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Sample records for bactrocera tryoni froggatt

  1. Time-pattern and frequency analyses of sounds produced by irradiated and untreated male Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) during mating behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Behavior and sounds associated with mating of mass-reared irradiated and untreated (non-irradiated) Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) males were analyzed using synchronous acoustic and video recordings. The flies tested were from a population used in sterile release programs that help maintain fruit-fly...

  2. Raspberry Ketone Trifluoroacetate, a new attractant for the Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt))

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni, Q-fly) is a major agricultural pest in eastern Australia. The deployment of male lures comprises an important component of several control and detection strategies for this pest. A novel fluorinated analog of raspberry ketone, raspberry ketone trifluoroac...

  3. Raspberry Ketone Analogs: Vapour Pressure Measurements and Attractiveness to Queensland Fruit Fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Park, Soo J; Morelli, Renata; Hanssen, Benjamin L; Jamie, Joanne F; Jamie, Ian M; Siderhurst, Matthew S; Taylor, Phillip W

    2016-01-01

    The Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Q-fly), is a major horticultural pest in Eastern Australia. Effective monitoring, male annihilation technique (MAT) and mass trapping (MT) are all important for control and require strong lures to attract flies to traps or toxicants. Lure strength is thought to be related in part to volatility, but little vapour pressure data are available for most Q-fly lures. Raspberry ketone (4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone) and analogs that had esters (acetyl, difluoroacetyl, trifluoroacetyl, formyl, propionyl) and ethers (methyl ether, trimethylsilyl ether) in replacement of the phenolic group, and in one case also had modification of the 2-butanone side chain, were measured for their vapour pressures by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and their attractiveness to Q-fly was assessed in small cage environmentally controlled laboratory bioassays. Maximum response of one category of compounds, containing both 2-butanone side chain and ester group was found to be higher than that of the other group of compounds, of which either of 2-butanone or ester functionality was modified. However, linear relationship between vapour pressure and maximum response was not significant. The results of this study indicate that, while volatility may be a factor in lure effectiveness, molecular structure is the dominating factor for the series of molecules investigated. PMID:27196605

  4. Raspberry Ketone Analogs: Vapour Pressure Measurements and Attractiveness to Queensland Fruit Fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Hanssen, Benjamin L.; Jamie, Joanne F.; Jamie, Ian M.; Siderhurst, Matthew S.; Taylor, Phillip W.

    2016-01-01

    The Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Q-fly), is a major horticultural pest in Eastern Australia. Effective monitoring, male annihilation technique (MAT) and mass trapping (MT) are all important for control and require strong lures to attract flies to traps or toxicants. Lure strength is thought to be related in part to volatility, but little vapour pressure data are available for most Q-fly lures. Raspberry ketone (4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone) and analogs that had esters (acetyl, difluoroacetyl, trifluoroacetyl, formyl, propionyl) and ethers (methyl ether, trimethylsilyl ether) in replacement of the phenolic group, and in one case also had modification of the 2-butanone side chain, were measured for their vapour pressures by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and their attractiveness to Q-fly was assessed in small cage environmentally controlled laboratory bioassays. Maximum response of one category of compounds, containing both 2-butanone side chain and ester group was found to be higher than that of the other group of compounds, of which either of 2-butanone or ester functionality was modified. However, linear relationship between vapour pressure and maximum response was not significant. The results of this study indicate that, while volatility may be a factor in lure effectiveness, molecular structure is the dominating factor for the series of molecules investigated. PMID:27196605

  5. Parasitoids of Queensland Fruit Fly Bactrocera tryoni in Australia and Prospects for Improved Biological Control

    PubMed Central

    Zamek, Ashley L.; Spinner, Jennifer E.; Micallef, Jessica L.; Gurr, Geoff M.; Reynolds, Olivia L.

    2012-01-01

    This review draws together available information on the biology, methods for study, and culturing of hymenopteran parasitoids of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, and assesses prospects for improving biological control of this serious pest. Augmentative release of the native and naturalised Australian parasitoids, especially the braconid Diachasmimorpha tryoni, may result in better management of B. tryoni in some parts of Australia. Mass releases are an especially attractive option for areas of inland eastern Australia around the Fruit Fly Exclusion Zone that produces B. tryoni-free fruits for export. Diachasmimorpha tryoni has been successful in other locations such as Hawaii for the biological control of other fruit fly species. Biological control could contribute to local eradication of isolated outbreaks and more general suppression and/or eradication of the B. tryoni population in endemic areas. Combining biological control with the use of sterile insect technique offers scope for synergy because the former is most effective at high pest densities and the latter most economical when the pest becomes scarce. Recommendations are made on methods for culturing and study of four B. tryoni parasitoids present in Australia along with research priorities for optimising augmentative biological control of B. tryoni. PMID:26466726

  6. From eradication to containment: invasion of French Polynesia by Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and releases of two natural enemies: a 17-year case study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), was discovered on Tahiti Island, French Polynesia, in 1996. Two other economically important Bactrocera species were previously established: B. kirki (Froggatt) in 1928, and B. tryoni (Froggatt), Queensland fruit fly, in 1970. This situation provi...

  7. Alimentary Tract Bacteria Isolated and Identified with API-20E and Molecular Cloning Techniques from Australian Tropical Fruit Flies, Bactrocera cacuminata and B. tryoni

    PubMed Central

    Thaochan, N.; Drew, R. A. I.; Hughes, J. M.; Vijaysegaran, S.; Chinajariyawong, A.

    2010-01-01

    Bacteria were isolated from the crop and midgut of field collected Bactrocera cacuminata (Hering) and Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Two methods were used, firstly isolation onto two types of bacteriological culture media (PYEA and TSA) and identification using the API-20E diagnostic kit, and secondly, analysis of samples using the 16S rRNA gene molecular diagnostic method. Using the API-20E method, 10 genera and 17 species of bacteria in the family Enterobacteriaceae were identified from cultures growing on the nutrient agar. The dominant species in both the crop and midgut were Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella oxytoca. Providencia rettgeri, Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp ozaenae and Serratia marcescens were isolated from B. tryoni only. Using the molecular cloning technique that is based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, five bacteria classes were dignosed — Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma- and Delta- Proteobacteria and Firmicutes — including five families, Leuconostocaceae, Enterococcaceae, Acetobacteriaceae, Comamonadaceae and Enterobacteriaceae. The bacteria affiliated with Firmicutes were found mainly in the crop while the Gammaproteobacteria, especially the family Enterobacteriaceae, was dominant in the midgut. This paper presents results from the first known application of molecular cloning techniques to study bacteria within tephritid species and the first record of Firmicutes bacteria in these flies. PMID:20883132

  8. The scarlet eye colour gene of the tephritid fruit fly: Bactrocera tryoni and the nature of two eye colour mutations.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J T; Bennett, C L; Stewart, G J; Frommer, M; Raphael, K A

    2003-06-01

    A homologue of the Drosophila melanogaster eye-colour gene, scarlet (st), has been isolated from the genome of the tephritid fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni. The comparison of the B. tryoni and D. melanogaster scarlet gene shows 71.2% and 79.3% sequence identity at the DNA and the derived amino acid level, respectively. Two allelic eye-colour mutations of B. tryoni, orange-eyes and lemon-eyes, have been recovered and found to be colocalized with the st gene. The st gene sequence in the two mutant strains has been examined for DNA sequence changes and expression levels. PMID:12752660

  9. The effects of selection for early (day) and late (dusk) mating lines of hybrids of Bactrocera tryoni and Bactrocera neohumeralis.

    PubMed

    Meats, A; Pike, N; An, X; Raphael, K; Wang, W Y S

    2003-11-01

    Bactrocera neohumeralis and Bactrocera tryoni are closely related tephritid fruit fly species. B. neohumeralis mates throughout the day (in bright light) and B. tryoni mates at dusk. The two species can also be distinguished by the colour of their calli (prothoracic sclerites) which are brown and yellow, respectively. The F1 hybrids can mate both in bright light just before dusk and during dusk and have calli that are partly brown and partly yellow. The F2 hybrids have a wider range of callus patterns and mating occurs more widely in the day as well as at dusk. We directly selected hybrid stocks for mating time, creating 'early' (day-mating) and 'late' (dusk-mating) lines. As an apparently inadvertent consequence, the two types of line respectively had predominantly brown and predominantly yellow calli and thus came to closely resemble the original two species in both behaviour and appearance. Lines that were evenly selected (half for day and half for dusk) essentially retained the mating pattern of F2 hybrids. Selection for callus colour alone also affected the distribution of mating times in a predictable way. We propose a genetical model to account for the results and discuss them in the light of the apparent maintenance of species integrity in nature. PMID:14686607

  10. Laboratory adaptation of Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae) decreases mating age and increases protein consumption and number of eggs produced per milligram of protein.

    PubMed

    Meats, A; Holmes, H M; Kelly, G L

    2004-12-01

    A significant reduction in age of mating occurred during the first four generations (G1-G4) of laboratory adaptation of wild Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) and this was associated with the earlier attainment of peak egg load although no significant differences were detected in the peak egg load itself. A long term laboratory (LTL) strain had a significantly earlier mating age and higher peak egg load than flies of wild origin or those from the first four laboratory generations. The amount of protein consumed by females in the first week of adult life was significantly higher in the LTL strain than in flies of wild origin or G1-G4 but there were no significant changes (or only slight changes) with laboratory adaptation in the amounts of protein consumed up to the ages of mating and peak egg load. Laboratory adaptation resulted in no significant changes in egg size, egg dry weight, puparial fresh weight and the dry weight of newly emerged females. The large increase in fecundity with laboratory adaptation is associated with a 4- to 5-fold increase in the rate of conversion of dietary protein to eggs (i.e. eggs produced per mg of protein consumed). PMID:15541191

  11. Germ-line transformation of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, using a piggyBac vector in the presence of endogenous piggyBac elements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the stable genetic transformation of the Queensland fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni using a piggyBac vector marked with either the fluorescent protein DsRed or EGFP.A transformation frequency of 5–10% was obtained.Inheritance of the transgenes has remained stable over eight generations despite...

  12. Ultrastructure of male reproductive accessory glands and ejaculatory duct in the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Preethi; Marchini, Daniela; Taylor, Phillip W

    2009-05-01

    Ultrastructure of male reproductive accessory glands and ejaculatory duct in the Queensland fruit fly (Q-fly), Bactrocera tryoni, were investigated and compared with those of other tephritid flies. Male accessory glands were found to comprise one pair of mesodermic glands and three pairs of ectodermic glands. The mesodermic accessory glands consist of muscle-lined, binucleate epithelial cells, which are highly microvillated and extrude electron-dense secretions by means of macroapocrine transport into a central lumen. The ectodermic accessory glands consist of muscle-lined epithelial cells which have wide subcuticular cavities, lined with microvilli. The electron-transparent secretions from these glands are first extruded into the cavities and then forced out through small pores of the cuticle into the gland lumen. Secretions from the two types of accessory glands then flow into the ejaculatory duct, which is highly muscular, with epithelial cells rich in rough endoplasmic reticulum and lined with a thick, deeply invaginated cuticle. While there are some notable differences, reproductive accessory glands of male Q-flies generally resemble those of the olive fruitfly, Bactrocera oleae, and to a lesser extent the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. PMID:19026762

  13. Nutrients, not caloric restriction, extend lifespan in Queensland fruit flies (Bactrocera tryoni).

    PubMed

    Fanson, Benjamin G; Weldon, Christopher W; Pérez-Staples, Diana; Simpson, Stephen J; Taylor, Phillip W

    2009-09-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) has been widely accepted as a mechanism explaining increased lifespan (LS) in organisms subjected to dietary restriction (DR), but recent studies investigating the role of nutrients have challenged the role of CR in extending longevity. Fuelling this debate is the difficulty in experimentally disentangling CR and nutrient effects due to compensatory feeding (CF) behaviour. We quantified CF by measuring the volume of solution imbibed and determined how calories and nutrients influenced LS and fecundity in unmated females of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae). We restricted flies to one of 28 diets varying in carbohydrate:protein (C:P) ratios and concentrations. On imbalanced diets, flies overcame dietary dilutions, consuming similar caloric intakes for most dilutions. The response surface for LS revealed that increasing C:P ratio while keeping calories constant extended LS, with the maximum LS along C:P ratio of 21:1. In general, LS was reduced as caloric intake decreased. Lifetime egg production was maximized at a C:P ratio of 3:1. When given a choice of separate sucrose and yeast solutions, each at one of five concentrations (yielding 25 choice treatments), flies regulated their nutrient intake to match C:P ratio of 3:1. Our results (i) demonstrate that CF can overcome dietary dilutions; (ii) reveal difficulties with methods presenting fixed amounts of liquid diet; (iii) illustrate the need to measure intake to account for CF in DR studies and (iv) highlight nutrients rather than CR as a dominant influence on LS.

  14. Carbohydrate diet and reproductive performance of a fruit fly parasitoid, Diachasmimorpha tryoni.

    PubMed

    Zamek, Ashley Louisa; Reynolds, Olivia Louise; Mansfield, Sarah; Micallef, Jessica Louise; Gurr, Geoff Michael

    2013-01-01

    Augmentative releases of parasitoid wasps are often used successfully for biological control of fruit flies in programs worldwide. The development of cheaper and more effective augmentative releases of the parasitoid wasp Diachasmimorpha tryoni (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) may allow its use to be expanded to cover Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae), a serious pest of many vegetables and most fruit production in Australia. This demands a fuller understanding of the parasitoid's reproductive biology. In this study, mating status, fecundity, and size of female D. tryoni were determined under laboratory conditions. A range of pre-release diets, 10% concentrations of honey, white sugar, and golden syrup, were also assessed in the laboratory. Mature egg loads and progeny yields of mated and unmated parasitoid females were statistically similar, demonstrating that mating status was not a determinant of parasitoid performance. Female lifespan was not negatively impacted by the act of oviposition, though larger females carried more eggs than smaller individuals, indicating a need to produce large females in mass-rearing facilities to maintain this trait. White sugar gave the highest adult female lifespan, while honey and golden syrup shared similar survivorship curves, all significantly greater compared with water control females. Pre-release feeding of D. tryoni, particularly with white sugar, may enhance the impact of released parasitoids on B. tryoni. These findings are important because honey is currently the standard diet for mass-reared braconids, but white sugar is less than one-third the cost of other foods; however further work is required to assess postrelease performance of the parasitoid.

  15. Carbohydrate Diet and Reproductive Performance of a Fruit Fly Parasitoid, Diachasmimorpha tryoni

    PubMed Central

    Zamek, Ashley Louisa; Reynolds, Olivia Louise; Mansfield, Sarah; Micallef, Jessica Louise; Gurr, Geoff Michael

    2013-01-01

    Augmentative releases of parasitoid wasps are often used successfully for biological control of fruit flies in programs worldwide. The development of cheaper and more effective augmentative releases of the parasitoid wasp Diachasmimorpha tryoni (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) may allow its use to be expanded to cover Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae), a serious pest of many vegetables and most fruit production in Australia. This demands a fuller understanding of the parasitoid's reproductive biology. In this study, mating status, fecundity, and size of female D. tryoni were determined under laboratory conditions. A range of pre-release diets, 10% concentrations of honey, white sugar, and golden syrup, were also assessed in the laboratory. Mature egg loads and progeny yields of mated and unmated parasitoid females were statistically similar, demonstrating that mating status was not a determinant of parasitoid performance. Female lifespan was not negatively impacted by the act of oviposition, though larger females carried more eggs than smaller individuals, indicating a need to produce large females in mass-rearing facilities to maintain this trait. White sugar gave the highest adult female lifespan, while honey and golden syrup shared similar survivorship curves, all significantly greater compared with water control females. Pre-release feeding of D. tryoni, particularly with white sugar, may enhance the impact of released parasitoids on B. tryoni. These findings are important because honey is currently the standard diet for mass-reared braconids, but white sugar is less than one-third the cost of other foods; however further work is required to assess postrelease performance of the parasitoid. PMID:24224552

  16. Characterization of irritans mariner-like elements in the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae): evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Ben Lazhar-Ajroud, Wafa; Caruso, Aurore; Mezghani, Maha; Bouallegue, Maryem; Tastard, Emmanuelle; Denis, Françoise; Rouault, Jacques-Deric; Makni, Hanem; Capy, Pierre; Chénais, Benoît; Makni, Mohamed; Casse, Nathalie

    2016-08-01

    Genomic variation among species is commonly driven by transposable element (TE) invasion; thus, the pattern of TEs in a genome allows drawing an evolutionary history of the studied species. This paper reports in vitro and in silico detection and characterization of irritans mariner-like elements (MLEs) in the genome and transcriptome of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Eleven irritans MLE sequences have been isolated in vitro using terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) as primers, and 215 have been extracted in silico from the sequenced genome of B. oleae. Additionally, the sequenced genomes of Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) have been explored to identify irritans MLEs. A total of 129 sequences from B. tryoni have been extracted, while the genome of B. cucurbitae appears probably devoid of irritans MLEs. All detected irritans MLEs are defective due to several mutations and are clustered together in a monophyletic group suggesting a common ancestor. The evolutionary history and dynamics of these TEs are discussed in relation with the phylogenetic distribution of their hosts. The knowledge on the structure, distribution, dynamic, and evolution of irritans MLEs in Bactrocera species contributes to the understanding of both their evolutionary history and the invasion history of their hosts. This could also be the basis for genetic control strategies using transposable elements. PMID:27392643

  17. Characterization of irritans mariner-like elements in the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae): evolutionary implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Lazhar-Ajroud, Wafa; Caruso, Aurore; Mezghani, Maha; Bouallegue, Maryem; Tastard, Emmanuelle; Denis, Françoise; Rouault, Jacques-Deric; Makni, Hanem; Capy, Pierre; Chénais, Benoît; Makni, Mohamed; Casse, Nathalie

    2016-08-01

    Genomic variation among species is commonly driven by transposable element (TE) invasion; thus, the pattern of TEs in a genome allows drawing an evolutionary history of the studied species. This paper reports in vitro and in silico detection and characterization of irritans mariner-like elements (MLEs) in the genome and transcriptome of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Eleven irritans MLE sequences have been isolated in vitro using terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) as primers, and 215 have been extracted in silico from the sequenced genome of B. oleae. Additionally, the sequenced genomes of Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) have been explored to identify irritans MLEs. A total of 129 sequences from B. tryoni have been extracted, while the genome of B. cucurbitae appears probably devoid of irritans MLEs. All detected irritans MLEs are defective due to several mutations and are clustered together in a monophyletic group suggesting a common ancestor. The evolutionary history and dynamics of these TEs are discussed in relation with the phylogenetic distribution of their hosts. The knowledge on the structure, distribution, dynamic, and evolution of irritans MLEs in Bactrocera species contributes to the understanding of both their evolutionary history and the invasion history of their hosts. This could also be the basis for genetic control strategies using transposable elements.

  18. Impact of introduction of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) and classical biological control releases of Fopius arisanus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on economically important fruit flies in French Polynesia.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Roger I; Leblanc, Luc; Putoa, Rudolph; Eitam, Avi

    2007-06-01

    Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), was discovered on Tahiti Island in July 1996. Eradication programs were conducted from 1997 to 2001, but failed. From 1998 to 2006, B. dorsalis was recovered from 29 different host fruit from the five Society Islands: Tahiti, Moorea, Raiatea, Tahaa, and Huahine. Analysis of coinfestation patterns by B. dorsalis, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), and Bactrocera kirki (Froggatt) suggested B. dorsalis had displaced these two species and become the most abundant fruit fly in coastal areas. To suppress B. dorsalis populations, a classical biological control program was initiated to introduce the natural enemy Fopius arisanus (Sonan) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) into French Polynesia from Hawaii. Wasps were released and established on Tahiti, Moorea, Raiatea, Tahaa, and Huahine Islands. In guava, Psidium guajava L., collections for Tahiti, F. arisanus parasitism of fruit flies was 2.1, 31.8, 37.5, and 51.9% for fruit collected for 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006, respectively. Based on guava collections in 2002 (before releases) and 2006 (after releases), there was a subsequent decrease in numbers of B. dorsalis, B. tryoni, and B. kirki fruit flies emerging (per kilogram of fruit) by 75.6, 79.3, and 97.9%, respectively. These increases in F. arisanus parasitism and decreases in infestation were similar for other host fruit. Establishment of F. arisanus is the most successful example of classical biological control of fruit flies in the Pacific area outside of Hawaii and serves as a model for introduction into South America, Africa, and China where species of the B. dorsalis complex are established. PMID:17598524

  19. Double Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiwaki, Kenji; Shimizu, Yusuke; Tatsuta, Yoshiyuki

    2016-08-01

    We present a doubly parametric extension of the standard Froggatt-Nielsen (FN) mechanism. As is well known, mass matrices of the up- and down-type quark sectors and the charged lepton sector in the standard model can be parametrized well by a parameter λ which is usually taken to be the sine of the Cabibbo angle (λ=sinθ≃0.225). However, in the neutrino sector, there is still room to realize the two neutrino mass squared differences Δmsol2 and Δmatm2, two large mixing angles θ and θ, and non-zero θ. Then we consider an extension with an additional parameter ρ in addition to λ. Taking the relevant FN charges for a power of λ(=0.225) and additional FN charges for a power of ρ, which we assume to be less than one, we can reproduce the ratio of the two neutrino mass squared differences and three mixing angles. In the normal neutrino mass hierarchy, we show several patterns for taking relevant FN charges and the magnitude of ρ. We find that if sinθ is measured more precisely, we can distinguish each pattern. This is testable in the near future, for example in neutrino oscillation experiments. In addition, we predict the Dirac CP-violating phase for each pattern.

  20. Quark CP-phase and Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, Chuichiro; Matsuda, Masahisa; Matsunaga, Mamoru; Matsuoka, Takeo

    2016-08-01

    On the basis of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism, we study quark flavor mixings in the SU (6) × SU (2)R model. The characteristic structure of the CKM matrix is attributed to the hierarchical effective Yukawa couplings due to the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism and also to the state-mixings beyond the MSSM. We elucidate the detailed form of the CKM matrix elements and find interesting relations between the CP violating phase and three mixing angles. Taking the existing data of three mixing angles, we estimate the quark CP-phase at δ = (75 ± 3) °. This result is in accord with observations.

  1. The Complete Nucleotide Sequence of the Mitochondrial Genome of Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bin; Nardi, Francesco; Hull-Sanders, Helen; Wan, Xuanwu; Liu, Yinghong

    2014-01-01

    The complete 16,043 bp mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Tephritidae) has been sequenced. The genome encodes 37 genes usually found in insect mitogenomes. The mitogenome information for B. minax was compared to the homologous sequences of Bactrocera oleae, Bactrocera tryoni, Bactrocera philippinensis, Bactrocera carambolae, Bactrocera papayae, Bactrocera dorsalis, Bactrocera correcta, Bactrocera cucurbitae and Ceratitis capitata. The analysis indicated the structure and organization are typical of, and similar to, the nine closely related species mentioned above, although it contains the lowest genome-wide A+T content (67.3%). Four short intergenic spacers with a high degree of conservation among the nine tephritid species mentioned above and B. minax were observed, which also have clear counterparts in the control regions (CRs). Correlation analysis among these ten tephritid species revealed close positive correlation between the A+T content of zero-fold degenerate sites (P0FD), the ratio of nucleotide substitution frequency at P0FD sites to all degenerate sites (zero-fold degenerate sites, two-fold degenerate sites and four-fold degenerate sites) and amino acid sequence distance (ASD) were found. Further, significant positive correlation was observed between the A+T content of four-fold degenerate sites (P4FD) and the ratio of nucleotide substitution frequency at P4FD sites to all degenerate sites; however, we found significant negative correlation between ASD and the A+T content of P4FD, and the ratio of nucleotide substitution frequency at P4FD sites to all degenerate sites. A higher nucleotide substitution frequency at non-synonymous sites compared to synonymous sites was observed in nad4, the first time that has been observed in an insect mitogenome. A poly(T) stretch at the 5′ end of the CR followed by a [TA(A)]n-like stretch was also found. In addition, a highly conserved G+A-rich sequence block was observed in front of the

  2. Complete mitochondrial genome of Bactrocera arecae (Insecta: Tephritidae) by next-generation sequencing and molecular phylogeny of Dacini tribe

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Song, Sze-Looi; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Chan, Kok-Gan; Chow, Wan-Loo; Eamsobhana, Praphathip

    2015-01-01

    The whole mitochondrial genome of the pest fruit fly Bactrocera arecae was obtained from next-generation sequencing of genomic DNA. It had a total length of 15,900 bp, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a non-coding region (A + T-rich control region). The control region (952 bp) was flanked by rrnS and trnI genes. The start codons included 6 ATG, 3 ATT and 1 each of ATA, ATC, GTG and TCG. Eight TAA, two TAG, one incomplete TA and two incomplete T stop codons were represented in the protein-coding genes. The cloverleaf structure for trnS1 lacked the D-loop, and that of trnN and trnF lacked the TΨC-loop. Molecular phylogeny based on 13 protein-coding genes was concordant with 37 mitochondrial genes, with B. arecae having closest genetic affinity to B. tryoni. The subgenus Bactrocera of Dacini tribe and the Dacinae subfamily (Dacini and Ceratitidini tribes) were monophyletic. The whole mitogenome of B. arecae will serve as a useful dataset for studying the genetics, systematics and phylogenetic relationships of the many species of Bactrocera genus in particular, and tephritid fruit flies in general. PMID:26472633

  3. Froggatt-Nielsen models with a residual Z4R symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreiner, Herbi K.; Opferkuch, Toby; Luhn, Christoph

    2013-12-01

    The Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism provides an elegant explanation for the hierarchies of fermion masses and mixings in terms of a U(1) symmetry. Promoting such a family symmetry to an R symmetry, we explicitly construct supersymmetric Froggatt-Nielsen models which are gauged, family-dependent U(1)R completions of the Z4R symmetry proposed by Lee, Raby, Ratz, Ross, Schieren, Schmidt-Hoberg and Vaudrevange in 2010. Forbidden by Z4R, the μ term is generated around the supersymmetry breaking scale m3/2 from either the Kähler potential or the superpotential. Neutrinos acquire their mass via the type-I seesaw mechanism with three right-handed neutrino superfields. Taking into account the Green-Schwarz anomaly cancellation conditions, we arrive at a total of 3×34 distinct phenomenologically viable charge assignments for the standard model fields, most of which feature highly fractional charges.

  4. Mating compatibility between Bactrocera invadens and Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Bo, W; Ahmad, S; Dammalage, T; Tomas, U Sto; Wornoayporn, V; Ul Haq, I; Cáceres, C; Vreysen, M J B; Schutze, M K

    2014-04-01

    The invasive fruit fly, Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White, is a highly polyphagous fruit pest that occurs predominantly in Africa yet has its origins in the Indian subcontinent. It is extremely morphologically and genetically similar to the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel); as such the specific relationship between these two species is unresolved. We assessed prezygotic compatibility between B. dorsalis and B. invadens using standardized field cage mating tests, which have proven effectiveness in tephritid cryptic species studies. These tests were followed by an assessment of postzygotic compatibility by examining egg viability, larval and pupal survival, and sex ratios of offspring produced from parental and subsequent F1 crosses to examine for hybrid breakdown as predicted under a two-species hypothesis. B. dorsalis was sourced from two countries (Pakistan and China), and each population was compared with B. invadens from its type locality of Kenya. B. invadens mated randomly with B. dorsalis from both localities, and there were generally high levels of hybrid viability and survival resulting from parental and F1 crosses. Furthermore, all but one hybrid cross resulted in equal sex ratios, with the single deviation in favor of males and contrary to expectations under Haldane's rule. These data support the hypothesis that B. dorsalis and B. invadens represent the same biological species, an outcome that poses significant implications for pest management and international trade for sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24772542

  5. Towards a male-only release system for SIT with the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, using a genetic sexing strain with a temperature-sensitive lethal mutation.

    PubMed

    Meats, A; Maheswaran, P; Frommer, M; Sved, J

    2002-09-01

    Flies that are homozygous for the recessive autosomal mutation bent wings have a limited ability to fly and are less tolerant of high temperatures than normal flies in both the egg and puparial stages. The differences between the mutant and normal flies were found sufficient to be the basis of a genetic sexing strain. Genetic sexing strains were created using translocations of the autosome bearing the wild-type allele of bent wings (chromosome 2) to the Y chromosome, and crossing male flies carrying the translocation to mutant bent wings females. In the resulting strain, the females were homozygous for the bent wings mutation and the males were phenotypically normal for wing characters. Several translocations were recovered after irradiation, but only one translocation involving chromosome 2 was both stable and expressed in a stock that was vigorous enough for long-term viability. Unfortunately, all stocks containing the translocation showed high levels of temperature-dependent lethality, including, inexplicably, both males and females. Translocation stocks showing this effect included bent wings, another second chromosome mutation, white marks, and an otherwise normal stock. This phenomenon is probably rare, as it has not been reported before. It is likely that bent wings could be suitably used with another translocation. PMID:12484529

  6. Field evaluation of the bait toxicant chlorfluazuron in eliminating Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Peters, Brenton C; Fitzgerald, Christopher J

    2003-12-01

    Two aspects of the Exterra Termite Interception and Baiting System (Ensystex, Fayetteville, NC) were evaluated in a field experiment using 13 termite mounds near Townsville, Australia. First, a cellulose-acetate powder containing either 0.05% wt:wt or 0.25% wt:wt chlorfluazuron (Requiem, Ensystex, Fayetteville, NC) was tested for its efficacy in eliminating colonies of the xylophagous mound-building subterranean termite Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt). The moist bait matrix was replenished during the first inspection of 10 mounds (five mounds by two treatments) used in the experiment. Second, a single application of the moist bait matrix was used on three additional mounds to test termite responses and the effectiveness of 0.25% wt:wt chlorfluazuron. Although there was no evidence of repellence, there was little removal of replenished bait. Five colonies were eliminated by 0.05% wt:wt chlorfluazuron and five colonies by 0.25% wt:wt chlorfluazuron: another colony was moribund, and elimination appeared imminent. Colony decline was first suspected some 12 wk after bait application, and colony elimination was confirmed, by destructive sampling, about 5 wk later. Colony elimination may have occurred within 12 wk. One colony was an anomaly and did not succumb to the effects of the toxicant. Another colony was not eliminated because of invasion of the baiting system by ants. Ants, principally Iridomyrmex purpureus (F. Smith) group and Papyrius nitidus (Mayr) group, occurred commonly in the stations during the experiment. Microcerotermes sp. was found in five of the C. acinaciformis mounds, after colony elimination. Inspections of small sections of mounds and wooden dowels inserted into mounds were reliable methods for monitoring colony health. PMID:14977122

  7. Field evaluation of the bait toxicant chlorfluazuron in eliminating Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Peters, Brenton C; Fitzgerald, Christopher J

    2003-12-01

    Two aspects of the Exterra Termite Interception and Baiting System (Ensystex, Fayetteville, NC) were evaluated in a field experiment using 13 termite mounds near Townsville, Australia. First, a cellulose-acetate powder containing either 0.05% wt:wt or 0.25% wt:wt chlorfluazuron (Requiem, Ensystex, Fayetteville, NC) was tested for its efficacy in eliminating colonies of the xylophagous mound-building subterranean termite Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt). The moist bait matrix was replenished during the first inspection of 10 mounds (five mounds by two treatments) used in the experiment. Second, a single application of the moist bait matrix was used on three additional mounds to test termite responses and the effectiveness of 0.25% wt:wt chlorfluazuron. Although there was no evidence of repellence, there was little removal of replenished bait. Five colonies were eliminated by 0.05% wt:wt chlorfluazuron and five colonies by 0.25% wt:wt chlorfluazuron: another colony was moribund, and elimination appeared imminent. Colony decline was first suspected some 12 wk after bait application, and colony elimination was confirmed, by destructive sampling, about 5 wk later. Colony elimination may have occurred within 12 wk. One colony was an anomaly and did not succumb to the effects of the toxicant. Another colony was not eliminated because of invasion of the baiting system by ants. Ants, principally Iridomyrmex purpureus (F. Smith) group and Papyrius nitidus (Mayr) group, occurred commonly in the stations during the experiment. Microcerotermes sp. was found in five of the C. acinaciformis mounds, after colony elimination. Inspections of small sections of mounds and wooden dowels inserted into mounds were reliable methods for monitoring colony health.

  8. An evaluation of the species status of Bactrocera invadens and the Systematics of the Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) complex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Bactrocera (Tephritidae) contains over 500 species, including many severe pests of fruits and vegetables. While native to tropical and sub-tropical areas of Africa, India, Southeast Asia and Australasia, a number of the pest species, largely members of the Bactrocera dorsalis complex, have...

  9. Synonymization of key pest species within the Bactrocera dorsalis species complex (Diptera: Tephritidae): taxonomic changes based on a review of 20 years of integrative morphological, molecular, cytogenetic, behavioral, and c

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bactrocera papayae Drew & Hancock, Bactrocera philippinensis Drew & Hancock, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock, and Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White are four horticultural pest tephritid fruit fly species that are highly morphologically and genetically similar to the destructive pest, th...

  10. Nonhost status of mangosteen to Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Unahawutti, Udorn; Intarakumheng, Rachada; Oonthonglang, Pitawat; Phankum, Salukjit; Follett, Peter A

    2014-08-01

    Postharvest quarantine treatments (irradiation or vapor heat) are used to control fruit flies and other pests in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L) exported to the United States and Japan from Thailand. No-choice tests were conducted in the laboratory to determine whether Thai mangosteen is a host for Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (oriental fruit fly) and Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (carambola fruit fly). Ripe commercial quality fruit (1 wk after harvest) that were either undamaged or damaged by puncturing or peeling the pericarp were exposed to a high density of gravid flies in screen cages and then held for 10 d and dissected to inspect for immature life stages. Undamaged mangosteen fruit were not infested by B. dorsalis and B. carambolae. Partially damaged fruit with shallow punctures in the pericarp that did not extend to the aril also were not infested. Both fruit flies could infest damaged fruit if the pericarp damage allowed oviposition in the aril. Results suggest that natural infestation of mangosteen by B. dorsalis and B. carambolae can only occur if fruit exhibit physical cracks or mechanical injury. Resistance appears to be due to the pericarp hardness and thickness as well as latex secretion. Nonhost status could be used without additional quarantine measures to achieve quarantine security against B. dorsalis and B. carambolae in mangosteen exported from Thailand.

  11. Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Three Bactrocera Fruit Flies of Subgenus Bactrocera (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Their Phylogenetic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Song, Sze-Looi; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Suana, I. Wayan

    2016-01-01

    Bactrocera latifrons is a serious pest of solanaceous fruits and Bactrocera umbrosa is a pest of Artocarpus fruits, while Bactrocera melastomatos infests the fruit of Melastomataceae. They are members of the subgenus Bactrocera. We report here the complete mitochondrial genome of these fruit flies determined by next-generation sequencing and their phylogeny with other taxa of the subgenus Bactrocera. The whole mitogenomes of these three species possessed 37 genes namely, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA and 22 tRNA genes. The mitogenome of B. latifrons (15,977 bp) was longer than those of B. melastomatos (15,954 bp) and B. umbrosa (15,898 bp). This difference can be attributed to the size of the intergenic spacers (283 bp in B. latifrons, 261 bp in B. melastomatos, and 211 bp in B. umbrosa). Most of the PCGs in the three species have an identical start codon, except for atp8 (adenosine triphosphate synthase protein 8), which had an ATG instead of GTG in B. umbrosa, whilst the nad3 (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3) and nad6 (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6) genes were characterized by an ATC instead of ATT in B. melastomatos. The three species had identical stop codon for the respective PCGs. In B. latifrons and B. melastomatos, the TΨC (thymidine-pseudouridine-cytidine)-loop was absent in trnF (phenylalanine) and DHU (dihydrouracil)-loop was absent in trnS1 (serine S1). In B. umbrosa, trnN (asparagine), trnC (cysteine) and trnF lacked the TψC-loop, while trnS1 lacked the DHU-stem. Molecular phylogeny based on 13 PCGs was in general concordant with 15 mitochondrial genes (13 PCGs and 2 rRNA genes), with B. latifrons and B. umbrosa forming a sister group basal to the other species of the subgenus Bactrocera which was monophyletic. The whole mitogenomes will serve as a useful dataset for studying the genetics, systematics and phylogenetic relationships of the many species of Bactrocera genus in particular, and tephritid fruit flies in general. PMID:26840430

  12. Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Three Bactrocera Fruit Flies of Subgenus Bactrocera (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Their Phylogenetic Implications.

    PubMed

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Song, Sze-Looi; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Suana, I Wayan

    2016-01-01

    Bactrocera latifrons is a serious pest of solanaceous fruits and Bactrocera umbrosa is a pest of Artocarpus fruits, while Bactrocera melastomatos infests the fruit of Melastomataceae. They are members of the subgenus Bactrocera. We report here the complete mitochondrial genome of these fruit flies determined by next-generation sequencing and their phylogeny with other taxa of the subgenus Bactrocera. The whole mitogenomes of these three species possessed 37 genes namely, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA and 22 tRNA genes. The mitogenome of B. latifrons (15,977 bp) was longer than those of B. melastomatos (15,954 bp) and B. umbrosa (15,898 bp). This difference can be attributed to the size of the intergenic spacers (283 bp in B. latifrons, 261 bp in B. melastomatos, and 211 bp in B. umbrosa). Most of the PCGs in the three species have an identical start codon, except for atp8 (adenosine triphosphate synthase protein 8), which had an ATG instead of GTG in B. umbrosa, whilst the nad3 (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3) and nad6 (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6) genes were characterized by an ATC instead of ATT in B. melastomatos. The three species had identical stop codon for the respective PCGs. In B. latifrons and B. melastomatos, the TΨC (thymidine-pseudouridine-cytidine)-loop was absent in trnF (phenylalanine) and DHU (dihydrouracil)-loop was absent in trnS1 (serine S1). In B. umbrosa, trnN (asparagine), trnC (cysteine) and trnF lacked the TψC-loop, while trnS1 lacked the DHU-stem. Molecular phylogeny based on 13 PCGs was in general concordant with 15 mitochondrial genes (13 PCGs and 2 rRNA genes), with B. latifrons and B. umbrosa forming a sister group basal to the other species of the subgenus Bactrocera which was monophyletic. The whole mitogenomes will serve as a useful dataset for studying the genetics, systematics and phylogenetic relationships of the many species of Bactrocera genus in particular, and tephritid fruit flies in general. PMID:26840430

  13. Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Three Bactrocera Fruit Flies of Subgenus Bactrocera (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Their Phylogenetic Implications.

    PubMed

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Song, Sze-Looi; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Suana, I Wayan

    2016-01-01

    Bactrocera latifrons is a serious pest of solanaceous fruits and Bactrocera umbrosa is a pest of Artocarpus fruits, while Bactrocera melastomatos infests the fruit of Melastomataceae. They are members of the subgenus Bactrocera. We report here the complete mitochondrial genome of these fruit flies determined by next-generation sequencing and their phylogeny with other taxa of the subgenus Bactrocera. The whole mitogenomes of these three species possessed 37 genes namely, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA and 22 tRNA genes. The mitogenome of B. latifrons (15,977 bp) was longer than those of B. melastomatos (15,954 bp) and B. umbrosa (15,898 bp). This difference can be attributed to the size of the intergenic spacers (283 bp in B. latifrons, 261 bp in B. melastomatos, and 211 bp in B. umbrosa). Most of the PCGs in the three species have an identical start codon, except for atp8 (adenosine triphosphate synthase protein 8), which had an ATG instead of GTG in B. umbrosa, whilst the nad3 (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3) and nad6 (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6) genes were characterized by an ATC instead of ATT in B. melastomatos. The three species had identical stop codon for the respective PCGs. In B. latifrons and B. melastomatos, the TΨC (thymidine-pseudouridine-cytidine)-loop was absent in trnF (phenylalanine) and DHU (dihydrouracil)-loop was absent in trnS1 (serine S1). In B. umbrosa, trnN (asparagine), trnC (cysteine) and trnF lacked the TψC-loop, while trnS1 lacked the DHU-stem. Molecular phylogeny based on 13 PCGs was in general concordant with 15 mitochondrial genes (13 PCGs and 2 rRNA genes), with B. latifrons and B. umbrosa forming a sister group basal to the other species of the subgenus Bactrocera which was monophyletic. The whole mitogenomes will serve as a useful dataset for studying the genetics, systematics and phylogenetic relationships of the many species of Bactrocera genus in particular, and tephritid fruit flies in general.

  14. Detection/monitoring of Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae): assessing the potential of prospective new lures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bactrocera latifrons is a tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) which has a host list of 59 plant species from 14 plant families, with over 70% of the host plant species coming from the plant families Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae. Bactrocera latifrons is of primarily Asian distribution, but it...

  15. Assessment of Navel Oranges, Clementine Tangerines, and Rutaceous Fruits as Hosts of Bactrocera cucurbitae and Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    McQuate, Grant T; Follett, Peter A; Liquido, Nicanor J; Sylva, Charmaine D

    2015-01-01

    Export of Citrus spp. fruits may require risk mitigation measures if grown in areas with established tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations capable of infesting the fruits. The host status of Citrus spp. fruits is unclear for two tephritid fruit fly species whose geographic ranges have expanded in recent years: melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Cocquillett), and Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel). In no choice cage infestation studies, B. latifrons oviposited into intact and punctured Washington navel oranges (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck) and Clementine tangerines (C. reticulata L. var. Clementine), but eggs rarely developed to the adult stage. B. cucurbitae readily infested intact and punctured tangerines, and to a lesser extent punctured oranges, but did not infest intact oranges. Limited cage infestation and only a single literature report of field Citrus spp. infestation suggest that risk mitigation of Citrus spp. for B. latifrons is not needed. Risk mitigation options of Citrus spp. for B. cucurbitae, including heat and cold treatments and systems approaches, are discussed.

  16. Competitive Interactions between Immature Stages of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) and Bactrocera tau (Walker) (Diptera: Tephritidae) under Laboratory Conditions.

    PubMed

    Shen, K; Hu, J; Wu, B; An, K; Zhang, J; Liu, J; Zhang, R

    2014-08-01

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), and the pumpkin fly, Bactrocera tau (Walker), are economically important pests that attack mainly cucurbitacean fruits. The two fruit fly species have similar natural distributions, host ranges, and population growth capacities. This study was designed to assess the asymmetrical competitions through resource exploitation between the larvae of B. cucurbitae and B. tau at different density levels and temperatures, and on different hosts by comparing the relative effects of interspecific and intraspecific interactions on four life history parameters: survival rate, puparial mass, puparial duration, and developmental duration. Our results showed that intraspecific and interspecific competitions occurred under some laboratory conditions, and B. cucurbitae took advantage over B. tau at the high-density level and at low and high temperatures on pumpkin, bitter gourd, and bottle gourd when interspecific competition took place. Intraspecific and interspecific competitions mainly affected the puparial mass and the survival rate of the two fruit fly species but had no marked effect on the puparial duration or development duration. PMID:27193811

  17. Assessment of Navel Oranges, Clementine Tangerines, and Rutaceous Fruits as Hosts of Bactrocera cucurbitae and Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    McQuate, Grant T.; Follett, Peter A.; Liquido, Nicanor J.; Sylva, Charmaine D.

    2015-01-01

    Export of Citrus spp. fruits may require risk mitigation measures if grown in areas with established tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations capable of infesting the fruits. The host status of Citrus spp. fruits is unclear for two tephritid fruit fly species whose geographic ranges have expanded in recent years: melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Cocquillett), and Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel). In no choice cage infestation studies, B. latifrons oviposited into intact and punctured Washington navel oranges (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck) and Clementine tangerines (C. reticulata L. var. Clementine), but eggs rarely developed to the adult stage. B. cucurbitae readily infested intact and punctured tangerines, and to a lesser extent punctured oranges, but did not infest intact oranges. Limited cage infestation and only a single literature report of field Citrus spp. infestation suggest that risk mitigation of Citrus spp. for B. latifrons is not needed. Risk mitigation options of Citrus spp. for B. cucurbitae, including heat and cold treatments and systems approaches, are discussed. PMID:26816484

  18. Assessment of Navel Oranges, Clementine Tangerines, and Rutaceous Fruits as Hosts of Bactrocera cucurbitae and Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    McQuate, Grant T; Follett, Peter A; Liquido, Nicanor J; Sylva, Charmaine D

    2015-01-01

    Export of Citrus spp. fruits may require risk mitigation measures if grown in areas with established tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations capable of infesting the fruits. The host status of Citrus spp. fruits is unclear for two tephritid fruit fly species whose geographic ranges have expanded in recent years: melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Cocquillett), and Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel). In no choice cage infestation studies, B. latifrons oviposited into intact and punctured Washington navel oranges (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck) and Clementine tangerines (C. reticulata L. var. Clementine), but eggs rarely developed to the adult stage. B. cucurbitae readily infested intact and punctured tangerines, and to a lesser extent punctured oranges, but did not infest intact oranges. Limited cage infestation and only a single literature report of field Citrus spp. infestation suggest that risk mitigation of Citrus spp. for B. latifrons is not needed. Risk mitigation options of Citrus spp. for B. cucurbitae, including heat and cold treatments and systems approaches, are discussed. PMID:26816484

  19. Response of Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) to metabolic stress disinfection and disinfestation treatment.

    PubMed

    Arévalo-Galarza, Lourdes; Follett, Peter A

    2011-02-01

    Metabolic stress disinfection and disinfestation (MSDD) is a postharvest treatment designed to control pathogens and arthropod pests on commodities that combines short cycles of low pressure/vacuum and high CO2 with ethanol vapor. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of MSDD treatment on various life stages of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Mediterranean fruit fly; Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, oriental fruit fly; and Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, melon fly, in petri dishes and in papaya, Carica papaya L., fruit. In some experiments, the ethanol vapor phase was withheld to separate the effects of the physical (low pressure/ambient pressure cycles) and chemical (ethanol vapor plus low pressure) phases of treatment. In the experiments with tephritid fruit fly larvae and adults in petri dishes, mortality was generally high when insects were exposed to ethanol and low when ethanol was withheld during MSDD treatment, suggesting that ethanol vapor is highly lethal but that fruit flies are quite tolerant of short periods of low pressure treatment alone. When papaya fruit infested with fruit fly eggs or larvae were treated by MSDD, they produced fewer pupae than untreated control fruit, but a substantial number of individuals developed nonetheless. This suggests that internally feeding insects in fruit may be partially protected from the toxic effects of the ethanol because the vapor does not easily penetrate the fruit pericarp and pulp. MSDD treatment using the atmospheric conditions tested has limited potential as a disinfestation treatment for internal-feeding quarantine pests such as fruit flies infesting perishable commodities.

  20. Comparative sensitivity to methyl eugenol of four putative Bactrocera dorsalis complex sibling species – further evidence that they belong to one and the same species B. dorsalis

    PubMed Central

    Hee, Alvin K.W.; Ooi, Yue-Shin; Wee, Suk-Ling; Tan, Keng-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Males of certain species belonging to the Bactrocera dorsalis complex are strongly attracted to, and readily feed on methyl eugenol (ME), a plant secondary compound that is found in over 480 plant species worldwide. Amongst those species is one of the world’s most severe fruit pests the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., and the former taxonomic species Bactrocera invadens, Bactrocera papayae and Bactrocera philippinensis. The latter species have been recently synonymised with Bactrocera dorsalis based on their very similar morphology, mating compatibility, molecular genetics and identical sex pheromones following consumption of ME. Previous studies have shown that male fruit fly responsiveness to lures is a unique phenomenon that is dose species-specific, besides showing a close correlation to sexual maturity attainment. This led us to use ME sensitivity as a behavioural parameter to test if Bactrocera dorsalis and the three former taxonomic species had similar sensitivity towards odours of ME. Using Probit analysis, we estimated the median dose of ME required to elicit species’ positive response in 50% of each population tested (ED50). ED50 values were compared between Bactrocera dorsalis and the former species. Our results showed no significant differences between Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., and the former Bactrocera invadens, Bactrocera papayae and Bactrocera philippinensis in their response to ME. We consider that the Bactrocera males’ sensitivity to ME may be a useful behavioural parameter for species delimitation and, in addition to other integrative taxonomic tools used, provides further supportive evidence that the four taxa belong to one and the same biological species, Bactrocera dorsalis. PMID:26798265

  1. Host susceptibility of citrus cultivars to Queensland fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Lloyd, A C; Hamacek, E L; Smith, D; Kopittke, R A; Gu, H

    2013-04-01

    Citrus crops are considered to be relatively poor hosts for Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), as for other tephritid species. Australian citrus growers and crop consultants have reported observable differences in susceptibility of different citrus cultivars under commercial growing conditions. In this study we conducted laboratory tests and field surveys to determine susceptibility to B. tryoni of six citrus cultivars [(Eureka lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck); Navel and Valencia oranges (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck); and Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco). The host susceptibility of these citrus cultivars was quantified by a Host Susceptibility Index, which is defined as the number of adult flies produced per gram of fruit infested at a calculated rate of one egg per gram of fruit. The HSI was ranked as Murcott (0.083) > Imperial (0.052) > Navel (0.026) - Ellendale (0.020) > Valencia (0.008) > Eureka (yellow) (0.002) > Eureka (green) (0). Results of the laboratory study were in agreement with the level of field infestation in the four citrus cultivars (Eureka lemon, Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins) that were surveyed from commercial orchards under baiting treatments against fruit flies in the Central Burnett district of Queensland. Field surveys of citrus hosts from the habitats not subject to fruit fly management showed that the numbers of fruit flies produced per gram of fruit were much lower, compared with the more susceptible noncitrus hosts, such as guava (Psidium guajava L.), cherry guava (P. littorale Raddi), mulberry (Morus nigra L.), loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.), and pear (Pyrus communis L.). Therefore, the major citrus crops commercially cultivated in Australia have a relatively low susceptibility to B. tryoni, with Eureka lemons being a particularly poor host for this tephritid fruit fly. PMID:23786078

  2. Host susceptibility of citrus cultivars to Queensland fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Lloyd, A C; Hamacek, E L; Smith, D; Kopittke, R A; Gu, H

    2013-04-01

    Citrus crops are considered to be relatively poor hosts for Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), as for other tephritid species. Australian citrus growers and crop consultants have reported observable differences in susceptibility of different citrus cultivars under commercial growing conditions. In this study we conducted laboratory tests and field surveys to determine susceptibility to B. tryoni of six citrus cultivars [(Eureka lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck); Navel and Valencia oranges (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck); and Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco). The host susceptibility of these citrus cultivars was quantified by a Host Susceptibility Index, which is defined as the number of adult flies produced per gram of fruit infested at a calculated rate of one egg per gram of fruit. The HSI was ranked as Murcott (0.083) > Imperial (0.052) > Navel (0.026) - Ellendale (0.020) > Valencia (0.008) > Eureka (yellow) (0.002) > Eureka (green) (0). Results of the laboratory study were in agreement with the level of field infestation in the four citrus cultivars (Eureka lemon, Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins) that were surveyed from commercial orchards under baiting treatments against fruit flies in the Central Burnett district of Queensland. Field surveys of citrus hosts from the habitats not subject to fruit fly management showed that the numbers of fruit flies produced per gram of fruit were much lower, compared with the more susceptible noncitrus hosts, such as guava (Psidium guajava L.), cherry guava (P. littorale Raddi), mulberry (Morus nigra L.), loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.), and pear (Pyrus communis L.). Therefore, the major citrus crops commercially cultivated in Australia have a relatively low susceptibility to B. tryoni, with Eureka lemons being a particularly poor host for this tephritid fruit fly.

  3. Dispersion of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) at high and low densities and consequences of mismatching dispersions of wild and sterile flies

    SciTech Connect

    Meats, A.

    2007-03-15

    Both wild and released (sterile) Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and wild Bactrocera papayae (Drew and Hancock) in Australia had patchy distributions and comparisons with predictions of the negative binomial model indicated that the degree of clumping was sometimes very high, particularly at low densities during eradication. An increase of mean recapture rate of sterile B. tryoni on either of 2 trap arrays was not accompanied by a reduction in its coefficient of variation and when recapture rates were high, the percentage of traps catching zero decreased only slightly with increase in recapture rate, indicating that it is not practicable to decrease the heterogeneity of dispersion of sterile flies by increasing the number released. There was often a mismatch between the dispersion patterns of the wild and sterile flies, and the implications of this for the efficiency of the sterile insect technique (SIT) were investigated with a simulation study with the observed degrees of mismatch obtained from the monitoring data and assuming the overall ratio of sterile to wild flies to be 100:1. The simulation indicated that mismatches could result in the imposed rate of increase of wild flies being up to 3.5 times higher than that intended (i.e., 0.35 instead of 0.1). The effect of a mismatch always reduces the efficiency of SIT. The reason for this asymmetry is discussed and a comparison made with host-parasitoid and other systems. A release strategy to counter this effect is suggested. (author) [Spanish] Las moscas naturales y liberadas (esteriles) de Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae) y Bactrocera papayae (Drew and Hancock) en Australia tuvieron distribuciones en parches y sus compariciones con las predicciones de un modelo binomial negativo indicaron un nivel de agregacion a veces fue muy alto, particularmente en las densidades bajas durante de eradicacion. Un aumento en el promedio de la tasa de B. tryoni esteriles recapturadas en las

  4. Historical perspective on the synonymization of the four major pest species belonging to the Bactrocera dorsalis species complex (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Hee, Alvin K.W.; Wee, Suk-Ling; Nishida, Ritsuo; Ono, Hajime; Hendrichs, Jorge; Haymer, David S.; Tan, Keng-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An FAO/IAEA-sponsored coordinated research project on integrative taxonomy, involving close to 50 researchers from at least 20 countries, culminated in a significant breakthrough in the recognition that four major pest species, Bactrocera dorsalis, Bactrocera philippinensis, Bactrocera papayae and Bactrocera invadens, belong to the same biological species, Bactrocera dorsalis. The successful conclusion of this initiative is expected to significantly facilitate global agricultural trade, primarily through the lifting of quarantine restrictions that have long affected many countries, especially those in regions such as Asia and Africa that have large potential for fresh fruit and vegetable commodity exports. This work stems from two taxonomic studies: a revision in 1994 that significantly increased the number of described species in the Bactrocera dorsalis species complex; and the description in 2005 of Bactrocera invadens, then newly incursive in Africa. While taxonomically valid species, many biologists considered that these were different names for one biological species. Many disagreements confounded attempts to develop a solution for resolving this taxonomic issue, before the FAO/IAEA project commenced. Crucial to understanding the success of that initiative is an accounting of the historical events and perspectives leading up to the international, multidisciplinary collaborative efforts that successfully achieved the final synonymization. This review highlights the 21 year journey taken to achieve this outcome. PMID:26798266

  5. Assessment of Attractiveness of Plants as Roosting Sites for the Melon Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, and Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis

    PubMed Central

    McQuate, Grant T.; Vargas, Roger I.

    2007-01-01

    The use of toxic protein bait sprays to suppress melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), populations typically involves application to vegetation bordering agricultural host areas where the adults seek shelter (“roost”). Although bait spray applications for suppression of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), populations have traditionally been applied to the host crop, rather than to crop borders, roosting by oriental fruit flies in borders of some crop species, such as papaya, Carica papaya L. (Brassicales: Caricaceae), suggests that bait spray applications to crop borders could also help in suppression of B. dorsalis populations. In order to develop improved recommendations for application of bait sprays to border plants for suppression of melon fly and oriental fruit fly populations, the relative attractiveness of a range of plant species, in a vegetative (non-flowering) stage, was tested to wild melon fly and oriental fruit fly populations established in a papaya orchard in Hawaii. A total of 20 plant species were evaluated, divided into four categories: 1) border plants, including corn, Zea mays L. (Poales: Poaceae), windbreaks and broad-leaved ornamentals, 7 species; 2) weed plants commonly found in agricultural fields in Hawaii, 6 species; 3) host crop plants, 1 species- zucchini, Cucurbita pepo L. (Violales: Curcurbitaceae), and 4) locally grown fruit trees, 6 species. Plants were established in pots and placed in an open field, in clusters encircling protein bait traps, 20 m away from the papaya orchard. Castor bean, Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiales: Euphorbiaceae), panax, Polyscias guilfoylei (Bull) Bailey (Apiales: Araliaceae), tiger's claw, Erythnna variegata L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and guava, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) were identified as preferred roosting hosts for the melon fly, and tiger's claw, panax, castor bean, Canada cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium L. (Asterales: Asteraceae

  6. Assessment of Sauromatum guttatum lectin toxicity against Bactrocera cucurbitae.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Manpreet; Thakur, Kshema; Kamboj, Sukhdev Singh; Kaur, Satwinder; Kaur, Amritpal; Singh, Jatinder

    2015-11-01

    Lectins are proteins that bind specifically to foreign glycans. Due to this binding property, these molecules have potential application as bioinsecticidal tools replacing conventional chemical insecticides. The present study involved purification of phytolectin from the tubers of Sauromatum guttatum by affinity chromatography on asialofetuin-linked silica matrix. The purity of the sample was checked by SDS-PAGE at pH 8.3. Purified lectin was incorporated in the artificial diet of a Dipteran model, Bactrocera cucurbitae at different concentrations (10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 µgml(-1)). The lectin significantly affected various developmental parameters that were studied. Percentage pupation and percentage emergence was reduced to 44 % and 7.9%, respectively, at 80 µgml(-1) concentration as compared to control (100%). LC50 of Sauromatum guttatum lectin was calculated to be 19.42 µgml(-1). Treatment of insect larvae with LC50 of Sauromatum guttatum lectin suppressed the activity of hydrolytic enzymes (esterases and acid phosphatases) and oxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase). Thus, with low LC50 and high mortality (approximately 92% at 80 µgml(-1)) of the insect larvae, Sauromatum guttatum lectin offers a possibility to engineer crop plants for improved and safer agriculture. PMID:26688959

  7. Classical Olfactory Conditioning in the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xin Nian

    2015-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a serious pest of fruits and vegetables. Methyl eugenol (ME), a male attractant, is used to against this fly by mass trapping. Control effect may be influenced by learning, which could modify the olfactory response of the fly to this attractant. To collect the behavioral evidence, studies on the capability of this fly for olfactory learning are necessary. We investigated olfactory learning in male flies with a classical olfactory conditioning procedure using restrained individuals under laboratory conditions. The acquisition of the proboscis extension reflex was used as the criterion for conditioning. A high conditioned response level was found in oriental fruit flies when an odor was presented in paired association with a sucrose reward but not when the odor and sucrose were presented unpaired. We also found that the conditioning performance was influenced by the odor concentration, intertrial interval, and starvation time. A slight sensitization elicited by imbibing sucrose was observed. These results indicate that oriental fruit flies have a high capacity to form an olfactory memory as a result of classical conditioning. PMID:25837420

  8. Niche Overlap of Congeneric Invaders Supports a Single-Species Hypothesis and Provides Insight into Future Invasion Risk: Implications for Global Management of the Bactrocera dorsalis Complex

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Matthew P.; Terblanche, John S.

    2014-01-01

    Background The invasive fruit fly, Bactrocera invadens, has expanded its range rapidly over the past 10 years. Here we aimed to determine if the recent range expansion of Bactrocera invadens into southern Africa can be better understood through niche exploration tools, ecological niche models (ENMs), and through incorporating information about Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., a putative conspecific species from Asia. We test for niche overlap of environmental variables between Bactrocera invadens and Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. as well as two other putative conspecific species, Bactrocera philippinensis and B. papayae. We examine overlap and similarity in the geographical expression of each species’ realised niche through reciprocal distribution models between Africa and Asia. We explore different geographical backgrounds, environmental variables and model complexity with multiple and single Bactrocera species hypotheses in an attempt to predict the recent range expansion of B. invadens into northern parts of South Africa. Principal Findings Bactrocera invadens has a high degree of niche overlap with B. dorsalis s.s. (and B. philippinensis and B. papayae). Ecological niche models built for Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. have high transferability to describe the range of B. invadens, and B. invadens is able to project to the core range of B. dorsalis s.s. The ENMs of both Bactrocera dorsalis and B. dorsalis combined with B. philipenesis and B. papayae have significantly higher predictive ability to capture the distribution points in South Africa than for B. invadens alone. Conclusions/Significance Consistent with other studies proposing these Bactrocera species as conspecific, niche similarity and overlap between these species is high. Considering these other Bactrocera dorsalis complex species simultaneously better describes the range expansion and invasion potential of B. invadens in South Africa. We suggest that these species should be considered the same–at least

  9. Identification of a carboxylesterase associated with resistance to naled in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Compared to other organophosphate-resistant and -susceptible (S) lines of Bactrocera dorsalis, the carboxylesterase (CBE) BdE5 in the naled-resistant(nal-r) line has been found to possess remarkable quantitative elevation. Our study attempts to identify the role of BdE5 in naled resistance, and we d...

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of the Bactrocera oleae Symbiont "Candidatus Erwinia dacicola".

    PubMed

    Blow, Frances; Gioti, Anastasia; Starns, David; Ben-Yosef, Michael; Pasternak, Zohar; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Vontas, John; Darby, Alistair C

    2016-01-01

    "Candidatus Erwinia dacicola" is a Gammaproteobacterium that forms a symbiotic association with the agricultural pest Bactrocera oleae Here, we present a 2.1-Mb draft hybrid genome assembly for "Ca. Erwinia dacicola" generated from single-cell and metagenomic data. PMID:27634990

  11. Annotated world bibliography of host fruits of Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) infests many solanaceous plant species, some of which are important horticultural crop species. It has also been found to infest a number of cucurbitaceous plant species as well as a few plant species in other plant families. B. latifrons is of ...

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia SBo1 Isolated from Bactrocera oleae.

    PubMed

    Blow, Frances; Vontas, John; Darby, Alistair C

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Stenotrophomonas are ubiquitous in the environment and are increasingly associated with insects. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia SBo1 was cultured from the gut of Bactrocera oleae The draft genome sequence presented here will inform future investigations into the nature of the interaction between insects and their microbiota. PMID:27660769

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of the Bactrocera oleae Symbiont “Candidatus Erwinia dacicola”

    PubMed Central

    Blow, Frances; Gioti, Anastasia; Starns, David; Ben-Yosef, Michael; Pasternak, Zohar; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Vontas, John

    2016-01-01

    “Candidatus Erwinia dacicola” is a Gammaproteobacterium that forms a symbiotic association with the agricultural pest Bactrocera oleae. Here, we present a 2.1-Mb draft hybrid genome assembly for “Ca. Erwinia dacicola” generated from single-cell and metagenomic data. PMID:27634990

  14. Methoprene application and diet protein supplementation to male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, modifies female remating behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methoprene (an analogue of juvenile hormone) application and feeding on a protein diet is known to enhance male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), mating success. In the present study we investigated the effect of these treatments on male B. cucurbitae’s ability to i...

  15. Populations of Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Its Parasitoids in Himalayan Asia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For a biological control program against olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae Rossi, olives were collected in the Himalayan foothills (China, Nepal, India, and Pakistan) to discover new natural enemies. Wild olives, Olea europaea ssp. cuspidata (Wall ex. G. Don), were sparsely distributed and fly-infes...

  16. Artificial rearing of the peach fruit fly Bactrocera zonata (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integration of the sterile insect technique (SIT) into the area-wide management of the peach fruit fly Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) is a promising althernative to the localized use of chemical control tactics. Implementation of the SIT requires adequate numbers of sterile male insects that are produ...

  17. A liquid larval diet for rearing Bactrocera invadens and Ceratitis fasciventris (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White and Ceratitis fasciventris (Bezzi) are the major fruit fly pests of fruits and vegetables in Africa. The effects of two types of larval diet, liquid and solid (carrot based), on various quality control parameters (pupal recovery, pupal weight, adult emergenc...

  18. Phytosanitary cold treatment for oranges infested with Bactrocera zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders), attacks a wide range of tree fruits in countries from Egypt to Vietnam and is occasionally trapped in the US. Phytosanitary treatments are required to export fruit hosts of this insect from infested countries to non-infested countries where it might...

  19. Populations of Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Its Parasitoids in Himalayan Asia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For a biological control program against olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae Rossi, olives were collected in the Himalayan foothills (China, Nepal, India, and Pakistan) to discover new natural enemies. Wild olives, Olea europaea ssp. cuspidata (Wall ex. G. Don), were sparsely distributed and fly-infe...

  20. Laboratory evaluation of the chemosterilant lufenuron against Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, B. cucurbitae, and B. latifrons.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four species of tephritid fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, B. cucurbitae, and B. latifrons were evaluated for toxic, developmental, and physiological responses to the chemosterilant lufenuorn incorporated in an agar adult diet and a liquid larval diet. No significant mortality o...

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia SBo1 Isolated from Bactrocera oleae

    PubMed Central

    Blow, Frances; Vontas, John

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Stenotrophomonas are ubiquitous in the environment and are increasingly associated with insects. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia SBo1 was cultured from the gut of Bactrocera oleae. The draft genome sequence presented here will inform future investigations into the nature of the interaction between insects and their microbiota. PMID:27660769

  2. Methoprene modulates the effect of diet on male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitate, performance at mating aggregations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of dietary protein (P) and the topical application of juvenile hormone analogue (methoprene (M)) on mating behaviour of male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, was assessed in the laboratory and in field cages. Age, dietary protein and methoprene application improved the sexual success and...

  3. Inter-regional mating compatibility among Bactrocera dorsalis populations in Thailand (Diptera,Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Chinvinijkul, Suksom; Srikachar, Sunyanee; Kumjing, Phatchara; Weera Kimjong; Sukamnouyporn, Weerawan; Polchaimat, Nongon

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mating compatibility among recently colonized (wildish) populations of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) from different geographic origins in Thailand was assessed through inter-regional mating tests. Outdoor octagonal nylon screen field cages containing single potted mango trees (Mangifera indica L.) were used. Sexual compatibility was determined using the index of sexual isolation (ISI), the male relative performance index (MRPI), and the female relative performance index (FRPI). The ISI values indicated that the northern population of Bactrocera dorsalis from Chiang Mai province was sexually compatible with the southern population of Bactrocera dorsalis (previously Bactrocera papayae) from Nakhon Si Thammarat province. The MRPI values showed that the northern males had a slightly higher tendency to mate than southern males, while the FRPI data reflected that females of both origins participated equally in matings. In all combinations there were no differences between homotypic and heterotypic couples in mating latency. Southern males tended to mate first with southern females, followed by northern males mating with northern females, while the latest matings involved heterotypic couples, in particular northern males mating with southern females. Overall, more couples were collected from higher parts of the field cage and the upper tree canopy, while there were no differences between the origins of flies in terms of elevation of couples within the cage. Laboratory assessments of fecundity showed no differences in the average number of eggs resulting from inter-regional crosses. Development of immature stages was also equal in the two hybrid crosses, with no differences found in the number of pupae produced, percentage pupal recovery, and percent adult emergence. The practical implication of this study is that colony of Bactrocera dorsalis derived from any northern or southern region of Thailand can potentially be used in sterile insect technique programs

  4. Description of a new species and new country distribution records of Bactrocera (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) from Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Luc; San Jose, Michael; Rubinoff, Daniel

    2015-09-04

    Bactrocera (Bactrocera) kohkongiae Leblanc (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae), from the Koh Kong Province of Cambodia, is described as new. This species belongs to the Oriental fruit fly (B. dorsalis) complex. Genetic sequences (mitochondrial COI and nuclear EF1α and Period) are deposited in GenBank. A haplotype network, based on the COI sequences for 21 specimens, shows high genetic diversity. New country records from Cambodia are included for 22 species.

  5. 7 CFR 305.31 - Irradiation treatment of imported regulated articles for certain plant pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Drug Administration under 21 CFR part 179. (2) Be constructed so as to provide physically separate... fruit fly 100 Bactrocera tryoni Queensland fruit fly 100 Brevipalpus chilensis False red spider mite...

  6. Regional suppression of Bactrocera fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) in the Pacific through biological control and prospects for future introductions into other areas of the world

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bactrocera fruit fly species are important economically throughout the Pacific. The USDA, ARS, U.S Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center has been a world wide leader in promoting biological control of Bactrocera spp that includes classical, augmentative, conservation and IPM approaches. In Hawa...

  7. Development of phytosanitary cold treatments for oranges infested with Bactrocera invadens and B. zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae) by comparison...existing cold treatment schedules for Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytosanitary cold treatments are attempted for Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta, and White and Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) by comparison with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Oranges were infested by puncturing holes in the peel and allowing tephritids to oviposit in the holes. The treatments were...

  8. Molecular Phylogeny and Identification of the Peach Fruit Fly, Bactrocera zonata, Established in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Abd-El-Samie, Emtithal M.; El Fiky, Zaki A.

    2011-01-01

    The genetic structure of the Egyptian peach fruit fly (Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) (Diptera: Tephritidae)) population was analyzed using total RNA from adult females. A portion of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI), 369 bp was amplified using RT-PCR, and was sequenced and analyzed to clarify the phylogenetic relationship of B. zonata established in Egypt. The data suggested that the gene shared a similarity in sequence compared to Bactrocera COI gene found in GenBank. Molecular phylogenetic analyses were performed based on nucleotide sequences in order to examine the position of the Egyptian population among many other species of fruit flies. The results indicate that four accession numbers of B. zonata (three from New Zealand and one from India) are closely related, while the Egyptian B. zonata are close to the 71 accession numbers of Bactrocera include one B. zonata from New Zealand. These two B. zonata from Egypt and New Zealand showed a close relationship in neighbor—joining analysis using the seven accession numbers of B. zonata. In addition, a theoretical restriction map of the homology portion of the COI gene was constructed using 212 restriction enzymes obtained from the restriction enzyme database to identify the Egyptian and New Zealand B. zonata. PMID:22958094

  9. Gene flow and genetic structure of Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera, Tephritidae) among geographical differences and sister species, B. dorsalis, inferred from microsatellite DNA data.

    PubMed

    Aketarawong, Nidchaya; Isasawin, Siriwan; Sojikul, Punchapat; Thanaphum, Sujinda

    2015-01-01

    The Carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae, is an invasive pest in Southeast Asia. It has been introduced into areas in South America such as Suriname and Brazil. Bactrocera carambolae belongs to the Bactrocera dorsalis species complex, and seems to be separated from Bactrocera dorsalis based on morphological and multilocus phylogenetic studies. Even though the Carambola fruit fly is an important quarantine species and has an impact on international trade, knowledge of the molecular ecology of Bactrocera carambolae, concerning species status and pest management aspects, is lacking. Seven populations sampled from the known geographical areas of Bactrocera carambolae including Southeast Asia (i.e., Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand) and South America (i.e., Suriname), were genotyped using eight microsatellite DNA markers. Genetic variation, genetic structure, and genetic network among populations illustrated that the Suriname samples were genetically differentiated from Southeast Asian populations. The genetic network revealed that samples from West Sumatra (Pekanbaru, PK) and Java (Jakarta, JK) were presumably the source populations of Bactrocera carambolae in Suriname, which was congruent with human migration records between the two continents. Additionally, three populations of Bactrocera dorsalis were included to better understand the species boundary. The genetic structure between the two species was significantly separated and approximately 11% of total individuals were detected as admixed (0.100 ≤ Q ≤ 0.900). The genetic network showed connections between Bactrocera carambolae and Bactrocera dorsalis groups throughout Depok (DP), JK, and Nakhon Sri Thammarat (NT) populations. These data supported the hypothesis that the reproductive isolation between the two species may be leaky. Although the morphology and monophyly of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences in previous studies showed discrete entities, the hypothesis of semipermeable boundaries may not

  10. Gene flow and genetic structure of Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera, Tephritidae) among geographical differences and sister species, B. dorsalis, inferred from microsatellite DNA data

    PubMed Central

    Aketarawong, Nidchaya; Isasawin, Siriwan; Sojikul, Punchapat; Thanaphum, Sujinda

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae, is an invasive pest in Southeast Asia. It has been introduced into areas in South America such as Suriname and Brazil. Bactrocera carambolae belongs to the Bactrocera dorsalis species complex, and seems to be separated from Bactrocera dorsalis based on morphological and multilocus phylogenetic studies. Even though the Carambola fruit fly is an important quarantine species and has an impact on international trade, knowledge of the molecular ecology of Bactrocera carambolae, concerning species status and pest management aspects, is lacking. Seven populations sampled from the known geographical areas of Bactrocera carambolae including Southeast Asia (i.e., Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand) and South America (i.e., Suriname), were genotyped using eight microsatellite DNA markers. Genetic variation, genetic structure, and genetic network among populations illustrated that the Suriname samples were genetically differentiated from Southeast Asian populations. The genetic network revealed that samples from West Sumatra (Pekanbaru, PK) and Java (Jakarta, JK) were presumably the source populations of Bactrocera carambolae in Suriname, which was congruent with human migration records between the two continents. Additionally, three populations of Bactrocera dorsalis were included to better understand the species boundary. The genetic structure between the two species was significantly separated and approximately 11% of total individuals were detected as admixed (0.100 ≤ Q ≤ 0.900). The genetic network showed connections between Bactrocera carambolae and Bactrocera dorsalis groups throughout Depok (DP), JK, and Nakhon Sri Thammarat (NT) populations. These data supported the hypothesis that the reproductive isolation between the two species may be leaky. Although the morphology and monophyly of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences in previous studies showed discrete entities, the hypothesis of semipermeable boundaries

  11. Gene flow and genetic structure of Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera, Tephritidae) among geographical differences and sister species, B. dorsalis, inferred from microsatellite DNA data.

    PubMed

    Aketarawong, Nidchaya; Isasawin, Siriwan; Sojikul, Punchapat; Thanaphum, Sujinda

    2015-01-01

    The Carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae, is an invasive pest in Southeast Asia. It has been introduced into areas in South America such as Suriname and Brazil. Bactrocera carambolae belongs to the Bactrocera dorsalis species complex, and seems to be separated from Bactrocera dorsalis based on morphological and multilocus phylogenetic studies. Even though the Carambola fruit fly is an important quarantine species and has an impact on international trade, knowledge of the molecular ecology of Bactrocera carambolae, concerning species status and pest management aspects, is lacking. Seven populations sampled from the known geographical areas of Bactrocera carambolae including Southeast Asia (i.e., Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand) and South America (i.e., Suriname), were genotyped using eight microsatellite DNA markers. Genetic variation, genetic structure, and genetic network among populations illustrated that the Suriname samples were genetically differentiated from Southeast Asian populations. The genetic network revealed that samples from West Sumatra (Pekanbaru, PK) and Java (Jakarta, JK) were presumably the source populations of Bactrocera carambolae in Suriname, which was congruent with human migration records between the two continents. Additionally, three populations of Bactrocera dorsalis were included to better understand the species boundary. The genetic structure between the two species was significantly separated and approximately 11% of total individuals were detected as admixed (0.100 ≤ Q ≤ 0.900). The genetic network showed connections between Bactrocera carambolae and Bactrocera dorsalis groups throughout Depok (DP), JK, and Nakhon Sri Thammarat (NT) populations. These data supported the hypothesis that the reproductive isolation between the two species may be leaky. Although the morphology and monophyly of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences in previous studies showed discrete entities, the hypothesis of semipermeable boundaries may not

  12. Taxonomic identity of the invasive fruit fly pest, Bactrocera invadens: concordance in morphometry and DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Khamis, Fathiya M; Masiga, Daniel K; Mohamed, Samira A; Salifu, Daisy; de Meyer, Marc; Ekesi, Sunday

    2012-01-01

    In 2003, a new fruit fly pest species was recorded for the first time in Kenya and has subsequently been found in 28 countries across tropical Africa. The insect was described as Bactrocera invadens, due to its rapid invasion of the African continent. In this study, the morphometry and DNA Barcoding of different populations of B. invadens distributed across the species range of tropical Africa and a sample from the pest's putative aboriginal home of Sri Lanka was investigated. Morphometry using wing veins and tibia length was used to separate B. invadens populations from other closely related Bactrocera species. The Principal component analysis yielded 15 components which correspond to the 15 morphometric measurements. The first two principal axes contributed to 90.7% of the total variance and showed partial separation of these populations. Canonical discriminant analysis indicated that only the first five canonical variates were statistically significant. The first two canonical variates contributed a total of 80.9% of the total variance clustering B. invadens with other members of the B. dorsalis complex while distinctly separating B. correcta, B. cucurbitae, B. oleae and B. zonata. The largest Mahalanobis squared distance (D(2) = 122.9) was found to be between B. cucurbitae and B. zonata, while the lowest was observed between B. invadens populations against B. kandiensis (8.1) and against B. dorsalis s.s (11.4). Evolutionary history inferred by the Neighbor-Joining method clustered the Bactrocera species populations into four clusters. First cluster consisted of the B. dorsalis complex (B. invadens, B. kandiensis and B. dorsalis s. s.), branching from the same node while the second group was paraphyletic clades of B. correcta and B. zonata. The last two are monophyletic clades, consisting of B. cucurbitae and B. oleae, respectively. Principal component analysis using the genetic distances confirmed the clustering inferred by the NJ tree. PMID:23028649

  13. Taxonomic Identity of the Invasive Fruit Fly Pest, Bactrocera invadens: Concordance in Morphometry and DNA Barcoding

    PubMed Central

    Khamis, Fathiya M.; Masiga, Daniel K.; Mohamed, Samira A.; Salifu, Daisy; de Meyer, Marc; Ekesi, Sunday

    2012-01-01

    In 2003, a new fruit fly pest species was recorded for the first time in Kenya and has subsequently been found in 28 countries across tropical Africa. The insect was described as Bactrocera invadens, due to its rapid invasion of the African continent. In this study, the morphometry and DNA Barcoding of different populations of B. invadens distributed across the species range of tropical Africa and a sample from the pest's putative aboriginal home of Sri Lanka was investigated. Morphometry using wing veins and tibia length was used to separate B. invadens populations from other closely related Bactrocera species. The Principal component analysis yielded 15 components which correspond to the 15 morphometric measurements. The first two principal axes contributed to 90.7% of the total variance and showed partial separation of these populations. Canonical discriminant analysis indicated that only the first five canonical variates were statistically significant. The first two canonical variates contributed a total of 80.9% of the total variance clustering B. invadens with other members of the B. dorsalis complex while distinctly separating B. correcta, B. cucurbitae, B. oleae and B. zonata. The largest Mahalanobis squared distance (D2 = 122.9) was found to be between B. cucurbitae and B. zonata, while the lowest was observed between B. invadens populations against B. kandiensis (8.1) and against B. dorsalis s.s (11.4). Evolutionary history inferred by the Neighbor-Joining method clustered the Bactrocera species populations into four clusters. First cluster consisted of the B. dorsalis complex (B. invadens, B. kandiensis and B. dorsalis s. s.), branching from the same node while the second group was paraphyletic clades of B. correcta and B. zonata. The last two are monophyletic clades, consisting of B. cucurbitae and B. oleae, respectively. Principal component analysis using the genetic distances confirmed the clustering inferred by the NJ tree. PMID:23028649

  14. Weathering and Chemical Degradation of Methyl Eugenol and Raspberry Ketone Solid Dispensers for Detection, Monitoring, and Male Annihilation of Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Roger I; Souder, Steven K; Nkomo, Eddie; Cook, Peter J; Mackey, Bruce; Stark, John D

    2015-08-01

    Solid male lure dispensers containing methyl eugenol (ME) and raspberry ketone (RK), or mixtures of the lures (ME + RK), and dimethyl dichloro-vinyl phosphate (DDVP) were evaluated in area-wide pest management bucket or Jackson traps in commercial papaya (Carica papaya L.) orchards where both oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), are pests. Captures of B. dorsalis with fresh wafers in Jackson and bucket traps were significantly higher on the basis of ME concentration (Mallet ME [56%] > Mallet MR [31.2%] > Mallet MC [23.1%]). Captures of B. cucurbitae with fresh wafers in Jackson and bucket traps were not different regardless of concentration of RK (Mallet BR [20.1%] = Mallet MR [18.3%] = Mallet MC [15.9%]). Captures of B. dorsalis with fresh wafers, compared with weathered wafers, were significantly different after week 12; captures of B. cucurbitae were not significantly different after 16 wk. Chemical analyses revealed presence of RK in dispensers in constant amounts throughout the 16-wk trial. Degradation of both ME and DDVP over time was predicted with a high level of confidence by nonlinear asymptotic exponential decay curves. Results provide supportive data to deploy solid ME and RK wafers (with DDVP) in fruit fly traps for detection programs, as is the current practice with solid TML dispensers placed in Jackson traps. Wafers with ME and RK might be used in place of two separate traps for detection of both ME and RK responding fruit flies and could potentially reduce cost of materials and labor by 50%.

  15. Effect of temperature on the development and survival of immature stages of the carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae, and the Asian papaya fruit fly, Bactrocera papayae, reared on guava diet.

    PubMed

    Danjuma, Solomon; Thaochan, Narit; Permkam, Surakrai; Satasook, Chutamas

    2014-01-01

    Members of the Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae) complex constitute well-recognized destructive pests of fruits in peninsular Thailand. The development and survival of immature stages of the carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock, and the Asian papaya fruit fly, Bactrocera papayae Drew & Hancock, were compared at six constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 27, 30, and 35°C, 70 ± 5% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D). The objectives were to determine the effect of temperature on the developmental stages for optimizing rearing and to understand the geographical pattern of occurrence of these fruit fly species. A strong and positive linear relationship was observed between temperature and developmental rate of immature stages of B. carambolae. Similarly, a strong and positive linear relationship was observed between temperature and developmental rate of B. papayae. A temperature summation model was used to estimate the lower threshold temperature and the thermal constant. Bactrocera papayae was significantly faster in development and higher in survival and appeared to be better adapted to low temperatures than B. carambolae, as it exhibited the lowest threshold temperatures at all immature stages. The observed differences in response to various temperatures revealed to some extent the impact of temperature on these species' distribution in peninsular Thailand and other parts of the world.

  16. Effect of Temperature on the Development and Survival of Immature Stages of the Carambola Fruit Fly, Bactrocera carambolae, and the Asian Papaya Fruit Fly, Bactrocera papayae, Reared On Guava Diet

    PubMed Central

    Danjuma, Solomon; Thaochan, Narit; Permkam, Surakrai; Satasook, Chutamas

    2014-01-01

    Members of the Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae) complex constitute wellrecognized destructive pests of fruits in peninsular Thailand. The development and survival of immature stages of the carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock, and the Asian papaya fruit fly, Bactrocera papayae Drew & Hancock, were compared at six constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 27, 30, and 35°C, 70 ± 5% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D). The objectives were to determine the effect of temperature on the developmental stages for optimizing rearing and to understand the geographical pattern of occurrence of these fruit fly species. A strong and positive linear relationship was observed between temperature and developmental rate of immature stages of B. carambolae. Similarly, a strong and positive linear relationship was observed between temperature and developmental rate of B. papayae. A temperature summation model was used to estimate the lower threshold temperature and the thermal constant. Bactrocera papayae was significantly faster in development and higher in survival and appeared to be better adapted to low temperatures than B. carambolae, as it exhibited the lowest threshold temperatures at all immature stages. The observed differences in response to various temperatures revealed to some extent the impact of temperature on these species' distribution in peninsular Thailand and other parts of the world. PMID:25368070

  17. Effectiveness of GF-120 NF Fruit Fly Bait as a Suppression Tool for Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) is a tephritid fruit fly of primarily Asian distribution that has invaded Hawaii and, more recently, the continent of Africa (Tanzania and Kenya). It primarily infests solanaceous fruits, so has the potential to impact production of crops such as peppers (Capsicum annuu...

  18. Genetic diversity of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) on the Hawaiian Islands: Implications for an introduction pathway into California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Population genetic diversity of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, on the Hawaiian islands of Oahu, Maui, Kauai, and Hawaii (the Big Island) was estimated using DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. A total of 932 flies representing 36 sampled sites across...

  19. Survivorship of male and female Bactrocera dorsalis in the field and the effect of male annihilation technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Male Annihilation Technique (MAT) is a key component of the Oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae) management because of the “strong” attraction of males to the lure methyl eugenol. The optimal application density for MAT has not been investigated for this economically ...

  20. EFFECTIVENESS OF PLASTIC MATRIX LURES WITH THREE TRAPPING TECHNIQUES FOR BACTROCERA DORSALIS AND B. CUCURBITAE (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE) IN HAWAII

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methyl eugenol (4-allyl-1-2-dimethoxybenzene-carboxylate) is a commonly occurring plant phenylpropanoid which is highly attractive to male oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Cuelure (4-(3-Oxobutyl)phenyl acetate), a synthetic chemical based on the naturally occurring compound raspbe...

  1. Larval x-ray irradiation influences protein expression in pupae of the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera Dorsalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Third instar larvae were exposed to X-ray treatment of the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. Irradiated pupae were collected daily. Biological performance parameters of pupae and adults of larvae treated with X-ray irradiation were evaluated. Standard proteomics procedures such as densitometr...

  2. Field estimates of attraction of Ceratitis capitata to Trimedlure and Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) to methyl eugenol in varying environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Measuring and modeling the attractiveness of semiochemical-baited traps is of significant importance to detection, delimitation and control of invasive pests. Here we describe the results of field mark-release-recapture experiments with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)...

  3. Managing Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), Using Spinosad-Based Protein Bait Sprays in Papaya Orchards in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of GF-120 Fruit Fly Bait was evaluated as a control of female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) in papaya orchards in Hawaii. Two important components of this study were field sanitation and mass trapping using the male-specific lure methyl eugenol. Three different spray ...

  4. Suitability of a liquid larval diet for rearing the Philippines fruit fly Bactrocera philippinensis (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A liquid larval diet as an artificial rearing medium was successfully tested for the Philippines fruit fly Bactrocera philippinensis Drew & Hancock. The biological parameters studied were pupal weight, adult emergence and fliers, sex ratio, fecundity and fertility. The insects performed most satisfa...

  5. Reconstructing a comprehensive transcriptome assembly of a white-pupal translocated strain of the pest fruit fly Bactrocera cucurbitae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Bactrocera cucurbitae is an important agricultural pest. Basic genomic information is lacking for this species and this would be useful to inform methods of control, damage mitigation, and eradication efforts. Here, we have sequenced, assembled, and annotated a comprehensive transcriptom...

  6. Germline transformation of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi)(Diptera:Tephritidae) with a piggyBac transposon vector

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is a highly significant pest in olive growing countries whose control may be enhanced by the use of genetically-modified strains, especially for sterile insect technique programs. To improve and expand this technology, piggyBac-mediated germline transformation ...

  7. A phylogenetic assessment of the polyphyletic nature and intraspecific color polymorphism in the Bactrocera dorsalis complex (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Leblanc, Luc; San Jose, Michael; Barr, Norman; Rubinoff, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Bactrocera dorsalis complex (Tephritidae) comprises 85 species of fruit flies, including five highly destructive polyphagous fruit pests. Despite significant work on a few key pest species within the complex, little has been published on the majority of non-economic species in the complex, other than basic descriptions and illustrations of single specimens regarded as typical representatives. To elucidate the species relationships within the Bactrocera dorsalis complex, we used 159 sequences from one mitochondrial (COI) and two nuclear (elongation factor-1α and period) genes to construct a phylogeny containing 20 described species from within the complex, four additional species that may be new to science, and 26 other species from Bactrocera and its sister genus Dacus. The resulting concatenated phylogeny revealed that most of the species placed in the complex appear to be unrelated, emerging across numerous clades. This suggests that they were placed in the Bactrocera dorsalis complex based on the similarity of convergent characters, which does not appear to be diagnostic. Variations in scutum and abdomen color patterns within each of the non-economic species are presented and demonstrate that distantly-related, cryptic species overlap greatly in traditional morphological color patterns used to separate them in keys. Some of these species may not be distinguishable with confidence by means other than DNA data. PMID:26798267

  8. Response of the pearly eye melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae(Coquillett)(Diptera:Tephritidae) mutant to host-associated visual cues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report on a pearly eye mutant (PEM) line generated from a single male Bactrocera cucurbitae collected in Kapoho, Hawaii. Crossing experiments with colony wild-type flies indicate that the locus controlling this trait is autosomal and the mutant allele is recessive. Experiments with females to ass...

  9. A qPCR-based method for detecting parasitism of Fopius arisanus (Sonan) in oriental fruit flies, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Parasitism rate detection and parasitoid species identification are necessary in fruit fly biological control. Currently release of mass-reared Fopius arisanus is occurring world-wide, as this species is effective in controlling Bactrocera dorsalis and Ceratitis capitata. While release i...

  10. Attraction of wild-like and colony-reared Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) to Cuelure in the field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The attraction of wild tephritids to semiochemical-based lures are the ideal basis for trap network design in detection programs, but in practice, mass-reared colony insects are usually used to determine trap efficiency. For Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, a lower response by wild males compared w...

  11. Novel toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis strains against the melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Shishir, Md Asaduzzaman; Akter, Asma; Bodiuzzaman, Md; Hossain, M Aftab; Alam, Md Musfiqul; Khan, Shakil Ahmed; Khan, Shakila Nargis; Hoq, M Mozammel

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera cucurbitae (melon fruit fly) is one of the most detrimental vegetable-damaging pests in Bangladesh. The toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been reported against a few genera of Bactrocera in addition to numerous other insect species. Bt strains, harbouring cry1A-type genes were, therefore, assayed in vivo against the 3(rd) instar larvae of B. cucurbitae in this study. The biotype-based prevalence of cry1 and cry1A genes was calculated to be 30.8% and 11.16%, respectively, of the test strains (n=224) while their prevalence was greatest in biotype kurstaki. Though three indigenous Bt strains from biotype kurstaki with close genetic relationship exhibited higher toxicity, maximum mortalities were recorded for Btk HD-73 (96%) and the indigenous Bt JSc1 (93%). LC50 and LC99 values were determined to be 6.81 and 8.32 for Bt JSc1, 7.30 and 7.92 for Bt SSc2, and 6.99 and 7.67 for Btk HD-73, respectively. The cause of toxicity and its variation among the strains was found to be correlated with the synergistic toxic effects of cry1, cry2, cry3 and cry9 gene products, i.e. relevant Cry proteins. The novel toxicity of the B. thuringiensis strains against B. cucurbitae revealed in the present study thus will help in developing efficient and eco-friendly control measures such as Bt biopesticides and transgenic Bt cucurbits.

  12. The geometric approach to explore the Bactrocera tau complex (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kitthawee, Sangvorn; Dujardin, Jean-Pierre

    2010-08-01

    Specimens of the genus Bactrocera were collected from several host plants in northern and western Thailand. They were morphologically recognized as Bactrocera tau and were subdivided into eleven samples according to host plant, geographic origin and time of collection. Twelve landmarks of the right wing were described in a total of 264 males and 276 females. An exploratory analysis using kernel density estimates was performed on the multivariate morphometric space. Non-parametric classification highlighted the existence of two non-overlapping clusters within both males and females. The clusters were not congruent with geography. One cluster (cluster I) contained only one plant, Momordica cochinchinensis, the other one (cluster II) contained five different plants including M. cochinchinensis. Further morphometric analyses on selected samples indicated that the influence of the plants on the shape of the wing could not explain satisfactorily the presence of two clusters. Genetic techniques identified the presence of B. tau cryptic species C in M. cochinchinensis from cluster I, and of B. tau cryptic species A in Coccinia grandis from cluster II. Our working hypothesis is that the two clusters identified by geometric morphometrics were species A and C, respectively. PMID:20817492

  13. The geometric approach to explore the Bactrocera tau complex (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kitthawee, Sangvorn; Dujardin, Jean-Pierre

    2010-08-01

    Specimens of the genus Bactrocera were collected from several host plants in northern and western Thailand. They were morphologically recognized as Bactrocera tau and were subdivided into eleven samples according to host plant, geographic origin and time of collection. Twelve landmarks of the right wing were described in a total of 264 males and 276 females. An exploratory analysis using kernel density estimates was performed on the multivariate morphometric space. Non-parametric classification highlighted the existence of two non-overlapping clusters within both males and females. The clusters were not congruent with geography. One cluster (cluster I) contained only one plant, Momordica cochinchinensis, the other one (cluster II) contained five different plants including M. cochinchinensis. Further morphometric analyses on selected samples indicated that the influence of the plants on the shape of the wing could not explain satisfactorily the presence of two clusters. Genetic techniques identified the presence of B. tau cryptic species C in M. cochinchinensis from cluster I, and of B. tau cryptic species A in Coccinia grandis from cluster II. Our working hypothesis is that the two clusters identified by geometric morphometrics were species A and C, respectively.

  14. Novel toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis strains against the melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Shishir, Md Asaduzzaman; Akter, Asma; Bodiuzzaman, Md; Hossain, M Aftab; Alam, Md Musfiqul; Khan, Shakil Ahmed; Khan, Shakila Nargis; Hoq, M Mozammel

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera cucurbitae (melon fruit fly) is one of the most detrimental vegetable-damaging pests in Bangladesh. The toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been reported against a few genera of Bactrocera in addition to numerous other insect species. Bt strains, harbouring cry1A-type genes were, therefore, assayed in vivo against the 3(rd) instar larvae of B. cucurbitae in this study. The biotype-based prevalence of cry1 and cry1A genes was calculated to be 30.8% and 11.16%, respectively, of the test strains (n=224) while their prevalence was greatest in biotype kurstaki. Though three indigenous Bt strains from biotype kurstaki with close genetic relationship exhibited higher toxicity, maximum mortalities were recorded for Btk HD-73 (96%) and the indigenous Bt JSc1 (93%). LC50 and LC99 values were determined to be 6.81 and 8.32 for Bt JSc1, 7.30 and 7.92 for Bt SSc2, and 6.99 and 7.67 for Btk HD-73, respectively. The cause of toxicity and its variation among the strains was found to be correlated with the synergistic toxic effects of cry1, cry2, cry3 and cry9 gene products, i.e. relevant Cry proteins. The novel toxicity of the B. thuringiensis strains against B. cucurbitae revealed in the present study thus will help in developing efficient and eco-friendly control measures such as Bt biopesticides and transgenic Bt cucurbits. PMID:26133509

  15. Characteristics of protein variants in trichlorphon-resistant Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera; Tephritidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Jin, T; Zeng, L; Lin, Y-Y; Lu, Y-Y; Liang, G-W

    2012-08-16

    Functional proteins in larvae of Bactrocera dorsalis, a major fruit pest, play a central role in their resistance to organophosphorus insecticides. Changes in proteins in B. dorsalis larvae after trichlorphon treatment may have a role in the resistance response to trichlorphon. We analyzed 14 protein spots of crude proteins from B. dorsalis larvae post-treatment with trichlorphon in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis through mass spectrometry and protein sequencing. We found functional proteins that are responsible for signal transduction (pkaap and dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase), immunity (hemolectin), synthesis and decomposition (twinstar, cathepsin B, RE66325p), oxidative stress metabolism (glutathione S transferase and CG7320), energy metabolism (Act57B), and cytoskeleton formation (actin). These proteins appear to be involved in the resistance response to trichlorphon.

  16. Commensal Bacteria Aid Mate-selection in the Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    PubMed

    Damodaram, Kamala Jayanthi Pagadala; Ayyasamy, Arthikirubha; Kempraj, Vivek

    2016-10-01

    Commensal bacteria influence many aspects of an organism's behaviour. However, studies on the influence of commensal bacteria in insect mate-selection are scarce. Here, we present empirical evidence that commensal bacteria mediate mate-selection in the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. Male flies were attracted to female flies, but this attraction was abolished when female flies were fed with antibiotics, suggesting the role of the fly's microbiota in mediating mate-selection. We show that male flies were attracted to and ejaculated more sperm into females harbouring the microbiota. Using culturing and 16S rDNA sequencing, we isolated and identified different commensal bacteria, with Klebsiella oxytoca being the most abundant bacterial species. This preliminary study will enhance our understanding of the influence of commensal bacteria on mate-selection behaviour of B. dorsalis and may find use in devising control operations against this devastating pest. PMID:27423980

  17. Monitoring Resistance to Spinosad in the Melon Fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae) in Hawaii and Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Ju-Chun; Haymer, David S.; Chou, Ming-Yi; Feng, Hai-Tung; Chen, Hsaio-Han; Huang, Yu-Bing; Mau, Ronald F. L.

    2012-01-01

    Spinosad is a natural insecticide with desirable qualities, and it is widely used as an alternative to organophosphates for control of pests such as the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett). To monitor the potential for development of resistance, information about the current levels of tolerance to spinosad in melon fly populations were established in this study. Spinosad tolerance bioassays were conducted using both topical applications and feeding methods on flies from field populations with extensive exposure to spinosad as well as from collections with little or no prior exposure. Increased levels of resistance were observed in flies from the field populations. Also, higher dosages were generally required to achieve specific levels of mortality using topical applications compared to the feeding method, but these levels were all lower than those used for many organophosphate-based food lures. Our information is important for maintaining effective programs for melon fly management using spinosad. PMID:22629193

  18. Ultrastructure of the Antennal Sensillae of Male and Female Peach Fruit Fly, Bactrocera zonata

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Azza A.; Ali, Nashat A.; Mohamed, Hend O.

    2014-01-01

    Antennal morphology and funicular sensillae of male and female peach fruit flies, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) (Diptera: Tephritidae), were studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This study focused on the sensillae found on the antennal segments (scape, pedicel, and flagellum or funiculus that bears the arista) of B. zonata. Antennal segments of females tended to be larger than those of the males. The first two antennal segments, scape and pedicel, were heavily covered with microtrichia and bear bristles. Numerous microtrichia as well as trichoid (I, II), basiconic, clavate, and coeloconic sensillae were observed on the funiculus. SEM studies showed some differences in size and also in position of some sensillae on the antennae of the females of B. zonata. The sensillae found on the funiculus, such as trichoid and basiconic sensillae, were significantly larger in females. PMID:25373192

  19. Commensal Bacteria Aid Mate-selection in the Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    PubMed

    Damodaram, Kamala Jayanthi Pagadala; Ayyasamy, Arthikirubha; Kempraj, Vivek

    2016-10-01

    Commensal bacteria influence many aspects of an organism's behaviour. However, studies on the influence of commensal bacteria in insect mate-selection are scarce. Here, we present empirical evidence that commensal bacteria mediate mate-selection in the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. Male flies were attracted to female flies, but this attraction was abolished when female flies were fed with antibiotics, suggesting the role of the fly's microbiota in mediating mate-selection. We show that male flies were attracted to and ejaculated more sperm into females harbouring the microbiota. Using culturing and 16S rDNA sequencing, we isolated and identified different commensal bacteria, with Klebsiella oxytoca being the most abundant bacterial species. This preliminary study will enhance our understanding of the influence of commensal bacteria on mate-selection behaviour of B. dorsalis and may find use in devising control operations against this devastating pest.

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome of the melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Wu, Pei-Fu; Roques, Alain; Xiong, Zhong-Ping; Xu, Lei; Huang, Yang-Yang; Pan, Yong-Zhi

    2013-02-01

    The mitochondrial genome of Bactrocera cucurbitae, a representative of the Tephritid family, was completely sequenced for the first time. The B. cucurbitae genome is a double-stranded circular molecule of 15,825 bp long, including the entire set of the 37 genes. The 72.9% A+T content and 0.047 AT-skew are within the range of the known dipteran genomes. Comparative analyses showed that dipteran mitochondrial protein-coding genes present complex evolutionary patterns. Some of the codon families were strongly biased towards J-strand. The mitochondrial ATP8 of B. cucurbitae exhibited a faster substitution rate than other genes. Cox1 is the slowest evolving protein and could be considered as a potential phylogenetic marker.

  1. Identification of host blends that attract the African invasive fruit fly, Bactrocera invadens.

    PubMed

    Biasazin, Tibebe Dejene; Karlsson, Miriam Frida; Hillbur, Ylva; Seyoum, Emiru; Dekker, Teun

    2014-09-01

    Bactrocera invadens, an invasive fruit fly species in the Afro-tropical region belonging to the Bactrocera dorsalis complex, causes considerable damage to fruit production and productivity. We sought to find attractants from hosts of B. invadens that could serve as baits in traps for monitoring and management of this pest. The attractiveness of volatiles from four different fruit species (mango, guava, banana and orange) at two stages of ripeness (ripe or unripe) was tested in an olfactometer assay. All fruits were attractive against a clean air control. Using hexane extracts of volatile collections of fruits, we demonstrated that male flies preferred the volatiles of ripe guava and orange over unripe fruit extracts. There was a slight difference in preference between females and males; females preferred orange to guava and mango, whereas males preferred mango and guava to orange. Gas chromatography/electroantennographic detection (GC/EAD) and GC/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were used to identify compounds to which B. invadens antennae were sensitive. GC/EAD recordings from distal and medio-central parts of the fly antenna showed responses to a number of compounds from each fruit species, with esters dominating the responses. Synthetic blends were made for each fruit species using the shared antennally active compounds in ratios found in the extracts. In the olfactometer, B. invadens was most attracted to the banana and orange blends, followed by the mango and guava blends. The synthetic banana blend was as attractive as the volatile collection of banana, although both were less attractive than the fruit. The results demonstrate that composing attractive blends from GC/EAD-active constituents shared by host fruits can be effective for formulating attractive synthetic host mimics for generalist fruit fly species, such as B. invadens.

  2. The Bactrocera dorsalis species complex: comparative cytogenetic analysis in support of Sterile Insect Technique applications

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Bactrocera dorsalis species complex currently harbors approximately 90 different members. The species complex has undergone many revisions in the past decades, and there is still an ongoing debate about the species limits. The availability of a variety of tools and approaches, such as molecular-genomic and cytogenetic analyses, are expected to shed light on the rather complicated issues of species complexes and incipient speciation. The clarification of genetic relationships among the different members of this complex is a prerequisite for the rational application of sterile insect technique (SIT) approaches for population control. Results Colonies established in the Insect Pest Control Laboratory (IPCL) (Seibersdorf, Vienna), representing five of the main economic important members of the Bactrocera dorsalis complex were cytologically characterized. The taxa under study were B. dorsalis s.s., B. philippinensis, B. papayae, B. invadens and B. carambolae. Mitotic and polytene chromosome analyses did not reveal any chromosomal characteristics that could be used to distinguish between the investigated members of the B. dorsalis complex. Therefore, their polytene chromosomes can be regarded as homosequential with the reference maps of B. dorsalis s.s.. In situ hybridization of six genes further supported the proposed homosequentiallity of the chromosomes of these specific members of the complex. Conclusions The present analysis supports that the polytene chromosomes of the five taxa under study are homosequential. Therefore, the use of the available polytene chromosome maps for B. dorsalis s.s. as reference maps for all these five biological entities is proposed. Present data provide important insight in the genetic relationships among the different members of the B. dorsalis complex, and, along with other studies in the field, can facilitate SIT applications targeting this complex. Moreover, the availability of 'universal' reference polytene chromosome

  3. Distinct genetic lineages of Bactrocera caudata (Insecta: Tephritidae) revealed by COI and 16S DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Lim, Phaik-Eem; Tan, Ji; Suana, I Wayan; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Yong, Hoi Sen

    2012-01-01

    The fruit fly Bactrocera caudata is a pest species of economic importance in Asia. Its larvae feed on the flowers of Cucurbitaceae such as Cucurbita moschata. To-date it is distinguished from related species based on morphological characters. Specimens of B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia and Indonesia (Bali and Lombok) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S rRNA genes. Both gene sequences revealed that B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia was distinctly different from B. caudata of Bali and Lombok, without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades, indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected 'p' distance for COI sequences between B. caudata of Malaysia-Thailand-China and B. caudata of Bali-Lombok was 5.65%, for 16S sequences from 2.76 to 2.99%, and for combined COI and 16S sequences 4.45 to 4.46%. The 'p' values are distinctly different from intraspecific 'p' distance (0-0.23%). Both the B. caudata lineages are distinctly separated from related species in the subgenus Zeugodacus - B. ascita, B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora, B. tau, B. cucurbitae, and B. depressa. Molecular phylogenetic analysis indicates that the B. caudata lineages are closely related to B. ascita sp. B, and form a clade with B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora and B. ascita sp. A. This study provides additional baseline for the phylogenetic relationships of Bactrocera fruit flies of the subgenus Zeugodacus. Both the COI and 16S genes could be useful markers for the molecular differentiation and phylogenetic analysis of tephritid fruit flies.

  4. Distinct genetic lineages of Bactrocera caudata (Insecta: Tephritidae) revealed by COI and 16S DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Lim, Phaik-Eem; Tan, Ji; Suana, I Wayan; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Yong, Hoi Sen

    2012-01-01

    The fruit fly Bactrocera caudata is a pest species of economic importance in Asia. Its larvae feed on the flowers of Cucurbitaceae such as Cucurbita moschata. To-date it is distinguished from related species based on morphological characters. Specimens of B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia and Indonesia (Bali and Lombok) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S rRNA genes. Both gene sequences revealed that B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia was distinctly different from B. caudata of Bali and Lombok, without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades, indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected 'p' distance for COI sequences between B. caudata of Malaysia-Thailand-China and B. caudata of Bali-Lombok was 5.65%, for 16S sequences from 2.76 to 2.99%, and for combined COI and 16S sequences 4.45 to 4.46%. The 'p' values are distinctly different from intraspecific 'p' distance (0-0.23%). Both the B. caudata lineages are distinctly separated from related species in the subgenus Zeugodacus - B. ascita, B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora, B. tau, B. cucurbitae, and B. depressa. Molecular phylogenetic analysis indicates that the B. caudata lineages are closely related to B. ascita sp. B, and form a clade with B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora and B. ascita sp. A. This study provides additional baseline for the phylogenetic relationships of Bactrocera fruit flies of the subgenus Zeugodacus. Both the COI and 16S genes could be useful markers for the molecular differentiation and phylogenetic analysis of tephritid fruit flies. PMID:22615962

  5. Distinct Genetic Lineages of Bactrocera caudata (Insecta: Tephritidae) Revealed by COI and 16S DNA Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Phaik-Eem; Tan, Ji; Suana, I. Wayan; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Yong, Hoi Sen

    2012-01-01

    The fruit fly Bactrocera caudata is a pest species of economic importance in Asia. Its larvae feed on the flowers of Cucurbitaceae such as Cucurbita moschata. To-date it is distinguished from related species based on morphological characters. Specimens of B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia and Indonesia (Bali and Lombok) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S rRNA genes. Both gene sequences revealed that B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia was distinctly different from B. caudata of Bali and Lombok, without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades, indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected ‘p’ distance for COI sequences between B. caudata of Malaysia-Thailand-China and B. caudata of Bali-Lombok was 5.65%, for 16S sequences from 2.76 to 2.99%, and for combined COI and 16S sequences 4.45 to 4.46%. The ‘p’ values are distinctly different from intraspecific ‘p’ distance (0–0.23%). Both the B. caudata lineages are distinctly separated from related species in the subgenus Zeugodacus – B. ascita, B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora, B. tau, B. cucurbitae, and B. depressa. Molecular phylogenetic analysis indicates that the B. caudata lineages are closely related to B. ascita sp. B, and form a clade with B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora and B. ascita sp. A. This study provides additional baseline for the phylogenetic relationships of Bactrocera fruit flies of the subgenus Zeugodacus. Both the COI and 16S genes could be useful markers for the molecular differentiation and phylogenetic analysis of tephritid fruit flies. PMID:22615962

  6. Regional Suppression of Bactrocera Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the Pacific through Biological Control and Prospects for Future Introductions into Other Areas of the World

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Roger I.; Leblanc, Luc; Harris, Ernest J.; Manoukis, Nicholas C.

    2012-01-01

    Bactrocera fruit fly species are economically important throughout the Pacific. The USDA, ARS U.S. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center has been a world leader in promoting biological control of Bactrocera spp. that includes classical, augmentative, conservation and IPM approaches. In Hawaii, establishment of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) in 1895 resulted in the introduction of the most successful parasitoid, Psyttalia fletcheri (Silvestri); similarly, establishment of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) in 1945 resulted in the introduction of 32 natural enemies of which Fopius arisanus (Sonan), Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) and Fopius vandenboschi (Fullaway) were most successful. Hawaii has also been a source of parasitoids for fruit fly control throughout the Pacific region including Australia, Pacific Island Nations, Central and South America, not only for Bactrocera spp. but also for Ceratitis and Anastrepha spp. Most recently, in 2002, F. arisanus was introduced into French Polynesia where B. dorsalis had invaded in 1996. Establishment of D. longicaudata into the new world has been important to augmentative biological control releases against Anastrepha spp. With the rapid expansion of airline travel and global trade there has been an alarming spread of Bactrocera spp. into new areas of the world (i.e., South America and Africa). Results of studies in Hawaii and French Polynesia, support parasitoid introductions into South America and Africa, where B. carambolae and B. invadens, respectively, have become established. In addition, P. fletcheri is a candidate for biological control of B. cucurbitae in Africa. We review past and more recent successes against Bactrocera spp. and related tephritids, and outline simple rearing and release methods to facilitate this goal. PMID:26466626

  7. The Bactrocera oleae genome: localization of nine genes on the polytene chromosomes of the olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Drosopoulou, Elena; Nakou, Ifigeneia; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope

    2014-10-01

    Four homologous and five heterologous gene-specific sequences have been mapped by in situ hybridization on the salivary gland polytene chromosomes of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae. The nine genes were dispersed on four of the five autosomal chromosomes, thus enriching the available set of chromosome landmarks for this major agricultural pest. Present data further supports the proposed chromosome homologies among B. oleae, Ceratitis capitata, and Drosophila melanogaster and the idea of the conservation of chromosomal element identity throughout dipteran evolution.

  8. Cold tolerance and disinfestation of Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) in 'Hass' avocado.

    PubMed

    Ware, A B; Du Toit, C L N; Mohamed, S A; Nderitu, P W; Ekasi, S

    2012-12-01

    Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) has spread rapidly across Africa and currently poses a phytosanitary threat to the fruit industry of South Africa. In reaction a cold mitigating treatment to provide phytosanitary security to importing countries was developed in Nairobi, Kenya. Using laboratory reared fruit flies, the rate of development in 'Hass' avocado (Persea americana Miller) was determined at 28 degrees C. Fruit ripeness or softness was found to be a factor improving larval fruit fly survival. Using this information the egg and larval developmental stages were subjected to 2 degrees C cold treatment and it was found that the third instars were the most cold tolerant life stage and that it was expected that between 16 and 17 d treatment would provide phytosanitary security. There were no survivors in the treatment of an estimated 153,001 individuals in four replicates at an average fruit pulp temperature of 2 degrees C satisfying the Probit 9 level of efficiency at a confidence of >95%. These data provide evidence that a continuous cold treatment of 1.5 degrees C or lower for 18 d would provide phytosanitary security in that any consignment entering an importing country poses no risk of accidental importation of B. invadens. PMID:23356059

  9. Pupal diapause termination in Bactrocera minax: an insight on 20-hydroxyecdysone induced phenotypic and genotypic expressions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhenzhong; Dong, Yongcheng; Wang, Yaohui; Andongma, Awawing A; Rashid, Muhammad A; Krutmuang, Patcharin; Niu, Changying

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese citrus fruit fly, Bactrocera minax, is an economically important pest of citrus. It exhibits pupal diapause from November to May to combat harsh environmental conditions. Such a long pupal diapause is a barrier for laboratory rearing and development of control strategies against this pest. In the present study, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) was used to break pupal diapause of B. minax by topical application. After diapause termination by 20E treated, the pupal ontogenetic processes were observed along the temporal trajectory. The pupal response time to 20E was estimated by detecting the relative expression of 20E responsive genes at different times after 20E-treatment. Results revealed that 20E could effectively terminate the pupal diapause in a dose-dependent manner and significantly shorten the time for 50% adult emergence (Et50). 20E response genes, including ecr, broad and foxo, were up-regulated within 72h, indicating these genes are involved in pupal metamorphosis and diapause termination processes. Morphological changes showed the pupal metamorphosis began ~7 days after 20E-treatment at 22 °C. This study does not only pave the way for artificial rearing in the laboratory through manipulating of pupal diapause termination, but also deepens our understanding of the underlying pupal diapause termination mechanism of B. minax. PMID:27273028

  10. The Essential Role of Vitellogenin Receptor in Ovary Development and Vitellogenin Uptake in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Lin; Yang, Wen-Jia; Jiang, Xuan-Zhao; Niu, Jin-Zhi; Shen, Guang-Mao; Ran, Chun; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The vitellogenin receptor (VgR) functions as an essential component in uptaking and transporting vitellogenin (Vg) in female adults, which is involved in ovary development and oviposition. This study aimed to clarify the molecular characteristics and function of VgR in the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Here, we identified the full-length of BdVgR (GenBank Accession No. JX469118), encoding a 1925 residue (aa) protein with a 214.72 kDa molecular mass and several typical motifs of low-density lipoprotein receptor superfamily (LDLR). Phylogenic analysis suggested that BdVgR was evolutionary conserved with other Dipteran VgRs. The expression of BdVgR was exclusively detected in the ovaries rather than head, thorax or other tissues. The developmental expression patterns showed that the signal of BdVgR was detectable in very beginning of adult stage, and positively correlated with the growth rate of ovaries and the expression levels of its ligands. In addition, we also demonstrated that the expression level of BdVgR, and ovary development were significantly suppressed after being injected with BdVgR-targeted dsRNA. Together, all of these results indicated that BdVgR was critical for yolk protein absorption and ovary maturation in B. dorsalis, playing a vital role in female reproduction. PMID:26262609

  11. Endocytic pathway mediates refractoriness of insect Bactrocera dorsalis to RNA interference

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoxue; Dong, Xiaolong; Zou, Cong; Zhang, Hongyu

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful and convenient tool for sequence-specific gene silencing, and it is triggered by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). RNAi can be easily achieved in many eukaryotes by either injecting or feeding dsRNAs. This mechanism has demonstrated its potential in fundamental research on genetics, medicine and agriculture. However, the possibility that insects might develop refractoriness to RNAi remains unexplored. In this study, we report that the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, became refractory to RNAi using orally administered dsRNA targeting endogenous genes. Furthermore, refractoriness to RNAi is not gene-specific, and its duration depends on the dsRNA concentration. RNAi blockage requires the endocytic pathway. Fluorescence microscopy indicated that in RNAi refractory flies, dsRNA uptake is blocked. Genes involved in the entry of dsRNAs into cells, including chc, cog3, light and others, are down-regulated in RNAi refractory flies. Increasing the endocytic capacity by improving F-actin polymerization disrupts RNAi refractoriness after both primary and secondary dsRNA exposures. Our results demonstrate that an insect can become refractory to RNAi by preventing the entry of dsRNA into its cells. PMID:25731667

  12. Bactrocera dorsalis male sterilization by targeted RNA interference of spermatogenesis: empowering sterile insect technique programs

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yong-Cheng; Wang, Zhi-Jian; Chen, Zhen-Zhong; Clarke, Anthony R.; Niu, Chang-Ying

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a genetic technique which has novel application for sustainable pest control. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) uses releases of mass-produced, sterile male insects to out-compete wild males for mates to reduce pest populations. RNAi sterilization of SIT males would have several advantages over radiation sterilization, but to achieve this appropriate target genes must first be identified and then targeted with interference technology. With this goal, eight spermatogenesis related candidate genes were cloned and tested for potential activity in Bactrocera dorsalis. The knockdown of candidate genes by oral delivery of dsRNAs did not influence the mating of male flies, but significantly affected the daily average number of eggs laid by females, and reduced egg hatching rate by 16–60%. RNAi negatively affected spermatozoa quantitatively and qualitatively. Following the mating of lola-/topi-/rac-/rho-/upd-/magu-silenced males, we recorded a significant decrease in number and length of spermatozoa in female spermatheca compared to gfp-silenced control group. In a greenhouse trial, the number of damaged oranges and B. dorsalis larvae were significantly reduced in a dsrho-treated group compared with the dsgfp group. This study provides strong evidence for the use RNAi in pest management, especially for the improvement of SIT against B. dorsalis and other species. PMID:27767174

  13. Acetobacter tropicalis is a major symbiont of the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae).

    PubMed

    Kounatidis, Ilias; Crotti, Elena; Sapountzis, Panagiotis; Sacchi, Luciano; Rizzi, Aurora; Chouaia, Bessem; Bandi, Claudio; Alma, Alberto; Daffonchio, Daniele; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Bourtzis, Kostas

    2009-05-01

    Following cultivation-dependent and -independent techniques, we investigated the microbiota associated with Bactrocera oleae, one of the major agricultural pests in olive-producing countries. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene libraries and ultrastructural analyses revealed the presence of several bacterial taxa associated with this insect, among which Acetobacter tropicalis was predominant. The recent increased detection of acetic acid bacteria as symbionts of other insect model organisms, such as Anopheles stephensi (G. Favia et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104:9047-9051, 2007) or Drosophila melanogaster (C. R. Cox and M. S. Gilmore, Infect. Immun. 75:1565-1576, 2007), prompted us to investigate the association established between A. tropicalis and B. oleae. Using an A. tropicalis-specific PCR assay, the symbiont was detected in all insects tested originating from laboratory stocks or field-collected from different locations in Greece. This acetic acid bacterium was successfully established in cell-free medium, and typing analyses, carried out on a collection of isolates, revealed that different A. tropicalis strains are present in fly populations. The capability to colonize and lodge in the digestive system of both larvae and adults and in Malpighian tubules of adults was demonstrated by using a strain labeled with a green fluorescent protein.

  14. 'Candidatus Erwinia dacicola', a coevolved symbiotic bacterium of the olive fly Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin).

    PubMed

    Capuzzo, Caterina; Firrao, Giuseppe; Mazzon, Luca; Squartini, Andrea; Girolami, Vincenzo

    2005-07-01

    The taxonomic identity of the hereditary prokaryotic symbiont of the olive fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) was investigated. In order to avoid superficial microbial contaminants and loosely associated saprophytic biota, flies were surface-sterilized at the larval stage and reared under aseptic conditions until adult emergence. B. oleae flies originating from different geographical locations and collected at different times of the year were tested. Bacterial isolation was undertaken from the cephalic oesophageal bulb, which is known to be a specific site of accumulation for the hosted microsymbionts in the adult insect. Despite evidence of multiplication cycles taking place within the insect, attempts at cultivation of the isolated bacteria ex situ were not productive at any stage, leading to the choice of unculturable status definition. PCR amplification and nucleotide sequencing of the entire 16S rRNA gene consistently yielded a single sequence that displayed marked similarity with enterobacterial lineages, with closest matches (97%) to Erwinia persicina and Erwinia rhapontici. The novel taxon differs from common intestinal bacterial species of fruit flies and from instances of culturable bacteria previously described in B. oleae raised without sterility precautions, which we also observed as minority occupants or occasional contaminants. The symbiont's identity is also distinct from Pseudomonas savastanoi. In all observations, the numerically dominant inhabitant of the olive fly oesophageal organ was the same unculturable organism, whose presence at later stages was also regularly observed in the midgut. A novel species is proposed, by virtue of its unique properties, under the designation 'Candidatus Erwinia dacicola'.

  15. Purification of Colocasia esculenta lectin and determination of its anti-insect potential towards Bactrocera cucurbitae.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Kshema; Kaur, Manpreet; Kaur, Satwinder; Kaur, Amritpal; Kamboj, Sukhdev Singh; Singh, Jatinder

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports the purification of a lectin from Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott corms and evaluation of its anti-insect potential towards Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquilett). The lectin was found to be specific towards N-acetyl-D-lactosamine (LacNac), a disaccharide and asialofetuin, a desialylated serum glycoprotein in hemagglutination inhibition assay. Asialofetuin was used as a ligand to purify Colocasia esculenta agglutinin (CEA) by affinity chromatography. The purity of CEA was ascertained by the presence of a single band in reducing SDS-PAGE at pH 8.3. The affinity purified CEA was employed in artificial diet bioassay of second instar larvae (64-72 hr old) of the B. cucurbitae at concentrations ranging between 10-160 microg ml(-1). The lectin significantly (p < 0.01) decreased the percent pupation and emergence with respect to control. Effect on various enzymes was studied by employing LC50 (51.6 microg ml(-1)) CEA in the artificial diet bioassay of second instar larvae. All the enzymes tested namely esterases, phosphatases (acid and alkaline), superoxide dismutases, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase showed a significant (p < 0.01, p < 0.05) increase in their enzyme and specific activities. These results showed that CEA affected normal growth and development and presented stress to the larvae, activating their detoxification and anti-oxidant systems. Thus, the lectin seems to be a useful candidate for the control measures of B. cucurbitae under the integrated pest management (IPM) system.

  16. Methyl eugenol aromatherapy enhances the mating competitiveness of male Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Haq, Ihsan; Vreysen, Marc J B; Cacéres, Carlos; Shelly, Todd E; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2014-09-01

    Males of Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae) are strongly attracted to methyl eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene), a natural compound occurring in variety of plant species. ME-feeding is known to enhance male B. carambolae mating competitiveness 3 days after feeding. Enhanced male mating competitiveness due to ME-feeding can increase the effectiveness of sterile insect technique (SIT) manifolds. However, the common methods for emergence and holding fruit flies prior to field releases do not allow the inclusion of any ME feeding treatment after fly emergence. Therefore this study was planned to assess the effects of ME-aromatherapy in comparison with ME feeding on male B. carambolae mating competitiveness as aromatherapy is pragmatic for fruit flies emergence and holding facilities. Effects of ME application by feeding or by aromatherapy for enhanced mating competitiveness were evaluated 3d after treatments in field cages. ME feeding and ME aromatherapy enhanced male mating competitiveness as compared to untreated males. Males treated with ME either by feeding or by aromatherapy showed similar mating success but mating success was significantly higher than that of untreated males. The results are discussed in the context of application of ME by aromatherapy as a pragmatic approach in a mass-rearing facility and its implications for effectiveness of SIT. PMID:24995839

  17. Methyl eugenol aromatherapy enhances the mating competitiveness of male Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Haq, Ihsan; Vreysen, Marc J B; Cacéres, Carlos; Shelly, Todd E; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2014-09-01

    Males of Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae) are strongly attracted to methyl eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene), a natural compound occurring in variety of plant species. ME-feeding is known to enhance male B. carambolae mating competitiveness 3 days after feeding. Enhanced male mating competitiveness due to ME-feeding can increase the effectiveness of sterile insect technique (SIT) manifolds. However, the common methods for emergence and holding fruit flies prior to field releases do not allow the inclusion of any ME feeding treatment after fly emergence. Therefore this study was planned to assess the effects of ME-aromatherapy in comparison with ME feeding on male B. carambolae mating competitiveness as aromatherapy is pragmatic for fruit flies emergence and holding facilities. Effects of ME application by feeding or by aromatherapy for enhanced mating competitiveness were evaluated 3d after treatments in field cages. ME feeding and ME aromatherapy enhanced male mating competitiveness as compared to untreated males. Males treated with ME either by feeding or by aromatherapy showed similar mating success but mating success was significantly higher than that of untreated males. The results are discussed in the context of application of ME by aromatherapy as a pragmatic approach in a mass-rearing facility and its implications for effectiveness of SIT.

  18. Resistance and synergistic effects of insecticides in Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ju-Chun; Feng, Hai-Tung; Wu, Wen-Jer

    2004-10-01

    Oriental fruit flies, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), were treated with 10 insecticides, including six organophosphates (naled, trichlorfon, fenitrothion, fenthion, formothion, and malathion), one carbamate (methomyl), and three pyrethroids (cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, and fenvalerate), by a topical application assay under laboratory conditions. Subparental lines of each generation treated with the same insecticide were selected for 30 generations and were designated as x-r lines (x, insecticide; r, resistant). The parent colony was maintained as the susceptible colony. The line treated with naled exhibited the lowest increase in resistance (4.7-fold), whereas the line treated with formothion exhibited the highest increase in resistance (up to 594-fold) compared with the susceptible colony. Synergism bioassays also were carried out. Based on this, S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate displayed a synergistic effect for naled, trichlorfon, and malathion resistance, whereas piperonyl butoxide displayed a synergistic effect for pyrethroid resistance. All 10 resistant lines also exhibited some cross-resistance to other insecticides, not only to the same chemical class of insecticides but also to other classes. However, none of the organophosphate-resistant or the methomyl-resistant lines exhibited cross-resistance to two of the pyrethroids (cypermethrin and fenvalerate). Overall, the laboratory resistance and cross-resistance data developed here should provide useful tools and information for designing an insecticide management strategy for controlling this fruit fly in the field. PMID:15568360

  19. Discovery of Chemosensory Genes in the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhongzhen; Zhang, He; Wang, Zhengbing; Bin, Shuying; He, Hualiang; Lin, Jintian

    2015-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a devastating fruit fly pest in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Like other insects, this fly uses its chemosensory system to efficiently interact with its environment. However, our understanding of the molecular components comprising B. dorsalis chemosensory system is limited. Using next generation sequencing technologies, we sequenced the transcriptome of four B. dorsalis developmental stages: egg, larva, pupa and adult chemosensory tissues. A total of 31 candidate odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 4 candidate chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 23 candidate odorant receptors (ORs), 11 candidate ionotropic receptors (IRs), 6 candidate gustatory receptors (GRs) and 3 candidate sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) were identified. The tissue distributions of the OBP and CSP transcripts were determined by RT-PCR and a subset of nine genes were further characterized. The predicted proteins from these genes shared high sequence similarity to Drosophila melanogaster pheromone binding protein related proteins (PBPRPs). Interestingly, one OBP (BdorOBP19c) was exclusively expressed in the sex pheromone glands of mature females. RT-PCR was also used to compare the expression of the candidate genes in the antennae of male and female B. dorsalis adults. These antennae-enriched OBPs, CSPs, ORs, IRs and SNMPs could play a role in the detection of pheromones and general odorants and thus could be useful target genes for the integrated pest management of B. dorsalis and other agricultural pests. PMID:26070069

  20. Identification and Characterization of Sex-Biased MicroRNAs in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Wei; Tariq, Kaleem; Xie, Junfei; Zhang, Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous small non-coding RNAs that regulate various biological processes including sexual dimorphism. The oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis is one of the most destructive agricultural insect pests in many Asian countries. However, no miRNAs have been identified from the separate sex and gonads to elucidate sex gonad differentiation in B. dorsalis. In this study, we constructed four small RNA libraries from whole body of females, males (except ovaries and testes) and ovaries, testes of B. dorsalis for deep sequencing. The data analysis revealed 183 known and 120 novel miRNAs from these libraries. 18 female-biased and 16 male-biased miRNAs that may be involved in sexual differentiation were found by comparing the miRNA expression profiles in the four libraries. Using a bioinformatic approach, we predicted doublesex (dsx) as a target gene of the female-biased miR-989-3p which is considered as the key switch gene in the sex determination of tephritid insects. This study reveals the first miRNA profile related to the sex differentiation and gives a first insight into sex differences in miRNA expression of B. dorsalis which could facilitate studies of the reproductive organ specific roles of miRNAs. PMID:27441641

  1. Identification and Characterization of Sex-Biased MicroRNAs in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    PubMed

    Peng, Wei; Tariq, Kaleem; Xie, Junfei; Zhang, Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous small non-coding RNAs that regulate various biological processes including sexual dimorphism. The oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis is one of the most destructive agricultural insect pests in many Asian countries. However, no miRNAs have been identified from the separate sex and gonads to elucidate sex gonad differentiation in B. dorsalis. In this study, we constructed four small RNA libraries from whole body of females, males (except ovaries and testes) and ovaries, testes of B. dorsalis for deep sequencing. The data analysis revealed 183 known and 120 novel miRNAs from these libraries. 18 female-biased and 16 male-biased miRNAs that may be involved in sexual differentiation were found by comparing the miRNA expression profiles in the four libraries. Using a bioinformatic approach, we predicted doublesex (dsx) as a target gene of the female-biased miR-989-3p which is considered as the key switch gene in the sex determination of tephritid insects. This study reveals the first miRNA profile related to the sex differentiation and gives a first insight into sex differences in miRNA expression of B. dorsalis which could facilitate studies of the reproductive organ specific roles of miRNAs. PMID:27441641

  2. Effect of Low-Temperature Phosphine Fumigation on the Survival of Bactrocera correcta (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Li, Li; Zhang, Fanhua; Gong, Shaorun; Li, Tianxiu; Zhan, Guoping; Wang, Yuejin

    2015-08-01

    This laboratory-based study examined the effects of low-temperature phosphine fumigation on the survival of the eggs and larvae of the guava fruit fly, Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi). Individual flies at different developmental stages, from 6-h-old eggs to third instars, were exposed to 0.92 mg/liter phosphine for 1-7 d at 5°C. We found that 12-h-old eggs and third instars were the most tolerant to phosphine. Increasing phosphine concentrations from 0.46 to 4.56 mg/liter increased mortality in these two stages. However, increased exposure times were required to achieve equal mortality rates in 12-h-old eggs and third instars when phosphine concentrations were ≥4.56 and ≥3.65 mg/liter, respectively. C(n)t = k expression was obtained at 50, 90, and 99% mortality levels, and the toxicity index (n) ranged from 0.43 to 0.77 for the two stages. The synergistic effects of a controlled atmosphere (CA) with elevated CO(2) levels were also investigated, and we found that a CO(2) concentration between 10% and 15% under CA conditions was optimal for low-temperature phosphine fumigation. PMID:26470302

  3. Status of Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Mango-Producing Areas of Arba Minch, Southwestern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Massebo, Fekadu; Tefera, Zenebe

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera invadens, the Asian fruit fly, was first reported in Kenya in 2003, and it spread fast to most tropical countries in Africa. To our knowledge, there is no detailed data on the fruit damage and status of fruit flies in Arba Minch and elsewhere in Ethiopia. Hence, information on the species composition and pest status of the fruit fly species is urgent to plan management strategies in the area. Fruit flies were captured using male parapheromone-baited traps. Matured mango (Mangifera indica) fruits were collected from randomly selected mango trees and incubated individually in cages (15 by 15 by 15 cm) with sandy soil. B. invadens was the predominant (96%; 952 of 992) captured species and the only fruit fly species emerging from mango fruits incubated in the laboratory. The mean number of adult B. invadens emerging per mango fruit was 35.25, indicating that the species is the most devastating mango fruit fly in the area. The loss due to this species would be serious if no management strategies are implemented. PMID:25612742

  4. Role of α-copaene in the susceptibility of olive fruits to Bactrocera oleae (Rossi).

    PubMed

    de Alfonso, Ignacio; Vacas, Sandra; Primo, Jaime

    2014-12-10

    The influence of α-copaene as a fruit volatile in the susceptibility of Olea europaea L. to the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) has been investigated. By studies on the relative area of volatile components from different cultivars, a positive correlation was found between the abundance of α-copaene in the samples and the corresponding degree of fruit infestation. SPME-GC-MS analysis of volatiles from uninfested fruits of O. europaea L. cv. Serrana were performed over two years to determine the variation of α-copaene throughout the different phenological stages. The results suggested that this sesquiterpene has a significant effect on cultivar susceptibility and may act as an oviposition promoter. Further analysis by chiral GC showed that olive fruits release both α-copaene enantiomers. Bioassays on each enantiomer revealed that fruits with increased amounts of (+)-α-copaene favor oviposition of B. oleae females, whereas the increase of (-)-α-copaene affords no statistically significant differences in host preference.

  5. Dietary lufenuron reduces egg hatch and influences protein expression in the fruit fly Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel).

    PubMed

    Chang, Chiou Ling; Geib, Scott; Cho, Il Kyu; Li, Qing X; Stanley, David

    2014-08-01

    Lufenuron (LFN), a chitin synthase inhibitor, impacts the fertility of Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, B. cucurbitae, and B. latifrons. We posed the hypothesis that LFN curtails egg hatch in the solanaceous fruit fly, B. latifrons. In this study, newly emerged virgin adults were sexed and fed for 12 days with varying concentrations of LFN-laced agar diets until sexual maturation. Eggs were collected from 12-d-old adults and the egg hatch was assessed. Egg hatch decreased in adults reared on LFN-treated diets. LFN-treated media did not influence fertility after one gender was reared on experimental and the other on control media before mating. Exposure to LFN-treated medium after mating led to reduced egg hatch. We infer that LFN is not a permanent sterilant, and reduced egg hatch depends on continuous exposure to dietary LFN after mating. Proteomic analysis identified two differentially expressed proteins, a pheromone binding protein and a chitin binding protein, between adults maintained on LFN-treated and control diets. Expression of two genes encoding chitin synthase 2, and chitin binding protein, was altered in adults exposed to dietary LFN. LFN treatments also led to increased expression of two odorant binding proteins one in females and one in males. We surmise these data support our hypothesis and provide insight into LFN actions. PMID:24753137

  6. Cold tolerance and disinfestation of Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) in 'Hass' avocado.

    PubMed

    Ware, A B; Du Toit, C L N; Mohamed, S A; Nderitu, P W; Ekasi, S

    2012-12-01

    Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) has spread rapidly across Africa and currently poses a phytosanitary threat to the fruit industry of South Africa. In reaction a cold mitigating treatment to provide phytosanitary security to importing countries was developed in Nairobi, Kenya. Using laboratory reared fruit flies, the rate of development in 'Hass' avocado (Persea americana Miller) was determined at 28 degrees C. Fruit ripeness or softness was found to be a factor improving larval fruit fly survival. Using this information the egg and larval developmental stages were subjected to 2 degrees C cold treatment and it was found that the third instars were the most cold tolerant life stage and that it was expected that between 16 and 17 d treatment would provide phytosanitary security. There were no survivors in the treatment of an estimated 153,001 individuals in four replicates at an average fruit pulp temperature of 2 degrees C satisfying the Probit 9 level of efficiency at a confidence of >95%. These data provide evidence that a continuous cold treatment of 1.5 degrees C or lower for 18 d would provide phytosanitary security in that any consignment entering an importing country poses no risk of accidental importation of B. invadens.

  7. Discovery of Chemosensory Genes in the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhongzhen; Zhang, He; Wang, Zhengbing; Bin, Shuying; He, Hualiang; Lin, Jintian

    2015-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a devastating fruit fly pest in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Like other insects, this fly uses its chemosensory system to efficiently interact with its environment. However, our understanding of the molecular components comprising B. dorsalis chemosensory system is limited. Using next generation sequencing technologies, we sequenced the transcriptome of four B. dorsalis developmental stages: egg, larva, pupa and adult chemosensory tissues. A total of 31 candidate odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 4 candidate chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 23 candidate odorant receptors (ORs), 11 candidate ionotropic receptors (IRs), 6 candidate gustatory receptors (GRs) and 3 candidate sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) were identified. The tissue distributions of the OBP and CSP transcripts were determined by RT-PCR and a subset of nine genes were further characterized. The predicted proteins from these genes shared high sequence similarity to Drosophila melanogaster pheromone binding protein related proteins (PBPRPs). Interestingly, one OBP (BdorOBP19c) was exclusively expressed in the sex pheromone glands of mature females. RT-PCR was also used to compare the expression of the candidate genes in the antennae of male and female B. dorsalis adults. These antennae-enriched OBPs, CSPs, ORs, IRs and SNMPs could play a role in the detection of pheromones and general odorants and thus could be useful target genes for the integrated pest management of B. dorsalis and other agricultural pests. PMID:26070069

  8. Purification of Colocasia esculenta lectin and determination of its anti-insect potential towards Bactrocera cucurbitae.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Kshema; Kaur, Manpreet; Kaur, Satwinder; Kaur, Amritpal; Kamboj, Sukhdev Singh; Singh, Jatinder

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports the purification of a lectin from Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott corms and evaluation of its anti-insect potential towards Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquilett). The lectin was found to be specific towards N-acetyl-D-lactosamine (LacNac), a disaccharide and asialofetuin, a desialylated serum glycoprotein in hemagglutination inhibition assay. Asialofetuin was used as a ligand to purify Colocasia esculenta agglutinin (CEA) by affinity chromatography. The purity of CEA was ascertained by the presence of a single band in reducing SDS-PAGE at pH 8.3. The affinity purified CEA was employed in artificial diet bioassay of second instar larvae (64-72 hr old) of the B. cucurbitae at concentrations ranging between 10-160 microg ml(-1). The lectin significantly (p < 0.01) decreased the percent pupation and emergence with respect to control. Effect on various enzymes was studied by employing LC50 (51.6 microg ml(-1)) CEA in the artificial diet bioassay of second instar larvae. All the enzymes tested namely esterases, phosphatases (acid and alkaline), superoxide dismutases, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase showed a significant (p < 0.01, p < 0.05) increase in their enzyme and specific activities. These results showed that CEA affected normal growth and development and presented stress to the larvae, activating their detoxification and anti-oxidant systems. Thus, the lectin seems to be a useful candidate for the control measures of B. cucurbitae under the integrated pest management (IPM) system. PMID:24006804

  9. Comparative proteomic analysis of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) in response to thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Wei, Dong; Jia, Fu-Xian; Tian, Chuan-Bei; Tian, Yi; Smagghe, Guy; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2015-03-01

    Temperature is one of the most important environmental variables affecting growth, reproduction and distribution of insects. The rise of comparative proteomics provides a powerful tool to explore the response in proteins to thermal stress. As an important worldwide pest, the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis causes severe economic losses to crops. To understand the response of B. dorsalis to thermal stress, we performed a comparative proteome analysis of this insect after exposure to extreme low and high temperatures using two-dimensional electrophoresis. Among the separated proteins, 51 diverse protein spots were present differently in response to extreme temperatures. Using tandem mass spectrometry sequencing analysis 39 proteins were successfully identified, which included 13 oxidoreductases, 10 binding proteins, 5 transferases, and 2 each of lyases, isomerases, ligases, and developmental proteins. Subsequently, the expression of these protein transcripts was studied by RT-qPCR to validate the proteomic results. In conclusion, this study provides a first look into the thermal stress response of B. dorsalis at the protein level, and thus it paves the way for further functional studies in the physiological mechanism related to thermal stress.

  10. Pupal diapause termination in Bactrocera minax: an insight on 20-hydroxyecdysone induced phenotypic and genotypic expressions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhenzhong; Dong, Yongcheng; Wang, Yaohui; Andongma, Awawing A.; Rashid, Muhammad A.; Krutmuang, Patcharin; Niu, Changying

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese citrus fruit fly, Bactrocera minax, is an economically important pest of citrus. It exhibits pupal diapause from November to May to combat harsh environmental conditions. Such a long pupal diapause is a barrier for laboratory rearing and development of control strategies against this pest. In the present study, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) was used to break pupal diapause of B. minax by topical application. After diapause termination by 20E treated, the pupal ontogenetic processes were observed along the temporal trajectory. The pupal response time to 20E was estimated by detecting the relative expression of 20E responsive genes at different times after 20E-treatment. Results revealed that 20E could effectively terminate the pupal diapause in a dose-dependent manner and significantly shorten the time for 50% adult emergence (Et50). 20E response genes, including ecr, broad and foxo, were up-regulated within 72h, indicating these genes are involved in pupal metamorphosis and diapause termination processes. Morphological changes showed the pupal metamorphosis began ~7 days after 20E-treatment at 22 °C. This study does not only pave the way for artificial rearing in the laboratory through manipulating of pupal diapause termination, but also deepens our understanding of the underlying pupal diapause termination mechanism of B. minax. PMID:27273028

  11. Status of Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) in mango-producing areas of Arba Minch, southwestern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Massebo, Fekadu; Tefera, Zenebe

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera invadens, the Asian fruit fly, was first reported in Kenya in 2003, and it spread fast to most tropical countries in Africa. To our knowledge, there is no detailed data on the fruit damage and status of fruit flies in Arba Minch and elsewhere in Ethiopia. Hence, information on the species composition and pest status of the fruit fly species is urgent to plan management strategies in the area. Fruit flies were captured using male parapheromone-baited traps. Matured mango (Mangifera indica) fruits were collected from randomly selected mango trees and incubated individually in cages (15 by 15 by 15 cm) with sandy soil. B. invadens was the predominant (96%; 952 of 992) captured species and the only fruit fly species emerging from mango fruits incubated in the laboratory. The mean number of adult B. invadens emerging per mango fruit was 35.25, indicating that the species is the most devastating mango fruit fly in the area. The loss due to this species would be serious if no management strategies are implemented.

  12. Multiplex PCR in determination of Opiinae parasitoids of fruit flies, Bactrocera sp., infesting star fruit and guava.

    PubMed

    Shariff, S; Ibrahim, N J; Md-Zain, B M; Idris, A B; Suhana, Y; Roff, M N; Yaakop, S

    2014-01-23

    Malaysia is a tropical country that produces commercial fruits, including star fruits, Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidales: Oxalidaceae), and guavas, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae). There is a high demand for these fruits, and they are planted for both local consumption and export purposes. Unfortunately, there has been a gradual reduction of these fruits, which has been shown to be related to fruit fly infestation, especially from the Bactrocera species. Most parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae) are known as parasitoids of fruit fly larvae. In this study, star fruits and guavas infested by fruit fry larvae were collected from the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute. The parasitized larvae were reared under laboratory conditions until the emergence of adult parasitoids. Multiplex PCR was performed to determine the braconid species using two mitochondrial DNA markers, namely cytochrome oxidase subunit I and cytochrome b. Two benefits of using multiplex PCR are the targeted bands can be amplified simultaneously using the same reaction and the identification process of the braconid species can be done accurately and rapidly. The species of fruit flies were confirmed using the COI marker. The results obtained from our study show that Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Fopius arisanus (Sonan), and Pysttalia incisi (Silvestri) were parasitoids associated with Bactrocera carambolae (Drew and Hancock) (Diptera: Tephritidae) infested star fruits. Fopius arisanus was also the parasitoid associated with Bactrocera papayae (Drew and Hancock) infested guavas. Maximum parsimony was been constructed in Opiinae species to compare tree resolution between these two genes in differentiating among closely related species. The confirmation of the relationship between braconids and fruit fly species is very important, recognized as preliminary data, and highly necessary in biological control programs.

  13. Multiplex PCR in Determination of Opiinae Parasitoids of Fruit Flies, Bactrocera sp., Infesting Star Fruit and Guava

    PubMed Central

    Shariff, S.; Ibrahim, N. J.; Md-Zain, B. M.; Idris, A. B.; Suhana, Y.; Roff, M. N.; Yaakop, S.

    2014-01-01

    Malaysia is a tropical country that produces commercial fruits, including star fruits, Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidales: Oxalidaceae), and guavas, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae). There is a high demand for these fruits, and they are planted for both local consumption and export purposes. Unfortunately, there has been a gradual reduction of these fruits, which has been shown to be related to fruit fly infestation, especially from the Bactrocera species. Most parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae) are known as parasitoids of fruit fly larvae. In this study, star fruits and guavas infested by fruit fry larvae were collected from the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute. The parasitized larvae were reared under laboratory conditions until the emergence of adult parasitoids. Multiplex PCR was performed to determine the braconid species using two mitochondrial DNA markers, namely cytochrome oxidase subunit I and cytochrome b. Two benefits of using multiplex PCR are the targeted bands can be amplified simultaneously using the same reaction and the identification process of the braconid species can be done accurately and rapidly. The species of fruit flies were confirmed using the COI marker. The results obtained from our study show that Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Fopius arisanus (Sonan), and Pysttalia incisi (Silvestri) were parasitoids associated with Bactrocera carambolae (Drew and Hancock) (Diptera: Tephritidae) infested star fruits. Fopius arisanus was also the parasitoid associated with Bactrocera papayae (Drew and Hancock) infested guavas. Maximum parsimony was been constructed in Opiinae species to compare tree resolution between these two genes in differentiating among closely related species. The confirmation of the relationship between braconids and fruit fly species is very important, recognized as preliminary data, and highly necessary in biological control programs. PMID

  14. Attraction and mortality of Bactrocera dorsalis to STATIC Spinosad ME weathered under operational conditions in California and Florida: A reduced-risk male annihilation treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted in 2013 in Hawaii, USA, to quantify attraction, feeding, and mortality of male oriental fruit flies, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)(Diptera: Tephritidae), to a reduced risk male annihilation treatment(MAT)formulation consisting of an amorphous polymer matrix in combination with...

  15. Di- and Tri-flourinated analogs of methyl eugenol: attractiveness to and metabolism in the oriental fruit fly, bactrocera dorsalis (hendel)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), males are highly 1 attracted to the natural phenylpropanoid methyl eugenol (ME). They compulsively feed on ME and metabolize it to ring and side-chain hydroxylated compounds that have both pheromonal and allomonal properties. Previously, we demonstra...

  16. Development of liquid larval diet with modified rearing system for Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera:Tephritidae) for the application of sterile insect technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A liquid larval diet and its rearing system have been developed for mass rearing of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) in Hawaii. Rearing facility in Institute of Food and Radiation Biology, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Dhaka, Bangladesh, modified protein source from brewer's yeast to a combinat...

  17. Melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae), infestation in host fruits in the Southwestern Islands of Japan before the initiation of Island-wide population suppression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) is a tephritid fruit fly native to the Indo-Malayan region. Its distribution, though, has extended to include Africa, temperate Asia, and a number of Pacific islands. It became established in Japan in 1919 in the Yaeyama Islands and spread north in the Southwestern...

  18. Comparison of in vitro heat and cold tolerances of the new invasive species Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) with three known tephritids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta and White has been invading central Africa attacking a variety of fruits. Quarantines are placed on fruits that might be considered hosts. The only phytosanitary treatment that is commercially available is an ionizing irradiation generic treatment for Tephritidae ...

  19. Insecticidal Activity of Basil Oil, trans-Anethole, Estragole, and Linalool to Adults of Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, and B. cucurbitae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pest tephritid fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and B. cucurbitae (Cocquillett) are among the species of economic significance. Their management has primarily relied on the use of food baits, male attractants and their combinations with insecticides. Basil o...

  20. Characterizing the developmental transcriptome of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) through comparative genomic analysis with Drosophila melanogaster utilizing modENCODE datasets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is an important pest of fruit and vegetable crops throughout Asia, and is considered a high risk pest for establishment in the mainland United States. It is a member of the family Tephritidae, which are the most agriculturally important family ...

  1. Classical biological control of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera olea (Diptera: Tephritidae), using the exotic parasitoie, Psyttalia lounsburyi (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in France.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is an important pest of olives which is worldwide distributed and responsible for economic losses of approximately US$800 million per year. Since the 2000s both economical and environmental concerns have raised interested in clas...

  2. Including climate change in pest risk assessment: the peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Ni, W L; Li, Z H; Chen, H J; Wan, F H; Qu, W W; Zhang, Z; Kriticos, D J

    2012-04-01

    Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) is one of the most harmful species of Tephritidae. It causes extensive damage in Asia and threatens many countries located along or near the Mediterranean Sea. The climate mapping program, CLIMEX 3.0, and the GIS software, ArcGIS 9.3, were used to model the current and future potential geographical distribution of B. zonata. The model predicts that, under current climatic conditions, B. zonata will be able to establish itself throughout much of the tropics and subtropics, including some parts of the USA, southern China, southeastern Australia and northern New Zealand. Climate change scenarios for the 2070s indicate that the potential distribution of B. zonata will expand poleward into areas which are currently too cold. The main factors limiting the pest's range expansion are cold, hot and dry stress. The model's predictions of the numbers of generations produced annually by B. zonata were consistent with values previously recorded for the pest's occurrence in Egypt. The ROC curve and the AUC (an AUC of 0.912) were obtained to evaluate the performance of the CLIMEX model in this study. The analysis of this information indicated a high degree of accuracy for the CLIMEX model. The significant increases in the potential distribution of B. zonata projected under the climate change scenarios considered in this study suggest that biosecurity authorities should consider the effects of climate change when undertaking pest risk assessments. To prevent the introduction and spread of B. zonata, enhanced quarantine and monitoring measures should be implemented in areas that are projected to be suitable for the establishment of the pest under current and future climatic conditions.

  3. Functional characterization of an α-esterase gene involving malathion detoxification in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    PubMed

    Wang, Luo-Luo; Lu, Xue-Ping; Meng, Li-Wei; Huang, Yong; Wei, Dong; Jiang, Hong-Bo; Smagghe, Guy; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2016-06-01

    Extensive use of insecticides in many orchards has prompted resistance development in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). In this study, a laboratory selected strain of B. dorsalis (MR) with a 21-fold higher resistance to malathion was used to examine the resistance mechanisms to this organophosphate insecticide. Carboxylesterase (CarE) was found to be involved in malathion resistance in B. dorsalis from the synergism bioassay by CarE-specific inhibitor triphenylphosphate (TPP). Molecular studies further identified a previously uncharacterized α-esterase gene, BdCarE2, that may function in the development of malathion resistance in B. dorsalis via gene upregulation. This gene is predominantly expressed in the Malpighian tubules, a key insect tissue for detoxification. The transcript levels of BdCarE2 were also compared between the MR and a malathion-susceptible (MS) strain of B. dorsalis, and it was significantly more abundant in the MR strain. No sequence mutation or gene copy changes were detected between the two strains. Functional studies using RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of BdCarE2 significantly increased the malathion susceptibility in the adult files. Furthermore, heterologous expression of BdCarE2 combined with cytotoxicity assay in Sf9 cells demonstrated that BdCarE2 could probably detoxify malathion. Taken together, the current study bring new molecular evidence supporting the involvement of CarE-mediated metabolism in resistance development against malathion in B. dorsalis and also provide bases on functional analysis of insect α-esterase associated with insecticide resistance. PMID:27155483

  4. Specific volatile compounds from mango elicit oviposition in gravid Bactrocera dorsalis females.

    PubMed

    Kamala Jayanthi, Pagadala D; Kempraj, Vivek; Aurade, Ravindra M; Venkataramanappa, Ravindra K; Nandagopal, Bakthavatsalam; Verghese, Abraham; Bruce, Toby J A

    2014-03-01

    Selecting a suitable oviposition site is crucial to the fitness of female insects because it determines the successful development of their offspring. During the oviposition process, an insect must use cues from the external environment to make an appropriate choice of where to lay eggs. Generalist insects can detect and react to a plethora of cues, but are under selection pressure to adopt the most reliable ones to override noise and increase efficiency in finding hosts. The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), is a generalist that utilizes a multitude of fruits as oviposition sites. However, the identity and nature of oviposition stimulants for B. dorsalis is not well known. Recently, we identified a volatile compound γ-octalactone that elicits an innate oviposition response in B. dorsalis. We screened 21 EAD-active volatiles, identified from mango, for their oviposition stimulant activity. 1-Octen-3-ol, ethyl tiglate, and benzothiazole instigated oviposition in gravid B. dorsalis females. Flies deposited most of their eggs into pulp discs with oviposition-stimulants, and only a small fraction of eggs were laid into control discs. In a binary choice oviposition assay, 95.1, 93.7, and 65.6 % of eggs were laid in discs treated with 1-octen-3-ol, ethyl tiglate, and benzothiazole, respectively. Single plate two-choice assays proved that oviposition-stimulants were crucial in oviposition site selection by gravid female B. dorsalis. In simulated semi-natural assays, gravid B. dorsalis females accurately differentiated between fruits with and without 1-octen-3-ol, ethyl tiglate, and γ-octalactone by laying more eggs on the treated fruit. However, benzothiazole did not elicit an increase in oviposition when presented in this context. Our results suggest that the identified oviposition-stimulants are 'key' compounds, which the flies associate with suitable oviposition sites. PMID:24623046

  5. Multigene Phylogeography of Bactrocera caudata (Insecta: Tephritidae): Distinct Genetic Lineages in Northern and Southern Hemispheres.

    PubMed

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Tan, Ji; Song, Sze-Looi; Suana, I Wayan; Eamsobhana, Praphathip

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera caudata is a pest of pumpkin flower. Specimens of B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (mainland Asia) and southern hemisphere (Indonesia) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of the nuclear 28S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS-2) genes, and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) and 16S rRNA genes. The COI, COII, 16S rDNA and concatenated COI+COII+16S and COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences revealed that B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (Peninsular Malaysia, East Malaysia, Thailand) was distinctly different from the southern hemisphere (Indonesia: Java, Bali and Lombok), without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades (northern and southern hemispheres), indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected 'p' distance for the concatenated COI+COII+16S nucleotide sequences between the taxa from the northern and southern hemispheres ('p' = 4.46-4.94%) was several folds higher than the 'p' distance for the taxa in the northern hemisphere ('p' = 0.00-0.77%) and the southern hemisphere ('p' = 0.00%). This distinct difference was also reflected by concatenated COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences with an uncorrected 'p' distance of 2.34-2.69% between the taxa of northern and southern hemispheres. In accordance with the type locality the Indonesian taxa belong to the nominal species. Thus the taxa from the northern hemisphere, if they were to constitute a cryptic species of the B. caudata species complex based on molecular data, need to be formally described as a new species. The Thailand and Malaysian B. caudata populations in the northern hemisphere showed distinct genetic structure and phylogeographic pattern.

  6. Insecticide toxicity to oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) is influenced by environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuying; Jin, Tao; Zeng, Ling; Lu, Yongyue

    2013-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of environmental factors (temperature, dose, dietary source, and feeding density) on the insecticide tolerance of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae). The results indicated that the toxicities of trichlorphon and abamectin to B. dorsalis increased with an increase in temperature. At 15-35 degrees C, the toxicity of beta-cypermethrin decreased with an increase in temperature at low doses (0.82 and 1.86 mg/L), but was similar at a high dose (4.18 mg/L). These results demonstrated that the temperature coefficient of beta-cypermethrin was related to both temperature and dosage. The insecticide sensitivity of B. dorsalis reared on different dietary sources was significantly different. Trichlorphon sensitivity of B. dorsalis fed on banana was the highest with an LC50 of 1.61 mg/L, followed by on apple, carambola, semiartificial diet, pear, mango, guava, orange, and papaya. With an increasing feeding density, the sensitivity of B. dorsalis adults to trichlorphon increased, while the sensitivities of B. dorsalis adults to abamectin and beta-cypermethrin decreased. The differences between LC50 values of insects reared at densities of 10 and 13 eggs/g of semiartificial diet to trichlorphon, abamectin and beta-cypermethrin were not significant. This result suggested that representative toxicity could be obtained by using adults developed at a feeding density between 10-13 eggs/g of semiartificial diet. Adult body weight was positively correlated with the LC50 value of trichlorphon, but was negatively correlated with the toxicities of abamectin and beta-cypermethrin. These results suggested that the effects of adult body weight on the toxicity of insecticides were different among different chemicals.

  7. Identification of a carboxylesterase associated with resistance to naled in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    PubMed

    Hsu, Po-Kai; Huang, Li-Hsin; Geib, Scott M; Hsu, Ju-Chun

    2016-07-01

    Compared to other organophosphate-resistant and -susceptible (S) lines of Bactrocera dorsalis, the carboxylesterase (CBE) BdE5 in the naled-resistant (nal-r) line has been found to possess remarkable quantitative elevation. Our study attempts to identify the role of BdE5 in naled resistance, and we discovered several points of interest. Firstly, activity staining on native PAGE revealed that the percentage of flies with intensive BdE5 bands in the nal-r line was substantially higher than in the S line, indicating that the BdE5 band correlates with naled susceptibility. Secondly, in vitro and in vivo inhibition assays showed that BdE5 was inhibited by naled in both lines; under diagnostic doses of naled, the overall extent of inhibition on CBEs was much greater in the S line than in the nal-r line. Thirdly, NanoLC-nanoESi-MS/MS analysis used the NCBI database to identify and annotate BdE5 as an esterase FE4-like (XP_011200445.1) in B. dorsalis. Fourthly, rapid amplification of cDNA ends was used to obtain the 2012-bp full-length BdE5 cDNA, which contained an open reading frame of 1770bp and encoded a putative protein of 590 amino acid residues. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that BdE5 is a secreted β-esterase (E clade) closely related to CG6414 (NP_570089), a CBE in Drosophila melanogaster. Finally, our relative quantification real-time PCR data showed a significant elevation in transcript levels of the BdE5 gene in nal-r line. Our results confirmed that BdE5 is correlated with naled resistance and provides further understanding about the identification and molecular characteristics of BdE5 in B. dorsalis. PMID:27265823

  8. Inheritance, Realized Heritability, and Biochemical Mechanisms of Malathion Resistance in Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Luo-Luo; Feng, Zi-Jiao; Li, Ting; Lu, Xue-Ping; Zhao, Jia-Jia; Niu, Jin-Zhi; Smagghe, Guy; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2016-02-01

    To better characterize the resistance development and therefore establish effective pest management strategies, this study was undertaken to investigate the inheritance mode and biochemical mechanisms of malathion resistance in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), which is one of the most notorious pests in the world. After 22 generations of selection with malathion, the malathion-resistant (MR) strain of B. dorsalis developed a 34-fold resistance compared with a laboratory susceptible strain [malathion-susceptible (MS)]. Bioassay results showed that there was no significant difference between the LD50 values of malathion against the progenies from both reciprocal crosses (F(1)-SR and F(1)-RS). The degree of dominance values (D) was calculated as 0.39 and 0.32 for F(1)-RS and F(1)-SR, respectively. The logarithm dosage-probit mortality lines of the F(2) generation and progeny from the backcross showed no clear plateaus of mortality across a range of doses. In addition, Chi-square analysis revealed significant differences between the mortality data and the theoretical expectations. The realized heritability (h(2)) value was 0.16 in the laboratory-selected resistant strain of B. dorsalis. Enzymatic activities identified significant changes of carboxylesterases, cytochrome P450 (general oxidases), and glutathione S-transferases in MR compared with the MS strain of B. dorsalis. Taken together, this study revealed for the first time that malathion resistance in B. dorsalis follows an autosomal, incompletely dominant, and polygenic mode of inheritance and is closely associated with significantly elevated activities of three major detoxification enzymes. PMID:26362988

  9. The melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae: A review of its biology and management

    PubMed Central

    Dhillon, M.K.; Singh, Ram; Naresh, J.S.; Sharma, H.C.

    2005-01-01

    The melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is distributed widely in temperate, tropical, and sub-tropical regions of the world. It has been reported to damage 81 host plants and is a major pest of cucurbitaceous vegetables, particularly the bitter gourd (Momordica charantia), muskmelon (Cucumis melo), snap melon (C. melo var. momordica), and snake gourd (Trichosanthes anguina). The extent of losses vary between 30 to 100%, depending on the cucurbit species and the season. Its abundance increases when the temperatures fall below 32° C, and the relative humidity ranges between 60 to 70%. It prefers to infest young, green, soft-skinned fruits. It inserts the eggs 2 to 4 mm deep in the fruit tissues, and the maggots feed inside the fruit. Pupation occurs in the soil at 0.5 to 15 cm below the soil surface. Keeping in view the importance of the pest and crop, melon fruit fly management could be done using local area management and wide area management. The melon fruit fly can successfully be managed over a local area by bagging fruits, field sanitation, protein baits, cue-lure traps, growing fruit fly-resistant genotypes, augmentation of biocontrol agents, and soft insecticides. The wide area management program involves the coordination of different characteristics of an insect eradication program (including local area options) over an entire area within a defensible perimeter, and subsequently protected against reinvasion by quarantine controls. Although, the sterile insect technique has been successfully used in wide area approaches, this approach needs to use more sophisticated and powerful technologies in eradication programs such as insect transgenesis and geographical information systems, which could be deployed over a wide area. Various other options for the management of fruit fly are also discussed in relation to their bio-efficacy and economics for effective management of this pest. PMID:17119622

  10. Inheritance, Realized Heritability, and Biochemical Mechanisms of Malathion Resistance in Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Luo-Luo; Feng, Zi-Jiao; Li, Ting; Lu, Xue-Ping; Zhao, Jia-Jia; Niu, Jin-Zhi; Smagghe, Guy; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2016-02-01

    To better characterize the resistance development and therefore establish effective pest management strategies, this study was undertaken to investigate the inheritance mode and biochemical mechanisms of malathion resistance in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), which is one of the most notorious pests in the world. After 22 generations of selection with malathion, the malathion-resistant (MR) strain of B. dorsalis developed a 34-fold resistance compared with a laboratory susceptible strain [malathion-susceptible (MS)]. Bioassay results showed that there was no significant difference between the LD50 values of malathion against the progenies from both reciprocal crosses (F(1)-SR and F(1)-RS). The degree of dominance values (D) was calculated as 0.39 and 0.32 for F(1)-RS and F(1)-SR, respectively. The logarithm dosage-probit mortality lines of the F(2) generation and progeny from the backcross showed no clear plateaus of mortality across a range of doses. In addition, Chi-square analysis revealed significant differences between the mortality data and the theoretical expectations. The realized heritability (h(2)) value was 0.16 in the laboratory-selected resistant strain of B. dorsalis. Enzymatic activities identified significant changes of carboxylesterases, cytochrome P450 (general oxidases), and glutathione S-transferases in MR compared with the MS strain of B. dorsalis. Taken together, this study revealed for the first time that malathion resistance in B. dorsalis follows an autosomal, incompletely dominant, and polygenic mode of inheritance and is closely associated with significantly elevated activities of three major detoxification enzymes.

  11. Multigene Phylogeography of Bactrocera caudata (Insecta: Tephritidae): Distinct Genetic Lineages in Northern and Southern Hemispheres

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Tan, Ji; Song, Sze-Looi; Suana, I Wayan; Eamsobhana, Praphathip

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera caudata is a pest of pumpkin flower. Specimens of B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (mainland Asia) and southern hemisphere (Indonesia) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of the nuclear 28S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS-2) genes, and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) and 16S rRNA genes. The COI, COII, 16S rDNA and concatenated COI+COII+16S and COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences revealed that B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (Peninsular Malaysia, East Malaysia, Thailand) was distinctly different from the southern hemisphere (Indonesia: Java, Bali and Lombok), without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades (northern and southern hemispheres), indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected ‘p’ distance for the concatenated COI+COII+16S nucleotide sequences between the taxa from the northern and southern hemispheres (‘p’ = 4.46-4.94%) was several folds higher than the ‘p’ distance for the taxa in the northern hemisphere (‘p’ = 0.00-0.77%) and the southern hemisphere (‘p’ = 0.00%). This distinct difference was also reflected by concatenated COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences with an uncorrected 'p' distance of 2.34-2.69% between the taxa of northern and southern hemispheres. In accordance with the type locality the Indonesian taxa belong to the nominal species. Thus the taxa from the northern hemisphere, if they were to constitute a cryptic species of the B. caudata species complex based on molecular data, need to be formally described as a new species. The Thailand and Malaysian B. caudata populations in the northern hemisphere showed distinct genetic structure and phylogeographic pattern. PMID:26090853

  12. Multigene Phylogeography of Bactrocera caudata (Insecta: Tephritidae): Distinct Genetic Lineages in Northern and Southern Hemispheres.

    PubMed

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Tan, Ji; Song, Sze-Looi; Suana, I Wayan; Eamsobhana, Praphathip

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera caudata is a pest of pumpkin flower. Specimens of B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (mainland Asia) and southern hemisphere (Indonesia) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of the nuclear 28S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS-2) genes, and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) and 16S rRNA genes. The COI, COII, 16S rDNA and concatenated COI+COII+16S and COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences revealed that B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (Peninsular Malaysia, East Malaysia, Thailand) was distinctly different from the southern hemisphere (Indonesia: Java, Bali and Lombok), without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades (northern and southern hemispheres), indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected 'p' distance for the concatenated COI+COII+16S nucleotide sequences between the taxa from the northern and southern hemispheres ('p' = 4.46-4.94%) was several folds higher than the 'p' distance for the taxa in the northern hemisphere ('p' = 0.00-0.77%) and the southern hemisphere ('p' = 0.00%). This distinct difference was also reflected by concatenated COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences with an uncorrected 'p' distance of 2.34-2.69% between the taxa of northern and southern hemispheres. In accordance with the type locality the Indonesian taxa belong to the nominal species. Thus the taxa from the northern hemisphere, if they were to constitute a cryptic species of the B. caudata species complex based on molecular data, need to be formally described as a new species. The Thailand and Malaysian B. caudata populations in the northern hemisphere showed distinct genetic structure and phylogeographic pattern. PMID:26090853

  13. Identification and Expression Profile Analysis of Odorant Binding Proteins in the Oriental Fruit Fly Bactrocera dorsalis

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Weiwei; Peng, Wei; Zhu, Chipan; Zhang, Qun; Saccone, Giuseppe; Zhang, Hongyu

    2013-01-01

    Olfaction is crucial in many insects for critical behaviors, including those regulating survival and reproduction. Insect odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) function in the first step of the olfactory system and play an essential role in the perception of odorants, such as pheromones and host chemicals. The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a destructive fruit-eating pest, due to its wide host range of up to 250 different types of fruits and vegetables, and this fly causes severe economic damage to the fruit and vegetable industry. However, OBP genes have not been largely identified in B. dorsalis. Based on our previously constructed B. dorsalis cDNA library, ten OBP genes were identified in B. dorsalis for the first time. A phylogenetic tree was generated to show the relationships among the 10 OBPs of B. dorsalis to OBP sequences of two other Dipteran species, including Drosophila melanogaster and the mosquito Anopheles gambiae. The expression profiles of the ten OBPs in different tissues (heads, thoraxes, abdomens, legs, wings, male antennae and female antenna) of the mated adults were analyzed by real-time PCR. The results showed that nine of them are highly expressed in the antenna of both sexes, except BdorOBP7. Four OBPs (BdorOBP1, BdorOBP4, BdorOBP8, and BdorOBP10) are also enriched in the abdomen, and BdorOBP7 is specifically expressed in leg, indicating that it may function in other biological processes. This work will provide insight into the roles of OBPs in chemoreception and help develop new pest-control strategies. PMID:23867609

  14. Molecular interactions between the olive and the fruit fly Bactrocera oleae

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The fruit fly Bactrocera oleae is the primary biotic stressor of cultivated olives, causing direct and indirect damages that significantly reduce both the yield and the quality of olive oil. To study the olive-B. oleae interaction, we conducted transcriptomic and proteomic investigations of the molecular response of the drupe. The identifications of genes and proteins involved in the fruit response were performed using a Suppression Subtractive Hybridisation technique and a combined bi-dimensional electrophoresis/nanoLC-ESI-LIT-MS/MS approach, respectively. Results We identified 196 ESTs and 26 protein spots as differentially expressed in olives with larval feeding tunnels. A bioinformatic analysis of the identified non-redundant EST and protein collection indicated that different molecular processes were affected, such as stress response, phytohormone signalling, transcriptional control and primary metabolism, and that a considerable proportion of the ESTs could not be classified. The altered expression of 20 transcripts was also analysed by real-time PCR, and the most striking differences were further confirmed in the fruit of a different olive variety. We also cloned the full-length coding sequences of two genes, Oe-chitinase I and Oe-PR27, and showed that these are wound-inducible genes and activated by B. oleae punctures. Conclusions This study represents the first report that reveals the molecular players and signalling pathways involved in the interaction between the olive fruit and its most damaging biotic stressor. Drupe response is complex, involving genes and proteins involved in photosynthesis as well as in the production of ROS, the activation of different stress response pathways and the production of compounds involved in direct defence against phytophagous larvae. Among the latter, trypsin inhibitors should play a major role in drupe resistance reaction. PMID:22694925

  15. Methoprene application and diet protein supplementation to male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, modifies female remating behavior

    PubMed Central

    ul Haq, Ihsan; Vreysen, Marc J B; Teal, P E A; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Methoprene (an analogue of juvenile hormone) application and feeding on a protein diet is known to enhance male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), mating success. In this study, we investigated the effect of these treatments on male B. cucurbitae's ability to inhibit female remating. While 14-d-old females were fed on protein diet, 6-d-old males were exposed to one of the following treatments: (i) topical application of methoprene and fed on a protein diet; (ii) no methoprene but fed on a protein diet; (iii) methoprene and sugar-fed only; and (iv) sugar-fed, 14-d-old males acted as controls. Treatments had no effect on a male's ability to depress the female remating receptivity in comparison to the control. Females mated with protein-deprived males showed higher remating receptivity than females first mated with protein-fed males. Methoprene and protein diet interaction had a positive effect on male mating success during the first and second mating of females. Significantly more females first mated with sugar-fed males remated with protein-fed males and females first mated with methoprene treated and protein-fed males were more likely to remate with similarly treated males. Females mating latency (time to start mating) was significantly shorter with protein-fed males, and mating duration was significantly longer with protein-fed males compared with protein-deprived males. These results are discussed in the context of methoprene and/or dietary protein as prerelease treatment of sterile males in area-wide control of melon fly integrating the sterile insect technique (SIT). PMID:24376160

  16. Development of quality control procedures for mass produced and released Bactrocera Philippinensis (Diptera: Tephritidae) for sterile insect technique programs

    SciTech Connect

    Resilva, S.; Obra, G.; Zamora, N.; Gaitan, E.

    2007-03-15

    Quality control procedures for Bactrocera philippinensis Drew and Hancock 1994 (Diptera: Tephritidae) used in sterile insect technique (SIT) programs were established in the mass rearing facility at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute. Basic studies on pupal irradiation, holding/packaging systems, shipping procedures, longevity, sterility studies, and pupal eye color determination in relation to physiological development at different temperature regimes were investigated. These studies will provide baseline data for the development of quality control protocols for an expansion of B. philippinensis field programs with an SIT component in the future. (author) [Spanish] Los procedimientos de control de calidad para Bactrocera philippinensis Drew y Hancock 1994 (Diptera: Tephritidae) usados en programas de la tecnica de insecto esteril (TIE) fueron establecidos en la facilidad de cria en masa del Instituto Filipino de Investigacion Nuclear. Estudios basicos sobre la irradiacion de las pupas, sistemas de almacenaje/empaque, procedimientos del envio, longevidad, estudios de esterilidad y la determinacion del color de ojo de la pupa en relacion con el desarrollo fisiologico en regimenes diferentes de temperatura fueron investigados. Estos estudios proveeran una linea de informacion basica para el desarrollo de protocolos de control de calidad para una expansion de los programas de campo para B. philippinensis con un componente de TIS en el futuro. (author)

  17. Determination of Opiinae parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associated with crop infesting Bactrocera spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) using COI and Cyt b sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shariff, Safiah; Yaakop, Salmah; Zain, Badrul Munir Md.

    2013-11-01

    Members of the Opiinae subfamily (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are well known as important parasitoids of fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae). They are widely used as biological control agents of fruit flies, especially the Bactrocera Macquart species that infest fruits. In this study, the larvae of fruit flies were collected from infested crops including star fruit, guava, wax apple and ridge gourd. The parasitized larvae were then reared under laboratory conditions until emergence of the adult parasitoids. Additionally, Malaise trap also was used to collect parasitoid species. The general concept of the multiplex PCR has been performed is to amplify two mitochondrial DNA markers, namely cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and cytochrome b (Cyt b) simultaneously. Therefore, the lengthy process of reaction will be reduced. The status of the fruit fly species has also been confirmed by using COI marker on the early stage of the larvae. Maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian Inference (BI) were implemented to help and support the identification of Opiinae species. The result obtained from this study showed three parasitoid genera of the Opiinae viz. Fopius Wharton, Psyttalia Walker and Diachasmimorpha Viereck. Each genus has been determined by clustering together in a similar clade according to their infested crops. Therefore, accurate determination of parasitoids and the fruit fries species was highly useful and necessary for successful biological control of Bactrocera species.

  18. Bacterial Communities in the Gut and Reproductive Organs of Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Tephritidae) Based on 454 Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Weiwei; Zhang, Hongyu

    2014-01-01

    The citrus fruit fly Bactrocera minax is associated with diverse bacterial communities. We used a 454 pyrosequencing technology to study in depth the microbial communities associated with gut and reproductive organs of Bactrocera minax. Our dataset consisted of 100,749 reads with an average length of 400 bp. The saturated rarefaction curves and species richness indices indicate that the sampling was comprehensive. We found highly diverse bacterial communities, with individual sample containing approximately 361 microbial operational taxonomic units (OTUs). A total of 17 bacterial phyla were obtained from the flies. A phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA revealed that Proteobacteria was dominant in all samples (75%–95%). Actinobacteria and Firmicutes were also commonly found in the total clones. Klebsiella, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, and Serratia were the major genera. However, bacterial diversity (Chao1, Shannon and Simpson indices) and community structure (PCA analysis) varied across samples. Female ovary has the most diverse bacteria, followed by male testis, and the bacteria diversity of reproductive organs is richer than that of the gut. The observed variation can be caused by sex and tissue, possibly to meet the host's physiological demands. PMID:25215866

  19. Bacterial communities in the gut and reproductive organs of Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Tephritidae) based on 454 pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ailin; Yao, Zhichao; Zheng, Weiwei; Zhang, Hongyu

    2014-01-01

    The citrus fruit fly Bactrocera minax is associated with diverse bacterial communities. We used a 454 pyrosequencing technology to study in depth the microbial communities associated with gut and reproductive organs of Bactrocera minax. Our dataset consisted of 100,749 reads with an average length of 400 bp. The saturated rarefaction curves and species richness indices indicate that the sampling was comprehensive. We found highly diverse bacterial communities, with individual sample containing approximately 361 microbial operational taxonomic units (OTUs). A total of 17 bacterial phyla were obtained from the flies. A phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA revealed that Proteobacteria was dominant in all samples (75%-95%). Actinobacteria and Firmicutes were also commonly found in the total clones. Klebsiella, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, and Serratia were the major genera. However, bacterial diversity (Chao1, Shannon and Simpson indices) and community structure (PCA analysis) varied across samples. Female ovary has the most diverse bacteria, followed by male testis, and the bacteria diversity of reproductive organs is richer than that of the gut. The observed variation can be caused by sex and tissue, possibly to meet the host's physiological demands.

  20. Abundance of African invader fly, Bactrocera invadens drew, tsuruta and white (diptera: tephritidae) and influence of weather parameters on trap catches in mango in the Volta region of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Adzim, Charles Amankwa; Billah, Maxwell Kelvin; Afreh-Nuamah, Kwame

    2016-01-01

    The seasonal abundance of African Invader fly, Bactrocera invadens and the influence of temperature and rainfall on fly catches was determined in two agro ecological zones; moist semi-deciduous forest area and the coastal grassland area of the Volta Region of Ghana for year of mango production. Traps containing methyl eugenol were used in monitoring the abundance of the Africa invader fly, Bactrocera invadens where data on both temperature and rainfall were collected from Meteorological Services of Ghana in Volta region. A total of 49,322 organisms captured, 45,829 were identified as Bactrocera invadens and 3493 were non-fruit fly. There were significant differences (p < 0.05) in the number of Bactrocera invadens captured between the agro ecological zones with relative fly densities of 5.06 F/T/D in moist semi deciduous forest area and 2.38 F/T/D in the coastal grassland zone. The result shows that climatic factors affected Bactrocera invadens differently in different agro ecological area. There was negative correlation and highly significant (p < 0.001) correlation between fruit flies and temperature whereas there was negative correlation and high significant (p < 0.01) difference between rainfall in the moist semi deciduous forest area. In the coastal grassland area, there was negative correlation and highly significant (p < 0.001) between Bactrocera invadens for both rainfall and temperature. Bactrocera invadens activities peaked differently during the study period due to favourable climatic conditions. The activities of Bactrocera invadens peaked during weeks 7 and 29 in the moist semi deciduous forest area while their activities peaked during weeks 3 and 24 for the coastal grassland areas. Both agro ecological zones recorded the presence of Bactrocera invadens, their number and proportion varied considerably with associated effects of the weather parameters on their abundance. The effect of weather parameters on the abundance of bactrocera invadens

  1. Abundance of African invader fly, Bactrocera invadens drew, tsuruta and white (diptera: tephritidae) and influence of weather parameters on trap catches in mango in the Volta region of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Adzim, Charles Amankwa; Billah, Maxwell Kelvin; Afreh-Nuamah, Kwame

    2016-01-01

    The seasonal abundance of African Invader fly, Bactrocera invadens and the influence of temperature and rainfall on fly catches was determined in two agro ecological zones; moist semi-deciduous forest area and the coastal grassland area of the Volta Region of Ghana for year of mango production. Traps containing methyl eugenol were used in monitoring the abundance of the Africa invader fly, Bactrocera invadens where data on both temperature and rainfall were collected from Meteorological Services of Ghana in Volta region. A total of 49,322 organisms captured, 45,829 were identified as Bactrocera invadens and 3493 were non-fruit fly. There were significant differences (p < 0.05) in the number of Bactrocera invadens captured between the agro ecological zones with relative fly densities of 5.06 F/T/D in moist semi deciduous forest area and 2.38 F/T/D in the coastal grassland zone. The result shows that climatic factors affected Bactrocera invadens differently in different agro ecological area. There was negative correlation and highly significant (p < 0.001) correlation between fruit flies and temperature whereas there was negative correlation and high significant (p < 0.01) difference between rainfall in the moist semi deciduous forest area. In the coastal grassland area, there was negative correlation and highly significant (p < 0.001) between Bactrocera invadens for both rainfall and temperature. Bactrocera invadens activities peaked differently during the study period due to favourable climatic conditions. The activities of Bactrocera invadens peaked during weeks 7 and 29 in the moist semi deciduous forest area while their activities peaked during weeks 3 and 24 for the coastal grassland areas. Both agro ecological zones recorded the presence of Bactrocera invadens, their number and proportion varied considerably with associated effects of the weather parameters on their abundance. The effect of weather parameters on the abundance of bactrocera invadens

  2. Characterization of a β-Adrenergic-Like Octopamine Receptor in the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    PubMed

    Li, Hui-Min; Jiang, Hong-Bo; Gui, Shun-Hua; Liu, Xiao-Qiang; Liu, Hong; Lu, Xue-Ping; Smagghe, Guy; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2016-09-22

    The biogenic amine octopamine plays a critical role in the regulation of many physiological processes in insects. Octopamine transmits its action through a set of specific G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), namely octopamine receptors. Here, we report on a β-adrenergic-like octopamine receptor gene (BdOctβR1) from the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), a destructive agricultural pest that occurs in North America and the Asia-Pacific region. As indicated by RT-qPCR, BdOctβR1 was highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and Malpighian tubules (MT) in the adult flies, suggesting it may undertake important roles in neural signaling in the CNS as well as physiological functions in the MT of this fly. Furthermore, its ligand specificities were tested in a heterologous expression system where BdOctβR1 was expressed in HEK-293 cells. Based on cyclic AMP response assays, we found that BdOctβR1 could be activated by octopamine in a concentration-dependent manner, confirming that this receptor was functional, while tyramine and dopamine had much less potency than octopamine. Naphazoline possessed the highest agonistic activity among the tested agonists. In antagonistic assays, mianserin had the strongest activity and was followed by phentolamine and chlorpromazine. Furthermore, when the flies were kept under starvation, there was a corresponding increase in the transcript level of BdOctβR1, while high or low temperature stress could not induce significant expression changes. The above results suggest that BdOctβR1 may be involved in the regulation of feeding processes in Bactrocera dorsalis and may provide new potential insecticide leads targeting octopamine receptors.

  3. Characterization of a β-Adrenergic-Like Octopamine Receptor in the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    PubMed

    Li, Hui-Min; Jiang, Hong-Bo; Gui, Shun-Hua; Liu, Xiao-Qiang; Liu, Hong; Lu, Xue-Ping; Smagghe, Guy; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2016-01-01

    The biogenic amine octopamine plays a critical role in the regulation of many physiological processes in insects. Octopamine transmits its action through a set of specific G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), namely octopamine receptors. Here, we report on a β-adrenergic-like octopamine receptor gene (BdOctβR1) from the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), a destructive agricultural pest that occurs in North America and the Asia-Pacific region. As indicated by RT-qPCR, BdOctβR1 was highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and Malpighian tubules (MT) in the adult flies, suggesting it may undertake important roles in neural signaling in the CNS as well as physiological functions in the MT of this fly. Furthermore, its ligand specificities were tested in a heterologous expression system where BdOctβR1 was expressed in HEK-293 cells. Based on cyclic AMP response assays, we found that BdOctβR1 could be activated by octopamine in a concentration-dependent manner, confirming that this receptor was functional, while tyramine and dopamine had much less potency than octopamine. Naphazoline possessed the highest agonistic activity among the tested agonists. In antagonistic assays, mianserin had the strongest activity and was followed by phentolamine and chlorpromazine. Furthermore, when the flies were kept under starvation, there was a corresponding increase in the transcript level of BdOctβR1, while high or low temperature stress could not induce significant expression changes. The above results suggest that BdOctβR1 may be involved in the regulation of feeding processes in Bactrocera dorsalis and may provide new potential insecticide leads targeting octopamine receptors. PMID:27669213

  4. Effects of laboratory colonization on Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera, Tephritidae) mating behaviour: ‘what a difference a year makes’

    PubMed Central

    Schutze, Mark K.; Dammalage, Thilak; Jessup, Andrew; Vreysen, Marc J.B.; Wornoayporn, Viwat; Clarke, Anthony R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Laboratory-reared insects are widely known to have significantly reduced genetic diversity in comparison to wild populations; however, subtle behavioural changes between laboratory-adapted and wild or ‘wildish’ (i.e., within one or very few generations of field collected material) populations are less well understood. Quantifying alterations in behaviour, particularly sexual, in laboratory-adapted insects is important for mass-reared insects for use in pest management strategies, especially those that have a sterile insect technique component. We report subtle changes in sexual behaviour between ‘wildish’ Bactrocera dorsalis flies (F1 and F2) from central and southern Thailand and the same colonies 12 months later when at six generations from wild. Mating compatibility tests were undertaken under standardised semi-natural conditions, with number of homo/heterotypic couples and mating location in field cages analysed via compatibility indices. Central and southern populations of Bactrocera dorsalis displayed positive assortative mating in the 2010 trials but mated randomly in the 2011 trials. ‘Wildish’ southern Thailand males mated significantly earlier than central Thailand males in 2010; this difference was considerably reduced in 2011, yet homotypic couples from southern Thailand still formed significantly earlier than all other couple combinations. There was no significant difference in couple location in 2010; however, couple location significantly differed among pair types in 2011 with those involving southern Thailand females occurring significantly more often on the tree relative to those with central Thailand females. Relative participation also changed with time, with more southern Thailand females forming couples relative to central Thailand females in 2010; this difference was considerably decreased by 2011. These results reveal how subtle changes in sexual behaviour, as driven by laboratory rearing conditions, may significantly

  5. High-Throughput Sequencing to Reveal Genes Involved in Reproduction and Development in Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Weiwei; Peng, Tao; He, Wei; Zhang, Hongyu

    2012-01-01

    Background Tephritid fruit flies in the genus Bactrocera are of major economic significance in agriculture causing considerable loss to the fruit and vegetable industry. Currently, there is no ideal control program. Molecular means is an effective method for pest control at present, but genomic or transcriptomic data for members of this genus remains limited. To facilitate molecular research into reproduction and development mechanisms, and finally effective control on these pests, an extensive transcriptome for the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis was produced using the Roche 454-FLX platform. Results We obtained over 350 million bases of cDNA derived from the whole body of B. dorsalis at different developmental stages. In a single run, 747,206 sequencing reads with a mean read length of 382 bp were obtained. These reads were assembled into 28,782 contigs and 169,966 singletons. The mean contig size was 750 bp and many nearly full-length transcripts were assembled. Additionally, we identified a great number of genes that are involved in reproduction and development as well as genes that represent nearly all major conserved metazoan signal transduction pathways, such as insulin signal transduction. Furthermore, transcriptome changes during development were analyzed. A total of 2,977 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected between larvae and pupae libraries, while there were 1,621 DEGs between adults and larvae, and 2,002 between adults and pupae. These DEGs were functionally annotated with KEGG pathway annotation and 9 genes were validated by qRT-PCR. Conclusion Our data represent the extensive sequence resources available for B. dorsalis and provide for the first time access to the genetic architecture of reproduction and development as well as major signal transduction pathways in the Tephritid fruit fly pests, allowing us to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying courtship, ovipositing, development and detailed analyses of the signal

  6. Characterization of a β-Adrenergic-Like Octopamine Receptor in the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui-Min; Jiang, Hong-Bo; Gui, Shun-Hua; Liu, Xiao-Qiang; Liu, Hong; Lu, Xue-Ping; Smagghe, Guy; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2016-01-01

    The biogenic amine octopamine plays a critical role in the regulation of many physiological processes in insects. Octopamine transmits its action through a set of specific G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), namely octopamine receptors. Here, we report on a β-adrenergic-like octopamine receptor gene (BdOctβR1) from the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), a destructive agricultural pest that occurs in North America and the Asia-Pacific region. As indicated by RT-qPCR, BdOctβR1 was highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and Malpighian tubules (MT) in the adult flies, suggesting it may undertake important roles in neural signaling in the CNS as well as physiological functions in the MT of this fly. Furthermore, its ligand specificities were tested in a heterologous expression system where BdOctβR1 was expressed in HEK-293 cells. Based on cyclic AMP response assays, we found that BdOctβR1 could be activated by octopamine in a concentration-dependent manner, confirming that this receptor was functional, while tyramine and dopamine had much less potency than octopamine. Naphazoline possessed the highest agonistic activity among the tested agonists. In antagonistic assays, mianserin had the strongest activity and was followed by phentolamine and chlorpromazine. Furthermore, when the flies were kept under starvation, there was a corresponding increase in the transcript level of BdOctβR1, while high or low temperature stress could not induce significant expression changes. The above results suggest that BdOctβR1 may be involved in the regulation of feeding processes in Bactrocera dorsalis and may provide new potential insecticide leads targeting octopamine receptors. PMID:27669213

  7. 76 FR 56730 - Determination of Pest-Free Areas in Australia; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... recognize additional areas as pest- free areas for Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) or Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni). After reviewing the documentation submitted in support of this... being free of Ceratitis capitata, the Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), and to recognize other areas...

  8. The mitochondrial genome of the peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) (Diptera: Tephritidae): Complete DNA sequence, genome organization, and phylogenetic analysis with other tephritids using next generation DNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Jaipal S; Naaz, Naiyar; Prabhakar, Chandra S; Rao, Mathukumalli Srinivasa; Das, Bikash

    2015-09-15

    Mitochondrial genome can provide information for genomic structure as well as for phylogenetic analysis and evolutionary biology. The complete 15,935 bp mitochondrial genome of Bactrocera zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae), is assembled from Illumina MiSeq read data. The mitogenome information for B. zonata was compared to the homologous sequences of other tephritids. Annotation indicated that the structure and orientation of 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA and 2 rRNA sequences were typical of, and similar to, the ten closely related tephritid species. The nucleotide composition shows heavily biased toward As and Ts accounting 73.34% and exhibits a slightly positive AT skew, which is similar to other known tephritid species. All PCGs are initiated by ATN codons, except for cox1 with TCG and atp8 with GTG. Nine PCGs use a common stop codon of TAA or TAG, whereas the remaining four use an incomplete termination codon T or TA likely to be completed by adenylation. All tRNAs have the typical clover-leaf structure, with an exception for trnS((AGN)). Four short intergenic spacers showed high degree of conservation among B. zonata and other ten tephritids. A poly(T) stretch at the 5' end followed by [TA(A)]n-like stretch and a tandem repeats of 39 bp has been observed in CR. The analysis of gene evolutionary rate revealed that the cox1 and atp6 exhibits lowest and highest gene substitution rates, respectively than other genes. The phylogenetic relationships based on Maximum Likelihood method using all protein-coding genes and two ribosomal RNA genes confirmed that B. zonata is closely related to Bactrocera correcta, Bactrocera carambolae, Bactrocera papayae, and Bactrocera philippinensis and Bactrocera dorsalis belonging to B. dorsalis species complex forms a monophyletic clade, which is in accordance with the traditional morphological classification and recent molecular works. PMID:26031235

  9. Genetic structure and colonization history of the fruit fly Bactrocera tau (Diptera: Tephritidae) in China and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Shi, W; Kerdelhué, C; Ye, H

    2014-06-01

    Bactrocera tau (Walker), a major invasive pest worldwide, was first described in Fujian (China) in 1849 and has dispersed to tropical and subtropical Asia and the South Pacific region. Few data are available on its colonization history and expansion processes. This pilot study attempted to reconstruct the colonization history and pathways of this pest in China and neighboring Southeast Asian countries based on mitochondrial DNA. Results of the study showed six genetic groups corresponding to geographical characteristics, although the pattern was relatively weak. Homogeneous genetic patterns were observed within southern and central China, and northern Vietnam. Continuous colonization from the coast of southern China to inland regions of China and northern Vietnam was suggested. Strong genetic structure was observed in western China, Thailand, and Laos. The isolation of four of the six groups was most probably attributable to major topographical barriers of western China. Yunnan acted as a contact zone of B. tau in China and neighboring Southeast Asia. The absence of isolation by distance and the overall low phylogeographic structure of B. tau suggested that long distance dispersal events and human activities could play a major role in the colonization and expansion patterns of B. tau. By analyzing the genetic diversity, gene flow, haplotype phylogeny, and demographic history of 23 fly populations, we hypothesized that B. tau could have been introduced long ago in southern China, from which it further expanded or that southern China could correspond to the native range of this species.

  10. Towards understanding temporal and spatial dynamics of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) infestations using decade-long agrometeorological time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchi, Susanna; Guidotti, Diego; Ricciolini, Massimo; Petacchi, Ruggero

    2016-04-01

    Insect dynamics depend on temperature patterns, and therefore, global warming may lead to increasing frequencies and intensities of insect outbreaks. The aim of this work was to analyze the dynamics of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), in Tuscany (Italy). We profited from long-term records of insect infestation and weather data available from the regional database and agrometeorological network. We tested whether the analysis of 13 years of monitoring campaigns can be used as basis for prediction models of B. oleae infestation. We related the percentage of infestation observed in the first part of the host-pest interaction and throughout the whole year to agrometeorological indices formulated for different time periods. A two-step approach was adopted to inspect the effect of weather on infestation: generalized linear model with a binomial error distribution and principal component regression to reduce the number of the agrometeorological factors and remove their collinearity. We found a consistent relationship between the degree of infestation and the temperature-based indices calculated for the previous period. The relationship was stronger with the minimum temperature of winter season. Higher infestation was observed in years following warmer winters. The temperature of the previous winter and spring explained 66 % of variance of early-season infestation. The temperature of previous winter and spring, and current summer, explained 72 % of variance of total annual infestation. These results highlight the importance of multiannual monitoring activity to fully understand the dynamics of B. oleae populations at a regional scale.

  11. The role of the transformer gene in sex determination and reproduction in the tephritid fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    PubMed

    Peng, Wei; Zheng, Wenping; Handler, Alfred M; Zhang, Hongyu

    2015-12-01

    Transformer (tra) is a switch gene in the somatic sex-determination hierarchy that regulates sexual dimorphism based on RNA splicing in many insects. In tephritids, a Y-linked male determining gene (M) controls sex in the sex-determination pathway. Here, homologues of Drosophila tra and transformer-2 (tra-2) genes were isolated and characterized in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), one of the most destructive agricultural insect pests in many Asian countries. Two male-specific and one female-specific isoforms of B. dorsalis transformer (Bdtra) were identified. The presence of multiple TRA/TRA-2 binding sites in Bdtra suggests that the TRA/TRA-2 proteins are splicing regulators promoting and maintaining, epigenetically, female sex determination by a tra positive feedback loop in XX individuals during development. The expression patterns of female-specific Bdtra transcripts during early embryogenesis shows that a peak appears at 15 h after egg laying. Using dsRNA to knock-down Bdtra expression in the embryo and adult stages, we showed that sexual formation is determined early in the embryo stage and that parental RNAi does not lead to the production of all male progeny as in Tribolium castaneum. RNAi results from adult abdominal dsRNA injections show that Bdtra has a positive influence on female yolk protein gene (Bdyp1) expression and fecundity.

  12. miR-8-3p regulates mitoferrin in the testes of Bactrocera dorsalis to ensure normal spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tariq, Kaleem; Metzendorf, Christoph; Peng, Wei; Sohail, Summar; Zhang, Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    Genetics-enhanced sterile insect techniques (SIT) are promising novel approaches to control Bactrocera dorsalis, the most destructive horticultural pest in East Asia and the Pacific region. To identify novel genetic agents to alter male fertility of B. dorsalis, previous studies investigated miRNA expression in testes of B. dorsalis. One miRNA, miR-8-3p was predicted to bind the 3′UTR of putative B. dorsalis mitoferrin (bmfrn). The ortholog of bmfrn in D. melanogaster is essential for male fertility. Here we show that bmfrn has all conserved amino acid residues of known mitoferrins and is most abundantly expressed in B. dorsalis testes, making miR-8-3p and mitoferrin candidates for genetics-enhanced SIT. Furthermore, using a dual-luciferase reporter system, we show in HeLa cells that miR-8-3p interacts with the 3′UTR of bmfrn. Dietary treatments of adult male flies with miR-8-3p mimic, antagomiR, or bmfrn dsRNA, altered mitoferrin expression in the testes and resulted in reduced male reproductive capacity due to reduced numbers and viability of spermatozoa. We show for the first time that a mitoferrin is regulated by a miRNA and we demonstrate miR-8-3p as well as bmfrn dsRNA to be promising novel agents that could be used for genetics-enhanced SIT. PMID:26932747

  13. Genetic Diversity of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) on the Hawaiian Islands: Implications for an Introduction Pathway Into California.

    PubMed

    Barr, Norman B; Ledezma, Lisa A; Leblanc, Luc; San Jose, Michael; Rubinoff, Daniel; Geib, Scott M; Fujita, Brian; Bartels, David W; Garza, Daniel; Kerr, Peter; Hauser, Martin; Gaimari, Stephen

    2014-10-01

    Population genetic diversity of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), on the Hawaiian islands of Oahu, Maui, Kauai, and Hawaii (the Big Island) was estimated using DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. In total, 932 flies representing 36 sampled sites across the four islands were sequenced for a 1,500-bp fragment of the gene named the C1500 marker. Genetic variation was low on the Hawaiian Islands with >96% of flies having just two haplotypes: C1500-Haplotype 1 (63.2%) or C1500-Haplotype 2 (33.3%). The other 33 flies (3.5%) had haplotypes similar to the two dominant haplotypes. No population structure was detected among the islands or within islands. The two haplotypes were present at similar frequencies at each sample site, suggesting that flies on the various islands can be considered one population. Comparison of the Hawaiian data set to DNA sequences of 165 flies from outbreaks in California between 2006 and 2012 indicates that a single-source introduction pathway of Hawaiian origin cannot explain many of the flies in California. Hawaii, however, could not be excluded as a maternal source for 69 flies. There was no clear geographic association for Hawaiian or non-Hawaiian haplotypes in the Bay Area or Los Angeles Basin over time. This suggests that California experienced multiple, independent introductions from different sources. PMID:26309285

  14. Oviposition site-selection by Bactrocera dorsalis is mediated through an innate recognition template tuned to γ-octalactone.

    PubMed

    Pagadala Damodaram, Kamala Jayanthi; Kempraj, Vivek; Aurade, Ravindra Mahadappa; Venkataramanappa, Ravindra Kothapalli; Nandagopal, Bakthavatsalam; Verghese, Abraham; Bruce, Toby

    2014-01-01

    Innate recognition templates (IRTs) in insects are developed through many years of evolution. Here we investigated olfactory cues mediating oviposition behavior in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, and their role in triggering an IRT for oviposition site recognition. Behavioral assays with electrophysiologically active compounds from a preferred host, mango, revealed that one of the volatiles tested, γ-octalactone, had a powerful effect in eliciting oviposition by gravid B. dorsalis females. Electrophysiological responses were obtained and flies clearly differentiated between treated and untreated substrates over a wide range of concentrations of γ-octalactone. It triggered an innate response in flies, overriding inputs from other modalities required for oviposition site evaluation. A complex blend of mango volatiles not containing γ-octalactone elicited low levels of oviposition, whereas γ-octalactone alone elicited more oviposition response. Naïve flies with different rearing histories showed similar responses to γ-octalactone. Taken together, these results indicate that oviposition site selection in B. dorsalis is mediated through an IRT tuned to γ-octalactone. Our study provides empirical data on a cue underpinning innate behavior and may also find use in control operations against this invasive horticultural pest. PMID:24465690

  15. Salicylic Acid Induces Changes in Mango Fruit that Affect Oviposition Behavior and Development of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    PubMed

    Pagadala Damodaram, Kamala Jayanthi; Aurade, Ravindra Mahadappa; Kempraj, Vivek; Roy, Tapas Kumar; Shivashankara, Kodthalu Seetharamaiah; Verghese, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    The Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is an important quarantine pest around the globe. Although measures for its control are implemented worldwide through IPM and male annihilation, there is little effect on their population. Hence, there is a need for new strategies to control this minacious pest. A strategy that has received negligible attention is the induction of 'natural plant defenses' by phytohormones. In this study, we investigated the effect of salicylic acid (SA) treatment of mango fruit (cv. Totapuri) on oviposition and larval development of B. dorsalis. In oviposition choice assays, gravid females laid significantly less eggs in SA treated compared to untreated fruit. Headspace volatiles collected from SA treated fruit were less attractive to gravid females compared to volatiles from untreated fruit. GC-MS analysis of the headspace volatiles from SA treated and untreated fruit showed noticeable changes in their chemical compositions. Cis-ocimene and 3-carene (attractants to B. dorsalis) were reduced in the headspace volatiles of treated fruit. Further, reduced pupae formation and adult emergence was observed in treated fruit compared to control. Increased phenol and flavonoid content was recorded in treated fruit. We also observed differential expression of anti-oxidative enzymes namely catalase (CAT), polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD). In summary, the results indicate that SA treatment reduced oviposition, larval development and adult emergence of B. dorsalis and suggest a role of SA in enhancing mango tolerance to B. dorsalis. PMID:26422203

  16. Molecular characterization and functional analysis of BdFoxO gene in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-Bei; Yang, Wen-Jia; Xie, Yi-Fei; Xu, Kang-Kang; Tian, Yi; Yuan, Guo-Rui; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2016-03-10

    The forkhead box O transcription factor (FoxO) is an important downstream transcription factor in the well-conserved insulin signaling pathway, which regulates the body size and development of insects. In this study, the FoxO gene (BdFoxO) was identified from the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). The open reading frame of BdFoxO (2732 bp) encoded a 910 amino acid protein, and the sequence was well conserved with other insect species. The BdFoxO was highly expressed in larvae and pupae among different development stages, and the highest tissue-specific expression level was found in the fat bodies compared to the testis, ovary, head, thorax, midgut, and Malpighian tubules of adults. Interestingly, we found BdFoxO expression was also up-regulated by starvation, but down-regulated when re-fed. Moreover, the injection of BdFoxO double-stranded RNAs into third-instar larvae significantly reduced BdFoxO transcript levels, which in turn down-regulated the expression of other four genes in the insulin signaling pathway. The silencing of BdFoxO resulted in delayed pupation, and the insect body weight increased significantly compared with that of the control. These results suggested that BdFoxO plays an important role in body size and development in B. dorsalis. PMID:26701614

  17. Field Estimates of Attraction of Ceratitis capitata to Trimedlure and Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) to Methyl Eugenol in Varying Environments.

    PubMed

    Manoukis, Nicholas C; Siderhurst, Matthew; Jang, Eric B

    2015-06-01

    Measuring and modeling the attractiveness of semiochemical-baited traps is of significant importance to detection, delimitation, and control of invasive pests. Here, we describe the results of field mark-release-recapture experiments with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) to estimate the relationship between distance from a trap baited with trimedlure and methyl eugenol, respectively, and probability of capture for a receptive male insect. Experiments were conducted using a grid of traps with a central release point at two sites on Hawaii Island, a Macadamia orchard on the East side of the island and a lava field on the West side. We found that for B. dorsalis and methyl eugenol there is a 65% probability of capture at ∼36 m from a single trap, regardless of habitat. For C. capitata, we found a 65% probability of capture at a distance of ∼14 m from a single trap in the orchard and 7 m in the lava field. We also present results on the spatial and temporal pattern of recaptures. The attraction data are analyzed via a hyperbolic secant-based capture probability model.

  18. Optimizing methyl-eugenol aromatherapy to maximize posttreatment effects to enhance mating competitiveness of male Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Haq, Ihsan ul; Vreysen, Marc J B; Cacéres, Carlos; Shelly, Todd E; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2015-10-01

    Methyl-eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene), a natural phytochemical, did enhance male Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae) mating competitiveness 3 d after ingestion. Enhanced male mating competitiveness can significantly increase the effectiveness of the sterile insect technique (SIT). ME application to mass reared sterile flies by feeding is infeasible. ME application by aromatherapy however, would be a very practical way of ME application in fly emergence and release facilities. This approach was shown to enhance mating competitiveness of B. carambolae 3 d posttreatment (DPT). Despite this added benefit, every additional day of delaying release will reduce sterile fly quality and will add cost to SIT application. The present study was planned to assess the effects of ME-aromatherapy on male B. carambolae mating competitiveness 1DPT and 2DPT. ME aromatherapy 1DPT or 2DPT did enhance mating competitiveness of B. carambolae males whereas ME feeding 1DPT and 2DPT did not. Male mating competitiveness was enhanced by the ME aromatherapy irrespective if they received 1DPT, 2DPT or 3DPT. ME aromatherapy, being a viable approach for its application, did enhance mating competitiveness of male B. carambolae 1 d posttreatment as ME feeding did 3 d after ingestion.

  19. Optimizing methyl-eugenol aromatherapy to maximize posttreatment effects to enhance mating competitiveness of male Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Haq, Ihsan ul; Vreysen, Marc J B; Cacéres, Carlos; Shelly, Todd E; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2015-10-01

    Methyl-eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene), a natural phytochemical, did enhance male Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae) mating competitiveness 3 d after ingestion. Enhanced male mating competitiveness can significantly increase the effectiveness of the sterile insect technique (SIT). ME application to mass reared sterile flies by feeding is infeasible. ME application by aromatherapy however, would be a very practical way of ME application in fly emergence and release facilities. This approach was shown to enhance mating competitiveness of B. carambolae 3 d posttreatment (DPT). Despite this added benefit, every additional day of delaying release will reduce sterile fly quality and will add cost to SIT application. The present study was planned to assess the effects of ME-aromatherapy on male B. carambolae mating competitiveness 1DPT and 2DPT. ME aromatherapy 1DPT or 2DPT did enhance mating competitiveness of B. carambolae males whereas ME feeding 1DPT and 2DPT did not. Male mating competitiveness was enhanced by the ME aromatherapy irrespective if they received 1DPT, 2DPT or 3DPT. ME aromatherapy, being a viable approach for its application, did enhance mating competitiveness of male B. carambolae 1 d posttreatment as ME feeding did 3 d after ingestion. PMID:24935641

  20. Parasitism, emergence, and development of Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in pupae of different ages of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Tang, Liang-De; Ji, Xun-Cong; Han, Yun; Fu, Bu-Li; Liu, Kui

    2015-01-01

    The wasp Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is a major parasitoid of the pupae of fruit flies, which are a common agricultural pest. An understanding of this intricate host-parasitoid interaction could provide basic information necessary for the sustainable integrated biological control of fruit flies. In this study, we investigated the effect of S. endius on different-aged pupae of the melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett by using choice and nonchoice tests under laboratory conditions. We showed that S. endius females oviposited, and their progeny successfully developed, in different-aged pupae of B. cucurbitae regardless of the method of exposure. There was an oviposition preference for 3-5-d-old pupa. The highest mean percentage parasitism occurred on 4- and 5-d-old hosts, followed by 2- and 3-d-old hosts. The average development time for both males and females was significantly longer in 6-7-d-old hosts than in the younger host stages. Adult females that developed from younger host pupae (2-5-d old) were significantly heavier than those from older host pupae (6-7-d old), and they also lived longer. The sex ratio (proportion of females) of the parasite progeny decreased with an increase in host age. Host mortality also decreased gradually as the pupal age increased. The differences in development time, body weight, and longevity between females and males were significant. These results suggest that S. endius is a good candidate for the biological control of B. cucurbitae.

  1. Salicylic Acid Induces Changes in Mango Fruit that Affect Oviposition Behavior and Development of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    PubMed

    Pagadala Damodaram, Kamala Jayanthi; Aurade, Ravindra Mahadappa; Kempraj, Vivek; Roy, Tapas Kumar; Shivashankara, Kodthalu Seetharamaiah; Verghese, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    The Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is an important quarantine pest around the globe. Although measures for its control are implemented worldwide through IPM and male annihilation, there is little effect on their population. Hence, there is a need for new strategies to control this minacious pest. A strategy that has received negligible attention is the induction of 'natural plant defenses' by phytohormones. In this study, we investigated the effect of salicylic acid (SA) treatment of mango fruit (cv. Totapuri) on oviposition and larval development of B. dorsalis. In oviposition choice assays, gravid females laid significantly less eggs in SA treated compared to untreated fruit. Headspace volatiles collected from SA treated fruit were less attractive to gravid females compared to volatiles from untreated fruit. GC-MS analysis of the headspace volatiles from SA treated and untreated fruit showed noticeable changes in their chemical compositions. Cis-ocimene and 3-carene (attractants to B. dorsalis) were reduced in the headspace volatiles of treated fruit. Further, reduced pupae formation and adult emergence was observed in treated fruit compared to control. Increased phenol and flavonoid content was recorded in treated fruit. We also observed differential expression of anti-oxidative enzymes namely catalase (CAT), polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD). In summary, the results indicate that SA treatment reduced oviposition, larval development and adult emergence of B. dorsalis and suggest a role of SA in enhancing mango tolerance to B. dorsalis.

  2. Phenoloxidase and its zymogen are required for the larval-pupal transition in Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Bai, Ping-Ping; Xie, Yi-Fei; Shen, Guang-Mao; Wei, Dan-Dan; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2014-12-01

    Phenoloxidases (POs) play a key role in melanin production, are involved in invertebrate immune mechanisms, and are considered important enzymes in the insect development process. In the present study, we report the developmental stage and tissue-specific expression patterns of BdPPO1 and PO activity from Bactrocera dorsalis. The results showed that the activity of PO and its zymogen expression were closely related to the development of B. dorsalis during the larval-pupal transition, particularly in the integument. Additionally, biochemical characterization showed that PO from different developmental stages and tissues all had maximum activity at pH 7.5 and 37°C. After feeding a metal ion-containing artificial diet, the activity of PO and expression of BdPPO1 were significantly increased, indicating that PO was a metalloprotein and it could be activated by Zn2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, and Cu2+. The functional analysis showed that the expression of BdPPO1 could be regulated by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) after injection. Furthermore, injection of the double-stranded RNA of BdPPO1 into the 3rd instar larvae significantly reduced mRNA levels after 24 h and 48 h, and resulted in a lower pupation rate and abnormal phenotype. These results expand the understanding of the important role of PO and its zymogen in the growth of B. dorsalis. PMID:25450426

  3. Performance of methyl eugenol + matrix + toxicant combinations under field conditions in Hawaii and California for trapping Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Jang, Eric B; Ramsey, Amanda; Carvalho, Lori A

    2013-04-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is a major pest of many fruit crops worldwide. Current detection programs by federal and state agencies in the United States use a grid of traps consisting of liquid methyl eugenol (lure) and naled (toxicant) applied to cotton wicks and hung inside the trap. In recent years efforts have been made to incorporate these chemicals into various solid-type matrices that could be individually packaged to reduce human exposure to the chemicals and improve handling. New solid formulations containing methyl eugenol and either naled or dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate toxicants were compared with the standard formulations on cotton wicks in large scale field evaluation in Hawaii. Two reduced risk toxicants (spinosad and Rynaxypyr) were also evaluated. In one test the solid lure-toxicant-matrix combinations were sent to California to be weathered under California climate conditions and then sent back to Hawaii for evaluation. The polymer matrices with lure and toxicant were found to be as attractive as baited wicks and have the same longevity of attraction regardless of being weathered in Hawaii or in California. The new ingestible toxicants were also effective, although further testing of these ingestible lure + toxicant + matrix products is necessary. PMID:23786060

  4. Oviposition Site-Selection by Bactrocera dorsalis Is Mediated through an Innate Recognition Template Tuned to γ-Octalactone

    PubMed Central

    Pagadala Damodaram, Kamala Jayanthi; Kempraj, Vivek; Aurade, Ravindra Mahadappa; Venkataramanappa, Ravindra Kothapalli; Nandagopal, Bakthavatsalam; Verghese, Abraham; Bruce, Toby

    2014-01-01

    Innate recognition templates (IRTs) in insects are developed through many years of evolution. Here we investigated olfactory cues mediating oviposition behavior in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, and their role in triggering an IRT for oviposition site recognition. Behavioral assays with electrophysiologically active compounds from a preferred host, mango, revealed that one of the volatiles tested, γ-octalactone, had a powerful effect in eliciting oviposition by gravid B. dorsalis females. Electrophysiological responses were obtained and flies clearly differentiated between treated and untreated substrates over a wide range of concentrations of γ-octalactone. It triggered an innate response in flies, overriding inputs from other modalities required for oviposition site evaluation. A complex blend of mango volatiles not containing γ-octalactone elicited low levels of oviposition, whereas γ-octalactone alone elicited more oviposition response. Naïve flies with different rearing histories showed similar responses to γ-octalactone. Taken together, these results indicate that oviposition site selection in B. dorsalis is mediated through an IRT tuned to γ-octalactone. Our study provides empirical data on a cue underpinning innate behavior and may also find use in control operations against this invasive horticultural pest. PMID:24465690

  5. Release and Establishment of the Parasitoid Diachasmimorpha kraussii Against the Tephritid Fruit Fly Bactrocera latifrons in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Bokonon-Ganta, Aimé H.; McQuate, Grant T.; Messing, Russell H.; B. Jang, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Diachasmimorpha kraussii (Fullaway) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was first released against Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii in March 2003. Over a three month period, eight releases, totaling 7,696 females and 3,968 males, were made in a turkeyberry, Solanum torvum Swartz (Solanales: Solanaceae) patch known to have a well established B. latifrons population. The establishment of D. kraussii was assessed through fruit collections conducted over a three-year period beyond the last release. D. kraussii was recovered 2 weeks, 31 months, and 39 months after the last parasitoid release, with collections not only from the release site, but also from a control site about 5.0 km distance from the release site. Recovery from fruit collections three years after the last parasitoid release confirmed that D. kraussii had become established in Hawaii. Parasitism rates were low, only 1.0–1.4%, compared to rates of 2.8–8.7% for the earlier established egg-larval parasitoid, Fopius arisanus (Sonan). PMID:23879328

  6. Dominance of an invasive fruit fly species, Bactrocera invadens, along an altitudinal transect in Morogoro, Eastern Central Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Geurts, K; Mwatawala, M W; De Meyer, M

    2014-06-01

    Bactrocera invadens, a fruit fly from Asia, is an invasive pest species across Africa. It appears to continue spreading, not only in latitude but also in altitude. To assess its capacity to infest a large variety of hosts and its competition with other fruit fly species, a study along an altitudinal gradient was conducted. At low altitudes, the high abundance in the field and high infestation of B. invadens in different fruit species make it a serious pest. At high altitudes, colonization has started and B. invadens occurs in low numbers by reproducing successfully in high altitude fruits. Overall the abundance and infestation of B. invadens is influenced by its direct competitor Ceratitis rosa and the presence of its preferred host species. C. rosa is still the dominant species in temperate fruits grown at high altitude. Ceratitis cosyra, however, is negatively affected by B. invadens, this species seems to have shifted hosts to avoid competition. The broad host range and competitive potential of B. invadens increase the risk for further spread not only to higher areas, but also to subtropical regions.

  7. Identification and preliminary characterization of chemosensory perception-associated proteins in the melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae using RNA-seq

    PubMed Central

    Elfekih, Samia; Chen, Chien-Yu; Hsu, Ju-Chun; Belcaid, Mahdi; Haymer, David

    2016-01-01

    An investigation into proteins involved in chemosensory perception in the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) is described here using a newly generated transcriptome dataset. The melon fly is a major agricultural pest, widely distributed in the Asia-Pacific region and some parts of Africa. For this study, a transcriptome dataset was generated using RNA extracted from 4-day-old adult specimens of the melon fly. The dataset was assembled and annotated via Gene Ontology (GO) analysis. Based on this and similarity searches to data from other species, a number of protein sequences putatively involved in chemosensory reception were identified and characterized in the melon fly. This included the highly conserved “Orco” along with a number of other less conserved odorant binding protein sequences. In addition, several sequences representing putative ionotropic and gustatory receptors were also identified. This study provides a foundation for future functional studies of chemosensory proteins in the melon fly and for making more detailed comparisons to other species. In the long term, this will ultimately help in the development of improved tools for pest management. PMID:26752702

  8. Flight Capacity of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) Adult Females Based on Flight Mill Studies and Flight Muscle Ultrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng; Yuan, Ruiling; Wang, Xiaowei; Xu, Jin

    2015-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is considered a major economic threat in many regions worldwide. To better comprehend flight capacity of B. dorsalis and its physiological basis, a computer-monitored flight mill was used to study flight capacity of B. dorsalis adult females of various ages, and the changes of its flight muscle ultrastructures were studied by transmission electron microscopy. The flight capacity (both speed and distance) changed significantly with age of B. dorsalis female adults, peaking at about 15 d; the myofibril diameter of the flight muscle of test insects at 15-d old was the longest, up to 1.56 µm, the sarcomere length at 15-d old was the shortest, averaging at 1.37 µm, volume content of mitochondria of flight muscle at 15-d old reached the peak, it was 32.64%. This study provides the important scientific data for better revealing long-distance movement mechanism of B. dorsalis. PMID:26450591

  9. The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, in China: origin and gradual inland range expansion associated with population growth.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xuanwu; Nardi, Francesco; Zhang, Bin; Liu, Yinghong

    2011-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, expanded throughout mainland China in the last century to become one of the most serious pests in the area, yet information on this process are fragmentary. Three mitochondrial genes (nad1, cytb and nad5) were used to infer the genetic diversity, population structure and demographic history of the oriental fruit fly from its entire distribution range in China. High levels of genetic diversity, as well as a significant correspondence between genetic and geographic distances, suggest that the invasion process might have been gradual, with no associated genetic bottlenecks. Three population groups could be identified, nevertheless the overall genetic structure was weak. The effective number of migrants between populations, estimated using the coalescent method, suggested asymmetric gene flow from the costal region of Guangdong to most inland regions. The demographic analysis indicates the oriental fruit fly underwent a recent population expansion in the Central China. We suggest the species originated in the costal region facing the South China Sea and gradually expanded to colonize mainland China, expanding here to high population numbers.

  10. Functional characterization of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase from Bactrocera dorsalis: Possible involvement in susceptibility to malathion

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yong; Lu, Xue-Ping; Wang, Luo-Luo; Wei, Dong; Feng, Zi-Jiao; Zhang, Qi; Xiao, Lin-Fan; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2015-01-01

    NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) is essential for cytochrome P450 catalysis, which is important in the detoxification and activation of xenobiotics. In this study, two transcripts of Bactrocera dorsalis CPR (BdCPR) were cloned, and the deduced amino-acid sequence had an N-terminus membrane anchor for BdCPR-X1 and three conserved binding domains (FMN, FAD, and NADP), as well as an FAD binding motif and catalytic residues for both BdCPR-X1 and BdCPR-X2. BdCPR-X1 was detected to have the high expression levels in adults and in Malpighian tubules, fat bodies, and midguts of adults, but BdCPR-X2 expressed lowly in B. dorsalis. The levels of BdCPRs were similar in malathion-resistant strain compared to susceptible strain. However, injecting adults with double-stranded RNA against BdCPR significantly reduced the transcript levels of the mRNA, and knockdown of BdCPR increased adult susceptibility to malathion. Expressing complete BdCPR-X1 cDNA in Sf9 cells resulted in high activity determined by cytochrome c reduction and these cells had higher viability after exposure to malathion than control. The results suggest that BdCPR could affect the susceptibility of B. dorsalis to malathion and eukaryotic expression of BdCPR would lay a solid foundation for further investigation of P450 in B. dorsalis. PMID:26681597

  11. Invasion history of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, in the Pacific-Asia region: two main invasion routes.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xuanwu; Liu, Yinghong; Zhang, Bin

    2012-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, was initially recorded in Taiwan Island in 1912, and has dispersed to many areas in the Pacific-Asia region over the last century. The area of origin of the species may be confidently placed in South-East China. However, routes of range expansion to new areas and underlying population processes remain partially unclear, despite having been the subject of several studies. To explore the invasion history of this species, a partition of the cox1 gene of mitochondrial DNA was used to investigate genetic diversity, haplotype phylogeny and demographic history of 35 populations, covering China and South-East Asia and including marginal populations from Pakistan and Hawaii. Based on neighbor-joining tree analysis and the distribution of haplotypes, two main invasion routes are inferred: one from South-East China to Central China, another from South-East China to South-East Asia, with both routes probably coinciding in Central China. Populations in Taiwan Island and Hainan Island might have originated in South-East China. The marginal populations in Pakistan and Hawaii might have undergone founding events or genetic bottlenecks. Possible strategies for the control of this species are proposed based on the invasion history and reconstructed expansion routes.

  12. Flight capacity of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) adult females based on flight mill studies and flight muscle ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min; Chen, Peng; Ye, Hui; Yuan, Ruiling; Wang, Xiaowei; Xu, Jin

    2015-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is considered a major economic threat in many regions worldwide. To better comprehend flight capacity of B. dorsalis and its physiological basis, a computer-monitored flight mill was used to study flight capacity of B. dorsalis adult females of various ages, and the changes of its flight muscle ultrastructures were studied by transmission electron microscopy. The flight capacity (both speed and distance) changed significantly with age of B. dorsalis female adults, peaking at about 15 d; the myofibril diameter of the flight muscle of test insects at 15-d old was the longest, up to 1.56 µm, the sarcomere length at 15-d old was the shortest, averaging at 1.37 µm, volume content of mitochondria of flight muscle at 15-d old reached the peak, it was 32.64%. This study provides the important scientific data for better revealing long-distance movement mechanism of B. dorsalis.

  13. Association between changes in reproductive activity and D-glucose metabolism in the tephritid fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Daifeng; Chen, Langjie; Yi, Chunyan; Liang, Guangwen; Xu, Yijuan

    2014-01-01

    Reproduction is an important life process in insects; however, few studies have attempted to demonstrate the association between reproductive activity and energy metabolism. To address this problem, we focused on the reproductive changes in Bactrocera dorsalis males. We analyzed B. dorsalis male gene expression profiles during mating (DM), 3 h after mating (A3HM) and 12 h after mating (A12HM). Gene annotation and pathway analyses of differentially expressed genes show that galactose metabolism and the starch and sucrose metabolism pathway activities were significantly higher in A12HM group. Moreover, the maltase D gene was the most strongly up-regulated gene. The D-glucose levels were significantly higher in A12HM group. Maltase D expression level was significantly higher in males reared with sucrose. Body weights of the males reared with D-glucose and sucrose were significantly higher than those of the males reared with yeast extract. We observed more mated males from the groups fed sucrose and D-glucose than from those fed yeast extract. The D-glucose levels in individual males were highest at 18:00 h, when flies exhibit the most active mating behavior. This study shows that the maltase D gene and D-glucose are the critical gene and substrate, respectively, in male B. dorsalis mating process. PMID:25502224

  14. Salicylic Acid Induces Changes in Mango Fruit that Affect Oviposition Behavior and Development of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Tapas Kumar; Shivashankara, Kodthalu Seetharamaiah; Verghese, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    The Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is an important quarantine pest around the globe. Although measures for its control are implemented worldwide through IPM and male annihilation, there is little effect on their population. Hence, there is a need for new strategies to control this minacious pest. A strategy that has received negligible attention is the induction of ‘natural plant defenses’ by phytohormones. In this study, we investigated the effect of salicylic acid (SA) treatment of mango fruit (cv. Totapuri) on oviposition and larval development of B. dorsalis. In oviposition choice assays, gravid females laid significantly less eggs in SA treated compared to untreated fruit. Headspace volatiles collected from SA treated fruit were less attractive to gravid females compared to volatiles from untreated fruit. GC-MS analysis of the headspace volatiles from SA treated and untreated fruit showed noticeable changes in their chemical compositions. Cis-ocimene and 3-carene (attractants to B. dorsalis) were reduced in the headspace volatiles of treated fruit. Further, reduced pupae formation and adult emergence was observed in treated fruit compared to control. Increased phenol and flavonoid content was recorded in treated fruit. We also observed differential expression of anti-oxidative enzymes namely catalase (CAT), polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD). In summary, the results indicate that SA treatment reduced oviposition, larval development and adult emergence of B. dorsalis and suggest a role of SA in enhancing mango tolerance to B. dorsalis. PMID:26422203

  15. The effect of the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae) on quality parameters, and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of olive oil.

    PubMed

    Medjkouh, Lynda; Tamendjari, Abderezak; Keciri, Sonia; Santos, Joana; Nunes, M Antónia; Oliveira, M B P P

    2016-06-15

    The present study was performed on olives from two Algerian cultivars (Limli and Rougette de Metidja) with different rates of attack by the Bactrocera oleae fly (0%, not attacked; 100%, all attacked; and real attacked %) and the corresponding olive oils. The aim was to verify the attack effect on quality parameters (free fatty acid, peroxide value, K232 and K270, oxidation stability), bioactive compounds (fatty acids and tocopherols, and total phenols and flavonoids), and on the antioxidant (reducing power, FRAP, β-carotene bleaching inhibition, ABTS and DPPH) and antibacterial (against 8 referenced human enteropathogenic bacteria by the agar disc diffusion method) capacities. Oils from infested olives were downgraded to the virgin olive oil category. Rougette de Metidja, the cultivar with a higher drupe size, was more attacked than Limli. The B. oleae attack causes an important decrease in the total phenolic contents (>30%) but to a lesser degree in the case of tocopherols. Among them, α-tocopherol is the most affected. The antioxidant and antibacterial activities were highly correlated with phenolic levels. The results of this study show the importance of controlling the fly attack because it causes a decrease in the beneficial health effects of olive oils. PMID:27220688

  16. Invasion History of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, in the Pacific-Asia Region: Two Main Invasion Routes

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Xuanwu; Liu, Yinghong; Zhang, Bin

    2012-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, was initially recorded in Taiwan Island in 1912, and has dispersed to many areas in the Pacific-Asia region over the last century. The area of origin of the species may be confidently placed in South-East China. However, routes of range expansion to new areas and underlying population processes remain partially unclear, despite having been the subject of several studies. To explore the invasion history of this species, a partition of the cox1 gene of mitochondrial DNA was used to investigate genetic diversity, haplotype phylogeny and demographic history of 35 populations, covering China and South-East Asia and including marginal populations from Pakistan and Hawaii. Based on neighbor-joining tree analysis and the distribution of haplotypes, two main invasion routes are inferred: one from South-East China to Central China, another from South-East China to South-East Asia, with both routes probably coinciding in Central China. Populations in Taiwan Island and Hainan Island might have originated in South-East China. The marginal populations in Pakistan and Hawaii might have undergone founding events or genetic bottlenecks. Possible strategies for the control of this species are proposed based on the invasion history and reconstructed expansion routes. PMID:22567138

  17. Evaluation of Cuelure and Methyl Eugenol solid lure and insecticide dispensers for fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) monitoring and control in Tahiti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Performance of solid male lure (cuelure (C-L)/raspberry ketone (RK) - against Bactrocera tyroni (Froggatt), and methyl eugenol (ME) - against oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel) and insecticide formulations, were evaluated in Tahiti Island (French Polynesia), as alternatives to current monitori...

  18. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers from the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, and their cross-species amplification in the Tephritidae family

    PubMed Central

    Augustinos, Antonios A; Stratikopoulos, Elias E; Drosopoulou, Eleni; Kakani, Evdoxia G; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Zacharopoulou, Antigone; Mathiopoulos, Kostas D

    2008-01-01

    Background The Tephritidae family of insects includes the most important agricultural pests of fruits and vegetables, belonging mainly to four genera (Bactrocera, Ceratitis, Anastrepha and Rhagoletis). The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the major pest of the olive fruit. Currently, its control is based on chemical insecticides. Environmentally friendlier methods have been attempted in the past (Sterile Insect Technique), albeit with limited success. This was mainly attributed to the lack of knowledge on the insect's behaviour, ecology and genetic structure of natural populations. The development of molecular markers could facilitate the access in the genome and contribute to the solution of the aforementioned problems. We chose to focus on microsatellite markers due to their abundance in the genome, high degree of polymorphism and easiness of isolation. Results Fifty-eight microsatellite-containing clones were isolated from the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, bearing a total of sixty-two discrete microsatellite motifs. Forty-two primer pairs were designed on the unique sequences flanking the microsatellite motif and thirty-one of them amplified a PCR product of the expected size. The level of polymorphism was evaluated against wild and laboratory flies and the majority of the markers (93.5%) proved highly polymorphic. Thirteen of them presented a unique position on the olive fly polytene chromosomes by in situ hybridization, which can serve as anchors to correlate future genetic and cytological maps of the species, as well as entry points to the genome. Cross-species amplification of these markers to eleven Tephritidae species and sequencing of thirty-one of the amplified products revealed a varying degree of conservation that declines outside the Bactrocera genus. Conclusion Microsatellite markers are very powerful tools for genetic and population analyses, particularly in species deprived of any other means of genetic analysis. The presented set of

  19. The epsilon glutathione S-transferases contribute to the malathion resistance in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    PubMed

    Lu, Xue-Ping; Wang, Luo-Luo; Huang, Yong; Dou, Wei; Chen, Chang-Tong; Wei, Dong; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2016-02-01

    Epsilon glutathione S-transferases (eGSTs) play important roles in xenobiotics detoxification and insecticides resistance in insects. However, the molecular mechanisms of eGSTs-mediated insecticide resistance remain largely unknown in the Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), one of the most notorious pests in the world. Here, we investigated the roles of eight GST genes which belonged to epsilon class (BdGSTe1, BdGSTe2, BdGSTe3, BdGSTe4, BdGSTe5, BdGSTe6, BdGSTe7 and BdGSTe9) in conferring malathion resistance in B. dorsalis. Adult developmental stage-, sex- and tissue-specific expression patterns of the eight eGST genes were analyzed via quantitative reverse transcription PCR. The results showed that BdGSTe2, BdGSTe3, BdGSTe4 and BdGSTe9 were abundant in the midgut, fat body and Malpighian tubules. Notably, BdGSTe2, BdGSTe4 and BdGSTe9 were significantly overexpressed in a malathion-resistant (MR) strain of B. dorsalis compared to the malathion-susceptible (MS) strain. Functional expression and cytotoxicity assays showed significantly higher malathion detoxification capabilities in BdGSTe2-, BdGSTe3-, BdGSTe4- and BdGSTe9-expressing Sf9 cells compared to the parental and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing Sf9 cells. Moreover, malathion susceptibility in MS adults was increased 30%, 14%, and 33% when BdGSTe2, BdGSTe3 and BdGSTe4 mRNA levels were repressed by RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown, respectively. Taken together, overexpression of the isoforms of eGSTs, including BdGSTe2, BdGSTe4, and particularly, BdGSTe9 plays an important role in the malathion resistant development in B. dorsalis. PMID:26610787

  20. Thermal plasticity is related to the hardening response of heat shock protein expression in two Bactrocera fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jun-tao; Chen, Bing; Li, Zhi-hong

    2014-08-01

    It is generally believed that widely distributed species differ in their thermal plasticity from narrowly distributed species, but how differences in thermal plasticity are regulated at the molecular level remains largely unknown. Here, we conducted a comparative study of two closely related invasive fruit fly species, Bactrocera correcta and Bactroceradorsalis, in China. The two species had overlapping distributions, but B. dorsalis had a much wider range throughout the country and a longer invasive history than B. correcta. We first examined the effects of thermal acclimation on the ability of the two fruit flies to survive heat stress. The heat shock tolerance of B. dorsalis was significantly enhanced by heat hardening at 35, 37, 39 and 41°C, but that of B. correcta was only enhanced by heat hardening at 39°C and 41°C. Thus, the more widespread species has a higher thermal plasticity than the narrowly distributed species. We then determined the expression of Hsp70 and Hsp90 during different developmental stages and their responses to thermal hardening. The expression of both Hsp70 and Hsp90 in larvae was upregulated in response to heat hardening, starting at 35°C for B. dorsalis and at 39°C for B. correcta. The two species exhibited a highly consistent pattern of thermal response in terms of their heat shock survival rates and levels of Hsp gene expression. The results suggest that the difference in thermal plasticity may be responsible for the different distributions of the two species and that Hsp expression may be involved in the regulation of thermal plasticity. Our findings have important implications for the prediction of the thermal limits and ecological responses of related species in nature.

  1. Phenetic structure of two Bactrocera tau cryptic species (Diptera: Tephritidae) infesting Momordica cochinchinensis (Cucurbitaceae) in Thailand and Laos.

    PubMed

    Dujardin, Jean-Pierre; Kitthawee, Sangvorn

    2013-04-01

    Morphometric variation with respect to wing venation patterns was explored for 777 specimens of the Bactrocera tau complex collected in Thailand (nine provinces) and Laos (one locality). Cryptic species B. tau A and C were identified based on their wing shape similarity to published reference images. In Thailand, the B. tau A species was identified in four provinces and the B. tau C species in seven provinces, and both species in one locality of Laos. The objective of the study was to explain the geographic variation of size and shape in two cryptic species collected from the same host (Momordica cochinchinensis). Although collected from the same host, the two species did not show the same morphological variance: it was higher in the B. tau A species, which currently infests a wide range of different fruit species, than in the B. tau C species, which is specific to only one fruit (M. cochinchinensis). Moreover, the two species showed a different population structure. An isolation by distance model was apparent in both sexes of species C, while it was not detected in species A. Thus, the metric differences were in apparent accordance with the known behavior of these species, either as a generalist (species A) or as a specialist (species C), and for each species our data suggested different sources of shape diversity: genetic drift for species C, variety of host plants (and probably also pest-host-relationship) for species A. In addition to these distinctions, the larger species, B. tau C, showed less sexual size and shape dimorphism. The data presented here confirm the previously established wing shape differences between the two cryptic species. Character displacement has been discussed as a possible origin of this interspecific variation. The addition of previously published data on species A from other hosts allowed the testing of the character displacement hypothesis. The hypothesis was rejected for interspecific shape differences, but was maintained for size

  2. Genetic Structure and Inferences on Potential Source Areas for Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) Based on Mitochondrial and Microsatellite Markers

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Wei; Kerdelhué, Carole; Ye, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) is mainly distributed in tropical and subtropical Asia and in the Pacific region. Despite its economic importance, very few studies have addressed the question of the wide genetic structure and potential source area of this species. This pilot study attempts to infer the native region of this pest and its colonization pathways in Asia. Combining mitochondrial and microsatellite markers, we evaluated the level of genetic diversity, genetic structure, and the gene flow among fly populations collected across Southeast Asia and China. A complex and significant genetic structure corresponding to the geographic pattern was found with both types of molecular markers. However, the genetic structure found was rather weak in both cases, and no pattern of isolation by distance was identified. Multiple long-distance dispersal events and miscellaneous host selection by this species may explain the results. These complex patterns may have been influenced by human-mediated transportation of the pest from one area to another and the complex topography of the study region. For both mitochondrial and microsatellite data, no signs of bottleneck or founder events could be identified. Nonetheless, maximal genetic diversity was observed in Myanmar, Vietnam and Guangdong (China) and asymmetric migration patterns were found. These results provide indirect evidence that the tropical regions of Southeast Asia and southern coast of China may be considered as the native range of the species and the population expansion is northward. Yunnan (China) is a contact zone that has been colonized from different sources. Regions along the southern coast of Vietnam and China probably served to colonize mainly the southern region of China. Southern coastal regions of China may also have colonized central parts of China and of central Yunnan. PMID:22615898

  3. Interchromosomal Duplications on the Bactrocera oleae Y Chromosome Imply a Distinct Evolutionary Origin of the Sex Chromosomes Compared to Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Gabrieli, Paolo; Gomulski, Ludvik M.; Bonomi, Angelica; Siciliano, Paolo; Scolari, Francesca; Franz, Gerald; Jessup, Andrew; Malacrida, Anna R.; Gasperi, Giuliano

    2011-01-01

    Background Diptera have an extraordinary variety of sex determination mechanisms, and Drosophila melanogaster is the paradigm for this group. However, the Drosophila sex determination pathway is only partially conserved and the family Tephritidae affords an interesting example. The tephritid Y chromosome is postulated to be necessary to determine male development. Characterization of Y sequences, apart from elucidating the nature of the male determining factor, is also important to understand the evolutionary history of sex chromosomes within the Tephritidae. We studied the Y sequences from the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae. Its Y chromosome is minute and highly heterochromatic, and displays high heteromorphism with the X chromosome. Methodology/Principal Findings A combined Representational Difference Analysis (RDA) and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) approach was used to investigate the Y chromosome to derive information on its sequence content. The Y chromosome is strewn with repetitive DNA sequences, the majority of which are also interdispersed in the pericentromeric regions of the autosomes. The Y chromosome appears to have accumulated small and large repetitive interchromosomal duplications. The large interchromosomal duplications harbour an importin-4-like gene fragment. Apart from these importin-4-like sequences, the other Y repetitive sequences are not shared with the X chromosome, suggesting molecular differentiation of these two chromosomes. Moreover, as the identified Y sequences were not detected on the Y chromosomes of closely related tephritids, we can infer divergence in the repetitive nature of their sequence contents. Conclusions/Significance The identification of Y-linked sequences may tell us much about the repetitive nature, the origin and the evolution of Y chromosomes. We hypothesize how these repetitive sequences accumulated and were maintained on the Y chromosome during its evolutionary history. Our data reinforce the idea that the

  4. Genetic structure and inferences on potential source areas for Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) based on mitochondrial and microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei; Kerdelhué, Carole; Ye, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) is mainly distributed in tropical and subtropical Asia and in the Pacific region. Despite its economic importance, very few studies have addressed the question of the wide genetic structure and potential source area of this species. This pilot study attempts to infer the native region of this pest and its colonization pathways in Asia. Combining mitochondrial and microsatellite markers, we evaluated the level of genetic diversity, genetic structure, and the gene flow among fly populations collected across Southeast Asia and China. A complex and significant genetic structure corresponding to the geographic pattern was found with both types of molecular markers. However, the genetic structure found was rather weak in both cases, and no pattern of isolation by distance was identified. Multiple long-distance dispersal events and miscellaneous host selection by this species may explain the results. These complex patterns may have been influenced by human-mediated transportation of the pest from one area to another and the complex topography of the study region. For both mitochondrial and microsatellite data, no signs of bottleneck or founder events could be identified. Nonetheless, maximal genetic diversity was observed in Myanmar, Vietnam and Guangdong (China) and asymmetric migration patterns were found. These results provide indirect evidence that the tropical regions of Southeast Asia and southern coast of China may be considered as the native range of the species and the population expansion is northward. Yunnan (China) is a contact zone that has been colonized from different sources. Regions along the southern coast of Vietnam and China probably served to colonize mainly the southern region of China. Southern coastal regions of China may also have colonized central parts of China and of central Yunnan. PMID:22615898

  5. Transcriptome Characterization Analysis of Bactrocera minax and New Insights into Its Pupal Diapause Development with Gene Expression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yongcheng; Desneux, Nicolas; Lei, Chaoliang; Niu, Changying

    2014-01-01

    Bactrocera minax is a major citrus pest distributed in China, Bhutan and India. The long pupal diapause duration of this fly is a major bottleneck for artificial rearing and underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Genetic information on B. minax transcriptome and gene expression profiles are needed to understand its pupal diapause. High-throughput RNA-seq technology was used to characterize the B. minax transcriptome and to identify differentially expressed genes during pupal diapause development. A total number of 52,519,948 reads were generated and assembled into 47,217 unigenes. 26,843 unigenes matched to proteins in the NCBI database using the BLAST search. Four digital gene expression (DGE) libraries were constructed for pupae at early diapause, late diapause, post-diapause and diapause terminated developmental status. 4,355 unigenes showing the differences expressed across four libraries revealed major shifts in cellular functions of cell proliferation, protein processing and export, metabolism and stress response in pupal diapause. When diapause was terminated by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), many genes involved in ribosome and metabolism were differentially expressed which may mediate diapause transition. The gene sets involved in protein and energy metabolisms varied throughout early-, late- and post-diapause. A total of 15 genes were selected to verify the DGE results through quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR); qRT-PCR expression levels strongly correlated with the DGE data. The results provided the extensive sequence resources available for B. minax and increased our knowledge on its pupal diapause development and they shed new light on the possible mechanisms involved in pupal diapause in this species. PMID:25285037

  6. De novo Transcriptome Analysis of Chinese Citrus Fly, Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Tephritidae), by High-Throughput Illumina Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jia; Xiong, Ke-Cai; Liu, Ying-Hong

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese citrus fly, Bactrocera minax (Enderlein), is one of the most devastating pests of citrus in the temperate areas of Asia. So far, studies involving molecular biology and physiology of B. minax are still scarce, partly because of the lack of genomic information and inability to rear this insect in laboratory. In this study, de novo assembly of a transcriptome was performed using Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 20,928,907 clean reads were obtained and assembled into 33,324 unigenes, with an average length of 908.44 bp. Unigenes were annotated by alignment against NCBI non-redundant protein (Nr), Swiss-Prot, Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG), Gene Ontology (GO), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway (KEGG) database. Genes potentially involved in stress tolerance, including 20 heat shock protein (Hsps) genes, 26 glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) genes, and 2 ferritin subunit genes, were identified. These genes may play roles in stress tolerance in B. minax diapause stage. It has previously been found that 20E application on B. minax pupae could avert diapause, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Thus, genes encoding enzymes in 20E biosynthesis pathway, including Neverland, Spook, Phantom, Disembodied, Shadow, Shade, and Cyp18a1, and genes encoding 20E receptor proteins, ecdysone receptor (EcR) and ultraspiracle (USP), were identified. The expression patterns of 20E-related genes among developmental stages and between 20E-treated and untreated pupae demonstrated their roles in diapause program. In addition, 1,909 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected, which will contribute to molecular marker development. The findings in this study greatly improve our genetic understanding of B. minax, and lay the foundation for future studies on this species. PMID:27331903

  7. Parasitism, Emergence, and Development of Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Pupae of Different Ages of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Liang-De; Ji, Xun-Cong; Han, Yun; Fu, Bu-Li; Liu, Kui

    2015-01-01

    The wasp Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is a major parasitoid of the pupae of fruit flies, which are a common agricultural pest. An understanding of this intricate host–parasitoid interaction could provide basic information necessary for the sustainable integrated biological control of fruit flies. In this study, we investigated the effect of S. endius on different-aged pupae of the melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett by using choice and nonchoice tests under laboratory conditions. We showed that S. endius females oviposited, and their progeny successfully developed, in different-aged pupae of B. cucurbitae regardless of the method of exposure. There was an oviposition preference for 3–5-d-old pupa. The highest mean percentage parasitism occurred on 4- and 5-d-old hosts, followed by 2- and 3-d-old hosts. The average development time for both males and females was significantly longer in 6–7-d-old hosts than in the younger host stages. Adult females that developed from younger host pupae (2–5-d old) were significantly heavier than those from older host pupae (6–7-d old), and they also lived longer. The sex ratio (proportion of females) of the parasite progeny decreased with an increase in host age. Host mortality also decreased gradually as the pupal age increased. The differences in development time, body weight, and longevity between females and males were significant. These results suggest that S. endius is a good candidate for the biological control of B. cucurbitae. PMID:25700538

  8. Phenetic structure of two Bactrocera tau cryptic species (Diptera: Tephritidae) infesting Momordica cochinchinensis (Cucurbitaceae) in Thailand and Laos.

    PubMed

    Dujardin, Jean-Pierre; Kitthawee, Sangvorn

    2013-04-01

    Morphometric variation with respect to wing venation patterns was explored for 777 specimens of the Bactrocera tau complex collected in Thailand (nine provinces) and Laos (one locality). Cryptic species B. tau A and C were identified based on their wing shape similarity to published reference images. In Thailand, the B. tau A species was identified in four provinces and the B. tau C species in seven provinces, and both species in one locality of Laos. The objective of the study was to explain the geographic variation of size and shape in two cryptic species collected from the same host (Momordica cochinchinensis). Although collected from the same host, the two species did not show the same morphological variance: it was higher in the B. tau A species, which currently infests a wide range of different fruit species, than in the B. tau C species, which is specific to only one fruit (M. cochinchinensis). Moreover, the two species showed a different population structure. An isolation by distance model was apparent in both sexes of species C, while it was not detected in species A. Thus, the metric differences were in apparent accordance with the known behavior of these species, either as a generalist (species A) or as a specialist (species C), and for each species our data suggested different sources of shape diversity: genetic drift for species C, variety of host plants (and probably also pest-host-relationship) for species A. In addition to these distinctions, the larger species, B. tau C, showed less sexual size and shape dimorphism. The data presented here confirm the previously established wing shape differences between the two cryptic species. Character displacement has been discussed as a possible origin of this interspecific variation. The addition of previously published data on species A from other hosts allowed the testing of the character displacement hypothesis. The hypothesis was rejected for interspecific shape differences, but was maintained for size

  9. Transcriptome characterization analysis of Bactrocera minax and new insights into its pupal diapause development with gene expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yongcheng; Desneux, Nicolas; Lei, Chaoliang; Niu, Changying

    2014-01-01

    Bactrocera minax is a major citrus pest distributed in China, Bhutan and India. The long pupal diapause duration of this fly is a major bottleneck for artificial rearing and underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Genetic information on B. minax transcriptome and gene expression profiles are needed to understand its pupal diapause. High-throughput RNA-seq technology was used to characterize the B. minax transcriptome and to identify differentially expressed genes during pupal diapause development. A total number of 52,519,948 reads were generated and assembled into 47,217 unigenes. 26,843 unigenes matched to proteins in the NCBI database using the BLAST search. Four digital gene expression (DGE) libraries were constructed for pupae at early diapause, late diapause, post-diapause and diapause terminated developmental status. 4,355 unigenes showing the differences expressed across four libraries revealed major shifts in cellular functions of cell proliferation, protein processing and export, metabolism and stress response in pupal diapause. When diapause was terminated by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), many genes involved in ribosome and metabolism were differentially expressed which may mediate diapause transition. The gene sets involved in protein and energy metabolisms varied throughout early-, late- and post-diapause. A total of 15 genes were selected to verify the DGE results through quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR); qRT-PCR expression levels strongly correlated with the DGE data. The results provided the extensive sequence resources available for B. minax and increased our knowledge on its pupal diapause development and they shed new light on the possible mechanisms involved in pupal diapause in this species.

  10. De novo Transcriptome Analysis of Chinese Citrus Fly, Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Tephritidae), by High-Throughput Illumina Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Xiong, Ke-Cai; Liu, Ying-Hong

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese citrus fly, Bactrocera minax (Enderlein), is one of the most devastating pests of citrus in the temperate areas of Asia. So far, studies involving molecular biology and physiology of B. minax are still scarce, partly because of the lack of genomic information and inability to rear this insect in laboratory. In this study, de novo assembly of a transcriptome was performed using Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 20,928,907 clean reads were obtained and assembled into 33,324 unigenes, with an average length of 908.44 bp. Unigenes were annotated by alignment against NCBI non-redundant protein (Nr), Swiss-Prot, Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG), Gene Ontology (GO), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway (KEGG) database. Genes potentially involved in stress tolerance, including 20 heat shock protein (Hsps) genes, 26 glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) genes, and 2 ferritin subunit genes, were identified. These genes may play roles in stress tolerance in B. minax diapause stage. It has previously been found that 20E application on B. minax pupae could avert diapause, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Thus, genes encoding enzymes in 20E biosynthesis pathway, including Neverland, Spook, Phantom, Disembodied, Shadow, Shade, and Cyp18a1, and genes encoding 20E receptor proteins, ecdysone receptor (EcR) and ultraspiracle (USP), were identified. The expression patterns of 20E-related genes among developmental stages and between 20E-treated and untreated pupae demonstrated their roles in diapause program. In addition, 1,909 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected, which will contribute to molecular marker development. The findings in this study greatly improve our genetic understanding of B. minax, and lay the foundation for future studies on this species. PMID:27331903

  11. Transcriptional Regulation of a Chitinase Gene by 20-Hydroxyecdysone and Starvation in the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wen-Jia; Xu, Kang-Kang; Zhang, Rui-Ying; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Insect chitinases are hydrolytic enzymes that are required for the degradation of glycosidic bonds of chitin. In this study, we identified and characterized a full-length cDNA of the chitinase gene (BdCht2) in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. The cDNA contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 1449 bp that encodes 483 amino acid residues and 126- and 296-bp non-coding regions at the 5′- and 3′-ends, respectively. The BdCht2 genome has four exons and three introns. The predicted molecular mass of the deduced BdCht2 is approximately 54.3 kDa, with an isoelectric point of 5.97. The 977 bp 5′ flanking region was identified and the transcription factor binding sites were predicted. Bioinformatic analyses showed that the deduced amino acid sequence of BdCht2 had 34%–66% identity to that of chitinases identified in other insect species. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analyses indicated that BdCht2 was mainly expressed during the larval-pupal and pupal-adult transitions. The tissue-specific expression showed that the highest expression was in the integument, followed by the fat body and other tissues. Moreover, the expression of BdCht2 was upregulated significantly upon 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) at different dose injections after 8 h compared to that of the control. Starvation also increased the expression of BdCht2 in the third-instar larvae and was suppressed again by re-feeding the insects. These results suggest that BdCht2 plays an important role in the molting process of B. dorsalis larvae and can be regulated by 20E. PMID:24113584

  12. Analysis of the Olive Fruit Fly Bactrocera oleae Transcriptome and Phylogenetic Classification of the Major Detoxification Gene Families

    PubMed Central

    Rombauts, Stephane; Chrisargiris, Antonis; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Vontas, John

    2013-01-01

    The olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae has a unique ability to cope with olive flesh, and is the most destructive pest of olives worldwide. Its control has been largely based on the use of chemical insecticides, however, the selection of insecticide resistance against several insecticides has evolved. The study of detoxification mechanisms, which allow the olive fruit fly to defend against insecticides, and/or phytotoxins possibly present in the mesocarp, has been hampered by the lack of genomic information in this species. In the NCBI database less than 1,000 nucleotide sequences have been deposited, with less than 10 detoxification gene homologues in total. We used 454 pyrosequencing to produce, for the first time, a large transcriptome dataset for B. oleae. A total of 482,790 reads were assembled into 14,204 contigs. More than 60% of those contigs (8,630) were larger than 500 base pairs, and almost half of them matched with genes of the order of the Diptera. Analysis of the Gene Ontology (GO) distribution of unique contigs, suggests that, compared to other insects, the assembly is broadly representative for the B. oleae transcriptome. Furthermore, the transcriptome was found to contain 55 P450, 43 GST-, 15 CCE- and 18 ABC transporter-genes. Several of those detoxification genes, may putatively be involved in the ability of the olive fruit fly to deal with xenobiotics, such as plant phytotoxins and insecticides. In summary, our study has generated new data and genomic resources, which will substantially facilitate molecular studies in B. oleae, including elucidation of detoxification mechanisms of xenobiotic, as well as other important aspects of olive fruit fly biology. PMID:23824998

  13. LARVAL X-RAY IRRADIATION INFLUENCES PROTEIN EXPRESSION IN PUPAE OF THE ORIENTAL FRUIT FLY, BACTROCERA DORSALIS.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chiou Ling; Goodman, Cynthia L; Ringbauer, Joseph; Geib, Scott M; Stanley, David

    2016-07-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) was developed to eradicate the new world screwworm from the southern United States and Mexico, and became a component of many area-wide integrated pest management programs, particularly useful in managing tephritid fruit flies. SIT is based on the idea of rearing and sterilizing male pests, originally by ionizing radiation, and then releasing into field, where they compete for and mate with wild females. Mating with sterile males leads to reduced fecundity to lower pest populations. There are concerns with the use and distribution of radioisotopes for SIT programs, which have led to developing X-ray irradiation protocols to sterilize insects. We considered the possibility that X-ray irradiation exerts sublethal impacts aside form sterilizing insects. Such effects may not be directly observable, which led us to the hypothesis that X-ray irradiation in one life stage creates alterations in biological fitness and protein expression in the subsequent stage. We tested our hypothesis by irradiating larvae of Bactrocera dorsalis. There are two major points. One, exposing larvae to X-ray treatments led to reduced adult emergence, fecundity, fertility, and flight capacity from the corresponding pupae and emerged adults. Two, the X-ray treatments led to substantial expression changes in 27 pupal proteins. We assorted the 67 spots representing these proteins into three groups, metabolism, development, and structure. Our interpretation is these X-ray induced changes in biological performance and protein expression indicate their adult counterparts may be disabled in their abilities to successfully compete for and mate wild females in native habitats. PMID:27079560

  14. Identification of Male- and Female-Specific Olfaction Genes in Antennae of the Oriental Fruit Fly (Bactrocera dorsalis)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhao; Smagghe, Guy; Lei, Zhongren; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2016-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) is a species of tephritid fruit fly, endemic to Southeast Asia but also introduced to many regions of the US, and it is one of the major pest species with a broad host range of cultivated and wild fruits. Although males of B. dorsalis respond strongly to methyl eugenol and this is used for monitoring and estimating populations, the molecular mechanism of the oriental fruit fly olfaction has not been elucidated yet. Therefore, in this project, using next generation sequencing technologies, we sequenced the transcriptome of the antennae of male and female adults of B. dorsalis. We identified a total of 20 candidate odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 5 candidate chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 35 candidate odorant receptors (ORs), 12 candidate ionotropic receptors (IRs) and 4 candidate sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs). The sex-specific expression of these genes was determined and a subset of 9 OR genes was further characterized by qPCR with male and female antenna, head, thorax, abdomen, leg and wing samples. In the male antennae, 595 genes showed a higher expression, while 128 genes demonstrated a higher expression in the female antennae. Interestingly, 2 ORs (BdorOR13 and BdorOR14) were highly and specifically expressed in the antennae of males, and 4 ORs (BdorOR13, BdorOR16, BdorOR18 and BdorOR35) clustered with DmOR677, suggesting pheromone reception. We believe this study with these antennae-enriched OBPs, CSPs, ORs, IRs and SNMPs can play an important role in the detection of pheromones and general odorants, and so in turn our data improve our current understanding of insect olfaction at the molecular level and provide important information for disrupting the behavior of the oriental fruit fly using chemical communication methods. PMID:26845547

  15. Olive Fruit Fly (Bactrocera oleae) Population Dynamics in the Eastern Mediterranean: Influence of Exogenous Uncertainty on a Monophagous Frugivorous Insect

    PubMed Central

    Ordano, Mariano; Engelhard, Izhar; Rempoulakis, Polychronis; Nemny-Lavy, Esther; Blum, Moshe; Yasin, Sami; Lensky, Itamar M.; Papadopoulos, Nikos T.; Nestel, David

    2015-01-01

    Despite of the economic importance of the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) and the large amount of biological and ecological studies on the insect, the factors driving its population dynamics (i.e., population persistence and regulation) had not been analytically investigated until the present study. Specifically, our study investigated the autoregressive process of the olive fly populations, and the joint role of intrinsic and extrinsic factors molding the population dynamics of the insect. Accounting for endogenous dynamics and the influences of exogenous factors such as olive grove temperature, the North Atlantic Oscillation and the presence of potential host fruit, we modeled olive fly populations in five locations in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Our models indicate that the rate of population change is mainly shaped by first and higher order non-monotonic, endogenous dynamics (i.e., density-dependent population feedback). The olive grove temperature was the main exogenous driver, while the North Atlantic Oscillation and fruit availability acted as significant exogenous factors in one of the five populations. Seasonal influences were also relevant for three of the populations. In spite of exogenous effects, the rate of population change was fairly stable along time. We propose that a special reproductive mechanism, such as reproductive quiescence, allows populations of monophagous fruit flies such as the olive fly to remain stable. Further, we discuss how weather factors could impinge constraints on the population dynamics at the local level. Particularly, local temperature dynamics could provide forecasting cues for management guidelines. Jointly, our results advocate for establishing monitoring programs and for a major focus of research on the relationship between life history traits and populations dynamics. PMID:26010332

  16. Isolation and identification of host cues from mango, Mangifera indica, that attract gravid female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    PubMed

    Jayanthi, Pagadala D Kamala; Woodcock, Christine M; Caulfield, John; Birkett, Michael A; Bruce, Toby J A

    2012-04-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is an economically damaging, polyphagous pest of fruit crops in South-East Asia and Hawaii, and a quarantine pest in other parts of the world. The objective of our study was to identify new attractants for B. dorsalis from overripe mango fruits. Headspace samples of volatiles were collected from two cultivars of mango, 'Alphonso' and 'Chausa', and a strong positive behavioral response was observed when female B. dorsalis were exposed to these volatiles in olfactometer bioassays. Coupled GC-EAG with female B. dorsalis revealed 7 compounds from 'Alphonso' headspace and 15 compounds from 'Chausa' headspace that elicited an EAG response. The EAG-active compounds, from 'Alphonso', were identified, using GC-MS, as heptane, myrcene, (Z)-ocimene, (E)-ocimene, allo-ocimene, (Z)-myroxide, and γ-octalactone, with the two ocimene isomers being the dominant compounds. The EAG-active compounds from 'Chausa' were 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, 3-methyl-1-butanol, ethyl butanoate, ethyl methacrylate, ethyl crotonate, ethyl tiglate, 1-octen-3-ol, ethyl hexanoate, 3-carene, p-cymene, ethyl sorbate, α-terpinolene, phenyl ethyl alcohol, ethyl octanoate, and benzothiazole. Individual compounds were significantly attractive when a standard dose (1 μg on filter paper) was tested in the olfactometer. Furthermore, synthetic blends with the same concentration and ratio of compounds as in the natural headspace samples were highly attractive (P < 0.001), and in a choice test, fruit flies did not show any preference for the natural samples over the synthetic blends. Results are discussed in relation to developing a lure for female B. dorsalis to bait traps with.

  17. Comparison of in vitro heat and cold tolerances of the new invasive species Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) with three known tephritids.

    PubMed

    Hallman, Guy J; Myers, Scott W; Jessup, Andrew J; Islam, Amirul

    2011-02-01

    Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White (Diptera: Tephritidae) is spreading throughout central Africa attacking a variety of fruit; quarantines are placed on fruit from this region that are considered hosts. The only phytosanitary treatment that is commercially available is an ionizing irradiation treatment for all Tephritidae at 150 Gy. The development of other treatments, such as heat, cold, or fumigation, usually requires testing tens of thousands of insects at a dose that provides efficacy and may take several years. It may be possible to shorten the time required to develop treatments by comparing tolerance of a new quarantine pest to tolerances of pests with similar behaviors and modes of infestation for which treatment schedules are available. Cold and heat tolerance ofB. invadens was compared with tolerance of Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) in vitro. Third-instar B. invadens was no more cold tolerant than the other species when treated in diet at 0.94 +/- 0.65 degrees C and no more heat tolerant than C. capitata when immersed in vials in water at 44.7 +/- 0.1 degrees C. The data at 0.94 +/- 0.65 degrees C was used to include B. invadens in a USDA cold treatment schedule for citrus fruit from Africa so that trade would not be interrupted while protecting U.S. agriculture from this invasive pest.

  18. Effects of Methyl Eugenol Feeding on Mating Compatibility of Asian Population of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) with African Population and with B. carambolae.

    PubMed

    Haq, Ihsan Ul; Vreysen, Marc J B; Schutze, Mark; Hendrichs, Jorge; Shelly, Todd

    2016-02-01

    Males of some species included in the Bactrocera dorsalis complex are strongly attracted to methyl eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl) benzene), a natural compound occurring in a variety of plant species. ME feeding of males of the B. dorsalis complex is known to enhance their mating competitiveness. Within B. dorsalis, recent studies show that Asian and African populations of B. dorsalis are sexually compatible, while populations of B. dorsalis and Bactrocera carambolae are relatively incompatible. The objectives of this study were to examine whether ME feeding by males affects mating compatibility between Asian and African populations of B. dorsalis and ME feeding reduces male mating incompatibility between B. dorsalis (Asian population) and B. carambolae. The data confirmed that Asian and African populations of B. dorsalis are sexually compatible for mating and showed that ME feeding only increased the number of matings. Though ME feeding also increased the number of matings of B. dorsalis (Asian population) and B. carambolae males but the sexual incompatibility between both species was not reduced by treatment with ME. These results conform to the efforts resolving the biological species limits among B. dorsalis complex and have implications for fruit fly control programs in fields and horticultural trade.

  19. RNA interference of a trehalose-6-phosphate synthase gene reveals its roles during larval-pupal metamorphosis in Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Xiong, Ke-Cai; Wang, Jia; Li, Jia-Hao; Deng, Yu-Qing; Pu, Po; Fan, Huan; Liu, Ying-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Trehalose is the major blood sugar in insects, which plays a crucial role as an instant source of energy and the starting substrate for chitin biosynthesis. In insects, trehalose is synthesized by catalysis of an important enzyme, trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS). In the present study, a trehalose-6-phosphate synthase gene from Bactrocera minax (BmTPS) was cloned and characterized. BmTPS contained an open reading frame of 2445 nucleotides encoding a protein of 814 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 92.05kDa. BmTPS was detectable in all developmental stages of Bactrocera minax and expressed higher in the final- (third-) instar larvae. Tissue-specific expression patterns of BmTPS showed that it was mainly expressed in the fat body. The 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) induced the expression of BmTPS and three genes in the chitin biosynthesis pathway. Moreover, injection of double-stranded RNA into third-instar larvae successfully silenced the transcription of BmTPS in B. minax, and thereby decreased the activity of TPS and trehalose content. Additionally, silencing of BmTPS inhibited the expression of three key genes in the chitin biosynthesis pathway and exhibited 52% death and abnormal phenotypes. The findings demonstrate that BmTPS is indispensable for larval-pupal metamorphosis. Besides, the establishment of RNAi experimental system in B. minax would lay a solid foundation for further investigation of molecular biology and physiology of this pest. PMID:27405007

  20. Effects of Methyl Eugenol Feeding on Mating Compatibility of Asian Population of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) with African Population and with B. carambolae

    PubMed Central

    Haq, Ihsan ul; Vreysen, Marc J. B.; Schutze, Mark; Hendrichs, Jorge; Shelly, Todd

    2016-01-01

    Males of some species included in the Bactrocera dorsalis complex are strongly attracted to methyl eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl) benzene), a natural compound occurring in a variety of plant species. ME feeding of males of the B. dorsalis complex is known to enhance their mating competitiveness. Within B. dorsalis, recent studies show that Asian and African populations of B. dorsalis are sexually compatible, while populations of B. dorsalis and Bactrocera carambolae are relatively incompatible. The objectives of this study were to examine whether ME feeding by males affects mating compatibility between Asian and African populations of B. dorsalis and ME feeding reduces male mating incompatibility between B. dorsalis (Asian population) and B. carambolae. The data confirmed that Asian and African populations of B. dorsalis are sexually compatible for mating and showed that ME feeding only increased the number of matings. Though ME feeding also increased the number of matings of B. dorsalis (Asian population) and B. carambolae males but the sexual incompatibility between both species was not reduced by treatment with ME. These results conform to the efforts resolving the biological species limits among B. dorsalis complex and have implications for fruit fly control programs in fields and horticultural trade. PMID:26362991

  1. The effects of RNA interference targeting Bactrocera dorsalis ds-Bdrpl19 on the gene expression of rpl19 in non-target insects.

    PubMed

    Chen, Aie; Zheng, Weiwei; Zheng, Wenping; Zhang, Hongyu

    2015-04-01

    Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) designed to target pest genes emerges as a promising strategy for improving pest control. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the effects of dsRNA on non-target insects, such as native enemies and beneficial insects, to determine the environmental safety of such treatments. In this paper, we investigated the effects of dsRNA targeting rpl19 from Bactrocera dorsalis on non-target insects in citrus ecological systems by feeding the dsRNA to Bactrocera minax, Apis mellifera and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata. The results showed that when B. dorsalis were fed rpl19 CDS dsRNA or 3'UTR dsRNA, the expression of rpl19 was dramatically decreased. Feeding the Bdrpl19 CDS dsRNA to adult B. minax and D. longicaudata caused their respective rpl19 genes to be knocked down over 50-70 and 40%, respectively, but it had no effect on the expression of the rpl19 gene in A. mellifera. The Bdrpl19 3'UTR dsRNA did not have any silencing effects on the expression levels of rpl19 in non-target insects. This study provides evidence that dsRNA can impact non-target organisms, but the 3'UTR dsRNA may not have effects in non-target organisms.

  2. Evaluation of endogenous references for gene expression profiling in different tissues of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) has been widely used for quantification of mRNA as a way to determine key genes involved in different biological processes. For accurate gene quantification analysis, normalization of RT-qPCR data is absolutely essential. To date, normalization is most frequently achieved by the use of internal controls, often referred to as reference genes. However, several studies have shown that the reference genes used for the quantification of mRNA expression can be affected by the experimental set-up or cell type resulting in variation of the expression level of these key genes. Therefore, the evaluation of reference genes is critical for gene expression profiling, which is often neglected in gene expression studies of insects. For this purpose, ten candidate reference genes were investigated in three different tissues (midgut, Malpighian tubules, and fat body) of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Results Two different programs, geNorm and Normfinder, were used to analyze the data. According to geNorm, α-TUB + ACT5 are the most appropriate reference genes for gene expression profiling across the three different tissues in the female flies, while ACT3 + α-TUB are considered as the best for males. Furthermore, we evaluated the stability of the candidate reference genes to determine the sexual differences in the same tissue. In the midgut and Malpighian tubules, ACT2 + α-TUB are the best choice for both males and females. However, α-TUB + ACT1 are the best pair for fat body. Meanwhile, the results calculated by Normfinder are quite the same as the results with geNorm; α-TUB is always one of the most stable genes in each sample validated by the two programs. Conclusions In this study, we validated the suitable reference genes for gene expression profiling in different tissues of B. dorsalis. Moreover, appropriate reference genes were selected out for gene expression profiling of the

  3. Molecular Characterization and Chromosomal Distribution of a Species-Specific Transcribed Centromeric Satellite Repeat from the Olive Fruit Fly, Bactrocera oleae

    PubMed Central

    Tsoumani, Konstantina T.; Drosopoulou, Elena; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Mathiopoulos, Kostas D.

    2013-01-01

    Satellite repetitive sequences that accumulate in the heterochromatin consist a large fraction of a genome and due to their properties are suggested to be implicated in centromere function. Current knowledge of heterochromatic regions of Bactrocera oleae genome, the major pest of the olive tree, is practically nonexistent. In our effort to explore the repetitive DNA portion of B. oleae genome, a novel satellite sequence designated BoR300 was isolated and cloned. The present study describes the genomic organization, abundance and chromosomal distribution of BoR300 which is organized in tandem, forming arrays of 298 bp-long monomers. Sequence analysis showed an AT content of 60.4%, a CENP-B like-motif and a high curvature value based on predictive models. Comparative analysis among randomly selected monomers demonstrated a high degree of sequence homogeneity (88% – 97%) of BoR300 repeats, which are present at approximately 3,000 copies per haploid genome accounting for about 0.28% of the total genomic DNA, based on two independent qPCR approaches. In addition, expression of the repeat was also confirmed through RT-PCR, by which BoR300 transcripts were detected in both sexes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of BoR300 on mitotic metaphases and polytene chromosomes revealed signals to the centromeres of two out of the six chromosomes which indicated a chromosome-specific centromeric localization. Moreover, BoR300 is not conserved in the closely related Bactrocera species tested and it is also absent in other dipterans, but it’s rather restricted to the B. oleae genome. This feature of species-specificity attributed to BoR300 satellite makes it a good candidate as an identification probe of the insect among its relatives at early development stages. PMID:24244494

  4. Melon Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae), Infestation in Host Fruits in the Southwestern Islands of Japan Before the Initiation of Island-wide Population Suppression, as Recorded in Publications of Japanese Public Institutions.

    PubMed

    McQuate, Grant T; Teruya, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) is a tephritid fruit fly native to the Indo-Malayan region. Its distribution, though, has extended to include Africa, temperate Asia, and a number of Pacific islands. It became established in Japan in 1919 in the Yaeyama Islands and spread north in the Southwestern Islands of Japan. It was subsequently eradicated from these islands by an eradication program that extended from 1972 to 1993. As part of an effort to develop a worldwide database on the status of fruits as hosts of melon fly, the infestation data gathered from host fruits collected in this eradication program, before the initiation of suppression activities, are summarized here. Bactrocera cucurbitae infestation was documented in 24 plant taxa of four plant families (Caricaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Moraceae, and Solanaceae), with the following four new hosts identified: Ficus erecta Thunb., F. pumila L. (Moraceae), Solanum erianthum D. Don (Solanaceae), and Zehneria liukiuensis Jeffrey ex Walker (Cucurbitaceae).

  5. Melon Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae), Infestation in Host Fruits in the Southwestern Islands of Japan Before the Initiation of Island-wide Population Suppression, as Recorded in Publications of Japanese Public Institutions

    PubMed Central

    McQuate, Grant T.; Teruya, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) is a tephritid fruit fly native to the Indo-Malayan region. Its distribution, though, has extended to include Africa, temperate Asia, and a number of Pacific islands. It became established in Japan in 1919 in the Yaeyama Islands and spread north in the Southwestern Islands of Japan. It was subsequently eradicated from these islands by an eradication program that extended from 1972 to 1993. As part of an effort to develop a worldwide database on the status of fruits as hosts of melon fly, the infestation data gathered from host fruits collected in this eradication program, before the initiation of suppression activities, are summarized here. Bactrocera cucurbitae infestation was documented in 24 plant taxa of four plant families (Caricaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Moraceae, and Solanaceae), with the following four new hosts identified: Ficus erecta Thunb., F. pumila L. (Moraceae), Solanum erianthum D. Don (Solanaceae), and Zehneria liukiuensis Jeffrey ex Walker (Cucurbitaceae). PMID:26816487

  6. Melon Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae), Infestation in Host Fruits in the Southwestern Islands of Japan Before the Initiation of Island-wide Population Suppression, as Recorded in Publications of Japanese Public Institutions.

    PubMed

    McQuate, Grant T; Teruya, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) is a tephritid fruit fly native to the Indo-Malayan region. Its distribution, though, has extended to include Africa, temperate Asia, and a number of Pacific islands. It became established in Japan in 1919 in the Yaeyama Islands and spread north in the Southwestern Islands of Japan. It was subsequently eradicated from these islands by an eradication program that extended from 1972 to 1993. As part of an effort to develop a worldwide database on the status of fruits as hosts of melon fly, the infestation data gathered from host fruits collected in this eradication program, before the initiation of suppression activities, are summarized here. Bactrocera cucurbitae infestation was documented in 24 plant taxa of four plant families (Caricaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Moraceae, and Solanaceae), with the following four new hosts identified: Ficus erecta Thunb., F. pumila L. (Moraceae), Solanum erianthum D. Don (Solanaceae), and Zehneria liukiuensis Jeffrey ex Walker (Cucurbitaceae). PMID:26816487

  7. Australian endemic pest tephritids: genetic, molecular and microbial tools for improved Sterile Insect Technique

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Among Australian endemic tephritid fruit flies, the sibling species Bactrocera tryoni and Bactrocera neohumeralis have been serious horticultural pests since the introduction of horticulture in the nineteenth century. More recently, Bactrocera jarvisi has also been declared a pest in northern Australia. After several decades of genetic research there is now a range of classical and molecular genetic tools that can be used to develop improved Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) strains for control of these pests. Four-way crossing strategies have the potential to overcome the problem of inbreeding in mass-reared strains of B. tryoni. The ability to produce hybrids between B. tryoni and the other two species in the laboratory has proved useful for the development of genetically marked strains. The identification of Y-chromosome markers in B. jarvisi means that male and female embryos can be distinguished in any strain that carries a B. jarvisi Y chromosome. This has enabled the study of homologues of the sex-determination genes during development of B jarvisi and B. tryoni, which is necessary for the generation of genetic-sexing strains. Germ-line transformation has been established and a draft genome sequence for B. tryoni released. Transcriptomes from various species, tissues and developmental stages, to aid in identification of manipulation targets for improving SIT, have been assembled and are in the pipeline. Broad analyses of the microbiome have revealed a metagenome that is highly variable within and across species and defined by the environment. More specific analyses detected Wolbachia at low prevalence in the tropics but absent in temperate regions, suggesting a possible role for this endosymbiont in future control strategies. PMID:25470996

  8. Australian endemic pest tephritids: genetic, molecular and microbial tools for improved Sterile Insect Technique.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Kathryn A; Shearman, Deborah C A; Gilchrist, A Stuart; Sved, John A; Morrow, Jennifer L; Sherwin, William B; Riegler, Markus; Frommer, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Among Australian endemic tephritid fruit flies, the sibling species Bactrocera tryoni and Bactrocera neohumeralis have been serious horticultural pests since the introduction of horticulture in the nineteenth century. More recently, Bactrocera jarvisi has also been declared a pest in northern Australia. After several decades of genetic research there is now a range of classical and molecular genetic tools that can be used to develop improved Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) strains for control of these pests. Four-way crossing strategies have the potential to overcome the problem of inbreeding in mass-reared strains of B. tryoni. The ability to produce hybrids between B. tryoni and the other two species in the laboratory has proved useful for the development of genetically marked strains. The identification of Y-chromosome markers in B. jarvisi means that male and female embryos can be distinguished in any strain that carries a B. jarvisi Y chromosome. This has enabled the study of homologues of the sex-determination genes during development of B jarvisi and B. tryoni, which is necessary for the generation of genetic-sexing strains. Germ-line transformation has been established and a draft genome sequence for B. tryoni released. Transcriptomes from various species, tissues and developmental stages, to aid in identification of manipulation targets for improving SIT, have been assembled and are in the pipeline. Broad analyses of the microbiome have revealed a metagenome that is highly variable within and across species and defined by the environment. More specific analyses detected Wolbachia at low prevalence in the tropics but absent in temperate regions, suggesting a possible role for this endosymbiont in future control strategies. PMID:25470996

  9. Development of a genetic sexing strain in Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae) by introgression of sex sorting components from B. dorsalis, Salaya1 strain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock is a high profile key pest that is widely distributed in the southwestern ASEAN region. In addition, it has trans-continentally invaded Suriname, where it has been expanding east and southward since 1975. This fruit fly belongs to Bactrocera dorsalis species complex. The development and application of a genetic sexing strain (Salaya1) of B. dorsalis sensu stricto (s.s.) (Hendel) for the sterile insect technique (SIT) has improved the fruit fly control. However, matings between B. dorsalis s.s. and B. carambolae are incompatible, which hinder the application of the Salaya1 strain to control the carambola fruit fly. To solve this problem, we introduced genetic sexing components from the Salaya1 strain into the B. carambolae genome by interspecific hybridization. Results Morphological characteristics, mating competitiveness, male pheromone profiles, and genetic relationships revealed consistencies that helped to distinguish Salaya1 and B. carambolae strains. A Y-autosome translocation linking the dominant wild-type allele of white pupae gene and a free autosome carrying a recessive white pupae homologue from the Salaya1 strain were introgressed into the gene pool of B. carambolae. A panel of Y-pseudo-linked microsatellite loci of the Salaya1 strain served as markers for the introgression experiments. This resulted in a newly derived genetic sexing strain called Salaya5, with morphological characteristics corresponding to B. carambolae. The rectal gland pheromone profile of Salaya5 males also contained a distinctive component of B. carambolae. Microsatellite DNA analyses confirmed the close genetic relationships between the Salaya5 strain and wild B. carambolae populations. Further experiments showed that the sterile males of Salaya5 can compete with wild males for mating with wild females in field cage conditions. Conclusions Introgression of sex sorting components from the Salaya1 strain to a

  10. ( Z)-9-tricosene identified in rectal gland extracts of Bactrocera oleae males: first evidence of a male-produced female attractant in olive fruit fly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpita, Adriano; Canale, Angelo; Raffaelli, Andrea; Saba, Alessandro; Benelli, Giovanni; Raspi, Alfio

    2012-01-01

    It is well-known that Bactrocera oleae (olive fruit fly) females attract conspecific males by using 1,7-dioxaspiro[5,5]undecane ( 1) as the main component of their sex pheromone, and that 1 is produced in the female rectal gland. Although some authors have claimed that B. oleae males also attract females, to date no male-produced female attractants have been found in this species. In this paper, we report the first identification of a substance unique to males and able to attract females. The findings of the study include the following: (1) females responded in a bioassay to hexane extracts obtained from rectal glands of 15-day-old B. oleae males, (2) the presence of ( Z)-9-tricosene ( 2) was consistently and unambiguously identified in these extracts using gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry methods, (3) in preliminary bioactivity tests, low doses (equivalent to a few males) of chemically and stereoisomerically pure synthetic ( Z)-9-tricosene ( 2) attracted olive fruit fly females. Interestingly, compound 2, commonly called muscalure, is also a well-known component of the house fly ( Musca domestica) sex pheromone.

  11. A PCR-based diagnostic assay for detecting DNA of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, in the gut of soil-living arthropods.

    PubMed

    Rejili, M; Fernandes, T; Dinis, A M; Pereira, J A; Baptista, P; Santos, S A P; Lino-Neto, T

    2016-10-01

    Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is considered the most devastating pest of the olive tree worldwide. In an effort to develop management and biological control strategies against this pest, new molecular tools are urgently needed. In this study, we present the design of B. oleae-specific primers based on mitochondrial DNA sequences of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. Two pairs of B. oleae-specific primers were successfully designed and named as SBo1-F/SBo1-R and SBo2-F/SBo1-R, being able to amplify 108 and 214 bp COI fragments, respectively. The specificity of designed primers was tested by amplifying DNA from phylogenetically related (i.e. Diptera order) and other non-pest insects living in olive groves from the Mediterranean region. When using these primers on a PCR-based diagnostic assay, B. oleae DNA was detected in the gut content of a soil-living insect, Pterostichus globosus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Carabidae). The detection of B. oleae DNA in the guts of arthropods was further optimized by adding bovine serum albumin enhancer to the PCR reaction, in order to get a fast, reproducible and sensitive tool for detecting B. oleae remains in the guts of soil-living arthropods. This molecular tool could be useful for understanding pest-predator relationships and establishing future biological control strategies for this pest. PMID:27296773

  12. Area-Wide Suppression of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata, and the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, in Kamuela, Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Roger I.; Piñero, Jaime C.; Mau, Ronald F. L.; Jang, Eric B.; Klungness, Lester M.; McInnis, Donald O.; Harris, Ernest B.; McQuate, Grant T.; Bautista, Renato C.; Wong, Lyle

    2010-01-01

    The United States Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service initiated an area-wide fruit fly management program in Hawaii in 2000. The first demonstration site was established in Kamuela, Hawaii, USA. This paper documents suppression of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), and the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), in a 40 km2 area containing urban, rural and agricultural zones during a 6 year period. The suppression techniques included sanitation, GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait sprays, male annihilation, Biolure® traps, and parasitoids against C. capitata and B. dorsalis. In addition, small numbers of sterile males were released against B. dorsalis. Substantial reductions in fruit infestation levels were achieved for both species (90.7 and 60.7% for C. capitata and B. dorsalis, respectively) throughout the treatment period. Fruit fly captures in the 40 km2 treatment area were significantly lower during the 6 year period than those recorded in three non-treated areas. The strategy of combining suppression techniques in an area-wide approach is discussed. PMID:20883128

  13. Co-Infestation and Spatial Distribution of Bactrocera carambolae and Anastrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Common Guava in the Eastern Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Deus, E. G.; Godoy, W. A. C.; Sousa, M. S. M.; Lopes, G. N.; Jesus-Barros, C. R.; Silva, J. G.; Adaime, R.

    2016-01-01

    Field infestation and spatial distribution of introduced Bactrocera carambolae Drew and Hancock and native species of Anastrepha in common guavas [Psidium guajava (L.)] were investigated in the eastern Amazon. Fruit sampling was carried out in the municipalities of Calçoene and Oiapoque in the state of Amapá, Brazil. The frequency distribution of larvae in fruit was fitted to the negative binomial distribution. Anastrepha striata was more abundant in both sampled areas in comparison to Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and B. carambolae. The frequency distribution analysis of adults revealed an aggregated pattern for B. carambolae as well as for A. fraterculus and Anastrepha striata Schiner, described by the negative binomial distribution. Although the populations of Anastrepha spp. may have suffered some impact due to the presence of B. carambolae, the results are still not robust enough to indicate effective reduction in the abundance of Anastrepha spp. caused by B. carambolae in a general sense. The high degree of aggregation observed for both species suggests interspecific co-occurrence with the simultaneous presence of both species in the analysed fruit. Moreover, a significant fraction of uninfested guavas also indicated absence of competitive displacement. PMID:27638949

  14. Co-Infestation and Spatial Distribution of Bactrocera carambolae and Anastrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Common Guava in the Eastern Amazon.

    PubMed

    Deus, E G; Godoy, W A C; Sousa, M S M; Lopes, G N; Jesus-Barros, C R; Silva, J G; Adaime, R

    2016-01-01

    Field infestation and spatial distribution of introduced Bactrocera carambolae Drew and Hancock and native species of Anastrepha in common guavas [Psidium guajava (L.)] were investigated in the eastern Amazon. Fruit sampling was carried out in the municipalities of Calçoene and Oiapoque in the state of Amapá, Brazil. The frequency distribution of larvae in fruit was fitted to the negative binomial distribution. Anastrepha striata was more abundant in both sampled areas in comparison to Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and B. carambolae The frequency distribution analysis of adults revealed an aggregated pattern for B. carambolae as well as for A. fraterculus and Anastrepha striata Schiner, described by the negative binomial distribution. Although the populations of Anastrepha spp. may have suffered some impact due to the presence of B. carambolae, the results are still not robust enough to indicate effective reduction in the abundance of Anastrepha spp. caused by B. carambolae in a general sense. The high degree of aggregation observed for both species suggests interspecific co-occurrence with the simultaneous presence of both species in the analysed fruit. Moreover, a significant fraction of uninfested guavas also indicated absence of competitive displacement.

  15. Attraction of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) and nontarget insects to methyl eugenol bucket traps with different preservative fluids on Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Grant K; Mackey, Bruce E; McInnis, Donald O; Vargas, Roger I

    2007-06-01

    Attraction of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), and nontarget insects to preservative fluids ethylene glycol antifreeze, propylene glycol antifreeze, or mineral oil in bucket traps that contained captured decaying male oriental fruit flies, a male lure (methyl eugenol), and a toxicant (DDVP vapor insecticidal strip) were compared with dry control traps. Significantly (P < 0.05) greater numbers of B. dorsalis were captured in propylene glycol antifreeze traps than in other attractant trap types. Among attractant trap types with lowest negative impacts on nontarget insects, control traps captured significantly lower numbers of three species and one morphospecies of scavenger flies, one species of plant-feeding fly, and one species each of sweet-and lipid-feeding ants. Mineral oil traps captured significantly lower numbers of two species of scavengers flies and one morphospecies of plant-feeding fly, and one species of sweet-feeding ant. Because of the fragile nature of endemic Hawaiian insect fauna, the propylene glycol antifreeze bucket trap is best suited for use in environments (e.g., non-native habitats) where endemic species are known to be absent and mineral oil traps are more suited for minimizing insect captures in environmentally sensitive habitats. PMID:17598531

  16. BdorCSP2 Is Important for Antifeed and Oviposition-Deterring Activities Induced by Rhodojaponin-III against Bactrocera dorsalis

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xiaolin; Wang, Peidan; Hu, Meiying; Zhong, Guohua

    2013-01-01

    Rhodojaponin-III is a nonvolatile botanical grayanoid diterpene compound, which has antifeedant and oviposition deterrence effects against many kinds of insects. However, the molecular mechanism of the chemoreception process remains unknown. In this study, the important role of BdorCSP2 in the recognition of Rhodojaponin-III was identified. The full length cDNA encoding BdorCSP2 was cloned from legs of Bactrocera dorsalis. The results of expression pattern revealed that BdorCSP2 was abundantly expressed in the legs of adult B. dorsalis. Moreover, the expression of BdorCSP2 could be up-regulated by Rhodojaponin-III. In order to gain comprehensive understanding of the recognition process, the binding affinity between BdorCSP2 and Rhodojaponin-III was measured by fluorescence binding assay. Silencing the expression of BdorCSP2 through the ingestion of dsRNA could weaken the effect of oviposition deterrence and antifeedant of Rhodojaponin-III. These results suggested that BdorCSP2 of B. dorsalis could be involved in chemoreception of Rhodojaponin-III and played a critical role in antifeedant and oviposition behaviors induced by Rhodojaponin-III. PMID:24155937

  17. Molecular Cloning, Characterization and mRNA Expression of a Chitin Synthase 2 Gene from the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li; Yang, Wen-Jia; Cong, Lin; Xu, Kang-Kang; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Chitin synthase (CHS), a potential target for eco-friendly insecticides, plays an essential role in chitin formation in insects. In this study, a full-length cDNA encoding chitin synthase 2 (BdCHS2) was cloned and characterized in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. The BdCHS2 cDNA had 4417 nucleotides, containing an open reading frame of 4122 nucleotides, which encoded 1373 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 158.5 kDa. Phylogenetic analysis with other insect CHSs suggested that BdCHS2 belongs to insect CHS2. The BdCHS2 transcript was predominately found in midgut but was detected at low levels in fat body, Malpighian tubules, integument, and trachea. Moreover, BdCHS2 was expressed in all developmental stages, and highly expressed in the feeding stages. There was a positive relationship between BdCHS2 expression and total chitin content during development. Furthermore, both the gene expression and chitin content in midgut decreased when the insect was fed for 24 h, then starved for 24 h, while they increased dramatically and rapidly under the condition of starvation for 24 h then feeding for 24 h. These results suggest that BdCHS2 may play an important role in regulating chitin content of the midgut, and subsequently affect the growth and development of B. dorsalis. PMID:23965972

  18. Olive Volatiles from Portuguese Cultivars Cobrançosa, Madural and Verdeal Transmontana: Role in Oviposition Preference of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Malheiro, Ricardo; Casal, Susana; Cunha, Sara C.; Baptista, Paula; Pereira, José Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), a serious threat to the olive crop worldwide, displays ovipositon preference for some olive cultivars but the causes are still unclear. In the present work, three Portuguese olive cultivars with different susceptibilities to olive fly (Cobrançosa, Madural, and Verdeal Transmontana) were studied, aiming to determine if the olive volatiles are implicated in this interaction. Olive volatiles were assessed by SPME-GC-MS in the three cultivars during maturation process to observe possible correlations with olive fly infestation levels. Overall, 34 volatiles were identified in the olives, from 7 chemical classes (alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic hydrocarbons, esters, ketones, sesquiterpenes, and terpenes). Generally, total volatile amounts decrease during maturation but toluene, the main compound, increased in all cultivars, particularly in those with higher susceptibility to olive fly. Sesquiterpenes also raised, mainly α-copaene. Toluene and α-copaene, recognized oviposition promoters to olive fly, were correlated with the infestation level of cvs. Madural and Verdeal Trasnmontana (intermediate and highly susceptible cultivars respectively), while no correlations were established with cv. Cobrançosa (less susceptible). No volatiles with inverse correlation were observed. Volatile composition of olives may be a decisive factor in the olive fly choice to oviposit and this could be the basis for the development of new control strategies for this pest. PMID:25985460

  19. Co-Infestation and Spatial Distribution of Bactrocera carambolae and Anastrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Common Guava in the Eastern Amazon.

    PubMed

    Deus, E G; Godoy, W A C; Sousa, M S M; Lopes, G N; Jesus-Barros, C R; Silva, J G; Adaime, R

    2016-01-01

    Field infestation and spatial distribution of introduced Bactrocera carambolae Drew and Hancock and native species of Anastrepha in common guavas [Psidium guajava (L.)] were investigated in the eastern Amazon. Fruit sampling was carried out in the municipalities of Calçoene and Oiapoque in the state of Amapá, Brazil. The frequency distribution of larvae in fruit was fitted to the negative binomial distribution. Anastrepha striata was more abundant in both sampled areas in comparison to Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and B. carambolae The frequency distribution analysis of adults revealed an aggregated pattern for B. carambolae as well as for A. fraterculus and Anastrepha striata Schiner, described by the negative binomial distribution. Although the populations of Anastrepha spp. may have suffered some impact due to the presence of B. carambolae, the results are still not robust enough to indicate effective reduction in the abundance of Anastrepha spp. caused by B. carambolae in a general sense. The high degree of aggregation observed for both species suggests interspecific co-occurrence with the simultaneous presence of both species in the analysed fruit. Moreover, a significant fraction of uninfested guavas also indicated absence of competitive displacement. PMID:27638949

  20. The oriental fruitfly Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. in East Asia: disentangling the different forces promoting the invasion and shaping the genetic make-up of populations.

    PubMed

    Aketarawong, N; Guglielmino, C R; Karam, N; Falchetto, M; Manni, M; Scolari, F; Gomulski, L M; Gasperi, G; Malacrida, A R

    2014-06-01

    The Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis sensu stricto, is one of the most economically destructive pests of fruits and vegetables especially in East Asia. Based on its phytophagous life style, this species dispersed with the diffusion and implementation of agriculture, while globalization allowed it to establish adventive populations in different tropical and subtropical areas of the world. We used nine SSR loci over twelve samples collected across East Asia, i.e. an area that, in relatively few years, has become a theatre of intensive agriculture and a lively fruit trade. Our aim is to disentangle the different forces that have affected the invasion pattern and shaped the genetic make-up of populations of this fruit fly. Our data suggest that the considered samples probably represent well established populations in terms of genetic variability and population structuring. The human influence on the genetic shape of populations and diffusion is evident, but factors such as breeding/habitat size and life history traits of the species may have determined the post introduction phases and expansion. In East Asia the origin of diffusion can most probably be allocated in the oriental coastal provinces of China, from where this fruit fly spread into Southeast Asia. The spread of this species deserves attention for the development and implementation of risk assessment and control measures.

  1. Transcriptome analysis to identify genes for peptides and proteins involved in immunity and reproduction from male accessory glands and ejaculatory duct of Bactrocera dorsalis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Dong; Tian, Chuan-Bei; Liu, Shi-Huo; Wang, Tao; Smagghe, Guy; Jia, Fu-Xian; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2016-06-01

    In the male reproductive system of insects, the male accessory glands and ejaculatory duct (MAG/ED) are important organs and their primary function is to enhance the fertility of spermatozoa. Proteins secreted by the MAG/ED are also known to induce post-mating changes and immunity responses in the female insect. To understand the gene expression profile in the MAG/ED of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), that is an important pest in fruits, we performed an Illumina-based deep sequencing of mRNA. This yielded 54,577,630 clean reads corresponding to 4.91Gb total nucleotides that were assembled and clustered to 30,669 unigenes (average 645bp). Among them, 20,419 unigenes were functionally annotated to known proteins/peptides in Gene Orthology, Clusters of Orthologous Groups, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway databases. Typically, many genes were involved in immunity and these included microbial recognition proteins and antimicrobial peptides. Subsequently, the inducible expression of these immunity-related genes was confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis when insects were challenged with immunity-inducible factors, suggesting their function in guaranteeing fertilization success. Besides, we identified some important reproductive genes such as juvenile hormone- and ecdysteroid-related genes in this de novo assembly. In conclusion, this transcriptomic sequencing of B. dorsalis MAG/ED provides insights to facilitate further functional research of reproduction, immunity and molecular evolution of reproductive proteins in this important agricultural pest.

  2. De novo Cloning and Annotation of Genes Associated with Immunity, Detoxification and Energy Metabolism from the Fat Body of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wen-Jia; Yuan, Guo-Rui; Cong, Lin; Xie, Yi-Fei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2014-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a destructive pest in tropical and subtropical areas. In this study, we performed transcriptome-wide analysis of the fat body of B. dorsalis and obtained more than 59 million sequencing reads, which were assembled into 27,787 unigenes with an average length of 591 bp. Among them, 17,442 (62.8%) unigenes matched known proteins in the NCBI database. The assembled sequences were further annotated with gene ontology, cluster of orthologous group terms, and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes. In depth analysis was performed to identify genes putatively involved in immunity, detoxification, and energy metabolism. Many new genes were identified including serpins, peptidoglycan recognition proteins and defensins, which were potentially linked to immune defense. Many detoxification genes were identified, including cytochrome P450s, glutathione S-transferases and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Many new transcripts possibly involved in energy metabolism, including fatty acid desaturases, lipases, alpha amylases, and trehalose-6-phosphate synthases, were identified. Moreover, we randomly selected some genes to examine their expression patterns in different tissues by quantitative real-time PCR, which indicated that some genes exhibited fat body-specific expression in B. dorsalis. The identification of a numerous transcripts in the fat body of B. dorsalis laid the foundation for future studies on the functions of these genes. PMID:24710118

  3. A PCR-based diagnostic assay for detecting DNA of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, in the gut of soil-living arthropods.

    PubMed

    Rejili, M; Fernandes, T; Dinis, A M; Pereira, J A; Baptista, P; Santos, S A P; Lino-Neto, T

    2016-10-01

    Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is considered the most devastating pest of the olive tree worldwide. In an effort to develop management and biological control strategies against this pest, new molecular tools are urgently needed. In this study, we present the design of B. oleae-specific primers based on mitochondrial DNA sequences of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. Two pairs of B. oleae-specific primers were successfully designed and named as SBo1-F/SBo1-R and SBo2-F/SBo1-R, being able to amplify 108 and 214 bp COI fragments, respectively. The specificity of designed primers was tested by amplifying DNA from phylogenetically related (i.e. Diptera order) and other non-pest insects living in olive groves from the Mediterranean region. When using these primers on a PCR-based diagnostic assay, B. oleae DNA was detected in the gut content of a soil-living insect, Pterostichus globosus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Carabidae). The detection of B. oleae DNA in the guts of arthropods was further optimized by adding bovine serum albumin enhancer to the PCR reaction, in order to get a fast, reproducible and sensitive tool for detecting B. oleae remains in the guts of soil-living arthropods. This molecular tool could be useful for understanding pest-predator relationships and establishing future biological control strategies for this pest.

  4. Identification of leaf volatiles from olive (Olea europaea) and their possible role in the ovipositional preferences of olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Malheiro, Ricardo; Casal, Susana; Cunha, Sara C; Baptista, Paula; Pereira, José Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), is a monophagous pest that displays an oviposition preference among cultivars of olive (Olea europaea L.). To clarify the oviposition preference, the olive leaf volatiles of three olive cultivars (Cobrançosa, Madural and Verdeal Transmontana) were assessed by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC/MS) at six different periods of olive fruit maturation and degrees of infestation. A total of 39 volatiles were identified, mainly esters and alcohols, with a minor percentage of aldehydes, ketones and terpenic compounds, including sesquiterpenes. At sampling dates with higher degrees of infestation, cv. Cobrançosa had, simultaneously, significantly lower infestation degrees and higher volatile amounts than the other two cultivars, with a probable deterrent effect for oviposition. The green leaf volatiles (GLVs) (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol acetate) were the main compounds identified in all cultivars, together with toluene. The abundance of GLVs decreased significantly throughout maturation, without significant differences among cultivars, while toluene showed a general increase and positive correlation with olive fly infestation levels. The results obtained could broaden our understanding of the roles of various types and amounts of olive volatiles in the environment, especially in olive fly host selection and cultivar preference.

  5. Bdor\\Orco is important for oviposition-deterring behavior induced by both the volatile and non-volatile repellents in Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Yi, Xin; Zhao, Haiming; Wang, Peidan; Hu, Meiying; Zhong, Guohua

    2014-06-01

    Several studies have shown that the selections of gravid females to potential oviposition sites from a distance were mediated by volatile signals, however, the means by which the sensory cues from non-volatile chemicals affected the insect behavior were still a controversial subject. Chemosensory in insect is a complex process, which is mediated by multigene families of chemoreceptors, including olfactory receptors, olfactory co-receptors, and odorant-binding proteins. To elucidate the chemoreception mechanism of volatile and non-volatile chemicals, the roles of Orco and OBP in oviposition-deterrent activities induced by citronellal and Rhodojaponin-III were investigated. Our results suggested that RNAi-mediated expression inhibition was successfully achieved by feeding dsRNA in Bactrocera dorsalis. High levels of Bdor\\Orco expression were essential for recognizing two chemicals of different physical properties, whereas the expression of Bdor\\OBP was only imperative in perception of volatile chemical. The results suggested that volatile and non-volatile chemicals may evoke distinct molecular basis for chemosensory in the flies, while Orco was essential in the perception of both chemicals. The study highlighted that the central role of Orco in chemical recognition, which enabled it to be the universally applied target of designing new botanical pesticide.

  6. Implementing a spinosad-based local bait station to control Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in high rainfall areas of Reunion Island.

    PubMed

    Delpoux, Camille; Deguine, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Three species of fruit flies cause serious damage to cucurbit crops on Reunion Island: Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) (Coquillett 1899), Dacus ciliatus (Loew 1901), and Dacus demmerezi (Bezzi 1917). To control them, a program of agroecological management of cucurbit flies has been implemented based on the application of Synéis-appât, especially spot sprays on corn borders. However, the high rainfall on Reunion Island limits the long-term efficiency of the bait; in addition, this method cannot be used for large chayote trellises, because corn borders cannot be planted around them. The aim of this study was to design a bait station adapted to prevailing conditions on Reunion Island. An 'umbrella trap' tested in Taiwan was used as a reference to compare its efficacy with our local bait station. Experiments were conducted in field cages on B. cucurbitae to test different characteristics of bait stations and to construct one using local materials. Results were validated in the field. The attractiveness of the bait station was related mainly to the color of the external surface, yellow being the most attractive color. The efficacy of the bait station with respect to fly mortality was found to be linked to the accessibility of the bait, and direct application of Synéis-appât on the bait station was found to be the most efficient. In the field, B. cucurbitae were more attracted to the local bait station than to the umbrella trap, while the two other fly species displayed equal attraction to both trap types. Our local bait station is a useful alternative to spot sprays of Synéis-appât and is now included in a local pest management program and is well accepted by farmers. PMID:25688089

  7. Cage study of spinosad-based bait efficacy on Bactrocera cucurbitae, Dacus ciliatus, and Dacus demmerezi (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Reunion Island.

    PubMed

    Deguine, Jean-Philippe; Douraguia, Elisabeth; Atiama-Nurbel, Toulassi; Chiroleu, Fréderic; Quilici, Serge

    2012-08-01

    On Reunion Island, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), Dacus ciliatus (Loew), and Dacus demmerezi (Bezzi) cause severe damage to Cucurbit crops. The aim of the study was to test in field cages the effectiveness of Synéis-appât (Dow AgroSciences), a spinosad-based bait (0.02% of spinosad) on both attraction and mortality of young adults (6-9 d old) of these three species. The effects of gender were also evaluated for all species whereas the effects of protein deprivation were tested with B. cucurbitae only. For the first 15 min after application, significantly more B. cucurbitae adults (21.7 +/- 1.8%) were attracted to the bait than D. demmerezi (7.6 +/- 2.4%) and D. ciliatus (2.7 +/- 1.4%); the subsequent response (30-75 min after bait application) of D. demmerezi was statistically similar to that recorded for B. cucurbitae; whereas the response ofD. ciliatus to the bait was consistently significantly lower. Adult mortality was significantly higher for B. cucurbitae (94.6 +/- 0.7%) than for D. demmerezi (85.7 +/- 2.1%), and was significantly higher for the latter than for D. ciliatus (60.4 +/- 4.4%). Sex had no significant effect on the mortality rate for each species. The efficiency of the bait was the same for B. cucurbitae adults regardless whether or not the diet included proteins. Overall, Synéis-appât appears to be more effective against B. cucurbitae and B. demmerezi than against D. ciliatus. In Reunion Island, this bait could constitute a useful component in the framework of Integrated Pest Management.

  8. Attraction and mortality of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) to STATIC Spinosad ME weathered under operational conditions in California and Florida: a reduced-risk male annihilation treatment.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Roger I; Souder, Steven K; Hoffman, Kevin; Mercogliano, Juan; Smith, Trevor R; Hammond, Jack; Davis, Bobbie J; Brodie, Matt; Dripps, James E

    2014-08-01

    Studies were conducted in 2013-2014 to quantify attraction, feeding, and mortality of male oriental fruit flies, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to STATIC Spinosad ME a reduced-risk male annihilation treatment (MAT) formulation consisting of an amorphous polymer matrix in combination with methyl eugenol (ME) and spinosad compared with the standard treatment of Min-U-Gel mixed with ME and naled (Dibrom). Our approach used a behavioral methodology for evaluation of slow-acting reduced-risk insecticides. ME treatments were weathered for 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 d under operational conditions in California and Florida and shipped to Hawaii for bioassays. In field tests using bucket traps to attract and capture wild males, and in toxicity studies conducted in 1-m(3) cages using released males of controlled ages, STATIC Spinosad ME performed equally as well to the standard formulation of Min-U-Gel ME with naled for material aged up to 28 d in both California and Florida. In laboratory feeding tests in which individual males were exposed for 5 min to the different ME treatments, mortality induced by STATIC Spinosad ME recorded at 24 h did not differ from mortality caused by Min-U-Gel ME with naled at 1, 7, 14, and 21 d in California and was equal to or higher for all weathered time periods in Florida during two trials. Spinosad has low contact toxicity, and when mixed with an attractant and slow release matrix, offers a reduced-risk alternative for eradication of B. dorsalis and related ME attracted species, without many of the potential negative effects to humans and nontargets associated with broad-spectrum contact insecticides such as naled. PMID:25195423

  9. Frequencies of organophosphate resistance-associated mutations in the acetylcholinesterase gene of field collected olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) populations under different insecticide regimes.

    PubMed

    Başkurt, S Ibel; Doğaç, E; Taşkın, V; Taşkın, Belg In Göçmen

    2011-03-01

    In the present study, the frequencies of three organophosphate (OP) resistance-associated mutations in acetylcholinesterase gene of Bactrocera oleae (BoAce) populations collected from 8 different important olivegrowing areas in the west part of Turkey were determined. Populations were sampled from the areas that have been treated with only the pyrethroid α-cypermethrin; pyrethroids plus OPs; deltamethrin with pheromone eco-traps, and no insecticide treatment applied areas for many years. For Ile214Val and Gly488Ser point mutations PCR-RFLP and for Δ3Q deletion mutation PCR diagnostic tests were carried out. Seventy-two percent of the total individuals analyzed in the study were exhibited heterozygous genotype (RS) for both Ile214Val and Gly488Ser point and homozygous susceptible genotype (SS) for Δ3Q deletion mutations. This RS/RS/SS combination together with RS/RR/SS with the frequency of 13% were the most common two combinations observed in all of the populations under different insecticide regimes, even in the populations under no insecticide pressure for many years. Independent evaluation of the three mutations resulted in 0.450, 0.534 and 0.037 frequency values for the resistant alleles of 214Val, 488Ser and Δ3Q mutations, respectively. Among the studied populations, the frequencies of resistant alleles for the positions of 214 and 488 were not differed from each other. However, in 3 of the populations the frequency of the R allele of Δ3Q was zero and it changed between 0.025 and 0.100 in the remaining five populations. Results of this study contributed to the distribution pattern of the two point mutations in Europe and a pattern for Δ3Q mutation was determined for the first time in the field collected olive fly samples.

  10. Implementing a Spinosad-Based Local Bait Station to Control Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in High Rainfall Areas of Reunion Island

    PubMed Central

    Delpoux, Camille; Deguine, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Three species of fruit flies cause serious damage to cucurbit crops on Reunion Island: Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) (Coquillett 1899), Dacus ciliatus (Loew 1901), and Dacus demmerezi (Bezzi 1917). To control them, a program of agroecological management of cucurbit flies has been implemented based on the application of Synéis-appât, especially spot sprays on corn borders. However, the high rainfall on Reunion Island limits the long-term efficiency of the bait; in addition, this method cannot be used for large chayote trellises, because corn borders cannot be planted around them. The aim of this study was to design a bait station adapted to prevailing conditions on Reunion Island. An ‘umbrella trap’ tested in Taiwan was used as a reference to compare its efficacy with our local bait station. Experiments were conducted in field cages on B. cucurbitae to test different characteristics of bait stations and to construct one using local materials. Results were validated in the field. The attractiveness of the bait station was related mainly to the color of the external surface, yellow being the most attractive color. The efficacy of the bait station with respect to fly mortality was found to be linked to the accessibility of the bait, and direct application of Synéis-appât on the bait station was found to be the most efficient. In the field, B. cucurbitae were more attracted to the local bait station than to the umbrella trap, while the two other fly species displayed equal attraction to both trap types. Our local bait station is a useful alternative to spot sprays of Synéis-appât and is now included in a local pest management program and is well accepted by farmers. PMID:25688089

  11. Evidence of two lineages of the symbiont 'Candidatus Erwinia dacicola' in Italian populations of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) based on 16S rRNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Savio, Claudia; Mazzon, Luca; Martinez-Sañudo, Isabel; Simonato, Mauro; Squartini, Andrea; Girolami, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    The close association between the olive fly Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and bacteria has been known for more than a century. Recently, the presence of a host-specific, hereditary, unculturable symbiotic bacterium, designated 'Candidatus Erwinia dacicola', has been described inside the cephalic organ of the fly, called the oesophageal bulb. In the present study, the 16S rRNA gene sequence variability of 'Ca. E. dacicola' was examined within and between 26 Italian olive fly populations sampled across areas where olive trees occur in the wild and areas where cultivated olive trees have been introduced through history. The bacterial contents of the oesophageal bulbs of 314 olive flies were analysed and a minimum of 781 bp of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced. The corresponding host fly genotype was assessed by sequencing a 776 bp portion of the mitochondrial genome. Two 'Ca. E. dacicola' haplotypes were found (htA and htB), one being slightly more prevalent than the other (57%). The two haplotypes did not co-exist in the same individuals, as confirmed by cloning. Interestingly, the olive fly populations of the two main Italian islands, Sicily and Sardinia, appeared to be represented exclusively by the htB and htA haplotypes, respectively, while peninsular populations showed both bacterial haplotypes in different proportions. No significant correlation emerged between the two symbiont haplotypes and the 16 host fly haplotypes observed, suggesting evidence for a mixed model of vertical and horizontal transmission of the symbiont during the fly life cycle.

  12. RNAi-Mediated Knock-Down of transformer and transformer 2 to Generate Male-Only Progeny in the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianwei; Zhang, Guifen; Wan, Fanghao

    2015-01-01

    The transformer (tra) gene appears to act as the genetic switch that promotes female development by interaction with the transformer2 (tra-2) gene in several dipteran species including the Medfly, housefly and Drosophila melanogaster. In this study, we describe the isolation, expression and function of tra and tra-2 in the economically important agricultural pest, the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Bdtra and Bdtra-2 are similar to their homologs from other tephritid species. Bdtra demonstrated sex-specific transcripts: one transcript in females and two transcripts in males. In contrast, Bdtra-2 only had one transcript that was common to males and females, which was transcribed continuously in different adult tissues and developmental stages. Bdtra-2 and the female form of Bdtra were maternally inherited in eggs, whereas the male form of Bdtra was not detectable until embryos of 1 and 2 h after egg laying. Function analyses of Bdtra and Bdtra-2 indicated that both were indispensable for female development, as nearly 100% males were obtained with embryonic RNAi against either Bdtra or Bdtra-2. The fertility of these RNAi-generated males was subsequently tested. More than 80% of RNAi-generated males could mate and the mated females could lay eggs, but only 40-48.6% males gave rise to progeny. In XX-reversed males and intersex individuals, no clear female gonadal morphology was observed after dissection. These results shed light on the development of a genetic sexing system with male-only release for this agricultural pest. PMID:26057559

  13. Comparison of Rain-Fast Bait Stations Versus Foliar Bait Sprays for Control of Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, in Papaya Orchards in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Piñero, Jaime C.; Mau, Ronald F. L.; Vargas, Roger I.

    2010-01-01

    Bait stations represent an environmentally friendly attract-and-kill approach to fruit fly population suppression. Recently a novel, visually attractive, rain-fast bait station was developed in Hawaii for potential use against multiple species of pestiferous fruit flies. Here, we compared the efficacy of GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait applied either as foliar sprays or onto bait stations in reducing female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), population density and level of fruit infestation in commercial papaya orchards in Hawaii. Trapping and infestation data were used as indicators of the effectiveness of the two bait application methods. For the first 10 weeks of the study, captures of female B. dorsalis in monitoring traps were significantly greater in control plots than in plots treated with foliar sprays or bait stations. Six weeks after the first bait spray, incidence of infestation (i.e. number of fruit with one or more B. dorsalis larvae) of quarter to half-ripe papaya fruit was reduced by 71.4% and 63.1% for plots with bait stations and foliar sprays, respectively, as compared to control plots. Twelve weeks after first spray, incidence of infestation was reduced by only 54.5% and 45.4% for plots with bait stations and foliar sprays, respectively, as compared to control plots. About 42% less GF-120 was used in orchard plots with bait stations compared to those subject to foliar sprays. The impact of field sanitation on the outcome is also discussed. The results indicate that bait stations can provide a simple, efficient, and economical method of applying insecticidal baits to control fruit flies and a safer alternative to foliar sprays. PMID:21067423

  14. Identification, mRNA Expression, and Functional Analysis of Chitin Synthase 1 Gene and Its Two Alternative Splicing Variants in Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wen-Jia; Xu, Kang-Kang; Cong, Lin; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Two alternative splicing variants of chitin synthase 1 gene (BdCHS1) were cloned and characterized from the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). The cDNA of both variants (BdCHS1a and BdCHS1b) consisted of 5,552 nucleotides (nt), with an open reading frame (ORF) of 4,776 nt, encoding a protein of 1,592 amino acid residues, plus 685- and 88-nt of 5′- and 3′-noncoding regions, respectively. The alternative splicing site was located between positions 3,784-3,960 and formed a pair of mutually exclusive exons (a/b) that were same in size (177 nt), but showed only 65% identity at the nucleotide level. During B. dorsalis growth and development, BdCHS1 and BdCHS1a were both mainly expressed during the larval-pupal and pupal-adult transitions, while BdCHS1b was mainly expressed during pupal-adult metamorphosis and in the middle of the pupal stage. BdCHS1a was predominately expressed in the integument whereas BdCHS1b was mainly expressed in the trachea. The 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) induced the expression of BdCHS1 and its variants. Injection of dsRNA of BdCHS1, BdCHS1a, and BdCHS1b into third-instar larvae significantly reduced the expression levels of the corresponding variants, generated phenotypic defects, and killed most of the treated larvae. Furthermore, silencing of BdCHS1 and BdCHS1a had a similar result in that the larva was trapped in old cuticle and died without tanning completely, while silencing of BdCHS1b has no effect on insect morphology. These results demonstrated that BdCHS1 plays an important role in the larval-pupal transition and the expression of BdCHS1 in B. dorsalis is regulated by 20E. PMID:23569438

  15. Pre-Release Consumption of Methyl Eugenol Increases the Mating Competitiveness of Sterile Males of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, in Large Field Enclosures

    PubMed Central

    Shelly, Todd E.; Edu, James; McInnis, Donald

    2010-01-01

    The sterile insect technique may be implemented to control populations of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), when environmental concerns preclude widespread use of chemical attractants or toxicants. The goal of the present study was to evaluate whether the mating competitiveness of sterile B. dorsalis males could be increased via pre-release feeding on methyl eugenol. Males of the oriental fruit fly are strongly attracted to this plant-borne compound, which they ingest and use in the synthesis of the sex pheromone. Previous studies conducted in the laboratory and small field-cages have shown that males given methyl eugenol produce a more attractive pheromone for females and have a higher mating success rate than males denied methyl eugenol. Here, levels of egg sterility were compared following the release of wild-like flies and either methyl eugenol-fed (treated) or methyl eugenol-deprived (control) sterile males in large field enclosures at four over flooding ratios ranging from 5:1 to 60:1 (sterile: wild-like males). Treated sterile males were fed methyl eugenol for 1–4 h (depending on the over flooding ratio tested) 3 d prior to release. Eggs were dissected from introduced fruits (apples), incubated in the laboratory, and scored for hatch rate. The effect of methyl eugenol was most pronounced at lower over flooding ratios. At the 5:1 and 10:1 over flooding ratios, the level of egg sterility observed for treated, sterile males was significantly greater than that observed for control, sterile males. In addition, the incidence of egg sterility reported for treated sterile males at these lower over flooding ratios was similar to that noted for treated or control sterile males at the 30:1 or 60:1 over flooding ratios. This latter result, in particular, suggests that pre-release feeding on methyl eugenol allows for a reduction in the number of sterile flies that are produced and released, thus increasing the cost

  16. Selective extraction of Bactrocera oleae sexual pheromone from olive oil by dispersive magnetic microsolid phase extraction using a molecularly imprinted nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Del Carmen Alcudia-León, María; Lucena, Rafael; Cárdenas, Soledad; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2016-07-15

    Bactrocera oleae Gmelin, also known as olive fruit fly, is the main olive tree pest. It produces a severe effect not only on the productivity but also on the quality of the olive-related products. In fact, the oil obtained from infected olives has a lower antioxidant power. In addition, an increase of the oil acidity, peroxide index and UV-absorbance can also be observed. 1,7-dioxaspiro-[5,5]-undecane (DSU), is the main component of the sexual pheromone of this pest and may be used as marker of the pest incidence. In this context, the development of new methods able to detect the pheromones in several samples, including agri-food or environmental ones, is interesting. In this work, we synthesized a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIPS) layer over magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4@SiO2@MIP) for the selective recognition of DSU. They were prepared using DSU as template and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) to associate the target analyte on the surface of the magnetic substrate and the later polymerization of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) in presence of 2,2-azobisisobutyonnitrile (AIBN). The resulting Fe3O4@SiO2@MIP composite was characterized by different techniques. The maximum adsorption capacity of DSU on Fe3O4@SiO2@MIP in hexane was 32mg/g (5.3 times than that obtained for the non-imprinted composite). In addition, Fe3O4@SiO2@MIP showed a short equilibrium time (45min) and potential reusability. The combination of dispersive magnetic microsolid phase extraction and gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection allows the determination of DSU in real samples at concentrations as low as 10μg/L with precision better than 7.5% (expressed as relative standard deviation). The relative recoveries are in the range between 95 and 99%, which indicates the potential of the methodology. Finally, it has been applied to real olive oil samples being the presence of the pest detected is some of them. PMID:27295964

  17. Molecular Characteristics, mRNA Expression, and Alternative Splicing of a Ryanodine Receptor Gene in the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Guo-Rui; Shi, Wen-Zhi; Yang, Wen-Jia; Jiang, Xuan-Zhao; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are a distinct class of ligand-gated channels controlling the release of calcium from intracellular stores. The emergence of diamide insecticides, which selectively target insect RyRs, has promoted the study of insect RyRs. In the present study, the full-length RyR cDNA (BdRyR) was cloned and characterized from the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), a serious pest of fruits and vegetables throughout East Asia and the Pacific Rim. The cDNA of BdRyR contains a 15,420-bp open reading frame encoding 5,140 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 582.4 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.38. BdRyR shows a high level of amino acid sequence identity (78 to 97%) to other insect RyR isoforms. All common structural features of the RyRs are present in the BdRyR, including a well-conserved C-terminal domain containing consensus calcium-binding EF-hands and six transmembrane domains, and a large N-terminal domain. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses revealed that BdRyR was expressed at the lowest and highest levels in egg and adult, respectively, and that the BdRyR expression levels in the third instar larva, pupa and adult were 166.99-, 157.56- and 808.56-fold higher, respectively, than that in the egg. Among different adult body parts, the highest expression level was observed in the thorax compared with the head and abdomen. In addition, four alternative splice sites were identified in the BdRyR gene, with the first, ASI, being located in the central part of the predicted second spore lysis A/RyR domain. Diagnostic PCR analyses revealed that alternative splice variants were generated not only in a tissue-specific manner but also in a developmentally regulated manner. These results lay the foundation for further understanding the structural and functional properties of BdRyR, and the molecular mechanisms for target site resistance in B. dorsalis. PMID:24740254

  18. An Overview of Pest Species of Bactrocera Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and the Integration of Biopesticides with Other Biological Approaches for Their Management with a Focus on the Pacific Region.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Roger I; Piñero, Jaime C; Leblanc, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are among the most economically important pest species in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout tropical and sub-tropical areas. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and eradication programs have been developed in various parts of the world to combat them. The array of control methods includes insecticide sprays to foliage and soil, bait-sprays, male annihilation techniques, releases of sterilized flies and parasitoids, and cultural controls. During the twenty first century there has been a trend to move away from control with organophosphate insecticides (e.g., malathion, diazinon, and naled) and towards reduced risk insecticide treatments. In this article we present an overview of 73 pest species in the genus Bactrocera, examine recent developments of reduced risk technologies for their control and explore Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Programs that integrate multiple components to manage these pests in tropical and sub-tropical areas. PMID:26463186

  19. An Overview of Pest Species of Bactrocera Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and the Integration of Biopesticides with Other Biological Approaches for Their Management with a Focus on the Pacific Region

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Roger I.; Piñero, Jaime C.; Leblanc, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are among the most economically important pest species in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout tropical and sub-tropical areas. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and eradication programs have been developed in various parts of the world to combat them. The array of control methods includes insecticide sprays to foliage and soil, bait-sprays, male annihilation techniques, releases of sterilized flies and parasitoids, and cultural controls. During the twenty first century there has been a trend to move away from control with organophosphate insecticides (e.g., malathion, diazinon, and naled) and towards reduced risk insecticide treatments. In this article we present an overview of 73 pest species in the genus Bactrocera, examine recent developments of reduced risk technologies for their control and explore Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Programs that integrate multiple components to manage these pests in tropical and sub-tropical areas. PMID:26463186

  20. An Overview of Pest Species of Bactrocera Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and the Integration of Biopesticides with Other Biological Approaches for Their Management with a Focus on the Pacific Region.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Roger I; Piñero, Jaime C; Leblanc, Luc

    2015-04-03

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are among the most economically important pest species in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout tropical and sub-tropical areas. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and eradication programs have been developed in various parts of the world to combat them. The array of control methods includes insecticide sprays to foliage and soil, bait-sprays, male annihilation techniques, releases of sterilized flies and parasitoids, and cultural controls. During the twenty first century there has been a trend to move away from control with organophosphate insecticides (e.g., malathion, diazinon, and naled) and towards reduced risk insecticide treatments. In this article we present an overview of 73 pest species in the genus Bactrocera, examine recent developments of reduced risk technologies for their control and explore Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Programs that integrate multiple components to manage these pests in tropical and sub-tropical areas.

  1. Cytogenetic and symbiont analysis of five members of the B. dorsalis complex (Diptera, Tephritidae): no evidence of chromosomal or symbiont-based speciation events.

    PubMed

    Augustinos, Antonios A; Drosopoulou, Elena; Gariou-Papalexiou, Aggeliki; Asimakis, Elias D; Cáceres, Carlos; Tsiamis, George; Bourtzis, Kostas; Penelope Mavragani-Tsipidou; Zacharopoulou, Antigone

    2015-01-01

    The Bactrocera dorsalis species complex, currently comprising about 90 entities has received much attention. During the last decades, considerable effort has been devoted to delimiting the species of the complex. This information is of great importance for agriculture and world trade, since the complex harbours several pest species of major economic importance and other species that could evolve into global threats. Speciation in Diptera is usually accompanied by chromosomal rearrangements, particularly inversions that are assumed to reduce/eliminate gene flow. Other candidates currently receiving much attention regarding their possible involvement in speciation are reproductive symbionts, such as Wolbachia, Spiroplasma, Arsenophonus, Rickettsia and Cardinium. Such symbionts tend to spread quickly through natural populations and can cause a variety of phenotypes that promote pre-mating and/or post-mating isolation and, in addition, can affect the biology, physiology, ecology and evolution of their insect hosts in various ways. Considering all these aspects, we present: (a) a summary of the recently gained knowledge on the cytogenetics of five members of the Bactrocera dorsalis complex, namely Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., Bactrocera invadens, Bactrocera philippinensis, Bactrocera papayae and Bactrocera carambolae, supplemented by additional data from a Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. colony from China, as well as by a cytogenetic comparison between the dorsalis complex and the genetically close species, Bactrocera tryoni, and, (b) a reproductive symbiont screening of 18 different colonized populations of these five taxa. Our analysis did not reveal any chromosomal rearrangements that could differentiate among them. Moreover, screening for reproductive symbionts was negative for all colonies derived from different geographic origins and/or hosts. There are many different factors that can lead to speciation, and our data do not support chromosomal and/or symbiotic

  2. Cytogenetic and symbiont analysis of five members of the B. dorsalis complex (Diptera, Tephritidae): no evidence of chromosomal or symbiont-based speciation events

    PubMed Central

    Augustinos, Antonios A.; Drosopoulou, Elena; Gariou-Papalexiou, Aggeliki; Asimakis, Elias D.; Cáceres, Carlos; Tsiamis, George; Bourtzis, Kostas; Penelope Mavragani-Tsipidou; Zacharopoulou, Antigone

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Bactrocera dorsalis species complex, currently comprising about 90 entities has received much attention. During the last decades, considerable effort has been devoted to delimiting the species of the complex. This information is of great importance for agriculture and world trade, since the complex harbours several pest species of major economic importance and other species that could evolve into global threats. Speciation in Diptera is usually accompanied by chromosomal rearrangements, particularly inversions that are assumed to reduce/eliminate gene flow. Other candidates currently receiving much attention regarding their possible involvement in speciation are reproductive symbionts, such as Wolbachia, Spiroplasma, Arsenophonus, Rickettsia and Cardinium. Such symbionts tend to spread quickly through natural populations and can cause a variety of phenotypes that promote pre-mating and/or post-mating isolation and, in addition, can affect the biology, physiology, ecology and evolution of their insect hosts in various ways. Considering all these aspects, we present: (a) a summary of the recently gained knowledge on the cytogenetics of five members of the Bactrocera dorsalis complex, namely Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., Bactrocera invadens, Bactrocera philippinensis, Bactrocera papayae and Bactrocera carambolae, supplemented by additional data from a Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. colony from China, as well as by a cytogenetic comparison between the dorsalis complex and the genetically close species, Bactrocera tryoni, and, (b) a reproductive symbiont screening of 18 different colonized populations of these five taxa. Our analysis did not reveal any chromosomal rearrangements that could differentiate among them. Moreover, screening for reproductive symbionts was negative for all colonies derived from different geographic origins and/or hosts. There are many different factors that can lead to speciation, and our data do not support chromosomal and/or symbiotic

  3. Population structure of Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., B. papayae and B. philippinensis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in southeast Asia: evidence for a single species hypothesis using mitochondrial DNA and wing-shape data

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. is a pestiferous tephritid fruit fly distributed from Pakistan to the Pacific, with the Thai/Malay peninsula its southern limit. Sister pest taxa, B. papayae and B. philippinensis, occur in the southeast Asian archipelago and the Philippines, respectively. The relationship among these species is unclear due to their high molecular and morphological similarity. This study analysed population structure of these three species within a southeast Asian biogeographical context to assess potential dispersal patterns and the validity of their current taxonomic status. Results Geometric morphometric results generated from 15 landmarks for wings of 169 flies revealed significant differences in wing shape between almost all sites following canonical variate analysis. For the combined data set there was a greater isolation-by-distance (IBD) effect under a ‘non-Euclidean’ scenario which used geographical distances within a biogeographical ‘Sundaland context’ (r2 = 0.772, P < 0.0001) as compared to a ‘Euclidean’ scenario for which direct geographic distances between sample sites was used (r2 = 0.217, P < 0.01). COI sequence data were obtained for 156 individuals and yielded 83 unique haplotypes with no correlation to current taxonomic designations via a minimum spanning network. beast analysis provided a root age and location of 540kya in northern Thailand, with migration of B. dorsalis s.l. into Malaysia 470kya and Sumatra 270kya. Two migration events into the Philippines are inferred. Sequence data revealed a weak but significant IBD effect under the ‘non-Euclidean’ scenario (r2 = 0.110, P < 0.05), with no historical migration evident between Taiwan and the Philippines. Results are consistent with those expected at the intra-specific level. Conclusions Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., B. papayae and B. philippinensis likely represent one species structured around the South China Sea, having migrated from

  4. Low Diversity Bacterial Community and the Trapping Activity of Metabolites from Cultivable Bacteria Species in the Female Reproductive System of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zhanghong; Wang, Lili; Zhang, Hongyu

    2012-01-01

    Our goal was to identify the bacteria inhabiting the reproductive system of the female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and evaluate the chemotaxis of B. dorsalis to the metabolites produced by the bacteria. Based on 16S rRNA-based polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), 18 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were assigned to the five bacterial classes Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacilli and Actinobacteria. Nine OTUs were assigned to Gammaproteobacteria, which was the most highly represented class. Enterobacteriaceae constituted the dominant family, and within this family, three genera and five species were identified, including Enterobacter sakazakii, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Raoultella terrigena and Enterobacter amnigenus. In this set, the first two species were the dominant components, and the latter three species were the minor ones. Finally, we found that the metabolites produced by R. terrigena, K. oxytoca and K. pneumoniae were attractive to the B. dorsalis adults, and in field studies, B. dorsalis adults were most attracted to K. oxytoca. Collectively, our results suggest that the female reproductive system plays an important role in the transfer of enterobacteria from the gut to fruit. Our data may prompt the development of a female-targeted population control strategy for this fly. PMID:22754363

  5. Evidence of weak genetic structure and recent gene flow between Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. and B. papayae, across Southern Thailand and West Malaysia, supporting a single target pest for SIT applications

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. (Hendel) and B. papayae Drew & Hancock, are invasive pests belonging to the B. dorsalis complex. Their species status, based on morphology, is sometimes arguable. Consequently, the existence of cryptic species and/or population isolation may decrease the effectiveness of the sterile insect technique (SIT) due to an unknown degree of sexual isolation between released sterile flies and wild counterparts. To evaluate the genetic relationship and current demography in wild populations for guiding the application of area-wide integrated pest management using SIT, seven microsatellite-derived markers from B. dorsalis s.s. and another five from B. papayae were used for surveying intra- and inter-specific variation, population structure, and recent migration among sympatric and allopatric populations of the two morphological forms across Southern Thailand and West Malaysia. Results Basic genetic variations were not significantly different among forms, populations, and geographical areas (P > 0.05). Nonetheless, two sets of microsatellite markers showed significantly different levels of polymorphisms. Genetic differentiation between intra- and inter-specific differences was significant, but low. Seventeen populations revealed three hypothetical genetic clusters (K = 3) regardless of forms and geographical areas. The genetic structure of sympatric populations slightly changed during the different years of collection. Recent gene flow (m ≥ 0.10) was frequently detected whether samples were sympatric or allopatric. Ninety-five of 379 individuals distributed across the given area were designated as recent migrants or of admixed ancestry. As a consequence of substantial migration, no significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances was detected (R2 = 0.056, P = 0.650). Conclusions According to the 12 microsatellite variations, weak population structure and recent gene flow suggest that there is no status for cryptic species

  6. The Long and the Short of Mate Attraction in a Psylloid: do Semiochemicals Mediate Mating in Aacanthocnema dobsoni Froggatt?

    PubMed

    Lubanga, Umar K; Drijfhout, Falko P; Farnier, Kevin; Steinbauer, Martin J

    2016-02-01

    Mating is preceded by a series of interdependent events that can be broadly categorized into searching and courtship. Long-range signals convey species- and sex-specific information during searching, while short-range signals provide information specific to individuals during courtship. Studies have shown that cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) can be used for mate recognition in addition to protecting insects from desiccation. In Psylloidea, four species rely on semiochemicals for long-range mate attraction. Psyllid mating research has focused on long-range mate attraction and has largely ignored the potential use of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) as mate recognition cues. This study investigated whether CHCs of Aacanthocnema dobsoni have semiochemical activity for long- and short-range communication prior to mating. Using a solid sampler for solvent-less injection of whole psyllids into coupled gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, we found quantitative, sex- and age-related differences in CHC profiles. Males had higher proportions of 2-MeC28, 11,15-diMeC29, and n-C33 alkanes, while females had higher proportions of 5-MeC27, 3-MeC27, 5,15-diMeC27, n-C29 and n-C30 alkanes. In males and females, 84 and 68 % of CHCs varied with age, respectively. Y-tube olfactometer bioassays provided no evidence that males or females responded to odors emanating from groups of conspecifics of the opposite sex. Tests of male and female psyllids for attraction to branchlets previously occupied by conspecifics showed no evidence of attraction to possible semiochemical residues. Our short-range chemoreception bioassay showed that males were as indifferent to freshly killed individuals of either sex with intact CHC profiles as to those treated with hexane (to remove CHCs). Aacanthocnema dobsoni utilizes substrate-borne vibrations (SBVs) for communication. Therefore, our results indicate that SBVs are probably more important than semiochemicals for long-range mate attraction. Furthermore, CHCs are unlikely to mediate short-range mate recognition or provide mate assessment cues. PMID:26922348

  7. Nonhost status of mangosteen to Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera:Tephritidae) in Thailand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Postharvest quarantine treatments (irradiation or vapor heat) are used to control fruit flies and other pests in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L) exported to the United States and Japan from Thailand. No-choice tests were conducted in the laboratory to determine whether Thai mangosteen is a host f...

  8. A potential field suppression system for Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We first observed attraction by oriental fruit flies to a basil plant in a yard and confirmed the attractiveness to basil oil (BO) in the laboratory. We subsequently identified the insecticidal compounds from BO that could kill three species of tephritid fruit flies in the laboratory, and discovered...

  9. Assessment of Navel oranges, Clementine tangerines and Rutaceous fruits as hosts of Bactrocera cucurbitae and Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Export of Citrus spp., widely cultivated throughout the tropics and subtropics, may require risk mitigation measures if grown in areas with established tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations capable of infesting the fruits. Two tephritid fruit fly species whose geographic ranges have...

  10. Response of Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera:Tephritidae) to metabolic stress disinfection and disinfestation treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metabolic stress disinfection and disinfestation (MSDD) is a postharvest treatment designed to control pathogens and arthropod pests on commodities that combines short cycles of low pressure/vacuum and high CO2 with ethanol vapor. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of MSDD treatment o...

  11. Seminal fluids mediate sexual inhibition and short copula duration in mated female Queensland fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Preethi; Taylor, Phillip W

    2007-07-01

    Molecules in male seminal fluid transferred to female insects during mating can have potent effects on their subsequent sexual and reproductive behaviour. Like many other tephritids, female Queensland fruit flies (Bactrocera tryoni) typically have diminished sexual receptivity after their first mating. Also, copulations of females that do remate tend to be shorter than those of virgins. We here find that virgin females injected with small doses (0.1, 0.2 or 0.5 male equivalents) of extracts from the male reproductive tract accessory tissues, which consist of male accessory glands, ejaculatory apodeme and ejaculatory duct (AG/EA/ED), have diminished receptivity and short copula duration very similar to naturally mated females. In contrast, virgin females injected with saline or with high doses of AG/EA/ED (1 or 2 male equivalents) that likely exceed the range of natural variation retain the higher levels of sexual receptivity and longer copulations of un-injected virgins. We conclude that reduced sexual receptivity and shorter copulations of mated female Q-flies are mediated by products in the male seminal fluid derived from the male reproductive tract accessory tissues. PMID:17187820

  12. Captures of wild Ceratitis capitata Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in traps with improved multi-lure TMR-Dispensers weathered in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During 2012-2013 two “attract and kill” systems were weathered in California as potential detection and male annihilation treatments (MAT). Solid Mallet TMR (trimedlure [TML], methyl eugenol [ME], raspberry ketone [RK]) wafers impregnated with DDVP (2, 2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate) insecticide...

  13. Weathering and chemical degradation of methyl eugenol and raspberry ketone solid dispensers for detection, monitoring and male annihilation of Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solid male lure dispensers containing methyl eugenol (ME) and raspberry ketone (RK), or mixtures of the lures (ME + RK), and dimethyl dichloro-vinyl phosphate (DDVP) were evaluated in AWPM bucket or Jackson traps in commercial papaya (Carica papaya L.) orchards where both oriental fruit fly, Bactroc...

  14. Feasibility of NIR Spectroscopy to detect olive fruit infested by Bactrocera oleae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive fruit fly infestation is a significant problem for the milling process. In most cases, damage from insects is ‘hidden’, i.e. not visually detectable on the fruit surface. Consequently, traditional visual sorting techniques are generally inadequate for the detection and removal of olives with i...

  15. Dietary lufenuron reduces egg hatch and influences protein expression in the fruit fly Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Newly emerged virgin adults were fed for 12 days with various concentrations of lufenuron incorporated agar diet until sexual maturation. After maturation, pairing tests were conducted. At 12 days old, eggs were collected and egg production and egg hatch were assessed. The results showed that lufenu...

  16. Helitrons shaping the genomic architecture of Drosophila: enrichment of DINE-TR1 in α- and β-heterochromatin, satellite DNA emergence, and piRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Dias, Guilherme B; Heringer, Pedro; Svartman, Marta; Kuhn, Gustavo C S

    2015-09-01

    Drosophila INterspersed Elements (DINEs) constitute an abundant but poorly understood group of Helitrons present in several Drosophila species. The general structure of DINEs includes two conserved blocks that may or not contain a region with tandem repeats in between. These central tandem repeats (CTRs) are similar within species but highly divergent between species. It has been assumed that CTRs have independent origins. Herein, we identify a subset of DINEs, termed DINE-TR1, which contain homologous CTRs of approximately 150 bp. We found DINE-TR1 in the sequenced genomes of several Drosophila species and in Bactrocera tryoni (Acalyptratae, Diptera). However, interspecific high sequence identity (∼ 88 %) is limited to the first ∼ 30 bp of each tandem repeat, implying that evolutionary constraints operate differently over the monomer length. DINE-TR1 is unevenly distributed across the Drosophila phylogeny. Nevertheless, sequence analysis suggests vertical transmission. We found that CTRs within DINE-TR1 have independently expanded into satellite DNA-like arrays at least twice within Drosophila. By analyzing the genome of Drosophila virilis and Drosophila americana, we show that DINE-TR1 is highly abundant in pericentromeric heterochromatin boundaries, some telomeric regions and in the Y chromosome. It is also present in the centromeric region of one autosome from D. virilis and dispersed throughout several euchromatic sites in both species. We further found that DINE-TR1 is abundant at piRNA clusters, and small DINE-TR1-derived RNA transcripts (∼25 nt) are predominantly expressed in the testes and the ovaries, suggesting active targeting by the piRNA machinery. These features suggest potential piRNA-mediated regulatory roles for DINEs at local and genome-wide scales in Drosophila.

  17. Helitrons shaping the genomic architecture of Drosophila: enrichment of DINE-TR1 in α- and β-heterochromatin, satellite DNA emergence, and piRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Dias, Guilherme B; Heringer, Pedro; Svartman, Marta; Kuhn, Gustavo C S

    2015-09-01

    Drosophila INterspersed Elements (DINEs) constitute an abundant but poorly understood group of Helitrons present in several Drosophila species. The general structure of DINEs includes two conserved blocks that may or not contain a region with tandem repeats in between. These central tandem repeats (CTRs) are similar within species but highly divergent between species. It has been assumed that CTRs have independent origins. Herein, we identify a subset of DINEs, termed DINE-TR1, which contain homologous CTRs of approximately 150 bp. We found DINE-TR1 in the sequenced genomes of several Drosophila species and in Bactrocera tryoni (Acalyptratae, Diptera). However, interspecific high sequence identity (∼ 88 %) is limited to the first ∼ 30 bp of each tandem repeat, implying that evolutionary constraints operate differently over the monomer length. DINE-TR1 is unevenly distributed across the Drosophila phylogeny. Nevertheless, sequence analysis suggests vertical transmission. We found that CTRs within DINE-TR1 have independently expanded into satellite DNA-like arrays at least twice within Drosophila. By analyzing the genome of Drosophila virilis and Drosophila americana, we show that DINE-TR1 is highly abundant in pericentromeric heterochromatin boundaries, some telomeric regions and in the Y chromosome. It is also present in the centromeric region of one autosome from D. virilis and dispersed throughout several euchromatic sites in both species. We further found that DINE-TR1 is abundant at piRNA clusters, and small DINE-TR1-derived RNA transcripts (∼25 nt) are predominantly expressed in the testes and the ovaries, suggesting active targeting by the piRNA machinery. These features suggest potential piRNA-mediated regulatory roles for DINEs at local and genome-wide scales in Drosophila. PMID:26408292

  18. A Generic Individual-Based Spatially Explicit Model as a Novel Tool for Investigating Insect-Plant Interactions: A Case Study of the Behavioural Ecology of Frugivorous Tephritidae

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ming; Cribb, Bronwen; Clarke, Anthony R.; Hanan, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Computational modelling of mechanisms underlying processes in the real world can be of great value in understanding complex biological behaviours. Uptake in general biology and ecology has been rapid. However, it often requires specific data sets that are overly costly in time and resources to collect. The aim of the current study was to test whether a generic behavioural ecology model constructed using published data could give realistic outputs for individual species. An individual-based model was developed using the Pattern-Oriented Modelling (POM) strategy and protocol, based on behavioural rules associated with insect movement choices. Frugivorous Tephritidae (fruit flies) were chosen because of economic significance in global agriculture and the multiple published data sets available for a range of species. The Queensland fruit fly (Qfly), Bactrocera tryoni, was identified as a suitable individual species for testing. Plant canopies with modified architecture were used to run predictive simulations. A field study was then conducted to validate our model predictions on how plant architecture affects fruit flies’ behaviours. Characteristics of plant architecture such as different shapes, e.g., closed-canopy and vase-shaped, affected fly movement patterns and time spent on host fruit. The number of visits to host fruit also differed between the edge and centre in closed-canopy plants. Compared to plant architecture, host fruit has less contribution to effects on flies’ movement patterns. The results from this model, combined with our field study and published empirical data suggest that placing fly traps in the upper canopy at the edge should work best. Such a modelling approach allows rapid testing of ideas about organismal interactions with environmental substrates in silico rather than in vivo, to generate new perspectives. Using published data provides a saving in time and resources. Adjustments for specific questions can be achieved by refinement of

  19. Estimating effective population size from linkage disequilibrium between unlinked loci: theory and application to fruit fly outbreak populations.

    PubMed

    Sved, John A; Cameron, Emilie C; Gilchrist, A Stuart

    2013-01-01

    There is a substantial literature on the use of linkage disequilibrium (LD) to estimate effective population size using unlinked loci. The Ne estimates are extremely sensitive to the sampling process, and there is currently no theory to cope with the possible biases. We derive formulae for the analysis of idealised populations mating at random with multi-allelic (microsatellite) loci. The 'Burrows composite index' is introduced in a novel way with a 'composite haplotype table'. We show that in a sample of diploid size S, the mean value of x2 or r2 from the composite haplotype table is biased by a factor of 1-1/(2S-1)2, rather than the usual factor 1+1/(2S-1) for a conventional haplotype table. But analysis of population data using these formulae leads to Ne estimates that are unrealistically low. We provide theory and simulation to show that this bias towards low Ne estimates is due to null alleles, and introduce a randomised permutation correction to compensate for the bias. We also consider the effect of introducing a within-locus disequilibrium factor to r2, and find that this factor leads to a bias in the Ne estimate. However this bias can be overcome using the same randomised permutation correction, to yield an altered r2 with lower variance than the original r2, and one that is also insensitive to null alleles. The resulting formulae are used to provide Ne estimates on 40 samples of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, from populations with widely divergent Ne expectations. Linkage relationships are known for most of the microsatellite loci in this species. We find that there is little difference in the estimated Ne values from using known unlinked loci as compared to using all loci, which is important for conservation studies where linkage relationships are unknown.

  20. Estimating Effective Population Size from Linkage Disequilibrium between Unlinked Loci: Theory and Application to Fruit Fly Outbreak Populations

    PubMed Central

    Sved, John A; Cameron, Emilie C.; Gilchrist, A. Stuart

    2013-01-01

    There is a substantial literature on the use of linkage disequilibrium (LD) to estimate effective population size using unlinked loci. The estimates are extremely sensitive to the sampling process, and there is currently no theory to cope with the possible biases. We derive formulae for the analysis of idealised populations mating at random with multi-allelic (microsatellite) loci. The ‘Burrows composite index’ is introduced in a novel way with a ‘composite haplotype table’. We show that in a sample of diploid size , the mean value of or from the composite haplotype table is biased by a factor of , rather than the usual factor for a conventional haplotype table. But analysis of population data using these formulae leads to estimates that are unrealistically low. We provide theory and simulation to show that this bias towards low estimates is due to null alleles, and introduce a randomised permutation correction to compensate for the bias. We also consider the effect of introducing a within-locus disequilibrium factor to , and find that this factor leads to a bias in the estimate. However this bias can be overcome using the same randomised permutation correction, to yield an altered with lower variance than the original , and one that is also insensitive to null alleles. The resulting formulae are used to provide estimates on 40 samples of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, from populations with widely divergent expectations. Linkage relationships are known for most of the microsatellite loci in this species. We find that there is little difference in the estimated values from using known unlinked loci as compared to using all loci, which is important for conservation studies where linkage relationships are unknown. PMID:23894410

  1. A Generic Individual-Based Spatially Explicit Model as a Novel Tool for Investigating Insect-Plant Interactions: A Case Study of the Behavioural Ecology of Frugivorous Tephritidae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming; Cribb, Bronwen; Clarke, Anthony R; Hanan, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Computational modelling of mechanisms underlying processes in the real world can be of great value in understanding complex biological behaviours. Uptake in general biology and ecology has been rapid. However, it often requires specific data sets that are overly costly in time and resources to collect. The aim of the current study was to test whether a generic behavioural ecology model constructed using published data could give realistic outputs for individual species. An individual-based model was developed using the Pattern-Oriented Modelling (POM) strategy and protocol, based on behavioural rules associated with insect movement choices. Frugivorous Tephritidae (fruit flies) were chosen because of economic significance in global agriculture and the multiple published data sets available for a range of species. The Queensland fruit fly (Qfly), Bactrocera tryoni, was identified as a suitable individual species for testing. Plant canopies with modified architecture were used to run predictive simulations. A field study was then conducted to validate our model predictions on how plant architecture affects fruit flies' behaviours. Characteristics of plant architecture such as different shapes, e.g., closed-canopy and vase-shaped, affected fly movement patterns and time spent on host fruit. The number of visits to host fruit also differed between the edge and centre in closed-canopy plants. Compared to plant architecture, host fruit has less contribution to effects on flies' movement patterns. The results from this model, combined with our field study and published empirical data suggest that placing fly traps in the upper canopy at the edge should work best. Such a modelling approach allows rapid testing of ideas about organismal interactions with environmental substrates in silico rather than in vivo, to generate new perspectives. Using published data provides a saving in time and resources. Adjustments for specific questions can be achieved by refinement of

  2. Successful Utilization of the Area-Wide Approach for Management of Fruit Flies in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and the so-called Malaysian (solenaceous) fruit fly, Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel), have accidentally become established in Hawaii, and attack mor...

  3. Australian gall-inducing scale insects on Eucalyptus: revision of Opisthoscelis Schrader (Coccoidea, Eriococcidae) and descriptions of a new genus and nine new species

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Nate B.; Gullan, Penny J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract We revise the genus Opisthoscelis Schrader, and erect the genus Tanyscelis gen. n. with Opisthoscelis pisiformis Froggatt as its type species. Species of both genera induce sexually dimorphic galls on Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) in Australia, with Opisthoscelis subrotunda Schrader also in Papua New Guinea. We synonymise the following taxa (junior synonym with senior synonym): Opisthoscelis fibularis Froggatt, syn. n. with Opisthoscelis spinosa Froggatt; Opisthoscelis recurva Froggatt, syn. n. with Opisthoscelis maculata Froggatt; Opisthoscelis globosa Froggatt, syn. n. (= Opisthoscelis ruebsaameni Lindinger) with Opisthoscelis convexa Froggatt; and Opisthoscelis mammularis Froggatt, syn. n. with Opisthoscelis verrucula Froggatt. We transfer seven Opisthoscelis species to Tanyscelis as Tanyscelis conica (Fuller), comb. n., Tanyscelis convexa (Froggatt), comb. n., Tanyscelis maculata (Froggatt), comb. n., Tanyscelis maskelli (Froggatt), comb. n., Tanyscelis pisiformis (Froggatt), comb. n., Tanyscelis spinosa (Froggatt), comb. n., and Tanyscelis verrucula (Froggatt), comb. n. We redescribe and illustrate the adult female of each named species of Opisthoscelis for which the type material is known, as well as the first-instar nymph of the type species of Opisthoscelis (Opisthoscelis subrotunda) and Tanyscelis (Opisthoscelis pisiformis). We describe four new species of Opisthoscelis: Opisthoscelis beardsleyi Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Opisthoscelis thurgoona Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Opisthoscelis tuberculataHardy & Gullan, sp. n., and Opisthoscelis ungulifinis Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., and five new species of Tanyscelis: Tanyscelis grallator Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Tanuscelis megagibba Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Tanyscelis mollicornuta Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Tanyscelis tripocula Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., and Tanyscelis villosigibba Hardy & Gullan, sp. n. We designate lectotypes for Opisthoscelis convexa, Opisthoscelis fibularis, Opisthoscelis globosa Froggatt, Opisthoscelis

  4. Field trials of solid triple lure (trimedlure, methyl eugenol, raspberry ketone, and DDVP) dispensers for detection and male annihilation of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and Bactrocera cucurbit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solid Mallet TMR (trimedlure [TML], methyl eugenol [ME], raspberry ketone [RK]) wafers and Mallet CMR (ceralure, ME, RK, benzyl acetate) wafers impregnated with DDVP insecticide were evaluated in traps as potential detection and male annihilation devices. Comparisons were made with 1) liquid lure a...

  5. Discovery of genes related to formothion resistance in oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) by a constrained functional genomics analysis.

    PubMed

    Kuo, T C-Y; Hu, C-C; Chien, T-Y; Chen, M J M; Feng, H-T; Chen, L-F O; Chen, C-Y; Hsu, J-C

    2015-06-01

    Artificial selection can provide insights into how insecticide resistance mechanisms evolve in populations. The underlying basis of such phenomena can involve complex interactions of multiple genes, and the resolution of this complexity first necessitates confirmation that specific genes are involved in resistance mechanisms. Here, we used a novel approach invoking a constrained RNA sequencing analysis to refine the discovery of specific genes involved in insecticide resistance. Specifically, for gene discovery, an additional constraint was added to the traditional comparisons of susceptible vs. resistant flies by the incorporation of a line in which insecticide susceptibility was 'recovered' within a resistant line by the removal of insecticide stress. In our analysis, the criterion for the classification of any gene as related to insecticide resistance was based on evidence for differential expression in the resistant line as compared with both the susceptible and recovered lines. The incorporation of this additional constraint reduced the number of differentially expressed genes putatively involved in resistance to 464, compared with more than 1000 that had been identified previously using this same species. In addition, our analysis identified several key genes involved in metabolic detoxification processes that showed up-regulated expression. Furthermore, the involvement of acetylcholinesterase, a known target for modification in insecticide resistance, was associated with three key nonsynonymous amino acid substitutions within our data. In conclusion, the incorporation of an additional constraint using a 'recovered' line for gene discovery provides a higher degree of confidence in genes identified to be involved in insecticide resistance phenomena.

  6. The role of the transformer gene in sex determination and reproduction in the tephritid fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transformer (tra) is a double-switch gene in the somatic sex-determination hierarchy that regulates sexual dimorphism based on RNA splicing in many insects. In tephritids, a Y-linked male determining gene (M) controls sex in the sex-determination pathway. Here, homologues of Drosophila tra and trans...

  7. Rhythmicity of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera:Tephritidae) attraction to cuelure: Insights from an interruptable lure and computer vision

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe and validate an Agent-Based Simulation (ABS) of invasive insects and use it to investigate the time to extirpation of Ceratitis capitata using data from seven outbreaks that occurred in California from 2008-2010. Results are compared with the length of intervention and quarantine imposed...

  8. Pupal x-ray irradiation influences protein expression in adults of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We did protein analysis using 1-12-d-old adults from irradiated and non-irradiated oriental fruit fly pupae. We found that exposing pupae to x-ray irradiation impacted expression of 26 proteins in adult females and 30 proteins in adult males. There were 7 proteins (Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehyd...

  9. Truncated transcripts of nicotinic acetylcholine subunit gene bdalpha6 are associated with spinosad resistance in Bactrocera dorsalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated spinosad resistance mechanisms of a Bactocera dorsalis strain from Taiwan. Resistance levels were 901-fold, and there was no cross resistance against imidacloprid or fipronil Combined biochemical and synergistic data indicated that target site insensitivity is the major resistance co...

  10. Morphological features of the ovaries during Oogenesis of the Oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel) in relation to the physiological age

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determination of physiological state (age?) in insects is useful in furthering our understanding of how insect behavior changes with age. Central to this determination is the identification of characters that allow assessment of physiological age. While non-destructive measures are the most desired ...

  11. Site-specific temporal and spatial validation of a generic plant pest forecast system with observations of Bactrocera dorsalis (oriental fruit fly).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study introduces a simple generic model, the Generic Pest Forecast System (GPFS), for simulatingthe relative populations of non-indigenousarthropod pests in space and time. The model was designed to calculate the population index or relative population using hourly weather dataas influenced by...

  12. An overview of tropical pest species of bactrocera fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) and the integration of biopesticides with other biological approaches for their management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) are among the most economically important pest species in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and eradication prog...

  13. Effectiveness of a sprayable male annihilation treatment with a biopesticide against fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) attacking tropical fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    SPLAT-MAT Spinosad ME(aka STATIC Spinosad ME),an "attract and kill" sprayable biopesticide, was evaluated as an area wide suppression treatment against Bactrocera carambolae(Drew & Hancock),carambola fruit fly, in Brazil and Bactrocera dorsalis(Hendel),oriental fruit fly, in Hawaii. In Brazil, a sin...

  14. Oral and Topical Toxicity of Fipronil to Melon Fly and Oriental Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to develop basic oral and topical toxicity data for Fipronil in Solulys protein bait to wild melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) and the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). RESULTS: For the oral study, both females and males were ...

  15. Impact of Introduction of Oriental Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Classical Biological Control Releases of the Natural Enemy, Fopius arisanus (Sonan) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), on Economically Important Fruit Flies in F

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted to determine attraction and feeding propensity of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillet) to different protein bait mixtures with and without the insecticides spinosad and malathion. The type of protein (GF-120 Fruit ...

  16. Spatial dynamics of two oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) parasitoids, Fopius arisanus (Sonan) and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead)(Hymenoptera: Braconidae), in a guava orchard in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined temporal and spatial patterns of both sexes of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and its two most abundant parasitoids, Fopius arisanus (Sonan) and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) in a commercial guava orchard. Bactrocera dorsalis spatial patterns were initially random, but became high...

  17. 77 FR 75007 - Importation of Sand Pears From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ..., 2011, we published a proposed rule \\2\\ in the Federal Register (76 FR 78168- 78172, Docket No. APHIS... viennensis (Zacher), Hawthorn spider mite. Aphanostigma iaksuiense (Kishida), an aphid. Bactrocera dorsalis... (Zacher), Hawthorn spider mite; Aphanostigma iaksuiense (Kishida), an aphid; Bactrocera dorsalis,...

  18. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 December 2009–31 January 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article documents the addition of 220 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Allanblackia floribunda, Amblyraja radiata, Bactrocera cucurbitae, Brachycaudus helichrysi, Calopogonium mucunoides, Dissodactylus primiti...

  19. 78 FR 23208 - Importation of Fresh Oranges and Tangerines From Egypt Into the United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... phytosanitary measures listed in paragraph (b) of that section. Oranges (Citrus sinensis) from Egypt were... the establishment of peach fruit fly (Bactrocera zonata), which is also a pest of citrus in...

  20. Leptoquark patterns unifying neutrino masses, flavor anomalies, and the diphoton excess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deppisch, F. F.; Kulkarni, S.; Päs, H.; Schumacher, E.

    2016-07-01

    Vector leptoquarks provide an elegant solution to a series of anomalies and at the same time generate naturally light neutrino masses through their mixing with the standard model Higgs boson. We present a simple Froggatt-Nielsen model to accommodate the B physics anomalies RK and RD , neutrino masses, and the 750 GeV diphoton excess in one cohesive framework adding only two vector leptoquarks and two singlet scalar fields to the standard model field content.

  1. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 June 2010 - 31 July 2010.

    PubMed

    Andris, Malvina; Aradottir, Gudbjorg I; Arnau, G; Audzijonyte, Asta; Bess, Emilie C; Bonadonna, Francesco; Bourdel, G; Bried, Joël; Bugbee, Gregory J; Burger, P A; Chair, H; Charruau, P C; Ciampi, A Y; Costet, L; Debarro, Paul J; Delatte, H; Dubois, Marie-Pierre; Eldridge, Mark D B; England, Phillip R; Enkhbileg, D; Fartek, B; Gardner, Michael G; Gray, Karen-Ann; Gunasekera, Rasanthi M; Hanley, Steven J; Havil, Nathan; Hereward, James P; Hirase, Shotaro; Hong, Yan; Jarne, Philippe; Jianfei, Qi; Johnson, Rebecca N; Kanno, Manami; Kijima, Akihiro; Kim, Hyun C; Kim, Kwan S; Kim, Woo-Jin; Larue, Elizabeth; Lee, Jang W; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Li, Chunhong; Liao, Minghui; Lo, Nathan; Lowe, Andrew J; Malausa, Thibaut; Malé, Pierre-Jean G; Marko, Michelle D; Martin, Jean-François; Messing, Russell; Miller, Karen J; Min, Byeong-Wha; Myeong, Jeong-In; Nibouche, S; Noack, Ann E; Noh, Jae K; Orivel, Jérôme; Park, Choul-Ji; Petro, D; Prapayotin-Riveros, Kittipath; Quilichini, Angélique; Reynaud, B; Riginos, Cynthia; Risterucci, A M; Rose, Harley A; Sampaio, I; Silbermayr, K; Silva, M B; Tero, N; Thum, Ryan A; Vinson, C C; Vorsino, Adam; Vossbrinck, Charles R; Walzer, C; White, Jason C; Wieczorek, Ania; Wright, Mark

    2010-11-01

    This article documents the addition of 205 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Bagassa guianensis, Bulweria bulwerii, Camelus bactrianus, Chaenogobius annularis, Creontiades dilutus, Diachasmimorpha tryoni, Dioscorea alata, Euhrychiopsis lecontei, Gmelina arborea, Haliotis discus hannai, Hirtella physophora, Melanaphis sacchari, Munida isos, Thaumastocoris peregrinus and Tuberolachnus salignus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Halobaena caerulea, Procellaria aequinoctialis, Oceanodroma monteiroi, Camelus ferus, Creontiades pacificus, Dioscorea rotundata, Dioscorea praehensilis, Dioscorea abyssinica, Dioscorea nummularia, Dioscorea transversa, Dioscorea esculenta, Dioscorea pentaphylla, Dioscorea trifida, Hirtella bicornis, Hirtella glandulosa, Licania alba, Licania canescens, Licania membranaceae, Couepia guianensis and 7 undescribed Thaumastocoris species. PMID:21565125

  2. Proton hexality from an anomalous flavor U(1) and neutrino masses: Linking to the string scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreiner, Herbi K.; Luhn, Christoph; Murayama, Hitoshi; Thormeier, Marc

    2008-05-01

    We devise minimalistic gauged U(1 Froggatt-Nielsen models which at low-energy give rise to the recently suggested discrete gauge Z-symmetry, proton hexality, thus stabilizing the proton. Assuming three generations of right-handed neutrinos, with the proper choice of X-charges, we obtain viable neutrino masses. Furthermore, we find scenarios such that no X-charged hidden sector superfields are needed, which from a bottom-up perspective allows the calculation of g, g and G's Kač-Moody levels. The only mass scale apart from M is m.

  3. Baryon Triality And Neutrino Masses From An Anomalous FlavorU(1)

    SciTech Connect

    Dreiner, Herbi K.; Luhn, Christoph; Murayama, Hitoshi; Thormeier,Marc

    2007-08-15

    We construct a concise U(1){sub X} Froggatt-Nielsen model in which baryon triality, a discrete gauge Z{sub 3}-symmetry, arises from U(1){sub X} breaking. The proton is thus stable, however, R-parity is violated. With the proper choice of U(1){sub X} charges we can obtain neutrino masses and mixings consistent with an explanation of the atmospheric and solar neutrino anomalies in terms of neutrino oscillations, with no right-handed neutrinos required. The only mass scale apart from M{sub grav} is m{sub soft}.

  4. Resolving cryptic species complexes of major tephritid pests

    PubMed Central

    Hendrichs, Jorge; Vera, M. Teresa; De Meyer, Marc; Clarke, Anthony R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on “Resolution of Cryptic Species Complexes of Tephritid Pests to Overcome Constraints to SIT Application and International Trade” was conducted from 2010 to 2015. As captured in the CRP title, the objective was to undertake targeted research into the systematics and diagnostics of taxonomically challenging fruit fly groups of economic importance. The scientific output was the accurate alignment of biological species with taxonomic names; which led to the applied outcome of assisting FAO and IAEA Member States in overcoming technical constraints to the application of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) against pest fruit flies and the facilitation of international agricultural trade. Close to 50 researchers from over 20 countries participated in the CRP, using coordinated, multidisciplinary research to address, within an integrative taxonomic framework, cryptic species complexes of major tephritid pests. The following progress was made for the four complexes selected and studied: Anastrepha fraterculus complex – Eight morphotypes and their geographic and ecological distributions in Latin America were defined. The morphotypes can be considered as distinct biological species on the basis of differences in karyotype, sexual incompatibility, post-mating isolation, cuticular hydrocarbon, pheromone, and molecular analyses. Discriminative taxonomic tools using linear and geometric morphometrics of both adult and larval morphology were developed for this complex. Bactrocera dorsalis complex – Based on genetic, cytogenetic, pheromonal, morphometric, and behavioural data, which showed no or only minor variation between the Asian/African pest fruit flies Bactrocera dorsalis, Bactrocera papayae, Bactrocera philippinensis and Bactrocera invadens, the latter three species were synonymized with Bactrocera dorsalis. Of the five target pest taxa studied, only Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera carambolae remain as

  5. Resolving cryptic species complexes of major tephritid pests.

    PubMed

    Hendrichs, Jorge; Vera, M Teresa; De Meyer, Marc; Clarke, Anthony R

    2015-01-01

    An FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on "Resolution of Cryptic Species Complexes of Tephritid Pests to Overcome Constraints to SIT Application and International Trade" was conducted from 2010 to 2015. As captured in the CRP title, the objective was to undertake targeted research into the systematics and diagnostics of taxonomically challenging fruit fly groups of economic importance. The scientific output was the accurate alignment of biological species with taxonomic names; which led to the applied outcome of assisting FAO and IAEA Member States in overcoming technical constraints to the application of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) against pest fruit flies and the facilitation of international agricultural trade. Close to 50 researchers from over 20 countries participated in the CRP, using coordinated, multidisciplinary research to address, within an integrative taxonomic framework, cryptic species complexes of major tephritid pests. The following progress was made for the four complexes selected and studied: Anastrepha fraterculus complex - Eight morphotypes and their geographic and ecological distributions in Latin America were defined. The morphotypes can be considered as distinct biological species on the basis of differences in karyotype, sexual incompatibility, post-mating isolation, cuticular hydrocarbon, pheromone, and molecular analyses. Discriminative taxonomic tools using linear and geometric morphometrics of both adult and larval morphology were developed for this complex. Bactrocera dorsalis complex - Based on genetic, cytogenetic, pheromonal, morphometric, and behavioural data, which showed no or only minor variation between the Asian/African pest fruit flies Bactrocera dorsalis, Bactrocera papayae, Bactrocera philippinensis and Bactrocera invadens, the latter three species were synonymized with Bactrocera dorsalis. Of the five target pest taxa studied, only Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera carambolae remain as scientifically valid

  6. Olive Fruit Fly, an Invasive Species in California, Mitigation by Cultural and Biological Control Based on Pest Biology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive fruit fly (OLF), Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), was first detected in California in 1998. Adults can live for 7 months and lay eggs at 12 d-old with a peak at 20 d. The larvae complete development in fruit 1cm in height. Hot and dry conditions can cause complete mortality of the immatures. Non-har...

  7. Virulence of selected entomopathogenic fungi against the olive fruit fly and their potential for biocontrol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the most serious pest of cultivated olives worldwide. Its recent invasion into North America, specifically California, has initiated renewed interest in management strategies for this pest. Research into classical biological control ha...

  8. Total body nitrogen and total body carbon as indicators of body protein and body lipids in the melon fly: Effects of methoprene, a juvenile hormone analogue, and of diet supplementation with hydrolyzed yeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of methoprene and dietary protein enhanced mating success and had no effect on survival in male melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae). .The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of methoprene and protein on body lipids and protein tu...

  9. Dynamics of pH modification of an acidic protein bait used for tropical fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traps baited with synthetic food-based lures that include blends of ammonia, either as ammonium acetate or ammonium bicarbonate, and putrescine capture a number of Anastrepha and Bactrocera species fruit flies. However, for many of these species, more flies are captured in traps baited with the pro...

  10. Effect of methoprene application, adult food and feeding duration on male melon fly starvation survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of methoprene and access to protein in adult diet has been shown to enhance mating success in male melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), supporting their incorporation into operational area-wide programmes integrating the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). T...

  11. Liquid Larval Diet for Fruit Flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit fly liquid larvae diet has been developed for rearing Bactrocera dorsalis and B. cucurbitae in small and large scales and is ready for technology transfer into factory scale. The most appropriate rearing conditions using liquid diet up-to-date have been identified as follows: (1) basic diet fo...

  12. Attraction and Mortality of Oriental Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) to SPLAT-MAT- Methyl Eugenol with Spinosad

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted in Hawaii to quantify attraction and feeding responses resulting in mortality of male oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to SPLAT-MAT-methyl eugenol (ME) with spinosad in comparison with Min-U-Gel-ME with naled (Dibrom). Our approach invol...

  13. Recent progress in a classical biological control program for olive fruit fly in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae), causes severe damage to olive production worldwide. Control of olive fruit fly typically relies on pesticides, and under such conditions the impact of natural enemies is relatively low. About 15 years ago, the USDA-ARS European Biologic...

  14. Improvement of mass-rearing procedures for an olive fruit fly parasitoid – duration of exposure to hosts affects production of Psyttalia lounsburyi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae), causes severe economic damage in California. Control of this fly is currently limited to pesticides. The USDA-ARS European Biological Control Laboratory in Montpellier, France established a classical biological control program nearly 15 y...

  15. 76 FR 78168 - Importation of Chinese Sand Pears From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    .... 319.56-55. As described in a notice we published on May 10, 2006, in the Federal Register (71 FR 27221... Japanese pear. Amphitetranychus viennensis (Zacher), Hawthorn spider mite. Aphanostigma iaksuiense (Kishida... (Zacher), Hawthorn spider mite; Aphanostigma iaksuiense (Kishida), an ] aphid; Bactrocera...

  16. Pheromones, male lures and trapping of tephritid fruit flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dipteran family of Tephritidae consists of many genera, of which several namely, Anastrepha, Bactrocera, Ceratitis, Dacus, Rhagoletis and Toxotrypana possess species of high economic importance as major pests of fruits and vegetables. Hitherto, pheromones isolated and identified for possible use...

  17. Resveratrol modifies tephritid fruit fly response to nutritional and radiation stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resveratrol is a recently discovered compound. Three concentrations (50, 100, 200 µM) of resveratrol were evaluated against Bactrocera dorsalis and B. cucurbitae by incorporating resveratrol into fruit fly liquid larval diet under the following conditions: 1) with or without wheat germ oil (WGO) in ...

  18. Transcriptome of the egg parasitoid Fopius arisanus, an important biocontrol tool for Tephritid fruit fly suppression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background The Braconoid wasp Fopius arisanus (Sonan) has been utilized for biological control of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata), and the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis), both phytophagous fruit flies pest of economic importance in Hawaii. We have sequenced and assembled t...

  19. New developments in food-based synthetic attractants for pest Tephritidae.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Optimal capture of several species of Anastrepha and Bactrocera spp. tephritid fruit flies is in traps baited with the aqueous protein bait Nulure combined with borax. Nulure is produced by acid hydrolysis of corn and has an acidic pH. Addition of borax makes the solution more alkaline and more att...

  20. Hot Water Immersion Quarantine Treatment Against Mediterranean Fruit Fly and Oriental Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Eggs and Larvae in Litchi and Longan Fruits Exported from Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immersion of litchi fruit in 49ºC water for 20 min followed by hydrocooling in ambient (24 ± 4ºC) temperature water for 20 min was tested as a quarantine treatment against potential infestations of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann); and oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (...

  1. A molecular phylogeny for the Tribe Dacini (Diptera: Tephritidae): systematic and biogeographic implications.

    PubMed

    Krosch, Matthew N; Schutze, Mark K; Armstrong, Karen F; Graham, Glenn C; Yeates, David K; Clarke, Anthony R

    2012-09-01

    With well over 700 species, the Tribe Dacini is one of the most species-rich clades within the dipteran family Tephritidae, the true fruit flies. Nearly all Dacini belong to one of two very large genera, Dacus Fabricius and Bactrocera Macquart. The distribution of the genera overlap in or around the Indian subcontinent, but the greatest diversity of Dacus is in Africa and the greatest diversity of Bactrocera is in south-east Asia and the Pacific. The monophyly of these two genera has not been rigorously established, with previous phylogenies only including a small number of species and always heavily biased to one genus over the other. Moreover, the subgeneric taxonomy within both genera is complex and the monophyly of many subgenera has not been explicitly tested. Previous hypotheses about the biogeography of the Dacini based on morphological reviews and current distributions of taxa have invoked an out-of-India hypothesis; however this has not been tested in a phylogenetic framework. We attempted to resolve these issues with a dated, molecular phylogeny of 125 Dacini species generated using 16S, COI, COII and white eye genes. The phylogeny shows that Bactrocera is not monophyletic, but rather consists of two major clades: Bactrocera s.s. and the 'Zeugodacus group of subgenera' (a recognised, but informal taxonomic grouping of 15 Bactrocera subgenera). This 'Zeugodacus' clade is the sister group to Dacus, not Bactrocera and, based on current distributions, split from Dacus before that genus moved into Africa. We recommend that taxonomic consideration be given to raising Zeugodacus to genus level. Supportive of predictions following from the out-of-India hypothesis, the first common ancestor of the Dacini arose in the mid-Cretaceous approximately 80mya. Major divergence events occurred during the Indian rafting period and diversification of Bactrocera apparently did not begin until after India docked with Eurasia (50-35mya). In contrast, diversification in Dacus

  2. A molecular phylogeny for the Tribe Dacini (Diptera: Tephritidae): systematic and biogeographic implications.

    PubMed

    Krosch, Matthew N; Schutze, Mark K; Armstrong, Karen F; Graham, Glenn C; Yeates, David K; Clarke, Anthony R

    2012-09-01

    With well over 700 species, the Tribe Dacini is one of the most species-rich clades within the dipteran family Tephritidae, the true fruit flies. Nearly all Dacini belong to one of two very large genera, Dacus Fabricius and Bactrocera Macquart. The distribution of the genera overlap in or around the Indian subcontinent, but the greatest diversity of Dacus is in Africa and the greatest diversity of Bactrocera is in south-east Asia and the Pacific. The monophyly of these two genera has not been rigorously established, with previous phylogenies only including a small number of species and always heavily biased to one genus over the other. Moreover, the subgeneric taxonomy within both genera is complex and the monophyly of many subgenera has not been explicitly tested. Previous hypotheses about the biogeography of the Dacini based on morphological reviews and current distributions of taxa have invoked an out-of-India hypothesis; however this has not been tested in a phylogenetic framework. We attempted to resolve these issues with a dated, molecular phylogeny of 125 Dacini species generated using 16S, COI, COII and white eye genes. The phylogeny shows that Bactrocera is not monophyletic, but rather consists of two major clades: Bactrocera s.s. and the 'Zeugodacus group of subgenera' (a recognised, but informal taxonomic grouping of 15 Bactrocera subgenera). This 'Zeugodacus' clade is the sister group to Dacus, not Bactrocera and, based on current distributions, split from Dacus before that genus moved into Africa. We recommend that taxonomic consideration be given to raising Zeugodacus to genus level. Supportive of predictions following from the out-of-India hypothesis, the first common ancestor of the Dacini arose in the mid-Cretaceous approximately 80mya. Major divergence events occurred during the Indian rafting period and diversification of Bactrocera apparently did not begin until after India docked with Eurasia (50-35mya). In contrast, diversification in Dacus

  3. Revealing Optical Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Optical Vector Analyzer (OVA) 1550 significantly reduces the time and cost of testing sophisticated optical components. The technology grew from the research Luna Technologies' Dr. Mark Froggatt conducted on optical fiber strain measurement while working at Langley Research Center. Dr. Froggatt originally developed the technology for non- destructive evaluation testing at Langley. The new technique can provide 10,000 independent strain measurements while adding less than 10 grams to the weight of the vehicle. The OVA is capable of complete linear characterization of single-mode optical components used in high- bit-rate applications. The device can test most components over their full range in less than 30 seconds, compared to the more than 20 minutes required by other testing methods. The dramatically shortened measurement time results in increased efficiency in final acceptance tests of optical devices, and the comprehensive data produced by the instrument adds considerable value for component consumers. The device eliminates manufacturing bottlenecks, while reducing labor costs and wasted materials during production.

  4. Fiber Optic Sensing Monitors Strain and Reduces Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    In applications where stress on a structure may vary widely and have an unknown impact on integrity, a common engineering strategy has been overbuilding to ensure a sufficiently robust design. While this may be appropriate in applications where weight concerns are not paramount, space applications demand a bare minimum of mass, given astronomical per-pound launch costs. For decades, the preferred solution was the tactic of disassembly and investigation between flights. Knowing there must be a better way, Dr. Mark Froggatt, of Langley Research Center, explored alternate means of monitoring stresses and damage to the space shuttle. While a tear-it-apart-and-have-a-look strategy was effective, it was also a costly and time consuming process that risked further stresses through the very act of disassembly and reassembly. An alternate way of monitoring the condition of parts under the enormous stresses of space flight was needed. Froggatt and his colleagues at Langley built an early-warning device to provide detailed information about even minuscule cracks and deformations by etching a group of tiny lines, or grating, on a fiber optic cable five-thousandths of an inch thick with ultraviolet light. By then gluing the fiber to the side of a part, such as a fuel tank, and shining a laser beam down its length, reflected light indicated which gratings were under stress. Inferring this data from measurements in light rather than in bonded gauges saved additional weight. Various shuttle components now employ the ultrasonic dynamic vector stress sensor (UDVSS), allowing stress detection by measuring light beamed from a built-in mini-laser. By measuring changes in dynamic directional stress occurring in a material or structure, and including phase-locked loop, synchronous amplifier, and contact probe, the UDVSS proved especially useful among manufacturers of aerospace and automotive structures for stress testing and design evaluation. Engineers could ensure safety in airplanes

  5. Host status of blueberry to invasive tephritid fruit flies in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Follett, Peter A; Armstrong, John W; Zee, Francis T

    2009-10-01

    Forced infestation studies were conducted to determine whether northern or southern highbush blueberries, Vaccinium corymbosum L., are hosts for the invasive tephritid fruit flies in Hawaii. Fruit were exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (oriental fruit fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean fruit fly), or Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet (melon fly) in screen cages outdoors for 6 h and then held on sand in the laboratory for 2 wk for pupal and adult emergence. The number of puparia, number of puparia per gram, and percentage of adult emergence on 'Bluecrop' blueberry were significantly higher for B. dorsalis and C. capitata than B. cucurbitae; B. dorsalis, C. capitata, and B. cucurbitae produced an average of 1.06, 0.60, and 0.09 pupae per g fruit and had 5.8, 54.1, and 12.7% adult emergence, respectively. 'Berkeley' blueberries produced an average of only 0.06, 0.02, and 0.0 pupae per g fruit for B. dorsalis, C. capitata, and B. cucurbitae, respectively. Similarly, six blueberry cultivars were harvested weekly for 10 wk, exposed to Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) in cages, and held for pupal and adult emergence on either sand or artificial diet. In total, 2,677 blueberries were exposed to 2681 B. latifons and held on sand, and no pupariation or adult emergence was observed. Small numbers of B. latifrons puparia and adults emerged from the artificial diet treatment in all cultivars. Results from rearing on sand and diet indicate that blueberry is an acceptable oviposition host for B. latifrons but not an adequate developmental host. These data suggest blueberry is potentially a good host for B. dorsalis and C. capitata, and an adequate host for Bactrocera cucurbitae, but that there may be significant variation in resistance among cultivars. Blueberry seems to be a nonhost for B. latifrons.

  6. Continuous Flavor Symmetries and the Stability of Asymmetric Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Bishara, Fady; Zupan, Jure

    2015-01-19

    Generically, the asymmetric interactions in asymmetric dark matter (ADM) models could lead to decaying DM. We show that, for ADM that carries nonzero baryon number, continuous flavor symmetries that generate the flavor structure in the quark sector also imply a looser lower bound on the mass scale of the asymmetric mediators between the dark and visible sectors. Furthermore, the mediators for B = 2 ADM that can produce a signal in the future indirect dark matter searches can thus also be searched for at the LHC. For two examples of the mediator models, with either the MFV or Froggatt-Nielsen flavor breaking pattern, we derive the FCNC constraints and discuss the search strategies at the LHC.

  7. Effect of vibratory soldier alarm signals on the foraging behavior of subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Inta, R; Evans, T A; Lai, J C S

    2009-02-01

    Termite soldiers produce a vibratory alarm signal to warn conspecific workers. This study recorded and characterized the alarm signals of Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) and then investigated the effect of playing these recorded alarm signals on C. acinaciformis feeding activity. Foraging groups of termites were offered paired wooden blocks: either one block, continuously stimulated with a vibratory alarm signal, paired with a nonstimulated block (the alarm treatment), continuously stimulated with a pink noise signal, paired with a nonstimulated block (control for nonspecific vibrations) or two nonstimulated blocks (control for environmental effects), for 4 wk. The amount of wood eaten in the blocks stimulated by the alarm signals was significantly less than the paired nonstimulated blocks, while there seemed to be no preference in the case of the pink noise playback or control for direction. Importantly, the termites seemed not to have adapted to the recorded alarm signal over the 4-wk duration of the experiment, unlike previous studies using nonbiologically derived signals.

  8. Continuous Flavor Symmetries and the Stability of Asymmetric Dark Matter

    DOE PAGES

    Bishara, Fady; Zupan, Jure

    2015-01-19

    Generically, the asymmetric interactions in asymmetric dark matter (ADM) models could lead to decaying DM. We show that, for ADM that carries nonzero baryon number, continuous flavor symmetries that generate the flavor structure in the quark sector also imply a looser lower bound on the mass scale of the asymmetric mediators between the dark and visible sectors. Furthermore, the mediators for B = 2 ADM that can produce a signal in the future indirect dark matter searches can thus also be searched for at the LHC. For two examples of the mediator models, with either the MFV or Froggatt-Nielsen flavormore » breaking pattern, we derive the FCNC constraints and discuss the search strategies at the LHC.« less

  9. Viable axion from gauged flavor symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Berenstein, David; Perkins, Erik

    2010-11-15

    We consider a string-inspired nonsupersymmetric extension of the standard model with gauged anomalous U(1) flavor symmetries. Consistency requires the Green-Schwarz (GS) mechanism to cancel mixed anomalies. The additional required scalars provide Stueckelberg masses for the Z{sup '} particles associated to the gauged flavor symmetry, so they decouple at low energies. Our models also include a complex scalar field {phi} to generate Froggatt-Nielsen mass terms for light particles, giving a partial solution to the fermion mass problem. A residual approximate (anomalous) global symmetry survives at low energies. The associated pseudo-Goldstone mode is the phase of the {phi} scalar field, and it becomes the dominant contribution to the physical axion. An effective field theory analysis that includes neutrino masses gives a prediction for the axion decay constant. We find a simple model where the axion decay constant is in the center of the allowed window.

  10. Phylogeny of economically important insect pests that infesting several crops species in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazali, Siti Zafirah; Zain, Badrul Munir Md.; Yaakop, Salmah

    2014-09-01

    This paper reported molecular data on insect pests of commercial crops in Peninsular Malaysia. Fifteen insect pests (Metisa plana, Calliteara horsefeldii, Cotesia vestalis, Bactrocera papayae, Bactrocera carambolae, Bactrocera latifrons, Conopomorpha cramella, Sesamia inferens, Chilo polychrysa, Rhynchophorus vulneratus, and Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) of nine crops were sampled (oil palm, coconut, paddy, cocoa, starfruit, angled loofah, guava, chili and mustard) and also four species that belong to the fern's pest (Herpetogramma platycapna) and storage and rice pests (Tribolium castaneum, Oryzaephilus surinamensis and Cadra cautella). The presented phylogeny summarized the initial phylogenetic hypothesis, which concerning by implementation of the economically important insect pests. In this paper, phylogenetic relationships among 39 individuals of 15 species that belonging to three orders under 12 genera were inferred from DNA sequences of mitochondrial marker, cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and nuclear marker, ribosomal DNA 28S D2 region. The phylogenies resulted from the phylogenetic analyses of both genes are relatively similar, but differ in the sequence of evolution. Interestingly, this most recent molecular data of COI sequences data by using Bayesian Inference analysis resulted a more-resolved phylogeny that corroborated with traditional hypotheses of holometabolan relationships based on traditional hypotheses of holometabolan relationships and most of recently molecular study compared to 28S sequences. This finding provides the information on relationships of pests species, which infested several crops in Malaysia and also estimation on Holometabola's order relationships. The identification of the larval stages of insect pests could be done accurately, without waiting the emergence of adults and supported by the phylogenetic tree.

  11. Trap capture of three economically important fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae): evaluation of a solid formulation containing multiple male lures in a Hawaiian coffee field.

    PubMed

    Shelly, Todd; Nishimoto, Jon; Kurashima, Rick

    2012-08-01

    Invasive fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) pose a global threat to agriculture through direct damage to food crops and the accompanying trade restrictions that often result. Early detection is vital to controlling fruit flies, because it increases the probability of limiting the growth and spread of the invasive population and thus may greatly reduce the monetary costs required for eradication or suppression. Male-specific lures are an important component of fruit fly detection, and three such lures are used widely: trimedlure (TML), cue lure (CL), and methyl eugenol (ME), attractive to Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann); melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett); and oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), respectively. In California, Florida, and Texas, the two Bactrocera lures are applied to separate species-specific traps as liquids (with a small amount of the insecticide naled added), whereas TML is delivered as a solid plug in another set of traps. Thus, the detection protocol involves considerable handling time as well as potential contact with a pesticide. The purpose of this study was to compare trap capture between liquid male lures and "trilure" wafers that contain TML, ME, raspberry ketone (RK, the hydroxy equivalent of CL), and the toxicant DDVP embedded within a solid matrix. Field studies were conducted in a Hawaiian coffee (Coffea arabica L.) field where the three aforementioned species co-occur, showed that the wafer captured at least as many flies as the liquid baits for all three species. This same result was obtained in comparisons using both fresh and aged (6-wk) baits. Moreover, the wafers performed as well as the single-lure traps in an ancillary experiment in which TML plugs were substituted for liquid TML. Additional experiments demonstrated explicitly that the presence of ME and RK had no effect on captures of C. capitata males and similarly that the presence of TML had no effect on the capture of B

  12. Origin of families of fermions and their mass matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Bracic, A. Borstnik; Borstnik, N. S. Mankoc

    2006-10-01

    We are proposing a new way of describing families of quarks and leptons, using the approach unifying all the internal degrees of freedom, proposed by one of us [N. Mankoc Borstnik, Phys. Lett. B 292, 25 (1992).][N. Mankoc-Borstnik, J. Math. Phys. (N.Y.) 34, 3731 (1993).][N. Mankoc Borstnik, J. Math. Phys. (N.Y.) 36, 1593 (1995).][N. S. Mankoc Borstnik, Mod. Phys. Lett. A 10, 587 (1995).][N. S. Mankoc Borstnik and S. Fajfer, Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. B 112, 1637 (1997).][A. Borstnik and N. S. Mankoc Borstnik, in Proceedings to the International Workshop on ''What Comes Beyond the Standard Model, Bled, Slovenia, 1998, edited by N. Mankoc Borstnik, H. B. Nielsen, and C. Froggatt (DMFA, Zaloznistvo, 1999), p. 52.][N. S. Mankoc Borstnik and H. B. Nielsen, Phys. Rev. 62, 04010 (2000).][N. S. Mankoc Borstnik, Int. J. Theor. Phys. 40, 315 (2001), and references therein.][A. Borstnik and N. S. Mankoc Borstnik, in Proceedings to the International Workshop on ''What Comes Beyond the Standard Model'', Bled 2000, 2001, 2002 Volume 2, edited by N. Mankoc Borstnik, H. B. Nielsen, C. Froggatt, and D. Lukman (DMFA, Zaloznistvo, 2002), p. 27 and the paper (unpublished).][A. Borstnik and N. S. Mankoc Borstnik, in Proceedings to the Euroconference on Symmetries Beyond the Standard Model, Portoroz, 2003 edited by N. Mankoc Borstnik, H. B. Nielsen, C. Froggatt, and D. Lukman (DMFA, Zaloznistvo, 2003), pp. 27-51.]. Spinors, living in d(=1+13)-dimensional space, carry in this approach only the spin and interact with only the gravity through vielbeins and two kinds of the spin connection fields--the gauge fields of the Poincare group (p{sup a},S{sup ab}) and the second kind of the Clifford algebra objects (S-tilde{sup ab}). All the quarks and the leptons of one family appear in one Weyl representation of a chosen handedness of the Lorentz group, if analyzed with respect to the standard model gauge groups, which are subgroups of the group SO(1,13): the right handed (with respect to SO(1

  13. A compound produced by fruigivorous Tephritidae (Diptera) larvae promotes oviposition behavior by the biological control agent Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Stuhl, Charles; Sivinski, John; Teal, Peter; Paranhos, Beatriz; Aluja, Martin

    2011-06-01

    Tephritid fruit fly parasitoids use fruit-derived chemical cues and the vibrations that result from larval movements to locate hosts sequestered inside fruit. However, compounds produced by the larvae themselves have not been previously described nor their significance to parasitoid foraging determined. We collected the volatiles from four species of tropical and subtropical Tephritidae: Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), representing two subfamilies (Dacinae and Trypetinae). Para-ethylacetophenone, an analog of a known tephritid parasitoid attractant, was a major constituent of all four, and was not associated with larvae of another acalypterate fly, Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, or with the calypterate Musca domestica L. It also was present in volatiles from whole, A. suspensa infested fruits of Eugenia uniflora (L.). Para-ethylacetophenone was not necessarily produced as a direct consequence of fruit consumption because it also was detected from larvae that developed in two artificial diets and in spent diets subsequent to larval development. Sensillae on both the antennae and ovipositor of the opiine braconid fruit fly parasitoid, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) responded to the para-ethylacetophenone in larval volatiles and as a synthetic. Although a potential cue to foraging parasitoids, para-ethylacetophenone showed no long range (>1m) attractiveness to the adult female parasitoid, but did stimulate ovipositor-insertion and oviposition into both a natural (fruit) and an artificial (parafilm) substrate. Thus it may prove useful in colonizing and mass-rearing opine fruit fly parasitoids. PMID:22251652

  14. Olive fruits infested with olive fly larvae respond with an ethylene burst and the emission of specific volatiles.

    PubMed

    Alagna, Fiammetta; Kallenbach, Mario; Pompa, Andrea; De Marchis, Francesca; Rao, Rosa; Baldwin, Ian T; Bonaventure, Gustavo; Baldoni, Luciana

    2016-04-01

    Olive fly (Bactrocera oleae R.) is the most harmful insect pest of olive (Olea europaea L.) which strongly affects fruits and oil production. Despite the expanding economic importance of olive cultivation, up to now, only limited information on plant responses to B. oleae is available. Here, we demonstrate that olive fruits respond to B. oleae attack by producing changes in an array of different defensive compounds including phytohormones, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and defense proteins. Bactrocera oleae-infested fruits induced a strong ethylene burst and transcript levels of several putative ethylene-responsive transcription factors became significantly upregulated. Moreover, infested fruits induced significant changes in the levels of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid and C12 derivatives of the hydroperoxide lyase. The emission of VOCs was also changed quantitatively and qualitatively in insect-damaged fruits, indicating that B. oleae larval feeding can specifically affect the volatile blend of fruits. Finally, we show that larval infestation maintained high levels of trypsin protease inhibitors in ripe fruits, probably by affecting post-transcriptional mechanisms. Our results provide novel and important information to understand the response of the olive fruit to B. oleae attack; information that can shed light onto potential new strategies to combat this pest.

  15. Captures in methyl eugenol and cue-lure detection traps with and without insecticides and with a Farma Tech solid lure and insecticide dispenser.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Roger I; Burns, R E; Mau, Ronald F L; Stark, John D; Cook, Peter; Piñero, Jaime C

    2009-04-01

    Methyl eugenol (ME) and cue-lure (C-L) traps to detect tephritid flies on the U.S. mainland were tested with and without insecticides under Hawaiian weather conditions against small populations of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), respectively. In comparative tests, standard Jackson traps with naled and the Hawaii fruit fly areawide pest management (AWPM) trap with 2,2-dichorovinyl dimethyl phosphate (DDVP) insecticidal strips outperformed traps without an insecticide. Addition of the reduced risk insecticide spinosad did not increase trap capture significantly compared with Jackson traps without an insecticide. Captures in AWPM traps with DDVP compared favorably with those for the Jackson trap with liquid naled (the Florida standard). In subsequent tests, captures with solid Farma Tech wafer dispensers with ME or C-L and DDVP placed inside Jackson and AWPM traps were equal to those for a Jackson trap with naled, currently used for detection of ME and C-L responding fruit flies in Florida. Farma Tech ME and C-L wafers with DDVP would be more convenient and safer to handle than current liquid insecticide formulations (e.g., naled) used for detection programs in Florida.

  16. Captures in methyl eugenol and cue-lure detection traps with and without insecticides and with a Farma Tech solid lure and insecticide dispenser.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Roger I; Burns, R E; Mau, Ronald F L; Stark, John D; Cook, Peter; Piñero, Jaime C

    2009-04-01

    Methyl eugenol (ME) and cue-lure (C-L) traps to detect tephritid flies on the U.S. mainland were tested with and without insecticides under Hawaiian weather conditions against small populations of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), respectively. In comparative tests, standard Jackson traps with naled and the Hawaii fruit fly areawide pest management (AWPM) trap with 2,2-dichorovinyl dimethyl phosphate (DDVP) insecticidal strips outperformed traps without an insecticide. Addition of the reduced risk insecticide spinosad did not increase trap capture significantly compared with Jackson traps without an insecticide. Captures in AWPM traps with DDVP compared favorably with those for the Jackson trap with liquid naled (the Florida standard). In subsequent tests, captures with solid Farma Tech wafer dispensers with ME or C-L and DDVP placed inside Jackson and AWPM traps were equal to those for a Jackson trap with naled, currently used for detection of ME and C-L responding fruit flies in Florida. Farma Tech ME and C-L wafers with DDVP would be more convenient and safer to handle than current liquid insecticide formulations (e.g., naled) used for detection programs in Florida. PMID:19449634

  17. Olive fruits infested with olive fly larvae respond with an ethylene burst and the emission of specific volatiles.

    PubMed

    Alagna, Fiammetta; Kallenbach, Mario; Pompa, Andrea; De Marchis, Francesca; Rao, Rosa; Baldwin, Ian T; Bonaventure, Gustavo; Baldoni, Luciana

    2016-04-01

    Olive fly (Bactrocera oleae R.) is the most harmful insect pest of olive (Olea europaea L.) which strongly affects fruits and oil production. Despite the expanding economic importance of olive cultivation, up to now, only limited information on plant responses to B. oleae is available. Here, we demonstrate that olive fruits respond to B. oleae attack by producing changes in an array of different defensive compounds including phytohormones, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and defense proteins. Bactrocera oleae-infested fruits induced a strong ethylene burst and transcript levels of several putative ethylene-responsive transcription factors became significantly upregulated. Moreover, infested fruits induced significant changes in the levels of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid and C12 derivatives of the hydroperoxide lyase. The emission of VOCs was also changed quantitatively and qualitatively in insect-damaged fruits, indicating that B. oleae larval feeding can specifically affect the volatile blend of fruits. Finally, we show that larval infestation maintained high levels of trypsin protease inhibitors in ripe fruits, probably by affecting post-transcriptional mechanisms. Our results provide novel and important information to understand the response of the olive fruit to B. oleae attack; information that can shed light onto potential new strategies to combat this pest. PMID:25727685

  18. Host range and distribution of fruit-infesting pestiferous fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) in selected areas of Central Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mwatawala, M W; De Meyer, M; Makundi, R H; Maerere, A P

    2009-12-01

    The host range of major fruit fly pests in Central Tanzania was evaluated from October 2004 to October 2006. Samples of 48 potential hosts were collected and incubated for fruit fly emergence. Bactrocera invadens was the dominant species in incidence expressed as the ratio of infested to total number samples collected, as well as infestation rate, expressed as number of flies emerging per unit weight. Eight new host fruits are reported. Infestation by native pests, such as Ceratitis capitata and C. cosyra, was minor compared to B. invadens. Ceratitis rosa was the dominant species in temperate fruits, and Cucurbitaceae were mainly infested by Bactrocera cucurbitae, a specialized cucurbit feeder. Among commercial fruits, high infestation incidences were observed in mango and guava, but they decreased throughout the fruiting season. Low infestation rates were observed in all Citrus species and in avocado, indicating these fruits as poor hosts for the studied fruit fly pests in this region. Widespread availability and abundance of fruit species studied here ensures year-round breeding of B. invadens. Seasonal infestation differs, with mango being the most important host in October to January, while guava being important from February to August. Tropical almond showed very high incidence and infestation rate for B. invadens and might act as an important reservoir host, bridging the fruiting seasons of mango and guava. Soursop acts as an important host for C. cosyra after the mango season. Ceratitis capitata is a pest of minor importance of the commercial fruits studied in this region. PMID:19323850

  19. Effect of Metarhizium anisopliae on the Fertility and Fecundity of Two Species of Fruit Flies and Horizontal Transmission of Mycotic Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sookar, P.; Bhagwant, S.; Allymamod, M.N.

    2014-01-01

    In Mauritius, the peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata Saunders (Diptera: Tephritidae), and the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), are the major pest of fruits and vegetables, respectively. Fruit growers make use of broad-spectrum insecticides to protect their crops from fruit fly attack. This method of fruit fly control is hazardous to the environment and is a threat to beneficial insects. The entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), which was isolated from the soils of Mauritius, was used to investigate whether fungus-treated adult fruit flies could transfer conidia to non-treated flies during mating, and whether fungal infection could have an effect on mating behavior, fecundity, and fertility of the two female fruit fly species. When treated male flies were maintained together with non-treated female flies, they were able to transmit infection to untreated females, resulting in high mortalities. Similarly, fungus-infected female flies mixed with untreated males also transmitted infections to males, also resulting in high mortalities. Infection by M. anisopliae also resulted in the reduction of the number of eggs produced by females of B. cucurbitae. The results suggest that M. anisopliae may have potential for use in integrated control programs of B. zonata and B. cucurbitae using the sterile insect technique in Mauritius. PMID:25201230

  20. Comparing mark-recapture and constant removal protocols for estimating forager population size of the subterranean termite Coptotermes lacteus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Evans, T A

    2004-02-01

    Forager population sizes of colonies of Coptotermes lacteus(Froggatt) in New South Wales were estimated using two methods: mark-recapture and constant removal, in two disturbed habitats: a pine plantation and cleared farmland. Mark-recapture population estimates were unrealistic and unreliable: they could be improbably large, over 200 million foragers, and they varied enormously between samples for each colony without any pattern. The constant removal population estimates could also be unrealistic: they could be negative or quite different when calculated using regression and maximum likelihood methods. However, the unrealistic results could be predicted reliably, and explained by the lack of re-contact with the sampling devices (bait stations) - a violation of an assumption of the method. This happened more frequently in the plantation than in the farmland, probably because of the greater abundance of alternative food sources in the plantation. Of the two methods, constant removal provided reasonable forager population estimates, relative to direct counts, at least some of the time, plus a mechanism by which reliability could be tested, whereas mark-recapture provided neither. Further refinement and testing of constant removal methods are urged to provide a more reliable population estimation technique for termites. PMID:14972044

  1. International field trials of pyrethroid-treated wood exposed to Coptotermes acinaciformis in Australia and Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in China and the United States.

    PubMed

    Creffield, J W; Lenz, M; Scown, D K; Evans, T A; Zhong, J-H; Kard, B M; Hague, J R B; Brown, K S; Freytag, E D; Curole, J P; Smith, W R; Shupe, T F

    2013-02-01

    Coptotermes Wasmann is one of the most important genera of wood-destroying insect pests, both in its native and introduced countries. Pyrethroids are among the most widely used insecticides in wood preservation around the world. Consequently, they have often been evaluated against different species of Coptotermes. However, because various test methods have been used between countries, comparing results is problematic. These field trials, using a single aboveground method of exposure, assessed a range of retentions of two pyrethroids (bifenthrin and permethrin) in Pinus radiata D. Don sapwood against two species of Coptotermes in three countries to provide directly comparable results. Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt) in Australia consumed the most nontreated wood, followed by Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki in China, then C. formosanus in the United States, although these data were not significantly different. Both termite species demonstrated a dose-response to wood treated with the two pyrethroids; less wood was consumed as retention increased. Overall, C. acinaciformis consumed relatively little of the treated wood. In comparison, C. formosanus consumed 20-90% of the wood treated at the lowest retentions of the pyrethroids evaluated. Results indicated that C. acinaciformis was more sensitive to pyrethroid toxicity/repellency compared with C. formosanus. Factors that may have influenced the results are discussed. However, using a single aboveground method of exposure across three countries, that suited both species of Coptotermes, made it possible to determine unambiguously the actual differences between the species in their tolerances to the two pyrethroid insecticides. PMID:23448048

  2. Effect of vibratory soldier alarm signals on the foraging behavior of subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Inta, R; Evans, T A; Lai, J C S

    2009-02-01

    Termite soldiers produce a vibratory alarm signal to warn conspecific workers. This study recorded and characterized the alarm signals of Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) and then investigated the effect of playing these recorded alarm signals on C. acinaciformis feeding activity. Foraging groups of termites were offered paired wooden blocks: either one block, continuously stimulated with a vibratory alarm signal, paired with a nonstimulated block (the alarm treatment), continuously stimulated with a pink noise signal, paired with a nonstimulated block (control for nonspecific vibrations) or two nonstimulated blocks (control for environmental effects), for 4 wk. The amount of wood eaten in the blocks stimulated by the alarm signals was significantly less than the paired nonstimulated blocks, while there seemed to be no preference in the case of the pink noise playback or control for direction. Importantly, the termites seemed not to have adapted to the recorded alarm signal over the 4-wk duration of the experiment, unlike previous studies using nonbiologically derived signals. PMID:19253626

  3. Isolation of Desulfovibrio intestinalis sp. nov. from the hindgut' of the lower termite Mastotermes darwiniensis.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, J; Sass, H; Babenzien, H D; Kuhnigk, T; Varma, A; Saxena, S; Nalepa, C; Pfeiffer, P; König, H

    1999-02-01

    A Gram-negative, anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacterium was isolated from hindgut contents of the lower termite Mastotermes darwiniensis Froggatt (strain KMS2). Strain KMS2 is motile by a single polar flagellum. The isolate possesses desulfoviridin and catalase activity. The G+C content of its DNA is in the range of 54.5-55.5 mol% (strain KMS2). It respires hydrogen and different low molecular weight organic compounds in the presence of sulfate, thiosulfate, and sulfite, and also oxygen. The isolated strain ferments pyruvate. Fastest growth with a doubling time of 12.5 h was obtained at 37 degrees C and not at 28 degrees C, the temperature at which the termites were grown. The isolate showed a 16S rDNA sequence homology of 95.9% to Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774 and a DNA-DNA homology of 44.6% to D. desulfuricans Essex 6 (type strain). Based on its biochemical properties and 16S rDNA sequence, the isolate was assigned to a new species named Desulfovibrio intestinalis. PMID:10380647

  4. IDENTIFICATION OF THE FGL-AMIDE ALLATOSTATIN GENE OF THE PRIMITIVE TERMITE Mastotermes darwiniensis AND THE WOODROACH Cryptocercus darwini.

    PubMed

    Wende, Franziska; Meyering-Vos, Martina; Hoffmann, Klaus H

    2016-02-01

    Allatostatins with the C-terminal ending Tyr/Phe-Xaa-Phe-Gly-Leu/Ile-amide (FGLa/ASTs) are widespread neuropeptides with multiple functions. The gene encoding the FGLa/AST polypeptide precursor was first isolated from cockroaches and since then could be identified in many insects and crustaceans. With its strictly conserved regions in combination with variable regions the gene seems to be a good candidate for phylogenetic analyses between closely and distantly related species. Here, the structure of the FGLa/AST gene of the most primitive termite, the giant northern termite Mastotermes darwiniensis Froggatt, was identified. The FGLa/AST gene of the woodroach Cryptocercus darwini was also determined. Precursor sequences of both species possess the general organization of dictyopteran FGLa/AST precursors containing 14 putative FGLa/AST peptides. In M. darwiniensis, only 11 out of the 14 FGLa/AST-like peptides possess the C-terminal conserved region Y/FXFGL/I/V/M and four of the putative peptide structures are not followed by a Gly residue that would lead to nonamidated peptides. Phylogenetic analyses show the high degree of similarity of dictyopteran FGLa/AST sequences. The position of termites, nested within the Blattaria, confirms that termites have evolved from primitive cockroaches.

  5. Rapid elimination of field colonies of subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) using bistrifluron solid bait pellets.

    PubMed

    Evans, Theodore A

    2010-04-01

    The efficacy of bistrifluron, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, in cellulose bait pellets was evaluated on the mound-building subterranean termite, Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt). Three concentrations of the bistrifluron were used: 0 (untreated control), 0.5, and 1.0% over an 8 wk period. Both doses of bistrifluron bait eliminated (viz. termites absent from nest or mound) termite colonies: 83% of colonies (10 of 12) were either eliminated or moribund (viz. colony had no reproductive capacity and decreased workforce) after 8 wk, compared with none of the control colonies. The remaining two treated colonies were deemed to be in decline. Early signs that bistrifluron was affecting the colonies included: 3 wk after baiting mound temperatures showed a loss of metabolic heat, 4 wk after baiting foraging activity in feeding stations was reduced or absent, and dissection of two mounds at 4 wk showed they were moribund. Colony elimination was achieved in around half or less the time, and with less bait toxicant, than other bait products tested under similar conditions in the field, because of either the active ingredient, the high surface area of the pellets, or a combination of both. This suggests the sometimes long times reported for control using baits may be reduced significantly. The use of a mound building species demonstrated clearly colony level effects before and after termites stopped foraging in bait stations.

  6. Cryoprotection in dampwood termites (Termopsidae, Isoptera).

    PubMed

    Lacey, Michael J; Lenz, Michael; Evans, Theodore A

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to the majority of the Order, the dampwood termites of the family Termopsidae found in colder regions can experience frost and snow, either in cool temperate areas at high latitudes (45 degrees ), or alpine areas at high elevations (>1000m). This suggests that dampwood termites are adapted to cold climates. We investigated this hypothesis in two dampwood termites, Porotermes adamsoni Froggatt and Stolotermes victoriensis Hill. We measured nest temperatures and atmospheric temperatures of their alpine habitat during winter, and measured survival and recovery at subzero temperatures. We also determined the minimum temperature at which these species remain active and the LT50 values. We used a novel gas chromatographic strategy to examine eight metabolites from individuals of both species collected in winter and summer to identify possible cryoprotectants. Both P. adamsoni and S. victoriensis had significantly higher levels of trehalose, a known cryoprotectant, in winter than in summer; in addition S. victoriensis also had higher levels of unsaturated fatty acid ligands in winter than in summer, consistent with patterns observed for cold adaptation in other organisms. These results are the first to reveal that dampwood termites are adapted to cold climates and use trehalose and unsaturated lipids as cryoprotectants.

  7. Has a Higgs-flavon with a 750 GeV mass been detected at the LHC13?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolaños, A.; Diaz-Cruz, J. L.; Hernández-Tomé, G.; Tavares-Velasco, G.

    2016-10-01

    Higgs-flavon fields appear as a part of the Froggatt-Nielsen (FN) mechanism, which attempts to explain the hierarchy of Yukawa couplings. We explore the possibility that the 750 GeV diphoton resonance recently reported at the LHC13 could be identified with a low-scale Higgs-flavon field HF and find the region of the parameter space consistent with CMS and ATLAS data. It is found that the extra vector-like fermions of the ultraviolet completion of the FN mechanism are necessary in order to reproduce the observed signal. We consider a standard model (SM) extension that contains two Higgs doublets (a standard one and an inert one) and one complex FN singlet. The inert doublet includes a stable neutral boson, which provides a viable dark matter candidate, while the mixing of the standard doublet and the FN singlet induces flavor violation in the Higgs sector at the tree-level. Constraints on the parameters of the model are derived from the LHC Higgs data, which include the search for the lepton flavor violating decay of the SM Higgs boson h → μ bar τ. It is also found that in some region of the parameter space the model may give rise to a large branching ratio for the HF → hh decay, of the order of 0.1, which could be searched for at the LHC.

  8. Sterile neutrinos for warm dark matter and the reactor anomaly in flavor symmetry models

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, James; Rodejohann, Werner; Zhang, He E-mail: werner.rodejohann@mpi-hd.mpg.de

    2012-01-01

    We construct a flavor symmetry model based on the tetrahedral group A{sub 4} in which the right-handed neutrinos from the seesaw mechanism can be both keV warm dark matter particles and eV-scale sterile neutrinos. This is achieved by giving the right-handed neutrinos appropriate charges under the same Froggatt-Nielsen symmetry responsible for the hierarchy of the charged lepton masses. We discuss the effect of next-to-leading order corrections to deviate the zeroth order tri-bimaximal mixing. Those corrections have two sources: (i) higher order seesaw terms, which are important when the seesaw particles are eV-scale, and (ii) higher-dimensional effective operators suppressed by additional powers of the cut-off scale of the theory. Whereas the mixing angles of the active neutrinos typically receive corrections of the same order, the mixing of the sterile neutrinos with the active ones is rather stable as it is connected with a hierarchy of mass scales. We also modify an effective A{sub 4} model to incorporate keV-scale sterile neutrinos.

  9. Fermion mass hierarchy and nonhierarchical mass ratios in SU(5)xU(1){sub F}

    SciTech Connect

    Duque, Luis F.; Gutierrez, Diego A.; Nardi, Enrico; Norena, Jorge

    2008-08-01

    We consider a SU(5)xU(1){sub F} grand unified theory (GUT)-flavor model in which the number of effects that determine the charged fermions Yukawa matrices is much larger than the number of observables, resulting in a hierarchical fermion spectrum with no particular regularities. The GUT-flavor symmetry is broken by flavons in the adjoint of SU(5), realizing a variant of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism that gives rise to a large number of effective operators. By assuming a common mass for the heavy fields and universality of the fundamental Yukawa couplings, we reduce the number of free parameters to one. The observed fermion mass spectrum is reproduced thanks to selection rules that discriminate among various contributions. Bottom-tau Yukawa unification is preserved at leading order, but there is no unification for the first two families. Interestingly, U(1){sub F} charges alone do not determine the hierarchy, and can only give upper bounds on the parametric suppression of the Yukawa operators.

  10. Yoichiro Nambu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, H. B.

    Sitting down and going through my old folders in order to put them into boxes for sending to the Rigsarkivet (the archive for protecting old materials by the government of Denmark) I came to see a folder marked "Han-Nambu 2007" reminding me about some work Froggatt, Takanishi and I [1] did, which was inspired to such a degree by an idea of Moo-Young Han and Yoichiro Nambu, that I had put it in a folder. As we now know the Han-Nambu charge assignment [2,3] for the quarks turned out not to be the correct one, but it was so inspiring that I later wanted to use it for some speculations about why Nature should have chosen the Standard Model. Just the charge assignment part which we wanted to use for something else turned out not to be realized, but the great thing that Han and Nambu -- and in a somewhat different way from them O. W. Greenberg [4] -- proposed was what is now the color of the quarks and this latter is one real great discovery. Nambu has made so many things, which I would normally think I could not know them all. And I think others might have picked up the ideas on second hand. Are these ideas not often such that they could be spread in a few words by second hand, those ideas of Nambu's? At least you might think so after having learned them...

  11. Masses and mixings in a grand unified toy model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeen, David; Rosner, Jonathan L.; Thalapillil, Arun M.

    2007-10-01

    The generation of the fermion mass hierarchy in the standard model of particle physics is a long-standing puzzle. The recent discoveries from neutrino physics suggest that the mixing in the lepton sector is large compared to the quark mixings. To understand this asymmetry between the quark and lepton mixings is an important aim for particle physics. In this regard, two promising approaches from the theoretical side are grand unified theories and family symmetries. In this paper we try to understand certain general features of grand unified theories with Abelian family symmetries by taking the simplest SU(5) grand unified theory as a prototype. We construct an SU(5) toy model with U(1)F⊗Z2'⊗Z2''⊗Z2''' family symmetry that, in a natural way, duplicates the observed mass hierarchy and mixing matrices to lowest approximation. The system for generating the mass hierarchy is through a Froggatt-Nielsen type mechanism. One idea that we use in the model is that the quark and charged lepton sectors are hierarchical with small mixing angles while the light neutrino sector is democratic with larger mixing angles. We also discuss some of the difficulties in incorporating finer details into the model without making further assumptions or adding a large scalar sector.

  12. Symmetryless dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajiyama, Yuji; Kannike, Kristjan; Raidal, Martti

    2012-02-01

    It is appealing to stabilize dark matter by the same discrete non-Abelian symmetry that is used to explain the structure of quark and lepton mass matrices. However, to generate exact tribimaximal neutrino mixing at tree level, the non-Abelian flavor symmetry must necessarily be broken by vacuum expectation values of flavon scalars, rendering dark matter unstable. We study singlet, doublet, and triplet SU(2) multiplets of both scalar and fermion dark matter candidates and enumerate the conditions under which no d<6 dark matter decay operators are generated even in the case if the flavor symmetry is broken to nothing. We show that under the assumptions that the flavor group is fully broken and that the dark matter decay operators are suppressed only by a high scale, the vacuum expectation values of flavon scalars transforming as higher multiplets (e.g., triplets) of the flavor group must be at the electroweak scale. The most economical way for that is to use standard model Higgs boson(s) as flavons. Such models can be tested by the LHC experiments. This scenario requires the existence of additional Froggatt-Nielsen scalars that generate hierarchies in Yukawa couplings. We study the conditions under which large and small flavor breaking parameters can coexist without destabilizing the dark matter.

  13. Entangled maximal mixings in UPMNS=Ul†Uν, and a connection to complex mass textures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niehage, Svenja; Winter, Walter

    2008-07-01

    We discuss two different configurations of UPMNS=Uℓ†Uν with maximal mixings in both Uℓ and Uν. The nonmaximal mixing angles are assumed to be small, which means that they can be expanded in. Since we are particularly interested in the implications for CP violation, we fully take into account complex phases. We demonstrate that one possibility leads to intrinsically large sin⁡22θ13 and strong deviations from maximal mixings. The other possibility is generically close to tribimaximal mixing, and allows for large CP violation. We demonstrate how the determination of the θ23 octant and the precision measurement of δCP could discriminate among different qualitative cases. In order to constrain the unphysical and observable phases even further, we relate our configurations to complex mass matrix textures. In particular, we focus on phase patterns which could be generated by powers of a single complex quantity η≃θCexp⁡(iΦ), which can be motivated by Froggatt-Nielsen-like models. For example, it turns out that in all of the discussed cases, one of the Majorana phases is proportional to Φ to leading order. In the entire study, we encounter three different classes of sum rules, which we systematically classify.

  14. Efficient Management of Fruit Pests by Pheromone Nanogels

    PubMed Central

    Bhagat, Deepa; Samanta, Suman K.; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2013-01-01

    Environment-friendly management of fruit flies involving pheromones is useful in reducing the undesirable pest populations responsible for decreasing the yield and the crop quality. A nanogel has been prepared from a pheromone, methyl eugenol (ME) using a low-molecular mass gelator. This was very stable at open ambient conditions and slowed down the evaporation of pheromone significantly. This enabled its easy handling and transportation without refrigeration, and reduction in the frequency of pheromone recharging in the orchard. Notably the involvement of the nano-gelled pheromone brought about an effective management of Bactrocera dorsalis, a prevalent harmful pest for a number of fruits including guava. Thus a simple, practical and low cost green chemical approach is developed that has a significant potential for crop protection, long lasting residual activity, excellent efficacy and favorable safety profiles. This makes the present invention well-suited for pest management in a variety of crops. PMID:23416455

  15. Indigenous and Invasive Fruit Fly Diversity along an Altitudinal Transect in Eastern Central Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Geurts, Katrien; Mwatawala, Maulid; De Meyer, Marc

    2012-01-01

    The relative abundance of indigenous and invasive frugivorous fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) was evaluated spatially and temporally along an altitudinal transect between 581–1650 m in the Uluguru Mountains near Morogoro, Tanzania. The polyphagous invasive fruit fly Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta, and White and the indigenous fruit fly Ceratitis rosa Karsch show a similar temporal pattern, but are largely separated spatially, with B. invadens being abundant at lower elevation and C. rosa predominant at higher elevation. The polyphagous indigenous C. cosyra (Walker) coincides with B. invadens but shows an inverse temporal pattern. The cucurbit feeders B. cucurbitae (Coquillett) and Dacus bivittatus (Bigot) show a similar temporal pattern, but the former is restricted to lower elevations. Host availability and climatic differences seem to be the determining factors to explain the differences in occurrence and abundance in time and space. PMID:22935017

  16. Volatile host fruit odors as attractants for the oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Cornelius, M L; Duan, J J; Messing, R H

    2000-02-01

    We examined the responses of oriental fruit flies, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, to the odors of different stages and types of fruit presented on potted trees in a field cage. Females were most attracted to odors of soft, ripe fruit. Odors of common guava were more attractive to females than papaya and starfruit, and equally as attractive as strawberry guava, orange, and mango. In field tests, McPhail traps baited with mango, common guava, and orange captured equal numbers of females. Traps baited with mango were compared with 2 commercially available fruit fly traps. McPhail traps baited with mango captured more females than visual fruit-mimicking sticky traps (Ladd traps) and equal numbers of females as McPhail traps baited with protein odors. Results from this study indicate that host fruit volatiles could be used as lures for capturing oriental fruit flies in orchards.

  17. Influence of adding borax and modifying pH on effectiveness of food attractants for melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Duyck, P F; Rousse, P; Ryckewaert, P; Fabre, F; Quilici, S

    2004-06-01

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the most damaging pest of cucurbits in Reunion Island. The influence of adding borax and modifying pH on the effectiveness of different food attractants for both sexes of the melon fly is analyzed by a release-recapture method in field cages. Adding borax to protein hydrolysates Nulure and Buminal strongly reduced their attractiveness for B. cucurbitae. Acidification of 5% Buminal solution (from pH 6 to pH 3) doubled its attractiveness for melon fly. Conversely, Torula yeast at pH 10.5 was significantly more attractive than the standard Torula yeast at pH 9 (28% of captured flies compared with 17%). However, a further pH increase of the yeast solution does not improve its attractiveness. The results are discussed in relation to other studies on pH modification of various baits for Tephritidae.

  18. Efficient management of fruit pests by pheromone nanogels.

    PubMed

    Bhagat, Deepa; Samanta, Suman K; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2013-01-01

    Environment-friendly management of fruit flies involving pheromones is useful in reducing the undesirable pest populations responsible for decreasing the yield and the crop quality. A nanogel has been prepared from a pheromone, methyl eugenol (ME) using a low-molecular mass gelator. This was very stable at open ambient conditions and slowed down the evaporation of pheromone significantly. This enabled its easy handling and transportation without refrigeration, and reduction in the frequency of pheromone recharging in the orchard. Notably the involvement of the nano-gelled pheromone brought about an effective management of Bactrocera dorsalis, a prevalent harmful pest for a number of fruits including guava. Thus a simple, practical and low cost green chemical approach is developed that has a significant potential for crop protection, long lasting residual activity, excellent efficacy and favorable safety profiles. This makes the present invention well-suited for pest management in a variety of crops. PMID:23416455

  19. Evaluating mating compatibility within fruit fly cryptic species complexes and the potential role of sex pheromones in pre-mating isolation.

    PubMed

    Juárez, M Laura; Devescovi, Francisco; Břízová, Radka; Bachmann, Guillermo; Segura, Diego F; Kalinová, Blanka; Fernández, Patricia; Ruiz, M Josefina; Yang, Jianquan; Teal, Peter E A; Cáceres, Carlos; Vreysen, Marc J B; Hendrichs, Jorge; Vera, M Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The study of sexual behavior and the identification of the signals involved in mate recognition between con-specifics are key components that can shed some light, as part of an integrative taxonomic approach, in delimitating species within species complexes. In the Tephritidae family several species complexes have received particular attention as they include important agricultural pests such as the Ceratitis fasciventris (Bezzi), Ceratitis anonae (Graham) and Ceratitis rosa Karsch (FAR) complex, the Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) complex and the Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) complex. Here the value and usefulness of a methodology that uses walk-in field cages with host trees to assess, under semi-natural conditions, mating compatibility within these complexes is reviewed, and the same methodology to study the role of chemical communication in pre-mating isolation among Anastrepha fraterculus populations is used. Results showed that under the same experimental conditions it was possible to distinguish an entire range of different outcomes: from full mating compatibility among some populations to complete assortative mating among others. The effectiveness of the methodology in contributing to defining species limits was shown in two species complexes: Anastrepha fraterculus and Bactrocera dorsalis, and in the case of the latter the synonymization of several established species was published. We conclude that walk-in field cages constitute a powerful tool to measure mating compatibility, which is also useful to determine the role of chemical signals in species recognition. Overall, this experimental approach provides a good source of information about reproductive boundaries to delimit species. However, it needs to be applied as part of an integrative taxonomic approach that simultaneously assesses cytogenetic, molecular, physiological and morphological traits in order to reach more robust species delimitations.

  20. Evaluation of SPLAT with spinosad and methyl eugenol or cue-lure for "attract-and-kill" of oriental and melon fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Roger I; Stark, John D; Hertlein, Mark; Neto, Agenor Mafra; Coler, Reginald; Piñero, Jaime C

    2008-06-01

    Specialized Pheromone and Lure Application Technology (SPLAT) methyl eugenol (ME) and cue-lure (C-L) "attract-and-kill" sprayable formulations containing spinosad were compared with other formulations under Hawaiian weather conditions against oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), respectively. Field tests were conducted with three different dispensers (Min-U-Gel, Acti-Gel, and SPLAT) and two different insecticides (naled and spinosad). SPLAT ME with spinosad was equal in performance to the standard Min-U-Gel ME with naled formulation up to 12 wk. SPLAT C-L with spinosad was equal in performance to the standard Min-U-Gel C-L with naled formulation during weeks 7 to12, but not during weeks 1-6. In subsequent comparative trials, SPLAT ME + spinosad compared favorably with the current standard of Min-U-Gel ME + naled for up to 6 wk, and it was superior from weeks 7 to 12 in two separate tests conducted in a papaya (Carica papaya L.) orchard and a guava (Psidium guajava L.) orchard, respectively. In outdoor paired weathering tests (fresh versus weathered), C-L dispensers (SPLAT + spinosad, SPLAT + naled, and Min-U-Gel + naled) were effective up to 70 d. Weathered ME dispensers with SPLAT + spinosad compared favorably with SPLAT + naled and Min-U-Gel + naled, and they were equal to fresh dispensers for 21-28 d, depending on location. Our current studies indicate that SPLAT ME and SPLAT C-L sprayable attract-and-kill dispensers containing spinosad are a promising substitute for current liquid organophosphate insecticide formulations used for areawide suppression of B. dorsalis and B. cucurbitae in Hawaii. PMID:18613576

  1. Evaluation of methyl eugenol and cue-lure traps with solid lure and insecticide dispensers for fruit fly monitoring and male annihilation in the Hawaii Areawide Pest Management Program.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Roger I; Mau, Ronald F L; Stark, John D; Piñero, Jaime C; Leblanc, Luc; Souder, Steven K

    2010-04-01

    Methyl eugenol (ME) and cue-lure (C-L) traps with solid lure dispensers were deployed in areas with low and high populations of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), respectively. In low-density areas, standard Jackson traps or Hawaii Fruit Fly Areawide Pest Management (AWPM) traps with FT Mallet ME wafers impregnated with dimethyl dichloro-vinyl phosphate (DDVP) or AWPM traps with Scentry ME cones and vapor tape performed equally as well as standard Jackson traps with liquid ME/C-L and naled. Standard Jackson traps or AWPM traps with FT Mallet C-L wafers impregnated with DDVP or AWPM traps with Scentry C-L plugs with vapor tape performed equally as well as standard Jackson traps with a lure-naled solution. In high density areas, captures with traps containing FT Mallet wafers (ME and C-L) outperformed AWPM traps with Scentry cones and plugs (ME and C-L) with DDVP insecticidal strips over a 6-mo period. Captures of B. dorsalis and B. cucurbitae with wafers containing both ME and raspberry ketone (FT Mallet MC) were equivalent to those containing separate lures. From a worker safety and convenience standpoint, FT Mallet ME and C-L wafers with DDVP or Scentry plugs, with or without DDVP vapor tape, are more convenient and safer to handle than standard liquid insecticide formulations used for monitoring and male annihilation programs in Hawaii, and for detections traps used on the U.S. mainland. Furthermore, the FT Mallet MC wafer might be used in a single trap in place of two separate traps for detection of both ME and C-L responding fruit flies. PMID:20429456

  2. Weathering trials of Amulet cue-lure and Amulet methyl eugenol "attract-and-kill" stations with male melon flies and oriental fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Roger I; Stark, John D; Mackey, Bruce; Bull, Richard

    2005-10-01

    Amulet C-L (cue-lure) and Amulet ME (methyl eugenol) molded paper fiber "attract-and-kill" dispensers containing fipronil were tested under Hawaiian weather conditions against Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (melon fly) and Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (oriental fruit fly), respectively. In paired tests (fresh versus weathered), C-L dispensers were effective for at least 77 d, whereas ME dispensers were effective for at least 21 d. Thus, C-L dispensers exceeded, whereas ME dispensers did not meet the label interval replacement recommendation of 60 d. Addition of 4 ml of ME to 56-d-old ME dispensers restored attraction and kill for an additional 21 d. This result suggested the fipronil added at manufacture was still effective. By enclosing and weathering ME dispensers inside small plastic bucket traps, longevity of ME dispensers was extended up to 56 d. Fipronil ME and C-L dispensers also were compared, inside bucket traps, to other toxicants: spinosad, naled, DDVP, malathion, and permethrin. Against B. dorsalis, fipronil ME dispensers compared favorably only up to 3 wk. Against B. cucurbitae, fipronil C-L dispensers compared favorably for at least 15 wk. Our results suggest that fipronil C-L dispensers can potentially be used in Hawaii; however, fipronil ME dispensers need to be modified or protected from the effects of weathering to extend longevity and meet label specifications. Nonetheless, Amulet C-L and ME dispensers are novel prepackaged formulations containing C-L or ME and fipronil that are more convenient and safer to handle than current liquid insecticide formulations used for areawide suppression of B. dorsalis and B. cucurbitae in Hawaii. PMID:16334323

  3. An evaluation of alternative insecticides to diazinon for control of tephritid fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in soil.

    PubMed

    Stark, John D; Vargas, Roger

    2009-02-01

    Diazinon has been used extensively in the past as part of California eradication programs for tephritid fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) as a soil drench, but it is being phased out for this purpose in the United States. Therefore, in this study, the toxicity of Platinum, Force, Admire, Regent, and Warrior was estimated after application to sand and soil as drenches for control of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann); melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett); and oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), in Hawaii. Susceptibility of each species differed. In sand, the order of toxicity at LC50 based on the 95% confidence limit overlap approach for C. capitata from most toxic to least toxic was diazinon > Force = Warrior > Admire = Platinum > Regent. The order of toxicity for B. dorsalis was diazinon > Platinum = Warrior = Force > Regent = Admire. The order of toxicity for B. cucurbitae was Warrior = diazinon > Force = Regent = Platinum = Admire. Based on the dose ratio method, Warrior was not significantly different at LC50 than diazinon for B. cucurbitae only. All other insecticides were significantly different from diazinon at LC50. Studies in sand were followed by an evaluation of specific concentrations of Warrior and Force in soil collected from two sites on the island of Kauai. Average concentrations that caused at least 95% mortality in soil in all three fruit fly species were 121 g active ingredient (AI)/ha for Force and 363 g (AI)/ha for Warrior compared with 182 g (AI)/ha for diazinon. These results indicate that Force and Warrior could be used as soil treatments for control of tephritid fruit flies.

  4. Assessing the Risk of Invasion by Tephritid Fruit Flies: Intraspecific Divergence Matters

    PubMed Central

    Godefroid, Martin; Cruaud, Astrid; Rossi, Jean-Pierre; Rasplus, Jean-Yves

    2015-01-01

    Widely distributed species often show strong phylogeographic structure, with lineages potentially adapted to different biotic and abiotic conditions. The success of an invasion process may thus depend on the intraspecific identity of the introduced propagules. However, pest risk analyses are usually performed without accounting for intraspecific diversity. In this study, we developed bioclimatic models using MaxEnt and boosted regression trees approaches, to predict the potential distribution in Europe of six economically important Tephritid pests (Ceratitis fasciventris (Bezzi), Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann), Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillet)). We considered intraspecific diversity in our risk analyses by independently modeling the distributions of conspecific lineages. The six species displayed different potential distributions in Europe. A strong signal of intraspecific climate envelope divergence was observed in most species. In some cases, conspecific lineages differed strongly in potential distributions suggesting that taxonomic resolution should be accounted for in pest risk analyses. No models (lineage- and species-based approaches) predicted high climatic suitability in the entire invaded range of B. oleae—the only species whose intraspecific identity of invading populations has been elucidated—in California. Host availability appears to play the most important role in shaping the geographic range of this specialist pest. However, climatic suitability values predicted by species-based models are correlated with population densities of B. oleae globally reported in California. Our study highlights how classical taxonomic boundaries may lead to under- or overestimation of the potential pest distributions and encourages accounting for intraspecific diversity when assessing the risk of biological invasion. PMID:26274582

  5. Evaluating mating compatibility within fruit fly cryptic species complexes and the potential role of sex pheromones in pre-mating isolation

    PubMed Central

    Juárez, M. Laura; Devescovi, Francisco; Břízová, Radka; Bachmann, Guillermo; Segura, Diego F.; Kalinová, Blanka; Fernández, Patricia; Ruiz, M. Josefina; Yang, Jianquan; Teal, Peter E.A.; Cáceres, Carlos; Vreysen, Marc J.B.; Hendrichs, Jorge; Vera, M. Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The study of sexual behavior and the identification of the signals involved in mate recognition between con-specifics are key components that can shed some light, as part of an integrative taxonomic approach, in delimitating species within species complexes. In the Tephritidae family several species complexes have received particular attention as they include important agricultural pests such as the Ceratitis fasciventris (Bezzi), Ceratitis anonae (Graham) and Ceratitis rosa Karsch (FAR) complex, the Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) complex and the Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) complex. Here the value and usefulness of a methodology that uses walk-in field cages with host trees to assess, under semi-natural conditions, mating compatibility within these complexes is reviewed, and the same methodology to study the role of chemical communication in pre-mating isolation among Anastrepha fraterculus populations is used. Results showed that under the same experimental conditions it was possible to distinguish an entire range of different outcomes: from full mating compatibility among some populations to complete assortative mating among others. The effectiveness of the methodology in contributing to defining species limits was shown in two species complexes: Anastrepha fraterculus and Bactrocera dorsalis, and in the case of the latter the synonymization of several established species was published. We conclude that walk-in field cages constitute a powerful tool to measure mating compatibility, which is also useful to determine the role of chemical signals in species recognition. Overall, this experimental approach provides a good source of information about reproductive boundaries to delimit species. However, it needs to be applied as part of an integrative taxonomic approach that simultaneously assesses cytogenetic, molecular, physiological and morphological traits in order to reach more robust species delimitations. PMID:26798257

  6. Assessing the Risk of Invasion by Tephritid Fruit Flies: Intraspecific Divergence Matters.

    PubMed

    Godefroid, Martin; Cruaud, Astrid; Rossi, Jean-Pierre; Rasplus, Jean-Yves

    2015-01-01

    Widely distributed species often show strong phylogeographic structure, with lineages potentially adapted to different biotic and abiotic conditions. The success of an invasion process may thus depend on the intraspecific identity of the introduced propagules. However, pest risk analyses are usually performed without accounting for intraspecific diversity. In this study, we developed bioclimatic models using MaxEnt and boosted regression trees approaches, to predict the potential distribution in Europe of six economically important Tephritid pests (Ceratitis fasciventris (Bezzi), Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann), Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillet)). We considered intraspecific diversity in our risk analyses by independently modeling the distributions of conspecific lineages. The six species displayed different potential distributions in Europe. A strong signal of intraspecific climate envelope divergence was observed in most species. In some cases, conspecific lineages differed strongly in potential distributions suggesting that taxonomic resolution should be accounted for in pest risk analyses. No models (lineage- and species-based approaches) predicted high climatic suitability in the entire invaded range of B. oleae-the only species whose intraspecific identity of invading populations has been elucidated-in California. Host availability appears to play the most important role in shaping the geographic range of this specialist pest. However, climatic suitability values predicted by species-based models are correlated with population densities of B. oleae globally reported in California. Our study highlights how classical taxonomic boundaries may lead to under- or overestimation of the potential pest distributions and encourages accounting for intraspecific diversity when assessing the risk of biological invasion. PMID:26274582

  7. The Gene Transformer of Anastrepha Fruit Flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) and Its Evolution in Insects

    PubMed Central

    Salvemini, Marco; Eirín-López, José María; Perondini, André L. P.; Selivon, Denise; Polito, Catello; Saccone, Giuseppe; Sánchez, Lucas

    2007-01-01

    In the tephritids Ceratitis capitata and Bactrocera oleae, the gene transformer acts as the memory device for sex determination, via an auto-regulatory function; and functional Tra protein is produced only in females. This paper investigates the evolution of the gene tra, which was characterised in twelve tephritid species belonging to the less extensively analysed genus Anastrepha. Our study provided the following major conclusions. Firstly, the memory device mechanism used by this gene in sex determination in tephritids likely existed in the common ancestor of the Ceratitis, Bactrocera and Anastrepha phylogenetic lineages. This mechanism would represent the ancestral state with respect to the extant cascade seen in the more evolved Drosophila lineage. Secondly, Transformer2-specific binding intronic splicing silencer sites were found in the splicing regulatory region of transformer but not in doublesex pre-mRNAs in these tephritids. Thus, these sites probably provide the discriminating feature for the putative dual splicing activity of the Tra-Tra2 complex in tephritids. It acts as a splicing activator in dsx pre-mRNA splicing (its binding to the female-specific exon promotes the inclusion of this exon into the mature mRNA), and as a splicing inhibitor in tra pre-mRNA splicing (its binding to the male-specific exons prevents the inclusion of these exons into the mature mRNA). Further, a highly conserved region was found in the specific amino-terminal region of the tephritid Tra protein that might be involved in Tra auto-regulatory function and hence in its repressive splicing behaviour. Finally, the Tra proteins conserved the SR dipeptides, which are essential for Tra functionality. PMID:18043746

  8. Seasonal Abundance of Mango Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Ecological Implications for Their Management in Mango and Cashew Orchards in Benin (Centre & North).

    PubMed

    Vayssières, J-F; De Meyer, M; Ouagoussounon, I; Sinzogan, A; Adandonon, A; Korie, S; Wargui, R; Anato, F; Houngbo, H; Didier, C; De Bon, H; Goergen, G

    2015-10-01

    We report the results of a large-scale (six orchards) and long-term (5-yr) study on seasonal population fluctuations of fruit flies (Diptera Tephritidae) in mango (2005-2009) and cashew (2007-2009) orchards in the Borgou Department, Benin.During the five consecutive years of mango fruit fly monitoring, 25 tephritid species were captured including three species of Bactrocera, 11 of Ceratitis, and 11 of Dacus, which is represented by 2,138,150 specimens in mango orchards. We observed significant differences in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) counts between "high" and "low" mango production years from 2005 to 2008 but not in Ceratitis cosyra (Walker) counts. The native species, C. cosyra, the most abundant species during the dry season, peaked beginning of May, while the exotic species, B. dorsalis, the most abundant species during the rainy season, peaked in June. Preliminary results underlined the role of nine species of wild hosts and seven species of cultivated ones around mango orchards that played an important role in maintaining B. dorsalis in this Sudan zone all year round. The presence of C. cosyra stretched over 9 mo.During the first 14 wk of tephritid monitoring on cashew orchards situated near mango orchards, most flies (62%) were captured in traps positioned in cashew orchards, showing the strong interest of an early fly control on cashew before the mango season. According to these results, in the Sudan zone, effective and compatible control methods as proposed by the IPM package validated by the West African Fruit Fly Initiative project against mango fruit flies are proposed for a large regional tephritid control program in same zones of West Africa.

  9. Susceptibility of low-chill blueberry cultivars to Mediterranean fruit fly, oriental fruit fly, and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Follett, Peter A; Zee, Francis T; Hamasaki, Randall T; Hummer, Kim; Nakamoto, Stuart T

    2011-04-01

    No-choice tests were conducted to determine whether fruit of southern highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L., hybrids are hosts for three invasive tephritid fruit flies in Hawaii. Fruit of various blueberry cultivars was exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (oriental fruit fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean fruit fly), or Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet (melon fly) in screen cages outdoors for 6 h and then held on sand in the laboratory for 2 wk for pupal development and adult emergence. Each of the 15 blueberry cultivars tested were infested by oriental fruit fly and Mediterranean fruit fly, confirming that these fruit flies will oviposit on blueberry fruit and that blueberry is a suitable host for fly development. However, there was significant cultivar variation in susceptibility to fruit fly infestation. For oriental fruit fly, 'Sapphire' fruit produced an average of 1.42 puparia per g, twice as high as that of the next most susceptible cultivar 'Emerald' (0.70 puparia per g). 'Legacy', 'Biloxi', and 'Spring High' were least susceptible to infestation, producing only 0.20-0.25 oriental fruit fly puparia per g of fruit. For Mediterranean fruit fly, 'Blue Crisp' produced 0.50 puparia per g of fruit, whereas 'Sharpblue' produced only 0.03 puparia per g of fruit. Blueberry was a marginal host for melon fly. This information will aid in development of pest management recommendations for blueberry cultivars as planting of low-chill cultivars expands to areas with subtropical and tropical fruit flies. Planting of fruit fly resistant cultivars may result in lower infestation levels and less crop loss.

  10. Evaluating mating compatibility within fruit fly cryptic species complexes and the potential role of sex pheromones in pre-mating isolation.

    PubMed

    Juárez, M Laura; Devescovi, Francisco; Břízová, Radka; Bachmann, Guillermo; Segura, Diego F; Kalinová, Blanka; Fernández, Patricia; Ruiz, M Josefina; Yang, Jianquan; Teal, Peter E A; Cáceres, Carlos; Vreysen, Marc J B; Hendrichs, Jorge; Vera, M Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The study of sexual behavior and the identification of the signals involved in mate recognition between con-specifics are key components that can shed some light, as part of an integrative taxonomic approach, in delimitating species within species complexes. In the Tephritidae family several species complexes have received particular attention as they include important agricultural pests such as the Ceratitis fasciventris (Bezzi), Ceratitis anonae (Graham) and Ceratitis rosa Karsch (FAR) complex, the Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) complex and the Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) complex. Here the value and usefulness of a methodology that uses walk-in field cages with host trees to assess, under semi-natural conditions, mating compatibility within these complexes is reviewed, and the same methodology to study the role of chemical communication in pre-mating isolation among Anastrepha fraterculus populations is used. Results showed that under the same experimental conditions it was possible to distinguish an entire range of different outcomes: from full mating compatibility among some populations to complete assortative mating among others. The effectiveness of the methodology in contributing to defining species limits was shown in two species complexes: Anastrepha fraterculus and Bactrocera dorsalis, and in the case of the latter the synonymization of several established species was published. We conclude that walk-in field cages constitute a powerful tool to measure mating compatibility, which is also useful to determine the role of chemical signals in species recognition. Overall, this experimental approach provides a good source of information about reproductive boundaries to delimit species. However, it needs to be applied as part of an integrative taxonomic approach that simultaneously assesses cytogenetic, molecular, physiological and morphological traits in order to reach more robust species delimitations. PMID:26798257

  11. Correlation and Analysis of Volcanic Ash in Marine Sediments From the Peru Margin: Explosive Volcanic Cycles of the North-Central Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, D.; Miller, J.

    2003-12-01

    composition through the late Pliocene to early Pleistocene during peak volcanic activity. However, ash layers from at least one drilling location (Site 1228) bracketed by biostratigraphic and oxygen isotope dates may correlate with the ~254 kyr eruption of Taupo. Previous studies have recognized the presence of tephra from this eruption in cores as far away as 1100 km from the source, and suggest that ash may be found in sediments off South America (Froggatt, et al., 1986). REFERENCES Froggatt, P.C., Nelson, C.S., Carter, L., Griggs, G., Black, K.P., 1986. An exceptionally large late Quaternary eruption from New Zealand. Nature (London), 319; 6054: 578-582. Pouclet, A., Cambray, H., Cadet, J.P., Bourgois, J., De Wever, P., 1990. Volcanic ash from Leg 112 off Peru. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, Vol. 112: 465-480.

  12. Correlation and Analysis of Volcanic Ash in Marine Sediments From the Peru Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, D.; Miller, J.

    2005-05-01

    that explosive activity began in the early Eocene (35 Ma) and continued with explosive pulses during the Miocene. The greatest explosive activity occurred within the past 5 million years, with peak activity in the late Pliocene to early Pleistocene. Based on petrographic and geochemical analysis, most of the volcanic ash within cores from Leg 201 was derived from the Andean volcanic arc. These plinian eruptions produced acidic glasses and ash layers with abundant feldspar and quartz, and minor amounts of hornblende and biotite. Pouclet, et al., (1990) reports a transition from andesitic volcanism in the Middle to Late Miocene to a more shoshonitic composition through the late Pliocene to early Pleistocene during peak volcanic activity. Ash layers from at least one drilling location (Site 1228) bracketed by biostratigraphic and oxygen isotope dates may correlate with the 254 kyr eruption of Taupo, New Zealand. Previous studies have recognized the presence of tephra from this eruption in cores as far away as 1100 km from the source and suggest that ash from this volcano may occur in sediments off South America (Froggatt, et al., 1986). REFERENCES Froggatt, P.C., Nelson, C.S., Carter, L., Griggs, G., Black, K.P., 1986. An exceptionally large late Quaternary eruption from New Zealand. Nature (London), 319;6054 578-582. Pouclet, A., Cambray, H., Cadet, J.P., Bourgois, J., De Wever, P., 1990. Volcanic ash from Leg 112 off Peru. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, Vol. 112: 465-480.

  13. Electron Microprobe Techniques for Use in Tephrochronological Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournelle, J.; Severin, K.; Wallace, K.; Beget, J.; Larsen, J.

    2006-12-01

    Tephrochronology generally assumes that a layer of volcanic ash represents a snapshot of eruption/deposition and of a region within the subvolcanic magma chamber. Correlation of tephra deposits over long distances helps establish age control for other deposits (volcanic and nonvolcanic). Reliable correlations depend on establishing similarity among tephra deposits. Although multi-parameter characterization of a tephra enhances long-distance correlations, identification and correlation of unknown tephras is often done using only geochemical analyses. Techniques vary but generally deal with chemically characterizing all (bulk) or portions (glass, crystals) of the tephra layer, with various geochemical techniques at various spatial scales. Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) is the most commonly used analytical tool for geochemical analysis and imaging of micron-size volumes of glass and crystals, yet, despite warnings from numerous EPMA analysts dating back to at least 1992, a standard method for collecting, reducing, and reporting tephra data among and within laboratories is not common practice, making comparison of data sets problematic. We review the complexities in volcanic glass analysis, which include: 1) selection of standards (natural and synthetic, minerals and glasses, simple and complex chemistry, primary and secondary); 2) beam diameter, current level and count times; 3) time dependent element migration (volatiles Na, K, Al, Si); and 4) possible hydration of the glass. For example, there are multiple methods available for treating the volatile elements (minimizing the effect vs. not minimizing but correcting for it), and Morgan and London (1996) examined some of these for hydrous silicate glasses; we suggest continued comparisons are warranted, particularly on commonly used standards. Some published data sets are normalized to 100 wt% without an explanation of the extent of the deficiency in raw total. We review the 10 recommendations made by Froggatt

  14. The odor of a plant metabolite affects life history traits in dietary restricted adult olive flies.

    PubMed

    Gerofotis, Christos D; Ioannou, Charalampos S; Nakas, Christos T; Papadopoulos, Nikos T

    2016-01-01

    Food quality shapes life history traits either directly or through response of individuals to additional environmental factors, such as chemical cues. Plant extracts used as food additives modulate key life history traits; however little is known regarding such effects for olfactory chemical cues. Exploiting an interesting experimental system that involves the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) and the plant metabolite α-pinene we asked whether exposure of adults to this compound modulates adult longevity and female reproduction in similar manner in a stressful - dietary (protein) restricted (DR) and in a relaxed- full diet (FD) feeding environment. Accordingly, we exposed males and females to the aroma of α-pinene and measured lifespan and age-specific fecundity in the above two dietary contexts. Our results demonstrate that exposure to α-pinene increased longevity in males and fecundity in females only under dietary restricted conditions. In relaxed food conditions, females exposed to α-pinene shifted high egg-laying towards younger ages compared to non-exposed ones. This is the first report demonstrating that a plant compound affects key life history traits of adult olive flies through olfaction. These effects are sex-specific and more pronounced in dietary restricted adults. Possible underlying mechanisms and the ecological significance are discussed. PMID:27339862

  15. Cold storage enhances the efficacy and margin of security in postharvest irradiation treatments against fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Follett, Peter A; Snook, Kirsten

    2013-10-01

    Cold storage is used to preserve fruit quality after harvest during transportation in marketing channels. Low temperature can be a stressor for insects that reduces survivorship, and cold storage may contribute to the efficacy of postharvest quarantine treatments such as irradiation against quarantine insect pests. The combined effect of irradiation and cold storage was examined in a radiation-tolerant fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet (melon fly), and a radiation-intolerant fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean fruit fly) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Third instars on diet or in papaya were treated with a sublethal radiation dose of 30 Gy and stored at 4 or 11 degrees C for 3-13 d and held for adult emergence. For both fruit fly species, survival of third instars to the adult stage generally decreased with increasing cold storage duration at 4 or 11 degrees C in diet or papaya. Survivorship differences were highly significant for the effects of substrate (diet > papaya), temperature (11 > 4 degrees C),and irradiation (0 > 30 Gy). Few Mediterranean fruit flies survived in any cold storage treatment after receiving a radiation dose of 30 Gy. No melon fly larvae survived to the adult stage after irradiation and 11 d cold storage at 4 or 11 degrees C in papayas. Cold storage enhances the efficacy and widens the margin of security in postharvest irradiation treatments. Potentially irradiation and cold storage can be used in combination to reduce the irradiation exposure requirements of quarantine treatments. PMID:24224244

  16. Differences in Antennal Sensillae of Male and Female Peach Fruit Flies in Relation to Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Azza A.; Mohamed, Hend O.; Ali, Nashat A.

    2015-01-01

    Antennal sensillae of male and female peach fruit flies, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) (Diptera: Tephritidae), obtained from three different host fruit species (guava, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae); peach, Prunus persica (L.) Stokes (Rosales: Rosaceae); and orange, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Sapindales: Rutaceae)), were studied with scanning electron microscopy. This study was carried out to describe the different types of sensillae present on the three antennal segments (scape, pedicel, and flagellum or funiculus) of both sexes of B. zonata on different host fruit. The antennal segments of females tended to be larger than those of males feeding on peach and guava fruit. On orange, both sexes were similar (no significant differences were found). The first two antennal segments, scape and pedicel, are reinforced by some bristles and have different types of sensillae, including trichoid I, II, S; basiconic II; and sensilla chaetica in different numbers on different host fruit species. Numerous microtrichia, as well as trichoid (I, II), basiconic (I), clavate, and coeloconic (I, II) sensillae were observed on the funiculus with a great variation in number and length. As a result of feeding on different hosts, differences were found between sexes and some plasticity in size, number, distribution, and position of some sensillae, including trichoid, basiconic, chaetica, and clavate on the antennae of the female B. zonata. These sensillae were significantly larger in females. Also, some morphological and morphemetric differences have been found according to their feeding on different host fruit. PMID:25688086

  17. Population dynamics, distribution, and species diversity of fruit flies on cucurbits in Kashmir Valley, India.

    PubMed

    Ganie, S A; Khan, Z H; Ahangar, R A; Bhat, H A; Hussain, Barkat

    2013-01-01

    Given the economic importance of cucurbits and the losses incurred by fruit fly infestation, the population dynamics of fruit flies in cucurbit crops and the influence of abiotic parameters, such as temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, and total sunshine hours per day on the fruit fly population were studied. The study was carried out at six locations; in district Srinagar the locations were Batmaloo, Shalimar, and Dal, while in district Budgam the locations were Chadoora, Narkara, and Bugam (Jammu and Kashmir, India). Various cucurbit crops, such as cucumber, bottle gourd, ridge gourd and bitter gourd, were selected for the study. With regard to locations, mean fruit fly population was highest (6.09, 4.55, 3.87, and 3.60 flies/trap/week) at Batamaloo and Chadoora (4.73, 3.93, 2.73, and 2.73 flies/trap/week) on cucumber, bottle gourd, ridge gourd, and bitter gourd, respectively. The population of fruit flies was significantly correlated with the minimum and maximum temperature. The maximum species diversity of fruit flies was 0.511, recorded in Chadoora. Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was the most predominant species in both Srinagar and Budgam, followed by B. dorsalis (Hendel) and B. tau (Walker), while B. scutellaris (Bezzi) was found only in Chadoora. Results of the present investigation may be utilized in developing a sustainable pest management strategy in the agroecological system.

  18. Biology of Fopius arisanus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Two Species of Fruit Flies

    PubMed Central

    Groth, M. Z.; Loeck, A. E.; Nörnberg, S. D.; Bernardi, D.; Nava, D. E.

    2016-01-01

    Fopius arisanus (Sonan, 1932) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is an egg–larval parasitoid used in control programs of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). In Brazil, C. capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) are considered the main tephritid pests of exotic and indigenous fruits. The objective of this study was to study the biology of F. arisanus in C. capitata and A. fraterculus. Eggs of the two fruit fly species were used to determine the parasitism rate, number of offspring, emergence rate, sex ratio, adult weight and longevity of male and female F. arisanus. These biological parameters were used to develop a fertility life table. We observed higher parasitism and emergence rates of adults, a shorter duration of the egg–adult period and a sex ratio biased to females when F. arisanus was reared in eggs of C. capitata than in those of A. fraterculus. However, adults of F. arisanus from eggs of A. fraterculus were heavier and had greater longevity than those obtained from C. capitata eggs. The fertility life table showed better biological and reproductive performance for F. arisanus reared in eggs of C. capitata, although eggs of A. fraterculus also provided positive values for population increase. PMID:27638954

  19. Fine-scale ecological and economic assessment of climate change on olive in the Mediterranean Basin reveals winners and losers.

    PubMed

    Ponti, Luigi; Gutierrez, Andrew Paul; Ruti, Paolo Michele; Dell'Aquila, Alessandro

    2014-04-15

    The Mediterranean Basin is a climate and biodiversity hot spot, and climate change threatens agro-ecosystems such as olive, an ancient drought-tolerant crop of considerable ecological and socioeconomic importance. Climate change will impact the interactions of olive and the obligate olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae), and alter the economics of olive culture across the Basin. We estimate the effects of climate change on the dynamics and interaction of olive and the fly using physiologically based demographic models in a geographic information system context as driven by daily climate change scenario weather. A regional climate model that includes fine-scale representation of the effects of topography and the influence of the Mediterranean Sea on regional climate was used to scale the global climate data. The system model for olive/olive fly was used as the production function in our economic analysis, replacing the commonly used production-damage control function. Climate warming will affect olive yield and fly infestation levels across the Basin, resulting in economic winners and losers at the local and regional scales. At the local scale, profitability of small olive farms in many marginal areas of Europe and elsewhere in the Basin will decrease, leading to increased abandonment. These marginal farms are critical to conserving soil, maintaining biodiversity, and reducing fire risk in these areas. Our fine-scale bioeconomic approach provides a realistic prototype for assessing climate change impacts in other Mediterranean agro-ecosystems facing extant and new invasive pests. PMID:24706833

  20. Spatial dynamics of two oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) parasitoids, Fopius arisanus and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), in a Guava orchard in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Roger I; Stark, John D; Banks, John; Leblanc, Luc; Manoukis, Nicholas C; Peck, Steven

    2013-10-01

    We examined spatial patterns of both sexes of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and its two most abundant parasitoids, Fopius arisanus (Sonan) and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) in a commercial guava (Psidium guajava L.) orchard. Oriental fruit fly spatial patterns were initially random, but became highly aggregated with host fruit ripening and the subsequent colonization of, first, F. arisanus (egg-pupal parasitoid) and, second, D. longicaudata (larval-pupal parasitoid). There was a significant positive relationship between populations of oriental fruit fly and F. arisanus during each of the F. arisanus increases, a pattern not exhibited between oriental fruit fly and D. longicaudata. Generally, highest total numbers of males and females (oriental fruit fly, F. arisanus, and D. longicaudata) occurred on or about the same date. There was a significant positive correlation between male and female populations of all three species; we measured a lag of 2-4 wk between increases of female F. arisanus and conspecific males. There was a similar trend in one of the two years for the second most abundant species, D. longicaudata, but no sign of a time lag between the sexes for oriental fruit fly. Spatially, we found a significant positive relationship between numbers of F. arisanus in blocks and the average number in adjoining blocks. We did not find the same effect for oriental fruit fly and D. longicaudata, possibly a result of lower overall numbers of the latter two species or less movement of F. arisanus within the field. PMID:24073692

  1. Marked Genetic Differentiation between Western Iberian and Italic Populations of the Olive Fly: Southern France as an Intermediate Area.

    PubMed

    van Asch, Barbara; Pereira-Castro, Isabel; Rei, Fernando Trindade; da Costa, Luís Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most important pest affecting the olive industry, to which it is estimated to cause average annual losses in excess of one billion dollars. As with other insects with a wide distribution, it is generally accepted that the understanding of B. oleae population structure and dynamics is fundamental for the design and implementation of effective monitoring and control strategies. However, and despite important advances in the past decade, a clear picture of B. oleae's population structure is still lacking. In the Mediterranean basin, where more than 95% of olive production is concentrated, evidence from several studies suggests the existence of three distinct sub-populations, but the geographical limits of their distributions, and the level of interpenetration and gene flow among them remain ill-characterized. Here we use mitochondrial haplotype analysis to show that one of the Mediterranean mitochondrial lineages displays geographically correlated substructure and demonstrate that Italic populations, though markedly distinct from their Iberian and Levantine counterparts are more diverse than previously described. Finally, we show that this distinction does not result from extant hypothetical geographic limits imposed by the Alps or the Pyrenees nor, more generally, does it result from any sharp boundary, as intermixing is observed in a broad area, albeit at variable levels. Instead, Bayesian phylogeographic analysis suggests the interplay between isolation-mediated differentiation during glacial periods and bi-directional dispersal and population intermixing in the interglacials has played a major role in shaping current olive fly population structure.

  2. Analysis of olive fly invasion in California based on microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Zygouridis, N E; Augustinos, A A; Zalom, F G; Mathiopoulos, K D

    2009-04-01

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the main pest of the olive fruit and its expansion is exclusively restricted to the cultivation zone of the olive tree. Even though olive production has a century-old history in California, the olive fly was first detected in the Los Angeles area in 1998. Within 5 years of the first observation, the insect was reported from all olive cultivation areas of the state. Field-collected flies from five locations in California and another from Israel were analyzed on the basis of microsatellite polymorphisms in 10 microsatellite loci. These results were integrated with those of a previous study of olive fly populations around the European part of the Mediterranean basin. The analysis pointed to the eastern part of the Mediterranean as the putative source of the observed invasion. Moreover, samples from California were quite different from Mediterranean samples implying the participation of phenomena such as genetic drift during the invasion and expansion of the olive fly in California.

  3. Relationships between parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae), fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their host plants based on 16S rRNA, 12S rRNA, and ND1 gene sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, N. J.; Md-Zain, B. M.; Yaakop, S.

    2013-11-01

    Opiinae is among the l0 largest subfamilies under the family Braconidae. Opiines species have great potential as natural enemies against fruit fly pests. Before using them as a biological control agent, construction of the phylogenetic trees could facilitate in the molecular identification of individual species and their relationships among members of the Opiines, as well as between Opiines and their host plants. Larval specimens of tephritids were collected from four crop species at five localities throughout the Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 44 specimens of opiines had successfully emerged from the hosts, fruit fly larvae. The DNA sequences of 12S and 16S rRNA were obtained for the braconids while the mitochondrial ND1 sequences were obtained for the tephritids species through polymerase chain reaction. Maximum Parsimony and Bayesian trees were constructed by using PAUP 4.0b10 and MrBayes 3.1.2 to identify the relationships among the taxa. This study illustrates the phylogenetic relationships among parasitoid opiines collected and reared from parasitized fruit flies. The phylogenetic trees constructed based on the mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA sequences exhibited similar topology and sequence divergence. The opiines were divided into several clades and subclades according to the genus and species. Each clade also was supported by the similar host plants with high support values. However, their pests were not specific, except for Bactrocera cucurbitae. This study has reconfirmed the associations between Opiinae, tephritids, and host plants based on molecular data.

  4. A centralised remote data collection system using automated traps for managing and controlling the population of the Mediterranean (Ceratitis capitata) and olive (Dacus oleae) fruit flies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philimis, Panayiotis; Psimolophitis, Elias; Hadjiyiannis, Stavros; Giusti, Alessandro; Perelló, Josep; Serrat, Albert; Avila, Pedro

    2013-08-01

    The present paper describes the development of a novel monitoring system (e-FlyWatch system) for managing and controlling the population of two of the world's most destructive fruit pests, namely the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae, Rossi - formerly Dacus oleae) and the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, also called medfly). The novel monitoring system consists of a) novel automated traps with optical and motion detection modules for capturing the flies, b) local stations including a GSM/GPRS module, sensors, flash memory, battery, antenna etc. and c) a central station that collects, stores and publishes the results (i.e. insect population in each field, sensor data, possible error/alarm data) via a web-based management software.The centralised data collection system provides also analysis and prediction models, end-user warning modules and historical analysis of infested areas. The e-FlyWatch system enables the SMEs-producers in the Fruit, Vegetable and Olive sectors to improve their production reduce the amount of insecticides/pesticides used and consequently the labour cost for spraying activities, and the labour cost for traps inspection.

  5. Future Risks of Pest Species under Changing Climatic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Biber-Freudenberger, Lisa; Ziemacki, Jasmin; Tonnang, Henri E Z; Borgemeister, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Most agricultural pests are poikilothermic species expected to respond to climate change. Currently, they are a tremendous burden because of the high losses they inflict on crops and livestock. Smallholder farmers in developing countries of Africa are likely to suffer more under these changes than farmers in the developed world because more severe climatic changes are projected in these areas. African countries further have a lower ability to cope with impacts of climate change through the lack of suitable adapted management strategies and financial constraints. In this study we are predicting current and future habitat suitability under changing climatic conditions for Tuta absoluta, Ceratitis cosyra, and Bactrocera invadens, three important insect pests that are common across some parts of Africa and responsible for immense agricultural losses. We use presence records from different sources and bioclimatic variables to predict their habitat suitability using the maximum entropy modelling approach. We find that habitat suitability for B. invadens, C. cosyra and T. absoluta is partially increasing across the continent, especially in those areas already overlapping with or close to most suitable sites under current climate conditions. Assuming a habitat suitability at three different threshold levels we assessed where each species is likely to be present under future climatic conditions and if this is likely to have an impact on productive agricultural areas. Our results can be used by African policy makers, extensionists and farmers for agricultural adaptation measures to cope with the impacts of climate change. PMID:27054718

  6. Fitness costs of an insecticide resistance and their population dynamical consequences in the oriental fruit fly.

    PubMed

    Fang, Chi-Chun; Okuyama, Toshinori; Wu, Wen-Jer; Feng, Hai-Tung; Hsu, Ju-Chun

    2011-12-01

    Naled is a commonly used insecticide for controlling populations of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), in Taiwan and other countries. B. dorsalis has developed resistance to the insecticide, and the resistance management is an important issue. Ecological effects (e.g., fitness costs) of the resistance, when fully understood, can be used for the resistance management. This study examined the effects of the insecticide resistance on important life history traits (i.e., survival rates, stage durations, and fecundity) of the oriental fruit fly by comparing the traits of insecticide resistant individuals and susceptible individuals. Population dynamical properties were also examined using a stage-structured matrix model that was parameterized with the empirical data. The results revealed that susceptible individuals had shorter stage durations (e.g., grew faster) and reproduced more than resistant individuals. The average longevity of sexually mature susceptible adults was longer than that of sexually mature resistant adults. The matrix population model predicted that a population of the susceptible individuals would grow faster than a population of the resistant individuals in the absence of the insecticide. The sensitivity analysis of the model suggests that the sexually immature adult stage is a good candidate for controlling B. dorsalis populations. PMID:22299368

  7. Development of resistance to spinosad in oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in laboratory selection and cross-resistance.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ju-Chun; Feng, Hai-Tung

    2006-06-01

    In this study, we assessed the potential for the development of resistance to the insecticide spinosad in a laboratory colony of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Resistance was selected by using topical applications of spinosad. After eight generations of selection, the LD50 of the selected line was 408 times greater compared with that of the untreated parental colony. This spinosad-resistant line did not exhibit cross-resistance to 10 other insecticides tested, including six organophosphates (naled, trichlorfon, fenitrothion. fenthion, formothion, and malathion) one carbamate (methomyl), and three pyrethroids (cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, and fenvalerate). However, using lines previously selected for resistance to these same insecticides, two of the 10 lines tested (naled- and malathion-resistant) did show some cross-resistance to spinosad. Also, oriental fruit flies from different field collections where naled and malathion have been used for control purposes displayed some resistance to spinosad. In addition, the effects of direct ingestion of spinosad through dietary supplementation also were tested. Overall, the laboratory resistance and cross-resistance data developed in this study provide new information that will be useful for managing the development of resistance when spinosad is used to control B. dorsalis in the field. PMID:16813333

  8. Field trials of spinosad as a replacement for naled, DDVP, and malathion in methyl eugenol and cue-lure bucket traps to attract and kill male oriental fruit flies and melon flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Roger I; Miller, Neil W; Stark, John D

    2003-12-01

    Spinosad was evaluated in Hawaii as a replacement for organophosphate insecticides (naled, dichlorvos [DDVP], and malathion) in methyl eugenol and cue-lure bucket traps to attract and kill oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, and melon fly, B. cucurbitae Coquillett, respectively. In the first and second methyl eugenol trials with B. dorsalis, naled was in the highest rated group for all evaluation periods (at 5, 10, 15, and 20 wk). Spinosad was equal to naled at 5 and 10 wk during both trials 1 and 2, and compared favorably with malathion during trial 2. During the first cue-lure trial with B. cucurbitae, naled and malathion were in the top rated group at 5, 10, 15, and 20 wk. Spinosad was equal to naled at 5 wk. During the second cue-lure trial, spinosad and naled were both in the top rated group at 10, 15, and 20 wk. Use of male lure traps with methyl eugenol or cue-lure had no effect on attraction of females into test areas. Our results suggest that spinosad, although not as persistent as naled or malathion, is safer to handle and a more environmentally friendly substitute for organophosphate insecticides in methyl eugenol and cue-lure traps for use in B. dorsalis and B. cucurbitae areawide integrated pest management programs in Hawaii. PMID:14977115

  9. Aromatized to Find Mates: α-Pinene Aroma Boosts the Mating Success of Adult Olive Fruit Flies

    PubMed Central

    Gerofotis, Christos D.; Ioannou, Charalampos S.; Papadopoulos, Nikos T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Contrary to other Tephritidae, female but also male olive flies, Bactrocera oleae release pheromones during their sexual communication. Alpha-pinene, a common plant volatile found in high amounts in unripe olive fruit and leaves has been detected as one of the major components of the female pheromone. However, possible effects of α-pinene and that of other host volatiles on the mating behavior of the olive fly have not been investigated. Methodology Using wild olive flies, reared on olive fruit for 3 generations in the laboratory, we explored whether exposure of male and female olive flies to α-pinene affects their sexual performance. Results Exposure of sexually mature adult olive flies to the aroma of α-pinene significantly increases the mating performance over non-exposed individuals. Interestingly, exposure to α-pinene boosts the mating success of both males and female olive flies. Conclusions This is the first report of such an effect on the olive fly, and the first time that a single plant volatile has been reported to induce such a phenomenon on both sexes of a single species. We discuss the possible associated mechanism and provide some practical implications. PMID:24260571

  10. Reproductive Behavior and Basic Biology of the Oriental Bamboo-Inhabiting Anoplomus rufipes and a Comparison with Frugivorous Dacinae Fruit Flies

    PubMed Central

    Kovac, Damir

    2015-01-01

    The reproductive behaviors and mating systems of the fruit-infesting species of the Dacinae tribes Ceratitidini and Dacini are increasingly well understood, while in the non-frugivorous tribe Gastrozonini, data are lacking. In the present study, the reproductive behavior of Anoplomus rufipes from North Thailand was studied in the field, other behaviors also in the laboratory. A. rufipes mated on young bamboo plants growing in areas destroyed by fire. Exudates of extrafloral nectaries produced by the young bamboo plants provided food for the females. Factors affecting the choice of the mating site were favorable microclimatic conditions and food. Courtship behavior was performed on the upper sides of bamboo leaves and included pheromone calling (abdominal elevation, anal pouch eversion, abdominal pleural distention), anal dabbing, looping flights and a specific lofting/body swaying behavior. The males searched individually for females or formed leks containing up to four males. The reproductive behaviors and lek formation of A. rufipes are compared to other Dacinae (Ceratitis, Bactrocera), and their functions are discussed. Hitherto unknown data on the general biology of A. rufipes are also included. A. rufipes larvae infested living bamboo shoots of Cephalostachyum pergracile, and the observed behaviors of the adults included locomotion, grooming, feeding, oral droplet deposition, bubbling and agonistic behavior. PMID:26512699

  11. Symbiotic bacteria enable olive fly larvae to overcome host defences.

    PubMed

    Ben-Yosef, Michael; Pasternak, Zohar; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Yuval, Boaz

    2015-07-01

    Ripe fruit offer readily available nutrients for many animals, including fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their associated rot-inducing bacteria. Yet, during most of their ontogeny, fruit remain chemically defended and effectively suppress herbivores and pathogens by high levels of secondary metabolites. Olive flies (Bactrocera oleae) are uniquely able to develop in unripe olives. Unlike other frugivorous tephritids, the larvae maintain bacteria confined within their midgut caeca. We examined the interaction between larvae, their associated bacteria, and fruit chemical defence, hypothesizing that bacterial contribution to larval development is contingent on the phenology of fruit defensive chemistry. We demonstrate that larvae require their natural complement of bacteria (Candidatus Erwinia dacicola: Enterobacteriaceae) in order to develop in unripe olives. Conversely, when feeding on ripe fruit, larval development proceeds independently of these bacteria. Our experiments suggest that bacteria counteract the inhibitory effect of oleuropein-the principal phenolic glycoside in unripe olives. In light of these results, we suggest that the unique symbiosis in olive flies, compared with other frugivorous tephritids, is understood by considering the relationship between the fly, bacteria and fruit chemistry. When applied in an evolutionary context, this approach may also point out the forces which shaped symbioses across the Tephritidae.

  12. A Novel Polysaccharide in Insects Activates the Innate Immune System in Mouse Macrophage RAW264 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Takashi; Ido, Atsushi; Kusano, Kie; Miura, Chiemi; Miura, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    A novel water-soluble polysaccharide was identified in the pupae of the melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae) as a molecule that activates the mammalian innate immune response. We attempted to purify this innate immune activator using nitric oxide (NO) production in mouse RAW264 macrophages as an indicator of immunostimulatory activity. A novel acidic polysaccharide was identified, which we named “dipterose”, with a molecular weight of 1.01×106 and comprising nine monosaccharides. Dipterose was synthesized in the melon fly itself at the pupal stage. The NO-producing activity of dipterose was approximately equal to that of lipopolysaccharide, a potent immunostimulator. Inhibition of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) led to the suppression of NO production by dipterose. Furthermore, dipterose induced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and interferon β (IFNβ) and promoted the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in macrophages, indicating that it stimulates the induction of various cytokines in RAW264 cells via the TLR4 signaling pathway. Our results thus suggest that dipterose activates the innate immune response against various pathogenic microorganisms and viral infections. This is the first identification of an innate immune-activating polysaccharide from an animal. PMID:25490773

  13. An Optimized Protocol for Rearing Fopius arisanus, a Parasitoid of Tephritid Fruit Flies

    PubMed Central

    Manoukis, Nicholas; Geib, Scott; Seo, Danny; McKenney, Michael; Vargas, Roger; Jang, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Fopius arisanus (Sonan) is an important parasitoid of Tephritid fruit flies for at least two reasons. First, it is the one of only three opiine parasitoids known to infect the host during the egg stage1. Second, it has a wide range of potential fruit fly hosts. Perhaps due to its life history, F. arisanus has been a successfully used for biological control of fruit flies in multiple tropical regions2-4. One impediment to the wide use of F. arisanus for fruit fly control is that it is difficult to establish a stable laboratory colony5-9. Despite this difficulty, in the 1990s USDA researchers developed a reliable method to maintain laboratory populations of F. arisanus10-12. There is significant interest in F. arisanus biology13,14, especially regarding its ability to colonize a wide variety of Tephritid hosts14-17; interest is especially driven by the alarming spread of Bactrocera fruit fly pests to new continents in the last decade18. Further research on F. arisanus and additional deployments of this species as a biological control agent will benefit from optimizations and improvements of rearing methods. In this protocol and associated video article we describe an optimized method for rearing F. arisanus based on a previously described approach12. The method we describe here allows rearing of F. arisanus in a small scale without the use of fruit, using materials available in tropical regions around the world and with relatively low manual labor requirements. PMID:21750493

  14. Future Risks of Pest Species under Changing Climatic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Biber-Freudenberger, Lisa; Ziemacki, Jasmin; Tonnang, Henri E. Z.; Borgemeister, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Most agricultural pests are poikilothermic species expected to respond to climate change. Currently, they are a tremendous burden because of the high losses they inflict on crops and livestock. Smallholder farmers in developing countries of Africa are likely to suffer more under these changes than farmers in the developed world because more severe climatic changes are projected in these areas. African countries further have a lower ability to cope with impacts of climate change through the lack of suitable adapted management strategies and financial constraints. In this study we are predicting current and future habitat suitability under changing climatic conditions for Tuta absoluta, Ceratitis cosyra, and Bactrocera invadens, three important insect pests that are common across some parts of Africa and responsible for immense agricultural losses. We use presence records from different sources and bioclimatic variables to predict their habitat suitability using the maximum entropy modelling approach. We find that habitat suitability for B. invadens, C. cosyra and T. absoluta is partially increasing across the continent, especially in those areas already overlapping with or close to most suitable sites under current climate conditions. Assuming a habitat suitability at three different threshold levels we assessed where each species is likely to be present under future climatic conditions and if this is likely to have an impact on productive agricultural areas. Our results can be used by African policy makers, extensionists and farmers for agricultural adaptation measures to cope with the impacts of climate change. PMID:27054718

  15. BdorOBP83a-2 Mediates Responses of the Oriental Fruit Fly to Semiochemicals

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhongzhen; Lin, Jintian; Zhang, He; Zeng, Xinnian

    2016-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), is one of the most destructive pests throughout tropical and subtropical regions in Asia. This insect displays remarkable changes during different developmental phases in olfactory behavior between sexually immature and mated adults. The olfactory behavioral changes provide clues to examine physiological and molecular bases of olfactory perception in this insect. We comparatively analyzed behavioral and neuronal responses of B. dorsalis adults to attractant semiochemicals, and the expression profiles of antenna chemosensory genes. We found that some odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) were upregulated in mated adults in association with their behavioral and neuronal responses. Ligand-binding assays further showed that one of OBP83a orthologs, BdorOBP83a-2, binds with high affinity to attractant semiochemicals. Functional analyses confirmed that the reduction in BdorOBP83a-2 transcript abundance led to a decrease in neuronal and behavioral responses to selected attractants. This study suggests that BdorOBP83a-2 mediates behavioral responses to attractant semiochemicals and could be a potential efficient target for pest control. PMID:27761116

  16. The Electronic McPhail Trap

    PubMed Central

    Potamitis, Ilyas; Rigakis, Iraklis; Fysarakis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Certain insects affect cultivations in a detrimental way. A notable case is the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae (Rossi)), that in Europe alone causes billions of euros in crop-loss/per year. Pests can be controlled with aerial and ground bait pesticide sprays, the efficiency of which depends on knowing the time and location of insect infestations as early as possible. The inspection of traps is currently carried out manually. Automatic monitoring traps can enhance efficient monitoring of flying pests by identifying and counting targeted pests as they enter the trap. This work deals with the hardware setup of an insect trap with an embedded optoelectronic sensor that automatically records insects as they fly in the trap. The sensor responsible for detecting the insect is an array of phototransistors receiving light from an infrared LED. The wing-beat recording is based on the interruption of the emitted light due to the partial occlusion from insect's wings as they fly in the trap. We show that the recordings are of high quality paving the way for automatic recognition and transmission of insect detections from the field to a smartphone. This work emphasizes the hardware implementation of the sensor and the detection/counting module giving all necessary implementation details needed to construct it. PMID:25429412

  17. The genetic polymorphisms and colonization process of olive fly populations in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Dogaç, Ersin; Kandemir, İrfan; Taskin, Vatan

    2013-01-01

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most important pest of olives in olive growing regions worldwide, especially in the Mediterranean basin and North America. Despite the economic importance of the olive fly, the colonization route of this species is unclear. We used nuclear microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA to provide information about the population structure and invasion route of olive fly populations in Turkey, as representative of the Eastern Mediterranean region. Adult fly samples were collected from 38 sublocations covering all olive growing regions in Turkey. The simple sequence variability data revealed a significant genetic variability in olive fly populations and a certain degree of differentiation between Mediterranean and Aegean populations. Mediterranean populations harbor higher levels of microsatellite variation than Aegean populations, which points to the eastern part of the Mediterranean as the putative source of invasion. mtDNA results suggest olive flies from the western part of Turkey are closely related to Italo-Aegean flies of the Mediterranean basin and the olive fly populations have invaded the northern part of the Mediterranean basin through western Turkey. In addition, finding specific American haplotypes in high frequencies might indicate that Turkey is the possible source of American olive fly populations. In order to more precisely characterize the population structure and invasion routes of this organism, more DNA-based sequence analysis should be carried out worldwide. PMID:23457499

  18. Population dynamics, distribution, and species diversity of fruit flies on cucurbits in Kashmir Valley, India.

    PubMed

    Ganie, S A; Khan, Z H; Ahangar, R A; Bhat, H A; Hussain, Barkat

    2013-01-01

    Given the economic importance of cucurbits and the losses incurred by fruit fly infestation, the population dynamics of fruit flies in cucurbit crops and the influence of abiotic parameters, such as temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, and total sunshine hours per day on the fruit fly population were studied. The study was carried out at six locations; in district Srinagar the locations were Batmaloo, Shalimar, and Dal, while in district Budgam the locations were Chadoora, Narkara, and Bugam (Jammu and Kashmir, India). Various cucurbit crops, such as cucumber, bottle gourd, ridge gourd and bitter gourd, were selected for the study. With regard to locations, mean fruit fly population was highest (6.09, 4.55, 3.87, and 3.60 flies/trap/week) at Batamaloo and Chadoora (4.73, 3.93, 2.73, and 2.73 flies/trap/week) on cucumber, bottle gourd, ridge gourd, and bitter gourd, respectively. The population of fruit flies was significantly correlated with the minimum and maximum temperature. The maximum species diversity of fruit flies was 0.511, recorded in Chadoora. Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was the most predominant species in both Srinagar and Budgam, followed by B. dorsalis (Hendel) and B. tau (Walker), while B. scutellaris (Bezzi) was found only in Chadoora. Results of the present investigation may be utilized in developing a sustainable pest management strategy in the agroecological system. PMID:23906383

  19. Olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations in relation to region, trap type, season, and availability of fruit.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y; Miller, Gina T; Stewart-Leslie, Judy; Rice, Richard E; Phillips, Phil A

    2006-12-01

    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), was monitored with adult captures by season and trap type, and was related to fruit volume and nonharvested fruit to elucidate the occurrence of the newly introduced pest in California. The highest numbers of adults captured in ChamP traps in olive trees, Olea europaea, were in October in an inland valley location, and in September in a coastal location. Comparisons of trap types showed that the number of olive fruit fly adults captured in Pherocon AM traps in a commercial orchard was significantly greater than in ChamP traps. A significantly greater number of females were captured in Pherocon AM traps with bait packets and pheromone lures than traps with pheromone lures alone, while a significantly greater number of adults and males were captured in traps with pheromone lures alone. Significantly more adults were captured in ChamP traps with bait packets and pheromone lures versus traps with bait packets alone. Fruit volume increased by four times from mid-June to mid-November. Olive fruit fly was found to oviposit on small olive fruit <1 cm3 shortly after fruit set, the maximum number of ovipositional sites per fruit occurred in October, and the greatest number of pupae and adults were reared from fruit collected in September and October. The highest numbers of pupae were collected from nonharvested fruit in March when high numbers of adults were captured in the same orchard.

  20. Description of third instar larvae of Ceratitis fasciventris, C. anonae, C. rosa (FAR complex) and C. capitata (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Steck, Gary J.; Ekesi, Sunday

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Third instar larvae of members of the Ceratitis FAR complex, including Ceratitis fasciventris (Bezzi), Ceratitis anonae Graham, and Ceratitis rosa Karsch are described and compared with those of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Diagnostic characters, such as presence vs. absence of a secondary tooth on the mandibles, previously used to separate Ceratitis capitata from Ceratitis rosa, are shown to vary in each species. Significant variation in diagnostic morphological characters among populations of Ceratitis rosa from east and south Africa is documented; however, the differences are not simply congruent with the R1 and R2 designations based on other studies. Quantitative measures of numerous morphological characters are consistently smaller in the larvae of Ceratitis fasciventris and distinguish them from other species of the FAR complex. Larvae of Ceratitis capitata can be distinguished from those of the FAR complex by characters such as absence of accessory plates of the oral ridges, the shape of the anterior spiracle, and the pattern of dorsal spinules. Previous studies indicated that absence of accessory lobes separate the genus Ceratitis from Bactrocera, but this is shown to be incorrect, as accessory lobes are in fact present in several species of Ceratitis. PMID:26798272

  1. Biology of Fopius arisanus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Two Species of Fruit Flies.

    PubMed

    Groth, M Z; Loeck, A E; Nörnberg, S D; Bernardi, D; Nava, D E

    2016-01-01

    Fopius arisanus (Sonan, 1932) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is an egg-larval parasitoid used in control programs of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). In Brazil, C. capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) are considered the main tephritid pests of exotic and indigenous fruits. The objective of this study was to study the biology of F. arisanus in C. capitata and A. fraterculus Eggs of the two fruit fly species were used to determine the parasitism rate, number of offspring, emergence rate, sex ratio, adult weight and longevity of male and female F. arisanus These biological parameters were used to develop a fertility life table. We observed higher parasitism and emergence rates of adults, a shorter duration of the egg-adult period and a sex ratio biased to females when F. arisanus was reared in eggs of C. capitata than in those of A. fraterculus However, adults of F. arisanus from eggs of A. fraterculus were heavier and had greater longevity than those obtained from C. capitata eggs. The fertility life table showed better biological and reproductive performance for F. arisanus reared in eggs of C. capitata, although eggs of A. fraterculus also provided positive values for population increase. PMID:27638954

  2. Proteome analysis of male accessory gland secretions in oriental fruit flies reveals juvenile hormone-binding protein, suggesting impact on female reproduction.

    PubMed

    Wei, Dong; Li, Hui-Min; Tian, Chuan-Bei; Smagghe, Guy; Jia, Fu-Xian; Jiang, Hong-Bo; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2015-01-01

    In insects, the accessory gland proteins (Acps) secreted by male accessory glands (MAGs) account for the majority of seminal fluids proteins. Mixed with sperm, they are transferred to the female at mating and so impact reproduction. In this project, we identified 2,927 proteins in the MAG secretions of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis, an important agricultural pest worldwide, using LC-MS analysis, and all sequences containing open reading frames were analyzed using signalP. In total, 90 Acps were identified. About one third (26) of these 90 Acps had a specific functional description, while the other two thirds (64) had no functional description including dozens of new classes of proteins. Hence, several of these novel Acps were abundant in the MAG secretions, and we confirmed their MAG-specific expression by qPCR. Finally and interestingly, one of these novel proteins was functionally predicted as juvenile hormone-binding protein, suggesting the impact of Acps with reproductive events in the female. Our results will aid in the development of an experimental method to identify Acps in insects, and in turn this information with new Acps in B. dorsalis will pave the way of further exploration their function in reproduction and potential development as new insecticide targets.

  3. Fine-scale ecological and economic assessment of climate change on olive in the Mediterranean Basin reveals winners and losers

    PubMed Central

    Ponti, Luigi; Gutierrez, Andrew Paul; Ruti, Paolo Michele; Dell’Aquila, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean Basin is a climate and biodiversity hot spot, and climate change threatens agro-ecosystems such as olive, an ancient drought-tolerant crop of considerable ecological and socioeconomic importance. Climate change will impact the interactions of olive and the obligate olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae), and alter the economics of olive culture across the Basin. We estimate the effects of climate change on the dynamics and interaction of olive and the fly using physiologically based demographic models in a geographic information system context as driven by daily climate change scenario weather. A regional climate model that includes fine-scale representation of the effects of topography and the influence of the Mediterranean Sea on regional climate was used to scale the global climate data. The system model for olive/olive fly was used as the production function in our economic analysis, replacing the commonly used production-damage control function. Climate warming will affect olive yield and fly infestation levels across the Basin, resulting in economic winners and losers at the local and regional scales. At the local scale, profitability of small olive farms in many marginal areas of Europe and elsewhere in the Basin will decrease, leading to increased abandonment. These marginal farms are critical to conserving soil, maintaining biodiversity, and reducing fire risk in these areas. Our fine-scale bioeconomic approach provides a realistic prototype for assessing climate change impacts in other Mediterranean agro-ecosystems facing extant and new invasive pests. PMID:24706833

  4. Future Risks of Pest Species under Changing Climatic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Biber-Freudenberger, Lisa; Ziemacki, Jasmin; Tonnang, Henri E Z; Borgemeister, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Most agricultural pests are poikilothermic species expected to respond to climate change. Currently, they are a tremendous burden because of the high losses they inflict on crops and livestock. Smallholder farmers in developing countries of Africa are likely to suffer more under these changes than farmers in the developed world because more severe climatic changes are projected in these areas. African countries further have a lower ability to cope with impacts of climate change through the lack of suitable adapted management strategies and financial constraints. In this study we are predicting current and future habitat suitability under changing climatic conditions for Tuta absoluta, Ceratitis cosyra, and Bactrocera invadens, three important insect pests that are common across some parts of Africa and responsible for immense agricultural losses. We use presence records from different sources and bioclimatic variables to predict their habitat suitability using the maximum entropy modelling approach. We find that habitat suitability for B. invadens, C. cosyra and T. absoluta is partially increasing across the continent, especially in those areas already overlapping with or close to most suitable sites under current climate conditions. Assuming a habitat suitability at three different threshold levels we assessed where each species is likely to be present under future climatic conditions and if this is likely to have an impact on productive agricultural areas. Our results can be used by African policy makers, extensionists and farmers for agricultural adaptation measures to cope with the impacts of climate change.

  5. Proteome analysis of male accessory gland secretions in oriental fruit flies reveals juvenile hormone-binding protein, suggesting impact on female reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Dong; Li, Hui-Min; Tian, Chuan-Bei; Smagghe, Guy; Jia, Fu-Xian; Jiang, Hong-Bo; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2015-01-01

    In insects, the accessory gland proteins (Acps) secreted by male accessory glands (MAGs) account for the majority of seminal fluids proteins. Mixed with sperm, they are transferred to the female at mating and so impact reproduction. In this project, we identified 2,927 proteins in the MAG secretions of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis, an important agricultural pest worldwide, using LC-MS analysis, and all sequences containing open reading frames were analyzed using signalP. In total, 90 Acps were identified. About one third (26) of these 90 Acps had a specific functional description, while the other two thirds (64) had no functional description including dozens of new classes of proteins. Hence, several of these novel Acps were abundant in the MAG secretions, and we confirmed their MAG-specific expression by qPCR. Finally and interestingly, one of these novel proteins was functionally predicted as juvenile hormone-binding protein, suggesting the impact of Acps with reproductive events in the female. Our results will aid in the development of an experimental method to identify Acps in insects, and in turn this information with new Acps in B. dorsalis will pave the way of further exploration their function in reproduction and potential development as new insecticide targets. PMID:26582577

  6. Releases of Psyttalia fletcheri (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and sterile flies to suppress melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Roger I; Long, Jay; Miller, Neil W; Delate, Kathleen; Jackson, Charles G; Uchida, Grant K; Bautista, Renato C; Harris, Ernie J

    2004-10-01

    Ivy gourd, Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt, patches throughout Kailua-Kona, Hawaii Island, HI, were identified as persistent sources of melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett). These patches had a low incidence of Psyttalia fletcheri (Silvestri), its major braconid parasitoid natural enemy in Hawaii, and were used to evaluate augmentative releases of P. fletcheri against melon fly. In field cage studies of releases, numbers of melon flies emerging from ivy gourd fruit placed inside treatment cages were reduced up to 21-fold, and numbers of parasitoids were increased 11-fold. In open field releases of P. fletcheri into ivy gourd patches, parasitization rates were increased 4.7 times in release plots compared with those in control plots. However, there was no significant reduction in emergence of melon flies from fruit. In subsequent cage tests with sterile melon flies and P. fletcheri, combinations of sterile flies and P. fletcheri produced the greatest reduction (9-fold) in melon fly emergence from zucchini, Cucurbita pepo L. Reductions obtained with sterile flies alone or in combination with parasitoids were significantly greater than those in the control, whereas those for parasitoids alone were not. Although these results suggest that the effects of sterile flies were greater than those for parasitoids, from a multitactic melon fly management strategy, sterile flies would complement the effects of P. fletcheri. Cost and sustainability of these nonchemical approaches will be examined further in an ongoing areawide pest management program for melon fly in Hawaii. PMID:15568340

  7. The olive fly endosymbiont, "Candidatus Erwinia dacicola," switches from an intracellular existence to an extracellular existence during host insect development.

    PubMed

    Estes, Anne M; Hearn, David J; Bronstein, Judith L; Pierson, Elizabeth A

    2009-11-01

    As polyphagous, holometabolous insects, tephritid fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) provide a unique habitat for endosymbiotic bacteria, especially those microbes associated with the digestive system. Here we examine the endosymbiont of the olive fly [Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae)], a tephritid of great economic importance. "Candidatus Erwinia dacicola" was found in the digestive systems of all life stages of wild olive flies from the southwestern United States. PCR and microscopy demonstrated that "Ca. Erwinia dacicola" resided intracellularly in the gastric ceca of the larval midgut but extracellularly in the lumen of the foregut and ovipositor diverticulum of adult flies. "Ca. Erwinia dacicola" is one of the few nonpathogenic endosymbionts that transitions between intracellular and extracellular lifestyles during specific stages of the host's life cycle. Another unique feature of the olive fly endosymbiont is that unlike obligate endosymbionts of monophagous insects, "Ca. Erwinia dacicola" has a G+C nucleotide composition similar to those of closely related plant-pathogenic and free-living bacteria. These two characteristics of "Ca. Erwinia dacicola," the ability to transition between intracellular and extracellular lifestyles and a G+C nucleotide composition similar to those of free-living relatives, may facilitate survival in a changing environment during the development of a polyphagous, holometabolous host. We propose that insect-bacterial symbioses should be classified based on the environment that the host provides to the endosymbiont (the endosymbiont environment).

  8. Is ground cover vegetation an effective biological control enhancement strategy against olive pests?

    PubMed

    Paredes, Daniel; Cayuela, Luis; Gurr, Geoff M; Campos, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Ground cover vegetation is often added or allowed to generate to promote conservation biological control, especially in perennial crops. Nevertheless, there is inconsistent evidence of its effectiveness, with studies reporting positive, nil or negative effects on pest control. This might arise from differences between studies at the local scale (e.g. orchard management and land use history), the landscape context (e.g. presence of patches of natural or semi-natural vegetation near the focal orchard), or regional factors, particularly climate in the year of the study. Here we present the findings from a long-term regional monitoring program conducted on four pest species (Bactrocera oleae, Prays oleae, Euphyllura olivina, Saissetia oleae) in 2,528 olive groves in Andalusia (Spain) from 2006 to 2012. Generalized linear mixed effect models were used to analyze the effect of ground cover on different response variables related to pest abundance, while accounting for variability at the local, landscape and regional scales. There were small and inconsistent effects of ground cover on the abundance of pests whilst local, landscape and regional variability explained a large proportion of the variability in pest response variables. This highlights the importance of local and landscape-related variables in biological control and the potential effects that might emerge from their interaction with practices, such as groundcover vegetation, implemented to promote natural enemy activity. The study points to perennial vegetation close to the focal crop as a promising alternative strategy for conservation biological control that should receive more attention. PMID:25646778

  9. The Genetic Polymorphisms and Colonization Process of Olive Fly Populations in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Dogaç, Ersin; Kandemir, İrfan; Taskin, Vatan

    2013-01-01

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most important pest of olives in olive growing regions worldwide, especially in the Mediterranean basin and North America. Despite the economic importance of the olive fly, the colonization route of this species is unclear. We used nuclear microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA to provide information about the population structure and invasion route of olive fly populations in Turkey, as representative of the Eastern Mediterranean region. Adult fly samples were collected from 38 sublocations covering all olive growing regions in Turkey. The simple sequence variability data revealed a significant genetic variability in olive fly populations and a certain degree of differentiation between Mediterranean and Aegean populations. Mediterranean populations harbor higher levels of microsatellite variation than Aegean populations, which points to the eastern part of the Mediterranean as the putative source of invasion. mtDNA results suggest olive flies from the western part of Turkey are closely related to Italo-Aegean flies of the Mediterranean basin and the olive fly populations have invaded the northern part of the Mediterranean basin through western Turkey. In addition, finding specific American haplotypes in high frequencies might indicate that Turkey is the possible source of American olive fly populations. In order to more precisely characterize the population structure and invasion routes of this organism, more DNA-based sequence analysis should be carried out worldwide. PMID:23457499

  10. Fine-scale ecological and economic assessment of climate change on olive in the Mediterranean Basin reveals winners and losers.

    PubMed

    Ponti, Luigi; Gutierrez, Andrew Paul; Ruti, Paolo Michele; Dell'Aquila, Alessandro

    2014-04-15

    The Mediterranean Basin is a climate and biodiversity hot spot, and climate change threatens agro-ecosystems such as olive, an ancient drought-tolerant crop of considerable ecological and socioeconomic importance. Climate change will impact the interactions of olive and the obligate olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae), and alter the economics of olive culture across the Basin. We estimate the effects of climate change on the dynamics and interaction of olive and the fly using physiologically based demographic models in a geographic information system context as driven by daily climate change scenario weather. A regional climate model that includes fine-scale representation of the effects of topography and the influence of the Mediterranean Sea on regional climate was used to scale the global climate data. The system model for olive/olive fly was used as the production function in our economic analysis, replacing the commonly used production-damage control function. Climate warming will affect olive yield and fly infestation levels across the Basin, resulting in economic winners and losers at the local and regional scales. At the local scale, profitability of small olive farms in many marginal areas of Europe and elsewhere in the Basin will decrease, leading to increased abandonment. These marginal farms are critical to conserving soil, maintaining biodiversity, and reducing fire risk in these areas. Our fine-scale bioeconomic approach provides a realistic prototype for assessing climate change impacts in other Mediterranean agro-ecosystems facing extant and new invasive pests.

  11. Response of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) to an attract-and-kill trap in greenhouse cage tests.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y

    2014-01-01

    A novel attract-and-kill trap for olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), was constructed with yellow corrugated plastic in an inverted cylindrical pan shape formed from a disk and collar. The trap components were tested under three greenhouse temperatures and humidities of warm, hot, and very hot for attractiveness to caged young or older adults. A greater proportion of adults regardless of age were found underneath the devices including disks, cylindrical pans, and pans with pheromone lures and test units of cylindrical pans sprayed with water, insecticidal bait spray, and with lures. The effect was related to lower temperatures on the underside compared with the top and the intolerance of the pest to heat. A circular collar added to the perimeter of the disk that formed the top of the inverted cylinder made the attract-and-kill trap more attractive to adults than the disk alone. Pheromone lures or bait sprays did not increase adult attraction, so were not needed for efficacy. The cylindrical pan was especially attractive to adults when temperatures were high by providing shelter from the heat. At very high temperatures, the pan became unattractive, possibly due to heating of the construction materials. Cylindrical pans sprayed with water on the underside attracted the highest number of adults especially at high temperatures. Greenhouse tests showed that the inverted cylindrical pan design has potential as an attract-and-kill device for olive fruit fly control. PMID:25368094

  12. The electronic McPhail trap.

    PubMed

    Potamitis, Ilyas; Rigakis, Iraklis; Fysarakis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Certain insects affect cultivations in a detrimental way. A notable case is the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae (Rossi)), that in Europe alone causes billions of euros in crop-loss/per year. Pests can be controlled with aerial and ground bait pesticide sprays, the efficiency of which depends on knowing the time and location of insect infestations as early as possible. The inspection of traps is currently carried out manually. Automatic monitoring traps can enhance efficient monitoring of flying pests by identifying and counting targeted pests as they enter the trap. This work deals with the hardware setup of an insect trap with an embedded optoelectronic sensor that automatically records insects as they fly in the trap. The sensor responsible for detecting the insect is an array of phototransistors receiving light from an infrared LED. The wing-beat recording is based on the interruption of the emitted light due to the partial occlusion from insect's wings as they fly in the trap. We show that the recordings are of high quality paving the way for automatic recognition and transmission of insect detections from the field to a smartphone. This work emphasizes the hardware implementation of the sensor and the detection/counting module giving all necessary implementation details needed to construct it. PMID:25429412

  13. The odor of a plant metabolite affects life history traits in dietary restricted adult olive flies

    PubMed Central

    Gerofotis, Christos D.; Ioannou, Charalampos S.; Nakas, Christos T.; Papadopoulos, Nikos T.

    2016-01-01

    Food quality shapes life history traits either directly or through response of individuals to additional environmental factors, such as chemical cues. Plant extracts used as food additives modulate key life history traits; however little is known regarding such effects for olfactory chemical cues. Exploiting an interesting experimental system that involves the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) and the plant metabolite α-pinene we asked whether exposure of adults to this compound modulates adult longevity and female reproduction in similar manner in a stressful – dietary (protein) restricted (DR) and in a relaxed- full diet (FD) feeding environment. Accordingly, we exposed males and females to the aroma of α-pinene and measured lifespan and age-specific fecundity in the above two dietary contexts. Our results demonstrate that exposure to α-pinene increased longevity in males and fecundity in females only under dietary restricted conditions. In relaxed food conditions, females exposed to α-pinene shifted high egg-laying towards younger ages compared to non-exposed ones. This is the first report demonstrating that a plant compound affects key life history traits of adult olive flies through olfaction. These effects are sex-specific and more pronounced in dietary restricted adults. Possible underlying mechanisms and the ecological significance are discussed. PMID:27339862

  14. Is Ground Cover Vegetation an Effective Biological Control Enhancement Strategy against Olive Pests?

    PubMed Central

    Paredes, Daniel; Cayuela, Luis; Gurr, Geoff M.; Campos, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Ground cover vegetation is often added or allowed to generate to promote conservation biological control, especially in perennial crops. Nevertheless, there is inconsistent evidence of its effectiveness, with studies reporting positive, nil or negative effects on pest control. This might arise from differences between studies at the local scale (e.g. orchard management and land use history), the landscape context (e.g. presence of patches of natural or semi-natural vegetation near the focal orchard), or regional factors, particularly climate in the year of the study. Here we present the findings from a long-term regional monitoring program conducted on four pest species (Bactrocera oleae, Prays oleae, Euphyllura olivina, Saissetia oleae) in 2,528 olive groves in Andalusia (Spain) from 2006 to 2012. Generalized linear mixed effect models were used to analyze the effect of ground cover on different response variables related to pest abundance, while accounting for variability at the local, landscape and regional scales. There were small and inconsistent effects of ground cover on the abundance of pests whilst local, landscape and regional variability explained a large proportion of the variability in pest response variables. This highlights the importance of local and landscape-related variables in biological control and the potential effects that might emerge from their interaction with practices, such as groundcover vegetation, implemented to promote natural enemy activity. The study points to perennial vegetation close to the focal crop as a promising alternative strategy for conservation biological control that should receive more attention. PMID:25646778

  15. Spatial dynamics of two oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) parasitoids, Fopius arisanus and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), in a Guava orchard in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Roger I; Stark, John D; Banks, John; Leblanc, Luc; Manoukis, Nicholas C; Peck, Steven

    2013-10-01

    We examined spatial patterns of both sexes of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and its two most abundant parasitoids, Fopius arisanus (Sonan) and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) in a commercial guava (Psidium guajava L.) orchard. Oriental fruit fly spatial patterns were initially random, but became highly aggregated with host fruit ripening and the subsequent colonization of, first, F. arisanus (egg-pupal parasitoid) and, second, D. longicaudata (larval-pupal parasitoid). There was a significant positive relationship between populations of oriental fruit fly and F. arisanus during each of the F. arisanus increases, a pattern not exhibited between oriental fruit fly and D. longicaudata. Generally, highest total numbers of males and females (oriental fruit fly, F. arisanus, and D. longicaudata) occurred on or about the same date. There was a significant positive correlation between male and female populations of all three species; we measured a lag of 2-4 wk between increases of female F. arisanus and conspecific males. There was a similar trend in one of the two years for the second most abundant species, D. longicaudata, but no sign of a time lag between the sexes for oriental fruit fly. Spatially, we found a significant positive relationship between numbers of F. arisanus in blocks and the average number in adjoining blocks. We did not find the same effect for oriental fruit fly and D. longicaudata, possibly a result of lower overall numbers of the latter two species or less movement of F. arisanus within the field.

  16. Is ground cover vegetation an effective biological control enhancement strategy against olive pests?

    PubMed

    Paredes, Daniel; Cayuela, Luis; Gurr, Geoff M; Campos, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Ground cover vegetation is often added or allowed to generate to promote conservation biological control, especially in perennial crops. Nevertheless, there is inconsistent evidence of its effectiveness, with studies reporting positive, nil or negative effects on pest control. This might arise from differences between studies at the local scale (e.g. orchard management and land use history), the landscape context (e.g. presence of patches of natural or semi-natural vegetation near the focal orchard), or regional factors, particularly climate in the year of the study. Here we present the findings from a long-term regional monitoring program conducted on four pest species (Bactrocera oleae, Prays oleae, Euphyllura olivina, Saissetia oleae) in 2,528 olive groves in Andalusia (Spain) from 2006 to 2012. Generalized linear mixed effect models were used to analyze the effect of ground cover on different response variables related to pest abundance, while accounting for variability at the local, landscape and regional scales. There were small and inconsistent effects of ground cover on the abundance of pests whilst local, landscape and regional variability explained a large proportion of the variability in pest response variables. This highlights the importance of local and landscape-related variables in biological control and the potential effects that might emerge from their interaction with practices, such as groundcover vegetation, implemented to promote natural enemy activity. The study points to perennial vegetation close to the focal crop as a promising alternative strategy for conservation biological control that should receive more attention.

  17. Achilles, a New Family of Transcriptionally Active Retrotransposons from the Olive Fruit Fly, with Y Chromosome Preferential Distribution.

    PubMed

    Tsoumani, Konstantina T; Drosopoulou, Elena; Bourtzis, Kostas; Gariou-Papalexiou, Aggeliki; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Zacharopoulou, Antigone; Mathiopoulos, Kostas D

    2015-01-01

    Sex chromosomes have many unusual features relative to autosomes. The in depth exploration of their structure will improve our understanding of their origin and divergence (degeneration) as well as the evolution of genetic sex determination pathways which, most often are attributed to them. In Tephritids, the structure of Y chromosome, where the male-determining factor M is localized, is largely unexplored and limited data concerning its sequence content and evolution are available. In order to get insight into the structure and organization of the Y chromosome of the major olive insect pest, the olive fly Bactrocera oleae, we characterized sequences from a Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE)-isolated Y chromosome. Here, we report the discovery of the first olive fly LTR retrotransposon with increased presence on the Y chromosome. The element belongs to the BEL-Pao superfamily, however, its sequence comparison with the other members of the superfamily suggests that it constitutes a new family that we termed Achilles. Its ~7.5 kb sequence consists of the 5'LTR, the 5'non-coding sequence and the open reading frame (ORF), which encodes the polyprotein Gag-Pol. In situ hybridization to the B. oleae polytene chromosomes showed that Achilles is distributed in discrete bands dispersed on all five autosomes, in all centromeric regions and in the granular heterochromatic network corresponding to the mitotic sex chromosomes. The between sexes comparison revealed a variation in Achilles copy number, with male flies possessing 5-10 copies more than female (CI range: 18-38 and 12-33 copies respectively per genome). The examination of its transcriptional activity demonstrated the presence of at least one intact active copy in the genome, showing a differential level of expression between sexes as well as during embryonic development. The higher expression was detected in male germline tissues (testes). Moreover, the presence of Achilles-like elements in different species of

  18. Insect Biometrics: Optoacoustic Signal Processing and Its Applications to Remote Monitoring of McPhail Type Traps.

    PubMed

    Potamitis, Ilyas; Rigakis, Iraklis; Fysarakis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management applied against important fruit fly pests, including Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) and Ceratitis capitata (Widemann), Diptera of the Tephritidae family, which effect a crop-loss/per year calculated in billions of euros worldwide. Pests can be controlled with ground pesticide sprays, the efficiency of which depends on knowing the time, location and extent of infestations as early as possible. Trap inspection is currently carried out manually, using the McPhail trap, and the mass spraying is decided based on a decision protocol. We introduce the term 'insect biometrics' in the context of entomology as a measure of a characteristic of the insect (in our case, the spectrum of its wingbeat) that allows us to identify its species and make devices to help face old enemies with modern means. We modify a McPhail type trap into becoming electronic by installing an array of photoreceptors coupled to an infrared emitter, guarding the entrance of the trap. The beating wings of insects flying in the trap intercept the light and the light fluctuation is turned to a recording. Custom-made electronics are developed that are placed as an external add-on kit, without altering the internal space of the trap. Counts from the trap are transmitted using a mobile communication network. This trap introduces a new automated remote-monitoring method different to audio and vision-based systems. We evaluate our trap in large number of insects in the laboratory by enclosing the electronic trap in insectary cages. Our experiments assess the potential of delivering reliable data that can be used to initialize reliably the spraying process at large scales but to also monitor the impact of the spraying process as it eliminates the time-lag between acquiring and delivering insect counts to a central agency. PMID:26544845

  19. Altered GPI modification of insect AChE improves tolerance to organophosphate insecticides.

    PubMed

    Kakani, Evdoxia G; Bon, Suzanne; Massoulié, Jean; Mathiopoulos, Kostas D

    2011-03-01

    The olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae is the most destructive and intractable pest of olives. The management of B. oleae has been based on the use of organophosphate (OP) insecticides, a practice that induced resistance. OP-resistance in the olive fly was previously shown to be associated with two mutations in the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme that, apparently, hinder the entrance of the OP into the active site. The search for additional mutations in the ace gene that encodes AChE revealed a short deletion of three glutamines (Δ3Q) from a stretch of five glutamines, in the C-terminal peptide that is normally cleaved and substituted by a GPI anchor. We verified that AChEs from B. oleae and other Dipterans are actually GPI-anchored, although this is not predicted by the "big-PI" algorithm. The Δ3Q mutation shortens the unusually long hydrophilic spacer that follows the predicted GPI attachment site and may thus improve the efficiency of GPI anchor addition. We expressed the wild type B. oleae AChE, the natural mutant Δ3Q and a constructed mutant lacking all 5 consecutive glutamines (Δ5Q) in COS cells and compared their kinetic properties. All constructs presented identical K(m) and k(cat) values, in agreement with the fact that the mutations did not affect the catalytic domain of the enzyme. In contrast, the mutants produced higher AChE activity, suggesting that a higher proportion of the precursor protein becomes GPI-anchored. An increase in the number of GPI-anchored molecules in the synaptic cleft may reduce the sensitivity to insecticides.

  20. A comparative assessment of the response of three fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae) to a spinosad-based bait: effect of ammonium acetate, female age, and protein hunger.

    PubMed

    Piñero, J C; Mau, R F L; Vargas, R I

    2011-08-01

    Ammonia-releasing substances are known to play an important role in fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) attraction to food sources, and this information has been exploited for the development of effective synthetic food-based lures and insecticidal baits. In field studies conducted in Hawaii, we examined the behavioural response of wild female oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)), melon fly (B. cucurbitae (Coquillett)), and Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)) to spinosad-based GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait(©) formulated to contain either 0, 1 or 2% ammonium acetate. Use of visually-attractive yellow bait stations for bait application in the field allowed for proper comparisons among bait formulations. Field cage tests were also conducted to investigate, using a comparative behavioural approach, the effects of female age and protein starvation on the subsequent response of F1 generation B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis to the same three bait formulations that were evaluated in the field. Our field results indicate a significant positive effect of the presence, regardless of amount, of AA in GF-120 for B. dorsalis and B. cucurbitae. For C. capitata, there was a significant positive linear relationship between the relative amounts of AA in bait and female response. GF-120 with no AA was significantly more attractive to female C. capitata, but not to female B. dorsalis or B. cucurbitae, than the control treatment. Our field cage results indicate that the effects of varying amounts of AA present in GF-120 can be modulated by the physiological stage of the female flies and that the response of female B. cucurbitae to GF-120 was consistently greater than that of B. dorsalis over the various ages and levels of protein starvation regimes evaluated. Results are discussed in light of their applications for effective fruit fly suppression.

  1. Recent advances in methyl eugenol and cue-lure technologies for fruit fly detection, monitoring, and control in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Roger I; Shelly, Todd E; Leblanc, Luc; Piñero, Jaime C

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, an important aspect of invasive insect pest management is more effective, safer detection and control systems. Phenyl propanoids are attractive to numerous species of Dacinae fruit flies. Methyl eugenol (ME) (4-allyl-1, 2-dimethoxybenzene-carboxylate), cue-lure (C-L) (4-(p-acetoxyphenyl)-2-butanone), and raspberry ketone (RK) (4-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone) are powerful male-specific lures. Most evidence suggests a role of ME and C-L/RK in pheromone synthesis and mate attraction. ME and C-L/RK are used in current fruit fly programs for detection, monitoring, and control. During the Hawaii Area-Wide Pest Management Program in the interest of worker safety and convenience, liquid C-L/ME and insecticide (i.e., naled and malathion) mixtures were replaced with solid lures and insecticides. Similarly, Male Annihilation Technique (MAT) with a sprayable Specialized Pheromone and Lure Application Technology (SPLAT), in combination with ME (against Bactrocera dorsalis, oriental fruit fly) or C-L/RK (against B. cucurbitae, melon fly), and the reduced-risk insecticide, spinosad, was developed for area-wide suppression of fruit flies. The nontarget effects of ME and C-L/RK to native invertebrates were examined. Although weak attractiveness was recorded to flower-visiting insects, including bees and syrphid flies, by ME, effects to native Drosophila and other Hawaiian endemics were found to be minimal. These results suggested that the majority of previously published records, including those of endemic Drosophilidae, were actually for attraction to dead flies inside fruit fly traps. Endemic insect attraction was not an issue with C-L/RK, because B. cucurbitae were rarely found in endemic environments. PMID:20831962

  2. Response of melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) to weathered SPLAT-Spinosad-Cue-Lure.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Roger I; Piñero, Jaime C; Jang, Eric B; Mau, Ronald F L; Stark, John D; Gomez, Luis; Stoltman, Lyndsie; Mafra-Neto, Agenor

    2010-10-01

    Studies were conducted in Hawaii to measure attraction of male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to SPLAT-Cue-Lure (C-L) and SPLAT-Melo-Lure (M-L) (raspberry ketone formate). Direct field comparisons of SPLAT-C-L and SPLAT-M-L at low (5%) and high (20%) concentrations indicated few differences in attraction over a 15-wk period. Subsequently, only SPLAT-Spinosad-C-L (5%) was compared with Min-U-Gel C-L with naled (standard used in California) in weathering studies. Treatments were weathered for 1, 2, 4, and 8 wk in Riverside, CA, and shipped to Hawaii for attraction/toxicity tests under field and semifield conditions by using released males of controlled ages, and for feeding tests in the laboratory. In terms of attraction, SPLAT-Spinosad-C-L compared favorably to, or outperformed the current standard of Min-U-Gel-C-L with naled. In terms of toxicity, the cumulative 24-h mortality did not differ between the two insecticide-containing C-L treatments in field cage studies after 8 wk. However, in feeding studies in which individual males were exposed for 5 min to the different C-L treatments after 4 wk of weathering, SPLAT-Spinosad-C-L demonstrated reduced mortality compared with the Min-U-Gel-C-L with naled, suggesting reduced persistence of the spinosad material. Spinosad has low contact toxicity and when mixed with SPLAT and C-L offers a reduced risk alternative for control of B. cucurbitae and related C-L-responding species, without many of the negative effects to humans and nontargets of broad-spectrum contact poisons such as naled. PMID:21061958

  3. Effectiveness of attract-and-kill systems using methyl eugenol incorporated with neonicotinoid insecticides against the oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Chuang, Yi-Yuan; Hou, Roger F

    2008-04-01

    Laboratory bioassays and field trials were conducted to evaluate an "attract-and-kill" system using methyl eugenol (ME) with neonicotinoid insecticides against male oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae). In laboratory bioassays, mortality of male flies resulting from the conventional toxicant, naled was 98.3-100% at 24 through 72 h after treatment, whereas the neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid and acetamiprid caused only approximately 60-80% at 24 through 72 h after treatment. In the assays of residual effect, naled was persistent up to 96 wk, whereas imidacloprid or acetamiprid was persistent up to 150 wk, resulting in 38.9 or 61.2% male mortality, respectively. Imidacloprid, in particular, caused a delayed lethal effect on flies. In another experiment, male mortality within 28 wk from clothianidin, another neonicotinoid insecticide, was approximately 80% after exposure for 24 h, suggesting a delayed lethal effect similar to those treated with imidacloprid, and mortality was up to 91.8%, if observed, 72 h after treatment. In field trials, attractiveness was similar between ME alone and ME incorporated with naled or neonicotinoids, indicating that addition of these insecticides to ME in traps is not repellent to B. dorsalis males. Using an improved wick-typed trap with longer attractiveness for simulating field application, addition of imidacloprid or acetamiprid maintained 40.1 or 64.3% male mortality, respectively, when assayed once every 2 wk from traps placed in orchards for 42 wk without changing the poison, whereas incorporation with naled resulted in as high as 98.1% after 34 wk and approximately 80% at 42 wk, indicating that persistence is increased compared with sugarcane fiberboard blocks for carrying poison attractants. This study also suggests that neonicotinoid insecticides could be used as an alternative for broad-spectrum insecticides as toxicants in fly traps. PMID:18459398

  4. The α6 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit of Frankliniella occidentalis is not involved in resistance to spinosad.

    PubMed

    Hou, Wenjie; Liu, Qiulei; Tian, Lixia; Wu, Qingjun; Zhang, Youjun; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Miguel, Keri San; Funderburk, Joe; Scott, Jeffrey G

    2014-05-01

    Insects evolve resistance which constrains the sustainable use of insecticides. Spinosyns, a class of environmentally-friendly macrolide insecticides, is not an exception. The mode of inheritance and the mechanisms of resistance to spinosad (the most common spinosyn insecticide) in Frankliniella occidentalis (Western flower thrips, WFT) were investigated in this study. Resistance (170,000-fold) was autosomal and completely recessive. Recent studies showed that deletion of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α6 subunit gene resulted in strains of Drosophila melanogaster, Plutella xylostella and Bactrocera dorsalis that are resistant to spinosad, indicating that nAChRα6 subunit maybe important for the toxic action of this insecticide. Conversely, a G275E mutation of this subunit in F. occidentalis was recently proposed as the mechanism of resistance to spinosad. We cloned and characterized nAChRα6 from three susceptible and two spinosad resistant strains from China and the USA. The Foα6 cDNA is 1873bp and the open reading frame is 1458bp which encodes 485 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 53.5-kDa, the 5' and 3' UTRs are 121 and 294bp, respectively. There was no difference in the cDNA sequence between the resistant and susceptible thrips, suggesting the G275E mutation does not confer resistance in these populations. Ten isoforms of Foα6, arising from alternative splicing, were isolated and did not differ between the spinosad-susceptible and resistant strains. Quantitative real time PCR analysis showed Foα6 was highly expressed in the first instar larva, pupa and adult, and the expression levels were 3.67, 2.47, 1.38 times that of the second instar larva. The expression level was not significantly different between the susceptible and resistant strains. These results indicate that Foα6 is not involved in resistance to spinosad in F. occidentalis from China and the USA. PMID:24861935

  5. Conserved metallomics in two insect families evolving separately for a hundred million years.

    PubMed

    Rempoulakis, Polychronis; Afshar, Negar; Osorio, Beatriz; Barajas-Aceves, Martha; Szular, Joanna; Ahmad, Sohel; Dammalage, Thilakasiri; Tomas, Ulysses Sto; Nemny-Lavy, Esther; Salomon, Mor; Vreysen, Marc J B; Nestel, David; Missirlis, Fanis

    2014-12-01

    Μetal cofactors are required for enzymatic catalysis and structural stability of many proteins. Physiological metal requirements underpin the evolution of cellular and systemic regulatory mechanisms for metal uptake, storage and excretion. Considering the role of metal biology in animal evolution, this paper asks whether metal content is conserved between different fruit flies. A similar metal homeostasis was previously observed in Drosophilidae flies cultivated on the same larval medium. Each species accumulated in the order of 200 µg iron and zinc and approximately ten-fold less manganese and copper per gram dry weight of the adult insect. In this paper, data on the metal content in fourteen species of Tephritidae, which are major agricultural pests worldwide, are presented. These fruit flies can be polyphagous (e.g., Ceratitis capitata) or strictly monophagous (e.g., Bactrocera oleae) or oligophagous (e.g., Anastrepha grandis) and were maintained in the laboratory on five distinct diets based on olive oil, carrot, wheat bran, zucchini and molasses, respectively. The data indicate that overall metal content and distribution between the Tephritidae and Drosophilidae species was similar. Reduced metal concentration was observed in B. oleae. Feeding the polyphagous C. capitata with the diet of B. oleae resulted in a significant quantitative reduction of all metals. Thus, dietary components affect metal content in some Tephritidae. Nevertheless, although the evidence suggests some fruit fly species evolved preferences in the use or storage of particular metals, no metal concentration varied in order of magnitude between these two families of Diptera that evolved independently for over 100 million years. PMID:25298233

  6. The α6 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit of Frankliniella occidentalis is not involved in resistance to spinosad.

    PubMed

    Hou, Wenjie; Liu, Qiulei; Tian, Lixia; Wu, Qingjun; Zhang, Youjun; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Miguel, Keri San; Funderburk, Joe; Scott, Jeffrey G

    2014-05-01

    Insects evolve resistance which constrains the sustainable use of insecticides. Spinosyns, a class of environmentally-friendly macrolide insecticides, is not an exception. The mode of inheritance and the mechanisms of resistance to spinosad (the most common spinosyn insecticide) in Frankliniella occidentalis (Western flower thrips, WFT) were investigated in this study. Resistance (170,000-fold) was autosomal and completely recessive. Recent studies showed that deletion of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α6 subunit gene resulted in strains of Drosophila melanogaster, Plutella xylostella and Bactrocera dorsalis that are resistant to spinosad, indicating that nAChRα6 subunit maybe important for the toxic action of this insecticide. Conversely, a G275E mutation of this subunit in F. occidentalis was recently proposed as the mechanism of resistance to spinosad. We cloned and characterized nAChRα6 from three susceptible and two spinosad resistant strains from China and the USA. The Foα6 cDNA is 1873bp and the open reading frame is 1458bp which encodes 485 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 53.5-kDa, the 5' and 3' UTRs are 121 and 294bp, respectively. There was no difference in the cDNA sequence between the resistant and susceptible thrips, suggesting the G275E mutation does not confer resistance in these populations. Ten isoforms of Foα6, arising from alternative splicing, were isolated and did not differ between the spinosad-susceptible and resistant strains. Quantitative real time PCR analysis showed Foα6 was highly expressed in the first instar larva, pupa and adult, and the expression levels were 3.67, 2.47, 1.38 times that of the second instar larva. The expression level was not significantly different between the susceptible and resistant strains. These results indicate that Foα6 is not involved in resistance to spinosad in F. occidentalis from China and the USA.

  7. Insect Biometrics: Optoacoustic Signal Processing and Its Applications to Remote Monitoring of McPhail Type Traps

    PubMed Central

    Potamitis, Ilyas; Rigakis, Iraklis; Fysarakis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management applied against important fruit fly pests, including Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) and Ceratitis capitata (Widemann), Diptera of the Tephritidae family, which effect a crop-loss/per year calculated in billions of euros worldwide. Pests can be controlled with ground pesticide sprays, the efficiency of which depends on knowing the time, location and extent of infestations as early as possible. Trap inspection is currently carried out manually, using the McPhail trap, and the mass spraying is decided based on a decision protocol. We introduce the term ‘insect biometrics’ in the context of entomology as a measure of a characteristic of the insect (in our case, the spectrum of its wingbeat) that allows us to identify its species and make devices to help face old enemies with modern means. We modify a McPhail type trap into becoming electronic by installing an array of photoreceptors coupled to an infrared emitter, guarding the entrance of the trap. The beating wings of insects flying in the trap intercept the light and the light fluctuation is turned to a recording. Custom-made electronics are developed that are placed as an external add-on kit, without altering the internal space of the trap. Counts from the trap are transmitted using a mobile communication network. This trap introduces a new automated remote-monitoring method different to audio and vision-based systems. We evaluate our trap in large number of insects in the laboratory by enclosing the electronic trap in insectary cages. Our experiments assess the potential of delivering reliable data that can be used to initialize reliably the spraying process at large scales but to also monitor the impact of the spraying process as it eliminates the time-lag between acquiring and delivering insect counts to a central agency. PMID:26544845

  8. Conserved metallomics in two insect families evolving separately for a hundred million years.

    PubMed

    Rempoulakis, Polychronis; Afshar, Negar; Osorio, Beatriz; Barajas-Aceves, Martha; Szular, Joanna; Ahmad, Sohel; Dammalage, Thilakasiri; Tomas, Ulysses Sto; Nemny-Lavy, Esther; Salomon, Mor; Vreysen, Marc J B; Nestel, David; Missirlis, Fanis

    2014-12-01

    Μetal cofactors are required for enzymatic catalysis and structural stability of many proteins. Physiological metal requirements underpin the evolution of cellular and systemic regulatory mechanisms for metal uptake, storage and excretion. Considering the role of metal biology in animal evolution, this paper asks whether metal content is conserved between different fruit flies. A similar metal homeostasis was previously observed in Drosophilidae flies cultivated on the same larval medium. Each species accumulated in the order of 200 µg iron and zinc and approximately ten-fold less manganese and copper per gram dry weight of the adult insect. In this paper, data on the metal content in fourteen species of Tephritidae, which are major agricultural pests worldwide, are presented. These fruit flies can be polyphagous (e.g., Ceratitis capitata) or strictly monophagous (e.g., Bactrocera oleae) or oligophagous (e.g., Anastrepha grandis) and were maintained in the laboratory on five distinct diets based on olive oil, carrot, wheat bran, zucchini and molasses, respectively. The data indicate that overall metal content and distribution between the Tephritidae and Drosophilidae species was similar. Reduced metal concentration was observed in B. oleae. Feeding the polyphagous C. capitata with the diet of B. oleae resulted in a significant quantitative reduction of all metals. Thus, dietary components affect metal content in some Tephritidae. Nevertheless, although the evidence suggests some fruit fly species evolved preferences in the use or storage of particular metals, no metal concentration varied in order of magnitude between these two families of Diptera that evolved independently for over 100 million years.

  9. Transcriptomics and Identification of the Chemoreceptor Superfamily of the Pupal Parasitoid of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuping; Zheng, Yuan; Li, Dunsong; Fan, Yilin

    2014-01-01

    Background The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, causes serious losses to fruit production and is one of the most economically important pests in many countries, including China, Spalangia endius Walker is a pupal parasitoid of various dipteran hosts, and may be considered a potentially important ectoparasitic pupal parasitoid of B. dorsalis. However, lack of genetic information on this organism is an obstacle to understanding the mechanisms behind its interaction with this host. Analysis of the S. endius transcriptome is essential to extend the resources of genetic information on this species and, to support studies on S. endius on the host B. dorsalis. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed de novo assembly RNA-seq of S. endius. We obtained nearly 10 Gbp of data using a HiSeq platform, and 36319 high-quality transcripts using Trinity software. A total of 22443 (61.79%) unigenes were aligned to homologous sequences in the jewel wasp and honeybee (Apis florae) protein set from public databases. A total of 10037 protein domains were identified in 7892 S. endius transcripts using HMMER3 software. We identified expression of six gustatory receptor and 21 odorant receptor genes in the sample, with only one gene having a high expression level in each family. The other genes had a low expression level, including two genes regulated by splicing. This result may be due to the wasps being kept under laboratory conditions. Additionally, a total of 3727 SSR markers were predicted, which could facilitate the identification of polymorphisms and functional genes within wasp populations. Conclusion/Significance This transcriptome greatly improves our genetic understanding of S. endius and provides a large number of gene sequences for further study. PMID:24505315

  10. Sniffing Out Chemosensory Genes from the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata

    PubMed Central

    Siciliano, Paolo; Scolari, Francesca; Gomulski, Ludvik M.; Falchetto, Marco; Manni, Mosè; Gabrieli, Paolo; Field, Linda M.; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Gasperi, Giuliano; Malacrida, Anna R.

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (medfly), is an extremely invasive agricultural pest due to its extremely wide host range and its ability to adapt to a broad range of climatic conditions and habitats. Chemosensory behaviour plays an important role in many crucial stages in the life of this insect, such as the detection of pheromone cues during mate pursuit and odorants during host plant localisation. Thus, the analysis of the chemosensory gene repertoire is an important step for the interpretation of the biology of this species and consequently its invasive potential. Moreover, these genes may represent ideal targets for the development of novel, effective control methods and pest population monitoring systems. Expressed sequence tag libraries from C. capitata adult heads, embryos, male accessory glands and testes were screened for sequences encoding putative odorant binding proteins (OBPs). A total of seventeen putative OBP transcripts were identified, corresponding to 13 Classic, three Minus-C and one Plus-C subfamily OBPs. The tissue distributions of the OBP transcripts were assessed by RT-PCR and a subset of five genes with predicted proteins sharing high sequence similarities and close phylogenetic affinities to Drosophila melanogaster pheromone binding protein related proteins (PBPRPs) were characterised in greater detail. Real Time quantitative PCR was used to assess the effects of maturation, mating and time of day on the transcript abundances of the putative PBPRP genes in the principal olfactory organs, the antennae, in males and females. The results of the present study have facilitated the annotation of OBP genes in the recently released medfly genome sequence and represent a significant contribution to the characterisation of the medfly chemosensory repertoire. The identification of these medfly OBPs/PBPRPs permitted evolutionary and functional comparisons with homologous sequences from other tephritids of the genera Bactrocera and

  11. Dynamics of pH modification of an acidic protein bait used for tropical fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Heath, Robert R; Vazquez, Aime; Schnell, Elena Q; Villareal, Janett; Kendra, Paul E; Epsky, Nancy D

    2009-12-01

    Several species of Anastrepha and Bactrocera fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are captured in traps baited with the protein bait NuLure combined with borax (sodium tetraborate decahydrate) in an aqueous solution, typically 9% NuLure (vol:vol) with 3% borax (wt:vol). NuLure is an acid hydrolysate of corn and has an acidic pH. Addition of borax makes the solution more alkaline, and increase in alkalinity results in increase of ammonia release from the bait solution. This is a very dynamic system, with resultant pH affected by factors such as the amount of borax added, the pH of the water used for preparation, the age of the bait solution, and the development of microbial growth. Problems with borax include amount needed to increase alkalinity of NuLure solutions, which creates difficulties in disposing of spent bait in fruit fly trapping programs. Therefore, research was conducted to evaluate NaOH as an alternative method to increase alkalinity of NuLure solutions. Laboratory experiments compared effect of NaOH versus borax for pH modification on changes in pH and ammonia content of NuLure solutions over time. Although NuLure/NaOH solutions could be adjusted to a more alkaline pH than NuLure/borax solutions, borax plays a critical role in pH stability over time. However, the pH of NuLure/NaOH is stabilized when propylene glycol (10% vol:vol) was used to prepare the bait solution. The use of NaOH can provide an alternative to the use of borax to increase bait solution alkalinity. PMID:20069869

  12. Dynamics of pH modification of an acidic protein bait used for tropical fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Heath, Robert R; Vazquez, Aime; Schnell, Elena Q; Villareal, Janett; Kendra, Paul E; Epsky, Nancy D

    2009-12-01

    Several species of Anastrepha and Bactrocera fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are captured in traps baited with the protein bait NuLure combined with borax (sodium tetraborate decahydrate) in an aqueous solution, typically 9% NuLure (vol:vol) with 3% borax (wt:vol). NuLure is an acid hydrolysate of corn and has an acidic pH. Addition of borax makes the solution more alkaline, and increase in alkalinity results in increase of ammonia release from the bait solution. This is a very dynamic system, with resultant pH affected by factors such as the amount of borax added, the pH of the water used for preparation, the age of the bait solution, and the development of microbial growth. Problems with borax include amount needed to increase alkalinity of NuLure solutions, which creates difficulties in disposing of spent bait in fruit fly trapping programs. Therefore, research was conducted to evaluate NaOH as an alternative method to increase alkalinity of NuLure solutions. Laboratory experiments compared effect of NaOH versus borax for pH modification on changes in pH and ammonia content of NuLure solutions over time. Although NuLure/NaOH solutions could be adjusted to a more alkaline pH than NuLure/borax solutions, borax plays a critical role in pH stability over time. However, the pH of NuLure/NaOH is stabilized when propylene glycol (10% vol:vol) was used to prepare the bait solution. The use of NaOH can provide an alternative to the use of borax to increase bait solution alkalinity.

  13. Insect Biometrics: Optoacoustic Signal Processing and Its Applications to Remote Monitoring of McPhail Type Traps.

    PubMed

    Potamitis, Ilyas; Rigakis, Iraklis; Fysarakis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management applied against important fruit fly pests, including Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) and Ceratitis capitata (Widemann), Diptera of the Tephritidae family, which effect a crop-loss/per year calculated in billions of euros worldwide. Pests can be controlled with ground pesticide sprays, the efficiency of which depends on knowing the time, location and extent of infestations as early as possible. Trap inspection is currently carried out manually, using the McPhail trap, and the mass spraying is decided based on a decision protocol. We introduce the term 'insect biometrics' in the context of entomology as a measure of a characteristic of the insect (in our case, the spectrum of its wingbeat) that allows us to identify its species and make devices to help face old enemies with modern means. We modify a McPhail type trap into becoming electronic by installing an array of photoreceptors coupled to an infrared emitter, guarding the entrance of the trap. The beating wings of insects flying in the trap intercept the light and the light fluctuation is turned to a recording. Custom-made electronics are developed that are placed as an external add-on kit, without altering the internal space of the trap. Counts from the trap are transmitted using a mobile communication network. This trap introduces a new automated remote-monitoring method different to audio and vision-based systems. We evaluate our trap in large number of insects in the laboratory by enclosing the electronic trap in insectary cages. Our experiments assess the potential of delivering reliable data that can be used to initialize reliably the spraying process at large scales but to also monitor the impact of the spraying process as it eliminates the time-lag between acquiring and delivering insect counts to a central agency.

  14. Control of the olive fruit fly using genetics-enhanced sterile insect technique

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the major arthropod pest of commercial olive production, causing extensive damage to olive crops worldwide. Current control techniques rely on spraying of chemical insecticides. The sterile insect technique (SIT) presents an alternative, environmentally friendly and species-specific method of population control. Although SIT has been very successful against other tephritid pests, previous SIT trials on olive fly have produced disappointing results. Key problems included altered diurnal mating rhythms of the laboratory-reared insects, resulting in asynchronous mating activity between the wild and released sterile populations, and low competitiveness of the radiation-sterilised mass-reared flies. Consequently, the production of competitive, male-only release cohorts is considered an essential prerequisite for successful olive fly SIT. Results We developed a set of conditional female-lethal strains of olive fly (named Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal; RIDL®), providing highly penetrant female-specific lethality, dominant fluorescent marking, and genetic sterility. We found that males of the lead strain, OX3097D-Bol, 1) are strongly sexually competitive with wild olive flies, 2) display synchronous mating activity with wild females, and 3) induce appropriate refractoriness to wild female re-mating. Furthermore, we showed, through a large proof-of-principle experiment, that weekly releases of OX3097D-Bol males into stable populations of caged wild-type olive fly could cause rapid population collapse and eventual eradication. Conclusions The observed mating characteristics strongly suggest that an approach based on the release of OX3097D-Bol males will overcome the key difficulties encountered in previous olive fly SIT attempts. Although field confirmation is required, the proof-of-principle suppression and elimination of caged wild-type olive fly populations through OX3097D-Bol male releases provides

  15. The gene transformer-2 of Anastrepha fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) and its evolution in insects

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In the tephritids Ceratitis, Bactrocera and Anastrepha, the gene transformer provides the memory device for sex determination via its auto-regulation; only in females is functional Tra protein produced. To date, the isolation and characterisation of the gene transformer-2 in the tephritids has only been undertaken in Ceratitis, and it has been shown that its function is required for the female-specific splicing of doublesex and transformer pre-mRNA. It therefore participates in transformer auto-regulatory function. In this work, the characterisation of this gene in eleven tephritid species belonging to the less extensively analysed genus Anastrepha was undertaken in order to throw light on the evolution of transformer-2. Results The gene transformer-2 produces a protein of 249 amino acids in both sexes, which shows the features of the SR protein family. No significant partially spliced mRNA isoform specific to the male germ line was detected, unlike in Drosophila. It is transcribed in both sexes during development and in adult life, in both the soma and germ line. The injection of Anastrepha transformer-2 dsRNA into Anastrepha embryos caused a change in the splicing pattern of the endogenous transformer and doublesex pre-mRNA of XX females from the female to the male mode. Consequently, these XX females were transformed into pseudomales. The comparison of the eleven Anastrepha Transformer-2 proteins among themselves, and with the Transformer-2 proteins of other insects, suggests the existence of negative selection acting at the protein level to maintain Transformer-2 structural features. Conclusions These results indicate that transformer-2 is required for sex determination in Anastrepha through its participation in the female-specific splicing of transformer and doublesex pre-mRNAs. It is therefore needed for the auto-regulation of the gene transformer. Thus, the transformer/transfomer-2 > doublesex elements at the bottom of the cascade, and their

  16. Achilles, a New Family of Transcriptionally Active Retrotransposons from the Olive Fruit Fly, with Y Chromosome Preferential Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Tsoumani, Konstantina T.; Drosopoulou, Elena; Bourtzis, Kostas; Gariou-Papalexiou, Aggeliki; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Zacharopoulou, Antigone; Mathiopoulos, Kostas D.

    2015-01-01

    Sex chromosomes have many unusual features relative to autosomes. The in depth exploration of their structure will improve our understanding of their origin and divergence (degeneration) as well as the evolution of genetic sex determination pathways which, most often are attributed to them. In Tephritids, the structure of Y chromosome, where the male-determining factor M is localized, is largely unexplored and limited data concerning its sequence content and evolution are available. In order to get insight into the structure and organization of the Y chromosome of the major olive insect pest, the olive fly Bactrocera oleae, we characterized sequences from a Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE)-isolated Y chromosome. Here, we report the discovery of the first olive fly LTR retrotransposon with increased presence on the Y chromosome. The element belongs to the BEL-Pao superfamily, however, its sequence comparison with the other members of the superfamily suggests that it constitutes a new family that we termed Achilles. Its ~7.5 kb sequence consists of the 5’LTR, the 5’non-coding sequence and the open reading frame (ORF), which encodes the polyprotein Gag-Pol. In situ hybridization to the B. oleae polytene chromosomes showed that Achilles is distributed in discrete bands dispersed on all five autosomes, in all centromeric regions and in the granular heterochromatic network corresponding to the mitotic sex chromosomes. The between sexes comparison revealed a variation in Achilles copy number, with male flies possessing 5–10 copies more than female (CI range: 18–38 and 12–33 copies respectively per genome). The examination of its transcriptional activity demonstrated the presence of at least one intact active copy in the genome, showing a differential level of expression between sexes as well as during embryonic development. The higher expression was detected in male germline tissues (testes). Moreover, the presence of Achilles-like elements in different

  17. Disruption of Darna pallivitta (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae) by Conventional and Mobile Pheromone Deployment

    PubMed Central

    Siderhurst, Matthew S.; Jang, Eric B.; Carvalho, Lori A. F. N.; Nagata, Janice T.; Derstine, Nathan T.

    2015-01-01

    Identification of the Darna pallivitta (Moore) pheromone component n-butyl (E)-7,9-decadienoate (E7,9-10:COOn-Bu) has made it possible to investigate communication disruption to control this lepidopteran pest. Conventional communication disruption trials showed marked decreases in the mean number of male moths captured in E7,9-10:COOnBu-treated fields compared with control fields. For traps baited with E7,9-10:COOnBu, percent disruptions were 94.4% and 92.1% for septa (1 g pheromone/ha, 1-wk trial duration) and spirals (6 g pheromone/ha, 8-wk trial duration) respectively. For traps baited with virgin female moths, percent disruption was 73.3% using septa disruptors (1 g pheromone/ha, 1-wk trial duration). Mobile communication disruption using Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) as carriers for E7,9-10:COOn-Bu was evaluated in the following three areas: fly survivorship, attraction of male moths to treated flies, and moth disruption in a small-scale field trial. Topical application of E7,9-10:COOnBu showed no significant decrease in survivorship at 50 and 80 µg/fly. However, decreased survivorship was observed at 100 µg/fly and linear regression showed E7,9-10:COOnBu dose was significantly correlated with B. cucurbitae survivorship. Traps containing honey–pheromone-fed flies attracted and caught D. pallivitta over a 1-wk period, demonstrating the attractiveness of the carrier. Releasing E7,9-10:COOnBu-fed B. cucurbitae (∼2 g pheromone/ha, 1-wk trial duration) resulted in significantly reduced trap catches in treatment fields compared with control fields on the first 2 d of the field trial. Percent disruptions were 84.7% (day 1) and 56.0% (day 2). These results suggest that both conventional communication disruption and mobile communication disruption have potential to control D. pallivitta. PMID:26078301

  18. Massive neutrinos in the standard model and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thalapillil, Arun Madhav

    The generation of the fermion mass hierarchy in the standard model of particle physics is a long-standing puzzle. The recent discoveries from neutrino physics suggests that the mixing in the lepton sector is large compared to the quark mixings. To understand this asymmetry between the quark and lepton mixings is an important aim for particle physics. In this regard, two promising approaches from the theoretical side are grand unified theories and family symmetries. In the first part of my thesis we try to understand certain general features of grand unified theories with Abelian family symmetries by taking the simplest SU(5) grand unified theory as a prototype. We construct an SU(5) toy model with U(1) F ⊗Z'2 ⊗Z'' 2⊗Z''' 2 family symmetry that, in a natural way, duplicates the observed mass hierarchy and mixing matrices to lowest approximation. The system for generating the mass hierarchy is through a Froggatt-Nielsen type mechanism. One idea that we use in the model is that the quark and charged lepton sectors are hierarchical with small mixing angles while the light neutrino sector is democratic with larger mixing angles. We also discuss some of the difficulties in incorporating finer details into the model without making further assumptions or adding a large scalar sector. In the second part of my thesis, the interaction of high energy neutrinos with weak gravitational fields is explored. The form of the graviton-neutrino vertex is motivated from Lorentz and gauge invariance and the non-relativistic interpretations of the neutrino gravitational form factors are obtained. We comment on the renormalization conditions, the preservation of the weak equivalence principle and the definition of the neutrino mass radius. We associate the neutrino gravitational form factors with specific angular momentum states. Based on Feynman diagrams, spin-statistics, CP invariance and symmetries of the angular momentum states in the neutrino-graviton vertex, we deduce