Science.gov

Sample records for bad apple spoils

  1. Teaching Bad Apples: A Fun Way to Tackle Difficult Teaching Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turcotte, Nathaniel; Betrus, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    "Teaching Bad Apples" is a game developed in 2014 for current and future teachers. It plays much like "Apples to Apples" or "Cards Against Humanity," with each player in turn reading a situation card, followed by the other players choosing their response cards. Each situation, however dramatic or bizarre, is…

  2. Bad apples, bad cases, and bad barrels: meta-analytic evidence about sources of unethical decisions at work.

    PubMed

    Kish-Gephart, Jennifer J; Harrison, David A; Treviño, Linda Klebe

    2010-01-01

    As corporate scandals proliferate, practitioners and researchers alike need a cumulative, quantitative understanding of the antecedents associated with unethical decisions in organizations. In this meta-analysis, the authors draw from over 30 years of research and multiple literatures to examine individual ("bad apple"), moral issue ("bad case"), and organizational environment ("bad barrel") antecedents of unethical choice. Findings provide empirical support for several foundational theories and paint a clearer picture of relationships characterized by mixed results. Structural equation modeling revealed the complexity (multidetermined nature) of unethical choice, as well as a need for research that simultaneously examines different sets of antecedents. Moderator analyses unexpectedly uncovered better prediction of unethical behavior than of intention for several variables. This suggests a need to more strongly consider a new "ethical impulse" perspective in addition to the traditional "ethical calculus" perspective. Results serve as a data-based foundation and guide for future theoretical and empirical development in the domain of behavioral ethics. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. One bad apple: experimental effects of psychological conflict on social resilience

    PubMed Central

    Pincus, David

    2014-01-01

    Past research suggests that small groups are self-organizing systems, and that social resilience may be measured as the meta-flexibility of group dynamics: the ability to shift back and forth from flexiblity to rigidity in response to conflict. This study extends these prior results, examining the impact of experimentally induced internal conflict and group-level conflict resolution on group dynamics—whether one bad apple can spoil the bunch. Six experimental groups with four members each participated in a series of four 25 min discussions. The first two discussions served as a baseline condition. Internal conflict was induced to one or more group members prior to discussion three, with the prediction that higher levels of conflict induction would lead to significant drops in group flexibility—creating a press on the group's resilience, whereas conflict resolution in discussion four was expected to allow for a rebound in group flexibility. Consistent with prior research, the turn-taking dynamics of each the 24 groups were distributed as inverse power laws (R2 = 0.86–0.99) providing evidence for self-organization. Furthermore, there were significant study-wise negative correlation between levels of personality conflict and two measures of flexibility: information entropy (r = −0.47, p = 0.019) and fractal dimension (r = −0.42, p = 0.037). Altogether, these results suggest that: (i) small groups are self-organizing systems with structure and flexibility providing social resilience and (ii) individual conflict is able to spread to higher level social dynamics, creating pressure on social resilience. Practical implications for assessment of, and intervention with, psychosocial resilience are discussed. PMID:25285194

  4. Avoiding a bad apple: Insect pollination enhances fruit quality and economic value☆

    PubMed Central

    Garratt, M.P.D.; Breeze, T.D.; Jenner, N.; Polce, C.; Biesmeijer, J.C.; Potts, S.G.

    2014-01-01

    Insect pollination is important for food production globally and apples are one of the major fruit crops which are reliant on this ecosystem service. It is fundamentally important that the full range of benefits of insect pollination to crop production are understood, if the costs of interventions aiming to enhance pollination are to be compared against the costs of the interventions themselves. Most previous studies have simply assessed the benefits of pollination to crop yield and ignored quality benefits and how these translate through to economic values. In the present study we examine the influence of insect pollination services on farmgate output of two important UK apple varieties; Gala and Cox. Using field experiments, we quantify the influence of insect pollination on yield and importantly quality and whether either may be limited by sub-optimal insect pollination. Using an expanded bioeconomic model we value insect pollination to UK apple production and establish the potential for improvement through pollination service management. We show that insects are essential in the production of both varieties of apple in the UK and contribute a total of £36.7 million per annum, over £6 million more than the value calculated using more conventional dependence ratio methods. Insect pollination not only affects the quantity of production but can also have marked impacts on the quality of apples, influencing size, shape and effecting their classification for market. These effects are variety specific however. Due to the influence of pollination on both yield and quality in Gala, there is potential for insect pollination services to improve UK output by up to £5.7 million per annum. Our research shows that continued pollinator decline could have serious financial implications for the apple industry but there is considerable scope through management of wild pollinators or using managed pollinator augmentation, to improve the quality of production. Furthermore, we

  5. Avoiding a bad apple: Insect pollination enhances fruit quality and economic value.

    PubMed

    Garratt, M P D; Breeze, T D; Jenner, N; Polce, C; Biesmeijer, J C; Potts, S G

    2014-02-01

    Insect pollination is important for food production globally and apples are one of the major fruit crops which are reliant on this ecosystem service. It is fundamentally important that the full range of benefits of insect pollination to crop production are understood, if the costs of interventions aiming to enhance pollination are to be compared against the costs of the interventions themselves. Most previous studies have simply assessed the benefits of pollination to crop yield and ignored quality benefits and how these translate through to economic values. In the present study we examine the influence of insect pollination services on farmgate output of two important UK apple varieties; Gala and Cox. Using field experiments, we quantify the influence of insect pollination on yield and importantly quality and whether either may be limited by sub-optimal insect pollination. Using an expanded bioeconomic model we value insect pollination to UK apple production and establish the potential for improvement through pollination service management. We show that insects are essential in the production of both varieties of apple in the UK and contribute a total of £36.7 million per annum, over £6 million more than the value calculated using more conventional dependence ratio methods. Insect pollination not only affects the quantity of production but can also have marked impacts on the quality of apples, influencing size, shape and effecting their classification for market. These effects are variety specific however. Due to the influence of pollination on both yield and quality in Gala, there is potential for insect pollination services to improve UK output by up to £5.7 million per annum. Our research shows that continued pollinator decline could have serious financial implications for the apple industry but there is considerable scope through management of wild pollinators or using managed pollinator augmentation, to improve the quality of production. Furthermore, we

  6. Profiling Bad Apples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFee, Scott

    2000-01-01

    Many school administrators want to develop profiling procedures to identify violence-prone students before bullets start flying. Warning signs (chronic depression, anger, abusive home conditions, violent history) are a staring point. Two FBI agents recommend visiting classrooms, identifying troubled kids, and ensuring that they get help. (MLH)

  7. Why is U.K. medicine no longer a self-regulating profession? The role of scandals involving "bad apple" doctors.

    PubMed

    Dixon-Woods, Mary; Yeung, Karen; Bosk, Charles L

    2011-11-01

    This article identifies the role played by a series of medical scandals in the U.K., occurring from the mid-1990s onwards, in ending a collegial model of self-regulation of the medical profession that had endured for 150 years. The state's original motive in endorsing professional self-regulation was to resolve the principal-agent problem inherent in the doctor-patient relationship. The profession, in return for its self-regulating privileges, undertook to act as a reliable guarantor for the competence and conduct of each of its members. Though sufficient to ensure that most doctors were "good", the collegial model adopted by the profession left it fatally vulnerable to the problem of "bad apples": those unwilling, incapable or indifferent to delivering on their professional commitments and who betrayed the trust of both patients and peers. Weak administrative systems in the NHS failed to compensate for the defects of the collegium in controlling these individuals. The scandals both provoked and legitimised erosion of the profession's self-regulatory power. Though its vulnerability to bad apples had been present since the founding of the 19th century profession, it was the convergence of social and political conditions at a particular historical moment that transformed the scandals into an unstoppable imperative for reform. Huge public anger, the voice permitted to a coalition of critics, shifts in social attitudes, the opportunity presented for imposing standards for accountability, and the increasing ascendancy of pro-interventionist managerialist and political agendas from the early 1990s onwards were all implicated in the response made to scandals and the shape the reforms took. Scandals need to be understood not as simple determinants of change, but as one performative element in a constellation of socially contingent forces and contexts. The new rebalancing of the "countervailing powers" has dislodged the profession as the senior partner in the regulation of

  8. Spoiled child syndrome.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, B J

    1989-01-01

    People often speak of children as being "spoiled" and many parents worry about the possibility of spoiling their infants and children. Many pediatricians, however, are uncomfortable with this term because it is a poorly defined and derogatory expression. Some would even deny that infants and children can be spoiled. Avoiding the use of the expression spoiled can create difficulties in communicating with parents concerned about their children's behavior. In this article, the spoiled child syndrome will be defined and those patterns of behavior that characterize it will be distinguished from other patterns of difficult behavior which may be confused with it. The spoiled child syndrome is characterized by excessive self-centered and immature behavior, resulting from the failure of parents to enforce consistent, age-appropriate limits. Many of the problem behaviors that cause parental concern are unrelated to spoiling as properly understood. Such behaviors are often age-related normal behaviors, reactions to family stresses, or patterns of behavior determined by factors inherent in the child. Pediatricians can provide counseling and reassurance for such behaviors and, by helping parents understand the etiology of true spoiling, can encourage the use of behavior modification techniques for its prevention and treatment.

  9. Comparison of Five Woody Species for Reclamation of an Upper Coastal Plain Spoil Bank

    Treesearch

    J.W. McMinn; R.R. Roth; C.R. Berry; W.H. McNab

    1980-01-01

    Third-year survival and height are compared for autumn olive. European black alder, flowering crab apple, sawtooth oak, and Virginia pine on a sandy clay loam spoil bank in South Carolina. Flowering crab apple and sawtooth oak exhibited the best survival, while autumn olive and European black alder had greater height growth. Only European black alder failed to become...

  10. Bad Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... cabbage. And of course smoking causes its own bad smell. Some diseases and medicines can cause a specific breath odor. Having good dental habits, like brushing and flossing regularly, help fight bad ...

  11. Bad Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... for lunch. But certain strong-smelling foods like onions and garlic can cause bad breath. So can ... leave behind strong smells, like cabbage, garlic, raw onions, and coffee. If you’re trying to lose ...

  12. Bad Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... a lot, you may need to visit your dentist or doctor . What Causes Bad Breath? Here are ... particles wedged between your teeth. Also, visit your dentist twice a year for regular checkups and cleanings. ...

  13. Safeguarding Structural Data Repositories against Bad Apples.

    PubMed

    Minor, Wladek; Dauter, Zbigniew; Helliwell, John R; Jaskolski, Mariusz; Wlodawer, Alexander

    2016-02-02

    Structural biology research generates large amounts of data, some deposited in public databases or repositories, but a substantial remainder never becomes available to the scientific community. In addition, some of the deposited data contain less or more serious errors that may bias the results of data mining. Thorough analysis and discussion of these problems is needed to ameliorate this situation. This perspective is an attempt to propose some solutions and encourage both further discussion and action on the part of the relevant organizations, in particular the PDB and various bodies of the International Union of Crystallography. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Safeguarding structural data repositories against bad apples

    PubMed Central

    Minor, Wladek; Dauter, Zbigniew; Helliwell, John R.; Jaskolski, Mariusz; Wlodawer, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Structural biology research generates large amounts of data, some deposited in public databases/repositories, but a substantial remainder never becoming available to the scientific community. Additionally, some of the deposited data contain less or more serious errors that may bias the results of data mining. Thorough analysis and discussion of these problems is needed in order to ameliorate this situation. This note is an attempt to propose some solutions and encourage both further discussion and action on the part of the relevant organizations, in particular the Protein Data Bank and various bodies of the International Union of Crystallography. PMID:26840827

  15. Hydroseeding on anthracite coal-mine spoils

    Treesearch

    Miroslaw M. Czapowskyj; Ross Writer

    1970-01-01

    A study was made of the performance of selected species of legumes, grasses, and trees hydroseeded on anthracite coal-mine spoils in a slurry of lime, fertilizer, and mulch. Hydroseeding failed on coal-breaker refuse, but was partially successful on strip-mine spoils.

  16. What it means to "spoil" a baby: parents' perception.

    PubMed

    Wilson, A L; Witzke, D B; Volin, A

    1981-12-01

    Discussion concerning spoiling a baby frequently takes place in pediatric-care settings and may occur without a clear understanding of how parents define the word "spoil" when baby care is discussed. This study presents data from 531 parents asked to respond to a questionnaire on spoiling babies. The majority of mothers and fathers believe a baby can be spoiled, but considerable variation exists in perceptions of how this takes place, what a spoiled baby is like, and the present and future effects of spoiling. The younger and less educated parents have more rigid and negative views about the effects of spoiling babies.

  17. Apple Browning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemecology, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Describes an activity in which students investigate the effects of selected natural and synthetic substances on the rate of apple browning. Includes background information for the teacher, a list of necessary materials, and student instructions. (KR)

  18. Newton's Apple

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendry, Archibald W.

    2007-01-01

    Isaac Newton may have seen an apple fall, but it was Robert Hooke who had a better idea of where it would land. No one really knows whether or not Isaac Newton actually saw an apple fall in his garden. Supposedly it took place in 1666, but it was a tale he told in his old age more than 60 years later, a time when his memory was failing and his…

  19. 30 CFR 780.35 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the operation has been designed to minimize, to the extent possible, the volume of excess spoil that... authority, that the designed maximum cumulative volume of all proposed excess spoil fills within the permit... and related environmental values. You must design the operation to avoid placement of excess spoil in...

  20. 30 CFR 784.19 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the operation has been designed to minimize, to the extent possible, the volume of excess spoil that... authority, that the designed maximum cumulative volume of all proposed excess spoil fills within the permit... and related environmental values. You must design the operation to avoid placement of excess spoil in...

  1. 30 CFR 780.35 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the operation has been designed to minimize, to the extent possible, the volume of excess spoil that... authority, that the designed maximum cumulative volume of all proposed excess spoil fills within the permit... and related environmental values. You must design the operation to avoid placement of excess spoil in...

  2. 30 CFR 780.35 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the operation has been designed to minimize, to the extent possible, the volume of excess spoil that... authority, that the designed maximum cumulative volume of all proposed excess spoil fills within the permit... and related environmental values. You must design the operation to avoid placement of excess spoil in...

  3. 30 CFR 784.19 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the operation has been designed to minimize, to the extent possible, the volume of excess spoil that... authority, that the designed maximum cumulative volume of all proposed excess spoil fills within the permit... and related environmental values. You must design the operation to avoid placement of excess spoil in...

  4. 30 CFR 784.19 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the operation has been designed to minimize, to the extent possible, the volume of excess spoil that... authority, that the designed maximum cumulative volume of all proposed excess spoil fills within the permit... and related environmental values. You must design the operation to avoid placement of excess spoil in...

  5. The biological costs of not reclaiming bentonite mine spoils

    Treesearch

    Carolyn Hull Sieg; Daniel W. Uresk; Richard M. Hansen

    1982-01-01

    Bentonite clay has been mined in the northern Great Plains for more than 80 years. Until the late 1960's, mine spoil materials were left in steep piles and no effort was made to restore biological productivity to these disturbed sites. As a result, unreclaimed spoils are barren and eroded. The biological costs of not reclaiming these spoils are examined in this...

  6. 30 CFR 784.19 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the operation has been designed to minimize, to the extent possible, the volume of excess spoil that... authority, that the designed maximum cumulative volume of all proposed excess spoil fills within the permit... and related environmental values. You must design the operation to avoid placement of excess spoil in...

  7. 30 CFR 780.35 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the operation has been designed to minimize, to the extent possible, the volume of excess spoil that... authority, that the designed maximum cumulative volume of all proposed excess spoil fills within the permit... and related environmental values. You must design the operation to avoid placement of excess spoil in...

  8. 30 CFR 780.35 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the operation has been designed to minimize, to the extent possible, the volume of excess spoil that... authority, that the designed maximum cumulative volume of all proposed excess spoil fills within the permit... and related environmental values. You must design the operation to avoid placement of excess spoil in...

  9. 30 CFR 784.19 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the operation has been designed to minimize, to the extent possible, the volume of excess spoil that... authority, that the designed maximum cumulative volume of all proposed excess spoil fills within the permit... and related environmental values. You must design the operation to avoid placement of excess spoil in...

  10. 30 CFR 715.15 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sandstone, limestone, or other rocks that do not slake in water. Resistance of the hard rock spoil to... the water into the spoil material. The underdrain system shall be protected by an adequate filter and... in water and will be free of coal, clay or shale. (3) Spoil shall be hauled or conveyed and placed in...

  11. Race, Commitment to Deviance, and Spoiled Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Anthony R.

    1976-01-01

    Data generated by 234 young black and white inmates in 1971 challenge the assumption that spoiled identity is a necessary, socially invariant outcome of deviant commitment and self-definition. For blacks, the relationship between criminal self-typing and stability and esteem is negative but inconsequential; for whites, the relationship is negative…

  12. Apple's Macintosh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael J.

    1984-01-01

    Description of the Macintosh personal, educational, and business computer produced by Apple covers cost; physical characteristics including display devices, circuit boards, and built-in features; company-produced software; third-party produced software; memory and storage capacity; word-processing features; and graphics capabilities. (MBR)

  13. Cancer chemopreventive potential of apples, apple juice, and apple components.

    PubMed

    Gerhauser, Clarissa

    2008-10-01

    Apples ( MALUS sp., Rosaceae) are a rich source of nutrient as well as non-nutrient components and contain high levels of polyphenols and other phytochemicals. Main structural classes of apple constituents include hydroxycinnamic acids, dihydrochalcones, flavonols (quercetin glycosides), catechins and oligomeric procyanidins, as well as triterpenoids in apple peel and anthocyanins in red apples. Several lines of evidence suggest that apples and apple products possess a wide range of biological activities which may contribute to health beneficial effects against cardiovascular disease, asthma and pulmonary dysfunction, diabetes, obesity, and cancer (reviewed by Boyer and Liu, Nutr J 2004). The present review will summarize the current knowledge on potential cancer preventive effects of apples, apple juice and apple extracts (jointly designated as apple products). In brief, apple extracts and components, especially oligomeric procyanidins, have been shown to influence multiple mechanisms relevant for cancer prevention in IN VITRO studies. These include antimutagenic activity, modulation of carcinogen metabolism, antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory mechanisms, modulation of signal transduction pathways, antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing activity, as well as novel mechanisms on epigenetic events and innate immunity. Apple products have been shown to prevent skin, mammary and colon carcinogenesis in animal models. Epidemiological observations indicate that regular consumption of one or more apples a day may reduce the risk for lung and colon cancer.

  14. Are Red Apples Sweeter Than Green Apples?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Chris

    1999-01-01

    Describes how a classroom observation of apples led to the development of a science project. Discusses the correlation between the greenness and the acidity of apples. Finds that the greener the apple, the lower its pH, and thus the more acidic and less sweet it tastes. (Author/CCM)

  15. Hexagonal gradient scheme with RF spoiling improves spoiling performance for high-flip-angle fast gradient echo imaging.

    PubMed

    Hess, Aaron T; Robson, Matthew D

    2017-03-01

    To present a framework in which time-varying gradients are applied with RF spoiling to reduce unwanted signal, particularly at high flip angles. A time-varying gradient spoiler scheme compatible with RF spoiling is defined, in which spoiler gradients cycle through the vertices of a hexagon, which we call hexagonal spoiling. The method is compared with a traditional constant spoiling gradient both in the transition to and in the steady state. Extended phase graph (EPG) simulations, phantom acquisitions, and in vivo images were used to assess the method. Simulations, phantom and in vivo experiments showed that unwanted signal was markedly reduced by employing hexagonal spoiling, both in the transition to and in the steady state. For adipose tissue at 1.5 Tesla, the unwanted signal in the steady state with a 60 ° flip angle was reduced from 22% with constant spoiling to 2% with hexagonal spoiling. A time-varying gradient spoiler scheme that works with RF spoiling, called "hexagonal spoiling," has been presented and found to offer improved spoiling over the traditional constant spoiling gradient. Magn Reson Med 77:1231-1237, 2017. © 2016 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. © The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  16. 30 CFR 77.1002 - Box cuts; spoil material placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Box cuts; spoil material placement. 77.1002 Section 77.1002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Ground Control § 77.1002 Box cuts; spoil material placement. When box cuts are made...

  17. 30 CFR 77.1002 - Box cuts; spoil material placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Box cuts; spoil material placement. 77.1002 Section 77.1002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Ground Control § 77.1002 Box cuts; spoil material placement. When box cuts are made...

  18. Promising native forbs for seeding on mine spoils

    Treesearch

    Ardell J. Bjugstad; Warren C. Whitman

    1989-01-01

    Twenty nine species of perennial forbs and 2 biennial forbs were directly seeded into coal mine spoil materials at Dickinson, North Dakota to determine which species would be most successful for direct seeding into coal mine spoil. Those which showed exceptionally good emergence and vigorous growth of seedlings in a two year study were: white prairie clover (...

  19. 46 CFR 174.330 - Jettisoning of spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Hopper Dredges With Working Freeboard Assignments Calculations § 174.330 Jettisoning of spoil. (a) When doing the calculations required by § 174.310 for a hopper dredge with bottom... calculations required by § 174.310 for a hopper dredge with a split hull, it may be assumed that the spoil is...

  20. 46 CFR 174.330 - Jettisoning of spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Hopper Dredges With Working Freeboard Assignments Calculations § 174.330 Jettisoning of spoil. (a) When doing the calculations required by § 174.310 for a hopper dredge with bottom... calculations required by § 174.310 for a hopper dredge with a split hull, it may be assumed that the spoil is...

  1. How Bad is That?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brey, Rebecca A.; Clark, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    This teaching technique asks students to evaluate the "badness" of 5-7 health-related behavioral statements of a specific health topic. Following the presentation of each statement, each students selects one of five choices: "Really Bad", "No Big Deal", "It Depends", "Go for It", or…

  2. Microbiota on spoiled vegetables and their characterization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Hwan; Kim, Jin-Beom; Kim, Mihyun; Roh, Eunjung; Jung, Kyusuk; Choi, Minseon; Oh, Changsik; Choi, Jaehyuk; Yun, Jongchul; Heu, Sunggi

    2013-08-01

    Spoilage causes vegetables to deteriorate and develop unpleasant characteristics. Approximately 30 % of fresh vegetables are lost to spoilage, mainly due to colonization by bacteria. In the present study, a total of 44 bacterial isolates were obtained from a number of spoiled vegetables. The isolates were identified and classified into 20 different species of 14 genera based on fatty acid composition, biochemical tests, and 16S rDNA sequence analyses. Pseudomonas spp. were the species most frequently isolated from the spoiled vegetables. To evaluate the spoilage ability of each species, a variety of fresh vegetables were treated with each isolate and their degree of maceration was observed. In addition, the production of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes (PCWDEs), such as cellulase, xylanase, pectate lyase, and polygalacturonase, was compared among isolates to investigate their potential associations with spoilage. Strains that produce more PCWDEs cause spoilage on more diverse plants, and pectinase may be the most important enzyme among PCWDEs for vegetable spoilage. Most gram-negative spoilage bacteria produced acylated homoserine lactone, a quorum-sensing signal molecule, suggesting that it may be possible to use this compound effectively to prevent or slow down the spoilage of vegetables contaminated with diverse bacteria.

  3. Recognizing critical mine spoil health characteristics to design ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Biochar can be used as an amendment to remediate metal-contaminated mine spoils for improved site phytostabilization. For successful phytostabilization to occur, biochar amendments must improve mine spoil health with respect to plant rooting plus uptake of water and nutrients. An inappropriate biochar may negatively impact plant growth conditions resulting in poor plant establishment and growth. Matching the appropriate biochar for each mine site requires reconnaissance of spoil chemical and physical conditions and then identifying which properties need rectified to promote plant growth. A rectification hierarchy needs to be established with the primary limiting factor being addressed first, then successive limitations addressed simultaneously or thereafter. We posit that spoils at each site will have a unique chemical, physical, and biological signature that will affect plant growth. For example, some spoils may be extremely acidic, possess phytotoxic concentrations of heavy metals, or have physical conditions that limits water storage and root penetration. Quantifying these and other conditions beforehand allows for the production of designer biochar with specific characteristics tailored for specific plant growth deficiencies within each spoil. Additionally, we recommend the use of proximally located, undisturbed soils to establish spoil remediation targets. In our work, we have developed a decision-tree flow-chart that identifies salient chemical,

  4. LDL: The "Bad" Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... and HDL (good) cholesterol: LDL stands for low-density lipoproteins. It is called the "bad" cholesterol because ... cholesterol in your arteries. HDL stands for high-density lipoproteins. It is called the "good" cholesterol because ...

  5. Morale Is Bad!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Jack

    Bad or low morale exists wherever people are dissatisfied with themselves in relation to their environment. In recent years, there is evidence that declining morale has become a problem of national proportions in education. Dwindling enrollments and funding, a changing student body, and curricular adjustments, compounded by the inability of…

  6. Reflections on "Bad Teachers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumashiro, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    This article is a version of a lecture given by the author at the University of California, Berkeley, in 2012. He reviews his book, "Bad Teacher!: How Blaming Teachers Distorts the Bigger Picture." He examines the issues within the school reform movement in American public education--focusing on what he calls the "bifurcation of…

  7. Bad Reaction to Cosmetics?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Yourself Health Fraud Bad Reactions to Cosmetics? Tell FDA! Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... 日本語 | فارسی | English FDA Accessibility Careers FDA Basics FOIA No FEAR Act ...

  8. Bad Breath - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... List of All Topics All Bad Breath - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chinese, Traditional ( ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated on 23 May 2018

  9. Groundwater hydrogeochemical characteristics in rehabilitated coalmine spoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomo, M.; Masemola, E.

    2016-04-01

    The investigation aims to identify and describe hydrogeochemical processes controlling the evolution of groundwater chemistry in rehabilitated coalmine spoils and their overall influence on groundwater quality at a study area located in the Karoo basin of South Africa. A good understanding of the processes that controls the evolution of the mine water quality is vital for the planning, application and management of post-mining remedial actions. The study utilises scatter plots, statistical analysis, PHREEQC hydrogeochemical modelling, stoichiometric reaction ratios analysis, and the expanded Durov diagram as complimentary tools to interpret the groundwater chemistry data collected from monitoring boreholes from 1995 to 2014. Measured pH ranging between 6-8 and arithmetic mean of 7.32 shows that the groundwater system is characterised by circumneutral hydrogeochemical conditions period. Comparison of measured groundwater ion concentrations to theoretical reaction stoichiometry identifies Dolomite-Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) neutralisation as the main hydrogeochemical process controlling the evolution of the groundwater chemistry. Hydrogeochemical modelling shows that, the groundwater has temporal variations of calcite and dolomite saturation indices characterised by alternating cycles of over-saturation and under-saturation that is driven by the release of sulphate, calcium and magnesium ions from the carbonate-AMD neutralization process. Arithmetic mean concentrations of sulphate, calcium and magnesium are in the order of 762 mg/L, 141 mg/L and 108 mg/L. Calcium and magnesium ions contribute to very hard groundwater quality conditions. Classification based on total dissolved solids (TDS), shows the circumneutral water is of poor to unacceptable quality for drinking purposes. Despite its ability to prevent AMD formation and leaching of metals, the dolomite-AMD neutralisation process can still lead to problems of elevated TDS and hardness which mines should be aware of

  10. Messengers of Bad News or Bad Apples? Student Debt and College Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darolia, Rajeev

    2015-01-01

    Student loan debt and defaults have been steadily rising, igniting public worry about the associated public and private risks. This has led to controversial regulatory attempts to curb defaults by holding colleges, particularly those in the for-profit sector, increasingly accountable for the student loan repayment behavior of their students. Such…

  11. Algal succession and chronosequences on abandoned mine spoils

    SciTech Connect

    Shubert, L.E.; Starks, T.L.

    1978-06-01

    Soils were collected from spoil material aged 0 to 45 years. The soils were analyzed for the presence of algal species, chlorophyll ..cap alpha.., major cations, anions and trace elements. There was a gradual increase in the number of algal species and chlorophyll ..cap alpha.. from 1 year old spoils to adjacent unmined natural sites. A total of 41 algal species were identified from all sites. Several species were only found at the unmined sites and they may represent a stable algal community. Results of a statistical analysis on the litho- and chronosequence of the soils will be discussed.

  12. The microbiology of apples and apple products.

    PubMed

    Doores, S

    1983-01-01

    The apple industry has reached an annual production level of 8.5 billion pounds. CA storage of 25% of this crop has enabled a fresh market on a year-round basis. To achieve high quality in raw fruit and processed apple products, careful attention must be paid to maintaining a microbiologically stable environment. The ecology of the microflora associated with the apple is a reflection of the orchard, handling, harvesting, and storage practices. Yeasts predominate on orchard fruit, molds may become a storage problem, and bacteria cause spoilage, off flavors, and loss of quality in juice products. Despite the microbial problems inherent in producing of quality product, the apple industry is faced with the occurrence of patulin. Patulin, a mycotoxin produced by Penicillium and Aspergillus species, has been associated with damaged fruit. Decreased temperatures, coupled with CA storage; can deter mold growth and patulin production. Laboratory detection methods for derivations of patulin are able to detect microgram quantities. Means to eliminate patulin formed in apple products include addition of ascorbate and SO2, extending fermentation, or charcoal filtering. However, degradation products of patulin have not been evaluated toxicologically.

  13. Patulin reduction in apple juice by inactivated Alicyclobacillus spp.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Y; Wang, X; Hatab, S; Wang, Z; Wang, Y; Luo, Y; Yue, T

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the reduction of patulin (PAT) in apple juice by 12 inactivated Alicyclobacillus strains. The reduction rate of PAT by each strain was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results indicated that the removal of PAT was strain specific. Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris 92 and A. acidoterrestris 96 were the most effective ones among the 12 tested strains in the removal of PAT. Therefore, these two strains were selected to study the effects of incubation time, initial PAT concentration and bacteria powder amount on PAT removal abilities of Alicyclobacillus. The highest PAT reduction rates of 88·8 and 81·6% were achieved after 24-h incubation with initial PAT concentration of 100 μg l(-1) and bacteria powder amount of 40 g l(-1) , respectively. Moreover, it was found that the treatment by these 12 inactivated Alicyclobacillus strains had no negative effect on the quality parameters of apple juice. Similar assays were performed in supermarket apple juice, where inactivated Alicyclobacillus cells could efficiently reduce PAT content. Taken together, these data suggest the possible application of this strategy as a means to detoxify PAT-contaminated juices. Inactivated Alicyclobacillus cells can efficiently reduce patulin concentration in apple juice. It provides a theoretical foundation for recycling of Alicyclobacillus cells from spoiled apple juice to reduce the source of pollution and the cost of juice industry. This is the first report on the use of Alicyclobacillus to remove patulin from apple juice. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. 30 CFR 817.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement in...

  15. 30 CFR 816.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement in...

  16. 30 CFR 817.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement in...

  17. 30 CFR 817.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement in...

  18. 30 CFR 817.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement in...

  19. 30 CFR 817.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement in...

  20. 30 CFR 816.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement in...

  1. 30 CFR 816.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement in...

  2. 30 CFR 816.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement in...

  3. 30 CFR 816.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement in...

  4. Factors affecting the establishment of direct-seeded pine on surface-mine spoils

    Treesearch

    William T. Plass

    1974-01-01

    In a greenhouse study the emergence, survival, and growth of seven species of pine were related to chemical and textural characteristics of 12 Kentucky spoils. The results identify three factors that may affect the establishment of direct-seeded pine on surface-mine spoils. First, fine-textured spoil material may restrict seedling emergence. Coarse-textured sandstones...

  5. The Apple IIc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freiberger, Paul

    1984-01-01

    Description of the portable Apple IIc includes its flat panel display; a new microprocessor, the 65CO2; its new design language; layout; documentation, including interactive tutorials; software support; and cost. Apple IIc's competitors and its new printer, the Scribe, are also discussed. (MBR)

  6. Performance of Ponderosa Pine on Bituminous Mine Spoils in Pennsylvania

    Treesearch

    Walter H. Davidson

    1977-01-01

    Seedlings from 40 seed sources of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) were planted on a strip-mine spoil in central Pennsylvania in 1969. Survival of seedlings from different sources ranged from 23 to 90 percent after six growing seasons. The average height of the seedlings ranged from 67 to 140 cm for the same period. Eight sources produced...

  7. Tree survival and growth on fescue-covered spoil banks

    Treesearch

    William T. Plass

    1968-01-01

    In spoil-bank revegetation the emphasis today is on site protection. Quick cover crops overplanted to trees or shrubs are recommended on many sites. In this study we tried to determine how an established fescue cover affects tree survival and growth. We found the ground cover did not affect survival but did reduce the height growth of sycamore and sweetgum. It had...

  8. Enteric listeriosis in grazing steers supplemented with spoiled silage.

    PubMed

    García, Juan A; Micheloud, Juan F; Campero, Carlos M; Morrell, Eleonora L; Odriozola, Ernesto R; Moreira, Ana R

    2016-01-01

    An outbreak of enteric listeriosis in steers that were fed spoiled silage is reported. The outbreak started 2 days after ~200 animals in a single paddock were given a supplement of spoiled silage. Forty animals (20%) were affected, and 13 (6.5%) died over a period of 10 days. Affected animals were recumbent, depressed, and had diarrhea with mucus and fibrin. Gross and microscopic findings in 3 animals that were subjected to autopsy included excess peritoneal fluid, congestion and edema of abomasum, suppurative enteritis and colitis, and suppurative mesenteric lymphadenitis. Two strains of Listeria monocytogenes were isolated, one of serotype 1/2c from the gallbladder and one of serotype 1/2b from the spoiled silage. Listeria monocytogenes was detected in the mesenteric lymph nodes and intestinal wall of 1 animal by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Clinical history and signs, gross and microscopic findings, bacterial isolation, and IHC results confirmed a diagnosis of enteric listeriosis. The source of infection was likely the spoiled silage. © 2015 The Author(s).

  9. Apple rootstock evaluation for apple replant disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Twenty-nine rootstocks from the Cornell-Geneva rootstock breeding program, some Budagovski rootstocks, M.9T337 and M.26EMLA were screened for apple replant disease (ARD) tolerance at Geneva, New York in 2008. Bench grafted rootstocks were planted in pots with two types of soil –clay loam and sandy l...

  10. Eggs: good or bad?

    PubMed

    Griffin, Bruce A

    2016-08-01

    Eggs have one of the lowest energy to nutrient density ratios of any food, and contain a quality of protein that is superior to beef steak and similar to dairy. From a nutritional perspective, this must qualify eggs as 'good'. The greater burden of proof has been to establish that eggs are not 'bad', by increasing awareness of the difference between dietary and blood cholesterol, and accumulating sufficient evidence to exonerate eggs from their associations with CVD and diabetes. After 60 years of research, a general consensus has now been reached that dietary cholesterol, chiefly from eggs, exerts a relatively small effect on serum LDL-cholesterol and CVD risk, in comparison with other diet and lifestyle factors. While dietary guidelines have been revised worldwide to reflect this view, associations between egg intake and the incidence of diabetes, and increased CVD risk in diabetes, prevail. These associations may be explained, in part, by residual confounding produced by other dietary components. The strength of evidence that links egg intake to increased CVD risk in diabetes is also complicated by variation in the response of serum LDL-cholesterol to eggs and dietary cholesterol in types 1 and 2 diabetes. On balance, the answer to the question as to whether eggs are 'bad', is probably 'no', but we do need to gain a better understanding of the effects of dietary cholesterol and its association with CVD risk in diabetes.

  11. Phytoremediation of spoil coal dumps in Western Donbass (Ukraine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimkina, Iryna; Kharytonov, Mykola; Wiche, Oliver; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2017-04-01

    At the moment, in Ukraine about 150 thousand hectares of fertile land are occupied by spoil dumps. Moreover, this figure increases every year. According to the technology used about 1500 m3 of adjacent stratum is dumped at the surface per every 1000 tons of coal mined. Apart from land amortization, waste dumps drastically change the natural landscape and pollute air, soil and water sources as the result of water and wind erosion, as well as self-ignition processes. A serious concern exists with respect to the Western Donbass coal mining region in Ukraine, where the coal extraction is made by the subsurface way and solid wastes are represented by both spoil dumps and wastes after coal processing. Sulphides, mostly pyrite (up to 4% of waste material), are widely distributed in the waste heaps freshly removed due to coal mining in Western Donbass.The oxidation of pyrite with the presence of oxygen and water is accompanied by a sharp drop in the pH from the surface layer to the spoil dumps(from 5.2-6.2 to 3.9-4.2 in soil substrates with chernozen and from 8.3-8.4 to 6.7-7.2 in soil substrates with red-brown clay, stabilizing in dump material in both cases at 2.9-3.2). Low pH generates the transformation of a number of toxic metals and other elementspresent in waste rock (e.g. Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Mo, Co, As, Cd, Bi, Pb, U) into mobile forms. To stabilize and reduce metal mobility the most resistant plants that occur naturally in specified ecosystems can be used. On coal spoil dumpsin Western Donbas the dominant species are Bromopsis inermis, subdominant Artemisia austriaca; widespread are also Festucas pp., Lathyrus tuberosus, Inula sp., Calamagrostis epigeios, Lotus ucrainicus, and Vicias pp. Identification of plants tolerant to target metals is a key issue in phytotechnology for soil restoration. It is hypothesized that naturally occurring plants growing on coal spoil dumps can be candidates for phytostabilization, phytoextraction (phytoaccumulation) and phytomining

  12. Furukawa with apple

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-02

    ISS029-E-037421 (2 Nov. 2011) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Satoshi Furukawa, Expedition 29 flight engineer, enjoys eating a fresh apple in the Unity node of the International Space Station.

  13. Furukawa with apple

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-02

    ISS029-E-037417 (2 Nov. 2011) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Satoshi Furukawa, Expedition 29 flight engineer, enjoys eating a fresh apple in the Unity node of the International Space Station.

  14. Apple Coffee Cake

    MedlinePlus

    ... all-purpose flour 1 and 1/2 tsp baking soda 2 tsp ground cinnamon Directions Preheat oven ... in oil, vanilla, and egg. Sift together flour, baking soda, and cinnamon; stir into apple mixture about ...

  15. The Diminishing Apple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    Introduces the Apple Ocean activity which teaches about the diminishing natural resources of the earth including drinkable water, habitable land, and productive areas while working with fractions, ratios, and proportions. (YDS)

  16. Use of colliery spoil for infilling mine workings

    SciTech Connect

    Ghataora, G.S.; Jarvis, S.T.

    1996-12-31

    Colliery spoil has been used as a major constituent of rock paste, a controlled low-strength bulk infill material, to infill abandoned limestone mines in the West Midlands of England since the early 1980s. During this time the design of colliery spoil rock paste has been modified and improved to ensure that strengths are achieved and consolidation is minimized. This paper describes the methods used for measuring and monitoring the development of the strength of rock paste used to infill the Littleton Street Mine in Walsall, England. The mine had a volume of about 500,000 m{sup 3} and is possibly themore » largest underground void to be infilled with rock paste.« less

  17. Comparative analysis of general characteristics of ischemic stroke of BAD and non-BAD CISS subtypes.

    PubMed

    Mei, Bin; Liu, Guang-zhi; Yang, Yang; Liu, Yu-min; Cao, Jiang-hui; Zhang, Jun-jian

    2015-12-01

    Based on the recently proposed Chinese ischemic stroke subclassification (CISS) system, intracranial branch atheromatous disease (BAD) is divided into large artery atherosclerosis (LAA) and penetrating artery disease (PAD). In the current retrospective analysis, we compared the general characteristics of BAD-LAA with BAD-PAD, BAD-LAA with non-BAD-LAA and BAD-PAD with non-BAD-PAD. The study included a total of 80 cases, including 45 cases of BAD and 35 cases of non-BAD. Subjects were classified using CISS system: BAD-LAA, BAD-PAD, non-BAD-LAA and non-BAD-PAD. In addition to analysis of general characteristics, the correlation between the factors and the two subtypes of BAD was evaluated. The number of cases included in the analysis was: 32 cases of BAD-LAA, 13 cases of BAD-PAD, 21 cases of non-BAD-LAA, and 14 cases of non-BAD-PAD. Diabetes mellitus affected more non-BAD-LAA patients than BAD-LAA patients (P=0.035). In comparison with non-BAD-PAD, patients with BAD-PAD were younger (P=0.040), had higher initial NIHSS score (P<0.001) and morbidity of ischemic heart disease (P=0.033). Within patients with BAD, the PAD subtype was associated with smoking (OR=0.043; P=0.011), higher low-density lipoprotein (OR=5.339; P=0.029), ischemic heart disease (OR=9.383; P=0.047) and diabetes mellitus (OR=12.59; P=0.020). It was concluded that large artery atherosclerosis was the primary mechanism of BAD. The general characteristics showed no significant differences between the CISS subtypes of LAA and PAD within BAD, as well as between the BAD and non-BAD within LAA subtype. Several differences between PAD subtypes of BAD and non-BAD were revealed.

  18. Depletion-Mode GaN HEMT Q-Spoil Switches for MRI Coils

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jonathan Y.; Grafendorfer, Thomas; Zhang, Tao; Vasanawala, Shreyas; Robb, Fraser; Pauly, John M.; Scott, Greig C.

    2017-01-01

    Q-spoiling is the process of decoupling an MRI receive coil to protect the equipment and patient. Conventionally, Q-spoiling is performed using a PIN diode switch that draws significant current. In this work, a Q-spoiling technique using a depletion-mode Gallium Nitride HEMT device was developed for coil detuning at both 1.5 T and 3 T MRI. The circuits with conventional PIN diode Q-spoiling and the GaN HEMT device were implemented on surface coils. SNR was measured and compared for all surfaces coils. At both 1.5 T and 3 T, comparable SNR was achieved for all coils with the proposed technique and conventional Q-spoiling. The GaN HEMT device has significantly reduced the required power for Q-spoiling. The GaN HEMT device also provides useful safety features by detuning the coil when unpowered. PMID:27362895

  19. Fate of Listeria monocytogenes in Fresh Apples and Caramel Apples.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Joelle K; Carstens, Christina K; Bathija, Vriddi M; Narula, Sartaj S; Parish, Mickey; Tortorello, Mary Lou

    2016-05-01

    An outbreak of listeriosis in late 2014 and early 2015 associated with caramel apples led to questions about how this product became a vector for Listeria monocytogenes. This investigation aimed to determine information about the survival and growth of L. monocytogenes in both fresh apples and caramel apples, specifically examining the effects of site and level of inoculation, inoculum drying conditions, and storage temperature. At a high inoculation level (7 log CFU per apple), L. monocytogenes inoculated at the stem end proliferated on Gala caramel apples at both 5 and 25°C and on Granny Smith caramel apples at 25°C by as much as 3 to 5 log CFU per apple. Fresh apples and caramel apples inoculated at the equatorial surface supported survival but not growth of the pathogen. Growth rates (μmax) for apples inoculated at the stem end, as determined using the Baranyi and Roberts growth model, were 1.64 ± 0.27 and 1.38 ± 0.20 log CFU per apple per day for Gala and Granny Smith caramel apples, respectively, stored at 25°C. At a low inoculation level (3 log CFU per apple), L. monocytogenes inoculated at the stem end and the equatorial surface survived but did not grow on fresh Gala and Granny Smith apples stored at 25°C for 49 days; however, on caramel apples inoculated at the stem end, L. monocytogenes had significant growth under the same conditions. Although certain conditions did not support growth, the pathogen was always detectable by enrichment culture. The inoculation procedure had a significant effect on results; when the inoculum was allowed to dry for 24 h at 5°C, growth was significantly slowed compared with inoculum allowed to dry for 2 h at 25°C. Variation in stick materials did affect L. monocytogenes survival, but these differences were diminished once sticks were placed into caramel apples.

  20. About APPLE II Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, T.; Zimoch, D.

    2007-01-01

    The operation of an APPLE II based undulator beamline with all its polarization states (linear horizontal and vertical, circular and elliptical, and continous variation of the linear vector) requires an effective description allowing an automated calculation of gap and shift parameter as function of energy and operation mode. The extension of the linear polarization range from 0 to 180° requires 4 shiftable magnet arrrays, permitting use of the APU (adjustable phase undulator) concept. Studies for a pure fixed gap APPLE II for the SLS revealed surprising symmetries between circular and linear polarization modes allowing for simplified operation. A semi-analytical model covering all types of APPLE II and its implementation will be presented.

  1. Composition of apple juice.

    PubMed

    Mattick, L R; Moyer, J C

    1983-09-01

    Thirty-one samples from 8 geographic growing regions of the United States and 15 varieties common to these areas were converted to apple juice and analyzed for their attributes over the 3 year period 1979, 1980, and 1981. The total of 93 samples were analyzed for ash, brix, pH, proline, specific gravity, total acid, sorbitol, sucrose, fructose, and glucose. The elements cadmium, calcium, iron, lead, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and zinc were also determined. These data are presented to serve as a data base for the detection of fraudulent or adulterated apple juice.

  2. Managing away bad habits.

    PubMed

    Waldroop, J; Butler, T

    2000-01-01

    We've all worked with highly competent people who are held back by a seemingly fatal personality flaw. One person takes on too much work; another sees the downside in every proposed change; a third pushes people out of the way. At best, people with these "bad habits" create their own glass ceilings, which limit their success and their contributions to the company. At worst, they destroy their own careers. Although the psychological flaws of such individuals run deep, their managers are not helpless. In this article, James Waldroop and Timothy Butler--both psychologists--examine the root causes of these flaws and suggest concrete tactics they have used to help people recognize and correct the following six behavior patterns: The hero, who always pushes himself--and subordinates--too hard to do too much for too long. The meritocrat, who believes that the best ideas can and will be determined objectively and ignores the politics inherent in most situations. The bulldozer, who runs roughshod over others in a quest for power. The pessimist, who always worries about what could go wrong. The rebel, who automatically fights against authority and convention. And the home run hitter, who tries to do too much too soon--he swings for the fences before he's learned to hit singles. Helping people break through their self-created glass ceilings is the ultimate win-win scenario: both the individual and the organization are rewarded. Using the tactics introduced in this article, managers can help their brilliantly flawed performers become spectacular achievers.

  3. Predicting ground-water movement in large mine spoil areas in the Appalachian Plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wunsch, D.R.; Dinger, J.S.; Graham, C.D.R.

    1999-01-01

    Spoil created by surface mining can accumulate large quantities of ground-water, which can create geotechnical or regulatory problems, as well as flood active mine pits. A current study at a large (4.1 km2), thick, (up to 90 m) spoil body in eastern Kentucky reveals important factors that control the storage and movement of water. Ground-water recharge occurs along the periphery of the spoil body where surface-water drainage is blocked, as well as from infiltration along the spoil-bedrock contact, recharge from adjacent bedrock, and to a minor extent, through macropores at the spoil's surface. Based on an average saturated thickness of 6.4 m for all spoil wells, and assuming an estimated porosity of 20%, approximately 5.2 x 106 m3 of water is stored within the existing 4.1 km2 of reclaimed spoil. A conceptual model of ground-water flow, based on data from monitoring wells, dye-tracing data, discharge from springs and ponds, hydraulic gradients, chemical data, field reconnaissance, and aerial photographs indicate that three distinct but interconnected saturated zones have been established: one in the spoil's interior, and others in the valley fills that surround the main spoil body at lower elevations. Ground-water movement is sluggish in the spoil's interior, but moves quickly through the valley fills. The conceptual model shows that a prediction of ground-water occurrence, movement, and quality can be made for active or abandoned spoil areas if all or some of the following data are available: structural contour of the base of the lowest coal seam being mined, pre-mining topography, documentation of mining methods employed throughout the mine, overburden characteristics, and aerial photographs of mine progression.Spoil created by surface mining can accumulate large quantities of ground-water, which can create geotechnical or regulatory problems, as well as flood active mine pits. A current study at a large (4.1 km2), thick, (up to 90 m) spoil body in eastern

  4. Apple mosaic virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apple mosaic virus (ApMV), a member of the ilarvirus group, naturally infects Betula, Aesculus, Humulus, and several crop genera in the family Rosaceae (Malus, Prunus, Rosa and Rubus). ApMV was first reported in Rubus in several blackberry and raspberry cultivars in the United States and subsequentl...

  5. The Apple III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditlea, Steve

    1982-01-01

    Describes and evaluates the features, performance, peripheral devices, available software, and capabilities of the Apple III microcomputer. The computer's operating system, its hardware, and the commercially produced software it accepts are discussed. Specific applications programs for financial planning, accounting, and word processing are…

  6. Early growth tolerances of grasses, shrubs, and trees to boron in tunnel spoil

    Treesearch

    Parker F. Pratt; Eamor C. Nord; Francis L. Bair

    1971-01-01

    The effects of boron and salts in spoil material on survival and growth of 44 grass, shrub, and tree species were tested under greenhouse conditions. The spoil used was from the Angeles Tunnel of the California Aqueduct's West Branch now being built. Several species within each plant group apparently can tolerate boron, but field tests will be needed before most...

  7. 33 CFR 67.15-10 - Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Spoil banks, artificial islands..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Miscellaneous Marking Requirements § 67.15-10 Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged...

  8. 33 CFR 67.15-10 - Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Spoil banks, artificial islands..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Miscellaneous Marking Requirements § 67.15-10 Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged...

  9. Responses of soil biota to organic amendments in stripmine spoils in Northwestern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Elkins, N.Z.; Parker, L.W.; Aldon, E.

    The effects of organic amendments and topsoiling on the soil biota and decomposition were examined in order to evaluate the relative efficacy of the amendments in restarting soil processes. Decomposition of barley straw (Hordeum vulgare) and populations of soil biota on strip coal-mine spoils in northwestern New Mexico were studied. The spoils had been amended with straw mulch, bark, topsoil, or no organic additives. Decomposition rates were highest in the unmined area and the bark, amended spoils, and lowest on the topsoil amendment and unamended spoil. Few differences were observed in the populations of soil microflora. Where differences were observed,more » the bark-amended spoils had the highest populations and biomass. Soil microflora activity, as indicated by decomposition rates, was enhanced by bark amendment. Soil microfaunal populations were highest on the bark-amended spoils and unmined soil. Important soil mites (soil Acari), the oribatids, were found only in the bark-amended spoils and the unmined soils. These studies suggest that addition of selected organic amendments (bark) to mine spoils may be as effective in developing a soil as the more expensive topsoil/mulch procedures currently used in reclamation procedures. 25 references.« less

  10. Effects of spoil texture on growth of K-31 tall fescue

    Treesearch

    David H. Van Lear

    1971-01-01

    Growth of K-31 tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) was significantly affected by the particle-size distribution, or texture, of four spoils from eastern Kentucky. Growth on spoils having no toxic chemical properties generally was greatest where texture consisted of about equal quantities of soil-size material and a coarser fraction (2 mm. to 6.4 mm.),...

  11. Reestablishing natural succession on acidic mine spoils at high elevations: long-term ecological restoration

    Treesearch

    Ray W. Brown; Michael C. Amacher; Walter F. Mueggler; Janice Kotuby-Amacher

    2003-01-01

    Methods for restoring native plant communities on acidic mine spoils at high elevations were evaluated in a "demonstration area" in the New World Mining District of southern Montana. Research plots installed in 1976 were assessed for 22 years and compared with adjacent native reference plant communities. A 1.5-acre (0.61-ha) area of mine spoils was shaped and...

  12. Hybrid poplar on two anthracite coal-mine spoils: 10-year results

    Treesearch

    Miroslaw M. Czapowskyj

    1978-01-01

    Unrooted dormant cuttings of 28 hybrid poplar clones were planted on two graded anthracite coal-mine spoils derived from sandstone or from glacial till. Ten-year results show that the plantation survived very well (82 percent), but that growth was extremely varied. Spoil Characteristics and performance of individual clones are presented.

  13. Designing biochars for in situ remediation of metal contaminated mine spoils

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biochar in conjunction with other soil amendments can be used for in situ remediation of metal-contaminated mine spoils for improved site phytostabilization. For successful phytostabilization to occur, biochar must improve mine spoil health with respect to plant rooting plus upt...

  14. Designing biochars for in situ remediation of metal contaminated mine spoils.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biochar in conjunction with other soil amendments can be used for in situ remediation of metal-contaminated mine spoils for improved site phytostabilization. For successful phytostabilization to occur, biochar must improve mine spoil health with respect to plant rooting plus upt...

  15. Spoiled breast milk and bad water; local understandings of diarrhea causes and prevention in rural Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Shannon A; George, Asha S; Yumkella, Fatu; Diaz, Theresa

    2013-12-13

    Globally, diarrhea remains a leading killer of young children. In Sierra Leone, one in seven children die before their fifth birthday and diarrhea is a leading cause. Studies that emphasize the demand-side of health interventions -- how caregivers understand causation and prevention of diarrhea -- have been neglected in research and programming. We undertook applied qualitative research including 68 in-depth interviews and 36 focus group discussions with mothers, fathers and older female caretakers to examine the causes and prevention of childhood diarrhea in villages near and far from health facilities across four rural districts. Verbal consent was obtained. Respondents reported multiple, co-existing descriptions of causation including: contaminated water and difficulties accessing clean water; exposure to an unclean environment and poor food hygiene; contaminated breast milk due to sexual intercourse, overheated breast milk or bodily maternal conditions such as menstruation or pregnancy; and dietary imbalances and curses. Respondents rarely discussed the role of open defecation or the importance of handwashing with soap in preventing diarrhea. Categorizing behaviors as beneficial, harmful, non-existent or benign enables tailored programmatic recommendations. For example, respondents recognized the value of clean water and we correspondingly recommend interventions that reinforce consumption of and access to clean water. Second, respondents report denying "contaminated" breast milk to breastfeeding children. This is a harmful practice that merits attention. Third, the role of open defecation and poor hygiene in causing diarrhea is less understood and warrants introduction or clarification. Finally, the role of exposed feet or curses in causing diarrhea is relatively benign and does not necessitate programmatic attention. Further research supportive of communication and social mobilization strategies building on these findings is required to ensure that improved understanding regarding diarrhea causation translates into improved diarrhea prevention.

  16. Spoiled breast milk and bad water; local understandings of diarrhea causes and prevention in rural Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Globally, diarrhea remains a leading killer of young children. In Sierra Leone, one in seven children die before their fifth birthday and diarrhea is a leading cause. Studies that emphasize the demand-side of health interventions -- how caregivers understand causation and prevention of diarrhea -- have been neglected in research and programming. Methods We undertook applied qualitative research including 68 in-depth interviews and 36 focus group discussions with mothers, fathers and older female caretakers to examine the causes and prevention of childhood diarrhea in villages near and far from health facilities across four rural districts. Verbal consent was obtained. Results Respondents reported multiple, co-existing descriptions of causation including: contaminated water and difficulties accessing clean water; exposure to an unclean environment and poor food hygiene; contaminated breast milk due to sexual intercourse, overheated breast milk or bodily maternal conditions such as menstruation or pregnancy; and dietary imbalances and curses. Respondents rarely discussed the role of open defecation or the importance of handwashing with soap in preventing diarrhea. Conclusions Categorizing behaviors as beneficial, harmful, non-existent or benign enables tailored programmatic recommendations. For example, respondents recognized the value of clean water and we correspondingly recommend interventions that reinforce consumption of and access to clean water. Second, respondents report denying “contaminated” breast milk to breastfeeding children. This is a harmful practice that merits attention. Third, the role of open defecation and poor hygiene in causing diarrhea is less understood and warrants introduction or clarification. Finally, the role of exposed feet or curses in causing diarrhea is relatively benign and does not necessitate programmatic attention. Further research supportive of communication and social mobilization strategies building on these findings is required to ensure that improved understanding regarding diarrhea causation translates into improved diarrhea prevention. PMID:24330586

  17. Preliminary study of the refaunation of alkaline shale coal surface mine spoil by soil arthropods

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, E.A.; Wilman, J.M.

    1982-12-01

    Soil sampling stations were laid out on (largely) untopsoiled shale surface mine spoil in 1979. Stations were located on spoil graded in 1978-1979, in ungraded spoil cast in 1972 and aerially seeded in 1973, and in adjacent off-mine woods and an old field. Additional stations were added in 1982 on spoil graded only 3.5 weeks - 3 months prior to sampling. Stations were located to include important variables typical of the mine. Of 17 classes-orders of arthropods recovered from all sites, only Acari (78-99% of total individuals) and Collembola (2-12%) were consistently widespread and numerous, and only Acari were importantmore » in the youngest spoils. A total of 69 mite families - superfamilies - were identified during the course of the study. Low-moderate mite populations were found in bare shale spoil graded only 3.5 weeks - 3 months prior to sampling, these distributed among 4 families. Samples from 1978-79 spoil contained 13 families 3-7 months after grading and 2 years later were comparable to off-mine sites both in numbers of individuals and number of families. Spoil from 1973 was comparable to off-mine sites in these 2 respects when first sampled. Earliest pioneer species were 3 (presumably) microherbivores, these remaining dominant for several years. Predatory mites appeared early and were well established less than a year after grading. Saprovores were absent or relatively scarce in the 2 youngest spoils, but well established in the 1973 spoil at first sampling.« less

  18. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole apples...

  19. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole apples...

  20. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole apples...

  1. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole apples...

  2. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole apples...

  3. Apple Image Processing Educator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunther, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    A software system design is proposed and demonstrated with pilot-project software. The system permits the Apple II microcomputer to be used for personalized computer-assisted instruction in the digital image processing of LANDSAT images. The programs provide data input, menu selection, graphic and hard-copy displays, and both general and detailed instructions. The pilot-project results are considered to be successful indicators of the capabilities and limits of microcomputers for digital image processing education.

  4. Biogas generation apple pulp.

    PubMed

    Llaneza Coalla, H; Blanco Fernández, J M; Morís Morán, M A; López Bobo, M R

    2009-09-01

    In view of the pressing problem that appears in our region (Asturias, north of Spain) with the residues from the cider production, it was decided to test this kind of material as a co-substrate joint with slaughterhouse waste in a laboratory unit. The anaerobic digestion of apple pulp was investigated for biogas production. This paper presents the results where apple pulp was co-digested with slaughterhouse waste (pig intestine and bovine stomach content) in a biogas laboratory unit (10 l CSTR reactor). The production of biogas has reached very satisfactory values during the whole test (0.8m(3)kg(-1)OTS), verifying that the process is kept in stable conditions of pH (near 8.0), and the volatile fatty acids was always underneath 3000 mg/l, when the pulp amount was lower than 100g in mesophilic conditions. The fat concentration into the digester remained always below the value that causes inhibition of the methanogenic bacteria, 500 mg/l. Finally, methane concentration (77-80%) and H(2)S concentration (400 ppm) in the biogas, they were similar to those obtained when the test was run out in the absence of apple pulp. The process efficiency with respect to COD removal was high, near 80% of the total COD. Finally, inhibitory effects of methanogenic bacteria were observed when pulp concentration was around 10% in the input material.

  5. HDL (Good), LDL (Bad) Cholesterol and Triglycerides

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More HDL (Good), LDL (Bad) Cholesterol and Triglycerides Updated:May 3,2018 Cholesterol isn’ ... be measured by a blood test. LDL (Bad) Cholesterol LDL cholesterol is called “bad” cholesterol. Think of ...

  6. Breaking Bad News to Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Susan A.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the difficulty of breaking bad news to parents, whether the news pertains to center policy or a child's behavior. Provides strategies for presenting news and for helping parents to overcome difficult situations, including gathering facts in advance, arranging an appropriate time, and having resource materials available for parents. (MOK)

  7. How to Tell Bad News

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Nicholas J.

    2012-01-01

    Therapists, physicians, police officers, and emergency staff often are the messengers of bad news. They have to tell a patient, a parent, or a loved one about a death, an accident, a school shooting, a life-threatening diagnosis, a terrorist attack, or a suicide. Usually the messenger bears a heavy responsibility but has little training and seeks…

  8. Growth behavior of off-flavor-forming microorganisms in apple juice.

    PubMed

    Siegmund, Barbara; Pöllinger-Zierler, Barbara

    2007-08-08

    Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris and Streptomyces griseus griseus are two bacteria species that are frequently found in apple juice as spoilage bacteria. They both show thermoacidophilic behavior, adapting to the low pH of the juices and being able to survive high temperatures. They are able to regerminate in the shelf-stable product and spoil the juice by the formation of off-flavor compounds (i.e., guaiacol and 2,6-dibromophenol as metabolites of A. acidoterrestris and 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, 2-methylisoborneol, 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine, and geosmin as important metabolites of S. griseus). In this study the growth behavior of the strains and the impact on apple juice were investigated under different conditions (i.e., temperature, oxygen supply, and mutual influence of the strains). The off-flavor formation was monitored by GC-MS after headspace SPME and subsequent calculation of the odor activity values. The results showed that S. griseus grows and consequently spoils the product even at 4 degrees C, whereas A. acidoterrestris needs at least room temperature to show significant growth. Limited oxygen supply did not significantly reduce off-flavor formation for any of the strains. The simultaneous presence of the strains in the juice reduced the growth of both species; nevertheless, off-flavor was detected.

  9. A Response to Robert Maranto's Review of "Bad Students, Not Bad Schools"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissberg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to Robert Maranto's review of "Bad Students, Not Bad Schools". The author begins by thanking Professor Maranto for his thoughtful review of his "Bad Students, Not Bad Schools" (2010). Professor Maranto is the first professional educator to acknowledge the book's existence, a fact that says much about…

  10. Debating Robert Weissberg: Why We Should Read but Not Accept "Bad Students, Not Bad Schools"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maranto, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's critique on Robert Weissberg's book titled "Bad Students, Not Bad Schools". The author argues that Weissberg's readable, controversial "Bad Students, Not Bad Schools" (2010) is funny, acerbic, bold, and slaughters more than a few sacred cows of what Weissberg calls the "failed educational industrial complex." As…

  11. 42 CFR 413.178 - Bad debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bad debts. 413.178 Section 413.178 Public Health...) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.178 Bad debts. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 49199, Aug. 12, 2010. (a) CMS will reimburse each facility its allowable Medicare bad debts, as defined in...

  12. 7 CFR 51.1535 - Badly misshapen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Badly misshapen. 51.1535 Section 51.1535 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Fresh Plums and Prunes Definitions § 51.1535 Badly misshapen. “Badly misshapen...

  13. 7 CFR 51.1535 - Badly misshapen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Badly misshapen. 51.1535 Section 51.1535 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Fresh Plums and Prunes Definitions § 51.1535 Badly misshapen. “Badly misshapen...

  14. 7 CFR 51.1535 - Badly misshapen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Badly misshapen. 51.1535 Section 51.1535 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Fresh Plums and Prunes Definitions § 51.1535 Badly misshapen. “Badly misshapen...

  15. Biochars ability to sequester metals in contaminated mine spoils: A greenhouse study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Jeff; Johnson, Mark G.; Ippolito, Jim; Spokas, Kurt; Trippe, Kristin; Ducey, Tom; Sigua, Gilbert

    2017-04-01

    Biochars are under consideration as an amendment to remediate contaminated mine spoils and improving plant growth cover. Scientists from the USDA-ARS, US EPA, and Colorado State University have conducted a greenhouse experiment using Miscanthous (Miscanthus giganteus) biochar produced at 700⁰C to reclaim mine spoils obtained from the Formosa mine site (near Riddle, Oregon, USA). Spoil at this site is acidic and has elevated total and plant available copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentrations. Blue Wildrye (Elymus glaucus) was planted in mine spoil that was treated with Miscanthus biochar at 0, 1, 2.5 and 5% (w/w), lime, and N-P-K fertilizer. Mine spoil treated with biochar alone (no lime) along with samples (no lime or biochar) were also included. After almost 60 days of incubation, above ground and below ground wildrye samples were collected. Remaining spoils were then extracted with Mehlich 3 reagent and plant available Cu and Zn concentrations measured. Mehlich 3 extractable Cu and Zn concentrations decreased significantly only in the lime treated samples—their concentrations were not influenced by biochar. Our preliminary findings are that lime is an important amendment to reduce metal concentrations in mine spoils and that choice of biochar type must be carefully considered beforehand.

  16. Fundamental Study of Three-dimensional Fast Spin-echo Imaging with Spoiled Equilibrium Pulse.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Masashi; Kaji, Naoto; Tsuchihashi, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional fast spin-echo (3D FSE) imaging with variable refocusing flip angle has been recently applied to pre- or post-enhanced T 1 -weighted imaging. To reduce the acquisition time, this sequence requires higher echo train length (ETL), which potentially causes decreased T 1 contrast. Spoiled equilibrium (SpE) pulse consists of a resonant +90° radiofrequency (RF) pulse and is applied at the end of the echo train. This +90° RF pulse brings residual transverse magnetization to the negative longitudinal axis, which makes it possible to increase T 1 contrast. The purpose of our present study was to examine factors that influence the effect of spoiled equilibrium pulse and the relationship between T 1 contrast improvement and imaging parameters and to understand the characteristics of spoiled equilibrium pulse. Phantom studies were conducted using an magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) phantom made of polyvinyl alcohol gel. To evaluate the effect of spoiled equilibrium pulse with changes in repetition time (TR), ETL, and refocusing flip angle, we measured the signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). The effect of spoiled equilibrium pulse was evaluated by calculating the enhancement rate of CNR. The factors that influence the effect of spoiled equilibrium pulse are TR, ETL, and relaxation time of tissues. Spoiled equilibrium pulse is effective with increasing TR and decreasing ETL. The shorter the T 1 value, the better the spoiled equilibrium pulse functions. However, for tissues in which the T 1 value is long (>600 ms), at a TR of 600 ms, improvement in T 1 contrast by applying spoiled equilibrium pulse cannot be expected.

  17. Enzymatic browning reactions in apple and apple products.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, J J; Richard-Forget, F C; Goupy, P M; Amiot, M J; Aubert, S Y

    1994-01-01

    This review examines the parameters of enzymatic browning in apple and apple products that is, phenolic compounds, polyphenoloxidases, and other factors (ascorbic acid and peroxidases), both qualitatively and quantitatively. Then the relationships between intensity of browning and the browning parameters are discussed, including a paragraph on the methods used for browning evaluation. Finally, the different methods for the control of browning are presented.

  18. Correlation between changes in polyphenol composition of peels and incidence of CO₂ skin burning of 'Cameo' apples as influenced by controlled atmosphere storage.

    PubMed

    Harb, Jamil; Kittemann, Dominikus; Neuwald, Daniel Alexandre; Hoffmann, Thomas; Schwab, Wilfried

    2013-04-17

    'Cameo' apples stored under high CO₂ levels suffer from "skin burning". Accordingly, this study is aimed to correlate the incidence of skin burning with different polyphenols. After harvest, apples were sorted into bad- and good-colored fruit and further stored under either high (3%) or low (0.7%) CO₂ level. At frequent intervals, fruit were assessed for incidence of skin burning and relative concentrations of various polyphenols. Results clearly show that bad-colored apples stored under high CO₂ level had the highest incidence percentage. Concerning the polyphenol profile, good-colored and healthy apples had significantly higher concentrations of certain polyphenols, including cyanidin-3-galactoside and rutin. However, bad-colored and injured apples had significantly higher concentrations of another set of polyphenols, including phloridzin, epicatechin, and (epi)catechin→(epi)catechin isomers. Taking into account that quercetins and cyanidins account for more than 80% of antioxidants, it is logical to assume that these polyphenols might give protection to good-colored apples against skin burning.

  19. Effects of contaminated dredge spoils on wetland plant communities: A literature review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, Paul M.; Garza, Eric L.; Butcher, Jason T.; Simon, Thomas P.

    2003-01-01

    Contaminated dredge spoil is a national concern due to its scope and effects on biota, water quality, and the physical environment. This literature review discusses the effects of contaminated dredge spoils on wetland plant communities. Plant communities naturally shift over time with changing environmental conditions. Addition of toxins and nutrients and changes in hydrology may influence plant community structure. The storage and disposal of nutrient and metal contaminated dredge spoils may cause shifts in nearby plant communities. Shifts in species composition and diversity may not be observed for decades after nutrient enrichment, causing any disturbance to remain undetected. Plant community shifts often have great amounts of inertia and are difficult to reverse.

  20. Volatility of patulin in apple juice.

    PubMed

    Kryger, R A

    2001-08-01

    Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by certain fungi, such as those found commonly on apples. The patulin content of apple juice is a regulatory concern because patulin is a suspected carcinogen and mutagen. A simple model of the apple juice concentration process was carried out to examine the possible contamination of patulin in apple aroma, a distillate produced commercially in the concentration of apple juice. The results show no evidence for patulin volatility, and document a reduction in patulin content by at least a factor of 250 in the apple distillate obtained from apple juice. Furthermore, a survey of several commercial apple aroma samples found no evidence of patulin content.

  1. The gravity apple tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa Aldama, Mariana

    2015-04-01

    The gravity apple tree is a genealogical tree of the gravitation theories developed during the past century. The graphic representation is full of information such as guides in heuristic principles, names of main proponents, dates and references for original articles (See under Supplementary Data for the graphic representation). This visual presentation and its particular classification allows a quick synthetic view for a plurality of theories, many of them well validated in the Solar System domain. Its diachronic structure organizes information in a shape of a tree following similarities through a formal concept analysis. It can be used for educational purposes or as a tool for philosophical discussion.

  2. Management of apple anthracnose canker

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apple anthracnose (caused by Neofabraea malicorticis anamorph Cryptosporiopsis curvispora) is a fungal disease that causes cankers on trees and ‘Bull’s-eye rot’ on fruit. In western Washington, it is the canker phase of apple anthracnose that is considered most serious as it can result in death of ...

  3. Cancer: Bad Luck or Punishment?

    PubMed

    Lichtenstein, A V

    2017-01-01

    Contrasting opinions on the role of extrinsic and intrinsic factors in cancer etiology (Tomasetti, C., and Vogelstein, B. (2015) Science, 347, 78-81; Wu, S., et al. (2016) Nature, 529, 43-47) variously define priorities in the war on cancer. The correlation between the lifetime risk of several types of cancer and the total number of divisions of normal self-renewing cells revealed by the authors has given them grounds to put forward the "bad luck" hypothesis. It assumes that ~70% of cancer variability is attributed to random errors arising during DNA replication in normal, noncancerous stem cells, i.e. to internal factors, which is impossible either to expect or to prevent. This assumption caused many critical responses that emphasize, on the contrary, the defining role of extrinsic factors in cancer etiology. The analysis of epidemiological and genetic data presented in this work testifies in favor of the "bad luck" hypothesis.

  4. Smartphone-based grading of apple quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xianglin; Li, Ting

    2018-02-01

    Apple quality grading is a critical issue in apple industry which is one economical pillar of many countries. Artificial grading is inefficient and of poor accuracy. Here we proposed to develop a portable, convenient, real-time, and low cost method aimed at grading apple. Color images of the apples were collected with a smartphone and the grade of sampled apple was assessed by a customized smartphone app, which offered the functions translating RGB color values of the apple to color grade and translating the edge of apple image to weight grade. The algorithms are based on modeling with a large number of apple image at different grades. The apple grade data evaluated by the smartphone are in accordance with the actual data. This study demonstrated the potential of smart phone in apple quality grading/online monitoring at gathering and transportation stage for apple industry.

  5. The domestication and evolutionary ecology of apples.

    PubMed

    Cornille, Amandine; Giraud, Tatiana; Smulders, Marinus J M; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Gladieux, Pierre

    2014-02-01

    The cultivated apple is a major fruit crop in temperate zones. Its wild relatives, distributed across temperate Eurasia and growing in diverse habitats, represent potentially useful sources of diversity for apple breeding. We review here the most recent findings on the genetics and ecology of apple domestication and its impact on wild apples. Genetic analyses have revealed a Central Asian origin for cultivated apple, together with an unexpectedly large secondary contribution from the European crabapple. Wild apple species display strong population structures and high levels of introgression from domesticated apple, and this may threaten their genetic integrity. Recent research has revealed a major role of hybridization in the domestication of the cultivated apple and has highlighted the value of apple as an ideal model for unraveling adaptive diversification processes in perennial fruit crops. We discuss the implications of this knowledge for apple breeding and for the conservation of wild apples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Communicating Bad News to Patients

    PubMed Central

    Premi, J. N.

    1981-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on doctor/patient communication, emphasizing the communication of bad news. Available information supports the view that patients want more information than they generally receive and that, contrary to popular belief, patients who are better informed benefit from the information they receive. Physicians are seen as taking a less professional approach to communication activities than to clinical problem solving. Some strategies for approaching the problems identified are outlined. PMID:11650449

  7. Sludge-Treated Coal Mine Spoils Increase Heavy metals in Cover Crops

    Treesearch

    F. C. McBride; C. Chavengsaksongkram; D. H. Urie

    1977-01-01

    Four species of forage were grown in a greenhouse on acid strip mine spoil treated with municipal sewage sludge. Foliar levels of heavy metals exceeded those recommended for animal consumption. No plant toxicity symptoms were evident.

  8. Success of trees and shrubs in an 18-year-old planting on mine spoil

    Treesearch

    Gary L. Wade; Ralph L. Thompson; Willis G. Vogel; Willis G. Vogel

    1985-01-01

    Reports the status of l&year-old plantings of 25 tree and 25 shrub species on surface-mine spoil. The value of the species for wood products, wildlife habitat, site stabilizers, and soil builders is discussed

  9. Modeling Patterns of Total Dissolved Solids Release from Central Appalachia, USA, Mine Spoils.

    PubMed

    Clark, Elyse V; Zipper, Carl E; Daniels, W Lee; Orndorff, Zenah W; Keefe, Matthew J

    2017-01-01

    Surface mining in the central Appalachian coalfields (USA) influences water quality because the interaction of infiltrated waters and O with freshly exposed mine spoils releases elevated levels of total dissolved solids (TDS) to streams. Modeling and predicting the short- and long-term TDS release potentials of mine spoils can aid in the management of current and future mining-influenced watersheds and landscapes. In this study, the specific conductance (SC, a proxy variable for TDS) patterns of 39 mine spoils during a sequence of 40 leaching events were modeled using a five-parameter nonlinear regression. Estimated parameter values were compared to six rapid spoil assessment techniques (RSATs) to assess predictive relationships between model parameters and RSATs. Spoil leachates reached maximum values, 1108 ± 161 μS cm on average, within the first three leaching events, then declined exponentially to a breakpoint at the 16th leaching event on average. After the breakpoint, SC release remained linear, with most spoil samples exhibiting declines in SC release with successive leaching events. The SC asymptote averaged 276 ± 25 μS cm. Only three samples had SCs >500 μS cm at the end of the 40 leaching events. Model parameters varied with mine spoil rock and weathering type, and RSATs were predictive of four model parameters. Unweathered samples released higher SCs throughout the leaching period relative to weathered samples, and rock type influenced the rate of SC release. The RSATs for SC, total S, and neutralization potential may best predict certain phases of mine spoil TDS release. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  10. Oxygen transport and pyrite oxidation in unsaturated coal-mine spoil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guo, Weixing; Cravotta, Charles A.

    1996-01-01

    An understanding of the mechanisms of oxygen (02) transport in unsaturated mine spoil is necessary to design and implement effective measures to exclude 02 from pyritic materials and to control the formation of acidic mine drainage. Partial pressure of oxygen (Po2) in pore gas, chemistry of pore water, and temperature were measured at different depths in unsaturated spoil at two reclaimed surface coal mines in Pennsylvania. At mine 1, where spoil was loose, blocky sandstone, Po2 changed little with depth, decreasing from 21 volume percent (vol%) at the ground surface to a minimum of about 18 vol% at 10 m depth. At mine 2, where spoil was compacted, friable shale, Po2 decreased to less than 2 vol% at depth of about 10 m. Although pore-water chemistry and temperature data indicate that acid-forming reactions were active at both mines, the pore-gas data indicate that mechanisms for 0 2 transport were different at each mine. A numerical model was developed to simulate 02 transport and pyrite oxidation in unsaturated mine spoil. The results of the numerical simulations indicate that differences in 02 transport at the two mines can be explained by differences in the air permeability of spoil. Po2 changes little with depth if advective transport of 02 dominates as at mine 1, but decreases greatly with depth if diffusive transport of 02 dominates, as in mine 2. Model results also indicate that advective transport becomes significant if the air permeability of spoil is greater than 10-9 m2, which is expected for blocky sandstone spoil. In the advective-dominant system, thermally-induced convective air flow, as a consequence of the exothermic oxidation of pyrite, supplies the 02 to maintain high Po2 within the deep unsaturated zone.

  11. Salt Content Determination for Bentonite Mine Spoil: Saturation Extracts Versus 1:5 Extracts

    Treesearch

    Marguerite E. Voorhees; Daniel W. Uresk

    2004-01-01

    The reliability of estimating salt content in saturated extracts from 1:5 (1spoil:5water) extract levels for bentonite mine spoil was examined by regression analyses. Nine chemical variables were examined that included pH, EC, Ca++, Mg++, Na+, K+, HCO3-, SO4-, and Cl-. Ion concentrations from 1:5 extracts were estimated with high predictability for Ca++, Mg++, Na+, SO4...

  12. Antioxidant activity of apple peels.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Kelly; Wu, Xianzhong; Liu, Rui Hai

    2003-01-29

    Consumption of fruits and vegetables has been shown to be effective in the prevention of chronic diseases. These benefits are often attributed to the high antioxidant content of some plant foods. Apples are commonly eaten and are large contributors of phenolic compounds in European and North American diets. The peels of apples, in particular, are high in phenolics. During applesauce and canned apple manufacture, the antioxidant-rich peels of apples are discarded. To determine if a useful source of antioxidants is being wasted, the phytochemical content, antioxidant activity, and antiproliferative activity of the peels of four varieties of apples (Rome Beauty, Idared, Cortland, and Golden Delicious) commonly used in applesauce production in New York state were investigated. The values of the peels were compared to those of the flesh and flesh + peel components of the apples. Within each variety, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents were highest in the peels, followed by the flesh + peel and the flesh. Idared and Rome Beauty apple peels had the highest total phenolic contents (588.9 +/- 83.2 and 500.2 +/- 13.7 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g of peels, respectively). Rome Beauty and Idared peels were also highest in flavonoids (306.1 +/- 6.7 and 303.2 +/- 41.5 mg of catechin equivalents/100 g of peels, respectively). Of the four varieties, Idared apple peels had the most anthocyanins, with 26.8 +/- 6.5 mg of cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalents/100 g of peels. The peels all had significantly higher total antioxidant activities than the flesh + peel and flesh of the apple varieties examined. Idared peels had the greatest antioxidant activity (312.2 +/- 9.8 micromol of vitamin C equivalents/g of peels). Apple peels were also shown to more effectively inhibit the growth of HepG(2) human liver cancer cells than the other apple components. Rome Beauty apple peels showed the most bioactivity, inhibiting cell proliferation by 50% at the low concentration of 12.4 +/- 0

  13. Succession on regraded placer mine spoil in Alaska, USA, in relation to initial site characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Densmore, R.V.

    1994-01-01

    This study evaluated the rate and pattern of natural succession on regraded placer mine spoil in relation to initial substrate characteristics. The study site was the Glen Creek watershed of the Kantishna mining area of Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska. After regrading, twelve 0.01-ha plots were established and substrate characteristics were measured. Natural plant succession was evaluated after five growing seasons. Three successional patterns were identified on the basis of plant community characteristics using cluster analysis, and were related to substrate characteristics. First, a riparian plant community with vigorous Salix alaxensis and Alnus crispa grew rapidly on topsoil that had been spread over the regraded spoil. Second, a similar plant community with less vigorous S. alaxensis developed more slowly on unprocessed spoil and spoil amended with a small amount of topsoil. Third, processed spoil remained almost bare of vegetation, although S. alaxensis was able to establish and persist in a stunted growth form. In contrast, Alnus crispa had difficulty establishing on processed spoil, but the few established seedlings grew well. Several substrate variables, including the proportion of silt and clay vs. sand, total nitrogen, and water retention capacity, were good predictors of the rate and pattern of succession. Total nitrogen was the best single predictor for the number of vigorous S. alaxensis.

  14. Identification of ecotype-specific marker genes for categorization of beer-spoiling Lactobacillus brevis.

    PubMed

    Behr, Jürgen; Geissler, Andreas J; Preissler, Patrick; Ehrenreich, Armin; Angelov, Angel; Vogel, Rudi F

    2015-10-01

    The tolerance to hop compounds, which is mainly associated with inhibition of bacterial growth in beer, is a multi-factorial trait. Any approaches to predict the physiological differences between beer-spoiling and non-spoiling strains on the basis of a single marker gene are limited. We identified ecotype-specific genes related to the ability to grow in Pilsner beer via comparative genome sequencing. The genome sequences of four different strains of Lactobacillus brevis were compared, including newly established genomes of two highly hop tolerant beer isolates, one strain isolated from faeces and one published genome of a silage isolate. Gene fragments exclusively occurring in beer-spoiling strains as well as sequences only occurring in non-spoiling strains were identified. Comparative genomic arrays were established and hybridized with a set of L. brevis strains, which are characterized by their ability to spoil beer. As result, a set of 33 and 4 oligonucleotide probes could be established specifically detecting beer-spoilers and non-spoilers, respectively. The detection of more than one of these marker sequences according to a genetic barcode enables scoring of L. brevis for their beer-spoiling potential and can thus assist in risk evaluation in brewing industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Growth, nitrogen accumulation and nitrogen transfer by legume species established on mine spoils

    SciTech Connect

    Jefferies, R.A.; Bradshaw, A.D.; Putwain, P.D.

    1981-12-01

    Nitrogen deficiency is an important factor limiting plant growth on many types of mine and mineral spoils. One method of overcoming this problem is to use legume species which are able to accumulate nitrogen in such spoils. The growth, nitrogen accumulation and nitrogen transfer to a companion species was compared in contrasting legume species established on colliery spoil and on sand waste from the extraction of china clay. Legumes can be effective means of accumulating nitrogen in such spoils with rates as high as 295 kg N ha/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/ being measured for Lupinus perennis sown on sand waste.more » Nitrogen transfer from legumes to a companion grass was also apparent. Trifolium repens sown on colliery spoil increased the nitrogen content of the companion grass by 76 kg ha/sup -1/ within 2 yr of sowing. It is concluded that a wider range of legume species than conventionally used is available, offering greater tolerance of the extreme conditions of mine spoils combined with high rates of nitrogen accumulation. It is necessary to develop reclamation strategies which incorporate such species.« less

  16. Phytoextraction from mine spoils: insights from New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Losfeld, Guillaume; Mathieu, Romain; L'Huillier, Laurent; Fogliani, Bruno; Jaffré, Tanguy; Grison, Claude

    2015-04-01

    Increasing pressure on mineral resources has drawn research efforts into innovative supply and recycling. Metal-rich biomass produced in phytoextraction recently proved an interesting starting material for green chemistry. It allows the production of new catalysts, referred to as ecocatalysts. Ecocatalysts provide increased yields in chemical production and increased regio- and chemo-selectivity, which result in high added value. This new approach to using metal-rich biomass could spur the development of phytoextraction, a technique considered promising for long, yet without credible economic outlets. In this regard, metallophyte biodiversity hotspots, such as New Caledonia, are of particular interest for biomass supply. Potential phytoextraction from mine spoils using two species endemic to New Caledonia is discussed here. Geissois pruinosa, a hypernickelophore, and Grevillea exul, a Mn accumulator, were selected for these original experiments. The results presented here 20 months after plantation of young trees from a nursery show the interest of the approach. Mean Ni concentrations of up to 1513 mg kg(-1) are reported in G. pruinosa, as well as 2000 mg kg(-1) Mn in G. exul. Concentrations of Ni and Mn in the leaves of each species appear to be correlated with leaf age. Plantation of these species may also ensure mine reclamation, and experiments were conducted with the principles of ecological restoration in mind adding a further dimension to the approach.

  17. Giving bad news: a qualitative research exploration.

    PubMed

    Aein, Fereshteh; Delaram, Masoumeh

    2014-06-01

    The manner in which healthcare professionals deliver bad news affects the way it is received, interpreted, understood, and dealt with. Despite the fact that clinicians are responsible for breaking bad news, it has been shown that they lack skills necessary to perform this task. The purpose of this study was to explore Iranian mothers' experiences to receive bad news about their children cancer and to summarize suggestions for improving delivering bad news by healthcare providers. A qualitative approach using content analysis was adopted. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 mothers from two pediatric hospitals in Iran. Five major categories emerged from the data analysis, including dumping information, shock and upset, emotional work, burden of delivering bad news to the family members, and a room for multidisciplinary approach. Effective communication of healthcare team with mothers is required during breaking bad news. Using multidisciplinary approaches to prevent harmful reactions and providing appropriate support are recommended.

  18. The effect of selenium on spoil suitability as root zone material at Navajo Mine, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, J.R.; Buchanan, B.A.; Ramsey, T.C.

    1995-09-01

    The root zone suitability limits for spoil Se at Navajo Mine in northwest New Mexico are currently 0.8 ppm total Se and 0.15 ppm hot-water soluble Se. These criteria were largely developed by the Office of Surface Mining using data from the Northern Great Plains. Applying these values, approximately 23% of the spoil volume and 47% of the spoil area sampled at Navajo Mine from 1985 to December 1993 were determined to be unsuitable as root zone material. Secondary Se accumulator plants (Atriplex canescens) growing in both undisturbed and reclaimed areas were randomly sampled for selenium from 1985 to Decembermore » 1993. In most cases the undisturbed soil and reclaimed spoil at these plant sampling sites were sampled for both total and hot-water soluble Se. Selenium values for Atriplex canescens samples collected on the undisturbed sites averaged 0.64 ppm and ranged from 0.20 ppm to 2.5 ppm. Selenium values for the plants growing on spoil ranged from 0.02 ppm to 7.75 ppm and averaged 1.07 ppm. Total and hot-water Se values for spoil averaged 0.66 ppm and 0.06 ppm respectively, and ranged from 0.0 to 14.2 for total Se and 0.0 ppm to 0.72 ppm for hot-water soluble Se. The plant Se values were poorly correlated to both total and hot-water soluble Se values for both soil and spoil. Therefore, predicting suitable guidelines using normal regression techniques was ineffective. Based on background Se levels in native soils, and levels found on reclaimed areas with Atriplex canescens, it is suggested that a total Se level of 2.0 ppm and a hot-water soluble Se level of 0.25 ppm should be used to represent the suitability limits for Se at Navajo Mine. If these Se values are used, it is estimated that less than 1% of the spoil volume would be unsuitable. This volume of spoil seems to be a more accurate estimate of the amount of spoil with unsuitable levels of Se than the estimated 23% using the current guidelines.« less

  19. The copper spoil heap Knappenberg, Austria, as a model for metal habitats - Vegetation, substrate and contamination.

    PubMed

    Adlassnig, Wolfram; Weiss, Yasmin S; Sassmann, Stefan; Steinhauser, Georg; Hofhansl, Florian; Baumann, Nils; Lichtscheidl, Irene K; Lang, Ingeborg

    2016-09-01

    Historic mining in the Eastern Alps has left us with a legacy of numerous spoil heaps hosting specific, metal tolerant vegetation. Such habitats are characterized by elevated concentrations of toxic elements but also by high irradiation, a poorly developed substrate or extreme pH of the soil. This study investigates the distribution of vascular plants, mosses and lichens on a copper spoil heap on the ore bearing Knappenberg formed by Prebichl Layers and Werfener Schist in Lower Austria. It serves as a model for discriminating between various ecological traits and their effects on vegetation. Five distinct clusters were distinguished: (1) The bare, metal rich Central Spoil Heap was only colonised by highly resistant specialists. (2) The Northern and (3) Southern Peripheries contained less copper; the contrasting vegetation was best explained by the different microclimate. (4) A forest over acidic bedrock hosted a vegetation overlapping with the periphery of the spoil heap. (5) A forest over calcareous bedrock was similar to the spoil heap with regard to pH and humus content but hosted a vegetation differing strongly to all other habitats. Among the multiple toxic elements at the spoil heap, only Cu seems to exert a crucial influence on the vegetation pattern. Besides metal concentrations, irradiation, humidity, humus, pH and grain size distribution are important for the establishment of a metal tolerant vegetation. The difference between the species poor Northern and the diverse Southern Periphery can be explained by the microclimate rather than by the substrate. All plant species penetrating from the forest into the periphery of the spoil heap originate from the acidic but not from the calcareous bedrock. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Lactobacillus cerevisiae sp. nov., isolated from a spoiled brewery sample.

    PubMed

    Koob, Jennifer; Jacob, Fritz; Wenning, Mareike; Hutzler, Mathias

    2017-09-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium, designated TUM BP 140423000-2250T (=DSM 100836T=LMG 29073T), was isolated from spoiled beer. This bacterium did not form spores, and was catalase-negative and facultatively anaerobic. Its taxonomic position was determined in a polyphasic study. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity data showed that the strain belonged to the Lactobacillus genus with the nearest neighbours being Lactobacillus koreensis DCY50T (sequence similarity 99.5 %), Lactobacillus yonginensis THK-V8T (99.2 %) and Lactobacillus parabrevis LMG 11984T (98.7 %). Sequence comparisons of additional phylogenetic markers, pheS and rpoA, confirmed the 16S rRNA gene sequence tree topology. The maximum rpoA sequence similarity was 92.3 % with L. yonginensis THK-V8T. The DNA G+C content of the isolate was 50.0 mol%. The DNA-DNA relatedness showed that strain TUM BP 140423000-2250T could be clearly distinguished from L. koreensis DCY 50T (30.8±0.4 %) and L. yonginensis THK-V8T (23.6±5.9 %). The major fatty acids were C18 : 1ω9c, summed feature 7 (comprised of C19 : 0 cyclo ω10c/C19 : 1ω6c) and C16 : 0. Based on phenotypic and genotypic studies, the authors propose classifying the new isolate as a representative of a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, Lactobacillus cerevisiae sp. nov. The type strain is deposited at the Research Centre Weihenstephan for Brewing and Food Quality as TUM BP 140423000-2250T (=DSM 100836T=LMG 29073T).

  1. Soil quality index for evaluation of reclaimed coal mine spoil.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, S; Masto, R E; Yadav, A; George, J; Ram, L C; Shukla, S P

    2016-01-15

    Success in the remediation of mine spoil depends largely on the selection of appropriate tree species. The impacts of remediation on mine soil quality cannot be sufficiently assessed by individual soil properties. However, combination of soil properties into an integrated soil quality index provides a more holistic status of reclamation potentials of tree species. Remediation potentials of four tree species (Acacia auriculiformis, Cassia siamea, Dalbergia sissoo, and Leucaena leucocephala) were studied on reclaimed coal mine overburden dumps of Jharia coalfield, Dhanbad, India. Soil samples were collected under the canopies of the tree species. Comparative studies on the properties of soils in the reclaimed and the reference sites showed improvements in soil quality parameters of the reclaimed site: coarse fraction (-20.4%), bulk density (-12.8%), water holding capacity (+0.92%), pH (+25.4%), EC (+2.9%), cation exchange capacity (+46.6%), organic carbon (+91.5%), N (+60.6%), P (+113%), K (+19.9%), Ca (+49.6%), Mg (+12.2%), Na (+19.6%), S (+46.7%), total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (-71.4%), dehydrogenase activity (+197%), and microbial biomass carbon (+115%). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify key mine soil quality indicators to develop a soil quality index (SQI). Selected indicators include: coarse fraction, pH, EC, soil organic carbon, P, Ca, S, and dehydrogenase activity. The indicator values were converted into a unitless score (0-1.00) and integrated into SQI. The calculated SQI was significantly (P<0.001) correlated with tree biomass and canopy cover. Reclaimed site has 52-93% higher SQI compared to the reference site. Higher SQI values were obtained for sites reclaimed with D.sissoo (+93.1%) and C.siamea (+86.4%). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Survey of molds, yeast and Alicyclobacillus spp. from a concentrated apple juice productive process.

    PubMed

    de Cássia Martins Salomão, Beatriz; Muller, Chalana; do Amparo, Hudson Couto; de Aragão, Gláucia Maria Falcão

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria and molds may spoil and/or contaminate apple juice either by direct microbial action or indirectly by the uptake of metabolites as off-flavours and toxins. Some of these microorganisms and/or metabolites may remain in the food even after extensive procedures. This study aim to identify the presence of molds (including heat resistant species) and Alicyclobacillus spp., during concentrated apple juice processing. Molds were isolated at different steps and then identified by their macroscopic and microscopic characteristics after cultivation on standard media at 5, 25 and 37 °C, during 7 days. Among the 19 isolated found, 63% were identified as Penicillium with 50% belonging to the P. expansum specie. With regards to heat resistant molds, the species Neosartorya fischeri, Byssochlamys fulva and also the genus Eupenicillium sp., Talaromyces sp. and Eurotium sp. were isolated. The thermoacidophilic spore-forming bacteria were identified as A. acidoterrestris by a further investigation based on 16S rRNA sequence similarity. The large contamination found indicates the need for methods to eliminate or prevent the presence of these microorganisms in the processing plants in order to avoid both spoilage of apple juice and toxin production.

  3. Short-term biomarkers of apple consumption.

    PubMed

    Saenger, Theresa; Hübner, Florian; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2017-03-01

    Urinary biomarkers are used to estimate the nutritional intake of humans. The aim of this study was to distinguish between low, medium, and high apple consumption by quantifying possible intake biomarkers in urine samples after apple consumption by HPLC-MS/MS. Apples were chosen as they are the most consumed fruits in Germany. Thirty subjects took part in 7-day study. They abstained from apples and apple products except for one weighed apple portion resembling one, two, or four apples. Before apple consumption and during the following days spot urine samples were collected. These urine samples were incubated with β-glucuronidase, diluted, and directly measured by HPLC-MS/MS. Phloretin, epicatechin, procyanidin B2, and quercetin were detected in urine using Scheduled MRM TM mode. Phloretin was confirmed as a urinary biomarker of apple intake and had the ability to discriminate between low or medium (one or two apples) and high apple consumption (four apples). The groups also differ in the excretion of epicatechin and procyanidin B2. Apple consumption can be monitored by urinary biomarkers for a period of at least 12 h after consumption. Furthermore the amount of apples consumed can be estimated by the concentration of certain biomarkers. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Influence of mine spoil type, fertilizer, and mycorrhizae on pines seeded in greenhouse trays

    SciTech Connect

    Preve, R.E.; Burger, J.A.; Kreh, R.E.

    Growth and mycorrhizal colonization of surface-seeded pine (Pinus sp.) as affected by two different mine spoil types (siltstone and sandstone), two fertilizer treatments (control and 100 kg/ha each of N, P, and K), and three mycorrhizal inoculation treatments (control, 56 kg/ha pine litter, and 250 g/ha Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coker and Couch (PT) basidioxpores) were evaluated in a greenhouse experiment. Emergence was highest (12, 55, and 34% for P. strobus, P. virginiana, and P. taeda, respectively) in nonfertilized siltstone, but growth performance was greatest in fertilized sandstone. Fertilization increased shoot weight of white, Virginia, and loblolly pine growing in sandstonemore » spoil two-, ten-, and eightfold, respectively. Fertilization had no effect on seedlings growing in siltstone spoil. Mycorrhizal inoculation of Virginia pine was effective in sandstone but not in siltstone spoil. Addition of pine litter and Pisolithus tinctorius spores to sandstone spoil increased the percentage of colonized Virginia pines by 27 and 33%, respectively. Inoculation had no effect on the number of white and loblolly trees colonized.« less

  5. Prenatal correlates of indigent mothers' attitudes about spoiling their young infants: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Pascoe, J M; Solomon, R

    1994-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate factors associated with indigent mothers' attitudes about spoiling their young infants. Mothers who believe that young infants can be spoiled may be more likely to misperceive their infants' basic needs for nurturing and thus undermine their infants' sense of security and trust. One hundred twenty-nine consecutive pregnant women who were at approximately 15 weeks' gestation completed measures to assess depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale) and social support (Maternal Social Support Index). One hundred seventeen mothers (91%) completed a simple three-question Spoiling Index when their infants were about 1 month old. Fifty-eight percent were single, never married, 73% multiparous, 66% Euro-American, 28% African-American, and 84% at least 20 years old. Fifty-eight percent of mothers believed infants younger than 5 months old could be spoiled. After including maternal age, race, marital status, prenatal social support, and number of prenatal clinic visits in the hierarchical logistic regression model, "spoilers" were more likely to be primigravida mothers (odds ratio = 2.71; 95% confidence interval, 1.05 to 7.06) and more likely to be depressed during pregnancy (odds ratio = 2.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.29 to 6.19). Primigravida indigent mothers and mothers with higher levels of prenatal depressive symptoms are more likely to believe they can spoil their young infants.

  6. 25 CFR 11.421 - Bad checks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bad checks. 11.421 Section 11.421 Indians BUREAU OF... Criminal Offenses § 11.421 Bad checks. (a) A person who issues or passes a check or similar sight order for..., and the issuer failed to make good within 10 days after receiving notice of that refusal. ...

  7. The APPL "Learning Map"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Root Learning, a learning consulting organization with a background in strategic planning, recognizes the knowledge gap that frequently exists between a leadership team and the rest of an organization. Team members supposedly working toward the same goal don't always have the same vision as to where the organization is headed, and they may not understand how the piece they are accountable for fits into the big picture. To address these complex problems, Root Learning utilizes the age-old tools of sarcasm, metaphor and graphics (much in the same way that ASK uses a traditional storytelling format.) The company is best known for creating "Learning Maps" like this one: humorous drawings based on the inner workings of an organization. Their purpose is to put complex topics on the table, to stimulate discussion, and to ultimately give team members a common vision of where the organization is going and what role they personally play in getting there. APPL knows how effective it is to incorporate new and engaging techniques into its knowledge sharing programs. By collaborating with Root Learning, we were able to expand the knowledge of the organization and add one more of these techniques to our repertoire.

  8. Apple (Malus x domestica).

    PubMed

    Dandekar, Abhaya M; Teo, Gianni; Uratsu, Sandra L; Tricoli, David

    2006-01-01

    Apple (Malus x domestica) is one of the most consumed fruit crops in the world. The major production areas are the temperate regions, however, because of its excellent storage capacity it is transported to distant markets covering the four corners of the earth. Transformation is a key to sustaining this demand - permitting the potential enhancement of existing cultivars as well as to investigate the development of new cultivars resistant to pest, disease, and storage problems that occur in the major production areas. In this paper we describe an efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation protocol that utilizes leaf tissues from in vitro grown plants. Shoot regeneration is selected with kanamycin using the selectable kanamycin phosphotransferase (APH(3)II) gene and the resulting transformants confirmed using the scorable uidA gene encoding the bacterial beta-glucuronidase (GUS) enzyme via histochemical staining. Transformed shoots are propagated, rooted to create transgenic plants that are then introduced into soil, acclimatized and transferred to the greenhouse from where they are taken out into the orchard for field-testing.

  9. Breaking Bad Habits | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Bad Habits Breaking Bad Habits: Why It's So Hard to Change Past Issues / ... News in Health ( http://newsinhealth.nih.gov/ ) Break Bad Habits Avoid temptations. If you always stop for a ...

  10. Development of apple chips technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalska, Hanna; Marzec, Agata; Kowalska, Jolanta; Samborska, Kinga; Tywonek, Małgorzata; Lenart, Andrzej

    2018-05-01

    For develop of apple chips technology without chemical preservation osmotic dehydration in cherry or apple juice concentrates or fructooligosaccharide solutions and convection drying were used. Studies included the effect of dehydration on the mass transfer in apples and the quality of the final product. The temperature, type of osmotic solution and its concentration were changeable. The fruit were tested on mass transfer indicators, stability (water activity), texture (breaking test) and nutritional value (polyphenol content, acidity). Sensory evaluation was also performed. On this basis, the verification of all options was made and the most acceptable samples were selected. Concentration of osmotic solutions at 25°Brix limited solids gain in apples. Under these conditions, the phenomenon of osmosis caused 8-10 times greater water loss than solids gain. Increasing the concentration of solutions up to 50°Brix had a significantly greater impact on mass exchange in apples, compared to increasing the temperature from 40 to 60 °C. Osmotic dehydration before drying did not significantly affect the water activity but increase of the temperature negatively affected on breaking force of the chips. Chips obtained by osmotic dehydration of apples in a cherry concentrate solution contained significantly more polyphenols, and were characterized by a higher acidity than the variants obtained by dehydration in concentrated apple juice. Furthermore, they were marked by red color which has been thought as part of the attractiveness of the product. The least sensory acceptable chips were prepared using osmotic pre-treatment in cherry concentrated juice solution with the addition of fructooligosaccharide.

  11. Too True to be Bad

    PubMed Central

    Etz, Alexander J.

    2017-01-01

    Psychology journals rarely publish nonsignificant results. At the same time, it is often very unlikely (or “too good to be true”) that a set of studies yields exclusively significant results. Here, we use likelihood ratios to explain when sets of studies that contain a mix of significant and nonsignificant results are likely to be true or “too true to be bad.” As we show, mixed results are not only likely to be observed in lines of research but also, when observed, often provide evidence for the alternative hypothesis, given reasonable levels of statistical power and an adequately controlled low Type 1 error rate. Researchers should feel comfortable submitting such lines of research with an internal meta-analysis for publication. A better understanding of probabilities, accompanied by more realistic expectations of what real sets of studies look like, might be an important step in mitigating publication bias in the scientific literature. PMID:29276574

  12. The Bad Mother: Stigma, Abortion and Surrogacy.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Stigma taints individuals with a spoiled identity and loss of status or discrimination. This article is the first to examine the stigma attached to abortion and surrogacy and consider how law may stigmatize women for failing to conform to social expectations about maternal roles. Courts should consider evidence of stigma when evaluating laws regulating abortion or surrogacy to determine whether these laws are based on impermissible gender stereotyping. © 2015 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  13. Recognizing critical mine spoil health characteristics to design biochars for site improvement to promote stabilizing plant growth

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biochar can be used as an amendment to remediate metal-contaminated mine spoils for improved site phytostabilization. For successful phytostabilization to occur, biochar amendments must improve mine spoil health with respect to plant rooting plus uptake of water and nutrients. ...

  14. Remediation of an acidic mine spoil: Miscanthus biochar and lime amendment affects metal availability, plant growth and soil enzymatic activity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biochar is proposed as an amendment for mine spoil remediation; however, its effectiveness at achieving this goal remains unclear. Miscanthus (Miscanthus giganteus) biochar was tested for potentially improving acidic mine spoil (pH < 3; Formosa mine near Riddle, Oregon) health conditions by sequeste...

  15. Cryptosporidiosis associated with ozonated apple cider.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Brian G; Mazurek, Jacek M; Hlavsa, Michele; Park, Jean; Tillapaw, Matt; Parrish, MaryKay; Salehi, Ellen; Franks, William; Koch, Elizabeth; Smith, Forrest; Xiao, Lihua; Arrowood, Michael; Hill, Vince; da Silva, Alex; Johnston, Stephanie; Jones, Jeffrey L

    2006-04-01

    We linked an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis to ozonated apple cider by using molecular and epidemiologic methods. Because ozonation was insufficient in preventing this outbreak, its use in rendering apple cider safe for drinking is questioned.

  16. [Significance of bad habits in orthodontics].

    PubMed

    Tarján, Ildikó

    2002-08-01

    The author is concerned with the etiological role of bad habits in the development. Disturbances caused by pacifier habits, finger sucking, various forms of swallowing habits and their therapeutical possibilities are discussed. The role of mouth breathing, nail biting, bruxism and self-mutilation in development of anomalies and their therapy are also mentioned. The attention is called to the fact that dentists have responsibility and task to diagnose as early as can be the oral bad habits and that the adequate therapy in time in co-operation with other specialists helping the child get out of bad habits, preventing the development of severe anomaly.

  17. Ensuring the genetic diversity of apples

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apples (Malus × domestica Borkh.) are a nutritious source of antioxidants, polyphenolics, vitamins, and fiber. Many of the apple cultivars that are currently produced were identified over a century ago and do not offer resistance to pathogens and tolerance to climatic threats. Apple breeding program...

  18. Good IR duals of bad quiver theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Anindya; Koroteev, Peter

    2018-05-01

    The infrared dynamics of generic 3d N = 4 bad theories (as per the good-bad-ugly classification of Gaiotto and Witten) are poorly understood. Examples of such theories with a single unitary gauge group and fundamental flavors have been studied recently, and the low energy effective theory around some special point in the Coulomb branch was shown to have a description in terms of a good theory and a certain number of free hypermultiplets. A classification of possible infrared fixed points for bad theories by Bashkirov, based on unitarity constraints and superconformal symmetry, suggest a much richer set of possibilities for the IR behavior, although explicit examples were not known. In this note, we present a specific example of a bad quiver gauge theory which admits a good IR description on a sublocus of its Coulomb branch. The good description, in question, consists of two decoupled quiver gauge theories with no free hypermultiplets.

  19. Bad Science and Its Social Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeidler, Dana L.; Sadler, Troy D.; Berson, Michael J.; Fogelman, Aimee L.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates three types of bad science: (1) cultural prejudice based on scientific errors (polygenism, phrenology, reification through intelligence testing); (2) unethical science (Tuskegee syphilis experiments, tobacco companies and research); and (3) unwitting errors (pesticides, chlorofluorocarbons). (Contains 50 references.) (SK)

  20. Reactionary responses to the Bad Lot Objection.

    PubMed

    Dellsén, Finnur

    2017-02-01

    As it is standardly conceived, Inference to the Best Explanation (IBE) is a form of ampliative inference in which one infers a hypothesis because it provides a better potential explanation of one's evidence than any other available, competing explanatory hypothesis. Bas van Fraassen famously objected to IBE thus formulated that we may have no reason to think that any of the available, competing explanatory hypotheses are true. While revisionary responses to the Bad Lot Objection concede that IBE needs to be reformulated in light of this problem, reactionary responses argue that the Bad Lot Objection is fallacious, incoherent, or misguided. This paper shows that the most influential reactionary responses to the Bad Lot Objection do nothing to undermine the original objection. This strongly suggests that proponents of IBE should focus their efforts on revisionary responses, i.e. on finding a more sophisticated characterization of IBE for which the Bad Lot Objection loses its bite. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 46 CFR 170.300 - Special consideration for free surface of spoil in hopper dredge hoppers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Special consideration for free surface of spoil in hopper dredge hoppers. 170.300 Section 170.300 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY STABILITY REQUIREMENTS FOR ALL INSPECTED VESSELS Free Surface § 170.300...

  2. Shrub and tree establishment on coal spoils in northern High Plains - USA

    Treesearch

    Ardell J. Bjugstad

    1984-01-01

    Trickle irrigation, during establishment, increased survival two fold for seven species of shrubs and trees planted on coal mine spoil in the semiarid area of northeastern Wyoming, USA. Increased survival of irrigated plants persisted for five years after initiation of this study, which included two growing and winter seasons after cessation of irrigation. Species...

  3. An evaluation of trees and shrubs for planting surface-mine spoils

    Treesearch

    William T. Plass

    1975-01-01

    Fifty-five tree and shrub species were evaluated on two surface-mine sites in eastern Kentucky. After 4 years' growth, comparison of survival and growth was used to identify the promising species for planting on acid surface-mine spoils. Three species of birch and three Eleagnus species survived and grew well on a range of sites. Noncommercial...

  4. Sprouting of thinned hybrid poplars on bituminous strip-mine spoils in Pennsylvania

    Treesearch

    Walter H. Davidson; Grant Davis

    1972-01-01

    Various thinning techniques were applied to 5-year old hybrid poplar stands on bituminous strip-mine spoils. Basal and stump sprays of 2, 4, 5-T in diesel oil were effective for killing the trees. There was no evidence that chemical treatments affected adjacent trees. Where trees were cut and stumps were not chemically treated, all clones sprouted prolifically....

  5. Restoration of acidic mine spoils with sewage sludge: II measurement of solids applied

    SciTech Connect

    Stucky, D.J.; Zoeller, A.L.

    1980-01-01

    Sewage sludge was incorporated in acidic strip mine spoils at rates equivalent to 0, 224, 336, and 448 dry metric tons (dmt)/ha and placed in pots in a greenhouse. Spoil parameters were determined 48 hours after sludge incorporation, Time Planting (P), and five months after orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) was planted, Time Harvest (H), in the pots. Parameters measured were: pH, organic matter content (OM), cation exchange capacity (CEC), electrical conductivity (EC) and yield. Values for each parameter were significantly different at the two sampling times. Correlation coefficient values were calculated for all parameters versus rates of applied sewage sludgemore » and all parameters versus each other. Multiple regressions were performed, stepwise, for all parameters versus rates of applied sewage sludge. Equations to predict amounts of sewage sludge incorporated in spoils were derived for individual and multiple parameters. Generally, measurements made at Time P achieved the highest correlation coefficient and multiple correlation coefficient values; therefore, the authors concluded data from Time P had the greatest predictability value. The most important value measured to predict rate of applied sewage sludge was pH and some additional accuracy was obtained by including CEC in equation. This experiment indicated that soil properties can be used to estimate amounts of sewage sludge solids required to reclaim acidic mine spoils and to estimate quantities incorporated.« less

  6. 46 CFR 170.300 - Special consideration for free surface of spoil in hopper dredge hoppers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... hopper dredge hoppers. 170.300 Section 170.300 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Special consideration for free surface of spoil in hopper dredge hoppers. The calculations required by this subchapter for each self-propelled hopper dredge must include— (a) The free surface effect of...

  7. 46 CFR 170.300 - Special consideration for free surface of spoil in hopper dredge hoppers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... hopper dredge hoppers. 170.300 Section 170.300 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Special consideration for free surface of spoil in hopper dredge hoppers. The calculations required by this subchapter for each self-propelled hopper dredge must include— (a) The free surface effect of...

  8. 30 CFR 816.74 - Disposal of excess spoil: Preexisting benches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to a lower preexisting bench by means of gravity transport may be approved by the regulatory authority provided that— (1) The gravity transport courses are determined on a site-specific basis by the..., and downslope of the lower bench should excess spoil accidentally move; (2) All gravity transported...

  9. 30 CFR 817.74 - Disposal of excess spoil: Preexisting benches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to a lower preexisting bench by means of gravity transport may be approved by the regulatory authority provided that— (1) The gravity transport courses are determined on a site-specific basis by the..., and downslope of the lower bench should excess spoil accidentally move; (2) All gravity transported...

  10. 30 CFR 817.74 - Disposal of excess spoil: Preexisting benches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to a lower preexisting bench by means of gravity transport may be approved by the regulatory authority provided that— (1) The gravity transport courses are determined on a site-specific basis by the..., and downslope of the lower bench should excess spoil accidentally move; (2) All gravity transported...

  11. 30 CFR 817.74 - Disposal of excess spoil: Preexisting benches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to a lower preexisting bench by means of gravity transport may be approved by the regulatory authority provided that— (1) The gravity transport courses are determined on a site-specific basis by the..., and downslope of the lower bench should excess spoil accidentally move; (2) All gravity transported...

  12. 30 CFR 816.74 - Disposal of excess spoil: Preexisting benches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to a lower preexisting bench by means of gravity transport may be approved by the regulatory authority provided that— (1) The gravity transport courses are determined on a site-specific basis by the..., and downslope of the lower bench should excess spoil accidentally move; (2) All gravity transported...

  13. 30 CFR 816.74 - Disposal of excess spoil: Preexisting benches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to a lower preexisting bench by means of gravity transport may be approved by the regulatory authority provided that— (1) The gravity transport courses are determined on a site-specific basis by the..., and downslope of the lower bench should excess spoil accidentally move; (2) All gravity transported...

  14. 30 CFR 816.74 - Disposal of excess spoil: Preexisting benches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to a lower preexisting bench by means of gravity transport may be approved by the regulatory authority provided that— (1) The gravity transport courses are determined on a site-specific basis by the..., and downslope of the lower bench should excess spoil accidentally move; (2) All gravity transported...

  15. 30 CFR 817.74 - Disposal of excess spoil: Preexisting benches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to a lower preexisting bench by means of gravity transport may be approved by the regulatory authority provided that— (1) The gravity transport courses are determined on a site-specific basis by the..., and downslope of the lower bench should excess spoil accidentally move; (2) All gravity transported...

  16. 30 CFR 817.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... (1) All vegetative and organic materials shall be removed from the disposal area prior to placement... § 817.22. If approved by the regulatory authority, organic material may be used as mulch or may be... of the soil. (2) Excess spoil shall be transported and placed in a controlled manner in horizontal...

  17. 30 CFR 817.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... (1) All vegetative and organic materials shall be removed from the disposal area prior to placement... § 817.22. If approved by the regulatory authority, organic material may be used as mulch or may be... of the soil. (2) Excess spoil shall be transported and placed in a controlled manner in horizontal...

  18. 30 CFR 817.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... (1) All vegetative and organic materials shall be removed from the disposal area prior to placement... § 817.22. If approved by the regulatory authority, organic material may be used as mulch or may be... of the soil. (2) Excess spoil shall be transported and placed in a controlled manner in horizontal...

  19. 30 CFR 816.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... (1) All vegetative and organic materials shall be removed from the disposal area prior to placement... with § 816.22. If approved by the regulatory authority, organic material may be used as mulch or may be... of the soil. (2) Excess spoil shall be transported and placed in a controlled manner in horizontal...

  20. 30 CFR 816.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (1) All vegetative and organic materials shall be removed from the disposal area prior to placement... with § 816.22. If approved by the regulatory authority, organic material may be used as mulch or may be... of the soil. (2) Excess spoil shall be transported and placed in a controlled manner in horizontal...

  1. 30 CFR 816.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... (1) All vegetative and organic materials shall be removed from the disposal area prior to placement... with § 816.22. If approved by the regulatory authority, organic material may be used as mulch or may be... of the soil. (2) Excess spoil shall be transported and placed in a controlled manner in horizontal...

  2. 30 CFR 816.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... (1) All vegetative and organic materials shall be removed from the disposal area prior to placement... with § 816.22. If approved by the regulatory authority, organic material may be used as mulch or may be... of the soil. (2) Excess spoil shall be transported and placed in a controlled manner in horizontal...

  3. 30 CFR 816.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... (1) All vegetative and organic materials shall be removed from the disposal area prior to placement... with § 816.22. If approved by the regulatory authority, organic material may be used as mulch or may be... of the soil. (2) Excess spoil shall be transported and placed in a controlled manner in horizontal...

  4. 30 CFR 817.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... (1) All vegetative and organic materials shall be removed from the disposal area prior to placement... § 817.22. If approved by the regulatory authority, organic material may be used as mulch or may be... of the soil. (2) Excess spoil shall be transported and placed in a controlled manner in horizontal...

  5. 30 CFR 817.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (1) All vegetative and organic materials shall be removed from the disposal area prior to placement... § 817.22. If approved by the regulatory authority, organic material may be used as mulch or may be... of the soil. (2) Excess spoil shall be transported and placed in a controlled manner in horizontal...

  6. Rabbits and Grasshoppers: Vectors of Endomycorrhizal Fungi on New Coal Mine Spoil

    Treesearch

    Felix Jr. Ponder

    1980-01-01

    Rabbit droppings and grasshoppers were collected on recently graded coal mine spoil to determine if they were vectors of endomycorrhizal fingi. After 6 weeks of growth, roots of rye grass and sudan grass grown in mixtures of sterilized sand containing either unsterilized rabbit droppings or grasshoppers were endomycorrhizal, while the roots of plants grown in...

  7. [Bad habits and dysgnathia: epidemiological study].

    PubMed

    Cordasco, G; Lo Giudice, G; Dolci, E; Romeo, U; Lafronte, G

    1989-01-01

    The authors refer about an epidemiological survey in 651 children in the school-age. The aim of study is to investigate about the frequency of the bad habits and the pathogenetic relations between these and the development of the dento-maxillo-facial deformities. They point out an incidence of these bad habits in the 35,48% with a predominance of mouth breathers (45,45%). After they discuss the necessity of an early detection of anomalous neuromuscular attitudes.

  8. Breaking bad news in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Konstantis, Apostolos; Exiara, Triada

    2015-01-01

    In a regional hospital, many patients are newly diagnosed with cancer. Breaking the bad news in these patients and their relatives is a tough task. Many doctors are not experienced in talking to patients about death or death-related diseases. In recent years, there have been great efforts to change the current situation. The aim of this study was to investigate the experience and education of medical personnel in breaking bad news in a secondary hospital. 59 doctors from General Hospital of Komotini, Greece were included in the study. All the doctors were in clinical specialties that treated cancer patients. A brief questionnaire was developed based on current guidelines such as Baile/SPIKES framework and the ABCDE mnemonic. Residents are involved in delivering bad news less frequently than specialists. Only 21 doctors (35.59%) had specific training on breaking bad news. 20 doctors (33.90%) were aware of the available techniques and protocols on breaking bad news. 47 doctors (79.66%) had a consistent plan for breaking bad news. 57 (96.61%) delivered bad news in a quiet place, 53 (89.83%) ensured no interruptions and enough time, 53 (89.83%) used simple words and 54 (91.53%) checked for understanding and did not rush through the news. 46 doctors (77.97%) allowed relatives to determine patient's knowledge about the disease. There were low rates of specific training in breaking bad news. However, the selected location, the physician's speech and their plan were according to current guidelines.

  9. 26 CFR 1.166-1 - Bad debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bad debts. 1.166-1 Section 1.166-1 Internal... TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.166-1 Bad debts. (a... shall be allowed in respect of bad debts owed to the taxpayer. For this purpose, bad debts shall...

  10. Assessment of the reduced allergenic properties of the Santana apple.

    PubMed

    Kootstra, Helmi S; Vlieg-Boerstra, Berber J; Dubois, Anthony E J

    2007-12-01

    Approximately 2% of the Northern and Central European population is allergic to apples. Because of symptoms of oral allergy syndrome, many individuals avoid eating fresh apples. A strategy to allow apple allergic individuals to eat apples is the development of hypoallergenic apple varieties. To investigate the allergenicity of a putatively hypoallergenic apple cultivar, the Santana apple, on apple allergic individuals using a method of challenge in which loss of allergenicity is minimized. The study population consisted of 15 apple allergic individuals, who underwent an open oral challenge with 3 different apple cultivars: Santana, Golden Delicious, and Topaz. Food challenges were performed between February 1 and May 31, 2005, during the birch tree pollen season. Sensory perception during challenges was minimized by use of a blindfold and nose clip and randomization of challenge order. Subjective symptoms were scored by a visual analog scale. After challenge with the Santana apple, 8 of 15 study participants (53%) developed no symptoms, which was a significantly greater proportion than after challenge with the Topaz apple (1 participant) and Golden Delicious apple (1 participant) (P = .002). The visual analog scale scores for the Santana apple (dose 1) were significantly lower than that for the Golden Delicious and Topaz apples. A total of 73% of the participants stated they would eat Santana apples in the future. The Santana apple caused significantly fewer allergic symptoms in apple allergic individuals than the Golden Delicious and Topaz apples. The Santana apple may be a good choice for most apple allergic individuals who want to eat apples.

  11. Apples for Teachers Pay Off.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, Irving, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews current trends in the educational market for microcomputers and software. As of June 1982, about 214,000 microcomputers were installed in schools, with Apple Computer (followed by Radio Shack and others) leading the field. A new federal program virtually eliminating how schools use funds may benefit computer assisted instruction. (JN)

  12. An Apple for the Volunteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Judy; Grier, Terry B.

    2000-01-01

    A few years ago, the Williamson County (Tennessee) School District developed a strategic plan to encourage volunteers' participation. The plan includes a vision, goals, and objectives; strategies for increasing community involvement; recognition for all volunteers (via the Shining Apple Award); and program evaluation. (MLH)

  13. Apple Floating in Cupola Module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-06

    ISS038-E-042121 (6 Feb. 2014) --- A fresh apple floating freely near a window in the Cupola of the International Space Station is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 38 crew member. The bright sun and Earth's horizon provide the backdrop for the scene.

  14. Apple Floating in Cupola Module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-06

    ISS038-E-042112 (6 Feb. 2014) --- A fresh apple floating freely near a window in the Cupola of the International Space Station is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 38 crew member. Currently docked to the station, a Russian Progress resupply vehicle (left) and a Soyuz spacecraft along with Earth's horizon are visible in the background.

  15. Soil quality and carbon sequestration in a reclaimed coal mine spoil of Jharia coalfield, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sangeeta; Masto, Reginald; Ram, Lal

    2016-04-01

    Revegetation of coal mine spoil helps in carbon storage and the success of remediation depend on the selection of appropriate tree species. A study was conducted at the coalmine overburden dumps of Jharia Coalfield, Dhanbad, India to evaluate the impact of revegetation on the overall soil quality and carbon sequestration. Morphological parameters (tree height, diameter at breast height, tree biomass, wood specific gravity) of the dominant tree species (Acacia auriculiformis, Cassia siamea, Dalbergia sissoo and Leucaena leucocephala) growing on the mine spoil was recorded. Mine spoil samples were collected under the canopy cover of different tree species and analyzed for soil physical, chemical, and biological parameters. In general reclaimed sites had better soil quality than the reference site. For instance, D. sissoo and C. siamea improved soil pH (+28.5%, +27.9%), EC (+15.65%, +19%), cation exchange capacity (+58.7%, +52.3%), organic carbon (+67.5%, +79.5%), N (+97.2%, +75.7%), P (+98.2%, +76.9%), K (+31.8%, +37.4%), microbial biomass carbon (+143%, +164%) and dehydrogenase activity (+228%, +262%) as compared to the unreclaimed reference coal mine site. The concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) decreased significantly in the reclaimed site than the reference spoil, C. siamea was found to be more promising for PAH degradation. The overall impact of tree species on the quality of reclaimed mine spoil cannot be assessed by individual soil parameters, as most of the parameters are interlinked and difficult to interpret. However, combination of soil properties into an integrated soil quality index provides a more meaningful assessment of reclamation potential of tree species. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify key mine soil quality indicators to develop a soil quality index (SQI). Coarse fraction, pH, EC, soil organic carbon, P, Ca, S, and dehydrogenase activity were the most critical properties controlling growth of tree

  16. 'BREAKS' Protocol for Breaking Bad News.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Vijayakumar; Bista, Bibek; Koshy, Cheriyan

    2010-05-01

    Information that drastically alters the life world of the patient is termed as bad news. Conveying bad news is a skilled communication, and not at all easy. The amount of truth to be disclosed is subjective. A properly structured and well-orchestrated communication has a positive therapeutic effect. This is a process of negotiation between patient and physician, but physicians often find it difficult due to many reasons. They feel incompetent and are afraid of unleashing a negative reaction from the patient or their relatives. The physician is reminded of his or her own vulnerability to terminal illness, and find themselves powerless over emotional distress. Lack of sufficient training in breaking bad news is a handicap to most physicians and health care workers. Adherence to the principles of client-centered counseling is helpful in attaining this skill. Fundamental insight of the patient is exploited and the bad news is delivered in a structured manner, because the patient is the one who knows what is hurting him most and he is the one who knows how to move forward. Six-step SPIKES protocol is widely used for breaking bad news. In this paper, we put forward another six-step protocol, the BREAKS protocol as a systematic and easy communication strategy for breaking bad news. Development of competence in dealing with difficult situations has positive therapeutic outcome and is a professionally satisfying one.

  17. Giving Bad News: A Qualitative Research Exploration

    PubMed Central

    Aein, Fereshteh; Delaram, Masoumeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: The manner in which healthcare professionals deliver bad news affects the way it is received, interpreted, understood, and dealt with. Despite the fact that clinicians are responsible for breaking bad news, it has been shown that they lack skills necessary to perform this task. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore Iranian mothers’ experiences to receive bad news about their children cancer and to summarize suggestions for improving delivering bad news by healthcare providers. Materials and Methods: A qualitative approach using content analysis was adopted. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 mothers from two pediatric hospitals in Iran. Results: Five major categories emerged from the data analysis, including dumping information, shock and upset, emotional work, burden of delivering bad news to the family members, and a room for multidisciplinary approach. Conclusions: Effective communication of healthcare team with mothers is required during breaking bad news. Using multidisciplinary approaches to prevent harmful reactions and providing appropriate support are recommended. PMID:25068066

  18. Delivering bad news in emergency care medicine.

    PubMed

    Maynard, Douglas W

    2017-01-01

    Forecasting is a strategy for delivering bad news and is compared to two other strategies, stalling and being blunt. Forecasting provides some warning that bad news is forthcoming without keeping the recipient in a state of indefinite suspense (stalling) or conveying the news abruptly (being blunt). Forecasting appears to be more effective than stalling or being blunt in helping a recipient to "realize" the bad news because it involves the deliverer and recipient in a particular social relation. The deliverer of bad news initiates the telling by giving an advance indication of the bad news to come; this allows the recipient to calculate the news in advance of its final presentation, when the deliverer confirms what the recipient has been led to anticipate. Thus, realization of bad news emerges from intimate collaboration, whereas stalling and being blunt require recipients to apprehend the news in a social vacuum. Exacerbating disruption to recipients' everyday world, stalling and being blunt increase the probability of misapprehension (denying, blaming, taking the situation as a joke, etc.) and thereby inhibit rather than facilitate realization. Particular attention is paid to the "perspective display sequence", a particular forecasting strategy that enables both confirming the recipient's perspective and using that perspective to affirm the clinical news. An example from acute or emergency medicine is examined at the close of the paper.

  19. Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Jeanelle; Liu, Rui Hai

    2004-01-01

    Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior, and the effects of variety, ripening, storage and processing on apple phytochemicals. PMID:15140261

  20. Contagion and differentiation in unethical behavior: the effect of one bad apple on the barrel.

    PubMed

    Gino, Francesca; Ayal, Shahar; Ariely, Dan

    2009-03-01

    In a world where encounters with dishonesty are frequent, it is important to know if exposure to other people's unethical behavior can increase or decrease an individual's dishonesty. In Experiment 1, our confederate cheated ostentatiously by finishing a task impossibly quickly and leaving the room with the maximum reward. In line with social-norms theory, participants' level of unethical behavior increased when the confederate was an in-group member, but decreased when the confederate was an out-group member. In Experiment 2, our confederate instead asked a question about cheating, which merely strengthened the saliency of this possibility. This manipulation decreased the level of unethical behavior among the other group members. These results suggest that individuals' unethicality does not depend on the simple calculations of cost-benefit analysis, but rather depends on the social norms implied by the dishonesty of others and also on the saliency of dishonesty.

  1. Bad Apples or Sour Pickles? Fundamental Attribution Error and the Columbine Massacre. The Cutting Edge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clabaugh, Gary K.; Clabaugh, Alison A.

    2005-01-01

    A painstaking investigative report by the Washington Post describes pre-massacre Columbine as filled with social vinegar. The high school was dominated by a "cult of the athlete." In this distorted environment, a coterie of favored jocks, who wore white hats to set themselves apart, consistently bullied, hazed, and sexually harassed their…

  2. Classroom Management for Kids Who Won't Sit Still and Other "Bad Apples"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Susan M.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a case description of collaboration between an occupational therapist and a general education teacher to develop an effective classroom management system. The classroom management system described here was based on the Alert Program for Self-regulation: How Does Your Engine Run? In addition, the case description provides a…

  3. A few bad apples: a model of disease influenced agent behaviour in a heterogeneous contact environment.

    PubMed

    Enright, Jessica; Kao, Rowland R

    2015-01-01

    For diseases that infect humans or livestock, transmission dynamics are at least partially dependent on human activity and therefore human behaviour. However, the impact of human behaviour on disease transmission is relatively understudied, especially in the context of heterogeneous contact structures such as described by a social network. Here, we use a strategic game, coupled with a simple disease model, to investigate how strategic agent choices impact the spread of disease over a contact network. Using beliefs that are based on disease status and that build up over time, agents choose actions that stochastically determine disease spread on the network. An agent's disease status is therefore a function of both his own and his neighbours actions. The effect of disease on agents is modelled by a heterogeneous payoff structure. We find that the combination of network shape and distribution of payoffs has a non-trivial impact on disease prevalence, even if the mean payoff remains the same. An important scenario occurs when a small percentage (called noncooperators) have little incentive to avoid disease. For diseases that are easily acquired when taking a risk, then even when good behavior can lead to disease eradication, a small increase in the percentage of noncooperators (less than 5%) can yield a large (up to 25%) increase in prevalence.

  4. Trivalent cerium coped crystals as tunable laser systems: two bad apples

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, D.S.

    1985-01-01

    The 5d-4f transitions of trivalent doped crystals have broad emission bands with large oscillator strengths and near unity quantum efficiency. These characteristics make cerium systems strong candidates for tunable solid state lasers. However, two such cerium crystals will probably never lase. The first is Ce/sup 3 +/:YAG where a strong excited state absorption quenches the lasing transition. Our recent measurements have indicated that the excited state absorption terminates in the YAG conduction band with a peak cross section of 1.0 x 10/sup -17/ cm/sup 2/ at 700 nm. Some of the general features of impurity ion to band spectra aremore » discussed. The second system is Ce/sup 3 +/:CaF/sub 2/ where a uv pump induced photochromic center is produced following excitation of the cerium ions. The initial measurements of cerium related transient absorptions in Ce/sup 3 +/:YLF are also presented.« less

  5. Are creative individuals bad apples? A dual pathway model of unethical behavior.

    PubMed

    Keem, Sejin; Shalley, Christina E; Kim, Eugene; Jeong, Inseong

    2018-04-01

    Research has been inconsistent in its quest to discover whether dispositional creativity is associated with more or less unethical behavior. Drawing on social cognitive theory, we propose that moral disengagement and moral imagination are 2 parallel mechanisms that encourage or inhibit unethical behavior, and that which of these mediation processes occur depends on moral identity. Study 1, a 3-wave study of a food service organization, shows that employees high on both dispositional creativity and moral identity are less likely to be morally disengaged and behave less unethically. The results of Study 2 replicate Study 1's findings in a scenario-based study of college students, and further show that individuals who are high on both dispositional creativity and moral identity are more likely to be morally imaginative and to behave less unethically. Theoretical and practical implications of our model are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Apples prevent mammary tumors in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui Hai; Liu, Jiaren; Chen, Bingqing

    2005-03-23

    Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables has been consistently shown to be associated with reduced risk of developing chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Apples are commonly consumed and are the major contributors of phytochemicals in human diets. It was previously reported that apple extracts exhibit strong antioxidant and antiproliferative activities and that the major part of total antioxidant activity is from the combination of phytochemicals. Phytochemicals, including phenolics and flavonoids, are suggested to be the bioactive compounds contributing to the health benefits of apples. Here it is shown that whole apple extracts prevent mammary cancer in a rat model in a dose-dependent manner at doses comparable to human consumption of one, three, and six apples a day. This study demonstrated that whole apple extracts effectively inhibited mammary cancer growth in the rat model; thus, consumption of apples may be an effective strategy for cancer protection.

  7. Improving surface stability of elevated spoil landforms using natural landform analogy and geological information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmerton, Bevan; Burgess, Jon; Esterle, Joan; Erskine, Peter; Baumgartl, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Large-scale open cut mining in the Bowen Basin, Queensland, Australia has undergone an evolutionary process over the period of a few decades, transitioning from shallow mining depths, limited spoil elevation and pasture based rehabilitation to increased mining depths, escalating pre-stripping, elevated mesa-like landforms and native woody species rehabilitation. As a consequence of this development, the stabilisation of recent constructed landforms has to be assured through means other than the establishment of vegetative cover. Recent developments are the specific selection and partitioning of resilient fragmental spoil types for the construction of final landform surface. They can also be used as cladding resources for stabilizing steep erosive batters and this has been identified as a practical methodology that has the potential to significantly improve rehabilitation outcomes. Examples of improvements are an increase of the surface rock cover, roughness and infiltration and reducing inherent erodibility and runoff and velocity of surface flow. However, a thorough understanding of the properties and behavior of individual spoil materials disturbed during mining is required. Relevant information from published literature on the geological origins, lithology and weathering characteristics of individual strata within the Bowen Basin Coal Measures located in Queensland, Australia (and younger overlying weathered strata) has been studied, and related both to natural landforms and to the surface stability of major strata types when disturbed by mining. The resulting spoil classification developed from this study is based primarily on inherent geological characteristics and weathering behaviour of identifiable lithologic components, and as such describes the expected fragmental resilience likely within disturbed materials at Bowen Basin coal mines. The proposed classification system allows the allocation of spoil types to use categories which have application in pre

  8. Survival and growth of wildlife shrubs and trees on acid mine spoil

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, D.K.; Adkisson, L.F.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the survival and growth of selected wildlife plants over a wide range of acid mine spoil conditions and to identify species suitable for surface mine reclamation. A major criterion in selection of study sites was inclusion of a wide range of spoil acidity conditions. The Ollis Creek (Study Area A) and Farrell (Study Area B) coal surface mines located in Campbell and Scott Counties, Tennessee, were selected for study. Seven plant species, all of which had been used in past reclamation demonstrations, were introduced on the 22 plots during March 1972. Autumnmore » olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) was included as a control plant. Ten additional plant species were introduced during March 1973. With the exception of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum var.). European filbert (Corylus avellana), and red maple (Acer rubrum), these species had not been used in TVA reclamation demonstrations. To assess the effects of spoil pH on the plants, the plots were grouped into seven pH categories, and mean percent survival and growth for each species were calculated. Results indicate that autumn olive, elaeagnus cherry, arnot locust, sawtooth oak, red maple, and Toringo crabapple are suitable for quick improvement of surface mine habitat over a wide range of spoil acidity in the Appalachian coalfield. Bessey cherry and European filbert need further study before a decision can be made regarding their reclamation utility. Species that are not recommended for quick habitat improvement over a wide range of surface mine spoil pH conditions include bush honeysuckle, barberry, Siberian crabapple, Manchu cherry, American beautyberry, bear oak, blueberry, rem-red honeysuckle, and redcedar.« less

  9. Geochemical assessments and classification of coal mine spoils for better understanding of potential salinity issues at closure.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Hee; Li, Xiaofang; Edraki, Mansour; Baumgartl, Thomas; Kirsch, Bernie

    2013-06-01

    Coal mining wastes in the form of spoils, rejects and tailings deposited on a mine lease can cause various environmental issues including contamination by toxic metals, acid mine drainage and salinity. Dissolution of salt from saline mine spoil, in particular, during rainfall events may result in local or regional dispersion of salts through leaching or in the accumulation of dissolved salts in soil pore water and inhibition of plant growth. The salinity in coal mine environments is from the geogenic salt accumulations and weathering of spoils upon surface exposure. The salts are mainly sulfates and chlorides of calcium, magnesium and sodium. The objective of the research is to investigate and assess the source and mobility of salts and trace elements in various spoil types, thereby predicting the leaching behavior of the salts and trace elements from spoils which have similar geochemical properties. X-ray diffraction analysis, total digestion, sequential extraction and column experiments were conducted to achieve the objectives. Sodium and chloride concentrations best represented salinity of the spoils, which might originate from halite. Electrical conductivity, sodium and chloride concentrations in the leachate decreased sharply with increasing leaching cycles. Leaching of trace elements was not significant in the studied area. Geochemical classification of spoil/waste defined for rehabilitation purposes was useful to predict potential salinity, which corresponded with the classification from cluster analysis based on leaching data of major elements. Certain spoil groups showed high potential salinity by releasing high sodium and chloride concentrations. Therefore, the leaching characteristics of sites having saline susceptible spoils require monitoring, and suitable remediation technologies have to be applied.

  10. Breaking bad news and personality assessment.

    PubMed

    Rudnick, A; Ezra, Y; Melamed, E

    2000-09-01

    Breaking bad news to seriously ill patients is an especially difficult and important part of patient education and counseling. Guidelines for breaking bad news have been previously presented, but this is the first report to address the personality of the patient in deciding how to break had news. A case study of a patient diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is presented. A psychiatric consultation assisted in assessing the patient's personality and thus preparing the medical staff for breaking the bad news to him. The patient was assessed as having an obsessive-compulsive personality, and consequently the staff was instructed to concentrate on facts and not on feelings when breaking the bad news to him. The patient coped adaptively with this procedure, as did the staff. This case report illustrates that personality assessment may be of benefit in breaking bad news to seriously ill patients. It remains to be seen whether this procedure can be successfully generalized to other patients and settings as well as to other domains of patient education and counseling, and if so--whether this will also prove to be cost-effective.

  11. Bad Actors Criticality Assessment for Pipeline system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, Meseret; Chong, Kit wee; Osman, Sabtuni; Siaw Khur, Wee

    2015-04-01

    Failure of a pipeline system could bring huge economic loss. In order to mitigate such catastrophic loss, it is required to evaluate and rank the impact of each bad actor of the pipeline system. In this study, bad actors are known as the root causes or any potential factor leading to the system downtime. Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) is used to analyze the probability of occurrence for each bad actor. Bimbaum's Importance and criticality measure (BICM) is also employed to rank the impact of each bad actor on the pipeline system failure. The results demonstrate that internal corrosion; external corrosion and construction damage are critical and highly contribute to the pipeline system failure with 48.0%, 12.4% and 6.0% respectively. Thus, a minor improvement in internal corrosion; external corrosion and construction damage would bring significant changes in the pipeline system performance and reliability. These results could also be useful to develop efficient maintenance strategy by identifying the critical bad actors.

  12. Apple cuticle: the perfect interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, Eric; Arey, Bruce

    2010-06-01

    The domestic apple might well be called an 'extreme' fruit. In the arid Northwest United States, the fruit often tolerates surface temperatures ranging from -2 °C in the early spring to 50 °C in the heat of summer, and again to -2 °C during controlled postharvest storage for up to 12 months. During its 18-month existence, the apple maintains a cuticle that is dynamic and environmentally responsive to protect against 1) cellular water loss during desiccation stress and 2) excessive uptake of standing surface moisture. Physiological disorders of the peel such as russeting, cracking, splitting, flecking and lenticel marking, develop as epidermal cells respond to rapid changes in ambient conditions at specific developmental stages during the growing season. Resultant market losses underlie research investigating the nature of apple cuticle growth and development. Ultrastructural analysis of the pro-cuticle using scanning electron microscopy indicates an overlapping network of lipid-based distally-elongating microtubules--produced by and connected to epidermal cells--which co-polymerize to form an organic solvent-insoluble semi-permeable cutin matrix. Microtubule elongation, aggregation, and polymerization function together as long as the fruit continues to enlarge. The nature of lipid transport from the epidermal cells through the cell wall to become part of the cuticular matrix was explored using an FEI Helios NanoLabTM DualBeamTM focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope on chemically- and cryo-fixed peel tissue from mature or freshly harvested apples. Based on microtubule dimensions, regular projections found at the cell/cuticle interface suggest an array of microtubule-like structures associated with the epidermal cell.

  13. Association Between Apple Consumption and Physician Visits

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Matthew A.; Bynum, Julie P.W.; Sirovich, Brenda E.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Fruit consumption is believed to have beneficial health effects, and some claim, “An apple a day keeps the doctor away.” OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship between eating an apple a day and keeping the doctor away. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the noninstitutionalized US adult population. A total of 8728 adults 18 years and older from the 2007–2008 and 2009–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey completed a 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire and reported that the quantity of food they ate was reflective of their usual daily diet. EXPOSURES Daily apple eaters (consuming the equivalent of at least 1 small apple daily, or 149 g of raw apple) vs non–apple eaters, based on the reported quantity of whole apple consumed during the 24-hour dietary recall period. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome measure was success at “keeping the doctor away,” measured as no more than 1 visit (self-reported) to a physician during the past year; secondary outcomes included successful avoidance of other health care services (ie, no overnight hospital stays, visits to a mental health professional, or prescription medications). RESULTS Of 8399 eligible study participants who completed the dietary recall questionnaire, we identified 753 adult apple eaters (9.0%)—those who typically consume at least 1 small apple per day. Compared with the 7646 non–apple eaters (91.0%), apple eaters had higher educational attainment, were more likely to be from a racial or ethnic minority, and were less likely to smoke (P < .001 for each comparison). Apple eaters were more likely, in the crude analysis, to keep the doctor (and prescription medications) away: 39.0% of apple eaters avoided physician visits vs 33.9%of non–apple eaters (P = .03). After adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related characteristics, however, the association was no longer statistically significant

  14. Rainmakers: why bad weather means good productivity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jooa Julia; Gino, Francesca; Staats, Bradley R

    2014-05-01

    People believe that weather conditions influence their everyday work life, but to date, little is known about how weather affects individual productivity. Contrary to conventional wisdom, we predict and find that bad weather increases individual productivity and that it does so by eliminating potential cognitive distractions resulting from good weather. When the weather is bad, individuals appear to focus more on their work than on alternate outdoor activities. We investigate the proposed relationship between worse weather and higher productivity through 4 studies: (a) field data on employees' productivity from a bank in Japan, (b) 2 studies from an online labor market in the United States, and (c) a laboratory experiment. Our findings suggest that worker productivity is higher on bad-, rather than good-, weather days and that cognitive distractions associated with good weather may explain the relationship. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of our research. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Chemical properties and particle-size distribution of 39 surface-mine spoils in southern West Virginia

    Treesearch

    William T. Plass; Willis G. Vogel

    1973-01-01

    A survey of 39 surface-mine sites in southern West Virginia showed that most of the spoils from current mining operations had a pH of 5.0 or higher. Soil-size material averaged 37 percent of the weight of the spoils sampled. A major problem for the establishment of vegetation was a deficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus. This can be corrected with additions of...

  16. Effect of dredge spoil deposition on fecal coliform counts in sediments at a disposal site.

    PubMed Central

    Babinchak, J A; Graikoski, J T; Dudley, S; Nitkowski, M F

    1977-01-01

    The most-probable-number of fecal coliforms in sediments was monitored at the New London dump site in Long Island Sound during the deposition of dredge spoil from the Thames River. Although the geometric mean for fecal coliforms at five stations in the river was 14,000/100 ml before dredging commenced, the deposition of this material did not increase the incidence of fecal coliforms at 17 spoil stations and 13 control stations in the disposal and surrounding areas. Fecal coliforms appear to occur only in the surface sediment material and are diluted by the subsurface material during the dredging operation. Fecal coliform analyses of bottom waters during high and low tides indicated that the flow of water from the Thames River played a major role in determining the most-probable-number of fecal coliforms in the sediments at the disposal site. PMID:329761

  17. Orienting apples for imaging using their inertial properties and random apple loading

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The inability to control apple orientation during imaging has hindered development of automated systems for sorting apples for defects such as bruises and for safety issues such as fecal contamination. Recently, a potential method for orienting apples based on their inertial properties was discovere...

  18. First report of Apple necrotic mosaic virus infecting apple trees in Korea

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In September 2016, two apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh) cv. Shinano Sweet showing bright cream spot and mosaic patterns on leaves were observed in Pocheon, South Korea. Mosaic symptoms are common on leaves of apple trees infected with Apple mosaic virus (ApMV). Symptomatic leaves were tested by e...

  19. Development of Soil Characteristics and Plant Communities On Reclaimed and Unreclaimed Spoil Heaps After Coal Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cudlín, Ondřej; Řehák, Zdeněk; Cudlín, Pavel

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare soil characteristics, plant communities and the rate of selected ecosystem function performance on reclaimed and unreclaimed plots (left for spontaneous succession) of different age on spoil heaps. Twelve spoil heaps (three circle plots of radius 12.5 m) near the town Kladno in north-west direction from Prague, created after deep coal mining, were compared. Five mixed soil samples from organo-mineral horizons in each plot were analysed for total content of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus. In addition, active soil pH (pHH2O) was determined. Plant diversity was determined by vegetation releves. The biodiversity value of the habitat according to the Habitat Valuation Method was assessed and the rate of evapotranspiration function by the Method of Valuation Functions and Services of Ecosystems in the Czech Republic were determined. The higher organo-mineral layers and higher amount of total nitrogen content were found on the older reclaimed and unreclaimed plots than in younger plots. The number of plant species and the total contents of carbon and nitrogen were significantly higher at the unreclaimed plots compared to reclaimed plots. The biodiversity values and evapotranspiration function rate were also higher on unreclaimed plots. From this perspective, it is possible to recommend using of spontaneous succession, together with routine reclamation methods to restore habitats after coal mining. Despite the relatively high age of vegetation in some of selected plots (90 years), both the reclaimed and unreclaimed plots have not reached the stage of potential vegetation near to natural climax. Slow development of vegetation was probably due to unsuitable substrate of spoil heaps and a lack of plant and tree species of natural forest habitats in this area. However, it is probable that vegetation communities on observed spoil heaps in both type of management (reclaimed and unreclaimed) will achieve the stage of natural climax and they

  20. Pine seedlings respond to liming of acid strip-mine spoil

    Treesearch

    William T. Plass

    1969-01-01

    A greenhouse trial was made to determine the effect of three rates of liming on the growth of five species of pine seedlings in an extremely acid strip-mine spoil. Liming at the rate of 5 tons per acre-foot significantly increased the growth of four of the species. Tissue analysis indicated the growth rate may be related to a reduction in the concentration of the...

  1. Numerical simulation of trace element transport on subsurface environment pollution in coal mine spoil.

    PubMed

    Qiang, Xue; Bing, Liang; Hui-yun, Wang; Lei, Liu

    2006-01-01

    An understanding of the dynamic behavior of trace elements leaching from coal mine spoil is important in predicting the groundwater quality. The relationship between trace element concentrations and leaching times, pH values of the media is studied. Column leaching tests conducted in the laboratory showed that there was a close correlation between pH value and trace element concentrations. The longer the leaching time, the higher the trace element concentrations. Different trace elements are differently affected by pH values of leaching media. A numerical model for water flow and trace element transport has been developed based on analyzing the characteristics of migration and transformation of trace elements leached from coal mine spoil. Solutions to the coupled model are accomplished by Eulerian-Lagrangian localized adjoint method. Numerical simulation shows that rainfall intensity determined maximum leaching depth. As rainfall intensity is 3.6ml/s, the outflow concentrations indicate a breakthrough of trace elements beyond the column base, with peak concentration at 90cm depth. And the subsurface pollution range has a trend of increase with time. The model simulations are compared to experimental results of trace element concentrations, with reasonable agreement between them. The analysis and modeling of trace elements suggested that the infiltration of rainwater through the mine spoil might lead to potential groundwater pollution. It provides theoretical evidence for quantitative assessment soil-water quality of trace element transport on environment pollution.

  2. Breaking Bad News in Oncology: A Metasynthesis.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, Guilhem; Orri, Massimiliano; Winterman, Sabine; Brugière, Charlotte; Verneuil, Laurence; Revah-Levy, Anne

    2015-08-01

    The delivery of bad news by oncologists to their patients is a key moment in the physician-patient relationship. We performed a systematic review of qualitative studies (a metasynthesis) that focused on the experiences and points of view of oncologists about breaking bad news to patients. We searched international publications to identify relevant qualitative research exploring oncologists' perspectives about this topic. Thematic analysis, which compensates for the potential lack of generalizability of the primary studies by their conjoint interpretation, was used to identify key themes and synthesize them. NVivo qualitative analysis software was used. We identified 40 articles (> 600 oncologists) from 12 countries and assessed their quality as good according to the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP). Two main themes emerged: the patient-oncologist encounter during the breaking of bad news, comprising essential aspects of the communication, including the process of dealing with emotions; and external factors shaping the patient-oncologist encounter, composed of factors that influence the announcement beyond the physician-patient relationship: the family, systemic and institutional factors, and cultural factors. Breaking bad news is a balancing act that requires oncologists to adapt continually to different factors: their individual relationships with the patient, the patient's family, the institutional and systemic environment, and the cultural milieu. Extending the development of the ability to personalize and adapt therapeutic treatment to this realm of communications would be a major step forward from the stereotyped way that oncologists are currently trained in communication skills. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  3. U.S. Literacy Level Not Bad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Intellect, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Fred Hechinger, assistant editor of "The New York Times" editorial page, states that the teaching of literacy is not as bad as the media say, nor so good as the experts in English claim. Here he evaluates the importance of reading and writing and makes some suggestions for improving attitudes towards television. He also invites teachers to join in…

  4. A Bad Day for Sandy Dayton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duch, Barbara

    2000-01-01

    Presents a rear-end car accident scenario to teach about forces and kinetic energy in a problem-based learning format. Includes four parts: (1) "A Bad Day for Sandy Dayton"; (2) "The Emergency Room"; (3) "The Facts of the Case"; and (4) "Judgement Day". Discusses the major issues of the questions, introduces scientific concepts, and initiates…

  5. Using Bad Science to Teach Good Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Michael S.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the integration of topics dealing with "bad science"--pseudo, pathological, or deviant science--into introductory undergraduate courses in general and analytical chemistry, and provides extensive references for the chemistry instructor interested in these topics. The approach is to incorporate specific cases that address…

  6. [Pediatrician's experience in announcing bad news].

    PubMed

    Crosnier-Schoedel, C; Trocmé, N; Carbajal, R; Leverger, G

    2018-02-01

    Few studies are available on pediatricians' experience with announcing bad news. Announcing bad news is an important component of medical practice and is even more complex in pediatrics because parents must be associated. We had 20 hospital pediatricians complete a questionnaire containing 30 questions about their own experience announcing bad news to a child or a teenager. In spite of their experience and the time they have spent practicing medicine, there are many limitations stemming from different factors concerning children, teenagers, their families, and themselves. The difficulties encountered by pediatricians are mainly related to the timing of the announcement, the location, the choice of the words used, and the poor understanding of children and families, due to intellectual, cultural, or psychological limitations. Pediatricians question their own capacity to make such an announcement, wondering if the information has actually been well understood. They indicate that they are themselves affected. Most of them develop and implement strategies to refute the emotional instability caused by the announcement of bad news. Yet many of them feel weak, even talking about a deep sense of loneliness and guilt. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. 7 CFR 51.1535 - Badly misshapen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Badly misshapen. 51.1535 Section 51.1535 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Fresh Plums and Prunes Definitions § 51.1535...

  8. 7 CFR 51.1535 - Badly misshapen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Badly misshapen. 51.1535 Section 51.1535 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Fresh Plums and Prunes Definitions § 51.1535...

  9. Deliver a set of tools for resolving bad inductive loops and correcting bad data.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-04-01

    This project prototyped and demonstrated procedures to find and mitigate loop detector errors, and to derive more valuable data from loops. Specifically, methods were developed to find and isolate out loop data which is "bad" or invalid, so that miti...

  10. Deliver a set of tools for resolving bad inductive loops and correcting bad data

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-04-10

    This project prototyped and demonstrated procedures to find and mitigate loop detector errors, and to derive more valuable data from loops. Specifically, methods were developed to find and isolate out loop data which is "bad" or invalid, so that miti...

  11. PEOPLE IN PHYSICS: Newton's apple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandford Smith, Daniel

    1997-03-01

    This essay has a long history. It was triggered at university by one of my tutors describing the dispute between Robert Hooke and Isaac Newton. He conjured up an image of Newton sitting at his desk doing calculations while Hooke went down mineshafts trying to detect a change in the strength of gravity. To someone who was finding the maths content of a physics degree somewhat challenging this was a symbolic image. I believe that the story of Newton and the apple illustrates the complex nature of scientific discovery.

  12. Stabilization of metals in acidic mine spoil with amendments and red fescue (Festuca rubra L.) growth.

    PubMed

    Simon, László

    2005-12-01

    Stabilization of metals with amendments and red fescue (Festuca rubra, cv. Keszthelyi 2) growth was studied on an acidic and phytotoxic mine spoil (pH(KCl) 3.20-3.26; Cd 7.1 mg kg(-1), Cu 120 mg kg(-1), Pb 2154 mg kg(-1) and Zn 605 mg kg(-1)) from Gyöngyösoroszi, Hungary in a pot experiment. Raising the pH above 5.0 by lime (CaCO(3)), and supplementing with 40 mg kg(-1)nitrogen (NH(4)NO(3)) made this material suitable for plant growth. All cultures were limed with 0.5% (m/m) CaCO(3) (treatment 1), which was combined with 5% (m/m) municipal sewage sludge compost (treatment 2), 5% (m/m) peat (treatment 3), 7.5% (m/m) natural zeolite (clinoptilolite) (treatment 4), and 0.5 (m/m) KH(2)PO(4) (treatment 5). Treatments 1-5 were combined with each other (treatment 6). After 60 days of red fescue growth, pH of the limed mine spoil decreased in all cultures units. Application of peat caused the highest pH decrease (1.15), while decrease of pH was less than 0.23 in treatments 2, 5 or 6. Application of lime significantly reduced concentrations of metals in the 'plant available' fraction of mine spoil compared to non-limed mine spoil. Amendments added to limed mine spoil changed variously the ratio of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in exchangeable or 'plant available' fractions, differently influencing the phytoavailability of these metals. Most of the metals were captured in the roots of test plants. Treatment 2 caused the appearance of less Cd in shoots (<0.1 microg g(-1)) or roots (3.11 microg g(-1)), while treatment 5 resulted in the highest Cd concentration (2.13 microg g(-1)) in shoots. Treatments did not influence significantly the Cu accumulation in shoots. The Pb accumulation of roots (44.7 microg g(-1)) was most effectively inhibited by combined treatment, while the highest value (136 microg g(-1)) was found in the culture treated with potassium phosphate. Pb concentration in shoots was below the detection limit, except for treatments 5 and 6. Peat application resulted in higher

  13. 9,250 Apples for the Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uston, Ken

    1983-01-01

    Discusses Apple Computer Inc.'s plan to donate an Apple IIe to eligible elementary/secondary schools in California, dealer incentives for conducting orientation sessions for school personnel, and school uses of the computer (including peer tutoring and teacher education). Also discusses similar efforts of other microcomputer manufacturers. (JN)

  14. Historic American apple cultivars: Identification and availability

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apples have been important throughout the centuries in North America. Historic books, publications, and nursery catalogs were surveyed to identify apple cultivars that were propagated and grown in the United States prior to 1908. We collected synonym, introduction date, and original source country i...

  15. SED/Apple Computer, Inc., Partnership Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoll, Peter F.

    1991-01-01

    In 1990, the New York State Education Department (SED), Apple Computer, Inc., Boards of Cooperative Educational Services (BOCES), and school districts formed a partnership to explore the contribution technology can make to schools based on Apple Computer's Learning Society and SED's Long-Range Plan for Technology in Elementary and Secondary…

  16. 48 CFR 31.205-3 - Bad debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bad debts. 31.205-3... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.205-3 Bad debts. Bad debts, including actual or estimated losses arising from uncollectible accounts receivable due...

  17. "Serving Time": The Relationship of Good and Bad Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The argument is that good and bad teaching are asymmetrical. Eradicating what is readily thought of as bad teaching does not leave behind the purse gold of good teaching. Good teaching is that which promotes student learning. The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between bad teaching and good teaching in graduate…

  18. Transverse gradient in Apple-type undulators

    PubMed Central

    Calvi, M.; Camenzuli, C.; Prat, E.; Schmidt, Th.

    2017-01-01

    Apple-type undulators are globally recognized as the most flexible devices for the production of variable polarized light in the soft X-ray regime, both at synchrotron and free-electron laser facilities. Recently, the implementation of transverse gradient undulators has been proposed to enhance the performance of new generation light sources. In this paper it is demonstrated that Apple undulators do not only generate linear and elliptical polarized light but also variable transverse gradient under certain conditions. A general theoretical framework is introduced to evaluate the K-value and its transverse gradient for an Apple undulator, and formulas for all regular operational modes and different Apple types (including the most recent Delta type and Apple X) are calculated and critically discussed. PMID:28452751

  19. Effects of coal spoil amendment on heavy metal accumulation and physiological aspects of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) growing in copper mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Chu, Zhaoxia; Wang, Xingming; Wang, Yunmin; Liu, Guijian; Dong, Zhongbing; Lu, Xianwen; Chen, Guangzhou; Zha, Fugeng

    2017-12-21

    Copper mine tailings pose many threats to the surrounding environment and human health, and thus, their remediation is fundamental. Coal spoil is the waste by-product of coal mining and characterized by low levels of metals, high content of organic matter, and many essential microelements. This study was designed to evaluate the role of coal spoil on heavy uptake and physiological responses of Lolium perenne L. grown in copper mine tailings amended with coal spoil at rates of 0, 0.5, 1, 5, 10, and 20%. The results showed that applying coal spoil to copper mine tailings decreased the diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn contents in tailings and reduced those metal contents in both roots and shoots of the plant. However, application of coal spoil increased the DTPA-extractable Cr concentration in tailings and also increased Cr uptake and accumulation by Lolium perenne L. The statistical analysis of physiological parameters indicated that chlorophyll and carotenoid increased at the lower amendments of coal spoil followed by a decrease compared to their respective controls. Protein content was enhanced at all the coal spoil amendments. When treated with coal spoil, the activities of superoxide dismutases (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) responded differently. CAT activity was inhibited, but POD activity was increased with increasing amendment ratio of coal spoil. SOD activity increased up to 1% coal spoil followed by a decrease. Overall, the addition of coal spoil decreased the oxidative stress in Lolium perenne L., reflected by the reduction in malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in the plant. It is concluded that coal spoil has the potential to stabilize most metals studied in copper mine tailings and ameliorate the harmful effects in Lolium perenne L. through changing the physiological attributes of the plant grown in copper mine tailings.

  20. Spoil pile instabilities with reference to a strip coal mine in Turkey: mechanisms and assessment of deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasmer, Ozgu; Ulusay, Resat; Gokceoglu, Candan

    2006-02-01

    With the increasing adoption of the surface mining of coal, problems associated with spoil pile instability, which affects resource recovery, mining cost, and safety and presents environmental hazards, have become a matter of prime concern to mine planners and operators. The study of geotechnical aspects is thus very important in the rational planning for the disposal, reclamation, treatment and utilization of spoil material. A strip coal mine, one of the largest open pit mines in Turkey, is located in Central Anatolia and provides coal to a thermal power station. Coal production is carried out in two adjacent open pits, the Central Pit and South Pit. A large-scale spoil pile instability over an area of 0.3 km2 occurred within the dumping area of the Central pit. In addition, small-scale movement occurred in the outside dumping area. This paper outlines the results of field and laboratory investigations to describe the mechanisms of the spoil pile instabilities and to assess deformations monitored over a long period following the failure. Shear test results indicate that the interface between the floor and spoil material dumped by dragline has a negligible cohesion and is the most critical plane of weakness for spoil pile instability. Back analyses based on the method of limit equilibrium and the numerical modelling technique, and observations in the pit revealed that failure occurred along a combined sliding surface consisting of a circular surface through the spoil material itself and a planar surface passing along the interface between the spoil piles and floor. The analyses also indicated that pore water pressure ratios of about 0.25 satisfy limiting equilibrium condition and that rainfall about one month before the failure may be a contributing factor to the instability. Movement monitoring data obtained following the failure over a 1.5-year period suggested that the ongoing deformations were mainly due to compaction of the spoil material. Based on the

  1. Bad phosphorylation as a target of inhibition in oncology.

    PubMed

    Bui, Ngoc-Linh-Chi; Pandey, Vijay; Zhu, Tao; Ma, Lan; Basappa; Lobie, Peter E

    2018-02-28

    Bcl-2 agonist of cell death (BAD) is a BH3-only member of the Bcl-2 family which possesses important regulatory function in apoptosis. BAD has also been shown to possess many non-apoptotic functions closely linked to cancer including regulation of glycolysis, autophagy, cell cycle progression and immune system development. Interestingly, BAD can be either pro-apoptotic or pro-survival depending on the phosphorylation state of three specific serine residues (human S75, S99 and S118). Expression of BAD and BAD phosphorylation patterns have been shown to influence tumor initiation and progression and play a predictive role in disease prognosis, drug response and chemosensitivity in various cancers. This review aims to summarize the current evidence on the functional role of BAD phosphorylation in human cancer and evaluate the potential utility of modulating BAD phosphorylation in cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Sexual aggression: mad, bad, and mad.

    PubMed

    Schopp, Rovert F

    2003-06-01

    Legal institutions in the Western liberal tradition ordinarily rely primarily on the criminal justice system to address conduct by some individuals that deliberately harms other individuals. The mental health system provides an alternative institutional structure through which societies can address such harmful behavior. Those who deliberately engage in conduct that causes harm to others are traditionally addressed through either the criminal justice or mental health systems on the basis of their being categorized as either "bad or mad." This paper examines some of the relevant reasons for categorizing sexual aggression as bad or mad. It emphasizes the significance of such categorization for the broader set of legal institutions of coercive social control and for the manner in which we respond to persons within those institutions.

  3. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of apples...

  4. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to packages...

  5. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of apples...

  6. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to packages...

  7. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of apples...

  8. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of apples...

  9. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to packages...

  10. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to packages...

  11. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of apples...

  12. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to packages...

  13. Management of mine spoil for crop productivity with lignite fly ash and biological amendments.

    PubMed

    Ram, L C; Srivastava, N K; Tripathi, R C; Jha, S K; Sinha, A K; Singh, G; Manoharan, V

    2006-04-01

    Long-term field trials using lignite fly ash (LFA) were carried out in rice crops during the period 1996-2000 at Mine I, Neyveli Lignite Corporation, Tamil Nadu. LFA, being alkaline and endowed with an excellent pozzolanic nature, silt loam texture, and plant nutrients, has the potential to improve the texture, fertility, and crop productivity of mine spoil. The rice crops were the first, third, fifth, and sixth crops in rotation. The other crops, such as green gram (second) and sun hemp (fourth), were grown as green manure. For experimental trials, LFA was applied at various dosages (0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, and 200 t/ha), with and without press mud (10 t/ha), before cultivation of the first crop. Repeat applications of LFA were made at the same dosages in treatments of up to 50 t/ha (with and without press mud) before cultivation of the third and fifth crops. Press mud, a lightweight organic waste product from the sugar industry, was used as an organic amendment and source of plant nutrients. Also, a recommended dosage of chemical fertilizer, along with gypsum, humic acid, and biofertilizer as supplementing agents, was applied in all the treatments, including control. With one-time and repeat applications of LFA, from 5 to 20 t/ha (with and without press mud), the crop yield (grain and straw) increased significantly (p < 0.05), in the range from 3.0 to 42.0% over the corresponding control. The maximum yield was obtained with repeat applications of 20 t/ha of LFA with press mud in the third crop. The press mud enhanced the yield in the range of 1.5-10.2% with various dosages of LFA. The optimum dosage of LFA was 20 t/ha for both one-time and repeat applications. Repeat applications of LFA at lower dosages of up to 20 t/ha were more effective in increasing the yield than the corresponding one-time applications of up to 20 t/ha and repeat applications at 50 t/ha. One-time and repeat applications of LFA of up to 20 t/ha (with and without press mud), apart from

  14. Guaranteeing OB rates to reduce bad debts.

    PubMed

    Sheahan, E T

    1978-01-01

    In an effort to reduce its obstetrical department's "bad debt ratio", St. Margaret's Hospital, Spring Valley, IL, has instituted a program of guaranteed rates for maternity patients. Both patients and the hospital benefit--patients from knowing what they will have to pay and doing so in advance, and the hospital from greater security about payment. Therefore, St. Margaret's has high hopes for the plan's success.

  15. Breaking Bad News to Togolese Patients.

    PubMed

    Kpanake, Lonzozou; Sorum, Paul Clay; Mullet, Etienne

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to map Togolese people's positions regarding the breaking of bad news to elderly patients. Two hundred eleven participants who had in the past received bad medical news were presented with 72 vignettes depicting communication of bad news to elderly female patients and asked to indicate the acceptability of the physician's conduct in each case. The vignettes were all combinations of five factors: (a) the severity of the disease, (b) the patient's wishes about disclosure, (c) the level of social support during hospitalization, (d) the patient's psychological robustness, and (e) the physician's decision about how to communicate the bad news. Five qualitatively different positions were found. Two percent of the participants preferred that the physician always tell the full truth to both the patient and her relatives, 8% preferred that the truth be told depending on the physician's perception of the situation, 15% preferred that the physician tell the truth but understood that in some cases nondisclosure to the patient was not inappropriate, 33% preferred that the physician tell the full truth to the relatives but not as much information to the patient, and 42% preferred that the physician tell the full truth to the relatives only. These findings present a challenge to European physicians taking care of African patients living in Europe or working in African hospitals, and to African physicians trained in Europe and now working in their home countries. If these physicians respect the imperative of always telling the truth directly to their patients, their behavior may trigger anger and considerable misunderstanding among African patients and their families.

  16. A short guide to giving bad news.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jeffrey T

    2008-01-01

    Approaching an individual or a family with bad news, but without an appropriate plan to present the information in a structured manner, is almost a guarantee of greater emotional pain and disruption for the recipients of the news. Crisis interveners must develop a strategic plan for the announcement of bad news. That plan should entail a lead-up phase, a transmission phase, and a followup phase. The lead-up phase encompasses the gathering of accurate, verifiable information and the clear identification of the targets of the information. The transmission phase includes immediate preparation for the presentation of the information, the actual announcement, and the presentation of additional details as questions arise. The follow-up phase includes a range of supportive interventions to assist people in the immediate crisis reaction. It also includes a system of referrals for people who might benefit from additional professional care. This article provides practical guidelines for providing bad news to the loved ones of injured, ill, or deceased people.

  17. Mine spoil prairies expand critical habitat for endangered and threatened amphibian and reptile species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lannoo, Michael J.; Kinney, Vanessa C.; Heemeyer, Jennifer L.; Engbrecht, Nathan J.; Gallant, Alisa L.; Klaver, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Coal extraction has been occurring in the Midwestern United States for over a century. Despite the pre-mining history of the landscape as woodlands, spent surface coalfields are often reclaimed to grasslands. We assessed amphibian and reptile species on a large tract of coal spoil prairie and found 13 species of amphibians (nine frog and four salamander species) and 19 species of reptiles (one lizard, five turtle, and 13 snake species). Two state-endangered and three state species of special concern were documented. The amphibian diversity at our study site was comparable to the diversity found at a large restored prairie situated 175 km north, within the historic prairie peninsula.

  18. An appraisal of the potential use of fly ash for reclaiming coal mine spoil.

    PubMed

    Ram, Lal C; Masto, Reginald E

    2010-01-01

    Growing dependence on coal-fired power plants for electrical generation in many countries presents ongoing environmental challenges. Burning pulverized coal in thermal power plants (TPPs) generates large amounts of fly ash (FA) that must be disposed of or otherwise handled, in an environmentally-sound manner. A possible option for dealing with fly ash is to use it as an amendment for mine spoil or other damaged soil. It has been demonstrated through studies in India and other countries that FA alone or in combination with organic or inorganic materials can be used in a productive manner for reclamation of mine spoil. The characteristics of FA, including silt-sized particles, lighter materials with low bulk density (BD), higher water holding capacity, favorable pH and significant concentrations of many essential plant nutrients, make it a potentially favorable amendment for mine spoil reclamation. Studies have indicated that the application of FA has improved the physical, chemical and biological qualities of soil to which it is applied. The release of trace metals and soluble salts from FA could be a major limitation to its application. This is particularly true of fresh, un-weathered FA or acidic FA, although perhaps not a concern for weathered/pond ash or alkaline FA. Some potential contaminants, especially metals and other salt ions, could be immobilized and rendered biologically inert by the addition of certain inorganic and organic amendments. However, in view of the variability in the characteristics of FAs that are associated with location, feed coal, combustion conditions and other factors, the suitability of a particular FA for a specific soil/mine spoil needs to be critically evaluated before it is applied in order to maximize favorable results and eliminate unexpected consequences. FA generated in India tends to be mostly alkaline, with lower levels of trace elements than are often found in FAs from other countries. The concentrations of potential

  19. Characterization of apple stem grooving virus and apple chlorotic leaf spot virus identified in a crab apple tree.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongqiang; Deng, Congliang; Bian, Yong; Zhao, Xiaoli; Zhou, Qi

    2017-04-01

    Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), and prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) were identified in a crab apple tree by small RNA deep sequencing. The complete genome sequence of ACLSV isolate BJ (ACLSV-BJ) was 7554 nucleotides and shared 67.0%-83.0% nucleotide sequence identity with other ACLSV isolates. A phylogenetic tree based on the complete genome sequence of all available ACLSV isolates showed that ACLSV-BJ clustered with the isolates SY01 from hawthorn, MO5 from apple, and JB, KMS and YH from pear. The complete nucleotide sequence of ASGV-BJ was 6509 nucleotides (nt) long and shared 78.2%-80.7% nucleotide sequence identity with other isolates. ASGV-BJ and the isolate ASGV_kfp clustered together in the phylogenetic tree as an independent clade. Recombination analysis showed that isolate ASGV-BJ was a naturally occurring recombinant.

  20. Patulin Production in Apples Decayed by Penicillium expansum1

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, D. M.; Nuovo, G. J.

    1973-01-01

    Sixty isolates of Penicillium expansum were tested for patulin production in decaying apples. All the isolates were found to produce the mycotoxin patulin as determined by thin-layer chromatography. Since patulin is known to be stable in many apple products, the results indicate that apple products made partially from apples decayed by P. expansum will contain patulin which may present a health hazard. The results also suggest that patulin may be important in the decay of apples by P. expansum. PMID:4726831

  1. Biochemistry of Apple Aroma: A Review.

    PubMed

    Espino-Díaz, Miguel; Sepúlveda, David Roberto; González-Aguilar, Gustavo; Olivas, Guadalupe I

    2016-12-01

    Flavour is a key quality attribute of apples defined by volatile aroma compounds. Biosynthesis of aroma compounds involves metabolic pathways in which the main precursors are fatty and amino acids, and the main products are aldehydes, alcohols and esters. Some enzymes are crucial in the production of volatile compounds, such as lipoxygenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and alcohol acyltransferase. Composition and concentration of volatiles in apples may be altered by pre- and postharvest factors that cause a decline in apple flavour. Addition of biosynthetic precursors of volatile compounds may be a strategy to promote aroma production in apples. The present manuscript compiles information regarding the biosynthesis of volatile aroma compounds, including metabolic pathways, enzymes and substrates involved, factors that may affect their production and also includes a wide number of studies focused on the addition of biosynthetic precursors in their production.

  2. Micropropagation of apple--a review.

    PubMed

    Dobránszki, Judit; da Silva, Jaime A Teixeira

    2010-01-01

    Micropropagation of apple has played an important role in the production of healthy, disease-free plants and in the rapid multiplication of scions and rootstocks with desirable traits. During the last few decades, in apple, many reliable methods have been developed for both rootstocks and scions from a practical, commercial point of view. Successful micropropagation of apple using pre-existing meristems (culture of apical buds or nodal segments) is influenced by several internal and external factors including ex vitro (e.g. genotype and physiological state) and in vitro conditions (e.g., media constituents and light). Specific requirements during stages of micropropagation, such as the establishment of in vitro cultures, shoot multiplication, rooting of microshoots and acclimatization are summarized in this review. New approaches for increasing shoot multiplication and rooting for apple and current use of micropropagated plantlets as tools in basic and applied research are also discussed.

  3. Biochemistry of Apple Aroma: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Espino-Díaz, Miguel; Sepúlveda, David Roberto; González-Aguilar, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Summary Flavour is a key quality attribute of apples defined by volatile aroma compounds. Biosynthesis of aroma compounds involves metabolic pathways in which the main precursors are fatty and amino acids, and the main products are aldehydes, alcohols and esters. Some enzymes are crucial in the production of volatile compounds, such as lipoxygenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and alcohol acyltransferase. Composition and concentration of volatiles in apples may be altered by pre- and postharvest factors that cause a decline in apple flavour. Addition of biosynthetic precursors of volatile compounds may be a strategy to promote aroma production in apples. The present manuscript compiles information regarding the biosynthesis of volatile aroma compounds, including metabolic pathways, enzymes and substrates involved, factors that may affect their production and also includes a wide number of studies focused on the addition of biosynthetic precursors in their production. PMID:28115895

  4. Troubleshooting: Dealing with a Misbehaving Apple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Patrick B.; Howell, Richard D.

    1984-01-01

    Presents troubleshooting suggestions specifically intended for the Apple II microcomputer which have been developed from experiences working with children and pre- and inservice teachers. Guidelines for diagnosing problems focus on the mechanical functions of the microcomputer hardware. (MBR)

  5. Production of apple snail for space diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Masamichi; Motoki, Shigeru; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.; Katayama, Naomi

    For food production in space at recycling bio-elements under closed environment, appropriate organisms should be chosen to drive the closed materials recycle loop. We propose a combination of green algae, photosynthetic protozoa, and aquatic plants such as Wolffia spp., for the primary producer fixing solar energy to chemical form in biomass, and apple snail, Pomacea bridgesii, which converts this biomass to animal meat. Because of high proliferation rate of green algae or protozoa compared to higher plants, and direct conversion of them to apple snail, the efficiency of food production in this combination is high, in terms of energy usage, space for rearing, and yield of edible biomass. Furthermore, green algae and apple snail can form a closed ecological system with exchanging bio-elements between two member, i.e. excreta of snail turn to fertilizer of algae, and grown algae become feed for snail. Since apple snail stays in water or on wet substrate, control of rearing is easy to make. Mass production technology of apple snail has been well established to utilize it as human food. Nutrients of apple snail are also listed in the standard tables of food composition in Japan. Nutrients for 100 g of apple snail canned in brine are energy 340 kJ, protein 16.5 g, lipid 1.0 g, cholesterol 240 mg, carbohydrate 0.8 g, Ca 400 mg, Fe 3.9 mg, Zn 1.5 mg. It is rich in minerals, especially Ca and Fe. Vitamin contents are quite low, but K 0.005 mg, B2 0.09 mg, B12 0.0006 mg, folate 0.001 mg, and E 0.6 mg. The amino acid score of apple snail could not be found in literature. Overall, apple snail provides rich protein and animal lipid such as cholesterol. It could be a good source of minerals. However, it does not give enough vitamin D and B12 , which are supposed to be supplemented by animal origin foods. In terms of acceptance in food culture, escargot is a gourmet menu in French dishes, and six to ten snail, roughly 50 g, are served for one person. Apple snail reaches to 30 g

  6. Biochar addition induced the same plant responses as elevated CO2 in mine spoil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaling; Drigo, Barbara; Bai, Shahla Hosseini; Menke, Carl; Zhang, Manyun; Xu, Zhihong

    2018-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) limitation is one of the major constrain factors for biochar in improving plant growth, the same for elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). Hence, we hypothesized that (1) biochar would induce the same plant responses as elevated CO 2 under N-poor conditions; (2) elevated CO 2 would decrease the potential of biochar application in improving plant growth. To test these hypotheses, we assessed the effects of pinewood biochar, produced at three pyrolytic temperatures (650, 750 and 850 °C), on C and N allocation at the whole-plant level of three plant species (Austrostipa ramossissima, Dichelachne micrantha and Isolepis nodosa) grown in the N poor mine spoil under both ambient (400 μL L -1 ) and elevated (700 μL L -1 ) CO 2 concentrations. Our data showed that biochar addition (1) significantly decreased leaf total N and δ 15 N (P < 0.05); (2) decreased leaf total N and δ 15 N more pronouncedly than those of root; and (3) showed more pronounced effects on improving plant biomass under ambient CO 2 than under elevated CO 2 concentration. Hence, it remained a strong possibility that biochar addition induced the same plant physiological responses as elevated CO 2 in the N-deficient mine spoil. As expected, elevated CO 2 decreased the ability of biochar addition in improving plant growth.

  7. BadR and BadM Proteins Transcriptionally Regulate Two Operons Needed for Anaerobic Benzoate Degradation by Rhodopseudomonas palustris

    PubMed Central

    Hirakawa, Hidetada; Hirakawa, Yuko; Greenberg, E. Peter

    2015-01-01

    The bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris grows with the aromatic acid benzoate and the alicyclic acid cyclohexanecarboxylate (CHC) as sole carbon sources. The enzymatic steps in an oxygen-independent pathway for CHC degradation have been elucidated, but it was unknown how the CHC operon (badHI aliAB badK) encoding the enzymes for CHC degradation was regulated. aliA and aliB encode enzymes for the conversion of CHC to cyclohex-1-enecarboxyl–coenzyme A (CHene-CoA). At this point, the pathway for CHC degradation merges with the pathway for anaerobic benzoate degradation, as CHene-CoA is an intermediate in both degradation pathways. Three enzymes, encoded by badK, badH, and badI, prepare and cleave the alicyclic ring of CHene-CoA to yield pimelyl-CoA. Here, we show that the MarR transcription factor family member, BadR, represses transcription of the CHC operon by binding near the transcription start site of badH. 2-Ketocyclohexane-1-carboxyl–CoA, an intermediate of CHC and benzoate degradation, interacts with BadR to abrogate repression. We also present evidence that the transcription factor BadM binds to the promoter of the badDEFGAB (Bad) operon for the anaerobic conversion of benzoate to CHene-CoA to repress its expression. Contrary to previous reports, BadR does not appear to control expression of the Bad operon. These data enhance our view of the transcriptional regulation of anaerobic benzoate degradation by R. palustris. PMID:25888170

  8. Antisocial features and "faking bad": A critical note.

    PubMed

    Niesten, Isabella J M; Nentjes, Lieke; Merckelbach, Harald; Bernstein, David P

    2015-01-01

    We critically review the literature on antisocial personality features and symptom fabrication (i.e., faking bad; e.g., malingering). A widespread assumption is that these constructs are intimately related. Some studies have, indeed, found that antisocial individuals score higher on instruments detecting faking bad, but others have been unable to replicate this pattern. In addition, studies exploring whether antisocial individuals are especially talented in faking bad have generally come up with null results. The notion of an intrinsic link between antisocial features and faking bad is difficult to test and research in this domain is sensitive to selection bias. We argue that research on faking bad would profit from further theoretical articulation. One topic that deserves scrutiny is how antisocial features affect the cognitive dissonance typically induced by faking bad. We illustrate our points with preliminary data and discuss their implications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. BAD: undertaker by night, candyman by day.

    PubMed

    Danial, N N

    2008-12-01

    The BH3-only pro-apoptotic proteins are upstream sensors of cellular damage that selectively respond to specific, proximal death and survival signals. Genetic models and biochemical studies indicate that these molecules are latent killers until activated through transcriptional or post-translational mechanisms in a tissue-restricted and signal-specific manner. The large number of BH3-only proteins, their unique subcellular localization, protein-interaction network and diverse modes of activation suggest specialization of their damage-sensing function, ensuring that the core apoptotic machinery is poised to receive input from a wide range of cellular stress signals. The apoptotic response initiated by the activation of BH3-only proteins ultimately culminates in allosteric activation of pro-apoptotic BAX and BAK, the gateway proteins to the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. From activation of BH3-only proteins to oligomerization of BAX and BAK and mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization, an intricate network of interactions between the pro- and anti-apoptotic members of the BCL-2 family orchestrates the decision to undergo apoptosis. Beyond regulation of apoptosis, multiple BCL-2 proteins have recently emerged as active components of select homeostatic pathways carrying other cellular functions. This review focuses on BAD, which was the first BH3-only protein linked to proximal survival signals through phosphorylation by survival kinases. In addition to findings that delineated the physiological role of BAD in apoptosis and its dynamic regulation by phosphorylation, studies pointing to new roles for this protein in other physiological pathways, such as glucose metabolism, are highlighted. By executing its 'day' and 'night' jobs in metabolism and apoptosis, respectively, BAD helps coordinate mitochondrial fuel metabolism and the apoptotic machinery.

  10. Apple Pomace as Potential Source of Natural Active Compounds.

    PubMed

    Waldbauer, Katharina; McKinnon, Ruxandra; Kopp, Brigitte

    2017-08-01

    Apple pomace is a waste product of the apple manufacturing industry that has been in the focus of life sciences as it represents a low-cost source of fruit-derived compounds. High fruit consumption is associated with beneficial health effects, and therefore, apple pomace and its constituents raise therapeutic interest. The present work reviews (i) the chemical constituents of apple pomace, (ii) optimized extraction methods of apple pomace compounds, and (iii) biological activities of apple pomace. Current evidence of apple pomace influence on digestion and metabolism, cholesterol and triglyceride homeostasis, diabetes, and sex hormones is summarized. Furthermore, studies regarding its antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, antibacterial and antiviral effects are presented. The review concludes that apple pomace is an underutilized waste product of the apple industry with the potential of being processed for its nutritional and pharmaceutical value. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Video games: good, bad, or other?

    PubMed

    Prot, Sara; McDonald, Katelyn A; Anderson, Craig A; Gentile, Douglas A

    2012-06-01

    Video games are a pervasive pastime among children and adolescents. The growing popularity of video games has instigated a debate among parents, researchers, video game producers, and policymakers concerning potential harmful and helpful effects of video games on children. This article provides an overview of research findings on the positive and negative effects of video games, thus providing an empirical answer to the question, are video games good or bad? The article also provides some guidelines to help pediatricians, parents, and other caregivers protect children from negative effects and to maximize positive effects of video games. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Employee bad behavior: selected thoughts and strategies.

    PubMed

    Reinholz, Becky; Cash, Jimmie K; Kupperschmidt, Betty

    2009-01-01

    In summary, bad behavior is prevalent in many acute care settings. Kupperschmidt (2006) once asked if it would take a mandate from a regulatory agency to get nurses to address horizontal hostility. Perhaps the answer to that question is "Yes" and we now have that mandate. Nursing Managers and Executives are challenged to demonstrate competence in effective behavior management. Role modeling integrity by adherence to standards and governing policies motivates employees to follow such examples. Inspiring environments that allow professionals to share talents and skills in a "safe" culture of practice promotes healthy work environments and defines successful behavior management.

  13. Competition in Healthcare: Good, Bad or Ugly?

    PubMed Central

    Goddard, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The role of competition in healthcare is much debated. Despite a wealth of international experience in relation to competition, evidence is mixed and contested and the debate about the potential role for competition is often polarised. This paper considers briefly some of the reasons for this, focusing on what is meant by "competition in healthcare" and why it is more valuable to think about the circumstances in which competition is more and less likely to be a good tool to achieve benefits, rather than whether or not it is "good" or "bad," per se.M PMID:26340484

  14. Bad Kids and Bad Feelings: What Children's Literature Teaches about ADHD, Creativity, and Openness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stearns, Clio

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses data from children's literature and classroom narratives to consider hyperactivity, inattention, and other non-normative behaviors in children. It encourages educational thinkers and childhood mental health professionals to take a historical perspective on children's badness rather than consigning it to the realm of pathology.…

  15. A Comprehensive Review of Apples and Apple Components and Their Relationship to Human Health12

    PubMed Central

    Hyson, Dianne A.

    2011-01-01

    There has been an increasing appreciation and understanding of the link between dietary fruit and vegetable intake and improved health in humans. The widespread and growing intake of apples and apple juice/products and their rich phytochemical profile suggest their important potential to affect the health of the populations consuming them. This review summarizes current clinical, in vitro, and in vivo data and builds upon earlier published reports that apple may reduce the risk of chronic disease by various mechanisms, including antioxidant, antiproliferative, and cell signaling effects. Exposure to apples and apple products has been associated with beneficial effects on risk, markers, and etiology of cancer, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and Alzheimer’s disease. Recent work suggests that these products may also be associated with improved outcomes related to cognitive decline of normal aging, diabetes, weight management, bone health, pulmonary function, and gastrointestinal protection. PMID:22332082

  16. Effects of apples and specific apple components on the cecal environment of conventional rats: role of apple pectin.

    PubMed

    Licht, Tine R; Hansen, Max; Bergström, Anders; Poulsen, Morten; Krath, Britta N; Markowski, Jaroslaw; Dragsted, Lars O; Wilcks, Andrea

    2010-01-20

    Our study was part of the large European project ISAFRUIT aiming to reveal the biological explanations for the epidemiologically well-established health effects of fruits. The objective was to identify effects of apple and apple product consumption on the composition of the cecal microbial community in rats, as well as on a number of cecal parameters, which may be influenced by a changed microbiota. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of cecal microbiota profiles obtained by PCR-DGGE targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed an effect of whole apples in a long-term feeding study (14 weeks), while no effects of apple juice, purée or pomace on microbial composition in cecum were observed. Administration of either 0.33 or 3.3% apple pectin in the diet resulted in considerable changes in the DGGE profiles.A 2-fold increase in the activity of beta-glucuronidase was observed in animals fed with pectin (7% in the diet) for four weeks, as compared to control animals (P < 0.01). Additionally, the level of butyrate measured in these pectin-fed animal was more than double of the corresponding level in control animals (P < 0.01). Sequencing revealed that DGGE bands, which were suppressed in pectin-fed rats, represented Gram-negative anaerobic rods belonging to the phylum Bacteroidetes, whereas bands that became more prominent represented mainly Gram-positive anaerobic rods belonging to the phylum Firmicutes, and specific species belonging to the Clostridium Cluster XIVa.Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed a lower amount of given Bacteroidetes species in the pectin-fed rats as well as in the apple-fed rats in the four-week study (P < 0.05). Additionally, a more than four-fold increase in the amount of Clostridium coccoides (belonging to Cluster XIVa), as well as of genes encoding butyryl-coenzyme A CoA transferase, which is involved in butyrate production, was detected by quantitative PCR in fecal samples from the pectin-fed animals. Our findings show that consumption of apple

  17. To the Educated, the Spoils: The Relation of Education to Labor Market Experiences of Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cluck, Rodney E.; Beaulieu, Lionel J.; Barfield, Melissa A.

    This paper examines the transition of young adults from school to work over time and the role of education in facilitating the entry of individuals into high quality jobs in the primary labor market. A dual labor market perspective argues that the labor market is structured into primary and secondary sectors ("good" and "bad"…

  18. Cisgenic apple trees; development, characterization, and performance

    PubMed Central

    Krens, Frans A.; Schaart, Jan G.; van der Burgh, Aranka M.; Tinnenbroek-Capel, Iris E. M.; Groenwold, Remmelt; Kodde, Linda P.; Broggini, Giovanni A. L.; Gessler, Cesare; Schouten, Henk J.

    2015-01-01

    Two methods were developed for the generation of cisgenic apples. Both have been successfully applied producing trees. The first method avoids the use of any foreign selectable marker genes; only the gene-of-interest is integrated between the T-DNA border sequences. The second method makes use of recombinase-based marker excision. For the first method we used the MdMYB10 gene from a red-fleshed apple coding for a transcription factor involved in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. Red plantlets were obtained and presence of the cisgene was confirmed. Plantlets were grafted and grown in a greenhouse. After 3 years, the first flowers appeared, showing red petals. Pollination led to production of red-fleshed cisgenic apples. The second method used the pM(arker)F(ree) vector system, introducing the scab resistance gene Rvi6, derived from apple. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, followed by selection on kanamycin, produced genetically modified apple lines. Next, leaves from in vitro material were treated to activate the recombinase leading to excision of selection genes. Subsequently, the leaf explants were subjected to negative selection for marker-free plantlets by inducing regeneration on medium containing 5-fluorocytosine. After verification of the marker-free nature, the obtained plants were grafted onto rootstocks. Young trees from four cisgenic lines and one intragenic line, all containing Rvi6, were planted in an orchard. Appropriate controls were incorporated in this trial. We scored scab incidence for three consecutive years on leaves after inoculations with Rvi6-avirulent strains. One cisgenic line and the intragenic line performed as well as the resistant control. In 2014 trees started to overcome their juvenile character and formed flowers and fruits. The first results of scoring scab symptoms on apple fruits were obtained. Apple fruits from susceptible controls showed scab symptoms, while fruits from cisgenic and intragenic lines were free of scab

  19. Anomalous Thermal Diffusivity in Bad Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiecheng; Levenson-Falk, Eli M.; Ramshaw, Brad J.; Bonn, Douglas A.; Liang, Ruixing; Hardy, Walter N.; Hartnoll, Sean A.; Kapitulnik, Aharon

    Local measurements of thermal diffusivity are used to analyze the transport of heat in the bad metallic regime of several strongly correlated materials. In underdoped YBCO systems, we use the in-plane anisotropy to analyze transport in this system. Specifically, we find that the diffusivity anisotropy is comparable to reported values of the electrical resistivity anisotropy and drops sharply below the charge order transition, suggesting that both anisotropies have the same origin. We interpret our results through a strong electron-phonon scattering picture and find that both electronic and phononic contributions to the diffusivity exhibit a saturated scattering time of ℏ /kB T . Our results suggest that neither well-defined electron nor phonon quasiparticles are present in underdoped YBCO systems, and thermal transport exhibits a collective behavior of a ''soup'' of strongly coupled electrons and phonons which moves at a velocity that is smaller than the Fermi velocity, but larger than the speed of sound. We generalize this treatment to measurements of other bad metals and discuss its implications. Work supported by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation through the EPiQS Initiative, Grant GBMF4529, and by a Department of Energy Early Career Award (SAH).

  20. Least bad solutions to the 'drugs problem'.

    PubMed

    Mugford, S

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the current difficulties being faced in Australia by policy-makers attempting to regulate the non-medical use of illegal drugs, and it is suggested that the difficulties centre upon two aspects. First, existing prohibitions are unsuccessful, with use levels rising and, in some arenas (e.g. cocaine use in the USA), quite out of control. On the other hand, a move towards decriminalization or legalization is difficult because past propaganda has been so vehement that a change now apparently risks sending the wrong messages to young people. This dilemma means that there is no solution, including inertia, which is risk-free, nor is there one free of difficulties. It is thus relevant to think in terms of 'least bad' rather than 'best' when formulating a system to face these problems. The exploration of what this least bad solution might be begins with the examination of the prominent myths (such as 'the drug-free society', 'the evil pusher', 'the user as victim' and 'the young person as cultural dope') that hinder our reasoning. Secondly, by suggesting that, in a climate of increasing crime related to drugs, inability of prohibitions to control that use and escalating health risks attendant on use (including the AIDS problem), the central policy thrust must be harm reduction and damage minimization rather than illusory goals such as widespread abstinence. The paper concludes with a discussion of some relevant evidence on alternative options.

  1. Comparison of fall and spring planting on strip-mine spoils in the bituminous region of Pennsylvania

    Treesearch

    Grant Davis

    1973-01-01

    To evaluate fall versus spring planting of 10 coniferous tree species and 5 hardwood shrub species, experimental plantings were established over a 2-year period on 7 graded strip-mine spoils. In general, initial tree survival was better with spring planting than with fall planting, especially on the more acid sites. Shrubs survived well with both spring and fall...

  2. Second-year results of hybrid poplar test plantings on bituminous strip-mine spoils in Pennsylvania

    Treesearch

    Grant Davis

    1964-01-01

    During the period 1946-49, The Pennsylvania State University established 22 experimental plantings of trees and shrubs on strip-mine spoil banks in the Bituminous Region of Pennsylvania to determine which species were best suited for revegetating such sites. When 10-year growth on the experimental plots was evaluated, a clone of hybrid poplar was found to have outgrown...

  3. 'Hu Hong' (bad thing): parental perceptions of teenagers' sexuality in urban Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Do, Lan Anh Thi; Boonmongkon, Pimpawun; Paek, Seung Chun; Guadamuz, Thomas E

    2017-02-28

    Teenagers under 18 years old in Vietnam are considered as minors who usually lack the autonomy to make decisions. They are also sometimes viewed as contributors to social evils including crime, violence and substance use. Moreover, most Vietnamese teenagers have unsafe sex before marriage. The objective of this study is to explore the parental perceptions relating to their teenagers' sexuality, particularly the social and cultural forces, that may hinder access to sexuality information. Guided by a Community Advisory Board (CAB), this qualitative study uses four focus group discussions (FGDs) consisting of 12 mothers and 12 fathers, as well as twelve individual in-depth interviews (IDIs) with a diverse sample of parents of teens in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. Content and discourse analysis were conducted, based on Foucauldian concepts. Four themes emerged: 1) Meanings of sexuality and sexuality education, 2) Early sexual intercourse destroys teenagers' future, 3) Teenagers are not hu hong (spoil/bad thing), are innocent and virgin, and 4) Policing and controlling of sexual intercourse among teens. Parents did not view their teenage children as sexual beings; those who are sexual are considered hu hong. Parents believed that teens need to be policed and controlled to prevent them from becoming hu hong, particularly girls. Controlling of sexuality information by parents was therefore common in HCMC, but differed by gender and educational levels of parents. For example, fathers more than mothers were not comfortable teaching their teenage children about sex and sexuality. Parents with higher education police their teenage children's usage of the Internet and social media, while parents with lower education control who can be friends with their teenage children. Vietnamese parents in general have negative views of sex and sexuality education for their teenage children. Recognizing that many Vietnamese teenagers have unsafe sex before marriage, parents need to

  4. T1 mapping with the variable flip angle technique: A simple correction for insufficient spoiling of transverse magnetization.

    PubMed

    Baudrexel, Simon; Nöth, Ulrike; Schüre, Jan-Rüdiger; Deichmann, Ralf

    2018-06-01

    The variable flip angle method derives T 1 maps from radiofrequency-spoiled gradient-echo data sets, acquired with different flip angles α. Because the method assumes validity of the Ernst equation, insufficient spoiling of transverse magnetization yields errors in T 1 estimation, depending on the chosen radiofrequency-spoiling phase increment (Δϕ). This paper presents a versatile correction method that uses modified flip angles α' to restore the validity of the Ernst equation. Spoiled gradient-echo signals were simulated for three commonly used phase increments Δϕ (50°/117°/150°), different values of α, repetition time (TR), T 1 , and a T 2 of 85 ms. For each parameter combination, α' (for which the Ernst equation yielded the same signal) and a correction factor C Δϕ (α, TR, T 1 ) = α'/α were determined. C Δϕ was found to be independent of T 1 and fitted as polynomial C Δϕ (α, TR), allowing to calculate α' for any protocol using this Δϕ. The accuracy of the correction method for T 2 values deviating from 85 ms was also determined. The method was tested in vitro and in vivo for variable flip angle scans with different acquisition parameters. The technique considerably improved the accuracy of variable flip angle-based T 1 maps in vitro and in vivo. The proposed method allows for a simple correction of insufficient spoiling in gradient-echo data. The required polynomial parameters are supplied for three common Δϕ. Magn Reson Med 79:3082-3092, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  5. Biotechnology and apple breeding in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, Megumi; Hatsuyama, Yoshimichi; Harada, Takeo; Fukasawa-Akada, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    Apple is a fruit crop of significant economic importance, and breeders world wide continue to develop novel cultivars with improved characteristics. The lengthy juvenile period and the large field space required to grow apple populations have imposed major limitations on breeding. Various molecular biological techniques have been employed to make apple breeding easier. Transgenic technology has facilitated the development of apples with resistance to fungal or bacterial diseases, improved fruit quality, or root stocks with better rooting or dwarfing ability. DNA markers for disease resistance (scab, powdery mildew, fire-blight, Alternaria blotch) and fruit skin color have also been developed, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) has been employed in breeding programs. In the last decade, genomic sequences and chromosome maps of various cultivars have become available, allowing the development of large SNP arrays, enabling efficient QTL mapping and genomic selection (GS). In recent years, new technologies for genetic improvement, such as trans-grafting, virus vectors, and genome-editing, have emerged. Using these techniques, no foreign genes are present in the final product, and some of them show considerable promise for application to apple breeding. PMID:27069388

  6. Biotechnology and apple breeding in Japan.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Megumi; Hatsuyama, Yoshimichi; Harada, Takeo; Fukasawa-Akada, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    Apple is a fruit crop of significant economic importance, and breeders world wide continue to develop novel cultivars with improved characteristics. The lengthy juvenile period and the large field space required to grow apple populations have imposed major limitations on breeding. Various molecular biological techniques have been employed to make apple breeding easier. Transgenic technology has facilitated the development of apples with resistance to fungal or bacterial diseases, improved fruit quality, or root stocks with better rooting or dwarfing ability. DNA markers for disease resistance (scab, powdery mildew, fire-blight, Alternaria blotch) and fruit skin color have also been developed, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) has been employed in breeding programs. In the last decade, genomic sequences and chromosome maps of various cultivars have become available, allowing the development of large SNP arrays, enabling efficient QTL mapping and genomic selection (GS). In recent years, new technologies for genetic improvement, such as trans-grafting, virus vectors, and genome-editing, have emerged. Using these techniques, no foreign genes are present in the final product, and some of them show considerable promise for application to apple breeding.

  7. Patulin in apple leather in Iran.

    PubMed

    Montaseri, H; Eskandari, M H; Yeganeh, A T; Karami, S; Javidnia, K; Dehghanzadeh, G R; Mesbahi, G R; Niakousari, M

    2014-01-01

    Apple leather is made by dehydration of cooked fruit into leathery sheets. Mould growth and patulin production can occur in damaged apples or when fallen fruit is collected for apple leather processing. A survey was conducted to determine levels and dietary intake of patulin from apple leather marketed in Iran. Patulin was detected in all samples at concentrations ranging from <10 to 2559 µg/kg. Mean patulin concentration was 620 µg/kg and 91.4% of the samples had levels higher than 50 µg/kg. Estimated daily intake (EDI) of patulin for adults and children considering the mean concentration of patulin obtained in this study (620 µg/kg) were higher than the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) of 0.4 µg/kg bw/day for patulin that has been established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. This indicated the need for stricter control and improvement in processing techniques to reduce the incidence of patulin in apple leather.

  8. Stillbirth and stigma: the spoiling and repair of multiple social identities.

    PubMed

    Brierley-Jones, Lyn; Crawley, Rosalind; Lomax, Samantha; Ayers, Susan

    This study investigated mothers' experiences surrounding stillbirth in the United Kingdom, their memory making and sharing opportunities, and the effect these opportunities had on them. Qualitative data were generated from free text responses to open-ended questions. Thematic content analysis revealed that "stigma" was experienced by most women and Goffman's (1963) work on stigma was subsequently used as an analytical framework. Results suggest that stillbirth can spoil the identities of "patient," "mother," and "full citizen." Stigma was reported as arising from interactions with professionals, family, friends, work colleagues, and even casual acquaintances. Stillbirth produces common learning experiences often requiring "identity work" (Murphy, 2012). Memory making and sharing may be important in this work and further research is needed. Stigma can reduce the memory sharing opportunities for women after stillbirth and this may explain some of the differential mental health effects of memory making after stillbirth that is documented in the literature.

  9. Contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to the development of maize (Zea mays L.) grown in three types of coal mine spoils.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Zhao, Renxin; Fu, Ruiying; Bi, Na; Wang, Lixin; Zhao, Wenjing; Guo, Jiangyuan; Zhang, Jun

    2014-03-01

    Coal mine spoils are usually unfavorable for plant growth and have different properties according to dumping years, weathering degree, and the occurrence of spontaneous combustion. The establishment of plant cover in mine spoils can be facilitated by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the importance of AMF in plant adaptation to different mine spoils and the potential role of AMF for revegetation practices. We investigated the effects of Glomus aggregatum, Rhizophagus intraradices (syn. Glomus intraradices), and Funneliformis mosseae (syn. Glomus mosseae) on the growth, nutritional status, and metal uptake of maize (Zea mays L.) grown in recent discharged (S1), weathered (S2), and spontaneous combusted (S3) coal mine spoils. Symbiotic associations were successfully established between AMF and maize in three substrates. Mycorrhizal colonization effectively promoted plant growth by significantly increasing the uptake of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K), adjusting C:N:P stoichiometry and alleviating toxic effects of heavy metals. G. aggregatum, R. intraradices, and F. mosseae exhibited different mycorrhizal effects in response to mine spoil types. F. mosseae was the most effective in the development of maize in S1 and may be the most appropriate for revegetation of this substrate, while R. intraradices played the most beneficial role in S2 and S3. Our results suggest that inoculation with AMF can enhance plant adaptation to different types of coal mine spoils and play a positive role in the revegetation of coal mine spoil banks.

  10. Classification and statistical analysis of mine spoils chemical composition from Oliete basin (Teruel, NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meseguer, S.; Sanfeliu, T.; Jordán, M. M.

    2009-02-01

    The Oliete basin (Early Cretaceous, NE Teruel, Spain) is one of the most important areas for the supply of mine spoils used as ball clays for the production of white and red stoneware in the Spanish ceramic industry of wall and floor tiles. This study corresponds to the second part of the paper published recently by Meseguer et al. (Environ Geol 2008) about the use of mine spoils from Teruel coal mining district. The present study shows a statistical data analysis from chemical data (major, minor and trace elements). The performed statistical analysis of chemical data included descriptive statistics and cluster analysis (with ANOVA and Scheffé methods). The cluster analysis of chemical data provided three main groups: C3 with the highest mean SiO2 content (66%) and lowest mean Al2O3 content (20%); C2 with lower SiO2 content (48%) and higher mean Al2O3 content (28%); and C1 with medium values for the SiO2 and Al2O3 mean content. The main applications of these materials are refractory, white and red ceramics, stoneware, heavy ceramics (including red earthenware, bricks and roof tiles), and components of white Portland cement and aluminous cement. Clays from group 2 are used in refractories (with higher kaolinite content, and constrictions to CaO + MgO and K2O + Na2O contents). All materials can be used in fine ceramics (white or red, according to the Fe2O3 + TiO2 content).

  11. 40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple products... apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated products is...

  12. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... apple juice subcategory. 407.10 Section 407.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering more...

  13. 40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... apple products subcategory. 407.20 Section 407.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple... processing of apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated products...

  14. 40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple products... apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated products is...

  15. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering more...

  16. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering more...

  17. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering more...

  18. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering more...

  19. 40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple products... apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated products is...

  20. 40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple products... apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated products is...

  1. Enforcing Academic Policies and Alleviating Student Bad Debt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, D. Tyson; Wesley, Homer

    1998-01-01

    It is more important than ever for colleges and universities to manage the resources they have and guard against unnecessary loss. Student bad debt is one loss that can be resolved. A study identified certain predictors of student bad debt, including academic indicators and student characteristics, and offers suggestions to institutions for…

  2. When It Is Bad to Be Too Good.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappon, Daniel

    1980-01-01

    Excessive "too-goodness" in a child can lead to obsessive neuroses which result in compulsions or ruminations. The only effective treatment is early prevention, culturally, socially, and behaviorally. Children must understand that all excesses are bad. Being bad is sometimes good. Being too good can be unhealthy. (Author/BEF)

  3. Thematic and Content Analysis of Idiopathic Nightmares and Bad Dreams

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Geneviève; Zadra, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To conduct a comprehensive and comparative study of prospectively collected bad dream and nightmare reports using a broad range of dream content variables. Design: Correlational and descriptive. Setting: Participants' homes. Participants: Three hundred thirty-one adult volunteers (55 men, 275 women, 1 not specified; mean age = 32.4 ± 14.8 y). Interventions: N/A. Measurement and Results: Five hundred seventy-two participants kept a written record of all of their remembered dreams in a log for 2 to 5 consecutive weeks. A total of 9,796 dream reports were collected and the content of 253 nightmares and 431 bad dreams reported by 331 participants was investigated. Physical aggression was the most frequently reported theme in nightmares, whereas interpersonal conflicts predominated in bad dreams. Nightmares were rated by participants as being substantially more emotionally intense than were bad dreams. Thirty-five percent of nightmares and 55% of bad dreams contained primary emotions other than fear. When compared to bad dreams, nightmares were more bizarre and contained substantially more aggressions, failures, and unfortunate endings. Conclusions: The results have important implications on how nightmares are conceptualized and defined and support the view that when compared to bad dreams, nightmares represent a somewhat rarer—and more severe—expression of the same basic phenomenon. Citation: Robert G; Zadra A. Thematic and content analysis of idiopathic nightmares and bad dreams. SLEEP 2014;37(2):409-417. PMID:24497669

  4. Positive Organizational Behavior: A Buffer for Bad News

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Sandra L.; Holden, Tracey Quigley

    2012-01-01

    Most communication research on bad news messages focuses on crisis communication, where attention is often limited to image repair strategies. The authors argue that a key indicator of an organization's effectiveness in communicating "bad news" messages is its organizational culture. Developing an organizational culture that values positive…

  5. 48 CFR 2131.205-3 - Bad debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bad debts. 2131.205-3 Section 2131.205-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL... PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 2131.205-3 Bad debts. Erroneous benefit...

  6. Breaking bad news: issues relating to nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Warnock, Clare

    2014-07-15

    The breaking of bad news was traditionally regarded to be the time when a doctor and nurse sat down with a patient and family members to provide information about, for example, a life-limiting diagnosis or a poor prognosis. However, breaking bad news is now generally accepted as a process, not a one-off event, and is considered to refer to any bad, sad or difficult information that alters patients' perceptions of their present and future. Nurses have an important role in the process of providing information and helping patients prepare for, receive, understand and cope with the bad news they have been given. This article aims to help nurses understand the process of breaking bad news and discuss the challenges and difficulties that nurses can face when they are involved with patients who have been given bad news. It also provides guidance with regard to preparing for breaking bad news, giving difficult information, responding to possible reactions, and supporting patients and their relatives after they have received bad news.

  7. Influenza virus induces apoptosis via BAD-mediated mitochondrial dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Tran, Anh T; Cortens, John P; Du, Qiujiang; Wilkins, John A; Coombs, Kevin M

    2013-01-01

    Influenza virus infection results in host cell death and major tissue damage. Specific components of the apoptotic pathway, a signaling cascade that ultimately leads to cell death, are implicated in promoting influenza virus replication. BAD is a cell death regulator that constitutes a critical control point in the intrinsic apoptosis pathway, which occurs through the dysregulation of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and the subsequent activation of downstream apoptogenic factors. Here we report a novel proviral role for the proapoptotic protein BAD in influenza virus replication. We show that influenza virus-induced cytopathology and cell death are considerably inhibited in BAD knockdown cells and that both virus replication and viral protein production are dramatically reduced, which suggests that virus-induced apoptosis is BAD dependent. Our data showed that influenza viruses induced phosphorylation of BAD at residues S112 and S136 in a temporal manner. Viral infection also induced BAD cleavage, late in the viral life cycle, to a truncated form that is reportedly a more potent inducer of apoptosis. We further demonstrate that knockdown of BAD resulted in reduced cytochrome c release and suppression of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway during influenza virus replication, as seen by an inhibition of caspases-3, caspase-7, and procyclic acidic repetitive protein (PARP) cleavage. Our data indicate that influenza viruses carefully modulate the activation of the apoptotic pathway that is dependent on the regulatory function of BAD and that failure of apoptosis activation resulted in unproductive viral replication.

  8. 48 CFR 1631.205-71 - FEHBP bad debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true FEHBP bad debts. 1631.205-71 Section 1631.205-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL... AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 1631.205-71 FEHBP bad debts. Erroneous benefit...

  9. HOW TO MANAGE DATA BADLY (PART 1 & 2)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a landmark article in The American Statistician, Howard Wainer (1994) presented ideas for (a) "How to Display Data Badly," wherein good data are ruined by bad graphics. Wainer presumed too much. In this essay, I extend his concept by presenting ideas and examples of how scient...

  10. Mentoring Graduate Students: The Good, Bad, and Gray

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballantine, Jeanne H.; Jolly-Ballantine, John-Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Good mentoring of graduate students influences their perseverance and success to completion, whereas bad mentoring can result in negative outcomes, including delayed degree completion or non-completion. What the authors refer to as the gray zone is that which falls between good and bad mentoring. Examples are partial mentoring or changes in…

  11. Influenza Virus Induces Apoptosis via BAD-Mediated Mitochondrial Dysregulation

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Anh T.; Cortens, John P.; Du, Qiujiang; Wilkins, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Influenza virus infection results in host cell death and major tissue damage. Specific components of the apoptotic pathway, a signaling cascade that ultimately leads to cell death, are implicated in promoting influenza virus replication. BAD is a cell death regulator that constitutes a critical control point in the intrinsic apoptosis pathway, which occurs through the dysregulation of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and the subsequent activation of downstream apoptogenic factors. Here we report a novel proviral role for the proapoptotic protein BAD in influenza virus replication. We show that influenza virus-induced cytopathology and cell death are considerably inhibited in BAD knockdown cells and that both virus replication and viral protein production are dramatically reduced, which suggests that virus-induced apoptosis is BAD dependent. Our data showed that influenza viruses induced phosphorylation of BAD at residues S112 and S136 in a temporal manner. Viral infection also induced BAD cleavage, late in the viral life cycle, to a truncated form that is reportedly a more potent inducer of apoptosis. We further demonstrate that knockdown of BAD resulted in reduced cytochrome c release and suppression of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway during influenza virus replication, as seen by an inhibition of caspases-3, caspase-7, and procyclic acidic repetitive protein (PARP) cleavage. Our data indicate that influenza viruses carefully modulate the activation of the apoptotic pathway that is dependent on the regulatory function of BAD and that failure of apoptosis activation resulted in unproductive viral replication. PMID:23135712

  12. Displaying fairness while delivering bad news: Testing the effectiveness of organizational bad news training in the layoff context.

    PubMed

    Richter, Manuela; König, Cornelius J; Koppermann, Christopher; Schilling, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Although giving bad news at work is a stressful experience, managers are often underprepared for this challenging task. As a solution, we introduce organizational bad news training that integrates (a) principles of delivering bad news from the context of health care (i.e., bad news delivery component), and (b) principles of organizational justice theory (i.e., fairness component). We argue that both the formal and fair delivery of bad news at work can be enhanced with the help of training to mitigate distress both for the messenger and the recipient. We tested the effectiveness of training for the delivery of a layoff as a typical bad news event at work. In 2 studies, we compared the performance of a training group (receiving both components of training) with that of a control group (Study 1, Study 2) and a basics group (receiving the bad news delivery component only; Study 2) during a simulated dismissal notification meeting. In general, the results supported our hypotheses: Training improved the formal delivery of bad news and predicted indicators of procedural fairness during the conversation in both studies. In Study 2, we also considered layoff victims' negativity after the layoff and found that training significantly reduced negative responses. This relationship was fully mediated by layoff victims' fairness perceptions. Despite preparation, however, giving bad news remained a challenging task in both studies. In summary, we recommend that organizations provide managers with organizational bad news training in order to promote professional and fair bad news conversations at work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope System Theory of Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephan, George R.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this learning module is to enable learners to describe how the Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) system functions in support of Apple Valley Science and Technology Center's (AVSTC) client schools' radio astronomy activities.

  14. Prediction and diagnosis of apple fruit physiological disorders

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apple postharvest physiological disorders, characterized by peel or flesh necrosis, result in significant yearly financial losses in commercial operations. Stakeholders have identified the need for effective, consistent control measures for apple postharvest physiological disorders and the developme...

  15. Using the Apple II as a Laboratory Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Jong, Marvin L.; Layman, John W.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses using Apple II microcomputers for measuring resistance, temperature, and light intensity. Also discusses digital input and output and timing techniques. Although focusing on Apple II, the circuits and programs described may be applicable to other microcomputers. (JN)

  16. Melatonin in Apples and Juice: Inhibition of Browning and Microorganism Growth in Apple Juice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haixia; Liu, Xuan; Chen, Ting; Ji, Yazhen; Shi, Kun; Wang, Lin; Zheng, Xiaodong; Kong, Jin

    2018-02-27

    Synthetic melatonin ( N -acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, MT) is popular in the US and Asian markets as a health supplement. Here, we identified a naturally occurring melatonin source in apple juice. Melatonin was present in all 18 apple cultivars tested. The highest melatonin level of the edible part of apple was detected in the apple peel. The melatonin content in 'Fuji' apple juice is comparable to the level of its flesh. Melatonin was consumed during the process of juicing due to its interaction with the oxidants. Melatonin addition significantly reduced the juice color change to brown (browning). The mechanism is that melatonin scavenges the free radicals, which was indicated by the ASBT analysis; therefore, inhibiting the conversion of o -diphenolic compounds into quinones. Most importantly, melatonin exhibited powerful anti-microorganism activity in juice. The exact mechanisms of this action are currently unknown. These effects of melatonin can preserve the quality and prolong the shelf life of apple juice. The results provide valuable information regarding commerciall apple juice processing and storage.

  17. Enhanced recovery of Salmonella from apple cider and apple juice with universal preenrichment broth.

    PubMed

    Hammack, Thomas S; Johnson, Mildred L; Jacobson, Andrew P; Andrews, Wallace H

    2002-01-01

    A comparison was made of the relative efficiencies of Universal Preenrichment (UP) broth and lactose broth for the recovery of a variety of Salmonella serovars from pasteurized and unpasteurized apple cider and pasteurized apple juice. Bulk portions of juice were contaminated with single Salmonella serovars at high and low levels of 0.4 and 0.04 CFU/mL, respectively. The juice was aged for a minimum of 5 days at 2-5 degrees C. On the day analysis was initiated, each of 20 test portions (25 mL) of the contaminated juice was preenriched in UP broth and in lactose broth. The Bacteriological Analytical Manual Salmonella culture method was followed thereafter. For pasteurized apple cider, UP broth recovered significantly (p < 0.05) more Salmonella-positive test portions than did lactose broth (112 and 75, respectively). For unpasteurized apple cider, UP broth recovered significantly more Salmonella-positive test portions than did lactose broth (326 and 221, respectively). For pasteurized apple juice, UP broth recovered more Salmonella-positive test portions than did lactose broth (93 and 81, respectively). However, this difference was not statistically significant. These results indicate that UP broth should replace lactose broth for the analysis of pasteurized and unpasteurized apple cider and pasteurized apple juice.

  18. [Breaking bad news in oncology: the Belgian experience].

    PubMed

    Delevallez, F; Lienard, A; Gibon, A-S; Razavi, D

    2014-10-01

    Breaking bad news is a complex and frequent clinical task for physicians working in oncology. It can have a negative impact on patients and their relatives who are often present during breaking bad news consultations. Many factors influence how the delivery of bad news will be experienced especially the communication skills used by physicians. A three-phase process (post-delivery phase, delivery phase, pre-delivery phase) has been developed to help physician to handle this task more effectively. Communication skills and specific breaking bad news training programs are both necessary and effective. A recent study conducted in Belgium has shown their impact on the time allocated to each of the three phases of this process, on the communication skills used, on the inclusion of the relative in the consultation and on physicians' physiological arousal. These results underscore the importance of promoting intensive communication skills and breaking bad news training programs for health care professionals.

  19. Variety and intensity of emotions in nightmares and bad dreams.

    PubMed

    Zadra, Antonio; Pilon, Mathieu; Donderi, Don C

    2006-04-01

    Nightmares are usually defined as frightening dreams that awaken the sleeper. This study uses the waking criterion to distinguish between nightmares and bad dreams and investigated the variety and intensity of emotions reported in each form of disturbing dream. Ninety participants recorded their dreams for 4 consecutive weeks and, for each dream recalled, noted the emotions present and their intensities on a 9-point scale. Thirty-six participants reported at least one nightmare and one bad dream over the 4 weeks covered by the log, while 29 reported having had at least one bad dream but no nightmares. Nightmares were rated as being significantly (p < 0.001) more intense than bad dreams. Thirty percent of nightmares and 51% of bad dreams contained primary emotions other than fear. The findings support the claim that awakening can serve as an indirect measure of nightmare intensity and raise important implications for the operational definition of nightmares.

  20. Learn good from bad: Effects of good and bad neighbors in spatial prisoners' dilemma games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Peng

    2015-10-01

    Cooperation is vital for the human society and this study focuses on how to promote cooperation. In our stratification model, there exist three classes: two minorities are elites who are prone to cooperate and scoundrels who are born to defect; one majority is the class of common people. Agents of these three classes interact with each other on a square lattice. Commons' cooperation and its factors are investigated. Contradicting our common sense, it indicates that elites play a negative role while scoundrels play a positive one in promoting commons' cooperation. Besides, effects of good and bad neighbors vary with temptation. When the temptation is smaller the positive effect is able to overcome the negative effect, but the later prevails when the temptation is larger. It concludes that common people are more prone to cooperate in harsh environment with bad neighbors, and a better environment with good neighbors merely leads to laziness and free riding of commons.

  1. Bad Luck or Bad Decisions: College Students' Perceptions of the Reasons for and Consequences of Their Alcohol Overdose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Janet

    2007-01-01

    Reasons for and immediate consequences of an alcohol overdose were explored for 217 undergraduate students requiring a medical emergency transport because of excessive alcohol consumption. The sample was categorized into 26 students attributing their overdose solely to bad luck and 191 students citing bad decision making as an explanation. A…

  2. 7 CFR 457.158 - Apple crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apple crop insurance provisions. 457.158 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.158 Apple crop insurance provisions. The apple crop insurance provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as follows: FCIC...

  3. 7 CFR 457.158 - Apple crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apple crop insurance provisions. 457.158 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.158 Apple crop insurance provisions. The apple crop insurance provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as follows: FCIC...

  4. 7 CFR 457.158 - Apple crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apple crop insurance provisions. 457.158 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.158 Apple crop insurance provisions. The apple crop insurance provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as follows: FCIC...

  5. 7 CFR 457.158 - Apple crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apple crop insurance provisions. 457.158 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.158 Apple crop insurance provisions. The apple crop insurance provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as follows: FCIC...

  6. Transcriptomic analysis of apple fruit ripening and texture attributes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Molecular events regulating cultivar-specific apple fruit ripening and sensory quality are largely unknown. Such knowledge is essential for genomic-assisted apple breeding and postharvest quality management. The ripening behavior and texture attributes of two apple cultivars, ‘Pink Lady’ and ‘Honey...

  7. The vulnerability of US apple (Malus) genetic resources

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apple is one of the top three U.S. fruit crops in production and value. Apple production has high costs for land, labor and inputs, and orchards are a long-term commitment. Production is dominated by only a few apple scion cultivars and rootstocks, which increases susceptibility to dynamic external ...

  8. Building Parts Inventory Files Using the AppleWorks Data Base Subprogram and Apple IIe or GS Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a "how to" training device for building database files using the AppleWorks program with an Apple IIe or Apple IIGS Computer with Duodisk or two disk drives and an 80-column card. The manual provides step-by-step directions, and includes 25 figures depicting the computer screen at the various stages of the database file…

  9. Developing Inventory Records Using the AppleWorks Data Base Subprogram and Apple IIe or GS Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a "how to" training device for developing inventory records in the AppleWorks program using an Apple IIe or Apple IIGS Computer with Duodisk or two disk drives and an 80-column card. The manual provides step-by-step directions, and includes 17 figures depicting the computer screen at the various stages of the inventory…

  10. Free galactose concentrations in fresh and stored apples (Malus domestica) and processed apple products.

    PubMed

    Scaman, Christine H; Jim, Vickie Jin Wai; Hartnett, Carol

    2004-02-11

    Gas chromatography was used to quantitate free galactose in Braeburn, Fuji, Red Delicious, and Spartan apples during cold storage, after thermal processing of apple slices and in juice produced using clarification and/or liquifaction enzymes. Spartan had significantly higher galactose levels as compared to Red Delicious apples, but changes in galactose in all varieties during 9 months of cold storage were insignificant. Blanching and canning decreased galactose levels, but doubling the thermal processing during canning increased the free galactose concentration detected in plant tissue. An enzymatic liquefaction aid used to prepare apple juice dramatically increased the free galactose content while a clarification aid caused only a slight increase due to its selective action on soluble pectin. These findings provide useful information for dietitians to base diet recommendations for galactosemic patients.

  11. The Good News About Giving Bad News to Patients

    PubMed Central

    Farber, Neil J; Urban, Susan Y; Collier, Virginia U; Weiner, Joan; Polite, Ronald G; Davis, Elizabeth B; Boyer, E Gil

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND There are few data available on how physicians inform patients about bad news. We surveyed internists about how they convey this information. METHODS We surveyed internists about their activities in giving bad news to patients. One set of questions was about activities for the emotional support of the patient (11 items), and the other was about activities for creating a supportive environment for delivering bad news (9 items). The impact of demographic factors on the performance of emotionally supportive items, environmentally supportive items, and on the number of minutes reportedly spent delivering news was analyzed by analysis of variance and multiple regression analysis. RESULTS More than half of the internists reported that they always or frequently performed 10 of the 11 emotionally supportive items and 6 of the 9 environmentally supportive items while giving bad news to patients. The average time reportedly spent in giving bad news was 27 minutes. Although training in giving bad news had a significant impact on the number of emotionally supportive items reported (P < .05), only 25% of respondents had any previous training in this area. Being older, a woman, unmarried, and having a history of major illness were also associated with reporting a greater number of emotionally supportive activities. CONCLUSIONS Internists report that they inform patients of bad news appropriately. Some deficiencies exist, specifically in discussing prognosis and referral of patients to support groups. Physician educational efforts should include discussion of prognosis with patients as well as the availability of support groups. PMID:12472927

  12. Thematic and content analysis of idiopathic nightmares and bad dreams.

    PubMed

    Robert, Geneviève; Zadra, Antonio

    2014-02-01

    To conduct a comprehensive and comparative study of prospectively collected bad dream and nightmare reports using a broad range of dream content variables. Correlational and descriptive. Participants' homes. Three hundred thirty-one adult volunteers (55 men, 275 women, 1 not specified; mean age = 32.4 ± 14.8 y). N/A. Five hundred seventy-two participants kept a written record of all of their remembered dreams in a log for 2 to 5 consecutive weeks. A total of 9,796 dream reports were collected and the content of 253 nightmares and 431 bad dreams reported by 331 participants was investigated. Physical aggression was the most frequently reported theme in nightmares, whereas interpersonal conflicts predominated in bad dreams. Nightmares were rated by participants as being substantially more emotionally intense than were bad dreams. Thirty-five percent of nightmares and 55% of bad dreams contained primary emotions other than fear. When compared to bad dreams, nightmares were more bizarre and contained substantially more aggressions, failures, and unfortunate endings. The results have important implications on how nightmares are conceptualized and defined and support the view that when compared to bad dreams, nightmares represent a somewhat rarer-and more severe-expression of the same basic phenomenon.

  13. The good news about giving bad news to patients.

    PubMed

    Farber, Neil J; Urban, Susan Y; Collier, Virginia U; Weiner, Joan; Polite, Ronald G; Davis, Elizabeth B; Boyer, E Gil

    2002-12-01

    There are few data available on how physicians inform patients about bad news. We surveyed internists about how they convey this information. We surveyed internists about their activities in giving bad news to patients. One set of questions was about activities for the emotional support of the patient (11 items), and the other was about activities for creating a supportive environment for delivering bad news (9 items). The impact of demographic factors on the performance of emotionally supportive items, environmentally supportive items, and on the number of minutes reportedly spent delivering news was analyzed by analysis of variance and multiple regression analysis. More than half of the internists reported that they always or frequently performed 10 of the 11 emotionally supportive items and 6 of the 9 environmentally supportive items while giving bad news to patients. The average time reportedly spent in giving bad news was 27 minutes. Although training in giving bad news had a significant impact on the number of emotionally supportive items reported (P <.05), only 25% of respondents had any previous training in this area. Being older, a woman, unmarried, and having a history of major illness were also associated with reporting a greater number of emotionally supportive activities. Internists report that they inform patients of bad news appropriately. Some deficiencies exist, specifically in discussing prognosis and referral of patients to support groups. Physician educational efforts should include discussion of prognosis with patients as well as the availability of support groups.

  14. Bioanalytical characterization of apple juice from 88 grafted and nongrafted apple varieties grown in Upper Austria.

    PubMed

    Lanzerstorfer, Peter; Wruss, Jürgen; Huemer, Stefan; Steininger, Andrea; Müller, Ulrike; Himmelsbach, Markus; Borgmann, Daniela; Winkler, Stephan; Höglinger, Otmar; Weghuber, Julian

    2014-02-05

    The compositional characteristics of untreated pure juice prepared from 88 apple varieties grown in the region of Eferding/Upper Austria were determined. Many of the analyzed varieties are noncommercial, old varieties not present in the market. The aim of the study was to quantitate the mineral, phosphate, trace elements, and polyphenolic content in order to identify varieties that are of particular interest for a wider distribution. Great variations among the investigated varieties could be found. This holds especially true for the total polyphenolic content (TPC) ranging from 103.2 to 2,275.6 mg/L. A clear dependence of the antioxidant capacity on the TPC levels was detected. Bioinformatics was employed to find specific interrelationships, such as Mg²⁺/Mn²⁺ and PO₄³⁻/K⁺, between the analyzed bio- and phytochemical parameters. Furthermore, special attention was drawn on putative effects of grafting on the phytochemical composition of apple varieties. By grafting 27 different apple varieties on two trees grown close to each other, it could be shown that the apple fruits remain their characteristic phytochemical composition. Finally, apple juice prepared from selected varieties was further characterized by additional biochemical analysis including cytotoxicity, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition, and α-amylase activity tests. Cytotoxicity and inhibition of EGFR activation were found to be dependent on the TPC, while α-amylase activity was reduced by the apple juices independent of the presence of polyphenolic substances. Taken together selected apple varieties investigated within this study might serve as preferable sources for the development of apple-based food with a strong focus on health beneficial effects.

  15. Evaluating and improving rootstocks for apple cultivation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The foundations of a productive and healthy orchard are the rootstocks that provide anchorage, water and nutrients essential to the above ground portions of the trees. The utilization of composite trees has increased the efficiency of breeding productive apple trees by dividing the selection of sci...

  16. Teaching CAD on the Apple Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Robert L.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a course designed to teach engineers how to accomplish computer graphics techniques on a limited scale with the Apple computer. The same mathematics and program code will also function for larger and more complex computers. Course content, instructional strategies, student evaluation, and recommendations are considered. (JN)

  17. Lessons learned from the Apple stores.

    PubMed

    Pinkney, Henry; Baum, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Medical practices have an opportunity to improve the services that they offer their patients. Practices can look at other businesses and industries for examples of outstanding customer service. This article will discuss the services provided by Apple, Inc., and how medical practices can learn from this industry giant and improve the services that they offer patients.

  18. Transcriptional analysis of apple fruit proanthocyanidin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Henry-Kirk, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are products of the flavonoid pathway, which also leads to the production of anthocyanins and flavonols. Many flavonoids have antioxidant properties and may have beneficial effects for human health. PAs are found in the seeds and fruits of many plants. In apple fruit (Malus × domestica Borkh.), the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway is most active in the skin, with the flavan-3-ols, catechin, and epicatechin acting as the initiating units for the synthesis of PA polymers. This study examined the genes involved in the production of PAs in three apple cultivars: two heritage apple cultivars, Hetlina and Devonshire Quarrenden, and a commercial cultivar, Royal Gala. HPLC analysis shows that tree-ripe fruit from Hetlina and Devonshire Quarrenden had a higher phenolic content than Royal Gala. Epicatechin and catechin biosynthesis is under the control of the biosynthetic enzymes anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR1), respectively. Counter-intuitively, real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of Royal Gala LAR1 and ANR were significantly higher than those of both Devonshire Quarrenden and Hetlina. This suggests that a compensatory feedback mechanism may be active, whereby low concentrations of PAs may induce higher expression of gene transcripts. Further investigation is required into the regulation of these key enzymes in apple. Abbreviations:ANOVAanalysis of varianceANRanthocyanidin reductaseDADdiode array detectorDAFBdays after full bloomDFRdihydroflavonol reductaseLARleucoanthocyanidin reductaseLC-MSliquid chromatography/mass spectrometryPAproanthocyanidinqPCRreal-time quantitative PCR PMID:22859681

  19. Voss in Service Module with apples

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-03-22

    ISS002-E-5710 (22 March 2001) --- Astronaut James S. Voss, Expedition Two flight engineer, appears to be trying to decide between two colors or two species of apples as he ponders them in the Zvezda Service Module on the International Space Station (ISS). This photo was taken with a digital still camera.

  20. Transcriptional analysis of apple fruit proanthocyanidin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Henry-Kirk, Rebecca A; McGhie, Tony K; Andre, Christelle M; Hellens, Roger P; Allan, Andrew C

    2012-09-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are products of the flavonoid pathway, which also leads to the production of anthocyanins and flavonols. Many flavonoids have antioxidant properties and may have beneficial effects for human health. PAs are found in the seeds and fruits of many plants. In apple fruit (Malus × domestica Borkh.), the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway is most active in the skin, with the flavan-3-ols, catechin, and epicatechin acting as the initiating units for the synthesis of PA polymers. This study examined the genes involved in the production of PAs in three apple cultivars: two heritage apple cultivars, Hetlina and Devonshire Quarrenden, and a commercial cultivar, Royal Gala. HPLC analysis shows that tree-ripe fruit from Hetlina and Devonshire Quarrenden had a higher phenolic content than Royal Gala. Epicatechin and catechin biosynthesis is under the control of the biosynthetic enzymes anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR1), respectively. Counter-intuitively, real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of Royal Gala LAR1 and ANR were significantly higher than those of both Devonshire Quarrenden and Hetlina. This suggests that a compensatory feedback mechanism may be active, whereby low concentrations of PAs may induce higher expression of gene transcripts. Further investigation is required into the regulation of these key enzymes in apple.

  1. Mom, Apple Pie, and the American Dream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grambs, Jean Dresden

    1982-01-01

    Discusses how the mom-and-apple-pie facet of the American dream no longer seems to be working. Ways to redefine that dream so that women, men, children, and families are comfortable with each other and are able to develop a mutual dependence which also allows for mutual independence are examined. (RM)

  2. An ADC Interface for the Apple II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiker, P. Steven

    1990-01-01

    Described is the construction of a simple analog-to-digital convertor circuit to interface an Apple II+ microcomputer to a light sensor used in conjunction with a holographic gear inspector. A list of parts, circuit diagram, and a simple BASIC program for the convertor are provided. (CW)

  3. The development of a cisgenic apple plant.

    PubMed

    Vanblaere, Thalia; Szankowski, Iris; Schaart, Jan; Schouten, Henk; Flachowsky, Henryk; Broggini, Giovanni A L; Gessler, Cesare

    2011-07-20

    Cisgenesis represents a step toward a new generation of GM crops. The lack of selectable genes (e.g. antibiotic or herbicide resistance) in the final product and the fact that the inserted gene(s) derive from organisms sexually compatible with the target crop should rise less environmental concerns and increase consumer's acceptance. Here we report the generation of a cisgenic apple plant by inserting the endogenous apple scab resistance gene HcrVf2 under the control of its own regulatory sequences into the scab susceptible apple cultivar Gala. A previously developed method based on Agrobacterium-mediated transformation combined with a positive and negative selection system and a chemically inducible recombination machinery allowed the generation of apple cv. Gala carrying the scab resistance gene HcrVf2 under its native regulatory sequences and no foreign genes. Three cisgenic lines were chosen for detailed investigation and were shown to carry a single T-DNA insertion and express the target gene HcrVf2. This is the first report of the generation of a true cisgenic plant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Apple flower detection using deep convolutional networks

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In order to optimize fruit production, a portion of the flowers and fruitlets of apple trees must be removed early in the growing season. The proportion to be removed is determined by the bloom intensity, i.e., the number of flowers present in the orchard. Several automated computer vision systems...

  5. Metabolomic Change Precedes Apple Superficial Scald Symptoms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Metabolic profiling of 621 metabolites was employed to characterize metabolomic changes associated with ‘Granny Smith’ apple superficial scald development following 1-MCP or DPA treatment. Partial least squares-discriminant analyses were used to link metabolites with scald, postharvest treatments, ...

  6. Apple Mealiness Detection Using Hyperspectral Scattering Technique

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mealiness is a symptom of internal fruit disorder, which is characterized by abnormal softness and lack of free juice in the fruit. This research investigated the potential of hyperspectral scattering technique for detecting mealy apples. Spectral scattering profiles between 600 nm and 1,000 nm were...

  7. Pre- and postharvest fungal apple diseases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The domesticated apple (Malus domestica) is the most significant pome fruit grown and consumed worldwide. China is the largest producer followed by the United States on a global scale. However, fungal plant pathogens cause significant economic losses in the field and in storage which negatively impa...

  8. Some Aspects of Enzymatic Browning in Apples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liffen, C. L.; Cleeve, H. N.

    1975-01-01

    Describes material modified from the Nuffield advanced chemistry course to make it meaningful and relevant to pupils in the middle school. Discusses a series of simple experiments on apple browning and summarizes the browning process and its control. (Author/GS)

  9. NEWTON'S APPLE 14th Season Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichmann, Sue, Ed.

    This guide was developed to help teachers use the 14th season of NEWTON'S APPLE in their classrooms and contains lessons formatted to follow the National Science Education Standards. The "Overview,""Main Activity," and "Try-This" sections were created with inquiry-based learning in mind. Each lesson page begins with…

  10. Ameliorating effects of industrial sugar residue on the Jales gold mine spoil (NE Portugal) using Holcus lanatus and Phaseolus vulgaris as indicators.

    PubMed

    Bleeker, P M; Teiga, P M; Santos, M H; de Koe, T; Verkleij, J A C

    2003-01-01

    Phytostabilisation of bare heavily contaminated substrate, such as abandoned mine sites, is considered a very appropriate technology in order to diminish erosion and dispersion of contaminants into the surroundings. In this short-term pot study, application of industrial sugar residue (ISR), a waste product of the sugar industry, proved to ameliorate spoils conditions for plant performance by elevating pH and immobilising several metals. Although arsenate concentrations were positively correlated to spoil pH and spoil treatment with ISR mobilised As, growth of both Phaseolus vulgaris and Holcus lanatus improved significantly after applications of 3.75 g ISR kg(-1) dry spoil. Nutrient uptake from the substrate, with the exception of potassium, was elevated by ISR. As a remediation technique ISR application could be effective although in As-contaminated sites application might be restricted to areas where leaching to (ground) water does not form a risk.

  11. Inhibition of biological activity of staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) by apple juice and apple polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Rasooly, Reuven; Do, Paula M; Friedman, Mendel

    2010-05-12

    The foodborne pathogen Staphylococcus aureus produces the virulent staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), a single-chain protein that consists of 233 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 27 078 Da. SEA is a superantigen that is reported to contribute to animal (mastitis) and human (emesis, diarrhea, atopic dermatitis, arthritis, and toxic shock) syndromes. Changes of the native structural integrity may inactivate the toxin by preventing molecular interaction with cell membrane receptor sites of their host cells. In the present study, we evaluated the ability of one commercial and two freshly prepared apple juices and a commercial apple polyphenol preparation (Apple Poly) to inhibit the biological activity of SEA. Dilutions of freshly prepared apple juices and Apple Poly inhibited the biological activity of SEA without any significant cytotoxic effect on the spleen cells. Additional studies with antibody-coated immunomagnetic beads bearing specific antibodies against the toxin revealed that SEA added to apple juice appears to be largely irreversibly bound to the juice constituents. The results suggest that food-compatible and safe anti-toxin phenolic compounds can be used to inactivate SEA in vitro and possibly also in vivo, even after induction of T-cell proliferation by long-term exposure to SEA. The significance of the results for microbial food safety and human health is discussed.

  12. Comparison of nonfried apple snacks with commercially available fried snacks.

    PubMed

    Joshi, A P K; Rupasinghe, H P V; Pitts, N L

    2011-06-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate the selected quality attributes of a prototype nonfried apple snack produced by application of vacuum impregnation (VI) of maple syrup and vacuum drying. When maple syrup concentration was adjusted to 20-40% in the VI solution, vacuum-dried apple slices are resulted in the greatest textural attributes, whiteness index, and desirable moisture content and water activity. Comparison of the VI-treated, vacuum-dried apple slices with commercially fried apple and potato snacks revealed that the consumer acceptability was greater for the fried snack products due to their flavor and texture; however, in addition to higher oil content (>30%), commercial fried apple and potato snacks possessed lower antioxidant capacity than nonfried apple snacks. VI process enhanced the calcium content of the nonfried apple snack products.

  13. The disposal of a lime water treatment residue on soil and spoil material from a coalmine: a glasshouse investigation.

    PubMed

    Titshall, L W; Hughes, J C; Morris, C D; Zacharias, P J K

    2007-01-01

    Eragrostis tef (Zucc.), Cenchrus ciliaris L., and Digitaria eriantha Steud. were grown in a soil (Psammentic Haplustalf) and spoil material from a coalmine both treated with a lime water treatment residue (WTR) at rates of 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 g kg(-1). The yield of the grasses, from the sum of the three harvests, and concentrations of B, Ca, Cu, K, Fe, Mg, Mn, N, Na, P, and Zn in foliage from the second harvest were determined. The yield of grasses grown in the soil decreased exponentially as WTR application increased. The yields of C. ciliaris, D. eriantha, and E. tef (in the 400 g kg(-1) WTR treated soil) decreased by 74.4, 78.7, and 59.8%, respectively, when compared with the control treatments. In the spoil, the yield of E. tef and D. eriantha decreased by 13.6% and and D. eriantha by 23.9%, while an increase was observed for C. ciliaris (45.4%), at the highest WTR application rate. No relationship existed between yield of E. tef and WTR application rate when grown in the spoil, while a weak negative linear relationship (p < 0.05) was found for D. eriantha and a positive linear relationship existed for C. ciliaris. Magnesium concentrations of the grasses were positively correlated to WTR application rate. Grasses grown in the soil had higher Na concentrations, while those grown in the spoil typically had higher B, N, and Zn concentrations. The decreases in yield were attributed to nutrient deficiencies (notably Zn), induced by high WTR application rates that led to high substrate pH. Disposal of high rates of WTR on the mine materials was not recommended.

  14. Long Range Spoil Disposal Study. Part 3. Sub-Study 2. Nature, Source, and Cause of Shoal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-09-01

    Report) Prepared for public release; distribution unlimited 17. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of the abetract entered In Block 20, if different from Report) IS...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 19. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse side if necseseey and identify by block number) Delaware River River Channel Delaware Estuary...Marcus Hook, Pa. Dredging Hydraulic Dredge Spoil Disposal Sediment transport 2o ABSTRACT r -ciftue a r verse - i- - n a eay amd ideai fy by block

  15. Remediation of an acidic mine spoil: Miscanthus biochar and lime amendment affects metal availability, plant growth, and soil enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Novak, Jeffrey M; Ippolito, James A; Ducey, Thomas F; Watts, Donald W; Spokas, Kurt A; Trippe, Kristin M; Sigua, Gilbert C; Johnson, Mark G

    2018-08-01

    Biochar may be a tool for mine spoil remediation; however, its mechanisms for achieving this goal remain unclear. In this study, Miscanthus (Miscanthus giganteus) biochar was evaluated for its ability to reclaim acidic mine spoils (pH < 3) through reducing metal availability, improving soil microbial enzymatic activity, and initial growth of grass seedlings. Biochar was applied at 0, 1, 2.5 and 5% (w/w) along with lime/no lime and fertilizer additions. Blue Wildrye (Elymus glaucus cv. 'Elkton') was planted and later the shoots and roots were collected and metal concentrations determined. Afterwards, each pot was leached with deionized water, and the leachate analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and soluble metal concentrations. After drying, the spoil was extracted with 0.01 M CaCl 2 and Mehlich 3 (M3) to determine extractable Al, Cu, and Zn concentrations. Additionally, microbial activity was measured using a fluorescent β-glucosidase and N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase assay. Spoil treated with lime and biochar had significantly greater pH and EC values. Significantly greater β-glucosidase activity occurred only in the 5% biochar plus lime treatment, while N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase activities were not altered. Metal concentrations in rye shoot and roots were mixed. Lime additions significantly reduced extractable metal concentrations. Increasing biochar rates alone significantly reduced leachate DOC concentrations, and subsequently reduced leachable metal concentrations. Surprisingly, miscanthus biochar, by itself, was limited at mitigation, but when combined with lime, the combination was capable of further reducing extractable metal concentrations and improving β-glucosidase enzyme activity. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Bad air gets under your skin.

    PubMed

    Koohgoli, Roxanna; Hudson, Laura; Naidoo, Khimara; Wilkinson, Simon; Chavan, Bhaven; Birch-Machin, Mark A

    2017-05-01

    Air pollution is increasing beyond previous estimates and is viewed as the world's largest environmental health risk factor. Numerous clinical and epidemiological studies have highlighted the adverse effects of environmental pollutants on health. Although there is comparatively less research investigating the cutaneous effects of ambient pollution, there is growing recognition of the adverse effects on skin. In this article, we provide an overview of the nature of environmental pollution and highlight the current evidence detailing the effects on cutaneous health. There is convincing evidence demonstrating that air pollution has a detrimental impact on skin and can exacerbate skin disease. Further epidemiological and experimental studies are required to assess the short- and long-term deleterious effects of ambient pollutant exposure on skin. The future challenge would be to use this evidence to develop specific strategies to protect against pollution-induced damage and prevent the effects of "bad air getting under our skin." © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Four Bad Habits of Modern Psychologists.

    PubMed

    Grice, James; Barrett, Paul; Cota, Lisa; Felix, Crystal; Taylor, Zachery; Garner, Samantha; Medellin, Eliwid; Vest, Adam

    2017-08-14

    Four data sets from studies included in the Reproducibility Project were re-analyzed to demonstrate a number of flawed research practices (i.e., "bad habits") of modern psychology. Three of the four studies were successfully replicated, but re-analysis showed that in one study most of the participants responded in a manner inconsistent with the researchers' theoretical model. In the second study, the replicated effect was shown to be an experimental confound, and in the third study the replicated statistical effect was shown to be entirely trivial. The fourth study was an unsuccessful replication, yet re-analysis of the data showed that questioning the common assumptions of modern psychological measurement can lead to novel techniques of data analysis and potentially interesting findings missed by traditional methods of analysis. Considered together, these new analyses show that while it is true replication is a key feature of science, causal inference, modeling, and measurement are equally important and perhaps more fundamental to obtaining truly scientific knowledge of the natural world. It would therefore be prudent for psychologists to confront the limitations and flaws in their current analytical methods and research practices.

  18. Four Bad Habits of Modern Psychologists

    PubMed Central

    Grice, James; Cota, Lisa; Taylor, Zachery; Garner, Samantha; Medellin, Eliwid; Vest, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Four data sets from studies included in the Reproducibility Project were re-analyzed to demonstrate a number of flawed research practices (i.e., “bad habits”) of modern psychology. Three of the four studies were successfully replicated, but re-analysis showed that in one study most of the participants responded in a manner inconsistent with the researchers’ theoretical model. In the second study, the replicated effect was shown to be an experimental confound, and in the third study the replicated statistical effect was shown to be entirely trivial. The fourth study was an unsuccessful replication, yet re-analysis of the data showed that questioning the common assumptions of modern psychological measurement can lead to novel techniques of data analysis and potentially interesting findings missed by traditional methods of analysis. Considered together, these new analyses show that while it is true replication is a key feature of science, causal inference, modeling, and measurement are equally important and perhaps more fundamental to obtaining truly scientific knowledge of the natural world. It would therefore be prudent for psychologists to confront the limitations and flaws in their current analytical methods and research practices. PMID:28805739

  19. Characterization of β-glucan formation by Lactobacillus brevis TMW 1.2112 isolated from slimy spoiled beer.

    PubMed

    Fraunhofer, Marion E; Geissler, Andreas J; Wefers, Daniel; Bunzel, Mirko; Jakob, Frank; Vogel, Rudi F

    2018-02-01

    Despite several hurdles, which hinder bacterial growth in beer, certain bacteria are still able to spoil beer. One type of spoilage is characterized by an increased viscosity and slimy texture caused by exopolysaccharide (EPS) formation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In this study, we characterize for the first time EPS production in a beer-spoiling strain (TMW 1.2112) of Lactobacillus brevis, a species commonly involved in beer spoilage. The strain's growth dynamics were assessed and we found an increased viscosity or ropiness in liquid or on solid media, respectively. Capsular polysaccharides (CPS) and released EPS from the cells or supernatant, respectively, were analyzed via NMR spectroscopy and methylation analysis. Both are identical β-(1→3)-glucans, which are ramified with β-glucose residues at position O2. Therefore, we assume that this EPS is mainly produced as CPS and partially released into the surrounding medium, causing viscosity of e.g. beer. CPS formation was confirmed via an agglutination test. A plasmid-located glycosyltransferase-2 was found as responsible for excess β-glucan formation, chromosomal glucanases were proposed for its degradation. The glycosyltransferase-2 gene could also be specifically identified in beer-spoiling, slime-producing Lactobacillus rossiae and Lactobacillus parabuchneri strains, suggesting it as promising marker gene for the early detection of β-glucan-producing Lactobacilli in breweries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Disciplinary processes and the management of poor performance among UK nurses: bad apple or systemic failure? A scoping study.

    PubMed

    Traynor, Michael; Stone, Katie; Cook, Hannah; Gould, Dinah; Maben, Jill

    2014-03-01

    The rise of managerialism within healthcare systems has been noted globally. This paper uses the findings of a scoping study to investigate the management of poor performance among nurses and midwives in the United Kingdom within this context. The management of poor performance among clinicians in the NHS has been seen as a significant policy problem. There has been a profound shift in the distribution of power between professional and managerial groups in many health systems globally. We examined literature published between 2000 and 10 to explore aspects of poor performance and its management. We used Web of Science, CINAHL, MEDLINE, British Nursing Index, HMIC, Cochrane Library and PubMed. Empirical data are limited but indicate that nurses and midwives are the clinical groups most likely to be suspended and that poor performance is often represented as an individual deficit. A focus on the individual as a source of trouble can serve as a distraction from more complex systematic problems. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The Deviant Organization and the Bad Apple CEO: Ideology and Accountability in Media Coverage of Corporate Scandals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benediktsson, Michael Owen

    2010-01-01

    What role do the media play in the identification and construction of white-collar crimes? Few studies have examined media coverage of corporate deviance. This study investigates news coverage of six large-scale accounting scandals that broke in 2001 and 2002. Using a variety of empirical methods to analyze the 51 largest U.S. newspapers, the…

  2. In vivo quantitative NMR imaging of fruit tissues during growth using Spoiled Gradient Echo sequence.

    PubMed

    Kenouche, S; Perrier, M; Bertin, N; Larionova, J; Ayadi, A; Zanca, M; Long, J; Bezzi, N; Stein, P C; Guari, Y; Cieslak, M; Godin, C; Goze-Bac, C

    2014-12-01

    Nondestructive studies of physiological processes in agronomic products require increasingly higher spatial and temporal resolutions. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) imaging is a non-invasive technique providing physiological and morphological information on biological tissues. The aim of this study was to design a robust and accurate quantitative measurement method based on NMR imaging combined with contrast agent (CA) for mapping and quantifying water transport in growing cherry tomato fruits. A multiple flip-angle Spoiled Gradient Echo (SGE) imaging sequence was used to evaluate the intrinsic parameters maps M0 and T1 of the fruit tissues. Water transport and paths flow were monitored using Gd(3+)/[Fe(CN)6](3-)/D-mannitol nanoparticles as a tracer. This dynamic study was carried out using a compartmental modeling. The CA was preferentially accumulated in the surrounding tissues of columella and in the seed envelopes. The total quantities and the average volume flow of water estimated are: 198 mg, 1.76 mm(3)/h for the columella and 326 mg, 2.91 mm(3)/h for the seed envelopes. We demonstrate in this paper that the NMR imaging technique coupled with efficient and biocompatible CA in physiological medium has the potential to become a major tool in plant physiology research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Activity of selected essential oils on spoiling fungi cultured from Marzolino cheese.

    PubMed

    Nardoni, Simona; D'Ascenzi, Carlo; Caracciolo, Irene; Mannaioni, Gaia; Papini, Roberto Amerigo; Pistelli, Luisa; Najar, Basma; Mancianti, Francesca

    2018-06-20

    Microscopic fungi can be present on a variety of foodstuff, including cheese. They can be responsible for fungal spoilage, causing sensory changes making food unacceptable for human consumption, and posing severe health concerns. Furthermore, some of these organisms are able to resist antimicrobial preservatives provided for by law. Antifungal activity of 15 chemically defined EOs, alone and in mixture, were checked by a microdilution test against isolates of Penicillium funiculosum and Mucor racemosus cultured from rinds of Marzolino, a typical Italian fresh pecorino cheese. Origanum vulgare yielded the lowest MIC values, followed by Salvia sclarea, Ocimum basilicum and Cymbopogon citratus, while Citrus paradisi and Citrus limon were not active. All mixtures showed antifungal activity at lower concentration with respect to MIC values of each EO component, when not in combination. This study is the first to describe the setting up of EOs mixtures to limit spoiling moulds.

  4. A systematic investigation into the extraction of aluminum from coal spoil through kaolinite.

    PubMed

    Qiao, X C; Si, P; Yu, J G

    2008-11-15

    This research has applied kaolin and active carbon (AC) to the investigation of the recovery of aluminum from coal spoil (CS). The kaolin, AC-containing kaolin mixture, and CS have been calcined at 500, 600, 700, 800, and 900 degrees C for 15, 30, 60, and 120 min. The transformation of kaolinite and aluminum extraction that occurred in each calcined sample have been characterized using XRD, TG, IR, and hydrochloric acid leaching methods. The dehydroxylation of kaolinite and the decomposition of metakaolin were influenced by thermal treatment temperature and time. The metakaolin had kept a portion of OH- in its structure until it was calcined at a temperature of 800 degrees C. Under 60 min treatment, new SiO2 phase was able to be formed at 500 degrees C, kaolinite was totally converted to metakaolin at 600 degrees C, and the SiO2 rejoined the reaction at 800 degrees C. The decompositions of CS were similar to those of kaolin mixture containing 20 wt % AC (MKC). The combustion of combustible matter accelerated the decomposition of kaolinite in the CS and MKC. Higher AC content led to lower aluminum extraction. The treatment at 600 degrees C was optimal for both CS and MKC.

  5. Perspective on China's one-child family policy: spoiled children? Questions and responses.

    PubMed

    Wyner, N B

    1987-01-01

    China's 1-child policy has been effective in its objective of limiting population growth, yet the policy never has been imposed rigidly. For example, the policy is less restrictive in rural areas where 80% of the population live. It is argued the workers in the countryside need larger families for production. Between 1986-87, China's birthrate increased from 18/1000 - 21/1000, suggesting an easing of policy restrictions. Some population experts maintain that population increase is not a major problem as long as gross income figures continue to exceed the growth of population. Others indicate that a renewed emphasis on small families may be necessary. Some planners have observed developmental dynamics that have serious implications for traditional social and family values. 1 mental health expert has identified the "spoiled child syndrome," noting that the child in the 1- child family seems to be more dependent, less able to take care of himself/herself, more self-centered yet has a higher intelligence quotient. Parent training classes are now being developed.

  6. 26 CFR 1.593-7 - Establishment and treatment of reserves for bad debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....593-10. (2) Bad debt losses. Any bad debt in respect of a nonqualifying loan shall be charged against the reserve for losses on nonqualifying loans, and any bad debt in respect of a qualifying real... option of the taxpayer, however, any bad debt in respect of either class of loans may be charged in whole...

  7. Effect of breaking bad news on patients' perceptions of doctors

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Mandy M

    2002-01-01

    The breaking of bad news is a routine but difficult task for many health professionals. There are numerous anecdotes of insensitive practice but the subject has attracted little systematic research. We therefore interviewed 106 patients with advanced cancer (from an original sample of 195) to assess their perceptions of the doctors involved in their care. Aspects of the ‘breaking bad news’ event were recorded during discussion of the illness history and were subsequently rated. Participants were also asked to nominate doctors under the headings ‘most helpful’ and ‘less helpful’, and completed standardized psychological screening questionnaires. In 94 of the 106 cases the bad news had been given by a doctor, usually a surgeon. Of the 13 doctors categorized as ‘most helpful’ when breaking bad news, 8 were general practitioners; of the 7 categorized as ‘less helpful’ all were surgeons. 69% of patients were neutral or positive about the bad-news consultation, but 20% were negative and 6% very negative. Doctors in surgical specialties were significantly more likely to be rated poorly than non-surgical specialists or general practitioners. Surgeons were the group of doctors most likely to break bad news, but non-surgical doctors were rated more positively in performance of the task. This finding has implications for training. PMID:12091508

  8. ‘BREAKS’ Protocol for Breaking Bad News

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Vijayakumar; Bista, Bibek; Koshy, Cheriyan

    2010-01-01

    Information that drastically alters the life world of the patient is termed as bad news. Conveying bad news is a skilled communication, and not at all easy. The amount of truth to be disclosed is subjective. A properly structured and well-orchestrated communication has a positive therapeutic effect. This is a process of negotiation between patient and physician, but physicians often find it difficult due to many reasons. They feel incompetent and are afraid of unleashing a negative reaction from the patient or their relatives. The physician is reminded of his or her own vulnerability to terminal illness, and find themselves powerless over emotional distress. Lack of sufficient training in breaking bad news is a handicap to most physicians and health care workers. Adherence to the principles of client-centered counseling is helpful in attaining this skill. Fundamental insight of the patient is exploited and the bad news is delivered in a structured manner, because the patient is the one who knows what is hurting him most and he is the one who knows how to move forward. Six-step SPIKES protocol is widely used for breaking bad news. In this paper, we put forward another six-step protocol, the BREAKS protocol as a systematic and easy communication strategy for breaking bad news. Development of competence in dealing with difficult situations has positive therapeutic outcome and is a professionally satisfying one. PMID:21811349

  9. BAD Modulates Counterregulatory Responses to Hypoglycemia and Protective Glucoprivic Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Osundiji, Mayowa A.; Godes, Marina L.; Evans, Mark L.; Danial, Nika N.

    2011-01-01

    Hypoglycemia or glucoprivation triggers protective hormonal counterregulatory and feeding responses to aid the restoration of normoglycemia. Increasing evidence suggests pertinent roles for the brain in sensing glucoprivation and mediating counterregulation, however, the precise nature of the metabolic signals and molecular mediators linking central glucose sensing to effector functions are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that protective hormonal and feeding responses to hypoglycemia are regulated by BAD, a BCL-2 family protein with dual functions in apoptosis and metabolism. BAD-deficient mice display impaired glycemic and hormonal counterregulatory responses to systemic glucoprivation induced by 2-deoxy-D-glucose. BAD is also required for proper counterregulatory responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia as evident from significantly higher glucose infusion rates and lower plasma epinephrine levels during hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemic clamps. Importantly, RNA interference-mediated acute knockdown of Bad in the brain provided independent genetic evidence for its relevance in central glucose sensing and proper neurohumoral responses to glucoprivation. Moreover, BAD deficiency is associated with impaired glucoprivic feeding, suggesting that its role in adaptive responses to hypoglycemia extends beyond hormonal responses to regulation of feeding behavior. Together, these data indicate a previously unappreciated role for BAD in the control of central glucose sensing. PMID:22162752

  10. BAD and KATP channels regulate neuron excitability and epileptiform activity.

    PubMed

    Martínez-François, Juan Ramón; Fernández-Agüera, María Carmen; Nathwani, Nidhi; Lahmann, Carolina; Burnham, Veronica L; Danial, Nika N; Yellen, Gary

    2018-01-25

    Brain metabolism can profoundly influence neuronal excitability. Mice with genetic deletion or alteration of Bad ( B CL-2 a gonist of cell d eath) exhibit altered brain-cell fuel metabolism, accompanied by resistance to acutely induced epileptic seizures; this seizure protection is mediated by ATP-sensitive potassium (K ATP ) channels. Here we investigated the effect of BAD manipulation on K ATP channel activity and excitability in acute brain slices. We found that BAD's influence on neuronal K ATP channels was cell-autonomous and directly affected dentate granule neuron (DGN) excitability. To investigate the role of neuronal K ATP channels in the anticonvulsant effects of BAD, we imaged calcium during picrotoxin-induced epileptiform activity in entorhinal-hippocampal slices. BAD knockout reduced epileptiform activity, and this effect was lost upon knockout or pharmacological inhibition of K ATP channels. Targeted BAD knockout in DGNs alone was sufficient for the antiseizure effect in slices, consistent with a 'dentate gate' function that is reinforced by increased K ATP channel activity. © 2018, Martínez-François et al.

  11. Bad-breath: Perceptions and misconceptions of Nigerian adults.

    PubMed

    Nwhator, S O; Isiekwe, G I; Soroye, M O; Agbaje, M O

    2015-01-01

    To provide baseline data about bad-breath perception and misconceptions among Nigerian adults. Multi-center cross-sectional study of individuals aged 18-64 years using examiner-administered questionnaires. Age comparisons were based on the model of emerging adults versus full adults. Data were recoded for statistical analyses and univariate and secondary log-linear statistics applied. Participants had lopsided perceptions about bad-breath. While 730 (90.8%) identified the dentist as the expert on halitosis and 719 (89.4%) knew that bad-breath is not contagious, only 4.4% and 2.5% associated bad-breath with tooth decay and gum disease respectively. There were no significant sex differences but the older adults showed better knowledge in a few instances. Most respondents (747, 92.9%) would tell a spouse about their bad-breath and 683 (85%) would tell a friend. Participants had lop-sided knowledge and perceptions about bad-breath. Most Nigerian adults are their "brothers' keepers" who would tell a spouse or friend about their halitosis so they could seek treatment.

  12. [Giving bad news in medicine: an exploratory study].

    PubMed

    Bascuñán, M L; Roizblatt, A; Roizblatt, D

    2007-01-01

    Giving bad news is inherent to the practice of medicine. Development of guidelines for this task has great value, although the orientations are only general and should be adapted to each case, allowing for the cultural idiosyncrasy of the people involved. the present study aims to explore common practices of giving bad news in different hospital services in Santiago-Chile. a qualitative methodology was applied through three focus groups with a sample of 33 physicians from two hospitals in Santiago-Chile. giving bad news is a frequent practice for which no training is given. It generates preoccupation and interest among professionals. There is no agreed procedure to communicate bad news. Each professional has had to develop his/her own way from his/her experience and observing others. Informing the patient is seen as an ethical duty, but in many cases it is not easy because of family pressure. Comments are made on different types of bad news, strategies for this communicational process and facilitators and barriers for it. Doctors' own professional past experience is a central factor in the way bad news is given, and so self-development mechanisms constitute an important challenge.

  13. Why good accountants do bad audits.

    PubMed

    Bazerman, Max H; Loewenstein, George; Moore, Don A

    2002-11-01

    On July 30, President Bush signed into law the Sarbanes-Oxley Act addressing corporate accountability. A response to recent financial scandals, the law tightened federal controls over the accounting industry and imposed tough new criminal penalties for fraud. The president proclaimed, "The era of low standards and false profits is over." If only it were that easy. The authors don't think corruption is the main cause of bad audits. Rather, they claim, the problem is unconscious bias. Without knowing it, we all tend to discount facts that contradict the conclusions we want to reach, and we uncritically embrace evidence that supports our positions. Accountants might seem immune to such distortions because they work with seemingly hard numbers and clear-cut standards. But the corporate-auditing arena is particularly fertile ground for self-serving biases. Because of the often subjective nature of accounting and the close relationships between accounting firms and their corporate clients, even the most honest and meticulous of auditors can unintentionally massage the numbers in ways that mask a company's true financial status, thereby misleading investors, regulators, and even management. Solving this problem will require far more aggressive action than the U.S. government has taken thus far. What's needed are practices and regulations that recognize the existence of bias and moderate its effects. True auditor independence will entail fundamental changes to the way the accounting industry operates, including full divestiture of consulting and tax services, rotation of auditing firms, and fixed-term contracts that prohibit client companies from firing their auditors. Less tangibly, auditors must come to appreciate the profound impact of self-serving biases on their judgment.

  14. Relationship between hydroxycinnamic acids and the resistance of apple cultivars to rosy apple aphid.

    PubMed

    Berrueta, Luis A; Sasía-Arriba, Andrea; Miñarro, Marcos; Antón, María J; Alonso-Salces, Rosa M; Micheletti, Diego; Gallo, Blanca; Dapena, Enrique

    2018-09-01

    The phenolic profiles of apple cultivars from the SERIDA Asturian cider apple breeding program, including parents and progenies, were determined by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time of flight/mass spectrometer in order to study the relationship between phenols and the resistance of apple tree cultivars to rosy apple aphid (RAA). A pattern recognition technique named partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to classify apple cultivars based on resistance to RAA, resistant and susceptible, reaching scores with accuracy higher than 97% and 91% respectively. Hydroxycinnamic acids, particularly 4-caffeoylquinic acid (4-CQA) and 4-p-coumaroylquinic acid (4-pCoQA), were identified as the major player in RAA resistance by the PLS-DA model. Indeed, the isomerisation 5-CQA → 4-CQA is favoured in resistant cultivars, whereas the isomerisation 5-pCoQA → 4-pCoQA is favoured in susceptible cultivars. As a result, resistant cultivars accumulate higher amounts of 4-CQA than susceptible ones, and the opposite occurs for 4-pCoQA. Also, minor isomerisations of 5-CQA to 1-CQA or 3-CQA show opposite behaviour for resistant and susceptible cultivars. Cultivar resistance to RAA is concluded to be related with the phenylpropanoid pathway, the isomerisation reactions being the key metabolic reaction for a cultivar to be resistant or susceptible to RAA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Apple - Indian experimental geostationary communication satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, U. R.; Vasagam, R. M.

    Developmental steps, responsibilities, design goals, performance characteristics, and support systems for the ISRO Ariane Passenger Payload Experiment (APPLE) experimental GEO communication satellite are described. The spacecraft underwent structural, thermal, engineering, prototype, and flight qualification tests in India before being shipped to Guyana for launch on the third Ariane test flight. APPLE carries a redundant C-band communication transponder fed by a 900 mm diam parabolic reflector. A 6 GHz uplink and 4 GHz downlink are processed through a diplexer, with the receiver employing a low noise GaAs FET amplifier. In-orbit telemetry is provided by a 4095 MHz beacon with a data rate of 64 bits/sec. Two solar panels supply 210 W of power, while an on-board Ni-Cd storage battery stores 240 Wh for the ascent and during eclipse. Teleconferencing has been successfully performed using the spacecraft link.

  16. Response time accuracy in Apple Macintosh computers.

    PubMed

    Neath, Ian; Earle, Avery; Hallett, Darcy; Surprenant, Aimée M

    2011-06-01

    The accuracy and variability of response times (RTs) collected on stock Apple Macintosh computers using USB keyboards was assessed. A photodiode detected a change in the screen's luminosity and triggered a solenoid that pressed a key on the keyboard. The RTs collected in this way were reliable, but could be as much as 100 ms too long. The standard deviation of the measured RTs varied between 2.5 and 10 ms, and the distributions approximated a normal distribution. Surprisingly, two recent Apple-branded USB keyboards differed in their accuracy by as much as 20 ms. The most accurate RTs were collected when an external CRT was used to display the stimuli and Psychtoolbox was able to synchronize presentation with the screen refresh. We conclude that RTs collected on stock iMacs can detect a difference as small as 5-10 ms under realistic conditions, and this dictates which types of research should or should not use these systems.

  17. Integrated pest management of "Golden Delicious" apples.

    PubMed

    Simončič, A; Stopar, M; Velikonja Bolta, Š; Bavčar, D; Leskovšek, R; Baša Česnik, H

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring of plant protection product (PPP) residues in "Golden Delicious" apples was performed in 2011-2013, where 216 active substances were analysed with three analytical methods. Integrated pest management (IPM) production and improved IPM production were compared. Results were in favour of improved IPM production. Some active compounds determined in IPM production (boscalid, pyraclostrobin, thiacloprid and thiametoxam) were not found in improved IPM production. Besides that, in 2011 and 2012, captan residues were lower in improved IPM production. Risk assessment was also performed. Chronic exposure of consumers was low in general, but showed no major differences for IPM and improved IPM production for active substances determined in both types of production. Analytical results were compared with the European Union report of 2010 where 1.3% of apple samples exceeded maximum residue levels (MRLs), while MRL exceedances were not observed in this survey.

  18. Patulin and patulin producing Penicillium spp. occurrence in apples and apple-based products including baby food.

    PubMed

    Hammami, Walid; Al-Thani, Roda; Fiori, Stefano; Al-Meer, Saeed; Atia, Fathy Atia; Rabah, Duha; Migheli, Quirico; Jaoua, Samir

    2017-04-30

    Patulin has raised the international attention because of its health risk. In fact, it has mutagenic, neurotoxic, immunotoxic, genotoxic and gastrointestinal effects in animals. In the present work, patulin and patulin-producing Penicillium spp. in apple and apple-based products marketed in Qatar were analysed. Sampling was carried out using apple fruits and apple-based products. Fungi were isolated from undamaged apples, apple juice and baby apple food. DNA extraction was carried out with DNeasy Plant Mini Kit (QIAGEN, Valencia, USA). The molecular identification of fungal isolates was carried out using ITS1-ITS4 PCR. PCR products were sequenced and blasted. Patulin was extracted and analyzed by LC/MS/MS, then quantified using Agilent 1290UHPLC coupled to 6460 triple quadruple mass spectrometer. Forty-five samples of undamaged fresh apple fruits, apple juice and apple-based baby food products sold in different markets in Qatar were surveyed for both fungal and patulin contamination using Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometery (LC/MS/MS). Twenty-five Penicillium spp. isolates were selected, including 23 P. expansum and one isolate each of P. brevicompactum and P. commune. All the tested Penicillium spp. isolates produced patulin in vitro (from 40 to 100 μg/g on Malt Yeast Extract agar medium). Patulin was detected in 100% of apple juice samples at levels ranging from 5.27 to 82.21 µg/kg. Only 5 samples contained patulin levels higher than European Union recommended limit (50 µg/kg). The average patulin contamination was 30.67 µg/kg and 10.92 µg/kg in baby apple juice and in baby apple compote, respectively.

  19. Paediatric SpRs' experiences of breaking bad news.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, N; Ellis, J

    2007-09-01

    To ascertain the level of support and training available to paediatric specialist registrars (SpRs) in breaking bad news and their self-reported confidence in this task. A questionnaire-based survey. Paediatric SpRs working in North Thames region. Specialist registrars (n = 206) were sent a questionnaire relating to the level of support and training available to them in breaking bad news and their attitudes to this task. A repeat questionnaire was sent out 2 weeks later. The response rate was 54.9%. The study sample included 78 females and 34 males. The median year of qualification was 1995 [interquartile range (IQR) 1993-1997] and the median year of Calman training was Year 3 (IQR 2-4). Only 15.9% of participants had guidelines where they worked and 91.2% had received training in breaking bad news. Median self-perceived confidence in breaking bad news was rated as 4 out of 5. Only 21.2% of all respondents had both disclosed a diagnosis of Down syndrome and received feedback on their performance from their seniors. Few SpRs were able to adhere to all evidence-based recommendations for breaking bad news. Most SpRs had received training in breaking bad news and self-reported confidence in this skill was high, although their hands-on experience was limited. Recent research shows, however, that parental dissatisfaction with the way in which bad news is broken remains high. The potential discrepancy between self-reported confidence and actual competence casts doubt on the value of self-evaluation.

  20. Attempts to avoid NEPA: Is it bad faith?

    SciTech Connect

    Tuckfield, D.J.

    1995-12-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) imposes procedural requirements on federal agencies that undertake {open_quotes}major Federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment.{close_quotes} Determining whether a project is a major federal action, subject to NEPA, is not always an easy task. When a determination is made that a project is not subject to NEPA, opponents of the project and environmental organizations occasionally cry foul. Often there are allegations that the federal agency of the project proponent (or both) acted in bad faith to avoid NEPA. The question of whether bad faith is relevant in NEPA inquiries has beenmore » the subject litigation for many of years. In that time, courts have addressed a number of bad faith questions. A common question is whether it is appropriate for a non-federal project proponent to structure a project to maintain eligibility for federal funding, but at the last minute withdraw the project from eligibility for the sole purpose of avoiding NEPA. More difficult questions arise when the federal government allocates some federal money to the project for preliminary design work before the project is withdrawn from eligibility for additional federal construction funds. Still other questions arise with respect to whether project proponents must reimburse the federal government for funds allocated to a project before the determination is made that it will not be a federal project. This paper will trace the evolution of the courts` struggle with bad faith NEPA claims. It will then show how courts have recently begun to develop a workable and appropriate test for determining when bad faith is an issue in NEPA litigation. This issue is important for project proponents and federal agency officials so they will not unwittingly take steps others might construe as bad faith. It is important for members of environmental organizations so they may recognize and properly assert bad faith claims when

  1. Factors associated with patient preferences for communication of bad news.

    PubMed

    Fujimori, Maiko; Akechi, Tatsuo; Uchitomi, Yosuke

    2017-06-01

    Communication based on patient preferences can alleviate their psychological distress and is an important part of patient-centered care for physicians who have the task of conveying bad news to cancer patients. The present study aimed to explore the demographic, medical, and psychological factors associated with patient preferences with regard to communication of bad news. Outpatients with a variety of cancers were consecutively invited to participate in our study after their follow-up medical visit. A questionnaire assessed their preferences regarding the communication of bad news, covering four factors-(1) how bad news is delivered, (2) reassurance and emotional support, (3) additional information, and (4) setting-as well as on demographic, medical, and psychosocial factors. A total of 529 outpatients with a variety of cancers completed the questionnaire. Multiple regression analyses indicated that patients who were younger, female, had greater faith in their physician, and were more highly educated placed more importance on "how bad news is delivered" than patients who were older, male, had less faith in their physician, and a lower level of education. Female patients and patients without an occupation placed more importance on "reassurance and emotional support." Younger, female, and more highly educated patients placed more importance on "additional information." Younger, female, and more highly educated patients, along with patients who weren't undergoing active treatment placed more importance on "setting." Patient preferences with regard to communication of bad news are associated with factors related to patient background. Physicians should consider these characteristics when delivering bad news and use an appropriate communication style tailored to each patient.

  2. Getting Started with AppleWorks Data Base. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a hands-on teaching tool for beginning users of the AppleWorks database software. It was developed to allow Apple IIGS users who are generally familiar with their machine and its peripherals to build a simple AppleWorks database file using version 2.0 or 2.1 of the program, and to store, print, and manipulate the file. The materials…

  3. Association between apple consumption and physician visits: appealing the conventional wisdom that an apple a day keeps the doctor away.

    PubMed

    Davis, Matthew A; Bynum, Julie P W; Sirovich, Brenda E

    2015-05-01

    Fruit consumption is believed to have beneficial health effects, and some claim, "An apple a day keeps the doctor away." To examine the relationship between eating an apple a day and keeping the doctor away. A cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the noninstitutionalized US adult population. A total of 8728 adults 18 years and older from the 2007-2008 and 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey completed a 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire and reported that the quantity of food they ate was reflective of their usual daily diet. Daily apple eaters (consuming the equivalent of at least 1 small apple daily, or 149 g of raw apple) vs non-apple eaters, based on the reported quantity of whole apple consumed during the 24-hour dietary recall period. The primary outcome measure was success at "keeping the doctor away," measured as no more than 1 visit (self-reported) to a physician during the past year; secondary outcomes included successful avoidance of other health care services (ie, no overnight hospital stays, visits to a mental health professional, or prescription medications). Of 8399 eligible study participants who completed the dietary recall questionnaire, we identified 753 adult apple eaters (9.0%)--those who typically consume at least 1 small apple per day. Compared with the 7646 non-apple eaters (91.0%), apple eaters had higher educational attainment, were more likely to be from a racial or ethnic minority, and were less likely to smoke (P<.001 for each comparison). Apple eaters were more likely, in the crude analysis, to keep the doctor (and prescription medications) away: 39.0% of apple eaters avoided physician visits vs 33.9% of non-apple eaters (P=.03). After adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related characteristics, however, the association was no longer statistically significant (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.93-1.53; P=.15). In the adjusted analysis, apple eaters also remained marginally more successful at

  4. Canopy tree species determine herb layer biomass and species composition on a reclaimed mine spoil heap.

    PubMed

    Rawlik, Mateusz; Kasprowicz, Marek; Jagodziński, Andrzej M; Kaźmierowski, Cezary; Łukowiak, Remigiusz; Grzebisz, Witold

    2018-09-01

    According facilitative models of succession, trees are great forest ecosystem engineers. The strength of tree stand influences on habitat were tested in rather homogenous conditions where heterogeneity of site condition was not an important influence. We hypothesized that canopy composition affects total aboveground vascular herb layer biomass (THB) and species composition of herb layer plant biomass (SCHB) more significantly than primary soil fertility or slope exposure. The study was conducted in 227 randomly selected research plots in seven types of forest stands: pure with Alnus glutinosa, Betula pendula, Pinus sylvestris, Quercus petraea and Robinia pseudoacacia, and mixed with dominance of Acer pseudoplatanus or Betula pendula located on hilltop and northern, eastern, western, and southern slopes on a reclaimed, afforested post-mining spoil heap of the Bełchatów Brown Coal Mine (Poland). Generalized linear models (GLZ) showed that tree stand species were the best predictors of THB. Non-parametric variance tests showed significantly higher (nearly four times) THB under canopies of A. glutinosa, R. pseudoacacia, B. pendula and Q. petraea, compared to the lowest THB found under canopies of P. sylvestris and mixed with A. pseudoplatanus. Redundancy Analysis (RDA) showed that SCHB was significantly differentiated along gradients of light-nutrient herb layer species requirements. RDA and non-parametric variance tests showed that SCHB under canopies of A. glutinosa, R. pseudoacacia and mixed with A. pseudoplatanus had large shares of nitrophilous ruderal species (32%, 31% and 11%, respectively), whereas SCHB under B. pendula, Q. petraea, mixed with B. pendula and P. sylvestris were dominated by light-demanding meadow (49%, 51%, 51% and 36%, respectively) and Poaceae species. The results indicated the dominant role of tree stand composition in habitat-forming processes, and although primary site properties had minor importance, they were also modified by tree stand

  5. ["Spoils of war"--losses of the Berlin Veterinary Medicine Library in 1945].

    PubMed

    Brumme, M F; Bornemann, R

    1996-05-01

    All the German veterinary libraries suffered heavy losses during World War II and its aftermath, but the Berlin Veterinary Faculty, whose library was known until 1945 as the biggest veterinary book collection of the world, was exceedingly affected. The reports on the damage during these years note losses of up to 35,000 or 43,000 of nearly 60,000 books. Actually, diverse papers did mention this fact but they concealed the underlying causes of the losses or simply referred to effects of war. However, new evidence allows to claim, that most of the losses have been caused by a very different measure: the confiscation of parts of the library by units of the Soviet Army in May and June 1945 as spoils of war. Eye witnesses and unpublished official as well as unofficial reports show that the choice as to what books should be seized was purposefully made according to special criteria: the most modern specialists' literature (journals and books) and the rare books of bibliophilic value. The library lost important parts of its stock: medical books, parts of the irreplaceable historical collection in veterinary medicine, the foreign language books, the biggest part of the natural science literature (physics, chemistry, biology with botany and zoology) and books on adjacent fields of interest (geography and travel literature, belles lettres, history, philosophy and so on). This contribution deals with the events during the weeks before and after VE day and the course of measures taken in selecting and expropriating the books mentioned above. It is intended to invite additional contemporary witnesses who might bei knowledgeable about these events to help in specifying them more precisely and clearing open questions, which still remain.

  6. Assessment of Robinia pseudoacacia cultivations as a restoration strategy for reclaimed mine spoil heaps.

    PubMed

    Vlachodimos, Kostas; Papatheodorou, Efimia M; Diamantopoulos, John; Monokrousos, Nikolaos

    2013-08-01

    Reforestation with black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) is considered a successful technique that is often used for the reclamation of open-cast mine areas. An alternative reclamation technique could be the natural regeneration of vegetation with spontaneous grass species. In this study, we compared the concentrations of chemical and biochemical variables in soil samples taken under black locust canopy to those from sites covered by spontaneous grass vegetation (control samples) in a time sequence of spoil deposition (0-10 years), in order to assess which of the two reclamation techniques yields higher soil quality. Soil quality refers here to the ability of soils to function ecologically. This has a special interest since the main question for the restored soils is their capacity to perform a range of ecological functions under stress or disturbance. Furthermore, we aimed at identifying the effect of vegetation type on soil ecological succession. The effect of vegetation type on primary succession becomes apparent after 2 years of reclamation. R. pseudoacacia as a nitrogen-fixing plant enriched soil with organic and inorganic nitrogen and organic matter to a greater extent than the natural grasses. It also increased the amount of soil microbial biomass and the activity of alkaline phosphatase. However, the fact that black locust failed to enhance dehydrogenase activity and actually decreased the activity of urease, activities that represent specialized niche functions and therefore, are more vulnerable to stress or disturbance, suggests that the development of an indigenous grass community in combination with organic supplements might often be more appropriate for the reclamation of similar kinds of mine areas.

  7. Flow visualization around an apple with and without bagging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, H.; Kubota, Y.; Ohishi, M.; Mochizuki, O.

    2017-04-01

    The typhoon often causes the vast damage to drop the apple before harvest. Many apples fall from trees by the strong wind. These apples are usually bagged to protect them from insects and control sun light for the apples colouring while they are ripening on the tree. We directly measured the drag force acting on an apple with and without bagging experimentally to bare the influence of the bagging on the dropping mechanism. There are two interesting results through the experiment: the drag coefficient of a naked apple is smaller than a sphere, and the bagging is a cause of increasing drag coefficient. To know the reason of these results, we visualized flow around the apple with and without bagging by using the hydrogen bubbles method in an open water channel in this study. We found two facts as follows: the hollow on the top of an apple plays reduction of width of the wake of an apple and reason of increasing the wake width is the flow separation from peripheral edge of the bagging.

  8. Remedial Investigation Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1, Main text

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    This report on the BCV OU 2 at the Y-12 Plant, was prepared in accordance with requirements under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for reporting the results of a site characterization for public review. It provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the results of the 1993 investigation. It includes information on risk assessments that have evaluated impacts to human health and the environment. Field activities included collection of subsurface soil samples, groundwater and surface water samples, and sediments and seep at the Rust Spoil Area (RSA), SY-200 Yard, and SA-1.

  9. Breaking bad medical news in a dental care setting.

    PubMed

    Güneri, Pelin; Epstein, Joel; Botto, Ronald W

    2013-04-01

    Dental care providers may diagnose diseases and conditions that affect a patient's general health. The authors reviewed issues related to breaking bad medical news to dental practice patients and provide guidance to clinicians about how to do so. To help reduce the potentially negative effects associated with emotionally laden communication with patients about serious health care findings, the authors present suggestions for appropriately and sensitively delivering bad medical news to both patients and their families in a supportive fashion. Preparing to deliver bad news by means of education and practice is recommended to help prevent or reduce psychological distress. One form of communication guidance is the ABCDE model, which involves Advance preparation, Building a therapeutic relationship or environment, Communicating well, Dealing with patient and family reactions, and Encouraging and validating emotions. An alternative model is the six-step SPIKES sequence-Setting, Perception, Invitation or Information, Knowledge, Empathy, and Strategize and Summarize. Using either model can assist in sensitive and empathetic communication. For both practitioners' and patients' well-being, empathetic and effective delivery of bad medical news should be included in dental school curricula and continuing education courses. Dental care providers should be familiar with the oral manifestations of diseases and the care needed before the patient undergoes medical treatment and use effective communication necessary to share bad news with patients.

  10. Patients' Attitude toward Breaking Bad News; a Brief Report.

    PubMed

    Aminiahidashti, Hamed; Mousavi, Seyed Jaber; Darzi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Delivering bad news is a stressful moment for both physicians and patients. The purpose of this investigation was to explore the patients' preferences and attitudes toward being informed about the bad news. This cross-sectional study was done on patients admitted to Imam Khomeini Hospital, Sari, Iran, from September 2014 to February 2015. Patient attitude regarding breaking bad news was evaluated using a reliable and valid questionnaire. 130 patients were evaluated (61.5% male, mean age = 46.21 ± 12.1 years). 118 (90.76%) participants believed that the patient himself/herself should be informed about the disease's condition. 120 (92.30%) preferred to hear the news from a skillful physician and 105 (80.76%) believed that emergency department is not a proper place for breaking bad news. Based on the results of the present study, most participants believed that the most experienced and skillful physician should inform them completely regarding their medical condition. At the same time they declared that, it is best to hear bad news in a calm and suitable place and time rather than emergency department or hospital corridors during teaching rounds.

  11. Breaking bad news: doctors' skills in communicating with patients.

    PubMed

    Ferreira da Silveira, Francisco José; Botelho, Camila Carvalho; Valadão, Carolina Cirino

    2017-01-01

    Breaking bad news is one of doctors' duties and it requires them to have some skills, given that this situation is difficult and distressful for patients and their families. Moreover, it is also an uncomfortable condition for doctors. The aim of this study was to evaluate doctors' capacity to break bad news, ascertain which specialties are best prepared for doing this and assess the importance of including this topic within undergraduate courses. Observational cross-sectional quantitative study conducted at a university hospital in Belo Horizonte (MG), Brazil. This study used a questionnaire based on the SPIKES protocol, which was answered by 121 doctors at this university hospital. This questionnaire investigated their attitudes, posture, behavior and fears relating to breaking bad news. The majority of the doctors did not have problems regarding the concept of bad news. Nevertheless, their abilities diverged depending on the stage of the protocol and on their specialty and length of time since graduation. Generally, doctors who had graduated more than ten years before this survey felt more comfortable and confident, and thus transmitted the bad news in a better conducted manner. Much needs to be improved regarding this technique. Therefore, inclusion of this topic in undergraduate courses is necessary and proposals should be put forward and verified.

  12. BAD and KATP channels regulate neuron excitability and epileptiform activity

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Agüera, María Carmen; Nathwani, Nidhi; Lahmann, Carolina; Burnham, Veronica L

    2018-01-01

    Brain metabolism can profoundly influence neuronal excitability. Mice with genetic deletion or alteration of Bad (BCL-2 agonist of cell death) exhibit altered brain-cell fuel metabolism, accompanied by resistance to acutely induced epileptic seizures; this seizure protection is mediated by ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels. Here we investigated the effect of BAD manipulation on KATP channel activity and excitability in acute brain slices. We found that BAD’s influence on neuronal KATP channels was cell-autonomous and directly affected dentate granule neuron (DGN) excitability. To investigate the role of neuronal KATP channels in the anticonvulsant effects of BAD, we imaged calcium during picrotoxin-induced epileptiform activity in entorhinal-hippocampal slices. BAD knockout reduced epileptiform activity, and this effect was lost upon knockout or pharmacological inhibition of KATP channels. Targeted BAD knockout in DGNs alone was sufficient for the antiseizure effect in slices, consistent with a ‘dentate gate’ function that is reinforced by increased KATP channel activity. PMID:29368690

  13. Bad habits and bad genes: early 20th-century eugenic attempts to eliminate syphilis and associated "defects" from the United States.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Philip K

    2003-01-01

    American eugenists in the early 20th century distinguished "degenerates," including syphilitics, prostitutes, alcoholics and criminals, from the "normal" population by their particular bad habits. From eugenists' viewpoint, these bad habits were derived from bad character, a flaw that stemmed from an individual's bad genes. This essay explores how eugenists during this period characterized syphilitics and those with associated character "defects" in terms of heredity. Additionally, it examines the methods eugenists most frequently advocated to rectify these bad habits. These methods included marriage restriction, immigration control and reproductive sterilization. Overall, eugenists directed their efforts not so much at the "degenerate" as at his or her germ line.

  14. Bioavailability and microbial adaptation to elevated levels of uranium in an acid, organic topsoil forming on an old mine spoil.

    PubMed

    Joner, Erik Jautris; Munier-Lamy, Colette; Gouget, Barbara

    2007-08-01

    An old mine spoil at a 19th-century mining site with considerable residues of uranium (400-800 mg U/kg) was investigated with respect to U concentrations in soil and plants and tolerance to U in the soil microbial community in order to describe the bioavailability of U. Measurements of soil fractions representing water-soluble U, easily exchangeable U, and U bound to humified organic matter showed that all fractions contained elevated concentrations of U. Plant U concentrations were only 10 times higher at the mine spoil site compared to the reference site (3 mg U/kg vs 0.3 mg U/kg), while the most easily available soil fractions contained 0.18 to 0.86 mg U/kg soil at the mine spoil. An ecotoxicity bioassay using incorporation of [3H]thymidine into the indigenous microbial communities of the two soils in the presence of increasing U concentrations showed that microorganisms at the mining site were sensitive to U but also that they had acquired a substantial tolerance toward U (EC50, the effective concentration reducing activity by 50% of UO2-citrate was approximately 120 microM as compared to 30 microM in the reference soil). In the assay, more than 40% of the microbial activity was maintained in the presence of 1 mM UO2-citrate versus 3% in the reference soil. We conclude that U-enriched mining waste can contain sufficiently elevated concentrations of bioavailable U to affect indigenous microorganisms and that bioavailable U imposes a selection pressure that favors the development of a highly uranium-tolerant microbial community, while plant uptake of U remains low.

  15. Collaborative Practice Model: Improving the Delivery of Bad News.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Pamela N; Slusser, Kim; Allen, Deborah

    2018-02-01

    Ideal bad news delivery requires skilled communication and team support. The literature has primarily focused on patient preferences, impact on care decisions, healthcare roles, and communication styles, without addressing systematic implementation. This article describes how an interdisciplinary team, led by advanced practice nurses, developed and implemented a collaborative practice model to deliver bad news on a unit that had struggled with inconsistencies. Using evidence-based practices, the authors explored current processes, role perceptions and expectations, and perceived barriers to developing the model, which is now the standard of care and an example of interprofessional team collaboration across the healthcare system. This model for delivering bad news can be easily adapted to meet the needs of other clinical units.
.

  16. Regulation of Hepatic Energy Metabolism and Gluconeogenesis by BAD

    PubMed Central

    Giménez-Cassina, Alfredo; Garcia-Haro, Luisa; Choi, Cheol Soo; Osundiji, Mayowa A.; Lane, Elizabeth; Huang, Hu; Yildirim, Muhammed A.; Szlyk, Benjamin; Fisher, Jill K.; Polak, Klaudia; Patton, Elaura; Wiwczar, Jessica; Godes, Marina; Lee, Dae Ho; Robertson, Kirsten; Kim, Sheene; Kulkarni, Ameya; Distefano, Alberto; Samuel, Varman; Cline, Gary; Kim, Young-Bum; Shulman, Gerald I.; Danial, Nika N.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The homeostatic balance of hepatic glucose utilization, storage and production is exquisitely controlled by hormonal signals and hepatic carbon metabolism during fed and fasted states. How the liver senses extracellular glucose to cue glucose utilization versus production is not fully understood. Here, we show that the physiologic balance of hepatic glycolysis and gluconeogenesis is regulated by BAD, a dual function protein with roles in apoptosis and metabolism. BAD deficiency reprograms hepatic substrate and energy metabolism towards diminished glycolysis, excess fatty acid oxidation and exaggerated glucose production that escapes suppression by insulin. Genetic and biochemical evidence suggest that BAD’s suppression of gluconeogenesis is actuated by phosphorylation of its BH3 domain and subsequent activation of glucokinase. The physiologic relevance of these findings is evident from the ability of a BAD phospho-mimic variant to counteract unrestrained gluconeogenesis and improve glycemia in leptin resistant and high-fat diet models of diabetes and insulin resistance. PMID:24506868

  17. Apples in the Apple Library--How One Library Took a Byte.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertel, Monica

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes automation of a specialized library at Apple Computer, Inc., describing software packages chosen for the following functions: word processing/text editing; cataloging and circulation; reference; and in-house databases. Examples of each function and additional sources of information on software and equipment mentioned in the article are…

  18. Medical training for communication of bad news: A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Alelwani, Somia M.; Ahmed, Yasar A.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, medical guidelines for communicating bad news to patients have been published. Training for this task was included in the curricula of undergraduate medical courses, specialization, and continuing medical education. The objective of this review is to evaluate the existing evidence in the literature on the effectiveness of such training. Only seven controlled trials were found, four of which were randomized, and these four indicate an improvement in the trainees. These findings suggest that training undergraduate and postgraduate doctors in skills for communicating bad news may be beneficial but there are important limitations to reach a definitive conclusion. These limitations are discussed in this article. PMID:25077144

  19. Apple IIe Computers and Appleworks Training Mini Course Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    The instructional materials included in this document are designed to introduce students to the Apple IIe computer and to the word processing and database portions of the AppleWorks program. The materials are intended for small groups of students, each of whom has use of a computer during class and for short periods between classes. The course…

  20. Cytology of infection of apple leaves by Diplocarpon mali

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diplocarpon mali, the causal agent of Marssonina leaf blotch of apple, causes severe defoliation during the growing season. Little information is available on the mode of infection and infection process. In this study, the infection strategies of D. mali in apple leaves were investigated using fluor...

  1. 7 CFR 457.158 - Apple crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apple crop insurance provisions. 457.158 Section 457.158 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.158 Apple crop insurance...

  2. Reading Michael Apple--The Sociological Imagination at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses Michael Apple's contribution to the sociology of education and education policy analysis and the politics of education. It focuses on ways of "reading" Apple as an intellectual and an activist and looks at the trajectory of his work over a long and illustrious career.

  3. Interview with Michael Apple: The Biography of a Public Intellectual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Michael W. Apple is the John Bascom Professor of Curriculum and Instruction and Educational Policy Studies in the Departments of Curriculum and Instruction (CI) and Educational Policy Studies (EPS) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Education where he has taught since 1970. Michael Apple is one of the foremost educational theorists…

  4. Apple anthracnose canker life cycle and disease cycle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apple anthracnose [caused by Neofabraea malicorticis (H.S. Jacks) anamorph Cryptosporiopsis curvispora (Peck)] is a fungal disease that impacts apple production. The pathogen produces cankers on trees as well as a rot on the fruit known as ‘Bull’s-eye rot’. The cankers cause severe damage to trees...

  5. Sustainable approaches to control postharvest diseases of apples

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Long term storage of apples faces challenges in maintaining fruit quality and reducing losses from postharvest diseases. Currently, the apple industry relies mainly on synthetic fungicides to control postharvest decays. However, the limitations to fungicides such as the development of resistance i...

  6. Identification of Historic Homestead and Orchard Apple Cultivars in Wyoming

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There were thousands of apples planted in Wyoming’s orchards and homesteads in the 1800s, many of which are still alive today. The purpose of this research was to identify heritage apple cultivars in Wyoming using genetic fingerprinting (microsatellite) techniques and then use this information to su...

  7. Gene expression profiles of auxin metabolism in maturing apple fruit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Variation exists among apple genotypes in fruit maturation and ripening patterns that influences at-harvest fruit firmness and postharvest storability. Based on the results from our previous large-scale transcriptome profiling on apple fruit maturation and well-documented auxin-ethylene crosstalk, t...

  8. Chapter 11. Quality evaluation of apple by computer vision

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apple is one of the most consumed fruits in the world, and there is a critical need for enhanced computer vision technology for quality assessment of apples. This chapter gives a comprehensive review on recent advances in various computer vision techniques for detecting surface and internal defects ...

  9. Genome to phenome mapping in apple using historical data

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apple (Malus domestica) is one of the world’s most valuable fruit crops. Its large size and long juvenile phase make it a particularly promising candidate for marker-assisted selection (MAS). However, advances in MAS in apple have been limited by a lack of phenotype and genotype data from sufficien...

  10. Polish adaptation of Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire-Brace and Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire-Deformity.

    PubMed

    Misterska, Ewa; Głowacki, Maciej; Harasymczuk, Jerzy

    2009-12-01

    Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire-Brace and Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire-Deformity are relatively new tools aimed at facilitating the evaluation of long-term results of therapy in persons with idiopathic scoliosis undergoing conservative treatment. To use these tools properly in Poland, they must be translated into Polish and adapted to the Polish cultural settings. The process of cultural adaptation of the questionnaires was compliant with the guidelines of International Quality of Life Assessment (IQOLA) Project. In the first stage, two independent translators converted the originals into Polish. Stage two, consisted of a comparison of the originals and two translated versions. During that stage, the team of two translators and authors of the project identified differences in those translations and created a combination of the two. In the third stage, two independent translators, who were native speakers of German, translated the adjusted version of the Polish translation into the language of the original document. At the last stage, a commission composed of: specialists in orthopedics, translators, a statistician and a psychologist reviewed all translations and drafted a pre-final version of the questionnaires. Thirty-five adolescent girls with idiopathic scoliosis who were treated with Cheneau brace were subjected to the questionnaire assessment. All patients were treated in an out-patient setting by a specialist in orthopedics at the Chair and Clinic of Orthopedics and Traumatology. Median age of patients was 14.8 SD 1.5, median value of the Cobb's angle was 27.8 degrees SD 7.4. 48.6% of patients had thoracic scoliosis, 31.4% had thoracolumbar scoliosis, and 20% patients had lumbar scoliosis. Median results obtained by means of the Polish version of BSSQ-Brace and BSSQ-Deformity questionnaires were 17.9 SD 5.0 and 11.3 SD 4.7, respectively. Internal consistency of BSSQ-Brace and BSSQ-Deformity was at the level of 0.80 and 0.87, whereas the value of

  11. Polish adaptation of Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire-Brace and Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire-Deformity

    PubMed Central

    Głowacki, Maciej; Harasymczuk, Jerzy

    2009-01-01

    Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire-Brace and Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire-Deformity are relatively new tools aimed at facilitating the evaluation of long-term results of therapy in persons with idiopathic scoliosis undergoing conservative treatment. To use these tools properly in Poland, they must be translated into Polish and adapted to the Polish cultural settings. The process of cultural adaptation of the questionnaires was compliant with the guidelines of International Quality of Life Assessment (IQOLA) Project. In the first stage, two independent translators converted the originals into Polish. Stage two, consisted of a comparison of the originals and two translated versions. During that stage, the team of two translators and authors of the project identified differences in those translations and created a combination of the two. In the third stage, two independent translators, who were native speakers of German, translated the adjusted version of the Polish translation into the language of the original document. At the last stage, a commission composed of: specialists in orthopedics, translators, a statistician and a psychologist reviewed all translations and drafted a pre-final version of the questionnaires. Thirty-five adolescent girls with idiopathic scoliosis who were treated with Cheneau brace were subjected to the questionnaire assessment. All patients were treated in an out-patient setting by a specialist in orthopedics at the Chair and Clinic of Orthopedics and Traumatology. Median age of patients was 14.8 SD 1.5, median value of the Cobb’s angle was 27.8° SD 7.4. 48.6% of patients had thoracic scoliosis, 31.4% had thoracolumbar scoliosis, and 20% patients had lumbar scoliosis. Median results obtained by means of the Polish version of BSSQ-Brace and BSSQ-Deformity questionnaires were 17.9 SD 5.0 and 11.3 SD 4.7, respectively. Internal consistency of BSSQ-Brace and BSSQ-Deformity was at the level of 0.80 and 0.87, whereas the value of the

  12. Differential Partitioning of Triterpenes and Triterpene Esters in Apple Peel.

    PubMed

    Poirier, Brenton C; Buchanan, David A; Rudell, David R; Mattheis, James P

    2018-02-28

    Apple peel is a rich source of secondary metabolites, and several studies have outlined the dietary health benefits of ursane-type triterpenes in apple. Changes in triterpene metabolism have also been associated with the development of superficial scald, a postharvest apple peel browning disorder, and postharvest applications of diphenylamine and 1-methylcyclopropene. Previously, studies have generated metabolite profiles for whole apple peel or apple wax. In this study, we report separate metabolic analyses of isolated wax fractions and peel epidermis to investigate the spatial distribution of secondary metabolites in peel. In addition to examining previously reported triterpenes, we identified several unreported fatty acid esters of ursane-type triterpenes (C14-C22). All free pentacyclic triterpenes and triterpenic acids, with the exception of β-amyrin, were localized in the wax layer, along with esters of ursolic acid and uvaol. All sterols, sterol derivatives and α-amyrin esters were localized in the dewaxed peel epidermis.

  13. Tracking Steps on Apple Watch at Different Walking Speeds.

    PubMed

    Veerabhadrappa, Praveen; Moran, Matthew Duffy; Renninger, Mitchell D; Rhudy, Matthew B; Dreisbach, Scott B; Gift, Kristin M

    2018-04-09

    QUESTION: How accurate are the step counts obtained from Apple Watch? In this validation study, video steps vs. Apple Watch steps (mean ± SD) were 2965 ± 144 vs. 2964 ± 145 steps; P < 0.001. Lin's concordance correlation coefficient showed a strong correlation (r = 0.96; P < 0.001) between the two measurements. There was a total error of 0.034% (1.07 steps) for the Apple Watch steps when compared with the manual counts obtained from video recordings. Our study is one of the initial studies to objectively validate the accuracy of the step counts obtained from Apple watch at different walking speeds. Apple Watch tested to be an extremely accurate device for measuring daily step counts for adults.

  14. A Real-Time Apple Grading System Using Multicolor Space

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This study was focused on the multicolor space which provides a better specification of the color and size of the apple in an image. In the study, a real-time machine vision system classifying apples into four categories with respect to color and size was designed. In the analysis, different color spaces were used. As a result, 97% identification success for the red fields of the apple was obtained depending on the values of the parameter “a” of CIE L*a*b*color space. Similarly, 94% identification success for the yellow fields was obtained depending on the values of the parameter y of CIE XYZ color space. With the designed system, three kinds of apples (Golden, Starking, and Jonagold) were investigated by classifying them into four groups with respect to two parameters, color and size. Finally, 99% success rate was achieved in the analyses conducted for 595 apples. PMID:24574880

  15. Molecular Detection and Identification of Brettanomyces/Dekkera bruxellensis and Brettanomyces/Dekkera anomalus in Spoiled Wines

    PubMed Central

    Cocolin, Luca; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Iacumin, Lucilla; Zironi, Roberto; Comi, Giuseppe

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we describe the development of a PCR protocol to specifically detect Brettanomyces bruxellensis and B. anomalus. Primers DB90F and DB394R, targeting the D1-D2 loop of the 26S rRNA gene, were able to produce amplicons only when the DNA from these two species were used. No amplification product was obtained when DNA from other Brettanomyces spp. or wine yeasts were used as the templates. The 305-bp product was subjected to restriction enzyme analysis with DdeI to differentiate between B. bruxellensis and B. anomalus, and each species could be identified on the basis of the different restriction profiles. After optimization of the method by using strains from international collections, wine isolates were tested with the method proposed. Total agreement between traditional identification and molecular identification was observed. The protocol developed was also used for direct detection of B. bruxellensis and B. anomalus in wines suspected to be spoiled by Brettanomyces spp. Application of culture-based and molecular methods led us to the conclusion that 8 of 12 samples were spoiled by B. bruxellensis. Results based on the application of molecular methods suggested that two of the eight positive samples had been infected more recently, since specific signals were obtained at both the DNA and RNA levels. PMID:15006752

  16. Molecular detection and identification of Brettanomyces/Dekkera bruxellensis and Brettanomyces/Dekkera anomalus in spoiled wines.

    PubMed

    Cocolin, Luca; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Iacumin, Lucilla; Zironi, Roberto; Comi, Giuseppe

    2004-03-01

    In this paper we describe the development of a PCR protocol to specifically detect Brettanomyces bruxellensis and B. anomalus. Primers DB90F and DB394R, targeting the D1-D2 loop of the 26S rRNA gene, were able to produce amplicons only when the DNA from these two species were used. No amplification product was obtained when DNA from other Brettanomyces spp. or wine yeasts were used as the templates. The 305-bp product was subjected to restriction enzyme analysis with DdeI to differentiate between B. bruxellensis and B. anomalus, and each species could be identified on the basis of the different restriction profiles. After optimization of the method by using strains from international collections, wine isolates were tested with the method proposed. Total agreement between traditional identification and molecular identification was observed. The protocol developed was also used for direct detection of B. bruxellensis and B. anomalus in wines suspected to be spoiled by Brettanomyces spp. Application of culture-based and molecular methods led us to the conclusion that 8 of 12 samples were spoiled by B. bruxellensis. Results based on the application of molecular methods suggested that two of the eight positive samples had been infected more recently, since specific signals were obtained at both the DNA and RNA levels.

  17. Environmental risk evaluation of the use of mine spoils and treated sewage sludge in the ecological restoration of limestone quarries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordán, M. M.; Pina, S.; García-Orenes, F.; Almendro-Candel, M. B.; García-Sánchez, E.

    2008-07-01

    The ecologic restoration criteria in areas degraded from extraction activities require making use of their mine spoils. These materials do not meet fertility conditions to guarantee restoration success and therefore, need the incorporation of organic amendments to obtain efficient substratum. Reducing the deficiencies in the organic material and restoration material nutrients with the contribution of treated sewage sludge is proposed in this work. This experiment was based on a controlled study using columns. The work was conducted with two mine spoils, both very rich in calcium carbonate. The first mineral, of poor quality, came from the formation of aggregates of crushed limestone ( Z). The other residual material examined originated in limestone extraction, formed by the levels of interspersed non-limestone materials and the remains of stripped soils ( D). Two treatments were undertaken (30,000 and 90,000 kg/ha of sewage sludge), in addition to a control treatment. The water contribution was carried out with a device that simulated either short-duration rain or a flooding irrigation system in order to cover the surface and then percolate through the soil. The collection of leached water took place 24 h after the applications. Different parameters of the leached water were determined, including pH, electrical conductivity, nitrate anions, ammonium, phosphates, sulphates and chlorides. The values obtained for each irrigation application are discussed, and the nitrate values obtained were very elevated.

  18. Patulin surveillance in apple cider and juice marketed in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kerri L; Bobe, Gerd; Bourquin, Leslie D

    2009-06-01

    Patulin is the most common mycotoxin found in apples and apple juices. The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of patulin in (i) apple cider produced and marketed by Michigan apple cider mills during the fall seasons of 2002 to 2003 and 2003 to 2004 and (ii) apple juice and cider, including shelf-stable products, marketed in retail grocery stores in Michigan throughout 2005 and 2006. End product samples (n=493) obtained from 104 Michigan apple cider mills were analyzed for patulin concentration by using solid-phase extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Patulin was detected (> or =4 microg/liter) in 18.7% of all cider mill samples, with 11 samples (2.2%) having patulin concentrations of > or =50 microg/liter. A greater percentage of cider samples obtained from mills using thermal pasteurization contained detectable patulin (28.4%) than did those from mills using UV light radiation (13.5%) or no pathogen reduction treatment (17.0%). Among retail grocery store samples (n=159), 23% of apple juice and cider samples contained detectable patulin, with 18 samples (11.3%) having patulin concentrations of > or =50 microg/liter. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) action level for patulin is 50 microg/kg. Some apple juice samples obtained from retail grocery stores had exceptionally high patulin concentrations, ranging up to 2700 microg/liter. Collectively, these results indicate that most apple cider and juice test samples from Michigan were below the FDA action level for patulin but that certain apple cider and juice processors have inadequate controls over patulin concentrations in final products. The industry, overall, should focus on improved quality of fruit used in juice production and improve culling procedures to reduce patulin concentrations.

  19. Long residence times - bad tracer tests?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghergut, Julia; Behrens, Horst; Sauter, Martin

    2015-04-01

    process, and later on during sample aeration); the adsorbed and/or co-precipitated tracer amounts appear to be non-zero, but their accurate metering was not completed to date. Thus, a conservative estimate of cumulative tracer recovery amounts to (at least) 2 parts-per-thousand for the first 700,000 m3 of fluid turnover within the geothermal well doublet. Neither do such recovery values automatically imply 'bad news' (poor inter-well connectivity), nor do they appear as implausibly low (cf. fig. 2 of [3]), considering the possibility of major vertical drainage along the large-scale fault zone that isolates the 'aquifer basin' around the re-injection well from the 'aquifer catchment' around the production well, along with the prospect of transport-effective porosity and/or thickness within these 'aquifers' being rather high, due to extensive fissuring/fracturing. In more general terms, we argue that (a) inter-well flow-path spikings are still worthwhile being conducted even in large-scale hydrothermal reservoirs; (b) results gained from single-well tests [3] can never serve as a substitute for the kind of information (primarily: residence time distribution RTD, or flow-storage repartition FSR) being expected from inter-well tests; (c) tracer species that are 'novel' in terms of thermo-/reactivity/sorptivity/exchange at phase interfaces and thus involve some transport-retarding process cannot alleviate the frustration associated with long RT; (d) augmenting the tracer quantity Minj to use for inter-well spiking might render the tracer signal detectable, say, one or two years earlier, but it does not make FSR available sooner, since Minj cannot alter the RTD of fluids traveling through the reservoir; moreover, for inter-well configurations and reservoir structures typical of the Upper Rhine Rift Valley, the Minj augmenting factors necessary to render tracer signals detectable 1 or 2 years earlier mostly range beyond the limits of the reasonably-recommendable (e. g., for

  20. Economic analysis of a self-propelled apple harvest and in-field sorting machine for the apple industry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The U.S. apple industry, which generated more than $2.7 billion revenue at the farm gate in 2013, is facing critical challenges in decreased availability of labor and increased labor and production cost. To address these challenges, a self-propelled apple harvest and automated in-field sorting machi...

  1. 2015 Progress Report – Evaluation of the Cornell-Geneva Apple Rootstocks and Other Promising Apple Rootstocks

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A number of new apple rootstocks from the Cornell/USDA apple rootstock breeding project, located at Geneva, NY which are resistant to fire blight are rapidly becoming available to the industry. These rootstocks are also dwarfing, tolerant to replant disease and productive. Data on cumulative yield...

  2. A review of apple anthracnose canker biology and management in cider apple orchards in the Maritime Pacific Northwest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cider apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) is an emerging crop in western Washington and the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region, but a major obstacle to planting new orchards and orchard productivity is the widespread occurrence of apple anthracnose canker, caused by the fungal pathogen Neofabraea malicortic...

  3. Genetic control of biennial bearing in apple

    PubMed Central

    Guitton, Baptiste; Kelner, Jean-Jacques; Velasco, Riccardo; Gardiner, Susan E.; Chagné, David; Costes, Evelyne

    2012-01-01

    Although flowering in mature fruit trees is recurrent, floral induction can be strongly inhibited by concurrent fruiting, leading to a pattern of irregular fruiting across consecutive years referred to as biennial bearing. The genetic determinants of biennial bearing in apple were investigated using the 114 flowering individuals from an F1 population of 122 genotypes, from a ‘Starkrimson’ (strong biennial bearer)בGranny Smith’ (regular bearer) cross. The number of inflorescences, and the number and the mass of harvested fruit were recorded over 6 years and used to calculate 26 variables and indices quantifying yield, precocity of production, and biennial bearing. Inflorescence traits exhibited the highest genotypic effect, and three quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on linkage group (LG) 4, LG8, and LG10 explained 50% of the phenotypic variability for biennial bearing. Apple orthologues of flowering and hormone-related genes were retrieved from the whole-genome assembly of ‘Golden Delicious’ and their position was compared with QTLs. Four main genomic regions that contain floral integrator genes, meristem identity genes, and gibberellin oxidase genes co-located with QTLs. The results indicated that flowering genes are less likely to be responsible for biennial bearing than hormone-related genes. New hypotheses for the control of biennial bearing emerged from QTL and candidate gene co-locations and suggest the involvement of different physiological processes such as the regulation of flowering genes by hormones. The correlation between tree architecture and biennial bearing is also discussed. PMID:21963613

  4. The Effects of Bad News and Good News on a Newspaper's Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskins, Jack B.; Miller, M. Mark

    1984-01-01

    Concludes that whether a newspaper carries mostly good news or mostly bad news affects the image of the paper, with bad news having negative effects and good news having positive effects on readers' perceptions of the newspaper. (FL)

  5. Cholesterol: The Good, the Bad, and the Unhealthy | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Good, the Bad, and the Unhealthy Follow us Cholesterol: The Good, the Bad, and the Unhealthy We ... and Blood Institute and MedlinePlus. What is good cholesterol? There are two main types of cholesterol: “good” ...

  6. 48 CFR 2131.205-3 - Bad debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 2131.205-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL... PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 2131.205-3 Bad debts. Erroneous benefit... the erroneous overpayment or it would not be cost effective to recover the erroneous overpayment. The...

  7. Breaking bad news: A guide for effective and empathetic communication

    PubMed Central

    Rosenzweig, Margaret Quinn

    2017-01-01

    Breaking negative news to patients is a common occurrence for nurse practitioners. This difficult task requires patience and refined communication skills, and must be approached with empathy for all parties involved. There are several ways to deliver bad news to patients successfully using patient-centered communication techniques and methods. PMID:22252021

  8. Breaking bad news: Effects of forecasting diagnosis and framing prognosis.

    PubMed

    Porensky, Emily K; Carpenter, Brian D

    2016-01-01

    Research to support guidelines for breaking bad news is lacking. This study used an experimental paradigm to test two communication strategies, forecasting bad news and framing prognosis, in the context of cancer. In a 2×2 design, 128 participants received bad news in a hypothetical consultation. A videotaped physician presented diagnostic and prognostic information, varying warning (warning shot vs. no warning), and framing (positive vs. negative). Effects on psychological distress, recall accuracy, and subjective interpretations of the news were assessed. Warning was not associated with lower psychological distress or improved recall. Individuals who heard a positively-framed prognosis had significantly less psychological distress, rated their prognosis better, and were more hopeful than those who heard a negatively-framed prognosis. However, they also showed a trend toward reduced accuracy in recalling prognostic statistics. Results contribute to a growing body of literature exploring optimal approaches for communicating bad news in health care. Although research in clinical settings is needed to bolster results, findings suggest that when providers use positive framing to reduce distress about prognosis, they should also consider ways to overcome potential reductions in recall accuracy, such as repeating statistical information or supplementing with written information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Breaking bad news: a communication competency for ophthalmology training programs

    PubMed Central

    Hilkert, Sarah M.; Cebulla, Colleen M.; Jain, Shelly Gupta; Pfeil, Sheryl A.; Benes, Susan C.; Robbins, Shira L.

    2016-01-01

    As the ophthalmology accreditation system undergoes major changes, training programs must evaluate residents in the 6 core competencies, including appropriately communicating bad news. Although the literature is replete with recommendations for breaking bad news across various non-ophthalmology specialties, no formal training programs exist for ophthalmology. There are many valuable lessons to be learned from our non-ophthalmology colleagues regarding this important skill. We examine the historic basis for breaking bad news, explores current recommendations among other specialties, and then evaluate a pilot study to teach breaking bad news to ophthalmology residents. The results of this study are limited by a small number of residents at a single academic center. Future studies from multiple training programs should be conducted to further evaluate the need and efficacy of formal communication skills training in this area, as well as the generalizability of our pilot training program. If validated, this work could serve as a template for future ophthalmology resident training and evaluation in this core competency. PMID:27134009

  10. Undoing Bad Upbringing through Contemplation: An Aristotelian Reconstruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjánsson, Kristján

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to reconstruct two counter-intuitive Aristotelian theses--about contemplation as the culmination of the good life and about the impossibility of undoing bad upbringing--to bring them into line with current empirical research, as well as with the essentials of an overall Aristotelian approach to moral education. I start…

  11. Climate sensitivity uncertainty: when is good news bad?

    PubMed

    Freeman, Mark C; Wagner, Gernot; Zeckhauser, Richard J

    2015-11-28

    Climate change is real and dangerous. Exactly how bad it will get, however, is uncertain. Uncertainty is particularly relevant for estimates of one of the key parameters: equilibrium climate sensitivity--how eventual temperatures will react as atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations double. Despite significant advances in climate science and increased confidence in the accuracy of the range itself, the 'likely' range has been 1.5-4.5°C for over three decades. In 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) narrowed it to 2-4.5°C, only to reverse its decision in 2013, reinstating the prior range. In addition, the 2013 IPCC report removed prior mention of 3°C as the 'best estimate'. We interpret the implications of the 2013 IPCC decision to lower the bottom of the range and excise a best estimate. Intuitively, it might seem that a lower bottom would be good news. Here we ask: when might apparently good news about climate sensitivity in fact be bad news in the sense that it lowers societal well-being? The lowered bottom value also implies higher uncertainty about the temperature increase, definitely bad news. Under reasonable assumptions, both the lowering of the lower bound and the removal of the 'best estimate' may well be bad news. © 2015 The Author(s).

  12. Breaking bad news: A communication competency for ophthalmology training programs.

    PubMed

    Hilkert, Sarah M; Cebulla, Colleen M; Jain, Shelly Gupta; Pfeil, Sheryl A; Benes, Susan C; Robbins, Shira L

    As the ophthalmology accreditation system undergoes major changes, training programs must evaluate residents in the 6 core competencies, including appropriately communicating bad news. Although the literature is replete with recommendations for breaking bad news across various non-ophthalmology specialties, no formal training programs exist for ophthalmology. There are many valuable lessons to be learned from our colleagues regarding this important skill. We examine the historic basis for breaking bad news, explore current recommendations among other specialties, and then evaluate a pilot study in breaking bad news for ophthalmology residents. The results of this study are limited by a small number of residents at a single academic center. Future studies from multiple training programs should be conducted to further evaluate the need and efficacy of formal communication skills training in this area, as well as the generalizability of our pilot training program. If validated, this work could serve as a template for future ophthalmology resident training and evaluation in this core competency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Business Communication Students Learn to Hear a Bad Speech Habit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Reginald L.; Liang-Bell, Lei Paula; Deselle, Bettye

    2006-01-01

    Students were trained to perceive filled pauses (FP) as a bad speech habit. In a series of classroom sensitivity training activities, followed by students being rewarded to observe twenty minutes of live television from the public media, no differences between male and female Business Communication students was revealed. The practice of teaching…

  14. Habits: How to Break the Bad and Cultivate the Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellman, Geoffrey

    1976-01-01

    Every trainer and training director should take a close look at his or her habits--good and bad ones. The author provides a series of questions that, when answered by trainers will help them change or get rid of a habit or develop a new one. (BP)

  15. Musicians' Ratings of Good versus Bad Vocal and String Performances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geringer, John M.; Madsen, Clifford K.

    1998-01-01

    Continues a line of research attempting to ascertain the focus of musicians' attention when listening to music, particularly whether musicians demonstrate consistent listening patterns across excerpts designed to be perceived as good and bad performances. Indicates that musician-listeners consistently discriminated between good and bad…

  16. Breaking bad news in prenatal medicine: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Luz, Rita; George, Astrid; Spitz, Elisabeth; Vieux, Rachel

    2017-02-01

    The diagnosis of a fetal anomaly in perinatal medicine forces expectant parents and healthcare providers to face the difficult process of breaking bad news. This exploratory literature review was aimed at providing a medical and psychological view of the psychological experience in expectant parents and physicians in the context of prenatal diagnosis of a fetal anomaly. An exploratory search of PubMed and PsycINFO/PsycARTICLES databases performed by an interdisciplinary team composed of a physician and psychologists. Search terms were: prenatal diagnosis AND bad news; prenatal diagnosis AND psychological consequences; prenatal diagnosis AND psychological sequelae; prenatal diagnosis AND fetal abnormality. The processing of selected articles followed a standardised five-step procedure. A total of 860 articles were screened of which 32 were retained for analysis. Four main themes emerged from the explanatory content analysis: (1) parents' subjective experience; (2) physicians' subjective experience; (3) encounters between expectant parents and professionals; and (4) ethical challenges in breaking bad news in prenatal medicine. Expectant parents go through a complex and multidimensional experience when the diagnosis of a fetal anomaly is disclosed. Simultaneously, physicians consider breaking bad news as a very stressful event and are poorly prepared in this regard. A better knowledge of factors underlying psychological adjustment of the parental dyad and on the subjective experience of physicians delivering these diagnoses could enable better adaptation for both patients and professionals.

  17. Curiosity Is Not Good--But It's Not Bad, Either

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, David

    2012-01-01

    Curiosity is vital quality of the creative work. However, in the classroom, educators seem to view curiosity as alternately amoral, virtuous, or dangerous. Education's stance towards curiosity is, in a word, curious. Conversely, the author says, curiosity is inherently amoral--neither good nor bad--and the subject is ripe for an exploration of the…

  18. Adult Graduate Student Voices: Good and Bad Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiff, Marianne; Ballin, Amy

    2016-01-01

    During their master's degree work, cohorts of adult graduate students participated in a common learning task in which they listed their factors of good and bad learning experiences. The lead author collected these factors from students over the course of 3 years. The purpose of our inquiry was to examine and document what adult graduate students…

  19. Impact of apple cultivar, ripening stage, fermentation type and yeast strain on phenolic composition of apple ciders.

    PubMed

    Laaksonen, Oskar; Kuldjärv, Rain; Paalme, Toomas; Virkki, Mira; Yang, Baoru

    2017-10-15

    Hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids in apple juices and ciders were studied using liquid chromatography. Samples were produced from four different Estonian apple cultivars using unripe, ripe and overripe apples, and six different commercial yeasts including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus, and Torulaspora delbrueckii strains. Part of the samples was additionally inoculated with malolactic bacteria, Oenococcus oeni. The most notable difference among the samples was the appearance of phloretin in malolactic ciders in comparison to conventional ciders and the juices. Furthermore, the apple cultivars were significantly different in their phenolic contents and compositions. Additionally, ciders and juices made from unripe apples contained more phenolic compounds than the ripe or overripe, but the effect was dependent on cultivar. The commercial yeast strains differed in the release of free HCAs, especially p-coumaric acid, during the yeast fermentation. In ciders inoculated with S. bayanus, the content was higher than in ciders fermented with S. cerevisiae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Based Metabolic Comparative Analysis of Two Apple Varieties with Different Resistances to Apple Scab Attacks.

    PubMed

    Sciubba, Fabio; Di Cocco, Maria Enrica; Gianferri, Raffaella; Capuani, Giorgio; De Salvador, Flavio Roberto; Fontanari, Marco; Gorietti, Daniela; Delfini, Maurizio

    2015-09-23

    Apple scab, caused by the fungus Venturia inaequalis, is the most serious disease of the apple worldwide. Two cultivars (Malus domestica), having different degrees of resistance against fungi attacks, were analyzed by (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Aqueous and organic extracts of both apple flesh and skin were studied, and over 30 metabolites, classified as organic acids, amino acids, carbohydrates, phenolic compounds, lipids, sterols, and other metabolites, were quantified by means of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) NMR experiments. The metabolic profiles of the two apple cultivars were compared, and the differences were correlated with the different degrees of resistance to apple scab by means of univariate analysis. Levels of metabolites with known antifungal activity were observed not only to be higher in the Almagold cultivar but also to show different correlation patterns in comparison to Golden Delicious, implying a difference in the metabolic network involved in their biosynthesis.

  1. Kinetics of patulin degradation in model solution, apple cider and apple juice by ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yan; Koutchma, Tatiana; Warriner, Keith; Shao, Suqin; Zhou, Ting

    2013-08-01

    Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by a wide range of molds involved in fruit spoilage, most commonly by Penicillium expansum and is a health concern for both consumers and manufacturers. The current study evaluated feasibility of monochromatic ultraviolet (UV) radiation at 253.7 nm as a possible commercial application for the reduction of patulin in fresh apple cider and juice. The R-52G MINERALIGHT® UV bench top lamp was used for patulin destruction. It was shown that 56.5%, 87.5%, 94.8% and 98.6% reduction of patulin can be achieved, respectively, in the model solution, apple cider, apple juice without ascorbic acid addition and apple juice with ascorbic acid addition in 2-mm thickness sample initially spiked by 1 mg·L(-1) of patulin after UV exposure for 40 min at UV irradiance of 3.00 mW·cm(-2). A mathematic model to compare the degradation rate and effective UV dose was developed. The effective UV doses that were directly absorbed by patulin for photochemical reaction were 430, 674, 724 and 763 mJ·cm(-3), respectively. The fluence-based decimal reduction time was estimated to 309.3, 31.3, 28.9 and 5.1 mW·cm(-2)·min, respectively, in four media mentioned above. The degradation of patulin followed the first-order reaction model. The time-based and fluence-based reaction rate constants were determined to predict patulin degradation. The time-based reaction rate constant of samples treated in dynamic regime with constant stirring (model solution: 2.95E-4 s(-1), juice: 4.31E-4 s(-1)) were significantly higher than samples treated in static regime (model solution: 2.79E-4 s(-1), juice: 3.49E-4 s(-1), p < 0.05) when applied UV irradiance and sample thickness were consistent. The reaction rate constant of patulin degradation in apple juice was significantly higher than model solution (p < 0.05). Although further investigations are still needed, the results of this study demonstrated that UV radiation may be an effective method for

  2. The badness of death and priorities in health.

    PubMed

    Solberg, Carl Tollef; Gamlund, Espen

    2016-04-14

    The state of the world is one with scarce medical resources where longevity is not equally distributed. Given such facts, setting priorities in health entails making difficult yet unavoidable decisions about which lives to save. The business of saving lives works on the assumption that longevity is valuable and that an early death is worse than a late death. There is a vast literature on health priorities and badness of death, separately. Surprisingly, there has been little cross-fertilisation between the academic fields of priority setting and badness of death. Our aim is to connect philosophical discussions on the badness of death to contemporary debates in health priorities. Two questions regarding death are especially relevant to health priorities. The first question is why death is bad. Death is clearly bad for others, such as family, friends and society. Many philosophers also argue that death can be bad for those who die. This distinction is important for health priorities, because it concerns our fundamental reasons for saving lives. The second question is, 'When is the worst time to die?' A premature death is commonly considered worse than a late death. Thus, the number of good life years lost seems to matter to the badness of death. Concerning young individuals, some think the death of infants is worse than the death of adolescents, while others have contrary intuitions. Our claim is that to prioritise between age groups, we must consider the question of when it is worst to die. Deprivationism provides a more plausible approach to health priorities than Epicureanism. If Deprivationism is accepted, we will have a firmer basis for claiming that individuals, in addition to having a health loss caused by morbidity, will have a loss of good life years due to mortality. Additionally, Deprivationism highlights the importance of age and values for health priorities. Regarding age, both variants of Deprivationism imply that stillbirths are included in the Global

  3. Comparing domestic versus imported apples: a focus on energy use.

    PubMed

    Milà i Canals, Llorenç; Cowell, Sarah J; Sim, Sarah; Basson, Lauren

    2007-07-01

    The issue of whether food miles are a relevant indicator for the environmental impacts associated with foods has received significant attention in recent years. It is suggested here that issues other than the distance travelled need to be considered. The argument is presented by illustrating the case for the provision of apples. The effects of variability in primary energy requirements for apple cultivation and for other life cycle stages, seasonality (timing of consumption) and loss of produce during storage are studied in this paper, by comparing apples from different supplier countries for consumption in Europe. Data sources for primary energy use (PEU) of apple production are identified ranging from 0.4-3.8 MJ/kg apples for European and Southern American countries and 0.4-0.7 MJ/kg for New Zealand. This variability is related to different yields and producer management practices in the different countries. Storage loss may range from 5% to 40% for storage periods between 4 and 10 months, and this has a significant effect on the results (e.g. increasing the total PEU by 8-16% when stored for 5-9 months in Europe as compared with a no loss and no storage situation). The storage periods and related storage losses change markedly through the year for imported (i.e. non-European) versus European apples. The timing of consumption and related storage losses need to be included in the assessment, as this affects the order of preference for locally sourced versus imported apples. The variability in energy requirements in different life cycle stages, but particularly for the fruit production stage, is also significant in this comparative analysis. Overall, it seems that there are similarities in the total PEU ranges for European and New Zealand apples during the Southern Hemisphere's apple season (European spring and summer). However, during the European autumn and winter (Northern Hemisphere apple season) PEU values are generally higher for apples imported from the

  4. Birch pollinosis and atopy caused by apple, peach, and hazelnut; comparison of three extraction procedures with two apple strains.

    PubMed

    de Groot, H; de Jong, N W; Vuijk, M H; Gerth van Wijk, R

    1996-10-01

    This study aimed, first, to study the prevalence in The Netherlands of atopy caused by apple, peach, and hazelnut in patients with tree pollinosis, and, second, to compare three extraction procedures for skin prick testing with two different apple strains. Skin prick tests and RAST were performed on 79 consecutive patients with tree pollinosis, visiting the department of allergology during spring 1995. In skin prick tests, we used three different extracts (juice, freeze-dried extract, and low-temperature acetone powder extract) of two apple strains, Golden Delicious and Granny Smith. Case histories for apple, peach, and hazelnut were positive in 35 (44.3%), 23 (29%), and 35 (44.3%) patients, respectively. More than two-thirds of the patients had symptoms characteristic of oral allergy syndrome. Skin prick tests for apple, peach, and hazelnut were positive in 51 (64.6%), 61 (77.2%), and 71 (89.9%) patients, respectively. Granny Smith showed more positive skin reactions and a better agreement with clinical history than Golden Delicious, and juice was superior to the two other extraction procedures for both apple strains. RAST for apple, peach, and hazelnut was positive in 53 (68.8%), 13 (16.9%), and 31 (40.3%) patients, respectively. Concordance between skin prick test and case history was found in 77%, 52%, and 54%, for apple, peach, and hazelnut, respectively. We found a high percentage of concurrence of clinical allergy to birch pollen and apple, peach, and hazelnut, confirmed by both skin prick testing and RAST. Approximately half of these patients had symptoms (especially oral allergy syndrome) after eating these products. We also found an easy extraction procedure (juice extract) suitable for apple skin prick testing, superior even to freeze-dried extraction or the low-temperature acetone powder technique.

  5. Apple EIN3 BINDING F-box 1 inhibits the activity of three apple EIN3-like transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Tacken, Emma J.; Ireland, Hilary S.; Wang, Yen-Yi; Putterill, Jo; Schaffer, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Fruit ripening in Malus× domestica (apple) is controlled by ethylene. Work in model species has shown that following the detection of ethylene, the ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE 3 (EIN3) transcription factor is stabilized, leading to an increase in transcript accumulation of ethylene-responsive genes, such as POLYGALACTURONASE1 (PG1). In the absence of ethylene, the EIN3 BINDING F-box (EBF) proteins rapidly degrade EIN3 via the ubiquitination/SCF (Skp, Cullin, F-Box) proteasome pathway. In this study, we aim to identify and characterize the apple EBF genes, and test their activity against apple EIN3-like proteins (EILs). Methodology The apple genome sequence was mined for EBF-like genes. The expression of EBF-like genes was measured during fruit development. Using a transient assay in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, the activity of three apple EILs was tested against the PG1 promoter, with and without ethylene and EBF1. Principal results Four EBF-like genes in apple were identified and grouped into two sub-clades. Sub-clade I genes had constant expression over fruit development while sub-clade II genes increased in expression at ripening. EBF1 was shown to reduce the transactivation of the apple PG1 promoter by the EIL1, EIL2 and EIL3 transcription factors in the presence of ethylene. Conclusions The apple EBF1 gene identified here is likely to be a functionally conserved EBF orthologue, modulating EIL activity in apples. The activity of EBF1 suggests that it is not specific to a single EIL, instead acting as a global regulator of apple EIL transcription factors. PMID:23585922

  6. 26 CFR 1.593-5 - Addition to reserves for bad debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Addition to reserves for bad debts. 1.593-5... bad debts. (a) Amount of addition. As an alternative to a deduction from gross income under section... a deduction under section 166(c) for a reasonable addition to a reserve for bad debts. In the case...

  7. The News Delivery Sequence: Bad News and Good News in Conversational Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynard, Douglas W.

    1997-01-01

    Explores the conditional nature of good and bad news while focusing on three topics: (1) the status of information as news according the participants in a conversation; (2) the valence of this information with regard to its perception as good or bad; and (3) the effect of news on individuals. Notes that good news is privileged over bad news in…

  8. Effects of "Good News" and "Bad News" on Newscast Image and Community Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galician, Mary-Lou; Vestre, Norris D.

    1987-01-01

    Investigates whether the relative amount of bad, neutral, and good news on television has corresponding effects on viewers' image of the community depicted and of the carrying newscast. Concludes that bad news creates a bad image for the community but that good news does not produce a more favorable image than neutral news. (MM)

  9. 42 CFR 413.89 - Bad debts, charity, and courtesy allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bad debts, charity, and courtesy allowances. 413.89... Categories of Costs § 413.89 Bad debts, charity, and courtesy allowances. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 49198, Aug. 12, 2010. (a) Principle. Bad debts, charity, and courtesy allowances are deductions...

  10. [Construction of BAD Lentivirus Vector and Its Effect on Proliferation in A549 Cell Lines].

    PubMed

    Huang, Na; He, Yan-qi; Zhu, Jing; Li, Wei-min

    2015-05-01

    To construct the recombinant lentivirus expressing vector BAD (Bcl-2-associated death protein) gene and to study its effect on A549 cell proliferation. The BAD gene was amplified from plasmid pAV-MCMV-BAD-GFP by PCR. The purified BAD gene fragment was inserted into a lentivirus vector (pLVX-IRES-ZsGreen 1), and the insertion was identified by PCR, restriction endonuclease analysis and DNA sequencing. A549 cells were then transfected with the packaged recombinant lentivirus, and resistant cell clones were selected with flow cytometry. The expression of BAD in A549 cell lines stably transduction with a lentivirus was examined using Western blot. The effect of BAD overexpression on proliferation of A549 cells was evaluated by using CCK-8 kit. Restriction enzyme digestion and DNA sequencing showed that the full-length BAD gene (507 bp) had been successfully subcloned into the lentiviral vector to result in the recombinant vector pLVX-IRES-ZsGreen 1. Monoclonal cell lines BAD-A549 was produced after transfection with the recombinant lentivirus and selected with flow cytometry. Stable expression of BAD protein was verified by Western blot. In vitro, the OD value in BAD group was significantly lower than that of control groups from 120-144 h (P<0. 05). A549 cell lines stably transduced with a lentivirus expressing the BAD gene had been successfully generated. In vitro, BAD overexpression significantly inhibited A549 cells proliferation.

  11. 19 CFR 125.34 - Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Countersigning of documents and notation of bad... and Receipt § 125.34 Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy. When a... and shall note thereon any bad order or discrepancy. When available, the importing carrier's tally...

  12. 42 CFR 413.89 - Bad debts, charity, and courtesy allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES; OPTIONAL PROSPECTIVELY DETERMINED PAYMENT RATES FOR SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES Specific... allowable costs. (e) Criteria for allowable bad debt. A bad debt must meet the following criteria to be... amount of allowable bad debt (as defined in paragraph (e) of this section) is reduced: (i) For cost...

  13. 42 CFR 413.89 - Bad debts, charity, and courtesy allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES; OPTIONAL PROSPECTIVELY DETERMINED PAYMENT RATES FOR SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES Specific... allowable costs. (e) Criteria for allowable bad debt. A bad debt must meet the following criteria to be... amount of allowable bad debt (as defined in paragraph (e) of this section) is reduced: (i) For cost...

  14. "Feeling Bad" or "Being Bad?" The Trapping Effect of Effort in Academic Failure in a Confucian Cultural Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fwu, Bih-Jen; Wang, Hsiou-Huai; Chen, Shun-Wen; Wei, Chih-Fen

    2017-01-01

    A predicament faced by students who fail academically in East Asian Confucian societies, such as Taiwan, is being obscured by students' outstanding performances in international academic assessments. This article proposes that there is a trapping effect of effort for these students. They are trapped in a dilemma between "feeling bad"…

  15. 75 FR 65213 - Removal of Varietal Restrictions on Apples From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ...-0020] RIN 0579-AD08 Removal of Varietal Restrictions on Apples From Japan AGENCY: Animal and Plant... the importation of Fuji variety apples from Japan to allow all varieties of Malus domestica apples... that the risk associated with allowing other varieties of M. domestica apples from Japan into the...

  16. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. 319.56-27... § 319.56-27 Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Any variety of Malus domestica apples may be imported into the United States from Japan, and Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United States...

  17. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. 319.56-27... § 319.56-27 Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Any variety of Malus domestica apples may be imported into the United States from Japan, and Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United States...

  18. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. 319.56-27... § 319.56-27 Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Any variety of Malus domestica apples may be imported into the United States from Japan, and Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United States...

  19. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. 319.56-27... § 319.56-27 Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Any variety of Malus domestica apples may be imported into the United States from Japan, and Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United States...

  20. Use of cyclodextrin-based polymer for patulin analysis in apple juice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Penicillium expansum, one of the patulin producing fungi that causes decay on apple, is recognized as the main source of patulin contamination on apple and apple products. The widely used method for patulin analysis in apple juice is liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate followed by HPLC-UV or...

  1. Creating, Storing, and Dumping Low and High Resolution Graphics on the Apple IIe Microcomputer System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Richard K., Jr.

    This description of procedures for dumping high and low resolution graphics using the Apple IIe microcomputer system focuses on two special hardware configurations that are commonly used in schools--the Apple Dot Matrix Printer with the Apple Parallel Interface Card, and the Imagewriter Printer with the Apple Super Serial Interface Card. Special…

  2. Fixed precision sampling plans for white apple leafhopper (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) on apple.

    PubMed

    Beers, Elizabeth H; Jones, Vincent P

    2004-10-01

    Constant precision sampling plans for the white apple leafhopper, Typhlocyba pomaria McAtee, were developed so that it could be used as an indicator species for system stability as new integrated pest management programs without broad-spectrum pesticides are developed. Taylor's power law was used to model the relationship between the mean and the variance, and Green's constant precision sequential sample equation was used to develop sampling plans. Bootstrap simulations of the sampling plans showed greater precision (D = 0.25) than the desired precision (Do = 0.3), particularly at low mean population densities. We found that by adjusting the Do value in Green's equation to 0.4, we were able to reduce the average sample number by 25% and provided an average D = 0.31. The sampling plan described allows T. pomaria to be used as reasonable indicator species of agroecosystem stability in Washington apple orchards.

  3. Apple procyanidins promote mitochondrial biogenesis and proteoglycan biosynthesis in chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Isao; Koike, Masato; Nakashima, Shohei; Mizutani, Yu; Ozawa, Yusuke; Watanabe, Kenji; Sawada, Yoko; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Sugimoto, Atsushi; Nojiri, Hidetoshi; Sashihara, Koichi; Yokote, Koutaro; Shimizu, Takahiko

    2018-05-08

    Apples are well known to have various benefits for the human body. Procyanidins are a class of polyphenols found in apples that have demonstrated effects on the circulatory system and skeletal organs. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a locomotive syndrome that is histologically characterized by cartilage degeneration associated with the impairment of proteoglycan homeostasis in chondrocytes. However, no useful therapy for cartilage degeneration has been developed to date. In the present study, we detected beneficial effects of apple polyphenols or their procyanidins on cartilage homeostasis. An in vitro assay revealed that apple polyphenols increased the activities of mitochondrial dehydrogenases associated with an increased copy number of mitochondrial DNA as well as the gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-α (PGC-1α), suggesting the promotion of PGC-1α-mediated mitochondrial biogenesis. Apple  procyanidins also enhanced proteoglycan biosynthesis with aggrecan upregulation in primary chondrocytes. Of note, oral treatment with apple procyanidins prevented articular cartilage degradation in OA model mice induced by mitochondrial dysfunction in chondrocytes. Our findings suggest that apple procyanidins are promising food components that inhibit OA progression by promoting mitochondrial biogenesis and proteoglycan homeostasis in chondrocytes.

  4. Patulin in apple-based foods: occurrence and safety evaluation.

    PubMed

    Beretta, B; Gaiaschi, A; Galli, C L; Restani, P

    2000-05-01

    Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by certain species of Penicillium and Aspergillus, often detectable in mouldy fruits and their derivatives. On the basis of a PMTDI of 0.4 microgram/kg bw, limit values of 50 micrograms/kg or 50 micrograms/l of patulin have been set in fruit derivatives. To estimate the quantity of patulin that can be taken in with the diet, we analysed by HPLC samples of apples and apple derivatives which are most likely to be contaminated with patulin. In apple juices and in homogenized baby-foods, the mycotoxin concentration was always below the established limits, while in some samples of juice with pulp the mycotoxin content exceeded the safe levels. In rotten apples, not only was the amount of patulin extraordinarily high in the rotten area, but the mycotoxin had also spread to the part unaffected by mould. The data presented in this study indicate that the intake of patulin with apple derivatives is usually below the tolerable level of 0.4 microgram/kg bw/day, but since the patulin content in apples can vary considerably, the quality of fruits used in the production of apple derivatives should be strictly controlled in order not to exceed the safe limits.

  5. Cryobiotechnology of apple (Malus spp.): development, progress and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min-Rui; Chen, Long; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Volk, Gayle M; Wang, Qiao-Chun

    2018-05-01

    Cryopreservation provides valuable genes for further breeding of elite cultivars, and cryotherapy improves the production of virus-free plants in Malus spp., thus assisting the sustainable development of the apple industry. Apple (Malus spp.) is one of the most economically important temperate fruit crops. Wild Malus genetic resources and existing cultivars provide valuable genes for breeding new elite cultivars and rootstocks through traditional and biotechnological breeding programs. These valuable genes include those resistant to abiotic factors such as drought and salinity, and to biotic factors such as fungi, bacteria and aphids. Over the last three decades, great progress has been made in apple cryobiology, making Malus one of the most extensively studied plant genera with respect to cryopreservation. Explants such as pollen, seeds, in vivo dormant buds, and in vitro shoot tips have all been successfully cryopreserved, and large Malus cryobanks have been established. Cryotherapy has been used for virus eradication, to obtain virus-free apple plants. Cryopreservation provided valuable genes for further breeding of elite cultivars, and cryotherapy improved the production of virus-free plants in Malus spp., thus assisting the sustainable development of the apple industry. This review provides updated and comprehensive information on the development and progress of apple cryopreservation and cryotherapy. Future research will reveal new applications and uses for apple cryopreservation and cryotherapy.

  6. Patulin contamination in apple products marketed in Shiraz, Southern Iran.

    PubMed

    Poostforoushfard, Ali; Pishgar, Ahmad R; Berizi, Enayat; Nouraei, Hasti; Sobhani, Zahra; Mirzaie, Rohallah; Zomorodian, Kamiar

    2017-12-01

    Patulin is one of the important mycotoxins, produced by a wide range of molds, including Penicillium , Aspergillus, and Bysochlamys. Patulin is mainly found in the rotten parts of fruits and vegetables, such as apples, pears, peach, apricots, and grapes. Currently, the Codex Alimentarius and Food and Drug Administration have recommended a maximum level of 50 µg/L patulin for apple products. The purpose of this study was to investigate patulin contamination of apple juice and cans in 75 samples collected from 15 manufacturers in Shiraz, southern Iran. The detection of patulin was accomplished using a high-performance liquid chromatography with an ultraviolet detector. A total of 38 apple juice samples (53%) and 17 apple cans (45%) were contaminated with patulin. Overall 50% and 3% of the apple juice and apple cans samples had a patulin level of > 3 µg/L. Although the maximum level of patulin in our samples was considerably lower than the permitted level established by the European Union (i.e., 50 µg/L), the high incidence of this mycotoxin in our samples should be lessen by improving their good manufacturing practice.

  7. Considerations for implementing machine vision for detecting watercore in apples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upchurch, Bruce L.; Throop, James A.

    1993-05-01

    Watercore in apples is a physiological disorder that affects the internal quality of the fruit. Growers can experience serious economic losses due to internal breakdown of the apple if watercored apples are placed unknowingly into long term storage. Economic losses can also occur if watercore is detected and the entire `lot' is downgraded; however, a gain can be obtained if watercored fruit is segregated and marketed as a premium apple soon after harvest. Watercore is characterized by the accumulation of fluid around the vascular bundles replacing air spaces between cells. This fluid reduces the light scattering properties of the apple. Using machine vision to measure the amount of light transmitted through the apple, watercored apples were segregated according to the severity of damage. However, the success of the method was dependent upon two factors. First, the sensitivity of the camera dictated the classes of watercore that could be detected. A highly sensitive camera could separate the less severe classes at the expense of not distinguishing between the more severe classes. A second factor which is common to most quality attributes in perishable commodities is the elapsed time after harvest at which the measurement was made. At the end of the study, light transmission levels decreased to undetectable levels with the initial camera settings for all watercore classes.

  8. Where to prick the apple for skin testing?

    PubMed

    Vlieg-Boerstra, B J; van de Weg, W E; van der Heide, S; Dubois, A E J

    2013-09-01

    Mal d 1 is not equally distributed over the apple. We aimed to examine the influence of the location of pricking in the apple on prick-to-prick skin prick test (PTP) results. PTPs were performed in autumn 2007 and spring 2008, before the birch pollen season, in 32 Dutch adults with symptoms of oral allergy to fresh apple, using apples harvested in autumn 2007. PTPs with fresh intact and unpeeled Pink Lady, Golden Delicious, Elise, Santana and Modi apples were performed using material obtained from approximately 2 cm near the stalk (top), and the middle region. All PTP responses were greater when performed with apple material near the stalk than from the middle region. In 2007, these differences were statistically significant for Pink Lady, Golden Delicious and Elise, and in 2008, for Pink Lady and Modi. When performing PTPs, the apple should be pricked near the stalk rather than in the middle. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Patulin reduction in apple juice from concentrate by UV radiation and comparison of kinetic degradation models between apple juice and apple cider.

    PubMed

    Assatarakul, Kitipong; Churey, John J; Manns, David C; Worobo, Randy W

    2012-04-01

    Patulin, a mycotoxin produced by several genera of fungi, including Byssochlamys, Aspergillus, and Penicillium, has been an important concern in apple cider and apple juice due to its toxicity and health consequences. In this study, the effects of UV on the patulin level, physical and chemical properties, and sensory attributes in apple juice from concentrate were investigated. Kinetic modeling of patulin reduction by UV radiation in apple juice from concentrate was calculated and compared with the degradation rate observed previously in apple cider. From an initial patulin contamination of approximately 1,000 ppb (μg/liter), the UV exposure, ranging from 14.2 mJ/cm(2) (one pass) to 99.4 mJ/cm(2) (seven passes), was successful in reducing patulin levels by 72.57% ± 2.76% to 5.14% ± 0.70%, respectively. Patulin reduction by UV radiation followed first-order kinetic modeling in a fashion similar to first-order microbial inactivation. An exponential correlation between UV exposure and the percentage of patulin remaining was observed, giving an r(2) value of 0.9950. Apple juice was repeatedly exposed to 14.2 mJ/cm(2) for each treatment, and patulin levels were significantly decreased when compared with the level obtained with the previous UV exposure treatment. While there were no significant differences in the percentages of titratable acidity and ascorbic acid (P > 0.05), there were minor yet random sampling differences in pH and degrees Brix (1 °Brix is 1 g of sucrose in 100 g of solution; the °Brix represents the soluble solids content of the solution as percentage by weight [%, wt/wt]) (P ≤ 0.05). A significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) in sensory perception for the finished apple juice was detected between the control and the full seven-pass UV radiation treatment using an experienced consumer panel and a triangle test. Patulin reduction by UV radiation from both the current study and a previous study involving apple cider was compared, which showed that

  10. Mapping of the apple scab-resistance gene Vb.

    PubMed

    Erdin, N; Tartarini, S; Broggini, G A L; Gennari, F; Sansavini, S; Gessler, C; Patocchi, A

    2006-10-01

    Apple scab, caused by the fungus Venturia inaequalis, is the major production constraint in temperate zones with humid springs. Normally, its control relies on frequent and regular fungicide applications. Because this control strategy has come under increasing criticism, major efforts are being directed toward the breeding of scab-resistant apple cultivars. Modern apple breeding programs include the use of molecular markers, making it possible to combine several different scab-resistance genes in 1 apple cultivar (pyramiding) and to speed up the breeding process. The apple scab-resistance gene Vb is derived from the Siberian crab apple 'Hansen's baccata #2', and is 1 of the 6 "historical" major apple scab-resistance genes (Vf, Va, Vr, Vbj, Vm, and Vb). Molecular markers have been published for all these genes, except Vr. In testcross experiments conducted in the 1960s, it was reported that Vb segregated independently from 3 other major resistance genes, including Vf. Recently, however, Vb and Vf have both been mapped on linkage group 1, a result that contrasts with the findings from former testcross experiments. In this study, simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to identify the precise position of Vb in a cross of 'Golden Delicious' (vbvb) and 'Hansen's baccata #2' (Vbvb). A genome scanning approach, a fast method already used to map apple scab-resistance genes Vr2 and Vm, was used, and the Vb locus was identified on linkage group 12, between the SSR markers Hi02d05 and Hi07f01. This finding confirms the independent segregation of Vb from Vf. With the identification of SSR markers linked to Vb, another major apple scab-resistance gene has become available; breeders can use it to develop durable resistant cultivars with several different resistance genes.

  11. Dysregulation of cellular calcium homeostasis in Alzheimer's disease: bad genes and bad habits.

    PubMed

    Mattson, M P; Chan, S L

    2001-10-01

    Calcium is one of the most important intracellular messengers in the brain, being essential for neuronal development, synaptic transmission and plasticity, and the regulation of various metabolic pathways. The findings reviewed in the present article suggest that calcium also plays a prominent role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Associations between the pathological hallmarks ofAD (neurofibrillary tangles [NFT] and amyloid plaques) and perturbed cellular calcium homeostasis have been established in studies of patients, and in animal and cell culture models of AD. Studies of the effects of mutations in the beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilins on neuronal plasticity and survival have provided insight into the molecular cascades that result in synaptic dysfunction and neuronal degeneration in AD. Central to the neurodegenerative process is the inability of neurons to properly regulate intracellular calcium levels. Increased levels of amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) induce oxidative stress, which impairs cellular ion homeostasis and energy metabolism and renders neurons vulnerable to apoptosis and excitotoxicity. Subtoxic levels of Abeta may induce synaptic dysfunction by impairing multiple signal transduction pathways. Presenilin mutations perturb calcium homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum in a way that sensitizes neurons to apoptosis and excitotoxicity; links between aberrant calcium regulation and altered APP processing are emerging. Environmental risk factors for AD are being identified and may include high calorie diets, folic acid insufficiency, and a low level of intellectual activity (bad habits); in each case, the environmental factor impacts on neuronal calcium homeostasis. Low calorie diets and intellectual activity may guard against AD by stimulating production of neurotrophic factors and chaperone proteins. The emerging picture of the cell and molecular biology of AD is revealing novel preventative and therapeutic

  12. The Apple of the mind's eye: Everyday attention, metamemory, and reconstructive memory for the Apple logo.

    PubMed

    Blake, Adam B; Nazarian, Meenely; Castel, Alan D

    2015-01-01

    People are regularly bombarded with logos in an attempt to improve brand recognition, and logos are often designed with the central purpose of memorability. The ubiquitous Apple logo is a simple design and is often referred to as one of the most recognizable logos in the world. The present study examined recall and recognition for this simple and pervasive logo and to what degree metamemory (confidence judgements) match memory performance. Participants showed surprisingly poor memory for the details of the logo as measured through recall (drawings) and forced-choice recognition. Only 1 participant out of 85 correctly recalled the Apple logo, and fewer than half of all participants correctly identified the logo. Importantly, participants indicated higher levels of confidence for both recall and recognition, and this overconfidence was reduced if participants made the judgements after, rather than before, drawing the logo. The general findings did not differ between Apple and PC users. The results provide novel support for theories of attentional saturation, inattentional amnesia, and reconstructive memory; additionally they show how an availability heuristic can lead to overconfidence in memory for logos.

  13. Comparative Analysis of the Antimicrobial Activities of Plant Defensin-Like and Ultrashort Peptides against Food-Spoiling Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kraszewska, Joanna; Beckett, Michael C; James, Tharappel C; Bond, Ursula

    2016-07-15

    Antimicrobial peptides offer potential as novel therapeutics to combat food spoilage and poisoning caused by pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria. Our previous studies identified the peptide human beta-defensin 3 (HBD3) as a potent antimicrobial agent against a wide range of beer-spoiling bacteria. Thus, HBD3 is an excellent candidate for development as an additive to prevent food and beverage spoilage. To expand the repertoire of peptides with antimicrobial activity against bacteria associated with food spoilage and/or food poisoning, we carried out an in silico discovery pipeline to identify peptides with structure and activity similar to those of HBD3, focusing on peptides of plant origin. Using a standardized assay, we compared the antimicrobial activities of nine defensin-like plant peptides to the activity of HBD3. Only two of the peptides, fabatin-2 and Cp-thionin-2, displayed antimicrobial activity; however, the peptides differed from HBD3 in being sensitive to salt and were thermostable. We also compared the activities of several ultrashort peptides to that of HBD3. One of the peptides, the synthetic tetrapeptide O3TR, displayed biphasic antimicrobial activity but had a narrower host range than HBD3. Finally, to determine if the peptides might act in concert to improve antimicrobial activity, we compared the activities of the peptides in pairwise combinations. The plant defensin-like peptides fabatin-2 and Cp-thionin-2 displayed a synergistic effect with HBD3, while O3TR was antagonistic. Thus, some plant defensin-like peptides are effective antimicrobials and may act in concert with HBD3 to control bacteria associated with food spoilage and food poisoning. Food spoilage and food poisoning caused by bacteria can have major health and economic implications for human society. With the rise in resistance to conventional antibiotics, there is a need to identify new antimicrobials to combat these outbreaks in our food supply. Here we screened plant peptide

  14. Redemption of the "spoiled identity:" the role of HIV-positive individuals in HIV care cascade interventions.

    PubMed

    Camlin, Carol S; Charlebois, Edwin D; Geng, Elvin; Semitala, Fred; Wallenta, Jeanna; Getahun, Monica; Kampiire, Leatitia; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Sang, Norton; Kwarisiima, Dalsone; Clark, Tamara D; Petersen, Maya L; Kamya, Moses R; Havlir, Diane V

    2017-12-01

    The concept of "therapeutic citizenship" has drawn attention to ways in which public testimony, the "story-telling in the public sphere" undertaken by people living with HIV (PLHIV), has shaped the global response to the epidemic. This paper presents qualitative findings from two large studies in eastern Africa that reveal how the advent of population-based HIV testing campaigns and efforts to accelerate antiretroviral "treatment for all" has precipitated a rapidly expanding therapeutic citizenship "project," or social movement. The title of this paper refers to Goffman's original conceptualization of stigma as a social process through which a person's identity is rendered "spoiled." Data were derived from qualitative studies embedded within two clinical trials, Sustainable East African Research in Community Health (SEARCH) (NCT# 01864603) in Kenya and Uganda, and START-ART (NCT# 01810289) in Uganda, which aimed to offer insights into the pathways through which outcomes across the HIV care continuum can be achieved by interventions deployed in the studies, any unanticipated consequences, and factors that influenced implementation. Qualitative in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted among cohorts of adults in 2014 through 2015; across both studies and time periods, 217 interviews were conducted with 166 individuals. Theoretically informed, team-based analytic approaches were used for the analyses. Narratives from PLHIV, who have not always been conceptualized as actors but rather usually as targets of HIV interventions, revealed strongly emergent themes related to these individuals' use of HIV biomedical resources and discourses to fashion a new, empowered subjecthood. Experiencing the benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART) emboldens many individuals to transform their "spoiled" identities to attain new, valorized identities as "advocates for ART" in their communities. We propose that the personal revelation of what some refer to as the "gospel of ARVs

  15. From source to sink: Rare-earth elements trace the legacy of sulfuric dredge spoils on estuarine sediments.

    PubMed

    Xu, Nian; Morgan, Bree; Rate, Andrew W

    2018-05-17

    Land disposal of dredged sulfide-rich coastal sediments generates secondary coastal acid sulfate soils (CASS), as previously reduced sulfide minerals oxidise to produce acidic drainage rich in Fe, SO 4 2- and rare-earth elements (REEs). Few studies investigate both the source and the sink of REEs in the context of interpreting their mobilisation and potential use in tracing anthropogenic activity. Here we investigate REE signatures in estuarine sediments (and overlying surface waters) that have received acute, long-term (>15 years) acidic drainage from legacy sulfuric dredge spoils. It was found that the dredge spoil continues to act as a source of acidity (pH 3.5-5.5), Fe and REEs during development of CASS, and contains negligible acid volatile sulfide (AVS, a proxy for FeS) and relatively low concentrations of ΣREE (mean 44.5 mg/kg, range 4.1-362 mg/kg). In the receiving sediments, high AVS concentrations (mean 92.2 μmol/g, range 0.38-278 μmol/g) reflect elevated FeS content, likely due to high inputs of Fe and SO 4 2- from the acidic drainage, and correspond with a high concentration of total S (mean 852 μmol/g, range 105-2209 μmol/g) and an accumulation of ΣREE (mean 670 mg/kg, range 19.9-1819 mg/kg). Importantly, where drain sediments that were previously enriched in highly reactive sulfidic minerals and trace elements and have become exposed to the atmosphere (e.g. Site 3) and partially oxidised, they provide a further source of acidification, remobilising the REEs to the downstream sediments. Interestingly, we also found a clear positive correlation between phosphorous and REEs both in the dredge spoil and sediment, suggesting phosphate minerals may act as a sink for REEs in CASS influenced drain sediments. This is further supported by strong positive gadolinium anomalies (1.1-1.6) and high calculated anthropogenic Gd values (12-38%), which may reflect the influence of phosphate fertiliser on this eutrophic system. Copyright

  16. A scoping research literature review to assess the state of existing evidence on the "bad" death.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Donna M; Hewitt, Jessica A

    2018-02-01

    A scoping research literature review on "bad death" was undertaken to assess the overall state of the science on this topic and to determine what evidence exists on how often bad deaths occur, what contributes to or causes a bad death, and what the outcomes and consequences of bad deaths are. A search for English-language research articles was conducted in late 2016, with 25 articles identified and all retained for examination, as is expected with scoping reviews. Only 3 of the 25 articles provided incidence information, specifying that 7.8 to 23% of deaths were bad and that bad deaths were more likely to occur in hospitals than in community-care settings. Many different factors were associated with bad deaths, with unrelieved pain being the most commonly identified. Half of the studies provided information on the possible consequences or outcomes of bad deaths, such as palliative care not being initiated, interpersonal and team conflict, and long-lasting negative community effects. This review identified a relatively small number of research articles that focused in whole or in part on bad deaths. Although the reasons why people consider a death to be bad may be highly individualized and yet also socioculturally based, unrelieved pain is a commonly held reason for bad deaths. Although bad and good deaths may have some opposing causative factors, this literature review revealed some salient bad death attributes, ones that could be avoided to prevent bad deaths from occurring. A routine assessment to allow planning so as to avoid bad deaths and enhance the probability of good deaths is suggested.

  17. BCL-2 family protein, BAD is down-regulated in breast cancer and inhibits cell invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Cekanova, Maria, E-mail: mcekanov@utk.edu; Fernando, Romaine I.; Siriwardhana, Nalin

    We have previously demonstrated that the anti-apoptotic protein BAD is expressed in normal human breast tissue and shown that BAD inhibits expression of cyclin D1 to delay cell-cycle progression in breast cancer cells. Herein, expression of proteins in breast tissues was studied by immunohistochemistry and results were analyzed statistically to obtain semi-quantitative data. Biochemical and functional changes in BAD-overexpressing MCF7 breast cancer cells were evaluated using PCR, reporter assays, western blotting, ELISA and extracellular matrix invasion assays. Compared to normal tissues, Grade II breast cancers expressed low total/phosphorylated forms of BAD in both cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments. BAD overexpression decreasedmore » the expression of β-catenin, Sp1, and phosphorylation of STATs. BAD inhibited Ras/MEK/ERK and JNK signaling pathways, without affecting the p38 signaling pathway. Expression of the metastasis-related proteins, MMP10, VEGF, SNAIL, CXCR4, E-cadherin and TlMP2 was regulated by BAD with concomitant inhibition of extracellular matrix invasion. Inhibition of BAD by siRNA increased invasion and Akt/p-Akt levels. Clinical data and the results herein suggest that in addition to the effect on apoptosis, BAD conveys anti-metastatic effects and is a valuable prognostic marker in breast cancer. - Highlights: • BAD and p-BAD expressions are decreased in breast cancer compared with normal breast tissue. • BAD impedes breast cancer invasion and migration. • BAD inhibits the EMT and transcription factors that promote cancer cell migration. • Invasion and migration functions of BAD are distinct from the BAD's role in apoptosis.« less

  18. Polyribosomes from Aging Apple and Cherry Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Drouet, Alain; Nivet, Claude; Hartmann, Claude

    1983-01-01

    The sequence of events which occurs during the ripening of the Passe-Crassane pear fruit have been previously studied. In this work, we have investigated the ripening of another climacteric fruit (Pyrus malus L. cv Golden Delicious) and of a nonclimacteric fruit (Prunus avium L. cv Bigarreau Napoléon). We show that both climacteric fruits exhibit the same preclimacteric sequence of events. Differences exist, however, between the Golden Delicious apple and the Passe-Crassane pear in that the protein synthesis capacity of the two fruits is not the same during the over-ripening period. On the other hand, a nonclimacteric fruit, the Bigarreau Napoléon cherry, does not show an increase in its protein synthesis capacity during the over-ripening period. PMID:16663295

  19. Ethylene binding site affinity in ripening apples

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenship, S.M.; Sisler, E.C.

    1993-09-01

    Scatchard plots for ethylene binding in apples (Malus domestica Borkh.), which were harvested weekly for 5 weeks to include the ethylene climacteric rise, showed C[sub 50] values (concentration of ethylene needed to occupy 50% of the ethylene binding sites) of 0.10, 0.11, 0.34, 0.40, and 0.57 [mu]l ethylene/liter[sup [minus]1], respectively, for each of the 5 weeks. Higher ethylene concentrations were required to saturate the binding sites during the climacteric rise than at other times. Diffusion of [sup 14]C-ethylene from the binding sites was curvilinear and did not show any indication of multiple binding sites. Ethylene was not metabolized by applemore » tissue.« less

  20. In situ production of human β defensin-3 in lager yeasts provides bactericidal activity against beer-spoiling bacteria under fermentation conditions.

    PubMed

    James, T C; Gallagher, L; Titze, J; Bourke, P; Kavanagh, J; Arendt, E; Bond, U

    2014-02-01

    To examine the use of a natural antimicrobial peptide, human β-defensin-3 (HBD3), as a means of preventing spoilage from bacterial contamination in brewery fermentations and in bottled beer. A chemically synthesised HBD3 peptide was tested for bactericidal activity against common Gram-positive and Gram-negative beer-spoiling bacteria, including species of Lactobacillus, Pediococcus and Pectinatus. The peptide was effective at the μmol l(-1) range in vitro, reducing bacterial counts by 95%. A gene construct encoding a secretable form of HBD3 was integrated into the genome of the lager yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus strain CMBS-33. The integrated gene was expressed under fermentation conditions and was secreted from the cell into the medium, but a significant amount remains associated with yeast cell surface. We demonstrate that under pilot-scale fermentation conditions, secreted HBD3 possesses bactericidal activity against beer-spoiling bacteria. Furthermore, when added to bottled beer, a synthetic form of HBD3 reduces the growth of beer-spoiling bacteria. Defensins provide prophylactic protection against beer-spoiling bacteria under brewing conditions and also in bottled beer. The results have direct application to the brewing industry where beer spoilage due to bacterial contamination continues to be a major problem in breweries around the world. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Intake of whole apples or clear apple juice has contrasting effects on plasma lipids in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Dragsted, Lars O; Buch-Andersen, Tine; Jensen, Eva N; Jensen, Runa I; Németh-Balogh, Mária; Paulovicsová, Brigita; Bergström, Anders; Wilcks, Andrea; Licht, Tine R; Markowski, Jarosław; Bügel, Susanne

    2013-12-01

    Fruit consumption is associated with a decreased risk of CVD in cohort studies and is therefore endorsed by health authorities as part of the '5 or more a day' campaigns. A glass of fruit juice is generally counted as one serving. Fruit may cause protection by affecting common risk factors of CVD. Apples are among the most commonly consumed fruits and were chosen for a comprehensive 5 × 4 weeks dietary crossover study to assess the effects of whole apples (550 g/day), apple pomace (22 g/day), clear and cloudy apple juices (500 ml/day), or no supplement on lipoproteins and blood pressure in a group of 23 healthy volunteers. The intervention significantly affected serum total and LDL-cholesterol. Trends towards a lower serum LDL-concentration were observed after whole apple (6.7%), pomace (7.9%) and cloudy juice (2.2%) intake. On the other hand, LDL-cholesterol concentrations increased by 6.9% with clear juice compared to whole apples and pomace. There was no effect on HDL-cholesterol, TAG, weight, waist-to-hip ratio, blood pressure, inflammation (hs-CRP), composition of the gut microbiota or markers of glucose metabolism (insulin, IGF1 and IGFBP3). Apples are rich in polyphenols and pectin, two potentially bioactive constituents; however, these constituents segregate differently during processing into juice products and clear juice is free of pectin and other cell wall components. We conclude that the fibre component is necessary for the cholesterol-lowering effect of apples in healthy humans and that clear apple juice may not be a suitable surrogate for the whole fruit in nutritional recommendations.

  2. Loss of Bad expression confers poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi; Liu, Dan; Chen, Bojiang; Zeng, Jing; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Shangfu; Mo, Xianming; Li, Weimin

    2012-09-01

    Proapoptotic BH-3-only protein Bad (Bcl-Xl/Bcl-2-associated death promoter homolog, Bad) initiates apoptosis in human cells, and contributes to tumorigenesis and chemotherapy resistant in malignancies. This study explored association between the Bad expression level and prognosis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In our study, a cohort of 88 resected primary NSCLC cases were collected and analyzed. Bad expression level was determined via immunohistochemical staining assay. The prognostic significances of Bad expression were evaluated with univariate and multivariate survival analysis. The results showed that compared with normal lung tissues, Bad expression level significantly decreased in NSCLC (P < 0.05). Bad expression was associated with adjuvant therapy status. Loss of Bad independently predicted poor prognosis in whole NSCLC cohort and early stage subjects (T1 + T2 and N0 + N1) (all P < 0.05). Overall survival time was also drastically shortened for Bad negative phenotype in NSCLC patients with smoking history, especially lung squamous cell carcinoma (all P < 0.05). In conclusion, this study provided clinical evidence that loss of Bad is an independent and powerful predictor of adverse prognosis in NSCLC. Bad protein could be a new biomarker for selecting individual therapy strategies and predicting therapeutic response in subjects with NSCLC.

  3. Spare the rod and spoil the child. Is this a sensible justification for the use of punishment in child rearing?

    PubMed

    Carey, T A

    1994-12-01

    This paper examines the validity of the well-used proverb Spare the rod and spoil the child. To do this, the original form of the proverb from the Bible is compared with the modern form, and some significant differences are highlighted. The definition of punishment is considered, and the differences between punishment and corporal punishment are examined. Punishment is explored in some detail with attention given to the criteria that need to be satisfied in order for punishment to be effective. Discrepancies in the literature concerning these criteria are pointed out, making punishment a complex issue. The negative effects of punishment are significant with links to social problems such as teenage delinquency and violence. Reference is made to cultures where corporal punishment has been banned and the effects of this action. Given the problems associated with punishment programs, especially those being used in families, alternatives to punishment are discussed. Finally, an alternative form of the proverb to the current adaptation is offered.

  4. [3D FSPGR (fast spoiled gradient echo) magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of focal cortical dysplasia in children].

    PubMed

    Alikhanov, A A; Sinitsyn, V E; Perepelova, E M; Mukhin, K Iu; Demushkina, A A; Omarova, M O; Piliia, S V

    2001-01-01

    Small dysplastic lesions of the cerebral cortex are often missed by conventional MRI methods. The identification of subtle structural abnormalities by traditional multiplanar rectilinear slices is often limited by the complex convolutional pattern of the brain. We used a method of FSPGR (fast spoiled gradient-echo) of three-dimensional MRI data that improves the anatomical display of the sulcal structure of the hemispheric convexities. It also reduces the asymmetric sampling of gray-white matter that may lead to false-positive results. We present 5 from 12 patients with dysplastic cortical lesions in whom conventional two-dimensional and three-dimensional MRI with multiplanar reformatting was initially considered normal. Subsequent studies using 3D FSPGR identified various types of focal cortical dysplasia in all. These results indicate that an increase in the detection of subtle focal dysplastic lesions may be accomplished when one improves the anatomical display of the brain sulcal structure by performing 3D FSPGR.

  5. Human development of the ability to learn from bad news.

    PubMed

    Moutsiana, Christina; Garrett, Neil; Clarke, Richard C; Lotto, R Beau; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Sharot, Tali

    2013-10-08

    Humans show a natural tendency to discount bad news while incorporating good news into beliefs (the "good news-bad news effect"), an effect that may help explain seemingly irrational risk taking. Understanding how this bias develops with age is important because adolescents are prone to engage in risky behavior; thus, educating them about danger is crucial. We reveal a striking valence-dependent asymmetry in how belief updating develops with age. In the ages tested (9-26 y), younger age was associated with inaccurate updating of beliefs in response to undesirable information regarding vulnerability. In contrast, the ability to update beliefs accurately in response to desirable information remained relatively stable with age. This asymmetry was mediated by adequate computational use of positive but not negative estimation errors to alter beliefs. The results are important for understanding how belief formation develops and might help explain why adolescents do not respond adequately to warnings.

  6. Human development of the ability to learn from bad news

    PubMed Central

    Moutsiana, Christina; Garrett, Neil; Clarke, Richard C.; Lotto, R. Beau; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Sharot, Tali

    2013-01-01

    Humans show a natural tendency to discount bad news while incorporating good news into beliefs (the “good news–bad news effect”), an effect that may help explain seemingly irrational risk taking. Understanding how this bias develops with age is important because adolescents are prone to engage in risky behavior; thus, educating them about danger is crucial. We reveal a striking valence-dependent asymmetry in how belief updating develops with age. In the ages tested (9–26 y), younger age was associated with inaccurate updating of beliefs in response to undesirable information regarding vulnerability. In contrast, the ability to update beliefs accurately in response to desirable information remained relatively stable with age. This asymmetry was mediated by adequate computational use of positive but not negative estimation errors to alter beliefs. The results are important for understanding how belief formation develops and might help explain why adolescents do not respond adequately to warnings. PMID:24019466

  7. Breaking BAD: A Data Serving Vision for Big Active Data

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Michael J.; Jacobs, Steven; Tsotras, Vassilis J.

    2017-01-01

    Virtually all of today’s Big Data systems are passive in nature. Here we describe a project to shift Big Data platforms from passive to active. We detail a vision for a scalable system that can continuously and reliably capture Big Data to enable timely and automatic delivery of new information to a large pool of interested users as well as supporting analyses of historical information. We are currently building a Big Active Data (BAD) system by extending an existing scalable open-source BDMS (AsterixDB) in this active direction. This first paper zooms in on the Data Serving piece of the BAD puzzle, including its key concepts and user model. PMID:29034377

  8. Repeatability of Non–Contrast-Enhanced Lower-Extremity Angiography Using the Flow-Spoiled Fresh Blood Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuyang; Xing, Zhen; She, Dejun; Huang, Nan; Cao, Dairong

    2018-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the repeatability of non–contrast-enhanced lower-extremity magnetic resonance angiography using the flow-spoiled fresh blood imaging (FS-FBI). Methods Forty-three healthy volunteers and 15 patients with lower-extremity arterial stenosis were recruited in this study and were examined by FS-FBI. Digital subtraction angiography was performed within a week after the FS-FBI in the patient group. Repeatability was assessed by the following parameters: grading of image quality, diameter and area of major arteries, and grading of stenosis of lower-extremity arteries. Two experienced radiologists blinded for patient data independently evaluated the FS-FBI and digital subtraction angiography images. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), sensitivity, and specificity were used for statistical analysis. Results The grading of image quality of most data was satisfactory. The ICCs for the first and second measures were 0.792 and 0.884 in the femoral segment and 0.803 and 0.796 in the tibiofibular segment for healthy volunteer group, 0.873 and 1.000 in the femoral segment, and 0.737 and 0.737 in the tibiofibular segment for the patient group. Intraobserver and interobserver agreements on diameter and area of arteries were excellent, with ICCs mostly greater than 0.75 in the volunteer group. For stenosis grading analysis, intraobserver ICCs range from 0.784 to 0.862 and from 0.778 to 0.854, respectively. Flow-spoiled fresh blood imaging yielded a mean sensitivity and specificity to detect arterial stenosis or occlusion of 90% and 80% for femoral segment and 86.7% and 93.3% for tibiofibular segment at least. Conclusions Lower-extremity angiography with FS-FBI is a reliable and reproducible screening tool for lower-extremity atherosclerotic disease, especially for patients with impaired renal function. PMID:28787351

  9. Repeatability of Non-Contrast-Enhanced Lower-Extremity Angiography Using the Flow-Spoiled Fresh Blood Imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuyang; Xing, Zhen; She, Dejun; Huang, Nan; Cao, Dairong

    The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the repeatability of non-contrast-enhanced lower-extremity magnetic resonance angiography using the flow-spoiled fresh blood imaging (FS-FBI). Forty-three healthy volunteers and 15 patients with lower-extremity arterial stenosis were recruited in this study and were examined by FS-FBI. Digital subtraction angiography was performed within a week after the FS-FBI in the patient group. Repeatability was assessed by the following parameters: grading of image quality, diameter and area of major arteries, and grading of stenosis of lower-extremity arteries. Two experienced radiologists blinded for patient data independently evaluated the FS-FBI and digital subtraction angiography images. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), sensitivity, and specificity were used for statistical analysis. The grading of image quality of most data was satisfactory. The ICCs for the first and second measures were 0.792 and 0.884 in the femoral segment and 0.803 and 0.796 in the tibiofibular segment for healthy volunteer group, 0.873 and 1.000 in the femoral segment, and 0.737 and 0.737 in the tibiofibular segment for the patient group. Intraobserver and interobserver agreements on diameter and area of arteries were excellent, with ICCs mostly greater than 0.75 in the volunteer group. For stenosis grading analysis, intraobserver ICCs range from 0.784 to 0.862 and from 0.778 to 0.854, respectively. Flow-spoiled fresh blood imaging yielded a mean sensitivity and specificity to detect arterial stenosis or occlusion of 90% and 80% for femoral segment and 86.7% and 93.3% for tibiofibular segment at least. Lower-extremity angiography with FS-FBI is a reliable and reproducible screening tool for lower-extremity atherosclerotic disease, especially for patients with impaired renal function.

  10. "You've Got to Know Your Apples."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dettre, Judith

    1980-01-01

    Presented is a satire on employee training, retraining, efficiency experts, consultants, team training, peer teaching, and behavioral objectives--based on the training of apple sorters at the Fantabalous Fruit Farm. (KC)

  11. Studying apple bruise using a finite element method analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascoal-Faria, P.; Alves, N.

    2017-07-01

    Apple bruise damage from harvesting, handling, transporting and sorting is considered to be the major source of reduced fruit quality, resulting in a loss of profits for the entire fruit industry. Bruising is defined as damage and discoloration of fruit flesh, usually with no breach of the skin. The three factors which can physically cause fruit bruising are vibration, compression load and impact. The last one is the main source of bruise damage. Therefore, prediction of the level of damage, stress distribution and deformation of the fruits under external force has become a very important task. To address these problems a finite element analysis has been developed for studying Portuguese Royal Gala apple bruise. The results obtained will be suitable to apple distributors and sellers and will allow a reduction of the impact caused by bruise damage in apple annual production.

  12. Apple Can Act as Anti-Aging on Yeast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Palermo, Vanessa; Mattivi, Fulvio; Silvestri, Romano; La Regina, Giuseppe; Falcone, Claudio; Mazzoni, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, epidemiological and biochemical studies have shown that eating apples is associated with reduction of occurrence of cancer, degenerative, and cardiovascular diseases. This association is often attributed to the presence of antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and polyphenols. The substances that hinder the presence of free radicals are also able to protect cells from aging. In our laboratory we used yeast, a unicellular eukaryotic organism, to determine in vivo efficacy of entire apples and their components, such as flesh, skin and polyphenolic fraction, to influence aging and oxidative stress. Our results indicate that all the apple components increase lifespan, with the best result given by the whole fruit, indicating a cooperative role of all apple components. PMID:22970337

  13. How to Plant Apple Trees to Reduce Replant Disease in Apple Orchard: A Study on the Phenolic Acid of the Replanted Apple Orchard

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Chengmiao; Xiang, Li; Wang, Gongshuai; Wang, Yanfang; Shen, Xiang; Chen, Xuesen; Mao, Zhiquan

    2016-01-01

    Apple replant disease (ARD) is an important problem in the production of apple. The phenolic acid is one of the causes of ARD. How phenolic acid affects the ARD was not well known. In this study, we analyzed the type, concentration and annual dynamic variation of phenolic acid in soil from three replanted apple orchards using an accelerated solvent extraction system with high performance liquid chromatography (ASE-HPLC). We found that the type and concentration of phenolic acid were significantly differed among different seasons, different sampling positions and different soil layers. Major types of phenolic acid in three replanted apple orchards were phlorizin, benzoic acid and vanillic aldehyde. The concentration of phenolic acid was highest in the soil of the previous tree holes and it was increased from the spring to autumn. Moreover, phenolic acid was primarily distributed in 30–60 cm soil layer in the autumn, while it was most abundant in 0–30 cm soil layer in the spring. Our results suggest that phlorizin, benzoic acid and vanillic aldehyde may be the key phenolic acid that brought about ARD in the replanted apple orchard. PMID:27907081

  14. 26 CFR 1.166-4 - Reserve for bad debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) The volume of his charge sales or other business transactions for the taxable year and the percentage... business development corporations, see §§ 1.586-1 and 1.586-2. (3) For special rules for the addition to... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reserve for bad debts. 1.166-4 Section 1.166-4...

  15. Apple juice inhibits human low density lipoprotein oxidation.

    PubMed

    Pearson, D A; Tan, C H; German, J B; Davis, P A; Gershwin, M E

    1999-01-01

    Dietary phenolic compounds, ubiquitous in vegetables and fruits and their juices possess antioxidant activity that may have beneficial effects on human health. The phenolic composition of six commercial apple juices, and of the peel (RP), flesh (RF) and whole fresh Red Delicious apples (RW), was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and total phenols were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. HPLC analysis identified and quantified several classes of phenolic compounds: cinnamates, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols and flavonols. Phloridzin and hydroxy methyl furfural were also identified. The profile of phenolic compounds varied among the juices. The range of concentrations as a percentage of total phenolic concentration was: hydroxy methyl furfural, 4-30%; phloridzin, 22-36%; cinnamates, 25-36%; anthocyanins, n.d.; flavan-3-ols, 8-27%; flavonols, 2-10%. The phenolic profile of the Red Delicious apple extracts differed from those of the juices. The range of concentrations of phenolic classes in fresh apple extracts was: hydroxy methyl furfural, n.d.; phloridzin, 11-17%; cinnamates, 3-27%; anthocyanins, n.d.-42%; flavan-3-ols, 31-54%; flavonols, 1-10%. The ability of compounds in apple juices and extracts from fresh apple to protect LDL was assessed using an in vitro copper catalyzed human LDL oxidation system. The extent of LDL oxidation was determined as hexanal production using static headspace gas chromatography. The apple juices and extracts, tested at 5 microM gallic acid equivalents (GAE), all inhibited LDL oxidation. The inhibition by the juices ranged from 9 to 34%, and inhibition by RF, RW and RP was 21, 34 and 38%, respectively. Regression analyses revealed no significant correlation between antioxidant activity and either total phenolic concentration or any specific class of phenolics. Although the specific components in the apple juices and extracts that contributed to antioxidant activity have yet to be identified, this study

  16. Biochemical and biophysical investigations of the interaction between human glucokinase and pro-apoptotic BAD.

    PubMed

    Rexford, Alix; Zorio, Diego A R; Miller, Brian G

    2017-01-01

    The glycolytic enzyme glucokinase (GCK) and the pro-apoptotic protein BAD reportedly reside within a five-membered complex that localizes to the mitochondria of mammalian hepatocytes and pancreatic β-cells. Photochemical crosslinking studies using a synthetic analog of BAD's BH3 domain and in vitro transcription/translation experiments support a direct interaction between BAD and GCK. To investigate the biochemical and biophysical consequences of the BAD:GCK interaction, we developed a method for the production of recombinant human BAD. Consistent with published reports, recombinant BAD displays high affinity for Bcl-xL (KD = 7 nM), and phosphorylation of BAD at S118, within the BH3 domain, abolishes this interaction. Unexpectedly, we do not detect association of recombinant, full-length BAD with recombinant human pancreatic GCK over a range of protein concentrations using various biochemical methods including size-exclusion chromatography, chemical cross-linking, analytical ultracentrifugation, and isothermal titration calorimetry. Furthermore, fluorescence polarization assays and isothermal titration calorimetry detect no direct interaction between GCK and BAD BH3 peptides. Kinetic characterization of GCK in the presence of high concentrations of recombinant BAD show modest (<15%) increases in GCK activity, observable only at glucose concentrations well below the K0.5 value. GCK activity is unaffected by BAD BH3 peptides. These results raise questions as to the mechanism of action of stapled peptide analogs modeled after the BAD BH3 domain, which reportedly enhance the Vmax value of GCK and stimulate insulin release in BAD-deficient islets. Based on our results, we postulate that the BAD:GCK interaction, and any resultant regulatory effect(s) upon GCK activity, requires the participation of additional members of the mitochondrial complex.

  17. Potential sources of microbial contamination in unpasteurized apple cider.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Luis; Henderson, John; Fabri, Martha; Oke, Moustapha

    2006-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify possible sources of microbial contamination and to assess the effect of good cleaning and sanitation practices on the microbial quality and safety of unpasteurized apple cider. Raw unwashed apples, washed apples, cleaning water, fresh cider, and finished cider samples were collected from five Ontario producers over 4 months and microbiologically tested. Total coliforms were found in 31, 71 and 38% of the unwashed apple, water, and washed apple samples, respectively. Escherichia coli was found in 40% of the water samples from one producer alone. The washing step was identified as a potential source of contamination, possibly due to water in the dump tanks seldom being refreshed, and because scrubbers, spray nozzles, and conveyors were not properly cleaned and sanitized. Higher total coliform counts (P < 0.0001) and prevalence (P < 0.0001) in fresh cider compared with those in unwashed apples and washed apples indicated considerable microbial buildup along the process, possibly explained by the lack of appropriate equipment sanitation procedures. Results showed that producers who had better sanitary practices in place had lower (P < 0.001) total coliform prevalence than the rest of the producers. Overall results show that good sanitation procedures are associated with improved microbial quality of fresh cider in terms of total coliforms and that operators who pasteurize and/or UV treat their product should still be required to have a sound good manufacturing practices program in place to prevent recontamination. Cryptosporidium parvum, an important pathogen for this industry, was found in different sample types, including washed apples, water, and fresh and finished cider.

  18. Investigation of Apple Jelly Contaminant in Military Jet Fuel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-03-01

    Page 10.2.4FT-IR Properties of Sodium Polyacrylate ..................................................... 134 10.2.5Effect of SDA on Thick Apple Jelly...Acidified Synthetic Apple Jelly JAW1-56-1 ......... 133 64. FT-IR Spectrum of Sodium Polyacrylate ...135 65. FT-IR Spectrum of Sodium Polyacrylate (1450 to 1760 cm-1) ............................... 135 66. FT-IR Spectra of SDA, Thick

  19. Breaking bad news: patients' preferences and health locus of control.

    PubMed

    Martins, Raquel Gomes; Carvalho, Irene Palmares

    2013-07-01

    To identify patients' preferences for models of communicating bad news and to explore how such preferences, and the reasons for the preferences, relate with personality characteristics, specifically patients' health locus of control (HLC): internal/external and 'powerful others' (PO). Seventy-two patients from an oncology clinic watched videotaped scenarios of a breaking bad news moment, selected the model they preferred, filled an HLC scale and were interviewed about their choices. Data were analyzed with Chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Interviews were content-analyzed. 77.8% preferred an "empathic professional", 12.5% a "distanced expert" and 9.7% an "emotionally burdened expert". Preferences varied significantly with HLC scores (patients with higher internal locus of control (ILC) and lower PO preferred the empathic model), presence of cancer, age and education. Patients explained their preferences through aspects of Caring, Professionalism, Wording, Time and Hope. ILC registered significant differences in regards to Wording and Time, whereas PO was associated with Hope and Time. HLC is an important dimension that can help doctors to better know their patients. Knowing whether patients attribute their health to their own behaviors or to chance/others can help tailor the disclosure of bad news to their specific preferences. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hollywood Science: Good for Hollywood, Bad for Science?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkowitz, Sidney

    2009-03-01

    Like it or not, most science depicted in feature films is in the form of science fiction. This isn't likely to change any time soon, if only because science fiction films are huge moneymakers for Hollywood. But beyond that, these films are a powerful cultural force. They reach millions as they depict scientific ideas from DNA and cloning to space science, whether correctly or incorrectly; reflect contemporary issues of science and society like climate change, nuclear power and biowarfare; inspire young people to become scientists; and provide defining images -- or stereotypes -- of scientists for the majority of people who've never met a real one. Certainly, most scientists feel that screen depictions of science and scientists are badly distorted. Many are, but not always. In this talk, based on my book Hollywood Science [1], I'll show examples of good and bad screen treatments of science, scientists, and their impact on society. I'll also discuss efforts to improve how science is treated in film and ways to use even bad movie science to convey real science. [4pt] [1] Sidney Perkowitz, Hollywood Science: Movies, Science, and the End of the World (Columbia University Press, New York, 2007). ISBN: 978-0231142809