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Sample records for bactrocera tryoni froggatt

  1. Time-pattern and frequency analyses of sounds produced by irradiated and untreated male Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) during mating behavior

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Behavior and sounds associated with mating of mass-reared irradiated and untreated (non-irradiated) Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) males were analyzed using synchronous acoustic and video recordings. The flies tested were from a population used in sterile release programs that help maintain fruit-fly...

  2. Effect of adult chill treatments on recovery, longevity and flight ability of Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Reynolds, O L; Orchard, B A

    2011-02-01

    Control of Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae), populations or outbreaks may be achieved through the mass-rearing and inundative release of sterile B. tryoni. An alternative release method is to release chilled adult sterile fruit flies to decrease packaging and transport requirements and potentially improve release efficiencies. Two trials were conducted to determine the effect of chilling on the performance of two separate batches of adult B. tryoni, fed either a protein and sucrose diet or sucrose only diet. The first trial compared chill times of 0, 0.5, 2 and 4 h; the second trial compared chill times of 0, 2, 4, 8 and 24 h. Overall, there was little or no affect of chilling on the recovery, longevity and flight ability of B. tryoni chilled at 4°C. Recovery time can take up to 15 min for chilled adult flies. There was no effect of chill time on longevity although females generally had greater longevity on either diet compared with males. Propensity for flight was not adversely affected by chilling at the lower chill times in trial 1; however, in trial 2, adults fed on a protein and sucrose diet had a decreased tendency for flight as the chilling time increased. Fly body size did not affect recovery times although the smaller adult B. tryoni in trial 1 had significantly reduced longevity compared to the larger adults in trial 2. Implications of these findings for B. tryoni SIT are discussed.

  3. Raspberry Ketone Trifluoroacetate, a new attractant for the Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt))

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni, Q-fly) is a major agricultural pest in eastern Australia. The deployment of male lures comprises an important component of several control and detection strategies for this pest. A novel fluorinated analog of raspberry ketone, raspberry ketone trifluoroac...

  4. Yeast hydrolysate supplementation increases field abundance and persistence of sexually mature sterile Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt).

    PubMed

    Reynolds, O L; Orchard, B A; Collins, S R; Taylor, P W

    2014-04-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a non-chemical approach used to control major pests from several insect families, including Tephritidae, and entails the mass-release of sterile insects that reduce fertility of wild populations. For SIT to succeed, released sterile males must mature and compete with wild males to mate with wild females. To reach sexual maturity, the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae), must obtain adequate nutrition after adult emergence; however, in current SIT programs sterile B. tryoni receive a pre-release diet that lacks key nutrients required to sustain sexual development. The chief objective of this study was to determine whether pre-release yeast hydrolysate (YH) supplements affect the persistence and abundance of sexually mature sterile male B. tryoni under field conditions. Experiments were run in outdoor cages under conditions of low and high environmental stress that differed markedly in temperature and humidity, and in the field. Under low environmental stress conditions, survival of sterile B. tryoni was monitored in cages under three diet treatments: (i) sugar only, (ii) sugar plus YH or (iii) sugar plus YH for 48 h and sugar only thereafter. Under high environmental stress conditions survival of sterile B. tryoni was monitored in cages under four diet treatments: (i) white sugar only, (ii) brown sugar only, (iii) white sugar plus YH and (iv) brown sugar plus YH. In a replicated field study, we released colour-marked sterile B. tryoni from two diet regimes, YH-supplemented or YH-deprived, and monitored abundance of sexually mature males. In the low-stress cage study, there was no effect of diet, although overall females lived longer than males. In the high stress cage study, mortality was lower for YH-fed flies than YH-deprived flies and females lived longer than males. In the field, YH supplementation resulted in higher abundance of sexually mature sterile males, with 1.2 YH-fed flies

  5. Efficacy of Chemicals for the Potential Management of the Queensland Fruit Fly Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Olivia L; Osborne, Terrence J; Barchia, Idris

    2017-05-09

    This study investigated alternative in-field chemical controls against Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt). Bioassay 1 tested the mortality of adults exposed to fruit and filter paper dipped in insecticide, and the topical application of insecticide to adults/fruit. Bioassay 2 measured the mortality of adults permitted to oviposit on fruit dipped in insecticide and aged 0, 1, 3, or 5 days, plus the production of offspring. Bioassay 3 tested infested fruit sprayed with insecticide. The field bioassay trialed the mortality of adults exposed to one- and five-day insecticide residues on peaches, and subsequent offspring. Abamectin, alpha-cypermethrin, clothianidin, dimethoate (half-label rate), emamectin benzoate, fenthion (half- and full-label rate), and trichlorfon were the most efficacious in bioassay 1, across 18 tested insecticide treatments. Overall, the LT50 value was lowest for fenthion (full-label rate), clothianidin, and alpha-cypermethrin. Fenthion, emamectin benzoate, and abamectin had the greatest effect on adult mortality and offspring production. Infested fruit treated with acetamiprid, fenthion, and thiacloprid produced no/very few offspring. Alpha-cypermethrin demonstrated good field efficacy against adults (one day post treatment: 97.2% mortality, five day post treatment: 98.8% mortality) and subsequent offspring (100% across one and five day post treatments), comparable to that of fenthion (full-label rate) (100% mortality for offspring and adults across both post treatments). Alpha-cypermethrin is a possible alternative to fenthion against B. tryoni; as a pyrethroid, it may not be desirable if adjunct biological control is imperative. Thiacloprid and Acetamiprid may be useful as a post-harvest treatment.

  6. Efficacy of Chemicals for the Potential Management of the Queensland Fruit Fly Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Olivia L.; Osborne, Terrence J.; Barchia, Idris

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated alternative in-field chemical controls against Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt). Bioassay 1 tested the mortality of adults exposed to fruit and filter paper dipped in insecticide, and the topical application of insecticide to adults/fruit. Bioassay 2 measured the mortality of adults permitted to oviposit on fruit dipped in insecticide and aged 0, 1, 3, or 5 days, plus the production of offspring. Bioassay 3 tested infested fruit sprayed with insecticide. The field bioassay trialed the mortality of adults exposed to one- and five-day insecticide residues on peaches, and subsequent offspring. Abamectin, alpha-cypermethrin, clothianidin, dimethoate (half-label rate), emamectin benzoate, fenthion (half- and full-label rate), and trichlorfon were the most efficacious in bioassay 1, across 18 tested insecticide treatments. Overall, the LT50 value was lowest for fenthion (full-label rate), clothianidin, and alpha-cypermethrin. Fenthion, emamectin benzoate, and abamectin had the greatest effect on adult mortality and offspring production. Infested fruit treated with acetamiprid, fenthion, and thiacloprid produced no/very few offspring. Alpha-cypermethrin demonstrated good field efficacy against adults (one day post treatment: 97.2% mortality, five day post treatment: 98.8% mortality) and subsequent offspring (100% across one and five day post treatments), comparable to that of fenthion (full-label rate) (100% mortality for offspring and adults across both post treatments). Alpha-cypermethrin is a possible alternative to fenthion against B. tryoni; as a pyrethroid, it may not be desirable if adjunct biological control is imperative. Thiacloprid and Acetamiprid may be useful as a post-harvest treatment. PMID:28486404

  7. Raspberry Ketone Trifluoroacetate, a New Attractant for the Queensland Fruit Fly, Bactrocera Tryoni (Froggatt).

    PubMed

    Siderhurst, Matthew S; Park, Soo J; Buller, Caitlyn N; Jamie, Ian M; Manoukis, Nicholas C; Jang, Eric B; Taylor, Phillip W

    2016-02-01

    Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Q-fly), is a major pest of horticultural crops in eastern Australia. Lures that attract male Q-fly are important for detection of incursions and outbreaks, monitoring of populations, and control by mass trapping and male annihilation. Cuelure, an analog of naturally occurring raspberry ketone, is the standard Q-fly lure, but it has limited efficacy compared with lures that are available for some other fruit flies such as methyl eugenol for B. dorsalis. Melolure is a more recently developed raspberry ketone analog that has shown better attraction than cuelure in some field studies but not in others. A novel fluorinated analog of raspberry ketone, raspberry ketone trifluoroacetate (RKTA), has been developed as a potential improvement on cuelure and melolure. RKTA placed on laboratory cages containing 2-week-old Q-flies elicited strong behavioral responses from males. Quantification of Q-fly responses in these cages, using digital images to estimate numbers of flies aggregated near different lures, showed RKTA attracted and arrested significantly more flies than did cuelure or melolure. RKTA shows good potential as a new lure for improved surveillance and control of Q-fly.

  8. Raspberry Ketone Analogs: Vapour Pressure Measurements and Attractiveness to Queensland Fruit Fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Hanssen, Benjamin L.; Jamie, Joanne F.; Jamie, Ian M.; Siderhurst, Matthew S.; Taylor, Phillip W.

    2016-01-01

    The Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Q-fly), is a major horticultural pest in Eastern Australia. Effective monitoring, male annihilation technique (MAT) and mass trapping (MT) are all important for control and require strong lures to attract flies to traps or toxicants. Lure strength is thought to be related in part to volatility, but little vapour pressure data are available for most Q-fly lures. Raspberry ketone (4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone) and analogs that had esters (acetyl, difluoroacetyl, trifluoroacetyl, formyl, propionyl) and ethers (methyl ether, trimethylsilyl ether) in replacement of the phenolic group, and in one case also had modification of the 2-butanone side chain, were measured for their vapour pressures by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and their attractiveness to Q-fly was assessed in small cage environmentally controlled laboratory bioassays. Maximum response of one category of compounds, containing both 2-butanone side chain and ester group was found to be higher than that of the other group of compounds, of which either of 2-butanone or ester functionality was modified. However, linear relationship between vapour pressure and maximum response was not significant. The results of this study indicate that, while volatility may be a factor in lure effectiveness, molecular structure is the dominating factor for the series of molecules investigated. PMID:27196605

  9. Raspberry Ketone Analogs: Vapour Pressure Measurements and Attractiveness to Queensland Fruit Fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Park, Soo J; Morelli, Renata; Hanssen, Benjamin L; Jamie, Joanne F; Jamie, Ian M; Siderhurst, Matthew S; Taylor, Phillip W

    2016-01-01

    The Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Q-fly), is a major horticultural pest in Eastern Australia. Effective monitoring, male annihilation technique (MAT) and mass trapping (MT) are all important for control and require strong lures to attract flies to traps or toxicants. Lure strength is thought to be related in part to volatility, but little vapour pressure data are available for most Q-fly lures. Raspberry ketone (4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone) and analogs that had esters (acetyl, difluoroacetyl, trifluoroacetyl, formyl, propionyl) and ethers (methyl ether, trimethylsilyl ether) in replacement of the phenolic group, and in one case also had modification of the 2-butanone side chain, were measured for their vapour pressures by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and their attractiveness to Q-fly was assessed in small cage environmentally controlled laboratory bioassays. Maximum response of one category of compounds, containing both 2-butanone side chain and ester group was found to be higher than that of the other group of compounds, of which either of 2-butanone or ester functionality was modified. However, linear relationship between vapour pressure and maximum response was not significant. The results of this study indicate that, while volatility may be a factor in lure effectiveness, molecular structure is the dominating factor for the series of molecules investigated.

  10. The mating system of the true fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni and its sister species, Bactrocera neohumeralis.

    PubMed

    Ekanayake, Wasala M T D; Jayasundara, Mudalige S H; Peek, Thelma; Clarke, Anthony R; Schutze, Mark K

    2017-06-01

    The frugivorous "true" fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Queensland fruit fly), is presumed to have a nonresourced-based lek mating system. This is largely untested, and contrary data exists to suggest Bactrocera tryoni may have a resource-based mating system focused on fruiting host plants. We tested the mating system of Bactrocera tryoni, and its close sibling Bactrocera neohumeralis, in large field cages using laboratory reared flies. We used observational experiments that allowed us to determine if: (i) mating pairs were aggregated or nonaggregated; (ii) mating system was resource or nonresource based; (iii) flies utilized possible landmarks (tall trees over short) as mate-rendezvous sites; and (iv) males called females from male-dominated leks. We recorded nearly 250 Bactrocera tryoni mating pairs across all experiments, revealing that: (i) mating pairs were aggregated; (ii) mating nearly always occurred in tall trees over short; (iii) mating was nonresource based; and (iv) that males and females arrived at the mate-rendezvous site together with no evidence that males preceded females. Bactrocera neohumeralis copulations were much more infrequent (only 30 mating pairs in total), but for those pairs there was a similar preference for tall trees and no evidence of a resource-based mating system. Some aspects of Bactrocera tryoni mating behavior align with theoretical expectations of a lekking system, but others do not. Until evidence for unequivocal female choice can be provided (as predicted under a true lek), the mating system of Bactrocera tryoni is best described as a nonresource based, aggregation system for which we also have evidence that land-marking may be involved. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  11. Genetic consequences of domestication and mass rearing of pest fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, A S; Cameron, E C; Sved, J A; Meats, A W

    2012-06-01

    Tephritid fruit flies, an important pest of horticulture worldwide, are increasingly targeted for control or eradication by large-scale releases of sterile flies of the same species. For each species treated, strains must be domesticated for mass rearing to provide sufficiently large numbers of individuals for releases. Increases in productivity of domesticated tephritid strains are well documented, but there have been few systematic studies of the genetic consequences of domestication in tephritids. Here, we used nine DNA microsatellite markers to monitor changes in genetic diversity during the early generations of domestication in replicated lines of the fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae). The observed changes in heterozygosity and allelic richness were compared with the expected changes in heterozygosity generated by a stochastic simulation including genetic drift but not selection. The results showed that repeatable genetic bottlenecks occur in the early generations and that selection occurs in the later generations. Furthermore, using the same simulation, we show that there is inadvertent selection for increased productivity for the entire life on a mass-rearing colony, in addition to intentional selection for increased productivity. That additional selection results from the common practice of establishing the next generation of the breeding colony from a small proportion of one day's pupae collection (the pupal raffle). That selection occurs during all generations and acts only on fecundity variation. Practical methods to counter that unavoidable loss of genetic diversity during the domestication process in B. tryoni are discussed.

  12. Parasitoids of Queensland Fruit Fly Bactrocera tryoni in Australia and Prospects for Improved Biological Control

    PubMed Central

    Zamek, Ashley L.; Spinner, Jennifer E.; Micallef, Jessica L.; Gurr, Geoff M.; Reynolds, Olivia L.

    2012-01-01

    This review draws together available information on the biology, methods for study, and culturing of hymenopteran parasitoids of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, and assesses prospects for improving biological control of this serious pest. Augmentative release of the native and naturalised Australian parasitoids, especially the braconid Diachasmimorpha tryoni, may result in better management of B. tryoni in some parts of Australia. Mass releases are an especially attractive option for areas of inland eastern Australia around the Fruit Fly Exclusion Zone that produces B. tryoni-free fruits for export. Diachasmimorpha tryoni has been successful in other locations such as Hawaii for the biological control of other fruit fly species. Biological control could contribute to local eradication of isolated outbreaks and more general suppression and/or eradication of the B. tryoni population in endemic areas. Combining biological control with the use of sterile insect technique offers scope for synergy because the former is most effective at high pest densities and the latter most economical when the pest becomes scarce. Recommendations are made on methods for culturing and study of four B. tryoni parasitoids present in Australia along with research priorities for optimising augmentative biological control of B. tryoni. PMID:26466726

  13. Parasitoids of Queensland Fruit Fly Bactrocera tryoni in Australia and Prospects for Improved Biological Control.

    PubMed

    Zamek, Ashley L; Spinner, Jennifer E; Micallef, Jessica L; Gurr, Geoff M; Reynolds, Olivia L

    2012-10-22

    This review draws together available information on the biology, methods for study, and culturing of hymenopteran parasitoids of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, and assesses prospects for improving biological control of this serious pest. Augmentative release of the native and naturalised Australian parasitoids, especially the braconid Diachasmimorpha tryoni, may result in better management of B. tryoni in some parts of Australia. Mass releases are an especially attractive option for areas of inland eastern Australia around the Fruit Fly Exclusion Zone that produces B. tryoni-free fruits for export. Diachasmimorpha tryoni has been successful in other locations such as Hawaii for the biological control of other fruit fly species. Biological control could contribute to local eradication of isolated outbreaks and more general suppression and/or eradication of the B. tryoni population in endemic areas. Combining biological control with the use of sterile insect technique offers scope for synergy because the former is most effective at high pest densities and the latter most economical when the pest becomes scarce. Recommendations are made on methods for culturing and study of four B. tryoni parasitoids present in Australia along with research priorities for optimising augmentative biological control of B. tryoni.

  14. From eradication to containment: invasion of French Polynesia by Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and releases of two natural enemies: a 17-year case study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), was discovered on Tahiti Island, French Polynesia, in 1996. Two other economically important Bactrocera species were previously established: B. kirki (Froggatt) in 1928, and B. tryoni (Froggatt), Queensland fruit fly, in 1970. This situation provi...

  15. Alimentary Tract Bacteria Isolated and Identified with API-20E and Molecular Cloning Techniques from Australian Tropical Fruit Flies, Bactrocera cacuminata and B. tryoni

    PubMed Central

    Thaochan, N.; Drew, R. A. I.; Hughes, J. M.; Vijaysegaran, S.; Chinajariyawong, A.

    2010-01-01

    Bacteria were isolated from the crop and midgut of field collected Bactrocera cacuminata (Hering) and Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Two methods were used, firstly isolation onto two types of bacteriological culture media (PYEA and TSA) and identification using the API-20E diagnostic kit, and secondly, analysis of samples using the 16S rRNA gene molecular diagnostic method. Using the API-20E method, 10 genera and 17 species of bacteria in the family Enterobacteriaceae were identified from cultures growing on the nutrient agar. The dominant species in both the crop and midgut were Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella oxytoca. Providencia rettgeri, Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp ozaenae and Serratia marcescens were isolated from B. tryoni only. Using the molecular cloning technique that is based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, five bacteria classes were dignosed — Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma- and Delta- Proteobacteria and Firmicutes — including five families, Leuconostocaceae, Enterococcaceae, Acetobacteriaceae, Comamonadaceae and Enterobacteriaceae. The bacteria affiliated with Firmicutes were found mainly in the crop while the Gammaproteobacteria, especially the family Enterobacteriaceae, was dominant in the midgut. This paper presents results from the first known application of molecular cloning techniques to study bacteria within tephritid species and the first record of Firmicutes bacteria in these flies. PMID:20883132

  16. Germ-line transformation of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, using a piggyBac vector in the presence of endogenous piggyBac elements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We report the stable genetic transformation of the Queensland fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni using a piggyBac vector marked with either the fluorescent protein DsRed or EGFP.A transformation frequency of 5–10% was obtained.Inheritance of the transgenes has remained stable over eight generations despite...

  17. Cuelure but not zingerone make the sex pheromone of male Bactrocera tryoni (Tephritidae: Diptera) more attractive to females.

    PubMed

    Kumaran, Nagalingam; Hayes, R Andrew; Clarke, Anthony R

    2014-09-01

    In tephritid fruit flies of the genus Bactrocera Macquart, a group of plant derived compounds (sensu amplo 'male lures') enhance the mating success of males that have consumed them. For flies responding to the male lure methyl eugenol, this is due to the accumulation of chemicals derived from the male lure in the male rectal gland (site of pheromone synthesis) and the subsequent release of an attractive pheromone. Cuelure, raspberry ketone and zingerone are a second, related group of male lures to which many Bactrocera species respond. Raspberry ketone and cuelure are both known to accumulate in the rectal gland of males as raspberry ketone, but it is not known if the emitted male pheromone is subsequently altered in complexity or is more attractive to females. Using Bactrocera tryoni as our test insect, and cuelure and zingerone as our test chemicals, we assess: (i) lure accumulation in the rectal gland; (ii) if the lures are released exclusively in association with the male pheromone; and (iii) if the pheromone of lure-fed males is more attractive to females than the pheromone of lure-unfed males. As previously documented, we found cuelure was stored in its hydroxyl form of raspberry ketone, while zingerone was stored largely in an unaltered state. Small but consistent amounts of raspberry ketone and β-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-propionic acid were also detected in zingerone-fed flies. Males released the ingested lures or their analogues, along with endogenous pheromone chemicals, only during the dusk courtship period. More females responded to squashed rectal glands extracted from flies fed on cuelure than to glands from control flies, while more females responded to the pheromone of calling cuelure-fed males than to control males. The response to zingerone treatments in both cases was not different from the control. The results show that male B. tryoni release ingested lures as part of their pheromone blend and, at least for cuelure, this attracts more

  18. The draft genome of the pest tephritid fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni: resources for the genomic analysis of hybridising species.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, Anthony Stuart; Shearman, Deborah C A; Frommer, Marianne; Raphael, Kathryn A; Deshpande, Nandan P; Wilkins, Marc R; Sherwin, William B; Sved, John A

    2014-12-20

    The tephritid fruit flies include a number of economically important pests of horticulture, with a large accumulated body of research on their biology and control. Amongst the Tephritidae, the genus Bactrocera, containing over 400 species, presents various species groups of potential utility for genetic studies of speciation, behaviour or pest control. In Australia, there exists a triad of closely-related, sympatric Bactrocera species which do not mate in the wild but which, despite distinct morphologies and behaviours, can be force-mated in the laboratory to produce fertile hybrid offspring. To exploit the opportunities offered by genomics, such as the efficient identification of genetic loci central to pest behaviour and to the earliest stages of speciation, investigators require genomic resources for future investigations. We produced a draft de novo genome assembly of Australia's major tephritid pest species, Bactrocera tryoni. The male genome (650-700 Mbp) includes approximately 150 Mb of interspersed repetitive DNA sequences and 60 Mb of satellite DNA. Assessment using conserved core eukaryotic sequences indicated 98% completeness. Over 16,000 MAKER-derived gene models showed a large degree of overlap with other Dipteran reference genomes. The sequence of the ribosomal RNA transcribed unit was also determined. Unscaffolded assemblies of B. neohumeralis and B. jarvisi were then produced; comparison with B. tryoni showed that the species are more closely related than any Drosophila species pair. The similarity of the genomes was exploited to identify 4924 potentially diagnostic indels between the species, all of which occur in non-coding regions. This first draft B. tryoni genome resembles other dipteran genomes in terms of size and putative coding sequences. For all three species included in this study, we have identified a comprehensive set of non-redundant repetitive sequences, including the ribosomal RNA unit, and have quantified the major satellite DNA

  19. Kinetics of Colonization of Adult Queensland Fruit Flies (Bactrocera tryoni) by Dinitrogen-Fixing Alimentary Tract Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Murphy, K M; Teakle, D S; Macrae, I C

    1994-07-01

    The average total population of bacteria remained constant in the alimentary tracts of adult laboratory-raised Queensland fruit flies (Bactrocera tryoni) although the insects had ingested large numbers of live bacteria as part of their diet. The mean number of bacteria (about 13 million) present in the gut of the insects from 12 to 55 days after emergence was not significantly modified when, at 5 days after emergence, the flies were fed antibiotic-resistant bacteria belonging to two species commonly isolated from the gut of field-collected B. tryoni. Flies were fed one marked dinitrogen-fixing strain each of either Klebsiella oxytoca or Enterobacter cloacae, and the gastrointestinal tracts of fed flies were shown to be colonized within 7 days by antibiotic-resistant isolates of K. oxytoca but not E. cloacae. The composition of the microbial population also appeared to be stable in that the distribution and frequency of bacterial taxa among individual flies exhibited similar patterns whether or not the flies had been bacteria fed. Isolates of either E. cloacae or K. oxytoca, constituting 70% of the total numbers, were usually dominant, with oxidative species including pseudomonads forming the balance of the population. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria could be spread from one cage of flies to the adjacent surfaces of a second cage within a few days and had reached a control group several meters distant by 3 weeks. Restriction of marked bacteria to the population of one in five flies sampled from the control group over the next 30 days suggested that the bacterial population in the gut of the insect was susceptible to alteration in the first week after emergence but that thereafter it entered a steady state and was less likely to be perturbed by the introduction of newly encountered strains. All populations sampled, including controls, included at least one isolate of the dinitrogen-fixing family Enterobacteriaceae; many were distinct from the marked strains fed to the

  20. Characterization of irritans mariner-like elements in the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae): evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Ben Lazhar-Ajroud, Wafa; Caruso, Aurore; Mezghani, Maha; Bouallegue, Maryem; Tastard, Emmanuelle; Denis, Françoise; Rouault, Jacques-Deric; Makni, Hanem; Capy, Pierre; Chénais, Benoît; Makni, Mohamed; Casse, Nathalie

    2016-08-01

    Genomic variation among species is commonly driven by transposable element (TE) invasion; thus, the pattern of TEs in a genome allows drawing an evolutionary history of the studied species. This paper reports in vitro and in silico detection and characterization of irritans mariner-like elements (MLEs) in the genome and transcriptome of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Eleven irritans MLE sequences have been isolated in vitro using terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) as primers, and 215 have been extracted in silico from the sequenced genome of B. oleae. Additionally, the sequenced genomes of Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) have been explored to identify irritans MLEs. A total of 129 sequences from B. tryoni have been extracted, while the genome of B. cucurbitae appears probably devoid of irritans MLEs. All detected irritans MLEs are defective due to several mutations and are clustered together in a monophyletic group suggesting a common ancestor. The evolutionary history and dynamics of these TEs are discussed in relation with the phylogenetic distribution of their hosts. The knowledge on the structure, distribution, dynamic, and evolution of irritans MLEs in Bactrocera species contributes to the understanding of both their evolutionary history and the invasion history of their hosts. This could also be the basis for genetic control strategies using transposable elements.

  1. Characterization of irritans mariner-like elements in the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae): evolutionary implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Lazhar-Ajroud, Wafa; Caruso, Aurore; Mezghani, Maha; Bouallegue, Maryem; Tastard, Emmanuelle; Denis, Françoise; Rouault, Jacques-Deric; Makni, Hanem; Capy, Pierre; Chénais, Benoît; Makni, Mohamed; Casse, Nathalie

    2016-08-01

    Genomic variation among species is commonly driven by transposable element (TE) invasion; thus, the pattern of TEs in a genome allows drawing an evolutionary history of the studied species. This paper reports in vitro and in silico detection and characterization of irritans mariner-like elements (MLEs) in the genome and transcriptome of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Eleven irritans MLE sequences have been isolated in vitro using terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) as primers, and 215 have been extracted in silico from the sequenced genome of B. oleae. Additionally, the sequenced genomes of Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) have been explored to identify irritans MLEs. A total of 129 sequences from B. tryoni have been extracted, while the genome of B. cucurbitae appears probably devoid of irritans MLEs. All detected irritans MLEs are defective due to several mutations and are clustered together in a monophyletic group suggesting a common ancestor. The evolutionary history and dynamics of these TEs are discussed in relation with the phylogenetic distribution of their hosts. The knowledge on the structure, distribution, dynamic, and evolution of irritans MLEs in Bactrocera species contributes to the understanding of both their evolutionary history and the invasion history of their hosts. This could also be the basis for genetic control strategies using transposable elements.

  2. Impact of introduction of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) and classical biological control releases of Fopius arisanus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on economically important fruit flies in French Polynesia.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Roger I; Leblanc, Luc; Putoa, Rudolph; Eitam, Avi

    2007-06-01

    Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), was discovered on Tahiti Island in July 1996. Eradication programs were conducted from 1997 to 2001, but failed. From 1998 to 2006, B. dorsalis was recovered from 29 different host fruit from the five Society Islands: Tahiti, Moorea, Raiatea, Tahaa, and Huahine. Analysis of coinfestation patterns by B. dorsalis, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), and Bactrocera kirki (Froggatt) suggested B. dorsalis had displaced these two species and become the most abundant fruit fly in coastal areas. To suppress B. dorsalis populations, a classical biological control program was initiated to introduce the natural enemy Fopius arisanus (Sonan) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) into French Polynesia from Hawaii. Wasps were released and established on Tahiti, Moorea, Raiatea, Tahaa, and Huahine Islands. In guava, Psidium guajava L., collections for Tahiti, F. arisanus parasitism of fruit flies was 2.1, 31.8, 37.5, and 51.9% for fruit collected for 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006, respectively. Based on guava collections in 2002 (before releases) and 2006 (after releases), there was a subsequent decrease in numbers of B. dorsalis, B. tryoni, and B. kirki fruit flies emerging (per kilogram of fruit) by 75.6, 79.3, and 97.9%, respectively. These increases in F. arisanus parasitism and decreases in infestation were similar for other host fruit. Establishment of F. arisanus is the most successful example of classical biological control of fruit flies in the Pacific area outside of Hawaii and serves as a model for introduction into South America, Africa, and China where species of the B. dorsalis complex are established.

  3. Expression patterns of sex-determination genes in single male and female embryos of two Bactrocera fruit fly species during early development.

    PubMed

    Morrow, J L; Riegler, M; Frommer, M; Shearman, D C A

    2014-12-01

    In tephritids, the sex-determination pathway follows the sex-specific splicing of transformer (tra) mRNA, and the cooperation of tra and transformer-2 (tra-2) to effect the sex-specific splicing of doublesex (dsx), the genetic double-switch responsible for male or female somatic development. The Dominant Male Determiner (M) is the primary signal that controls this pathway. M, as yet uncharacterized, is Y-chromosome linked, expressed in the zygote and directly or indirectly diminishes active TRA protein in male embryos. Here we first demonstrated the high conservation of tra, tra-2 and dsx in two Australian tephritids, Bactrocera tryoni and Bactrocera jarvisi. We then used quantitative reverse transcription PCR on single, sexed embryos to examine expression of the key sex-determination genes during early embryogenesis. Individual embryos were sexed using molecular markers located on the B. jarvisi Y-chromosome that was also introgressed into a B. tryoni line. In B. jarvisi, sex-specific expression of tra transcripts occurred between 3 to 6 h after egg laying, and the dsx isoform was established by 7 h. These milestones were delayed in B. tryoni lines. The results provide a time frame for transcriptomic analyses to identify M and its direct targets, plus information on genes that may be targeted for the development of male-only lines for pest management.

  4. The Complete Nucleotide Sequence of the Mitochondrial Genome of Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bin; Nardi, Francesco; Hull-Sanders, Helen; Wan, Xuanwu; Liu, Yinghong

    2014-01-01

    The complete 16,043 bp mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Tephritidae) has been sequenced. The genome encodes 37 genes usually found in insect mitogenomes. The mitogenome information for B. minax was compared to the homologous sequences of Bactrocera oleae, Bactrocera tryoni, Bactrocera philippinensis, Bactrocera carambolae, Bactrocera papayae, Bactrocera dorsalis, Bactrocera correcta, Bactrocera cucurbitae and Ceratitis capitata. The analysis indicated the structure and organization are typical of, and similar to, the nine closely related species mentioned above, although it contains the lowest genome-wide A+T content (67.3%). Four short intergenic spacers with a high degree of conservation among the nine tephritid species mentioned above and B. minax were observed, which also have clear counterparts in the control regions (CRs). Correlation analysis among these ten tephritid species revealed close positive correlation between the A+T content of zero-fold degenerate sites (P0FD), the ratio of nucleotide substitution frequency at P0FD sites to all degenerate sites (zero-fold degenerate sites, two-fold degenerate sites and four-fold degenerate sites) and amino acid sequence distance (ASD) were found. Further, significant positive correlation was observed between the A+T content of four-fold degenerate sites (P4FD) and the ratio of nucleotide substitution frequency at P4FD sites to all degenerate sites; however, we found significant negative correlation between ASD and the A+T content of P4FD, and the ratio of nucleotide substitution frequency at P4FD sites to all degenerate sites. A higher nucleotide substitution frequency at non-synonymous sites compared to synonymous sites was observed in nad4, the first time that has been observed in an insect mitogenome. A poly(T) stretch at the 5′ end of the CR followed by a [TA(A)]n-like stretch was also found. In addition, a highly conserved G+A-rich sequence block was observed in front of the

  5. The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Nardi, Francesco; Hull-Sanders, Helen; Wan, Xuanwu; Liu, Yinghong

    2014-01-01

    The complete 16,043 bp mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Tephritidae) has been sequenced. The genome encodes 37 genes usually found in insect mitogenomes. The mitogenome information for B. minax was compared to the homologous sequences of Bactrocera oleae, Bactrocera tryoni, Bactrocera philippinensis, Bactrocera carambolae, Bactrocera papayae, Bactrocera dorsalis, Bactrocera correcta, Bactrocera cucurbitae and Ceratitis capitata. The analysis indicated the structure and organization are typical of, and similar to, the nine closely related species mentioned above, although it contains the lowest genome-wide A+T content (67.3%). Four short intergenic spacers with a high degree of conservation among the nine tephritid species mentioned above and B. minax were observed, which also have clear counterparts in the control regions (CRs). Correlation analysis among these ten tephritid species revealed close positive correlation between the A+T content of zero-fold degenerate sites (P0FD), the ratio of nucleotide substitution frequency at P0FD sites to all degenerate sites (zero-fold degenerate sites, two-fold degenerate sites and four-fold degenerate sites) and amino acid sequence distance (ASD) were found. Further, significant positive correlation was observed between the A+T content of four-fold degenerate sites (P4FD) and the ratio of nucleotide substitution frequency at P4FD sites to all degenerate sites; however, we found significant negative correlation between ASD and the A+T content of P4FD, and the ratio of nucleotide substitution frequency at P4FD sites to all degenerate sites. A higher nucleotide substitution frequency at non-synonymous sites compared to synonymous sites was observed in nad4, the first time that has been observed in an insect mitogenome. A poly(T) stretch at the 5' end of the CR followed by a [TA(A)]n-like stretch was also found. In addition, a highly conserved G+A-rich sequence block was observed in front of the

  6. Flavor cosmology: dynamical yukawas in the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldes, Iason; Konstandin, Thomas; Servant, Géraldine

    2016-12-01

    Can the cosmological dynamics responsible for settling down the present values of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix be related to electroweak symmetry breaking? If the Standard Model Yukawa couplings varied in the early universe and started with order one values before electroweak symmetry breaking, the CP violation associated with the CKM matrix could be the origin of the matter-antimatter asymmetry. The large effective Yukawa couplings which lead to the enhanced CP violation can also help in achieving a strong first-order electroweak phase transition. We study in detail the feasibility of this idea by implementing dynamical Yukawa couplings in the context of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss two main realizations of such a mechanism, related phenomenology, cosmological and collider bounds, and provide an estimate of the baryonic yield. A generic prediction is that this scenario always features a new scalar field below the electroweak scale. We point out ways to get around this conclusion.

  7. Complete mitochondrial genome of Bactrocera arecae (Insecta: Tephritidae) by next-generation sequencing and molecular phylogeny of Dacini tribe

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Song, Sze-Looi; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Chan, Kok-Gan; Chow, Wan-Loo; Eamsobhana, Praphathip

    2015-01-01

    The whole mitochondrial genome of the pest fruit fly Bactrocera arecae was obtained from next-generation sequencing of genomic DNA. It had a total length of 15,900 bp, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a non-coding region (A + T-rich control region). The control region (952 bp) was flanked by rrnS and trnI genes. The start codons included 6 ATG, 3 ATT and 1 each of ATA, ATC, GTG and TCG. Eight TAA, two TAG, one incomplete TA and two incomplete T stop codons were represented in the protein-coding genes. The cloverleaf structure for trnS1 lacked the D-loop, and that of trnN and trnF lacked the TΨC-loop. Molecular phylogeny based on 13 protein-coding genes was concordant with 37 mitochondrial genes, with B. arecae having closest genetic affinity to B. tryoni. The subgenus Bactrocera of Dacini tribe and the Dacinae subfamily (Dacini and Ceratitidini tribes) were monophyletic. The whole mitogenome of B. arecae will serve as a useful dataset for studying the genetics, systematics and phylogenetic relationships of the many species of Bactrocera genus in particular, and tephritid fruit flies in general. PMID:26472633

  8. Supersymmetric Froggatt-Nielsen Models with Baryon- and Lepton-Number Violation

    SciTech Connect

    Dreiner, Herbi K.; Thormeier, Marc

    2004-04-16

    We systematically investigate the embedding of U(1)_X Froggatt-Nielsen models in (four-dimensional) local supersymmetry. We restrict ourselves to models with a single flavon field. We do not impose a discrete symmetry by hand, e.g., R-parity, baryon-parity or lepton-parity. Thus we determine the order of magnitude of the baryon- and/or lepton violating coupling constants through the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We then scrutinize whether the predicted coupling constants are in accord with weak or GUT scale constraints. Many models turn out to be incompatible.

  9. Supersymmetric Froggatt-Nielsen models with baryon- and lepton-number violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreiner, Herbi K.; Thormeier, Marc

    2004-03-01

    We systematically investigate the embedding of U(1)X Froggatt-Nielsen models in (four-dimensional) local supersymmetry. We restrict ourselves to models with a single flavon field. We do not impose a discrete symmetry by hand, e.g., R parity, baryon parity, or lepton parity. Thus we determine the order of magnitude of the baryon- and/or lepton-violating coupling constants through the Froggatt-Nielsen scenario. We then scrutinize whether the predicted coupling constants are in accord with weak or GUT scale constraints. Many models turn out to be incompatible.

  10. FN-2HDM: Two Higgs Doublet Models with Froggatt-Nielsen symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dery, Avital; Nir, Yosef

    2017-04-01

    We embed Two Higgs Doublet Models (2HDMs) in the Froggatt Nielsen (FN) framework. We find that the approximate FN symmetry predicts i) approximate Natural Flavor Conservation (NFC) of Types II or IV in the Yukawa sector, and ii) approximate Peccei-Quinn (PQ) symmetry in the scalar sector. We discuss the phenomenological consequences of these features.

  11. Mating compatibility between Bactrocera invadens and Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Bo, W; Ahmad, S; Dammalage, T; Tomas, U Sto; Wornoayporn, V; Ul Haq, I; Cáceres, C; Vreysen, M J B; Schutze, M K

    2014-04-01

    The invasive fruit fly, Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White, is a highly polyphagous fruit pest that occurs predominantly in Africa yet has its origins in the Indian subcontinent. It is extremely morphologically and genetically similar to the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel); as such the specific relationship between these two species is unresolved. We assessed prezygotic compatibility between B. dorsalis and B. invadens using standardized field cage mating tests, which have proven effectiveness in tephritid cryptic species studies. These tests were followed by an assessment of postzygotic compatibility by examining egg viability, larval and pupal survival, and sex ratios of offspring produced from parental and subsequent F1 crosses to examine for hybrid breakdown as predicted under a two-species hypothesis. B. dorsalis was sourced from two countries (Pakistan and China), and each population was compared with B. invadens from its type locality of Kenya. B. invadens mated randomly with B. dorsalis from both localities, and there were generally high levels of hybrid viability and survival resulting from parental and F1 crosses. Furthermore, all but one hybrid cross resulted in equal sex ratios, with the single deviation in favor of males and contrary to expectations under Haldane's rule. These data support the hypothesis that B. dorsalis and B. invadens represent the same biological species, an outcome that poses significant implications for pest management and international trade for sub-Saharan Africa.

  12. Field evaluation of the bait toxicant chlorfluazuron in eliminating Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Peters, Brenton C; Fitzgerald, Christopher J

    2003-12-01

    Two aspects of the Exterra Termite Interception and Baiting System (Ensystex, Fayetteville, NC) were evaluated in a field experiment using 13 termite mounds near Townsville, Australia. First, a cellulose-acetate powder containing either 0.05% wt:wt or 0.25% wt:wt chlorfluazuron (Requiem, Ensystex, Fayetteville, NC) was tested for its efficacy in eliminating colonies of the xylophagous mound-building subterranean termite Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt). The moist bait matrix was replenished during the first inspection of 10 mounds (five mounds by two treatments) used in the experiment. Second, a single application of the moist bait matrix was used on three additional mounds to test termite responses and the effectiveness of 0.25% wt:wt chlorfluazuron. Although there was no evidence of repellence, there was little removal of replenished bait. Five colonies were eliminated by 0.05% wt:wt chlorfluazuron and five colonies by 0.25% wt:wt chlorfluazuron: another colony was moribund, and elimination appeared imminent. Colony decline was first suspected some 12 wk after bait application, and colony elimination was confirmed, by destructive sampling, about 5 wk later. Colony elimination may have occurred within 12 wk. One colony was an anomaly and did not succumb to the effects of the toxicant. Another colony was not eliminated because of invasion of the baiting system by ants. Ants, principally Iridomyrmex purpureus (F. Smith) group and Papyrius nitidus (Mayr) group, occurred commonly in the stations during the experiment. Microcerotermes sp. was found in five of the C. acinaciformis mounds, after colony elimination. Inspections of small sections of mounds and wooden dowels inserted into mounds were reliable methods for monitoring colony health.

  13. An evaluation of the species status of Bactrocera invadens and the Systematics of the Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) complex

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genus Bactrocera (Tephritidae) contains over 500 species, including many severe pests of fruits and vegetables. While native to tropical and sub-tropical areas of Africa, India, Southeast Asia and Australasia, a number of the pest species, largely members of the Bactrocera dorsalis complex, have...

  14. Dirac CP phase in the neutrino mixing matrix and the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism with det[Mν]=0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneta, Yuya; Tanimoto, Morimitsu; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2017-07-01

    We discuss the Dirac CP violating phase δCP in the Froggatt-Nielsen model for a neutrino mass matrix Mν imposing a condition det [Mν ] = 0. This additional condition restricts the CP violating phase δCP drastically. We find that the phase δCP is predicted in the region of ± (0.4- 2.9) radian, which is consistent with the recent T2K and NOνA data. There is a remarkable correlation between δCP and sin2 ⁡θ23. The phase δCP converges to ∼ ± π / 2 if sin2 ⁡θ23 is larger than 0.5. Thus, the accurate measurement of sin2 ⁡θ23 is important for a test of our model. The effective mass mee for the neutrinoless double beta decay is predicted in the rage 3.3-4.0 meV.

  15. Synonymization of key pest species within the Bactrocera dorsalis species complex (Diptera: Tephritidae): taxonomic changes based on a review of 20 years of integrative morphological, molecular, cytogenetic, behavioral, and c

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bactrocera papayae Drew & Hancock, Bactrocera philippinensis Drew & Hancock, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock, and Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White are four horticultural pest tephritid fruit fly species that are highly morphologically and genetically similar to the destructive pest, th...

  16. Field Evaluation of Melolure, a Formate Analogue of Cuelure, and Reassessment of Fruit Fly Species Trapped in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Dominiak, Bernard C; Campbell, Angus J; Jang, Eric B; Ramsey, Amanda; Fanson, Benjamin G

    2015-06-01

    In Australia, tephritids are usually attracted to either cuelure or methyl eugenol. Methyl eugenol is a very effective lure, but cuelure is less effective likely due to low volatility. A new formate analogue of cuelure, melolure, has increased volatility, resulting in improved efficacy with the melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett. We tested the efficacy of melolure with fruit fly species in Sydney as part of the National Exotic Fruit Fly Monitoring programme. This monitoring programme has 71 trap sites across Sydney, with each trap site comprising separate Lynfield traps containing either cuelure, methyl eugenol, or capilure lure. In 2008, an additional Lynfield trap with melolure plugs was added to seven sites. In 2009 and 2010, an additional Lynfield trap with melolure wicks was added to 11 trap sites and traps were monitored fortnightly for 2 yr. Capture rates for melolure traps were similar to cuelure traps for Dacus absonifacies (May) and Dacus aequalis (Coquillet), but melolure traps consistently caught fewer Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) than cuelure traps. However, trap sites with both a cuelure and melolure traps had increased capture rates for D. absonifacies and D. aequalis, and a marginally significant increase for B. tryoni. Melolure plugs were less effective than melolure wicks, but this effect may be related to lure concentration. The broader Bactrocera group species were attracted more to cuelure than melolure while the Dacus group species were attracted more to melolure than cuelure. There is no benefit in switching from cuelure to melolure to monitor B. tryoni, the most important fruit fly pest in Australia.

  17. Nonhost status of mangosteen to Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Unahawutti, Udorn; Intarakumheng, Rachada; Oonthonglang, Pitawat; Phankum, Salukjit; Follett, Peter A

    2014-08-01

    Postharvest quarantine treatments (irradiation or vapor heat) are used to control fruit flies and other pests in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L) exported to the United States and Japan from Thailand. No-choice tests were conducted in the laboratory to determine whether Thai mangosteen is a host for Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (oriental fruit fly) and Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (carambola fruit fly). Ripe commercial quality fruit (1 wk after harvest) that were either undamaged or damaged by puncturing or peeling the pericarp were exposed to a high density of gravid flies in screen cages and then held for 10 d and dissected to inspect for immature life stages. Undamaged mangosteen fruit were not infested by B. dorsalis and B. carambolae. Partially damaged fruit with shallow punctures in the pericarp that did not extend to the aril also were not infested. Both fruit flies could infest damaged fruit if the pericarp damage allowed oviposition in the aril. Results suggest that natural infestation of mangosteen by B. dorsalis and B. carambolae can only occur if fruit exhibit physical cracks or mechanical injury. Resistance appears to be due to the pericarp hardness and thickness as well as latex secretion. Nonhost status could be used without additional quarantine measures to achieve quarantine security against B. dorsalis and B. carambolae in mangosteen exported from Thailand.

  18. Host plants of Solanum fruit fly, Bactrocera latifrons(Hendel)(Diptera: Tephritidae); and provisional list of suitable host plants of Bactrocera(Bactrocera)latifrons(Hendel)(Diptera: Tephritidae), Version 1.0

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel)(Diptera: Tephritidae) infests many solanaceous plant species, some of which are important horticultural crop species. It has also been found to infest a number of cucurbitaceous plant species as well as a few plant species in other plant families. Bactrocera latifrons i...

  19. A redescription of Yoyetta landsboroughi (Distant) and Y. tristrigata (Goding and Froggatt) (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) and description of four new related species.

    PubMed

    Emery, Nathan J; Emery, David L; Popple, Lindsay W

    2015-04-22

    This study provides redescriptions of two small cicada species, Yoyetta landsboroughi (Distant) and Y. tristrigata (Goding and Froggatt), from eastern Australia, based on a detailed morphological examination of available material. The status of Y. toowoombae (Distant) is re-examined and it is now formally recognised to be a junior synonym of Y. landsboroughi. Four new species of Yoyetta are described, also from eastern Australia. These are: Y. cumberlandi sp. nov., Y. fluviatilis sp. nov., Y. nigrimontana sp. nov., and Y. repetens sp. nov.. Within each species (re)description, sections on distinguishing features, distribution, habitat and behaviour, and calling song structures are described and illustrated where appropriate.

  20. Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Three Bactrocera Fruit Flies of Subgenus Bactrocera (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Their Phylogenetic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Song, Sze-Looi; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Suana, I. Wayan

    2016-01-01

    Bactrocera latifrons is a serious pest of solanaceous fruits and Bactrocera umbrosa is a pest of Artocarpus fruits, while Bactrocera melastomatos infests the fruit of Melastomataceae. They are members of the subgenus Bactrocera. We report here the complete mitochondrial genome of these fruit flies determined by next-generation sequencing and their phylogeny with other taxa of the subgenus Bactrocera. The whole mitogenomes of these three species possessed 37 genes namely, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA and 22 tRNA genes. The mitogenome of B. latifrons (15,977 bp) was longer than those of B. melastomatos (15,954 bp) and B. umbrosa (15,898 bp). This difference can be attributed to the size of the intergenic spacers (283 bp in B. latifrons, 261 bp in B. melastomatos, and 211 bp in B. umbrosa). Most of the PCGs in the three species have an identical start codon, except for atp8 (adenosine triphosphate synthase protein 8), which had an ATG instead of GTG in B. umbrosa, whilst the nad3 (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3) and nad6 (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6) genes were characterized by an ATC instead of ATT in B. melastomatos. The three species had identical stop codon for the respective PCGs. In B. latifrons and B. melastomatos, the TΨC (thymidine-pseudouridine-cytidine)-loop was absent in trnF (phenylalanine) and DHU (dihydrouracil)-loop was absent in trnS1 (serine S1). In B. umbrosa, trnN (asparagine), trnC (cysteine) and trnF lacked the TψC-loop, while trnS1 lacked the DHU-stem. Molecular phylogeny based on 13 PCGs was in general concordant with 15 mitochondrial genes (13 PCGs and 2 rRNA genes), with B. latifrons and B. umbrosa forming a sister group basal to the other species of the subgenus Bactrocera which was monophyletic. The whole mitogenomes will serve as a useful dataset for studying the genetics, systematics and phylogenetic relationships of the many species of Bactrocera genus in particular, and tephritid fruit flies in general. PMID:26840430

  1. Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Three Bactrocera Fruit Flies of Subgenus Bactrocera (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Their Phylogenetic Implications.

    PubMed

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Song, Sze-Looi; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Suana, I Wayan

    2016-01-01

    Bactrocera latifrons is a serious pest of solanaceous fruits and Bactrocera umbrosa is a pest of Artocarpus fruits, while Bactrocera melastomatos infests the fruit of Melastomataceae. They are members of the subgenus Bactrocera. We report here the complete mitochondrial genome of these fruit flies determined by next-generation sequencing and their phylogeny with other taxa of the subgenus Bactrocera. The whole mitogenomes of these three species possessed 37 genes namely, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA and 22 tRNA genes. The mitogenome of B. latifrons (15,977 bp) was longer than those of B. melastomatos (15,954 bp) and B. umbrosa (15,898 bp). This difference can be attributed to the size of the intergenic spacers (283 bp in B. latifrons, 261 bp in B. melastomatos, and 211 bp in B. umbrosa). Most of the PCGs in the three species have an identical start codon, except for atp8 (adenosine triphosphate synthase protein 8), which had an ATG instead of GTG in B. umbrosa, whilst the nad3 (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3) and nad6 (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6) genes were characterized by an ATC instead of ATT in B. melastomatos. The three species had identical stop codon for the respective PCGs. In B. latifrons and B. melastomatos, the TΨC (thymidine-pseudouridine-cytidine)-loop was absent in trnF (phenylalanine) and DHU (dihydrouracil)-loop was absent in trnS1 (serine S1). In B. umbrosa, trnN (asparagine), trnC (cysteine) and trnF lacked the TψC-loop, while trnS1 lacked the DHU-stem. Molecular phylogeny based on 13 PCGs was in general concordant with 15 mitochondrial genes (13 PCGs and 2 rRNA genes), with B. latifrons and B. umbrosa forming a sister group basal to the other species of the subgenus Bactrocera which was monophyletic. The whole mitogenomes will serve as a useful dataset for studying the genetics, systematics and phylogenetic relationships of the many species of Bactrocera genus in particular, and tephritid fruit flies in general.

  2. Annotated world bibliography of host plants of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Cocquillett) (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae(Coquillett), is a widespread, economically important tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species. Bactrocera cucurbitae infests fruits and vegetables of a number of different plant species, with many host plants in the plant family Cucurbitaceae, but with ...

  3. Detection/monitoring of Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae): assessing the potential of prospective new lures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bactrocera latifrons is a tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) which has a host list of 59 plant species from 14 plant families, with over 70% of the host plant species coming from the plant families Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae. Bactrocera latifrons is of primarily Asian distribution, but it...

  4. Chemistry of fruit flies: Glandular secretion ofBactrocera (Polistomimetes) visenda (Hardy).

    PubMed

    Krohn, S; Fletcher, M T; Kitching, W; Moore, C J; Drew, R A; Francke, W

    1992-12-01

    The major component (>90% of volatiles) of the male rectal glandular extract of the nonpest speciesBactrocera visenda (Hardy) is 3-methyl2-butenyl acetate, with minor components being the isomeric 3-methyl-3-butenyl acetate, the homologous esters, 3-methyl-2-butenyl propanoate and 3-methyl-2-butenyl formate, along with 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol, 3-methyl-2-butenal, and 3-methylbutyl acetate. None of these compounds has been identified previously from aBactrocera species, supporting the view thatBactrocera visenda is taxonomically distant from otherBactrocera species identified from the Australian mainland. This collection of compounds adds to the known types utilized by dipteran species and emphasizes their extensive biosynthetic capability.

  5. Release and establishment of Diachasmimorpha kraussii (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) against Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Laboratory tests documented that Diachasmimorpha kraussii Fullaway (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was a potentially effective biological control agent against Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Diachasmimorpha kraussii was approved for release in Hawa...

  6. Epicuticular chemistry reinforces the new taxonomic classification of the Bactrocera dorsalis species complex (Diptera: Tephritidae, Dacinae)

    PubMed Central

    Vaníčková, Lucie; Nagy, Radka; Pompeiano, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White, Bactrocera papayae Drew & Hancock, and Bactrocera philippinensis Drew & Hancock, key pest species within the Bactrocera dorsalis species complex, have been recently synonymized under the name Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). The closely related Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock remains as a discrete taxonomic entity. Although the synonymizations have been accepted by most researchers, debate about the species limits remains. Because of the economic importance of this group of taxa, any new information available to support or deny the synonymizations is valuable. We investigated the chemical epicuticle composition of males and females of B. dorsalis, B. invadens, B. papayae, B. philippinensis, and B. carambolae by means of one- and two-dimensional gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, followed by multiple factor analyses and principal component analysis. Clear segregation of complex cuticule profiles of both B. carambolae sexes from B. dorsalis (Hendel) was observed. In addition to cuticular hydrocarbons, abundant complex mixtures of sex-specific oxygenated lipids (three fatty acids and 22 fatty acid esters) with so far unknown function were identified in epicuticle extracts from females of all species. The data obtained supports both taxonomic synonymization of B. invadens, B. papayae, and B. philippinensis with B. dorsalis, as well as the exclusion of B. carambolae from B. dorsalis. PMID:28873446

  7. Epicuticular chemistry reinforces the new taxonomic classification of the Bactrocera dorsalis species complex (Diptera: Tephritidae, Dacinae).

    PubMed

    Vaníčková, Lucie; Nagy, Radka; Pompeiano, Antonio; Kalinová, Blanka

    2017-01-01

    Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White, Bactrocera papayae Drew & Hancock, and Bactrocera philippinensis Drew & Hancock, key pest species within the Bactrocera dorsalis species complex, have been recently synonymized under the name Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). The closely related Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock remains as a discrete taxonomic entity. Although the synonymizations have been accepted by most researchers, debate about the species limits remains. Because of the economic importance of this group of taxa, any new information available to support or deny the synonymizations is valuable. We investigated the chemical epicuticle composition of males and females of B. dorsalis, B. invadens, B. papayae, B. philippinensis, and B. carambolae by means of one- and two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, followed by multiple factor analyses and principal component analysis. Clear segregation of complex cuticule profiles of both B. carambolae sexes from B. dorsalis (Hendel) was observed. In addition to cuticular hydrocarbons, abundant complex mixtures of sex-specific oxygenated lipids (three fatty acids and 22 fatty acid esters) with so far unknown function were identified in epicuticle extracts from females of all species. The data obtained supports both taxonomic synonymization of B. invadens, B. papayae, and B. philippinensis with B. dorsalis, as well as the exclusion of B. carambolae from B. dorsalis.

  8. Assessment of Navel Oranges, Clementine Tangerines, and Rutaceous Fruits as Hosts of Bactrocera cucurbitae and Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    McQuate, Grant T.; Follett, Peter A.; Liquido, Nicanor J.; Sylva, Charmaine D.

    2015-01-01

    Export of Citrus spp. fruits may require risk mitigation measures if grown in areas with established tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations capable of infesting the fruits. The host status of Citrus spp. fruits is unclear for two tephritid fruit fly species whose geographic ranges have expanded in recent years: melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Cocquillett), and Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel). In no choice cage infestation studies, B. latifrons oviposited into intact and punctured Washington navel oranges (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck) and Clementine tangerines (C. reticulata L. var. Clementine), but eggs rarely developed to the adult stage. B. cucurbitae readily infested intact and punctured tangerines, and to a lesser extent punctured oranges, but did not infest intact oranges. Limited cage infestation and only a single literature report of field Citrus spp. infestation suggest that risk mitigation of Citrus spp. for B. latifrons is not needed. Risk mitigation options of Citrus spp. for B. cucurbitae, including heat and cold treatments and systems approaches, are discussed. PMID:26816484

  9. Response of Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) to metabolic stress disinfection and disinfestation treatment.

    PubMed

    Arévalo-Galarza, Lourdes; Follett, Peter A

    2011-02-01

    Metabolic stress disinfection and disinfestation (MSDD) is a postharvest treatment designed to control pathogens and arthropod pests on commodities that combines short cycles of low pressure/vacuum and high CO2 with ethanol vapor. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of MSDD treatment on various life stages of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Mediterranean fruit fly; Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, oriental fruit fly; and Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, melon fly, in petri dishes and in papaya, Carica papaya L., fruit. In some experiments, the ethanol vapor phase was withheld to separate the effects of the physical (low pressure/ambient pressure cycles) and chemical (ethanol vapor plus low pressure) phases of treatment. In the experiments with tephritid fruit fly larvae and adults in petri dishes, mortality was generally high when insects were exposed to ethanol and low when ethanol was withheld during MSDD treatment, suggesting that ethanol vapor is highly lethal but that fruit flies are quite tolerant of short periods of low pressure treatment alone. When papaya fruit infested with fruit fly eggs or larvae were treated by MSDD, they produced fewer pupae than untreated control fruit, but a substantial number of individuals developed nonetheless. This suggests that internally feeding insects in fruit may be partially protected from the toxic effects of the ethanol because the vapor does not easily penetrate the fruit pericarp and pulp. MSDD treatment using the atmospheric conditions tested has limited potential as a disinfestation treatment for internal-feeding quarantine pests such as fruit flies infesting perishable commodities.

  10. Distribution of Metals in the Termite Tumulitermes tumuli (Froggatt): Two Types of Malpighian Tubule Concretion Host Zn and Ca Mutually Exclusively

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Aaron D.; Anand, Ravi R.; Laird, Jamie S.; Verrall, Michael; Ryan, Chris G.; de Jonge, Martin D.; Paterson, David; Howard, Daryl L.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine specific distribution of metals in the termite Tumulitermes tumuli (Froggatt) and identify specific organs within the termite that host elevated metals and therefore play an important role in the regulation and transfer of these back into the environment. Like other insects, termites bio-accumulate essential metals to reinforce cuticular structures and utilize storage detoxification for other metals including Ca, P, Mg and K. Previously, Mn and Zn have been found concentrated in mandible tips and are associated with increased hardness whereas Ca, P, Mg and K are accumulated in Malpighian tubules. Using high resolution Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) mapping of whole termites and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) spot analysis, localised accumulations of metals in the termite T. tumuli were identified. Tumulitermes tumuli was found to have proportionally high Mn concentrations in mandible tips. Malpighian tubules had significant enrichment of Zn (1.6%), Mg (4.9%), P (6.8%), Ca (2.7%) and K (2.4%). Synchrotron scanning X-ray Fluorescence Microprobe (XFM) mapping demonstrated two different concretion types defined by the mutually exclusive presence of Ca and Zn. In-situ SEM EDX realisation of these concretions is problematic due to the excitation volume caused by operating conditions required to detect minor amounts of Zn in the presence of significant amounts of Na. For this reason, previous researchers have not demonstrated this surprising finding. PMID:22087339

  11. Host susceptibility of citrus cultivars to Queensland fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Lloyd, A C; Hamacek, E L; Smith, D; Kopittke, R A; Gu, H

    2013-04-01

    Citrus crops are considered to be relatively poor hosts for Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), as for other tephritid species. Australian citrus growers and crop consultants have reported observable differences in susceptibility of different citrus cultivars under commercial growing conditions. In this study we conducted laboratory tests and field surveys to determine susceptibility to B. tryoni of six citrus cultivars [(Eureka lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck); Navel and Valencia oranges (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck); and Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco). The host susceptibility of these citrus cultivars was quantified by a Host Susceptibility Index, which is defined as the number of adult flies produced per gram of fruit infested at a calculated rate of one egg per gram of fruit. The HSI was ranked as Murcott (0.083) > Imperial (0.052) > Navel (0.026) - Ellendale (0.020) > Valencia (0.008) > Eureka (yellow) (0.002) > Eureka (green) (0). Results of the laboratory study were in agreement with the level of field infestation in the four citrus cultivars (Eureka lemon, Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins) that were surveyed from commercial orchards under baiting treatments against fruit flies in the Central Burnett district of Queensland. Field surveys of citrus hosts from the habitats not subject to fruit fly management showed that the numbers of fruit flies produced per gram of fruit were much lower, compared with the more susceptible noncitrus hosts, such as guava (Psidium guajava L.), cherry guava (P. littorale Raddi), mulberry (Morus nigra L.), loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.), and pear (Pyrus communis L.). Therefore, the major citrus crops commercially cultivated in Australia have a relatively low susceptibility to B. tryoni, with Eureka lemons being a particularly poor host for this tephritid fruit fly.

  12. Dispersion of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) at high and low densities and consequences of mismatching dispersions of wild and sterile flies

    SciTech Connect

    Meats, A.

    2007-03-15

    Both wild and released (sterile) Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and wild Bactrocera papayae (Drew and Hancock) in Australia had patchy distributions and comparisons with predictions of the negative binomial model indicated that the degree of clumping was sometimes very high, particularly at low densities during eradication. An increase of mean recapture rate of sterile B. tryoni on either of 2 trap arrays was not accompanied by a reduction in its coefficient of variation and when recapture rates were high, the percentage of traps catching zero decreased only slightly with increase in recapture rate, indicating that it is not practicable to decrease the heterogeneity of dispersion of sterile flies by increasing the number released. There was often a mismatch between the dispersion patterns of the wild and sterile flies, and the implications of this for the efficiency of the sterile insect technique (SIT) were investigated with a simulation study with the observed degrees of mismatch obtained from the monitoring data and assuming the overall ratio of sterile to wild flies to be 100:1. The simulation indicated that mismatches could result in the imposed rate of increase of wild flies being up to 3.5 times higher than that intended (i.e., 0.35 instead of 0.1). The effect of a mismatch always reduces the efficiency of SIT. The reason for this asymmetry is discussed and a comparison made with host-parasitoid and other systems. A release strategy to counter this effect is suggested. (author) [Spanish] Las moscas naturales y liberadas (esteriles) de Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae) y Bactrocera papayae (Drew and Hancock) en Australia tuvieron distribuciones en parches y sus compariciones con las predicciones de un modelo binomial negativo indicaron un nivel de agregacion a veces fue muy alto, particularmente en las densidades bajas durante de eradicacion. Un aumento en el promedio de la tasa de B. tryoni esteriles recapturadas en las

  13. Host plants of Carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock(Diptera:Tephritidae);and provisional list of suitable host plants of Carambola fruit fly,(Bactrocera(Bactrocera) carambolae Drew & Hancock(Diptera:Tep

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae), commonly known as the carambola fruit fly, is native to Southeast Asia, but has extended its geographic range to several countries in South America. As with other tephritid fruit fly species, establishment of B.carambolae in areas where it...

  14. Host plants of Melon Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae(Coquillett)(Diptera:Tephritidae); and provisional list of suitable host plants of the Melon Fly, Bactrocera(Zeugodacus)cucurbitae(Coquillett)(Diptera:Tephritidae),Version 2.0

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), is a widespread, economically important tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species. Bactrocera cucurbitae infests fruits and vegetables of a number of different plant species, with many host plants in the plant family Cucurbitaceae, but with...

  15. Impact of Alpinia galanga rhizome extract on Bactrocera dorsalis population.

    PubMed

    Sukhirun, N; Pluempanupat, W; Bullangpoti, V

    2010-01-01

    The Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is one of the most economically damaging pests and generally is controlled by insecticides. This research was done by evaluate the impact of rhizomes of Alpinia galanga extract on population of B. dorsalis. The rhizome of A. galanga was extracted by Soxhlet's apparatus using hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and 95% ethanol as separated solvent system. Various concentrations of all crude extracts were trailed by Topical spray application with adult B. dorsalis, completely randomized designs, 5 replicates. The results showed hexane crude extract gave the highest control efficiency to adult B. dorsalis which the 24 hours-LC50 values was 4,866.06 +/- 184.52 ppm (hexane), 24,156.66 +/- 880.33 ppm (dichloromethane), 16,744.73 +/- 641.27 ppm (ethyl acetate) and 6,337.54 +/- 145.42 ppm (95% ethanol). Thus, this extract may an alternative way for control this insect pest in the future.

  16. Capture probability of released males of two Bactrocera species (Diptera: Tephritidae) in detection traps in California.

    PubMed

    Shelly, T; Nishimoto, J; Diaz, A; Leathers, J; War, M; Shoemaker, R; Al-Zubaidy, M; Joseph, D

    2010-12-01

    The genus Bactrocera (Diptera: Tephritidae) includes approximately 70 polyphagous species that are major pests of fruit and vegetable crops. Most Bactrocera species have limited geographic distributions, but several species are invasive, and many countries operate continuous trapping programs to detect infestations. In the United States, California maintains approximately 25,000 traps (baited with male lures) specifically for Bactrocera detection distributed over an area of approximately 6,400 km2 (2,500 miles2) in the Los Angeles area. Although prior studies have used male lures to describe movement of Bactrocera males, they do not explicitly relate capture probability with fly distance from lure-baited traps; consequently, they do not address the relative effectiveness of male lures in detecting incipient populations of Bactrocera species. The objective of this study was to measure the distance-dependent capture probability of marked, released males of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (methyl eugenol- and cue lure-responding species, respectively) within the detection trapping grid operating in southern California. These data were then used to compute simple probability estimates for detecting populations of different sizes of the two species. Methyl eugenol was the more powerful attractant, and based on the mark-recapture data, we estimated that B. dorsalis populations with as few as approximately 50 males would always (>99.9%) be detected using the current trap density of five methyl eugenol-baited traps per 2.6 km2 (1 mile2). By contrast, we estimated that certain detection of B. cucurbitae populations would not occur until these contained approximately 350 males. The implications of the results for the California trapping system are discussed, and the findings are compared with mark-release-recapture data obtained for the same two species in Hawaii.

  17. Genetic characterization of Bactrocera fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Northeastern India based on DNA barcodes.

    PubMed

    Manger, Arpana; Behere, G T; Firake, D M; Sharma, Bhagawati; Deshmukh, N A; Firake, P D; Azad Thakur, N S; Ngachan, S V

    2017-07-31

    The Northeastern region of India, one of the mega biodiversity hot spots has enormous potential for the production of fruits and vegetables. Fruit flies of the genus Bactrocera Macquart are important pests of fruits and vegetables, and one of the limiting factors in successful production of these commodities. The relationship among some of the species is unclear due to their high molecular and morphological similarities. Moreover, due to the significant morphological resemblance between fruit fly species, reliable identification is very difficult task. We genetically characterized 10 fruit fly species of the genus Bactrocera by using standard DNA barcoding region of COI gene. The characterization and identification of eight species were straight forward. This study was unable to establish the molecular identity of Bactrocera sp. 2. Within the 547 bp region of partial COI gene, there were 157 variable sites of which 110 sites were parsimony informative, 153 were synonymous substitutions and 4 were non-synonymous substitutions. The estimate of genetic divergence among the ten species was in the range of 0-21.9% and the pairwise genetic distance of Bactrocera. (Bactrocera) dorsalis (Hendel) with B. (B.) carambolae was only 0.7%. Phylogenetic analysis formed separate clades for fruit and vegetable infesting fruit flies. B. (B.) aethriobasis Hardy, B. (B.) thailandica and B. (B.) tuberculata (Bezzi) have been reported for the first time from the Northeastern India. The information generated from this study would certainly have implications for pest management, taxonomy, quarantine and trade.

  18. Comparative sensitivity to methyl eugenol of four putative Bactrocera dorsalis complex sibling species – further evidence that they belong to one and the same species B. dorsalis

    PubMed Central

    Hee, Alvin K.W.; Ooi, Yue-Shin; Wee, Suk-Ling; Tan, Keng-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Males of certain species belonging to the Bactrocera dorsalis complex are strongly attracted to, and readily feed on methyl eugenol (ME), a plant secondary compound that is found in over 480 plant species worldwide. Amongst those species is one of the world’s most severe fruit pests the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., and the former taxonomic species Bactrocera invadens, Bactrocera papayae and Bactrocera philippinensis. The latter species have been recently synonymised with Bactrocera dorsalis based on their very similar morphology, mating compatibility, molecular genetics and identical sex pheromones following consumption of ME. Previous studies have shown that male fruit fly responsiveness to lures is a unique phenomenon that is dose species-specific, besides showing a close correlation to sexual maturity attainment. This led us to use ME sensitivity as a behavioural parameter to test if Bactrocera dorsalis and the three former taxonomic species had similar sensitivity towards odours of ME. Using Probit analysis, we estimated the median dose of ME required to elicit species’ positive response in 50% of each population tested (ED50). ED50 values were compared between Bactrocera dorsalis and the former species. Our results showed no significant differences between Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., and the former Bactrocera invadens, Bactrocera papayae and Bactrocera philippinensis in their response to ME. We consider that the Bactrocera males’ sensitivity to ME may be a useful behavioural parameter for species delimitation and, in addition to other integrative taxonomic tools used, provides further supportive evidence that the four taxa belong to one and the same biological species, Bactrocera dorsalis. PMID:26798265

  19. Comparative sensitivity to methyl eugenol of four putative Bactrocera dorsalis complex sibling species - further evidence that they belong to one and the same species B. dorsalis.

    PubMed

    Hee, Alvin K W; Ooi, Yue-Shin; Wee, Suk-Ling; Tan, Keng-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Males of certain species belonging to the Bactrocera dorsalis complex are strongly attracted to, and readily feed on methyl eugenol (ME), a plant secondary compound that is found in over 480 plant species worldwide. Amongst those species is one of the world's most severe fruit pests the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., and the former taxonomic species Bactrocera invadens, Bactrocera papayae and Bactrocera philippinensis. The latter species have been recently synonymised with Bactrocera dorsalis based on their very similar morphology, mating compatibility, molecular genetics and identical sex pheromones following consumption of ME. Previous studies have shown that male fruit fly responsiveness to lures is a unique phenomenon that is dose species-specific, besides showing a close correlation to sexual maturity attainment. This led us to use ME sensitivity as a behavioural parameter to test if Bactrocera dorsalis and the three former taxonomic species had similar sensitivity towards odours of ME. Using Probit analysis, we estimated the median dose of ME required to elicit species' positive response in 50% of each population tested (ED50). ED50 values were compared between Bactrocera dorsalis and the former species. Our results showed no significant differences between Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., and the former Bactrocera invadens, Bactrocera papayae and Bactrocera philippinensis in their response to ME. We consider that the Bactrocera males' sensitivity to ME may be a useful behavioural parameter for species delimitation and, in addition to other integrative taxonomic tools used, provides further supportive evidence that the four taxa belong to one and the same biological species, Bactrocera dorsalis.

  20. Historical perspective on the synonymization of the four major pest species belonging to the Bactrocera dorsalis species complex (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Hee, Alvin K.W.; Wee, Suk-Ling; Nishida, Ritsuo; Ono, Hajime; Hendrichs, Jorge; Haymer, David S.; Tan, Keng-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An FAO/IAEA-sponsored coordinated research project on integrative taxonomy, involving close to 50 researchers from at least 20 countries, culminated in a significant breakthrough in the recognition that four major pest species, Bactrocera dorsalis, Bactrocera philippinensis, Bactrocera papayae and Bactrocera invadens, belong to the same biological species, Bactrocera dorsalis. The successful conclusion of this initiative is expected to significantly facilitate global agricultural trade, primarily through the lifting of quarantine restrictions that have long affected many countries, especially those in regions such as Asia and Africa that have large potential for fresh fruit and vegetable commodity exports. This work stems from two taxonomic studies: a revision in 1994 that significantly increased the number of described species in the Bactrocera dorsalis species complex; and the description in 2005 of Bactrocera invadens, then newly incursive in Africa. While taxonomically valid species, many biologists considered that these were different names for one biological species. Many disagreements confounded attempts to develop a solution for resolving this taxonomic issue, before the FAO/IAEA project commenced. Crucial to understanding the success of that initiative is an accounting of the historical events and perspectives leading up to the international, multidisciplinary collaborative efforts that successfully achieved the final synonymization. This review highlights the 21 year journey taken to achieve this outcome. PMID:26798266

  1. Historical perspective on the synonymization of the four major pest species belonging to the Bactrocera dorsalis species complex (Diptera, Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Hee, Alvin K W; Wee, Suk-Ling; Nishida, Ritsuo; Ono, Hajime; Hendrichs, Jorge; Haymer, David S; Tan, Keng-Hong

    2015-01-01

    An FAO/IAEA-sponsored coordinated research project on integrative taxonomy, involving close to 50 researchers from at least 20 countries, culminated in a significant breakthrough in the recognition that four major pest species, Bactrocera dorsalis, Bactrocera philippinensis, Bactrocera papayae and Bactrocera invadens, belong to the same biological species, Bactrocera dorsalis. The successful conclusion of this initiative is expected to significantly facilitate global agricultural trade, primarily through the lifting of quarantine restrictions that have long affected many countries, especially those in regions such as Asia and Africa that have large potential for fresh fruit and vegetable commodity exports. This work stems from two taxonomic studies: a revision in 1994 that significantly increased the number of described species in the Bactrocera dorsalis species complex; and the description in 2005 of Bactrocera invadens, then newly incursive in Africa. While taxonomically valid species, many biologists considered that these were different names for one biological species. Many disagreements confounded attempts to develop a solution for resolving this taxonomic issue, before the FAO/IAEA project commenced. Crucial to understanding the success of that initiative is an accounting of the historical events and perspectives leading up to the international, multidisciplinary collaborative efforts that successfully achieved the final synonymization. This review highlights the 21 year journey taken to achieve this outcome.

  2. Assessment of attractiveness of plants as roosting sites for the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, and oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    PubMed

    McQuate, Grant T; Vargas, Roger I

    2007-01-01

    The use of toxic protein bait sprays to suppress melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), populations typically involves application to vegetation bordering agricultural host areas where the adults seek shelter ("roost"). Although bait spray applications for suppression of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), populations have traditionally been applied to the host crop, rather than to crop borders, roosting by oriental fruit flies in borders of some crop species, such as papaya, Carica papaya L. (Brassicales: Caricaceae), suggests that bait spray applications to crop borders could also help in suppression of B. dorsalis populations. In order to develop improved recommendations for application of bait sprays to border plants for suppression of melon fly and oriental fruit fly populations, the relative attractiveness of a range of plant species, in a vegetative (non-flowering) stage, was tested to wild melon fly and oriental fruit fly populations established in a papaya orchard in Hawaii. A total of 20 plant species were evaluated, divided into four categories: 1) border plants, including corn, Zea mays L. (Poales: Poaceae), windbreaks and broad-leaved ornamentals, 7 species; 2) weed plants commonly found in agricultural fields in Hawaii, 6 species; 3) host crop plants, 1 species- zucchini, Cucurbita pepo L. (Violales: Curcurbitaceae), and 4) locally grown fruit trees, 6 species. Plants were established in pots and placed in an open field, in clusters encircling protein bait traps, 20 m away from the papaya orchard. Castor bean, Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiales: Euphorbiaceae), panax, Polyscias guilfoylei (Bull) Bailey (Apiales: Araliaceae), tiger's claw, Erythnna variegata L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and guava, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) were identified as preferred roosting hosts for the melon fly, and tiger's claw, panax, castor bean, Canada cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium L. (Asterales: Asteraceae), Brazilian

  3. Assessment of Attractiveness of Plants as Roosting Sites for the Melon Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, and Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis

    PubMed Central

    McQuate, Grant T.; Vargas, Roger I.

    2007-01-01

    The use of toxic protein bait sprays to suppress melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), populations typically involves application to vegetation bordering agricultural host areas where the adults seek shelter (“roost”). Although bait spray applications for suppression of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), populations have traditionally been applied to the host crop, rather than to crop borders, roosting by oriental fruit flies in borders of some crop species, such as papaya, Carica papaya L. (Brassicales: Caricaceae), suggests that bait spray applications to crop borders could also help in suppression of B. dorsalis populations. In order to develop improved recommendations for application of bait sprays to border plants for suppression of melon fly and oriental fruit fly populations, the relative attractiveness of a range of plant species, in a vegetative (non-flowering) stage, was tested to wild melon fly and oriental fruit fly populations established in a papaya orchard in Hawaii. A total of 20 plant species were evaluated, divided into four categories: 1) border plants, including corn, Zea mays L. (Poales: Poaceae), windbreaks and broad-leaved ornamentals, 7 species; 2) weed plants commonly found in agricultural fields in Hawaii, 6 species; 3) host crop plants, 1 species- zucchini, Cucurbita pepo L. (Violales: Curcurbitaceae), and 4) locally grown fruit trees, 6 species. Plants were established in pots and placed in an open field, in clusters encircling protein bait traps, 20 m away from the papaya orchard. Castor bean, Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiales: Euphorbiaceae), panax, Polyscias guilfoylei (Bull) Bailey (Apiales: Araliaceae), tiger's claw, Erythnna variegata L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and guava, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) were identified as preferred roosting hosts for the melon fly, and tiger's claw, panax, castor bean, Canada cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium L. (Asterales: Asteraceae

  4. Niche Overlap of Congeneric Invaders Supports a Single-Species Hypothesis and Provides Insight into Future Invasion Risk: Implications for Global Management of the Bactrocera dorsalis Complex

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Matthew P.; Terblanche, John S.

    2014-01-01

    Background The invasive fruit fly, Bactrocera invadens, has expanded its range rapidly over the past 10 years. Here we aimed to determine if the recent range expansion of Bactrocera invadens into southern Africa can be better understood through niche exploration tools, ecological niche models (ENMs), and through incorporating information about Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., a putative conspecific species from Asia. We test for niche overlap of environmental variables between Bactrocera invadens and Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. as well as two other putative conspecific species, Bactrocera philippinensis and B. papayae. We examine overlap and similarity in the geographical expression of each species’ realised niche through reciprocal distribution models between Africa and Asia. We explore different geographical backgrounds, environmental variables and model complexity with multiple and single Bactrocera species hypotheses in an attempt to predict the recent range expansion of B. invadens into northern parts of South Africa. Principal Findings Bactrocera invadens has a high degree of niche overlap with B. dorsalis s.s. (and B. philippinensis and B. papayae). Ecological niche models built for Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. have high transferability to describe the range of B. invadens, and B. invadens is able to project to the core range of B. dorsalis s.s. The ENMs of both Bactrocera dorsalis and B. dorsalis combined with B. philipenesis and B. papayae have significantly higher predictive ability to capture the distribution points in South Africa than for B. invadens alone. Conclusions/Significance Consistent with other studies proposing these Bactrocera species as conspecific, niche similarity and overlap between these species is high. Considering these other Bactrocera dorsalis complex species simultaneously better describes the range expansion and invasion potential of B. invadens in South Africa. We suggest that these species should be considered the same–at least

  5. Niche overlap of congeneric invaders supports a single-species hypothesis and provides insight into future invasion risk: implications for global management of the Bactrocera dorsalis complex.

    PubMed

    Hill, Matthew P; Terblanche, John S

    2014-01-01

    The invasive fruit fly, Bactrocera invadens, has expanded its range rapidly over the past 10 years. Here we aimed to determine if the recent range expansion of Bactrocera invadens into southern Africa can be better understood through niche exploration tools, ecological niche models (ENMs), and through incorporating information about Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., a putative conspecific species from Asia. We test for niche overlap of environmental variables between Bactrocera invadens and Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. as well as two other putative conspecific species, Bactrocera philippinensis and B. papayae. We examine overlap and similarity in the geographical expression of each species' realised niche through reciprocal distribution models between Africa and Asia. We explore different geographical backgrounds, environmental variables and model complexity with multiple and single Bactrocera species hypotheses in an attempt to predict the recent range expansion of B. invadens into northern parts of South Africa. Bactrocera invadens has a high degree of niche overlap with B. dorsalis s.s. (and B. philippinensis and B. papayae). Ecological niche models built for Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. have high transferability to describe the range of B. invadens, and B. invadens is able to project to the core range of B. dorsalis s.s. The ENMs of both Bactrocera dorsalis and B. dorsalis combined with B. philipenesis and B. papayae have significantly higher predictive ability to capture the distribution points in South Africa than for B. invadens alone. Consistent with other studies proposing these Bactrocera species as conspecific, niche similarity and overlap between these species is high. Considering these other Bactrocera dorsalis complex species simultaneously better describes the range expansion and invasion potential of B. invadens in South Africa. We suggest that these species should be considered the same-at least functionally-and global quarantine and management strategies applied

  6. Classical Olfactory Conditioning in the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xin Nian

    2015-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a serious pest of fruits and vegetables. Methyl eugenol (ME), a male attractant, is used to against this fly by mass trapping. Control effect may be influenced by learning, which could modify the olfactory response of the fly to this attractant. To collect the behavioral evidence, studies on the capability of this fly for olfactory learning are necessary. We investigated olfactory learning in male flies with a classical olfactory conditioning procedure using restrained individuals under laboratory conditions. The acquisition of the proboscis extension reflex was used as the criterion for conditioning. A high conditioned response level was found in oriental fruit flies when an odor was presented in paired association with a sucrose reward but not when the odor and sucrose were presented unpaired. We also found that the conditioning performance was influenced by the odor concentration, intertrial interval, and starvation time. A slight sensitization elicited by imbibing sucrose was observed. These results indicate that oriental fruit flies have a high capacity to form an olfactory memory as a result of classical conditioning. PMID:25837420

  7. Classical olfactory conditioning in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia Li; Chen, Xiao Yan; Zeng, Xin Nian

    2015-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a serious pest of fruits and vegetables. Methyl eugenol (ME), a male attractant, is used to against this fly by mass trapping. Control effect may be influenced by learning, which could modify the olfactory response of the fly to this attractant. To collect the behavioral evidence, studies on the capability of this fly for olfactory learning are necessary. We investigated olfactory learning in male flies with a classical olfactory conditioning procedure using restrained individuals under laboratory conditions. The acquisition of the proboscis extension reflex was used as the criterion for conditioning. A high conditioned response level was found in oriental fruit flies when an odor was presented in paired association with a sucrose reward but not when the odor and sucrose were presented unpaired. We also found that the conditioning performance was influenced by the odor concentration, intertrial interval, and starvation time. A slight sensitization elicited by imbibing sucrose was observed. These results indicate that oriental fruit flies have a high capacity to form an olfactory memory as a result of classical conditioning.

  8. Evaluation of chromatic cues for trapping Bactrocera tau.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Ma, Huabo; Niu, Liming; Han, Dongyin; Zhang, Fangping; Chen, Junyu; Fu, Yueguan

    2017-01-01

    Trapping technology based on chromatic cues is an important strategy in controlling Tephritidae (fruit flies). The objectives of this present study were to evaluate the preference of Bactrocera tau for different chromatic cues, and to explore an easy method to print and reproduce coloured paper. Chromatic cues significantly affected the preference of adult B. tau. Wavelengths in the 515-604 nm range were the suitable wavelengths for trapping B. tau. Different-day-old B. tau had different colour preferences. Virtual wavelengths of 595 nm (yellow) and 568 nm (yellowish green) were the optimum wavelengths for trapping 5-7-day-old B. tau and 30-32-day-old B. tau respectively. The trap type and height significantly influenced B. tau attraction efficiency. The number of B. tau on coloured traps hung perpendicular to plant rows was not significantly higher than the number on traps hung parallel to plant rows. The quantisation of colour on the basis of Bruton's wavelength to RGB function can serve as an alternative method for printing and reproducing coloured paper, but a corrected equation should be established between the theoretical wavelength and actual wavelength of coloured paper. Results show that a compound paper coloured yellow (595 nm) and yellowish green (568 nm) installed at 60 and 90 cm above the ground shows the maximum effect for trapping B. tau. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Chromatic cues to trap the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen-Yen; Chen, Yu-Po; Yang, En-Cheng

    2007-05-01

    Various colors have been used as visual cues to trap insect pests. For example, yellow traps for monitoring and control of the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) have been in use for a very long time. However, the chromatic cue of using color traps has never been meticulously investigated. In this study, the spectral sensitivities of the photoreceptors in the compound eyes of B. dorsalis were measured intracellularly, and the theory of receptor quantum catch was applied to study the chromatic cue of fly attracting. Responses to five wavelength categories with peak wavelengths of 370, 380, 490, and 510 nm, and one with dual peaks at 350 and 490 nm were recorded. Based on spectral sensitivities, six colored papers were chosen to test the color preference of the fly, and an additional UV preference test was done to confirm the effect of the UV stimuli. It was concluded that UV and green stimuli (spectra: 300-380 nm and 500-570 nm) would enhance the attractiveness of a colored paper to the oriental fruit fly, and blue stimuli (380-500 nm) would diminish the attractiveness.

  10. Toxicity of phosphine fumigation against Bactrocera tau at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Liu, Tao; Li, Baishu; Zhang, Fanhua; Dong, Shujun; Wang, Yuejin

    2014-04-01

    Bactrocera tau (Walker) is one of the most harmful pests to fruits and vegetables. To counteract this pest, the development of phytosanitary treatment is required to comply with the pest regulation requirements of certain countries. This study investigated the toxicity of phosphine fumigation against B. tau under low temperature conditions. Different growth stages (eggs and instars) of B. tau were exposed to 1.07 mg/liter phosphine for 1-10 d at 5 degrees C, and compared with unfumigated flies at 5 degrees C. The results showed that tolerance to cold treatment alone or phosphine fumigation at low temperatures generally increased with the stage of insect development. However, eggs incubated for 12 h at 25 degrees C represented the most tolerant growth stage to phosphine fumigation at 5 degrees C. Furthermore, 8.56- to 2.18-d exposure periods were required to achieve 99% mortality with a range of phosphine concentrations from 0.46 to 3.81 mg/liter. C0.62 t = k expression was obtained from the LT99 values, indicating that the exposure time was more important than the phosphine concentration.

  11. Development of phytosanitary cold treatments for oranges infested with Bactrocera invadens and Bactrocera zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae) by comparison with existing cold treatment schedules for Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Hallman, Guy J; Myers, Scott W; El-Wakkad, Mokhtar F; Tadrous, Meshil D; Jessup, Andrew J

    2013-08-01

    Phytosanitary cold treatments were tested for Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta, and White and Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) using comparisons with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Oranges were infested by puncturing holes in the peel and allowing tephritids to oviposit in the holes. The treatments were initiated when the larvae reached late third instar because previous research had shown that stage to be the most cold tolerant for all three species. Results show that B. invadens is not more cold tolerant than C. capitata and B. zonata at 1.0 +/- 0.1 degrees C and lend support to the use of C. capitata cold treatment schedules for B. invadens. It cannot be concluded that B. zonata is not more cold tolerant than C. capitata.

  12. A liquid larval diet for rearing Bactrocera invadens and Ceratitis fasciventris (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White and Ceratitis fasciventris (Bezzi) are the major fruit fly pests of fruits and vegetables in Africa. The effects of two types of larval diet, liquid and solid (carrot based), on various quality control parameters (pupal recovery, pupal weight, adult emergenc...

  13. Populations of Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Its Parasitoids in Himalayan Asia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    For a biological control program against olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae Rossi, olives were collected in the Himalayan foothills (China, Nepal, India, and Pakistan) to discover new natural enemies. Wild olives, Olea europaea ssp. cuspidata (Wall ex. G. Don), were sparsely distributed and fly-infe...

  14. Effect of host Bactrocera dorsalis sex on yield and quality of the Parasitoid Fopius arisanus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study examines the effect of host Bactrocera dorsalis sex on performance of the parasitoid Fopius arisanus to enable use of a genetic sexing strain (GSS) to transfer this parasitoid to regions where B.dorsalis is not established. Experiments on the sex ratio and yield of F. arisanus did not ind...

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia SBo1 Isolated from Bactrocera oleae

    PubMed Central

    Blow, Frances; Vontas, John

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Stenotrophomonas are ubiquitous in the environment and are increasingly associated with insects. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia SBo1 was cultured from the gut of Bactrocera oleae. The draft genome sequence presented here will inform future investigations into the nature of the interaction between insects and their microbiota. PMID:27660769

  16. Populations of Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Its Parasitoids in Himalayan Asia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    For a biological control program against olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae Rossi, olives were collected in the Himalayan foothills (China, Nepal, India, and Pakistan) to discover new natural enemies. Wild olives, Olea europaea ssp. cuspidata (Wall ex. G. Don), were sparsely distributed and fly-infes...

  17. Artificial rearing of the peach fruit fly Bactrocera zonata (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Integration of the sterile insect technique (SIT) into the area-wide management of the peach fruit fly Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) is a promising althernative to the localized use of chemical control tactics. Implementation of the SIT requires adequate numbers of sterile male insects that are produ...

  18. Methoprene application and diet protein supplementation to male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, modifies female remating behavior

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Methoprene (an analogue of juvenile hormone) application and feeding on a protein diet is known to enhance male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), mating success. In the present study we investigated the effect of these treatments on male B. cucurbitae’s ability to i...

  19. Lethal and sublethal effects of cyantraniliprole on Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendle) (Diptera: Tephiritidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is one of the most important and damaging fruit pests in the world. Studies were conducted with a novel anthranilic diamide insecticide (i.e. DuPontTM CyazypyrTM) cyantraniliprole to determine its lethal and sublethal effects on B. dorsalis. An in...

  20. Identification of a carboxylesterase associated with resistance to naled in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Compared to other organophosphate-resistant and -susceptible (S) lines of Bactrocera dorsalis, the carboxylesterase (CBE) BdE5 in the naled-resistant(nal-r) line has been found to possess remarkable quantitative elevation. Our study attempts to identify the role of BdE5 in naled resistance, and we d...

  1. Laboratory evaluation of the chemosterilant lufenuron against Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, B. cucurbitae, and B. latifrons.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Four species of tephritid fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, B. cucurbitae, and B. latifrons were evaluated for toxic, developmental, and physiological responses to the chemosterilant lufenuorn incorporated in an agar adult diet and a liquid larval diet. No significant mortality o...

  2. Annotated world bibliography of host fruits of Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) infests many solanaceous plant species, some of which are important horticultural crop species. It has also been found to infest a number of cucurbitaceous plant species as well as a few plant species in other plant families. B. latifrons is of ...

  3. Phytosanitary cold treatment for oranges infested with Bactrocera zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders), attacks a wide range of tree fruits in countries from Egypt to Vietnam and is occasionally trapped in the US. Phytosanitary treatments are required to export fruit hosts of this insect from infested countries to non-infested countries where it might...

  4. Inter-regional mating compatibility among Bactrocera dorsalis populations in Thailand (Diptera,Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Chinvinijkul, Suksom; Srikachar, Sunyanee; Kumjing, Phatchara; Weera Kimjong; Sukamnouyporn, Weerawan; Polchaimat, Nongon

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mating compatibility among recently colonized (wildish) populations of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) from different geographic origins in Thailand was assessed through inter-regional mating tests. Outdoor octagonal nylon screen field cages containing single potted mango trees (Mangifera indica L.) were used. Sexual compatibility was determined using the index of sexual isolation (ISI), the male relative performance index (MRPI), and the female relative performance index (FRPI). The ISI values indicated that the northern population of Bactrocera dorsalis from Chiang Mai province was sexually compatible with the southern population of Bactrocera dorsalis (previously Bactrocera papayae) from Nakhon Si Thammarat province. The MRPI values showed that the northern males had a slightly higher tendency to mate than southern males, while the FRPI data reflected that females of both origins participated equally in matings. In all combinations there were no differences between homotypic and heterotypic couples in mating latency. Southern males tended to mate first with southern females, followed by northern males mating with northern females, while the latest matings involved heterotypic couples, in particular northern males mating with southern females. Overall, more couples were collected from higher parts of the field cage and the upper tree canopy, while there were no differences between the origins of flies in terms of elevation of couples within the cage. Laboratory assessments of fecundity showed no differences in the average number of eggs resulting from inter-regional crosses. Development of immature stages was also equal in the two hybrid crosses, with no differences found in the number of pupae produced, percentage pupal recovery, and percent adult emergence. The practical implication of this study is that colony of Bactrocera dorsalis derived from any northern or southern region of Thailand can potentially be used in sterile insect technique programs

  5. Inter-regional mating compatibility among Bactrocera dorsalis populations in Thailand (Diptera,Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Chinvinijkul, Suksom; Srikachar, Sunyanee; Kumjing, Phatchara; Weera Kimjong; Sukamnouyporn, Weerawan; Polchaimat, Nongon

    2015-01-01

    Mating compatibility among recently colonized (wildish) populations of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) from different geographic origins in Thailand was assessed through inter-regional mating tests. Outdoor octagonal nylon screen field cages containing single potted mango trees (Mangifera indica L.) were used. Sexual compatibility was determined using the index of sexual isolation (ISI), the male relative performance index (MRPI), and the female relative performance index (FRPI). The ISI values indicated that the northern population of Bactrocera dorsalis from Chiang Mai province was sexually compatible with the southern population of Bactrocera dorsalis (previously Bactrocera papayae) from Nakhon Si Thammarat province. The MRPI values showed that the northern males had a slightly higher tendency to mate than southern males, while the FRPI data reflected that females of both origins participated equally in matings. In all combinations there were no differences between homotypic and heterotypic couples in mating latency. Southern males tended to mate first with southern females, followed by northern males mating with northern females, while the latest matings involved heterotypic couples, in particular northern males mating with southern females. Overall, more couples were collected from higher parts of the field cage and the upper tree canopy, while there were no differences between the origins of flies in terms of elevation of couples within the cage. Laboratory assessments of fecundity showed no differences in the average number of eggs resulting from inter-regional crosses. Development of immature stages was also equal in the two hybrid crosses, with no differences found in the number of pupae produced, percentage pupal recovery, and percent adult emergence. The practical implication of this study is that colony of Bactrocera dorsalis derived from any northern or southern region of Thailand can potentially be used in sterile insect technique programs against this

  6. Transcriptome Analysis of the Oriental Fruit Fly (Bactrocera dorsalis)

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hong-Bo; Yang, Wen-Jia; Jia, Fu-Xian; Hu, Fei; Cong, Lin; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2011-01-01

    Background The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), is one of the most economically important pests in the world, causing serious damage to fruit production. However, lack of genetic information on this organism is an obstacle to understanding the mechanisms behind its development and its ability to resist insecticides. Analysis of the B. dorsalis transcriptome and its expression profile data is essential to extending the genetic information resources on this species, providing a shortcut that will support studies on B. dorsalis. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed de novo assembly of a transcriptome using short read sequencing technology (Illumina). The results generated 484,628 contigs, 70,640 scaffolds, and 49,804 unigenes. Of those unigenes, 27,455 (55.13%) matched known proteins in the NCBI database, as determined by BLAST search. Clusters of orthologous groups (COG), gene orthology (GO), and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) annotations were performed to better understand the functions of these unigenes. Genes related to insecticide resistance were analyzed in additional detail. Digital gene expression (DGE) libraries showed differences in gene expression profiles at different developmental stages (eggs, third-instar larvae, pupae, and adults). To confirm the DGE results, the expression profiles of six randomly selected genes were analyzed. Conclusion/Significance This transcriptome greatly improves our genetic understanding of B. dorsalis and makes a huge number of gene sequences available for further study, including both genes of known importance and genes of unknown function. The DGE data provide comprehensive insight into gene expression profiles at different developmental stages. This facilitates the study of the role of each gene in the developmental process and in insecticide resistance. PMID:22195006

  7. Interspecific Competition Between Ceratitis capitata and Two Bactrocera Spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) Evaluated via Adult Behavioral Interference Under Laboratory Conditions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Zhang, Can; Hou, Bo-Hua; Ou-Yang, Ge-Cheng; Ma, Jun

    2017-03-15

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), is considered one of the most invasive tephritid species. It has spread and established populations successfully throughout many of the tropical temperate regions, partially owing to the increase in global trading activity that facilitates diffusion of species. However, C. capitata has never been detected in China, even though some areas of the country have favorable climate and ample food resources. Historically, some researchers have hypothesized that the principal reasons for its absence are the defenses mounted by native Bactrocera species against C. capitata. We evaluated the modes and strengths of interspecific competition between C. capitata and two Bactrocera species (Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel and Bactrocera correcta Bezzi) by conducting experiments on behavioral interference between the adults of these fruit fly species. Under appropriate conditions, the two Bactrocera species showed a distinct advantage in competition for oviposition, noticeably suppressing C. capitata. Although no mating interference between C. capitata and the two Bactrocera species was observed, the role of interference competition in the prevention of C. capitata invasion is still worthy of being discussed.

  8. Gut symbiont enhances insecticide resistance in a significant pest, the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Daifeng; Guo, Zijun; Riegler, Markus; Xi, Zhiyong; Liang, Guangwen; Xu, Yijuan

    2017-02-01

    Symbiotic bacteria affect insect physiology and ecology. They may also mediate insecticide resistance within their hosts and thereby impact pest and vector control practices. Here, we document a novel mechanism of insecticide resistance in which a gut symbiont of the tephritid pest fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis enhances resistance to the organophosphate insecticide trichlorphon. We demonstrated that the gut symbiont Citrobacter sp. (CF-BD) plays a key role in the degradation of trichlorphon. Based on a comparative genomics analysis with other Citrobacter species, phosphatase hydrolase genes were identified in CF-BD. These CF-BD genes had higher expression when trichlorphon was present. Bactrocera dorsalis inoculated with isolated CF-BD obtained higher trichlorphon resistance, while antibiotic-treated flies were less resistant confirming the key role of CF-BD in insecticide resistance. Our findings suggest that symbiont-mediated insecticide resistance can readily develop in B. dorsalis and may represent a more widely relevant insecticide resistance mechanism than previously recognized.

  9. Development of phytosanitary cold treatments for oranges infested with Bactrocera invadens and B. zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae) by comparison...existing cold treatment schedules for Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phytosanitary cold treatments are attempted for Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta, and White and Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) by comparison with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Oranges were infested by puncturing holes in the peel and allowing tephritids to oviposit in the holes. The treatments were...

  10. Regional suppression of Bactrocera fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) in the Pacific through biological control and prospects for future introductions into other areas of the world

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bactrocera fruit fly species are important economically throughout the Pacific. The USDA, ARS, U.S Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center has been a world wide leader in promoting biological control of Bactrocera spp that includes classical, augmentative, conservation and IPM approaches. In Hawa...

  11. Molecular Phylogeny and Identification of the Peach Fruit Fly, Bactrocera zonata, Established in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Abd-El-Samie, Emtithal M.; El Fiky, Zaki A.

    2011-01-01

    The genetic structure of the Egyptian peach fruit fly (Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) (Diptera: Tephritidae)) population was analyzed using total RNA from adult females. A portion of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI), 369 bp was amplified using RT-PCR, and was sequenced and analyzed to clarify the phylogenetic relationship of B. zonata established in Egypt. The data suggested that the gene shared a similarity in sequence compared to Bactrocera COI gene found in GenBank. Molecular phylogenetic analyses were performed based on nucleotide sequences in order to examine the position of the Egyptian population among many other species of fruit flies. The results indicate that four accession numbers of B. zonata (three from New Zealand and one from India) are closely related, while the Egyptian B. zonata are close to the 71 accession numbers of Bactrocera include one B. zonata from New Zealand. These two B. zonata from Egypt and New Zealand showed a close relationship in neighbor—joining analysis using the seven accession numbers of B. zonata. In addition, a theoretical restriction map of the homology portion of the COI gene was constructed using 212 restriction enzymes obtained from the restriction enzyme database to identify the Egyptian and New Zealand B. zonata. PMID:22958094

  12. Captures of Wild Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Traps with Improved Multilure TMR Dispensers Weathered in California.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Roger I; Souder, Steven K; Morse, Joseph G; Grafton-Cardwell, Elizabeth E; Haviland, David R; Kabashima, John N; Faber, Ben A; Mackey, Bruce; Cook, Peter

    2016-04-01

    During 2012–2013, solid Mallet TMR (trimedlure [TML], methyl eugenol [ME], raspberry ketone [RK]) wafers impregnated with DDVP (2, 2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate) insecticide were weathered during summer (8 wk) and winter (12 wk) in five California citrus-growing counties (Kern, Ventura, Orange, Tulare, and Riverside). In addition, TMR wafers without DDVP and with a Hercon Vaportape II insecticidal strip were compared with TMR dispensers with DDVP at Exeter and Riverside. Weathered treatments were shipped every week (overnight delivery) to Hawaii and frozen for a later bioassay in a 1,335-ha coffee plantation near Numila, Kauai Island, HI, where Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, and melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, were all present. We compared trap captures of the three species, C. capitata, B. dorsalis, and B. cucurbitae, for the five different weathering locations. Captures of C. capitata, B. dorsalis, and B. cucurbitae with Mallet TMR dispensers (with DDVP) were not significantly different for the five locations. Captures with the Mallet TMR dispenser without DDVP and Vaportape were similar to those for Mallet TMR with DDVP, although there were some slight location differences. In conclusion, based on these results, the Mallet TMR dispenser could potentially be used in California habitats where large numbers of detection traps are currently deployed. Use of Vaportape with dispensers would not require them to be registered with US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Dispensers for use as Male Annihilation Technique (MAT) devices will be tested further in Hawaii.

  13. Do Fruit Ripening Volatiles Enable Resource Specialism in Polyphagous Fruit Flies?

    PubMed

    Cunningham, John Paul; Carlsson, Mikael A; Villa, Tommaso F; Dekker, Teun; Clarke, Anthony R

    2016-09-01

    Frugivorous tephritid fruit flies have lineages with high levels of host generalism. These insects use olfaction to locate fruits, but how they are able to recognize the odors of so many different host species is poorly understood. We used a series of behavioral experiments to investigate the role of fruit ripening volatiles as host cues in the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), a polyphagous pest in Australia. Odors of mature guava (Psidium guajava) attracted female and male flies more strongly than three other ripening stages and guava pulp. We analyzed volatiles from guava odor and selected eleven compounds, all of which elicited an electrophysiological response in the antenna of female flies. Three of these, ethyl acetate, ethyl butyrate, and ethyl propionate, were released at the highest rates from the most attractive ripening stage. In behavioral trials, these three esters were not attractive individually, whereas a combination was necessary and sufficient in attracting female flies. The three-component blend was as attractive as the entire 11-component blend, which without these key volatiles was not attractive. Moreover, injecting low ranking hosts (squash and cucumber) with the three volatiles increased attraction in ovipositing female flies. These fruit flies are classed as generalists, but like many polyphagous insects they could be regarded as resource specialists, preferring specific plant reproductive stages with predictable odor cues. Exploring olfaction from this perspective could improve our understanding of host choice in polyphagous insects, and the selection of volatiles to be used as attractants in insect pest management.

  14. Screening mitochondrial DNA sequence variation as an alternative method for tracking established and outbreak populations of Queensland fruit fly at the species southern range limit.

    PubMed

    Blacket, Mark J; Malipatil, Mali B; Semeraro, Linda; Gillespie, Peter S; Dominiak, Bernie C

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the relationship between incursions of insect pests and established populations is critical to implementing effective control. Studies of genetic variation can provide powerful tools to examine potential invasion pathways and longevity of individual pest outbreaks. The major fruit fly pest in eastern Australia, Queensland fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), has been subject to significant long-term quarantine and population reduction control measures in the major horticulture production areas of southeastern Australia, at the species southern range limit. Previous studies have employed microsatellite markers to estimate gene flow between populations across this region. In this study, we used an independent genetic marker, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences, to screen genetic variation in established and adjacent outbreak populations in southeastern Australia. During the study period, favorable environmental conditions resulted in multiple outbreaks, which appeared genetically distinctive and relatively geographically localized, implying minimal dispersal between simultaneous outbreaks. Populations in established regions were found to occur over much larger areas. Screening mtDNA (female) lineages proved to be an effective alternative genetic tool to assist in understanding fruit fly population dynamics and provide another possible molecular method that could now be employed for better understanding of the ecology and evolution of this and other pest species.

  15. Gene flow and genetic structure of Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera, Tephritidae) among geographical differences and sister species, B. dorsalis, inferred from microsatellite DNA data

    PubMed Central

    Aketarawong, Nidchaya; Isasawin, Siriwan; Sojikul, Punchapat; Thanaphum, Sujinda

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae, is an invasive pest in Southeast Asia. It has been introduced into areas in South America such as Suriname and Brazil. Bactrocera carambolae belongs to the Bactrocera dorsalis species complex, and seems to be separated from Bactrocera dorsalis based on morphological and multilocus phylogenetic studies. Even though the Carambola fruit fly is an important quarantine species and has an impact on international trade, knowledge of the molecular ecology of Bactrocera carambolae, concerning species status and pest management aspects, is lacking. Seven populations sampled from the known geographical areas of Bactrocera carambolae including Southeast Asia (i.e., Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand) and South America (i.e., Suriname), were genotyped using eight microsatellite DNA markers. Genetic variation, genetic structure, and genetic network among populations illustrated that the Suriname samples were genetically differentiated from Southeast Asian populations. The genetic network revealed that samples from West Sumatra (Pekanbaru, PK) and Java (Jakarta, JK) were presumably the source populations of Bactrocera carambolae in Suriname, which was congruent with human migration records between the two continents. Additionally, three populations of Bactrocera dorsalis were included to better understand the species boundary. The genetic structure between the two species was significantly separated and approximately 11% of total individuals were detected as admixed (0.100 ≤ Q ≤ 0.900). The genetic network showed connections between Bactrocera carambolae and Bactrocera dorsalis groups throughout Depok (DP), JK, and Nakhon Sri Thammarat (NT) populations. These data supported the hypothesis that the reproductive isolation between the two species may be leaky. Although the morphology and monophyly of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences in previous studies showed discrete entities, the hypothesis of semipermeable boundaries

  16. Gene flow and genetic structure of Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera, Tephritidae) among geographical differences and sister species, B. dorsalis, inferred from microsatellite DNA data.

    PubMed

    Aketarawong, Nidchaya; Isasawin, Siriwan; Sojikul, Punchapat; Thanaphum, Sujinda

    2015-01-01

    The Carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae, is an invasive pest in Southeast Asia. It has been introduced into areas in South America such as Suriname and Brazil. Bactrocera carambolae belongs to the Bactrocera dorsalis species complex, and seems to be separated from Bactrocera dorsalis based on morphological and multilocus phylogenetic studies. Even though the Carambola fruit fly is an important quarantine species and has an impact on international trade, knowledge of the molecular ecology of Bactrocera carambolae, concerning species status and pest management aspects, is lacking. Seven populations sampled from the known geographical areas of Bactrocera carambolae including Southeast Asia (i.e., Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand) and South America (i.e., Suriname), were genotyped using eight microsatellite DNA markers. Genetic variation, genetic structure, and genetic network among populations illustrated that the Suriname samples were genetically differentiated from Southeast Asian populations. The genetic network revealed that samples from West Sumatra (Pekanbaru, PK) and Java (Jakarta, JK) were presumably the source populations of Bactrocera carambolae in Suriname, which was congruent with human migration records between the two continents. Additionally, three populations of Bactrocera dorsalis were included to better understand the species boundary. The genetic structure between the two species was significantly separated and approximately 11% of total individuals were detected as admixed (0.100 ≤ Q ≤ 0.900). The genetic network showed connections between Bactrocera carambolae and Bactrocera dorsalis groups throughout Depok (DP), JK, and Nakhon Sri Thammarat (NT) populations. These data supported the hypothesis that the reproductive isolation between the two species may be leaky. Although the morphology and monophyly of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences in previous studies showed discrete entities, the hypothesis of semipermeable boundaries may not

  17. Comprehensive transcriptome analysis of early male and female Bactrocera jarvisi embryos.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Jennifer L; Riegler, Markus; Gilchrist, A Stuart; Shearman, Deborah C A; Frommer, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Developing embryos are provided with maternal RNA transcripts and proteins, but transcription from the zygotic nuclei must be activated to control continuing embryonic development. Transcripts are generated at different stages of early development, and those involved in sex determination and cellularisation are some of the earliest to be activated. The male sex in tephritid fruit flies is determined by the presence of a Y chromosome, and it is believed that a transcript from the Y-chromosome sets in motion a cascade that determines male development, as part of the greater maternal to zygotic transition (MTZ). Here we investigate the poly(A+) transcriptome in early male and female embryos of the horticultural pest Bactrocera jarvisi (Diptera: Tephritidae). Bactrocera jarvisi embryos were collected over two pre-blastoderm time periods, 2-3h and 3-5h after egg laying. Embryos were individually sexed using a Y-chromosome marker, allowing the sex-specific poly(A+) transcriptome of single-sex embryo pools to be deep-sequenced and assembled de novo. Transcripts for sixteen sex-determination and two cellularisation gene homologues of Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae) were identified in early embryos of B. jarvisi, including transcripts highly upregulated prior to cellularisation. No strong candidates for transcripts derived solely from the Y chromosome were recovered from the poly(A+) fraction. Bactrocera jarvisi provides an excellent model for embryonic studies due to available Y-chromosome markers and the compact time frame for zygotic transcription and the sex-determined state. Our data contribute fundamental information to sex-determination research, and provide candidates for the sourcing of gene promoters for transgenic pest-management strategies of tephritid fruit flies.

  18. Taxonomic Identity of the Invasive Fruit Fly Pest, Bactrocera invadens: Concordance in Morphometry and DNA Barcoding

    PubMed Central

    Khamis, Fathiya M.; Masiga, Daniel K.; Mohamed, Samira A.; Salifu, Daisy; de Meyer, Marc; Ekesi, Sunday

    2012-01-01

    In 2003, a new fruit fly pest species was recorded for the first time in Kenya and has subsequently been found in 28 countries across tropical Africa. The insect was described as Bactrocera invadens, due to its rapid invasion of the African continent. In this study, the morphometry and DNA Barcoding of different populations of B. invadens distributed across the species range of tropical Africa and a sample from the pest's putative aboriginal home of Sri Lanka was investigated. Morphometry using wing veins and tibia length was used to separate B. invadens populations from other closely related Bactrocera species. The Principal component analysis yielded 15 components which correspond to the 15 morphometric measurements. The first two principal axes contributed to 90.7% of the total variance and showed partial separation of these populations. Canonical discriminant analysis indicated that only the first five canonical variates were statistically significant. The first two canonical variates contributed a total of 80.9% of the total variance clustering B. invadens with other members of the B. dorsalis complex while distinctly separating B. correcta, B. cucurbitae, B. oleae and B. zonata. The largest Mahalanobis squared distance (D2 = 122.9) was found to be between B. cucurbitae and B. zonata, while the lowest was observed between B. invadens populations against B. kandiensis (8.1) and against B. dorsalis s.s (11.4). Evolutionary history inferred by the Neighbor-Joining method clustered the Bactrocera species populations into four clusters. First cluster consisted of the B. dorsalis complex (B. invadens, B. kandiensis and B. dorsalis s. s.), branching from the same node while the second group was paraphyletic clades of B. correcta and B. zonata. The last two are monophyletic clades, consisting of B. cucurbitae and B. oleae, respectively. Principal component analysis using the genetic distances confirmed the clustering inferred by the NJ tree. PMID:23028649

  19. Invasion by Bactrocera dorsalis and niche partitioning among tephritid species in Comoros.

    PubMed

    Mze Hassani, I; Raveloson-Ravaomanarivo, L H; Delatte, H; Chiroleu, F; Allibert, A; Nouhou, S; Quilici, S; Duyck, P F

    2016-12-01

    Ten economically important species belonging to the Tephritidae have been recorded in Union of the Comoros (an island nation off the coast of East Africa). Little is known about the distribution of these species and how they are affected by climatic factors in the Comoros archipelago. The main objectives of this study were to characterize: (i) the population dynamics of tephritid fruit flies in relation to season and host fruit availability and (ii) the geographic distribution of tephritids in relation to temperature and rainfall. The study was conducted during 2 years at 11 sites on three islands (Grande Comore, Anjouan, and Mohéli) in the archipelago. The site elevations ranged from 55 to 885 m a.s.l. At each site, flies were collected weekly in eight traps (four different lures, each replicated twice). Fruit phenology was also recorded weekly. The dominant tephritid species detected was the invasive Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel followed by Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann. Tephritid species were generally more abundant during the hot and rainy seasons than during the cold and dry seasons. Bactrocera dorsalis numbers were higher on Grande Comore than on the two other islands. On Anjouan and Mohéli, B. dorsalis numbers were very low in 2014 but sharply increased in 2015, suggesting a recent invasion of these islands. Abundances were significantly related to the fruiting of mango, strawberry guava, and guava for B. dorsalis and to the fruiting of mango, guava, and mandarin for C. capitata. Bactrocera dorsalis was more abundant in hot and humid low-altitude areas, while C. capitata was more abundant in dry medium-altitude areas, suggesting the occurrence of climatic niche partitioning between the two species.

  20. Comprehensive transcriptome analysis of early male and female Bactrocera jarvisi embryos

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Developing embryos are provided with maternal RNA transcripts and proteins, but transcription from the zygotic nuclei must be activated to control continuing embryonic development. Transcripts are generated at different stages of early development, and those involved in sex determination and cellularisation are some of the earliest to be activated. The male sex in tephritid fruit flies is determined by the presence of a Y chromosome, and it is believed that a transcript from the Y-chromosome sets in motion a cascade that determines male development, as part of the greater maternal to zygotic transition (MTZ). Here we investigate the poly(A+) transcriptome in early male and female embryos of the horticultural pest Bactrocera jarvisi (Diptera: Tephritidae). Results Bactrocera jarvisi embryos were collected over two pre-blastoderm time periods, 2-3h and 3-5h after egg laying. Embryos were individually sexed using a Y-chromosome marker, allowing the sex-specific poly(A+) transcriptome of single-sex embryo pools to be deep-sequenced and assembled de novo. Transcripts for sixteen sex-determination and two cellularisation gene homologues of Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae) were identified in early embryos of B. jarvisi, including transcripts highly upregulated prior to cellularisation. No strong candidates for transcripts derived solely from the Y chromosome were recovered from the poly(A+) fraction. Conclusions Bactrocera jarvisi provides an excellent model for embryonic studies due to available Y-chromosome markers and the compact time frame for zygotic transcription and the sex-determined state. Our data contribute fundamental information to sex-determination research, and provide candidates for the sourcing of gene promoters for transgenic pest-management strategies of tephritid fruit flies. PMID:25472807

  1. Effect of Temperature on the Development and Survival of Immature Stages of the Carambola Fruit Fly, Bactrocera carambolae, and the Asian Papaya Fruit Fly, Bactrocera papayae, Reared On Guava Diet

    PubMed Central

    Danjuma, Solomon; Thaochan, Narit; Permkam, Surakrai; Satasook, Chutamas

    2014-01-01

    Members of the Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae) complex constitute wellrecognized destructive pests of fruits in peninsular Thailand. The development and survival of immature stages of the carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock, and the Asian papaya fruit fly, Bactrocera papayae Drew & Hancock, were compared at six constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 27, 30, and 35°C, 70 ± 5% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D). The objectives were to determine the effect of temperature on the developmental stages for optimizing rearing and to understand the geographical pattern of occurrence of these fruit fly species. A strong and positive linear relationship was observed between temperature and developmental rate of immature stages of B. carambolae. Similarly, a strong and positive linear relationship was observed between temperature and developmental rate of B. papayae. A temperature summation model was used to estimate the lower threshold temperature and the thermal constant. Bactrocera papayae was significantly faster in development and higher in survival and appeared to be better adapted to low temperatures than B. carambolae, as it exhibited the lowest threshold temperatures at all immature stages. The observed differences in response to various temperatures revealed to some extent the impact of temperature on these species' distribution in peninsular Thailand and other parts of the world. PMID:25368070

  2. Effect of temperature on the development and survival of immature stages of the carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae, and the Asian papaya fruit fly, Bactrocera papayae, reared on guava diet.

    PubMed

    Danjuma, Solomon; Thaochan, Narit; Permkam, Surakrai; Satasook, Chutamas

    2014-01-01

    Members of the Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae) complex constitute well-recognized destructive pests of fruits in peninsular Thailand. The development and survival of immature stages of the carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock, and the Asian papaya fruit fly, Bactrocera papayae Drew & Hancock, were compared at six constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 27, 30, and 35°C, 70 ± 5% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D). The objectives were to determine the effect of temperature on the developmental stages for optimizing rearing and to understand the geographical pattern of occurrence of these fruit fly species. A strong and positive linear relationship was observed between temperature and developmental rate of immature stages of B. carambolae. Similarly, a strong and positive linear relationship was observed between temperature and developmental rate of B. papayae. A temperature summation model was used to estimate the lower threshold temperature and the thermal constant. Bactrocera papayae was significantly faster in development and higher in survival and appeared to be better adapted to low temperatures than B. carambolae, as it exhibited the lowest threshold temperatures at all immature stages. The observed differences in response to various temperatures revealed to some extent the impact of temperature on these species' distribution in peninsular Thailand and other parts of the world.

  3. Weathering and Chemical Degradation of Methyl Eugenol and Raspberry Ketone Solid Dispensers for Detection, Monitoring, and Male Annihilation of Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Roger I; Souder, Steven K; Nkomo, Eddie; Cook, Peter J; Mackey, Bruce; Stark, John D

    2015-08-01

    Solid male lure dispensers containing methyl eugenol (ME) and raspberry ketone (RK), or mixtures of the lures (ME + RK), and dimethyl dichloro-vinyl phosphate (DDVP) were evaluated in area-wide pest management bucket or Jackson traps in commercial papaya (Carica papaya L.) orchards where both oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), are pests. Captures of B. dorsalis with fresh wafers in Jackson and bucket traps were significantly higher on the basis of ME concentration (Mallet ME [56%] > Mallet MR [31.2%] > Mallet MC [23.1%]). Captures of B. cucurbitae with fresh wafers in Jackson and bucket traps were not different regardless of concentration of RK (Mallet BR [20.1%] = Mallet MR [18.3%] = Mallet MC [15.9%]). Captures of B. dorsalis with fresh wafers, compared with weathered wafers, were significantly different after week 12; captures of B. cucurbitae were not significantly different after 16 wk. Chemical analyses revealed presence of RK in dispensers in constant amounts throughout the 16-wk trial. Degradation of both ME and DDVP over time was predicted with a high level of confidence by nonlinear asymptotic exponential decay curves. Results provide supportive data to deploy solid ME and RK wafers (with DDVP) in fruit fly traps for detection programs, as is the current practice with solid TML dispensers placed in Jackson traps. Wafers with ME and RK might be used in place of two separate traps for detection of both ME and RK responding fruit flies and could potentially reduce cost of materials and labor by 50%.

  4. Insecticidal activity of basil oil, trans-anethole, estragole, and linalool to adult fruit flies of Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, and Bactrocera cucurbitae.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chiou Ling; Cho, Il Kyu; Li, Qing X

    2009-02-01

    Basil oil and its three major active constituents (trans-anethole, estragole, and linalool) obtained from basil (Oscimum basilicum L.) were tested on three tephritid fruit fly species [Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett)] for insecticidal activity. All test chemicals acted fast and showed a steep dose-response relationship. The lethal times for 90% mortality/knockdown (LT90) of the three fly species to 10% of the test chemicals were between 8 and 38 min. The toxic action of basil oil in C. capitata occurred significantly faster than in B. cucurbitae but slightly faster than in B. dorsalis. Estragole acted faster in B. dorsalis than in C. capitata and B. cucurbitae. Linalool action was faster in B. dorsalis and C. capitata than in B. cucurbitae. trans-Anethole action was similar to all three species. Methyl eugenol acted faster in C. capitata and B. cucurbitae than in B. dorsalis. When linalool was mixed with cuelure (attractant to B. cucurbitae male), its potency to the three fly species decreased as the concentration of cuelure increased. This was due to linalool hydrolysis catalyzed by acetic acid from cuelure degradation, which was confirmed by chemical analysis. When methyl eugenol (B. dorsalis male attractant) was mixed with basil oil, trans-anethole, estragole, or linalool, it did not affect the toxicity of basil oil and linalool to B. dorsalis, but it did significantly decrease the toxicity of trans-anethole and estragole. Structural similarity between methyl eugenol and trans-anethole and estragole suggests that methyl eugenol might act at a site similar to that of trans-anethole and estragole and serve as an antagonist if an action site exists. Methyl eugenol also may play a physiological role on the toxicity reduction.

  5. A phylogenetic assessment of the polyphyletic nature and intraspecific color polymorphism in the Bactrocera dorsalis complex (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Leblanc, Luc; San Jose, Michael; Barr, Norman; Rubinoff, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Bactrocera dorsalis complex (Tephritidae) comprises 85 species of fruit flies, including five highly destructive polyphagous fruit pests. Despite significant work on a few key pest species within the complex, little has been published on the majority of non-economic species in the complex, other than basic descriptions and illustrations of single specimens regarded as typical representatives. To elucidate the species relationships within the Bactrocera dorsalis complex, we used 159 sequences from one mitochondrial (COI) and two nuclear (elongation factor-1α and period) genes to construct a phylogeny containing 20 described species from within the complex, four additional species that may be new to science, and 26 other species from Bactrocera and its sister genus Dacus. The resulting concatenated phylogeny revealed that most of the species placed in the complex appear to be unrelated, emerging across numerous clades. This suggests that they were placed in the Bactrocera dorsalis complex based on the similarity of convergent characters, which does not appear to be diagnostic. Variations in scutum and abdomen color patterns within each of the non-economic species are presented and demonstrate that distantly-related, cryptic species overlap greatly in traditional morphological color patterns used to separate them in keys. Some of these species may not be distinguishable with confidence by means other than DNA data. PMID:26798267

  6. Genetic diversity of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) on the Hawaiian Islands: Implications for an introduction pathway into California

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Population genetic diversity of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, on the Hawaiian islands of Oahu, Maui, Kauai, and Hawaii (the Big Island) was estimated using DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. A total of 932 flies representing 36 sampled sites across...

  7. A qPCR-based method for detecting parasitism of Fopius arisanus (Sonan) in oriental fruit flies, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    BACKGROUND: Parasitism rate detection and parasitoid species identification are necessary in fruit fly biological control. Currently release of mass-reared Fopius arisanus is occurring world-wide, as this species is effective in controlling Bactrocera dorsalis and Ceratitis capitata. While release i...

  8. MicroRNAs in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis: extending Drosophilid miRNA clusters to the Tephritidae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is an important pest species in the family Tephritidae. It is a phytophagous species with broad host range, and while not established in the mainland United States, is a species of great concern for introduction. Despite of the vast amount of informatio...

  9. A Chromosome-scale assemby of the Bactrocera cucurbitae genome provides insight to the genetic basis of white pupae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, is a destructive agricultural pest and is the subject of strict quarantines that are enforced to prevent its establishment outside of its current geographic range. In addition to quarantine efforts, additional control measures are necessary for its eradication i...

  10. Field estimates of attraction of Ceratitis capitata to Trimedlure and Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) to methyl eugenol in varying environments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Measuring and modeling the attractiveness of semiochemical-baited traps is of significant importance to detection, delimitation and control of invasive pests. Here we describe the results of field mark-release-recapture experiments with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)...

  11. A phylogenetic assessment of the polyphyletic nature and intraspecific color polymorphism in the Bactrocera dorsalis complex (Diptera, Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Luc; San Jose, Michael; Barr, Norman; Rubinoff, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The Bactrocera dorsalis complex (Tephritidae) comprises 85 species of fruit flies, including five highly destructive polyphagous fruit pests. Despite significant work on a few key pest species within the complex, little has been published on the majority of non-economic species in the complex, other than basic descriptions and illustrations of single specimens regarded as typical representatives. To elucidate the species relationships within the Bactrocera dorsalis complex, we used 159 sequences from one mitochondrial (COI) and two nuclear (elongation factor-1α and period) genes to construct a phylogeny containing 20 described species from within the complex, four additional species that may be new to science, and 26 other species from Bactrocera and its sister genus Dacus. The resulting concatenated phylogeny revealed that most of the species placed in the complex appear to be unrelated, emerging across numerous clades. This suggests that they were placed in the Bactrocera dorsalis complex based on the similarity of convergent characters, which does not appear to be diagnostic. Variations in scutum and abdomen color patterns within each of the non-economic species are presented and demonstrate that distantly-related, cryptic species overlap greatly in traditional morphological color patterns used to separate them in keys. Some of these species may not be distinguishable with confidence by means other than DNA data.

  12. Response of the pearly eye melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett)(Diptera:Tephritidae) mutant to host-associated visual cues

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We report on a pearly eye mutant (PEM) line generated from a single male Bactrocera cucurbitae collected in Kapoho, Hawaii. Crossing experiments with colony wild-type flies indicate that the locus controlling this trait is autosomal and the mutant allele is recessive. Experiments with females to ass...

  13. Larval x-ray irradiation influences protein expression in pupae of the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera Dorsalis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Third instar larvae were exposed to X-ray treatment of the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. Irradiated pupae were collected daily. Biological performance parameters of pupae and adults of larvae treated with X-ray irradiation were evaluated. Standard proteomics procedures such as densitometr...

  14. Managing Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), Using Spinosad-Based Protein Bait Sprays in Papaya Orchards in Hawaii

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The efficacy of GF-120 Fruit Fly Bait was evaluated as a control of female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) in papaya orchards in Hawaii. Two important components of this study were field sanitation and mass trapping using the male-specific lure methyl eugenol. Three different spray ...

  15. Survivorship of male and female Bactrocera dorsalis in the field and the effect of male annihilation technique

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Male Annihilation Technique (MAT) is a key component of the Oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae) management because of the “strong” attraction of males to the lure methyl eugenol. The optimal application density for MAT has not been investigated for this economically ...

  16. Suitability of a liquid larval diet for rearing the Philippines fruit fly Bactrocera philippinensis (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A liquid larval diet as an artificial rearing medium was successfully tested for the Philippines fruit fly Bactrocera philippinensis Drew & Hancock. The biological parameters studied were pupal weight, adult emergence and fliers, sex ratio, fecundity and fertility. The insects performed most satisfa...

  17. Reconstructing a comprehensive transcriptome assembly of a white-pupal translocated strain of the pest fruit fly Bactrocera cucurbitae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Bactrocera cucurbitae is an important agricultural pest. Basic genomic information is lacking for this species and this would be useful to inform methods of control, damage mitigation, and eradication efforts. Here, we have sequenced, assembled, and annotated a comprehensive transcriptom...

  18. Ring-fluorinated analog of methyl eugenol: Attractiveness to and metabolism in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), males are highly attractive to the natural phenylpropanoid methyl eugenol (ME). They compulsively feed on ME and metabolize it to ring and side-chain hydroxylated compounds which have both pheromonal and allomonal functions. Side-chain metabolic act...

  19. Attraction of wild-like and colony-reared Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) to Cuelure in the field

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The attraction of wild tephritids to semiochemical-based lures are the ideal basis for trap network design in detection programs, but in practice, mass-reared colony insects are usually used to determine trap efficiency. For Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, a lower response by wild males compared w...

  20. Germline transformation of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi)(Diptera:Tephritidae) with a piggyBac transposon vector

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is a highly significant pest in olive growing countries whose control may be enhanced by the use of genetically-modified strains, especially for sterile insect technique programs. To improve and expand this technology, piggyBac-mediated germline transformation ...

  1. The study of the transformer gene from Bactrocera dorsalis and B. correcta with putative core promoter regions.

    PubMed

    Laohakieat, Kamoltip; Aketarawong, Nidchaya; Isasawin, Siriwan; Thitamadee, Siripong; Thanaphum, Sujinda

    2016-02-01

    The transformer (tra) is a sex determining switch in different orders of insects, including Diptera, as in the family Tephritidae. The lifelong autoregulatory loop of tra female-specific splicing can be reset by the intervention of male-specific primary signals (M factor). In early development, the functional female and truncated male TRA proteins relay the sexual fates to the alternative splicing of a bisexual switch gene, doublesex (dsx) cascading the sexual differentiation processes. Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi) are among the Bactrocera model worldwide key pests. Area-wide integrated pest management using the male-only Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) relying on genetic sexing systems is effective in control programs. We undertook the molecular characterization and comparative studies of the tra orthologues in the Bactrocera species, including the Salaya1 genetic sexing strain (GSS). RT-PCR revealed that B. dorsalis tra (Bdtra) and B. correcta tra (Bctra) transcripts contained conservation of both constitutive exons and male-specific exons as in other Bactrocera. However, new Bdtra male-specific exons were retained, diversifying the pattern of the male-specifically spliced transcripts. The coding sequences of tra were highly conserved in Bactrocera (86-95%) but less so among related genera (61-65%) within the same Tephritidae family. A conservation of deduced amino acid sequences (18 residues), called the TEP region, was identified to be distinctive among tephritids. The 5' regulatory sequence containing many structural characteristics of the putative core promoter was discovered in B. correcta. The expression patterns of Bdtra and Bctra were sex-specifically spliced and the signals relayed to the dsx genes in the adult wild-types. However, the coexistence of male- and female-specifically spliced transcripts (980 and 626 bp, respectively) of the B. dorsalis wild-type strain was found in the Salaya1 GSS adult males. The Bdtra RNA

  2. Pyrosequencing reveals a shift in symbiotic bacteria populations across life stages of Bactrocera dorsalis

    PubMed Central

    Andongma, Awawing A.; Wan, Lun; Dong, Yong-Cheng; li, Ping; Desneux, Nicolas; White, Jennifer A.; Niu, Chang-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera dorsalis is one of the most economically important fruit flies around the world. In this study, 454 pyrosequencing was used to identify the bacteria associated with different developmental stages of B. dorsalis. At ≥ 97% nucleotide similarity, total reads could be assigned to 172 Operational Taxonomic Units belonging to six phyla. Proteobacteria dominated in immature stages while Firmicutes dominated in adult stages. The most abundant families were Enterococcaceae and Comamondaceae. The genus Comamonas was most abundant in pupae whereas completely absent in adults. Some identified species had low sequence similarity to reported species indicating the possibility of novel taxa. However, a majority sequence reads were similar to sequences previously identified to be associated with Bactrocera correcta, suggesting a characteristic microbial fauna for this insect genus. The type and abundance of different bacterial groups varied across the life stages of B. dorsalis. Selection pressure exerted by the host insect as a result of its habitat and diet choices could be the reason for the observed shift in the bacteria groups. These findings increase our understanding of the intricate symbiotic relationships between bacteria and B. dorsalis and provide clues to develop potential biocontrol techniques against this fruit fly. PMID:25822599

  3. Novel toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis strains against the melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Shishir, Md Asaduzzaman; Akter, Asma; Bodiuzzaman, Md; Hossain, M Aftab; Alam, Md Musfiqul; Khan, Shakil Ahmed; Khan, Shakila Nargis; Hoq, M Mozammel

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera cucurbitae (melon fruit fly) is one of the most detrimental vegetable-damaging pests in Bangladesh. The toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been reported against a few genera of Bactrocera in addition to numerous other insect species. Bt strains, harbouring cry1A-type genes were, therefore, assayed in vivo against the 3(rd) instar larvae of B. cucurbitae in this study. The biotype-based prevalence of cry1 and cry1A genes was calculated to be 30.8% and 11.16%, respectively, of the test strains (n=224) while their prevalence was greatest in biotype kurstaki. Though three indigenous Bt strains from biotype kurstaki with close genetic relationship exhibited higher toxicity, maximum mortalities were recorded for Btk HD-73 (96%) and the indigenous Bt JSc1 (93%). LC50 and LC99 values were determined to be 6.81 and 8.32 for Bt JSc1, 7.30 and 7.92 for Bt SSc2, and 6.99 and 7.67 for Btk HD-73, respectively. The cause of toxicity and its variation among the strains was found to be correlated with the synergistic toxic effects of cry1, cry2, cry3 and cry9 gene products, i.e. relevant Cry proteins. The novel toxicity of the B. thuringiensis strains against B. cucurbitae revealed in the present study thus will help in developing efficient and eco-friendly control measures such as Bt biopesticides and transgenic Bt cucurbits.

  4. The potential distribution of Bactrocera dorsalis: considering phenology and irrigation patterns.

    PubMed

    De Villiers, M; Hattingh, V; Kriticos, D J; Brunel, S; Vayssières, J-F; Sinzogan, A; Billah, M K; Mohamed, S A; Mwatawala, M; Abdelgader, H; Salah, F E E; De Meyer, M

    2016-02-01

    A species in the Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) complex was detected in Kenya during 2003 and classified as Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White. Having spread rapidly throughout Africa, it threatens agriculture due to crop damage and loss of market access. In a recent revision of the B. dorsalis complex, B. invadens was incorporated into the species B. dorsalis. The potential distribution of B. dorsalis has been previously modelled. However, previous models were based on presence data and did not incorporate information on the seasonal phenology of B. dorsalis, nor on the possible influence that irrigation may have on its distribution. Methyl eugenol-baited traps were used to collect B. dorsalis in Africa. Seasonal phenology data, measured as fly abundance throughout the year, was related to each location's climate to infer climatic growth response parameters. These functions were used along with African distribution records and development studies to fit the niche model for B. dorsalis, using independent global distribution records outside Africa for model validation. Areas at greatest risk of invasion by B. dorsalis are South and Central America, Mexico, southernmost USA, parts of the Mediterranean coast, parts of Southern and Eastern Australia and New Zealand's North Island. Under irrigation, most of Africa and Australia appear climatically suitable.

  5. Isolation, annotation and applications of expressed sequence tags from the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae.

    PubMed

    Tsoumani, K T; Augustinos, A A; Kakani, E G; Drosopoulou, E; Mavragani-Tsipidou, P; Mathiopoulos, K D

    2011-01-01

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the major pest of the olive tree. Despite its importance, very little genetic and molecular knowledge is available. The present study is a first attempt to identify and characterize B. oleae expressed sequence tags (ESTs). One hundred and ninety-five randomly selected cDNA clones were isolated and the obtained sequences were annotated through BLASTX similarity searches. A set of 159 unique putative transcripts were functionally assigned using Gene Ontology terms in broad categories of biological process, molecular function and cellular component based on D. melanogaster matches. Moreover, the cytogenetic location of 35 ESTs was determined by in situ hybridization to B. oleae polytene chromosomes. The resulting low-resolution EST map more than doubles the available entry points to the insect's genome and can assist syntenic comparisons with other distant species. The deduced codon usage of the isolated ESTs suggested a conserved pattern of B. oleae with its closest relatives. Additionally, the comparative analysis of B. oleae ESTs with the homologous D. melanogaster genes led to the development of 17 nuclear EPIC-PCR markers for the amplification of intron sequences of 11 Tephritidae species. Sequencing analysis of several cross-amplified intron sequences revealed a high degree of conservation among Bactrocera species and a varying transferability of the generated markers across the examined genera, suggesting that this method can provide a useful tool for the clarification of phylogenetic relationships among different species, particularly in cases of species complexes.

  6. Pyrosequencing reveals a shift in symbiotic bacteria populations across life stages of Bactrocera dorsalis.

    PubMed

    Andongma, Awawing A; Wan, Lun; Dong, Yong-Cheng; Li, Ping; Desneux, Nicolas; White, Jennifer A; Niu, Chang-Ying

    2015-03-30

    Bactrocera dorsalis is one of the most economically important fruit flies around the world. In this study, 454 pyrosequencing was used to identify the bacteria associated with different developmental stages of B. dorsalis. At ≥ 97% nucleotide similarity, total reads could be assigned to 172 Operational Taxonomic Units belonging to six phyla. Proteobacteria dominated in immature stages while Firmicutes dominated in adult stages. The most abundant families were Enterococcaceae and Comamondaceae. The genus Comamonas was most abundant in pupae whereas completely absent in adults. Some identified species had low sequence similarity to reported species indicating the possibility of novel taxa. However, a majority sequence reads were similar to sequences previously identified to be associated with Bactrocera correcta, suggesting a characteristic microbial fauna for this insect genus. The type and abundance of different bacterial groups varied across the life stages of B. dorsalis. Selection pressure exerted by the host insect as a result of its habitat and diet choices could be the reason for the observed shift in the bacteria groups. These findings increase our understanding of the intricate symbiotic relationships between bacteria and B. dorsalis and provide clues to develop potential biocontrol techniques against this fruit fly.

  7. Using two-sex life tables to determine fitness parameters of four Bactrocera species (Diptera: Tephritidae) reared on a semi-artificial diet.

    PubMed

    Jaleel, W; Yin, J; Wang, D; He, Y; Lu, L; Shi, H

    2017-09-25

    Fruit flies in the genus Bactrocera are global, economically important pests of agricultural food crops. However, basic life history information about these pests, which is vital for designing more effective control methods, is currently lacking. Artificial diets can be used as a suitable replacement for natural host plants for rearing fruit flies under laboratory conditions, and this study reports on the two-sex life-table parameters of four Bactrocera species (Bactrocera correcta, Bactrocera dorsalis, Bactrocera cucurbitae, and Bactrocera tau) reared on a semi-artificial diet comprising corn flour, banana, sodium benzoate, yeast, sucrose, winding paper, hydrochloric acid and water. The results indicated that the larval development period of B. correcta (6.81 ± 0.65 days) was significantly longer than those of the other species. The fecundity of B. dorsalis (593.60 eggs female-1) was highest among the four species. There were no differences in intrinsic rate of increase (r) and finite rate of increase (λ) among the four species. The gross reproductive rate (GRR) and net reproductive rate (R 0) of B. dorsalis were higher than those of the other species, and the mean generation time (T) of B. cucurbitae (42.08 ± 1.21 h) was longer than that of the other species. We conclude that the semi-artificial diet was most suitable for rearing B. dorsalis, due to its shorter development time and higher fecundity. These results will be useful for future studies of fruit fly management.

  8. Ultrastructure of the Antennal Sensillae of Male and Female Peach Fruit Fly, Bactrocera zonata

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Azza A.; Ali, Nashat A.; Mohamed, Hend O.

    2014-01-01

    Antennal morphology and funicular sensillae of male and female peach fruit flies, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) (Diptera: Tephritidae), were studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This study focused on the sensillae found on the antennal segments (scape, pedicel, and flagellum or funiculus that bears the arista) of B. zonata. Antennal segments of females tended to be larger than those of the males. The first two antennal segments, scape and pedicel, were heavily covered with microtrichia and bear bristles. Numerous microtrichia as well as trichoid (I, II), basiconic, clavate, and coeloconic sensillae were observed on the funiculus. SEM studies showed some differences in size and also in position of some sensillae on the antennae of the females of B. zonata. The sensillae found on the funiculus, such as trichoid and basiconic sensillae, were significantly larger in females. PMID:25373192

  9. Characteristics of protein variants in trichlorphon-resistant Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera; Tephritidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Jin, T; Zeng, L; Lin, Y-Y; Lu, Y-Y; Liang, G-W

    2012-08-16

    Functional proteins in larvae of Bactrocera dorsalis, a major fruit pest, play a central role in their resistance to organophosphorus insecticides. Changes in proteins in B. dorsalis larvae after trichlorphon treatment may have a role in the resistance response to trichlorphon. We analyzed 14 protein spots of crude proteins from B. dorsalis larvae post-treatment with trichlorphon in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis through mass spectrometry and protein sequencing. We found functional proteins that are responsible for signal transduction (pkaap and dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase), immunity (hemolectin), synthesis and decomposition (twinstar, cathepsin B, RE66325p), oxidative stress metabolism (glutathione S transferase and CG7320), energy metabolism (Act57B), and cytoskeleton formation (actin). These proteins appear to be involved in the resistance response to trichlorphon.

  10. Commensal Bacteria Aid Mate-selection in the Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    PubMed

    Damodaram, Kamala Jayanthi Pagadala; Ayyasamy, Arthikirubha; Kempraj, Vivek

    2016-10-01

    Commensal bacteria influence many aspects of an organism's behaviour. However, studies on the influence of commensal bacteria in insect mate-selection are scarce. Here, we present empirical evidence that commensal bacteria mediate mate-selection in the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. Male flies were attracted to female flies, but this attraction was abolished when female flies were fed with antibiotics, suggesting the role of the fly's microbiota in mediating mate-selection. We show that male flies were attracted to and ejaculated more sperm into females harbouring the microbiota. Using culturing and 16S rDNA sequencing, we isolated and identified different commensal bacteria, with Klebsiella oxytoca being the most abundant bacterial species. This preliminary study will enhance our understanding of the influence of commensal bacteria on mate-selection behaviour of B. dorsalis and may find use in devising control operations against this devastating pest.

  11. Electrospun Micro/Nanofibers as Controlled Release Systems for Pheromones of Bactrocera oleae and Prays oleae.

    PubMed

    Kikionis, Stefanos; Ioannou, Efstathia; Konstantopoulou, Maria; Roussis, Vassilios

    2017-03-01

    New systems for the controlled release of 1,7-dioxaspiro[5.5]undecane and (Z)-7-tetradecenal, the sex pheromones of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, and olive moth, Prays oleae, respectively, were developed utilizing electrospun micro/nanofiber matrices from inexpensive, biodegradable polymers, namely polycaprolactone, cellulose acetate and polyhydroxybutyrate. The incorporation of the pheromones in 5, 10 and 20% w/w in the electrospinning polymer blends allowed for the production of fiber mats with variable loading levels and release rates, ensuring however in all cases the release of pheromones for more than 16 weeks. Laboratory bioassays and field trapping tests showed that the fiber mats obtained from electrospinning of polyhydroxybutyrate solution containing 5% w/w 1,7-dioxaspiro[5.5]undecane and polycaprolactone solution containing 5% w/w (Z)-7-tetradecenal were almost twice as effective in attracting B. oleae and P. oleae males, respectively, in comparison to the positive controls used.

  12. Phytosanitary Treatments Against Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae): Current Situation and Future Prospects.

    PubMed

    Dohino, Toshiyuki; Hallman, Guy J; Grout, Timothy G; Clarke, Anthony R; Follett, Peter A; Cugala, Domingos R; Minh Tu, Duong; Murdita, Wayan; Hernandez, Emilio; Pereira, Rui; Myers, Scott W

    2016-12-27

    Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is arguably the most important tephritid attacking fruits after Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). In 2003 it was found in Africa and quickly spread to most of the sub-Saharan part of the continent, destroying fruits and creating regulatory barriers to their export. The insect is causing new nutritional and economic losses across Africa, as well as the losses it has caused for decades in infested areas of Asia, New Guinea, and Hawaii. This new panorama represents a challenge for fruit exportation from Africa. Phytosanitary treatments are required to export quarantined commodities out of infested areas to areas where the pest does not exist and could become established. This paper describes current phytosanitary treatments against B. dorsalis and their use throughout the world, the development of new treatments based on existing research, and recommendations for further research to provide phytosanitary solutions to the problem.

  13. Regional Suppression of Bactrocera Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the Pacific through Biological Control and Prospects for Future Introductions into Other Areas of the World

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Roger I.; Leblanc, Luc; Harris, Ernest J.; Manoukis, Nicholas C.

    2012-01-01

    Bactrocera fruit fly species are economically important throughout the Pacific. The USDA, ARS U.S. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center has been a world leader in promoting biological control of Bactrocera spp. that includes classical, augmentative, conservation and IPM approaches. In Hawaii, establishment of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) in 1895 resulted in the introduction of the most successful parasitoid, Psyttalia fletcheri (Silvestri); similarly, establishment of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) in 1945 resulted in the introduction of 32 natural enemies of which Fopius arisanus (Sonan), Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) and Fopius vandenboschi (Fullaway) were most successful. Hawaii has also been a source of parasitoids for fruit fly control throughout the Pacific region including Australia, Pacific Island Nations, Central and South America, not only for Bactrocera spp. but also for Ceratitis and Anastrepha spp. Most recently, in 2002, F. arisanus was introduced into French Polynesia where B. dorsalis had invaded in 1996. Establishment of D. longicaudata into the new world has been important to augmentative biological control releases against Anastrepha spp. With the rapid expansion of airline travel and global trade there has been an alarming spread of Bactrocera spp. into new areas of the world (i.e., South America and Africa). Results of studies in Hawaii and French Polynesia, support parasitoid introductions into South America and Africa, where B. carambolae and B. invadens, respectively, have become established. In addition, P. fletcheri is a candidate for biological control of B. cucurbitae in Africa. We review past and more recent successes against Bactrocera spp. and related tephritids, and outline simple rearing and release methods to facilitate this goal. PMID:26466626

  14. Regional Suppression of Bactrocera Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the Pacific through Biological Control and Prospects for Future Introductions into Other Areas of the World.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Roger I; Leblanc, Luc; Harris, Ernest J; Manoukis, Nicholas C

    2012-08-10

    Bactrocera fruit fly species are economically important throughout the Pacific. The USDA, ARS U.S. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center has been a world leader in promoting biological control of Bactrocera spp. that includes classical, augmentative, conservation and IPM approaches. In Hawaii, establishment of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) in 1895 resulted in the introduction of the most successful parasitoid, Psyttalia fletcheri (Silvestri); similarly, establishment of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) in 1945 resulted in the introduction of 32 natural enemies of which Fopius arisanus (Sonan), Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) and Fopius vandenboschi (Fullaway) were most successful. Hawaii has also been a source of parasitoids for fruit fly control throughout the Pacific region including Australia, Pacific Island Nations, Central and South America, not only for Bactrocera spp. but also for Ceratitis and Anastrepha spp. Most recently, in 2002, F. arisanus was introduced into French Polynesia where B. dorsalis had invaded in 1996. Establishment of D. longicaudata into the new world has been important to augmentative biological control releases against Anastrepha spp. With the rapid expansion of airline travel and global trade there has been an alarming spread of Bactrocera spp. into new areas of the world (i.e., South America and Africa). Results of studies in Hawaii and French Polynesia, support parasitoid introductions into South America and Africa, where B. carambolae and B. invadens, respectively, have become established. In addition, P. fletcheri is a candidate for biological control of B. cucurbitae in Africa. We review past and more recent successes against Bactrocera spp. and related tephritids, and outline simple rearing and release methods to facilitate this goal.

  15. Distinct Genetic Lineages of Bactrocera caudata (Insecta: Tephritidae) Revealed by COI and 16S DNA Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Phaik-Eem; Tan, Ji; Suana, I. Wayan; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Yong, Hoi Sen

    2012-01-01

    The fruit fly Bactrocera caudata is a pest species of economic importance in Asia. Its larvae feed on the flowers of Cucurbitaceae such as Cucurbita moschata. To-date it is distinguished from related species based on morphological characters. Specimens of B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia and Indonesia (Bali and Lombok) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S rRNA genes. Both gene sequences revealed that B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia was distinctly different from B. caudata of Bali and Lombok, without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades, indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected ‘p’ distance for COI sequences between B. caudata of Malaysia-Thailand-China and B. caudata of Bali-Lombok was 5.65%, for 16S sequences from 2.76 to 2.99%, and for combined COI and 16S sequences 4.45 to 4.46%. The ‘p’ values are distinctly different from intraspecific ‘p’ distance (0–0.23%). Both the B. caudata lineages are distinctly separated from related species in the subgenus Zeugodacus – B. ascita, B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora, B. tau, B. cucurbitae, and B. depressa. Molecular phylogenetic analysis indicates that the B. caudata lineages are closely related to B. ascita sp. B, and form a clade with B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora and B. ascita sp. A. This study provides additional baseline for the phylogenetic relationships of Bactrocera fruit flies of the subgenus Zeugodacus. Both the COI and 16S genes could be useful markers for the molecular differentiation and phylogenetic analysis of tephritid fruit flies. PMID:22615962

  16. The Bactrocera dorsalis species complex: comparative cytogenetic analysis in support of Sterile Insect Technique applications

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Bactrocera dorsalis species complex currently harbors approximately 90 different members. The species complex has undergone many revisions in the past decades, and there is still an ongoing debate about the species limits. The availability of a variety of tools and approaches, such as molecular-genomic and cytogenetic analyses, are expected to shed light on the rather complicated issues of species complexes and incipient speciation. The clarification of genetic relationships among the different members of this complex is a prerequisite for the rational application of sterile insect technique (SIT) approaches for population control. Results Colonies established in the Insect Pest Control Laboratory (IPCL) (Seibersdorf, Vienna), representing five of the main economic important members of the Bactrocera dorsalis complex were cytologically characterized. The taxa under study were B. dorsalis s.s., B. philippinensis, B. papayae, B. invadens and B. carambolae. Mitotic and polytene chromosome analyses did not reveal any chromosomal characteristics that could be used to distinguish between the investigated members of the B. dorsalis complex. Therefore, their polytene chromosomes can be regarded as homosequential with the reference maps of B. dorsalis s.s.. In situ hybridization of six genes further supported the proposed homosequentiallity of the chromosomes of these specific members of the complex. Conclusions The present analysis supports that the polytene chromosomes of the five taxa under study are homosequential. Therefore, the use of the available polytene chromosome maps for B. dorsalis s.s. as reference maps for all these five biological entities is proposed. Present data provide important insight in the genetic relationships among the different members of the B. dorsalis complex, and, along with other studies in the field, can facilitate SIT applications targeting this complex. Moreover, the availability of 'universal' reference polytene chromosome

  17. Generic phytosanitary radiation treatment for tephritid fruit flies provides quarantine security for Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Follett, Peter A; Phillips, Thomas W; Armstrong, John W; Moy, James H

    2011-10-01

    Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a quarantine pest of several solanaceous crops and tropical fruits that are treated using irradiation before export from Hawaii to the U.S. mainland. A dose of 150 Gy is approved as a generic irradiation treatment for tephritid fruit flies, but no confirmation of efficacy has been reported for B. latifrons. Dose response of B. latifrons was used to determine the most tolerant life stage and identify a dose that prevents adult emergence. Data indicated doses (plus 95% confidence limits) required to prevent adult emergence of 13.4 (10.0-29.6), 17.5 (14.4-24.8), and 88.1 (68.0-133.8) Gy for eggs, first instars and third instars, respectively. In large-scale confirmatory tests of the most radiotolerant life stage, a radiation dose of 150 Gy applied to B. latifrons late third instars in bell peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) resulted in no survival to the adult stage of 157,112 individuals, a treatment efficacy consistent with Probit 9-level mortality. The relative radiotolerance of melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet, and B. latifrons also was tested using a diagnostic radiation dose of 30 Gy. In diet, a mean of 6.9% of irradiated B. cucurbitae third instars developed to the adult stage, whereas no B. latifrons third instars developed to adults. In papaya, Carica papaya L., fruit, a mean of 3.3% of irradiated B. cucurbitae third instars developed to the adult stage, whereas 0.5% B. latifrons third instars developed to adults. This report supports the use of a generic radiation dose of 150 Gy in quarantine scenarios to control tephritid fruit flies on fresh commodities.

  18. The Bactrocera dorsalis species complex: comparative cytogenetic analysis in support of Sterile Insect Technique applications.

    PubMed

    Augustinos, Antonios A; Drosopoulou, Elena; Gariou-Papalexiou, Aggeliki; Bourtzis, Kostas; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Zacharopoulou, Antigone

    2014-01-01

    The Bactrocera dorsalis species complex currently harbors approximately 90 different members. The species complex has undergone many revisions in the past decades, and there is still an ongoing debate about the species limits. The availability of a variety of tools and approaches, such as molecular-genomic and cytogenetic analyses, are expected to shed light on the rather complicated issues of species complexes and incipient speciation. The clarification of genetic relationships among the different members of this complex is a prerequisite for the rational application of sterile insect technique (SIT) approaches for population control. Colonies established in the Insect Pest Control Laboratory (IPCL) (Seibersdorf, Vienna), representing five of the main economic important members of the Bactrocera dorsalis complex were cytologically characterized. The taxa under study were B. dorsalis s.s., B. philippinensis, B. papayae, B. invadens and B. carambolae. Mitotic and polytene chromosome analyses did not reveal any chromosomal characteristics that could be used to distinguish between the investigated members of the B. dorsalis complex. Therefore, their polytene chromosomes can be regarded as homosequential with the reference maps of B. dorsalis s.s.. In situ hybridization of six genes further supported the proposed homosequentiallity of the chromosomes of these specific members of the complex. The present analysis supports that the polytene chromosomes of the five taxa under study are homosequential. Therefore, the use of the available polytene chromosome maps for B. dorsalis s.s. as reference maps for all these five biological entities is proposed. Present data provide important insight in the genetic relationships among the different members of the B. dorsalis complex, and, along with other studies in the field, can facilitate SIT applications targeting this complex. Moreover, the availability of 'universal' reference polytene chromosome maps for members of the complex

  19. Identification of host blends that attract the African invasive fruit fly, Bactrocera invadens.

    PubMed

    Biasazin, Tibebe Dejene; Karlsson, Miriam Frida; Hillbur, Ylva; Seyoum, Emiru; Dekker, Teun

    2014-09-01

    Bactrocera invadens, an invasive fruit fly species in the Afro-tropical region belonging to the Bactrocera dorsalis complex, causes considerable damage to fruit production and productivity. We sought to find attractants from hosts of B. invadens that could serve as baits in traps for monitoring and management of this pest. The attractiveness of volatiles from four different fruit species (mango, guava, banana and orange) at two stages of ripeness (ripe or unripe) was tested in an olfactometer assay. All fruits were attractive against a clean air control. Using hexane extracts of volatile collections of fruits, we demonstrated that male flies preferred the volatiles of ripe guava and orange over unripe fruit extracts. There was a slight difference in preference between females and males; females preferred orange to guava and mango, whereas males preferred mango and guava to orange. Gas chromatography/electroantennographic detection (GC/EAD) and GC/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were used to identify compounds to which B. invadens antennae were sensitive. GC/EAD recordings from distal and medio-central parts of the fly antenna showed responses to a number of compounds from each fruit species, with esters dominating the responses. Synthetic blends were made for each fruit species using the shared antennally active compounds in ratios found in the extracts. In the olfactometer, B. invadens was most attracted to the banana and orange blends, followed by the mango and guava blends. The synthetic banana blend was as attractive as the volatile collection of banana, although both were less attractive than the fruit. The results demonstrate that composing attractive blends from GC/EAD-active constituents shared by host fruits can be effective for formulating attractive synthetic host mimics for generalist fruit fly species, such as B. invadens.

  20. Distinct genetic lineages of Bactrocera caudata (Insecta: Tephritidae) revealed by COI and 16S DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Lim, Phaik-Eem; Tan, Ji; Suana, I Wayan; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Yong, Hoi Sen

    2012-01-01

    The fruit fly Bactrocera caudata is a pest species of economic importance in Asia. Its larvae feed on the flowers of Cucurbitaceae such as Cucurbita moschata. To-date it is distinguished from related species based on morphological characters. Specimens of B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia and Indonesia (Bali and Lombok) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S rRNA genes. Both gene sequences revealed that B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia was distinctly different from B. caudata of Bali and Lombok, without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades, indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected 'p' distance for COI sequences between B. caudata of Malaysia-Thailand-China and B. caudata of Bali-Lombok was 5.65%, for 16S sequences from 2.76 to 2.99%, and for combined COI and 16S sequences 4.45 to 4.46%. The 'p' values are distinctly different from intraspecific 'p' distance (0-0.23%). Both the B. caudata lineages are distinctly separated from related species in the subgenus Zeugodacus - B. ascita, B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora, B. tau, B. cucurbitae, and B. depressa. Molecular phylogenetic analysis indicates that the B. caudata lineages are closely related to B. ascita sp. B, and form a clade with B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora and B. ascita sp. A. This study provides additional baseline for the phylogenetic relationships of Bactrocera fruit flies of the subgenus Zeugodacus. Both the COI and 16S genes could be useful markers for the molecular differentiation and phylogenetic analysis of tephritid fruit flies.

  1. Small-Scale Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Bactrocera minax (Enderlein) (Diptera: Tephritidae) Using Probability Kriging.

    PubMed

    Wang, S Q; Zhang, H Y; Li, Z L

    2016-10-01

    Understanding spatio-temporal distribution of pest in orchards can provide important information that could be used to design monitoring schemes and establish better means for pest control. In this study, the spatial and temporal distribution of Bactrocera minax (Enderlein) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was assessed, and activity trends were evaluated by using probability kriging. Adults of B. minax were captured in two successive occurrences in a small-scale citrus orchard by using food bait traps, which were placed both inside and outside the orchard. The weekly spatial distribution of B. minax within the orchard and adjacent woods was examined using semivariogram parameters. The edge concentration was discovered during the most weeks in adult occurrence, and the population of the adults aggregated with high probability within a less-than-100-m-wide band on both of the sides of the orchard and the woods. The sequential probability kriged maps showed that the adults were estimated in the marginal zone with higher probability, especially in the early and peak stages. The feeding, ovipositing, and mating behaviors of B. minax are possible explanations for these spatio-temporal patterns. Therefore, spatial arrangement and distance to the forest edge of traps or spraying spot should be considered to enhance pest control on B. minax in small-scale orchards.

  2. Cold tolerance and disinfestation of Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) in 'Hass' avocado.

    PubMed

    Ware, A B; Du Toit, C L N; Mohamed, S A; Nderitu, P W; Ekasi, S

    2012-12-01

    Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) has spread rapidly across Africa and currently poses a phytosanitary threat to the fruit industry of South Africa. In reaction a cold mitigating treatment to provide phytosanitary security to importing countries was developed in Nairobi, Kenya. Using laboratory reared fruit flies, the rate of development in 'Hass' avocado (Persea americana Miller) was determined at 28 degrees C. Fruit ripeness or softness was found to be a factor improving larval fruit fly survival. Using this information the egg and larval developmental stages were subjected to 2 degrees C cold treatment and it was found that the third instars were the most cold tolerant life stage and that it was expected that between 16 and 17 d treatment would provide phytosanitary security. There were no survivors in the treatment of an estimated 153,001 individuals in four replicates at an average fruit pulp temperature of 2 degrees C satisfying the Probit 9 level of efficiency at a confidence of >95%. These data provide evidence that a continuous cold treatment of 1.5 degrees C or lower for 18 d would provide phytosanitary security in that any consignment entering an importing country poses no risk of accidental importation of B. invadens.

  3. Discovery of Chemosensory Genes in the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhongzhen; Zhang, He; Wang, Zhengbing; Bin, Shuying; He, Hualiang; Lin, Jintian

    2015-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a devastating fruit fly pest in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Like other insects, this fly uses its chemosensory system to efficiently interact with its environment. However, our understanding of the molecular components comprising B. dorsalis chemosensory system is limited. Using next generation sequencing technologies, we sequenced the transcriptome of four B. dorsalis developmental stages: egg, larva, pupa and adult chemosensory tissues. A total of 31 candidate odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 4 candidate chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 23 candidate odorant receptors (ORs), 11 candidate ionotropic receptors (IRs), 6 candidate gustatory receptors (GRs) and 3 candidate sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) were identified. The tissue distributions of the OBP and CSP transcripts were determined by RT-PCR and a subset of nine genes were further characterized. The predicted proteins from these genes shared high sequence similarity to Drosophila melanogaster pheromone binding protein related proteins (PBPRPs). Interestingly, one OBP (BdorOBP19c) was exclusively expressed in the sex pheromone glands of mature females. RT-PCR was also used to compare the expression of the candidate genes in the antennae of male and female B. dorsalis adults. These antennae-enriched OBPs, CSPs, ORs, IRs and SNMPs could play a role in the detection of pheromones and general odorants and thus could be useful target genes for the integrated pest management of B. dorsalis and other agricultural pests. PMID:26070069

  4. Status of Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Mango-Producing Areas of Arba Minch, Southwestern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Massebo, Fekadu; Tefera, Zenebe

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera invadens, the Asian fruit fly, was first reported in Kenya in 2003, and it spread fast to most tropical countries in Africa. To our knowledge, there is no detailed data on the fruit damage and status of fruit flies in Arba Minch and elsewhere in Ethiopia. Hence, information on the species composition and pest status of the fruit fly species is urgent to plan management strategies in the area. Fruit flies were captured using male parapheromone-baited traps. Matured mango (Mangifera indica) fruits were collected from randomly selected mango trees and incubated individually in cages (15 by 15 by 15 cm) with sandy soil. B. invadens was the predominant (96%; 952 of 992) captured species and the only fruit fly species emerging from mango fruits incubated in the laboratory. The mean number of adult B. invadens emerging per mango fruit was 35.25, indicating that the species is the most devastating mango fruit fly in the area. The loss due to this species would be serious if no management strategies are implemented. PMID:25612742

  5. Characterization of Bactrocera dorsalis serine proteases and evidence for their indirect role in insecticide tolerance.

    PubMed

    Hou, Ming-Zhe; Shen, Guang-Mao; Wei, Dong; Li, Ya-Li; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2014-02-21

    The oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) causes devastating losses to agricultural crops world-wide and is considered to be an economically important pest. Little is known about the digestive enzymes such as serine proteases (SPs) in B. dorsalis, which are important both for energy supply and mitigation of fitness cost associated with insecticide tolerance. In this study, we identified five SP genes in the midgut of B. dorsalis, and the alignments of their deduced amino acid sequences revealed the presence of motifs conserved in the SP superfamily. Phylogenetic analyses with known SPs from other insect species suggested that three of them were trypsin-like proteases. Analyses of the expression profiles among the different developmental stages showed that all five genes were most abundant in larvae than in other stages. When larvae were continuously fed on diet containing 0.33 μg/g β-Cypermethrin, expression of all five genes were upregulated in the midgut but the larval development was delayed. Biochemical assays were consistent with the increased protease activity exhibited by SPs in the midgut after treatment with β-Cypermethrin. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for the hypothesis that enhanced SP activity may play an indirect role in relieving the toxicity stress of insecticide in B. dorsalis.

  6. Identification and Characterization of Sex-Biased MicroRNAs in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    PubMed

    Peng, Wei; Tariq, Kaleem; Xie, Junfei; Zhang, Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous small non-coding RNAs that regulate various biological processes including sexual dimorphism. The oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis is one of the most destructive agricultural insect pests in many Asian countries. However, no miRNAs have been identified from the separate sex and gonads to elucidate sex gonad differentiation in B. dorsalis. In this study, we constructed four small RNA libraries from whole body of females, males (except ovaries and testes) and ovaries, testes of B. dorsalis for deep sequencing. The data analysis revealed 183 known and 120 novel miRNAs from these libraries. 18 female-biased and 16 male-biased miRNAs that may be involved in sexual differentiation were found by comparing the miRNA expression profiles in the four libraries. Using a bioinformatic approach, we predicted doublesex (dsx) as a target gene of the female-biased miR-989-3p which is considered as the key switch gene in the sex determination of tephritid insects. This study reveals the first miRNA profile related to the sex differentiation and gives a first insight into sex differences in miRNA expression of B. dorsalis which could facilitate studies of the reproductive organ specific roles of miRNAs.

  7. The Essential Role of Vitellogenin Receptor in Ovary Development and Vitellogenin Uptake in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    PubMed

    Cong, Lin; Yang, Wen-Jia; Jiang, Xuan-Zhao; Niu, Jin-Zhi; Shen, Guang-Mao; Ran, Chun; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2015-08-07

    The vitellogenin receptor (VgR) functions as an essential component in uptaking and transporting vitellogenin (Vg) in female adults, which is involved in ovary development and oviposition. This study aimed to clarify the molecular characteristics and function of VgR in the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Here, we identified the full-length of BdVgR (GenBank Accession No. JX469118), encoding a 1925 residue (aa) protein with a 214.72 kDa molecular mass and several typical motifs of low-density lipoprotein receptor superfamily (LDLR). Phylogenic analysis suggested that BdVgR was evolutionary conserved with other Dipteran VgRs. The expression of BdVgR was exclusively detected in the ovaries rather than head, thorax or other tissues. The developmental expression patterns showed that the signal of BdVgR was detectable in very beginning of adult stage, and positively correlated with the growth rate of ovaries and the expression levels of its ligands. In addition, we also demonstrated that the expression level of BdVgR, and ovary development were significantly suppressed after being injected with BdVgR-targeted dsRNA. Together, all of these results indicated that BdVgR was critical for yolk protein absorption and ovary maturation in B. dorsalis, playing a vital role in female reproduction.

  8. The short neuropeptide F modulates olfactory sensitivity of Bactrocera dorsalis upon starvation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hong-Bo; Gui, Shun-Hua; Xu, Li; Pei, Yu-Xia; Smagghe, Guy; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2017-05-01

    The insect short neuropeptide F (sNPF) family has been shown to modulate diverse physiological processes, such as feeding, appetitive olfactory behavior, locomotion, sleep homeostasis and hormone release. In this study, we identified the sNPF (BdsNPF) and its receptor (BdsNPFR) in an important agricultural pest, the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Afterwards, the receptor cDNA was functionally expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cell lines. Activation of BdsNPFR by sNPF peptides caused an increase in intracellular calcium ions, with a 50% effective concentration values at the nanomolar level. As indicated by qPCR, the BdsNPF and BdsNPFR transcripts were mainly detected in the central nervous system and antennae, and they showed significantly starvation-induced expression patterns. Furthermore, we found that the starved flies had an increased electroantennogram response compared to the normally fed flies. However, this enhanced olfactory sensitivity was reversed when we decreased the expression of BdsNPF by double-stranded RNA injection in adults. We concluded that sNPF plays an important role in modulating the olfactory sensitivity of B. dorsalis upon starvation. Our results will facilitate the understanding of the regulation of early olfactory processing in B. dorsalis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Lethal and sublethal effects of cyantraniliprole on Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruimin; Jang, Eric B; He, Shiyu; Chen, Jiahua

    2015-02-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), is one of the most globally important insect pests. Studies were conducted with the novel anthranilic diamide insecticide cyantraniliprole to determine its lethal and sublethal effects on B. dorsalis. An ingestion toxicity bioassay showed that cyantraniliprole was active against B. dorsalis, and the 72 h feeding LC50 was 3.22 µg g(-1) in adult diet for a susceptible strain. Sublethal doses of cyantraniliprole (1.30 µg g(-1) adult diet) induced a hormesis effect on B. dorsalis. The mating competitiveness of B. dorsalis treated with cyantraniliprole at 3.27 µg g(-1) adult diet was significantly lower when compared with the controls. The lower dose (1.30 µg g(-1) adult diet) of cyantraniliprole improved the total mating times of both mating pairs in treated groups and also the mating competitiveness of the treated males when compared with the higher dose and controls. Cyantraniliprole-treated females of the mated pairs with the lower dose laid more eggs. On the fifth day, female receptivity in the treated group was significantly reduced when compared with the controls. These results indicate that cyantraniliprole is effective against B. dorsalis. The inhibition and stimulation effect of cyantraniliprole on the adult's mating performance at different concentrations was proved. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Identification and Characterization of Sex-Biased MicroRNAs in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Wei; Tariq, Kaleem; Xie, Junfei; Zhang, Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous small non-coding RNAs that regulate various biological processes including sexual dimorphism. The oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis is one of the most destructive agricultural insect pests in many Asian countries. However, no miRNAs have been identified from the separate sex and gonads to elucidate sex gonad differentiation in B. dorsalis. In this study, we constructed four small RNA libraries from whole body of females, males (except ovaries and testes) and ovaries, testes of B. dorsalis for deep sequencing. The data analysis revealed 183 known and 120 novel miRNAs from these libraries. 18 female-biased and 16 male-biased miRNAs that may be involved in sexual differentiation were found by comparing the miRNA expression profiles in the four libraries. Using a bioinformatic approach, we predicted doublesex (dsx) as a target gene of the female-biased miR-989-3p which is considered as the key switch gene in the sex determination of tephritid insects. This study reveals the first miRNA profile related to the sex differentiation and gives a first insight into sex differences in miRNA expression of B. dorsalis which could facilitate studies of the reproductive organ specific roles of miRNAs. PMID:27441641

  11. Alternative splicing contributes to the coordinated regulation of ferritin subunit levels in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xuan-Zhao; Cong, Lin; Niu, Jin-Zhi; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2014-01-01

    A constant ratio of ferritin heavy chain homolog (HCH) and light chain homolog (LCH) subunits seems to be required to compose the ferritin heteropolymer protein in insects. However, the mechanism by which insect LCH genes regulate protein levels remains unclear. We report that alternative promoters and alternative splicing contribute to maintaining a constant ratio of the two subunits, BdFer1HCH and BdFer2LCH (ferritin 1 HCH and ferritin 2 LCH), in Bactrocera dorsalis, a notorious quarantine pest. The genes BdFer1HCH and BdFer2LCH were identified with a series of potential transcription factor binding sites and were shown to be clustered within the genome in a “head to head” fashion. Thus, we unearthed a potential post-transcriptional mechanism to regulate the levels of LCH subunits, and confirmed that the expressions of BdFer1HCH and BdFer2LCH were induced by 20-hydroecdysone, iron overload, and immune challenge. PMID:24763285

  12. Discovery of Chemosensory Genes in the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhongzhen; Zhang, He; Wang, Zhengbing; Bin, Shuying; He, Hualiang; Lin, Jintian

    2015-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a devastating fruit fly pest in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Like other insects, this fly uses its chemosensory system to efficiently interact with its environment. However, our understanding of the molecular components comprising B. dorsalis chemosensory system is limited. Using next generation sequencing technologies, we sequenced the transcriptome of four B. dorsalis developmental stages: egg, larva, pupa and adult chemosensory tissues. A total of 31 candidate odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 4 candidate chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 23 candidate odorant receptors (ORs), 11 candidate ionotropic receptors (IRs), 6 candidate gustatory receptors (GRs) and 3 candidate sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) were identified. The tissue distributions of the OBP and CSP transcripts were determined by RT-PCR and a subset of nine genes were further characterized. The predicted proteins from these genes shared high sequence similarity to Drosophila melanogaster pheromone binding protein related proteins (PBPRPs). Interestingly, one OBP (BdorOBP19c) was exclusively expressed in the sex pheromone glands of mature females. RT-PCR was also used to compare the expression of the candidate genes in the antennae of male and female B. dorsalis adults. These antennae-enriched OBPs, CSPs, ORs, IRs and SNMPs could play a role in the detection of pheromones and general odorants and thus could be useful target genes for the integrated pest management of B. dorsalis and other agricultural pests.

  13. Bacterial communities associated with invasive populations of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, L J; Martinez-Sañudo, I; Mazzon, L; Prabhakar, C S; Girolami, V; Deng, Y L; Dai, Y; Li, Z H

    2016-12-01

    The oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is a destructive insect pest of a wide range of fruits and vegetables. This pest is an invasive species and is currently distributed in some provinces of China. To recover the symbiotic bacteria of B. dorsalis from different invasion regions in China, we researched the bacterial diversity of this fruit fly among one laboratory colony (Guangdong, China) and 15 wild populations (14 sites in China and one site in Thailand) using DNA-based approaches. The construction of 16S rRNA gene libraries allowed the identification of 24 operational taxonomic units of associated bacteria at the 3% distance level, and these were affiliated with 3 phyla, 5 families, and 13 genera. The higher bacterial diversity was recovered in wild populations compared with the laboratory colony and in samples from early term invasion regions compared with samples from late term invasion regions. Moreover, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Providencia sp. were two of the most frequently recovered bacteria, present in flies collected from three different regions in China where B. dorsalis is invasive. This study for the first time provides a systemic investigation of the symbiotic bacteria of B. dorsalis from different invasion regions in China.

  14. Bactrocera dorsalis male sterilization by targeted RNA interference of spermatogenesis: empowering sterile insect technique programs

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yong-Cheng; Wang, Zhi-Jian; Chen, Zhen-Zhong; Clarke, Anthony R.; Niu, Chang-Ying

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a genetic technique which has novel application for sustainable pest control. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) uses releases of mass-produced, sterile male insects to out-compete wild males for mates to reduce pest populations. RNAi sterilization of SIT males would have several advantages over radiation sterilization, but to achieve this appropriate target genes must first be identified and then targeted with interference technology. With this goal, eight spermatogenesis related candidate genes were cloned and tested for potential activity in Bactrocera dorsalis. The knockdown of candidate genes by oral delivery of dsRNAs did not influence the mating of male flies, but significantly affected the daily average number of eggs laid by females, and reduced egg hatching rate by 16–60%. RNAi negatively affected spermatozoa quantitatively and qualitatively. Following the mating of lola-/topi-/rac-/rho-/upd-/magu-silenced males, we recorded a significant decrease in number and length of spermatozoa in female spermatheca compared to gfp-silenced control group. In a greenhouse trial, the number of damaged oranges and B. dorsalis larvae were significantly reduced in a dsrho-treated group compared with the dsgfp group. This study provides strong evidence for the use RNAi in pest management, especially for the improvement of SIT against B. dorsalis and other species. PMID:27767174

  15. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of the Transformer Gene From Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Ya; Zhao, Santao; Li, Jiahui; Li, Peizheng

    2017-01-01

    transformer (tra) is a switch gene of sex determination in many insects, particularly in Dipterans. However, the sex determination pathway in Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), a very destructive pest on earth, remains largely uncharacterized. In this study, we have isolated and characterized one female-specific and two male-specific transcripts of the tra gene (Bcutra) of B. cucurbitae. The genomic structure of Bcutra has been determined and the presence of multiple conserved Transformer (TRA)/TRA-2 binding sites in Bcutra has been found. BcuTRA is highly conservative with its homologues in other tephritid fruit flies. Gene expression analysis of Bcutra at different developmental stages demonstrates that the female transcript of Bcutra appears earlier than the male counterparts, indicating that the maternal TRA is inherited in eggs and might play a role in the regulation of TRA expression. The conservation of protein sequence and sex-specific splicing of Bcutra and its expression patterns during development suggest that Bcutra is probably the master gene of sex determination of B. cucurbitae. Isolation of Bcutra will facilitate the development of a genetic sexing strain for its biological control. PMID:28931159

  16. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of the Transformer Gene From Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Luo, Ya; Zhao, Santao; Li, Jiahui; Li, Peizheng; Yan, Rihui

    2017-01-01

    transformer (tra) is a switch gene of sex determination in many insects, particularly in Dipterans. However, the sex determination pathway in Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), a very destructive pest on earth, remains largely uncharacterized. In this study, we have isolated and characterized one female-specific and two male-specific transcripts of the tra gene (Bcutra) of B. cucurbitae. The genomic structure of Bcutra has been determined and the presence of multiple conserved Transformer (TRA)/TRA-2 binding sites in Bcutra has been found. BcuTRA is highly conservative with its homologues in other tephritid fruit flies. Gene expression analysis of Bcutra at different developmental stages demonstrates that the female transcript of Bcutra appears earlier than the male counterparts, indicating that the maternal TRA is inherited in eggs and might play a role in the regulation of TRA expression. The conservation of protein sequence and sex-specific splicing of Bcutra and its expression patterns during development suggest that Bcutra is probably the master gene of sex determination of B. cucurbitae. Isolation of Bcutra will facilitate the development of a genetic sexing strain for its biological control. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  17. The Essential Role of Vitellogenin Receptor in Ovary Development and Vitellogenin Uptake in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Lin; Yang, Wen-Jia; Jiang, Xuan-Zhao; Niu, Jin-Zhi; Shen, Guang-Mao; Ran, Chun; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The vitellogenin receptor (VgR) functions as an essential component in uptaking and transporting vitellogenin (Vg) in female adults, which is involved in ovary development and oviposition. This study aimed to clarify the molecular characteristics and function of VgR in the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Here, we identified the full-length of BdVgR (GenBank Accession No. JX469118), encoding a 1925 residue (aa) protein with a 214.72 kDa molecular mass and several typical motifs of low-density lipoprotein receptor superfamily (LDLR). Phylogenic analysis suggested that BdVgR was evolutionary conserved with other Dipteran VgRs. The expression of BdVgR was exclusively detected in the ovaries rather than head, thorax or other tissues. The developmental expression patterns showed that the signal of BdVgR was detectable in very beginning of adult stage, and positively correlated with the growth rate of ovaries and the expression levels of its ligands. In addition, we also demonstrated that the expression level of BdVgR, and ovary development were significantly suppressed after being injected with BdVgR-targeted dsRNA. Together, all of these results indicated that BdVgR was critical for yolk protein absorption and ovary maturation in B. dorsalis, playing a vital role in female reproduction. PMID:26262609

  18. Blue light-induced immunosuppression in Bactrocera dorsalis adults, as a carryover effect of larval exposure.

    PubMed

    Tariq, K; Noor, M; Hori, M; Ali, A; Hussain, A; Peng, W; Chang, C-J; Zhang, H

    2017-05-09

    Detrimental effects of ultraviolet (UV) light on living organisms are well understood, little is known about the effects of blue light irradiation. Although a recent study revealed that blue light caused more harmful effects on insects than UV light and blue light irradiation killed insect pests of various orders including Diptera, the effects of blue light on physiology of insects are still largely unknown. Here we studied the effects of blue light irradiation on cuticular melanin in larval and the immune response in adult stage of Bactrocera dorsalis. We also evaluated the effects of blue light exposure in larval stage on various age and mass at metamorphosis and the mediatory role of cuticular melanin in carryover effects of larval stressors across metamorphosis. We found that larvae exposed to blue light decreased melanin contents in their exoskeleton with smaller mass and delayed metamorphosis than insects reared without blue light exposure. Across metamorphosis, lower melanotic encapsulation response and higher susceptibility to Beauveria bassiana was detected in adults that had been exposed to blue light at their larval stage, thereby constituting the first evidence that blue light impaired adult immune function in B. dorsalis as a carryover effect of larval exposure.

  19. Suitability of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) Pupae for Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Tang, Liang-De; Lu, Yong-Yue; Zhao, Hai-Yan

    2015-06-01

    Spalangia endius (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is found to be one of the most important natural enemies of Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae) pupae in China. In this study, the influence of host pupal age on the preference for and suitability of the host by the parasitoid S. endius was determined using choice and nonchoice tests. S. endius females accepted the 1-7 d-old B. dorsalis pupae for oviposition, and their offspring developed successfully. However, the S. endius preferentially parasitized the 2-, 3-, and 4-d-old host pupae. The emergence rate of the adult progeny was not affected by the host pupal age, nor was the male body weight, male longevity, and sex ratio of the parasitoid offspring. However, the shortest development time of both male and female progeny and the greatest size and adult longevity of female progeny were observed in hosts that were ≤4 d old. Females emerged later and lived longer than males, and they weighed more than the males. Host mortality decreased as the age of the host increased for 1-7-d-old hosts. Our findings suggest that 2-, 3-, and 4-d-old B. dorsalis pupae would be the best host ages at which to rear S. endius for effective control in field releases.

  20. Endocytic pathway mediates refractoriness of insect Bactrocera dorsalis to RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoxue; Dong, Xiaolong; Zou, Cong; Zhang, Hongyu

    2015-03-03

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful and convenient tool for sequence-specific gene silencing, and it is triggered by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). RNAi can be easily achieved in many eukaryotes by either injecting or feeding dsRNAs. This mechanism has demonstrated its potential in fundamental research on genetics, medicine and agriculture. However, the possibility that insects might develop refractoriness to RNAi remains unexplored. In this study, we report that the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, became refractory to RNAi using orally administered dsRNA targeting endogenous genes. Furthermore, refractoriness to RNAi is not gene-specific, and its duration depends on the dsRNA concentration. RNAi blockage requires the endocytic pathway. Fluorescence microscopy indicated that in RNAi refractory flies, dsRNA uptake is blocked. Genes involved in the entry of dsRNAs into cells, including chc, cog3, light and others, are down-regulated in RNAi refractory flies. Increasing the endocytic capacity by improving F-actin polymerization disrupts RNAi refractoriness after both primary and secondary dsRNA exposures. Our results demonstrate that an insect can become refractory to RNAi by preventing the entry of dsRNA into its cells.

  1. Tyrosine hydroxylase coordinates larval-pupal tanning and immunity in oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis).

    PubMed

    Chen, Er-Hu; Hou, Qiu-Li; Wei, Dan-Dan; Dou, Wei; Liu, Zhao; Yang, Pei-Jin; Smagghe, Guy; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2017-09-23

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), is a notorious world pest infesting fruit and vegetable, which has evolved high level of resistance to many commonly used insecticides. In this study, we investigated whether tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) that is required for cuticle tanning (sclerotization and pigmentation) in many insects, could be a potential target in controlling B. dorsalis. We cloned TH cDNA (BdTH) of B. dorsalis, and the complete open reading frame of BdTH (KY911196) was 1737 bp in length, encoding a protein of 578 amino acids. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed that BdTH was highly expressed in the epidermis of 3(rd) instar larvae, and its expression increased prior to pupation, suggesting a role in larval-pupal cuticle tanning. When we injected dsBdTH or 3-iodo-tyrosine (3-IT) as TH inhibitor or fed insect diet supplemented with 3-IT, there was a significant impairment of larval-pupal cuticle tanning and severe obstacle to eclosion in adults followed by death of most. Furthermore, injection of Escherichia coli in 3-IT-fed larvae resulted in 92% mortality and the expression of four antimicrobial peptide genes was significantly downregulated. These results suggest that BdTH might play a critical role in larval-pupal tanning and immunity of B. dorsalis, which could be used as a potential novel target for pest control. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Factors influencing aversive learning in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    PubMed

    Liu, J L; Chen, H L; Chen, X Y; Cui, R K; Guerrero, A; Zeng, X N

    2017-01-01

    Parameters such as the intensity of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli, the inter-trial interval, and starvation time can influence learning. In this study, the parameters that govern aversive learning in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, a serious pest of fruits and vegetables, were examined. Male flies were trained to associate the attractive odorant methyl eugenol, a male lure, with a food punishment, sodium chloride solution, and the conditioned suppression of the proboscis-extension response was investigated. We found that high methyl eugenol concentrations support a stronger association. With increasing concentrations of sodium chloride solution, a steady decrease of proboscis-extension response during six training trials was observed. A high level of learning was achieved with an inter-trial interval of 1-10 min. However, extending the inter-trial interval to 15 min led to reduced learning. No effect of physiological status (starvation time) on learning performance was detected, nor was any non-associative learning effect induced by the repeat presentation of odor or punishment alone. The memory formed after six training trials could be retained for at least 3 h. Our results indicate that aversive learning by oriental fruit flies can be affected by odor, punishment concentration and inter-trial interval.

  3. Characterization of Bactrocera dorsalis Serine Proteases and Evidence for Their Indirect Role in Insecticide Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Ming-Zhe; Shen, Guang-Mao; Wei, Dong; Li, Ya-Li; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2014-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) causes devastating losses to agricultural crops world-wide and is considered to be an economically important pest. Little is known about the digestive enzymes such as serine proteases (SPs) in B. dorsalis, which are important both for energy supply and mitigation of fitness cost associated with insecticide tolerance. In this study, we identified five SP genes in the midgut of B. dorsalis, and the alignments of their deduced amino acid sequences revealed the presence of motifs conserved in the SP superfamily. Phylogenetic analyses with known SPs from other insect species suggested that three of them were trypsin-like proteases. Analyses of the expression profiles among the different developmental stages showed that all five genes were most abundant in larvae than in other stages. When larvae were continuously fed on diet containing 0.33 μg/g β-Cypermethrin, expression of all five genes were upregulated in the midgut but the larval development was delayed. Biochemical assays were consistent with the increased protease activity exhibited by SPs in the midgut after treatment with β-Cypermethrin. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for the hypothesis that enhanced SP activity may play an indirect role in relieving the toxicity stress of insecticide in B. dorsalis. PMID:24566149

  4. Symbiotic bacteria enable olive flies (Bactrocera oleae) to exploit intractable sources of nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Ben-Yosef, M; Pasternak, Z; Jurkevitch, E; Yuval, B

    2014-12-01

    Insects are often associated with symbiotic micro-organisms, which allow them to utilize nutritionally marginal diets. Adult fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) associate with extracellular bacteria (Enterobacteriaceae) that inhabit their digestive tract. These flies obtain nutrients by foraging for plant exudates, honeydew and bird droppings scattered on leaves and fruit—a nutritional niche which offers ample amounts of carbohydrates, but low quantities of available nitrogen. We identified the bacteria resident in the gut of the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae)—a worldwide pest of olives and examined their contribution to nitrogen metabolism in the adult insect. By suppressing bacteria in the gut and monitoring female fecundity, we demonstrate that bacteria contribute essential amino acids and metabolize urea into an available nitrogen source for the fly, thus significantly elevating egg production. In an ecological context, bacteria were found to be beneficial to females subsisting on bird droppings, but not on honeydew—two natural food sources. We suggest that a main gut bacterium (Candidatus Erwinia dacicola) forms an inseparable, essential part of this fly's nutritional ecology. The evolution of this symbiosis has allowed adult flies to utilize food substrates which are low or imbalanced in assimilable nitrogen and thereby to overcome the nitrogen limitations of their natural diet. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  5. Purification of Colocasia esculenta lectin and determination of its anti-insect potential towards Bactrocera cucurbitae.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Kshema; Kaur, Manpreet; Kaur, Satwinder; Kaur, Amritpal; Kamboj, Sukhdev Singh; Singh, Jatinder

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports the purification of a lectin from Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott corms and evaluation of its anti-insect potential towards Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquilett). The lectin was found to be specific towards N-acetyl-D-lactosamine (LacNac), a disaccharide and asialofetuin, a desialylated serum glycoprotein in hemagglutination inhibition assay. Asialofetuin was used as a ligand to purify Colocasia esculenta agglutinin (CEA) by affinity chromatography. The purity of CEA was ascertained by the presence of a single band in reducing SDS-PAGE at pH 8.3. The affinity purified CEA was employed in artificial diet bioassay of second instar larvae (64-72 hr old) of the B. cucurbitae at concentrations ranging between 10-160 microg ml(-1). The lectin significantly (p < 0.01) decreased the percent pupation and emergence with respect to control. Effect on various enzymes was studied by employing LC50 (51.6 microg ml(-1)) CEA in the artificial diet bioassay of second instar larvae. All the enzymes tested namely esterases, phosphatases (acid and alkaline), superoxide dismutases, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase showed a significant (p < 0.01, p < 0.05) increase in their enzyme and specific activities. These results showed that CEA affected normal growth and development and presented stress to the larvae, activating their detoxification and anti-oxidant systems. Thus, the lectin seems to be a useful candidate for the control measures of B. cucurbitae under the integrated pest management (IPM) system.

  6. Comparative proteomic analysis of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) in response to thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Wei, Dong; Jia, Fu-Xian; Tian, Chuan-Bei; Tian, Yi; Smagghe, Guy; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2015-03-01

    Temperature is one of the most important environmental variables affecting growth, reproduction and distribution of insects. The rise of comparative proteomics provides a powerful tool to explore the response in proteins to thermal stress. As an important worldwide pest, the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis causes severe economic losses to crops. To understand the response of B. dorsalis to thermal stress, we performed a comparative proteome analysis of this insect after exposure to extreme low and high temperatures using two-dimensional electrophoresis. Among the separated proteins, 51 diverse protein spots were present differently in response to extreme temperatures. Using tandem mass spectrometry sequencing analysis 39 proteins were successfully identified, which included 13 oxidoreductases, 10 binding proteins, 5 transferases, and 2 each of lyases, isomerases, ligases, and developmental proteins. Subsequently, the expression of these protein transcripts was studied by RT-qPCR to validate the proteomic results. In conclusion, this study provides a first look into the thermal stress response of B. dorsalis at the protein level, and thus it paves the way for further functional studies in the physiological mechanism related to thermal stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Low-Temperature Phosphine Fumigation on the Survival of Bactrocera correcta (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Li, Li; Zhang, Fanhua; Gong, Shaorun; Li, Tianxiu; Zhan, Guoping; Wang, Yuejin

    2015-08-01

    This laboratory-based study examined the effects of low-temperature phosphine fumigation on the survival of the eggs and larvae of the guava fruit fly, Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi). Individual flies at different developmental stages, from 6-h-old eggs to third instars, were exposed to 0.92 mg/liter phosphine for 1-7 d at 5°C. We found that 12-h-old eggs and third instars were the most tolerant to phosphine. Increasing phosphine concentrations from 0.46 to 4.56 mg/liter increased mortality in these two stages. However, increased exposure times were required to achieve equal mortality rates in 12-h-old eggs and third instars when phosphine concentrations were ≥4.56 and ≥3.65 mg/liter, respectively. C(n)t = k expression was obtained at 50, 90, and 99% mortality levels, and the toxicity index (n) ranged from 0.43 to 0.77 for the two stages. The synergistic effects of a controlled atmosphere (CA) with elevated CO(2) levels were also investigated, and we found that a CO(2) concentration between 10% and 15% under CA conditions was optimal for low-temperature phosphine fumigation. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Methyl eugenol aromatherapy enhances the mating competitiveness of male Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Haq, Ihsan; Vreysen, Marc J B; Cacéres, Carlos; Shelly, Todd E; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2014-09-01

    Males of Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae) are strongly attracted to methyl eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene), a natural compound occurring in variety of plant species. ME-feeding is known to enhance male B. carambolae mating competitiveness 3 days after feeding. Enhanced male mating competitiveness due to ME-feeding can increase the effectiveness of sterile insect technique (SIT) manifolds. However, the common methods for emergence and holding fruit flies prior to field releases do not allow the inclusion of any ME feeding treatment after fly emergence. Therefore this study was planned to assess the effects of ME-aromatherapy in comparison with ME feeding on male B. carambolae mating competitiveness as aromatherapy is pragmatic for fruit flies emergence and holding facilities. Effects of ME application by feeding or by aromatherapy for enhanced mating competitiveness were evaluated 3d after treatments in field cages. ME feeding and ME aromatherapy enhanced male mating competitiveness as compared to untreated males. Males treated with ME either by feeding or by aromatherapy showed similar mating success but mating success was significantly higher than that of untreated males. The results are discussed in the context of application of ME by aromatherapy as a pragmatic approach in a mass-rearing facility and its implications for effectiveness of SIT. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Bactrocera dorsalis male sterilization by targeted RNA interference of spermatogenesis: empowering sterile insect technique programs.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yong-Cheng; Wang, Zhi-Jian; Chen, Zhen-Zhong; Clarke, Anthony R; Niu, Chang-Ying

    2016-10-21

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a genetic technique which has novel application for sustainable pest control. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) uses releases of mass-produced, sterile male insects to out-compete wild males for mates to reduce pest populations. RNAi sterilization of SIT males would have several advantages over radiation sterilization, but to achieve this appropriate target genes must first be identified and then targeted with interference technology. With this goal, eight spermatogenesis related candidate genes were cloned and tested for potential activity in Bactrocera dorsalis. The knockdown of candidate genes by oral delivery of dsRNAs did not influence the mating of male flies, but significantly affected the daily average number of eggs laid by females, and reduced egg hatching rate by 16-60%. RNAi negatively affected spermatozoa quantitatively and qualitatively. Following the mating of lola-/topi-/rac-/rho-/upd-/magu-silenced males, we recorded a significant decrease in number and length of spermatozoa in female spermatheca compared to gfp-silenced control group. In a greenhouse trial, the number of damaged oranges and B. dorsalis larvae were significantly reduced in a dsrho-treated group compared with the dsgfp group. This study provides strong evidence for the use RNAi in pest management, especially for the improvement of SIT against B. dorsalis and other species.

  10. Pupal diapause termination in Bactrocera minax: an insight on 20-hydroxyecdysone induced phenotypic and genotypic expressions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhenzhong; Dong, Yongcheng; Wang, Yaohui; Andongma, Awawing A.; Rashid, Muhammad A.; Krutmuang, Patcharin; Niu, Changying

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese citrus fruit fly, Bactrocera minax, is an economically important pest of citrus. It exhibits pupal diapause from November to May to combat harsh environmental conditions. Such a long pupal diapause is a barrier for laboratory rearing and development of control strategies against this pest. In the present study, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) was used to break pupal diapause of B. minax by topical application. After diapause termination by 20E treated, the pupal ontogenetic processes were observed along the temporal trajectory. The pupal response time to 20E was estimated by detecting the relative expression of 20E responsive genes at different times after 20E-treatment. Results revealed that 20E could effectively terminate the pupal diapause in a dose-dependent manner and significantly shorten the time for 50% adult emergence (Et50). 20E response genes, including ecr, broad and foxo, were up-regulated within 72h, indicating these genes are involved in pupal metamorphosis and diapause termination processes. Morphological changes showed the pupal metamorphosis began ~7 days after 20E-treatment at 22 °C. This study does not only pave the way for artificial rearing in the laboratory through manipulating of pupal diapause termination, but also deepens our understanding of the underlying pupal diapause termination mechanism of B. minax. PMID:27273028

  11. Multiplex PCR in Determination of Opiinae Parasitoids of Fruit Flies, Bactrocera sp., Infesting Star Fruit and Guava

    PubMed Central

    Shariff, S.; Ibrahim, N. J.; Md-Zain, B. M.; Idris, A. B.; Suhana, Y.; Roff, M. N.; Yaakop, S.

    2014-01-01

    Malaysia is a tropical country that produces commercial fruits, including star fruits, Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidales: Oxalidaceae), and guavas, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae). There is a high demand for these fruits, and they are planted for both local consumption and export purposes. Unfortunately, there has been a gradual reduction of these fruits, which has been shown to be related to fruit fly infestation, especially from the Bactrocera species. Most parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae) are known as parasitoids of fruit fly larvae. In this study, star fruits and guavas infested by fruit fry larvae were collected from the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute. The parasitized larvae were reared under laboratory conditions until the emergence of adult parasitoids. Multiplex PCR was performed to determine the braconid species using two mitochondrial DNA markers, namely cytochrome oxidase subunit I and cytochrome b. Two benefits of using multiplex PCR are the targeted bands can be amplified simultaneously using the same reaction and the identification process of the braconid species can be done accurately and rapidly. The species of fruit flies were confirmed using the COI marker. The results obtained from our study show that Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Fopius arisanus (Sonan), and Pysttalia incisi (Silvestri) were parasitoids associated with Bactrocera carambolae (Drew and Hancock) (Diptera: Tephritidae) infested star fruits. Fopius arisanus was also the parasitoid associated with Bactrocera papayae (Drew and Hancock) infested guavas. Maximum parsimony was been constructed in Opiinae species to compare tree resolution between these two genes in differentiating among closely related species. The confirmation of the relationship between braconids and fruit fly species is very important, recognized as preliminary data, and highly necessary in biological control programs. PMID

  12. Multiplex PCR in determination of Opiinae parasitoids of fruit flies, Bactrocera sp., infesting star fruit and guava.

    PubMed

    Shariff, S; Ibrahim, N J; Md-Zain, B M; Idris, A B; Suhana, Y; Roff, M N; Yaakop, S

    2014-01-23

    Malaysia is a tropical country that produces commercial fruits, including star fruits, Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidales: Oxalidaceae), and guavas, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae). There is a high demand for these fruits, and they are planted for both local consumption and export purposes. Unfortunately, there has been a gradual reduction of these fruits, which has been shown to be related to fruit fly infestation, especially from the Bactrocera species. Most parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae) are known as parasitoids of fruit fly larvae. In this study, star fruits and guavas infested by fruit fry larvae were collected from the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute. The parasitized larvae were reared under laboratory conditions until the emergence of adult parasitoids. Multiplex PCR was performed to determine the braconid species using two mitochondrial DNA markers, namely cytochrome oxidase subunit I and cytochrome b. Two benefits of using multiplex PCR are the targeted bands can be amplified simultaneously using the same reaction and the identification process of the braconid species can be done accurately and rapidly. The species of fruit flies were confirmed using the COI marker. The results obtained from our study show that Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Fopius arisanus (Sonan), and Pysttalia incisi (Silvestri) were parasitoids associated with Bactrocera carambolae (Drew and Hancock) (Diptera: Tephritidae) infested star fruits. Fopius arisanus was also the parasitoid associated with Bactrocera papayae (Drew and Hancock) infested guavas. Maximum parsimony was been constructed in Opiinae species to compare tree resolution between these two genes in differentiating among closely related species. The confirmation of the relationship between braconids and fruit fly species is very important, recognized as preliminary data, and highly necessary in biological control programs. This is an

  13. Attraction and consumption of methyl eugenol by male Bactrocera umbrosa Fabricius (Diptera: Tephritidae) promotes conspecific sexual communication and mating performance.

    PubMed

    Wee, S L; Abdul Munir, M Z; Hee, A K W

    2017-06-19

    The Artocarpus fruit fly, Bactrocera umbrosa (Fabricius) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an oligophagous fruit pest infesting Moraceae fruits, including jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lamarck), a fruit commodity of high value in Malaysia. The scarcity of fundamental biological, physiological and ecological information on this pest, particularly in relation to behavioural response to phytochemical lures, which are instrumental to the success of many area-wide fruit fly control and management programmes, underpins the need for studies on this much-underrated pest. The positive response of B. umbrosa males to methyl eugenol (ME), a highly potent phytochemical lure, which attracts mainly males of many Bactrocera species, was shown to increase with increasing age. As early as 7 days after emergence (DAE), ca. 22% of males had responded to ME and over 50% by 10 DAE, despite no occurrence of matings (i.e. the males were still sexually immature). Male attraction to ME peaked from 10 to 27 DAE, which corresponded with the flies' attainment of sexual maturity. In wind-tunnel assays during the dusk courtship period, ME-fed males exhibited earlier calling activity and attracted a significantly higher percentage of virgin females compared with ME-deprived males. ME-fed males enjoyed a higher mating success than ME-deprived males at 1-day post ME feeding in semi-field assays. ME consumption also promotes aggregation behaviour in B. umbrosa males, as demonstrated in wind-tunnel and semi-field assays. We suggest that ME plays a prominent role in promoting sexual communication and enhancing mating performance of the Artocarpus fruit fly, a finding that is congruent with previous reports on the consequences of ME acquisition by other economically important Bactrocera species.

  14. [Random amplified polymorphic DNA identification of six Bactrocera (Diptera: Tephritidae) species in Yunnan Province of southwest China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Zhi-ying

    2007-05-01

    In this paper, the genetic relationships among six fruit fly species of Bactrocera in Yunnan Province of Southwest China, i.e., B. tau, B. scutellaris, B. scutellata, B. cucurbitae, B. dorsalis and B. correcta, were studied by using the technique of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Five primers with good repetition and high polymorphism were screened from 131 primers, and a total of 302 bands were amplified, among which, 111 bands were of genetic polymorphism. The primers OPC-01, OPI-17, OPL-07, OPL-08 and OPL-16 could be used for the identification of the 6 fruit fly species.

  15. Classical biological control of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera olea (Diptera: Tephritidae), using the exotic parasitoie, Psyttalia lounsburyi (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in France.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is an important pest of olives which is worldwide distributed and responsible for economic losses of approximately US$800 million per year. Since the 2000s both economical and environmental concerns have raised interested in clas...

  16. Development of liquid larval diet with modified rearing system for Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera:Tephritidae) for the application of sterile insect technique

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A liquid larval diet and its rearing system have been developed for mass rearing of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) in Hawaii. Rearing facility in Institute of Food and Radiation Biology, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Dhaka, Bangladesh, modified protein source from brewer's yeast to a combinat...

  17. Comparison of in vitro heat and cold tolerances of the new invasive species Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) with three known tephritids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta and White has been invading central Africa attacking a variety of fruits. Quarantines are placed on fruits that might be considered hosts. The only phytosanitary treatment that is commercially available is an ionizing irradiation generic treatment for Tephritidae ...

  18. Characterizing the developmental transcriptome of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) through comparative genomic analysis with Drosophila melanogaster utilizing modENCODE datasets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is an important pest of fruit and vegetable crops throughout Asia, and is considered a high risk pest for establishment in the mainland United States. It is a member of the family Tephritidae, which are the most agriculturally important family ...

  19. Insecticidal Activity of Basil Oil, trans-Anethole, Estragole, and Linalool to Adults of Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, and B. cucurbitae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pest tephritid fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and B. cucurbitae (Cocquillett) are among the species of economic significance. Their management has primarily relied on the use of food baits, male attractants and their combinations with insecticides. Basil o...

  20. Di- and Tri-flourinated analogs of methyl eugenol: attractiveness to and metabolism in the oriental fruit fly, bactrocera dorsalis (hendel)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), males are highly 1 attracted to the natural phenylpropanoid methyl eugenol (ME). They compulsively feed on ME and metabolize it to ring and side-chain hydroxylated compounds that have both pheromonal and allomonal properties. Previously, we demonstra...

  1. Melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae), infestation in host fruits in the Southwestern Islands of Japan before the initiation of Island-wide population suppression

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) is a tephritid fruit fly native to the Indo-Malayan region. Its distribution, though, has extended to include Africa, temperate Asia, and a number of Pacific islands. It became established in Japan in 1919 in the Yaeyama Islands and spread north in the Southwestern...

  2. Attraction and mortality of Bactrocera dorsalis to STATIC Spinosad ME weathered under operational conditions in California and Florida: A reduced-risk male annihilation treatment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies were conducted in 2013 in Hawaii, USA, to quantify attraction, feeding, and mortality of male oriental fruit flies, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)(Diptera: Tephritidae), to a reduced risk male annihilation treatment(MAT)formulation consisting of an amorphous polymer matrix in combination with...

  3. Bacterial Communities in the Gut and Reproductive Organs of Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Tephritidae) Based on 454 Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Weiwei; Zhang, Hongyu

    2014-01-01

    The citrus fruit fly Bactrocera minax is associated with diverse bacterial communities. We used a 454 pyrosequencing technology to study in depth the microbial communities associated with gut and reproductive organs of Bactrocera minax. Our dataset consisted of 100,749 reads with an average length of 400 bp. The saturated rarefaction curves and species richness indices indicate that the sampling was comprehensive. We found highly diverse bacterial communities, with individual sample containing approximately 361 microbial operational taxonomic units (OTUs). A total of 17 bacterial phyla were obtained from the flies. A phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA revealed that Proteobacteria was dominant in all samples (75%–95%). Actinobacteria and Firmicutes were also commonly found in the total clones. Klebsiella, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, and Serratia were the major genera. However, bacterial diversity (Chao1, Shannon and Simpson indices) and community structure (PCA analysis) varied across samples. Female ovary has the most diverse bacteria, followed by male testis, and the bacteria diversity of reproductive organs is richer than that of the gut. The observed variation can be caused by sex and tissue, possibly to meet the host's physiological demands. PMID:25215866

  4. Determination of Opiinae parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associated with crop infesting Bactrocera spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) using COI and Cyt b sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shariff, Safiah; Yaakop, Salmah; Zain, Badrul Munir Md.

    2013-11-01

    Members of the Opiinae subfamily (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are well known as important parasitoids of fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae). They are widely used as biological control agents of fruit flies, especially the Bactrocera Macquart species that infest fruits. In this study, the larvae of fruit flies were collected from infested crops including star fruit, guava, wax apple and ridge gourd. The parasitized larvae were then reared under laboratory conditions until emergence of the adult parasitoids. Additionally, Malaise trap also was used to collect parasitoid species. The general concept of the multiplex PCR has been performed is to amplify two mitochondrial DNA markers, namely cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and cytochrome b (Cyt b) simultaneously. Therefore, the lengthy process of reaction will be reduced. The status of the fruit fly species has also been confirmed by using COI marker on the early stage of the larvae. Maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian Inference (BI) were implemented to help and support the identification of Opiinae species. The result obtained from this study showed three parasitoid genera of the Opiinae viz. Fopius Wharton, Psyttalia Walker and Diachasmimorpha Viereck. Each genus has been determined by clustering together in a similar clade according to their infested crops. Therefore, accurate determination of parasitoids and the fruit fries species was highly useful and necessary for successful biological control of Bactrocera species.

  5. Development of quality control procedures for mass produced and released Bactrocera Philippinensis (Diptera: Tephritidae) for sterile insect technique programs

    SciTech Connect

    Resilva, S.; Obra, G.; Zamora, N.; Gaitan, E.

    2007-03-15

    Quality control procedures for Bactrocera philippinensis Drew and Hancock 1994 (Diptera: Tephritidae) used in sterile insect technique (SIT) programs were established in the mass rearing facility at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute. Basic studies on pupal irradiation, holding/packaging systems, shipping procedures, longevity, sterility studies, and pupal eye color determination in relation to physiological development at different temperature regimes were investigated. These studies will provide baseline data for the development of quality control protocols for an expansion of B. philippinensis field programs with an SIT component in the future. (author) [Spanish] Los procedimientos de control de calidad para Bactrocera philippinensis Drew y Hancock 1994 (Diptera: Tephritidae) usados en programas de la tecnica de insecto esteril (TIE) fueron establecidos en la facilidad de cria en masa del Instituto Filipino de Investigacion Nuclear. Estudios basicos sobre la irradiacion de las pupas, sistemas de almacenaje/empaque, procedimientos del envio, longevidad, estudios de esterilidad y la determinacion del color de ojo de la pupa en relacion con el desarrollo fisiologico en regimenes diferentes de temperatura fueron investigados. Estos estudios proveeran una linea de informacion basica para el desarrollo de protocolos de control de calidad para una expansion de los programas de campo para B. philippinensis con un componente de TIS en el futuro. (author)

  6. Anti-insect potential of lectins from Arisaema species towards Bactrocera cucurbitae.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Manpreet; Singh, Kuljinder; Rup, Pushpinder J; Kamboj, Sukhdev Singh; Singh, Jatinder

    2009-11-01

    Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), also known as melon fruit fly, is one of the major insect pests of cucurbits in several parts of Asia, Africa and Pacific. In the present investigation, effect of lectins from two sources i.e. Arisaema intermedium Blume and Arisaema wallichianum Hook f. (Family-Araceae) has been studied on the development of second instar larvae of melon fruit fly. The lectins were incorporated separately in artificial diet at a concentration of 10 to 160 microg ml(-1) and fed adlibitum to the second instar larvae. Both the lectins were found to prolong the development period and significantly inhibited the pupation and emergence in a dose dependent manner. Total development period was found to be prolonged by 3.5 and 2.3 days in case of larvae fed on artificial diet containing A. intermedium (AIL) and A. wallichianum (AWL), respectively. LC50 values calculated on the basis of adult emergence came out to be 32.8 and 29 microg ml(-1) for AIL and AWL, respectively. Both the lectins tested, were found to increase the activity of esterases as larvae proceeded from 24 to 72 hr of treatment. The activity of acid phosphatase decreased significantly in larvae reared on diet containing LC50 of AIL, while in case of AWL significant decrease was observed only at 72 hr of treatment. Alkaline phosphatase activity decreased significantly on treatment with both of these lectins. These results showed that AIL and AWL have promising anti-insect potential. So, lectin gene/s from either of these species can be cloned and subsequently can be employed to develop transgenics to control melon fruit flies specifically and insect pests in general. This approach could be used as a part of Integrated pest management (IPM) strategies.

  7. Global Potential Distribution of Bactrocera carambolae and the Risks for Fruit Production in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marchioro, Cesar A

    2016-01-01

    The carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae, is a tephritid native to Asia that has invaded South America through small-scale trade of fruits from Indonesia. The economic losses associated with biological invasions of other fruit flies around the world and the polyphagous behaviour of B. carambolae have prompted much concern among government agencies and farmers with the potential spread of this pest. Here, ecological niche models were employed to identify suitable environments available to B. carambolae in a global scale and assess the extent of the fruit acreage that may be at risk of attack in Brazil. Overall, 30 MaxEnt models built with different combinations of environmental predictors and settings were evaluated for predicting the potential distribution of the carambola fruit fly. The best model was selected based on threshold-independent and threshold-dependent metrics. Climatically suitable areas were identified in tropical and subtropical regions of Central and South America, Sub-Saharan Africa, west and east coast of India and northern Australia. The suitability map of B. carambola was intersected against maps of fruit acreage in Brazil. The acreage under potential risk of attack varied widely among fruit species, which is expected because the production areas are concentrated in different regions of the country. The production of cashew is the one that is at higher risk, with almost 90% of its acreage within the suitable range of B. carambolae, followed by papaya (78%), tangerine (51%), guava (38%), lemon (30%), orange (29%), mango (24%) and avocado (20%). This study provides an important contribution to the knowledge of the ecology of B. carambolae, and the information generated here can be used by government agencies as a decision-making tool to prevent the carambola fruit fly spread across the world.

  8. Multigene Phylogeography of Bactrocera caudata (Insecta: Tephritidae): Distinct Genetic Lineages in Northern and Southern Hemispheres

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Tan, Ji; Song, Sze-Looi; Suana, I Wayan; Eamsobhana, Praphathip

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera caudata is a pest of pumpkin flower. Specimens of B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (mainland Asia) and southern hemisphere (Indonesia) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of the nuclear 28S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS-2) genes, and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) and 16S rRNA genes. The COI, COII, 16S rDNA and concatenated COI+COII+16S and COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences revealed that B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (Peninsular Malaysia, East Malaysia, Thailand) was distinctly different from the southern hemisphere (Indonesia: Java, Bali and Lombok), without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades (northern and southern hemispheres), indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected ‘p’ distance for the concatenated COI+COII+16S nucleotide sequences between the taxa from the northern and southern hemispheres (‘p’ = 4.46-4.94%) was several folds higher than the ‘p’ distance for the taxa in the northern hemisphere (‘p’ = 0.00-0.77%) and the southern hemisphere (‘p’ = 0.00%). This distinct difference was also reflected by concatenated COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences with an uncorrected 'p' distance of 2.34-2.69% between the taxa of northern and southern hemispheres. In accordance with the type locality the Indonesian taxa belong to the nominal species. Thus the taxa from the northern hemisphere, if they were to constitute a cryptic species of the B. caudata species complex based on molecular data, need to be formally described as a new species. The Thailand and Malaysian B. caudata populations in the northern hemisphere showed distinct genetic structure and phylogeographic pattern. PMID:26090853

  9. Global Potential Distribution of Bactrocera carambolae and the Risks for Fruit Production in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Marchioro, Cesar A.

    2016-01-01

    The carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae, is a tephritid native to Asia that has invaded South America through small-scale trade of fruits from Indonesia. The economic losses associated with biological invasions of other fruit flies around the world and the polyphagous behaviour of B. carambolae have prompted much concern among government agencies and farmers with the potential spread of this pest. Here, ecological niche models were employed to identify suitable environments available to B. carambolae in a global scale and assess the extent of the fruit acreage that may be at risk of attack in Brazil. Overall, 30 MaxEnt models built with different combinations of environmental predictors and settings were evaluated for predicting the potential distribution of the carambola fruit fly. The best model was selected based on threshold-independent and threshold-dependent metrics. Climatically suitable areas were identified in tropical and subtropical regions of Central and South America, Sub-Saharan Africa, west and east coast of India and northern Australia. The suitability map of B. carambola was intersected against maps of fruit acreage in Brazil. The acreage under potential risk of attack varied widely among fruit species, which is expected because the production areas are concentrated in different regions of the country. The production of cashew is the one that is at higher risk, with almost 90% of its acreage within the suitable range of B. carambolae, followed by papaya (78%), tangerine (51%), guava (38%), lemon (30%), orange (29%), mango (24%) and avocado (20%). This study provides an important contribution to the knowledge of the ecology of B. carambolae, and the information generated here can be used by government agencies as a decision-making tool to prevent the carambola fruit fly spread across the world. PMID:27832144

  10. Identification of a carboxylesterase associated with resistance to naled in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    PubMed

    Hsu, Po-Kai; Huang, Li-Hsin; Geib, Scott M; Hsu, Ju-Chun

    2016-07-01

    Compared to other organophosphate-resistant and -susceptible (S) lines of Bactrocera dorsalis, the carboxylesterase (CBE) BdE5 in the naled-resistant (nal-r) line has been found to possess remarkable quantitative elevation. Our study attempts to identify the role of BdE5 in naled resistance, and we discovered several points of interest. Firstly, activity staining on native PAGE revealed that the percentage of flies with intensive BdE5 bands in the nal-r line was substantially higher than in the S line, indicating that the BdE5 band correlates with naled susceptibility. Secondly, in vitro and in vivo inhibition assays showed that BdE5 was inhibited by naled in both lines; under diagnostic doses of naled, the overall extent of inhibition on CBEs was much greater in the S line than in the nal-r line. Thirdly, NanoLC-nanoESi-MS/MS analysis used the NCBI database to identify and annotate BdE5 as an esterase FE4-like (XP_011200445.1) in B. dorsalis. Fourthly, rapid amplification of cDNA ends was used to obtain the 2012-bp full-length BdE5 cDNA, which contained an open reading frame of 1770bp and encoded a putative protein of 590 amino acid residues. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that BdE5 is a secreted β-esterase (E clade) closely related to CG6414 (NP_570089), a CBE in Drosophila melanogaster. Finally, our relative quantification real-time PCR data showed a significant elevation in transcript levels of the BdE5 gene in nal-r line. Our results confirmed that BdE5 is correlated with naled resistance and provides further understanding about the identification and molecular characteristics of BdE5 in B. dorsalis.

  11. Functional characterization of an α-esterase gene involving malathion detoxification in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    PubMed

    Wang, Luo-Luo; Lu, Xue-Ping; Meng, Li-Wei; Huang, Yong; Wei, Dong; Jiang, Hong-Bo; Smagghe, Guy; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2016-06-01

    Extensive use of insecticides in many orchards has prompted resistance development in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). In this study, a laboratory selected strain of B. dorsalis (MR) with a 21-fold higher resistance to malathion was used to examine the resistance mechanisms to this organophosphate insecticide. Carboxylesterase (CarE) was found to be involved in malathion resistance in B. dorsalis from the synergism bioassay by CarE-specific inhibitor triphenylphosphate (TPP). Molecular studies further identified a previously uncharacterized α-esterase gene, BdCarE2, that may function in the development of malathion resistance in B. dorsalis via gene upregulation. This gene is predominantly expressed in the Malpighian tubules, a key insect tissue for detoxification. The transcript levels of BdCarE2 were also compared between the MR and a malathion-susceptible (MS) strain of B. dorsalis, and it was significantly more abundant in the MR strain. No sequence mutation or gene copy changes were detected between the two strains. Functional studies using RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of BdCarE2 significantly increased the malathion susceptibility in the adult files. Furthermore, heterologous expression of BdCarE2 combined with cytotoxicity assay in Sf9 cells demonstrated that BdCarE2 could probably detoxify malathion. Taken together, the current study bring new molecular evidence supporting the involvement of CarE-mediated metabolism in resistance development against malathion in B. dorsalis and also provide bases on functional analysis of insect α-esterase associated with insecticide resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Inheritance, Realized Heritability, and Biochemical Mechanisms of Malathion Resistance in Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Luo-Luo; Feng, Zi-Jiao; Li, Ting; Lu, Xue-Ping; Zhao, Jia-Jia; Niu, Jin-Zhi; Smagghe, Guy; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2016-02-01

    To better characterize the resistance development and therefore establish effective pest management strategies, this study was undertaken to investigate the inheritance mode and biochemical mechanisms of malathion resistance in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), which is one of the most notorious pests in the world. After 22 generations of selection with malathion, the malathion-resistant (MR) strain of B. dorsalis developed a 34-fold resistance compared with a laboratory susceptible strain [malathion-susceptible (MS)]. Bioassay results showed that there was no significant difference between the LD50 values of malathion against the progenies from both reciprocal crosses (F(1)-SR and F(1)-RS). The degree of dominance values (D) was calculated as 0.39 and 0.32 for F(1)-RS and F(1)-SR, respectively. The logarithm dosage-probit mortality lines of the F(2) generation and progeny from the backcross showed no clear plateaus of mortality across a range of doses. In addition, Chi-square analysis revealed significant differences between the mortality data and the theoretical expectations. The realized heritability (h(2)) value was 0.16 in the laboratory-selected resistant strain of B. dorsalis. Enzymatic activities identified significant changes of carboxylesterases, cytochrome P450 (general oxidases), and glutathione S-transferases in MR compared with the MS strain of B. dorsalis. Taken together, this study revealed for the first time that malathion resistance in B. dorsalis follows an autosomal, incompletely dominant, and polygenic mode of inheritance and is closely associated with significantly elevated activities of three major detoxification enzymes. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Specific volatile compounds from mango elicit oviposition in gravid Bactrocera dorsalis females.

    PubMed

    Kamala Jayanthi, Pagadala D; Kempraj, Vivek; Aurade, Ravindra M; Venkataramanappa, Ravindra K; Nandagopal, Bakthavatsalam; Verghese, Abraham; Bruce, Toby J A

    2014-03-01

    Selecting a suitable oviposition site is crucial to the fitness of female insects because it determines the successful development of their offspring. During the oviposition process, an insect must use cues from the external environment to make an appropriate choice of where to lay eggs. Generalist insects can detect and react to a plethora of cues, but are under selection pressure to adopt the most reliable ones to override noise and increase efficiency in finding hosts. The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), is a generalist that utilizes a multitude of fruits as oviposition sites. However, the identity and nature of oviposition stimulants for B. dorsalis is not well known. Recently, we identified a volatile compound γ-octalactone that elicits an innate oviposition response in B. dorsalis. We screened 21 EAD-active volatiles, identified from mango, for their oviposition stimulant activity. 1-Octen-3-ol, ethyl tiglate, and benzothiazole instigated oviposition in gravid B. dorsalis females. Flies deposited most of their eggs into pulp discs with oviposition-stimulants, and only a small fraction of eggs were laid into control discs. In a binary choice oviposition assay, 95.1, 93.7, and 65.6 % of eggs were laid in discs treated with 1-octen-3-ol, ethyl tiglate, and benzothiazole, respectively. Single plate two-choice assays proved that oviposition-stimulants were crucial in oviposition site selection by gravid female B. dorsalis. In simulated semi-natural assays, gravid B. dorsalis females accurately differentiated between fruits with and without 1-octen-3-ol, ethyl tiglate, and γ-octalactone by laying more eggs on the treated fruit. However, benzothiazole did not elicit an increase in oviposition when presented in this context. Our results suggest that the identified oviposition-stimulants are 'key' compounds, which the flies associate with suitable oviposition sites.

  14. Monitoring of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) resistance to cyantraniliprole in the south of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruimin; He, Shiyu; Chen, Jiahua

    2014-06-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), is a globally important economic insect pest that has evolved resistance to various types of insecticides. Cyantraniliprole (DuPont Cyazypyr) is a new anthranilic diamide insecticide registered to control lepidopteran and sucking insects. The susceptibility of field-collected populations of B. dorsalis to cyantraniliprole was assessed via a diet incorporation bioassay in adults. Based on the obtained LC50 values (ranging from 3.29 to 15.83 microg/g), all the testing populations, including ZZ (Fujian province), HH (Yunnan province), JM (Guangdong province), SY (Hainan province), HZ (Zhejiang province), YL (Guangxi province), SH (Shanghai), WH (Hubei province), and CS (Hunan province), were susceptible to cyantraniliprole, with the samples of WH (Hubei province) being the most tolerant (by 4.80-fold). Two (SY, Hainan province; CS, Hunan province) of the nine field-collected populations of B. dorsalis showed a similar susceptibility to cyantraniliprole, while the remaining populations displayed narrow variations in tolerance compared with the laboratory strain. Synergist assays were performed to determine the potential detoxification mechanisms. Piperonyl butoxide showed significant synergism effects in lab, CS, and resistant strain. S,S,S-tributylphorotrithioate and diethyl maleate also showed obvious synergism effects in resistant strain. A 19.44-fold increase in resistance to cyantraniliprole was observed after 14 generations of selection in the laboratory. The present work clarifies the baseline susceptibility and primary mechanisms of B. dorsalis to cyantraniliprole in the south China and established a cyantraniliprole-resistant strain as well. A sound resistance management strategy is also discussed in relation to the risk of susceptibility.

  15. Effect of sweeteners on the survival and behaviour of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chunyan; Zeng, Ling; Xu, Yijuan

    2016-05-01

    The oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) causes serious damage that affects fruit production. Chemical insecticides have been widely used for the prevention and control of this destructive pest. However, the resistance of B. dorsalis to these compounds has become a serious problem. This study tested six sweeteners for their toxicity to B. dorsalis. B. dorsalis fed on erythritol, aspartame and saccharin exhibited significantly higher mortality than those fed on sucrose. Flies fed on erythritol died faster than did the control flies (water). However, no dose-dependent effects were observed at the concentrations tested. These three sweeteners decreased the climbing ability of B. dorsalis. Notably, adults fed on saccharin exhibited significantly decreased climbing ability after 12 h compared with those fed on sucrose. Additionally, these three sweeteners had a negative effect on the frequency and duration of the flies' behaviour patterns (flying, walking, grooming and inactivity). Saccharin not only induced a marked reduction in the frequency of flights and walks but also induced decreases in the time spent flying and walking and increases in inactivity compared with sucrose. Erythritol induced a reduction in movement and increased the time spent inactive compared with the control and other treatments. Three sweeteners had significant negative effects on the survival of B. dorsalis. Erythritol was toxic to B. dorsalis. Aspartame and saccharin also decreased the survival and behaviour of adult flies and may be toxic to (or contribute to poor nutrition in) B. dorsalis. These sweeteners could therefore be developed as additive ingredients in baits. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Insecticide toxicity to oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) is influenced by environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuying; Jin, Tao; Zeng, Ling; Lu, Yongyue

    2013-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of environmental factors (temperature, dose, dietary source, and feeding density) on the insecticide tolerance of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae). The results indicated that the toxicities of trichlorphon and abamectin to B. dorsalis increased with an increase in temperature. At 15-35 degrees C, the toxicity of beta-cypermethrin decreased with an increase in temperature at low doses (0.82 and 1.86 mg/L), but was similar at a high dose (4.18 mg/L). These results demonstrated that the temperature coefficient of beta-cypermethrin was related to both temperature and dosage. The insecticide sensitivity of B. dorsalis reared on different dietary sources was significantly different. Trichlorphon sensitivity of B. dorsalis fed on banana was the highest with an LC50 of 1.61 mg/L, followed by on apple, carambola, semiartificial diet, pear, mango, guava, orange, and papaya. With an increasing feeding density, the sensitivity of B. dorsalis adults to trichlorphon increased, while the sensitivities of B. dorsalis adults to abamectin and beta-cypermethrin decreased. The differences between LC50 values of insects reared at densities of 10 and 13 eggs/g of semiartificial diet to trichlorphon, abamectin and beta-cypermethrin were not significant. This result suggested that representative toxicity could be obtained by using adults developed at a feeding density between 10-13 eggs/g of semiartificial diet. Adult body weight was positively correlated with the LC50 value of trichlorphon, but was negatively correlated with the toxicities of abamectin and beta-cypermethrin. These results suggested that the effects of adult body weight on the toxicity of insecticides were different among different chemicals.

  17. Identification and expression profile analysis of odorant binding proteins in the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Weiwei; Peng, Wei; Zhu, Chipan; Zhang, Qun; Saccone, Giuseppe; Zhang, Hongyu

    2013-07-17

    Olfaction is crucial in many insects for critical behaviors, including those regulating survival and reproduction. Insect odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) function in the first step of the olfactory system and play an essential role in the perception of odorants, such as pheromones and host chemicals. The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a destructive fruit-eating pest, due to its wide host range of up to 250 different types of fruits and vegetables, and this fly causes severe economic damage to the fruit and vegetable industry. However, OBP genes have not been largely identified in B. dorsalis. Based on our previously constructed B. dorsalis cDNA library, ten OBP genes were identified in B. dorsalis for the first time. A phylogenetic tree was generated to show the relationships among the 10 OBPs of B. dorsalis to OBP sequences of two other Dipteran species, including Drosophila melanogaster and the mosquito Anopheles gambiae. The expression profiles of the ten OBPs in different tissues (heads, thoraxes, abdomens, legs, wings, male antennae and female antenna) of the mated adults were analyzed by real-time PCR. The results showed that nine of them are highly expressed in the antenna of both sexes, except BdorOBP7. Four OBPs (BdorOBP1, BdorOBP4, BdorOBP8, and BdorOBP10) are also enriched in the abdomen, and BdorOBP7 is specifically expressed in leg, indicating that it may function in other biological processes. This work will provide insight into the roles of OBPs in chemoreception and help develop new pest-control strategies.

  18. The PLA2 gene mediates the humoral immune responses in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    PubMed

    Li, Qiujia; Dong, Xiaolong; Zheng, Weiwei; Zhang, Hongyu

    2017-02-01

    The phospholipase A2 (PLA2) gene encodes the enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of phospholipids (PLs) from the sn-2 position. However, little is known about its role in humoral immune responses. In this study, we investigated the expression profile of PLA2 in different tissues and developmental stages in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and the results showed that the transcriptional level of PLA2 was high in the egg and mature stage and in the testis tissue. Bacterial infection increased the expression of PLA2, and the highest degree of up-regulation appeared in the fat body. Silencing PLA2 influenced the expression of immune-related genes, including MyD88 and defensin in the Toll pathway and relish and diptericin in the Imd pathway. Moreover, the expression of MyD88 and defensin was down-regulated significantly in the ds-PLA2 group compared with those in the ds-egfp group when B. dorsalis was infected with L. monocytogenes and S. aureus, indicating that PLA2 was involved in the activation of the Toll pathway. Meanwhile, infection with L. monocytogenes and E. coli, which activate the Imd pathway, does not increase the mRNA levels of relish and diptericin in the ds-PLA2 group as severely as it increases those in the ds-egfp group, indicating that the Imd pathway was also repressed after silencing PLA2. Notably, the development of lipid droplets in fat body cells was influenced by silencing PLA2, implying that PLA2 affects the function of fat body tissue. These results suggest that the PLA2 gene may mediate humoral immune responses by reducing lipid storage in fat body cells in B. dorsalis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Phytosanitary cold treatment for oranges infested with Bactrocera zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Hallman, Guy J; Myers, Scott W; Taret, Gustavo; Fontenot, Emily A; Vreysen, Marc J B

    2013-12-01

    The peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders), attacks a wide range of tree fruits in countries from Egypt to Vietnam and is occasionally trapped in the United States. Phytosanitary treatments may be required to export fruit hosts of this insect from countries where it is endemic to countries where it is absent but could become established. This research describes comparative studies to determine if B. zonata could be phytosanitarily controlled by cold treatment schedules existing for Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha ludens (Loew), and the development of a cold treatment of 18 d at 1.7 degrees C for B. zonata infesting oranges. Fruit were infested by puncturing holes in oranges and allowing tephritids to oviposit in the holes. The treatments were initiated when the larvae reached late third instar because previous research had shown that stage to be the most cold-tolerant. B. zonata was not found to be confidently as or less cold tolerant than C. capitata; therefore, treatment schedules for the latter are not supported by this research for the former. B. zonata was found to be more susceptible to 1.7 degrees C than A. ludens; therefore, the use of treatment schedules for A. ludens is supported by this research for B. zonata. However, the treatment for A. ludens requires 22 d. A shorter treatment was verified for B. zonata when 36,820 third instars reared from the eggs in oranges were stored at 1.7 degrees C for 18 d with no larvae moving on examination 24 h after removal from the cold treatment chamber.

  20. Molecular interactions between the olive and the fruit fly Bactrocera oleae

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The fruit fly Bactrocera oleae is the primary biotic stressor of cultivated olives, causing direct and indirect damages that significantly reduce both the yield and the quality of olive oil. To study the olive-B. oleae interaction, we conducted transcriptomic and proteomic investigations of the molecular response of the drupe. The identifications of genes and proteins involved in the fruit response were performed using a Suppression Subtractive Hybridisation technique and a combined bi-dimensional electrophoresis/nanoLC-ESI-LIT-MS/MS approach, respectively. Results We identified 196 ESTs and 26 protein spots as differentially expressed in olives with larval feeding tunnels. A bioinformatic analysis of the identified non-redundant EST and protein collection indicated that different molecular processes were affected, such as stress response, phytohormone signalling, transcriptional control and primary metabolism, and that a considerable proportion of the ESTs could not be classified. The altered expression of 20 transcripts was also analysed by real-time PCR, and the most striking differences were further confirmed in the fruit of a different olive variety. We also cloned the full-length coding sequences of two genes, Oe-chitinase I and Oe-PR27, and showed that these are wound-inducible genes and activated by B. oleae punctures. Conclusions This study represents the first report that reveals the molecular players and signalling pathways involved in the interaction between the olive fruit and its most damaging biotic stressor. Drupe response is complex, involving genes and proteins involved in photosynthesis as well as in the production of ROS, the activation of different stress response pathways and the production of compounds involved in direct defence against phytophagous larvae. Among the latter, trypsin inhibitors should play a major role in drupe resistance reaction. PMID:22694925

  1. Multigene Phylogeography of Bactrocera caudata (Insecta: Tephritidae): Distinct Genetic Lineages in Northern and Southern Hemispheres.

    PubMed

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Tan, Ji; Song, Sze-Looi; Suana, I Wayan; Eamsobhana, Praphathip

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera caudata is a pest of pumpkin flower. Specimens of B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (mainland Asia) and southern hemisphere (Indonesia) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of the nuclear 28S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS-2) genes, and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) and 16S rRNA genes. The COI, COII, 16S rDNA and concatenated COI+COII+16S and COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences revealed that B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (Peninsular Malaysia, East Malaysia, Thailand) was distinctly different from the southern hemisphere (Indonesia: Java, Bali and Lombok), without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades (northern and southern hemispheres), indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected 'p' distance for the concatenated COI+COII+16S nucleotide sequences between the taxa from the northern and southern hemispheres ('p' = 4.46-4.94%) was several folds higher than the 'p' distance for the taxa in the northern hemisphere ('p' = 0.00-0.77%) and the southern hemisphere ('p' = 0.00%). This distinct difference was also reflected by concatenated COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences with an uncorrected 'p' distance of 2.34-2.69% between the taxa of northern and southern hemispheres. In accordance with the type locality the Indonesian taxa belong to the nominal species. Thus the taxa from the northern hemisphere, if they were to constitute a cryptic species of the B. caudata species complex based on molecular data, need to be formally described as a new species. The Thailand and Malaysian B. caudata populations in the northern hemisphere showed distinct genetic structure and phylogeographic pattern.

  2. The melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae: A review of its biology and management

    PubMed Central

    Dhillon, M.K.; Singh, Ram; Naresh, J.S.; Sharma, H.C.

    2005-01-01

    The melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is distributed widely in temperate, tropical, and sub-tropical regions of the world. It has been reported to damage 81 host plants and is a major pest of cucurbitaceous vegetables, particularly the bitter gourd (Momordica charantia), muskmelon (Cucumis melo), snap melon (C. melo var. momordica), and snake gourd (Trichosanthes anguina). The extent of losses vary between 30 to 100%, depending on the cucurbit species and the season. Its abundance increases when the temperatures fall below 32° C, and the relative humidity ranges between 60 to 70%. It prefers to infest young, green, soft-skinned fruits. It inserts the eggs 2 to 4 mm deep in the fruit tissues, and the maggots feed inside the fruit. Pupation occurs in the soil at 0.5 to 15 cm below the soil surface. Keeping in view the importance of the pest and crop, melon fruit fly management could be done using local area management and wide area management. The melon fruit fly can successfully be managed over a local area by bagging fruits, field sanitation, protein baits, cue-lure traps, growing fruit fly-resistant genotypes, augmentation of biocontrol agents, and soft insecticides. The wide area management program involves the coordination of different characteristics of an insect eradication program (including local area options) over an entire area within a defensible perimeter, and subsequently protected against reinvasion by quarantine controls. Although, the sterile insect technique has been successfully used in wide area approaches, this approach needs to use more sophisticated and powerful technologies in eradication programs such as insect transgenesis and geographical information systems, which could be deployed over a wide area. Various other options for the management of fruit fly are also discussed in relation to their bio-efficacy and economics for effective management of this pest. PMID:17119622

  3. Including climate change in pest risk assessment: the peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Ni, W L; Li, Z H; Chen, H J; Wan, F H; Qu, W W; Zhang, Z; Kriticos, D J

    2012-04-01

    Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) is one of the most harmful species of Tephritidae. It causes extensive damage in Asia and threatens many countries located along or near the Mediterranean Sea. The climate mapping program, CLIMEX 3.0, and the GIS software, ArcGIS 9.3, were used to model the current and future potential geographical distribution of B. zonata. The model predicts that, under current climatic conditions, B. zonata will be able to establish itself throughout much of the tropics and subtropics, including some parts of the USA, southern China, southeastern Australia and northern New Zealand. Climate change scenarios for the 2070s indicate that the potential distribution of B. zonata will expand poleward into areas which are currently too cold. The main factors limiting the pest's range expansion are cold, hot and dry stress. The model's predictions of the numbers of generations produced annually by B. zonata were consistent with values previously recorded for the pest's occurrence in Egypt. The ROC curve and the AUC (an AUC of 0.912) were obtained to evaluate the performance of the CLIMEX model in this study. The analysis of this information indicated a high degree of accuracy for the CLIMEX model. The significant increases in the potential distribution of B. zonata projected under the climate change scenarios considered in this study suggest that biosecurity authorities should consider the effects of climate change when undertaking pest risk assessments. To prevent the introduction and spread of B. zonata, enhanced quarantine and monitoring measures should be implemented in areas that are projected to be suitable for the establishment of the pest under current and future climatic conditions.

  4. Identification and Expression Profile Analysis of Odorant Binding Proteins in the Oriental Fruit Fly Bactrocera dorsalis

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Weiwei; Peng, Wei; Zhu, Chipan; Zhang, Qun; Saccone, Giuseppe; Zhang, Hongyu

    2013-01-01

    Olfaction is crucial in many insects for critical behaviors, including those regulating survival and reproduction. Insect odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) function in the first step of the olfactory system and play an essential role in the perception of odorants, such as pheromones and host chemicals. The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a destructive fruit-eating pest, due to its wide host range of up to 250 different types of fruits and vegetables, and this fly causes severe economic damage to the fruit and vegetable industry. However, OBP genes have not been largely identified in B. dorsalis. Based on our previously constructed B. dorsalis cDNA library, ten OBP genes were identified in B. dorsalis for the first time. A phylogenetic tree was generated to show the relationships among the 10 OBPs of B. dorsalis to OBP sequences of two other Dipteran species, including Drosophila melanogaster and the mosquito Anopheles gambiae. The expression profiles of the ten OBPs in different tissues (heads, thoraxes, abdomens, legs, wings, male antennae and female antenna) of the mated adults were analyzed by real-time PCR. The results showed that nine of them are highly expressed in the antenna of both sexes, except BdorOBP7. Four OBPs (BdorOBP1, BdorOBP4, BdorOBP8, and BdorOBP10) are also enriched in the abdomen, and BdorOBP7 is specifically expressed in leg, indicating that it may function in other biological processes. This work will provide insight into the roles of OBPs in chemoreception and help develop new pest-control strategies. PMID:23867609

  5. Abundance of African invader fly, Bactrocera invadens drew, tsuruta and white (diptera: tephritidae) and influence of weather parameters on trap catches in mango in the Volta region of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Adzim, Charles Amankwa; Billah, Maxwell Kelvin; Afreh-Nuamah, Kwame

    2016-01-01

    The seasonal abundance of African Invader fly, Bactrocera invadens and the influence of temperature and rainfall on fly catches was determined in two agro ecological zones; moist semi-deciduous forest area and the coastal grassland area of the Volta Region of Ghana for year of mango production. Traps containing methyl eugenol were used in monitoring the abundance of the Africa invader fly, Bactrocera invadens where data on both temperature and rainfall were collected from Meteorological Services of Ghana in Volta region. A total of 49,322 organisms captured, 45,829 were identified as Bactrocera invadens and 3493 were non-fruit fly. There were significant differences (p < 0.05) in the number of Bactrocera invadens captured between the agro ecological zones with relative fly densities of 5.06 F/T/D in moist semi deciduous forest area and 2.38 F/T/D in the coastal grassland zone. The result shows that climatic factors affected Bactrocera invadens differently in different agro ecological area. There was negative correlation and highly significant (p < 0.001) correlation between fruit flies and temperature whereas there was negative correlation and high significant (p < 0.01) difference between rainfall in the moist semi deciduous forest area. In the coastal grassland area, there was negative correlation and highly significant (p < 0.001) between Bactrocera invadens for both rainfall and temperature. Bactrocera invadens activities peaked differently during the study period due to favourable climatic conditions. The activities of Bactrocera invadens peaked during weeks 7 and 29 in the moist semi deciduous forest area while their activities peaked during weeks 3 and 24 for the coastal grassland areas. Both agro ecological zones recorded the presence of Bactrocera invadens, their number and proportion varied considerably with associated effects of the weather parameters on their abundance. The effect of weather parameters on the abundance of bactrocera invadens

  6. High genetic diversity in the offshore island populations of the tephritid fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis.

    PubMed

    Yi, Chunyan; Zheng, Chunyan; Zeng, Ling; Xu, Yijuan

    2016-10-13

    Geographic isolation is an important factor that limit species dispersal and thereby affects genetic diversity. Because islands are often small and surrounded by a natural water barrier to dispersal, they generally form discrete isolated habitats. Therefore, islands may play a key role in the distribution of the genetic diversity of insects, including flies. To characterize the genetic structure of island populations of Bactrocera dorsalis, we analyzed a dataset containing both microsatellite and mtDNA loci of B. dorsalis samples collected from six offshore islands in Southern China. The microsatellite data revealed a high level of genetic diversity among these six island populations based on observed heterozygosity (Ho), expected heterozygosity (HE), Nei's standard genetic distance (D), genetic identity (I) and the percentage of polymorphic loci (PIC). These island populations had low F ST values (F ST = 0.04161), and only 4.16 % of the total genetic variation in the species was found on these islands, as determined by an analysis of molecular variance. Based on the mtDNA COI data, high nucleotide diversity (0.9655) and haplotype diversity (0.00680) were observed in all six island populations. F-statistics showed that the six island populations exhibited low or medium levels of genetic differentiation among some island populations. To investigate the population differentiation between the sampled locations, a factorial correspondence analysis and both the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean and Bayesian clustering methods were used to analyze the microsatellite data. The results showed that Hebao Island, Weizhou Island and Dong'ao Island were grouped together in one clade. Another clade consisted of Shangchuan Island and Naozhou Island, and a final, separate clade contained only the Wailingding Island population. Phylogenetic analysis of the mtDNA COI sequences revealed that the populations on each of these six islands were closely related to

  7. Natural Field Infestation of Mangifera casturi and Mangifera lalijiwa by Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    McQuate, Grant T; Sylva, Charmaine D; Liquido, Nicanor J

    2017-01-01

    Mango, Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae), is a crop cultivated pantropically. There are, however, many other Mangifera spp ("mango relatives") which have much more restricted distributions and are poorly known but have potential to produce mango-like fruits in areas where mangoes do not grow well or could be tapped in mango breeding programs. Because of the restricted distribution of many of the Mangifera spp, there has also been limited data collected on susceptibility of their fruits to infestation by tephritid fruit flies which is important to know for concerns both for quality of production and for quarantine security of fruit exports. Here, we report on natural field infestation by the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), of two mango relatives native to Indonesia: Mangifera casturi and Mangifera lalijiwa. Rates of infestation of fruits of these two Mangifera spp by tephritid fruit flies have not previously been reported.

  8. Natural Field Infestation of Mangifera casturi and Mangifera lalijiwa by Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    McQuate, Grant T; Sylva, Charmaine D; Liquido, Nicanor J

    2017-01-01

    Mango, Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae), is a crop cultivated pantropically. There are, however, many other Mangifera spp (“mango relatives”) which have much more restricted distributions and are poorly known but have potential to produce mango-like fruits in areas where mangoes do not grow well or could be tapped in mango breeding programs. Because of the restricted distribution of many of the Mangifera spp, there has also been limited data collected on susceptibility of their fruits to infestation by tephritid fruit flies which is important to know for concerns both for quality of production and for quarantine security of fruit exports. Here, we report on natural field infestation by the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), of two mango relatives native to Indonesia: Mangifera casturi and Mangifera lalijiwa. Rates of infestation of fruits of these two Mangifera spp by tephritid fruit flies have not previously been reported. PMID:28890657

  9. Humoral immunocompetence shifts in response to developmental stage change and mating access in Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Shi, Z; Lin, Y; Hou, Y; Zhang, H

    2015-04-01

    Because immune defenses are often costly employed, insect immunocompetence cannot be always maintained at its maximum level. Here, the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), was used as a study object to investigate how its immune defenses varied with the developmental stage change and mating access. Our data indicated that both phenoloxidase (PO) activity and antibacterial activity significantly increased from new larvae to pupae but decreased in adults after emergence. Furthermore, both the PO activity and antibacterial activity in the hemolymph of copulated male and female adults were dramatically higher than that of virgin male and female ones, respectively. It provided the evidence that copulation could increase the magnitude of immune defense in hemolymph of B. dorsalis. Together, these results suggest that B. dorsalis possess a flexible investment strategy in immunity to meet its specific needs based on the endo- and exogenous factors, such as their distinct food source and living environments.

  10. High-Throughput Sequencing to Reveal Genes Involved in Reproduction and Development in Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Weiwei; Peng, Tao; He, Wei; Zhang, Hongyu

    2012-01-01

    Background Tephritid fruit flies in the genus Bactrocera are of major economic significance in agriculture causing considerable loss to the fruit and vegetable industry. Currently, there is no ideal control program. Molecular means is an effective method for pest control at present, but genomic or transcriptomic data for members of this genus remains limited. To facilitate molecular research into reproduction and development mechanisms, and finally effective control on these pests, an extensive transcriptome for the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis was produced using the Roche 454-FLX platform. Results We obtained over 350 million bases of cDNA derived from the whole body of B. dorsalis at different developmental stages. In a single run, 747,206 sequencing reads with a mean read length of 382 bp were obtained. These reads were assembled into 28,782 contigs and 169,966 singletons. The mean contig size was 750 bp and many nearly full-length transcripts were assembled. Additionally, we identified a great number of genes that are involved in reproduction and development as well as genes that represent nearly all major conserved metazoan signal transduction pathways, such as insulin signal transduction. Furthermore, transcriptome changes during development were analyzed. A total of 2,977 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected between larvae and pupae libraries, while there were 1,621 DEGs between adults and larvae, and 2,002 between adults and pupae. These DEGs were functionally annotated with KEGG pathway annotation and 9 genes were validated by qRT-PCR. Conclusion Our data represent the extensive sequence resources available for B. dorsalis and provide for the first time access to the genetic architecture of reproduction and development as well as major signal transduction pathways in the Tephritid fruit fly pests, allowing us to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying courtship, ovipositing, development and detailed analyses of the signal

  11. Effects of laboratory colonization on Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera, Tephritidae) mating behaviour: ‘what a difference a year makes’

    PubMed Central

    Schutze, Mark K.; Dammalage, Thilak; Jessup, Andrew; Vreysen, Marc J.B.; Wornoayporn, Viwat; Clarke, Anthony R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Laboratory-reared insects are widely known to have significantly reduced genetic diversity in comparison to wild populations; however, subtle behavioural changes between laboratory-adapted and wild or ‘wildish’ (i.e., within one or very few generations of field collected material) populations are less well understood. Quantifying alterations in behaviour, particularly sexual, in laboratory-adapted insects is important for mass-reared insects for use in pest management strategies, especially those that have a sterile insect technique component. We report subtle changes in sexual behaviour between ‘wildish’ Bactrocera dorsalis flies (F1 and F2) from central and southern Thailand and the same colonies 12 months later when at six generations from wild. Mating compatibility tests were undertaken under standardised semi-natural conditions, with number of homo/heterotypic couples and mating location in field cages analysed via compatibility indices. Central and southern populations of Bactrocera dorsalis displayed positive assortative mating in the 2010 trials but mated randomly in the 2011 trials. ‘Wildish’ southern Thailand males mated significantly earlier than central Thailand males in 2010; this difference was considerably reduced in 2011, yet homotypic couples from southern Thailand still formed significantly earlier than all other couple combinations. There was no significant difference in couple location in 2010; however, couple location significantly differed among pair types in 2011 with those involving southern Thailand females occurring significantly more often on the tree relative to those with central Thailand females. Relative participation also changed with time, with more southern Thailand females forming couples relative to central Thailand females in 2010; this difference was considerably decreased by 2011. These results reveal how subtle changes in sexual behaviour, as driven by laboratory rearing conditions, may significantly

  12. Characterization of a β-Adrenergic-Like Octopamine Receptor in the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui-Min; Jiang, Hong-Bo; Gui, Shun-Hua; Liu, Xiao-Qiang; Liu, Hong; Lu, Xue-Ping; Smagghe, Guy; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2016-01-01

    The biogenic amine octopamine plays a critical role in the regulation of many physiological processes in insects. Octopamine transmits its action through a set of specific G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), namely octopamine receptors. Here, we report on a β-adrenergic-like octopamine receptor gene (BdOctβR1) from the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), a destructive agricultural pest that occurs in North America and the Asia-Pacific region. As indicated by RT-qPCR, BdOctβR1 was highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and Malpighian tubules (MT) in the adult flies, suggesting it may undertake important roles in neural signaling in the CNS as well as physiological functions in the MT of this fly. Furthermore, its ligand specificities were tested in a heterologous expression system where BdOctβR1 was expressed in HEK-293 cells. Based on cyclic AMP response assays, we found that BdOctβR1 could be activated by octopamine in a concentration-dependent manner, confirming that this receptor was functional, while tyramine and dopamine had much less potency than octopamine. Naphazoline possessed the highest agonistic activity among the tested agonists. In antagonistic assays, mianserin had the strongest activity and was followed by phentolamine and chlorpromazine. Furthermore, when the flies were kept under starvation, there was a corresponding increase in the transcript level of BdOctβR1, while high or low temperature stress could not induce significant expression changes. The above results suggest that BdOctβR1 may be involved in the regulation of feeding processes in Bactrocera dorsalis and may provide new potential insecticide leads targeting octopamine receptors. PMID:27669213

  13. Characterization of a β-Adrenergic-Like Octopamine Receptor in the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    PubMed

    Li, Hui-Min; Jiang, Hong-Bo; Gui, Shun-Hua; Liu, Xiao-Qiang; Liu, Hong; Lu, Xue-Ping; Smagghe, Guy; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2016-09-22

    The biogenic amine octopamine plays a critical role in the regulation of many physiological processes in insects. Octopamine transmits its action through a set of specific G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), namely octopamine receptors. Here, we report on a β-adrenergic-like octopamine receptor gene (BdOctβR1) from the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), a destructive agricultural pest that occurs in North America and the Asia-Pacific region. As indicated by RT-qPCR, BdOctβR1 was highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and Malpighian tubules (MT) in the adult flies, suggesting it may undertake important roles in neural signaling in the CNS as well as physiological functions in the MT of this fly. Furthermore, its ligand specificities were tested in a heterologous expression system where BdOctβR1 was expressed in HEK-293 cells. Based on cyclic AMP response assays, we found that BdOctβR1 could be activated by octopamine in a concentration-dependent manner, confirming that this receptor was functional, while tyramine and dopamine had much less potency than octopamine. Naphazoline possessed the highest agonistic activity among the tested agonists. In antagonistic assays, mianserin had the strongest activity and was followed by phentolamine and chlorpromazine. Furthermore, when the flies were kept under starvation, there was a corresponding increase in the transcript level of BdOctβR1, while high or low temperature stress could not induce significant expression changes. The above results suggest that BdOctβR1 may be involved in the regulation of feeding processes in Bactrocera dorsalis and may provide new potential insecticide leads targeting octopamine receptors.

  14. Diversity of bacterial communities in the midgut of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations and their potential use as attractants.

    PubMed

    Hadapad, Ashok B; Prabhakar, Chandra S; Chandekar, Snehal C; Tripathi, Jyoti; Hire, Ramesh S

    2016-06-01

    The microbiota plays an important role in insect development and fitness. Understanding the gut microbiota composition is essential for the development of pest management strategies. Midgut bacteria were isolated from nine wild B. cucurbitae populations collected from different agroecological zones of India. These isolates were further studied for attractant potential of fruit fly adults, and the chemical constituents in the supernatants of gut bacteria were analysed. Twenty-six bacterial isolates belonging to the families Enterobacteriaceae, Bacillaceae, Micrococcaceae and Staphylococcaceae were isolated and identified on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The dominant species in the midgut of melon fly were from the genera Enterobacter (34.6%), Klebsiella (19.2%), Citrobacter (7.7%), Bacillus (15.4%) and Providencia (7.7%), and 3.8% each of Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Leclercia and Exiguobacterium. Bactrocera cucurbitae and B. dorsalis adults were significantly attracted to bacterial whole cell cultures and their supernatants in the fruit fly attraction bioassays. Bacillus cereus, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Citrobacter and Providencia species attracted both male and females of Bactrocera species. The supernatants of Klebsiella, Citrobacter and Providencia species attracted a significantly greater number of females than males. The most abundant chemical constituents in supernatants of K. oxytoca and C. freundii were 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-phenylethanol, butyl isocyanatoacetate, 2-methyl-1-propanol and 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, as identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The bacterial endosymbionts associated with melon fly exhibited attractant potential which could facilitate eco-friendly insect control strategies. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Evaluation of Cuelure and Methyl Eugenol solid lure and insecticide dispensers for fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) monitoring and control in Tahiti

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Performance of solid male lure (cuelure (C-L)/raspberry ketone (RK) - against Bactrocera tyroni (Froggatt), and methyl eugenol (ME) - against oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel) and insecticide formulations, were evaluated in Tahiti Island (French Polynesia), as alternatives to current monitori...

  16. Do thermal tolerances and rapid thermal responses contribute to the invasion potential of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae)?

    PubMed

    Pieterse, Welma; Terblanche, John S; Addison, Pia

    2017-04-01

    Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) has shown remarkable range expansion over the past 10years and invaded several new continents including Africa. Here we report results of a detailed assessment of acute high and low temperature survival ability and the plasticity thereof, to test the hypothesis that traits of the thermal niche have contributed to the species' invasion ability. We also assess life-stage-related variation of thermal tolerances to determine potential stage-related environmental sensitivity. The temperatures at which c. 20% of the population survived of B. dorsalis were determined to be -6.5°C and 42.7°C, respectively, when using 2h exposures. Further, four life stages of B. dorsalis (egg, 3rd instar larvae, pupae and adults) were exposed to high and low discriminating temperatures to compare their thermal survival rates. The egg stage was found to be the most resistant life stage to both high and low temperatures, since 44±2.3% survived the low and 60±4.2% survived the high discriminating temperature treatments respectively. Finally, the potential for adult hardening responses to mediate tolerance of extremes was also considered using a diverse range of acute conditions (using 2h exposures to 15°C, 10°C and 5°C and 30°C, 35°C, 37°C and 39°C as hardening temperatures, and some treatments with and without recovery periods between hardening and discriminating temperature treatment). These showed that although some significant hardening responses could be detected in certain treatments (e.g. after exposure to 37°C and 39°C), the magnitude of this plasticity was generally low compared to two other wide-spread and more geographically-range-restricted con-familial species, Ceratitis capitata and C. rosa. In other words, Bactrocera dorsalis adults were unable to rapidly heat- or cold-harden to the same extent as the other Ceratitis species examined to date. These results suggest a narrower thermal niche in B. dorsalis compared

  17. RNA sequencing to characterize transcriptional changes of sexual maturation and mating in the female oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Weiwei; Luo, Deye; Wu, Fangyu; Wang, Jialu; Zhang, Hongyu

    2016-03-05

    Female reproductive potential plays a significant role in the survival and stability of species, and sexual maturation and mating processes are crucial. However, our knowledge of the reproductive genes involved in sexual maturation and mating has been largely limited to model organisms. The oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis is a highly invasive agricultural pest, known to cause major economic losses; thus, it is of great value to understand the transcriptional changes involved in sexual maturation and mating processes as well as the related genes. Here, we used a high-throughput sequencing method to identify multiple genes potentially involved in sexual maturation and mating in female B. dorsalis. We sequenced 39,999 unique genes with an average length of 883 bp. In total, 3264 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected between mature virgin and immature Bactrocera dorsalis libraries, whereas only 83 DEGs were identified between flies that had mated or were mature virgins. These DEGs were functionally annotated using the GO and KEGG pathway annotation tools. Results showed that the main GO terms associated with the DEGs from the mature virgin vs. immature groups were primarily assigned to the metabolic and developmental processes, which we focused on, whereas those from the mated vs. mature virgin group largely belonged to the response to stimulus and immune system processes. Additionally, we identified multiple DEGs during sexual maturation that are involved in reproduction, and expression pattern analysis revealed that the majority DEGs detected were highly enriched in those linked to the ovaries or fat bodies. Several mating responsive genes differentially expressed after mating were also identified, and all antimicrobial peptides detected were highly enriched in fat body and significantly up-regulated approximately 2- to 10-fold at 24 h after mating. This study supplied female reproductive genes involved in sexual maturation and the post

  18. Accumulation of phenylpropanoid and sesquiterpenoid volatiles in male rectal pheromonal glands of the guava fruit fly, Bactrocera correcta.

    PubMed

    Tokushima, Isao; Orankanok, Watchreeporn; Tan, Keng Hong; Ono, Hajime; Nishida, Ritsuo

    2010-12-01

    The guava fruit fly, Bactrocera correcta, is widely distributed in Thailand and other surrounding Southeast Asian countries, and, like the closely related sympatric species, the oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis, infests various fruits, including guava, peach, and mango. Males of both B. correcta and B. dorsalis are strongly attracted to, and compulsively feed on, methyl eugenol (ME). Bactrocera dorsalis males fed on ME sequester its metabolite phenylpropanoids, (E)-coniferyl alcohol and 2-allyl-4,5-dimethoxyphenol, in the rectal pheromone gland. In contrast, B. correcta males fed on ME sequester two different metabolites, (Z)-coniferyl alcohol (ZCF) and (Z)-3,4-dimethoxycinnamyl alcohol (DMC), in the rectal gland. Examination of the temporal changes of ME metabolites in B. correcta male rectal glands revealed that the total of ZCF and DMC was as high as 100 μg/male at 24 hr after ME feeding. ZCF and DMC were detected in a large proportion of wild B. correcta males captured at various sites in Thailand. Since B. correcta and B. dorsalis are sympatric species in Thailand, these two different subsets of rectal phenylpropanoids could play a role to avoid interbreeding between the species. Further survey of wild flies in Thailand revealed that a large proportion of males of B. correcta store large quantities (over 250 μg/gland) of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, including β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, and alloaromadendrene in the rectal gland in addition to, or instead of, ZCF and DMC. Laboratory-reared males also sequestered β-caryophyllene and α-humulene, along with ZCF and DMC, when the sesquiterpenes were artificially supplied together with ME. A field test demonstrated that a mixture (1:1) of β-caryophyllene and α-humulene attracted male B. correcta, albeit in smaller numbers than in traps baited with ME. The sequestration of sesquiterpenes, in addition to the different ME metabolites in the pheromone gland in B. correcta males, contrasts with the situation in

  19. Effects of plant lectin from cobra lily, Arisaema curvatum Kunth on development of melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coq.).

    PubMed

    Singh, Kuljinder; Kaur, Manpreet; Rup, Pushpinder J; Singh, Jatinder

    2008-11-01

    The lectin from tubers of cobra lily, Arisaema curvatum Kunth was purified by affinity chromatography using asialofetuin-linked amino activated porous silica beads. The concentration dependent effect of lectin was studied on second instar larvae (64-72 hr) of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coq.). The treatment not only resulted in a significant reduction in the percentage pupation and emergence of the adults from treated larvae but it also prolonged the remaining larval development period. A very low LC50 value, 39 mgl(-1) of lectin was obtained on the basis of adult emergence using probit analysis. The activity of three hydrolase enzymes (esterases, acid and alkaline phosphatases), one oxidoreductase (catalase) and one group transfer enzyme (GSTs: Glutathione S-transferases) was assayed in second instar larvae under the influence of the LC50 of lectin at increasing exposure intervals (0, 24, 48 and 72 hr). The Arisaema curvatum lectin significantly decreased the activity of all the enzymes except for esterases, where the activity increased as compared to control at all exposure intervals. The decrease in pupation and emergence as well as significant suppression in the activities of two hydrolases, one oxidoreductase and one GST enzyme in treated larvae of B. cucurbitae indicated that this lectin has anti-metabolic effect on the melon fruit fly larvae.

  20. Effects of indian coral tree, Erythrina indica lectin on eggs and larval development of melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kuljinder; Kaur, Manpreet; Rup, Pushpinder J; Singh, Jatinder

    2009-07-01

    Present study was undertaken to investigate the influence of D-galactose binding lectin from Erythrina indica Lam. on the eggs and second instar larvae (64-72 hr) of melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett). The lectin from E. indica seeds was extracted and purified by affinity chromatography using asilofetuin linked porous amino activated silica beads. The effects of various concentrations (0, 125, 250, 500 and 1000 microg ml(-1)) of lectin were studied on freshly laid eggs (0-8 hr) of B. cucurbitae which showed non-significant reduction in percent hatching of eggs. However, the treatment of second instar larvae (64-72 hr) with various test concentrations (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 microg ml(-1)) of lectin significantly reduced the percent pupation and percent emergence of B. cucurbitae depicting a negative correlation with the lectin concentration. The LC50 (81 microg ml(-1)) treatment significantly decreased the pupal weight. Moreover, the treatment of larvae had also induced a significant increase in the remaining development duration. The activity of three hydrolase enzymes (esterases, acid and alkaline phosphatases), one oxidoreductase (catalase) and one group transfer enzyme (glutathione S-transferases) was assayed in second instar larvae under the influence of LC50 concentration of lectin for three exposure intervals (24, 48 and 72 hr). It significantly suppressed the activity of all the enzymes after all the three exposure intervals except for esterases which increased significantly.

  1. Genetic diversity and population structure in Bactrocera correcta (Diptera: Tephritidae) inferred from mtDNA cox1 and microsatellite markers

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yu-Jia; Buahom, Nopparat; Krosch, Matthew N.; Du, Yu; Wu, Yi; Malacrida, Anna R.; Deng, Yu-Liang; Liu, Jia-Qi; Jiang, Xiao-Long; Li, Zhi-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Bactrocera correcta is one of the most destructive pests of horticultural crops in tropical and subtropical regions. Despite the economic risk, the population genetics of this pest have remained relatively unexplored. This study explores population genetic structure and contemporary gene flow in B. correcta in Chinese Yunnan Province and attempts to place observed patterns within the broader geographical context of the species’ total range. Based on combined data from mtDNA cox1 sequences and 12 microsatellite loci obtained from 793 individuals located in 7 countries, overall genetic structuring was low. The expansion history of this species, including likely human-mediated dispersal, may have played a role in shaping the observed weak structure. The study suggested a close relationship between Yunnan Province and adjacent countries, with evidence for Western and/or Southern Yunnan as the invasive origin of B. correcta within Yunnan Province. The information gleaned from this analysis of gene flow and population structure has broad implications for quarantine, trade and management of this pest, especially in China where it is expanding northward. Future studies should concentrate effort on sampling South Asian populations, which would enable better inferences of the ancestral location of B. correcta and its invasion history into and throughout Asia. PMID:27929126

  2. Association between changes in reproductive activity and D-glucose metabolism in the tephritid fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Daifeng; Chen, Langjie; Yi, Chunyan; Liang, Guangwen; Xu, Yijuan

    2014-01-01

    Reproduction is an important life process in insects; however, few studies have attempted to demonstrate the association between reproductive activity and energy metabolism. To address this problem, we focused on the reproductive changes in Bactrocera dorsalis males. We analyzed B. dorsalis male gene expression profiles during mating (DM), 3 h after mating (A3HM) and 12 h after mating (A12HM). Gene annotation and pathway analyses of differentially expressed genes show that galactose metabolism and the starch and sucrose metabolism pathway activities were significantly higher in A12HM group. Moreover, the maltase D gene was the most strongly up-regulated gene. The D-glucose levels were significantly higher in A12HM group. Maltase D expression level was significantly higher in males reared with sucrose. Body weights of the males reared with D-glucose and sucrose were significantly higher than those of the males reared with yeast extract. We observed more mated males from the groups fed sucrose and D-glucose than from those fed yeast extract. The D-glucose levels in individual males were highest at 18:00 h, when flies exhibit the most active mating behavior. This study shows that the maltase D gene and D-glucose are the critical gene and substrate, respectively, in male B. dorsalis mating process. PMID:25502224

  3. Salicylic Acid Induces Changes in Mango Fruit that Affect Oviposition Behavior and Development of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Tapas Kumar; Shivashankara, Kodthalu Seetharamaiah; Verghese, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    The Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is an important quarantine pest around the globe. Although measures for its control are implemented worldwide through IPM and male annihilation, there is little effect on their population. Hence, there is a need for new strategies to control this minacious pest. A strategy that has received negligible attention is the induction of ‘natural plant defenses’ by phytohormones. In this study, we investigated the effect of salicylic acid (SA) treatment of mango fruit (cv. Totapuri) on oviposition and larval development of B. dorsalis. In oviposition choice assays, gravid females laid significantly less eggs in SA treated compared to untreated fruit. Headspace volatiles collected from SA treated fruit were less attractive to gravid females compared to volatiles from untreated fruit. GC-MS analysis of the headspace volatiles from SA treated and untreated fruit showed noticeable changes in their chemical compositions. Cis-ocimene and 3-carene (attractants to B. dorsalis) were reduced in the headspace volatiles of treated fruit. Further, reduced pupae formation and adult emergence was observed in treated fruit compared to control. Increased phenol and flavonoid content was recorded in treated fruit. We also observed differential expression of anti-oxidative enzymes namely catalase (CAT), polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD). In summary, the results indicate that SA treatment reduced oviposition, larval development and adult emergence of B. dorsalis and suggest a role of SA in enhancing mango tolerance to B. dorsalis. PMID:26422203

  4. Flight Capacity of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) Adult Females Based on Flight Mill Studies and Flight Muscle Ultrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng; Yuan, Ruiling; Wang, Xiaowei; Xu, Jin

    2015-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is considered a major economic threat in many regions worldwide. To better comprehend flight capacity of B. dorsalis and its physiological basis, a computer-monitored flight mill was used to study flight capacity of B. dorsalis adult females of various ages, and the changes of its flight muscle ultrastructures were studied by transmission electron microscopy. The flight capacity (both speed and distance) changed significantly with age of B. dorsalis female adults, peaking at about 15 d; the myofibril diameter of the flight muscle of test insects at 15-d old was the longest, up to 1.56 µm, the sarcomere length at 15-d old was the shortest, averaging at 1.37 µm, volume content of mitochondria of flight muscle at 15-d old reached the peak, it was 32.64%. This study provides the important scientific data for better revealing long-distance movement mechanism of B. dorsalis. PMID:26450591

  5. Towards understanding temporal and spatial dynamics of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) infestations using decade-long agrometeorological time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchi, Susanna; Guidotti, Diego; Ricciolini, Massimo; Petacchi, Ruggero

    2016-11-01

    Insect dynamics depend on temperature patterns, and therefore, global warming may lead to increasing frequencies and intensities of insect outbreaks. The aim of this work was to analyze the dynamics of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), in Tuscany (Italy). We profited from long-term records of insect infestation and weather data available from the regional database and agrometeorological network. We tested whether the analysis of 13 years of monitoring campaigns can be used as basis for prediction models of B. oleae infestation. We related the percentage of infestation observed in the first part of the host-pest interaction and throughout the whole year to agrometeorological indices formulated for different time periods. A two-step approach was adopted to inspect the effect of weather on infestation: generalized linear model with a binomial error distribution and principal component regression to reduce the number of the agrometeorological factors and remove their collinearity. We found a consistent relationship between the degree of infestation and the temperature-based indices calculated for the previous period. The relationship was stronger with the minimum temperature of winter season. Higher infestation was observed in years following warmer winters. The temperature of the previous winter and spring explained 66 % of variance of early-season infestation. The temperature of previous winter and spring, and current summer, explained 72 % of variance of total annual infestation. These results highlight the importance of multiannual monitoring activity to fully understand the dynamics of B. oleae populations at a regional scale.

  6. Release and Establishment of the Parasitoid Diachasmimorpha kraussii Against the Tephritid Fruit Fly Bactrocera latifrons in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Bokonon-Ganta, Aimé H.; McQuate, Grant T.; Messing, Russell H.; B. Jang, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Diachasmimorpha kraussii (Fullaway) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was first released against Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii in March 2003. Over a three month period, eight releases, totaling 7,696 females and 3,968 males, were made in a turkeyberry, Solanum torvum Swartz (Solanales: Solanaceae) patch known to have a well established B. latifrons population. The establishment of D. kraussii was assessed through fruit collections conducted over a three-year period beyond the last release. D. kraussii was recovered 2 weeks, 31 months, and 39 months after the last parasitoid release, with collections not only from the release site, but also from a control site about 5.0 km distance from the release site. Recovery from fruit collections three years after the last parasitoid release confirmed that D. kraussii had become established in Hawaii. Parasitism rates were low, only 1.0–1.4%, compared to rates of 2.8–8.7% for the earlier established egg-larval parasitoid, Fopius arisanus (Sonan). PMID:23879328

  7. Transcriptomic responses of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae and its symbiont Candidatus Erwinia dacicola to olive feeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlidi, Nena; Gioti, Anastasia; Wybouw, Nicky; Dermauw, Wannes; Ben-Yosef, Michael; Yuval, Boaz; Jurkevich, Edouard; Kampouraki, Anastasia; van Leeuwen, Thomas; Vontas, John

    2017-02-01

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most destructive pest of olive orchards worldwide. The monophagous larva has the unique capability of feeding on olive mesocarp, coping with high levels of phenolic compounds and utilizing non-hydrolyzed proteins present, particularly in the unripe, green olives. On the molecular level, the interaction between B. oleae and olives has not been investigated as yet. Nevertheless, it has been associated with the gut obligate symbiotic bacterium Candidatus Erwinia dacicola. Here, we used a B.oleae microarray to analyze the gene expression of larvae during their development in artificial diet, unripe (green) and ripe (black) olives. The expression profiles of Ca. E. dacicola were analyzed in parallel, using the Illumina platform. Several genes were found overexpressed in the olive fly larvae when feeding in green olives. Among these, a number of genes encoding detoxification and digestive enzymes, indicating a potential association with the ability of B. oleae to cope with green olives. In addition, a number of biological processes seem to be activated in Ca. E. dacicola during the development of larvae in olives, with the most notable being the activation of amino-acid metabolism.

  8. miR-8-3p regulates mitoferrin in the testes of Bactrocera dorsalis to ensure normal spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tariq, Kaleem; Metzendorf, Christoph; Peng, Wei; Sohail, Summar; Zhang, Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    Genetics-enhanced sterile insect techniques (SIT) are promising novel approaches to control Bactrocera dorsalis, the most destructive horticultural pest in East Asia and the Pacific region. To identify novel genetic agents to alter male fertility of B. dorsalis, previous studies investigated miRNA expression in testes of B. dorsalis. One miRNA, miR-8-3p was predicted to bind the 3′UTR of putative B. dorsalis mitoferrin (bmfrn). The ortholog of bmfrn in D. melanogaster is essential for male fertility. Here we show that bmfrn has all conserved amino acid residues of known mitoferrins and is most abundantly expressed in B. dorsalis testes, making miR-8-3p and mitoferrin candidates for genetics-enhanced SIT. Furthermore, using a dual-luciferase reporter system, we show in HeLa cells that miR-8-3p interacts with the 3′UTR of bmfrn. Dietary treatments of adult male flies with miR-8-3p mimic, antagomiR, or bmfrn dsRNA, altered mitoferrin expression in the testes and resulted in reduced male reproductive capacity due to reduced numbers and viability of spermatozoa. We show for the first time that a mitoferrin is regulated by a miRNA and we demonstrate miR-8-3p as well as bmfrn dsRNA to be promising novel agents that could be used for genetics-enhanced SIT. PMID:26932747

  9. The effect of the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae) on quality parameters, and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of olive oil.

    PubMed

    Medjkouh, Lynda; Tamendjari, Abderezak; Keciri, Sonia; Santos, Joana; Nunes, M Antónia; Oliveira, M B P P

    2016-06-15

    The present study was performed on olives from two Algerian cultivars (Limli and Rougette de Metidja) with different rates of attack by the Bactrocera oleae fly (0%, not attacked; 100%, all attacked; and real attacked %) and the corresponding olive oils. The aim was to verify the attack effect on quality parameters (free fatty acid, peroxide value, K232 and K270, oxidation stability), bioactive compounds (fatty acids and tocopherols, and total phenols and flavonoids), and on the antioxidant (reducing power, FRAP, β-carotene bleaching inhibition, ABTS and DPPH) and antibacterial (against 8 referenced human enteropathogenic bacteria by the agar disc diffusion method) capacities. Oils from infested olives were downgraded to the virgin olive oil category. Rougette de Metidja, the cultivar with a higher drupe size, was more attacked than Limli. The B. oleae attack causes an important decrease in the total phenolic contents (>30%) but to a lesser degree in the case of tocopherols. Among them, α-tocopherol is the most affected. The antioxidant and antibacterial activities were highly correlated with phenolic levels. The results of this study show the importance of controlling the fly attack because it causes a decrease in the beneficial health effects of olive oils.

  10. Transcriptomic responses of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae and its symbiont Candidatus Erwinia dacicola to olive feeding

    PubMed Central

    Pavlidi, Nena; Gioti, Anastasia; Wybouw, Nicky; Dermauw, Wannes; Ben-Yosef, Michael; Yuval, Boaz; Jurkevich, Edouard; Kampouraki, Anastasia; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Vontas, John

    2017-01-01

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most destructive pest of olive orchards worldwide. The monophagous larva has the unique capability of feeding on olive mesocarp, coping with high levels of phenolic compounds and utilizing non-hydrolyzed proteins present, particularly in the unripe, green olives. On the molecular level, the interaction between B. oleae and olives has not been investigated as yet. Nevertheless, it has been associated with the gut obligate symbiotic bacterium Candidatus Erwinia dacicola. Here, we used a B.oleae microarray to analyze the gene expression of larvae during their development in artificial diet, unripe (green) and ripe (black) olives. The expression profiles of Ca. E. dacicola were analyzed in parallel, using the Illumina platform. Several genes were found overexpressed in the olive fly larvae when feeding in green olives. Among these, a number of genes encoding detoxification and digestive enzymes, indicating a potential association with the ability of B. oleae to cope with green olives. In addition, a number of biological processes seem to be activated in Ca. E. dacicola during the development of larvae in olives, with the most notable being the activation of amino-acid metabolism. PMID:28225009

  11. Comparative Proteomic Profiling Reveals Molecular Characteristics Associated with Oogenesis and Oocyte Maturation during Ovarian Development of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ran; Zhang, Meng-Yi; Liu, Yu-Wei; Zhang, Zheng; Smagghe, Guy; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Time-dependent expression of proteins in ovary is important to understand oogenesis in insects. Here, we profiled the proteomes of developing ovaries from Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) to obtain information about ovarian development with particular emphasis on differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) involved in oogenesis. A total of 4838 proteins were identified with an average peptide number of 8.15 and sequence coverage of 20.79%. Quantitative proteomic analysis showed that a total of 612 and 196 proteins were differentially expressed in developing and mature ovaries, respectively. Furthermore, 153, 196 and 59 potential target proteins were highly expressed in early, vitellogenic and mature ovaries and most tested DEPs had the similar trends consistent with the respective transcriptional profiles. These proteins were abundantly expressed in pre-vitellogenic and vitellogenic stages, including tropomyosin, vitellogenin, eukaryotic translation initiation factor, heat shock protein, importin protein, vitelline membrane protein, and chorion protein. Several hormone and signal pathway related proteins were also identified during ovarian development including piRNA, notch, insulin, juvenile, and ecdysone hormone signal pathways. This is the first report of a global ovary proteome of a tephritid fruit fly, and may contribute to understanding the complicate processes of ovarian development and exploring the potentially novel pest control targets. PMID:28665301

  12. A qPCR-based method for detecting parasitism of Fopius arisanus (Sonan) in oriental fruit flies, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    PubMed

    Liang, Guang Hong; Jang, Eric B; Heller, Wade P; Chang, Chiou Ling; Chen, Jia Hua; Zhang, Fei Ping; Geib, Scott M

    2015-12-01

    Parasitism detection and species identification are necessary in fruit fly biological control. Currently, release of mass-reared Fopius arisanus is practiced worldwide, as it is effective in controlling Bactrocera dorsalis and Ceratitis capitata. To detect and assess parasitism in parasitoid mass-rearing colonies and parasitism levels in field populations across all life stages of hosts, the development of a rapid, specific and sensitive method is important. A species-specific probe was designed for F. arisanus, as well as a universal tephritid probe. Utilizing rapid DNA extraction techniques coupled with quantitative-PCR, a simple and fast assay has been developed to detect parasitism of F. arisanus that is sensitive enough to detect the parasitoid across all developmental stages, including a single egg per host egg or 0.25 ng of parasitoid DNA in 40 ng of host DNA. The qPCR methods also detect a higher parasitism rate when compared with rearing-based methods where parasitism rate is based on wasp emergence and where unemerged wasps are not included. This method is a rapid, sensitive and specific technique to determine the parasitism rate of F. arisanus across all life stages of B. dorsalis, which will be useful to predict parasitoid output from mass rearing and evaluate the outcome of pest suppression after mass release in the field. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. Functional characterization of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase from Bactrocera dorsalis: Possible involvement in susceptibility to malathion.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yong; Lu, Xue-Ping; Wang, Luo-Luo; Wei, Dong; Feng, Zi-Jiao; Zhang, Qi; Xiao, Lin-Fan; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2015-12-18

    NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) is essential for cytochrome P450 catalysis, which is important in the detoxification and activation of xenobiotics. In this study, two transcripts of Bactrocera dorsalis CPR (BdCPR) were cloned, and the deduced amino-acid sequence had an N-terminus membrane anchor for BdCPR-X1 and three conserved binding domains (FMN, FAD, and NADP), as well as an FAD binding motif and catalytic residues for both BdCPR-X1 and BdCPR-X2. BdCPR-X1 was detected to have the high expression levels in adults and in Malpighian tubules, fat bodies, and midguts of adults, but BdCPR-X2 expressed lowly in B. dorsalis. The levels of BdCPRs were similar in malathion-resistant strain compared to susceptible strain. However, injecting adults with double-stranded RNA against BdCPR significantly reduced the transcript levels of the mRNA, and knockdown of BdCPR increased adult susceptibility to malathion. Expressing complete BdCPR-X1 cDNA in Sf9 cells resulted in high activity determined by cytochrome c reduction and these cells had higher viability after exposure to malathion than control. The results suggest that BdCPR could affect the susceptibility of B. dorsalis to malathion and eukaryotic expression of BdCPR would lay a solid foundation for further investigation of P450 in B. dorsalis.

  14. Functional analysis of five trypsin-like protease genes in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Ya-Li; Hou, Ming-Zhe; Shen, Guang-Mao; Lu, Xue-Ping; Wang, Zhe; Jia, Fu-Xian; Wang, Jin-Jun; Dou, Wei

    2017-03-01

    Insect midgut proteases catalyze the release of free amino acids from dietary proteins and are essential for insect normal development. To date, digestive proteases as potential candidates have made great progress in pest control. To clarify the function of trypsin-like protease genes in the digestive system of Bactrocera dorsalis, a serious pest of a wide range of tropical and subtropical fruit and vegetable crops, five trypsin genes (BdTry1, BdTry2, BdTry3, BdTry4 and BdTry5) were identified from transcriptome dataset, and the effects of feeding condition on their expression levels were examined subsequently. RNA interference (RNAi) was applied to further explore their function on the growth of B. dorsalis. The results showed that all the BdTrys in starving midgut expressed at a minimal level but up-regulated upon feeding (except BdTry3). Besides, RNAi by feeding dsRNAs to larvae proved to be an effective method to cause gene silencing and the mixed dsRNAs of the five BdTrys slowed larvae growth of B. dorsalis. The current data suggest that trypsin genes are actively involved in digestion process of B. dorsalis larvae and thereafter play crucial roles in their development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Molecular characterizations of natalisin and its roles in modulating mating in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    PubMed

    Gui, S-H; Jiang, H-B; Liu, X-Q; Xu, L; Wang, J-J

    2017-02-01

    Initially, natalisin (NTL) was identified from three holometabolous insect species, Drosophila melanogaster, Tribolium castaneum and Bombyx mori, and was documented to regulate reproductive behaviours in D. melanogaster and T. castaneum. In this study, we report the sequences of the NTL precursor and its receptor (NTLR) from an important agricultural pest, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). NTLR is a typical G-protein coupled receptor and phylogenetic analysis showed that B. dorsalis NTLR was closely related to insect natalisin receptors from other species. A functional assay of NTLR transiently expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells showed that it was activated by putative natalisin mature peptides in a concentration-dependent manner, with 50% effective concentrations (EC50 ) at nanomolar or micromolar levels. As indicated by quantitative real-time PCR, both NTL and NTLR had the highest expression in the central nervous system of B. dorsalis compared with the other tested tissues. Three pairs of adult brain neurones of B. dorsalis were identified with immunohistochemical antibody staining against D. melanogaster NTL4, and in situ hybridization with specific DNA probes. Moreover, RNA interference mediated by double-stranded RNA injection in adults provided evidence for the important roles of NTL in regulating both male and female mating frequencies in this fly. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  16. Introduction of the RTA-Bddsx gene induces female-specific lethal effects in transformed Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Yen; Dai, Shu-Mei; Chang, Cheng

    2016-06-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), can reduce fruit production and quality and is considered to be a major insect pest in many Asian countries. A system combining the toxicity of ricin and the alternative RNA splicing properties of doublesex (RTA-Bddsx) has been proposed that results in differential sexual processing in vitro. A transgenic approach was used in this study to confirm the existence of female-specific lethal effects in vivo. The piggyBac-based vector PB-Acp-CF21-26, which carries the actin 5C promoter and RTA-Bddsx, was used to establish transgenic lines. Five surviving male flies (F1) demonstrated the presence of selection marker Ds-Red((+)) throughout their entire bodies following single-pair mating with wild-type females, indicating germline transmission. A high percentage of males (59.6-100%) were observed in transformed F3 offspring, and this skewed sex ratio indicated that the female-lethal effects of the RTA-Bddsx system were heritable and functioned well in B. dorsalis. Some transformed female flies were observed, and these unexpected results were attributed to the loss of the intact transgene after genomic PCR analyses. This transgenic study provides direct evidence for the female-specific lethal effects of RTA-Bddsx in B. dorsalis and offers a novel and promising approach for the control of B. dorsalis in the future. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Flight capacity of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) adult females based on flight mill studies and flight muscle ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min; Chen, Peng; Ye, Hui; Yuan, Ruiling; Wang, Xiaowei; Xu, Jin

    2015-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is considered a major economic threat in many regions worldwide. To better comprehend flight capacity of B. dorsalis and its physiological basis, a computer-monitored flight mill was used to study flight capacity of B. dorsalis adult females of various ages, and the changes of its flight muscle ultrastructures were studied by transmission electron microscopy. The flight capacity (both speed and distance) changed significantly with age of B. dorsalis female adults, peaking at about 15 d; the myofibril diameter of the flight muscle of test insects at 15-d old was the longest, up to 1.56 µm, the sarcomere length at 15-d old was the shortest, averaging at 1.37 µm, volume content of mitochondria of flight muscle at 15-d old reached the peak, it was 32.64%. This study provides the important scientific data for better revealing long-distance movement mechanism of B. dorsalis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  18. Phenoloxidase and its zymogen are required for the larval-pupal transition in Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Bai, Ping-Ping; Xie, Yi-Fei; Shen, Guang-Mao; Wei, Dan-Dan; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2014-12-01

    Phenoloxidases (POs) play a key role in melanin production, are involved in invertebrate immune mechanisms, and are considered important enzymes in the insect development process. In the present study, we report the developmental stage and tissue-specific expression patterns of BdPPO1 and PO activity from Bactrocera dorsalis. The results showed that the activity of PO and its zymogen expression were closely related to the development of B. dorsalis during the larval-pupal transition, particularly in the integument. Additionally, biochemical characterization showed that PO from different developmental stages and tissues all had maximum activity at pH 7.5 and 37°C. After feeding a metal ion-containing artificial diet, the activity of PO and expression of BdPPO1 were significantly increased, indicating that PO was a metalloprotein and it could be activated by Zn2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, and Cu2+. The functional analysis showed that the expression of BdPPO1 could be regulated by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) after injection. Furthermore, injection of the double-stranded RNA of BdPPO1 into the 3rd instar larvae significantly reduced mRNA levels after 24 h and 48 h, and resulted in a lower pupation rate and abnormal phenotype. These results expand the understanding of the important role of PO and its zymogen in the growth of B. dorsalis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecular characterization and functional analysis of BdFoxO gene in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-Bei; Yang, Wen-Jia; Xie, Yi-Fei; Xu, Kang-Kang; Tian, Yi; Yuan, Guo-Rui; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2016-03-10

    The forkhead box O transcription factor (FoxO) is an important downstream transcription factor in the well-conserved insulin signaling pathway, which regulates the body size and development of insects. In this study, the FoxO gene (BdFoxO) was identified from the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). The open reading frame of BdFoxO (2732 bp) encoded a 910 amino acid protein, and the sequence was well conserved with other insect species. The BdFoxO was highly expressed in larvae and pupae among different development stages, and the highest tissue-specific expression level was found in the fat bodies compared to the testis, ovary, head, thorax, midgut, and Malpighian tubules of adults. Interestingly, we found BdFoxO expression was also up-regulated by starvation, but down-regulated when re-fed. Moreover, the injection of BdFoxO double-stranded RNAs into third-instar larvae significantly reduced BdFoxO transcript levels, which in turn down-regulated the expression of other four genes in the insulin signaling pathway. The silencing of BdFoxO resulted in delayed pupation, and the insect body weight increased significantly compared with that of the control. These results suggested that BdFoxO plays an important role in body size and development in B. dorsalis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Phenotypic plasticity, trade-offs and gene expression changes accompanying dietary restriction and switches in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Er-Hu; Hou, Qiu-Li; Wei, Dan-Dan; Jiang, Hong-Bo; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2017-05-16

    In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary restriction (DR) and variable diets on phenotypes and gene expression in oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), one of the most economically important pests in the family Tephritidae around the world. As expected, we found that DR altered the B. dorsalis phenotypes by significantly increasing stress resistance and lifespan, but reduced egg production when compared with the control diet. The results suggested a trade-off between reproduction versus somatic maintenance (stress resistance) and lifespan in B. dorsalis. Diet also had a significant effect on hatchability, and DR could increase the egg hatching success of B. dorsalis. Furthermore, DR up-regulated metabolic pathways involved in energy homeostasis and down-regulated pathways in egg production, which might mediate trade-offs between somatic maintenance and reproduction under DR regimes. The gene expression profiles in response to the acute dietary switches indicated that the digestive and metabolic pathways maybe involved in the adaptability of flies to variable dietary resources. In summary, the research facilitates a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for the B. dorsalis' phenotypic adjustments to the different qualities of the available diets.

  1. Genetic Diversity of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) on the Hawaiian Islands: Implications for an Introduction Pathway Into California.

    PubMed

    Barr, Norman B; Ledezma, Lisa A; Leblanc, Luc; San Jose, Michael; Rubinoff, Daniel; Geib, Scott M; Fujita, Brian; Bartels, David W; Garza, Daniel; Kerr, Peter; Hauser, Martin; Gaimari, Stephen

    2014-10-01

    Population genetic diversity of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), on the Hawaiian islands of Oahu, Maui, Kauai, and Hawaii (the Big Island) was estimated using DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. In total, 932 flies representing 36 sampled sites across the four islands were sequenced for a 1,500-bp fragment of the gene named the C1500 marker. Genetic variation was low on the Hawaiian Islands with >96% of flies having just two haplotypes: C1500-Haplotype 1 (63.2%) or C1500-Haplotype 2 (33.3%). The other 33 flies (3.5%) had haplotypes similar to the two dominant haplotypes. No population structure was detected among the islands or within islands. The two haplotypes were present at similar frequencies at each sample site, suggesting that flies on the various islands can be considered one population. Comparison of the Hawaiian data set to DNA sequences of 165 flies from outbreaks in California between 2006 and 2012 indicates that a single-source introduction pathway of Hawaiian origin cannot explain many of the flies in California. Hawaii, however, could not be excluded as a maternal source for 69 flies. There was no clear geographic association for Hawaiian or non-Hawaiian haplotypes in the Bay Area or Los Angeles Basin over time. This suggests that California experienced multiple, independent introductions from different sources.

  2. Performance of methyl eugenol + matrix + toxicant combinations under field conditions in Hawaii and California for trapping Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Jang, Eric B; Ramsey, Amanda; Carvalho, Lori A

    2013-04-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is a major pest of many fruit crops worldwide. Current detection programs by federal and state agencies in the United States use a grid of traps consisting of liquid methyl eugenol (lure) and naled (toxicant) applied to cotton wicks and hung inside the trap. In recent years efforts have been made to incorporate these chemicals into various solid-type matrices that could be individually packaged to reduce human exposure to the chemicals and improve handling. New solid formulations containing methyl eugenol and either naled or dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate toxicants were compared with the standard formulations on cotton wicks in large scale field evaluation in Hawaii. Two reduced risk toxicants (spinosad and Rynaxypyr) were also evaluated. In one test the solid lure-toxicant-matrix combinations were sent to California to be weathered under California climate conditions and then sent back to Hawaii for evaluation. The polymer matrices with lure and toxicant were found to be as attractive as baited wicks and have the same longevity of attraction regardless of being weathered in Hawaii or in California. The new ingestible toxicants were also effective, although further testing of these ingestible lure + toxicant + matrix products is necessary.

  3. Transcriptomic responses of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae and its symbiont Candidatus Erwinia dacicola to olive feeding.

    PubMed

    Pavlidi, Nena; Gioti, Anastasia; Wybouw, Nicky; Dermauw, Wannes; Ben-Yosef, Michael; Yuval, Boaz; Jurkevich, Edouard; Kampouraki, Anastasia; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Vontas, John

    2017-02-22

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most destructive pest of olive orchards worldwide. The monophagous larva has the unique capability of feeding on olive mesocarp, coping with high levels of phenolic compounds and utilizing non-hydrolyzed proteins present, particularly in the unripe, green olives. On the molecular level, the interaction between B. oleae and olives has not been investigated as yet. Nevertheless, it has been associated with the gut obligate symbiotic bacterium Candidatus Erwinia dacicola. Here, we used a B.oleae microarray to analyze the gene expression of larvae during their development in artificial diet, unripe (green) and ripe (black) olives. The expression profiles of Ca. E. dacicola were analyzed in parallel, using the Illumina platform. Several genes were found overexpressed in the olive fly larvae when feeding in green olives. Among these, a number of genes encoding detoxification and digestive enzymes, indicating a potential association with the ability of B. oleae to cope with green olives. In addition, a number of biological processes seem to be activated in Ca. E. dacicola during the development of larvae in olives, with the most notable being the activation of amino-acid metabolism.

  4. The role of the transformer gene in sex determination and reproduction in the tephritid fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    PubMed

    Peng, Wei; Zheng, Wenping; Handler, Alfred M; Zhang, Hongyu

    2015-12-01

    Transformer (tra) is a switch gene in the somatic sex-determination hierarchy that regulates sexual dimorphism based on RNA splicing in many insects. In tephritids, a Y-linked male determining gene (M) controls sex in the sex-determination pathway. Here, homologues of Drosophila tra and transformer-2 (tra-2) genes were isolated and characterized in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), one of the most destructive agricultural insect pests in many Asian countries. Two male-specific and one female-specific isoforms of B. dorsalis transformer (Bdtra) were identified. The presence of multiple TRA/TRA-2 binding sites in Bdtra suggests that the TRA/TRA-2 proteins are splicing regulators promoting and maintaining, epigenetically, female sex determination by a tra positive feedback loop in XX individuals during development. The expression patterns of female-specific Bdtra transcripts during early embryogenesis shows that a peak appears at 15 h after egg laying. Using dsRNA to knock-down Bdtra expression in the embryo and adult stages, we showed that sexual formation is determined early in the embryo stage and that parental RNAi does not lead to the production of all male progeny as in Tribolium castaneum. RNAi results from adult abdominal dsRNA injections show that Bdtra has a positive influence on female yolk protein gene (Bdyp1) expression and fecundity.

  5. Dominance of an invasive fruit fly species, Bactrocera invadens, along an altitudinal transect in Morogoro, Eastern Central Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Geurts, K; Mwatawala, M W; De Meyer, M

    2014-06-01

    Bactrocera invadens, a fruit fly from Asia, is an invasive pest species across Africa. It appears to continue spreading, not only in latitude but also in altitude. To assess its capacity to infest a large variety of hosts and its competition with other fruit fly species, a study along an altitudinal gradient was conducted. At low altitudes, the high abundance in the field and high infestation of B. invadens in different fruit species make it a serious pest. At high altitudes, colonization has started and B. invadens occurs in low numbers by reproducing successfully in high altitude fruits. Overall the abundance and infestation of B. invadens is influenced by its direct competitor Ceratitis rosa and the presence of its preferred host species. C. rosa is still the dominant species in temperate fruits grown at high altitude. Ceratitis cosyra, however, is negatively affected by B. invadens, this species seems to have shifted hosts to avoid competition. The broad host range and competitive potential of B. invadens increase the risk for further spread not only to higher areas, but also to subtropical regions.

  6. Inferences on the population structure and colonization process of the invasive oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    PubMed

    Aketarawong, N; Bonizzoni, M; Thanaphum, S; Gomulski, L M; Gasperi, G; Malacrida, A R; Gugliemino, C R

    2007-09-01

    The phytophagous insects of the Tephritidae family offer different case histories of successful invasions. An example is Bactrocera dorsalis sensu stricto, the oriental fruit fly which has been recognized as a key pest of Asia and the Pacific. It is known to have the potential to establish adventive populations in various tropical and subtropical areas. Despite the economic risk associated with a putative stable presence of this fly, the genetic aspects of its invasion process have remained relatively unexplored. Using microsatellite markers we have investigated the population structure and genetic variability in 14 geographical populations across the four areas of the actual species range: Far East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia and the Pacific Area. Results of clustering and admixture, associated with phylogenetic and migration analyses, were used to evaluate the changes in population genetic structure that this species underwent during its invasion process and establishment in the different areas. The colonization process of this fly is associated with a relatively stable population demographic structure, especially in an unfragmented habitat, rich in intensive cultivation such as in Southeast Asia. In this area, the results suggest a lively demographic history, characterized by evolutionary recent demographic expansions and no recent bottlenecks. Cases of genetic isolation attributable to geographical factors, fragmented habitats and/or fruit trade restrictions were observed in Bangladesh, Myanmar and Hawaii. Regarding the pattern of invasion, the overall genetic profile of the considered populations suggests a western orientated migration route from China to the West.

  7. Release and establishment of the parasitoid Diachasmimorpha kraussii against the tephritid fruit fly Bactrocera latifrons in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Bokonon-Ganta, Aimé H; McQuate, Grant T; Messing, Russell H; B Jang, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Diachasmimorpha kraussii (Fullaway) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was first released against Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii in March 2003. Over a three month period, eight releases, totaling 7,696 females and 3,968 males, were made in a turkeyberry, Solanum torvum Swartz (Solanales: Solanaceae) patch known to have a well established B. latifrons population. The establishment of D. kraussii was assessed through fruit collections conducted over a three-year period beyond the last release. D. kraussii was recovered 2 weeks, 31 months, and 39 months after the last parasitoid release, with collections not only from the release site, but also from a control site about 5.0 km distance from the release site. Recovery from fruit collections three years after the last parasitoid release confirmed that D. kraussii had become established in Hawaii. Parasitism rates were low, only 1.0-1.4%, compared to rates of 2.8-8.7% for the earlier established egg-larval parasitoid, Fopius arisanus (Sonan).

  8. Salicylic Acid Induces Changes in Mango Fruit that Affect Oviposition Behavior and Development of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    PubMed

    Pagadala Damodaram, Kamala Jayanthi; Aurade, Ravindra Mahadappa; Kempraj, Vivek; Roy, Tapas Kumar; Shivashankara, Kodthalu Seetharamaiah; Verghese, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    The Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is an important quarantine pest around the globe. Although measures for its control are implemented worldwide through IPM and male annihilation, there is little effect on their population. Hence, there is a need for new strategies to control this minacious pest. A strategy that has received negligible attention is the induction of 'natural plant defenses' by phytohormones. In this study, we investigated the effect of salicylic acid (SA) treatment of mango fruit (cv. Totapuri) on oviposition and larval development of B. dorsalis. In oviposition choice assays, gravid females laid significantly less eggs in SA treated compared to untreated fruit. Headspace volatiles collected from SA treated fruit were less attractive to gravid females compared to volatiles from untreated fruit. GC-MS analysis of the headspace volatiles from SA treated and untreated fruit showed noticeable changes in their chemical compositions. Cis-ocimene and 3-carene (attractants to B. dorsalis) were reduced in the headspace volatiles of treated fruit. Further, reduced pupae formation and adult emergence was observed in treated fruit compared to control. Increased phenol and flavonoid content was recorded in treated fruit. We also observed differential expression of anti-oxidative enzymes namely catalase (CAT), polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD). In summary, the results indicate that SA treatment reduced oviposition, larval development and adult emergence of B. dorsalis and suggest a role of SA in enhancing mango tolerance to B. dorsalis.

  9. Parasitism, emergence, and development of Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in pupae of different ages of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Tang, Liang-De; Ji, Xun-Cong; Han, Yun; Fu, Bu-Li; Liu, Kui

    2015-01-01

    The wasp Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is a major parasitoid of the pupae of fruit flies, which are a common agricultural pest. An understanding of this intricate host-parasitoid interaction could provide basic information necessary for the sustainable integrated biological control of fruit flies. In this study, we investigated the effect of S. endius on different-aged pupae of the melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett by using choice and nonchoice tests under laboratory conditions. We showed that S. endius females oviposited, and their progeny successfully developed, in different-aged pupae of B. cucurbitae regardless of the method of exposure. There was an oviposition preference for 3-5-d-old pupa. The highest mean percentage parasitism occurred on 4- and 5-d-old hosts, followed by 2- and 3-d-old hosts. The average development time for both males and females was significantly longer in 6-7-d-old hosts than in the younger host stages. Adult females that developed from younger host pupae (2-5-d old) were significantly heavier than those from older host pupae (6-7-d old), and they also lived longer. The sex ratio (proportion of females) of the parasite progeny decreased with an increase in host age. Host mortality also decreased gradually as the pupal age increased. The differences in development time, body weight, and longevity between females and males were significant. These results suggest that S. endius is a good candidate for the biological control of B. cucurbitae.

  10. Field Estimates of Attraction of Ceratitis capitata to Trimedlure and Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) to Methyl Eugenol in Varying Environments.

    PubMed

    Manoukis, Nicholas C; Siderhurst, Matthew; Jang, Eric B

    2015-06-01

    Measuring and modeling the attractiveness of semiochemical-baited traps is of significant importance to detection, delimitation, and control of invasive pests. Here, we describe the results of field mark-release-recapture experiments with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) to estimate the relationship between distance from a trap baited with trimedlure and methyl eugenol, respectively, and probability of capture for a receptive male insect. Experiments were conducted using a grid of traps with a central release point at two sites on Hawaii Island, a Macadamia orchard on the East side of the island and a lava field on the West side. We found that for B. dorsalis and methyl eugenol there is a 65% probability of capture at ∼36 m from a single trap, regardless of habitat. For C. capitata, we found a 65% probability of capture at a distance of ∼14 m from a single trap in the orchard and 7 m in the lava field. We also present results on the spatial and temporal pattern of recaptures. The attraction data are analyzed via a hyperbolic secant-based capture probability model.

  11. Assessment effect of gamma radiation on the flight ability of the peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders).

    PubMed

    El-Gendy, Ismail Ragab; El-Aw, M A M; Hashem, A G; Draz, K A

    2013-12-01

    The sterile insect technique is one of the most methods of fruit flies control. Flight ability of the Peach Fruit Fly (PFF), Bactrocera zonata was conducted under laboratory conditions to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on flight ability of PFF, B. zonata. Pupae of PFF, B. zonata, were irradiated in an air atmosphere at 24, 48 and 72 h before adult emergence with three doses of Cobalt 60 (10, 30 and 50 Gray) and tested against 6, 12 and 20 cm tube heights. Flight Ability Percentage (FAP) of PFF was carried out for newly emerged flies and six-days-old of adult flies. FAP of newly emerged-and six- days-old of adult flies was inversely proportional to the tube heights, doses of gamma rays and with progress the age of flies. The FAP value was significantly higher at 6 cm tube height, followed by 12 cm then 20 cm tube heights for all tested levels of gamma rays, respectively.

  12. Identification and preliminary characterization of chemosensory perception-associated proteins in the melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae using RNA-seq

    PubMed Central

    Elfekih, Samia; Chen, Chien-Yu; Hsu, Ju-Chun; Belcaid, Mahdi; Haymer, David

    2016-01-01

    An investigation into proteins involved in chemosensory perception in the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) is described here using a newly generated transcriptome dataset. The melon fly is a major agricultural pest, widely distributed in the Asia-Pacific region and some parts of Africa. For this study, a transcriptome dataset was generated using RNA extracted from 4-day-old adult specimens of the melon fly. The dataset was assembled and annotated via Gene Ontology (GO) analysis. Based on this and similarity searches to data from other species, a number of protein sequences putatively involved in chemosensory reception were identified and characterized in the melon fly. This included the highly conserved “Orco” along with a number of other less conserved odorant binding protein sequences. In addition, several sequences representing putative ionotropic and gustatory receptors were also identified. This study provides a foundation for future functional studies of chemosensory proteins in the melon fly and for making more detailed comparisons to other species. In the long term, this will ultimately help in the development of improved tools for pest management. PMID:26752702

  13. Invasion history of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, in the Pacific-Asia region: two main invasion routes.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xuanwu; Liu, Yinghong; Zhang, Bin

    2012-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, was initially recorded in Taiwan Island in 1912, and has dispersed to many areas in the Pacific-Asia region over the last century. The area of origin of the species may be confidently placed in South-East China. However, routes of range expansion to new areas and underlying population processes remain partially unclear, despite having been the subject of several studies. To explore the invasion history of this species, a partition of the cox1 gene of mitochondrial DNA was used to investigate genetic diversity, haplotype phylogeny and demographic history of 35 populations, covering China and South-East Asia and including marginal populations from Pakistan and Hawaii. Based on neighbor-joining tree analysis and the distribution of haplotypes, two main invasion routes are inferred: one from South-East China to Central China, another from South-East China to South-East Asia, with both routes probably coinciding in Central China. Populations in Taiwan Island and Hainan Island might have originated in South-East China. The marginal populations in Pakistan and Hawaii might have undergone founding events or genetic bottlenecks. Possible strategies for the control of this species are proposed based on the invasion history and reconstructed expansion routes.

  14. Genetic structure and colonization history of the fruit fly Bactrocera tau (Diptera: Tephritidae) in China and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Shi, W; Kerdelhué, C; Ye, H

    2014-06-01

    Bactrocera tau (Walker), a major invasive pest worldwide, was first described in Fujian (China) in 1849 and has dispersed to tropical and subtropical Asia and the South Pacific region. Few data are available on its colonization history and expansion processes. This pilot study attempted to reconstruct the colonization history and pathways of this pest in China and neighboring Southeast Asian countries based on mitochondrial DNA. Results of the study showed six genetic groups corresponding to geographical characteristics, although the pattern was relatively weak. Homogeneous genetic patterns were observed within southern and central China, and northern Vietnam. Continuous colonization from the coast of southern China to inland regions of China and northern Vietnam was suggested. Strong genetic structure was observed in western China, Thailand, and Laos. The isolation of four of the six groups was most probably attributable to major topographical barriers of western China. Yunnan acted as a contact zone of B. tau in China and neighboring Southeast Asia. The absence of isolation by distance and the overall low phylogeographic structure of B. tau suggested that long distance dispersal events and human activities could play a major role in the colonization and expansion patterns of B. tau. By analyzing the genetic diversity, gene flow, haplotype phylogeny, and demographic history of 23 fly populations, we hypothesized that B. tau could have been introduced long ago in southern China, from which it further expanded or that southern China could correspond to the native range of this species.

  15. Towards understanding temporal and spatial dynamics of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) infestations using decade-long agrometeorological time series.

    PubMed

    Marchi, Susanna; Guidotti, Diego; Ricciolini, Massimo; Petacchi, Ruggero

    2016-11-01

    Insect dynamics depend on temperature patterns, and therefore, global warming may lead to increasing frequencies and intensities of insect outbreaks. The aim of this work was to analyze the dynamics of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), in Tuscany (Italy). We profited from long-term records of insect infestation and weather data available from the regional database and agrometeorological network. We tested whether the analysis of 13 years of monitoring campaigns can be used as basis for prediction models of B. oleae infestation. We related the percentage of infestation observed in the first part of the host-pest interaction and throughout the whole year to agrometeorological indices formulated for different time periods. A two-step approach was adopted to inspect the effect of weather on infestation: generalized linear model with a binomial error distribution and principal component regression to reduce the number of the agrometeorological factors and remove their collinearity. We found a consistent relationship between the degree of infestation and the temperature-based indices calculated for the previous period. The relationship was stronger with the minimum temperature of winter season. Higher infestation was observed in years following warmer winters. The temperature of the previous winter and spring explained 66 % of variance of early-season infestation. The temperature of previous winter and spring, and current summer, explained 72 % of variance of total annual infestation. These results highlight the importance of multiannual monitoring activity to fully understand the dynamics of B. oleae populations at a regional scale.

  16. miR-8-3p regulates mitoferrin in the testes of Bactrocera dorsalis to ensure normal spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Kaleem; Metzendorf, Christoph; Peng, Wei; Sohail, Summar; Zhang, Hongyu

    2016-03-02

    Genetics-enhanced sterile insect techniques (SIT) are promising novel approaches to control Bactrocera dorsalis, the most destructive horticultural pest in East Asia and the Pacific region. To identify novel genetic agents to alter male fertility of B. dorsalis, previous studies investigated miRNA expression in testes of B. dorsalis. One miRNA, miR-8-3p was predicted to bind the 3'UTR of putative B. dorsalis mitoferrin (bmfrn). The ortholog of bmfrn in D. melanogaster is essential for male fertility. Here we show that bmfrn has all conserved amino acid residues of known mitoferrins and is most abundantly expressed in B. dorsalis testes, making miR-8-3p and mitoferrin candidates for genetics-enhanced SIT. Furthermore, using a dual-luciferase reporter system, we show in HeLa cells that miR-8-3p interacts with the 3'UTR of bmfrn. Dietary treatments of adult male flies with miR-8-3p mimic, antagomiR, or bmfrn dsRNA, altered mitoferrin expression in the testes and resulted in reduced male reproductive capacity due to reduced numbers and viability of spermatozoa. We show for the first time that a mitoferrin is regulated by a miRNA and we demonstrate miR-8-3p as well as bmfrn dsRNA to be promising novel agents that could be used for genetics-enhanced SIT.

  17. Optimizing methyl-eugenol aromatherapy to maximize posttreatment effects to enhance mating competitiveness of male Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Haq, Ihsan ul; Vreysen, Marc J B; Cacéres, Carlos; Shelly, Todd E; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2015-10-01

    Methyl-eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene), a natural phytochemical, did enhance male Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae) mating competitiveness 3 d after ingestion. Enhanced male mating competitiveness can significantly increase the effectiveness of the sterile insect technique (SIT). ME application to mass reared sterile flies by feeding is infeasible. ME application by aromatherapy however, would be a very practical way of ME application in fly emergence and release facilities. This approach was shown to enhance mating competitiveness of B. carambolae 3 d posttreatment (DPT). Despite this added benefit, every additional day of delaying release will reduce sterile fly quality and will add cost to SIT application. The present study was planned to assess the effects of ME-aromatherapy on male B. carambolae mating competitiveness 1DPT and 2DPT. ME aromatherapy 1DPT or 2DPT did enhance mating competitiveness of B. carambolae males whereas ME feeding 1DPT and 2DPT did not. Male mating competitiveness was enhanced by the ME aromatherapy irrespective if they received 1DPT, 2DPT or 3DPT. ME aromatherapy, being a viable approach for its application, did enhance mating competitiveness of male B. carambolae 1 d posttreatment as ME feeding did 3 d after ingestion. ©2014 The Authors Journal compliation © Insititute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Science.

  18. The noa gene is functionally linked to the activation of the Toll/Imd signaling pathways in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiaolong; Li, Qiujia; Zhang, Hongyu

    2016-02-01

    The noa gene is an essential gene encoding a very long chain fatty acid elongase. In this study, we cloned the noa gene of Bactrocera dorsalis, which encodes a protein sharing 84.50% identity to the NOA in Drosophila melanogaster. The expression profiles indicated that the transcriptional level of noa was high at the egg stage and in the testis tissue. The results showed that noa expression was up-regulated after Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli infection. Silencing of noa would influence the expression of immune related genes, including MyD88 and defensin in the Toll pathway and relish and diptericin in the Imd pathway. Moreover, infection with L. monocytogenes and S. aureus after feeding ds-noa, the expression of MyD88 and defensin down-regulated significantly in ds-noa group compared with in ds-egfp group, indicating that noa interference influenced the activation of the Toll pathway. Meanwhile, infection with L. monocytogenes and E. coli, which activated the Imd pathway, do not cause increase of the mRNA levels of relish and diptericin in ds-noa group as severely as in ds-egfp treatment, indicating that the Imd pathway was also repressed after silences of noa.

  19. Genetically Engineered Ricin Suppresses Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) based on Demographic Analysis of Group-Reared Life Table.

    PubMed

    Chang, Cheng; Huang, Chun-Yen; Dai, Shu-Mei; Atlihan, Remzi; Chi, Hsin

    2016-04-27

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), reduces the quantity and quality of many host fruits through the process of oviposition and larval feeding, and this insect has been considered a major insect pest in several Asian countries for decades. Using an earlier-developed, female-specific system that combines the toxicity of the ricin A chain (RTA) and the alternative RNA splicing property of doublesex (Bddsx), we show that transgenic male flies harboring the RTA-Bddsx transgene unevenly repress the pest population through inheritable effects. In age-stage, two-sex life-table analyses, high larval mortality and a delay in pupation were observed after introducing the transgene. The high male to female ratio in DsRed(+) flies demonstrates the lethal effect of ricin on females. The fitness of both the DsRed(+)- and DsRed(-)-transformed females was reduced as shown in the decrease of the net reproductive rate (R0), intrinsic rate (r), and finite rate (λ) values compared with the wild-type populations. The integrity of the RTA-Bddsx transgene remained in more than 80% of DsRed(+) males after ten generations, supporting the stable inheritance of the transgene. All of the data from this study support the proposed RTA-Bddsx SIT approach, which provides a species-specific and environmentally friendly method of suppressing, rather than eradiating, B. dorsalis.

  20. Functional characterization of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase from Bactrocera dorsalis: Possible involvement in susceptibility to malathion

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yong; Lu, Xue-Ping; Wang, Luo-Luo; Wei, Dong; Feng, Zi-Jiao; Zhang, Qi; Xiao, Lin-Fan; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2015-01-01

    NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) is essential for cytochrome P450 catalysis, which is important in the detoxification and activation of xenobiotics. In this study, two transcripts of Bactrocera dorsalis CPR (BdCPR) were cloned, and the deduced amino-acid sequence had an N-terminus membrane anchor for BdCPR-X1 and three conserved binding domains (FMN, FAD, and NADP), as well as an FAD binding motif and catalytic residues for both BdCPR-X1 and BdCPR-X2. BdCPR-X1 was detected to have the high expression levels in adults and in Malpighian tubules, fat bodies, and midguts of adults, but BdCPR-X2 expressed lowly in B. dorsalis. The levels of BdCPRs were similar in malathion-resistant strain compared to susceptible strain. However, injecting adults with double-stranded RNA against BdCPR significantly reduced the transcript levels of the mRNA, and knockdown of BdCPR increased adult susceptibility to malathion. Expressing complete BdCPR-X1 cDNA in Sf9 cells resulted in high activity determined by cytochrome c reduction and these cells had higher viability after exposure to malathion than control. The results suggest that BdCPR could affect the susceptibility of B. dorsalis to malathion and eukaryotic expression of BdCPR would lay a solid foundation for further investigation of P450 in B. dorsalis. PMID:26681597

  1. Enhancement of attraction of alpha-ionol to male Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae) by addition of a synergist, cade oil.

    PubMed

    McQuate, G T; Peck, S L

    2001-02-01

    Male lures are known for many tephritid fruit fly species and are often preferred over food bait based traps for detection trapping because of their high specificity and ability to attract flies over a wide area. Alpha-ionol has been identified as a male lure for the tephritid fruit fly Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel). The attraction of this compound to male B. latifrons individuals, however, is not as strong as is the attraction of other tephritid fruit fly species to their respective male lures. Cade oil, an essential oil produced by destructive distillation of juniper (Juniperus oxycedrus L.) twigs, synergizes the attraction of alpha-ionol to male B. latifrons. Catches of male B. latifrons at traps baited with a mixture of alpha-ionol and cade oil were more than three times greater than at traps baited with alpha-ionol alone. Substitution of alpha-ionol + cade oil for alpha-ionol alone in detection programs could considerably improve the chance of detecting invading or incipient populations of B. latifrons. However, detection programs should not rely solely on this lure but also make use of protein baited traps as well as fruit collections. Further work with fractions of cade oil may help to identify the active ingredient(s), which could help to further improve this male lure for B. latifrons.

  2. Oviposition Site-Selection by Bactrocera dorsalis Is Mediated through an Innate Recognition Template Tuned to γ-Octalactone

    PubMed Central

    Pagadala Damodaram, Kamala Jayanthi; Kempraj, Vivek; Aurade, Ravindra Mahadappa; Venkataramanappa, Ravindra Kothapalli; Nandagopal, Bakthavatsalam; Verghese, Abraham; Bruce, Toby

    2014-01-01

    Innate recognition templates (IRTs) in insects are developed through many years of evolution. Here we investigated olfactory cues mediating oviposition behavior in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, and their role in triggering an IRT for oviposition site recognition. Behavioral assays with electrophysiologically active compounds from a preferred host, mango, revealed that one of the volatiles tested, γ-octalactone, had a powerful effect in eliciting oviposition by gravid B. dorsalis females. Electrophysiological responses were obtained and flies clearly differentiated between treated and untreated substrates over a wide range of concentrations of γ-octalactone. It triggered an innate response in flies, overriding inputs from other modalities required for oviposition site evaluation. A complex blend of mango volatiles not containing γ-octalactone elicited low levels of oviposition, whereas γ-octalactone alone elicited more oviposition response. Naïve flies with different rearing histories showed similar responses to γ-octalactone. Taken together, these results indicate that oviposition site selection in B. dorsalis is mediated through an IRT tuned to γ-octalactone. Our study provides empirical data on a cue underpinning innate behavior and may also find use in control operations against this invasive horticultural pest. PMID:24465690

  3. The Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, in China: Origin and Gradual Inland Range Expansion Associated with Population Growth

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Xuanwu; Nardi, Francesco; Zhang, Bin; Liu, Yinghong

    2011-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, expanded throughout mainland China in the last century to become one of the most serious pests in the area, yet information on this process are fragmentary. Three mitochondrial genes (nad1, cytb and nad5) were used to infer the genetic diversity, population structure and demographic history of the oriental fruit fly from its entire distribution range in China. High levels of genetic diversity, as well as a significant correspondence between genetic and geographic distances, suggest that the invasion process might have been gradual, with no associated genetic bottlenecks. Three population groups could be identified, nevertheless the overall genetic structure was weak. The effective number of migrants between populations, estimated using the coalescent method, suggested asymmetric gene flow from the costal region of Guangdong to most inland regions. The demographic analysis indicates the oriental fruit fly underwent a recent population expansion in the Central China. We suggest the species originated in the costal region facing the South China Sea and gradually expanded to colonize mainland China, expanding here to high population numbers. PMID:21984907

  4. The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, in China: origin and gradual inland range expansion associated with population growth.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xuanwu; Nardi, Francesco; Zhang, Bin; Liu, Yinghong

    2011-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, expanded throughout mainland China in the last century to become one of the most serious pests in the area, yet information on this process are fragmentary. Three mitochondrial genes (nad1, cytb and nad5) were used to infer the genetic diversity, population structure and demographic history of the oriental fruit fly from its entire distribution range in China. High levels of genetic diversity, as well as a significant correspondence between genetic and geographic distances, suggest that the invasion process might have been gradual, with no associated genetic bottlenecks. Three population groups could be identified, nevertheless the overall genetic structure was weak. The effective number of migrants between populations, estimated using the coalescent method, suggested asymmetric gene flow from the costal region of Guangdong to most inland regions. The demographic analysis indicates the oriental fruit fly underwent a recent population expansion in the Central China. We suggest the species originated in the costal region facing the South China Sea and gradually expanded to colonize mainland China, expanding here to high population numbers.

  5. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers from the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, and their cross-species amplification in the Tephritidae family

    PubMed Central

    Augustinos, Antonios A; Stratikopoulos, Elias E; Drosopoulou, Eleni; Kakani, Evdoxia G; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Zacharopoulou, Antigone; Mathiopoulos, Kostas D

    2008-01-01

    Background The Tephritidae family of insects includes the most important agricultural pests of fruits and vegetables, belonging mainly to four genera (Bactrocera, Ceratitis, Anastrepha and Rhagoletis). The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the major pest of the olive fruit. Currently, its control is based on chemical insecticides. Environmentally friendlier methods have been attempted in the past (Sterile Insect Technique), albeit with limited success. This was mainly attributed to the lack of knowledge on the insect's behaviour, ecology and genetic structure of natural populations. The development of molecular markers could facilitate the access in the genome and contribute to the solution of the aforementioned problems. We chose to focus on microsatellite markers due to their abundance in the genome, high degree of polymorphism and easiness of isolation. Results Fifty-eight microsatellite-containing clones were isolated from the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, bearing a total of sixty-two discrete microsatellite motifs. Forty-two primer pairs were designed on the unique sequences flanking the microsatellite motif and thirty-one of them amplified a PCR product of the expected size. The level of polymorphism was evaluated against wild and laboratory flies and the majority of the markers (93.5%) proved highly polymorphic. Thirteen of them presented a unique position on the olive fly polytene chromosomes by in situ hybridization, which can serve as anchors to correlate future genetic and cytological maps of the species, as well as entry points to the genome. Cross-species amplification of these markers to eleven Tephritidae species and sequencing of thirty-one of the amplified products revealed a varying degree of conservation that declines outside the Bactrocera genus. Conclusion Microsatellite markers are very powerful tools for genetic and population analyses, particularly in species deprived of any other means of genetic analysis. The presented set of

  6. Field trials of solid triple lure (trimedlure, methyl eugenol, raspberry ketone, and DDVP) dispensers for detection and male annihilation of Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Roger I; Souder, Steven K; Mackey, Bruce; Cook, Peter; Morse, Joseph G; Stark, John D

    2012-10-01

    Solid Mallet TMR (trimedlure [TML], methyl eugenol [ME], raspberry ketone [RK]) wafers and Mallet CMR (ceralure, ME, RK, benzyl acetate) wafers impregnated with DDVP (2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate) insecticide were measured in traps as potential detection and male annihilation technique (MAT) devices. Comparisons were made with 1) liquid lure and insecticide formulations, 2) solid cones and plugs with an insecticidal strip, and 3) solid single and double lure wafers with DDVP for captures of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann); oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel; and melon fly, B. cucurbitae Coquillett. Bucket and Jackson traps were tested in a coffee plantation near Eleele, Kauai Island, HI (trials at high populations) and avocado orchards near Kona, HI Island, HI (trials at low populations). Captures of all three species with Mallet TMR were not different from Mallet CMR; therefore, subsequent experiments did not include Mallet CMR because of higher production costs. In MAT trials near Eleele, HI captures in AWPM traps with Mallet TMR wafers were equal to any other solid lure (single or double) except the Mallet ME wafer. In survey trials near Kona, captures of C. capitata, B. cucurbitae, and B. dorsalis with Mallet TMR wafers were equal to those for the standard TML, ME, and C-L traps used in FL and CA. A solid Mallet TMR wafer is safer, more convenient to handle, and may be used in place of several individual lure and trap systems, potentially reducing costs of large survey and detection programs in Florida and California, and MAT programs in Hawaii.

  7. Effects of Methyl Eugenol Feeding on Mating Compatibility of Asian Population of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) with African Population and with B. carambolae

    PubMed Central

    Haq, Ihsan ul; Vreysen, Marc J. B.; Schutze, Mark; Hendrichs, Jorge; Shelly, Todd

    2016-01-01

    Males of some species included in the Bactrocera dorsalis complex are strongly attracted to methyl eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl) benzene), a natural compound occurring in a variety of plant species. ME feeding of males of the B. dorsalis complex is known to enhance their mating competitiveness. Within B. dorsalis, recent studies show that Asian and African populations of B. dorsalis are sexually compatible, while populations of B. dorsalis and Bactrocera carambolae are relatively incompatible. The objectives of this study were to examine whether ME feeding by males affects mating compatibility between Asian and African populations of B. dorsalis and ME feeding reduces male mating incompatibility between B. dorsalis (Asian population) and B. carambolae. The data confirmed that Asian and African populations of B. dorsalis are sexually compatible for mating and showed that ME feeding only increased the number of matings. Though ME feeding also increased the number of matings of B. dorsalis (Asian population) and B. carambolae males but the sexual incompatibility between both species was not reduced by treatment with ME. These results conform to the efforts resolving the biological species limits among B. dorsalis complex and have implications for fruit fly control programs in fields and horticultural trade. PMID:26362991

  8. Effects of Methyl Eugenol Feeding on Mating Compatibility of Asian Population of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) with African Population and with B. carambolae.

    PubMed

    Haq, Ihsan Ul; Vreysen, Marc J B; Schutze, Mark; Hendrichs, Jorge; Shelly, Todd

    2016-02-01

    Males of some species included in the Bactrocera dorsalis complex are strongly attracted to methyl eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl) benzene), a natural compound occurring in a variety of plant species. ME feeding of males of the B. dorsalis complex is known to enhance their mating competitiveness. Within B. dorsalis, recent studies show that Asian and African populations of B. dorsalis are sexually compatible, while populations of B. dorsalis and Bactrocera carambolae are relatively incompatible. The objectives of this study were to examine whether ME feeding by males affects mating compatibility between Asian and African populations of B. dorsalis and ME feeding reduces male mating incompatibility between B. dorsalis (Asian population) and B. carambolae. The data confirmed that Asian and African populations of B. dorsalis are sexually compatible for mating and showed that ME feeding only increased the number of matings. Though ME feeding also increased the number of matings of B. dorsalis (Asian population) and B. carambolae males but the sexual incompatibility between both species was not reduced by treatment with ME. These results conform to the efforts resolving the biological species limits among B. dorsalis complex and have implications for fruit fly control programs in fields and horticultural trade. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  9. Comparison of in vitro heat and cold tolerances of the new invasive species Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) with three known tephritids.

    PubMed

    Hallman, Guy J; Myers, Scott W; Jessup, Andrew J; Islam, Amirul

    2011-02-01

    Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White (Diptera: Tephritidae) is spreading throughout central Africa attacking a variety of fruit; quarantines are placed on fruit from this region that are considered hosts. The only phytosanitary treatment that is commercially available is an ionizing irradiation treatment for all Tephritidae at 150 Gy. The development of other treatments, such as heat, cold, or fumigation, usually requires testing tens of thousands of insects at a dose that provides efficacy and may take several years. It may be possible to shorten the time required to develop treatments by comparing tolerance of a new quarantine pest to tolerances of pests with similar behaviors and modes of infestation for which treatment schedules are available. Cold and heat tolerance ofB. invadens was compared with tolerance of Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) in vitro. Third-instar B. invadens was no more cold tolerant than the other species when treated in diet at 0.94 +/- 0.65 degrees C and no more heat tolerant than C. capitata when immersed in vials in water at 44.7 +/- 0.1 degrees C. The data at 0.94 +/- 0.65 degrees C was used to include B. invadens in a USDA cold treatment schedule for citrus fruit from Africa so that trade would not be interrupted while protecting U.S. agriculture from this invasive pest.

  10. The effects of RNA interference targeting Bactrocera dorsalis ds-Bdrpl19 on the gene expression of rpl19 in non-target insects.

    PubMed

    Chen, Aie; Zheng, Weiwei; Zheng, Wenping; Zhang, Hongyu

    2015-04-01

    Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) designed to target pest genes emerges as a promising strategy for improving pest control. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the effects of dsRNA on non-target insects, such as native enemies and beneficial insects, to determine the environmental safety of such treatments. In this paper, we investigated the effects of dsRNA targeting rpl19 from Bactrocera dorsalis on non-target insects in citrus ecological systems by feeding the dsRNA to Bactrocera minax, Apis mellifera and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata. The results showed that when B. dorsalis were fed rpl19 CDS dsRNA or 3'UTR dsRNA, the expression of rpl19 was dramatically decreased. Feeding the Bdrpl19 CDS dsRNA to adult B. minax and D. longicaudata caused their respective rpl19 genes to be knocked down over 50-70 and 40%, respectively, but it had no effect on the expression of the rpl19 gene in A. mellifera. The Bdrpl19 3'UTR dsRNA did not have any silencing effects on the expression levels of rpl19 in non-target insects. This study provides evidence that dsRNA can impact non-target organisms, but the 3'UTR dsRNA may not have effects in non-target organisms.

  11. Isolation and characterization of Doublesex homologues in the Bactrocera species: B. dorsalis (Hendel) and B. correcta (Bezzi) and their putative promoter regulatory regions.

    PubMed

    Permpoon, Rattiya; Aketarawong, Nidchaya; Thanaphum, Sujinda

    2011-01-01

    Doublesex (dsx) is a double-switch gene at the bottom of the somatic sex-determination hierarchy which regulates sexual dimorphism in many insects. Here, Drosophila melanogaster homologues of dsx were isolated in two Bactrocera species, the oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis, and the guava fruit fly, B. correcta. Results of RT-PCR analysis suggests that both the B. dorsalis dsx (Bd1dsx) and B. correcta dsx (Bcdsx) genes are transcribed and sex-specifically spliced in accordance with the Drosophila sex-specific splicing mechanism. The cDNA sequences shared a high degree of similarity at the nucleotide level among the Bactrocera species. Structurally conserved domains for DNA-binding and oligomerization were observed in all transcripts suggesting that their proteins function as transcriptional factors for downstream sex-specific gene expression. A purine-rich element (PRE) and four repeat elements (dsxRE) for TRA/TRA-2 binding sites were also found in the 3' untranslated regions (UTR) of both the female Bd1dsx and Bcdsx mRNAs. Notably, a putative core promoter was revealed in Bd1dsx, being probably the first dsx promoter discovered in the tephritid flies.

  12. Parasitism, Emergence, and Development of Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Pupae of Different Ages of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Liang-De; Ji, Xun-Cong; Han, Yun; Fu, Bu-Li; Liu, Kui

    2015-01-01

    The wasp Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is a major parasitoid of the pupae of fruit flies, which are a common agricultural pest. An understanding of this intricate host–parasitoid interaction could provide basic information necessary for the sustainable integrated biological control of fruit flies. In this study, we investigated the effect of S. endius on different-aged pupae of the melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett by using choice and nonchoice tests under laboratory conditions. We showed that S. endius females oviposited, and their progeny successfully developed, in different-aged pupae of B. cucurbitae regardless of the method of exposure. There was an oviposition preference for 3–5-d-old pupa. The highest mean percentage parasitism occurred on 4- and 5-d-old hosts, followed by 2- and 3-d-old hosts. The average development time for both males and females was significantly longer in 6–7-d-old hosts than in the younger host stages. Adult females that developed from younger host pupae (2–5-d old) were significantly heavier than those from older host pupae (6–7-d old), and they also lived longer. The sex ratio (proportion of females) of the parasite progeny decreased with an increase in host age. Host mortality also decreased gradually as the pupal age increased. The differences in development time, body weight, and longevity between females and males were significant. These results suggest that S. endius is a good candidate for the biological control of B. cucurbitae. PMID:25700538

  13. De novo Transcriptome Analysis of Chinese Citrus Fly, Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Tephritidae), by High-Throughput Illumina Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jia; Xiong, Ke-Cai; Liu, Ying-Hong

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese citrus fly, Bactrocera minax (Enderlein), is one of the most devastating pests of citrus in the temperate areas of Asia. So far, studies involving molecular biology and physiology of B. minax are still scarce, partly because of the lack of genomic information and inability to rear this insect in laboratory. In this study, de novo assembly of a transcriptome was performed using Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 20,928,907 clean reads were obtained and assembled into 33,324 unigenes, with an average length of 908.44 bp. Unigenes were annotated by alignment against NCBI non-redundant protein (Nr), Swiss-Prot, Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG), Gene Ontology (GO), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway (KEGG) database. Genes potentially involved in stress tolerance, including 20 heat shock protein (Hsps) genes, 26 glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) genes, and 2 ferritin subunit genes, were identified. These genes may play roles in stress tolerance in B. minax diapause stage. It has previously been found that 20E application on B. minax pupae could avert diapause, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Thus, genes encoding enzymes in 20E biosynthesis pathway, including Neverland, Spook, Phantom, Disembodied, Shadow, Shade, and Cyp18a1, and genes encoding 20E receptor proteins, ecdysone receptor (EcR) and ultraspiracle (USP), were identified. The expression patterns of 20E-related genes among developmental stages and between 20E-treated and untreated pupae demonstrated their roles in diapause program. In addition, 1,909 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected, which will contribute to molecular marker development. The findings in this study greatly improve our genetic understanding of B. minax, and lay the foundation for future studies on this species. PMID:27331903

  14. Isolation and identification of host cues from mango, Mangifera indica, that attract gravid female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    PubMed

    Jayanthi, Pagadala D Kamala; Woodcock, Christine M; Caulfield, John; Birkett, Michael A; Bruce, Toby J A

    2012-04-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is an economically damaging, polyphagous pest of fruit crops in South-East Asia and Hawaii, and a quarantine pest in other parts of the world. The objective of our study was to identify new attractants for B. dorsalis from overripe mango fruits. Headspace samples of volatiles were collected from two cultivars of mango, 'Alphonso' and 'Chausa', and a strong positive behavioral response was observed when female B. dorsalis were exposed to these volatiles in olfactometer bioassays. Coupled GC-EAG with female B. dorsalis revealed 7 compounds from 'Alphonso' headspace and 15 compounds from 'Chausa' headspace that elicited an EAG response. The EAG-active compounds, from 'Alphonso', were identified, using GC-MS, as heptane, myrcene, (Z)-ocimene, (E)-ocimene, allo-ocimene, (Z)-myroxide, and γ-octalactone, with the two ocimene isomers being the dominant compounds. The EAG-active compounds from 'Chausa' were 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, 3-methyl-1-butanol, ethyl butanoate, ethyl methacrylate, ethyl crotonate, ethyl tiglate, 1-octen-3-ol, ethyl hexanoate, 3-carene, p-cymene, ethyl sorbate, α-terpinolene, phenyl ethyl alcohol, ethyl octanoate, and benzothiazole. Individual compounds were significantly attractive when a standard dose (1 μg on filter paper) was tested in the olfactometer. Furthermore, synthetic blends with the same concentration and ratio of compounds as in the natural headspace samples were highly attractive (P < 0.001), and in a choice test, fruit flies did not show any preference for the natural samples over the synthetic blends. Results are discussed in relation to developing a lure for female B. dorsalis to bait traps with.

  15. Olive Fruit Fly (Bactrocera oleae) Population Dynamics in the Eastern Mediterranean: Influence of Exogenous Uncertainty on a Monophagous Frugivorous Insect

    PubMed Central

    Ordano, Mariano; Engelhard, Izhar; Rempoulakis, Polychronis; Nemny-Lavy, Esther; Blum, Moshe; Yasin, Sami; Lensky, Itamar M.; Papadopoulos, Nikos T.; Nestel, David

    2015-01-01

    Despite of the economic importance of the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) and the large amount of biological and ecological studies on the insect, the factors driving its population dynamics (i.e., population persistence and regulation) had not been analytically investigated until the present study. Specifically, our study investigated the autoregressive process of the olive fly populations, and the joint role of intrinsic and extrinsic factors molding the population dynamics of the insect. Accounting for endogenous dynamics and the influences of exogenous factors such as olive grove temperature, the North Atlantic Oscillation and the presence of potential host fruit, we modeled olive fly populations in five locations in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Our models indicate that the rate of population change is mainly shaped by first and higher order non-monotonic, endogenous dynamics (i.e., density-dependent population feedback). The olive grove temperature was the main exogenous driver, while the North Atlantic Oscillation and fruit availability acted as significant exogenous factors in one of the five populations. Seasonal influences were also relevant for three of the populations. In spite of exogenous effects, the rate of population change was fairly stable along time. We propose that a special reproductive mechanism, such as reproductive quiescence, allows populations of monophagous fruit flies such as the olive fly to remain stable. Further, we discuss how weather factors could impinge constraints on the population dynamics at the local level. Particularly, local temperature dynamics could provide forecasting cues for management guidelines. Jointly, our results advocate for establishing monitoring programs and for a major focus of research on the relationship between life history traits and populations dynamics. PMID:26010332

  16. Transcriptional Regulation of a Chitinase Gene by 20-Hydroxyecdysone and Starvation in the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wen-Jia; Xu, Kang-Kang; Zhang, Rui-Ying; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Insect chitinases are hydrolytic enzymes that are required for the degradation of glycosidic bonds of chitin. In this study, we identified and characterized a full-length cDNA of the chitinase gene (BdCht2) in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. The cDNA contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 1449 bp that encodes 483 amino acid residues and 126- and 296-bp non-coding regions at the 5′- and 3′-ends, respectively. The BdCht2 genome has four exons and three introns. The predicted molecular mass of the deduced BdCht2 is approximately 54.3 kDa, with an isoelectric point of 5.97. The 977 bp 5′ flanking region was identified and the transcription factor binding sites were predicted. Bioinformatic analyses showed that the deduced amino acid sequence of BdCht2 had 34%–66% identity to that of chitinases identified in other insect species. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analyses indicated that BdCht2 was mainly expressed during the larval-pupal and pupal-adult transitions. The tissue-specific expression showed that the highest expression was in the integument, followed by the fat body and other tissues. Moreover, the expression of BdCht2 was upregulated significantly upon 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) at different dose injections after 8 h compared to that of the control. Starvation also increased the expression of BdCht2 in the third-instar larvae and was suppressed again by re-feeding the insects. These results suggest that BdCht2 plays an important role in the molting process of B. dorsalis larvae and can be regulated by 20E. PMID:24113584

  17. Identification of Male- and Female-Specific Olfaction Genes in Antennae of the Oriental Fruit Fly (Bactrocera dorsalis)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhao; Smagghe, Guy; Lei, Zhongren; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2016-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) is a species of tephritid fruit fly, endemic to Southeast Asia but also introduced to many regions of the US, and it is one of the major pest species with a broad host range of cultivated and wild fruits. Although males of B. dorsalis respond strongly to methyl eugenol and this is used for monitoring and estimating populations, the molecular mechanism of the oriental fruit fly olfaction has not been elucidated yet. Therefore, in this project, using next generation sequencing technologies, we sequenced the transcriptome of the antennae of male and female adults of B. dorsalis. We identified a total of 20 candidate odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 5 candidate chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 35 candidate odorant receptors (ORs), 12 candidate ionotropic receptors (IRs) and 4 candidate sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs). The sex-specific expression of these genes was determined and a subset of 9 OR genes was further characterized by qPCR with male and female antenna, head, thorax, abdomen, leg and wing samples. In the male antennae, 595 genes showed a higher expression, while 128 genes demonstrated a higher expression in the female antennae. Interestingly, 2 ORs (BdorOR13 and BdorOR14) were highly and specifically expressed in the antennae of males, and 4 ORs (BdorOR13, BdorOR16, BdorOR18 and BdorOR35) clustered with DmOR677, suggesting pheromone reception. We believe this study with these antennae-enriched OBPs, CSPs, ORs, IRs and SNMPs can play an important role in the detection of pheromones and general odorants, and so in turn our data improve our current understanding of insect olfaction at the molecular level and provide important information for disrupting the behavior of the oriental fruit fly using chemical communication methods. PMID:26845547

  18. Genetic Structure and Inferences on Potential Source Areas for Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) Based on Mitochondrial and Microsatellite Markers

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Wei; Kerdelhué, Carole; Ye, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) is mainly distributed in tropical and subtropical Asia and in the Pacific region. Despite its economic importance, very few studies have addressed the question of the wide genetic structure and potential source area of this species. This pilot study attempts to infer the native region of this pest and its colonization pathways in Asia. Combining mitochondrial and microsatellite markers, we evaluated the level of genetic diversity, genetic structure, and the gene flow among fly populations collected across Southeast Asia and China. A complex and significant genetic structure corresponding to the geographic pattern was found with both types of molecular markers. However, the genetic structure found was rather weak in both cases, and no pattern of isolation by distance was identified. Multiple long-distance dispersal events and miscellaneous host selection by this species may explain the results. These complex patterns may have been influenced by human-mediated transportation of the pest from one area to another and the complex topography of the study region. For both mitochondrial and microsatellite data, no signs of bottleneck or founder events could be identified. Nonetheless, maximal genetic diversity was observed in Myanmar, Vietnam and Guangdong (China) and asymmetric migration patterns were found. These results provide indirect evidence that the tropical regions of Southeast Asia and southern coast of China may be considered as the native range of the species and the population expansion is northward. Yunnan (China) is a contact zone that has been colonized from different sources. Regions along the southern coast of Vietnam and China probably served to colonize mainly the southern region of China. Southern coastal regions of China may also have colonized central parts of China and of central Yunnan. PMID:22615898

  19. Interchromosomal Duplications on the Bactrocera oleae Y Chromosome Imply a Distinct Evolutionary Origin of the Sex Chromosomes Compared to Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Gabrieli, Paolo; Gomulski, Ludvik M.; Bonomi, Angelica; Siciliano, Paolo; Scolari, Francesca; Franz, Gerald; Jessup, Andrew; Malacrida, Anna R.; Gasperi, Giuliano

    2011-01-01

    Background Diptera have an extraordinary variety of sex determination mechanisms, and Drosophila melanogaster is the paradigm for this group. However, the Drosophila sex determination pathway is only partially conserved and the family Tephritidae affords an interesting example. The tephritid Y chromosome is postulated to be necessary to determine male development. Characterization of Y sequences, apart from elucidating the nature of the male determining factor, is also important to understand the evolutionary history of sex chromosomes within the Tephritidae. We studied the Y sequences from the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae. Its Y chromosome is minute and highly heterochromatic, and displays high heteromorphism with the X chromosome. Methodology/Principal Findings A combined Representational Difference Analysis (RDA) and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) approach was used to investigate the Y chromosome to derive information on its sequence content. The Y chromosome is strewn with repetitive DNA sequences, the majority of which are also interdispersed in the pericentromeric regions of the autosomes. The Y chromosome appears to have accumulated small and large repetitive interchromosomal duplications. The large interchromosomal duplications harbour an importin-4-like gene fragment. Apart from these importin-4-like sequences, the other Y repetitive sequences are not shared with the X chromosome, suggesting molecular differentiation of these two chromosomes. Moreover, as the identified Y sequences were not detected on the Y chromosomes of closely related tephritids, we can infer divergence in the repetitive nature of their sequence contents. Conclusions/Significance The identification of Y-linked sequences may tell us much about the repetitive nature, the origin and the evolution of Y chromosomes. We hypothesize how these repetitive sequences accumulated and were maintained on the Y chromosome during its evolutionary history. Our data reinforce the idea that the

  20. LARVAL X-RAY IRRADIATION INFLUENCES PROTEIN EXPRESSION IN PUPAE OF THE ORIENTAL FRUIT FLY, BACTROCERA DORSALIS.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chiou Ling; Goodman, Cynthia L; Ringbauer, Joseph; Geib, Scott M; Stanley, David

    2016-07-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) was developed to eradicate the new world screwworm from the southern United States and Mexico, and became a component of many area-wide integrated pest management programs, particularly useful in managing tephritid fruit flies. SIT is based on the idea of rearing and sterilizing male pests, originally by ionizing radiation, and then releasing into field, where they compete for and mate with wild females. Mating with sterile males leads to reduced fecundity to lower pest populations. There are concerns with the use and distribution of radioisotopes for SIT programs, which have led to developing X-ray irradiation protocols to sterilize insects. We considered the possibility that X-ray irradiation exerts sublethal impacts aside form sterilizing insects. Such effects may not be directly observable, which led us to the hypothesis that X-ray irradiation in one life stage creates alterations in biological fitness and protein expression in the subsequent stage. We tested our hypothesis by irradiating larvae of Bactrocera dorsalis. There are two major points. One, exposing larvae to X-ray treatments led to reduced adult emergence, fecundity, fertility, and flight capacity from the corresponding pupae and emerged adults. Two, the X-ray treatments led to substantial expression changes in 27 pupal proteins. We assorted the 67 spots representing these proteins into three groups, metabolism, development, and structure. Our interpretation is these X-ray induced changes in biological performance and protein expression indicate their adult counterparts may be disabled in their abilities to successfully compete for and mate wild females in native habitats.

  1. Identification, characterization and target gene analysis of testicular microRNAs in the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis.

    PubMed

    Tariq, K; Peng, W; Saccone, G; Zhang, H

    2016-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate various diverse biological processes including insect spermatogenesis. The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is one of the most destructive horticultural pests in East Asia and the Pacific region. Although developmental miRNA profiles of B. dorsalis have enriched our knowledge, specific testicular miRNAs in this dipteran species are unexplored. In this study, we identified miRNAs from B. dorsalis testes by deep sequencing, which provided an overview of miRNA expression during spermatogenesis. Small RNA libraries were constructed from the testes of fully mature (FM), immature (IM) and middle-aged (MA) adult flies of B. dorsalis. Small RNA sequencing and data analysis revealed 172 known and 78 novel miRNAs amongst these libraries. Pairwise comparisons of libraries led to the identification of 24, 15 and 14 differentially expressed miRNAs in FM vs. IM, FM vs. MA and IM vs. MA insects, respectively. Using a bioinformatic approach, we predicted 124 target genes against the 13 most differentially expressed miRNAs. Furthermore, the expression patterns of six randomly selected miRNAs (from the 13 most differentially expressed miRNAs) and their putative target genes (from the 124 predicted target genes) were analysed in the testis of B. dorsalis by quantitative real-time PCR, which showed that out of six, four tested miRNAs-mRNAs had an inverse expression pattern and are probably co-regulated. This study is the first comparative profile of the miRNA transcriptome in three developmental stages of the testis, and provides a useful resource for further studies on the role of miRNAs in spermatogenesis in B. dorsalis. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

  2. Phenotypes, antioxidant responses, and gene expression changes accompanying a sugar-only diet in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Er-Hu; Hou, Qiu-Li; Wei, Dan-Dan; Jiang, Hong-Bo; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2017-08-17

    Diet composition (yeast:carbohydrate ratio) is an important determinant of growth, development, and reproduction. Recent studies have shown that decreased yeast intake elicits numerous transcriptomic changes and enhances somatic maintenance and lifespan, which in turn reduces reproduction in various insects. However, our understanding of the responses leading to a decrease in yeast ratio to 0% is limited. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a sugar-only diet (SD) on the gene expression patterns of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), one of the most economically important pests in the family Tephritidae. RNA sequencing analyses showed that flies reared on an SD induced significant changes in the expression levels of genes associated with specific metabolic as well as cell growth and death pathways. Moreover, the observed upregulated genes in energy production and downregulated genes associated with reproduction suggested that SD affects somatic maintenance and reproduction in B. dorsalis. As expected, we observed that SD altered B. dorsalis phenotypes by significantly increasing stress (starvation and desiccation) resistance, decreasing reproduction, but did not extend lifespan compared to those that received a normal diet (ND) regime. In addition, administration of an SD resulted in a reduction in antioxidant enzyme activities and an increase in MDA concentrations, thereby suggesting that antioxidants cannot keep up with the increase in oxidative damage induced by SD regime. The application of an SD diet induces changes in phenotypes, antioxidant responses, and gene expressions in B. dorsalis. Previous studies have associated extended lifespan with reduced fecundity. The current study did not observe a prolongation of lifespan in B. dorsalis, which instead incurred oxidative damage. The findings of the present study improve our understanding of the molecular, biochemical, and phenotypic response of B. dorsalis to an SD diet.

  3. Transcriptome profiling of the testis reveals genes involved in spermatogenesis and marker discovery in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    PubMed

    Wei, D; Li, H-M; Yang, W-J; Wei, D-D; Dou, W; Huang, Y; Wang, J-J

    2015-02-01

    The testis is a highly specialized tissue that plays a vital role in ensuring fertility by producing spermatozoa, which are transferred to the female during mating. Spermatogenesis is a complex process, resulting in the production of mature sperm, and involves significant structural and biochemical changes in the seminiferous epithelium of the adult testis. The identification of genes involved in spermatogenesis of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is critical for a better understanding of its reproductive development. In this study, we constructed a cDNA library of testes from male B. dorsalis adults at different ages, and performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce a comprehensive transcript data set, using Illumina sequencing technology. The analysis yielded 52 016 732 clean reads, including a total of 4.65 Gb of nucleotides. These reads were assembled into 47 677 contigs (average 443 bp) and then clustered into 30 516 unigenes (average 756 bp). Based on BLAST hits with known proteins in different databases, 20 921 unigenes were annotated with a cut-off E-value of 10(-5). The transcriptome sequences were further annotated using the Clusters of Orthologous Groups, Gene Orthology and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases. Functional genes involved in spermatogenesis were analysed, including cell cycle proteins, metalloproteins, actin, and ubiquitin and antihyperthermia proteins. Several testis-specific genes were also identified. The transcripts database will help us to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying spermatogenesis in B. dorsalis. Furthermore, 2913 simple sequence repeats and 151 431 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified, which will be useful for investigating the genetic diversity of B. dorsalis in the future. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

  4. Segmentation gene expression patterns in Bactrocera dorsalis and related insects: regulation and shape of blastoderm and larval cuticle.

    PubMed

    Suksuwan, Worramin; Cai, Xiaoli; Ngernsiri, Lertluk; Baumgartner, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is regarded as a severe pest of fruit production in Asia. Despite its economic importance, only limited information regarding the molecular and developmental biology of this insect is known to date. We provide a detailed analysis of B. dorsalis embryology, as well as the expression patterns of a number of segmentation genes known to act during patterning of Drosophila and compare these to the patterns of other insect families. An anterior shift of the expression of gap genes was detected when compared to Drosophila. This shift was largely restored during the step where the gap genes control expression of the pair-rule genes. We analyzed and compared the shapes of the embryos of insects of different families, B. dorsalis and the blow fly Lucilia sericata with that of the well-characterized Drosophila melanogaster. We found distinct shapes as well as differences in the ratios of the length of the anterior-posterior axis and the dorsal-ventral axis. These features were integrated into a profile of how the expression patterns of the gap gene Krüppel and the pair-rule gene even-skipped were observed along the A-P axis in three insects families. Since significant differences were observed, we discuss how Krüppel controls the even-skipped stripes. Furthermore, we discuss how the position and angles of the segmentation gene stripes differed from other insects. Finally, we analyzed the outcome of the expression patterns of the late acting segment polarity genes in relation to the anlagen of the naked-cuticle and denticle belt area of the B. dorsalis larva.

  5. Sequence analysis of mitochondrial ND1 gene can reveal the genetic structure and origin of Bactrocera dorsalis s.s.

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., is one of the most important quarantine pests in many countries, including China. Although the oriental fruit fly has been investigated extensively, its origins and genetic structure remain disputed. In this study, the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1) gene was used as a genetic marker to examine the genetic diversity, population structure, and gene flow of B. dorsalis s.s. throughout its range in China and southeast Asia. Results Haplotype networks and phylogenetic analysis indicated two distinguishable lineages of the fly population but provided no strong support for geographical subdivision in B. philippinensis. Demographic analysis revealed rapid expansion of B. dorsalis s.s. populations in China and Southeast Asia in the recent years. The greatest amount of genetic diversity was observed in Manila, Pattaya, and Bangkok, and asymmetric migration patterns were observed in different parts of China. The data collected here further show that B. dorsalis s.s. in Yunnan, Guangdong, and Fujian Provinces, and in Taiwan might have different origins within southeast Asia. Conclusions Using the mitochondrial ND1 gene, the results of the present study showed B. dorsalis s.s. from different parts of China to have different genetic structures and origins. B. dorsalis s.s. in China and southeast Asia was found to have experienced rapid expansion in recent years. Data further support the existence of two distinguishable lineages of B. dorsalis s.s. in China and indicate genetic diversity and gene flow from multiple origins. The sequences in this paper have been deposited in GenBank/NCBI under accession numbers KC413034–KC413367. PMID:24655832

  6. Sequence analysis of mitochondrial ND1 gene can reveal the genetic structure and origin of Bactrocera dorsalis s.s.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhong-Zhen; Li, Hong-Mei; Bin, Shu-Ying; Ma, Jun; He, Hua-Liang; Li, Xian-Feng; Gong, Fei-Liang; Lin, Jin-Tian

    2014-03-21

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., is one of the most important quarantine pests in many countries, including China. Although the oriental fruit fly has been investigated extensively, its origins and genetic structure remain disputed. In this study, the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1) gene was used as a genetic marker to examine the genetic diversity, population structure, and gene flow of B. dorsalis s.s. throughout its range in China and southeast Asia. Haplotype networks and phylogenetic analysis indicated two distinguishable lineages of the fly population but provided no strong support for geographical subdivision in B. philippinensis. Demographic analysis revealed rapid expansion of B. dorsalis s.s. populations in China and Southeast Asia in the recent years. The greatest amount of genetic diversity was observed in Manila, Pattaya, and Bangkok, and asymmetric migration patterns were observed in different parts of China. The data collected here further show that B. dorsalis s.s. in Yunnan, Guangdong, and Fujian Provinces, and in Taiwan might have different origins within southeast Asia. Using the mitochondrial ND1 gene, the results of the present study showed B. dorsalis s.s. from different parts of China to have different genetic structures and origins. B. dorsalis s.s. in China and southeast Asia was found to have experienced rapid expansion in recent years. Data further support the existence of two distinguishable lineages of B. dorsalis s.s. in China and indicate genetic diversity and gene flow from multiple origins.The sequences in this paper have been deposited in GenBank/NCBI under accession numbers KC413034-KC413367.

  7. Overexpression of two α-esterase genes mediates metabolic resistance to malathion in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    PubMed

    Wang, L-L; Huang, Y; Lu, X-P; Jiang, X-Z; Smagghe, G; Feng, Z-J; Yuan, G-R; Wei, D; Wang, J-J

    2015-08-01

    Esterase has been reported to be involved in malathion resistance in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). However, the underlying molecular mechanism of the esterase-mediated resistance remains largely unknown in this species. Here, with the use of a strain selected for malathion resistance in the laboratory (MR), we found that two overexpressed α-esterase genes, namely BdCarE4 and BdCarE6, predominant in the adult midgut and fat body, function in conferring malathion resistance in B. dorsalis. Notably, these two genes were found to be mostly close to the esterase E3, which are usually implicated in detoxifying organophosphate insecticides. The transcript levels of BdCarE4 and BdCarE6 were investigated and compared between the MR and a susceptible (MS) strain of B. dorsalis. Both genes were significantly up-regulated in the MR strain, which was consistent with the enhanced esterase activity in the MR strain. However, no changes in either the coding sequence or gene copy number were observed between the two strains. Subsequently, heterologous expression combined with cytotoxicity assay in Sf9 cells demonstrated that BdCarE4 and BdCarE6 can probably detoxify malathion. Furthermore, RNA interference-mediated knockdown of each of these two genes significantly increased malathion susceptibility in the MR strain adults. In conclusion, these results expand our molecular understanding of the important role of α-esterases during the development of resistance to organophosphorous insecticides in B. dorsalis. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

  8. The epsilon glutathione S-transferases contribute to the malathion resistance in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    PubMed

    Lu, Xue-Ping; Wang, Luo-Luo; Huang, Yong; Dou, Wei; Chen, Chang-Tong; Wei, Dong; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2016-02-01

    Epsilon glutathione S-transferases (eGSTs) play important roles in xenobiotics detoxification and insecticides resistance in insects. However, the molecular mechanisms of eGSTs-mediated insecticide resistance remain largely unknown in the Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), one of the most notorious pests in the world. Here, we investigated the roles of eight GST genes which belonged to epsilon class (BdGSTe1, BdGSTe2, BdGSTe3, BdGSTe4, BdGSTe5, BdGSTe6, BdGSTe7 and BdGSTe9) in conferring malathion resistance in B. dorsalis. Adult developmental stage-, sex- and tissue-specific expression patterns of the eight eGST genes were analyzed via quantitative reverse transcription PCR. The results showed that BdGSTe2, BdGSTe3, BdGSTe4 and BdGSTe9 were abundant in the midgut, fat body and Malpighian tubules. Notably, BdGSTe2, BdGSTe4 and BdGSTe9 were significantly overexpressed in a malathion-resistant (MR) strain of B. dorsalis compared to the malathion-susceptible (MS) strain. Functional expression and cytotoxicity assays showed significantly higher malathion detoxification capabilities in BdGSTe2-, BdGSTe3-, BdGSTe4- and BdGSTe9-expressing Sf9 cells compared to the parental and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing Sf9 cells. Moreover, malathion susceptibility in MS adults was increased 30%, 14%, and 33% when BdGSTe2, BdGSTe3 and BdGSTe4 mRNA levels were repressed by RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown, respectively. Taken together, overexpression of the isoforms of eGSTs, including BdGSTe2, BdGSTe4, and particularly, BdGSTe9 plays an important role in the malathion resistant development in B. dorsalis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Discovery of Genes Related to Insecticide Resistance in Bactrocera dorsalis by Functional Genomic Analysis of a De Novo Assembled Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Ju-Chun; Wu, Wen-Jer; Feng, Hai-Tung; Haymer, David S.; Chen, Chien-Yu

    2012-01-01

    Insecticide resistance has recently become a critical concern for control of many insect pest species. Genome sequencing and global quantization of gene expression through analysis of the transcriptome can provide useful information relevant to this challenging problem. The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is one of the world's most destructive agricultural pests, and recently it has been used as a target for studies of genetic mechanisms related to insecticide resistance. However, prior to this study, the molecular data available for this species was largely limited to genes identified through homology. To provide a broader pool of gene sequences of potential interest with regard to insecticide resistance, this study uses whole transcriptome analysis developed through de novo assembly of short reads generated by next-generation sequencing (NGS). The transcriptome of B. dorsalis was initially constructed using Illumina's Solexa sequencing technology. Qualified reads were assembled into contigs and potential splicing variants (isotigs). A total of 29,067 isotigs have putative homologues in the non-redundant (nr) protein database from NCBI, and 11,073 of these correspond to distinct D. melanogaster proteins in the RefSeq database. Approximately 5,546 isotigs contain coding sequences that are at least 80% complete and appear to represent B. dorsalis genes. We observed a strong correlation between the completeness of the assembled sequences and the expression intensity of the transcripts. The assembled sequences were also used to identify large numbers of genes potentially belonging to families related to insecticide resistance. A total of 90 P450-, 42 GST-and 37 COE-related genes, representing three major enzyme families involved in insecticide metabolism and resistance, were identified. In addition, 36 isotigs were discovered to contain target site sequences related to four classes of resistance genes. Identified sequence motifs were also analyzed to

  10. Thermal plasticity is related to the hardening response of heat shock protein expression in two Bactrocera fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jun-tao; Chen, Bing; Li, Zhi-hong

    2014-08-01

    It is generally believed that widely distributed species differ in their thermal plasticity from narrowly distributed species, but how differences in thermal plasticity are regulated at the molecular level remains largely unknown. Here, we conducted a comparative study of two closely related invasive fruit fly species, Bactrocera correcta and Bactroceradorsalis, in China. The two species had overlapping distributions, but B. dorsalis had a much wider range throughout the country and a longer invasive history than B. correcta. We first examined the effects of thermal acclimation on the ability of the two fruit flies to survive heat stress. The heat shock tolerance of B. dorsalis was significantly enhanced by heat hardening at 35, 37, 39 and 41°C, but that of B. correcta was only enhanced by heat hardening at 39°C and 41°C. Thus, the more widespread species has a higher thermal plasticity than the narrowly distributed species. We then determined the expression of Hsp70 and Hsp90 during different developmental stages and their responses to thermal hardening. The expression of both Hsp70 and Hsp90 in larvae was upregulated in response to heat hardening, starting at 35°C for B. dorsalis and at 39°C for B. correcta. The two species exhibited a highly consistent pattern of thermal response in terms of their heat shock survival rates and levels of Hsp gene expression. The results suggest that the difference in thermal plasticity may be responsible for the different distributions of the two species and that Hsp expression may be involved in the regulation of thermal plasticity. Our findings have important implications for the prediction of the thermal limits and ecological responses of related species in nature.

  11. Phenetic structure of two Bactrocera tau cryptic species (Diptera: Tephritidae) infesting Momordica cochinchinensis (Cucurbitaceae) in Thailand and Laos.

    PubMed

    Dujardin, Jean-Pierre; Kitthawee, Sangvorn

    2013-04-01

    Morphometric variation with respect to wing venation patterns was explored for 777 specimens of the Bactrocera tau complex collected in Thailand (nine provinces) and Laos (one locality). Cryptic species B. tau A and C were identified based on their wing shape similarity to published reference images. In Thailand, the B. tau A species was identified in four provinces and the B. tau C species in seven provinces, and both species in one locality of Laos. The objective of the study was to explain the geographic variation of size and shape in two cryptic species collected from the same host (Momordica cochinchinensis). Although collected from the same host, the two species did not show the same morphological variance: it was higher in the B. tau A species, which currently infests a wide range of different fruit species, than in the B. tau C species, which is specific to only one fruit (M. cochinchinensis). Moreover, the two species showed a different population structure. An isolation by distance model was apparent in both sexes of species C, while it was not detected in species A. Thus, the metric differences were in apparent accordance with the known behavior of these species, either as a generalist (species A) or as a specialist (species C), and for each species our data suggested different sources of shape diversity: genetic drift for species C, variety of host plants (and probably also pest-host-relationship) for species A. In addition to these distinctions, the larger species, B. tau C, showed less sexual size and shape dimorphism. The data presented here confirm the previously established wing shape differences between the two cryptic species. Character displacement has been discussed as a possible origin of this interspecific variation. The addition of previously published data on species A from other hosts allowed the testing of the character displacement hypothesis. The hypothesis was rejected for interspecific shape differences, but was maintained for size

  12. Analysis of the Olive Fruit Fly Bactrocera oleae Transcriptome and Phylogenetic Classification of the Major Detoxification Gene Families.

    PubMed

    Pavlidi, Nena; Dermauw, Wannes; Rombauts, Stephane; Chrysargyris, Antonios; Chrisargiris, Antonis; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Vontas, John

    2013-01-01

    The olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae has a unique ability to cope with olive flesh, and is the most destructive pest of olives worldwide. Its control has been largely based on the use of chemical insecticides, however, the selection of insecticide resistance against several insecticides has evolved. The study of detoxification mechanisms, which allow the olive fruit fly to defend against insecticides, and/or phytotoxins possibly present in the mesocarp, has been hampered by the lack of genomic information in this species. In the NCBI database less than 1,000 nucleotide sequences have been deposited, with less than 10 detoxification gene homologues in total. We used 454 pyrosequencing to produce, for the first time, a large transcriptome dataset for B. oleae. A total of 482,790 reads were assembled into 14,204 contigs. More than 60% of those contigs (8,630) were larger than 500 base pairs, and almost half of them matched with genes of the order of the Diptera. Analysis of the Gene Ontology (GO) distribution of unique contigs, suggests that, compared to other insects, the assembly is broadly representative for the B. oleae transcriptome. Furthermore, the transcriptome was found to contain 55 P450, 43 GST-, 15 CCE- and 18 ABC transporter-genes. Several of those detoxification genes, may putatively be involved in the ability of the olive fruit fly to deal with xenobiotics, such as plant phytotoxins and insecticides. In summary, our study has generated new data and genomic resources, which will substantially facilitate molecular studies in B. oleae, including elucidation of detoxification mechanisms of xenobiotic, as well as other important aspects of olive fruit fly biology.

  13. Pupal X-ray irradiation influences protein expression in adults of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chiou Ling; Villalun, MaryAnn; Geib, Scott M; Goodman, Cynthia L; Ringbauer, Joseph; Stanley, David

    2015-05-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a pest of fruit in the Asia-Pacific region and also, due to quarantine restrictions, a threat to California fruit production. Area-wide suppression of B. dorsalis integrated several approaches including the sterile insect technique (SIT). SIT involves exposing juveniles to gamma radiation and releasing sterile males in substantial numbers, where they successfully compete for wild females. The resulting infertile eggs lead to reduction of the pest populations. Although these protocols are well documented, arising issues about the international transport and distribution of radioactive products is creating difficulties in use of radioactive sources for sterilizing radiation. This led to a shift toward use of X-ray irradiation, which also sterilizes male and female insects. However, use of X-ray technologies is in its infancy and there is virtually no information on the effects of irradiation, other than sterilization, at the physiological and molecular levels of fruit fly biology. We posed the hypothesis that sterilizing male oriental fruit flies via radiation treatment also influences protein expression in the flies. We found that exposing pupae to X-ray irradiation impacted expression of 26 proteins in adult females and 31 proteins in adult males. Seven proteins (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, larval cuticle protein 2, sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein alpha-B and A chains, general odorant-binding protein 99b, polyubiquitin, and protein disulfide-isomerase) were impacted in both sexes. Some of the proteins act in central energy-generating and in pheromone-signal processing pathways; we infer that males sterilized by X-ray irradiation may be enfeebled in their ability to compete with wild males for females in nature.

  14. Identification of Male- and Female-Specific Olfaction Genes in Antennae of the Oriental Fruit Fly (Bactrocera dorsalis).

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhao; Smagghe, Guy; Lei, Zhongren; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2016-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) is a species of tephritid fruit fly, endemic to Southeast Asia but also introduced to many regions of the US, and it is one of the major pest species with a broad host range of cultivated and wild fruits. Although males of B. dorsalis respond strongly to methyl eugenol and this is used for monitoring and estimating populations, the molecular mechanism of the oriental fruit fly olfaction has not been elucidated yet. Therefore, in this project, using next generation sequencing technologies, we sequenced the transcriptome of the antennae of male and female adults of B. dorsalis. We identified a total of 20 candidate odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 5 candidate chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 35 candidate odorant receptors (ORs), 12 candidate ionotropic receptors (IRs) and 4 candidate sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs). The sex-specific expression of these genes was determined and a subset of 9 OR genes was further characterized by qPCR with male and female antenna, head, thorax, abdomen, leg and wing samples. In the male antennae, 595 genes showed a higher expression, while 128 genes demonstrated a higher expression in the female antennae. Interestingly, 2 ORs (BdorOR13 and BdorOR14) were highly and specifically expressed in the antennae of males, and 4 ORs (BdorOR13, BdorOR16, BdorOR18 and BdorOR35) clustered with DmOR677, suggesting pheromone reception. We believe this study with these antennae-enriched OBPs, CSPs, ORs, IRs and SNMPs can play an important role in the detection of pheromones and general odorants, and so in turn our data improve our current understanding of insect olfaction at the molecular level and provide important information for disrupting the behavior of the oriental fruit fly using chemical communication methods.

  15. Olive Fruit Fly (Bactrocera oleae) Population Dynamics in the Eastern Mediterranean: Influence of Exogenous Uncertainty on a Monophagous Frugivorous Insect.

    PubMed

    Ordano, Mariano; Engelhard, Izhar; Rempoulakis, Polychronis; Nemny-Lavy, Esther; Blum, Moshe; Yasin, Sami; Lensky, Itamar M; Papadopoulos, Nikos T; Nestel, David

    2015-01-01

    Despite of the economic importance of the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) and the large amount of biological and ecological studies on the insect, the factors driving its population dynamics (i.e., population persistence and regulation) had not been analytically investigated until the present study. Specifically, our study investigated the autoregressive process of the olive fly populations, and the joint role of intrinsic and extrinsic factors molding the population dynamics of the insect. Accounting for endogenous dynamics and the influences of exogenous factors such as olive grove temperature, the North Atlantic Oscillation and the presence of potential host fruit, we modeled olive fly populations in five locations in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Our models indicate that the rate of population change is mainly shaped by first and higher order non-monotonic, endogenous dynamics (i.e., density-dependent population feedback). The olive grove temperature was the main exogenous driver, while the North Atlantic Oscillation and fruit availability acted as significant exogenous factors in one of the five populations. Seasonal influences were also relevant for three of the populations. In spite of exogenous effects, the rate of population change was fairly stable along time. We propose that a special reproductive mechanism, such as reproductive quiescence, allows populations of monophagous fruit flies such as the olive fly to remain stable. Further, we discuss how weather factors could impinge constraints on the population dynamics at the local level. Particularly, local temperature dynamics could provide forecasting cues for management guidelines. Jointly, our results advocate for establishing monitoring programs and for a major focus of research on the relationship between life history traits and populations dynamics.

  16. Transcriptome Characterization Analysis of Bactrocera minax and New Insights into Its Pupal Diapause Development with Gene Expression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yongcheng; Desneux, Nicolas; Lei, Chaoliang; Niu, Changying

    2014-01-01

    Bactrocera minax is a major citrus pest distributed in China, Bhutan and India. The long pupal diapause duration of this fly is a major bottleneck for artificial rearing and underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Genetic information on B. minax transcriptome and gene expression profiles are needed to understand its pupal diapause. High-throughput RNA-seq technology was used to characterize the B. minax transcriptome and to identify differentially expressed genes during pupal diapause development. A total number of 52,519,948 reads were generated and assembled into 47,217 unigenes. 26,843 unigenes matched to proteins in the NCBI database using the BLAST search. Four digital gene expression (DGE) libraries were constructed for pupae at early diapause, late diapause, post-diapause and diapause terminated developmental status. 4,355 unigenes showing the differences expressed across four libraries revealed major shifts in cellular functions of cell proliferation, protein processing and export, metabolism and stress response in pupal diapause. When diapause was terminated by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), many genes involved in ribosome and metabolism were differentially expressed which may mediate diapause transition. The gene sets involved in protein and energy metabolisms varied throughout early-, late- and post-diapause. A total of 15 genes were selected to verify the DGE results through quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR); qRT-PCR expression levels strongly correlated with the DGE data. The results provided the extensive sequence resources available for B. minax and increased our knowledge on its pupal diapause development and they shed new light on the possible mechanisms involved in pupal diapause in this species. PMID:25285037

  17. MicroRNAs in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis: extending Drosophilid miRNA conservation to the Tephritidae.

    PubMed

    Calla, Bernarda; Geib, Scott M

    2015-10-05

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is an important plant pest species in the family Tephritidae. It is a phytophagous species with broad host range, and while not established in the mainland United States, is a species of great concern for introduction. Despite the vast amount of information available from the closely related model organism Drosophila melanogaster, information at the genome and transcriptome level is still very limited for this species. Small RNAs act as regulatory molecules capable of determining transcript levels in the cells. The most studied small RNAs are micro RNAs, which may impact as much as 30 % of all protein coding genes in animals. We have sequenced small RNAs (sRNAs) from the Tephritid fruit fly, B. dorsalis (oriental fruit fly), specifically sRNAs corresponding to the 17 to 28 nucleotides long fraction of total RNA. Sequencing yielded more than 16 million reads in total. Seventy five miRNAs orthologous to known miRNAs were identified, as well as five additional novel miRNAs that might be specific to the genera, or to the Tephritid family. We constructed a gene expression profile for the identified miRNAs, and used comparative analysis with D. melanogaster to support our expression data. In addition, several miRNA clusters were identified in the genome that show conservancy with D. melanogaster. Potential targets for the identified miRNAs were also searched. The data presented here adds to our growing pool of information concerning the genome structure and characteristics of true fruit flies. It provides a basis for comparative studies with other Dipteran and within Tephritid species, and can be used for applied research such as in the development of new control strategies based on gene silencing and transgenesis.

  18. Purification and biochemical characterization of glutathione S-transferases from four field populations of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Hu, Fei; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jing-Jing; Jia, Fu-Xian; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2011-12-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a group of detoxification enzymes that catalyze the nucleophilic addition of glutathione to a wide variety of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. In this study, GSTs were purified from four field populations of Bactrocera dorsalis with different insecticide susceptibilities by glutathione-agarose affinity chromatography. The populations were collected from Dongguan (DG) and Guangzhou (GZ) of the Guangdong Province, Haikou of the Hainan province (HN), and Kunming of the Yunnan province (YN), China. Differences in GST characteristics among the four populations were studied using purified enzyme samples through comparative SDS-PAGE, kinetic, and inhibition experiments. The specific activities of the purified enzymes were similar, but the purification yield of the GZ population (31.54%) was the lowest. SDS-PAGE analysis showed only one band at approximately 23 kDa for these four populations. Kinetic analyses showed that the affinities of the purified GSTs from the GZ and YN populations for 1-chloro-2.4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) were much higher than those of GSTs from the other two populations, whereas the HN population had the highest catalytic capability in terms of V(max) value. The optimum temperature for CDNB conjugation was 37 °C and the optimum pH was 7.5 in all four populations. Inhibition kinetics showed that ethacrynic acid, diethyl maleate, tetraethylthiuram disulfide, curcumin, bromosulfalein, and β-cypermethrin had excellent inhibitory effects on GSTs in the four populations of B. dorsalis, but the low inhibitory effects of malathion and avermectin did not differ between populations. These results suggest that GSTs may have a role in detoxification of β-cypermethrin in B. dorsalis.

  19. Sex chromosomes and associated rDNA form a heterochromatic network in the polytene nuclei of Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Drosopoulou, Elena; Nakou, Ifigeneia; Síchová, Jindra; Kubíčková, Svatava; Marec, František; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope

    2012-06-01

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, has a diploid set of 2n = 12 chromosomes including a pair of sex chromosomes, XX in females and XY in males, but polytene nuclei show only five polytene chromosomes, obviously formed by five autosome pairs. Here we examined the fate of the sex chromosomes in the polytene complements of this species using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with the X and Y chromosome-derived probes, prepared by laser microdissection of the respective chromosomes from mitotic metaphases. Specificity of the probes was verified by FISH in preparations of mitotic chromosomes. In polytene nuclei, both probes hybridized strongly to a granular heterochromatic network, indicating thus underreplication of the sex chromosomes. The X chromosome probe (in both female and male nuclei) highlighted most of the granular mass, whereas the Y chromosome probe (in male nuclei) identified a small compact body of this heterochromatic network. Additional hybridization signals of the X probe were observed in the centromeric region of polytene chromosome II and in the telomeres of six polytene arms. We also examined distribution of the major ribosomal DNA (rDNA) using FISH with an 18S rDNA probe in both mitotic and polytene chromosome complements of B. oleae. In mitotic metaphases, the probe hybridized exclusively to the sex chromosomes. The probe signals localized a discrete rDNA site at the end of the short arm of the X chromosome, whereas they appeared dispersed over the entire dot-like Y chromosome. In polytene nuclei, the rDNA was found associated with the heterochromatic network representing the sex chromosomes. Only in nuclei with preserved nucleolar structure, the probe signals were scattered in the restricted area of the nucleolus. Thus, our study clearly shows that the granular heterochromatic network of polytene nuclei in B. oleae is formed by the underreplicated sex chromosomes and associated rDNA.

  20. Interchromosomal duplications on the Bactrocera oleae Y chromosome imply a distinct evolutionary origin of the sex chromosomes compared to Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Gabrieli, Paolo; Gomulski, Ludvik M; Bonomi, Angelica; Siciliano, Paolo; Scolari, Francesca; Franz, Gerald; Jessup, Andrew; Malacrida, Anna R; Gasperi, Giuliano

    2011-03-07

    Diptera have an extraordinary variety of sex determination mechanisms, and Drosophila melanogaster is the paradigm for this group. However, the Drosophila sex determination pathway is only partially conserved and the family Tephritidae affords an interesting example. The tephritid Y chromosome is postulated to be necessary to determine male development. Characterization of Y sequences, apart from elucidating the nature of the male determining factor, is also important to understand the evolutionary history of sex chromosomes within the Tephritidae. We studied the Y sequences from the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae. Its Y chromosome is minute and highly heterochromatic, and displays high heteromorphism with the X chromosome. A combined Representational Difference Analysis (RDA) and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) approach was used to investigate the Y chromosome to derive information on its sequence content. The Y chromosome is strewn with repetitive DNA sequences, the majority of which are also interdispersed in the pericentromeric regions of the autosomes. The Y chromosome appears to have accumulated small and large repetitive interchromosomal duplications. The large interchromosomal duplications harbour an importin-4-like gene fragment. Apart from these importin-4-like sequences, the other Y repetitive sequences are not shared with the X chromosome, suggesting molecular differentiation of these two chromosomes. Moreover, as the identified Y sequences were not detected on the Y chromosomes of closely related tephritids, we can infer divergence in the repetitive nature of their sequence contents. The identification of Y-linked sequences may tell us much about the repetitive nature, the origin and the evolution of Y chromosomes. We hypothesize how these repetitive sequences accumulated and were maintained on the Y chromosome during its evolutionary history. Our data reinforce the idea that the sex chromosomes of the Tephritidae may have distinct evolutionary

  1. Efficacy of new mass-trapping devices against Bactrocera oleae (Diptera tephritidae) for minimizing pesticide input in agroecosystems.

    PubMed

    Noce, Maria E; Belfiore, Tiziana; Scalercio, Stefano; Vizzarri, Veronica; Iannotta, Nino

    2009-06-01

    Decreasing pesticide use in olive groves is central to controlling pathogens and pests such as Bactrocera oleae. This has led to the development of mass trapping devices which not only minimize pesticide use but, with improved efficacy of attractants, also decrease costs associated with pest control and ensures that the quality of olive oil is safe for human consumption. This study was undertaken to test a new device which utilizes reduced quantities of both insecticide (lambda-cyalothrin) as well as the female olive fly pheromone (1,7-dioxaspiro-(5.5)-undecane). The new device was tested against an older device manufactured by the same company. The use of plastic polymers as substrate for encapsulating the pheromone allowed for a slower pheromone release, prolonging the efficacy and duration and thus reducing costs. The density of adult populations was monitored using yellow chromotropic traps that were checked every ten days and the degree of olive infestation, as determined by preimago stages, was assessed by analyzing 100 drupes per plot. Infestation analyses were performed every ten days. The control plot had the lowest density of adults and the highest drupe infestation rate. The new devices were more effective than the older devices in both attracting adults and controlling infestation of drupes. Moreover, the new devices containing reduced amounts of pheromone and insecticide were cheaper and exhibited longer functional efficacy. In addition to the slower release of attractants, the plastic polymers used in these newer devices were also more resistant to mechanical and weather degradations. Results demonstrate that mass trapping can indeed be an effective means of controlling B. oleae via eco-sustainable olive farming.

  2. Existence of species complex largely reduced barcoding success for invasive species of Tephritidae: a case study in Bactrocera spp.

    PubMed

    Jiang, F; Jin, Q; Liang, L; Zhang, A B; Li, Z H

    2014-11-01

    Fruit flies in the family Tephritidae are the economically important pests that have many species complexes. DNA barcoding has gradually been verified as an effective tool for identifying species in a wide range of taxonomic groups, and there are several publications on rapid and accurate identification of fruit flies based on this technique; however, comprehensive analyses of large and new taxa for the effectiveness of DNA barcoding for fruit flies identification have been rare. In this study, we evaluated the COI barcode sequences for the diagnosis of fruit flies using 1426 sequences for 73 species of Bactrocera distributed worldwide. Tree-based [neighbour-joining (NJ)]; distance-based, such as Best Match (BM), Best Close Match (BCM) and Minimum Distance (MD); and character-based methods were used to evaluate the barcoding success rates obtained with maintaining the species complex in the data set, treating a species complex as a single taxon unit, and removing the species complex. Our results indicate that the average divergence between species was 14.04% (0.00-25.16%), whereas within a species this was 0.81% (0.00-9.71%); the existence of species complexes largely reduced the barcoding success for Tephritidae, for example relatively low success rates (74.4% based on BM and BCM and 84.8% based on MD) were obtained when the sequences from species complexes were included in the analysis, whereas significantly higher success rates were achieved if the species complexes were treated as a single taxon or removed from the data set - BM (98.9%), BCM (98.5%) and MD (97.5%), or BM (98.1%), BCM (97.4%) and MD (98.2%). © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Active ingredients in cade oil that synergize attractiveness of alpha-ionol to male Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    McQuate, Grant T; Keum, Young Soo; Sylva, Charmaine D; Li, Qing X; Jang, Eric B

    2004-06-01

    Cade oil, a commercially available essential oil produced by destructive distillation of juniper, Juniperus oxycedrus L., twigs, is known to synergize the attractancy of alpha-ionol to male Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel). Through chemical fractionation and outdoor olfactometer-based bioassays, seven compounds in cade oil were identified that potentially could provide some level of synergism. Tests with sterile laboratory flies showed that four of the seven compounds (eugenol, isoeugenol, 2-methoxy-4-ethylphenol, and 2-methoxy-4-propylphenol), together with a closely related compound not found in cade oil, 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol, are capable of synergizing the attractiveness of alpha-ionol to male B. latifrons under field conditions. The similarity in structures of these five synergistic compounds shows that there is a response to a core 2-methoxyphenol structure, with fly response little affected by some variation in the composition of the side chain on the number 4 carbon. Because identified synergists were structurally similar, only one compound, eugenol, was selected for further field studies. In an 8-wk weathering test, using released sterile flies, traps baited with alpha-ionol + eugenol had catches comparable with catches at traps baited with alpha-ionol + cade oil, with catches generally increased with a higher eugenol loading. For both eugenol and cade oil, catches tended to be better when these synergists were deployed on separate wicks from the alpha-ionol. Eugenol and alpha-ionol, however, were unable to provide attraction comparable with that of cade oil and alpha-ionol in tests with wild fly populations.

  4. Australian endemic pest tephritids: genetic, molecular and microbial tools for improved Sterile Insect Technique.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Kathryn A; Shearman, Deborah C A; Gilchrist, A Stuart; Sved, John A; Morrow, Jennifer L; Sherwin, William B; Riegler, Markus; Frommer, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Among Australian endemic tephritid fruit flies, the sibling species Bactrocera tryoni and Bactrocera neohumeralis have been serious horticultural pests since the introduction of horticulture in the nineteenth century. More recently, Bactrocera jarvisi has also been declared a pest in northern Australia. After several decades of genetic research there is now a range of classical and molecular genetic tools that can be used to develop improved Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) strains for control of these pests. Four-way crossing strategies have the potential to overcome the problem of inbreeding in mass-reared strains of B. tryoni. The ability to produce hybrids between B. tryoni and the other two species in the laboratory has proved useful for the development of genetically marked strains. The identification of Y-chromosome markers in B. jarvisi means that male and female embryos can be distinguished in any strain that carries a B. jarvisi Y chromosome. This has enabled the study of homologues of the sex-determination genes during development of B jarvisi and B. tryoni, which is necessary for the generation of genetic-sexing strains. Germ-line transformation has been established and a draft genome sequence for B. tryoni released. Transcriptomes from various species, tissues and developmental stages, to aid in identification of manipulation targets for improving SIT, have been assembled and are in the pipeline. Broad analyses of the microbiome have revealed a metagenome that is highly variable within and across species and defined by the environment. More specific analyses detected Wolbachia at low prevalence in the tropics but absent in temperate regions, suggesting a possible role for this endosymbiont in future control strategies.

  5. Australian endemic pest tephritids: genetic, molecular and microbial tools for improved Sterile Insect Technique

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Among Australian endemic tephritid fruit flies, the sibling species Bactrocera tryoni and Bactrocera neohumeralis have been serious horticultural pests since the introduction of horticulture in the nineteenth century. More recently, Bactrocera jarvisi has also been declared a pest in northern Australia. After several decades of genetic research there is now a range of classical and molecular genetic tools that can be used to develop improved Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) strains for control of these pests. Four-way crossing strategies have the potential to overcome the problem of inbreeding in mass-reared strains of B. tryoni. The ability to produce hybrids between B. tryoni and the other two species in the laboratory has proved useful for the development of genetically marked strains. The identification of Y-chromosome markers in B. jarvisi means that male and female embryos can be distinguished in any strain that carries a B. jarvisi Y chromosome. This has enabled the study of homologues of the sex-determination genes during development of B jarvisi and B. tryoni, which is necessary for the generation of genetic-sexing strains. Germ-line transformation has been established and a draft genome sequence for B. tryoni released. Transcriptomes from various species, tissues and developmental stages, to aid in identification of manipulation targets for improving SIT, have been assembled and are in the pipeline. Broad analyses of the microbiome have revealed a metagenome that is highly variable within and across species and defined by the environment. More specific analyses detected Wolbachia at low prevalence in the tropics but absent in temperate regions, suggesting a possible role for this endosymbiont in future control strategies. PMID:25470996

  6. Evaluation of endogenous references for gene expression profiling in different tissues of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) has been widely used for quantification of mRNA as a way to determine key genes involved in different biological processes. For accurate gene quantification analysis, normalization of RT-qPCR data is absolutely essential. To date, normalization is most frequently achieved by the use of internal controls, often referred to as reference genes. However, several studies have shown that the reference genes used for the quantification of mRNA expression can be affected by the experimental set-up or cell type resulting in variation of the expression level of these key genes. Therefore, the evaluation of reference genes is critical for gene expression profiling, which is often neglected in gene expression studies of insects. For this purpose, ten candidate reference genes were investigated in three different tissues (midgut, Malpighian tubules, and fat body) of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Results Two different programs, geNorm and Normfinder, were used to analyze the data. According to geNorm, α-TUB + ACT5 are the most appropriate reference genes for gene expression profiling across the three different tissues in the female flies, while ACT3 + α-TUB are considered as the best for males. Furthermore, we evaluated the stability of the candidate reference genes to determine the sexual differences in the same tissue. In the midgut and Malpighian tubules, ACT2 + α-TUB are the best choice for both males and females. However, α-TUB + ACT1 are the best pair for fat body. Meanwhile, the results calculated by Normfinder are quite the same as the results with geNorm; α-TUB is always one of the most stable genes in each sample validated by the two programs. Conclusions In this study, we validated the suitable reference genes for gene expression profiling in different tissues of B. dorsalis. Moreover, appropriate reference genes were selected out for gene expression profiling of the

  7. Ingestion toxicity of three Lamiaceae essential oils incorporated in protein baits against the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni; Conti, Barbara; Lenzi, Gabriele; Flamini, Guido; Francini, Alessandra; Cioni, Pier Luigi

    2013-01-01

    The ingestion toxicity of three Lamiaceae essential oils (EOs) - Hyptis suaveolens, Rosmarinus officinalis and Lavandula angustifolia - incorporated in protein baits was evaluated against Bactrocera oleae, a worldwide pest of olive fruits. In laboratory conditions, all the tested EOs showed dose-dependent toxicity on B. oleae, with mortality rates ranging from 12% (EO concentration: 0.01% w:v) to 100% (EO concentration: 1.75% w:v). Semi-field results highlighted the toxicity of L. angustifolia and H. suaveolens EOs, which exerted more than 60% of flies mortality at a concentration of 1.75% (w:v). Gas Chromatography-Electron Impact Mass Spectrometry analyses of the three EOs showed that H. suaveolens EO was dominated by monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. Oxygenated monoterpenes were the main chemical class in R. officinalis and L. angustifolia EOs. Further research is needed to evaluate the efficacy of these EOs plus food bait against the olive fruit fly in the open field.

  8. Molecular Characterization and Chromosomal Distribution of a Species-Specific Transcribed Centromeric Satellite Repeat from the Olive Fruit Fly, Bactrocera oleae

    PubMed Central

    Tsoumani, Konstantina T.; Drosopoulou, Elena; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Mathiopoulos, Kostas D.

    2013-01-01

    Satellite repetitive sequences that accumulate in the heterochromatin consist a large fraction of a genome and due to their properties are suggested to be implicated in centromere function. Current knowledge of heterochromatic regions of Bactrocera oleae genome, the major pest of the olive tree, is practically nonexistent. In our effort to explore the repetitive DNA portion of B. oleae genome, a novel satellite sequence designated BoR300 was isolated and cloned. The present study describes the genomic organization, abundance and chromosomal distribution of BoR300 which is organized in tandem, forming arrays of 298 bp-long monomers. Sequence analysis showed an AT content of 60.4%, a CENP-B like-motif and a high curvature value based on predictive models. Comparative analysis among randomly selected monomers demonstrated a high degree of sequence homogeneity (88% – 97%) of BoR300 repeats, which are present at approximately 3,000 copies per haploid genome accounting for about 0.28% of the total genomic DNA, based on two independent qPCR approaches. In addition, expression of the repeat was also confirmed through RT-PCR, by which BoR300 transcripts were detected in both sexes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of BoR300 on mitotic metaphases and polytene chromosomes revealed signals to the centromeres of two out of the six chromosomes which indicated a chromosome-specific centromeric localization. Moreover, BoR300 is not conserved in the closely related Bactrocera species tested and it is also absent in other dipterans, but it’s rather restricted to the B. oleae genome. This feature of species-specificity attributed to BoR300 satellite makes it a good candidate as an identification probe of the insect among its relatives at early development stages. PMID:24244494

  9. Characterizing the developmental transcriptome of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) through comparative genomic analysis with Drosophila melanogaster utilizing modENCODE datasets.

    PubMed

    Geib, Scott M; Calla, Bernarda; Hall, Brian; Hou, Shaobin; Manoukis, Nicholas C

    2014-10-28

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is an important pest of fruit and vegetable crops throughout Asia, and is considered a high risk pest for establishment in the mainland United States. It is a member of the family Tephritidae, which are the most agriculturally important family of flies, and can be considered an out-group to well-studied members of the family Drosophilidae. Despite their importance as pests and their relatedness to Drosophila, little information is present on B. dorsalis transcripts and proteins. The objective of this paper is to comprehensively characterize the transcripts present throughout the life history of B. dorsalis and functionally annotate and analyse these transcripts relative to the presence, expression, and function of orthologous sequences present in Drosophila melanogaster. We present a detailed transcriptome assembly of B. dorsalis from egg through adult stages containing 20,666 transcripts across 10,799 unigene components. Utilizing data available through Flybase and the modENCODE project, we compared expression patterns of these transcripts to putative orthologs in D. melanogaster in terms of timing, abundance, and function. In addition, temporal expression patterns in B. dorsalis were characterized between stages, to establish the constitutive or stage-specific expression patterns of particular transcripts. A fully annotated transcriptome assembly is made available through NCBI, in addition to corresponding expression data. Through characterizing the transcriptome of B. dorsalis through its life history and comparing the transcriptome of B. dorsalis to the model organism D. melanogaster, a database has been developed that can be used as the foundation to functional genomic research in Bactrocera flies and help identify orthologous genes between B. dorsalis and D. melanogaster. This data provides the foundation for future functional genomic research that will focus on improving our understanding of the physiology and

  10. Melon Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae), Infestation in Host Fruits in the Southwestern Islands of Japan Before the Initiation of Island-wide Population Suppression, as Recorded in Publications of Japanese Public Institutions

    PubMed Central

    McQuate, Grant T.; Teruya, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) is a tephritid fruit fly native to the Indo-Malayan region. Its distribution, though, has extended to include Africa, temperate Asia, and a number of Pacific islands. It became established in Japan in 1919 in the Yaeyama Islands and spread north in the Southwestern Islands of Japan. It was subsequently eradicated from these islands by an eradication program that extended from 1972 to 1993. As part of an effort to develop a worldwide database on the status of fruits as hosts of melon fly, the infestation data gathered from host fruits collected in this eradication program, before the initiation of suppression activities, are summarized here. Bactrocera cucurbitae infestation was documented in 24 plant taxa of four plant families (Caricaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Moraceae, and Solanaceae), with the following four new hosts identified: Ficus erecta Thunb., F. pumila L. (Moraceae), Solanum erianthum D. Don (Solanaceae), and Zehneria liukiuensis Jeffrey ex Walker (Cucurbitaceae). PMID:26816487

  11. Melon Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae), Infestation in Host Fruits in the Southwestern Islands of Japan Before the Initiation of Island-wide Population Suppression, as Recorded in Publications of Japanese Public Institutions.

    PubMed

    McQuate, Grant T; Teruya, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) is a tephritid fruit fly native to the Indo-Malayan region. Its distribution, though, has extended to include Africa, temperate Asia, and a number of Pacific islands. It became established in Japan in 1919 in the Yaeyama Islands and spread north in the Southwestern Islands of Japan. It was subsequently eradicated from these islands by an eradication program that extended from 1972 to 1993. As part of an effort to develop a worldwide database on the status of fruits as hosts of melon fly, the infestation data gathered from host fruits collected in this eradication program, before the initiation of suppression activities, are summarized here. Bactrocera cucurbitae infestation was documented in 24 plant taxa of four plant families (Caricaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Moraceae, and Solanaceae), with the following four new hosts identified: Ficus erecta Thunb., F. pumila L. (Moraceae), Solanum erianthum D. Don (Solanaceae), and Zehneria liukiuensis Jeffrey ex Walker (Cucurbitaceae).

  12. The cryptochrome (cry) Gene and a Mating Isolation Mechanism in Tephritid Fruit Flies

    PubMed Central

    An, Xin; Tebo, Molly; Song, Sunmi; Frommer, Marianne; Raphael, Kathryn A.

    2004-01-01

    Two sibling species of tephritid fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni and Bactrocera neohumeralis, are differentiated by their time of mating, which is genetically determined and requires interactions between the endogenous circadian clock and light intensity. The cryptochrome (cry) gene, a light-sensitive component of the circadian clock, was isolated in the two Bactrocera species. The putative amino acid sequence is identical in the two species. In the brain, in situ hybridization showed that cry is expressed in the lateral and dorsal regions of the central brain where PER immunostaining was also observed and in a peripheral cell cluster of the antennal lobes. Levels of cry mRNA were analyzed in whole head, brain, and antennae. In whole head, cry is abundantly and constantly expressed. However, in brain and antennae the transcript cycles in abundance, with higher levels during the day than at night, and cry transcripts are more abundant in the brain and antennae of B. neohumeralis than in that of B. tryoni. Strikingly, these results are duplicated in hybrid lines, generated by rare mating between B. tryoni and B. neohumeralis and then selected on the basis of mating time, suggesting a role for the cry gene in the mating isolation mechanism that differentiates the species. PMID:15611172

  13. Development of a genetic sexing strain in Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae) by introgression of sex sorting components from B. dorsalis, Salaya1 strain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock is a high profile key pest that is widely distributed in the southwestern ASEAN region. In addition, it has trans-continentally invaded Suriname, where it has been expanding east and southward since 1975. This fruit fly belongs to Bactrocera dorsalis species complex. The development and application of a genetic sexing strain (Salaya1) of B. dorsalis sensu stricto (s.s.) (Hendel) for the sterile insect technique (SIT) has improved the fruit fly control. However, matings between B. dorsalis s.s. and B. carambolae are incompatible, which hinder the application of the Salaya1 strain to control the carambola fruit fly. To solve this problem, we introduced genetic sexing components from the Salaya1 strain into the B. carambolae genome by interspecific hybridization. Results Morphological characteristics, mating competitiveness, male pheromone profiles, and genetic relationships revealed consistencies that helped to distinguish Salaya1 and B. carambolae strains. A Y-autosome translocation linking the dominant wild-type allele of white pupae gene and a free autosome carrying a recessive white pupae homologue from the Salaya1 strain were introgressed into the gene pool of B. carambolae. A panel of Y-pseudo-linked microsatellite loci of the Salaya1 strain served as markers for the introgression experiments. This resulted in a newly derived genetic sexing strain called Salaya5, with morphological characteristics corresponding to B. carambolae. The rectal gland pheromone profile of Salaya5 males also contained a distinctive component of B. carambolae. Microsatellite DNA analyses confirmed the close genetic relationships between the Salaya5 strain and wild B. carambolae populations. Further experiments showed that the sterile males of Salaya5 can compete with wild males for mating with wild females in field cage conditions. Conclusions Introgression of sex sorting components from the Salaya1 strain to a

  14. Functional analysis of a NF-κB transcription factor in the immune defense of Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Shi, Z; Liang, H; Hou, Y

    2017-04-01

    Although some novel antimicrobial peptides (AMP) have been successfully isolated from Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, the mechanisms underlying the induction of these peptides are still elusive. The homolog of NF-κB transcription factor Relish, designated as BdRelish, was cloned from B. dorsalis. The full length cDNA of BdRelish is 3954 bp with an open reading frame that encodes 1013 amino acids. Similar to Drosophila Relish and the mammalian p100, it is a compound protein containing a conserved Rel homology domain, an IPT (Ig-like, plexins, transcription factors) domain and an IκB-like domain (four ankyrin repeats), the nuclear localization signal RKRRR is also detected at the residues 449-453, suggesting that it has homology to Relish and it is a member of the Rel family of transcription activator proteins. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis reveals that BdRelish mRNAs are detected in different quantities from various tissues and the highest transcription level of BdRelish is determined in fat body. The injection challenge of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureas significantly upregulated the expression of BdRelish. The injection of BdRelish dsRNA markedly reduced the expression of BdRelish and decreased the transcription magnitude of antimicrobial peptides. Individuals injected BdRelish dsRNA died at a significantly faster rate compared with the control groups. Therefore, BdRelish is vital for the transcription of AMPs to attack the invading bacteria.

  15. De novo Cloning and Annotation of Genes Associated with Immunity, Detoxification and Energy Metabolism from the Fat Body of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wen-Jia; Yuan, Guo-Rui; Cong, Lin; Xie, Yi-Fei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2014-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a destructive pest in tropical and subtropical areas. In this study, we performed transcriptome-wide analysis of the fat body of B. dorsalis and obtained more than 59 million sequencing reads, which were assembled into 27,787 unigenes with an average length of 591 bp. Among them, 17,442 (62.8%) unigenes matched known proteins in the NCBI database. The assembled sequences were further annotated with gene ontology, cluster of orthologous group terms, and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes. In depth analysis was performed to identify genes putatively involved in immunity, detoxification, and energy metabolism. Many new genes were identified including serpins, peptidoglycan recognition proteins and defensins, which were potentially linked to immune defense. Many detoxification genes were identified, including cytochrome P450s, glutathione S-transferases and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Many new transcripts possibly involved in energy metabolism, including fatty acid desaturases, lipases, alpha amylases, and trehalose-6-phosphate synthases, were identified. Moreover, we randomly selected some genes to examine their expression patterns in different tissues by quantitative real-time PCR, which indicated that some genes exhibited fat body-specific expression in B. dorsalis. The identification of a numerous transcripts in the fat body of B. dorsalis laid the foundation for future studies on the functions of these genes. PMID:24710118

  16. Rectal gland of Bactrocera papayae: ultrastructure, anatomy, and sequestration of autofluorescent compounds upon methyl eugenol consumption by the male fruit fly.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Cynthia C H; Tan, Keng Hong

    2005-08-01

    Sexually mature males of Bactrocera papayae are strongly attracted to and consume methyl eugenol (ME). Upon consumption, ME is biotransformed to two phenylpropanoids, 2-allyl-4,5-dimethoxyphenol (DMP) and (E)-coniferyl alcohol (CF), that are transported in the hemolymph, sequestered and stored in the rectal glands, and subsequently released as sex and aggregation pheromones during courtship. To date, very little work on the ultrastructure and anatomy of the rectal gland has been done, and the accumulation of phenylpropanoids in the rectal glands of males has not been observed visually. Our objectives are to describe the anatomy and fine structures of the rectal glands of males and females and to observe the accumulation of autofluorescent compounds in the rectal glands of males. The rectal glands of males and females have four rectal papillae with each papilla attached to a rectal pad. The rectal pads protrude from the rectal gland as the only surfaces of the gland that are not surrounded by muscles. The rectal papillae of ME-fed males had oil droplets and autofluorescent compounds that were absent from those of ME-deprived males. The autofluorescent compounds accumulated in the rectal sac, which is an evagination that is not found in rectal glands of females. The accumulation of these compounds increased with time and reached maximum at a day post-ME feeding and decreased thereafter. This trend is similar to the accumulation pattern of phenylpropanoids, CF and DMP in the rectal gland.

  17. Genetic analysis of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations based on mitochondrial cox1 and nad1 gene sequences from India and other Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Jaipal S; Naaz, Naiyar; Prabhakar, Chandra S; Lemtur, Moanaro

    2016-10-01

    The study examined the genetic diversity and demographic history of Bactrocera dorsalis, a destructive and polyphagous insect pest of fruit crops in diverse geographic regions of India. 19 widely dispersed populations of the fly from India and other Asian countries were analysed using partial sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (nad1) genes to investigate genetic diversity, genetic structure, and demographic history in the region. Genetic diversity indices [number of haplotypes (H), haloptype diversity (Hd), nucleotide diversity (π) and average number of nucleotide difference (k)] of populations revealed that B. dorsalis maintains fairly high level of genetic diversity without isolation by distance among the geographic regions. Demographic analysis showed significant (negative) Tajimas' D and Fu's F S with non significant sum of squared deviations (SSD) values, which indicate the possibility of recent sudden expansion of species and is further supported through distinctively star-like distribution structure of haplotypes among populations. Thus, the results indicate that both ongoing and historical factors have played important role in determining the genetic structure and diversity of the species in India. Consequently, sterile insect technique (SIT) could be a possible management strategy of species in the regions.

  18. Molecular Cloning, Characterization and mRNA Expression of a Chitin Synthase 2 Gene from the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li; Yang, Wen-Jia; Cong, Lin; Xu, Kang-Kang; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Chitin synthase (CHS), a potential target for eco-friendly insecticides, plays an essential role in chitin formation in insects. In this study, a full-length cDNA encoding chitin synthase 2 (BdCHS2) was cloned and characterized in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. The BdCHS2 cDNA had 4417 nucleotides, containing an open reading frame of 4122 nucleotides, which encoded 1373 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 158.5 kDa. Phylogenetic analysis with other insect CHSs suggested that BdCHS2 belongs to insect CHS2. The BdCHS2 transcript was predominately found in midgut but was detected at low levels in fat body, Malpighian tubules, integument, and trachea. Moreover, BdCHS2 was expressed in all developmental stages, and highly expressed in the feeding stages. There was a positive relationship between BdCHS2 expression and total chitin content during development. Furthermore, both the gene expression and chitin content in midgut decreased when the insect was fed for 24 h, then starved for 24 h, while they increased dramatically and rapidly under the condition of starvation for 24 h then feeding for 24 h. These results suggest that BdCHS2 may play an important role in regulating chitin content of the midgut, and subsequently affect the growth and development of B. dorsalis. PMID:23965972

  19. Co-Infestation and Spatial Distribution of Bactrocera carambolae and Anastrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Common Guava in the Eastern Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Deus, E. G.; Godoy, W. A. C.; Sousa, M. S. M.; Lopes, G. N.; Jesus-Barros, C. R.; Silva, J. G.; Adaime, R.

    2016-01-01

    Field infestation and spatial distribution of introduced Bactrocera carambolae Drew and Hancock and native species of Anastrepha in common guavas [Psidium guajava (L.)] were investigated in the eastern Amazon. Fruit sampling was carried out in the municipalities of Calçoene and Oiapoque in the state of Amapá, Brazil. The frequency distribution of larvae in fruit was fitted to the negative binomial distribution. Anastrepha striata was more abundant in both sampled areas in comparison to Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and B. carambolae. The frequency distribution analysis of adults revealed an aggregated pattern for B. carambolae as well as for A. fraterculus and Anastrepha striata Schiner, described by the negative binomial distribution. Although the populations of Anastrepha spp. may have suffered some impact due to the presence of B. carambolae, the results are still not robust enough to indicate effective reduction in the abundance of Anastrepha spp. caused by B. carambolae in a general sense. The high degree of aggregation observed for both species suggests interspecific co-occurrence with the simultaneous presence of both species in the analysed fruit. Moreover, a significant fraction of uninfested guavas also indicated absence of competitive displacement. PMID:27638949

  20. Olive Volatiles from Portuguese Cultivars Cobrançosa, Madural and Verdeal Transmontana: Role in Oviposition Preference of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Malheiro, Ricardo; Casal, Susana; Cunha, Sara C.; Baptista, Paula; Pereira, José Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), a serious threat to the olive crop worldwide, displays ovipositon preference for some olive cultivars but the causes are still unclear. In the present work, three Portuguese olive cultivars with different susceptibilities to olive fly (Cobrançosa, Madural, and Verdeal Transmontana) were studied, aiming to determine if the olive volatiles are implicated in this interaction. Olive volatiles were assessed by SPME-GC-MS in the three cultivars during maturation process to observe possible correlations with olive fly infestation levels. Overall, 34 volatiles were identified in the olives, from 7 chemical classes (alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic hydrocarbons, esters, ketones, sesquiterpenes, and terpenes). Generally, total volatile amounts decrease during maturation but toluene, the main compound, increased in all cultivars, particularly in those with higher susceptibility to olive fly. Sesquiterpenes also raised, mainly α-copaene. Toluene and α-copaene, recognized oviposition promoters to olive fly, were correlated with the infestation level of cvs. Madural and Verdeal Trasnmontana (intermediate and highly susceptible cultivars respectively), while no correlations were established with cv. Cobrançosa (less susceptible). No volatiles with inverse correlation were observed. Volatile composition of olives may be a decisive factor in the olive fly choice to oviposit and this could be the basis for the development of new control strategies for this pest. PMID:25985460

  1. Species Diversity within a Community of the Curcurbit Fruit Flies Bactrocera cucurbitae, Dacus ciliatus, and Dacus demmerezi Roosting in Corn Borders Near Cucurbit Production Areas of Reunion Island

    PubMed Central

    Deguine, J.-P.; Atiama-Nurbel, T.; Douraguia, E.; Chiroleu, F.; Quilici, S.

    2012-01-01

    In order to better control fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) attacking Cucurbitaceae on Reunion Island (21°6 S/ 55°36 E), biological characteristics (seasonal fluctuation, relative abundance, sex ratio) of communities roosting in corn borders were investigated. The study was conducted in austral summer across a range of altitudes (750–1150 m) corresponding to the main areas of cucurbit cropping. Living adults were recorded roosting on corn planted within or around cucurbit fields. Results showed a high variability in seasonal fluctuation of populations according to local conditions. Bactrocera Cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was the least abundant species (27%) compared to Dacus ciliatus Loew (36%) and Dacus demmerezi Bezzi (37%). Relative abundance of B. Cucurbitae was lowest (< 18%) in high altitude sites (above 1000 m), where D. demmerezi was the most prevalent species (> 56%). Dacus ciliatus showed variable relative abundance (from 18 to 51%) depending on the experimental design (varying in location and in year). Sex ratio was also very variable from one species to another and from one experimental design to another. PMID:22958393

  2. Ecdysis Triggering Hormone Signaling (ETH/ETHR-A) Is Required for the Larva-Larva Ecdysis in Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yan; Jiang, Hong-Bo; Gui, Shun-Hua; Liu, Xiao-Qiang; Pei, Yu-Xia; Xu, Li; Smagghe, Guy; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Insects must undergo ecdysis for successful development and growth, and the ecdysis triggering hormone (ETH), released by the Inka cells, is a master hormone in this process. In this study, we determined the sequence of the ETH precursor and receptors in an agriculturally important pest insect, the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). We identified two functionally distinct splice receptor isoforms: BdETH-R-A and BdETH-R-B, and when expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-WTA11) cells, they exhibited a high sensitivity to the two mature peptides BdETH1 and BdETH2. The BdETH transcript was detected in the tracheal tissue of the larvae. Inka cells were identified with immunohistochemical antibody staining against Drosophila melanogaster ETH1, and in situ hybridization with specific DNA probes. Selective RNA silencing of BdETH or BdETH-R-A, but not of BdETH-R-B, caused developmental failure at ecdysis. The dsRNA-treated larvae displayed tracheal defects and could not shed the old cuticle followed by death. Our results demonstrated that BdETH, via activation of BdETH-R-A but not ETH-R-B, plays an essential role in regulating the process of larva-larva ecdysis in B. dorsalis. PMID:28878684

  3. Identification of cultivable bacteria in the intestinal tract of Bactrocera dorsalis from three different populations and determination of their attractive potential.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongxiu; Jin, Liang; Peng, Tao; Zhang, Hongyu; Chen, Qinglong; Hua, Yuejin

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the cultivable bacteria inhabiting the intestinal tract of adult oriental fruit flies (Bactrocera dorsalis) from laboratory-reared, laboratory sterile sugar-reared, and field-collected populations, and to evaluate the attractiveness of the metabolites produced by the above bacteria to their hosts. Fifteen bacterial isolates chosen from the three populations were determined at species level. These 15 strains were cultured and the attractiveness of the whole Luria-Bertani broth, filtered and autoclaved supernatants to B. dorsalis adults was determined using bioassays. The bioassays showed that all bacterial strains were significantly more attractive to B. dorsalis adults than the media-only control. Among them, Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterobacter cloacae and Citrobacter freundii were the most attractive bacteria. Furthermore, results of a subsequent field test showed that the six bacterial strains were significantly more attractive than the control, with B. cereus and E. faecalis attracting significantly more flies. A cultivable bacterial community composed of Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcaceae, and Bacillaceae was identified in the intestinal tract of B. dorsalis. Metabolites from B. cereus attracted the greatest number of B. dorsalis adults in the laboratory and field. These results provide useful information for the development of bacterial biocontrol agents or implementation as an insecticide. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. The inducible blockage of RNAi reveals a role for polyunsaturated fatty acids in the regulation of dsRNA-endocytic capacity in Bactrocera dorsalis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiaolong; Li, Xiaoxue; Li, Qiujia; Jia, Hongmei; Zhang, Hongyu

    2017-07-17

    Exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) can trigger gene silencing through the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. Our previous research established that Bactrocera dorsalis can block RNAi after an initial priming of exposure to dsRNA. However, the mechanism underlying this phenomenon is not yet fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that fatty acid biosynthesis and metabolism pathways play important roles in the blockage of RNAi induced by dsRNA priming. The ratio of linoleic acid (LA) to arachidonic acid (AA) was significantly increased in the hemolymph of B. dorsalis following dsRNA priming, and further, the endocytosis of dsRNA into the midgut cells of B. dorsalis was inhibited in these samples. The expression levels of most genes involved in the fatty acid biosynthesis and metabolism pathways were altered following priming with dsRNA. Furthermore, altering the composition of fatty acids via the injection of AA can facilitate the uptake of ingested dsRNA into the midgut cells of Drosophila melanogaster and successfully induce an RNAi effect, which cannot be achieved via feeding in fruit flies. Our results suggest that polyunsaturated fatty acids are involved in the regulation of the dsRNA-endocytic ability in B. dorsalis.

  5. The effect of dietary restriction on longevity, fecundity, and antioxidant responses in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Er-Hu; Wei, Dong; Wei, Dan-Dan; Yuan, Guo-Rui; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2013-10-01

    Recent studies in fruit flies have imposed dietary restriction (DR) by diluting yeast and have reported increased lifespan as the yeast-to-sugar ratio decreased. In this study, the effects of DR on the lifespan of Bactrocera dorsalis were investigated using constant-feeding diets with different yeast:sugar ratios and an intermittent-feeding diet in which flies ate every sixth day. Antioxidant enzyme activities and the malondialdehyde concentration were also measured in virgin females under constant-feeding DR protocols to investigate their relationships with lifespan. The results showed that B. dorsalis lifespan was significantly extended by DR, and carbohydrate-enriched diet may be important for lifespan-extension. Female flies lived significantly longer than males at all dietary levels under both feeding regimes, indicating no interaction between diet and sex in determining lifespan. Antioxidant enzyme activities increased with the amount of yeast increased in the diets (0-4.76%) between starvation and DR treatments, indicating that the antioxidants may have influences in determining lifespan in B. dorsalis under starvation and DR treatments. However, antioxidants cannot keep up with increased oxidative damage induced by the high yeast diet (25%). These results revealed that the extension of lifespan by DR is evolutionarily conserved in B. dorsalis and that yeast:sugar ratios significantly modulate lifespan in this species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Functional characterization of BdB1, a well-conserved carboxylesterase among tephritid fruit flies associated with malathion resistance in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    PubMed

    Wang, Luo-Luo; Lu, Xue-Ping; Smagghe, Guy; Meng, Li-Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2017-10-01

    There are many evidences that insect carboxylesterase possess important physiological roles in xenobiotic metabolism and are implicated in the detoxification of organophosphate (OP) insecticides. Despite the ongoing resistance development in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), the molecular basis of carboxylesterase and its ability to confer OP resistance remain largely obscure. This study was initiated to provide a better understanding of carboxylesterase-mediated resistance mechanism in a tephritid pest fly. Here, we narrow this research gap by demonstrating a well-conserved esterase B1 gene, BdB1, mediates malathion resistance development via gene upregulation with the use of a laboratory selected malathion-resistant strain (MR) of B. dorsalis. No sequence mutation of BdB1 was detected between MR and the susceptible strain (MS) of B. dorsalis. BdB1 is predominantly expressed in the midgut, a key insect tissue for detoxification. As compared with transcripts in MS, BdB1 was significantly more abundant in multiple tissues in the MR. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of BdB1 significantly increased malathion susceptibility. Furthermore, heterologous expression along with cytotoxicity assay revealed BdB1 could probably have the function of malathion detoxification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ecdysis Triggering Hormone Signaling (ETH/ETHR-A) Is Required for the Larva-Larva Ecdysis in Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan; Jiang, Hong-Bo; Gui, Shun-Hua; Liu, Xiao-Qiang; Pei, Yu-Xia; Xu, Li; Smagghe, Guy; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Insects must undergo ecdysis for successful development and growth, and the ecdysis triggering hormone (ETH), released by the Inka cells, is a master hormone in this process. In this study, we determined the sequence of the ETH precursor and receptors in an agriculturally important pest insect, the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). We identified two functionally distinct splice receptor isoforms: BdETH-R-A and BdETH-R-B, and when expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-WTA11) cells, they exhibited a high sensitivity to the two mature peptides BdETH1 and BdETH2. The BdETH transcript was detected in the tracheal tissue of the larvae. Inka cells were identified with immunohistochemical antibody staining against Drosophila melanogaster ETH1, and in situ hybridization with specific DNA probes. Selective RNA silencing of BdETH or BdETH-R-A, but not of BdETH-R-B, caused developmental failure at ecdysis. The dsRNA-treated larvae displayed tracheal defects and could not shed the old cuticle followed by death. Our results demonstrated that BdETH, via activation of BdETH-R-A but not ETH-R-B, plays an essential role in regulating the process of larva-larva ecdysis in B. dorsalis.

  8. Area-Wide Suppression of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata, and the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, in Kamuela, Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Roger I.; Piñero, Jaime C.; Mau, Ronald F. L.; Jang, Eric B.; Klungness, Lester M.; McInnis, Donald O.; Harris, Ernest B.; McQuate, Grant T.; Bautista, Renato C.; Wong, Lyle

    2010-01-01

    The United States Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service initiated an area-wide fruit fly management program in Hawaii in 2000. The first demonstration site was established in Kamuela, Hawaii, USA. This paper documents suppression of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), and the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), in a 40 km2 area containing urban, rural and agricultural zones during a 6 year period. The suppression techniques included sanitation, GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait sprays, male annihilation, Biolure® traps, and parasitoids against C. capitata and B. dorsalis. In addition, small numbers of sterile males were released against B. dorsalis. Substantial reductions in fruit infestation levels were achieved for both species (90.7 and 60.7% for C. capitata and B. dorsalis, respectively) throughout the treatment period. Fruit fly captures in the 40 km2 treatment area were significantly lower during the 6 year period than those recorded in three non-treated areas. The strategy of combining suppression techniques in an area-wide approach is discussed. PMID:20883128

  9. RNAi-Mediated Knock-Down of transformer and transformer 2 to Generate Male-Only Progeny in the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    PubMed

    Liu, Guiqing; Wu, Qiang; Li, Jianwei; Zhang, Guifen; Wan, Fanghao

    2015-01-01

    The transformer (tra) gene appears to act as the genetic switch that promotes female development by interaction with the transformer2 (tra-2) gene in several dipteran species including the Medfly, housefly and Drosophila melanogaster. In this study, we describe the isolation, expression and function of tra and tra-2 in the economically important agricultural pest, the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Bdtra and Bdtra-2 are similar to their homologs from other tephritid species. Bdtra demonstrated sex-specific transcripts: one transcript in females and two transcripts in males. In contrast, Bdtra-2 only had one transcript that was common to males and females, which was transcribed continuously in different adult tissues and developmental stages. Bdtra-2 and the female form of Bdtra were maternally inherited in eggs, whereas the male form of Bdtra was not detectable until embryos of 1 and 2 h after egg laying. Function analyses of Bdtra and Bdtra-2 indicated that both were indispensable for female development, as nearly 100% males were obtained with embryonic RNAi against either Bdtra or Bdtra-2. The fertility of these RNAi-generated males was subsequently tested. More than 80% of RNAi-generated males could mate and the mated females could lay eggs, but only 40-48.6% males gave rise to progeny. In XX-reversed males and intersex individuals, no clear female gonadal morphology was observed after dissection. These results shed light on the development of a genetic sexing system with male-only release for this agricultural pest.

  10. The oriental fruitfly Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. in East Asia: disentangling the different forces promoting the invasion and shaping the genetic make-up of populations.

    PubMed

    Aketarawong, N; Guglielmino, C R; Karam, N; Falchetto, M; Manni, M; Scolari, F; Gomulski, L M; Gasperi, G; Malacrida, A R

    2014-06-01

    The Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis sensu stricto, is one of the most economically destructive pests of fruits and vegetables especially in East Asia. Based on its phytophagous life style, this species dispersed with the diffusion and implementation of agriculture, while globalization allowed it to establish adventive populations in different tropical and subtropical areas of the world. We used nine SSR loci over twelve samples collected across East Asia, i.e. an area that, in relatively few years, has become a theatre of intensive agriculture and a lively fruit trade. Our aim is to disentangle the different forces that have affected the invasion pattern and shaped the genetic make-up of populations of this fruit fly. Our data suggest that the considered samples probably represent well established populations in terms of genetic variability and population structuring. The human influence on the genetic shape of populations and diffusion is evident, but factors such as breeding/habitat size and life history traits of the species may have determined the post introduction phases and expansion. In East Asia the origin of diffusion can most probably be allocated in the oriental coastal provinces of China, from where this fruit fly spread into Southeast Asia. The spread of this species deserves attention for the development and implementation of risk assessment and control measures.

  11. Identification of leaf volatiles from olive (Olea europaea) and their possible role in the ovipositional preferences of olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Malheiro, Ricardo; Casal, Susana; Cunha, Sara C; Baptista, Paula; Pereira, José Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), is a monophagous pest that displays an oviposition preference among cultivars of olive (Olea europaea L.). To clarify the oviposition preference, the olive leaf volatiles of three olive cultivars (Cobrançosa, Madural and Verdeal Transmontana) were assessed by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC/MS) at six different periods of olive fruit maturation and degrees of infestation. A total of 39 volatiles were identified, mainly esters and alcohols, with a minor percentage of aldehydes, ketones and terpenic compounds, including sesquiterpenes. At sampling dates with higher degrees of infestation, cv. Cobrançosa had, simultaneously, significantly lower infestation degrees and higher volatile amounts than the other two cultivars, with a probable deterrent effect for oviposition. The green leaf volatiles (GLVs) (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol acetate) were the main compounds identified in all cultivars, together with toluene. The abundance of GLVs decreased significantly throughout maturation, without significant differences among cultivars, while toluene showed a general increase and positive correlation with olive fly infestation levels. The results obtained could broaden our understanding of the roles of various types and amounts of olive volatiles in the environment, especially in olive fly host selection and cultivar preference.

  12. Role of a tachykinin-related peptide and its receptor in modulating the olfactory sensitivity in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    PubMed

    Gui, Shun-Hua; Jiang, Hong-Bo; Xu, Li; Pei, Yu-Xia; Liu, Xiao-Qiang; Smagghe, Guy; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Insect tachykinin-related peptide (TRP), an ortholog of tachykinin in vertebrates, has been linked with regulation of diverse physiological processes, such as olfactory perception, locomotion, aggression, lipid metabolism and myotropic activity. In this study, we investigated the function of TRP (BdTRP) and its receptor (BdTRPR) in an important agricultural pest, the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis. BdTRPR is a typical G-protein coupled-receptor (GPCR), and it could be activated by the putative BdTRP mature peptides with the effective concentrations (EC50) at the nanomolar range when expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Consistent with its role as a neuromodulator, expression of BdTRP was detected in the central nervous system (CNS) of B. dorsalis, specifically in the local interneurons with cell bodies lateral to the antennal lobe. BdTRPR was found in the CNS, midgut and hindgut, but interestingly also in the antennae. To investigate the role of BdTRP and BdTRPR in olfaction behavior, adult flies were subjected to RNA interference, which led to a reduction in the antennal electrophysiological response and sensitivity to ethyl acetate in the Y-tube assay. Taken together, we demonstrate the impact of TRP/TRPR signaling on the modulation of the olfactory sensitivity in B. dorsalis. The result improve our understanding of olfactory processing in this agriculturally important pest insect.

  13. Area-wide suppression of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, and the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, in Kamuela, Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Roger I; Piñero, Jaime C; Mau, Ronald F L; Jang, Eric B; Klungness, Lester M; McInnis, Donald O; Harris, Ernest B; McQuate, Grant T; Bautista, Renato C; Wong, Lyle

    2010-01-01

    The United States Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service initiated an area-wide fruit fly management program in Hawaii in 2000. The first demonstration site was established in Kamuela, Hawaii, USA. This paper documents suppression of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), and the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), in a 40 km2 area containing urban, rural and agricultural zones during a 6 year period. The suppression techniques included sanitation, GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait sprays, male annihilation, Biolure traps, and parasitoids against C. capitata and B. dorsalis. In addition, small numbers of sterile males were released against B. dorsalis. Substantial reductions in fruit infestation levels were achieved for both species (90.7 and 60.7% for C. capitata and B. dorsalis, respectively) throughout the treatment period. Fruit fly captures in the 40 km2 treatment area were significantly lower during the 6 year period than those recorded in three non-treated areas. The strategy of combining suppression techniques in an area-wide approach is discussed.

  14. Is bigger better? Male body size affects wing-borne courtship signals and mating success in the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni; Donati, Elisa; Romano, Donato; Ragni, Giacomo; Bonsignori, Gabriella; Stefanini, Cesare; Canale, Angelo

    2016-12-01

    Variations in male body size are known to affect inter- and intrasexual selection outcomes in a wide range of animals. In mating systems involving sexual signaling before mating, body size often acts as a key factor affecting signal strength and mate choice. We evaluated the effect of male size on courtship displays and mating success of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae). Wing vibrations performed during successful and unsuccessful courtships by large and small males were recorded by high-speed videos and analyzed through frame-by-frame analysis. Mating success of large and small males was investigated. The effect of male-male competition on mating success was evaluated. Male body size affected both male courtship signals and mating outcomes. Successful males showed wing-borne signals with high frequencies and short interpulse intervals. Wing vibrations displayed by successful large males during copulation attempt had higher frequencies over smaller males and unsuccessful large males. In no-competition conditions, large males achieved higher mating success with respect to smaller ones. Allowing large and small males to compete for a female, large males achieve more mating success over smaller ones. Mate choice by females may be based on selection of the larger males, able to produce high-frequency wing vibrations. Such traits may be indicative of "good genes," which under sexual selection could means good social-interaction genes, or a good competitive manipulator of conspecifics. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  15. Establishment of an RTA-Bddsx hybrid system for female-specific splicing that can affect the sex ratio of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) after embryonic injection.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Yen; Huang, Chia Chia; Dai, Shu-Mei; Chang, Cheng

    2016-02-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), a very destructive insect pest in many areas of Asia, including Taiwan, can cause significant damage by ovipositing in and larval feeding on many kinds of fruit. A female lethal system, combining the splicing property of doublesex (dsx) with the toxicity of ricin A chain (RTA), has been developed. In this system, a modified RTA is separated by Bddsx intron 3; the expressed RNA can only be spliced in females, with toxic effects, whereas the immature RTA in males is harmless. Two RTA-Bddsx constructs, clone BE 24-7 and clone CF 26-21, containing Bddsx intron 3 and its flanking exonic sequences, with four nucleotides at the 5'-end and five nucleotides at the 3'-end, correctly spliced in a sex-specific manner. Wild-type and modified RTAs expressed in an Escherichia coli system retained their ability to suppress protein synthesis: 90.4% for Ricin-WT, 71.3% for Ricin-LERQ and 58.0% for Ricin-FEGQ. Embryonic injection of Acp-CF26-21, the RTA-Bddsx gene driven by the actin 5C promoter, resulted in a significant increase in male percentage in the eclosed adults. Our results indicate that the RTA-Bddsx hybrid system offers a novel and promising approach for oriental fruit fly control. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. (Z)-9-tricosene identified in rectal gland extracts of Bactrocera oleae males: first evidence of a male-produced female attractant in olive fruit fly.

    PubMed

    Carpita, Adriano; Canale, Angelo; Raffaelli, Andrea; Saba, Alessandro; Benelli, Giovanni; Raspi, Alfio

    2012-01-01

    It is well-known that Bactrocera oleae (olive fruit fly) females attract conspecific males by using 1,7-dioxaspiro[5,5]undecane (1) as the main component of their sex pheromone, and that 1 is produced in the female rectal gland. Although some authors have claimed that B. oleae males also attract females, to date no male-produced female attractants have been found in this species. In this paper, we report the first identification of a substance unique to males and able to attract females. The findings of the study include the following: (1) females responded in a bioassay to hexane extracts obtained from rectal glands of 15-day-old B. oleae males, (2) the presence of (Z)-9-tricosene (2) was consistently and unambiguously identified in these extracts using gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry methods, (3) in preliminary bioactivity tests, low doses (equivalent to a few males) of chemically and stereoisomerically pure synthetic (Z)-9-tricosene (2) attracted olive fruit fly females. Interestingly, compound 2, commonly called muscalure, is also a well-known component of the house fly (Musca domestica) sex pheromone.

  17. The transcriptional response to the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae) reveals extended differences between tolerant and susceptible olive (Olea europaea L.) varieties.

    PubMed

    Grasso, Filomena; Coppola, Mariangela; Carbone, Fabrizio; Baldoni, Luciana; Alagna, Fiammetta; Perrotta, Gaetano; Pérez-Pulido, Antonio J; Garonna, Antonio; Facella, Paolo; Daddiego, Loretta; Lopez, Loredana; Vitiello, Alessia; Rao, Rosa; Corrado, Giandomenico

    2017-01-01

    The olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) is the most devastating pest of cultivated olive (Olea europaea L.). Intraspecific variation in plant resistance to B. oleae has been described only at phenotypic level. In this work, we used a transcriptomic approach to study the molecular response to the olive fruit fly in two olive cultivars with contrasting level of susceptibility. Using next-generation pyrosequencing, we first generated a catalogue of more than 80,000 sequences expressed in drupes from approximately 700k reads. The assembled sequences were used to develop a microarray layout with over 60,000 olive-specific probes. The differential gene expression analysis between infested (i.e. with II or III instar larvae) and control drupes indicated a significant intraspecific variation between the more tolerant and susceptible cultivar. Around 2500 genes were differentially regulated in infested drupes of the tolerant variety. The GO annotation of the differentially expressed genes implies that the inducible resistance to the olive fruit fly involves a number of biological functions, cellular processes and metabolic pathways, including those with a known role in defence, oxidative stress responses, cellular structure, hormone signalling, and primary and secondary metabolism. The difference in the induced transcriptional changes between the cultivars suggests a strong genetic role in the olive inducible defence, which can ultimately lead to the discovery of factors associated with a higher level of tolerance to B. oleae.

  18. Molecular cloning, characterization and mRNA expression of a chitin synthase 2 gene from the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Yang, Wen-Jia; Cong, Lin; Xu, Kang-Kang; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2013-08-19

    Chitin synthase (CHS), a potential target for eco-friendly insecticides, plays an essential role in chitin formation in insects. In this study, a full-length cDNA encoding chitin synthase 2 (BdCHS2) was cloned and characterized in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. The BdCHS2 cDNA had 4417 nucleotides, containing an open reading frame of 4122 nucleotides, which encoded 1373 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 158.5 kDa. Phylogenetic analysis with other insect CHSs suggested that BdCHS2 belongs to insect CHS2. The BdCHS2 transcript was predominately found in midgut but was detected at low levels in fat body, Malpighian tubules, integument, and trachea. Moreover, BdCHS2 was expressed in all developmental stages, and highly expressed in the feeding stages. There was a positive relationship between BdCHS2 expression and total chitin content during development. Furthermore, both the gene expression and chitin content in midgut decreased when the insect was fed for 24 h, then starved for 24 h, while they increased dramatically and rapidly under the condition of starvation for 24 h then feeding for 24 h. These results suggest that BdCHS2 may play an important role in regulating chitin content of the midgut, and subsequently affect the growth and development of B. dorsalis.

  19. The transcriptional response to the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae) reveals extended differences between tolerant and susceptible olive (Olea europaea L.) varieties

    PubMed Central

    Grasso, Filomena; Coppola, Mariangela; Carbone, Fabrizio; Baldoni, Luciana; Alagna, Fiammetta; Perrotta, Gaetano; Pérez-Pulido, Antonio J.; Garonna, Antonio; Facella, Paolo; Daddiego, Loretta; Lopez, Loredana; Vitiello, Alessia; Rao, Rosa

    2017-01-01

    The olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) is the most devastating pest of cultivated olive (Olea europaea L.). Intraspecific variation in plant resistance to B. oleae has been described only at phenotypic level. In this work, we used a transcriptomic approach to study the molecular response to the olive fruit fly in two olive cultivars with contrasting level of susceptibility. Using next-generation pyrosequencing, we first generated a catalogue of more than 80,000 sequences expressed in drupes from approximately 700k reads. The assembled sequences were used to develop a microarray layout with over 60,000 olive-specific probes. The differential gene expression analysis between infested (i.e. with II or III instar larvae) and control drupes indicated a significant intraspecific variation between the more tolerant and susceptible cultivar. Around 2500 genes were differentially regulated in infested drupes of the tolerant variety. The GO annotation of the differentially expressed genes implies that the inducible resistance to the olive fruit fly involves a number of biological functions, cellular processes and metabolic pathways, including those with a known role in defence, oxidative stress responses, cellular structure, hormone signalling, and primary and secondary metabolism. The difference in the induced transcriptional changes between the cultivars suggests a strong genetic role in the olive inducible defence, which can ultimately lead to the discovery of factors associated with a higher level of tolerance to B. oleae. PMID:28797083

  20. Olive Volatiles from Portuguese Cultivars Cobrançosa, Madural and Verdeal Transmontana: Role in Oviposition Preference of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Malheiro, Ricardo; Casal, Susana; Cunha, Sara C; Baptista, Paula; Pereira, José Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), a serious threat to the olive crop worldwide, displays ovipositon preference for some olive cultivars but the causes are still unclear. In the present work, three Portuguese olive cultivars with different susceptibilities to olive fly (Cobrançosa, Madural, and Verdeal Transmontana) were studied, aiming to determine if the olive volatiles are implicated in this interaction. Olive volatiles were assessed by SPME-GC-MS in the three cultivars during maturation process to observe possible correlations with olive fly infestation levels. Overall, 34 volatiles were identified in the olives, from 7 chemical classes (alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic hydrocarbons, esters, ketones, sesquiterpenes, and terpenes). Generally, total volatile amounts decrease during maturation but toluene, the main compound, increased in all cultivars, particularly in those with higher susceptibility to olive fly. Sesquiterpenes also raised, mainly α-copaene. Toluene and α-copaene, recognized oviposition promoters to olive fly, were correlated with the infestation level of cvs. Madural and Verdeal Trasnmontana (intermediate and highly susceptible cultivars respectively), while no correlations were established with cv. Cobrançosa (less susceptible). No volatiles with inverse correlation were observed. Volatile composition of olives may be a decisive factor in the olive fly choice to oviposit and this could be the basis for the development of new control strategies for this pest.

  1. BdorCSP2 Is Important for Antifeed and Oviposition-Deterring Activities Induced by Rhodojaponin-III against Bactrocera dorsalis

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xiaolin; Wang, Peidan; Hu, Meiying; Zhong, Guohua

    2013-01-01

    Rhodojaponin-III is a nonvolatile botanical grayanoid diterpene compound, which has antifeedant and oviposition deterrence effects against many kinds of insects. However, the molecular mechanism of the chemoreception process remains unknown. In this study, the important role of BdorCSP2 in the recognition of Rhodojaponin-III was identified. The full length cDNA encoding BdorCSP2 was cloned from legs of Bactrocera dorsalis. The results of expression pattern revealed that BdorCSP2 was abundantly expressed in the legs of adult B. dorsalis. Moreover, the expression of BdorCSP2 could be up-regulated by Rhodojaponin-III. In order to gain comprehensive understanding of the recognition process, the binding affinity between BdorCSP2 and Rhodojaponin-III was measured by fluorescence binding assay. Silencing the expression of BdorCSP2 through the ingestion of dsRNA could weaken the effect of oviposition deterrence and antifeedant of Rhodojaponin-III. These results suggested that BdorCSP2 of B. dorsalis could be involved in chemoreception of Rhodojaponin-III and played a critical role in antifeedant and oviposition behaviors induced by Rhodojaponin-III. PMID:24155937

  2. High Diversity of Bacterial Communities in Developmental Stages of Bactrocera carambolae (Insecta: Tephritidae) Revealed by Illumina MiSeq Sequencing of 16S rRNA Gene.

    PubMed

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Song, Sze-Looi; Chua, Kah-Ooi; Lim, Phaik-Eem

    2017-09-01

    Bactrocera carambolae is a highly polyphagous fruit pest of agricultural importance. This study reports the bacterial communities associated with the developmental stages of B. carambolae. The microbiota of the developmental stages were investigated by targeted 16S rRNA gene (V3-V4 region) sequencing using the Illumina MiSeq. At 97% similarity, there were 19 bacterial phyla and unassigned bacteria, comprising 39 classes, 86 orders, 159 families and 311 genera. The bacterial composition varied among the specimens of developmental stage and across developmental stages as well as exuviae. Four phyla of bacteria (with relative abundance of ≥1% in at least one specimen)-Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria-were recovered from the larva, pupa, adult stages and exuviae. Proteobacteria was the predominant phylum in all the developmental stages as well as the exuviae. Enterobacteriaceae (Proteobacteria) was the predominant family in the adult flies while the family [Weeksellaceae] (Bacteroidetes) was predominant in the larval and pupal stages. Among the genera occurring in more than one developmental stage of B. carambolae, Erwinia was more abundant in the larval stage, Halomonas more abundant in adult female, Stenotrophomonas more abundant in adult male, and Chryseobacterium more abundant in the larval and pupal stages. The results indicate transmission of bacteria OTUs from immatures to the newly emerged adults, and from exuviae to the environment.

  3. Female-biased attraction of Oriental fruit fly, bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), to a blend of host fruit volatiles from Terminalia catappa L.

    PubMed

    Siderhurst, Matthew S; Jang, Eric B

    2006-11-01

    Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection (GC-EAD) analysis of volatiles from tropical almond fruit, Terminalia catappa L., revealed 22 compounds that were detected by antennae of oriental fruit fly females, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Both solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and Porapak Q were used for sampling odors in fruit headspace, with SPME collections producing larger EAD responses from a greater number of compounds. Geranyl acetate and methyl eugenol elicited the largest EAD responses. A synthetic blend containing SPME collected, EAD stimulatory compounds showed female-biased attraction in laboratory wind tunnel bioassays, but heavily male-biased trap captures in a larger olfactometer arena. A nine-component subset of compounds eliciting relatively small EAD responses (EAD minor) and consisting of equal parts ethanol, ethyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, hexyl acetate, linalyl acetate, ethyl nonanate, nonyl acetate, ethyl cinnamate, and (E)-beta-farnesene, attracted mainly females. This EAD minor blend was as attractive to females and much less attractive to males when compared to torula yeast in field cage experiments using glass McPhail traps. Similar results were obtained with outdoor rotating olfactometer tests in which the EAD minor blend was almost completely inactive for males.

  4. Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae), a new invasive fruit fly pest for the Afrotropical region: host plant range and distribution in West and Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Goergen, Georg; Vayssières, Jean-François; Gnanvossou, Désiré; Tindo, Maurice

    2011-08-01

    In 2003, the invasive fruit fly Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White (Diptera: Tephritidae) (Drew et al. 2005), of possible Sri Lankan origin, has been detected in the East and about 1 yr later in West Africa. In regular surveys in Benin and Cameroon covering 4 yr, samples from 117 plant species across 43 families have been obtained. Incubation of field-collected fruits demonstrate that in West and Central Africa (WCA) B. invadens is highly polyphagous, infesting wild and cultivated fruits of at least 46 species from 23 plant families with guava (Psidium spp.), mango (Mangifera spp.), and citrus (spp.), and the wild hosts tropical almond (Terminalia catappa L.), African wild mango (Irvingia gabonensis (Aubry-Lecomte) Baill.), and sheanut (Vitellaria paradoxa C.F.Gaertn.) showing the highest infestation index. B. invadens occurs in 22 countries of WCA with new records for Angola, Central African Republic, the Congo, DR Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, and Sierra Leone. Overall, the pest has spread across a North-South distance of ≍5,000 km representing a contiguous area of >8.3 million km(2) within WCA. B. invadens has adapted to a wide range of ecological and climatic conditions extending from low land rainforest to dry savanna. Because of its highly destructive and invasive potential, B. invadens poses a serious threat to horticulture in Africa if left uncontrolled. Moreover, the presence of this quarantine pest causes considerable restrictions on international trade of affected crops.

  5. Species diversity within a community of the curcurbit fruit flies Bactrocera cucurbitae, Dacus ciliatus, and Dacus demmerezi roosting in corn borders near cucurbit production areas of Reunion Island.

    PubMed

    Deguine, J-P; Atiama-Nurbel, T; Douraguia, E; Chiroleu, F; Quilici, S

    2012-01-01

    In order to better control fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) attacking Cucurbitaceae on Reunion Island (21°6 S/ 55°36 E), biological characteristics (seasonal fluctuation, relative abundance, sex ratio) of communities roosting in corn borders were investigated. The study was conducted in austral summer across a range of altitudes (750-1150 m) corresponding to the main areas of cucurbit cropping. Living adults were recorded roosting on corn planted within or around cucurbit fields. Results showed a high variability in seasonal fluctuation of populations according to local conditions. Bactrocera Cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was the least abundant species (27%) compared to Dacus ciliatus Loew (36%) and Dacus demmerezi Bezzi (37%). Relative abundance of B. Cucurbitae was lowest (< 18%) in high altitude sites (above 1000 m), where D. demmerezi was the most prevalent species (> 56%). Dacus ciliatus showed variable relative abundance (from 18 to 51%) depending on the experimental design (varying in location and in year). Sex ratio was also very variable from one species to another and from one experimental design to another.

  6. Co-Infestation and Spatial Distribution of Bactrocera carambolae and Anastrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Common Guava in the Eastern Amazon.

    PubMed

    Deus, E G; Godoy, W A C; Sousa, M S M; Lopes, G N; Jesus-Barros, C R; Silva, J G; Adaime, R

    2016-01-01

    Field infestation and spatial distribution of introduced Bactrocera carambolae Drew and Hancock and native species of Anastrepha in common guavas [Psidium guajava (L.)] were investigated in the eastern Amazon. Fruit sampling was carried out in the municipalities of Calçoene and Oiapoque in the state of Amapá, Brazil. The frequency distribution of larvae in fruit was fitted to the negative binomial distribution. Anastrepha striata was more abundant in both sampled areas in comparison to Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and B. carambolae The frequency distribution analysis of adults revealed an aggregated pattern for B. carambolae as well as for A. fraterculus and Anastrepha striata Schiner, described by the negative binomial distribution. Although the populations of Anastrepha spp. may have suffered some impact due to the presence of B. carambolae, the results are still not robust enough to indicate effective reduction in the abundance of Anastrepha spp. caused by B. carambolae in a general sense. The high degree of aggregation observed for both species suggests interspecific co-occurrence with the simultaneous presence of both species in the analysed fruit. Moreover, a significant fraction of uninfested guavas also indicated absence of competitive displacement.

  7. Transcriptome analysis to identify genes for peptides and proteins involved in immunity and reproduction from male accessory glands and ejaculatory duct of Bactrocera dorsalis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Dong; Tian, Chuan-Bei; Liu, Shi-Huo; Wang, Tao; Smagghe, Guy; Jia, Fu-Xian; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2016-06-01

    In the male reproductive system of insects, the male accessory glands and ejaculatory duct (MAG/ED) are important organs and their primary function is to enhance the fertility of spermatozoa. Proteins secreted by the MAG/ED are also known to induce post-mating changes and immunity responses in the female insect. To understand the gene expression profile in the MAG/ED of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), that is an important pest in fruits, we performed an Illumina-based deep sequencing of mRNA. This yielded 54,577,630 clean reads corresponding to 4.91Gb total nucleotides that were assembled and clustered to 30,669 unigenes (average 645bp). Among them, 20,419 unigenes were functionally annotated to known proteins/peptides in Gene Orthology, Clusters of Orthologous Groups, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway databases. Typically, many genes were involved in immunity and these included microbial recognition proteins and antimicrobial peptides. Subsequently, the inducible expression of these immunity-related genes was confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis when insects were challenged with immunity-inducible factors, suggesting their function in guaranteeing fertilization success. Besides, we identified some important reproductive genes such as juvenile hormone- and ecdysteroid-related genes in this de novo assembly. In conclusion, this transcriptomic sequencing of B. dorsalis MAG/ED provides insights to facilitate further functional research of reproduction, immunity and molecular evolution of reproductive proteins in this important agricultural pest.

  8. Insecticidal Activity of the Leaf Essential Oil of Peperomia borbonensis Miq. (Piperaceae) and Its Major Components against the Melon Fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Dorla, Emmanuelle; Gauvin-Bialecki, Anne; Deuscher, Zoé; Allibert, Agathe; Grondin, Isabelle; Deguine, Jean-Philippe; Laurent, Philippe

    2017-06-01

    The essential oil from the leaves of Peperomia borbonensis from Réunion Island was obtained by hydrodistillation and characterized using GC-FID, GC/MS and NMR. The main components were myristicin (39.5%) and elemicin (26.6%). The essential oil (EO) of Peperomia borbonensis and its major compounds (myristicin and elemicin), pure or in a mixture, were evaluated for their insecticidal activity against Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) using a filter paper impregnated bioassay. The concentrations necessary to kill 50% (LC50 ) and 90% (LC90 ) of the flies in three hours were determined. The LC50 value was 0.23 ± 0.009 mg/cm(2) and the LC90 value was 0.34 ± 0.015 mg/cm(2) for the EO. The median lethal time (LT50 ) was determined to compare the toxicity of EO and the major constituents. The EO was the most potent insecticide (LT50  = 98 ± 2 min), followed by the mixture of myristicin and elemicin (1.4:1) (LT50  = 127 ± 2 min) indicating that the efficiency of the EO is potentiated by minor compounds and emphasizing one of the major assets of EOs against pure molecules. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  9. ( Z)-9-tricosene identified in rectal gland extracts of Bactrocera oleae males: first evidence of a male-produced female attractant in olive fruit fly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpita, Adriano; Canale, Angelo; Raffaelli, Andrea; Saba, Alessandro; Benelli, Giovanni; Raspi, Alfio

    2012-01-01

    It is well-known that Bactrocera oleae (olive fruit fly) females attract conspecific males by using 1,7-dioxaspiro[5,5]undecane ( 1) as the main component of their sex pheromone, and that 1 is produced in the female rectal gland. Although some authors have claimed that B. oleae males also attract females, to date no male-produced female attractants have been found in this species. In this paper, we report the first identification of a substance unique to males and able to attract females. The findings of the study include the following: (1) females responded in a bioassay to hexane extracts obtained from rectal glands of 15-day-old B. oleae males, (2) the presence of ( Z)-9-tricosene ( 2) was consistently and unambiguously identified in these extracts using gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry methods, (3) in preliminary bioactivity tests, low doses (equivalent to a few males) of chemically and stereoisomerically pure synthetic ( Z)-9-tricosene ( 2) attracted olive fruit fly females. Interestingly, compound 2, commonly called muscalure, is also a well-known component of the house fly ( Musca domestica) sex pheromone.

  10. De novo cloning and annotation of genes associated with immunity, detoxification and energy metabolism from the fat body of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen-Jia; Yuan, Guo-Rui; Cong, Lin; Xie, Yi-Fei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2014-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a destructive pest in tropical and subtropical areas. In this study, we performed transcriptome-wide analysis of the fat body of B. dorsalis and obtained more than 59 million sequencing reads, which were assembled into 27,787 unigenes with an average length of 591 bp. Among them, 17,442 (62.8%) unigenes matched known proteins in the NCBI database. The assembled sequences were further annotated with gene ontology, cluster of orthologous group terms, and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes. In depth analysis was performed to identify genes putatively involved in immunity, detoxification, and energy metabolism. Many new genes were identified including serpins, peptidoglycan recognition proteins and defensins, which were potentially linked to immune defense. Many detoxification genes were identified, including cytochrome P450s, glutathione S-transferases and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Many new transcripts possibly involved in energy metabolism, including fatty acid desaturases, lipases, alpha amylases, and trehalose-6-phosphate synthases, were identified. Moreover, we randomly selected some genes to examine their expression patterns in different tissues by quantitative real-time PCR, which indicated that some genes exhibited fat body-specific expression in B. dorsalis. The identification of a numerous transcripts in the fat body of B. dorsalis laid the foundation for future studies on the functions of these genes.

  11. RNAi-Mediated Knock-Down of transformer and transformer 2 to Generate Male-Only Progeny in the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianwei; Zhang, Guifen; Wan, Fanghao

    2015-01-01

    The transformer (tra) gene appears to act as the genetic switch that promotes female development by interaction with the transformer2 (tra-2) gene in several dipteran species including the Medfly, housefly and Drosophila melanogaster. In this study, we describe the isolation, expression and function of tra and tra-2 in the economically important agricultural pest, the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Bdtra and Bdtra-2 are similar to their homologs from other tephritid species. Bdtra demonstrated sex-specific transcripts: one transcript in females and two transcripts in males. In contrast, Bdtra-2 only had one transcript that was common to males and females, which was transcribed continuously in different adult tissues and developmental stages. Bdtra-2 and the female form of Bdtra were maternally inherited in eggs, whereas the male form of Bdtra was not detectable until embryos of 1 and 2 h after egg laying. Function analyses of Bdtra and Bdtra-2 indicated that both were indispensable for female development, as nearly 100% males were obtained with embryonic RNAi against either Bdtra or Bdtra-2. The fertility of these RNAi-generated males was subsequently tested. More than 80% of RNAi-generated males could mate and the mated females could lay eggs, but only 40-48.6% males gave rise to progeny. In XX-reversed males and intersex individuals, no clear female gonadal morphology was observed after dissection. These results shed light on the development of a genetic sexing system with male-only release for this agricultural pest. PMID:26057559

  12. Implementing a Spinosad-Based Local Bait Station to Control Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in High Rainfall Areas of Reunion Island

    PubMed Central

    Delpoux, Camille; Deguine, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Three species of fruit flies cause serious damage to cucurbit crops on Reunion Island: Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) (Coquillett 1899), Dacus ciliatus (Loew 1901), and Dacus demmerezi (Bezzi 1917). To control them, a program of agroecological management of cucurbit flies has been implemented based on the application of Synéis-appât, especially spot sprays on corn borders. However, the high rainfall on Reunion Island limits the long-term efficiency of the bait; in addition, this method cannot be used for large chayote trellises, because corn borders cannot be planted around them. The aim of this study was to design a bait station adapted to prevailing conditions on Reunion Island. An ‘umbrella trap’ tested in Taiwan was used as a reference to compare its efficacy with our local bait station. Experiments were conducted in field cages on B. cucurbitae to test different characteristics of bait stations and to construct one using local materials. Results were validated in the field. The attractiveness of the bait station was related mainly to the color of the external surface, yellow being the most attractive color. The efficacy of the bait station with respect to fly mortality was found to be linked to the accessibility of the bait, and direct application of Synéis-appât on the bait station was found to be the most efficient. In the field, B. cucurbitae were more attracted to the local bait station than to the umbrella trap, while the two other fly species displayed equal attraction to both trap types. Our local bait station is a useful alternative to spot sprays of Synéis-appât and is now included in a local pest management program and is well accepted by farmers. PMID:25688089

  13. Implementing a spinosad-based local bait station to control Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in high rainfall areas of Reunion Island.

    PubMed

    Delpoux, Camille; Deguine, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Three species of fruit flies cause serious damage to cucurbit crops on Reunion Island: Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) (Coquillett 1899), Dacus ciliatus (Loew 1901), and Dacus demmerezi (Bezzi 1917). To control them, a program of agroecological management of cucurbit flies has been implemented based on the application of Synéis-appât, especially spot sprays on corn borders. However, the high rainfall on Reunion Island limits the long-term efficiency of the bait; in addition, this method cannot be used for large chayote trellises, because corn borders cannot be planted around them. The aim of this study was to design a bait station adapted to prevailing conditions on Reunion Island. An 'umbrella trap' tested in Taiwan was used as a reference to compare its efficacy with our local bait station. Experiments were conducted in field cages on B. cucurbitae to test different characteristics of bait stations and to construct one using local materials. Results were validated in the field. The attractiveness of the bait station was related mainly to the color of the external surface, yellow being the most attractive color. The efficacy of the bait station with respect to fly mortality was found to be linked to the accessibility of the bait, and direct application of Synéis-appât on the bait station was found to be the most efficient. In the field, B. cucurbitae were more attracted to the local bait station than to the umbrella trap, while the two other fly species displayed equal attraction to both trap types. Our local bait station is a useful alternative to spot sprays of Synéis-appât and is now included in a local pest management program and is well accepted by farmers.

  14. Influence of various stressors on the expression of core genes of the small interfering RNA pathway in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yi-Fei; Niu, Jin-Zhi; Jiang, Xuan-Zhao; Yang, Wen-Jia; Shen, Guang-Mao; Wei, Dong; Smagghe, Guy; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2017-06-01

    RNA interference (RNAi)-based technology has emerged as a potential tool for controlling insect pests, however, previous studies found that the efficiency of RNAi in Bactrocera dorsalis was variable. In nature, insects often meet various challenges, such as pathogen infections, extreme temperatures, lack of nutrition and heavy metals. To better understand the association of the stressors with efficiency of RNAi, in the current study we tested the expression of three core genes, dicer2 (Bddcr2), r2d2 (Bdr2d2) and argonaute2 (Bdago2), of the small interfering RNA (siRNA) pathway of B. dorsalis upon various stressors. Our results showed that all three genes were upregulated by the infection of invertebrate iridescent virus 6, which suggested a function of the siRNA pathway against viral infection. The loading of FeCl3 could also increase the expression of Bddcr2. The treatments of Escherichia coli, extremely high (40°C) and low (0°C) temperatures, as well as starvation, could negatively influence the expression of Bddcr2 and/or Bdago2. In total, our results showed that various stressors could influence the expression of core components of B. dorsalis siRNA pathway. This highlights further speculation on the RNAi efficiency upon these stressors. Considering the complexity and variation of RNAi efficiency in different conditions, these results provide initial aspects in possible environmental stressors to influence the activity of the siRNA pathway, but the real impact of RNAi efficiency posed by these stressors requires further studies. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  15. Two Chitin Biosynthesis Pathway Genes in Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae): Molecular Characteristics, Expression Patterns, and Roles in Larval-Pupal Transition.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen-Jia; Wu, Yi-Bei; Chen, Li; Xu, Kang-Kang; Xie, Yi-Fei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2015-10-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (G6PI) and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase (UAP), two key components in the chitin biosynthesis pathway, are critical for insect growth and metamorphosis. In this study, we identified the genes BdG6PI and BdUAP from the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). The open reading frames (ORFs) of BdG6PI (1,491 bp) and BdUAP (1,677 bp) encoded 496 and 558 amino acid residues, respectively. Multiple sequence alignments showed that BdG6PI and BdUAP had high amino acid sequence identity with other insect homologues. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis indicated that BdG6PI was mainly expressed in the early stages of third-instar larvae and adults, while significantly higher expression of BdUAP was observed in adults. Both transcripts were expressed highly in the Malpighian tubules, but only slightly in the tracheae. The expression of both BdG6PI and BdUAP was significantly up-regulated by 20-hydroxyecdysone exposure and down-regulated by starvation. Moreover, injection of double-stranded RNAs of BdG6PI and BdUAP into third-instar larvae significantly reduced the corresponding gene expressions. Additionally, silencing of BdUAP resulted in 65% death and abnormal phenotypes of larvae, while silencing of BdG6PI had a slight effect on insect molting. These findings provide some data on the roles of BdG6PI and BdUAP in B. dorsalis and demonstrate the potential role for BdUAP in larval-pupal transition. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Antimicrobial peptide gene cecropin-2 and defensin respond to peptidoglycan infection in the female adult of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    PubMed

    Liu, Shi-Huo; Wei, Dong; Yuan, Guo-Rui; Jiang, Hong-Bo; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2017-04-01

    Cecropins and defensins are important antimicrobial peptides in insects and are inducible after injection of immune triggers. In this study, we cloned the cDNAs of two antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), cecropin-2 (BdCec-2) and defensin (BdDef) from Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), a serious pest causing great economic losses to fruits and vegetables. The BdCec-2 sequence of 192bp encodes a protein of 63 amino acids residues with a predicted molecular weight of 6.78kD. The 282bp cDNA of BdDef encodes a protein of 93 residues with a predicted molecular weight of 9.81kD. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses showed that BdCec-2 and BdDef had similar expression profiles among development stages, the highest mRNA levels of these two AMP genes were observed in the adult stage. Among different adult body segments and tissues, both genes had similar transcriptional profiles, the highest mRNA levels appeared in abdomen and fat body, which was consistent with the reported fact that fat body was the main organ synthesizing AMPs in insects. The expression of BdCec-2 and BdDef were up-regulated after challenge with peptidoglycans from Escherichia coli (PGN-EB) and Staphylococcus aureus (PGN-SA), respectively, suggesting their antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive microorganisms. These results describe for the first time the basic properties of the cecropin-2 and defensin genes from B. dorsalis that probably play an important role in the defense response against invading microbes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of Rain-Fast Bait Stations Versus Foliar Bait Sprays for Control of Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, in Papaya Orchards in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Piñero, Jaime C.; Mau, Ronald F. L.; Vargas, Roger I.

    2010-01-01

    Bait stations represent an environmentally friendly attract-and-kill approach to fruit fly population suppression. Recently a novel, visually attractive, rain-fast bait station was developed in Hawaii for potential use against multiple species of pestiferous fruit flies. Here, we compared the efficacy of GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait applied either as foliar sprays or onto bait stations in reducing female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), population density and level of fruit infestation in commercial papaya orchards in Hawaii. Trapping and infestation data were used as indicators of the effectiveness of the two bait application methods. For the first 10 weeks of the study, captures of female B. dorsalis in monitoring traps were significantly greater in control plots than in plots treated with foliar sprays or bait stations. Six weeks after the first bait spray, incidence of infestation (i.e. number of fruit with one or more B. dorsalis larvae) of quarter to half-ripe papaya fruit was reduced by 71.4% and 63.1% for plots with bait stations and foliar sprays, respectively, as compared to control plots. Twelve weeks after first spray, incidence of infestation was reduced by only 54.5% and 45.4% for plots with bait stations and foliar sprays, respectively, as compared to control plots. About 42% less GF-120 was used in orchard plots with bait stations compared to those subject to foliar sprays. The impact of field sanitation on the outcome is also discussed. The results indicate that bait stations can provide a simple, efficient, and economical method of applying insecticidal baits to control fruit flies and a safer alternative to foliar sprays. PMID:21067423

  18. Demographic Analysis of Sex Ratio on Population Growth of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) With Discussion of Control Efficacy Using Male Annihilation.

    PubMed

    Yu-Bing Huang, Kevin; Atlihan, Remzi; Gökçe, Ayhan; Yu-Bing Huang, Joyce; Chi, Hsin

    2016-09-30

    The life table data for the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), at different adult sex ratios (1♀: 1♂, 1♀: 50♂, 50♀: 1♂ free-choice mating, and 50♀: 1♂ no-choice mating) were collected to determine the effects of sex-ratio manipulation on current pest control procedures. At 1♀: 1♂, females mated, on average, 2.3 times during their lifetime with a mean fecundity (F) of 1,122 eggs. The net reproductive rate (R0), intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate (λ), and mean generation time (T) were 561.0 offspring, 0.1693 d(-)  (1), 1.1844 d(-)  (1), and 37.4 d, respectively. At 50♀: 1♂ free-choice mating, males mated 46.7 times during their lifetime, while at 50♀: 1♂ no-choice mating, males mated on average 50 times during their lifetime, and all females mating only once in both treatments. The values for F, r, and λ were significantly lower for both 50♀: 1♂ treatments than those in the 1♀: 1♂ group; the R0 values, however, were either equal to or even higher than those in the 1♀: 1♂ treatment. In the male-biased sex ratio (1♀: 50♂), fecundity was the highest (1,610 eggs) and female average life span the longest (166 d), while the R0 was the lowest (31.6 offspring) among all treatments. Population projections showed that even at a sex ratio of 50♀: 1♂, B. dorsalis could still produce a large number of offspring. These findings demonstrate that management strategies for controlling B. dorsalis could be properly evaluated by using demographic methods. Because female annihilation appears to be a more effective control strategy, it should be considered as a viable alternative.

  19. Cage study of spinosad-based bait efficacy on Bactrocera cucurbitae, Dacus ciliatus, and Dacus demmerezi (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Reunion Island.

    PubMed

    Deguine, Jean-Philippe; Douraguia, Elisabeth; Atiama-Nurbel, Toulassi; Chiroleu, Fréderic; Quilici, Serge

    2012-08-01

    On Reunion Island, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), Dacus ciliatus (Loew), and Dacus demmerezi (Bezzi) cause severe damage to Cucurbit crops. The aim of the study was to test in field cages the effectiveness of Synéis-appât (Dow AgroSciences), a spinosad-based bait (0.02% of spinosad) on both attraction and mortality of young adults (6-9 d old) of these three species. The effects of gender were also evaluated for all species whereas the effects of protein deprivation were tested with B. cucurbitae only. For the first 15 min after application, significantly more B. cucurbitae adults (21.7 +/- 1.8%) were attracted to the bait than D. demmerezi (7.6 +/- 2.4%) and D. ciliatus (2.7 +/- 1.4%); the subsequent response (30-75 min after bait application) of D. demmerezi was statistically similar to that recorded for B. cucurbitae; whereas the response ofD. ciliatus to the bait was consistently significantly lower. Adult mortality was significantly higher for B. cucurbitae (94.6 +/- 0.7%) than for D. demmerezi (85.7 +/- 2.1%), and was significantly higher for the latter than for D. ciliatus (60.4 +/- 4.4%). Sex had no significant effect on the mortality rate for each species. The efficiency of the bait was the same for B. cucurbitae adults regardless whether or not the diet included proteins. Overall, Synéis-appât appears to be more effective against B. cucurbitae and B. demmerezi than against D. ciliatus. In Reunion Island, this bait could constitute a useful component in the framework of Integrated Pest Management.

  20. Characteristics of six small heat shock protein genes from Bactrocera dorsalis: Diverse expression under conditions of thermal stress and normal growth.

    PubMed

    Dou, Wei; Tian, Yi; Liu, Hong; Shi, Yan; Smagghe, Guy; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2017-11-01

    To explore the functions of small heat shock proteins (sHsps) in relation to thermal stress and development in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), one of the most economically important pest species attacking a wide range of fruits and vegetables, six full-length cDNAs of sHsp genes (BdHsp17.7, 18.4, 20.4, 20.6, 21.6 and 23.8) were cloned, and the expression patterns in different developmental stages and tissues, as well as in response to both thermal and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) exposures, were examined using real time quantitative PCR. The open reading frames (ORFs) of six sHsps are 453, 489, 537, 543, 567 and 630bp in length, encoding proteins with molecular weights of 17.7, 18.4, 20.4, 20.6, 21.6 and 23.8kDa, respectively. BdHsp18.4 and BdHsp20.4 maintained lower expression levels in both eggs and larvae, whereas remarkably up-regulated after the larval-pupal transformation, suggesting that these two sHsps may be involved in metamorphosis. Significant tissue specificity exists among sHsps: the highest expression of BdHsp20.6 and BdHsp23.8 in the Malpighian tubules and ovary, respectively, versus a peak in the fat body for others. BdHsp20.4 and BdHsp20.6 were significantly up-regulated by thermal stress. In contrast, BdHsp18.4 and BdHsp23.8 reacted only to heat stress. BdHsp17.7 and BdHsp21.6 were insensitive to both heat and cold stresses. The degree of sHsps response depends on intensity of 20E treatment, i.e., dose and time. These results strongly suggest functional differentiation within the sHsp subfamily in B. dorsalis. The physiological function of sHsp members under thermal stress and normal growth remains the subjects of further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A Role of Corazonin Receptor in Larval-Pupal Transition and Pupariation in the Oriental Fruit Fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Qiu-Li; Jiang, Hong-Bo; Gui, Shun-Hua; Chen, Er-Hu; Wei, Dan-Dan; Li, Hui-Min; Wang, Jin-Jun; Smagghe, Guy

    2017-01-01

    Corazonin (Crz) is a neuropeptide hormone, but also a neuropeptide modulator that is internally released within the CNS, and it has a widespread distribution in insects with diverse physiological functions. Here, we identified and cloned the cDNAs of Bactrocera dorsalis that encode Crz and its receptor CrzR. Mature BdCrz has 11 residues with a unique Ser11 substitution (instead of the typical Asn) and a His in the evolutionary variable position 7. The BdCrzR cDNA encodes a putative protein of 608 amino acids with 7 putative transmembrane domains, typical for the structure of G-protein-coupled receptors. When expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, the BdCrzR exhibited a high sensitivity and selectivity for Crz (EC50 ≈ 52.5 nM). With qPCR, the developmental stage and tissue-specific expression profiles in B. dorsalis demonstrated that both BdCrz and BdCrzR were highly expressed in the larval stage, and BdCrzR peaked in 2-day-old 3rd-instar larvae, suggesting that the BdCrzR may play an important role in the larval-pupal transition behavior. Immunochemical localization confirmed the production of Crz in the central nervous system (CNS), specifically by a group of three neurons in the dorso-lateral protocerebrum and eight pairs of lateral neurons in the ventral nerve cord. qPCR analysis located the BdCrzR in both the CNS and epitracheal gland, containing the Inka cells. Importantly, dsRNA-BdCrzR-mediated gene-silencing caused a delay in larval-pupal transition and pupariation, and this phenomenon agreed with a delayed expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and dopa-decarboxylase genes. We speculate that CrzR-silencing blocked dopamine synthesis, resulting in the inhibition of pupariation and cuticular melanization. Finally, injection of Crz in head-ligated larvae could rescue the effects. These findings provide a new insight into the roles of Crz signaling pathway components in B. dorsalis and support an important role of CrzR in larval-pupal transition and

  2. Molecular Characteristics, mRNA Expression, and Alternative Splicing of a Ryanodine Receptor Gene in the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Guo-Rui; Shi, Wen-Zhi; Yang, Wen-Jia; Jiang, Xuan-Zhao; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are a distinct class of ligand-gated channels controlling the release of calcium from intracellular stores. The emergence of diamide insecticides, which selectively target insect RyRs, has promoted the study of insect RyRs. In the present study, the full-length RyR cDNA (BdRyR) was cloned and characterized from the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), a serious pest of fruits and vegetables throughout East Asia and the Pacific Rim. The cDNA of BdRyR contains a 15,420-bp open reading frame encoding 5,140 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 582.4 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.38. BdRyR shows a high level of amino acid sequence identity (78 to 97%) to other insect RyR isoforms. All common structural features of the RyRs are present in the BdRyR, including a well-conserved C-terminal domain containing consensus calcium-binding EF-hands and six transmembrane domains, and a large N-terminal domain. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses revealed that BdRyR was expressed at the lowest and highest levels in egg and adult, respectively, and that the BdRyR expression levels in the third instar larva, pupa and adult were 166.99-, 157.56- and 808.56-fold higher, respectively, than that in the egg. Among different adult body parts, the highest expression level was observed in the thorax compared with the head and abdomen. In addition, four alternative splice sites were identified in the BdRyR gene, with the first, ASI, being located in the central part of the predicted second spore lysis A/RyR domain. Diagnostic PCR analyses revealed that alternative splice variants were generated not only in a tissue-specific manner but also in a developmentally regulated manner. These results lay the foundation for further understanding the structural and functional properties of BdRyR, and the molecular mechanisms for target site resistance in B. dorsalis. PMID:24740254

  3. Pre-Release Consumption of Methyl Eugenol Increases the Mating Competitiveness of Sterile Males of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, in Large Field Enclosures

    PubMed Central

    Shelly, Todd E.; Edu, James; McInnis, Donald

    2010-01-01

    The sterile insect technique may be implemented to control populations of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), when environmental concerns preclude widespread use of chemical attractants or toxicants. The goal of the present study was to evaluate whether the mating competitiveness of sterile B. dorsalis males could be increased via pre-release feeding on methyl eugenol. Males of the oriental fruit fly are strongly attracted to this plant-borne compound, which they ingest and use in the synthesis of the sex pheromone. Previous studies conducted in the laboratory and small field-cages have shown that males given methyl eugenol produce a more attractive pheromone for females and have a higher mating success rate than males denied methyl eugenol. Here, levels of egg sterility were compared following the release of wild-like flies and either methyl eugenol-fed (treated) or methyl eugenol-deprived (control) sterile males in large field enclosures at four over flooding ratios ranging from 5:1 to 60:1 (sterile: wild-like males). Treated sterile males were fed methyl eugenol for 1–4 h (depending on the over flooding ratio tested) 3 d prior to release. Eggs were dissected from introduced fruits (apples), incubated in the laboratory, and scored for hatch rate. The effect of methyl eugenol was most pronounced at lower over flooding ratios. At the 5:1 and 10:1 over flooding ratios, the level of egg sterility observed for treated, sterile males was significantly greater than that observed for control, sterile males. In addition, the incidence of egg sterility reported for treated sterile males at these lower over flooding ratios was similar to that noted for treated or control sterile males at the 30:1 or 60:1 over flooding ratios. This latter result, in particular, suggests that pre-release feeding on methyl eugenol allows for a reduction in the number of sterile flies that are produced and released, thus increasing the cost

  4. A Role of Corazonin Receptor in Larval-Pupal Transition and Pupariation in the Oriental Fruit Fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Hou, Qiu-Li; Jiang, Hong-Bo; Gui, Shun-Hua; Chen, Er-Hu; Wei, Dan-Dan; Li, Hui-Min; Wang, Jin-Jun; Smagghe, Guy

    2017-01-01

    Corazonin (Crz) is a neuropeptide hormone, but also a neuropeptide modulator that is internally released within the CNS, and it has a widespread distribution in insects with diverse physiological functions. Here, we identified and cloned the cDNAs of Bactrocera dorsalis that encode Crz and its receptor CrzR. Mature BdCrz has 11 residues with a unique Ser(11) substitution (instead of the typical Asn) and a His in the evolutionary variable position 7. The BdCrzR cDNA encodes a putative protein of 608 amino acids with 7 putative transmembrane domains, typical for the structure of G-protein-coupled receptors. When expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, the BdCrzR exhibited a high sensitivity and selectivity for Crz (EC50 ≈ 52.5 nM). With qPCR, the developmental stage and tissue-specific expression profiles in B. dorsalis demonstrated that both BdCrz and BdCrzR were highly expressed in the larval stage, and BdCrzR peaked in 2-day-old 3rd-instar larvae, suggesting that the BdCrzR may play an important role in the larval-pupal transition behavior. Immunochemical localization confirmed the production of Crz in the central nervous system (CNS), specifically by a group of three neurons in the dorso-lateral protocerebrum and eight pairs of lateral neurons in the ventral nerve cord. qPCR analysis located the BdCrzR in both the CNS and epitracheal gland, containing the Inka cells. Importantly, dsRNA-BdCrzR-mediated gene-silencing caused a delay in larval-pupal transition and pupariation, and this phenomenon agreed with a delayed expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and dopa-decarboxylase genes. We speculate that CrzR-silencing blocked dopamine synthesis, resulting in the inhibition of pupariation and cuticular melanization. Finally, injection of Crz in head-ligated larvae could rescue the effects. These findings provide a new insight into the roles of Crz signaling pathway components in B. dorsalis and support an important role of CrzR in larval-pupal transition and

  5. Octopamine--a single modulator with double action on the heart of two insect species (Apis mellifera macedonica and Bactrocera oleae): Acceleration vs. inhibition.

    PubMed

    Papaefthimiou, Chrisovalantis; Theophilidis, George

    2011-02-01

    The effects of octopamine, the main cardioacceleratory transmitter in insects, were investigated, in the isolated hearts of the honeybee, Apis mellifera macedonica, and the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae. Octopamine induced a biphasic effect on the frequency and force of cardiac contractions acting as an agonist, with a strong acceleratory effect, at concentrations higher than 10(-12)M for the honeybee and higher than 50×10(-9)M for the olive fruit fly. The heart of the honeybee is far more sensitive than the heart of olive fruit fly. This unusual sensitivity is extended to the blockers of octopaminergic receptors, where phentolamine at 10(-5)M stopped the spontaneous contractions of the honeybee heart completely and permanently, while the same blocker at the same concentration caused only 50% inhibition in the heart of the olive fruit fly. Phentolamine and mianserin at low concentrations of 10(-7)M also blocked the heart octopaminergic receptors, but for a short period of time, of less than 15.0 min, while a partial recovery in heart contraction started in spite of the presence of the antagonist. The unusual response of the honeybee heart in the presence of phentolamine and/or mianserin suggests excitatory effects of octopamine via two different receptor subtypes. At lower concentrations, 10(-14)M, the agonist octopamine was converted to an antagonist, inducing a hyperpolarization in the membrane potential of the honeybee cardiac pacemaker cells and inhibiting the firing rate of the heart. The inhibitory effects of octopamine on certain parameters of the rhythmic bursts of the heart of the honeybee, were similar to those of mianserin and phentolamine, typical blockers of octopaminergic receptors. The heart of the olive fruit fly was 10(5) times less sensitive to octopamine, since a persistent inhibition of heart contractions occurred at 10(-9)M. In conclusion, the acceleration of the insect heart is achieved by increasing the levels of octopamine, while there

  6. Molecular characteristics, mRNA expression, and alternative splicing of a ryanodine receptor gene in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    PubMed

    Yuan, Guo-Rui; Shi, Wen-Zhi; Yang, Wen-Jia; Jiang, Xuan-Zhao; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are a distinct class of ligand-gated channels controlling the release of calcium from intracellular stores. The emergence of diamide insecticides, which selectively target insect RyRs, has promoted the study of insect RyRs. In the present study, the full-length RyR cDNA (BdRyR) was cloned and characterized from the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), a serious pest of fruits and vegetables throughout East Asia and the Pacific Rim. The cDNA of BdRyR contains a 15,420-bp open reading frame encoding 5,140 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 582.4 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.38. BdRyR shows a high level of amino acid sequence identity (78 to 97%) to other insect RyR isoforms. All common structural features of the RyRs are present in the BdRyR, including a well-conserved C-terminal domain containing consensus calcium-binding EF-hands and six transmembrane domains, and a large N-terminal domain. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses revealed that BdRyR was expressed at the lowest and highest levels in egg and adult, respectively, and that the BdRyR expression levels in the third instar larva, pupa and adult were 166.99-, 157.56- and 808.56-fold higher, respectively, than that in the egg. Among different adult body parts, the highest expression level was observed in the thorax compared with the head and abdomen. In addition, four alternative splice sites were identified in the BdRyR gene, with the first, ASI, being located in the central part of the predicted second spore lysis A/RyR domain. Diagnostic PCR analyses revealed that alternative splice variants were generated not only in a tissue-specific manner but also in a developmentally regulated manner. These results lay the foundation for further understanding the structural and functional properties of BdRyR, and the molecular mechanisms for target site resistance in B. dorsalis.

  7. Evidence for competitive displacement of Ceratitis cosyra by the invasive fruit fly Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) on mango and mechanisms contributing to the displacement.

    PubMed

    Ekesi, Sunday; Billah, Maxwell K; Nderitu, Peterson W; Lux, Slawomir A; Rwomushana, Ivan

    2009-06-01

    Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White (Diptera: Tephritidae) invaded Kenya in 2003. Before the arrival of B. invadens, the indigenous fruit fly species Ceratitis cosyra (Walker) was the predominant fruit fly pest of mango (Mangifera indica L.). Within 4 yr of invasion, B. invadens has displaced C. cosyra and has become the predominant fruit fly pest of mango, constituting 98 and 88% of the total population in traps and mango fruit at Nguruman, respectively. We tested two possible mechanisms responsible for the displacement namely; resource competition by larvae within mango fruit and aggression between adult flies. Under interspecific competition, larval duration in B. invadens was significantly shorter (6.2 +/- 0.6-7.3 +/- 0.3 d) compared with C. cosyra (8.0 +/- 1.2-9.4 +/- 0.4 d). Pupal mass in C. cosyra was affected by competition and was significantly reduced (7.4 +/- 0.3-9.6 +/- 0.6 mg) under competitive interaction compared with the controls (12.1 +/- 1.5-12.8 +/- 1.1 mg). Interspecific competition also had a significant adverse effect on C. cosyra eclosion, with fewer adults emerging under co-infestation compared with the controls. Interference competition through aggressive behavior showed that fewer C. cosyra (3.1 +/- 0.8) landed on mango dome compared with the controls (14.2 +/- 1.5) when adults were mixed with B. invadens adults in Plexiglas cages. Similarly the number of times C. cosyra was observed ovipositing was significantly lower (0.2 +/- 0.2) under competitive interaction compared with the controls (6.1 +/- 1.8). Aggressive encounters in the form of lunging/ head-butting and chasing off other species from the mango dome was higher for B. invadens compared with C. cosyra. Our results suggest that exploitative competition through larval scrambling for resources and interference competition through aggressive behaviors of the invader are important mechanisms contributing to the displacement of C. cosyra by B. invadens in mango agroecosystems.

  8. Adipokinetic hormone receptor gene identification and its role in triacylglycerol mobilization and sexual behavior in the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis).

    PubMed

    Hou, Qiu-Li; Chen, Er-Hu; Jiang, Hong-Bo; Wei, Dan-Dan; Gui, Shun-Hua; Wang, Jin-Jun; Smagghe, Guy

    2017-09-15

    Energy homeostasis requires continuous compensation for fluctuations in energy expenditure and availability of food resources. In insects, energy mobilization is under control of the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) where it is regulating the nutritional status by supporting the mobilization of lipids. In this study, we characterized the gene coding for the AKH receptor (AKHR) and investigated its function in the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) that is economically one of the most important pest insects of tropical and subtropical fruit. Bacdo-AKHR is a typical G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) and phylogenetic analysis confirmed that Bacdo-AKHR is closely related to insect AKHRs from other species. When expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, Bacdo-AKHR exhibited a high sensitivity and selectivity for AKH peptide (EC50 = 19.3 nM). Using qPCR, the developmental stage and tissue-specific expression profiles demonstrated that Bacdo-AKHR was highly expressed in both the larval and adult stages, and also specifically in the fat body and midgut of the adult with no difference in sex. To investigate the role of AKHR in B. dorsalis, RNAi assays were performed with dsRNA against Bacdo-AKHR in adult flies of both sexes and under starvation and feeding condition. As major results, the knockdown of this gene resulted in triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation. With RNAi-males, we observed a severe decrease in their sexual courtship activity when starved, but there was a partial rescue in copulation when refed. Also in RNAi-males, the tethered-flight duration declined compared with the control group when starved, which is confirming the dependency on energy metabolism. In RNAi-females, the sexual behavior was not affected, but their fecundity was decreased. Our findings indicate an interesting role of AKHR in the sexual behavior of males specifically. The effects are associated with TAG accumulation, and we also reported that the conserved role of AKH-mediated system

  9. Identification, mRNA expression, and functional analysis of chitin synthase 1 gene and its two alternative splicing variants in oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen-Jia; Xu, Kang-Kang; Cong, Lin; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Two alternative splicing variants of chitin synthase 1 gene (BdCHS1) were cloned and characterized from the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). The cDNA of both variants (BdCHS1a and BdCHS1b) consisted of 5,552 nucleotides (nt), with an open reading frame (ORF) of 4,776 nt, encoding a protein of 1,592 amino acid residues, plus 685- and 88-nt of 5'- and 3'-noncoding regions, respectively. The alternative splicing site was located between positions 3,784-3,960 and formed a pair of mutually exclusive exons (a/b) that were same in size (177 nt), but showed only 65% identity at the nucleotide level. During B. dorsalis growth and development, BdCHS1 and BdCHS1a were both mainly expressed during the larval-pupal and pupal-adult transitions, while BdCHS1b was mainly expressed during pupal-adult metamorphosis and in the middle of the pupal stage. BdCHS1a was predominately expressed in the integument whereas BdCHS1b was mainly expressed in the trachea. The 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) induced the expression of BdCHS1 and its variants. Injection of dsRNA of BdCHS1, BdCHS1a, and BdCHS1b into third-instar larvae significantly reduced the expression levels of the corresponding variants, generated phenotypic defects, and killed most of the treated larvae. Furthermore, silencing of BdCHS1 and BdCHS1a had a similar result in that the larva was trapped in old cuticle and died without tanning completely, while silencing of BdCHS1b has no effect on insect morphology. These results demonstrated that BdCHS1 plays an important role in the larval-pupal transition and the expression of BdCHS1 in B. dorsalis is regulated by 20E.

  10. Assessment of attractiveness of cassava as a roosting plant for the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, and the Oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis.

    PubMed

    McQuate, Grant T

    2011-01-01

    Application of bait spray to crop borders is a standard approach for suppression of melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations and may also be of value for suppression of oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel) populations. Establishment of preferred roosting hosts as crop borders may help to improve suppression of both fruit fly species by providing sites for bait spray applications. In an area-wide B. cucurbitae suppression trial, the question was raised as to whether cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiales: Euphorbiaceae), could be used as a B. cucurbitae roosting host. M. esculenta was of interest as a roosting host because, in contrast to many other identified preferred roosting hosts, it would also be a crop potentially increasing the productivity of the crop production system overall. As a short-lived and shrubby perennial, M. esculenta potentially constitutes a crop with more persistent roosting foliage than an annual crop such as corn, Zea mays L. (Cyperales: Poaceae), that has often been planted as a roosting host for B. cucurbitae control. Using protein-baited traps set amidst potted plants placed adjacent to a papaya Carica papaya L. (Violales: Caricaceae) orchard known to have established populations of B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis, the effectiveness of M. esculenta as a roosting host was assessed by comparing its attractiveness to that of castor bean, Ricinus communis L (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae), previously identified as one of the most attractive roosting hosts for B. cucurbitae, and to corn, a crop which has been planted as a roosting host for help in B. cucurbitae control. The results showed that use of M. esculenta as a roosting host is comparable to use of R. communis by both B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis. These results provide encouragement to incorporate M. esculenta on a farm as a trap crop (i.e. site for bait spray application). This has the advantage of having the trap crop be a crop on its

  11. Cytogenetic and symbiont analysis of five members of the B. dorsalis complex (Diptera, Tephritidae): no evidence of chromosomal or symbiont-based speciation events

    PubMed Central

    Augustinos, Antonios A.; Drosopoulou, Elena; Gariou-Papalexiou, Aggeliki; Asimakis, Elias D.; Cáceres, Carlos; Tsiamis, George; Bourtzis, Kostas; Penelope Mavragani-Tsipidou; Zacharopoulou, Antigone

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Bactrocera dorsalis species complex, currently comprising about 90 entities has received much attention. During the last decades, considerable effort has been devoted to delimiting the species of the complex. This information is of great importance for agriculture and world trade, since the complex harbours several pest species of major economic importance and other species that could evolve into global threats. Speciation in Diptera is usually accompanied by chromosomal rearrangements, particularly inversions that are assumed to reduce/eliminate gene flow. Other candidates currently receiving much attention regarding their possible involvement in speciation are reproductive symbionts, such as Wolbachia, Spiroplasma, Arsenophonus, Rickettsia and Cardinium. Such symbionts tend to spread quickly through natural populations and can cause a variety of phenotypes that promote pre-mating and/or post-mating isolation and, in addition, can affect the biology, physiology, ecology and evolution of their insect hosts in various ways. Considering all these aspects, we present: (a) a summary of the recently gained knowledge on the cytogenetics of five members of the Bactrocera dorsalis complex, namely Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., Bactrocera invadens, Bactrocera philippinensis, Bactrocera papayae and Bactrocera carambolae, supplemented by additional data from a Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. colony from China, as well as by a cytogenetic comparison between the dorsalis complex and the genetically close species, Bactrocera tryoni, and, (b) a reproductive symbiont screening of 18 different colonized populations of these five taxa. Our analysis did not reveal any chromosomal rearrangements that could differentiate among them. Moreover, screening for reproductive symbionts was negative for all colonies derived from different geographic origins and/or hosts. There are many different factors that can lead to speciation, and our data do not support chromosomal and/or symbiotic

  12. Cytogenetic and symbiont analysis of five members of the B. dorsalis complex (Diptera, Tephritidae): no evidence of chromosomal or symbiont-based speciation events.

    PubMed

    Augustinos, Antonios A; Drosopoulou, Elena; Gariou-Papalexiou, Aggeliki; Asimakis, Elias D; Cáceres, Carlos; Tsiamis, George; Bourtzis, Kostas; Penelope Mavragani-Tsipidou; Zacharopoulou, Antigone

    2015-01-01

    The Bactrocera dorsalis species complex, currently comprising about 90 entities has received much attention. During the last decades, considerable effort has been devoted to delimiting the species of the complex. This information is of great importance for agriculture and world trade, since the complex harbours several pest species of major economic importance and other species that could evolve into global threats. Speciation in Diptera is usually accompanied by chromosomal rearrangements, particularly inversions that are assumed to reduce/eliminate gene flow. Other candidates currently receiving much attention regarding their possible involvement in speciation are reproductive symbionts, such as Wolbachia, Spiroplasma, Arsenophonus, Rickettsia and Cardinium. Such symbionts tend to spread quickly through natural populations and can cause a variety of phenotypes that promote pre-mating and/or post-mating isolation and, in addition, can affect the biology, physiology, ecology and evolution of their insect hosts in various ways. Considering all these aspects, we present: (a) a summary of the recently gained knowledge on the cytogenetics of five members of the Bactrocera dorsalis complex, namely Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., Bactrocera invadens, Bactrocera philippinensis, Bactrocera papayae and Bactrocera carambolae, supplemented by additional data from a Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. colony from China, as well as by a cytogenetic comparison between the dorsalis complex and the genetically close species, Bactrocera tryoni, and, (b) a reproductive symbiont screening of 18 different colonized populations of these five taxa. Our analysis did not reveal any chromosomal rearrangements that could differentiate among them. Moreover, screening for reproductive symbionts was negative for all colonies derived from different geographic origins and/or hosts. There are many different factors that can lead to speciation, and our data do not support chromosomal and/or symbiotic

  13. An Overview of Pest Species of Bactrocera Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and the Integration of Biopesticides with Other Biological Approaches for Their Management with a Focus on the Pacific Region

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Roger I.; Piñero, Jaime C.; Leblanc, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are among the most economically important pest species in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout tropical and sub-tropical areas. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and eradication programs have been developed in various parts of the world to combat them. The array of control methods includes insecticide sprays to foliage and soil, bait-sprays, male annihilation techniques, releases of sterilized flies and parasitoids, and cultural controls. During the twenty first century there has been a trend to move away from control with organophosphate insecticides (e.g., malathion, diazinon, and naled) and towards reduced risk insecticide treatments. In this article we present an overview of 73 pest species in the genus Bactrocera, examine recent developments of reduced risk technologies for their control and explore Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Programs that integrate multiple components to manage these pests in tropical and sub-tropical areas. PMID:26463186

  14. An Overview of Pest Species of Bactrocera Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and the Integration of Biopesticides with Other Biological Approaches for Their Management with a Focus on the Pacific Region.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Roger I; Piñero, Jaime C; Leblanc, Luc

    2015-04-03

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are among the most economically important pest species in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout tropical and sub-tropical areas. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and eradication programs have been developed in various parts of the world to combat them. The array of control methods includes insecticide sprays to foliage and soil, bait-sprays, male annihilation techniques, releases of sterilized flies and parasitoids, and cultural controls. During the twenty first century there has been a trend to move away from control with organophosphate insecticides (e.g., malathion, diazinon, and naled) and towards reduced risk insecticide treatments. In this article we present an overview of 73 pest species in the genus Bactrocera, examine recent developments of reduced risk technologies for their control and explore Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Programs that integrate multiple components to manage these pests in tropical and sub-tropical areas.

  15. Population structure of Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., B. papayae and B. philippinensis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in southeast Asia: evidence for a single species hypothesis using mitochondrial DNA and wing-shape data

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. is a pestiferous tephritid fruit fly distributed from Pakistan to the Pacific, with the Thai/Malay peninsula its southern limit. Sister pest taxa, B. papayae and B. philippinensis, occur in the southeast Asian archipelago and the Philippines, respectively. The relationship among these species is unclear due to their high molecular and morphological similarity. This study analysed population structure of these three species within a southeast Asian biogeographical context to assess potential dispersal patterns and the validity of their current taxonomic status. Results Geometric morphometric results generated from 15 landmarks for wings of 169 flies revealed significant differences in wing shape between almost all sites following canonical variate analysis. For the combined data set there was a greater isolation-by-distance (IBD) effect under a ‘non-Euclidean’ scenario which used geographical distances within a biogeographical ‘Sundaland context’ (r2 = 0.772, P < 0.0001) as compared to a ‘Euclidean’ scenario for which direct geographic distances between sample sites was used (r2 = 0.217, P < 0.01). COI sequence data were obtained for 156 individuals and yielded 83 unique haplotypes with no correlation to current taxonomic designations via a minimum spanning network. beast analysis provided a root age and location of 540kya in northern Thailand, with migration of B. dorsalis s.l. into Malaysia 470kya and Sumatra 270kya. Two migration events into the Philippines are inferred. Sequence data revealed a weak but significant IBD effect under the ‘non-Euclidean’ scenario (r2 = 0.110, P < 0.05), with no historical migration evident between Taiwan and the Philippines. Results are consistent with those expected at the intra-specific level. Conclusions Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., B. papayae and B. philippinensis likely represent one species structured around the South China Sea, having migrated from

  16. A tuber lectin from Arisaema helleborifolium Schott with anti-insect activity against melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) and anti-cancer effect on human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Manpreet; Singh, Kuljinder; Rup, Pushpinder J; Saxena, A K; Khan, Rizwan H; Ashraf, Mohd Tashfeen; Kamboj, Sukhdev Singh; Singh, Jatinder

    2006-01-01

    An anti-insect and anti-cancer lectin has been isolated from Arisaema helleborifolium Schott by affinity chromatography using asialofetuin-linked amino activated silica beads. The bound A. helleborifolium lectin (AHL) was eluted with 100mM glycine-HCl buffer, pH 2.5. It gave a single band on SDS-PAGE, pH 8.3, and PAGE, pH 4.5. However, multiple bands were obtained in PAGE at pH 8.3 and isoelectric focusing. The lectin was a homotetramer having subunit molecular mass 13.4kDa while its native molecular mass was 52kDa. It was a glycoprotein with 3.40% carbohydrate and was stable up to 60 degrees C for 30min. It showed anti-insect activity towards second instar larvae of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) with LC(50) value of 16.4microg/ml. Larvae fed on artificial diet containing sub-lethal dose of AHL showed a significant decrease in acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase activity while esterase activity markedly increased as compared to larvae fed on diet without lectin. AHL was also found to inhibit in vitro proliferation of some well established human cancer cell lines viz HOP-62 (95%), HCT-15 (92%), HEP-2 (66%), HT-29 (68%), PC-3 (39.4%), and A-549 (20.7%).

  17. Low Diversity Bacterial Community and the Trapping Activity of Metabolites from Cultivable Bacteria Species in the Female Reproductive System of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zhanghong; Wang, Lili; Zhang, Hongyu

    2012-01-01

    Our goal was to identify the bacteria inhabiting the reproductive system of the female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and evaluate the chemotaxis of B. dorsalis to the metabolites produced by the bacteria. Based on 16S rRNA-based polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), 18 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were assigned to the five bacterial classes Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacilli and Actinobacteria. Nine OTUs were assigned to Gammaproteobacteria, which was the most highly represented class. Enterobacteriaceae constituted the dominant family, and within this family, three genera and five species were identified, including Enterobacter sakazakii, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Raoultella terrigena and Enterobacter amnigenus. In this set, the first two species were the dominant components, and the latter three species were the minor ones. Finally, we found that the metabolites produced by R. terrigena, K. oxytoca and K. pneumoniae were attractive to the B. dorsalis adults, and in field studies, B. dorsalis adults were most attracted to K. oxytoca. Collectively, our results suggest that the female reproductive system plays an important role in the transfer of enterobacteria from the gut to fruit. Our data may prompt the development of a female-targeted population control strategy for this fly. PMID:22754363

  18. Bioefficacy of Alpinia galanga (Zingiberaceae) rhizome extracts, (E)-p-acetoxycinnamyl alcohol, and (E)-p-coumaryl alcohol ethyl ether against Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) and the impact on detoxification enzyme activities.

    PubMed

    Sukhirun, N; Pluempanupat, W; Bullangpoti, V; Koul, O

    2011-10-01

    The application of insecticides to control oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a principal component of the current management of these fruit flies. However, we evaluated four extracts of Alpinia galanga Wild Linn (Zingiberaceae) rhizomes against adult flies and found hexane and ethanol extracts to be most effective (LC50 = 4,866 and 6,337 ppm, respectively, after 24 h). This suggested that both nonpolar and polar compounds could be active in the candidate plant. Accordingly, the hexane extract was further processed to isolate nonpolar active compounds from this plant source. Two compounds, (E)-p-acetoxycinnamyl alcohol and (E)-p-coumaryl alcohol ethyl ether, were identified as active ingredients and found to be more active than total hexane extract (LC50 = 3,654 and 4,044 ppm, respectively, after 24 h). The data suggested that the compounds were not synergistic but may have some additive effect in a mixture. The activity of the hexane extract against detoxification enzymes, carboxylesterase (CE) and glutathione transferase (GST) also was determined in vitro. CE was inhibited by 70%, whereas GST was not significantly inhibited. Insect CEs mediate insecticide resistance via their induction; therefore, inhibition of these enzymes by plant allelochemicals could be a useful alternative approach for the management of the pest in the field.

  19. The utility of microsatellite DNA markers for the evaluation of area-wide integrated pest management using SIT for the fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), control programs in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Aketarawong, Nidchaya; Chinvinijkul, Suksom; Orankanok, Watchreeporn; Guglielmino, Carmela Rosalba; Franz, Gerald; Malacrida, Anna Rodolfa; Thanaphum, Sujinda

    2011-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), is a key pest that causes reduction of the crop yield within the international fruit market. Fruit flies have been suppressed by two Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management programs in Thailand using Sterile Insect Technique (AW-IPM-SIT) since the late 1980s and the early 2000s. The projects' planning and evaluation usually rely on information from pest status, distribution, and fruit infestation. However, the collected data sometimes does not provide enough detail to answer management queries and public concerns, such as the long term sterilization efficacy of the released fruit fly, skepticism about insect migration or gene flow across the buffer zone, and the re-colonisation possibility of the fruit fly population within the core area. Established microsatellite DNA markers were used to generate population genetic data for the analysis of the fruit fly sampling from several control areas, and non-target areas, as well as the mass-rearing facility. The results suggested limited gene flow (m < 0.100) across the buffer zones between the flies in the control areas and flies captured outside. In addition, no genetic admixture was revealed from the mass-reared colony flies from the flies within the control area, which supports the effectiveness of SIT. The control pests were suppressed to low density and showed weak bottleneck footprints although they still acquired a high degree of genetic variation. Potential pest resurgence from fragmented micro-habitats in mixed fruit orchards rather than pest incursion across the buffer zone has been proposed. Therefore, a suitable pest control effort, such as the SIT program, should concentrate on the hidden refuges within the target area.

  20. The Microbiome of Field-Caught and Laboratory-Adapted Australian Tephritid Fruit Fly Species with Different Host Plant Use and Specialisation.

    PubMed

    Morrow, J L; Frommer, M; Shearman, D C A; Riegler, M

    2015-08-01

    Tephritid fruit fly species display a diversity of host plant specialisation on a scale from monophagy to polyphagy. Furthermore, while some species prefer ripening fruit, a few are restricted to damaged or rotting fruit. Such a diversity of host plant use may be reflected in the microbial symbiont diversity of tephritids and their grade of dependency on their microbiomes. Here, we investigated the microbiome of six tephritid species from three genera, including species that are polyphagous pests (Bactrocera tryoni, Bactrocera neohumeralis, Bactrocera jarvisi, Ceratitis capitata) and a monophagous specialist (Bactrocera cacuminata). These were compared with the microbiome of a non-pestiferous but polyphagous tephritid species that is restricted to damaged or rotting fruit (Dirioxa pornia). The bacterial community associated with whole fruit flies was analysed by 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) amplicon pyrosequencing to detect potential drivers of taxonomic composition. Overall, the dominant bacterial families were Enterobacteriaceae and Acetobacteraceae (both Proteobacteria), and Streptococcaceae and Enterococcaceae (both Firmicutes). Comparisons across species and genera found different microbial composition in the three tephritid genera, but limited consistent differentiation between Bactrocera species. Within Bactrocera species, differentiation of microbial composition seemed to be influenced by the environment, possibly including their diets; beyond this, tephritid species identity or ecology also had an effect. The microbiome of D. pornia was most distinct from the other five species, which may be due to its ecologically different niche of rotting or damaged fruit, as opposed to ripening fruit favoured by the other species. Our study is the first amplicon pyrosequencing study to compare the microbiomes of tephritid species and thus delivers important information about the turnover of microbial diversity within and between fruit fly species and their potential

  1. Evidence of weak genetic structure and recent gene flow between Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. and B. papayae, across Southern Thailand and West Malaysia, supporting a single target pest for SIT applications

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. (Hendel) and B. papayae Drew & Hancock, are invasive pests belonging to the B. dorsalis complex. Their species status, based on morphology, is sometimes arguable. Consequently, the existence of cryptic species and/or population isolation may decrease the effectiveness of the sterile insect technique (SIT) due to an unknown degree of sexual isolation between released sterile flies and wild counterparts. To evaluate the genetic relationship and current demography in wild populations for guiding the application of area-wide integrated pest management using SIT, seven microsatellite-derived markers from B. dorsalis s.s. and another five from B. papayae were used for surveying intra- and inter-specific variation, population structure, and recent migration among sympatric and allopatric populations of the two morphological forms across Southern Thailand and West Malaysia. Results Basic genetic variations were not significantly different among forms, populations, and geographical areas (P > 0.05). Nonetheless, two sets of microsatellite markers showed significantly different levels of polymorphisms. Genetic differentiation between intra- and inter-specific differences was significant, but low. Seventeen populations revealed three hypothetical genetic clusters (K = 3) regardless of forms and geographical areas. The genetic structure of sympatric populations slightly changed during the different years of collection. Recent gene flow (m ≥ 0.10) was frequently detected whether samples were sympatric or allopatric. Ninety-five of 379 individuals distributed across the given area were designated as recent migrants or of admixed ancestry. As a consequence of substantial migration, no significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances was detected (R2 = 0.056, P = 0.650). Conclusions According to the 12 microsatellite variations, weak population structure and recent gene flow suggest that there is no status for cryptic species

  2. Evidence of weak genetic structure and recent gene flow between Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. and B. papayae, across Southern Thailand and West Malaysia, supporting a single target pest for SIT applications.

    PubMed

    Aketarawong, Nidchaya; Isasawin, Siriwan; Thanaphum, Sujinda

    2014-06-14

    Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. (Hendel) and B. papayae Drew & Hancock, are invasive pests belonging to the B. dorsalis complex. Their species status, based on morphology, is sometimes arguable. Consequently, the existence of cryptic species and/or population isolation may decrease the effectiveness of the sterile insect technique (SIT) due to an unknown degree of sexual isolation between released sterile flies and wild counterparts. To evaluate the genetic relationship and current demography in wild populations for guiding the application of area-wide integrated pest management using SIT, seven microsatellite-derived markers from B. dorsalis s.s. and another five from B. papayae were used for surveying intra- and inter-specific variation, population structure, and recent migration among sympatric and allopatric populations of the two morphological forms across Southern Thailand and West Malaysia. Basic genetic variations were not significantly different among forms, populations, and geographical areas (P > 0.05). Nonetheless, two sets of microsatellite markers showed significantly different levels of polymorphisms. Genetic differentiation between intra- and inter-specific differences was significant, but low. Seventeen populations revealed three hypothetical genetic clusters (K = 3) regardless of forms and geographical areas. The genetic structure of sympatric populations slightly changed during the different years of collection. Recent gene flow (m ≥ 0.10) was frequently detected whether samples were sympatric or allopatric. Ninety-five of 379 individuals distributed across the given area were designated as recent migrants or of admixed ancestry. As a consequence of substantial migration, no significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances was detected (R2 = 0.056, P = 0.650). According to the 12 microsatellite variations, weak population structure and recent gene flow suggest that there is no status for cryptic species between B. dorsalis s.s. and B

  3. Total body nitrogen and total body carbon as indicators of body protein and body lipids in the melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae: effects of methoprene, a juvenile hormone analogue, and of diet supplementation with hydrolyzed yeast.

    PubMed

    ul Haq, Ihsan; Mayr, Leopold; Teal, P E A; Hendrichs, Jorge; Robinson, Alan S; Stauffer, Christian; Hood-Nowotny, Rebecca

    2010-12-01

    The application of methoprene, and providing access to diet including hydrolyzed yeast, are treatments known to enhance mating success in the male melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), supporting their use in mass rearing protocols for sterile males in the context of sterile insect technique (SIT) programmes. The objective of the present laboratory study was to investigate the effect of methoprene application and diet supplementation with hydrolyzed yeast (protein) on the turnover of body lipids and protein to confirm the feasibility of their application in melon fly SIT mass-rearing programmes. While females had access to a diet that included hydrolyzed yeast (protein), males were exposed to one of the following treatments: (1) topical application of methoprene and access to diet including protein (M+P+); (2) only diet including protein (M-P+); (3) only methoprene (M+P-) and (4) untreated, only sugar-fed, control males (M-P-). Total body carbon (TBC) and total body nitrogen (TBN) of flies were measured at regular intervals from emergence to 35 days of age for each of the different treatments. Nitrogen assimilation and turnover in the flies were measured using stable isotope ((15)N) dilution techniques. Hydrolyzed yeast incorporation into the diet significantly increased male body weight, TBC and TBN as compared to sugar-fed males. Females had significantly higher body weight, TBC and TBN as compared to all males. TBC and TBN showed age-dependent changes, increasing until the age of sexual maturity and decreasing afterwards in both sexes. Methoprene treatment did not significantly affect TBC or TBN. The progressive increase with age of TBC suggests that lipogenesis occurs in adult male B. cucurbitae, as is the case in other tephritids. Stable isotope dilution was shown to be an effective method for determining N uptake in B. cucurbitae. This technique was used to show that sugar-fed males rely solely on larval N reserves and that the N

  4. Tropical tephritid fruit fly community with high incidence of shared Wolbachia strains as platform for horizontal transmission of endosymbionts.

    PubMed

    Morrow, J L; Frommer, M; Shearman, D C A; Riegler, M

    2014-12-01

    Wolbachia are endosymbiotic bacteria that infect 40-65% of arthropod species. They are primarily maternally inherited with occasional horizontal transmission for which limited direct ecological evidence exists. We detected Wolbachia in 8 out of 24 Australian tephritid species. Here, we have used multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to further characterize these Wolbachia strains, plus a novel quantitative polymerase chain reaction method for allele assignment in multiple infections. Based on five MLST loci and the Wolbachia surface protein gene (wsp), five Bactrocera and one Dacus species harboured two identical strains as double infections; furthermore, Bactrocera neohumeralis harboured both of these as single or double infections, and sibling species B. tryoni harboured one. Two Bactrocera species contained Wolbachia pseudogenes, potentially within the fruit fly genomes. A fruit fly parasitoid, Fopius arisanus shared identical alleles with two Wolbachia strains detected in one B. frauenfeldi individual. We report an unprecedented high incidence of four shared Wolbachia strains in eight host species from two trophic levels. This suggests frequent exposure to Wolbachia in this tropical tephritid community that shares host plant and parasitoid species, and also includes species that hybridize. Such insect communities may act as horizontal transmission platforms that contribute to the ubiquity of the otherwise maternally inherited Wolbachia.

  5. Two Gut-Associated Yeasts in a Tephritid Fruit Fly have Contrasting Effects on Adult Attraction and Larval Survival.

    PubMed

    Piper, Alexander M; Farnier, Kevin; Linder, Tomas; Speight, Robert; Cunningham, John Paul

    2017-08-23

    Yeast-insect interactions have been well characterized in drosophilid flies, but not in tephritid fruit flies, which include many highly polyphagous pest species that attack ripening fruits. Using the Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni) as our model tephritid species, we identified yeast species present in the gut of wild-collected larvae and found two genera, Hanseniaspora and Pichia, were the dominant isolates. In behavioural trials using adult female B. tryoni, a fruit-agar substrate inoculated with Pichia kluyveri resulted in odour emissions that increased the attraction of flies, whereas inoculation with Hanseniaspora uvarum, produced odours that strongly deterred flies, and both yeasts led to decreased oviposition. Larval development trials showed that the fruit-agar substrate inoculated with the 'deterrent odour' yeast species, H. uvarum, resulted in significantly faster larval development and a greater number of adult flies, compared to a substrate inoculated with the 'attractive odour' yeast species, P. kluyveri, and a yeast free control substrate. GC-MS analysis of volatiles emitted by H. uvarum and P. kluyveri inoculated substrates revealed significant quantitative differences in ethyl-, isoamyl-, isobutyl-, and phenethyl- acetates, which may be responsible for the yeast-specific olfactory responses of adult flies. We discuss how our seemingly counterintuitive finding that female B. tryoni flies avoid a beneficial yeast fits well with our understanding of female choice of oviposition sites, and how the contrasting behavioural effects of H. uvarum and P. kluyveri raises interesting questions regarding the role of yeast-specific volatiles as cues to insect vectors. A better understanding of yeast-tephritid interactions could assist in the future management of tephritid fruit fly pests through the formulation of new "attract and kill" lures, and the development of probiotics for mass rearing of insects in sterile insect control programs.

  6. The Long and the Short of Mate Attraction in a Psylloid: do Semiochemicals Mediate Mating in Aacanthocnema dobsoni Froggatt?

    PubMed

    Lubanga, Umar K; Drijfhout, Falko P; Farnier, Kevin; Steinbauer, Martin J

    2016-02-01

    Mating is preceded by a series of interdependent events that can be broadly categorized into searching and courtship. Long-range signals convey species- and sex-specific information during searching, while short-range signals provide information specific to individuals during courtship. Studies have shown that cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) can be used for mate recognition in addition to protecting insects from desiccation. In Psylloidea, four species rely on semiochemicals for long-range mate attraction. Psyllid mating research has focused on long-range mate attraction and has largely ignored the potential use of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) as mate recognition cues. This study investigated whether CHCs of Aacanthocnema dobsoni have semiochemical activity for long- and short-range communication prior to mating. Using a solid sampler for solvent-less injection of whole psyllids into coupled gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, we found quantitative, sex- and age-related differences in CHC profiles. Males had higher proportions of 2-MeC28, 11,15-diMeC29, and n-C33 alkanes, while females had higher proportions of 5-MeC27, 3-MeC27, 5,15-diMeC27, n-C29 and n-C30 alkanes. In males and females, 84 and 68 % of CHCs varied with age, respectively. Y-tube olfactometer bioassays provided no evidence that males or females responded to odors emanating from groups of conspecifics of the opposite sex. Tests of male and female psyllids for attraction to branchlets previously occupied by conspecifics showed no evidence of attraction to possible semiochemical residues. Our short-range chemoreception bioassay showed that males were as indifferent to freshly killed individuals of either sex with intact CHC profiles as to those treated with hexane (to remove CHCs). Aacanthocnema dobsoni utilizes substrate-borne vibrations (SBVs) for communication. Therefore, our results indicate that SBVs are probably more important than semiochemicals for long-range mate attraction. Furthermore, CHCs are unlikely to mediate short-range mate recognition or provide mate assessment cues.

  7. Nonhost status of mangosteen to Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera:Tephritidae) in Thailand

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Postharvest quarantine treatments (irradiation or vapor heat) are used to control fruit flies and other pests in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L) exported to the United States and Japan from Thailand. No-choice tests were conducted in the laboratory to determine whether Thai mangosteen is a host f...

  8. Sexual selection in true fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae): transcriptome and experimental evidences for phytochemicals increasing male competitive ability.

    PubMed

    Kumaran, Nagalingam; Prentis, Peter J; Mangalam, Kalimuthu P; Schutze, Mark K; Clarke, Anthony R

    2014-09-01

    In male tephritid fruit flies of the genus Bactrocera, feeding on secondary plant compounds (sensu lato male lures = methyl eugenol, raspberry ketone and zingerone) increases male mating success. Ingested male lures alter the male pheromonal blend, normally making it more attractive to females and this is considered the primary mechanism for the enhanced mating success. However, the male lures raspberry ketone and zingerone are known, across a diverse range of other organisms, to be involved in increasing energy metabolism. If this also occurs in Bactrocera, then this may represent an additional benefit to males as courtship is metabolically expensive and lure feeding may increase a fly's short-term energy. We tested this hypothesis by performing comparative RNA-seq analysis between zingerone-fed and unfed males of Bactrocera tryoni. We also carried out behavioural assays with zingerone- and cuelure-fed males to test whether they became more active. RNA-seq analysis revealed, in zingerone-fed flies, up-regulation of 3183 genes with homologues transcripts to those known to regulate intermale aggression, pheromone synthesis, mating and accessory gland proteins, along with significant enrichment of several energy metabolic pathways and gene ontology terms. Behavioural assays show significant increases in locomotor activity, weight reduction and successful mating after mounting; all direct/indirect measures of increased activity. These results suggest that feeding on lures leads to complex physiological changes, which result in more competitive males. These results do not negate the pheromone effect, but do strongly suggest that the phytochemical-induced sexual selection is governed by both female preference and male competitive mechanisms. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. A potential field suppression system for Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We first observed attraction by oriental fruit flies to a basil plant in a yard and confirmed the attractiveness to basil oil (BO) in the laboratory. We subsequently identified the insecticidal compounds from BO that could kill three species of tephritid fruit flies in the laboratory, and discovered...

  10. Response of Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera:Tephritidae) to metabolic stress disinfection and disinfestation treatment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Metabolic stress disinfection and disinfestation (MSDD) is a postharvest treatment designed to control pathogens and arthropod pests on commodities that combines short cycles of low pressure/vacuum and high CO2 with ethanol vapor. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of MSDD treatment o...

  11. Assessment of Navel oranges, Clementine tangerines and Rutaceous fruits as hosts of Bactrocera cucurbitae and Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Export of Citrus spp., widely cultivated throughout the tropics and subtropics, may require risk mitigation measures if grown in areas with established tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations capable of infesting the fruits. Two tephritid fruit fly species whose geographic ranges have...

  12. Inferring modes of colonization for pest species using heterozygosity comparisons and a shared-allele test.

    PubMed Central

    Sved, J A; Yu, H; Dominiak, B; Gilchrist, A S

    2003-01-01

    Long-range dispersal of a species may involve either a single long-distance movement from a core population or spreading via unobserved intermediate populations. Where the new populations originate as small propagules, genetic drift may be extreme and gene frequency or assignment methods may not prove useful in determining the relation between the core population and outbreak samples. We describe computationally simple resampling methods for use in this situation to distinguish between the different modes of dispersal. First, estimates of heterozygosity can be used to test for direct sampling from the core population and to estimate the effective size of intermediate populations. Second, a test of sharing of alleles, particularly rare alleles, can show whether outbreaks are related to each other rather than arriving as independent samples from the core population. The shared-allele statistic also serves as a genetic distance measure that is appropriate for small samples. These methods were applied to data on a fruit fly pest species, Bactrocera tryoni, which is quarantined from some horticultural areas in Australia. We concluded that the outbreaks in the quarantine zone came from a heterogeneous set of genetically differentiated populations, possibly ones that overwinter in the vicinity of the quarantine zone. PMID:12618417

  13. Combined effects of dietary yeast supplementation and methoprene treatment on sexual maturation of Queensland fruit fly.

    PubMed

    Collins, Samuel R; Reynolds, Olivia L; Taylor, Phillip W

    2014-02-01

    Yeast hydrolysate supplements promote maturation of many tephritid flies targeted for control using the sterile insect technique (SIT), including Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni; 'Q-fly'). Recently, application of the juvenile hormone analogue methoprene has been demonstrated to further promote maturation in some species. We here investigate the separate and combined effects of yeast hydrolysate and methoprene treatment on sexual maturation of sterile male and female Q-flies. Two methods of applying methoprene solution were used; topical application to adults and dipping of pupae. Consistent with previous studies, access to yeast hydrolysate greatly increased maturation of both male and female Q-flies. Maturation was further promoted by methoprene treatment, with similar effects evident for males and females and for both application methods. For flies provided access to yeast hydrolysate supplements, methoprene treatment advanced maturation by approximately 2days. No effects of diet or methoprene treatment were found on timing of copulation or copula duration. Countering the positive effects on sexual maturation, dipping of pupae in methoprene/acetone solution did diminish emergence rates and flight ability indices, and increased rates of wing deformity. Promising results of the present study encourage further investigation of treatment methods that maximise maturation while minimising detrimental effects on other aspects of fly quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Australian gall-inducing scale insects on Eucalyptus: revision of Opisthoscelis Schrader (Coccoidea, Eriococcidae) and descriptions of a new genus and nine new species.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Nate B; Gullan, Penny J

    2010-09-24

    We revise the genus Opisthoscelis Schrader, and erect the genus Tanyscelisgen. n. with Opisthoscelis pisiformis Froggatt as its type species. Species of both genera induce sexually dimorphic galls on Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) in Australia, with Opisthoscelis subrotunda Schrader also in Papua New Guinea. We synonymise the following taxa (junior synonym with senior synonym): Opisthoscelis fibularis Froggatt, syn. n. with Opisthoscelis spinosa Froggatt; Opisthoscelis recurva Froggatt, syn. n. with Opisthoscelis maculata Froggatt; Opisthoscelis globosa Froggatt, syn. n. (= Opisthoscelis ruebsaameni Lindinger) with Opisthoscelis convexa Froggatt; and Opisthoscelis mammularis Froggatt, syn. n. with Opisthoscelis verrucula Froggatt. We transfer seven Opisthoscelis species to Tanyscelis as Tanyscelis conica (Fuller), comb. n., Tanyscelis convexa (Froggatt), comb. n., Tanyscelis maculata (Froggatt), comb. n., Tanyscelis maskelli (Froggatt), comb. n., Tanyscelis pisiformis (Froggatt), comb. n., Tanyscelis spinosa (Froggatt), comb. n., and Tanyscelis verrucula (Froggatt), comb. n. We redescribe and illustrate the adult female of each named species of Opisthoscelis for which the type material is known, as well as the first-instar nymph of the type species of Opisthoscelis (Opisthoscelis subrotunda) and Tanyscelis (Opisthoscelis pisiformis). We describe four new species of Opisthoscelis: Opisthoscelis beardsleyi Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Opisthoscelis thurgoona Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Opisthoscelis tuberculataHardy & Gullan, sp. n., and Opisthoscelis ungulifinis Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., and five new species of Tanyscelis: Tanyscelis grallator Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Tanuscelis megagibba Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Tanyscelis mollicornuta Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Tanyscelis tripocula Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., and Tanyscelis villosigibba Hardy & Gullan, sp. n. We designate lectotypes for Opisthoscelis convexa, Opisthoscelis fibularis, Opisthoscelis globosa Froggatt, Opisthoscelis maculata

  15. Weathering and chemical degradation of methyl eugenol and raspberry ketone solid dispensers for detection, monitoring and male annihilation of Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Solid male lure dispensers containing methyl eugenol (ME) and raspberry ketone (RK), or mixtures of the lures (ME + RK), and dimethyl dichloro-vinyl phosphate (DDVP) were evaluated in AWPM bucket or Jackson traps in commercial papaya (Carica papaya L.) orchards where both oriental fruit fly, Bactroc...

  16. Captures of wild Ceratitis capitata Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in traps with improved multi-lure TMR-Dispensers weathered in California

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During 2012-2013 two “attract and kill” systems were weathered in California as potential detection and male annihilation treatments (MAT). Solid Mallet TMR (trimedlure [TML], methyl eugenol [ME], raspberry ketone [RK]) wafers impregnated with DDVP (2, 2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate) insecticide...

  17. Suppression of cuelure attraction in male Queensland fruit flies provided raspberry ketone supplements as immature adults

    PubMed Central

    Akter, Humayra; Adnan, Saleh; Morelli, Renata; Taylor, Phillip W.

    2017-01-01

    Tephritid fruit flies are amongst the most damaging insect pests of horticulture globally. Some of the key fruit fly species are managed using the sterile insect technique (SIT), whereby millions of sterile males are released to suppress reproduction of pest populations. Male annihilation technique (MAT), whereby sex specific lures are used to attract and kill males, is often used to reduce wild male numbers before SIT programs commence, providing released sterile males an increased numerical advantage. Overall program efficacy might be improved if MAT could be deployed simultaneously with SIT, continuously depleting fertile males from pest populations and replacing them with sterile males. However, such ‘male replacement’ requires a means of suppressing attraction of released sterile males to lures used in MAT. Previous studies have found that exposure of some fruit flies to lure compounds as mature adults can suppress subsequent response to those lures, raising the possibility of pre-release treatments. However, this approach requires holding flies until after maturation for treatment and then release. The present study takes a novel approach of exposing immature adult male Queensland fruit flies (Bactrocera tryoni, or ‘Qfly’) to raspberry ketone (RK) mixed in food, forcing these flies to ingest RK at ages far younger than they would naturally. After feeding on RK-supplemented food for two days after emergence, male Qflies exhibited a reduction in attraction to cuelure traps that lasted more than 20 days. This approach to RK exposure is compatible with current practises, in which Qflies are released as immature adults, and also yields advantages of accelerated reproductive development and increased mating propensity at young ages. PMID:28859132

  18. Flight control of fruit flies: dynamic response to optic-flow and headwind.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Kiaran K K; Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2017-03-17

    Insects are magnificent fliers that are capable of performing many complex tasks such as speed regulation, smooth landings, and collision avoidance, even though their computational abilities are limited by their small brain. To investigate how flying insects respond to changes in wind speed and surrounding optic flow, the open-loop sensorimotor response of female Queensland fruit flies (Bactrocera tryoni) was examined. 136 flies were exposed to stimuli comprising sinusoidally varying optic flow and air flow (simulating forward movement) under tethered conditions in a virtual reality arena. Two responses were measured: the thrust, and the abdomen pitch. The dynamics of the responses to optic flow and air flow were measured at various frequencies, and modelled as a multicompartment linear system, which accurately captures the fruit flies' behavioural responses. The results indicate that these two behavioural responses are concurrently sensitive to changes of optic flow as well as wind. The abdomen pitch showed a streamlining response, where the abdomen was raised higher as the magnitude of either stimulus was increased. The thrust, on the other hand, exhibited a counter-phase response where maximum thrust occurred when the optic flow or wind flow was at a minimum, indicating that the flies were attempting to maintain an ideal flight speed. When the changes in the wind and optic flow were in phase (i.e. did not contradict each other), the net responses (thrust and abdomen pitch) were well approximated by an equally weighted sum of the responses to the individual stimuli. However, when the optic flow and wind stimuli were presented in counterphase, the flies seemed to respond to only one stimulus or the other, demonstrating a form of 'selective attention'.

  19. A Generic Individual-Based Spatially Explicit Model as a Novel Tool for Investigating Insect-Plant Interactions: A Case Study of the Behavioural Ecology of Frugivorous Tephritidae

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ming; Cribb, Bronwen; Clarke, Anthony R.; Hanan, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Computational modelling of mechanisms underlying processes in the real world can be of great value in understanding complex biological behaviours. Uptake in general biology and ecology has been rapid. However, it often requires specific data sets that are overly costly in time and resources to collect. The aim of the current study was to test whether a generic behavioural ecology model constructed using published data could give realistic outputs for individual species. An individual-based model was developed using the Pattern-Oriented Modelling (POM) strategy and protocol, based on behavioural rules associated with insect movement choices. Frugivorous Tephritidae (fruit flies) were chosen because of economic significance in global agriculture and the multiple published data sets available for a range of species. The Queensland fruit fly (Qfly), Bactrocera tryoni, was identified as a suitable individual species for testing. Plant canopies with modified architecture were used to run predictive simulations. A field study was then conducted to validate our model predictions on how plant architecture affects fruit flies’ behaviours. Characteristics of plant architecture such as different shapes, e.g., closed-canopy and vase-shaped, affected fly movement patterns and time spent on host fruit. The number of visits to host fruit also differed between the edge and centre in closed-canopy plants. Compared to plant architecture, host fruit has less contribution to effects on flies’ movement patterns. The results from this model, combined with our field study and published empirical data suggest that placing fly traps in the upper canopy at the edge should work best. Such a modelling approach allows rapid testing of ideas about organismal interactions with environmental substrates in silico rather than in vivo, to generate new perspectives. Using published data provides a saving in time and resources. Adjustments for specific questions can be achieved by refinement of

  20. An improved culturing method for opiine fruit fly parasitoids and its application to parasitoid monitoring in the field.

    PubMed

    Masry, Ayad; Furlong, Michael J; Clarke, Anthony R; Cunningham, John Paul

    2016-09-21

    Good culturing methods play an important role in the study of insect behavior and its application to pest management. Here, we describe and validate a new method for rearing the parasitoid wasp, Diachasmimorpha kraussii, which attacks some of the world's worst fruit fly pests and is an internationally used biological control agent. Our method differs from standard culturing approaches by presenting adult wasps with host-infested artificial media within a "culturing bag," which mimics a natural (fruit) oviposition substrate. In laboratory trials using wild collected D. kraussii, the culturing bag method was compared to the use of host-infested nectarines, and a commonly used laboratory method of presenting host-infested artificial media within Petri dishes. The culturing bag method proved to be a significant improvement on both methods, combining the advantages of high host survival in artificial media with parasitism levels that were the equivalent to those recorded using host-infested fruits. In our field study, culturing bags infested with the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, and hung in a mixed peach and nectarine orchard proved to be effective "artificial fruits" attracting wild D. kraussii for oviposition. Significantly more adult wasps were reared from the culturing bags compared to field collected fruits. This was shown to be due to higher fruit fly larval density in the bags, as similar percentage parasitism rates were found between the culturing bags and ripe fruits. We discuss how this cheap, time-efficient method could be applied to collecting and monitoring wild D. kraussii populations in orchards, and assist in maintaining genetic variability in parasitoid laboratory cultures.

  1. Helitrons shaping the genomic architecture of Drosophila: enrichment of DINE-TR1 in α- and β-heterochromatin, satellite DNA emergence, and piRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Dias, Guilherme B; Heringer, Pedro; Svartman, Marta; Kuhn, Gustavo C S

    2015-09-01

    Drosophila INterspersed Elements (DINEs) constitute an abundant but poorly understood group of Helitrons present in several Drosophila species. The general structure of DINEs includes two conserved blocks that may or not contain a region with tandem repeats in between. These central tandem repeats (CTRs) are similar within species but highly divergent between species. It has been assumed that CTRs have independent origins. Herein, we identify a subset of DINEs, termed DINE-TR1, which contain homologous CTRs of approximately 150 bp. We found DINE-TR1 in the sequenced genomes of several Drosophila species and in Bactrocera tryoni (Acalyptratae, Diptera). However, interspecific high sequence identity (∼ 88 %) is limited to the first ∼ 30 bp of each tandem repeat, implying that evolutionary constraints operate differently over the monomer length. DINE-TR1 is unevenly distributed across the Drosophila phylogeny. Nevertheless, sequence analysis suggests vertical transmission. We found that CTRs within DINE-TR1 have independently expanded into satellite DNA-like arrays at least twice within Drosophila. By analyzing the genome of Drosophila virilis and Drosophila americana, we show that DINE-TR1 is highly abundant in pericentromeric heterochromatin boundaries, some telomeric regions and in the Y chromosome. It is also present in the centromeric region of one autosome from D. virilis and dispersed throughout several euchromatic sites in both species. We further found that DINE-TR1 is abundant at piRNA clusters, and small DINE-TR1-derived RNA transcripts (∼25 nt) are predominantly expressed in the testes and the ovaries, suggesting active targeting by the piRNA machinery. These features suggest potential piRNA-mediated regulatory roles for DINEs at local and genome-wide scales in Drosophila.

  2. Estimating Effective Population Size from Linkage Disequilibrium between Unlinked Loci: Theory and Application to Fruit Fly Outbreak Populations

    PubMed Central

    Sved, John A; Cameron, Emilie C.; Gilchrist, A. Stuart

    2013-01-01

    There is a substantial literature on the use of linkage disequilibrium (LD) to estimate effective population size using unlinked loci. The estimates are extremely sensitive to the sampling process, and there is currently no theory to cope with the possible biases. We derive formulae for the analysis of idealised populations mating at random with multi-allelic (microsatellite) loci. The ‘Burrows composite index’ is introduced in a novel way with a ‘composite haplotype table’. We show that in a sample of diploid size , the mean value of or from the composite haplotype table is biased by a factor of , rather than the usual factor for a conventional haplotype table. But analysis of population data using these formulae leads to estimates that are unrealistically low. We provide theory and simulation to show that this bias towards low estimates is due to null alleles, and introduce a randomised permutation correction to compensate for the bias. We also consider the effect of introducing a within-locus disequilibrium factor to , and find that this factor leads to a bias in the estimate. However this bias can be overcome using the same randomised permutation correction, to yield an altered with lower variance than the original , and one that is also insensitive to null alleles. The resulting formulae are used to provide estimates on 40 samples of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, from populations with widely divergent expectations. Linkage relationships are known for most of the microsatellite loci in this species. We find that there is little difference in the estimated values from using known unlinked loci as compared to using all loci, which is important for conservation studies where linkage relationships are unknown. PMID:23894410

  3. Wolbachia pseudogenes and low prevalence infections in tropical but not temperate Australian tephritid fruit flies: manifestations of lateral gene transfer and endosymbiont spillover?

    PubMed

    Morrow, Jennifer L; Frommer, Marianne; Royer, Jane E; Shearman, Deborah C A; Riegler, Markus

    2015-09-18

    Maternally inherited Wolbachia bacteria infect many insect species. They can also be transferred horizontally into uninfected host lineages. A Wolbachia spillover from an infected source population must occur prior to the establishment of heritable infections, but this spillover may be transient. In a previous study of tephritid fruit fly species of tropical Australia we detected a high incidence of identical Wolbachia strains in several species as well as Wolbachia pseudogenes. Here, we have investigated this further by analysing field specimens of 24 species collected along a 3,000 km climate gradient of eastern Australia. Wolbachia sequences were detected in individuals of nine of the 24 (37 %) species. Seven (29 %) species displayed four distinct Wolbachia strains based on characterisation of full multi locus sequencing (MLST) profiles; the strains occurred as single and double infections in a small number of individuals (2-17 %). For the two remaining species all individuals had incomplete MLST profiles and Wolbachia pseudogenes that may be indicative of lateral gene transfer into host genomes. The detection of Wolbachia was restricted to northern Australia, including in five species that only occur in the tropics. Within the more widely distributed Bactrocera tryoni and Bactrocera neohumeralis, Wolbachia also only occurred in the north, and was not linked to any particular mitochondrial haplotypes. The presence of Wolbachia pseudogenes at high prevalence in two species in absence of complete MLST profiles may represent footprints of historic infections that have been lost. The detection of identical low prevalence strains in a small number of individuals of seven species may question their role as reproductive manipulator and their vertical inheritance. Instead, the findings may be indicative of transient infections that result from spillover events from a yet unknown source. These spillover events appear to be restricted to northern Australia, without

  4. Australian gall-inducing scale insects on Eucalyptus: revision of Opisthoscelis Schrader (Coccoidea, Eriococcidae) and descriptions of a new genus and nine new species

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Nate B.; Gullan, Penny J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract We revise the genus Opisthoscelis Schrader, and erect the genus Tanyscelis gen. n. with Opisthoscelis pisiformis Froggatt as its type species. Species of both genera induce sexually dimorphic galls on Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) in Australia, with Opisthoscelis subrotunda Schrader also in Papua New Guinea. We synonymise the following taxa (junior synonym with senior synonym): Opisthoscelis fibularis Froggatt, syn. n. with Opisthoscelis spinosa Froggatt; Opisthoscelis recurva Froggatt, syn. n. with Opisthoscelis maculata Froggatt; Opisthoscelis globosa Froggatt, syn. n. (= Opisthoscelis ruebsaameni Lindinger) with Opisthoscelis convexa Froggatt; and Opisthoscelis mammularis Froggatt, syn. n. with Opisthoscelis verrucula Froggatt. We transfer seven Opisthoscelis species to Tanyscelis as Tanyscelis conica (Fuller), comb. n., Tanyscelis convexa (Froggatt), comb. n., Tanyscelis maculata (Froggatt), comb. n., Tanyscelis maskelli (Froggatt), comb. n., Tanyscelis pisiformis (Froggatt), comb. n., Tanyscelis spinosa (Froggatt), comb. n., and Tanyscelis verrucula (Froggatt), comb. n. We redescribe and illustrate the adult female of each named species of Opisthoscelis for which the type material is known, as well as the first-instar nymph of the type species of Opisthoscelis (Opisthoscelis subrotunda) and Tanyscelis (Opisthoscelis pisiformis). We describe four new species of Opisthoscelis: Opisthoscelis beardsleyi Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Opisthoscelis thurgoona Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Opisthoscelis tuberculataHardy & Gullan, sp. n., and Opisthoscelis ungulifinis Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., and five new species of Tanyscelis: Tanyscelis grallator Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Tanuscelis megagibba Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Tanyscelis mollicornuta Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Tanyscelis tripocula Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., and Tanyscelis villosigibba Hardy & Gullan, sp. n. We designate lectotypes for Opisthoscelis convexa, Opisthoscelis fibularis, Opisthoscelis globosa Froggatt, Opisthoscelis

  5. Dietary lufenuron reduces egg hatch and influences protein expression in the fruit fly Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Newly emerged virgin adults were fed for 12 days with various concentrations of lufenuron incorporated agar diet until sexual maturation. After maturation, pairing tests were conducted. At 12 days old, eggs were collected and egg production and egg hatch were assessed. The results showed that lufenu...

  6. Effect of Fopius arisanus Sonan oviposition experience on parasitization of Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fopius arisanus (Sonan) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is an important fruit fly parasitoid, successfully introduced in programs of classical biological control around the world. One aspect of its reproductive biology that has received increasing attention is the role of learning on parasitization by ind...

  7. Feasibility of NIR Spectroscopy to detect olive fruit infested by Bactrocera oleae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Olive fruit fly infestation is a significant problem for the milling process. In most cases, damage from insects is ‘hidden’, i.e. not visually detectable on the fruit surface. Consequently, traditional visual sorting techniques are generally inadequate for the detection and removal of olives with i...

  8. Computational reverse chemical ecology: Virtual screening and predicting behaviorally active semiochemicals for Bactrocera dorsalis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Semiochemical is a generic term used for a chemical substance that influences the behaviour of an organism. It is a common term used in the field of chemical ecology to encompass pheromones, allomones, kairomones, attractants and repellents. Insects have mastered the art of using semiochemicals as communication signals and rely on them to find mates, host or habitat. This dependency of insects on semiochemicals has allowed chemical ecologists to develop environment friendly pest management strategies. However, discovering semiochemicals is a laborious process that involves a plethora of behavioural and analytical techniques, making it expansively time consuming. Recently, reverse chemical ecology approach using odorant binding proteins (OBPs) as target for elucidating behaviourally active compounds is gaining eminence. In this scenario, we describe a “computational reverse chemical ecology” approach for rapid screening of potential semiochemicals. Results We illustrate the high prediction accuracy of our computational method. We screened 25 semiochemicals for their binding potential to a GOBP of B. dorsalis using molecular docking (in silico) and molecular dynamics. Parallely, compounds were subjected to fluorescent quenching assays (Experimental). The correlation between in silico and experimental data were significant (r2 = 0.9408; P < 0.0001). Further, predicted compounds were subjected to behavioral bioassays and were found to be highly attractive to insects. Conclusions The present study provides a unique methodology for rapid screening and predicting behaviorally active semiochemicals. This methodology may be developed as a viable approach for prospecting active semiochemicals for pest control, which otherwise is a laborious process. PMID:24640964

  9. Field trials of solid triple lure (trimedlure, methyl eugenol, raspberry ketone, and DDVP) dispensers for detection and male annihilation of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and Bactrocera cucurbit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Solid Mallet TMR (trimedlure [TML], methyl eugenol [ME], raspberry ketone [RK]) wafers and Mallet CMR (ceralure, ME, RK, benzyl acetate) wafers impregnated with DDVP insecticide were evaluated in traps as potential detection and male annihilation devices. Comparisons were made with 1) liquid lure a...

  10. Truncated transcripts of nicotinic acetylcholine subunit gene bdalpha6 are associated with spinosad resistance in Bactrocera dorsalis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We investigated spinosad resistance mechanisms of a Bactocera dorsalis strain from Taiwan. Resistance levels were 901-fold, and there was no cross resistance against imidacloprid or fipronil Combined biochemical and synergistic data indicated that target site insensitivity is the major resistance co...

  11. Captures of bactrocera fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and nontarget insects in biolure and torula yeast traps in Hawaii

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    BioLure, a synthetic food attractant for Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)) that uses a combination of three chemical components (ammonium acetate, trimethylamine hydrochloride and putrescine), was deployed in MultiLure traps in predominantly native forests, non-native forests,...

  12. The Potential Geographical Distribution of bactrocera Dorsalis (Diptera: Tephrididae) in China Based on Emergence Rate Model and Arcgis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ningbo; Li, Zhihong; Wu, Jiajiao; Rajotte, Edwin G.; Wan, Fanghao; Wang, Zhiling

    Precision agriculture is an important choice for the future agriculture. It is the base for precision agriculture development to change the state of small-scale farmland production and weak agricultural foundation in China gradually. Combined with the poorness of village in China, the variation of farmland and the dominance of small-scale peasant economy, this paper analyzed the adaptability of farmland landscape pattern to precision agriculture based on literatures and farmland landscape survey. With the requirements of precision agricultural production, this paper put forward the standards on cultivated field scale and shape, farmland corridor structure, cultivated field matrix and farmland landscape protection in order to make farmland landscape suitable for precision agriculture and to provide references for the sustainable development of precision agriculture in China.

  13. The role of the transformer gene in sex determination and reproduction in the tephritid fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Transformer (tra) is a double-switch gene in the somatic sex-determination hierarchy that regulates sexual dimorphism based on RNA splicing in many insects. In tephritids, a Y-linked male determining gene (M) controls sex in the sex-determination pathway. Here, homologues of Drosophila tra and trans...

  14. Pupal x-ray irradiation influences protein expression in adults of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We did protein analysis using 1-12-d-old adults from irradiated and non-irradiated oriental fruit fly pupae. We found that exposing pupae to x-ray irradiation impacted expression of 26 proteins in adult females and 30 proteins in adult males. There were 7 proteins (Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehyd...

  15. Natural field infestation of Mangifera casturi and M.lalijiwa by oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mango, Mangifera indica, is a crop cultivated pantropically. There are, however, many other Mangifera spp. (“mango relatives”) which have much more restricted distributions and are poorly known, but have potential to produce mango-like fruits in areas where mangoes do not grow well or could be tapp...

  16. Rhythmicity of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera:Tephritidae) attraction to cuelure: Insights from an interruptable lure and computer vision

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We describe and validate an Agent-Based Simulation (ABS) of invasive insects and use it to investigate the time to extirpation of Ceratitis capitata using data from seven outbreaks that occurred in California from 2008-2010. Results are compared with the length of intervention and quarantine imposed...

  17. Assessment of a liquid larval diet for rearing Dacus and Bactrocera species (Diptera:Tephritidae), in Western Africa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fruit fly larval diet formulations developed by USDA-ARS were used in this study to compare with other artificial and natural diet to rear two Dacus species. The evaluation was based on the parameters of egg hatch, pupal production, adult emergence, flight ability, and productivity. This study s...

  18. Novel Bait Stations for Attract-and-Kill of Pestiferous Fruit Flies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A novel, visually attractive bait station was developed in Hawaii for application of insecticidal baits against oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). The bai...

  19. An overview of tropical pest species of bactrocera fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) and the integration of biopesticides with other biological approaches for their management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) are among the most economically important pest species in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and eradication prog...

  20. Age of Response of Male Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae) to ¿-ionol + Cade Oil Relative to Age of Sexual Maturity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although males of the majority of Dacine fruit flies respond to either methyl eugenol or cuelure, B. latifrons shows little to no response to these lures. Instead, B. latifrons responds to '-ionol, with the response synergistically enhanced by the addition of cade oil. To further understand the ef...

  1. Attraction of Bactrocera cucurbitae and B.dorsalis(Diptera: Tephritidae) to beer waste and other protein sources laced with ammonium acetate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It is known that adult tephritid fruit fly females require protein sources for adequate egg production and that ammonia and its derivatives serve as volatile cues to locate protein-rich food. The attractiveness of beer waste and the commercially available baits Nulure, Buminal, and Bugs 4 Bugs Fruit...

  2. Site-specific temporal and spatial validation of a generic plant pest forecast system with observations of Bactrocera dorsalis (oriental fruit fly).

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study introduces a simple generic model, the Generic Pest Forecast System (GPFS), for simulatingthe relative populations of non-indigenousarthropod pests in space and time. The model was designed to calculate the population index or relative population using hourly weather dataas influenced by...

  3. Oral and Topical Toxicity of Fipronil to Melon Fly and Oriental Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to develop basic oral and topical toxicity data for Fipronil in Solulys protein bait to wild melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) and the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). RESULTS: For the oral study, both females and males were ...

  4. Effectiveness of a sprayable male annihilation treatment with a biopesticide against fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) attacking tropical fruits

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    SPLAT-MAT Spinosad ME(aka STATIC Spinosad ME),an "attract and kill" sprayable biopesticide, was evaluated as an area wide suppression treatment against Bactrocera carambolae(Drew & Hancock),carambola fruit fly, in Brazil and Bactrocera dorsalis(Hendel),oriental fruit fly, in Hawaii. In Brazil, a sin...

  5. Spatial dynamics of two oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) parasitoids, Fopius arisanus (Sonan) and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead)(Hymenoptera: Braconidae), in a guava orchard in Hawaii

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We examined temporal and spatial patterns of both sexes of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and its two most abundant parasitoids, Fopius arisanus (Sonan) and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) in a commercial guava orchard. Bactrocera dorsalis spatial patterns were initially random, but became high...

  6. Gadigaleyrodes froggatti, a new genus and species of whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) from Australia.

    PubMed

    Dooley, John W; Gillespie, Peter

    2013-01-17

    A new monotypic genus of whiteflies (Aleyrodidae), Gadigaleyrodes gen.n., is described and illustrated for G. froggatti sp.n. from New South Wales, Australia. Specimens were collected by W. W. Froggatt in 1899 on Syncarpia glomulifera, and subsequently by P. S. Gillespie on an unknown climbing plant. The genus has unusual morphological features with traits common to both Aleurodicinae and Aleyrodinae. The subfamily placement is discussed, and a key provided to discriminate this taxon from similar whitefly genera in Australia.

  7. Flavour democracy in strong unification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, S. A.; King, S. F.

    1998-09-01

    We show that the fermion mass spectrum may naturally be understood in terms of flavour democratic fixed points in supersymmetric theories which have a large domain of attraction in the presence of ``strong unification''. Our approach provides an alternative to the approximate Yukawa texture zeroes of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss a particular model based on a broken gauged SU(3)LxSU(3)R family symmetry which illustrates our approach.

  8. A Framework for Understanding Collective Leadership: The Selective Utilization of Leader and Team Expertise within Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    satisfaction or decision quality (Cotton, Vollrath, Froggatt, Lengnick-Hal, & Jennings, 1988; Yukl, 2008). However, the effect is likely moderated by... satisfaction , trust and loyalty for the team (Hiller et al, 2006; Yukl, 2008; Zaccaro, et al, 2001). 31    The literature on research and...decision quality (β =0.27, p < 0.01) which was negatively related to organizational decline (β = -0.56, p < 0.01). It is important to note that simply

  9. 78 FR 26540 - Importation of Jackfruit, Pineapple, and Starfruit From Malaysia Into the Continental United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    ... identifies the following plant pests as likely to follow the pathway of the fruit: Bactrocera albistrigata.... Rastrococcus iceryodes (Green, 1908), Icerya mealybug. R. invadens Williams, mango mealybug. R. spinosus...

  10. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 December 2009–31 January 2010

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This article documents the addition of 220 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Allanblackia floribunda, Amblyraja radiata, Bactrocera cucurbitae, Brachycaudus helichrysi, Calopogonium mucunoides, Dissodactylus primiti...

  11. Higher phylogeny of frugivorous flies (Diptera, Tephritidae, Dacini): localised partition conflicts and a novel generic classification.

    PubMed

    Virgilio, Massimiliano; Jordaens, Kurt; Verwimp, Christophe; White, Ian M; De Meyer, Marc

    2015-04-01

    The phylogenetic relationships within and among subtribes of the fruit fly tribe Dacini (Ceratitidina, Dacina, Gastrozonina) were investigated by sequencing four mitochondrial and one nuclear gene fragment. Bayesian, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony analyses were implemented on two datasets. The first, aiming at obtaining the strongest phylogenetic signal (yet, having lower taxon coverage), consisted of 98 vouchers and 2338 concatenated base pairs (bp). The second, aiming at obtaining the largest taxonomic coverage (yet, providing lower resolution), included 159 vouchers and 1200 concatenated bp. Phylogenetic relationships inferred by different tree reconstruction methods were largely congruent and showed a general agreement between concatenated tree topologies. Yet, local conflicts in phylogenetic signals evidenced a number of critical sectors in the phylogeny of Dacini fruit flies. All three Dacini subtribes were recovered as monophyletic. Yet, within the subtribe Ceratitidina only Perilampsis and Capparimyia formed well-resolved monophyletic groups while Ceratitis and Trirhithrum did not. Carpophthoromyia was paraphyletic because it included Trirhithrum demeyeri and Ceratitis connexa. Complex phylogenetic relationships and localised conflict in phylogenetic signals were observed within subtribe Dacina with (a) Dacus, (b) Bactrocera (Zeugodacus) and (c) all other Bactrocera species forming separate clades. The subgenus Bactrocera (Zeugodacus) is therefore raised to generic rank (Zeugodacus Hendel stat. nov.). Additionally, Bactrocera subgenera grouped under the Zeugodacus group should be considered under new generic combinations. Although there are indications that Zeugodacus and Dacus are sister groups, the exact relationship between Zeugodacus stat. nov., Dacus and Bactrocera still needs to be properly resolved.

  12. A newly recognised Australian endemic species of Austrolecanium Gullan & Hodgson 1998 (Hemiptera: Coccidae) from Queensland.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-Po; Ding, Zheng Yee; Gullan, Penny J; Cook, Lyn G

    2017-05-26

    Austrolecanium cryptocaryae Lin & Cook sp. n. is described based on adult female morphology and DNA sequences from mitochondrial and nuclear loci. This Australian endemic species was found on the underside of leaves of Cryptocarya microneura (Lauraceae) in Queensland. All phylogenetic analyses of four independent DNA loci and a concatenated dataset show that A. cryptocaryae is monophyletic and closely related to A. sassafras Gullan & Hodgson, the type species of Austrolecanium Gullan & Hodgson. The adult female of A. cryptocaryae is described and illustrated and a table is provided of the characters that differ among adult females of the three species of Austrolecanium currently recognised (A. cappari (Froggatt), A. cryptocaryae sp. n. and A. sassafras).

  13. Proton hexality from an anomalous flavor U(1) and neutrino masses: Linking to the string scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreiner, Herbi K.; Luhn, Christoph; Murayama, Hitoshi; Thormeier, Marc

    2008-05-01

    We devise minimalistic gauged U(1 Froggatt-Nielsen models which at low-energy give rise to the recently suggested discrete gauge Z-symmetry, proton hexality, thus stabilizing the proton. Assuming three generations of right-handed neutrinos, with the proper choice of X-charges, we obtain viable neutrino masses. Furthermore, we find scenarios such that no X-charged hidden sector superfields are needed, which from a bottom-up perspective allows the calculation of g, g and G's Kač-Moody levels. The only mass scale apart from M is m.

  14. New LHC resonance with mass 750 GeV and the vacuum stability in the Standard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, C. R.; Laperashvili, L. V.; Nielsen, H. B.

    2017-09-01

    In the present talk we show that the correction to the Higgs mass coming from the bound state S of 6 t + 6 t̅ quarks, predicted early by C.D. Froggatt and ourselves, leads to the just borderline of the Standard Model vacuum stability thereby confirming the accuracy of the multiple point principle (principle of degenerate vacua), if a mass of the bound state S coincides with the mass 750 GeV of the new diphoton state recently observed by LHC.

  15. Higgs-flavon mixing and h → μτ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huitu, Katri; Keus, Venus; Koivunen, Niko; Lebedev, Oleg

    2016-05-01

    ATLAS and CMS have reported an excess in the flavor violating decay of the Higgs boson, h → μτ . We show that this result can be accommodated through a mixing of the Higgs with a flavon, the field responsible for generating the Yukawa matrices in the lepton sector. We employ a version of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism at the electroweak scale, with only the leptons and the flavon transforming non-trivially under the corresponding symmetry group. Non-observation of charged lepton flavor violation (LFV) in other processes imposes important constraints on the model, which we find to be satisfied in substantial regions of parameter space.

  16. Flavon-induced lepton flavour violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keus, Venus

    2017-07-01

    ATLAS and CMS have observed a flavor violating decay of the Higgs to muon and tau. The fact that flavour violating couplings of the Higgs boson are exactly zero in the Standard Model suggests the mixing of the Higgs with another scalar with flavour violating couplings. We use the flavon field from the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism, responsible for generating the lepton Yukawa matrices, for this purpose. The parameter space is constrained from experimental bounds on charged lepton flavor violation in other processes, however, we show that a substantial region of parameter space survives these bounds while producing a large enough Br(h → μτ).

  17. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 December 2009-31 January 2010.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Cynthia M; Aparicio, Gallego J; Atangana, Alain R; Beaulieu, Jean; Bruford, M W; Cain, Forrest; Campos, T; Cariani, A; Carvalho, M A; Chen, Nan; Chen, P P; Clamens, A-L; Clark, Ann M; Coeur D'Acier, A; Connolly, Paul; Cordero-Rivera, Adolfo; Coughlan, James P; Cross, Thomas S; David, Bruno; DE Bruyn, Colin; DE Meyer, M; DE Ridder, Chantal; Delatte, H; Dettori, M T; Downer, S J; Dubreuil, Christine; Evans, K J; Fan, Bin; Ferrara, G; Gagné, André; Gaillard, Maria; Gigliarelli, L; Giovinazzi, J; Gomez, D R; Grünwald, N J; Hansson, Bengt; Huotari, T; Jank, L; Jousselin, E; Jungmann, L; Kaczmarek, M E; Khasa, Damase P; Kneebone, Jeff; Korpelainen, H; Kostamo, K; Lanfaloni, L; Lin, Haoran; Liu, Xiaochun; Lucentini, L; Maes, G E; Mahaffee, W F; Meng, Zining; Micali, S; Milano, I; Mok, H F; Morin, L; Neill, T M; Newton, Craig H; Gigi Ostrow, D; Palomba, A; Panara, F; Puletti, M E; Quarta, R; Quilici, S; Ramos, A K B; Rigaud, Thierry; Risterucci, A M; Salomon, Matthew P; Sánchez-Guillén, Rosa A; Sarver, Shane K; Sequeira, A S; Sforça, D A; Simiand, C; Smith, Brian; Sousa, A C B; Souza, A P; Stepien, C C; Stuckert, A J; Sulikowski, James; Tayeh, A; Tinti, F; Tsang, Paul C W; VAN Houdt, J K J; Vendramin, E; Verde, I; Virgilio, M; Wang, Huan L; Wang, L E; Wattier, Rémi A; Wellenreuther, Maren; Xie, Cong X; Zane, L; Zhang, Xiu J; Zhang, Yong; Zhuang, Zhimeng; Zucchi, M I

    2010-05-01

    This article documents the addition of 220 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Allanblackia floribunda, Amblyraja radiata, Bactrocera cucurbitae, Brachycaudus helichrysi, Calopogonium mucunoides, Dissodactylus primitivus, Elodea canadensis, Ephydatia fluviatilis, Galapaganus howdenae howdenae, Hoplostethus atlanticus, Ischnura elegans, Larimichthys polyactis, Opheodrys vernalis, Pelteobagrus fulvidraco, Phragmidium violaceum, Pistacia vera, and Thunnus thynnus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Allanblackia gabonensis, Allanblackia stanerana, Neoceratitis cyanescens, Dacus ciliatus, Dacus demmerezi, Bactrocera zonata, Ceratitis capitata, Ceratitis rosa, Ceratits catoirii, Dacus punctatifrons, Ephydatia mülleri, Spongilla lacustris, Geodia cydonium, Axinella sp., Ischnura graellsii, Ischnura ramburii, Ischnura pumilio, Pistacia integerrima and Pistacia terebinthus.

  18. Resolving cryptic species complexes of major tephritid pests

    PubMed Central

    Hendrichs, Jorge; Vera, M. Teresa; De Meyer, Marc; Clarke, Anthony R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on “Resolution of Cryptic Species Complexes of Tephritid Pests to Overcome Constraints to SIT Application and International Trade” was conducted from 2010 to 2015. As captured in the CRP title, the objective was to undertake targeted research into the systematics and diagnostics of taxonomically challenging fruit fly groups of economic importance. The scientific output was the accurate alignment of biological species with taxonomic names; which led to the applied outcome of assisting FAO and IAEA Member States in overcoming technical constraints to the application of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) against pest fruit flies and the facilitation of international agricultural trade. Close to 50 researchers from over 20 countries participated in the CRP, using coordinated, multidisciplinary research to address, within an integrative taxonomic framework, cryptic species complexes of major tephritid pests. The following progress was made for the four complexes selected and studied: Anastrepha fraterculus complex – Eight morphotypes and their geographic and ecological distributions in Latin America were defined. The morphotypes can be considered as distinct biological species on the basis of differences in karyotype, sexual incompatibility, post-mating isolation, cuticular hydrocarbon, pheromone, and molecular analyses. Discriminative taxonomic tools using linear and geometric morphometrics of both adult and larval morphology were developed for this complex. Bactrocera dorsalis complex – Based on genetic, cytogenetic, pheromonal, morphometric, and behavioural data, which showed no or only minor variation between the Asian/African pest fruit flies Bactrocera dorsalis, Bactrocera papayae, Bactrocera philippinensis and Bactrocera invadens, the latter three species were synonymized with Bactrocera dorsalis. Of the five target pest taxa studied, only Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera carambolae remain as

  19. Resolving cryptic species complexes of major tephritid pests.

    PubMed

    Hendrichs, Jorge; Vera, M Teresa; De Meyer, Marc; Clarke, Anthony R

    2015-01-01

    An FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on "Resolution of Cryptic Species Complexes of Tephritid Pests to Overcome Constraints to SIT Application and International Trade" was conducted from 2010 to 2015. As captured in the CRP title, the objective was to undertake targeted research into the systematics and diagnostics of taxonomically challenging fruit fly groups of economic importance. The scientific output was the accurate alignment of biological species with taxonomic names; which led to the applied outcome of assisting FAO and IAEA Member States in overcoming technical constraints to the application of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) against pest fruit flies and the facilitation of international agricultural trade. Close to 50 researchers from over 20 countries participated in the CRP, using coordinated, multidisciplinary research to address, within an integrative taxonomic framework, cryptic species complexes of major tephritid pests. The following progress was made for the four complexes selected and studied: Anastrepha fraterculus complex - Eight morphotypes and their geographic and ecological distributions in Latin America were defined. The morphotypes can be considered as distinct biological species on the basis of differences in karyotype, sexual incompatibility, post-mating isolation, cuticular hydrocarbon, pheromone, and molecular analyses. Discriminative taxonomic tools using linear and geometric morphometrics of both adult and larval morphology were developed for this complex. Bactrocera dorsalis complex - Based on genetic, cytogenetic, pheromonal, morphometric, and behavioural data, which showed no or only minor variation between the Asian/African pest fruit flies Bactrocera dorsalis, Bactrocera papayae, Bactrocera philippinensis and Bactrocera invadens, the latter three species were synonymized with Bactrocera dorsalis. Of the five target pest taxa studied, only Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera carambolae remain as scientifically valid

  20. Topological structure of the vacuum, cosmological constant and dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidharth, B. G.; Das, A.; Das, C. R.; Laperashvili, L. V.; Nielsen, H. B.

    2016-11-01

    In this review, we present a theory of cosmological constant and dark energy (DE), based on the topological structure of the vacuum. The multiple point principle (MPP) is reviewed. It demonstrates the existence of the two vacua into the SM. The Froggatt-Nielsen’s prediction of the top-quark and Higgs masses is given in the assumption that there exist two degenerate vacua in the SM. This prediction was improved by the next-order calculations. We also considered Sidharth’s theory of cosmological constant based on the noncommutative geometry of the Planck scale space-time, what gives an extremely small DE density providing the accelerating expansion of the Universe. Theory of two degenerate vacua — the Planck scale phase and electroweak (EW) phase — is also reviewed, topological defects in these vacua are investigated, also the Compton wavelength phase suggested by Sidharth is discussed. A general theory of the phase transition and the problem of the vacuum stability in the SM is reviewed. Assuming the existence of a new scalar S bound state 6t + 6t¯, earlier predicted by Froggatt, Nielsen and Laperashvili, we try to provide the vacuum stability in the SM and exact accuracy of the MPP.

  1. Revealing Optical Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Optical Vector Analyzer (OVA) 1550 significantly reduces the time and cost of testing sophisticated optical components. The technology grew from the research Luna Technologies' Dr. Mark Froggatt conducted on optical fiber strain measurement while working at Langley Research Center. Dr. Froggatt originally developed the technology for non- destructive evaluation testing at Langley. The new technique can provide 10,000 independent strain measurements while adding less than 10 grams to the weight of the vehicle. The OVA is capable of complete linear characterization of single-mode optical components used in high- bit-rate applications. The device can test most components over their full range in less than 30 seconds, compared to the more than 20 minutes required by other testing methods. The dramatically shortened measurement time results in increased efficiency in final acceptance tests of optical devices, and the comprehensive data produced by the instrument adds considerable value for component consumers. The device eliminates manufacturing bottlenecks, while reducing labor costs and wasted materials during production.

  2. Targeted Trapping, Bait-spray, Sanitation, Sterile-male and Parasitoid Releases in an Area Wide Integrated Melon Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Control Program in Hawaii

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An area wide integrated pest management approach to melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera:Tephritidae) suppression in Kamuela, Hawaii, was undertaken as part of a larger state-wide program by the United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Area Wide Initiative. After a...

  3. Rearing Fopius arisanus (Sonan) (Hymenoptera:Braconidae) on Mediterranean fruit fly and its introduction into Senegal against Oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis(Hendel)(aka B.invadens Drew, Tsuruta, and White) was first reported in Africa in 2003 and has since spread to over 27 countries. It has become a serious tree fruit pest, particularly in mango (Mangifera indica L.). Because of uncertainty as to the exact status...

  4. Susceptibility of low-chill blueberry cultivars to oriental fruit fly, mediterranean fruit fly, and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Forced infestation studies were conducted to determine if fruits of southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. hybrids) are hosts for three invasive tephritid fruit flies. Fruits of 17 blueberry cultivars were exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (oriental frui...

  5. Total body nitrogen and total body carbon as indicators of body protein and body lipids in the melon fly: Effects of methoprene, a juvenile hormone analogue, and of diet supplementation with hydrolyzed yeast

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The application of methoprene and dietary protein enhanced mating success and had no effect on survival in male melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae). .The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of methoprene and protein on body lipids and protein tu...

  6. Olive fruit fly adult response to attract-and-kill bait stations in greenhouse cages with weathered bait spray and a commercial table olive orchard

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An attract-and-kill trap for olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) adults, and olive foliage sprayed with insecticidal bait spray were evaluated for efficacy after 1-4 weeks in outdoor weather. Adults caged for 1-3 days with weathered material on foliage and traps in the greenhouse resulted in h...

  7. Olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California table olives, USA: Invasion, distribution, and management implications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), was discovered in California in late 1998. Thereafter, intensive research was conducted to develop pest control methods in table olives. The life history of olive fruit fly was elucidated, and the distribution and abundance of the adults determined through ...

  8. New developments in food-based synthetic attractants for pest Tephritidae.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Optimal capture of several species of Anastrepha and Bactrocera spp. tephritid fruit flies is in traps baited with the aqueous protein bait Nulure combined with borax. Nulure is produced by acid hydrolysis of corn and has an acidic pH. Addition of borax makes the solution more alkaline and more att...

  9. Classic biological control of olive fruit fly in California, USA: release and recovery of introduced parasitoids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The establishment of olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) in California led to a classical biological program. This study reports the release and recovery of two solitary larval endoparasitoids, Psyttalia humilis Silvestri and Psyttalia lounsburyi (Silvestri) from sub-Saharan Africa, in two coa...

  10. Susceptibility of Olive Fruit in Relation to Olive Fruit Fly Development and Ovipositional Period in California

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), females oviposited their first and last eggs in olive fruit, Olea europaea L., when females were 6 and 90 d-old, respectively. The highest mean numbers of eggs per day in 10 olive fruit (55) were oviposited by 28 d-old females, and peak egg production occ...

  11. Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Domestication of olive fruit, Olea europaea L., produced a better host for olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), than wild olives, but fruit domestication reduced natural enemy efficiency. Important factors for selection of natural enemies for control of olive fruit fly include climate matchi...

  12. Response of Psyttalia humilis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) to olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and conditions in California olive orchards

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor (Szépligeti), reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Weidemann), by the USDA-APHIS, PPQ, Guatemala City, Guatemala, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europae...

  13. BIOLOGICAL AND CULTURAL CONTROL OF OLIVE FRUIT FLY IN CALIFORNIA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), monitored with ChamP traps captured the highest numbers of adults in olive trees, Olea europaea, in October in an inland valley location, and in September in a coastal location. Significantly more adults were captured in Pherocon ® AM traps than ChamP tra...

  14. Transcriptome of the egg parasitoid Fopius arisanus, an important biocontrol tool for Tephritid fruit fly suppression

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background The Braconoid wasp Fopius arisanus (Sonan) has been utilized for biological control of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata), and the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis), both phytophagous fruit flies pest of economic importance in Hawaii. We have sequenced and assembled t...

  15. Dynamics of pH modification of an acidic protein bait used for tropical fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Traps baited with synthetic food-based lures that include blends of ammonia, either as ammonium acetate or ammonium bicarbonate, and putrescine capture a number of Anastrepha and Bactrocera species fruit flies. However, for many of these species, more flies are captured in traps baited with the pro...

  16. Captures of pest fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and nontarget insects in BioLure and torula yeast traps in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Luc; Vargas, Roger I; Rubinoff, Daniel

    2010-10-01

    MultiLure traps were deployed in a Hawaiian orchard to compare the attraction of economically important fruit flies and nontarget insects to the three-component BioLure and torula yeast food lures. Either water or a 20% propylene glycol solution was used to dissolve the torula yeast or as capture fluid in BioLure traps. Torula yeast in water was more attractive than BioLure for male and female Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) and Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and as attractive for Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), and the addition of propylene glycol significantly inhibited the attractiveness of torula yeast. The known synergistic effect of propylene glycol with BioLure, resulting in increased captures of Anastrepha flies, was not observed with Bactrocera. Nontarget Drosophilidae, Neriidae, Phoridae, Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, and Muscidae were more strongly attracted to BioLure, and both lures collected Chloropidae equally. As with fruit flies, propylene glycol in torula yeast significantly decreased nontarget captures. The results therefore suggest that torula yeast in water is a more effective attractant than BioLure for pest Bactrocera while minimizing nontarget captures.

  17. Rearing, Importation, and Release of Psyttalia humilis for Biocontrol of Olive Fruit Fly in California

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biological control using imported parasitoids can be used to reduce olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), infestations in olives. In 2008-2010, we mass produced the olive fruit fly larval parasitoid, Psyttalia humilis = P. cf. concolor (Silvestri), at the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Moscamed, laboratory in...

  18. Virulence of selected entomopathogenic fungi against the olive fruit fly and their potential for biocontrol

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the most serious pest of cultivated olives worldwide. Its recent invasion into North America, specifically California, has initiated renewed interest in management strategies for this pest. Research into classical biological control ha...

  19. Long distance movement of Bactroceira dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Puna, Hawaii: How far can they go?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Technical Abstract: The invasive oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendell), is considered a major economic threat in many regions world-wide including the island of Hawaii, in the Hawaiian archipelago. Large populations helped initiate USDA-ARS (United States Department of Agriculture – Agr...

  20. Long distance movement of batrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidale in Puna, Hawaii: How far can they go?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is considered a major economic threat in many regions world-wide including the island of Hawaii, in the Hawaiian archipelago. The need to control large populations over large areas helped initiate the USDA-ARS (United Stat...

  1. Vision-Mediated exploitation of a novel host plant by a tephritid fruit fly

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Shortly after its introduction into the Hawaiian Islands around 1895, the polyphagous, invasive fruit fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett)(Diptera:Tephritidae) was provided the opportunity to expand its host range to include a novel host, papaya (Carica papaya). It has been documented that female ...

  2. 77 FR 22510 - Importation of Fresh Bananas From the Philippines Into the Continental United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ...- 0028 or in our reading room, which is located in room 1141 of the USDA South Building, 14th Street and Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC. Normal reading room hours are 8 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., Monday through... of green bananas: Fruit flies: Bactrocera musae B. occipitalis B. philippinensis Scales: Red wax...

  3. Resveratrol modifies tephritid fruit fly response to nutritional and radiation stress

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Resveratrol is a recently discovered compound. Three concentrations (50, 100, 200 µM) of resveratrol were evaluated against Bactrocera dorsalis and B. cucurbitae by incorporating resveratrol into fruit fly liquid larval diet under the following conditions: 1) with or without wheat germ oil (WGO) in ...

  4. Recent progress in a classical biological control program for olive fruit fly in California

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae), causes severe damage to olive production worldwide. Control of olive fruit fly typically relies on pesticides, and under such conditions the impact of natural enemies is relatively low. About 15 years ago, the USDA-ARS European Biologic...

  5. Improvement of mass-rearing procedures for an olive fruit fly parasitoid – duration of exposure to hosts affects production of Psyttalia lounsburyi

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae), causes severe economic damage in California. Control of this fly is currently limited to pesticides. The USDA-ARS European Biological Control Laboratory in Montpellier, France established a classical biological control program nearly 15 y...

  6. Attraction and Mortality of Oriental Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) to SPLAT-MAT- Methyl Eugenol with Spinosad

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies were conducted in Hawaii to quantify attraction and feeding responses resulting in mortality of male oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to SPLAT-MAT-methyl eugenol (ME) with spinosad in comparison with Min-U-Gel-ME with naled (Dibrom). Our approach invol...

  7. Evaluation of SPLAT with Spinosad and Methyl Eugenol or Cue-Lure for "Attract-and-Kill" of Oriental and Melon Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    SPLAT(TM) ME (methyl eugenol) and C-L (cue-lure) “attract and kill” sprayable formulations containing spinosad were compared to other formulations under Hawaiian weather conditions against Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), oriental fruit fly, and B. cucurbitae (Coquillett), melon fly, respectively. Fie...

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-39 - Fragrant pears from China.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Upon detection of Oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis), APHIS may reject the lot or consignment and... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-39 Fragrant.... (ii) Upon detection of peach fruit borer (Carposina sasaki), yellow peach moth...

  9. 78 FR 50023 - Importation of Fresh Oranges and Tangerines From Egypt Into the United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... fly (Bactrocera zonata) and Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) in oranges and tangerines... commenter agreed that cold treatment is an effective mitigation measure for peach fruit fly; however, the... shipping process to avoid the spread of peach fruit flies to other fruits, further stating that any...

  10. 78 FR 23208 - Importation of Fresh Oranges and Tangerines From Egypt Into the United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... evaluation document to determine the risk posed by peach fruit fly in oranges and tangerines from Egypt... neutralize peach fruit fly and Mediterranean fruit fly in oranges and tangerines. We are making the pest list... the establishment of peach fruit fly (Bactrocera zonata), which is also a pest of citrus in...

  11. Distribution of olive fruit fly in California based on fruit infestations since the 1998 invasion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), was first discovered in Los Angeles, California in 1998. Eradication and containment programs were immediately initiated, but within four years the olive pest was detected throughout the state. Olive fruit fly is not tolerated in canned fruit, and the insec...

  12. Evaluation of Methyl Eugenol and Cue-Lure Traps with Solid Lure and Insecticide Dispensers for Fruit Fly Monitoring and Male Annihilation in the Hawaii Area-Wide Pest Management Program

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Methyl eugenol (ME) and cue-lure (C-L) traps with solid lure dispensers were deployed in areas with low and high populations of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and melon fly, B. cucurbitae (Coquillett), respectively. In low density areas, standard Jackson traps or Hawaii fruit fly A...

  13. Whole genome sequencing of the Braconid parasitoid wasp Fopius arisanus, an important biocontrol agent of pest Tepritid fruit flies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The braconid wasp Fopius arisanus (Sonan) is an important biological control agent of tropical and subtropical pest fruit flies including two important global pests, the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata), and the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis}). The goal of this study was to dev...

  14. Subtropical Fruit Fly Invasions into Temperate Fruit Fly Territory in California's San Joaquin Valley

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Subtropical fruit fly species including peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders); melon fly, B. cucurbitae (Coquillett); oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel); and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, have been detected in the past decade in the San Joaquin Valley of Califo...

  15. Life History and Cost Analysis for Rearing Ceratitis Capitata (Diptera:Tephritidae) in a Liquid Diet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A liquid diet for rearing Bactrocera dorsalis was developed. Three hydrolyzed yeast (LS65, FNI200, FNI210), a glutamine enriched yeast (G, Fermaid SuperRelax, GSH), RDA500 (R, an enriched high vitamins yeast), Korea yeast, and their yeast products (FNI200+G, FNI200+R, FNI200+G+R, LS65 +G, LS65+R, L...

  16. Mobility of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) late third instars and teneral adults in test arenas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The mobility of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), late third instars before pupation, teneral adults before flight, and mature adults restricted from flight was studied under mulches in greenhouse cage tests, in horizontal pipes, vertical bottles and pipes filled with sand, and by observati...

  17. Larval dietary wheat germ oil influences age-specific protein expression in adults of the oriental fruit fly

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Changes in essential dietary components alter global gene expression patterns in animals. We reported on a proteomics study designed to identify molecular markers of deficiencies in culture media developed for the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. In that study, we found significant changes i...

  18. Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly in California with a Parasitoid Imported from Guatemala

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor (Szépligeti), was imported into California from the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Moscamed, San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea L. The parasitoid did not develop in the seedhead fly, Cha...

  19. Pheromones, male lures and trapping of tephritid fruit flies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The dipteran family of Tephritidae consists of many genera, of which several namely, Anastrepha, Bactrocera, Ceratitis, Dacus, Rhagoletis and Toxotrypana possess species of high economic importance as major pests of fruits and vegetables. Hitherto, pheromones isolated and identified for possible use...

  20. Fiber Optic Sensing Monitors Strain and Reduces Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    In applications where stress on a structure may vary widely and have an unknown impact on integrity, a common engineering strategy has been overbuilding to ensure a sufficiently robust design. While this may be appropriate in applications where weight concerns are not paramount, space applications demand a bare minimum of mass, given astronomical per-pound launch costs. For decades, the preferred solution was the tactic of disassembly and investigation between flights. Knowing there must be a better way, Dr. Mark Froggatt, of Langley Research Center, explored alternate means of monitoring stresses and damage to the space shuttle. While a tear-it-apart-and-have-a-look strategy was effective, it was also a costly and time consuming process that risked further stresses through the very act of disassembly and reassembly. An alternate way of monitoring the condition of parts under the enormous stresses of space flight was needed. Froggatt and his colleagues at Langley built an early-warning device to provide detailed information about even minuscule cracks and deformations by etching a group of tiny lines, or grating, on a fiber optic cable five-thousandths of an inch thick with ultraviolet light. By then gluing the fiber to the side of a part, such as a fuel tank, and shining a laser beam down its length, reflected light indicated which gratings were under stress. Inferring this data from measurements in light rather than in bonded gauges saved additional weight. Various shuttle components now employ the ultrasonic dynamic vector stress sensor (UDVSS), allowing stress detection by measuring light beamed from a built-in mini-laser. By measuring changes in dynamic directional stress occurring in a material or structure, and including phase-locked loop, synchronous amplifier, and contact probe, the UDVSS proved especially useful among manufacturers of aerospace and automotive structures for stress testing and design evaluation. Engineers could ensure safety in airplanes

  1. Effect of vibratory soldier alarm signals on the foraging behavior of subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Inta, R; Evans, T A; Lai, J C S

    2009-02-01

    Termite soldiers produce a vibratory alarm signal to warn conspecific workers. This study recorded and characterized the alarm signals of Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) and then investigated the effect of playing these recorded alarm signals on C. acinaciformis feeding activity. Foraging groups of termites were offered paired wooden blocks: either one block, continuously stimulated with a vibratory alarm signal, paired with a nonstimulated block (the alarm treatment), continuously stimulated with a pink noise signal, paired with a nonstimulated block (control for nonspecific vibrations) or two nonstimulated blocks (control for environmental effects), for 4 wk. The amount of wood eaten in the blocks stimulated by the alarm signals was significantly less than the paired nonstimulated blocks, while there seemed to be no preference in the case of the pink noise playback or control for direction. Importantly, the termites seemed not to have adapted to the recorded alarm signal over the 4-wk duration of the experiment, unlike previous studies using nonbiologically derived signals.

  2. Anarchy with hierarchy: A probabilistic appraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, K. S.; Khanov, Alexander; Saad, Shaikh

    2017-03-01

    The masses of the charged fermion and the mixing angles among quarks are observed to be strongly hierarchical, while analogous parameters in the neutrino sector appear to be structureless or anarchical. We develop a class of unified models based on S U (5 ) symmetry that explains these differing features probabilistically. With the aid of three input parameters that are hierarchical, and with the assumption that all the Yukawa couplings are uncorrelated random variables described by Gaussian distributions, we show by Monte Carlo simulations that the observed features of the entire fermion spectrum can be nicely reproduced. We extend our analysis to an S U (5 )-based flavor U (1 ) model making use of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism where the order one Yukawa couplings are modeled as random variables, which also shows good agreement with observations.

  3. Effective theories of flavor and the nonuniversal MSSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Dipankar; López-Ibáñez, M. L.; Pérez, M. Jay; Vives, Oscar

    2017-02-01

    Flavor symmetries à la Froggatt-Nielsen provide a compelling way to explain the hierarchies of fermionic masses and mixing angles in the Yukawa sector. In supersymmetric (SUSY) extensions of the Standard Model where the mediation of SUSY breaking occurs at scales larger than the breaking of flavor, this symmetry must be respected not only by the Yukawas of the superpotential but also by the soft-breaking masses and trilinear terms. In this work we show that contrary to naive expectations, even starting with completely flavor blind soft breaking in the full theory at high scales, the low-energy sfermion mass matrices and trilinear terms of the effective theory, obtained upon integrating out the heavy mediator fields, are strongly nonuniversal. We explore the phenomenology of these SUSY flavor models after the latest LHC searches for new physics.

  4. Predictive Pati-Salam theory of fermion masses and mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cárcamo Hernández, A. E.; Kovalenko, Sergey; Valle, José W. F.; Vaquera-Araujo, C. A.

    2017-07-01

    We propose a Pati-Salam extension of the standard model incorporating a flavor symmetry based on the Δ (27) group. The theory realizes a realistic Froggatt-Nielsen picture of quark mixing and a predictive pattern of neutrino oscillations. We find that, for normal neutrino mass ordering, the atmospheric angle must lie in the higher octant, CP must be violated in oscillations, and there is a lower bound for the 0ν ββ decay rate. For the case of inverted mass ordering, we find that the lower atmospheric octant is preferred, and that CP can be conserved in oscillations. Neutrino masses arise from a low-scale seesaw mechanism, whose messengers can be produced by a Z' portal at the LHC.

  5. Continuous Flavor Symmetries and the Stability of Asymmetric Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Bishara, Fady; Zupan, Jure

    2015-01-19

    Generically, the asymmetric interactions in asymmetric dark matter (ADM) models could lead to decaying DM. We show that, for ADM that carries nonzero baryon number, continuous flavor symmetries that generate the flavor structure in the quark sector also imply a looser lower bound on the mass scale of the asymmetric mediators between the dark and visible sectors. Furthermore, the mediators for B = 2 ADM that can produce a signal in the future indirect dark matter searches can thus also be searched for at the LHC. For two examples of the mediator models, with either the MFV or Froggatt-Nielsen flavor breaking pattern, we derive the FCNC constraints and discuss the search strategies at the LHC.

  6. Flavor structure, Higgs boson mass, and dark matter in a supersymmetric model with vector-like generations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higaki, Tetsutaro; Nishida, Michinobu; Takeda, Naoyuki

    2017-08-01

    We study a supersymmetric model in which the Higgs mass, the muon anomalous magnetic moment, and the dark matter are simultaneously explained with extra vector-like generation multiplets. For the explanations, non-trivial flavor structures and a singlet field are required. In this paper, we study the flavor texture by using the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism, and then find realistic flavor structures that reproduce the Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix and fermion masses at low energy. Furthermore, we find that the fermion component of the singlet field becomes a good candidate for dark matter. In our model, flavor physics and dark matter are explained with moderate-size couplings through renormalization group flows, and the presence of dark matter supports the existence of just 3 generations in low-energy scales. We analyze the parameter region where the current thermal relic abundance of dark matter, the Higgs boson mass, and the muon g{-}2 can be explained simultaneously.

  7. Continuous Flavor Symmetries and the Stability of Asymmetric Dark Matter

    DOE PAGES

    Bishara, Fady; Zupan, Jure

    2015-01-19

    Generically, the asymmetric interactions in asymmetric dark matter (ADM) models could lead to decaying DM. We show that, for ADM that carries nonzero baryon number, continuous flavor symmetries that generate the flavor structure in the quark sector also imply a looser lower bound on the mass scale of the asymmetric mediators between the dark and visible sectors. Furthermore, the mediators for B = 2 ADM that can produce a signal in the future indirect dark matter searches can thus also be searched for at the LHC. For two examples of the mediator models, with either the MFV or Froggatt-Nielsen flavormore » breaking pattern, we derive the FCNC constraints and discuss the search strategies at the LHC.« less

  8. Borate protection of softwood from Coptotermes acinaciformis (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) damage: variation in protection thresholds explained.

    PubMed

    Peters, Brenton C; Fitzgerald, Christopher J

    2006-10-01

    Laboratory and field data reported in the literature are confusing with regard to "adequate" protection thresholds for borate timber preservatives. The confusion is compounded by differences in termite species, timber species and test methodology. Laboratory data indicate a borate retention of 0.5% mass/mass (m/m) boric acid equivalent (BAE) would cause > 90% termite mortality and restrict mass loss in test specimens to < or = 5%. Field data generally suggest that borate retentions appreciably > 0.5% m/m BAE are required. We report two field experiments with varying amounts of untreated feeder material in which Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) responses to borate-treated radiata (Monterey) pine, Pinus radiata D. Don, were measured. The apparently conflicting results between laboratory and field data are explained by the presence or absence of untreated feeder material in the test environment. In the absence of untreated feeder material, wood containing 0.5% BAE provided adequate protection from Coptotermes sp., whereas in the presence of untreated feeder material, increased retentions were required. Furthermore, the retentions required increased with increased amounts of susceptible material present. Some termites, Nasutitermes sp. and Mastotermes darwiniensis Froggatt, for example, are borate-tolerant and borate timber preservatives are not a viable management option with these species. The lack of uniform standards for termite test methodology and assessment criteria for efficacy across the world is recognized as a difficulty with research into the performance of timber preservatives with termites. The many variables in laboratory and field assays make "prescriptive" standards difficult to recommend. The use of "performance" standards to define efficacy criteria ("adequate" protection) is discussed.

  9. Host status of blueberry to invasive tephritid fruit flies in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Follett, Peter A; Armstrong, John W; Zee, Francis T

    2009-10-01

    Forced infestation studies were conducted to determine whether northern or southern highbush blueberries, Vaccinium corymbosum L., are hosts for the invasive tephritid fruit flies in Hawaii. Fruit were exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (oriental fruit fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean fruit fly), or Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet (melon fly) in screen cages outdoors for 6 h and then held on sand in the laboratory for 2 wk for pupal and adult emergence. The number of puparia, number of puparia per gram, and percentage of adult emergence on 'Bluecrop' blueberry were significantly higher for B. dorsalis and C. capitata than B. cucurbitae; B. dorsalis, C. capitata, and B. cucurbitae produced an average of 1.06, 0.60, and 0.09 pupae per g fruit and had 5.8, 54.1, and 12.7% adult emergence, respectively. 'Berkeley' blueberries produced an average of only 0.06, 0.02, and 0.0 pupae per g fruit for B. dorsalis, C. capitata, and B. cucurbitae, respectively. Similarly, six blueberry cultivars were harvested weekly for 10 wk, exposed to Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) in cages, and held for pupal and adult emergence on either sand or artificial diet. In total, 2,677 blueberries were exposed to 2681 B. latifons and held on sand, and no pupariation or adult emergence was observed. Small numbers of B. latifrons puparia and adults emerged from the artificial diet treatment in all cultivars. Results from rearing on sand and diet indicate that blueberry is an acceptable oviposition host for B. latifrons but not an adequate developmental host. These data suggest blueberry is potentially a good host for B. dorsalis and C. capitata, and an adequate host for Bactrocera cucurbitae, but that there may be significant variation in resistance among cultivars. Blueberry seems to be a nonhost for B. latifrons.

  10. Phylogeny of economically important insect pests that infesting several crops species in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazali, Siti Zafirah; Zain, Badrul Munir Md.; Yaakop, Salmah

    2014-09-01

    This paper reported molecular data on insect pests of commercial crops in Peninsular Malaysia. Fifteen insect pests (Metisa plana, Calliteara horsefeldii, Cotesia vestalis, Bactrocera papayae, Bactrocera carambolae, Bactrocera latifrons, Conopomorpha cramella, Sesamia inferens, Chilo polychrysa, Rhynchophorus vulneratus, and Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) of nine crops were sampled (oil palm, coconut, paddy, cocoa, starfruit, angled loofah, guava, chili and mustard) and also four species that belong to the fern's pest (Herpetogramma platycapna) and storage and rice pests (Tribolium castaneum, Oryzaephilus surinamensis and Cadra cautella). The presented phylogeny summarized the initial phylogenetic hypothesis, which concerning by implementation of the economically important insect pests. In this paper, phylogenetic relationships among 39 individuals of 15 species that belonging to three orders under 12 genera were inferred from DNA sequences of mitochondrial marker, cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and nuclear marker, ribosomal DNA 28S D2 region. The phylogenies resulted from the phylogenetic analyses of both genes are relatively similar, but differ in the sequence of evolution. Interestingly, this most recent molecular data of COI sequences data by using Bayesian Inference analysis resulted a more-resolved phylogeny that corroborated with traditional hypotheses of holometabolan relationships based on traditional hypotheses of holometabolan relationships and most of recently molecular study compared to 28S sequences. This finding provides the information on relationships of pests species, which infested several crops in Malaysia and also estimation on Holometabola's order relationships. The identification of the larval stages of insect pests could be done accurately, without waiting the emergence of adults and supported by the phylogenetic tree.

  11. The first complete mitochondrial genome of Dacus longicornis (Diptera: Tephritidae) using next-generation sequencing and mitochondrial genome phylogeny of Dacini tribe

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Fan; Pan, Xubin; Li, Xuankun; Yu, Yanxue; Zhang, Junhua; Jiang, Hongshan; Dou, Liduo; Zhu, Shuifang

    2016-01-01

    The genus Dacus is one of the most economically important tephritid fruit flies. The first complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Dacus species – D. longicornis was sequenced by next-generation sequencing in order to develop the mitogenome data for this genus. The circular 16,253 bp mitogenome is the typical set and arrangement of 37 genes present in the ancestral insect. The mitogenome data of D. longicornis was compared to all the published homologous sequences of other tephritid species. We discovered the subgenera Bactrocera, Daculus and Tetradacus differed from the subgenus Zeugodacus, the genera Dacus, Ceratitis and Procecidochares in the possession of TA instead of TAA stop codon for COI gene. There is a possibility that the TA stop codon in COI is the synapomorphy in Bactrocera group in the genus Bactrocera comparing with other Tephritidae species. Phylogenetic analyses based on the mitogenome data from Tephritidae were inferred by Bayesian and Maximum-likelihood methods, strongly supported the sister relationship between Zeugodacus and Dacus. PMID:27812024

  12. Host status of Vaccinium reticulatum (Ericaceae) to invasive tephritid fruit flies in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Follett, Peter A; Zee, Francis T

    2011-04-01

    Ohelo (Vaccicinium reticulatum Small) (Ericaceae) is a native Hawaiian plant that has commercial potential in Hawaii as a nursery crop to be transplanted for berry production or for sale as a potted ornamental. No-choice infestation studies were conducted to determine whether ohelo fruit are hosts for four invasive tephritid fruit fly species. Ohelo berries were exposed to gravid female flies ofBactrocera dorsalis Hendel (oriental fruit fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean fruit fly), Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet (melon fly),or Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) in screen cages outdoors for 24 h and then held on sand in the laboratory for 2 wk for pupal development and adult emergence. Only B. dorsalis successfully attacked and developed in ohelo berries. In total, 1570 berries produced 10 puparia, all of which emerged as adults, for a fruit infestation rate of 0.0064% and an average of 0.0053 puparia per gram of fruit. By comparison, papaya fruit used as controls produced an average of 1.44 B. dorsalis puparia per g of fruit. Ohelo berry is a marginal host for B. dorsalis and apparently a nonhost for C. capitata, B. cucurbitae, and B. latifrons. Commercial plantings of ohelo will rarely be attacked by fruit flies in Hawaii.

  13. Origin of families of fermions and their mass matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Bracic, A. Borstnik; Borstnik, N. S. Mankoc

    2006-10-01

    We are proposing a new way of describing families of quarks and leptons, using the approach unifying all the internal degrees of freedom, proposed by one of us [N. Mankoc Borstnik, Phys. Lett. B 292, 25 (1992).][N. Mankoc-Borstnik, J. Math. Phys. (N.Y.) 34, 3731 (1993).][N. Mankoc Borstnik, J. Math. Phys. (N.Y.) 36, 1593 (1995).][N. S. Mankoc Borstnik, Mod. Phys. Lett. A 10, 587 (1995).][N. S. Mankoc Borstnik and S. Fajfer, Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. B 112, 1637 (1997).][A. Borstnik and N. S. Mankoc Borstnik, in Proceedings to the International Workshop on ''What Comes Beyond the Standard Model, Bled, Slovenia, 1998, edited by N. Mankoc Borstnik, H. B. Nielsen, and C. Froggatt (DMFA, Zaloznistvo, 1999), p. 52.][N. S. Mankoc Borstnik and H. B. Nielsen, Phys. Rev. 62, 04010 (2000).][N. S. Mankoc Borstnik, Int. J. Theor. Phys. 40, 315 (2001), and references therein.][A. Borstnik and N. S. Mankoc Borstnik, in Proceedings to the International Workshop on ''What Comes Beyond the Standard Model'', Bled 2000, 2001, 2002 Volume 2, edited by N. Mankoc Borstnik, H. B. Nielsen, C. Froggatt, and D. Lukman (DMFA, Zaloznistvo, 2002), p. 27 and the paper (unpublished).][A. Borstnik and N. S. Mankoc Borstnik, in Proceedings to the Euroconference on Symmetries Beyond the Standard Model, Portoroz, 2003 edited by N. Mankoc Borstnik, H. B. Nielsen, C. Froggatt, and D. Lukman (DMFA, Zaloznistvo, 2003), pp. 27-51.]. Spinors, living in d(=1+13)-dimensional space, carry in this approach only the spin and interact with only the gravity through vielbeins and two kinds of the spin connection fields--the gauge fields of the Poincare group (p{sup a},S{sup ab}) and the second kind of the Clifford algebra objects (S-tilde{sup ab}). All the quarks and the leptons of one family appear in one Weyl representation of a chosen handedness of the Lorentz group, if analyzed with respect to the standard model gauge groups, which are subgroups of the group SO(1,13): the right handed (with respect to SO(1

  14. Trap capture of three economically important fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae): evaluation of a solid formulation containing multiple male lures in a Hawaiian coffee field.

    PubMed

    Shelly, Todd; Nishimoto, Jon; Kurashima, Rick

    2012-08-01

    Invasive fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) pose a global threat to agriculture through direct damage to food crops and the accompanying trade restrictions that often result. Early detection is vital to controlling fruit flies, because it increases the probability of limiting the growth and spread of the invasive population and thus may greatly reduce the monetary costs required for eradication or suppression. Male-specific lures are an important component of fruit fly detection, and three such lures are used widely: trimedlure (TML), cue lure (CL), and methyl eugenol (ME), attractive to Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann); melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett); and oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), respectively. In California, Florida, and Texas, the two Bactrocera lures are applied to separate species-specific traps as liquids (with a small amount of the insecticide naled added), whereas TML is delivered as a solid plug in another set of traps. Thus, the detection protocol involves considerable handling time as well as potential contact with a pesticide. The purpose of this study was to compare trap capture between liquid male lures and "trilure" wafers that contain TML, ME, raspberry ketone (RK, the hydroxy equivalent of CL), and the toxicant DDVP embedded within a solid matrix. Field studies were conducted in a Hawaiian coffee (Coffea arabica L.) field where the three aforementioned species co-occur, showed that the wafer captured at least as many flies as the liquid baits for all three species. This same result was obtained in comparisons using both fresh and aged (6-wk) baits. Moreover, the wafers performed as well as the single-lure traps in an ancillary experiment in which TML plugs were substituted for liquid TML. Additional experiments demonstrated explicitly that the presence of ME and RK had no effect on captures of C. capitata males and similarly that the presence of TML had no effect on the capture of B

  15. Rapid elimination of field colonies of subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) using bistrifluron solid bait pellets.

    PubMed

    Evans, Theodore A

    2010-04-01

    The efficacy of bistrifluron, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, in cellulose bait pellets was evaluated on the mound-building subterranean termite, Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt). Three concentrations of the bistrifluron were used: 0 (untreated control), 0.5, and 1.0% over an 8 wk period. Both doses of bistrifluron bait eliminated (viz. termites absent from nest or mound) termite colonies: 83% of colonies (10 of 12) were either eliminated or moribund (viz. colony had no reproductive capacity and decreased workforce) after 8 wk, compared with none of the control colonies. The remaining two treated colonies were deemed to be in decline. Early signs that bistrifluron was affecting the colonies included: 3 wk after baiting mound temperatures showed a loss of metabolic heat, 4 wk after baiting foraging activity in feeding stations was reduced or absent, and dissection of two mounds at 4 wk showed they were moribund. Colony elimination was achieved in around half or less the time, and with less bait toxicant, than other bait products tested under similar conditions in the field, because of either the active ingredient, the high surface area of the pellets, or a combination of both. This suggests the sometimes long times reported for control using baits may be reduced significantly. The use of a mound building species demonstrated clearly colony level effects before and after termites stopped foraging in bait stations.

  16. Cryoprotection in dampwood termites (Termopsidae, Isoptera).

    PubMed

    Lacey, Michael J; Lenz, Michael; Evans, Theodore A

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to the majority of the Order, the dampwood termites of the family Termopsidae found in colder regions can experience frost and snow, either in cool temperate areas at high latitudes (45 degrees ), or alpine areas at high elevations (>1000m). This suggests that dampwood termites are adapted to cold climates. We investigated this hypothesis in two dampwood termites, Porotermes adamsoni Froggatt and Stolotermes victoriensis Hill. We measured nest temperatures and atmospheric temperatures of their alpine habitat during winter, and measured survival and recovery at subzero temperatures. We also determined the minimum temperature at which these species remain active and the LT50 values. We used a novel gas chromatographic strategy to examine eight metabolites from individuals of both species collected in winter and summer to identify possible cryoprotectants. Both P. adamsoni and S. victoriensis had significantly higher levels of trehalose, a known cryoprotectant, in winter than in summer; in addition S. victoriensis also had higher levels of unsaturated fatty acid ligands in winter than in summer, consistent with patterns observed for cold adaptation in other organisms. These results are the first to reveal that dampwood termites are adapted to cold climates and use trehalose and unsaturated lipids as cryoprotectants.

  17. Fermion mass hierarchy and nonhierarchical mass ratios in SU(5)xU(1){sub F}