungi isolated from different Indian marine environments. Seventy fungal isolates were obtained from samples collected from the west coasts and Andaman Island, India. Methanol extracts of 35 isolates were screened for their antibacterial properties and 5 out of the 35 isolates displayed significant inhibition as compared with tetracycline. DNA was successfully extracted from these five fungal isolates and phylogenetic analysis was performed. The methanol extracts possessed antibacterial activity against C. acnes and S. epidermidis with MIC values ranged from 0.8 mg/mL to 1 mg/mL. SEM analysis revealed that the extract induces deleterious morphological changes in the bacterial cell membrane. This study has identified some fungi extracts with significant antibacterial activity. The extracts may have potential for development as an antibacterial agent in the treatment of acne vulgaris. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects of Jeju medicinal plants against acne-inducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Suk; Kim, Ji-Young; Lee, Nam Ho; Hyun, Chang-Gu

    2008-04-01

    Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis are pus-forming bacteria that trigger inflammation in acne. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of Jeju medicinal plants against these etiologic agents of acne vulgaris. Ethanol extracts of Jeju plants were tested for antimicrobial activities by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. The results from the disc diffusion assays revealed that four medicinal plants, Mollugo pentaphylla, Angelica anomala, Matteuccia orientalis, and Orixa japonica inhibited the growth of both pathogens. Among these, A. anomala had strong inhibitory effects. Its MIC values were 15.6 microg/ml and 125 microg/ml against P. acnes and S. epidermidis, respectively. The cytotoxic effects of the four extracts were determined by colorimetric MTT assays using two animal cell lines: human dermal fibroblasts and HaCaT cells. Although the M. orientalis root extract had moderate cytotoxicity in HaCaT cells at 200 microg/ml, most extracts exhibited low cytotoxicity at 200 microg/ml in both cell lines. In addition, the extracts reduced the P. acnes-induced secretion of interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in THP-1 cells, an indication of their anti-inflammatory effects. Based on these results, we suggest that M. pentaphylla, A. anomala, M. orientalis, and O. japonica are attractive acne-mitigating candidates for topical application.

  11. Evaluation of serum vitamins A and E and zinc levels according to the severity of acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Ozuguz, Pinar; Dogruk Kacar, Seval; Ekiz, Ozlem; Takci, Zennure; Balta, Ilknur; Kalkan, Göknur

    2014-06-01

    Although hyperseborrhea, follicular hyperkeratinization, Propionibacterium acnes colonization and inflammation are found to be responsible in the pathogenesis of acne, the exact mechanisms are unknown. Vitamin A and E are basic antioxidants vital for health. Zinc is also an essential element for human. But these parameters of the effects on skin are not fully understood. We aimed to evaluate plasma levels of vitamin A, E and zinc in acne patients in relation to the severity of the disease. There were 94 acne patients who were referred to our clinic, all new diagnosed, and 56 age and sex matched healthy volunteers as control group. All patients are assessed according to Global Acne Grading System and grouped as mild, moderate, severe and very severe. Acne patients further grouped as group 1 consist of patients with mild to moderate disease; and group 2 consist of patients with severe to very severe acne. The patients with the controls and group 1 with group 2 was compared. The level of vitamin E, vitamin A and zinc were significantly lower than the control group (Table 1,p < 0.001). When the patient group is compared among each other there was no statistically significant difference for plasma vitamin A levels between group 1 and 2 whereas vitamin E and zinc levels were significantly low in group 2 than group 1. Thus there was a negative correlation between acne severity and vitamin E and zinc levels. Our study marks the importance of diet in patients with acne. We offer supportive dietary measures with foods rich in vitamin A and E and zinc in the acne prophylaxis and treatment. Supportive treatment with these vitamins and zinc in severe acne may lead to satisfactory results.

  12. [Acne therapy with topical benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics and azelaic acid].

    PubMed

    Worret, Wolf-Ingo; Fluhr, Joachim W

    2006-04-01

    Benzoyl peroxide (BPO) was introduced in the treatment of acne in 1934. Despite the fact that only few randomized trials have been published, BPO is considered the standard in topical acne treatment. Anaerobic bacteria are reduced by oxidative mechanisms and the induction of resistant strains is reduced. Topical formulations are available at concentrations of 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 %. The effect is dose-dependent, but the irritation increases with higher concentrations. Usually 5 % BPO is sufficient to control acne grade I-II. Due to its strong oxidative potential, patients should be advised that BPO may bleach colored and dark clothing, bedding and even hair. BPO is safe for use in pregnant and lactating females because it is degraded to benzoic acid. It is a cost-effective treatment for acne grade I-II. Patients with papulopustular acne grade I-II, particularly with marked inflammation, show satisfactory improvement with topical antibiotic treatment. The following compounds are available and effective: erythromycin, clindamycin and tetracycline (the latter being less frequently used). A review in 1990 suggested that topical tetracycline was ineffective in the treatment of acne. Along with eliminating Propionibacterium acnes, the main mechanism of topical antibiotics is their antiinflammatory effect. All three penetrate the epidermal barrier well and are similarly efficacious. Randomized trials have shown that in concentrations of 2-4 %, their effects are comparable to oral tetracycline and minocycline. Combination therapy with retinoids or benzoyl peroxide (BPO) increases efficacy. Retinoids increase penetration and reduce comedones, while topical antibiotics primarily address inflammation. One side effect of topical antibacterial treatment is an increase in drug-resistant resident skin flora with gram-negative microorganisms prevailing, which can lead to gram-negative folliculitis. All three antibiotics fluoresce under black light which may produce interesting

  13. Acne and diet.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Ronni; Matz, Hagit; Orion, Edith

    2004-01-01

    Forbidden foods? "The first law of dietetics seems to be: If it tastes good, it's bad for you" (Isaac Asimov, Russian-born biochemist and science fiction writer). This was essentially the Magna Carta for dermatologists of the 1950s: anything coveted by the teenage palate was suspect for morning after acne. Today, half a century later, although the slant has shifted away for this line of thinking in our dermatologic textbooks, several articles on the beliefs and perceptions of acne patients showed that nothing much has changed and that they expect us to give them detailed instructions of what "acne-related" foods they should avoid. In one such study(1), diet was the third most frequently implicated factor (after hormones and genetics) as the cause of the disease, with 32% of the respondents selecting diet as the main cause, and 44% thinking that foods aggravate acne. In another study that analyzed knowledge about causes of acne among English teenagers, 11% of the responders blamed greasy food as the main cause of the disease(2), whereas in another study found that 41% of final-year medical students of the University of Melbourne chose diet as an important factor of acne exacerbation on a final examination.(3)

  14. Propionibacterium avidum as an Etiological Agent of Prosthetic Hip Joint Infection

    PubMed Central

    Brüggemann, Holger; Scholz, Christian F. P.; Leimbach, Andreas; Söderquist, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is well-established as a possible etiologic agent of prosthetic joint infections (PJIs). Other Propionibacterium spp. have occasionally been described as a cause of PJIs, but this has not previously been the case for P. avidum despite its capacity to form biofilm. We describe two patients with prosthetic hip joint infections caused by P. avidum. Both patients were primarily operated with an anteriorly curved skin incision close to the skin crease of the groin, and both were obese. Initial treatment was performed according to the DAIR procedure (debridement, antibiotics, and implant retention). In case 1, the outcome was successful, but in case 2, a loosening of the cup was present 18 months post debridement. The P. avidum isolate from case 1 and two isolates from case 2 (obtained 18 months apart) were selected for whole genome sequencing. The genome of P. avidum obtained from case 1 was approximately 60 kb larger than the genomes of the two isolates of case 2. These latter isolates were clonal with the exception of SNPs in the genome. All three strains possessed the gene cluster encoding exopolysaccharide synthesis. P. avidum has a pathogenic potential and the ability to cause clinically relevant infections, including abscess formation, in the presence of foreign bodies such as prosthetic joint components. Skin incision in close proximity to the groin or deep skin crease, such as the anteriorly curved skin incision approach, might pose a risk of PJIs by P. avidum, especially in obese patients. PMID:27355425

  15. Topical Acne Treatments and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... are benzoyl peroxide, azelaic acid, glycolic acid, and salicylic acid. Prescription acne medications include tretinoin, adapalene, dapsone, and ... ACOG) recommends topical benzoyl peroxide, azelaic acid, topical salicylic acid and glycolic acid for treatment of acne in ...

  16. Proteomic and transcriptomic investigation of acne vulgaris microcystic and papular lesions: Insights in the understanding of its pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Quanico, Jusal; Gimeno, Jean-Pascal; Nadal-Wollbold, Florence; Casas, Christiane; Alvarez-Georges, Sandrine; Redoulès, Daniel; Schmitt, Anne-Marie; Fournier, Isabelle; Salzet, Michel

    2017-03-01

    The pathogenesis of acne vulgaris involves several phases including androgen-dependent hyper-seborrhea, colonization by Propionibacterium acnes, and inflammation. Recent investigations have shown that in fact P. acnes provokes the activation of the inflammasome present in macrophages and dendritic cells. This signaling pathway leads to excessive production of interleukin IL-1β, a proinflammatory cytokine. Nevertheless, these well-studied phenomena in acne fail to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the appearance of different lesions. We investigate response pathways for specific acne lesions such as microcysts and papules using shot-gun proteomic followed by systemic biology and transcriptomic approaches. Results show that most of the proteins identified as differentially expressed between the normal and acne tissue biopsies associated with the immune system response were identified as highly or exclusively expressed in the papule biopsies. They were also expressed in microcysts, but in lower amounts compared to those in papules. These results are supported by the identification of CAMP factor protein produced by P. acnes in microcysts, indicating its enhanced proliferation in this type of lesion CONCLUSIONS: As CAMP factor protein was not detected in papule biopsies, we can see a clear delineation in the stages of progression of acne pathogenesis, which begins with a hyphenated inflammatory response in the papule stage, followed by imbalance of lipid production, which in turn triggers the enhanced proliferation of P. acnes. We demonstrate that expression inflammation varies across the two types of lesions, suggesting different pathways enhanced as a function of the progression of P. acnes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Emmental Cheese Environment Enhances Propionibacterium freudenreichii Stress Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Gagnaire, Valérie; Jardin, Julien; Rabah, Houem; Briard-Bion, Valérie; Jan, Gwénaël

    2015-01-01

    Dairy propionibacteria are actinomycetales found in various fermented food products. The main species, Propionibacterium freudenreichii, is generally recognized as safe and used both as probiotic and as cheese starter. Its probiotic efficacy tightly depends on its tolerance towards digestive stresses, which can be largely modulated by the ingested delivery vehicle. Indeed, tolerance of this bacterium is enhanced when it is consumed within a fermented dairy product, compared to a dried probiotic preparation. We investigated both stress tolerance and protein neosynthesis upon growth in i) chemically defined or ii) aqueous phase of Emmental cheeses. Although the same final population level was reached in both media, a slower growth and an enhanced survival of CIRM BIA 1 strain of P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii was observed in Emmental juice, compared to chemically defined medium. This was accompanied by differences in substrates used and products released as well as overexpression of various early stress adaptation proteins in Emmental juice, compared to chemically defined medium, implied in protein folding, in aspartate catabolism, in biosynthesis of valine, leucine and isoleucine, in pyruvate metabolism in citrate cycle, in the propionate metabolism, as well as in oxidoreductases. All these changes led to a higher digestive stress tolerance after growth in Emmental juice. Mechanisms of stress adaptation were induced in this environment, in accordance with enhanced survival. This opens perspectives for the use of hard and semi-hard cheeses as delivery vehicle for probiotics with enhanced efficacy. PMID:26275229

  18. Linking diet to acne metabolomics, inflammation, and comedogenesis: an update.

    PubMed

    Melnik, Bodo C

    2015-01-01

    Acne vulgaris, an epidemic inflammatory skin disease of adolescence, is closely related to Western diet. Three major food classes that promote acne are: 1) hyperglycemic carbohydrates, 2) milk and dairy products, 3) saturated fats including trans-fats and deficient ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Diet-induced insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1)-signaling is superimposed on elevated IGF-1 levels during puberty, thereby unmasking the impact of aberrant nutrigenomics on sebaceous gland homeostasis. Western diet provides abundant branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), glutamine, and palmitic acid. Insulin and IGF-1 suppress the activity of the metabolic transcription factor forkhead box O1 (FoxO1). Insulin, IGF-1, BCAAs, glutamine, and palmitate activate the nutrient-sensitive kinase mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), the key regulator of anabolism and lipogenesis. FoxO1 is a negative coregulator of androgen receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), liver X receptor-α, and sterol response element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), crucial transcription factors of sebaceous lipogenesis. mTORC1 stimulates the expression of PPARγ and SREBP-1c, promoting sebum production. SREBP-1c upregulates stearoyl-CoA- and Δ6-desaturase, enhancing the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids in sebum triglycerides. Diet-mediated aberrations in sebum quantity (hyperseborrhea) and composition (dysseborrhea) promote Propionibacterium acnes overgrowth and biofilm formation with overexpression of the virulence factor triglyceride lipase increasing follicular levels of free palmitate and oleate. Free palmitate functions as a "danger signal," stimulating toll-like receptor-2-mediated inflammasome activation with interleukin-1β release, Th17 differentiation, and interleukin-17-mediated keratinocyte proliferation. Oleate stimulates P. acnes adhesion, keratinocyte proliferation, and comedogenesis via interleukin-1α release. Thus, diet

  19. Linking diet to acne metabolomics, inflammation, and comedogenesis: an update

    PubMed Central

    Melnik, Bodo C

    2015-01-01

    Acne vulgaris, an epidemic inflammatory skin disease of adolescence, is closely related to Western diet. Three major food classes that promote acne are: 1) hyperglycemic carbohydrates, 2) milk and dairy products, 3) saturated fats including trans-fats and deficient ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Diet-induced insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1)-signaling is superimposed on elevated IGF-1 levels during puberty, thereby unmasking the impact of aberrant nutrigenomics on sebaceous gland homeostasis. Western diet provides abundant branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), glutamine, and palmitic acid. Insulin and IGF-1 suppress the activity of the metabolic transcription factor forkhead box O1 (FoxO1). Insulin, IGF-1, BCAAs, glutamine, and palmitate activate the nutrient-sensitive kinase mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), the key regulator of anabolism and lipogenesis. FoxO1 is a negative coregulator of androgen receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), liver X receptor-α, and sterol response element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), crucial transcription factors of sebaceous lipogenesis. mTORC1 stimulates the expression of PPARγ and SREBP-1c, promoting sebum production. SREBP-1c upregulates stearoyl-CoA- and Δ6-desaturase, enhancing the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids in sebum triglycerides. Diet-mediated aberrations in sebum quantity (hyperseborrhea) and composition (dysseborrhea) promote Propionibacterium acnes overgrowth and biofilm formation with overexpression of the virulence factor triglyceride lipase increasing follicular levels of free palmitate and oleate. Free palmitate functions as a “danger signal,” stimulating toll-like receptor-2-mediated inflammasome activation with interleukin-1β release, Th17 differentiation, and interleukin-17-mediated keratinocyte proliferation. Oleate stimulates P. acnes adhesion, keratinocyte proliferation, and comedogenesis via interleukin-1α release. Thus, diet

  20. Comparison effect of azithromycin gel 2% with clindamycin gel 1% in patients with acne.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari, Fatemeh; Faghihi, Gita; Basiri, Akram; Farhadi, Sadaf; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammadali; Behfar, Shadi

    2016-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is the most common skin disease. Local and systemic antimicrobial drugs are used for its treatment. But increasing resistance of Propionibacterium acnes to antibiotics has been reported. In a double-blind clinical trial, 40 patients with mild to moderate acne vulgaris were recruited. one side of the face was treated with Clindamycin Gel 1% and the other side with Azithromycin Topical Gel 2% BID for 8 weeks and then they were assessed. Average age was 21. 8 ± 7 years. 82.5% of them were female. Average number of papules, pustules and comedones was similarly reduced in both groups and, no significant difference was observed between the two groups (P > 0.05, repeated measurs ANOVA). The mean indexes of ASI and TLC also significantly decreased during treatment in both groups, no significant difference was observed between the two groups. (P > 0.05, repeated measurs ANOVA). Also, impact of both drugs on papules and pustules was 2-3 times greater than the effect on comedones. Average satisfaction score was not significant between the two groups (P = 0.6, repeated measurs ANOVA). finally, frequency distribution of complications was not significant between the two groups (P > 0.05, Fisher Exact test). Azithromycin gel has medical impact at least similar to Clindamycin Gel in treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris, and it may be consider as suitable drug for resistant acne to conventional topical therapy.

  1. Neonatal and infantile acne vulgaris: an update.

    PubMed

    Serna-Tamayo, Cristian; Janniger, Camila K; Micali, Giuseppe; Schwartz, Robert A

    2014-07-01

    Acne may present in neonates, infants, and small children. Neonatal and infantile acne vulgaris are not considered to be rare. The presentation of acne in this patient population sometimes represents virilization and may portend later development of severe adolescent acne. Neonatal and infantile acne vulgaris must be distinguished from other cutaneous disorders seen in newborns and infants. Infantile acne tends to be more pleomorphic and inflammatory, thus requiring more vigorous therapy than neonatal acne.

  2. Zolav®: a new antibiotic for the treatment of acne

    PubMed Central

    Dinant, Alexa; Boulos, Ramiz A

    2016-01-01

    Background Acne is a prominent skin condition affecting >80% of teenagers and young adults and ~650 million people globally. Isotretinoin, a vitamin A derivative, is currently the standard of care for treatment. However, it has a well-established teratogenic activity, a reason for the development of novel and low-risk treatment options for acne. Objective To investigate the effectiveness of Zolav®, a novel antibiotic as a treatment for acne vulgaris. Materials and methods Minimum inhibitory concentration of Zolav® against Propionibacterium acnes was determined by following a standard protocol using Mueller-Hinton broth and serial dilutions in a 96-well plate. Cytotoxicity effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells and lung cells in the presence of Zolav® were investigated by determining the growth inhibition (GI50) concentration, total growth inhibition concentration, and the lethal concentration of 50% (LC50). The tryptophan auxotrophic mutant of Escherichia coli strain, WP2 uvrA (ATCC 49979), was used for the AMES assay with the addition of Zolav® tested for its ability to reverse the mutation and induce bacterial growth. The in vivo effectiveness of Zolav® was tested in a P. acnes mouse intradermal model where the skin at the infection site was removed, homogenized, and subjected to colony-forming unit (CFU) counts. Results Susceptibility testing of Zolav® against P. acnes showed a minimum inhibitory concentration of 2 µg/mL against three strains with no cytotoxicity and no mutagenicity observed at the highest concentrations tested, 30 µM and 1,500 µg/plate, respectively. The use of Zolav® at a concentration of 50 µg/mL (q8h) elicited a two-log difference in CFU/g between the treatment group and the control. Conclusion This study demonstrates the potential of Zolav® as a novel treatment for acne vulgaris. PMID:27042015

  3. Indole-3-acetic acid: a potential new photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy of acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Na, Jung-Im; Kim, So-Young; Kim, Jeong-Hye; Youn, Sang-Woong; Huh, Chang-Hun; Park, Kyoung-Chan

    2011-03-01

    ALA (5-aminolevulinic acid) photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a new treatment option for acne. However, it needs a relatively long incubation period and adverse effects are common. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is not toxic by itself but produces free radicals with ultraviolet B. In this study we examined the potential of IAA as a photosensitizer for acne treatment. Free radical formation was measured after visible light irradiation of IAA. Antimicrobial effect was evaluated by assessing growth suppression of Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus after IAA PDT. To evaluate the histological changes, skin biopsies were performed on nude mice skin after IAA PDT. To evaluate the clinical efficacy of IAA PDT, 14 acne patients were treated with the following IAA PDT regimen: three times each with a 15 minutes incubation period and a 2-week interval. The number of inflammatory lesions and the amount of sebum secretion were then assessed. IAA produced free radicals with green light irradiation. Importantly, IAA lost its photosensitizing ability after exposure to certain amount of light. This implies IAA PDT would not require post-procedure photo-protection. The growth of P. acnes and S. aureus were significantly suppressed with IAA PDT. In addition, IAA PDT treated skin showed destruction of follicular ostia epithelium. Interestingly, there was no significant difference between a 4 hours and a 30 minutes incubation, which means that longer absorption time is not necessary for IAA PDT. In the clinical study, inflammatory lesions and sebum secretion were significantly reduced. The procedure was painless and no adverse effect was observed. Photo-protection was not performed and there were no further phototoxic responses. IAA PDT has therapeutic effects on acne via its antimicrobial activities, its sebum-reducing effect and through relieving follicular occlusion. It is a very simple and safe treatment option for acne. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Anti-Acne Activity of Italian Medicinal Plants Used for Skin Infection

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Kate; Lyles, James T.; Li, Tracy; Saitta, Alessandro; Addie-Noye, Eugenia; Tyler, Paula; Quave, Cassandra L.

    2016-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is implicated in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris, which impacts >85% of teenagers. Novel therapies are in high demand and an ethnopharmacological approach to discovering new plant sources of anti-acne therapeutics could contribute to filling this void in effective therapies. The aims of our study were two-fold: (1) To determine if species identified in ethnopharmacological field studies as having traditional uses for skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) exhibit significantly more activity against P. acnes than species with no such reported use; and (2) Chemically characterize active extracts and assess their suitability for future investigation. Extracts of Italian medicinal (for acne and other skin infection) and randomly collected plants and fungi were screened for growth-inhibitory and anti-biofilm activity in P. acnes using broth microdilution methods. Bioactive extracts were chemically characterized by HPLC and examined for cytotoxicity against human keratinocytes (HaCaTs). Following evaluation of 157 extracts from 10 fungi and 58 plants, we identified crude extracts from seven species exhibiting growth inhibitory activity (MICs 64–256 μg mL−1). All active extracts were examined for cytotoxicity against HaCaTs; extracts from one fungal and one plant species were toxic (IC50 256 μg mL−1). HPLC analysis with chemical standards revealed many of these extracts contained chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, ellagic acid, gallic acid, and tannic acid. In conclusion, species used in traditional medicine for the skin exhibited significantly greater (p < 0.05) growth inhibitory and biofilm eradication activity than random species, supporting the validity of an ethnobotanical approach to identifying new therapeutics. The anti-acne activity of three extracts is reported for the first time: Vitis vinifera leaves, Asphodelus microcarpus leaves, and Vicia sativa aerial parts. PMID:27891094

  5. South-East Asia study alliance guidelines on the management of acne vulgaris in South-East Asian patients.

    PubMed

    Goh, Chee Leok; Abad-Casintahan, Flordeliz; Aw, Derrick Chen Wee; Baba, Roshidah; Chan, Lee Chin; Hung, Nguyen Thanh; Kulthanan, Kanokvalai; Leong, Hoe Nam; Medina-Oblepias, Marie Socouer; Noppakun, Nopadon; Sitohang, Irma Bernadette; Sugito, Titi Lestari; Wong, Su-Ni

    2015-10-01

    The management of acne in South-East Asia is unique, as Asian skin and local variables require a clinical approach unlike that utilized in other parts of the world. There are different treatment guidelines per country in the region, and a group of leading dermatologists from these countries convened to review these guidelines, discuss current practices and recent advances, and formulate consensus guidelines to harmonize the management of acne vulgaris in the region. Emphasis has been placed on formulating recommendations to impede the development of antibiotic resistance in Propionibacterium acnes. The group adopted the Acne Consensus Conference system for grading acne severity. The group recommends that patients may be treated with topical medications including retinoids, benzoyl peroxide (BPO), salicylic acid, a combination of retinoid and BPO, or a combination of retinoids and BPO with or without antibiotics for mild acne; topical retinoid with topical BPO and a oral antibiotic for moderate acne; and oral isotretinoin if the patient fails first-line treatment (a 6- or 8-week trial of combined oral antibiotics and topical retinoids with BPO) for severe acne. Maintenance acne treatment using topical retinoids with or without BPO is recommended. To prevent the development of antibiotic resistance, topical antibiotics should not be used as monotherapy or used simultaneously with oral antibiotics. Skin care, comprised of cleansing, moisturizing and sun protection, is likewise recommended. Patient education and good communication is recommended to improve adherence, and advice should be given about the characteristics of the skin care products patients should use. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  6. Activity of capryloyl collagenic acid against bacteria involved in acne.

    PubMed

    Fourniat, J; Bourlioux, P

    1989-12-01

    Synopsis Capryloyl collagenic acid (Lipacide C8Co) has similar bacteriostatic activity in vitro to that of benzoyl peroxide towards the bacteria found in acne lesions (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Propionibacterium acnes) (MIC between 1 and 4 mg ml(-1) for C8Co, and between 0.5 and 5 mg ml(-1) for benzoyl peroxide). The presence of Emulgine M8 did not affect the bacteriostatic activity of C8Co. A 4% w/v solution of C8Co (incorporating Emulgine M8) fulfilled the criteria for an antiseptic preparation as laid down by the French Pharmacopoeia (10th Edition), and had a spectrum 5 bactericidal activity according to the French Standard AFNOR NF T 72-151. The excellent cutaneous tolerance of capryloyl collagenic acid would indicate that an aqueous solution might be of value for topical treatment of the bacterial component of acne. Résumé Activité antibactérienne de l'acide capryloyl-collagénique vis à vis des bactéries impliquées dans l'etiologie de l'acné L'acide capryloyl-collagénique (Lipacide C8Co) et le peroxyde de benzoyle présentent une activité bactériostatique in-vitroéquivalente vis à vis des espèces bactériennes retrouvées au niveau des lésions acnéiques (Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis et Propionibacterium acnes) (CMI comprise entre 1 et 4 mg ml(-1) pour le lipoaminoacide, et 0,5 et 5 mg ml(-1) pour le peroxyde de benzoyle). La mise en solution aqueuse de l'acide capryloyl-collagénique en présence d'Emulgine M8 ne modifie pas son activité bactériostatique. Une telle solution, à 4% m/V d'acide capryloyl-collagénique et 5% m/V d'Emulgine M8, satisfait à l'essai d'activité des préparations antiseptiques décrit à la Pharmacopée Française (Xème Ed.) (concentration minimale antiseptique: 10% v/V, pour un temps de contact de 5 min à 32 degrees C entre les germes tests et la solution diluée en eau distillée), et posséde une activité bactéricide antiseptique spectre 5 conforme à la norme AFNOR NF T

  7. Dietary intervention in acne

    PubMed Central

    Melnik, Bodo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the endocrine signaling of Western diet, a fundamental environmental factor involved in the pathogenesis of epidemic acne. Western nutrition is characterized by high calorie uptake, high glycemic load, high fat and meat intake, as well as increased consumption of insulin- and IGF-1-level elevating dairy proteins. Metabolic signals of Western diet are sensed by the nutrient-sensitive kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which integrates signals of cellular energy, growth factors (insulin, IGF-1) and protein-derived signals, predominantly leucine, provided in high amounts by milk proteins and meat. mTORC1 activates SREBP, the master transcription factor of lipogenesis. Leucine stimulates mTORC1-SREBP signaling and leucine is directly converted by sebocytes into fatty acids and sterols for sebaceous lipid synthesis. Over-activated mTORC1 increases androgen hormone secretion and most likely amplifies androgen-driven mTORC1 signaling of sebaceous follicles. Testosterone directly activates mTORC1. Future research should investigate the effects of isotretinoin on sebocyte mTORC1 activity. It is conceivable that isotretinoin may downregulate mTORC1 in sebocytes by upregulation of nuclear levels of FoxO1. The role of Western diet in acne can only be fully appreciated when all stimulatory inputs for maximal mTORC1 activation, i.e., glucose, insulin, IGF-1 and leucine, are adequately considered. Epidemic acne has to be recognized as an mTORC1-driven disease of civilization like obesity, type 2 diabetes, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. These new insights into Western diet-mediated mTORC1-hyperactivity provide a rational basis for dietary intervention in acne by attenuating mTORC1 signaling by reducing (1) total energy intake, (2) hyperglycemic carbohydrates, (3) insulinotropic dairy proteins and (4) leucine-rich meat and dairy proteins. The necessary dietary changes are opposed to the evolution of

  8. Understanding Acne: How to Banish Breakouts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Subscribe January 2010 Print this issue Understanding Acne How to Banish Breakouts Send us your comments ... Protect Your Skin from Sun Damage Wise Choices Acne Flare-ups The exact cause of acne is ...

  9. Synthesis of Anti-Acne Ointment of Ethanol Extract of White Plumeria Leaves (Plumeria Alba L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ningsih, D. R.; Zusfahair; Kartika, D.; Lestari, I. T.

    2017-02-01

    Acne is a chronic inflammatory skin disease pilosebaceous follicle, where the oil- producing glands are clogged and contaminated by bacteria. Propionibacterium acne is one of the bacteria that contributes to the pathogenesis of acne. Acne treatment was done by reducing the population of bacteria using an antibacterial. One of the plants that have antibacterial activity is white plumeria. The ethanol extract of white plumeria leaves contains antibacterial secondary metabolites, which are alkaloids and saponins. The aim of this study is to formulate white plumeria leaves extract into the water leached ointment base. Characteristics of the ointment were determined by evaluating the stability of the ointment including organoleptic, adhesion test, dispersive power test, determination of pH, and the antibacterial activity test. The results showed that the ointment of ethanol extract of white plumeria leaves has some characteristics, semisolid form, white, has distinctive smell of ointment, homogeneous but not protective, has a pH of 4.57 - 6.10, dispersive power of 5.10 - 6.06 cm, the adhesiveness of 1.67 - 3 seconds, and optimum antibacterial activity at concentrations of 5 ppm providing inhibition zone of 24.00 mm.

  10. Clindamycin phosphate 1.2% / tretinoin 0.025%: a novel fixed-dose combination treatment for acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Ochsendorf, F

    2015-06-01

    The Global Alliance to Improve Outcomes in Acne Group recommends retinoid-based combination therapy as first-line therapy and the preferred treatment approach for almost all acne patients except those with the most severe disease. Clindamycin 1% (as clindamycin phosphate 1.2%)/tretinoin 0.025% (Clin-RA) is a new fixed-dose retinoid-based combination therapy. The aqueous-based gel formulation of Clin-RA was designed to minimize skin irritation and optimize adherence with the therapy. It contains both solubilized and crystalline tretinoin which allows the retinoid to be slowly released onto the skin surface and decreases the potential for cutaneous irritation. A pooled analysis of three pivotal studies involving 4550 acne patients showed that Clin-RA is well tolerated and effective at treating both inflammatory and non-inflammatory acne lesions. The onset of action of Clin-RA is rapid occurring within 2 weeks of treatment initiation. It is not associated with acne flaring or an increase in clindamycin-resistant Propionibacterium acnes counts. Clin-RA is considered as effective as adapalene 0.1%/benzoyl peroxide (BPO) 2.5%, whereas Clin-RA has a more favourable tolerability profile. Clin-RA may be more effective than clindamycin 1%/BPO 5% at treating non-inflammatory acne lesions since the latter does not contain a retinoid to target comedones. Clin-RA is also easy for patients to handle and apply, and has the advantage of not containing BPO which can bleach hair and fabrics. Taken together, the profile of Clin-RA suggests Clin-RA to be a first-line treatment for patients with facial acne. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  11. Chemical peels in active acne and acne scars.

    PubMed

    Kontochristopoulos, Georgios; Platsidaki, Eftychia

    Chemical peeling is a widely used procedure in the management of acne and acne scars. It causes controlled destruction of a part of or the entire epidermis, with or without the dermis, leading to exfoliation and removal of superficial lesions, followed by regeneration of new epidermal and dermal tissues. The most frequently used peeling agents are salicylic acid, glycolic acid, pyruvic acid, lactic acid, mandelic acid, Jessner solution, trichloroacetic acid, and phenol. The appropriate peel is chosen based on the patient's skin type, acne activity, and type of acne scars. Combination peels minimize side effects. In acne scars, chemical peels may be combined with other procedures to achieve better clinical results. A series of chemical peels can lead to significant improvement over a short period, leading to patient satisfaction and maintenance of clinical results. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Systemic isotretinoin therapy normalizes exaggerated TLR-2-mediated innate immune responses in acne patients

    PubMed Central

    Dispenza, Melanie C.; Wolpert, Ellen B.; Gilliland, Kathryn L.; Dai, Pingqi; Cong, Zhaoyuan; Nelson, Amanda M.; Thiboutot, Diane M.

    2012-01-01

    Retinoids are used in the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases and malignancies, but studies characterizing the in vivo actions of these drugs in humans are lacking. Isotretinoin is a pro-drug for all-trans retinoic acid that can induce long-term remissions of acne; however, its complete mechanism of action is unknown. We hypothesized that isotretinoin induces remission of acne by normalizing the innate immune response to the commensal bacterium P. acnes. Compared to normal subjects, peripheral blood monocytes from acne patients expressed significantly higher levels of TLR-2 and exhibited significantly greater induction of TLR-2 expression following P. acnes stimulation. Treatment of patients with isotretinoin significantly decreased monocyte TLR-2 expression and subsequent inflammatory cytokine response to P. acnes by one week of therapy. This effect was sustained six months following cessation of therapy, indicating that TLR-2 modulation may be involved in the durable therapeutic response to isotretinoin. This study demonstrates that isotretinoin exerts immunomodulatory effects in patients and sheds light on a potential mechanism for its long-term effects in acne. The modulation of TLR-2 expression on monocytes has important implications in other inflammatory disorders characterized by TLR-2 dysregulation. PMID:22513780

  13. Treatment of prosthetic joint infections due to Propionibacterium

    PubMed Central

    Van Hooff, Miranda L; Meis, Jacques F; Vos, Fidel; Goosen, Jon H M

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Currently, Propionibacterium is frequently recognized as a causative microorganism of prosthetic joint infection (PJI). We assessed treatment success at 1- and 2-year follow-up after treatment of Propionibacterium-associated PJI of the shoulder, hip, and knee. Furthermore, we attempted to determine whether postoperative treatment with rifampicin is favorable. Patients and methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study in which we included patients with a primary or revision joint arthroplasty of the shoulder, hip, or knee who were diagnosed with a Propionibacterium-associated PJI between November 2008 and February 2013 and who had been followed up for at least 1 year. Results We identified 60 patients with a Propionibacterium-associated PJI with a median duration of 21 (0.1–49) months until the occurrence of treatment failure. 39 patients received rifampicin combination therapy, with a success rate of 93% (95% CI: 83–97) after 1 year and 86% (CI: 71–93) after 2 years. The success rate was similar in patients who were treated with rifampicin and those who were not. Interpretation Propionibacterium-associated PJI treated with surgery in combination with long-term antibiotic administration had a successful outcome at 1- and 2-year follow-up irrespective of whether the patient was treated with rifampicin. Prospective studies are needed to determine whether the use of rifampicin is beneficial in the treatment of Propionibacterium-associated PJI. PMID:26414972

  14. A Multifactorial Comparison of Ternary Combinations of Essential Oils in Topical Preparations to Current Antibiotic Prescription Therapies for the Control of Acne Vulgaris-Associated Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Owen, Lucy; Grootveld, Martin; Arroo, Randolph; Ruiz-Rodado, Victor; Price, Penny; Laird, Katie

    2017-03-01

    Acne vulgaris, a chronic condition associated with overgrowth of Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis, is commonly treated with antibiotics. However, the emergence of antibiotic resistance has resulted in a need for alternative therapies. The aim of this study is to develop a topical preparation incorporating essential oils (EOs) for use against acne-associated bacteria and assess its efficacy against prescription therapies Dalacin T and Stiemycin. Antimicrobial screening of rosewood, clove bud and litsea EOs was conducted before interactions between binary and ternary combinations were determined against P. acnes and S. epidermidis (type and clinical isolates) using minimum inhibitory concentrations and fractional inhibitory concentrations. The EOs were characterised by both gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. A combination of 0.53 mg/mL litsea, 0.11 mg/mL rosewood and 0.11 mg/mL clove bud was formulated into herbal distillates and compared with Dalacin T and Stiemycin against antibiotic sensitive and resistant isolates (erythromycin). The distillate with EO had synergistic activity against P. acnes (7log 10 reduction) and indifferent activity against S. epidermidis (6log 10 reduction); antimicrobial activity was either significantly (p ≤ 0.05) more antimicrobial or equivalent to that of Dalacin T and Stiemycin. This formulation may serve as a valuable alternative for the control of acne vulgaris-associated bacteria. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Propionic acid production from corn stover hydrolysate by Propionibacterium acidipropionici

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Xiaoqing; Salvachua, Davinia; Sanchez i Nogue, Violeta; ...

    2017-08-17

    The production of value-added chemicals alongside biofuels from lignocellulosic hydrolysates is critical for developing economically viable biorefineries. Here, the production of propionic acid (PA), a potential building block for C3-based chemicals, from corn stover hydrolysate is investigated using the native PA-producing bacterium Propionibacterium acidipropionici. A wide range of culture conditions and process parameters were examined and experimentally optimized to maximize titer, rate, and yield of PA. The effect of gas sparging during fermentation was first examined, and N 2 was found to exhibit improved performance over CO 2. Subsequently, the effects of different hydrolysate concentrations, nitrogen sources, and neutralization agentsmore » were investigated. One of the best combinations found during batch experiments used yeast extract (YE) as the primary nitrogen source and NH 4OH for pH control. This combination enabled PA titers of 30.8 g/L with a productivity of 0.40 g/L h from 76.8 g/L biomass sugars, while successfully minimizing lactic acid production. Due to the economic significance of downstream separations, increasing titers using fed-batch fermentation was examined by changing both feeding media and strategy. Continuous feeding of hydrolysate was found to be superior to pulsed feeding and combined with high YE concentrations increased PA titers to 62.7 g/L and improved the simultaneous utilization of different biomass sugars. Additionally, applying high YE supplementation maintains the lactic acid concentration below 4 g/L for the duration of the fermentation. Finally, with the aim of increasing productivity, high cell density fed-batch fermentations were conducted. PA titers increased to 64.7 g/L with a productivity of 2.35 g/L h for the batch stage and 0.77 g/L h for the overall process. These results highlight the importance of media and fermentation strategy to improve PA production. Altogether, this work demonstrates the feasibility of

  16. Propionic acid production from corn stover hydrolysate by Propionibacterium acidipropionici

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiaoqing; Salvachua, Davinia; Sanchez i Nogue, Violeta

    The production of value-added chemicals alongside biofuels from lignocellulosic hydrolysates is critical for developing economically viable biorefineries. Here, the production of propionic acid (PA), a potential building block for C3-based chemicals, from corn stover hydrolysate is investigated using the native PA-producing bacterium Propionibacterium acidipropionici. A wide range of culture conditions and process parameters were examined and experimentally optimized to maximize titer, rate, and yield of PA. The effect of gas sparging during fermentation was first examined, and N 2 was found to exhibit improved performance over CO 2. Subsequently, the effects of different hydrolysate concentrations, nitrogen sources, and neutralization agentsmore » were investigated. One of the best combinations found during batch experiments used yeast extract (YE) as the primary nitrogen source and NH 4OH for pH control. This combination enabled PA titers of 30.8 g/L with a productivity of 0.40 g/L h from 76.8 g/L biomass sugars, while successfully minimizing lactic acid production. Due to the economic significance of downstream separations, increasing titers using fed-batch fermentation was examined by changing both feeding media and strategy. Continuous feeding of hydrolysate was found to be superior to pulsed feeding and combined with high YE concentrations increased PA titers to 62.7 g/L and improved the simultaneous utilization of different biomass sugars. Additionally, applying high YE supplementation maintains the lactic acid concentration below 4 g/L for the duration of the fermentation. Finally, with the aim of increasing productivity, high cell density fed-batch fermentations were conducted. PA titers increased to 64.7 g/L with a productivity of 2.35 g/L h for the batch stage and 0.77 g/L h for the overall process. These results highlight the importance of media and fermentation strategy to improve PA production. Altogether, this work demonstrates the feasibility of

  17. The Psychosocial Impact of Acne Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Hazarika, Neirita; Archana, M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acne vulgaris causes erythematous papulopustular lesions in active stage and often leave behind residual scarring and pigmentation. Its onset in adolescence may add to the emotional and psychological challenges experienced during this period. Aims: To assess the impact of acne on the various psychosocial domains of daily life. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study done in the dermatology out-patient department of a tertiary care hospital from January to March 2015. A total of 100 consecutive, newly diagnosed patients of acne vulgaris, aged 15 years and above were included in this study. The relationship between acne vulgaris and its sequelae was analyzed with ten different domains of daily life by using dermatology life quality index (DLQI) questionnaire. Results: Females (56%), 15–20 year olds (61%), facial lesions (60%), and Grade II acne (70%) were most common. Acne scars were noted in 75% patients, whereas 79% cases had post-acne hyperpigmentation. Thirty-seven percent patients had DLQI scores of (6–10) interpreted as moderate effect on patient's life. Statistically significant correlation (P < 0.05) found were as follows: Physical symptoms with grade of acne; embarrassment with site and grade of acne; daily activities with grade of acne and post-acne pigmentation; choice of clothes with site of acne; social activities with gender, site and grade of acne; effect on work/study with grade of acne; interpersonal problems with site and post-acne pigmentation; sexual difficulties with grade of acne. Limitation: It was a hospital-based study with small sample size. Conclusion: Significant impact of acne and its sequelae was noted on emotions, daily activities, social activities, study/work, and interpersonal relationships. Assurance and counseling along with early treatment of acne vulgaris is important to reduce disease-related psychosocial sequelae and increase the efficacy of treatment. PMID:27688440

  18. Anti-acne activities of pulsaquinone, hydropulsaquinone, and structurally related 1, 4-quinone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Cho, Soon-Chang; Sultan, Md Zakir; Moon, Surk-Sik

    2009-04-01

    Quinone type compound, pulsaquinone 1, isolated from the aqueous ethanol extract of the roots of Pulsatilla koreana exhibited antimicrobial activities against an anaerobic non-spore-forming gram-positive bacillus, Propionibacterium acnes, which is related with the pathogenesis of the inflamed lesions in a common skin disease, acne vulgaris. Compound 1 was unstable on standing and thus converted to more stable compound 2, namely hydropulsaquinone by hydrogenation, whose activity was comparable to mother compound 1 (MIC for 1 and 2 against P. acnes: 2.0 and 4.0 microg/mL, respectively). Other structurally-related quinone derivatives (3-13) were also tested for structure-activity relationship against anaerobic and aerobic bacteria, and fungi. The antimicrobial activity was fairly good when the quinone moiety was fused with a nonpolar 6- or 7-membered ring on the right side whether or not conjugated (1,4-naphtoquinone derivatives 3-5), while simple quinone compounds 6-9 showed poor activity. It seems that the methoxy groups at the left side of the quinone function deliver no considerable antimicrobial effect.

  19. Functional genomics provides insights into the role of Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS in cheese ripening.

    PubMed

    Ojala, Teija; Laine, Pia K S; Ahlroos, Terhi; Tanskanen, Jarna; Pitkänen, Saara; Salusjärvi, Tuomas; Kankainen, Matti; Tynkkynen, Soile; Paulin, Lars; Auvinen, Petri

    2017-01-16

    Propionibacterium freudenreichii is a commercially important bacterium that is essential for the development of the characteristic eyes and flavor of Swiss-type cheeses. These bacteria grow actively and produce large quantities of flavor compounds during cheese ripening at warm temperatures but also appear to contribute to the aroma development during the subsequent cold storage of cheese. Here, we advance our understanding of the role of P. freudenreichii in cheese ripening by presenting the 2.68-Mbp annotated genome sequence of P. freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS and determining its global transcriptional profiles during industrial cheese-making using transcriptome sequencing. The annotation of the genome identified a total of 2377 protein-coding genes and revealed the presence of enzymes and pathways for formation of several flavor compounds. Based on transcriptome profiling, the expression of 348 protein-coding genes was altered between the warm and cold room ripening of cheese. Several propionate, acetate, and diacetyl/acetoin production related genes had higher expression levels in the warm room, whereas a general slowing down of the metabolism and an activation of mobile genetic elements was seen in the cold room. A few ripening-related and amino acid catabolism involved genes were induced or remained active in cold room, indicating that strain JS contributes to the aroma development also during cold room ripening. In addition, we performed a comparative genomic analysis of strain JS and 29 other Propionibacterium strains of 10 different species, including an isolate of both P. freudenreichii subspecies freudenreichii and shermanii. Ortholog grouping of the predicted protein sequences revealed that close to 86% of the ortholog groups of strain JS, including a variety of ripening-related ortholog groups, were conserved across the P. freudenreichii isolates. Taken together, this study contributes to the understanding of the genomic basis of P. freudenreichii

  20. Acne, vulgaris on the back (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Acne frequently occurs on the back. Here, there are 2 to 6 millimeter wide erythematous (red) pustules ... Permanent scarring may follow a severe case of acne. Men are more often affected on their shoulders ...

  1. Acne, cystic on the face (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The face is the most common location of acne. Here, there are 4 to 6 millimeter red ( ... scars and fistulous tract formation (connecting passages). Severe acne may have a profound psychological impact and may ...

  2. Acne smart club: an educational program for patients with acne.

    PubMed

    Fabbrocini, Gabriella; Izzo, Rosanna; Donnarumma, Marianna; Marasca, Claudio; Monfrecola, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate adherence to therapy in acne patients using mobile phones and Short Message Service (SMS) to communicate. 160 patients were randomly assigned to two groups: the SMS group received 2 text messages twice a day for a period of 12 weeks; the control group did not receive any messages. Before and after 12 weeks, the following evaluations were performed in all patients: digital photographs, the Global Acne Grading System, the Dermatology Life Quality Index, the Cardiff Acne Disability Index, the doctor-patient relationship evaluated through the Patient-Doctor Depth-of-Relationship Scale, and the adherence to treatment evaluated by asking patients how many days a week they had followed the therapy. For statistical analysis we used Student's t test. The SMS group had a better improvement of all parameters compared to the control group. Adherence and compliance are higher for patients who are included in a strategy of control.

  3. Cutibacterium acnes molecular typing: time to standardize the method.

    PubMed

    Dagnelie, M-A; Khammari, A; Dréno, B; Corvec, S

    2018-03-12

    The Gram-positive, anaerobic/aerotolerant bacterium Cutibacterium acnes is a commensal of healthy human skin; it is subdivided into six main phylogenetic groups or phylotypes: IA1, IA2, IB, IC, II and III. To decipher how far specific subgroups of C. acnes are involved in disease physiopathology, different molecular typing methods have been developed to identify these subgroups: i.e. phylotypes, clonal complexes, and types defined by single-locus sequence typing (SLST). However, as several molecular typing methods have been developed over the last decade, it has become a difficult task to compare the results from one article to another. Based on the scientific literature, the aim of this narrative review is to propose a standardized method to perform molecular typing of C. acnes, according to the degree of resolution needed (phylotypes, clonal complexes, or SLST types). We discuss the existing different typing methods from a critical point of view, emphasizing their advantages and drawbacks, and we identify the most frequently used methods. We propose a consensus algorithm according to the needed phylogeny resolution level. We first propose to use multiplex PCR for phylotype identification, MLST9 for clonal complex determination, and SLST for phylogeny investigation including numerous isolates. There is an obvious need to create a consensus about molecular typing methods for C. acnes. This standardization will facilitate the comparison of results between one article and another, and also the interpretation of clinical data. Copyright © 2018 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Acne and nutrition: hypotheses, myths and facts.

    PubMed

    Claudel, J P; Auffret, N; Leccia, M T; Poli, F; Dréno, B

    2018-04-06

    Acne is an inflammatory and multifactorial skin disease. Different external and internal factors, including air pollution, aggressive skincare products, medication, mechanical, hormonal and familial factors and, more recently, lifestyle and stress, have been suggested as having an impact on acne. Moreover, for many years nutrition was believed to cause or worsen acne. Over the last decades, however, it has become a dermatological doctrine that there is no direct association between diet and acne. Even if recent research has allowed to identify certain nutritional elements and behaviour that may impact on acne, including the excessive intake of dairy products and hyperglycaemic food, modern lifestyle nutrition, obesity and eating disorders, knowledge about the role of nutrition in the physiopathology of acne still remains sparse and hypotheses and myths continue to dominate the debate. Thus, further clinical and translational research is necessary to investigate and confirm the association between nutrition and acne. © 2018 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  5. Understanding the Burden of Adult Female Acne

    PubMed Central

    Kawata, Ariane K.; Daniels, Selena R.; Yeomans, Karen; Burk, Caroline T.; Callender, Valerie D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Typically regarded as an adolescent condition, acne among adult females is also prevalent. Limited data are available on the clinical characteristics and burden of adult female acne. The study objective was to describe clinical characteristics and psychosocial impact of acne in adult women. Design: Cross-sectional, web-based survey. Setting: Data were collected from a diverse sample of United States females. Participants: Women ages 25 to 45 years with facial acne (≥25 visible lesions). Measurements: Outcomes included sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, perceptions, coping behaviors, psychosocial impact of acne (health-related quality of life using acne-specific Quality of Life questionnaire and psychological status using Patient Health Questionnaire), and work/productivity. Results: A total of 208 women completed the survey (mean age 35±6 years), comprising White/Caucasian (51.4%), Black/African American (24.5%), Hispanic/Latino (11.1%), Asian (7.7%), and Other (5.3%). Facial acne presented most prominently on cheeks, chin, and forehead and was characterized by erythema, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, and scarring. Average age of adult onset was 25±6 years, and one-third (33.7%) were diagnosed with acne as an adult. The majority (80.3%) had 25 to 49 visible facial lesions. Acne was perceived as troublesome and impacted self-confidence. Makeup was frequently used to conceal acne. Facial acne negatively affected health-related quality of life, was associated with mild/moderate symptoms of depression and/or anxiety, and impacted ability to concentrate on work or school. Conclusion: Results highlight the multifaceted impact of acne and provide evidence that adult female acne is under-recognized and burdensome. PMID:24578779

  6. Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects of Syzygium jambos L. (Alston) and isolated compounds on acne vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Acne vulgaris is a chronic skin disorder leading to inflammation as a result of the production of reactive oxygen species due to the active involvement of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) in the infection site of the skin. The current study was designed to assess the potential of the leaf extract of Syzygium jambos L. (Alston) and its compounds for antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity against the pathogenic P. acnes. Methods The broth dilution method was used to assess the antibacterial activity. The cytotoxicity investigation on mouse melanocyte (B16-F10) and human leukemic monocyte lymphoma (U937) cells was done using sodium 3’-[1-(phenyl amino-carbonyl)-3,4-tetrazolium]-bis-[4-methoxy-6-nitrobenzene sulfonic acid hydrate (XTT) reagent. The non-toxic concentrations of the samples was investigated for the suppression of cytokines interleukin 8 (IL 8) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF α) by testing the supernatants in the co-culture of the human U937 cells and heat killed P. acnes using enzyme immunoassay kits (ELISA). The statistical analysis was done using the Graph Pad Prism 4 program. Results Bioassay guided isolation of ethanol extract of the leaves of S. jambos led to the isolation of three known compounds namely; squalene, an anacardic acid analogue and ursolic acid which are reported for the first time from this plant. The ethanol extract of S. jambos and one of the isolated compound namely, anacardic acid analogue were able to inhibit the growth of P. acnes with a noteworthy minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 31.3 and 7.9 μg/ml, respectively. The ethanol extract and three commercially acquired compounds namely; myricetin, myricitrin, gallic acid exhibited significant antioxidant activity with fifty percent inhibitory concentration (IC50) ranging between 0.8-1.9 μg/ml which was comparable to that of vitamin C, the reference antioxidant agent. The plant extract, compounds ursolic acid and myricitrin (commercially

  7. NdYag Laser for Acne Keloidalis Nuchae

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-03-27

    Acne Keloidalis Nuchae; NdYag Laser; AKN; Acne Keloidalis; AK; Dermatitis Papillaris Capillitii; Folliculitis Keloidalis Nuchae; Sycosis Nuchae; Acne Keloid; Keloidal Folliculitis; Lichen Keloidalis Nuchae; Folliculitis Nuchae Scleroticans; Sycosis Framboesiformis

  8. [Using combined magnetotherapy in patients with acne].

    PubMed

    Kul'chitskaia, D B; Orekhova, E M; Vasil'eva, E S

    2004-01-01

    Laser Doppler flowmetry discovered microcirculatory disorders in acne patients. Affected are arterioles as well as capillaries and venules. Combination of magnetotherapy with medication improves microcirculation in acne patients. More marked positive changes occurred in the microcirculatory system due to combined treatment compared to medication therapy only. Thus, laser Doppler flowmetry is a new, noninvasive method of assessing microcirculation in acne patients and can serve an objective criterion of treatment efficacy.

  9. Over-the-counter Acne Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Graber, Emmy M.

    2012-01-01

    Acne is a common dermatological disorder that most frequently affects adolescents; however, individuals may be affected at all ages. Many people who suffer from acne seek treatment from both prescription and over-the-counter acne medications. Due to convenience, lower cost, and difficulty getting an appointment with a dermatologist, the use of over-the-counter acne treatments is on the rise. As the plethora of over-the-counter acne treatment options can be overwhelming, it is important that dermatologists are well-versed on this subject to provide appropriate information about treatment regimens and potential drug interactions and that their patients see them as well-informed. This article reviews the efficacy of various over-the-counter acne treatments based on the current literature. A thorough literature review revealed there are many types of over-the-counter acne treatments and each are designed to target at least one of the pathogenic pathways that are reported to be involved in the development of acne lesions. Many of the key over-the-counter ingredients are incorporated in different formulations to broaden the spectrum and consumer appeal of available products. Unfortunately, many over-the-counter products are not well-supported by clinical studies, with a conspicuous absence of double-blind or investigator-blind, randomized, vehicle-controlled studies. Most studies that do exist on over-the-counter acne products are often funded by the manufacturer. Use of over-the-counter acne treatments is a mainstay in our society and it is important that dermatologists are knowledgeable about the different options, including potential benefits and limitations. Overall, over-the-counter acne therapies can be classified into the following five major groups: cleansers, leave-on products, mechanical treatments, essential oils, and vitamins. PMID:22808307

  10. Zolav(®) (a p-carboethoxy-tristyrylbenzene derivative) [corrected]: a new antibiotic for the treatment of acne.

    PubMed

    Dinant, Alexa; Boulos, Ramiz A

    2016-01-01

    Acne is a prominent skin condition affecting >80% of teenagers and young adults and ~650 million people globally. Isotretinoin, a vitamin A derivative, is currently the standard of care for treatment. However, it has a well-established teratogenic activity, a reason for the development of novel and low-risk treatment options for acne. To investigate the effectiveness of Zolav(®), (a p-carboethoxy-tristyrylbenzene derivative) [corrected] a novel antibiotic as a treatment for acne vulgaris. Minimum inhibitory concentration of Zolav(®) (a p-carboethoxy-tristyrylbenzene derivative) against Propionibacterium acnes was determined by following a standard protocol using Mueller-Hinton broth and serial dilutions in a 96-well plate. Cytotoxicity effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells and lung cells in the presence of Zolav(®) (a p-carboethoxy-tristyrylbenzene derivative) were investigated by determining the growth inhibition (GI50) concentration, total growth inhibition concentration, and the lethal concentration of 50% (LC50). The tryptophan auxotrophic mutant of Escherichia coli strain, WP2 uvrA (ATCC 49979), was used for the AMES assay with the addition of Zolav(®) (a p-carboethoxy-tristyrylbenzene derivative) tested for its ability to reverse the mutation and induce bacterial growth. The in vivo effectiveness of Zolav(®) (a p-carboethoxy-tristyrylbenzene derivative) was tested in a P. acnes mouse intradermal model where the skin at the infection site was removed, homogenized, and subjected to colony-forming unit (CFU) counts. Susceptibility testing of Zolav(®) (a p-carboethoxy-tristyrylbenzene derivative) against P. acnes showed a minimum inhibitory concentration of 2 µg/mL against three strains with no cytotoxicity and no mutagenicity observed at the highest concentrations tested, 30 µM and 1,500 µg/plate, respectively. The use of Zolav(®) (a p-carboethoxy-tristyrylbenzene derivative) at a concentration of 50 µg/mL (q8h) elicited a two

  11. Cardiff Acne Disability Index in Sarawak, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Acne is considered a cosmetic nuisance in Malaysia since no insurance coverage is provided for its treatment. Its psychological impact is unknown. Objective The aim of this study is to determine the impact of acne on quality of life and its relationship with severity. Methods A cross-sectional study using the Cardiff acne disability index (CADI) and Global Acne Grading System for acne severity grading was done in three government-run dermatology clinics in Sarawak, Malaysia. Results The study cohort of 200 patients had a mean CADI score of 5.1. Most of the patients (59.5%) had mild CADI impairment, with the domain of feelings most affected. Patients with a family income <1,000 United States Dollor/month had a higher mean CADI (mean 5.5 vs. 4.4; p=0.04). Females, indigenous groups, and patients with tertiary education tended to have more severe CADI impairment (p>0.05). The correlation between CADI and mild acne severity was low (Pearson correlation coefficient=0.35; p<0.001) but became insignificant for moderate and severe acne. Conclusion Acne impairment in Sarawak was moderate and must be addressed. It should be viewed as a psychologically disabling disease requiring optimal management and resource allocation. PMID:22577265

  12. Cardiff acne disability index in Sarawak, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Yap, Felix Boon-Bin

    2012-05-01

    Acne is considered a cosmetic nuisance in Malaysia since no insurance coverage is provided for its treatment. Its psychological impact is unknown. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of acne on quality of life and its relationship with severity. A cross-sectional study using the Cardiff acne disability index (CADI) and Global Acne Grading System for acne severity grading was done in three government-run dermatology clinics in Sarawak, Malaysia. The study cohort of 200 patients had a mean CADI score of 5.1. Most of the patients (59.5%) had mild CADI impairment, with the domain of feelings most affected. Patients with a family income <1,000 United States Dollor/month had a higher mean CADI (mean 5.5 vs. 4.4; p=0.04). Females, indigenous groups, and patients with tertiary education tended to have more severe CADI impairment (p>0.05). The correlation between CADI and mild acne severity was low (Pearson correlation coefficient=0.35; p<0.001) but became insignificant for moderate and severe acne. Acne impairment in Sarawak was moderate and must be addressed. It should be viewed as a psychologically disabling disease requiring optimal management and resource allocation.

  13. Zapping Those Zits: Helping Teens Handle Acne.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Paul

    1992-01-01

    Describes five types of acne and stresses the importance of appropriate treatment. Some dermatologists believe diet is critical in improving acne. Other treatments include the use of drying lotions and soaps, astringents, abrasive cleansers, prescription drugs, face peels, and dermabrasion. (SM)

  14. Automated facial acne assessment from smartphone images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amini, Mohammad; Vasefi, Fartash; Valdebran, Manuel; Huang, Kevin; Zhang, Haomiao; Kemp, William; MacKinnon, Nicholas

    2018-02-01

    A smartphone mobile medical application is presented, that provides analysis of the health of skin on the face using a smartphone image and cloud-based image processing techniques. The mobile application employs the use of the camera to capture a front face image of a subject, after which the captured image is spatially calibrated based on fiducial points such as position of the iris of the eye. A facial recognition algorithm is used to identify features of the human face image, to normalize the image, and to define facial regions of interest (ROI) for acne assessment. We identify acne lesions and classify them into two categories: those that are papules and those that are pustules. Automated facial acne assessment was validated by performing tests on images of 60 digital human models and 10 real human face images. The application was able to identify 92% of acne lesions within five facial ROIs. The classification accuracy for separating papules from pustules was 98%. Combined with in-app documentation of treatment, lifestyle factors, and automated facial acne assessment, the app can be used in both cosmetic and clinical dermatology. It allows users to quantitatively self-measure acne severity and treatment efficacy on an ongoing basis to help them manage their chronic facial acne.

  15. Acne image analysis: lesion localization and classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abas, Fazly Salleh; Kaffenberger, Benjamin; Bikowski, Joseph; Gurcan, Metin N.

    2016-03-01

    Acne is a common skin condition present predominantly in the adolescent population, but may continue into adulthood. Scarring occurs commonly as a sequel to severe inflammatory acne. The presence of acne and resultant scars are more than cosmetic, with a significant potential to alter quality of life and even job prospects. The psychosocial effects of acne and scars can be disturbing and may be a risk factor for serious psychological concerns. Treatment efficacy is generally determined based on an invalidated gestalt by the physician and patient. However, the validated assessment of acne can be challenging and time consuming. Acne can be classified into several morphologies including closed comedones (whiteheads), open comedones (blackheads), papules, pustules, cysts (nodules) and scars. For a validated assessment, the different morphologies need to be counted independently, a method that is far too time consuming considering the limited time available for a consultation. However, it is practical to record and analyze images since dermatologists can validate the severity of acne within seconds after uploading an image. This paper covers the processes of region-ofinterest determination using entropy-based filtering and thresholding as well acne lesion feature extraction. Feature extraction methods using discrete wavelet frames and gray-level co-occurence matrix were presented and their effectiveness in separating the six major acne lesion classes were discussed. Several classifiers were used to test the extracted features. Correct classification accuracy as high as 85.5% was achieved using the binary classification tree with fourteen principle components used as descriptors. Further studies are underway to further improve the algorithm performance and validate it on a larger database.

  16. Serratia marcescens folliculitis and concomitant acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Lehrhoff, Stephanie; Yost, John; Robinson, Maria; Patel, Rishi; Sanchez, Miguel

    2012-12-15

    We present a unique case of S. marcescens folliculitis of the trunk in a 46-year-old woman with a history of facial acne vulgaris during her teen years. Her eruption occurred at the time of elective ambulatory surgery when she was treated with pre and post-operative antibiotics. The diagnosis of S. marcescens folliculitis was made on the basis of histopathologic features and tissue culture of a skin biopsy specimen of a pustule after her eruption was unresponsive to conventional treatment for inflammatory acne vulgaris. The history and pathophysiology of gram-negative folliculitis in the setting of acne vulgaris is reviewed.

  17. Neglected aspects in the management of acne.

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, B

    1985-01-01

    Acne is the result of excessive grease on the skin. The successful treatment of acne depends essentially on the degreasing of the skin to an extent which produces peeling, which is the observable index of adequate treatment. The use of antibiotics is supplementary to degreasing and peeling. Degreasing is best achieved by thrice daily washing with Neutrogena acne cleansing soap, followed by the application of a benzoyl peroxide preparation of a suitable strength. If necessary, further degreasing can be achieved by cleansing with isopropyl alcohol after washing with the Neutrogena soap. PMID:2941579

  18. Epidemiology of post-adolescence acne and adolescence acne in Singapore: a 10-year retrospective and comparative study.

    PubMed

    Han, X D; Oon, H H; Goh, C L

    2016-10-01

    Acne vulgaris commonly affects adolescents. But recent reports suggest a rising prevalence of post-adolescence acne. While there are few reports on post-adolescence acne, there are even fewer reports comparing adolescence acne and post-adolescence. Epidemiological data of adolescence (<25 years) and post-adolescence (≥25 years) acne patients diagnosed between 2004 and 2013 in a tertiary dermatology referral centre was analysed. From the pool of patients seen in 2010, 80 adolescence and 84 post-adolescence acne patients' epidemiological characteristics and treatment responses were analysed. During the 10-year study period, there was an increase in the number and proportion of acne cases. In 2004, 4447 (5.77%) of all new diagnoses made were of acne vulgaris. The proportion rose to 5723 (8.13%) in 2013. There were consistently more female than male acne patients. The proportion of post-adolescent cases remained constant at about 30% of all acne patients seen. Mean age of acne vulgaris patients decreased from 23.1 years in 2004 to 22.6 years in 2013. In the subgroup analysis, there were more males than females with adolescence acne (61.3% vs. 38.8%, P < 0.01) and more females with post-adolescence acne (69.0% vs. 31.0%, P < 0.01). Thirty-four (40.5%) post-adolescence acne patients had acne from adolescence persisting into adulthood. Comedonal acne was more prevalent in the adolescence acne patients (58.8% vs. 40.5%, P = 0.019), whereas cystic acne was more prevalent in post-adolescence patients (18.1% vs. 7.5%, P = 0.044). Systemic retinoids were more often used for treatment in the adolescence acne patients than post-adolescence acne patients (23.8% vs. 10.7%, P = 0.027). Acne predominantly affects adolescents but post-adolescence acne is not uncommon. For post-adolescence acne, females predominate over males. Inflammatory and cystic acne tends to be more predominant in post-adolescence acne patients, whereas comedonal acne is more often seen in adolescence acne

  19. Medication adherence, healthcare costs and utilization associated with acne drugs in Medicaid enrollees with acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xi; Al-Dabagh, Amir; Davis, Scott A; Lin, Hsien-Chang; Balkrishnan, Rajesh; Chang, Jongwha; Feldman, Steven R

    2013-06-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common chronic disease that may require long-term treatment. Medication adherence is critical to acne management; non-adherence is a common reason for treatment failure and can lead to poor quality of life. The aim of the study was to examine medication adherence, healthcare costs, and utilization associated with acne drugs among acne patients in the USA. This was a retrospective cohort study from January 2004 to December 2007 using the Marketscan Medicaid Database, a national healthcare claims database. The study followed acne patients aged 0-64 years for 90 days after the first acne drug prescription to measure acne medication adherence, acne-related outpatient visits, and total acne-related healthcare costs. Adherence was measured among different acne drug classes using medication possession ratio (MPR). Multivariate regression analyses were conducted to assess the outcomes. The study included 24,438 eligible patients, of whom 89.39 % were under 18 years old. The average adherence rate to acne drugs (MPR) was 0.34, and only 11.74 % of the patients were adherent (MPR ≥0.80). Patients with drug refills had a higher adherence rate (MPR = 0.74) than who those without refills (MPR = 0.27). Factors significantly associated with adherence were age, comorbidity, gender, number of drug refills and number of drug classes used. Patients were more adherent to oral retinoids than any other acne drug classes (MPR = 0.78, 57 % adherent). Patients were less adherent to oral antibiotics (MPR = 0.21) and topical retinoids (MPR = 0.31). After controlling for medication use behavior, the use of oral antibiotics decreased the number of acne-related outpatient visits by 50.9 % (p < 0.001) and lowered acne-related total costs by 51.7 % (p < 0.001). Medication non-adherence is generally prevalent among young acne patients enrolled in Medicaid. The combination of a topical retinoid and an antibiotic agent may be a good choice given their associated healthcare

  20. Use of lipidomics to investigate sebum dysfunction in juvenile acne[S

    PubMed Central

    Sinagra, Jo-Linda; Capitanio, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Acne is a multifactorial skin disorder frequently observed during adolescence with different grades of severity. Multiple factors centering on sebum secretion are implicated in acne pathogenesis. Despite the recognized role of sebum, its compositional complexity and limited analytical approaches have hampered investigation of alterations specifically associated with acne. To examine the profiles of lipid distribution in acne sebum, 61 adolescents (29 males and 32 females) were enrolled in this study. Seventeen subjects presented no apparent clinical signs of acne. The 44 affected individuals were clinically classified as mild (13 individuals), moderate (19 individuals), and severe (12 individuals) acne. Sebum was sampled from the forehead with SebutapeTM adhesive patches. Profiles of neutral lipids were acquired with rapid-resolution reversed-phase/HPLC-TOF/MS in positive ion mode. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses led to the identification of lipid species with significantly different levels between healthy and acne sebum. The majority of differentiating lipid species were diacylglycerols (DGs), followed by fatty acyls, sterols, and prenols. Overall, the data indicated an association between the clinical grading of acne and sebaceous lipid fingerprints and highlighted DGs as more abundant in sebum from adolescents affected with acne. PMID:27127078

  1. Acne

    MedlinePlus

    ... free," "noncomedogenic," or "nonacnegenic." When you wash your face, take the time to remove all of your makeup. If you use hair sprays or gels, try to keep them away from your face because they can clog pores. If you have ...

  2. Acne

    MedlinePlus

    ... a cream or lotion with benzoyl peroxide, resorcinol, salicylic acid, or sulfur. Benzoyl peroxide works to reduce oil made by the glands. Resorcinol, salicylic acid, and sulfur help breakdown whiteheads and blackheads. If ...

  3. The in vitro antimicrobial evaluation of commercially essential oils and their combinations against acne.

    PubMed

    Orchard, A; van Vuuren, S F; Viljoen, A; Kamatou, Guy

    2018-03-24

    The study investigated the efficacy of commercial essential oil combinations against the two pathogens responsible for acne with the aim to identify synergy and favourable oils to possibly use in a blend. Antimicrobial activity was assessed using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay against Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 2223) and Propionibacterium acnes (ATCC 11827), and the fractional inhibitory concentration index (ΣFIC) was calculated. Combinations displaying synergistic interactions were further investigated at varied ratios and the results plotted on isobolograms. From the 408 combinations investigated, 167 combinations were identified as displaying noteworthy antimicrobial activity (MIC value ≤ 1.00 mg ml -1 ). Thirteen synergistic interactions were observed against S. epidermidis and three synergistic combinations were observed against P. acnes. It was found that not one of the synergistic interactions identified were based on the combinations recommended in the layman's aroma-therapeutic literature. Synergy was evident rather from leads based on antimicrobial activity from previous studies, thus emphasising the importance of scientific validation. Leptospermum scoparium J.R.Forst. and G.Forst (manuka) was the essential oil mostly involved in synergistic interactions (four) against S. epidermidis. Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook.f. and Thomson (ylang ylang) essential oil was also frequently involved in synergy where synergistic interactions could be observed against both pathogens. The combination with the lowest MIC value against both acne pathogens was and Vetiveria zizanioides Stapf (vetiver) with Cinnamomum verum J.Presl (cinnamon bark) (MIC values 0.19-0.25 mg ml -1 ). Pogostemon patchouli Benth. (patchouli), V. zizanioides, C. verum and Santalum spp. (sandalwood) could be identified as the oils that contributed the most noteworthy antimicrobial activity towards the combinations. The different chemotypes of the essential oils used in the

  4. Complementary therapies for acne vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Huijuan; Yang, Guoyan; Wang, Yuyi; Liu, Jian Ping; Smith, Caroline A; Luo, Hui; Liu, Yueming

    2015-01-01

    Background Acne is a chronic skin disease characterised by inflamed spots and blackheads on the face, neck, back, and chest. Cysts and scarring can also occur, especially in more severe disease. People with acne often turn to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), such as herbal medicine, acupuncture, and dietary modifications, because of their concerns about the adverse effects of conventional medicines. However, evidence for CAM therapies has not been systematically assessed. Objectives To assess the effects and safety of any complementary therapies in people with acne vulgaris. Search methods We searched the following databases from inception up to 22 January 2014: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2014, Issue 1), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), PsycINFO (from 1806), AMED (from 1985), CINAHL (from 1981), Scopus (from 1966), and a number of other databases listed in the Methods section of the review. The Cochrane CAM Field Specialised Register was searched up to May 2014. We also searched five trials registers and checked the reference lists of articles for further references to relevant trials. Selection criteria We included parallel-group randomised controlled trials (or the first phase data of randomised cross-over trials) of any kind of CAM, compared with no treatment, placebo, or other active therapies, in people with a diagnosis of acne vulgaris. Data collection and analysis Three authors collected data from each included trial and evaluated the methodological quality independently. They resolved disagreements by discussion and, as needed, arbitration by another author. Main results We included 35 studies, with a total of 3227 participants. We evaluated the majority as having unclear risk of selection, attrition, reporting, detection, and other biases. Because of the clinical heterogeneity between trials and the incomplete data reporting, we could only include four

  5. Complementary therapies for acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Cao, Huijuan; Yang, Guoyan; Wang, Yuyi; Liu, Jian Ping; Smith, Caroline A; Luo, Hui; Liu, Yueming

    2015-01-19

    Acne is a chronic skin disease characterised by inflamed spots and blackheads on the face, neck, back, and chest. Cysts and scarring can also occur, especially in more severe disease. People with acne often turn to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), such as herbal medicine, acupuncture, and dietary modifications, because of their concerns about the adverse effects of conventional medicines. However, evidence for CAM therapies has not been systematically assessed. To assess the effects and safety of any complementary therapies in people with acne vulgaris. We searched the following databases from inception up to 22 January 2014: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2014,Issue 1), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), PsycINFO (from 1806), AMED (from 1985), CINAHL (from 1981), Scopus (from 1966), and a number of other databases listed in the Methods section of the review. The Cochrane CAM Field Specialised Register was searched up to May 2014. We also searched five trials registers and checked the reference lists of articles for further references to relevant trials. We included parallel-group randomised controlled trials (or the first phase data of randomised cross-over trials) of any kind of CAM, compared with no treatment, placebo, or other active therapies, in people with a diagnosis of acne vulgaris. Three authors collected data from each included trial and evaluated the methodological quality independently. They resolved disagreements by discussion and, as needed, arbitration by another author. We included 35 studies, with a total of 3227 participants. We evaluated the majority as having unclear risk of selection, attrition, reporting, detection, and other biases. Because of the clinical heterogeneity between trials and the incomplete data reporting, we could only include four trials in two meta-analyses, with two trials in each meta-analysis. The categories of CAM included

  6. Anti-acne, anti-dandruff and anti-breast cancer efficacy of green synthesised silver nanoparticles using Coriandrum sativum leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Sathishkumar, Palanivel; Preethi, Johnson; Vijayan, Raji; Mohd Yusoff, Abdull Rahim; Ameen, Fuad; Suresh, Sadhasivam; Balagurunathan, Ramasamy; Palvannan, Thayumanavan

    2016-10-01

    In this present investigation, AgNPs were green synthesised using Coriandrum sativum leaf extract. The physicochemical properties of AgNPs were characterised using UV-visible spectrophotometer, field emission scanning microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray (FESEM/EDX), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis. Further, in vitro anti-acne, anti-dandruff and anti-breast cancer efficacy of green synthesised AgNPs were assessed against Propionibacterium acnes MTCC 1951, Malassezia furfur MTCC 1374 and human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell line, respectively. The flavonoids present in the plant extract were responsible for the AgNPs synthesis. The green synthesised nanoparticles size was found to be ≈37nm. The BET analysis result shows that the surface area of the synthesised AgNPs was found to be 33.72m(2)g(-1). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of AgNPs for acne causative agent P. acnes and dandruff causative agent M. furfur was found to be at 3.1 and 25μgmL(-1), respectively. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of the AgNPs for MCF-7 cells was calculated as 30.5μgmL(-1) and complete inhibition was observed at a concentration of 100μgmL(-1). Finally, our results proved that green synthesised AgNPs using C. sativum have great potential in biomedical applications such as anti-acne, anti-dandruff and anti-breast cancer treatment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Effect of the bacillus of Calmette-Guérin, Propionibacter acnes and avridine as immunomodulators in antirabies vaccination of mice using the Fuenzalida-Palacios mouse brain vaccine.

    PubMed

    Megid, J; Peraçolli, M T; Curi, P R; Zanetti, C R; Cabrera, W H; Vassao, R; Ito, F H

    1999-05-14

    Using the laboratory mice, Fuenzalida-Palacios mouse brain human rabies vaccine was administered in groups of animals previously inoculated with rabies virus and then submitted to treatments with the immunomodulators onco-BCG, avridine and Propionibacterium acnes. Humoral and cellular immune responses were evaluated through the macrophage inhibition factor (MIF), intra-pad inoculation (IPI) and serum neutralization (SN) tests and by the detection of gamma-interferon (IFN-gamma). The IPI test was not effective in detecting the response of delayed-type hypersensitivity, contrary to MIF, which showed the immune cellular response. Higher levels of IFN-gamma were observed in the groups of mice vaccinated and treated with avridine and P. acnes. Although immunomodulating activities have been detected, the use of adjuvants with the Fuenzalida-Palacios type vaccine in mice did not reveal any encouraging results.

  8. [Light, laser and PDT therapy for acne].

    PubMed

    Borelli, C; Merk, K; Plewig, G; Degitz, K

    2005-11-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have evaluated the treatment of acne using electromagnetic waves, such as lasers, photodynamic therapy, visible light or radio waves. While the efficacy of laser treatment is still uncertain, photodynamic therapy shows promising results, but with marked side-effects, as destruction of sebaceous glands. Treatment with blue light (405-420 nm wavelength) also appears effective and can be regarded as an treatment option for inflammatory acne.

  9. Light-based therapies in acne treatment

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Susan; Inamadar, Arun C.; Adya, Keshavmurthy A.; Tsoukas, Maria M.

    2015-01-01

    The use of light and laser in the treatment of acne is increasing as these modalities are safe, effective, and associated with no or minimal complications when used appropriately. These light and laser sources are also being used in combination with pharmacological and/or physical measures to synergize their effects and optimize the therapeutic outcome. This review focuses on optical devices used in treating acne and serves to delineate the current application of various methods, including their utility and efficacy. PMID:26009707

  10. Psychosocial Impact of Postinflammatory Hyperpigmentation in Patients with Acne Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Darji, Kavita; Varade, Reena; West, Daniel; Armbrecht, Eric S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Acne vulgaris is a common, often socially distressing skin condition primarily seen in young adults. Quality of life studies have shown that people with acne are more introverted with increased social setting anxiety compared to a control group. Unfortunately, patients with acne may have residual postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, amplifying impaired psychosocial effects. Objective: To quantify the impact of postinflammatory hyperpigmentation in patients with acne using a psychometric scale. Design: A clinic-based survey was conducted among US adults with facial acne and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Outcomes included age, race, gender, and acne-related quality of life. A board-certified dermatologist rated each patient’s acne severity and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Setting: Dermatology clinic, Anheuser Busch Institute and Des Peres Hospital, Saint Louis, Missouri. Participants: 48 subjects (25 patients with acne and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation; 23 with acne only). Measurements: Acne Quality of Life survey, dermatologist rating of acne and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation severity. Results: Subjects with postinflammatory hyperpigmentation reported statistically significant poorer mean scores on the Acne Quality of Life survey than subjects with acne only. Sixty percent of patients with postinflammatory hyperpigmentation had a “very markedly” impact to at least one aspect of the Acne Quality of Life survey scale compared to none of the acne only patients. There was no association between provider-reported hyperpigmentation severity and psychosocial impact. No differences in psychosocial impact were noted between males and females. Conclusion: Patients with acne and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation had poorer quality-of-life scores compared to patients with only acne. Having postinflammatory hyperpigmentation with acne negatively impacted self-perceptions and social/emotional functioning, especially in groups. PMID

  11. Chemical pharmacotherapy options for managing adult acne.

    PubMed

    Vera, Nora; Patel, Nupur; Cardwell, Leah A; Saleem, Mohammed; Feldman, Steven R

    2017-02-01

    The incidence of adult acne is increasing worldwide. Despite clinical overlap with conventional acne, it has distinct features. Areas covered: A literature search of English-language review articles, randomized control studies and retrospective studies conducted over the past 30 years was performed using PubMed and Google Scholar. Search terms included acne, adult, topical medication, oral medication and skin of color. We highlight important clinical features and treatment modalities pertinent to the evaluation and management of adult acne. Given the relative dearth of literature detailing treatment options specific to adult acne, we offer expert opinion regarding management of the condition especially in special populations such as skin of color and pregnancy. Expert Opinion: It is unclear whether adult acne represents a distinct entity or a continuum of adolescent disease. Providers may opt to use topical medication as first-line, but should have a low threshold for switching to systemic therapy given the magnitude of psychosocial and emotional burden associated with the condition.

  12. Tretinoin microsphere gel in younger acne patients.

    PubMed

    Jorizzo, Joseph; Grossman, Rachel; Nighland, Marge

    2008-08-01

    Facial acne is common in adolescents and can have a significant psychosocial impact. Treatments prescribed should not add stress by causing excessive localized irritation. To determine whether the lowest concentration of tretinoin microsphere gel (TMG) currently available (0.04%) provides an acceptable balance of efficacy and tolerability for adolescents with moderate facial acne. The findings of 2 multicenter, randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled trials of TMG 0.04% applied once nightly for 12 weeks in 245 adolescents ages 11 to 16 years with moderate facial acne were combined. Patients were evaluated via changes in acne lesion counts and the occurrence of cutaneous and other adverse effects. Tretinoin microsphere gel 0.04% reduced total, noninflammatory, and inflammatory lesion counts to a significantly greater extent than the vehicle gel at 12 weeks (P<.000005). The mean percentage reductions in noninflammatory and inflammatory lesion counts at 12 weeks in females were 45.0% and 51.4%, respectively; and in males, 20.5% and 36.7%, respectively. Tretinoin microsphere gel 0.04% was tolerated well, with over 70% of patients experiencing no cutaneous adverse events (AEs). Tretinoin microsphere gel 0.04% is effective in significantly reducing all types of acne lesions in adolescents with moderate facial acne ages 11 to 16 years, and has a low incidence of cutaneous AEs.

  13. Imaging inflammatory acne: lesion detection and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cula, Gabriela O.; Bargo, Paulo R.; Kollias, Nikiforos

    2010-02-01

    It is known that effectiveness of acne treatment increases when the lesions are detected earlier, before they could progress into mature wound-like lesions, which lead to scarring and discoloration. However, little is known about the evolution of acne from early signs until after the lesion heals. In this work we computationally characterize the evolution of inflammatory acne lesions, based on analyzing cross-polarized images that document acne-prone facial skin over time. Taking skin images over time, and being able to follow skin features in these images present serious challenges, due to change in the appearance of skin, difficulty in repositioning the subject, involuntary movement such as breathing. A computational technique for automatic detection of lesions by separating the background normal skin from the acne lesions, based on fitting Gaussian distributions to the intensity histograms, is presented. In order to track and quantify the evolution of lesions, in terms of the degree of progress or regress, we designed a study to capture facial skin images from an acne-prone young individual, followed over the course of 3 different time points. Based on the behavior of the lesions between two consecutive time points, the automatically detected lesions are classified in four categories: new lesions, resolved lesions (i.e. lesions that disappear completely), lesions that are progressing, and lesions that are regressing (i.e. lesions in the process of healing). The classification our methods achieve correlates well with visual inspection of a trained human grader.

  14. Occurrence of Propionibacterium freudenreichii bacteriophages in swiss cheese.

    PubMed Central

    Gautier, M; Rouault, A; Sommer, P; Briandet, R

    1995-01-01

    We isolated bacteriophages active against Propionibacterium freudenreichii from 16 of 32 swiss cheese samples. Bacteriophage concentrations ranged from 14 to 7 x 10(5) PFU/g, depending on the sample and the sensitive strain used for detection. Only a few strains, 8 of the 44 strains of P. freudenreichii in our collection, were sensitive. We observed that multiplication of bacteriophages occurred in the cheese loaf during multiplication of propionibacteria in a warm curing room, but it seems that these bacteriophages have no adverse effect on the development of the propionic flora. We also found that sensitive cells, originating from either the starter or the cheese-making milk, were present at a high level (10(9) CFU/g) in the cheese. PMID:7618869

  15. Cross-sectional survey of awareness and behavioral pattern regarding acne and acne scar based on smartphone application.

    PubMed

    Park, Seon Yong; Park, Mi Youn; Suh, Dae Hun; Kwon, Hyuck Hoon; Min, Seonguk; Lee, Sang Joo; Lee, Weon Ju; Lee, Mi Woo; Ahn, Hyo Hyun; Kang, Hoon; Lee, Jee Bum; Ro, Young Suck; Ahn, Kyu Joong; Kim, Myeung Nam; Kim, Kwang Joong; Kim, Nack In

    2016-06-01

    Although acne scar is a permanent sequela that may be induced by improper management of active acne lesion, patient behavior patterns and awareness regarding acne are unclear. The aim of this study was to identify awareness and behavioral patterns concerning acne and acne scar of people having acne and differences between those with and without acne scars. The survey was performed via smartphone application for 900 participants in their second to fourth decade having current or previous acne lesions. They were further categorized into two groups based on the presence of acne scar (scar and scarless groups) with no statistical difference in demographic composition. The mean age of all participants was 24.6 ± 5.3. The scar group had a longer disease duration (4.9 years) than those of the scarless group (2.2 years). Participants in the scar group thought that acne scarring affected psychosocial aspects more negatively compared with those in the scarless group. Participants in the scarless group visited dermatology clinics earlier than those in the scar group. In the scar group, 62.1% of participants have never had their acne scars treated medically. Most (88.6%) participants from both groups believed that non-dermatologic treatment caused side effects or aggravated their acne. Participants with acne scars tended to treat their acne and acne scars improperly, which could negatively affect their daily lives. Acne scars are sequelae of acne and should be regarded as a distinct disease entity, requiring a patient's early visit to dermatologic clinics. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  16. The Infectious Pathogenesis of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    prostate cancer. A manuscript of these data is currently under peer-review. Propionibacterium acnes is a bacterium which has previously been...completed an evaluation of the tissue specimens for evidence of P acnes with collaborators at the University of Orebro, Sweden using a FISH assay...Almost 20 percent of men had evidence of P acnes infection in the tissue. We are now undertaking statistical analyses to evaluate the association of P

  17. Correlation between the Severity and Type of Acne Lesions with Serum Zinc Levels in Patients with Acne Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Rostami Mogaddam, Majid; Safavi Ardabili, Nastaran; Soflaee, Maedeh

    2014-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is the most common cutaneous disorder affecting adolescents and young adults. Some studies have reported an association between serum zinc levels and acne vulgaris. We aimed to evaluate the serum zinc level in patients with acne vulgaris and compare it with healthy controls. One hundred patients with acne vulgaris and 100 healthy controls were referred to our clinic. Acne severity was classified according to Global Acne Grading System (GAGS). Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to measure serum zinc levels. Mean serum level of zinc in acne patients and controls was 81.31 ± 17.63 μg/dl and 82.63 ± 17.49 μg/dl, respectively. Although the mean serum zinc level was lower in acne group, it was not statistically significant (P = 0.598). There was a correlation between serum zinc levels with severity and type of acne lesions. The results of our study suggest that zinc levels may be related to the severity and type of acne lesions in patients with acne vulgaris. Relative decrease of serum zinc level in acne patients suggests a role for zinc in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. PMID:25157359

  18. Correlation between the severity and type of acne lesions with serum zinc levels in patients with acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Rostami Mogaddam, Majid; Safavi Ardabili, Nastaran; Maleki, Nasrollah; Soflaee, Maedeh

    2014-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is the most common cutaneous disorder affecting adolescents and young adults. Some studies have reported an association between serum zinc levels and acne vulgaris. We aimed to evaluate the serum zinc level in patients with acne vulgaris and compare it with healthy controls. One hundred patients with acne vulgaris and 100 healthy controls were referred to our clinic. Acne severity was classified according to Global Acne Grading System (GAGS). Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to measure serum zinc levels. Mean serum level of zinc in acne patients and controls was 81.31 ± 17.63 μg/dl and 82.63 ± 17.49 μg/dl, respectively. Although the mean serum zinc level was lower in acne group, it was not statistically significant (P = 0.598). There was a correlation between serum zinc levels with severity and type of acne lesions. The results of our study suggest that zinc levels may be related to the severity and type of acne lesions in patients with acne vulgaris. Relative decrease of serum zinc level in acne patients suggests a role for zinc in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris.

  19. Environmental pollution and acne: Chloracne.

    PubMed

    Ju, Qiang; Zouboulis, Christos C; Xia, Longqing

    2009-05-01

    Environmental pollutants can result in a variant of acne called 'chloracne'. Chloracne is caused by systemic exposure to certain halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons 'chloracnegens', and is considered to be one of the most sensitive indicators of systemic poisoning by these compounds. Dioxin is the most potent environmental chloracnegen. Most cases of chloracne have resulted from occupational and non-occupational exposures, non-occupational chloracne mainly resulted from contaminated industrial wastes and contaminated food products. Non-inflammatory comedones and straw-colored cysts are the primary clinical manifestation of chloracne. Increasing of cysts in number is a signal of aggravation of chloracne. Generalized lesions can appear on the face, neck, trunk, exterimities, genitalia, axillary and other areas. Course of chloracne is chronic. Severity of chloracne is related to dosage of exposed chloracnegens, chloracnegenic potency and individual susceptibility. Histopathology of chloracne is characterized mainly by hyperplasia of epidermal cell, while follicular and sebaceous gland are taken placed by keratinized epidermal cell. The pathogenesis of chloracne maybe related to the imbalance of epidermal stem cell. Chloracne appears to be resistant to all tested forms of treatment. The only way to control chloracne is to prevent exposure to chloracnegens.

  20. Environmental pollution and acne: Chloracne

    PubMed Central

    Zouboulis, Christos C; Xia, Longqing

    2009-01-01

    Environmental pollutants can result in a variant of acne called ‘chloracne’. Chloracne is caused by systemic exposure to certain halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons ‘chloracnegens’, and is considered to be one of the most sensitive indicators of systemic poisoning by these compounds. Dioxin is the most potent environmental chloracnegen. Most cases of chloracne have resulted from occupational and non-occupational exposures, non-occupational chloracne mainly resulted from contaminated industrial wastes and contaminated food products. Non-inflammatory comedones and straw-colored cysts are the primary clinical manifestation of chloracne. Increasing of cysts in number is a signal of aggravation of chloracne. Generalized lesions can appear on the face, neck, trunk, exterimities, genitalia, axillary and other areas. Course of chloracne is chronic. Severity of chloracne is related to dosage of exposed chloracnegens, chloracnegenic potency and individual susceptibility. Histopathology of chloracne is characterized mainly by hyperplasia of epidermal cell, while follicular and sebaceous gland are taken placed by keratinized epidermal cell. The pathogenesis of chloracne maybe related to the imbalance of epidermal stem cell. Chloracne appears to be resistant to all tested forms of treatment. The only way to control chloracne is to prevent exposure to chloracnegens. PMID:20436879

  1. Emerging Issues in Adult Female Acne

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Hillary E.; Cook-Bolden, Fran E.; Eichenfield, Lawrence F.; Friedlander, Sheila F.; Rodriguez, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Acne vulgaris (acne) is a common affliction in adolescence and is a growing problem in adult women. Despite an increasing awareness of acne in the adult female population, there is a lack of good prospective studies assessing the severity, distribution, and differential response to treatment in this group. The long-held dogma that acne in adult women develops on the lower one-third of the face has been recently challenged, and here the authors critically review data from available literature. Moreover, while adult female acne has traditionally been defined as disease in women over age 25, it is the authors’ experience that this group is subdivided into women ages 25 to 44 years, separate from perimenopausal patients, ages 45 years and up. While there is no data specifically comparing these two groups, the authors will review the existing data and provide practical recommendations based on our experience in treating these groups of patients. Finally, while there is a lack of data on this subject, it is the group’s opinion that adherence to medication regimens is likely higher in women than men, which influences therapeutic outcomes. PMID:28210380

  2. 21 CFR 333.310 - Acne active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acne active ingredients. 333.310 Section 333.310... FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Topical Acne Drug Products § 333.310 Acne active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any of the...

  3. 21 CFR 333.310 - Acne active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acne active ingredients. 333.310 Section 333.310... FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Topical Acne Drug Products § 333.310 Acne active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any of the...

  4. Fraxelated radiofrequency device for acne scars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Babar K.; Khokher, Sairah

    2012-09-01

    Acne scars can be improved with various treatments such as topical creams, chemical peels, dermal fillers, microdermabrasion, laser, and radiofrequency devices. Some of these treatments especially lasers and deep chemical peels can have significant side effects such as post inflammatory hyperpigmentation in darker skin types. Fraxelated RF Laser devices have been reported to have lower incidence of side effects in all skin phototypes. Nine patients between ages 18 and 35 of various skin phototypes were selected from a private practice and treated with a RF fraxelated device (E-matrix) for acne scars. Outcomes were measured by physician observation, subjective feedback received by patients, and comparison of before and after photographs. In this small group of patients with various skin phototypes, fraxelated radiofrequency device improved acne scars with minimal side effects and downtime.

  5. Acne Scarring—Pathogenesis, Evaluation, and Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Deirdre; Vu, Ha Linh; Mariwalla, Kavita

    2017-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a ubiquitous problem affecting 80 percent of people ages 11 to 30 years, with many patients experiencing some degree of scarring. This review focuses on atrophic scars, the most common type of acne scar. We briefly address the cellular sequelae that lead to scar formation and the initial evaluation of patients with acne scars. We then discuss an algorithmic approach to the treatment of acne scarring based on the classification of scars into erythematous and atrophic types. Lastly, we discuss the future treatment of acne scars and ongoing clinical trials. PMID:29344322

  6. Randomized tolerability analysis of clindamycin phosphate 1.2%-tretinoin 0.025% gel used with benzoyl peroxide wash 4% for acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe Diana; Potts, Aaron; Alió Saenz, Alessandra B

    2010-12-01

    The multiple etiologic factors involved in acne vulgaris make the use of several medications necessary to treat the condition. Use of a fixed combination of clindamycin phosphate 1.2% and tretinoin 0.025% in conjunction with a benzoyl peroxide (BPO) wash 4% targets several pathologic factors simultaneously and mitigates the potential for clindamycin-induced Propionibacterium acnes-resistant strains. New formulations may allow such regimens to be effectively used without overly reduced tolerability resulting from the irritation potential of tretinoin and BPO. This randomized, single-blind study investigated the local tolerability, irritation potential, and safety of an aqueous-based gel (clindamycin phosphate 7.2%-tretinoin 0.025% [CT gel]) when used in conjunction with a BPO wash 4% in participants with mild to moderate acne vulgaris. Participants applied the CT gel once daily in the evening for 4 weeks in conjunction with once-daily morning use of either BPO wash 4% or nonmedicated soap-free cleanser lotion (SFC). Local tolerability and irritation potential were assessed by participants and investigators using separate 6-point scales. The frequency and severity of dryness, scaling, erythema, burning/stinging, and itching increased during the first week of treatment in both treatment arms but decreased thereafter. Local tolerability reactions were slightly more frequent in the CT gel + BPO wash group versus the CT gel + SFC group at week 1 but were generally mild and improved within 1 to 2 weeks. In conclusion, therapy with CT gel + BPO wash appears safe and well-tolerated in participants with mild to moderate acne vulgaris.

  7. Significance of diet in treated and untreated acne vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Szmurło, Agnieszka; Sińska, Beata

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between diet and acne is highly controversial. Several studies during the last decade have led dermatologists to reflect on a potential link between diet and acne. This article presents the latest findings on a potential impact that diet can have on pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. The association between diet and acne can no longer be dismissed. Compelling evidence shows that high glycemic load diets may exacerbate acne. Dairy ingestion appears to be weakly associated with acne and the roles of omega-3 fatty acids, dietary fiber, antioxidants, vitamin A, zinc and iodine remain to be elucidated. The question of what the impact of diet is on the course of acne vulgaris still remains unclear. PMID:27279815

  8. Humic Acid Reduction by Propionibacterium freudenreichii and Other Fermenting Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Benz, Marcus; Schink, Bernhard; Brune, Andreas

    1998-01-01

    Iron-reducing bacteria have been reported to reduce humic acids and low-molecular-weight quinones with electrons from acetate or hydrogen oxidation. Due to the rapid chemical reaction of amorphous ferric iron with the reduced reaction products, humic acids and low-molecular-weight redox mediators may play an important role in biological iron reduction. Since many anaerobic bacteria that are not able to reduce amorphous ferric iron directly are known to transfer electrons to other external acceptors, such as ferricyanide, 2,6-anthraquinone disulfonate (AQDS), or molecular oxygen, we tested several physiologically different species of fermenting bacteria to determine their abilities to reduce humic acids. Propionibacterium freudenreichii, Lactococcus lactis, and Enterococcus cecorum all shifted their fermentation patterns towards more oxidized products when humic acids were present; P. freudenreichii even oxidized propionate to acetate under these conditions. When amorphous ferric iron was added to reoxidize the electron acceptor, humic acids were found to be equally effective when they were added in substoichiometric amounts. These findings indicate that in addition to iron-reducing bacteria, fermenting bacteria are also capable of channeling electrons from anaerobic oxidations via humic acids towards iron reduction. This information needs to be considered in future studies of electron flow in soils and sediments. PMID:9797315

  9. Is acne a sign of androgen excess disorder or not?

    PubMed

    Uysal, Gulsum; Sahin, Yılmaz; Unluhizarci, Kursad; Ferahbas, Ayten; Uludag, Semih Zeki; Aygen, Ercan; Kelestimur, Fahrettin

    2017-04-01

    Acne is not solely a cosmetic problem. The clinical importance of acne in the estimation of androgen excess disorders is controversial. Recently, the Amsterdam ESHRE/ASRM-sponsored third PCOS Consensus Workshop Group suggested that acne is not commonly associated with hyperandrogenemia and therefore should not be regarded as evidence of hyperandrogenemia. Our aim was to investigate whether acne is a sign of androgen excess disorder or not. This is a cross sectional study that was performed in a university hospital involving 207 women, aged between 18 and 45 years, suffering mainly from acne. The women were assigned as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), idiopathic hirsutism (IH), idiopathic hyperandrogenemia (IHA). Women with acne associated with any of the androgen excess disorders mentioned above were named as hyperandrogenemia associated acne (HAA). Women with acne but without hirsutism and hyperandrogenemia and having ovulatory cycles were named as "isolated acne". Serum luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estradiol, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS), androstenedione, total testosterone and lipid levels were measured. Acne score was similar between the women with isolated acne and HAA. The most common cause for acne was PCOS and only 28% of the women had isolated acne. 114 (55%) women had at least one raised serum androgen level. In this study, 72% of acneic women had clinical and/or biochemical hyperandrogenemia. In contrast to the suggestion of ESHRE/ASRM-sponsored third PCOS Consensus Workshop Group, our data indicate that the presence of androgen excess disorders should be evaluated in women presenting with acne. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The use of isotretinoin in acne

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Systemic isotretinoin remains the most efficacious treatment for severe acne as well as many cases of more moderate disease that are unresponsive to other treatment modalities. The current chapter outlines the mechanisms behind the excellent efficacy, describes how to optimize treatment, reviews the recommended guidelines for monitoring and summarizes adverse effects. PMID:20436884

  11. [Acne vulgaris: morphologic, endocrinologic and psychosomatic aspects].

    PubMed

    Welp, K; Gieler, U

    1990-12-01

    25 male patients suffering from acne vulgaris were examined by means of endocrinological, morphological, and 5 psychometric procedures in order to check the correlations and interactions between the psychological and dermatological aspects of the disease. In comparison with a control group, the acne patients did not show any striking endocrinological abnormalities; we found no correlation between the extensiveness of the lesions and the level of DHEA sulphate. All the psychological tests yielded results deviating from those achieved by the representative controls, but they were comparable with those of other patients suffering from psychosomatic diseases. The individual feeling of being "disfigured" found its expression in self-consciousness, lack of trust in his/her own body, as well as the clinically relevant difference between his/her conception of self and the ideal of self. During times of enhanced psychosocial strains subjectively assumed by the patients, the lesions increased and the patients were disturbed in social interaction and communication. Surprisingly, we did not find any correlation between the clinical status and significant psychometric findings. Our results show that in acne vulgaris, the individual experience of wanting physical attractiveness, associated with a predominantly neurotic depressive personal structure, may play a central part in a disturbed process of interaction with the environment and suggest the influence of psychic factors in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris.

  12. ICG laser therapy of acne vulgaris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuchin, Valery V.; Altshuler, Gregory B.; Genina, Elina A.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Odoevskaya, Olga D.; Yaroslavsky, Ilya V.

    2004-07-01

    The near-infrared (NIR) laser radiation due to its high penetration depth is widely used in phototherapy. In application to skin appendages a high selectivity of laser treatment is needed to prevent light action on surrounding tissues. Indocyanine Green (ICG) dye may provide a high selectivity of treatment due to effective ICG uploading by a target and its narrow band of considerable absorption just at the wavelength of the NIR diode laser. The goal of this study is to demonstrate the efficacy of the NIR diode laser phototherapy in combination with topical application of ICG suggested for soft and thermal treatment of acne vulgaris. 28 volunteers with facile or back-located acne were enrolled. Skin sites of subjects were stained by ICG and irradiated by NIR laser-diode light (803 or 809 nm). Untreated, only stained and only light irradiated skin areas served as controls. For soft acne treatment, the low-intensity (803 nm, 10 - 50 mW/cm2, 5-10 min) or the medium-intensity (809 nm, 150 - 190 mW/cm2, 15 min) protocols were used. The single and multiple (up to 8-9) treatments were provided. The individual acne lesions were photothermally treated at 18 W/cm2 (803 nm, 0.5 sec) without skin surface cooling or at 200 W/cm2 (809 nm, 0.5 sec) with cooling. The results of the observations during 1-2 months after the completion of the treatment have shown that only in the case of the multiple-wise treatment a combined action of ICG and NIR irradiation reduces inflammation and improves skin state during a month without any side effects. At high power densities (up to 200 W/cm2) ICG stained acne inflammatory elements were destructed for light exposures of 0.5 sec. Based on the concept that hair follicle, especially sebaceous gland, can be intensively and selectively stained by ICG due to dye diffusion through pilosebaceous canal and its fast uptake by living microorganisms, by vital keratinocytes of epithelium of the canal and sebaceous duct, and by rapidly proliferating

  13. Energy-Based Devices in Treatment of Acne Vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Handler, Marc Z; Bloom, Bradley S; Goldberg, David J

    2016-05-01

    Acne vulgaris is a chronic dermatologic complaint with a multifactorial cause. Traditionally, antibiotics and retinoids have been used to manage the condition; patient compliance has been an ongoing issue. A variety of energy-based devices have been reported to be effective in the treatment of acne vulgaris. To review and summarize the current literature specific to treatment of acne vulgaris with energy-based devices. A review of the current literature of energy-based devices used for the treatment of acne vulgaris. Although limited randomized controlled trials for the treatment of acne have been performed, significant clinical improvement of acne vulgaris, especially of inflammatory lesions, has been demonstrated with a variety of energy-based devices. Newer approaches may lead to even better results.

  14. Etiopathogenesis and Therapeutic Approach to Adult Onset Acne

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Sarabjit; Verma, Poonam; Sangwan, Ankita; Dayal, Surabhi; Jain, Vijay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is usually considered as a skin disorder that primarily affects adolescents reaching a peak at the age of 14–17 years in females and 16–19 years in males. However, recent epidemiologic studies have shown that a significant number of female patients aged >25 years experience acne. As it is regarded as a disease of teenagers, adults are more apprehensive and experience social anxiety. Hence, adult onset acne has become a matter of concern. PMID:27512185

  15. Special types of folliculitis which should be differentiated from acne

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jian-min

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Because both acne vulgaris and folliculitis can present as inflammatory erythematous papules, pustules or nodules, they are often hard to distinguish. The importance to distinguish between these 2 shall be stressed as their pathogenesis and therapies are different and misdiagnosis or missed diagnosis may lead to improper treatment. We will introduce several special types of folliculitis that should be differentiated from acne to increase our knowledge of the disorders with an acne-like manifestation. PMID:29484091

  16. Practical Evaluation and Management of Atrophic Acne Scars

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Atrophic acne scarring is an unfortunate, permanent complication of acne vulgaris, which may be associated with significant psychological distress. General dermatologists are frequently presented with the challenge of evaluating and providing treatment recommendations to patients with acne scars. This article reviews a practical, step-by-step approach to evaluating the patient with atrophic acne scars. An algorithm for providing treatment options is presented, along with pitfalls to avoid. A few select procedures that may be incorporated into a general dermatology practice are reviewed in greater detail, including filler injections, skin needling, and the punch excision. PMID:21909457

  17. The role of diet in acne: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Davidovici, Batya B; Wolf, Ronni

    2010-01-01

    Acne is the most prevalent skin condition. It has a substantial effect on the quality of life of teenagers worldwide. Among acne patients from different societies and cultures, diet is uniformly regarded as a major cause in the pathogenesis of acne. We reviewed the up-to-date literature regarding acne and culprit foods such as dairy products, chocolate, and fatty foods. Unfortunately, after reviewing the existing data, there are no answers but there are definitely more questions, because there is no clear proof about whether these issues are facts or misconceptions. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Inhibitory Effect of Autoclaving Whey-Based Medium on Propionic Acid Production by Propionibacterium shermanii.

    PubMed

    Anderson, T M; Bodie, E A; Goodman, N; Schwartz, R D

    1986-02-01

    Propionic acid production by Propionibacterium shermanii was compared in pasteurized and autoclaved whey-based media. Propionic acid production decreased with increasing whey concentration in autoclaved media but not in pasteurized media. Increasing the yeast extract concentration from 5 to 10 g/liter greatly reduced the inhibitory effect of autoclaving.

  19. Inhibitory Effect of Autoclaving Whey-Based Medium on Propionic Acid Production by Propionibacterium shermanii

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Thomas M.; Bodie, Elizabeth A.; Goodman, Nelson; Schwartz, Robert D.

    1986-01-01

    Propionic acid production by Propionibacterium shermanii was compared in pasteurized and autoclaved whey-based media. Propionic acid production decreased with increasing whey concentration in autoclaved media but not in pasteurized media. Increasing the yeast extract concentration from 5 to 10 g/liter greatly reduced the inhibitory effect of autoclaving. PMID:16346998

  20. Short contact therapy of acne with tretinoin.

    PubMed

    Veraldi, Stefano; Barbareschi, Mauro; Benardon, Susanna; Schianchi, Rossana

    2013-10-01

    The most frequent side effect of topical retinoids is irritant contact dermatitis. It occurs in approximately 85% of patients; the percentage can reach up to 95% in patients treated with tretinoin. Severity of this dermatitis is moderate to severe in approximately 20% of patients. However, 15% of patients stop the treatment with tretinoin because of skin irritation. The authors used tretinoin as short contact therapy (SCT) in mild to moderate acne, in order to try to reduce the incidence and severity of irritant contact dermatitis. They present the final results of a sponsor-free, pilot, open, multicenter study. Seventy-four patients were treated with 0.05% tretinoin cream. It was applied once daily for 30 min. Treatment duration ranged from 8 to 32 weeks (mean duration: 12 weeks). Acne severity and treatment efficacy were evaluated by means of the Global Acne Grading System. A significant clinical improvement (≥50% from baseline) was observed in 41 patients (55.4%). Thirteen patients (17.6%) developed a mild skin irritation. Four patients (5.4%) stopped the treatment because of severe skin irritation. Efficacy of tretinoin used as SCT seems to be superimposable to that of tretinoin used according to standard modality. Tolerability of SCT with tretinoin is very good. This tolerability allows a high adherence of patients to the treatment and it markedly improves compliance.

  1. 21 CFR 333.310 - Acne active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acne active ingredients. 333.310 Section 333.310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS... Products § 333.310 Acne active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any of the...

  2. 21 CFR 333.310 - Acne active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acne active ingredients. 333.310 Section 333.310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS... Products § 333.310 Acne active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any of the...

  3. 21 CFR 333.310 - Acne active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acne active ingredients. 333.310 Section 333.310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS... Products § 333.310 Acne active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any of the...

  4. The epidemiology of acne vulgaris in late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Darren D; Umari, Tamara; Dunnick, Cory A; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2016-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is the most common skin condition affecting late adolescents across the globe. Although prior studies have evaluated epidemiologic patterns of acne vulgaris in various ethnicities and regions, adequate understanding of the worldwide burden of the disease associated with patients in their late adolescence (15-19-year olds) remains lacking. To assess the global burden of the disease associated with acne vulgaris for late adolescents (15-19-year olds) and provide an overview of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment options for acne in this population. Database summary study. Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 database. Global Burden of Disease regions comprised countries with prevalence of acne vulgaris between the ages of 15 and 19 years. Geographic region-level disability-adjusted life year rates (per 100,000 persons) associated with acne vulgaris in years 1990 through 2010. Median percentage change in disability-adjusted life year rates was estimated for each region across the specified study period. Acne vulgaris-associated disease burden exhibits global distribution and has continued to grow in prevalence over time within this population. This continued growth suggests an unmet dermatologic need worldwide for this disorder and potential opportunities for improved access and delivery of dermatologic care. Our analysis of the literature reveals numerous opportunities for enhanced patient care. To that end, we highlight some of the effective and promising treatments currently available and address important factors, such as sex, nationality, genetics, pathophysiology, and diet, as they relate to acne vulgaris in late adolescence.

  5. Acne keloidalis nuchae: report and treatment of a severe case.

    PubMed

    Vasily, D B; Breen, P C; Miller, O F

    1979-03-01

    Acne keloidalis nuchae (folliculitis keloidalis or dermatitis papillaris capillitii) is a chronic, deep, scarring folliculitis of the nuchal area. Therapeutic measures such as oral and topical antibiotics, intralesional injections of fluorinated adrenocorticosteroids, and radiotherapy are sometimes effective in controlling this condition. A case of refractory acne keloidalis is presented to show the curative possibility of aggressive surgical therapy.

  6. Severe acne vulgaris and tobacco smoking in young men.

    PubMed

    Klaz, Itay; Kochba, Ilan; Shohat, Tzipora; Zarka, Salman; Brenner, Sarah

    2006-08-01

    As the relationship between tobacco smoking and acne remains unclear, we examined the relationship between cigarette smoking and severe acne in a large cohort of young men. Trained nurses interviewed subjects upon discharge from compulsory military service, regarding family history, habits, and tobacco smoking habits. Data was correlated with severe acne status, as diagnosed and coded by board-certified dermatologists. In total, 27,083 male subjects participated in the study from 1983 to 2003, of which 237 (0.88%) had severe acne, 11,718 (43.27%) were active smokers, and 15,365 (56.73%) were nonsmokers at the time of interviews. Active smokers showed a significantly lower prevalence of severe acne (0.71%) than nonsmokers (1.01%) (P = 0.0078). An inverse dose-dependent relationship between severe acne prevalence and daily cigarette consumption became significant from 21 cigarettes a day (chi2 and trend test: P < 0.0001), odds ratio: 0.2 (95% CI: 0.06-0.63). The study did not aim to establish a temporal correlation, and passive smoking and acne treatments were not measured. Previous in vitro and clinical studies strongly support an association with nicotine. We suggest a trial with topical nicotine treatment for acne to further investigate this association.

  7. Remote assessment of acne: the use of acne grading tools to evaluate digital skin images.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Hagit; Tsai, Kenneth Y; Seo, Su-Jean; Kvedar, Joseph C; Watson, Alice J

    2009-06-01

    Digital imaging of dermatology patients is a novel approach to remote data collection. A number of assessment tools have been developed to grade acne severity and to track clinical progress over time. Although these tools have been validated when used in a face-to-face setting, their efficacy and reliability when used to assess digital images have not been examined. The main purpose of this study was to determine whether specific assessment tools designed to grade acne during face-to-face visits can be applied to the evaluation of digital images. The secondary purpose was to ascertain whether images obtained by subjects are of adequate quality to allow such assessments to be made. Three hundred (300) digital images of patients with mild to moderate facial inflammatory acne from an ongoing randomized-controlled study were included in this analysis. These images were obtained from 20 patients and consisted of sets of 3 images taken over time. Of these images, 120 images were captured by subjects themselves and 180 were taken by study staff. Subjects were asked to retake their photographs if the initial images were deemed of poor quality by study staff. Images were evaluated by two dermatologists-in-training using validated acne assessment measures: Total Inflammatory Lesion Count, Leeds technique, and the Investigator's Global Assessment. Reliability of raters was evaluated using correlation coefficients and kappa statistics. Of the different acne assessment measures tested, the inter-rater reliability was highest for the total inflammatory lesion count (r = 0.871), but low for the Leeds technique (kappa = 0.381) and global assessment (kappa = 0.3119). Raters were able to evaluate over 89% of all images using each type of acne assessment measure despite the fact that images obtained by study staff were of higher quality than those obtained by patients (p < 0.001). Several existing clinical assessment measures can be used to evaluate digital images obtained from

  8. Evaluating tretinoin formulations in the treatment of acne.

    PubMed

    Kircik, Leon H

    2014-04-01

    Topical tretinoin has been a standard treatment for acne vulgaris for more than 4 decades. While tretinoin has demonstrated proven efficacy in the treatment of acne lesions, it also is associated with the potential for skin irritation. Newer formulations have been designed to optimize both the drug concentration and the delivery vehicle with the aim to enable clinicians to provide increasingly effective acne treatment that minimizes irritation. These therapies include formulations with varying concentrations of tretinoin and vehicles that utilize a microsponge delivery system, hydrogels and micronized tretinoin, or propolymers. The purpose of this review is to evaluate different formulations and combinations of tretinoin in the treatment of acne vulgaris. While these advanced formulations were designed for controlled release of active ingredient, and have the potential to reduce cutaneous irritation relative to standard tretinoin cream and gel formulations, there is a need for comparative studies to evaluate the relative benefits of each of these advanced tretinoin formulations in optimizing acne treatment.

  9. An update on the management of acne vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Keri, Jonette; Shiman, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common skin disorder that can affect individuals from childhood to adulthood, most often occurring in the teenage years. Acne can have a significant physical, emotional, and social impact on an individual. Many different treatment options are available for the treatment of acne vulgaris. Commonly used topical treatments include benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, sulfur and sodium sulfacetamide, azelaic acid, and retinoids. Systemic treatment is frequently used and includes the use of systemic antibiotics, oral contraceptives, antiandrogens, and retinoids. Other treatment modalities exist such as the use of superficial chemical peels as well as using laser and light devices for the treatment of acne. With the multitude of treatment options and the rapidly expanding newer technologies available to clinicians, it is important to review and be aware of the current literature and studies regarding the treatment of acne vulgaris. PMID:21436973

  10. Novel techniques for enhancement and segmentation of acne vulgaris lesions.

    PubMed

    Malik, A S; Humayun, J; Kamel, N; Yap, F B-B

    2014-08-01

    More than 99% acne patients suffer from acne vulgaris. While diagnosing the severity of acne vulgaris lesions, dermatologists have observed inter-rater and intra-rater variability in diagnosis results. This is because during assessment, identifying lesion types and their counting is a tedious job for dermatologists. To make the assessment job objective and easier for dermatologists, an automated system based on image processing methods is proposed in this study. There are two main objectives: (i) to develop an algorithm for the enhancement of various acne vulgaris lesions; and (ii) to develop a method for the segmentation of enhanced acne vulgaris lesions. For the first objective, an algorithm is developed based on the theory of high dynamic range (HDR) images. The proposed algorithm uses local rank transform to generate the HDR images from a single acne image followed by the log transformation. Then, segmentation is performed by clustering the pixels based on Mahalanobis distance of each pixel from spectral models of acne vulgaris lesions. Two metrics are used to evaluate the enhancement of acne vulgaris lesions, i.e., contrast improvement factor (CIF) and image contrast normalization (ICN). The proposed algorithm is compared with two other methods. The proposed enhancement algorithm shows better result than both the other methods based on CIF and ICN. In addition, sensitivity and specificity are calculated for the segmentation results. The proposed segmentation method shows higher sensitivity and specificity than other methods. This article specifically discusses the contrast enhancement and segmentation for automated diagnosis system of acne vulgaris lesions. The results are promising that can be used for further classification of acne vulgaris lesions for final grading of the lesions. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Acne vulgaris: Perceptions and beliefs of Saudi adolescent males

    PubMed Central

    Al-Natour, Sahar H.

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although acne vulgaris is common in adolescents, information on their understanding of acne is minimal. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the perceptions and beliefs of Saudi youth on acne. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three hundred twenty-nine male students (aged 13–22 years) from 6 secondary schools in the Eastern Saudi Arabia completed a self-reported questionnaire on knowledge, causation, exacerbating and relieving factors of acne. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 15.0. Results of subjects with acne, a family history of acne, and parents' educational levels were compared. Differences between the analyzed groups were assessed by a Chi-square test; p ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Over half (58.9%) of the participants considered acne a transient condition not requiring therapy. Only 13.1% knew that the proper treatment of acne could take a long time, even several years. Over half (52%) thought acne can be treated from the first or after few visits to the doctor. Popular sources of information were television/radio (47.7%), friends (45.6%), and the internet (38%). Only 23.4% indicated school as a source of knowledge. Reported causal factors included scratching (88.5%) and squeezing (82.1%) of pimples, poor hygiene (83.9%), poor dietary habits (71.5%), and stress (54.1%). Ameliorating factors included frequent washing of the face (52.9%), exercise (41.1%), sunbathing (24.1%), and drinking of mineral water (21%). The correlations of these facts are discussed. CONCLUSION: Results of this study point out that misconceptions of acne are widespread among Saudi youth. A health education program is needed to improve the understanding of the condition. PMID:28163574

  12. Steroid acne vs. Pityrosporum folliculitis: the incidence of Pityrosporum ovale and the effect of antifungal drugs in steroid acne.

    PubMed

    Yu, H J; Lee, S K; Son, S J; Kim, Y S; Yang, H Y; Kim, J H

    1998-10-01

    Steroid acne is a folliculitis that can result from systemic or topical administration of steroid, and has been described as showing a similar clinical picture to Pityrosporum folliculitis, but there have been few reports about the incidence of Pityrosporum ovale and the effect of antimycotic drugs in steroid acne and other acneiform eruptions. Our purpose was to describe the association between steroid acne and P. ovale, and to confirm the superior efficacy of oral antifungal drugs over anti-acne drugs in the treatment of steroid acne. The history, clinical features direct microscopy, histopathologic analysis, and therapeutic results of 125 cases with steroid acne or other acneiform eruptions were described and compared. Over 80% of patients with acneiform eruption receiving systemic steroid revealed significant numbers of P. ovale in the lesional follicle. Furthermore, oral antifungal drug (itraconazole) showed significantly better clinical and mycologic effects than any other group of medications used in this study. Steroid acne and other acneiform eruptions showing discrete follicular papules and/or pustules localized to the upper trunk and acneiform facial skin lesions associated with multiple acneiform lesions on the body in the summer period should be suspected as Pityrosporum folliculitis. In addition, oral antifungal drugs recommended for Pityrosporum folliculitis; however, it will require a larger case-control study to confirm the superiority of antifungal therapy over anti-acne treatment.

  13. Use of drospirenone/ethinyl estradiol (DRSP/EE) among women with acne reduces acne treatment-related resources.

    PubMed

    Joish, Vijay N; Boklage, Susan; Lynen, Richard; Schmidt, Anja; Lin, Jay

    2011-01-01

    Acne is a common dermatologic condition that extends into middle age, particularly among women, and is associated with substantial healthcare resource utilization. Drospirenone (DRSP), a synthetic progestin, has anti-androgenic activity, and women using DRSP 3.0 mg/ethinyl estradiol (EE) 0.02 mg as a 24/4 regimen (DRSP/EE-24/4) for contraception also may use it for treatment of moderate acne. The study used a US national healthcare database to assess acne-related healthcare resource utilization among women aged 18-45 years before (pre-index) and after (post-index) initiation of DRSP/EE-24/4. Resource utilization and costs were evaluated by age group (18-25, 26-35, or 36-45 years) and by type of acne medication (systemic antibiotic, topical, or anti-androgen). Data for 1340 women were evaluated. Overall, drug costs, medical costs, and total costs were decreased by 38%, 37%, and 37%, respectively (p<0.0001 for all) between the pre-index and post-index periods; significant differences were evident across age groups and acne medication categories. Total costs were significantly decreased for patients (41%) and healthcare plans (36%; p<0.0001 for both) overall and across age groups and drug classes. Acne-related claims and number of days using acne medication were reduced (by 37% each; p<0.0001 for both). The study was retrospective in design and had a limited follow-up period. Database limitations restricted assessment of medication compliance and adherence. DRSP/EE-24/4 use was associated with substantial reductions in acne-related healthcare resource utilization, and reductions occurred regardless of age or type of acne medication. DRSP/EE-24/4 therefore represents a cost-effective option for the treatment of acne among women using DRSP/EE-24/4 for oral contraception.

  14. High Frequency of Fibromyalgia in Patients With Acne Vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Yazmalar, Levent; Çelepkolu, Tahsin; Batmaz, İbrahim; Sariyildiz, Mustafa Akif; Sula, Bilal; Alpayci, Mahmut; An, İsa; Burkan, Yahya Kemal; Uçak, Haydar; Çevik, Remzi

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the frequency of fibromyalgia syndrome and to specify fibromyalgia syndrome-associated clinical symptoms in patients with acne vulgaris. Eighty-eight patients (28 males, 60 females; mean age 23.2±5.1 years; range 18 to 40 years) with acne vulgaris and age, sex- and body mass index-similar 76 healthy controls (14 males, 62 females; mean age 24.5±2.9 years; range 18 to 35 years) were included. Acne vulgaris was evaluated by using the Global Acne Scale, while Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to evaluate anxiety. Fibromyalgia-associated pain, sleep disturbance, anxiety, and menstrual cycle disturbance were significantly more frequent in patients with acne vulgaris than controls. Also, the severity of anxiety and the number of tender points were significantly higher in the acne vulgaris patients than controls. This study indicates that patients with acne vulgaris have increased frequency of fibromyalgia syndrome than healthy controls (21.6% versus 5.3%, respectively).

  15. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Acne Scarring Among Patients Consulting Dermatologists in the USA

    PubMed

    Tan, Jerry; Kang, Sewon; Leyden, James

    2017-02-01

    Although there have been few formal studies, scarring is a known bothersome companion of acne vulgaris. We performed a prospective study of subjects consulting a dermatologist for active acne to assess the frequency of acne scarring. Investigators performed a short questionnaire on all acne patients seen at their office for one consecutive 5-day work week to assess scar frequency. Additionally, the first four subjects with acne scars identified were enrolled for a second phase (scar cohort) of the study during which the investigator collected further medical history and performed a clinical evaluation and the patient completed a self-administered questionnaire about scar perceptions and impact on quality of life. A total of 1,972 subjects were evaluated by 120 investigators. Among these, 43 percent (n=843) had acne scarring. Subjects with acne scars were significantly more likely to have severe or very severe acne (P less than .01); however, 69% of the subjects with acne scars had mild or moderate acne at the time of the study visit. Risk factors correlated with increased likelihood of scarring were acne severity, time between acne onset and first effective treatment, relapsing acne, and male gender. Treatments that can completely resolve acne scars are not yet available - prevention and early treatment remain a primary strategy against scars. It is vital for clinicians who manage individuals with acne to institute effective therapy as early as possible, since treatment delay is a key modifiable risk factor for scarring.

  16. 2016 American Conference on Neutron Scattering (ACNS)

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward, Patrick

    The 8th American Conference on Neutron Scattering (ACNS) was held July 10-14, 2016 in Long Beach California, marking the first time the meeting has been held on the west coast. The meeting was coordinated by the Neutron Scattering Society of America (NSSA), and attracted 285 attendees. The meeting was chaired by NSSA vice president Patrick Woodward (the Ohio State University) assisted by NSSA president Stephan Rosenkranz (Argonne National Laboratory) together with the local organizing chair, Brent Fultz (California Institute of Technology). As in past years the Materials Research Society assisted with planning, logistics and operation of the conference. The sciencemore » program was divided into the following research areas: (a) Sources, Instrumentation, and Software; (b) Hard Condensed Matter; (c) Soft Matter; (d) Biology; (e) Materials Chemistry and Materials for Energy; (f) Engineering and Industrial Applications; and (g) Neutron Physics.« less

  17. Topical Vehicle Formulations in the Treatment of Acne.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Lauren K; Bhatia, Neal; Zeichner, Joshua; Kircik, Leon H

    2018-06-01

    Topical treatment is the mainstay of acne therapy. The most commonly prescribed topical medications for acne include benzoyl peroxide, clindamycin, and retinoids. Despite their effectiveness in treating mild to moderate acne vulgaris, these topical medications are found to be irritating, and are historically associated with poor tolerability and diminished patient adherence. Thus, choosing the right formulation that will be effective and well tolerated is essential. Novel formulations that optimize drug concentration and utilize improved delivery vehicles have helped to enhance the tolerability and efficacy, and allow for less frequent application or co-application of drugs that were previously considered incompatible. This article will review the goals of topical therapy for the treatment of acne, in addition to common therapies and their challenges. Advanced formulations and combination formulations of benzoyl peroxide, clindamycin, and tretinoin will also be discussed. J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(6 Suppl):s6-10.

  18. Recalcitrant Nodulocystic Acne in Black Americans: Treatment With Isotretinoin

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, A. Paul; Sampson, Darlene D.

    1987-01-01

    The beneficial effects of isotretinoin (Accutane) on severe nodulocystic acne and significant clinical improvement with prolonged remission are well documented in the literature; however, the subjects in these clinical studies are invariably white. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the response of black patients with recalcitrant nodulocystic acne to isotretinoin treatment. Ten black patients, ranging in age from 17 to 34 years, were treated for nodulocystic acne with 1 mg/kg/d of isotretinoin for 20 weeks and followed for an additional six months. Of the ten patients, eight adhered to the treatment regimen and were still in remission six months after completion of isotretinoin therapy. The differences and similarities seen between black patients and white patients with nodulocystic acne are discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3 PMID:2963137

  19. The epidemiology of acne vulgaris in late adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Lynn, Darren D; Umari, Tamara; Dunnick, Cory A; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2016-01-01

    Importance Acne vulgaris is the most common skin condition affecting late adolescents across the globe. Although prior studies have evaluated epidemiologic patterns of acne vulgaris in various ethnicities and regions, adequate understanding of the worldwide burden of the disease associated with patients in their late adolescence (15–19-year olds) remains lacking. Objective To assess the global burden of the disease associated with acne vulgaris for late adolescents (15–19-year olds) and provide an overview of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment options for acne in this population. Design Database summary study. Setting Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 database. Participants Global Burden of Disease regions comprised countries with prevalence of acne vulgaris between the ages of 15 and 19 years. Main outcomes and measures Geographic region-level disability-adjusted life year rates (per 100,000 persons) associated with acne vulgaris in years 1990 through 2010. Median percentage change in disability-adjusted life year rates was estimated for each region across the specified study period. Conclusion and relevance Acne vulgaris-associated disease burden exhibits global distribution and has continued to grow in prevalence over time within this population. This continued growth suggests an unmet dermatologic need worldwide for this disorder and potential opportunities for improved access and delivery of dermatologic care. Our analysis of the literature reveals numerous opportunities for enhanced patient care. To that end, we highlight some of the effective and promising treatments currently available and address important factors, such as sex, nationality, genetics, pathophysiology, and diet, as they relate to acne vulgaris in late adolescence. PMID:26955297

  20. Acne and skin bleaching in Lomé, Togo.

    PubMed

    Kombaté, Koussake; Mouhari-Toure, Abas; Saka, Bayaki; Akakpo, Abla Séfako; Maboudou, Akouavi; Pitché, Palokinam; Tchangaï-Walla, Kissem

    2012-11-01

    This study aims at describing the clinical characteristics of patients with acne using skin bleaching (SB) products. This is a prospective study conducted over 8 months in three dermatology departments and one private clinic. All patients examined for acne were included in the study. The study included 119 patients examined for acne from March to October 2010. Among them 48 (40.7%) did SB. Hydroquinone was the first product used for SB (26 of 48), followed by topical corticosteroids (17 of 48). The elementary lesions were papules (99.2%), comedos (36.1%), pustules (63.9%), pigmentation (26.1%), scars (21%), and nodules (20.2%). The extent of acne on the face was observed in all patients (100%). The lesions were extensive among 43.7% of the patients. The extent of acne lesions was not statistically associated with SB. Other body areas concerned were the chest (20.2%), back, and shoulders (41.2%). The relative risk of having lesions on the back and/or shoulders when the patient practiced SB was 2.71 (CI: 1.08-6.84), which is significant. The study suggests that the back and shoulders can be the main areas for acne lesions associated with the practice of SB. The influence of different types of product is unclear. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  1. Carrier-Based Drug Delivery System for Treatment of Acne

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Amber; Kumar Sonker, Avinesh

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 95% of the population suffers at some point in their lifetime from acne vulgaris. Acne is a multifactorial disease of the pilosebaceous unit. This inflammatory skin disorder is most common in adolescents but also affects neonates, prepubescent children, and adults. Topical conventional systems are associated with various side effects. Novel drug delivery systems have been used to reduce the side effect of drugs commonly used in the topical treatment of acne. Topical treatment of acne with active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) makes direct contact with the target site before entering the systemic circulation which reduces the systemic side effect of the parenteral or oral administration of drug. The objective of the present review is to discuss the conventional delivery systems available for acne, their drawbacks, and limitations. The advantages, disadvantages, and outcome of using various carrier-based delivery systems like liposomes, niosomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, and so forth, are explained. This paper emphasizes approaches to overcome the drawbacks and limitations associated with the conventional system and the advances and application that are poised to further enhance the efficacy of topical acne formulations, offering the possibility of simplified dosing regimen that may improve treatment outcomes using novel delivery system. PMID:24688376

  2. Hormonal and dietary factors in acne vulgaris versus controls.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Thomas Jonathan; Bazergy, Carl

    2018-01-01

    Background : Acne vulgaris is an inflammatory skin disorder with not as yet fully understood pathogenesis. In this controlled study, we assessed acne vulgaris patients for several possible pathogenic factors such as vitamin D deficiency, vegan diet, increased body mass index (BMI) and positive anti-transglutaminase antibody. Methods : We screened 10 years of records at a family medicine clinic for patients diagnosed with acne vulgaris. In eligible subjects, we collected data regarding 25-hydroxylvitamin D levels, BMI, dietary preference and serum IgA tissue transglutaminase levels. Controls were age- (+/- 12 months) and sex-matched patients seen during the study period without a diagnosis of acne vulgaris. Results : 453 patients were given a diagnosis of acne vulgaris during the study period. Compared with controls, we found significant associations between vitamin D deficiency (<50nmol/L), and/or positive transglutaminase antibody level (>4.0U/mL) and a diagnosis of acne vulgaris. Conclusions : Our study adds important information to the current body of literature in pursuit of elucidating the pathogenesis of this complex multifactorial disease.

  3. Dapsone 7.5% Gel: A Review in Acne Vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Al-Salama, Zaina T; Deeks, Emma D

    2017-02-01

    Dapsone 7.5% gel (Aczone ® ) is indicated for the once-daily topical treatment of acne vulgaris in patients aged ≥12 years. Dapsone is a sulfone antibacterial with anti-inflammatory actions, which are thought to be largely responsible for its efficacy in treating acne vulgaris. In two phase III trials of 12 weeks' duration in patients aged ≥12 years with moderate acne vulgaris, once-daily dapsone 7.5% gel reduced acne severity (as per the Global Acne Assessment Score) and lesion counts versus vehicle. The benefits of dapsone 7.5% gel over vehicle were seen as early as week 2 for inflammatory lesion counts, and from week 4 or 8 for other outcomes. Dapsone 7.5% gel was well tolerated, with a low incidence of treatment-related adverse events, with the majority of adverse events being administration-site related and mild or moderate in severity. Thus, dapsone 7.5% gel is an effective and well tolerated option for the topical treatment of acne vulgaris in patients aged ≥12 years, with the convenience of once-daily application.

  4. Single Bacterium Detection Using Sers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonchukov, S. A.; Baikova, T. V.; Alushin, M. V.; Svistunova, T. S.; Minaeva, S. A.; Ionin, A. A.; Kudryashov, S. I.; Saraeva, I. N.; Zayarny, D. A.

    2016-02-01

    This work is devoted to the study of a single Staphylococcus aureus bacterium detection using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and resonant Raman spectroscopy (RS). It was shown that SERS allows increasing sensitivity of predominantly low frequency lines connected with the vibrations of Amide, Proteins and DNA. At the same time the lines of carotenoids inherent to this kind of bacterium are well-detected due to the resonance Raman scattering mechanism. The reproducibility and stability of Raman spectra strongly depend on the characteristics of nanostructured substrate, and molecular structure and size of the tested biological object.

  5. AFAST - Adult Female Acne Scoring Tool: an easy-to-use tool for scoring acne in adult females.

    PubMed

    Auffret, N; Claudel, J-P; Leccia, M-T; Poli, F; Farhi, D; Dréno, B

    2016-05-01

    Acne is a concern in adults, especially in women. The specifications in current acne grading systems are not applicable to this particular population. To develop and validate a measurement tool (AFAST: adult female acne scoring tool) for acne in women by taking into account the specific locations of adult female acne, and to evaluate the impact of the photographic modalities on rating reproducibility. Six experts in dermatology rated pictures of 54 women with a phototype from I to IV during two sessions, with an interval of 24 h. They rated the acne severity on the face using the GEA scale (Score 1) together with a new scale to assess acne on the mandibular zone (Score 2). Pictures of 30 women were taken using a standardized photographic device; pictures of the other 24 women were taken by their own dermatologists during daily practice. At session 1, the inter-rater's reproducibility was good for Score 1 with an ICC of 0.77 [0.72-0.83], and excellent for Score 2 with an ICC of 0.87 [0.82-0.91]. Between sessions 1 and 2, the mean intra-rater's reproducibility was excellent for both scores with an ICC of 0.88 [0.84-0.92] for Score 1, and an ICC of 0.87 [0.78-0.92] for Score 2. Photographic modalities had no significant effect on the inter- and intra-rater's reproducibility. For the first time, it has been demonstrated that AFAST can accurately rate acne severity in women. It is a promising, easy-to-use tool for both daily practice and clinical investigation. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  6. Randomized, controlled trial split-faced study of 595-nm pulsed dye laser in the treatment of acne vulgaris and acne erythema in adolescents and early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lekwuttikarn, Ramrada; Tempark, Therdpong; Chatproedprai, Susheera; Wananukul, Siriwan

    2017-08-01

    The high prevalence of acne vulgaris in teenagers has increased comorbidities. Lasers offer alternative options for acne treatment because they have rapid action, low systemic adverse effects, and do not require everyday treatment. To study the efficacy and patients' satisfaction of 595-nm pulse dye laser (PDL) treatment of acne vulgaris and acne erythema in adolescents and early adulthood, we designed a blocked-randomized, split-faced 595-nm PDL (fluence 8 J/cm 3 pulse duration 10 ms, spot size 7 mm, 2 session every 2 weeks) study in patients with mild to moderate acne by comparing the laser-treated and non-treated side. The acne lesion counts, acne erythema grading, and acne severity grading were evaluated at baseline and 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Thirty patients were recruited. The results showed no statistically significant difference except the papule count at week 4 which was -1.828 on the treated side and 0.103 on the non-treated side of the face, P-value 0.0018. There was no statistically significant difference of acne severity grading and acne erythema grading between both sides of the face. The mean scores of patients' satisfaction on the laser-treated side were 75, 81, and 81%, respectively. The PDL treatment in this study reveals no significant improvement in acne therapy; however, the patients were satisfied with this laser treatment. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  7. The Difference in Interleukin-19 Serum on Degrees of Acne Vulgaris Severity.

    PubMed

    Mochtar, Moerbono; Murasmita, Alamanda; Irawanto, M Eko; Julianto, Indah; Kariosentono, Harijono; Waskito, Fajar

    2018-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a multifactorial disease. Recent study showed that inflammation does have a central role in the formation of both inflammatory and noninflammatory lesions in acne vulgaris. There are various findings of proinflammatory cytokines related to acne vulgaris, but no previous study correlate interleukin- (IL-) 19 to acne vulgaris. This pilot study aims to look at difference in IL-19 serum concentration on degrees of severity of acne vulgaris. This is an analytical observational cross-sectional study. Sample subjects were patients with acne vulgaris who met the inclusion criteria. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) study was applied to measure IL-19 serum. Analysis test found statistically significant difference between IL-19 serum concentration of group of patients with mild acne vulgaris and that of group of patients with severe acne vulgaris. Moreover, analysis revealed significant difference between IL-19 serum concentration of group of patients with moderate acne vulgaris and that of group of patients with severe acne vulgaris. There are differences in serum levels of IL-19 on the severity of acne vulgaris. The significant difference might show that inflammation has a core role in severity of acne vulgaris, and IL-19 might potentially be related to acne vulgaris.

  8. Genome-scale model guided design of Propionibacterium for enhanced propionic acid production.

    PubMed

    Navone, Laura; McCubbin, Tim; Gonzalez-Garcia, Ricardo A; Nielsen, Lars K; Marcellin, Esteban

    2018-06-01

    Production of propionic acid by fermentation of propionibacteria has gained increasing attention in the past few years. However, biomanufacturing of propionic acid cannot compete with the current oxo-petrochemical synthesis process due to its well-established infrastructure, low oil prices and the high downstream purification costs of microbial production. Strain improvement to increase propionic acid yield is the best alternative to reduce downstream purification costs. The recent generation of genome-scale models for a number of Propionibacterium species facilitates the rational design of metabolic engineering strategies and provides a new opportunity to explore the metabolic potential of the Wood-Werkman cycle. Previous strategies for strain improvement have individually targeted acid tolerance, rate of propionate production or minimisation of by-products. Here we used the P. freudenreichii subsp . shermanii and the pan- Propionibacterium genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs) to simultaneously target these combined issues. This was achieved by focussing on strategies which yield higher energies and directly suppress acetate formation. Using P. freudenreichii subsp . shermanii , two strategies were assessed. The first tested the ability to manipulate the redox balance to favour propionate production by over-expressing the first two enzymes of the pentose-phosphate pathway (PPP), Zwf (glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenase) and Pgl (6-phosphogluconolactonase). Results showed a 4-fold increase in propionate to acetate ratio during the exponential growth phase. Secondly, the ability to enhance the energy yield from propionate production by over-expressing an ATP-dependent phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and sodium-pumping methylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylase (MMD) was tested, which extended the exponential growth phase. Together, these strategies demonstrate that in silico design strategies are predictive and can be used to reduce by-product formation in

  9. Effects of topical acne treatment on the ocular surface in patients with acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Aslan Bayhan, Seray; Bayhan, Hasan Ali; Çölgeçen, Emine; Gürdal, Canan

    2016-12-01

    To assess the ocular side effects during topical retinoid-antibiotic combination treatment in patients with facial acne vulgaris. Forty-three patients applying topical isotretinoin+erythromycin combination (isotrexin gel, GlaxoSmithKline) once daily for the treatment of acne vulgaris were enrolled. Full ophthalmologic examination, Schirmer test (with topical anesthesia), fluorescein break-up time (BUT), corneal fluorescein staining and tear osmolarity measurement with the TearLab system (TearLab Corporation) were carried out before and at the end of the first month of the treatment. For evaluation of symptoms participants completed the ocular surface disease index (OSDI) questionnaire at each visit. The mean age of the patients was 23.16±3.03 (18-30) years. Mean tear osmolarity increased significantly from 282.09±8.95 mOsm/L at baseline to 300.39±16.65 mOsm/L after the treatment (p<0.001). BUT decreased from an average of 11.93±1.12s at baseline to 6.65±3.03s at the end of the first month (p<0.001). The OSDI score worsened significantly (5.41±3.65 vs 21.53±12.95, p<0.001) and punctate epitheliopathy was seen in 51% of eyes after the treatment. The average Schirmer values were 13.09±1.90 and 12.41±2.44mm/5min before and at the end of the first month of the treatment, respectively (p=0.117). The findings of this study indicate that topical retinoid-antibiotic combination treatment causes significant signs and symptoms of dry eye. Patients receiving topical treatment for acne should be evaluated regularly to ensure the timely detection and treatment of pathologic signs on the ocular surface. Copyright © 2016 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Acne-specific quality of life questionnaire (Acne-QoL): translation, cultural adaptation and validation into Brazilian-Portuguese language*

    PubMed Central

    Kamamoto, Cristhine de Souza Leão; Hassun, Karime Marques; Bagatin, Ediléia; Tomimori, Jane

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND many studies about the psychosocial impact of acne have been reported in international medical literature describing quality of life as a relevant clinical outcome. It is well known that the patient's perception about the disease may be different from the physician's evaluation. Therefore, it is important to use validated instruments that turn the patient's subjective opinion into objective information. OBJECTIVES to translate into Brazilian-Portuguese language and to culturally adapt a quality of life questionnaire, the Acne-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (Acne-QoL), as well as to evaluate its reliability and validity. METHODS measurement properties were assessed: 1) validity: comparison between severity and Acne-QoL domain scores, correlations between acne duration and Acne-QoL domain scores, and correlation between Acne-QoL domain scores and SF-36 components; 2) internal consistency: Cronbach's α coefficient; 3) test-retest reproducibility: intraclass correlation coefficient and Wilcoxon test. RESULTS Eighty subjects with a mean age of 20.5 ± 4.8 years presenting mild (33.8%), moderate (36.2%) and severe (30%) facial acne were enrolled. Acne-QoL domain scores were similar among the different acne severity groups except for role-social domain. Subjects with shorter acne duration presented significant higher scores. Acne-QoL domains showed significant correlations, both between themselves and with SF-36 role-social and mental health components. Internal consistency (0.925-0.952) and test-retest reproducibility were considered acceptable (0.768-0.836). CONCLUSIONS the Brazilian-Portuguese version of the Acne-QoL is a reliable and valid satisfactory outcome measure to be used in facial acne studies. PMID:24626652

  11. Treatment of acne vulgaris with fractional radiofrequency microneedling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Tae; Lee, Kang Hoon; Sim, Hyung Jun; Suh, Kee Suck; Jang, Min Soo

    2014-07-01

    Fractional radiofrequency microneedling is a novel radiofrequency technique that uses insulated microneedles to deliver energy to the deep dermis at the point of penetration without destruction of the epidermis. It has been used for the treatment of various dermatological conditions including wrinkles, atrophic scars and hypertrophic scars. There have been few studies evaluating the efficacy of fractional radiofrequency microneedling in the treatment of acne, and none measuring objective parameters like the number of inflammatory and non-inflammatory acne lesions or sebum excretion levels. The safety and efficacy of fractional radiofrequency microneedling in the treatment of acne vulgaris was investigated. In a prospective clinical trial, 25 patients with moderate to severe acne were treated with fractional radiofrequency microneedling. The procedure was carried out three times at 1-month intervals. Acne lesion count, subjective satisfaction score, sebum excretion level and adverse effects were assessed at baseline and at 4, 8 and 12 weeks after the first treatment as well as 4, 8 and 12 weeks after the last treatment. Number of acne lesions (inflammatory and non-inflammatory) decreased. Sebum excretion and subjective satisfaction were more favorable at every time point compared with the baseline values (P < 0.05). Inflammatory lesions responded better than non-inflammatory lesions (P < 0.05). Adverse effects such as pinpoint bleeding, pain and erythema were noted, but were transient and not severe enough to stop treatment. Fractional radiofrequency microneedling is a safe and effective treatment for acne vulgaris. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  12. Biofilm Formation by a Metabolically Versatile Bacterium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-19

    ABSTRACT Rhodopseudomonas palustris is a photosynthetic bacterium that has good potential as a biocatalyst for the production ofhydrogen gas, a biofuel...Biofilm formation by a metabolically versatile bacterium: final report Report Title ABSTRACT Rhodopseudomonas palustris is a photosynthetic bacterium...agricultural waste. We characterized five new Rhodopseudomonas genome sequences and isolated and described R. palustris mutant strains that produce

  13. Acne in adolescents: quality of life, self-esteem, mood, and psychological disorders.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Lauren K; O'Neill, Jenna L; Feldman, Steven R

    2011-01-15

    Acne is a significant adolescent problem and may precipitate emotional and psychological effects. The impact of acne on psychological parameters and implications for acne treatment are not fully understood. We performed a MEDLINE search using the terms "acne" and "adolescent" along with "psychological," "depression," or "psychiatric," which yielded 16 reviewed studies. Qualitative review of the selected articles revealed that the presence of acne has a significant impact on self-esteem and quality of life. Depression and other psychological disorders are more prevalent in acne patients and acne treatment may improve symptoms of these disorders. The reviewed studies were semi-quantitative analyses utilizing various standardized surveys or questionnaires. Therefore, quantitative analysis of selected studies was not possible. The presence of co-morbid psychological disorders should be considered in the treatment of acne patients and future prospective trials are needed to assess the impact of treatment on psychological outcomes.

  14. Beliefs, perceptions and psychosocial impact of acne amongst Singaporean students in tertiary institutions.

    PubMed

    Su, Peiqi; Chen Wee Aw, Derrick; Lee, Siew Hui; Han Sim Toh, Matthias Paul

    2015-03-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition which can have a negative impact on a patient's quality of life. A survey was distributed among students at tertiary institutions. Data was collected on participants' own rating of acne grade and how acne affected their social life. A clinician on-site graded the participants' acne. Of the 429 students who participated in the survey, 59.8 % felt embarrassed or self-conscious because of their acne. There was a low but statistically significant correlation (Spearman's Correlation Coefficient = 0.471, p < 0.001) between participants' and clinicians' grading of acne. Acne vulgaris causes a considerable amount of psychosocial stress. There are unfounded beliefs surrounding acne and unawareness of treatment options available. © 2015 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Acne inversa complicated by Actinomyces neuii.

    PubMed

    Nedomansky, Jakob; Weiss, Doris; Willinger, Birgit; Nickl, Stefanie; Steininger, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    Acne inversa (AI) is a chronic and recurrent inflammatory skin disease. It occurs in intertriginous areas of the skin and causes pain, drainage, malodor and scar formation. While supposedly caused by an autoimmune reaction, bacterial superinfection is a secondary event in the disease process. A unique case of a 43-year-old male patient suffering from a recurring AI lesion in the left axilla was retrospectively analysed. A swab revealed Actinomyces neuii as the only agent growing in the lesion. The patient was then treated with Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid 3 × 1 g until he was cleared for surgical excision. The intraoperative swab was negative for A. neuii. Antibiotics were prescribed for another 4 weeks and the patient has remained relapse free for more than 12 months now. Primary cutaneous Actinomycosis is a rare entity and the combination of AI and Actinomycosis has never been reported before. Failure to detect superinfections of AI lesions with slow-growing pathogens like Actinomyces spp. might contribute to high recurrence rates after immunosuppressive therapy of AI. The present case underlines the potentially multifactorial pathogenesis of the disease and the importance of considering and treating potential infections before initiating immunosuppressive regimens for AI patients.

  16. [Antibiotics, azelaic acid and benzoyl peroxide in topical acne therapy].

    PubMed

    Fluhr, Joachim W; Degitz, Klaus

    2010-03-01

    Benzoyl peroxide was introduced as a basic treatment already in acne therapy 1934. The mechanism of action is the reduction of anaerobe bacteria by strong oxidation processes. No resistancies have been ever reported. BPO is available in 2.5, 5 and 10 % formulations. Its efficacy is slightly related to the strength of concentrations, but the side effect profile with burning, erythema and desquamation is increasing with concentrations. BPO 5% mostly is efficient enough to control acne of grades I to II according to the Kligman & Plewig classification. BPO my bleach clothes and hair. It is the most costeffective topical drug in acne of grades I-II. Inflammatory acne of the papular-pustular type I-II can also be treated by topical antibiotics such as erythromycin, clindamycin, and, less frequent and today not anymore recommended tetracyclines. Mechanism of action is not alone an antibacterial but anti inflammatory effect. The efficacy and penetration of the topical antibiotics between the groups are similar. Randomized studies have shown that concentrations of 2-4% are equivalent to oral tetracycline and minocycline in mild to moderate acne. Combinatory formulations with BPO and with retinoids enhance the efficacy significantly. Topical antibiotics plus BPO show less bacterial resistancies as topical antibiotics alone. Antibiotics should therefore not be used as monotherapy. Moreover gram negative folliculitis may develop. Azelaic acid is acting as an antimicrobial and can also reduce comedones. It can also be used in pregnancy and during the lactation period.

  17. Psychiatric disorders, acne and systemic retinoids: comparison of risks.

    PubMed

    Le Moigne, M; Bulteau, S; Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Gerardin, M; Fournier, Jean-Pascal; Jonville-Bera, A P; Jolliet, Pascale; Dreno, Brigitte; Victorri-Vigneau, C

    2017-09-01

    The link between isotretinoin, treatment of a severe form of acne, and psychiatric disorders remains controversial, as acne itself could explain the occurrence of psychiatric disorders. This study aims at assessing the disproportionality of psychiatric adverse events reported with isotretinoin in the French National PharmacoVigilance Database, compared with other systemic acne treatments and systemic retinoids. Data were extracted from the French National PharmacoVigilance Database for systemic acne treatments, systemic retinoids and drugs used as comparators. Each report was subjected to double-blind analysis by two psychiatric experts. A disproportionality analysis was performed, calculating the number of psychiatric ADRs divided by the total number of notifications for each drug of interest. Concerning acne systemic treatments: all 71 reports of severe psychiatric disorders involved isotretinoin, the highest proportion of mild/moderate psychiatric adverse events was reported with isotretinoin (14.1%). Among systemic retinoids, the highest proportion of severe and mild/moderate psychiatric events occurred with isotretinoin and alitretinoin. Our study raises the hypothesis that psychiatric disorders associated with isotretinoin are related to a class effect of retinoids, as a signal emerges for alitretinoin. Complementary studies are necessary to estimate the risk and further determine at-risk populations.

  18. Body Image Disturbance in Patients with Acne Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Bowe, Whitney P.; Crerand, Canice E.; Margolis, David J.; Shalita, Alan R.

    2011-01-01

    Psychosocial outcome measures, which attempt to examine acne from the patient's perspective, have become increasingly important in dermatology research. One such measure is the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire. The authors' primary aim was to determine the validity and internal consistency of the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire in patients with acne vulgaris. The secondary aim was to investigate the relationship between body image disturbance and quality of life. This cross-sectional investigation included 52 consecutive acne patients presenting to an outpatient dermatology clinic. Subjects completed the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire, Skindex-16, and other body image and psychosocial functioning measures. An objective assessment of acne was performed. The Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire was internally consistent and converged with other known body image indices. Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire scores also correlated with Skindex-16 scores, confirming that quality of life and body image are related psychosocial constructs. The Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire appears to be an accurate instrument that can assess appearance-related concern and impairment in patients with acne vulgaris. Limitations include a small sample size and the cross-sectional design. PMID:21779418

  19. Open-label, randomized, multicenter, phase III study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of benzoyl peroxide gel in long-term use in patients with acne vulgaris: A secondary publication.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Makoto; Nagare, Toshitaka; Katsuramaki, Tsuneo

    2017-06-01

    An open-label, randomized, multicenter study was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of long-term use of 2.5% and 5% benzoyl peroxide (BPO) gels administrated once daily for 52 weeks to Japanese patients with acne vulgaris. The efficacy of the study drugs was evaluated by counting inflammatory lesions and non-inflammatory lesions. Safety was evaluated based on adverse events, local skin tolerability scores and laboratory test values. In total, 458 subjects were included in the efficacy and safety analyses. The total lesion count, the efficacy end-point, was similarly changed both in the 2.5% and 5% BPO groups over the course of the study. The median rates of reduction from baseline to week 12 were approximately 65%. Thereafter, the counts were maintained at a reduced level without increasing until week 52. The median rates at week 52 were approximately 80%. Similar trends were observed for inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesion counts. Bacteriological evaluation indicated similar distribution of the minimum inhibitory concentration of each of the antibacterial drugs against Propionibacterium acnes between the values at baseline and at week 52, suggesting that long-term use did not result in changes in the drug sensitivity. The incidence of adverse events was 84.0% in the 2.5% BPO group and 87.2% in the 5% BPO group. Many of the adverse events occurred within the first month and were mild or moderate in severity and transient. The results suggest that both 2.5% and 5% BPO gels are effective and safe for long-term treatment of patients with acne vulgaris. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Dermatological Association.

  20. Biodiversity of dairy Propionibacterium isolated from dairy farms in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Rosangela; Chuat, Victoria; Madec, Marie-Noelle; Nero, Luis Augusto; Thierry, Anne; Valence, Florence; de Carvalho, Antonio Fernandes

    2015-06-16

    Dairy propionibacteria are used as ripening cultures for the production of Swiss-type cheeses, and some strains have potential for use as probiotics. This study investigated the biodiversity of wild dairy Propionibacteria isolates in dairy farms that produce Swiss-type cheeses in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. RAPD and PFGE were used for molecular typing of strains and MLST was applied for phylogenetic analysis of strains of Propionibacterium freudenreichii. The results showed considerable genetic diversity of the wild dairy propionibacteria, since three of the main species were observed to be randomly distributed among the samples collected from different farms in different biotopes (raw milk, sillage, soil and pasture). Isolates from different farms showed distinct genetic profiles, suggesting that each location represented a specific niche. Furthermore, the STs identified for the strains of P. freudenreichii by MLST were not related to any specific origin. The environment of dairy farms and milk production proved to be a reservoir for Propionibacterium strains, which are important for future use as possible starter cultures or probiotics, as well as in the study of prevention of cheese defects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of fractional microneedling radiofrequency and bipolar radiofrequency on acne and acne scar and investigation of mechanism: comparative randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Min, Seonguk; Park, Seon Yong; Yoon, Ji Young; Suh, Dae Hun

    2015-12-01

    Fractional microneedling radiofrequency (FMR) is one of the promising methods in acne treatment. Moreover, bipolar radiofrequency (BR) generates heat thereby which induces neocollagenosis. FMR may have the potential to be a safe and effective treatment for the patients both with acne and acne scar. This study was performed to compare the efficacy and safety of FMR and BR in acne and acne scar treatment. Furthermore, mechanism of the FMR treatment was investigated through skin tissues obtained from subjects. Twenty subjects with mild-to-moderate acne and acne scars were treated in a split-face manner with FMR and BR. Two sessions of treatment was done 4 weeks apart in a total 12-week prospective single-blind, randomized clinical trial. Clinical assessment and sebum measurement were carried out for the evaluation of efficacy and safety. Skin tissues were acquired for investigation of molecular changes. FMR was more effective for acne scar especially in icepick and boxcar scar compared to BR. Both inflammatory and non-inflammatory acne lesions decreased by 80 and 65 % in the FMR-treated side at the final visit of 12 weeks, respectively. FMR treatment resulted in significant reduction of sebum excretion. Both treatments showed no severe adverse effects other than erythema. The FMR showed superior efficacy in acne and acne scar compared with BR. Increased expression of TGFβ and collagen I and decreased expression of NF-κB, IL-8 are suggested to involve in the improvement of acne scar and acne lesion by FMR.

  2. Effect of crude and pure glycerol on biomass production and trehalose accumulation by Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii 1.

    PubMed

    Pawlicka-Kaczorowska, Joanna; Czaczyk, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    The dairy propionibacteria, which are traditionally used for the production of Swiss cheeses, are able to synthesize valuable biomolecules, e.g. B group vitamins, propionic acid, and trehalose with unique chemical and physical properties. Both, dairy propionibacteria cells and trehalose, have found many applications as attractive and effective components in food, beauty and health care products. This study confirmed the ability of several strains from the Propionibacterium genus to create trehalose from glycerol. The research aimed to investigate the effect of crude and pure glycerol on biomass production and on trehalose accumulation by Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii 1. The results indicated that the capacity for trehalose accumulation by Propionibacterium spp. was strain dependent. Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii 1 was able to grow on crude glycerol. For both, pure and crude glycerol, the highest amount of dry biomass leveled off at about 4 g/L. While the use of crude glycerol had no effect on the final concentration of biomass, it reduced the accumulation of trehalose in the cells. An increase in the concentration of carbon source (2-8%) resulted in more than a 5-fold rise in trehalose production. The highest trehalose concentration of 195.04 mg/L was obtained with cultures of the said strain supplemented to 8% with pure glycerol.

  3. Necrotizing lymphocytic folliculitis: the early lesion of acne necrotica (varioliformis).

    PubMed

    Kossard, S; Collins, A; McCrossin, I

    1987-05-01

    Skin biopsy specimens from four patients who had recurrent bouts of lesions conforming to the clinical description of acne necrotica were studied. The pathologic findings were dominated by lymphocytic inflammation around centrally placed follicles evolving to follicular necrosis that extended to the perifollicular epidermis and dermis. Early lesions showed the development of multiple individual necrotic keratinocytes within the follicular sheath and adjacent epidermis with lymphocytic exocytosis. Later lesions showed more intense necrosis and scale crust obscuring the central target but were still dominated by a peripheral lymphocytic infiltrate. The early pathologic findings of acne necrotica (varioliformis) are represented by a necrotizing lymphocytic folliculitis and differ from the pattern seen in association with nonspecific excoriations, acute bacterial folliculitis, classic comedogenic acne, or acnitis.

  4. Photopneumatic Technology in Acne Treatment and Skin Rejuvenation: Histological Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Omi, Tokuya

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims: Recent reports indicate that a variety of light-based devices have been used for acne treatment and skin rejuvenation. A new technology combining intense pulsed light with negative pressure, photopneumatic technology, has recently attracted interest. The present study assessed acne treatment and skin rejuvenation with this novel approach Subjects and Methods: Acne, 450 nm tip. Five Japanese volunteers (1 male, 4 female; mean age 28.6 yr; skin type III) with mild to moderate/moderate active acne participated. The face was treated with 2 sessions, 2 weeks apart. Biopsies were obtained immediately after the first session and 1 week after the second session, and routinely processed for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Rejuvenation, profusion tip with topical preparation. In 5 Japanese volunteers (3 male, 2 female; mean age 37.6 yr, skin type III), the volar aspect of both forearms was treated with the 530 nm head at P6 (around 12 J/cm2). The left arm was then treated with a pre-infused profusion tip and vacuum only. Four sessions were given, 14-day intervals. Biopsies were taken from both arms 2 weeks after the 2nd session and 3 weeks after the 4th session. One-half of each biopsy was assessed with histo-and immunohistochemistry, and the other with TEM. Results Acne trial: A combination of physical extraction of comedones, mild photothermal damage of the follicle and damage to identified bacilli was noted post-treatment, with macroscopic improvement of the skin. Rejuvenation with profusion: Significant morphological and immunohistochemical differences were seen between the control and profusion-treated arms at the first assessment. These differences became less significant at the 2nd assessment. Conclusions Macroscopically and histologically, photopneumatic technology improved acne lesions, suggesting a synergistic effect between the components of the technology. In skin rejuvenation, the profusion therapy accelerated the regenerative

  5. IL-17/Th17 Pathway Is Activated in Acne Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Kelhälä, Hanna-Leena; Palatsi, Riitta; Fyhrquist, Nanna; Lehtimäki, Sari; Väyrynen, Juha P.; Kallioinen, Matti; Kubin, Minna E.; Greco, Dario; Tasanen, Kaisa; Alenius, Harri; Bertino, Beatrice; Carlavan, Isabelle; Mehul, Bruno; Déret, Sophie; Reiniche, Pascale; Martel, Philippe; Marty, Carine; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Voegel, Johannes J.; Lauerma, Antti

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms of inflammation in acne are currently subject of intense investigation. This study focused on the activation of adaptive and innate immunity in clinically early visible inflamed acne lesions and was performed in two independent patient populations. Biopsies were collected from lesional and non-lesional skin of acne patients. Using Affymetrix Genechips, we observed significant elevation of the signature cytokines of the Th17 lineage in acne lesions compared to non-lesional skin. The increased expression of IL-17 was confirmed at the RNA and also protein level with real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and Luminex technology. Cytokines involved in Th17 lineage differentiation (IL-1β, IL-6, TGF-β, IL23p19) were remarkably induced at the RNA level. In addition, proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines (TNF-α, IL-8, CSF2 and CCL20), Th1 markers (IL12p40, CXCR3, T-bet, IFN-γ), T regulatory cell markers (Foxp3, IL-10, TGF-β) and IL-17 related antimicrobial peptides (S100A7, S100A9, lipocalin, hBD2, hBD3, hCAP18) were induced. Importantly, immunohistochemistry revealed significantly increased numbers of IL-17A positive T cells and CD83 dendritic cells in the acne lesions. In summary our results demonstrate the presence of IL-17A positive T cells and the activation of Th17-related cytokines in acne lesions, indicating that the Th17 pathway is activated and may play a pivotal role in the disease process, possibly offering new targets of therapy. PMID:25153527

  6. Changes in serum desnutrin levels in patients with acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Demir, Betul; Ucak, Haydar; Cicek, Demet; Aydin, Suleyman; Erden, Ilker; Dertlioglu, Selma Bakar

    2014-01-01

    Androgens and insulin may contribute to increased sebum production in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. We investigated the association between serum desnutrin levels and acne vulgaris in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. 25 patients presenting with acne vulgaris and 25 control subjects participated in this study. Fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, LDL, VLDL, HDL, total cholesterol, insulin, C-peptide and thyroid function tests were measured. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was used to calculate insulin resistance. Desnutrin levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) according to the manufacturer's protocol. Patients with acne vulgaris had a mean serum desnutrin level of (8.83 ± 1.13 μIU/mL), which was statistically significantly lower in the control group (10:58 ± 3.43 μIU/mL). In patients with acne vulgaris the serum glucose levels, insulin levels and HOMA-IR values (87.92 ± 7:46 mg/dL, 11.33 ± 5.93 μIU/mL, 2.49 ± 1.40, respectively) were significantly higher than the control group (77.36 ± 9.83 mg/dL, 5.82 ± 2.68 μIU/mL, 1.11 ± 0.51, respectively) (p = 0.01, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, respectively). Full cohort (patients and controls) evaluation revealed a negative correlation between the serum glucose and desnutrin levels (r = -0.31, p<0.05). A positive correlation was found between insulin and desnutrin levels (r = 0.42, p<0.001). In patients with acne vulgaris, as a result of increased levels of serum glucose and insulin, the function of desnutrin was suppressed, perhaps contributing to insulin resistance.

  7. Heritability and GWAS Analyses of Acne in Australian Adolescent Twins.

    PubMed

    Mina-Vargas, Angela; Colodro-Conde, Lucía; Grasby, Katrina; Zhu, Gu; Gordon, Scott; Medland, Sarah E; Martin, Nicholas G

    2017-12-01

    Acne vulgaris is a skin disease with a multifactorial and complex pathology. While several twin studies have estimated that acne has a heritability of up to 80%, the genomic elements responsible for the origin and pathology of acne are still undiscovered. Here we performed a twin-based structural equation model, using available data on acne severity for an Australian sample of 4,491 twins and their siblings aged from 10 to 24. This study extends by a factor of 3 an earlier analysis of the genetic factors of acne. Acne severity was rated by nurses on a 4-point scale (1 = absent to 4 = severe) on up to three body sites (face, back, chest) and on up to three occasions (age 12, 14, and 16). The phenotype that we analyzed was the most severe rating at any site or age. The polychoric correlation for monozygotic twins was higher (r MZ = 0.86, 95% CI [0.81, 0.90]) than for dizygotic twins (r DZ = 0.42, 95% CI [0.35, 0.47]). A model that includes additive genetic effects and unique environmental effects was the most parsimonious model to explain the genetic variance of acne severity, and the estimated heritability was 0.85 (95% CI [0.82, 0.87]). We then conducted a genome-wide analysis including an additional 271 siblings - for a total of 4,762 individuals. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) scan did not detect loci associated with the severity of acne at the threshold of 5E-08 but suggestive association was found for three SNPs: rs10515088 locus 5q13.1 (p = 3.9E-07), rs12738078 locus 1p35.5 (p = 6.7E-07), and rs117943429 locus 18q21.2 (p = 9.1E-07). The 5q13.1 locus is close to PIK3R1, a gene that has a potential regulatory effect on sebocyte differentiation.

  8. Acne in Klinefelter Syndrome-46XY/47XXY Mosaicism?

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmi, Chembolli; Swarnalakshimi, Selvaraj

    2015-01-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (KFS) is the most common non-heritable sex chromosome anomaly caused by nondisjunction during cell division and contains two or more X chromosomes. More than two third of all cases are homogenous (47XXY) and the remaining are mosaic (46XY/47XXY). Lower limb ulcers are frequently observed and attributed to impaired fibrinolysis. A case of KFS with post acne scars and leg ulcers is presented. The rarity of acne in this syndrome is explained by the phenomenon of mosaicism. PMID:26538700

  9. Acne in Klinefelter Syndrome-46XY/47XXY Mosaicism?

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, Chembolli; Swarnalakshimi, Selvaraj

    2015-01-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (KFS) is the most common non-heritable sex chromosome anomaly caused by nondisjunction during cell division and contains two or more X chromosomes. More than two third of all cases are homogenous (47XXY) and the remaining are mosaic (46XY/47XXY). Lower limb ulcers are frequently observed and attributed to impaired fibrinolysis. A case of KFS with post acne scars and leg ulcers is presented. The rarity of acne in this syndrome is explained by the phenomenon of mosaicism.

  10. Guidelines of care for the management of acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Zaenglein, Andrea L; Pathy, Arun L; Schlosser, Bethanee J; Alikhan, Ali; Baldwin, Hilary E; Berson, Diane S; Bowe, Whitney P; Graber, Emmy M; Harper, Julie C; Kang, Sewon; Keri, Jonette E; Leyden, James J; Reynolds, Rachel V; Silverberg, Nanette B; Stein Gold, Linda F; Tollefson, Megha M; Weiss, Jonathan S; Dolan, Nancy C; Sagan, Andrew A; Stern, Mackenzie; Boyer, Kevin M; Bhushan, Reva

    2016-05-01

    Acne is one of the most common disorders treated by dermatologists and other health care providers. While it most often affects adolescents, it is not uncommon in adults and can also be seen in children. This evidence-based guideline addresses important clinical questions that arise in its management. Issues from grading of acne to the topical and systemic management of the disease are reviewed. Suggestions on use are provided based on available evidence. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Acne cosmetica revisited: a case-control study shows a dose-dependent inverse association between overall cosmetic use and post-adolescent acne.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sanjay; Mann, Baldeep Kaur; Tiwary, Narendra K

    2013-01-01

    Case-control studies to support the concept of acne cosmetica are lacking. To examine the association of post-adolescent acne with the use of cosmetics and cosmetic procedures. 910 post-adolescent patients with acne and an equal number of matched controls were studied for exposure to cosmetics and cosmetic procedures. A cumulative cosmetic exposure index was stratified into four quarters of increasing exposure. Comparison of different cumulative exposure categories with the lowest exposure category (multivariate analysis, logistic regression) showed that the odds ratios, which were always <1, progressively declined as cosmetic exposure increased [odds ratios (95% confidence intervals): 0.679 (0.501-0.922), 0.355 (0.258-0.487), 0.307 (0.217-0.433)]. However, some individual cosmetics had odds ratios >1. Overall cosmetic use was negatively associated with post-adolescent acne. The term 'acne cosmetica' is appropriate in the sense that some cosmetics may cause acne.

  12. Quantitative documentation of a premenstrual flare of facial acne in adult women.

    PubMed

    Lucky, Anne W

    2004-04-01

    To quantitatively document the presence and extent of a late luteal (premenstrual) acne flare in adult women. Case series. Subjects were recruited from a general community dermatology practice and by advertising. Adult women 18 to 44 years old with normal periods who were receiving no treatment for their acne. Acne lesion counts were surveyed over the follicular and luteal phases of 2 full menstrual cycles. Most (63%) of these women showed a 25% premenstrual increase in the number of inflammatory acne lesions. This is the first quantitative documentation of the presence and degree of premenstrual acne flares in adult women.

  13. Validation of the Spanish Acne Severity Scale (Escala de Gravedad del Acné Española--EGAE).

    PubMed

    Puig, Lluis; Guerra-Tapia, Aurora; Conejo-Mir, Julián; Toribio, Jaime; Berasategui, Carmen; Zsolt, Ilonka

    2013-04-01

    Several acne grading systems have been described, but consensus is lacking on which shows superiority. A standardized system would facilitate therapeutic decisions and the analysis of clinical trial data. To assess the feasibility, reliability, validity and sensitivity to change of the Spanish Acne Severity Scale (EGAE). A Spanish, multicentre, prospective, observational study was performed in patients with facial, back or chest acne assessed using EGAE, Leeds Revised Acne Grading system (LRAG) and lesion count. Clinicians answered 4 questions regarding EGAE use and time employed. Patients were evaluated at baseline and after 5±1 weeks. Four additional blinded observers, all dermatologists, evaluated patients' pictures using EGAE and LRAG. In total, 349 acne locations were assessed in 328 patients. Of the dermatologists, 95.6% (CI: 92.9-97.5%) reported that EGAE was easy to use, and 75% used it in <3 minutes. Interobserver reliability of the EGAE scale was shown by a Kendall's W of 0.773 (p<0.001). EGAE and LRAG scales showed a high correlation (Spearman's correlation>0.85; p<0.001). EGAE mean score in treatment-compliant patients was significantly lower at follow-up than at baseline (2.14 vs. 1.57, p<0.001, Cohen's d=0.35).The pre-post-treatment difference in EGAE mean score in non-compliant patients was not significant (1.44 vs. 1.32, p<0.102) and Cohen's d was lower (0.19) than in compliant patients. The use of EGAE to evaluate acne grade in daily clinical dermatological practice in Spanish centres has shown feasibility, high interobserver reliability, concurrent validity and sensitivity to detect treatment effects.

  14. Acne prevalence, severity and risk factors among medical students in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Muthupalaniappen, L; Tan, H C; Puah, J W D; Apipi, M; Sohaimi, A E; Mahat, N F; Rafee, N M

    2014-01-01

    Acne is a common skin disorder which can cause physical scaring and impact the quality of life. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence, severity and the risk factors for developing acne among medical students in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM). A cross sectional study among UKM medical students from academic year 1 to 5 was conducted from July 2011 to May 2012. A total of 361 students were selected by stratified cluster sampling method. Baseline data of the students, risk factors, height and weight were recorded. Acne severity was graded using the Comprehensive Acne Severity Scale (CASS). The prevalence of acne among medical students is 68.1% (n=246). Males and females were almost equally affected (1:1.1). Majority students with acne were graded as almost clear (55.7%, n=137), mild (35.0%, n=86), moderate (7.7%, n=19), and severe (1.6%, n=4). More than half of them had developed acne scars (59.0%, n= 213). Males were found to be at higher risk of developing acne compared to females (p<0.05, OR=4.734; 95%CL=2.726-8.222). They are also at higher risk of developing moderate and severe grades of acne compared to females (p=0.001). The odds for developing acne was higher when mother (p=0.029; OR=1.752; 95%CL=1.058-2.902) or father (p=0.027; OR=1.852; 95%CL=1.072-3.201) had acne. When both parents were affected by acne the odds of developing acne was 3 times. (p=0.025; OR=3.056; 95%CL=1.153-8.094). This study shows that the prevalence of acne among medical students is high. Hence, it is important to identify those at risk and provide optimal treatment to prevent scarring and possible low self esteem among these future doctors.

  15. Lactic acid peeling in superficial acne scarring in Indian skin.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Silonie

    2010-09-01

    Chemical peeling with both alpha and beta hydroxy acids has been used to improve acne scarring with pigmentation. Lactic acid, a mild alpha hydroxy acid, has been used in the treatment of various dermatological indications but no study is reported in acne scarring with pigmentation. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of full strength pure lactic acid 92% (pH 2.0) chemical peel in superficial acne scarring in Indian skin. Seven patients, Fitzpatrick skin type IV-V, in age group 20-30 years with superficial acne scarring were enrolled in the study. Chemical peeling was done with lactic acid at an interval of 2 weeks to a maximum of four peels. Pre- and post-peel clinical photographs were taken at every session. Patients were followed every month for 3 months after the last peel to evaluate the effects. At the end of 3 months, there was definite improvement in the texture, pigmentation, and appearance of the treated skin, with lightening of scars. Significant improvement (greater than 75% clearance of lesions) occurred in one patient (14.28%), good improvement (51-75% clearance) in three patients (42.84%), moderate improvement (26-50% clearance) in two patients (28.57%), and mild improvement (1-25% clearance) in one patient (14.28%). © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Gallium-67-citrate uptake in a case of acne vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Kipper, M.S.; Taylor, A.; Ashburn, W.L.

    1981-09-01

    A case of increased Ga-67 uptake in a patient with active acne vulgaris is reported. The scan was requested in a search for metastatic testicular carcinoma or bleomycin pulmonary toxicity. Careful clinical evaluation including physical examination was necessary in order to avoid an erroneous scan interpretation.

  17. Drug-induced acne and rose pearl: similarities*

    PubMed Central

    Pontello Junior, Rubens; Kondo, Rogerio Nabor

    2013-01-01

    Drug-induced acne is a common skin condition whose classic symptoms can be similar to a rose pearl, as in the case of a male patient presenting with this condition after excessive use of a cream containing corticosteroids. PMID:24474128

  18. Adult-onset acne: prevalence, impact, and management challenges

    PubMed Central

    Bagatin, Ediléia

    2018-01-01

    Acne is a multifactorial and inflammatory disease of pilosebaceous follicles, which affects most adolescents. Recent epidemiological data revealed a difference in adults affected by this disease. Women have a high prevalence and incidence when compared with men, especially after 25 years of age. In contrast to what was initially thought, most of these patients do not present endocrinopathy capable of leading to the development of the lesions. When present, polycystic ovarian syndrome is the main cause. However, in these cases, acne is rarely the only dermatological manifestation; hirsutism and acanthosis nigricans are often present. The majority of the normoandrogenic acne patients present a history since adolescence, but in many cases the lesion distribution and intensity change with time. There is often a typical localization of the lesions in the lower third of the face and lateral region of the neck. Another interesting feature is related to the impact on quality of life (QoL), which is always intense. Often there are signs of depression, even when the lesions are mild. As most adult patients are women, in addition to the conventional options, there is also hormone treatment. Combined oral contraceptives and spironolactone are good options. Knowing more about the particularities in etiopathogenesis, impact on QoL, and specific treatment options is important to all dermatologists who face the challenge of treating acne in adults. PMID:29440921

  19. Randomized controlled study of a cosmetic treatment for mild acne.

    PubMed

    Capitanio, B; Sinagra, J L; Weller, R B; Brown, C; Berardesca, E

    2012-06-01

    Cosmetic products are not tested with the same rigour as medical treatments, but recent high-quality studies have shown significant reductions in changes of skin ageing with use of cosmetic antiageing products. To test whether a cosmetic 'anti-spot' two-step treatment containing a complex of seaweed-derived oligosaccharide and zinc would produce a significant improvement in mild acne. A double-blind, vehicle-controlled trial of this treatment was performed for 8 weeks on 60 age-matched participants with mild acne. They were divided into two groups: 30 participants were treated with vehicle control and 30 with the active treatment containing a seaweed-derived oligosaccharide complexed with 0.1% zinc pyrrolidone. After 8 weeks, both groups had a reduction in comedones, papules and pustules, and this was significantly greater in the active than control group at 2, 4 and 8 weeks. Cosmetic products may offer some benefit for mild acne and still meet the requirements of the European Cosmetic Directive. In particular, the seaweed-derived oligosaccharide complexed with 0.1% zinc pyrrolidone used in this study produced a significant reduction in acne vs. a control treatment. Cosmetic companies should conduct blinded controlled trials of their product's efficacy and publish the results. © The Author(s). CED © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  20. Fluoride toothpaste: a cause of acne-like eruptions

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, M.A. Jr.

    1976-04-01

    The author described closed comedonal or papular acne in about 65 adult females, aged 20 to 40, in a slightly fan-like distribution on the corner of the mouth and the chin and the proximal area of the cheeks. All patients had had extensive dermatological treatment including dietary control, tetracycline special washing agents, etc. The localization of the lesions suggested to the author that some kind of chemical carried in the saliva might be draining in the areas and in the follicles of the skin and induce this process. In view of the fact that erythematous eruptions resembling acne have beenmore » described following application of fluoridated steroids and after exposure to industrial halogram fumes the author suggested that his patients switch to a nonfluoridated toothpaste. In approximately one half of the patients, the lesions cleared within two to four weeks. When the remaining patients were asked to switch from their dentrifice containing brightening and other unknown chemicals, to baking soda and a commercially available mouthwash, nearly all those treated improved considerably; in most of them the acne-like eruptions cleared up completely. Several patients were concerned about their dental health and resumed the use of fluoride toothpaste; they promptly developed the same distribution of the acne-like eruption that had previously been present.« less

  1. Common reasons why acne patients call the office.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Lauren E; Al-Dabagh, Amir; Huang, William W; Feldman, Steven R

    2014-05-16

    Communication between physicians and patients is essential to providing proper medical care. At times, patients leave visits with insufficiently addressed questions. These questions prompt patients to call the clinic for additional information, which disrupts the flow of care, delays proper treatment, and reduces patient satisfaction. We aim to examine acne patients' post-visit questions to develop interventions to improve patient education and reduce call backs. A retrospective electronic medical record chart review was performed involving Wake Forest Baptist Health Dermatology clinic visits between October 1, 2012 and October 31, 2012. We identified acne patients using clinic visit notes and recorded their telephone calls to the clinic between October 1, 2012 and March 29, 2013. Of 315 acne patients, 31 (9.8%) called the clinic. Isotretinoin was the subject of 66.7% of the calls, half of which involved questions about potential side effects. Other calls addressed topical medications, acne symptoms, and pharmacy requests. The study involved one center and email and fax correspondence was not captured. We found gaps in communication sufficient to require patients to call in for support, specifically regarding oral isotretinoin treatment. Interventions to address these questions have the potential to improve quality of care.

  2. Selected Disorders of Skin Appendages--Acne, Alopecia, Hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Vary, Jay C

    2015-11-01

    This article reviewed some of the more common diseases of the skin appendages that are encountered in medicine: hyperhidrosis, acne, AA, FPHL, AGA, and TE. The pathophysiology behind the conditions and their treatments were discussed so that the clinician can make logical therapeutic choices for their affected patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Acne keloidalis nuchae in Asian: A single institutional experience

    PubMed Central

    Na, Kiyong; Oh, Sang Ho

    2017-01-01

    Acne keloidalis nuchae, a type of folliculitis involving the back of the neck, is common in black men, although rare cases have been reported in patients of other ethnicities. We analyzed the clinicopathological features of acne keloidalis nuchae in 17 Asians. Patients’ age at the time of presentation ranged from 20 to 69 years. Most patients experienced the disease over 2 years (range, 3 months–20 years); follow-up data were available for 11 (65%) patients (range, 2–95 months). Nine (53%) patients had comorbidities, but none had a history of other skin disease or a family history of acne keloidalis nuchae. Macroscopically, seven (41%) patients had multiple erythematous pustulopapular lesions, and 10 (59%) had a single large plaque. Histopathologically, deep scarring folliculitis containing naked hair shafts was identified. In all cases, inflammation was most severe in the upper two-thirds of the dermis, and the differences in pustulopapular and plaque lesions were more prominent in the peri-inflammation area. Of the seven patients with plaque lesions treated with steroids alone or steroids and cryotherapy, three experienced plaque reduction. Acne keloidalis nuchae occurring in Asian patients frequently present with typical clinicopathological features, and therefore in spite of very low incidence the diagnosis of this disease entity should be considered in idiopathic scarring folliculitis of the posterior neck. PMID:29240822

  4. Topical retinoids in acne vulgaris: update on efficacy and safety.

    PubMed

    Thielitz, Anja; Gollnick, Harald

    2008-01-01

    Topical retinoids represent a mainstay of acne treatment because they expel mature comedones, reduce microcomedone formation, and exert anti-inflammatory effects. The first-generation retinoid tretinoin (all-trans retinoic acid) and the synthetic third-generation polyaromatics adapalene and tazarotene are approved for acne treatment by the US FDA, whereas topical tretinoin, isotretinoin (13-cis retinoic acid), and adapalene are accredited in Canada and Europe. Topical retinoids have a favorable safety profile distinct from the toxicity of their systemic counterparts. Local adverse effects, including erythema, dryness, itching, and stinging, occur frequently during the early treatment phase. Their impact varies with the vehicle formation, skin type, frequency and mode of application, use of moisturizers, and environmental factors such as sun exposure or temperature. The broad anti-acne activity and safety profile of topical retinoids justifies their use as first-line treatment in most types of non-inflammatory and inflammatory acne. They are also suitable as long-term medications, with no risk of inducing bacterial resistance, for maintenance of remission after cessation of initial combination therapy.

  5. Indocyanine green-laser thermolysis of acne vulgaris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genina, Elina A.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Yaroslavsky, Ilya V.; Altshuler, Gregory B.

    2005-08-01

    The near-infrared (NIR) laser radiation due to its high penetration depth is widely used in phototherapy and photothermolysis. In application to skin appendages a high selectivity of laser treatment is needed to prevent light action on surrounding tissues. Indocyanine Green (ICG) dye may provide a high selectivity of treatment due to effective ICG uploading by a target and its narrow band of considerable absorption just at the wavelength of the NIR diode laser. The goal of this study is to demonstrate the efficacy of the NIR diode laser photothermolysis in combination with topical application of ICG suggested for treatment of acne vulgaris. Two volunteers with back-located acne were enrolled. Skin sites of subjects were stained by ICG and irradiated by NIR laser-diode light (803 or 809 nm). The individual acne lesions were photothermally treated at 18 W/cm2 (803 nm, 0.5 sec) without skin surface cooling or at 200 W/cm2 (809 nm, 0.5 sec) with cooling. The results of the observations during a month after the treatment have shown that ICG stained acne inflammatory elements were destructed for light exposures of 0.5 sec.

  6. EPS production by Propionibacterium freudenreichii facilitates its immobilization for propionic acid production.

    PubMed

    Belgrano, F D S; Verçoza, B R F; Rodrigues, J C F; Hatti-Kaul, R; Pereira, N

    2018-04-28

    Immobilization of microbial cells is a useful strategy for developing high cell density bioreactors with improved stability and productivity for production of different chemicals. Functionalization of the immobilization matrix or biofilm forming property of some strains has been utilized for achieving cell attachment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the production of exopolysaccharide (EPS) by Propionibacterium freudenreichii C.I.P 59.32 and utilize this feature for immobilization of the cells on porous glass beads for production of propionic acid. Propionibacterium freudenreichii was shown to produce both capsular and excreted EPS during batch cultivations using glucose as carbon source. Different electron microscopy techniques confirmed the secretion of EPS and formation of cellular aggregates. The excreted EPS was mainly composed of mannose and glucose in a 5·3 : 1 g g -1 ratio. Immobilization of the cells on untreated and polyethyleneimine (PEI)-treated Poraver beads in a bioreactor was evaluated. Higher productivity and yield of propionic acid (0·566 g l -1  h -1 and 0·314 g g -1 , respectively) was achieved using cells immobilized to untreated beads and EPS production reached 617·5 mg l -1 after 48 h. These results suggest an important role of EPS-producing strains for improving cell immobilization and propionic acid production. This study demonstrates the EPS-producing microbe to be easily immobilized on a solid matrix and to be used in a bioprocess. Such a system could be optimized for achieving high cell density in fermentations without the need for functionalization of the matrix. © 2018 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. [Pharmacoeconomy in acne--evaluation of benefit and economics].

    PubMed

    Radtke, Marc A; Schäfer, Ines; Augustin, Matthias

    2010-03-01

    Acne belongs to the most common skin diseases and has a prevalence in the adolescence of nearly 100% and in adults of about 4%. The quality of life indes is significantly reduced und has impact on daily activities and social life and physical and psychological well being as well. The socioeconomic relevance is based not only on its prevalence but on direct and indirect costs. For acne therapy the knowledge on therapeutic costs is of importance but the cost benefit ratio as well. Evidence of therapeutic costs in acne and economic benefit of the therapy. Systematic review of Cochrane data. Calculations reveal general costs of acne treatment in Germany over 400 Mill.Euro per year. For the treatment with topical retinoids, BPO and antibiotics as well as systemic drugs only a few studies on costeffectiveness are available. For topical treatments results are not conclusive and dependent on the different health systems. New topical combinations may have a better economic outcome, however, more studies are needed. With regard to systemic therapies of moderate to severe acne based on the international references the costbenefit ratio favours the treatment with oral isotretinoin on the longterm outcome. Superiority is based on the relationship of costs and clinical outcome and the increased quality of life as well (cost-benefit ratio). It has to be emphazised that only longterm observations over years will lead to a valid calculation of costs and benefit. FACIT: Taking the high social and quality of life impact into consideration an early, well targeted and effective therapy is prevailing. Initial higher cost are balanced by a high quality of outcome under experienced dermatological supervision. The patients benefit is ranked over the final costs because of its medical, social and ethical aspects. To sample more differentiated data on pharmacoeconomic aspects well designed new clinical studies are to be set up.

  8. Acne RA-1,2, a novel UV-selective face cream for patients with acne: Efficacy and tolerability results of a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical study.

    PubMed

    Cestone, Enza; Michelotti, Angela; Zanoletti, Valentina; Zanardi, Andrea; Mantegazza, Raffaella; Dossena, Maurizia

    2017-06-01

    General skincare measures such as the use of moisturisers and products containing adequate photoprotection are important components of acne patients' management to complement the pharmacological regimen. Acne RA-1,2 is a novel dermato-cosmetic product which contains selective photofilters and active ingredients against the multifactorial pathophysiology of acne. To evaluate the tolerability of Acne RA-1,2 and its effect on the clinical signs of acne. This double-blind, placebo-controlled study randomized 40 adult patients with 10-25 comedones per half face to once-daily application of Acne RA-1,2 or placebo for 8 weeks. Evaluations after 4 and 8 weeks included the number of comedones, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), sebum production, and tolerability. In the Acne RA-1,2 group, there was a significant 35% decrease in the mean number of comedones from 26 at baseline to 17 at Week 8 (P<.001), a 7% significant reduction in TEWL (9.32 to 8.66 g/h/m 2 ; P<.001), and a 24% significant reduction in sebum production (154.8 to 117.6 μg/cm 2 ; P<.001). The reductions in TEWL and sebum production were significantly greater than those in the placebo group at Weeks 4 and 8 (P<0.05). There were no adverse events. Acne RA-1,2 was well tolerated and effective at reducing comedones and sebum production and improving epidermal barrier function. These results suggest that Acne RA-1,2 is useful against acne-prone facial skin, particularly as it targets sebum production, which topical pharmacological acne therapies do not address. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The effect on acne quality of life of topical azelaic acid 15% gel versus a combined oral contraceptive in adult female acne: A randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Marco; Sanudo, Adriana; Bagatin, Edileia

    2017-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the pilosebaceous unit. Recent studies have shown an increasing number of cases of acne in adult women. These cases are predominantly normoandrogenic and have show some clinical differences compared to adolescent acne. In addition to the physical aspects, acne has a strong psychosocial impact and can lead to the onset of signs and symptoms of depression, such as anger. Our objective was to evaluate the effect on acne-specific quality of life in adult women treated with topical azelaic acid versus a combined oral contraceptive. The study population consisted of 38 adult women with acne and without any features of hyperandrogenism recruited from the clinic of Dermatology Hospital Division of São Paulo, Federal University of São Paulo from January 2012 to September 2014. Patients were randomized into two different groups: one receiving containing 20 ug of ethinylestradiol and 3 mg drospirenone in a regimen of 24 days of medication, a combined oral contraceptive (COC), and the other group topical 15% azelaic acid (AA) gel, twice daily, both for six months. The quality of life was evaluated at baseline and end of treatment with an acne specific measure (Acne-QoL). Before treatment, our data revealed a significant impact of the presence of acne on quality of life. Both treatments resulted in improvement with significant statistical values in quality of life scores. Comparing the four domains of Acne-QoL, patients treated with an oral contraceptive showed greater improvement in two domains (self-perception and acne symptoms) than those treated with azelaic acid.

  10. Evaluation of social anxiety, self-esteem, life quality in adolescents with acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Unal, Dilek; Emiroğlu, Nazan; Cengiz, Fatma Pelin

    2016-08-05

    Acne vulgaris is a visible skin disease commonly seen in adolescence. As it affects the appearance, it is likely to bring stress to the adolescent's life regarding sensitivity about their appearance. The aim of the study was to investigate the social anxiety level, acne-specific life quality, and self-esteem among adolescents with acne vulgaris. In addition, we evaluated the relationship between these parameters, clinical severity, and sociodemographic data. One hundred and two adolescents with acne vulgaris, aged 12-17 years without any psychiatric or medical comorbidity were recruited. The control group consisted of 83 adolescents in the same age range, who had neither psychiatric disease nor acne. Sociodemographic form (SDF), Capa Social Phobia Scale for Children and Adolescents (CSPSCA), and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSES) were applied to both groups. Additionally, the severity of acne was determined with Global Acne Grading System (GAGS), and life quality of the patients was evaluated with Acne Quality of Life Scale (AQOL). There was no significant difference in social anxiety levels and self-esteem between the study and control groups. Life quality impairment and high social anxiety levels, as well as low self-esteem, were found to be associated regardless of the clinical severity. Clinicians should be aware of the psychiatric comorbidities when treating adolescents with acne vulgaris. Especially, low self-esteem and life quality impairment should warn clinicians to predict high social anxiety levels in adolescent acne patients.

  11. Evaluation of Adolescents Diagnosed with Acne Vulgaris for Quality of Life and Psychosocial Challenges.

    PubMed

    Eyüboglu, Murat; Kalay, Incilay; Eyüboglu, Damla

    2018-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition which affects most adolescents. It has a major impact on quality of life and psychosocial well-being. The aims of the study were to examine the psychosocial effects of acne on adolescents and changes in quality of life, and to reveal any difference in the possible effect between genders. In addition, an investigation of the association between acne severity and quality of life as well as psychosocial stress was conducted. The present study included 164 adolescents with a mean age of 12-18 years and was diagnosed with acne vulgaris without any previous treatment. The control group consisted of 188 healthy volunteers. Acne severity was evaluated by the global acne grading system. All patients filled in a Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index, Pediatric Quality of Life Questionnaire (PedsQL), and a Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The scores of SDQ and PedsQL were significantly lower in the case group. There was no significant correlation found between the genders in the control group for acne severity and scale scores. No significant correlation was found between acne severity and psychosocial challenges. The results of the present study show that acne has a significant effect on quality of life for adolescents, and this has an impact on their psychosocial life. Another important finding of the present study is that worsening in quality of life is not affected by some factors such as duration, severity of acne and age.

  12. [Severe pruriginous acne in dialysed renal failure. Diagnostic difficulties and efficacy of isotretinoin].

    PubMed

    Grange, F; Mitschler, A; Genestier, S; Guillaume, J C

    2001-11-01

    The occurrence of acne in dialysed renal failure patients has rarely been reported and the clinical characteristics and therapeutic issues rarely studied in these patients. Two men and two women, 33 to 56 years-old, with chronic renal failure and no past history of acne, developed severe acne under dialysis. The acne was excoriated in all cases and associated with prurigo-like lesions and intense pruritus, which made diagnosis difficult. Acne was profuse on the face and the trunk, but also on the neck (1 case) and the upper limbs (2 cases). No patient was taking acne-inducing substances. Various to therapies attempting to control pruritus were ineffective. However, anti-acne treatments (cyclines associated with local tretinoin in 1 case and oral isotreninoin in 3 cases) led to complete regression of the acne, pruritus and the prurigo-like lesions without relapse after a follow-up time of 4 months to 2 years. Pruritus is frequent during renal failure. However, the occurrence of unexplained acne has only rarely been reported. Our patients' clinical picture was original, characterized by the late development, under dialysis, of severe and pruriginous acne, the pathogenesis of which is unknown. Because of the clinical and therapeutic implications (impaired quality of life, pigmentation or scarring and remarkable efficacy of oral isotretinoin) this clinical picture merits more attention, and the modalities for the prescription of isotretinoin in this context should be defined.

  13. Oxidants and anti-oxidants status in acne vulgaris patients with varying severity.

    PubMed

    Al-Shobaili, Hani A

    2014-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common dermatological disorder with a multifactorial pathogenesis. Oxidative status has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several skin diseases, including acne. This study was aimed to investigate the levels of oxidative stress biomarkers in acne vulgaris patients with varying severities. The study involved 156 patients with acne and 46 healthy human controls. Based on clinical examination, patients were grouped into 3 subgroups as follows: mild, moderate, and severe acne. Oxidative stress was examined by measuring plasma levels of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and malondialdehyde (MDA). Plasma levels of MDA in acne patients were significantly higher as compared with that of the controls, whereas activities of the antioxidant enzymes SOD and CAT were lower. Moreover, TAC was also low in acne patients as compared with that of the controls. Higher MDA levels in the severe acne subgroup as compared with that of the mild and moderate subgroups were also observed. Furthermore, in the severe acne subgroup, a significant negative correlation was observed between MDA and CAT levels. The data suggests that oxidative stress plays a key role in acne progress and may be employed as a biomarker index to assess the disease's activity and to monitor its treatment.

  14. Evaluation of Adolescents Diagnosed with Acne Vulgaris for Quality of Life and Psychosocial Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Eyüboglu, Murat; Kalay, Incilay; Eyüboglu, Damla

    2018-01-01

    Background: Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition which affects most adolescents. It has a major impact on quality of life and psychosocial well-being. Aims: The aims of the study were to examine the psychosocial effects of acne on adolescents and changes in quality of life, and to reveal any difference in the possible effect between genders. In addition, an investigation of the association between acne severity and quality of life as well as psychosocial stress was conducted. Materials and Methods: The present study included 164 adolescents with a mean age of 12–18 years and was diagnosed with acne vulgaris without any previous treatment. The control group consisted of 188 healthy volunteers. Acne severity was evaluated by the global acne grading system. All patients filled in a Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index, Pediatric Quality of Life Questionnaire (PedsQL), and a Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Results: The scores of SDQ and PedsQL were significantly lower in the case group. There was no significant correlation found between the genders in the control group for acne severity and scale scores. No significant correlation was found between acne severity and psychosocial challenges. Conclusions: The results of the present study show that acne has a significant effect on quality of life for adolescents, and this has an impact on their psychosocial life. Another important finding of the present study is that worsening in quality of life is not affected by some factors such as duration, severity of acne and age. PMID:29692454

  15. Vitamin D levels in acne vulgaris patients treated with oral isotretinoin.

    PubMed

    El-Hamd, Mohammed Abu; El Taieb, Moustafa A; Ibrahim, Hassan M; Aly, Sanaa S

    2018-02-20

    Acne vulgaris is a common inflammatory skin disease. Vitamin D deficiency plays a role in many inflammatory skin diseases. It may play a role in pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. This study aimed to assess serum levels of 25 hydroxy vitamin D in patients with acne vulgaris before and after treatment with isotretinoin and its relation with acne vulgaris severity. Ninety patients with acne vulgaris and 60 age-sex matched healthy subject as controls have been recruited in this study. Patients were treated with 0.75 mg/kg/d isotretinoin for 3 months. Serum level of 25 hydroxy vitamin D has been measured at baseline and after treatment. Serum levels of 25 hydroxy vitamin D were significantly higher in patients with acne vulgaris than healthy controls (P = .001). There was a significant inverse relation between level of 25 hydroxy vitamin D and severity of acne vulgaris before treatment (P = .001). Serum levels of 25 hydroxy vitamin D were significantly increased after isotretinoin treatment in patients with acne vulgaris (P = .001). This study concluded that vitamin D may play a potential role in pathogenesis of acne vulgaris or acne vulgaris may have a negative effect on vitamin D synthesis. Further studies are needed to confirm these potential relations. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Assessment of Life Quality Index Among Patients with Acne Vulgaris in a Suburban Population

    PubMed Central

    Hazarika, Neirita; Rajaprabha, Radha K

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Acne vulgaris affects about 85% of adolescents, often extending into adulthood. Psychosocial impact of acne on health-related quality of life (QoL) has been identified, but it remains under-evaluated, especially in Indian patients. This study was aimed to assess the impact of acne and its sequelae on the QoL. Materials and Methods: This was a hospital-based, prospective, cross-sectional study done between June and November 2014 on 114 consenting patients above 15 years of age with acne vulgaris. Acne vulgaris and its sequelae were graded, and QoL was assessed by using Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) questionnaire. Results: Most cases (64%) were between 15 and 20 years. Females (57%) outnumbered males. Facial lesions (61.4%) and grade II acne were most common. Mean DLQI score was 7.22. DLQI scores were statistically influenced by the age of the patient, duration and grade of acne, acne scar, and postacne hyperpigmentation. Conclusion: This study showed significant impairment of QoL in acne patients. Assurance and counseling along with early treatment of acne vulgaris are important to reduce disease-related psychosocial sequelae and increase the efficacy of treatment. PMID:27057015

  17. Acne vulgaris: prevalence and clinical forms in adolescents from São Paulo, Brazil*

    PubMed Central

    Bagatin, Ediléia; Timpano, Denise Lourenço; Guadanhim, Lilia Ramos dos Santos; Nogueira, Vanessa Mussupapo Andraus; Terzian, Luiz Roberto; Steiner, Denise; Florez, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Acne is a common disease in adolescents, but there are no epidemiological data for acne in Brazil. OBJECTIVES To estimate the prevalence and degree of acne in adolescents from Sao Paulo and study socio-demographic factors, family history and lifestyle, associated with the disease. METHODS Cross-sectional study with 452 adolescents aged between 10 and 17 (mean=13.3 years), students from elementary and high school, examined by 3 independent evaluators. RESULTS 62.4% were female, 85.8% white and 6.4% were aged 14. The prevalence was 96.0% and increased with age - all students over 14 had acne. The most prevalent form of acne was comedonal (61.1%), followed by mild (30.6%) and moderate (7.6%) papular-pustular, which affected mostly the face (97.5%). About half of the adolescents reported family history for acne in mother or father, and 20.6% reported previous treatment for acne. There was a higher chance of presenting non-comedonal acne with increased age (p<0.001). DISCUSSION The prevalence of acne in adolescents varies widely due to the clinical features and diagnostic methods used. Adolescents whose brothers/sisters had acne (OR=1.7-p=0.027) and those over 13 (OR=8.3-p<0.001), were more likely to have non-comedonal acne. CONCLUSION This study showed high prevalence of acne in adolescents from Sao Paulo, predominantly the comedonal form on the face, with a higher chance of presenting non-comedonal acne with increased age. PMID:24937816

  18. Glycolic acid peels versus salicylic-mandelic acid peels in active acne vulgaris and post-acne scarring and hyperpigmentation: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Garg, Vijay Kumar; Sinha, Surabhi; Sarkar, Rashmi

    2009-01-01

    Many clinicians have used glycolic acid (GA) peels for facial acne, scarring, and hyperpigmentation, mainly in lighter skin types. Salicylic-mandelic acid combination peels (SMPs) are a newer modality, and there have been no well-controlled studies comparing them with other conventional agents. To compare the therapeutic efficacy and tolerability of 35% GA peels and 20% salicylic-10% mandelic acid peels in active acne and post-acne scarring and hyperpigmentation. Forty-four patients with facial acne and post-acne scarring and hyperpigmentation were divided into two groups, with one receiving GA peels and the other SMPs at fortnightly intervals for six sessions. The treating physician performed objective evaluation of treatment outcomes. The patients, the treating physician, and an independent observer made subjective assessments. Side effects of both agents were also noted. Both the agents were effective, but SMPs had a higher efficacy for most active acne lesions (p<.001) and hyperpigmentation (p<.001). Side effects were also lesser with SMPs. Both the agents were effective and safe in Indian patients, with SMPs being better for active acne and post-acne hyperpigmentation.

  19. Fractional carbon dioxide (CO2) laser combined with topical tretinoin for the treatment of different forms of cystic acne.

    PubMed

    Pestoni Porvén, Carmela; Vieira Dos Santos, Vanessa; Del Pozo Losada, Jesus

    2017-12-01

    Nodulocystic acne is prone to scarring and difficult to treat with treatments other than oral isotretinoin. The aim of this article is to discuss the role of a single session of a fractional carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) laser combined with a topical treatment with a tretinoin and antibiotic gel for a month as a successful treatment to improve nodulocystic acne and chronic microcystic acne. Two cases were involved: the first with nodulocystic acne lesions that persisted after oral retinoids and the second with chronic microcystic acne resistant to topical treatments. After only one session of treatment with the CO 2 laser and the topical treatment, a complete healing of the nodulocystic acne lesions was observed with minimal secondary effects. The microcystic acne showed great improvement. No other topical or oral treatment was needed. This treatment could be a safe and effective treatment for nodulocystic acne lesions and microcystic acne when other treatments fail. More studies should be performed to confirm our results.

  20. Inhibitory effects of Cheongsangbangpoong-tang on both inflammatory acne lesions and facial heat in patients with acne vulgaris: A randomized controlled trial protocol.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyuseok; Kim, Kwan-Il; Lee, Junhee

    2016-01-22

    Due to increasing interest from acne patients concerned about the side effects associated with conventional therapies, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has been suggested as a new therapeutic modality for acne vulgaris. Herbal medicine is one of these CAM treatments. Cheongsangbangpoong-tang (CBT) is a common herbal formula used in patients with acne vulgaris in the clinical practice of Korean Medicine (KM). However, despite the common use of CBT in clinical practice, the current level of evidence is insufficient to support an inhibitory effect of CBT on inflammatory acne lesions and facial heat. Therefore, this study was designed to assess the inhibitory effect of CBT on both inflammatory acne lesions and facial heat. A randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, and placebo-controlled trial will be conducted. Fifty-six participants with acne vulgaris will be randomized into one of two groups: the CBT or placebo groups. After randomization, participants will be prescribed either CBT or placebo three times a day at a dose of 5 g after meals for 8 weeks. The following outcome measurements will be used in the examination of subjects: the mean percentage change and the count change of the inflammatory and non-inflammatory acne lesions, the temperature of facial points on digital infrared thermal imaging (DITI), serum cortisol, serum dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S), visual analogue scale (VAS), investigator global assessment (IGA), and severity score on the Korean Acne Grading System (KAGS) from baseline to the end of the trial. This trial will provide evidence regarding the inhibitory effect of CBT on inflammatory acne lesions and facial heat. The findings of this trial may have important implications for the more widespread use of CBT for the treatment of acne vulgaris. The trial is registered with the Clinical Research Information Service (CRiS), Republic of Korea: KCT0001468 .

  1. Efficacy and Tolerability of an Acne Treatment Regimen with Antiaging Benefits in Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lily I.; Hino, Peter D.; Parker, Lydia; Stephens, Thomas J.; Mccook, John

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess clinical safety and efficacy of a novel acne treatment regimen in adult women. Methods: Participants in the study included an ethnically diverse group of adult women (n=24) with mild-to-moderate acne who were treated twice daily with a topical regimen (cleanser, acne cream, and rebalancing gel) for eight weeks. Following baseline assessments, subjects returned to clinic at Weeks 2, 4, and 8 for clinical assessments and self-assessment questionnaires. Results: Twenty-one of the 24 enrolled women completed the eight-week clinical trial. Statistically significant clinical improvements were seen in both acne and aging parameters over time. The product regimen was well tolerated without adverse reactions commonly seen with topical acne products. Conclusion: The regimen demonstrated efficacy and tolerability in adult women with acne and signs of skin aging. PMID:29942425

  2. Psychological impact of isotretinoin treatment in patients with moderate and severe acne.

    PubMed

    Simić, Dubravka; Situm, Mirna; Letica, Edita; Penavić, Jasna Zeljko; Zivković, Maja Vurnek; Tomić, Teo

    2009-12-01

    Acne patients are subject to different degree of psychosocial distress. The emotional impact of acne vulgaris due to disfigurement caused by the disease is undisputed. Most common reactions to the acne are depression and anxiety. The use of isotretinoin, one of the most effective options in acne treatment, increases depression symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychological status of the patients with moderate to severe acne and to compare patients treated with isotretinoin with patients treated with vitamin C. A total of 85 patients suffering from acne vulgaris were included in the study. The results of this study do not find a significant correlation between the use of isotretinoin and the psychological effects of the drug.

  3. Salicylic acid peels for the treatment of acne vulgaris in Asian patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho-Sup; Kim, Il-Hwan

    2003-12-01

    Salicylic acid peels have been introduced as a useful modality in acne treatment. Few studies have examined its efficacy and safety, especially in darker skin. To assess the efficacy and safety of salicylic acid peels as a treatment for acne vulgaris in Asian patients. Thirty-five Korean patients with facial acne were treated with 30% salicylic acid peels biweekly for 12 weeks. Lesion counts and Dr. Cunliffe's score were assessed by a blinded evaluator. Safety assessments and patient's evaluations were also recorded. Both inflammatory and noninflammatory acne lesion counts were decreased in proportion to the duration of treatment. Dr. Cunliffe's acne grade was statistically significantly decreased after treatment. The side effects were tolerable in most cases, and all patients were pleased with their peel results. Stratum corneum hydration, skin surface lipid, skin pH, and transepidermal water loss were unchanged from baseline levels. Salicylic acid peels are an effective and safe therapy for acne vulgaris in Asian patients.

  4. A comparative study of biological and metabolic biomarkers between healthy individuals and patients with acne vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyuseok; Ha, Injin; Kim, Eunok; Kim, Kyunglee

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Acne is a multifactorial dermatosis, which is influenced not only by hormones but also by the biochemical relationship between them and the pilosebaceous unit. Inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, active oxygen, and zinc are known to be associated with the development of acne. Further, steroid metabolism is known as one of the important factors related to sebum secretion and comedone formation in acne. However, there is a lack of studies comparing these human biomarkers between healthy individuals and patients with acne. In particular, no study has investigated the relationship between human biomarkers and patterns of acne yet. The purpose of this study is to investigate diagnostic human biomarkers in acne by comparing the biological and metabolic biomarkers between healthy individuals and patients with acne and identify the relationship between human biomarkers and patterns of acne. This study is a protocol for a cross-sectional study. Forty healthy participants and 60 patients with acne will be recruited at 1 center. We will collect their blood samples and analyze the molecular biological and metabolic biomarkers (cytokines, chemokines, reactive oxygen species, corticotropin-releasing hormone, zinc, amino acid, 1-carbon metabolite, lipid metabolite, etc.). Further, we will administer questionnaires regarding their diet, sleep, stress, and other factors relating to acne and measure their skin elasticity. The study protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Oriental Medical Hospital at Kyung Hee Medical Center (KOMCIRB-161118-HR-062). Written informed consent will be obtained from all the participants. The trial was registered in the Clinical Research Information Service, Republic of Korea: KCT0002212. This trial will provide evidence regarding diagnostic human biomarkers in acne and the relationship between the human biomarkers and patterns of acne. PMID:29137071

  5. Tretinoin: A Review of Its Anti-inflammatory Properties in the Treatment of Acne

    PubMed Central

    Gans, Eugene H.

    2011-01-01

    Tretinoin has been primarily used for the early stages of acne because of its proven comedolytic end benefits. This article reviews and updates the collective body of evidence of tretinoin in the treatment of acne, which suggests that this drug also possesses a broad range of acne-related immunomodulating properties that are capable of disrupting and hindering the various stages of the inflammatory cascade and the production of proinflammatory factors associated with it. PMID:22125655

  6. Depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation and acne: a study of male Finnish conscripts.

    PubMed

    Rehn, L M H; Meririnne, E; Höök-Nikanne, J; Isometsä, E; Henriksson, M

    2008-05-01

    To investigate the association among acne, depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in Finnish male military conscripts. Consecutive 165 acne patients and 150 patients with mild knee symptoms for comparison were enrolled in the study conducted in the Central Military Hospital, Helsinki, Finland. They filled out the following questionnaires: General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The Leeds acne grading scale was used to estimate the severity of acne. Sixteen (9.7%) acne patients and 20 (13.3%) comparison patients had at least moderate level of depressive symptoms (BDI score 10; P > 0.05, between groups). Suicidal ideation (BDI suicidal item score 1) was reported by 24 (14.5%) acne patients and 16 (10.7%) comparison patients (P > 0.05, between groups). When comparing the mild facial acne patients (Leeds score 0-3) with those with moderate-severe facial acne (Leeds score 4), there were no statistical differences in depressive symptoms (9.5% vs. 10.0%) or suicidal ideation (13.7% vs. 15.7%). No linear relationship was observed between the BDI and facial Leeds scores (P > 0.05). Risk factors for suicidal ideation among the acne patients were depression and alcohol risk use. Young male patients with acne do not suffer more depressive symptoms or suicidal ideation than patients with mild knee symptoms, and the severity of acne is not associated with the presence of depressive symptoms. The risk factors for suicidal ideation among acne patients seem to be similar to those found in the general population.

  7. Acne vulgaris in early adolescent boys. Correlations with pubertal maturation and age.

    PubMed

    Lucky, A W; Biro, F M; Huster, G A; Morrison, J A; Elder, N

    1991-02-01

    To assess the prevalence and severity of acne vulgaris in young adolescent boys, we studied 219 black and 249 white boys in fifth through ninth grades in Cincinnati, Ohio. The mean age was 12.2 +/- 1.4 years, with a range of 9 to 15 years. Pubertal maturation was scored as Tanner pubic hair stages (PH I to V) and pubertal stages (PS I to IV) that included testicular volume assessment. Acne was scored by number of comedonal (open plus closed comedones) and inflammatory (papules plus pustules) lesions. Comedonal and inflammatory lesions were analyzed separately and evaluated both as numerical scores and as grades (1, less than or equal to 10 lesions; 2, 11 to 25 lesions; and 3, greater than or equal to 26 lesions). Grades 2 and 3 were considered clinically significant acne. Acne became progressively more severe with advancing maturity. Mean acne scores correlated better with PS and pubic hair than with age. Black subjects were more mature than white subjects. Black boys in PSI and II had significantly more comedones than white boys; white boys had significantly more inflammatory lesions at PS I and III. Clinically significant comedonal acne was already present in PS I and occurred in 100% of boys in PS IV. In contrast, no boys at PS I and only 50% at PS IV had significant inflammatory acne. Midfacial acne dominated. We concluded that acne prevalence and severity correlate well with advancing pubertal maturation in young adolescent boys. Comedonal acne was more frequent and severe than inflammatory disease. Awareness of the extent and severity of acne in preadolescents and young adolescents may ultimately provide rationale for early intervention and thus prevention of severe acne vulgaris.

  8. [Depression in patients with facial acne vulgaris and 
the influential factors].

    PubMed

    Kang, Liyang; Liu, Jiaoyan; An, Rujun; Huang, Jinhua; Huang, Hui; Yi, Qifeng

    2015-10-01

    To understand the influential factors for depression in patients with facial acne vulgaris and to provide scientific evidence for a comprehensive and systematic treatment for acne vulgaris.
 A total of 287 outpatients with facial acne vulgaris, who visited the dermatology of the Third Xiangya Hospital, were surveyed by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The data was collected by Epidata software (version 3.1) and processed by SPSS software package (version 18.0). The influential factors for the depression of outpatients with facial acne vulgaris were analyzed by multinomial logistic regression.
 A total of 181 patients with facial acne vulgaris showed various degrees of depression (BDI score≥5) and the rate was 63.1%. The symptoms for depression included sad and pessimistic attitude as well as the decreased attention to others (social withdrawal). The influential factors for mild, moderate or severe depression were gender, the degree and the course of acne. Female patients were more likely to suffer mild, moderate or severe depression (OR=3.62, 2.63, respectively); the risk of depression in acne patients was increased with the increase in degree of the severity (OR=2.31, 4.51, respectively); the patients with the acne course more than a year were more likely to show mild depression than those with a course less than a year (OR=4.30, 7.44, respectively). The patients with acne course more than 3 years were more likely to show moderate or severe depression compared to those with a course less than a year (OR=3.60).
 Most of facial acne patients show a different degree of depression. The acne course is longer in female patients. The more severe the acne vulgaris is, the more suffering of the depression is. Psychological care should be considered to improve the treatment and quality of life.

  9. Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans and acne keloidalis nuchae.

    PubMed

    Goh, Michelle S Y; Magee, Jill; Chong, Alvin H

    2005-11-01

    A 27-year-old man presented with a 10-year history of scarring alopecia on the vertex of the scalp associated with follicular crusting and pustule formation, and a papular eruption on the posterior neck. Additionally, there was keratosis pilaris on the cheeks, eyebrows and thighs. Histology from the vertex showed scarring with a mixed perifollicular inflammatory infiltrate and foci of acute suppurative folliculitis. With clinical correlation, the diagnosis of keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans and concurrent acne keloidalis nuchae was made. The association of keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans with acne keloidalis nuchae has not previously been described. The patient responded to treatment with oral isotretinoin 20 mg (0.25 mg/kg) daily for 12 months.

  10. 367 cases of CO2 laser therapy on facial acne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yunqing; Liu, Songhao; Zhang, You; Liu, T. C.

    1996-09-01

    Since 1989, we have cured 367 persons of facial acne of different course by using direct irradiation of high-power CO2 laser combing with operative therapy of low-power CO2 laser. The cure rate is 100 percent. In this paper, we stated the therapeutic approach. It was shown that this therapeutic approach is simple and effective, and its recurrence rate is zero. There are no cicatrices after healing. It is easy to accept it, and is worthy of extension.

  11. Extensive comedonal and cystic acne in Patau syndrome.

    PubMed

    Torrelo, Antonio; Fernandez-Crehuet, Pablo; Del Prado, Elena; Martes, Pilar; Hernández-Martín, Angela; De Diego, Verónica; Carapeto, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Patau syndrome is a chromosomal disorder associated with multiple malformations caused by inheritance of an extra chromosome (trisomy 13). Some skin defects have been reported in patients with Patau syndrome, such as scalp defects, glabellar stains, deep palmar creases, rocker-bottom feet, convex soles, hyperconvextity of the nails, and multiple hemangiomas. To our knowledge, widespread comedonal and cystic acne have not been previously reported in Patau syndrome.

  12. Medical adherence to acne therapy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Stephanie; Crandell, Ian; Davis, Scott A; Feldman, Steven R

    2014-04-01

    Poor adherence of acne patients to treatment may equate to poor clinical efficacy, increased healthcare costs, and unnecessary treatments. Authors have investigated risk factors for poor medical adherence and how to improve this difficult problem in the context of acne. This systematic review aims to describe what methods have been used to measure adherence, what is known about acne patients' adherence to treatment, and the factors affecting adherence. A MEDLINE search was performed for randomized controlled trials published between 1978 and June 2013, focusing on patient adherence to prescribed acne medications. A test for equality of proportions was performed on studies of similar design to collectively analyze adherence to oral versus topical medication. The self-reported adherence data collected from these clinical trials were then compared with adherence data from a pharmacy database study. Studies varied in modalities of data collection, but the majority utilized subjective methods. Topical therapies were more often studied than oral. The overall oral adherence rate, as calculated by a test of equality of proportions, was 76.3%, while the overall topical adherence rate was 75.8% (p=0.927). The occurrence of side effects and young age were cited as the top reasons for poor adherence, followed by forgetfulness. The MEDLINE search resulted in a limited sample of adherence studies. In addition, there is currently no standardized or fully validated method of measurement, allowing for variability in what was considered 'adherent'. Lastly, data collected via subjective methods cannot guarantee reliable results. Overall, the values reflected a population adherent to both topical and oral medications, with no significant difference in adherence between the two. However, the methodologies used by many of the studies were weak, and the findings are not consistent with results of more objective measures of adherence. The leading factors that contribute to poor adherence

  13. The Association Between Melasma and Postinflammatory Hyperpigmentation in Acne Patients

    PubMed Central

    Adalatkhah, Hassan; Sadeghi Bazargani, Homayoun

    2013-01-01

    Background Although, melasma is most prevalent among Asian young women, and also darkly pigmented individuals are particularly prone to developing post inflammatory hyperpigmentation, to the best of our knowledge, there are rare or no studies about the association of melasma and Post inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate how likely is a melasma patient to developed post inflammatory hyperpigmentation when compared to patients with inflammatory acne lesions who do not have melasma. Patients and Methods This comparative study was conducted on 400 participants, 200 subjects involved with pigmented lesions of melasma and inflammatory acne lesions and200 involved only with inflammatory Acne lesions without melasma. Melasma, acne and post inflammatory hyper pigmentation, if existed, were assessed by a dermatologist, and pigmentation depth was assessed by wood's lamp. Multivariate logistic regression analysis suitable for study design was used to assess the association between melasma and post-acne pigmentation. Results We found out that 24.1% of patients without melasma had post-acne pigmentation compared to 66.8% in melasma group (P < 0.001). The likelihood of observing post-acne pigmentation was found to be nearly six times more in melasma patients versus those without melasma. Association existed after controlling for possible confounders such as melanin score and time length of self-reported sun exposure, and acne severity score. Conclusions Melasma appears to increase the likelihood of post-acne pigmentation. PMID:24349727

  14. Evaluation and Management of Refractory Acne Vulgaris in Adolescent and Adult Men.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Morgan

    2016-04-01

    Acne vulgaris alters the normal skin physiology, impairing stratum corneum and transepidermal water loss. A male's normal skin physiologic state is different than a female's and may have implications when choosing treatment when the skin is altered in a disease state. Transepidermal water loss, pH, and sebum production are different between the sexes. Several underlying conditions present in male acne patients at several ages that may require a more in-depth evaluation. As knowledge of the pathogenesis of acne expands, the differences in skin physiology between the sexes may alter the manner in which male patients with acne medications are approached. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of repetitive photodynamic therapy using indocyanine green for acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hyun-Min; Min, Hyung-Geun; Kim, Hee-Joong; Shin, Jong-Hun; Nam, Sang-Ho; Han, Kwang-Soo; Ryu, Joung-Ho; Oh, Jeong-Joon; Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Kwang-Joon; Lee, Seung Jae; Kim, Han-Saem; Kim, Jung-In; Song, Min-Kyu; Kim, Won-Serk

    2016-10-01

    Indocyanine green (ICG) is a photosensitizer recently introduced for the treatment of acne. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of photodynamic therapy (PDT) using ICG in subjects with acne vulgaris and to evaluate whether there was a difference in the efficacy of ICG-PDT between different numbers of treatment. Subjects with acne on the face were included. ICG lotion (0.1%) was applied for 30 minutes, and a long pulse diode laser was used. Three or five treatments per subject were performed over 2 weeks. Acne lesion counts and Leeds revised acne grades were evaluated at baseline and 2 weeks after the last treatment. In total, 47 subjects completed the study. After both three and five ICG-PDT sessions, a significant reduction in acne lesions and significant improvement in Leeds revised acne grades were found in all treated subjects compared to baseline. In the subjects receiving five ICG-PDT sessions, the reduction of papules/pustules was greater than in the subjects receiving three ICG-PDT sessions (P < 0.01, respectively). However, there was no significant change in the count of nodules/cysts, although it is a negative trend (P = 0.066). Adverse effects were minimal. ICG-PDT using long-pulsed diode laser can be a safe and effective tool for acne vulgaris. Moreover, repetitive treatments of five can cause further improvement of inflammatory acne lesions. © 2016 The International Society of Dermatology.

  16. Use of Oral Contraceptives for Management of Acne Vulgaris: Practical Considerations in Real World Practice.

    PubMed

    Harper, Julie C

    2016-04-01

    Acne vulgaris may be effectively treated with combination oral contraceptive pills (COCs) in women. COCs may be useful in any woman with acne in the absence of known contraindications. When prescribing a COC to a woman who also desires contraception, the risks of the COC are compared with the risks associated with pregnancy. When prescribing a COC to a woman who does not desire contraception, the risks of the COC must be weighed against the risks associated with acne. COCs may take 3 cycles of use to show an effect in acne lesion count reductions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Observational study of Arctium lappa in the treatment of acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Miglani, Anjali; Manchanda, Raj K

    2014-07-01

    Arctium lappa (Lappa) is used in traditional Western and Chinese medicine for acne. It is mentioned in homeopathic literature for acne, but its effect has not previously been evaluated. To determine the effectiveness of homeopathic medicine Lappa in treatment of acne vulgaris. An uncontrolled observational interventional study was conducted on human subjects who fulfilled the inclusion criteria and gave written informed consent. Lappa was prescribed in potencies starting from 6c rising to 1M as required, over a period of 6 months. Objective assessment was change in acne lesion counts supplemented with Global Acne Grading System (GAGS) and subjective assessment by using Acne-Specific Quality of Life questionnaire (Acne-QoL). Out of 34 human subjects, 32 completed the follow-up. Statistical significant results were seen in lesion counts, GAGS and Acne-QoL score (p value <0.001). Lappa has shown positive effects in the treatment of acne especially of inflammatory type. Further controlled, randomized studies with larger sample size are desirable. Trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01040390. Copyright © 2013 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Value of Grenz-Ray Therapy for Acne Vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    de Groot, W. P.; Prakken, J. R.; Verbeek, Ann M. J. A.

    1963-01-01

    In view of recent efforts to eliminate the use of radiotherapy for benign conditions or conditions treatable by other means, to avoid the possible detrimental effects of radiation, an evaluation of this treatment of acne was made. In a controlled, double-blind study in 40 patients, one area of skin received 1800 r (in thrice weekly 100-r doses) of 10-kv x irradiation. Comparable areas of skin were shamirradiated with the x-ray apparatus shielded by lead. In no case had the acne cleared up on the irradiated side. ln about half of the cases no difference was seen between the two areas.more » The remaining showed a systematic difference in favor of the treated side 2-6 weeks after treatment. However, in the majority of cases no improvement attributable to grenz-ray irradiation could be ascertained. It is concluded that grenz-ray therapy of acne, at least at the dosage used, is ineffective. At these doses, inhibition of sebaceous gland secretion would not be expected to occur. Severe erythema followed by peeling was not seen in these patients.« less

  19. Knowledge of Acne among Medical Students: Pretest and Posttest Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Shivaswamy, Kanakapura Nanjundaswamy; Shyamprasad, Arakali Lakshminarayana; Sumathy, Tharayil Kunneth; Ranganathan, Chandrashekaran; Kumar, Shanmugan Praveen

    2014-01-01

    Background. Acne vulgaris is a disorder of sebaceous glands mainly affecting the adolescent population. There are some misconceptions about acne not only in the general population but also among the medical students. Methods. Second year medical undergraduate students attending dermatology postings for the first time were included in the study. A questionnaire (in yes or no answer format) with 20 questions on acne, each carrying one mark, was to be answered by the students. The students were categorized into 4 grades based on the marks obtained: Grade I 90% marks and above, Grade II 75%–90%, Grade III 50%–74%, and Grade IV <50% marks obtained. Results. Of the 144 students of the batch, 95 (69.5%) completed both pretest and posttest questionnaires. The average pretest score was 14.1 and that of the posttest was 16.9. The percentage of improvement in mean score from pretest to posttest was 16.5. Fischer's exact test was applied to analyze the improvement in scores between pretest and posttests which is significant at P = 0.015 (P < 0.05). In the paired t-test the improvement in mean scores between pretest and posttest was significant at P < 0.001. PMID:24600519

  20. Knowledge of Acne among Medical Students: Pretest and Posttest Assessment.

    PubMed

    Shivaswamy, Kanakapura Nanjundaswamy; Shyamprasad, Arakali Lakshminarayana; Sumathy, Tharayil Kunneth; Ranganathan, Chandrashekaran; Kumar, Shanmugan Praveen

    2014-01-01

    Background. Acne vulgaris is a disorder of sebaceous glands mainly affecting the adolescent population. There are some misconceptions about acne not only in the general population but also among the medical students. Methods. Second year medical undergraduate students attending dermatology postings for the first time were included in the study. A questionnaire (in yes or no answer format) with 20 questions on acne, each carrying one mark, was to be answered by the students. The students were categorized into 4 grades based on the marks obtained: Grade I 90% marks and above, Grade II 75%-90%, Grade III 50%-74%, and Grade IV <50% marks obtained. Results. Of the 144 students of the batch, 95 (69.5%) completed both pretest and posttest questionnaires. The average pretest score was 14.1 and that of the posttest was 16.9. The percentage of improvement in mean score from pretest to posttest was 16.5. Fischer's exact test was applied to analyze the improvement in scores between pretest and posttests which is significant at P = 0.015 (P < 0.05). In the paired t-test the improvement in mean scores between pretest and posttest was significant at P < 0.001.

  1. Could adult female acne be associated with modern life?

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, R G R; Rocha, M A D; Bagatin, E; Tufik, S; Andersen, M L

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, the prevalence of adult female acne has increased, but the reason for this increase remains unclear. Acne is one of the most common skin disorders. It can be triggered or worsened by endogenous and exogenous factors, including genetic predisposition, hormone concentrations, diet, smoke and stress; although the interaction with this last factor is not well understood. Modern life presents many stresses including urban noises, socioeconomic pressures and light stimuli. Women are especially affected by stress during daily routine. The recent insertion in the labor market is added to the duties of the mother and wife. Women also have a higher risk of developing psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety. Sleep restriction is added to these factors, with several negative consequences on health, including on hormonal secretion and the immune system. This is further complicated by the natural variation in sleep architecture across the menstrual cycle. Recent studies have brought new data about the mechanisms and possible factors involved. This review aims to establish a connection between stress, sleep deprivation and adult female acne.

  2. The psychosocial impact of acne, vitiligo, and psoriasis: a review

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Catherine M; Beroukhim, Kourosh; Danesh, Melissa J; Babikian, Aline; Koo, John; Leon, Argentina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chronic skin conditions have been well reported to affect a patient’s quality of life on multiple dimensions, including the psychosocial domain. Psychosocial is defined as the interrelation of social factors with an individual’s thoughts and behavior. The assessment of the psychosocial impact of skin disease on a patient can help direct the dermatologists’ treatment goals. To evaluate the psychosocial impact of skin disease, we conducted a review of the literature on three skin conditions with onsets at various stages of life: acne, vitiligo, and psoriasis. Methods A PubMed search was conducted in March 2015 using the terms “psychosocial” AND “acne”, “psychosocial” AND “vitiligo”, and “psychosocial” AND “psoriasis”. The results were limited to articles published in English in the past 5 years studying patients of all ages. Results and their references were evaluated for relevance according to their discussion of psychosocial qualities in their patients and the validity of psychosocial assessments. The search for acne yielded 51 results, and eleven were found to be relevant; vitiligo yielded 30 results with ten found to be relevant; and psoriasis yielded 70 results with seven found to be relevant. Results According to the articles evaluated, 19.2% of adolescent patients with acne were affected in their personal and social lives. Social phobia was present in 45% of patients with acne compared to 18% of control subjects. Race and sex played a role in self-consciousness and social perceptions of the disease. Vitiligo negatively affected marriage potential and caused relationship problems in >50% of patients. Psoriasis negatively affected multiple domains of life, including work, relationships, and social activities. Anxiety and depression affected not only psoriasis patients but also their cohabitants; up to 88% of cohabitants had an impaired quality of life. Conclusion Though all three skin condi