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Sample records for bahan sel surya

  1. Recent SEL experiments and studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pajerski, Rose; Smith, Donald

    1993-01-01

    The studies discussed in this paper are all examples of activities that are performed as part of the Software Engineering Laboratory's (SEL's) process improvement model. Using this model, the SEL starts by understanding the product and process, then assesses the impact of new technologies, and finally packages what was learned. The preliminary examination of maintenance effort, error, and change profiles to establish a maintenance baseline exemplifies understanding-phase activities. The ongoing testing study that is examining the effects of various testing approaches on process and product measures is an example of typical assessing efforts. Finally, the derivation of cost and schedule estimation models from locally driven factors such as reuse level, application type, and language is an example of experience packaging. In the SEL, no study is ever really completed. Studies will be repeated and iterated upon in the future as part of the ongoing software improvement process.

  2. SEL's Software Process-Improvement Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, Victor; Zelkowitz, Marvin; McGarry, Frank; Page, Jerry; Waligora, Sharon; Pajerski, Rose

    1995-01-01

    The goals and operations of the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) is reviewed. For nearly 20 years the SEL has worked to understand, assess, and improve software and the development process within the production environment of the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The SEL was established in 1976 with the goals of reducing: (1) the defect rate of delivered software, (2) the cost of software to support flight projects, and (3) the average time to produce mission-support software. After studying over 125 projects of FDD, the results have guided the standards, management practices, technologies, and the training within the division. The results of the studies have been a 75 percent reduction in defects, a 50 percent reduction in cost, and a 25 percent reduction in development time. Over time the goals of SEL have been clarified. The goals are now stated as: (1) Understand baseline processes and product characteristics, (2) Assess improvements that have been incorporated into the development projects, (3) Package and infuse improvements into the standard SEL process. The SEL improvement goal is to demonstrate continual improvement of the software process by carrying out analysis, measurement and feedback to projects with in the FDD environment. The SEL supports the understanding of the process by study of several processes including, the effort distribution, and error detection rates. The SEL assesses and refines the processes. Once the assessment and refinement of a process is completed, the SEL packages the process by capturing the process in standards, tools and training.

  3. Data collection procedures for the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heller, Gerard; Valett, Jon; Wild, Mary

    1992-01-01

    This document is a guidebook to collecting software engineering data on software development and maintenance efforts, as practiced in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL). It supersedes the document entitled Data Collection Procedures for the Rehosted SEL Database, number SEL-87-008 in the SEL series, which was published in October 1987. It presents procedures to be followed on software development and maintenance projects in the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) of Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for collecting data in support of SEL software engineering research activities. These procedures include detailed instructions for the completion and submission of SEL data collection forms.

  4. Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) cleanroom process model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Scott; Basili, Victor; Godfrey, Sally; Mcgarry, Frank; Pajerski, Rose; Waligora, Sharon

    1991-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) cleanroom process model is described. The term 'cleanroom' originates in the integrated circuit (IC) production process, where IC's are assembled in dust free 'clean rooms' to prevent the destructive effects of dust. When applying the clean room methodology to the development of software systems, the primary focus is on software defect prevention rather than defect removal. The model is based on data and analysis from previous cleanroom efforts within the SEL and is tailored to serve as a guideline in applying the methodology to future production software efforts. The phases that are part of the process model life cycle from the delivery of requirements to the start of acceptance testing are described. For each defined phase, a set of specific activities is discussed, and the appropriate data flow is described. Pertinent managerial issues, key similarities and differences between the SEL's cleanroom process model and the standard development approach used on SEL projects, and significant lessons learned from prior cleanroom projects are presented. It is intended that the process model described here will be further tailored as additional SEL cleanroom projects are analyzed.

  5. Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) database organization and user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    So, Maria; Heller, Gerard; Steinberg, Sandra; Spiegel, Douglas

    1989-01-01

    The organization of the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) database is presented. Included are definitions and detailed descriptions of the database tables and views, the SEL data, and system support data. The mapping from the SEL and system support data to the base tables is described. In addition, techniques for accessing the database, through the Database Access Manager for the SEL (DAMSEL) system and via the ORACLE structured query language (SQL), are discussed.

  6. Studies and experiments in the Software Engineering Lab (SEL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgarry, F. E.; Card, D. N.

    1985-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) is an organization created nearly 10 years ago for the purpose of identifying, measuring and applying quality software engineering techniques in a production environment. The members of the SEL include NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC, the sponsor and organizer), University of Maryland, and Computer Sciences Corporation. Since its inception the SEL has conducted numerous experiments, and has evaluated a wide range of software technologies. This paper describes several of the more recent experiments as well as some of the general conclusions to which the SEL has arrived.

  7. Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) relationships, models, and management rules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, William; Hendrick, Robert; Valett, Jon D.

    1991-01-01

    Over 50 individual Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) research results, extracted from a review of published SEL documentation, that can be applied directly to managing software development projects are captured. Four basic categories of results are defined and discussed - environment profiles, relationships, models, and management rules. In each category, research results are presented as a single page that summarizes the individual result, lists potential uses of the result by managers, and references the original SEL documentation where the result was found. The document serves as a concise reference summary of applicable research for SEL managers.

  8. [Occult medicine in the 20th century: pharmacotherapy by Demeter Georgievitz-Weitzer, known as Surya (1873 - 1949)].

    PubMed

    Helmstädter, Axel

    2011-01-01

    Demeter Georgievitz-Weitzer (1873-1949), called "Surya", Sanskrit for "sun", was an important representative of medical occultism in the first half of the 20th century. He worked as a journal editor and published a 13-volume book series about occult medicine, mainly written by himself. His hypotheses were closely related to the "Lebensreform" movement around 1900. Regarding diagnostics, he relied on astrology, cheiromancy, and clairvoyance, while therapeutics were dominated by diet and spagyric remedies according to Cesare Mattei (1809-1896) and Carl-Friedrich Zimpel (1801-1879). In his later years, he developed his own healing system, initially comprising eight, later only two preparations. Surya remedies were commercially available until the end of the 20th century,

  9. [Occult medicine in the 20th century: pharmacotherapy by Demeter Georgievitz-Weitzer, known as Surya (1873 - 1949)].

    PubMed

    Helmstädter, Axel

    2011-01-01

    Demeter Georgievitz-Weitzer (1873-1949), called "Surya", Sanskrit for "sun", was an important representative of medical occultism in the first half of the 20th century. He worked as a journal editor and published a 13-volume book series about occult medicine, mainly written by himself. His hypotheses were closely related to the "Lebensreform" movement around 1900. Regarding diagnostics, he relied on astrology, cheiromancy, and clairvoyance, while therapeutics were dominated by diet and spagyric remedies according to Cesare Mattei (1809-1896) and Carl-Friedrich Zimpel (1801-1879). In his later years, he developed his own healing system, initially comprising eight, later only two preparations. Surya remedies were commercially available until the end of the 20th century, PMID:22822609

  10. Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) data and information policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgarry, Frank

    1991-01-01

    The policies and overall procedures that are used in distributing and in making available products of the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) are discussed. The products include project data and measures, project source code, reports, and software tools.

  11. Transcriptional activation of antioxidants may compensate for selenoprotein deficiencies in Amblyomma maculatum (Acari: Ixodidae) injected with selK- or selM-dsRNA

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, Steven; Browning, Rebecca; Singh, Parul; Nobles, Sarah; Villarreal, Ashley; Karim, Shahid

    2014-01-01

    The Gulf-Coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum, possesses an elaborate set of selenoprotein, which prevent the deleterious effects from oxidative stress that occur during feeding. In the current work, we examined the role of Selenoprotein K (SelK) and Selenoprotein M (SelM) in feeding A. maculatum by bioinformatics, transcriptional gene expression, RNA interference and antioxidant assays. The transcriptional expression of SelK does not vary significantly in salivary glands or midguts throughout the blood meal. However, there is a 58-fold increase in transcript levels of SelM in tick midguts. Ticks injected with selK-dsRNA or selM-dsRNA did not reveal any observable differences in egg viability but oviposition was reduced. Surprisingly, salivary antioxidant activity was higher in selenoprotein knockouts compared to controls, which is likely due to compensatory transcriptional expression of genes involved in combating reactive oxygen species. In fact, RT-qPCR data suggest the transcriptional expression of catalase increased in ticks injected with selM-dsRNA. Additionally, the transcriptional expression of selN decreased ~90% in both SelK/SelM knockdowns. PMID:24698418

  12. Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) database organization and user's guide, revision 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morusiewicz, Linda; Bristow, John

    1992-01-01

    The organization of the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) database is presented. Included are definitions and detailed descriptions of the database tables and views, the SEL data, and system support data. The mapping from the SEL and system support data to the base table is described. In addition, techniques for accessing the database through the Database Access Manager for the SEL (DAMSEL) system and via the ORACLE structured query language (SQL) are discussed.

  13. Collaboration to Achieve Whole School SEL across a Large, Urban District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porche, Michelle; Grossman, Jenny; Biro, Nova; MacKay, Nancy; Rivers, Sojourner

    2014-01-01

    Research on social and emotional learning (SEL) has largely focused on classroom interventions and student-­ and classroom­-level outcomes. Few studies have examined whole­-school and district-­level SEL implementations, or how to ensure that SEL programs are implemented effectively and sustained over time. This study examines both process…

  14. Energy cost and cardiorespiratory changes during the practice of Surya Namaskar.

    PubMed

    Sinha, B; Ray, U S; Pathak, A; Selvamurthy, W

    2004-04-01

    Surya Namaskar (SN), a group of Yogic exercise consists of a set of twelve postures which is practiced by some of the yoga practitioners. The present study was undertaken to observe critically the energy cost and different cardiorespiratory changes during the practice of SN. Twenty-one male volunteers from the Indian Army practiced selected Yogic exercises for six days in a week for three months duration. The Yogic practice schedule consisted of Hatha Yogic Asanas (28 min), Pranayama (10.5 min) and Meditation (5 min). In the Yogic practice schedule 1st they practiced Kapal Bhathi (breathing maneuvers) for 2 min then Yogamudra (yogic postural exercise) for 2 min, after that they took rest until oxygen consumption and heart rate (HR) came to resting value. Subsequently subjects performed SN for 3 min 40 seconds on an average. After three months of training at the beginning of the fourth month subjects performed entire Yogic practice schedule in the laboratory as they practiced during their training session and experiments were carried out. Their pulmonary ventilation, carbondioxide output, Oxygen consumption, HR and other cardiorespiratory parameters were measured during the actual practice of SN. Oxygen consumption was highest in the eighth posture (1.22+/-0.073 1 min(-1)) and lowest in the first posture (0.35+/-0.02 1 min(-1)). Total energy cost throughout the practice of SN was 13.91 kcal and at an average of 3.79 kcal/min. During its practice highest HR was 101+/-13.5 b.p.m. As an aerobic exercise SN seemed to be ideal as it involves both static stretching and slow dynamic component of exercise with optimal stress on the cardiorespiratory system.

  15. Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) and Student Benefits: Implications for the Safe Schools/Healthy Students Core Elements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This brief shares the latest research on the effects of social and emotional learning (SEL) on students and includes strategies for implementing SEL. It explains how SEL works, elaborates on how SEL can be an integrative prevention framework that addresses the Safe Schools/Healthy Students (SS/HS) core elements, and spells out implications of the…

  16. Towards understanding software: 15 years in the SEL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgarry, Frank; Pajerski, Rose

    1990-01-01

    For 15 years, the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) at GSFC has been carrying out studies and experiments for the purpose of understanding, assessing, and improving software, and software processes within a production software environment. The SEL comprises three major organizations: (1) the GSFC Flight Dynamics Division; (2) the University of Maryland Computer Science Department; and (3) the Computer Sciences Corporation Flight Dynamics Technology Group. These organizations have jointly carried out several hundred software studies, producing hundreds of reports, papers, and documents: all describing some aspect of the software engineering technology that has undergone analysis in the flight dynamics environment. The studies range from small controlled experiments (such as analyzing the effectiveness of code reading versus functional testing) to large, multiple-project studies (such as assessing the impacts of Ada on a production environment). The key findings that NASA feels have laid the foundation for ongoing and future software development and research activities are summarized.

  17. SIMULATING WAVES IN THE UPPER SOLAR ATMOSPHERE WITH SURYA: A WELL-BALANCED HIGH-ORDER FINITE-VOLUME CODE

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, F. G.; McMurry, A. D.; Mishra, S.; Waagan, K. E-mail: a.d.mcmurry@ifi.uio.no E-mail: kwaagan@cscamm.umd.edu

    2011-05-10

    We consider the propagation of waves in a stratified non-isothermal magnetic atmosphere. The situation of interest corresponds to waves in the outer solar (chromosphere and corona) and other stellar atmospheres. The waves are simulated by using a high-resolution, well-balanced finite-volume-based massively parallel code named SURYA. Numerical experiments in both two and three space dimensions involving realistic temperature distributions, driving forces, and magnetic field configurations are described. Diverse phenomena such as mode conversion, wave acceleration at the transition layer, and driving-dependent wave dynamics are observed. We obtain evidence for the presence of coronal Alfven waves in some three-dimensional configurations. Although some of the incident wave energy is transmitted into the corona, a large proportion of it is accumulated in the chromosphere, providing a possible mechanism for chromospheric heating.

  18. Crystal structure of SEL1L: Insight into the roles of SLR motifs in ERAD pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hanbin; Sim, Hyo Jung; Song, Eun Kyung; Lee, Hakbong; Ha, Sung Chul; Jun, Youngsoo; Park, Tae Joo; Lee, Changwook

    2016-01-01

    Terminally misfolded proteins are selectively recognized and cleared by the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. SEL1L, a component of the ERAD machinery, plays an important role in selecting and transporting ERAD substrates for degradation. We have determined the crystal structure of the mouse SEL1L central domain comprising five Sel1-Like Repeats (SLR motifs 5 to 9; hereafter called SEL1Lcent). Strikingly, SEL1Lcent forms a homodimer with two-fold symmetry in a head-to-tail manner. Particularly, the SLR motif 9 plays an important role in dimer formation by adopting a domain-swapped structure and providing an extensive dimeric interface. We identified that the full-length SEL1L forms a self-oligomer through the SEL1Lcent domain in mammalian cells. Furthermore, we discovered that the SLR-C, comprising SLR motifs 10 and 11, of SEL1L directly interacts with the N-terminus luminal loops of HRD1. Therefore, we propose that certain SLR motifs of SEL1L play a unique role in membrane bound ERAD machinery. PMID:27064360

  19. Assessing efficiency of software production for NASA-SEL data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonmayrhauser, Anneliese; Roeseler, Armin

    1993-01-01

    This paper uses production models to identify and quantify efficient allocation of resources and key drivers of software productivity for project data in the NASA-SEL database. While analysis allows identification of efficient projects, many of the metrics that could have provided a more detailed analysis are not at a level of measurement to allow production model analysis. Production models must be used with proper parameterization to be successful. This may mean a new look at which metrics are helpful for efficiency assessment.

  20. Occurrence in vivo of selenocysteyl-tRNA(SERUCA) in Escherichia coli. Effect of sel mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Leinfelder, W.; Stadtman, T.C.; Boeck, A.

    1989-06-15

    The selC gene of Escherichia coli codes for a novel tRNA species which is aminoacylated by L-serine and is required for the insertion of selenocysteine into proteins. As a first step toward the elucidation of the postulated pathway for selenocysteine formation from an L-serine residue esterified to tRNA, we have examined whether an increase in the selC gene dosage allows the demonstration of selenocysteyl-tRNA formation in vivo. To this end, cells of an E. coli strain carrying selC on a multicopy plasmid were labeled with (/sup 75/Se)selenite, their tRNA was isolated and deacylated, and the hydrolysate was analyzed by thin layer chromatography and ion exchange chromatography. Both methods unequivocally demonstrated that the increase in the selC gene product concentration correlated with an augmented level of selenocysteine bound to tRNA. The formation of selenocysteine depended on the presence of functional products of the selA and selD genes but not of the selB gene. The selB gene product, therefore, may have a function in the decoding step itself.

  1. Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) Data Base Maintenance System (DBAM) user's guide and system description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, P. S.; Card, D.

    1983-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) Data Base Maintenance System (DBAM) is explained. The various software facilities of the SEL, DBAM operating procedures, and DBAM system information are described. The relationships among DBAM components (baseline diagrams), component descriptions, overlay descriptions, indirect command file listings, file definitions, and sample data collection forms are provided.

  2. Finding relationships between effort and other variables in the SEL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, Victor R.; Panlilio-Yap, N. Monina

    1985-01-01

    Estimating the amount of effort required for a software development project is one of the major aspects of resource estimation for that project. In this study, the relationship between effort and other variables for 23 Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) projects that were developed for NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center was examined. These variables fell into two categories: those which can be determined in the early stages of project development and may therefore be useful in a baseline equation for predicting effort in future projects, and those which can be used mainly to characterize or evaluate effort requirements and thus enhance the understanding of the software development process in this environment. Some results of the analyses are presented.

  3. SEL1L deficiency impairs growth and differentiation of pancreatic epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The vertebrate pancreas contains islet, acinar and ductal cells. These cells derive from a transient pool of multipotent pancreatic progenitors during embryonic development. Insight into the genetic determinants regulating pancreatic organogenesis will help the development of cell-based therapies for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Suppressor enhancer lin12/Notch 1 like (Sel1l) encodes a cytoplasmic protein that is highly expressed in the developing mouse pancreas. However, the morphological and molecular events regulated by Sel1l remain elusive. Results We have characterized the pancreatic phenotype of mice carrying a gene trap mutation in Sel1l. We show that Sel1l expression in the developing pancreas coincides with differentiation of the endocrine and exocrine lineages. Mice homozygous for the gene trap mutation die prenatally and display an impaired pancreatic epithelial morphology and cell differentiation. The pancreatic epithelial cells of Sel1l mutant embryos are confined to the progenitor cell state throughout the secondary transition. Pharmacological inhibition of Notch signaling partially rescues the pancreatic phenotype of Sel1l mutant embryos. Conclusions Together, these data suggest that Sel1l is essential for the growth and differentiation of endoderm-derived pancreatic epithelial cells during mouse embryonic development. PMID:20170518

  4. Expression of human selenoprotein genes selh, selk, selm, sels, selv, and gpx-6 in various tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Varlamova, E G; Goltyaev, M V; Fesenko, E E

    2016-05-01

    The expression level of the genes encoding six selenocysteine-containing human proteins was determined in the brain, cervical, liver, breast, prostate, and human fibrosarcoma cancer cells. It was found that a high level of expression in all studied types genes of tumor cells is characteristic for selh, selk, and selm genes, encoding SelH, SelK, and SelM proteins, respectively, whereas a complete lack of such expression was shown for gpx-6, selv, and sels genes. The results of this work can be regarded as a major prerequisite for further studies on the role of the three selenoproteins SelH, SelK, and SelM in the regulation of carcinogenesis processes associated with these types of cancer. PMID:27417721

  5. Detection and Measurement of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin-Like K (SEl-K) Secretion by Staphylococcus aureus Clinical Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, Jorge L.; Varshney, Avanish K.; Wang, Xiaobo; Stanford, Lindsay; Scharff, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxin-like K (SEl-K) is a potent mitogen that elicits T-cell proliferation and cytokine production at very low concentrations. However, unlike the classical enterotoxins SEB and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1), the gene for SEl-K is commonly present in more than half of all Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates and is present in almost all USA300 community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) isolates. Sequencing of the sel-k gene in over 20 clinical isolates and comparative analysis with all 14 published sel-k sequences indicate that there are at least 6 variants of the sel-k gene, including one that is conserved among all examined USA300 strains. Additionally, we have developed a highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that specifically detects and measures SEl-K protein in culture supernatants and biological fluids. Quantification of in vitro SEl-K secretion by various S. aureus isolates using this novel capture ELISA revealed detectable amounts of SEl-K secretion by all isolates, with the highest secretion levels being exhibited by MRSA strains that coexpress SEB. In vivo secretion was measured in a murine thigh abscess model, where similar levels of SEl-K accumulation were noted regardless of whether the infecting strain exhibited high or low secretion of SEl-K in vitro. We conclude that SEl-K is commonly expressed in the setting of staphylococcal infection, in significant amounts. SEl-K should be further explored as a target for passive immunotherapy against complicated S. aureus infection. PMID:24808237

  6. Sel1L is indispensable for mammalian endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation, endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis, and survival

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shengyi; Shi, Guojun; Han, Xuemei; Francisco, Adam B.; Ji, Yewei; Mendonça, Nuno; Liu, Xiaojing; Locasale, Jason W.; Simpson, Kenneth W.; Duhamel, Gerald E.; Kersten, Sander; Yates, John R.; Long, Qiaoming; Qi, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Suppressor/Enhancer of Lin-12-like (Sel1L) is an adaptor protein for the E3 ligase hydroxymethylglutaryl reductase degradation protein 1 (Hrd1) involved in endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD). Sel1L’s physiological importance in mammalian ERAD, however, remains to be established. Here, using the inducible Sel1L knockout mouse and cell models, we show that Sel1L is indispensable for Hrd1 stability, ER homeostasis, and survival. Acute loss of Sel1L leads to premature death in adult mice within 3 wk with profound pancreatic atrophy. Contrary to current belief, our data show that mammalian Sel1L is required for Hrd1 stability and ERAD function both in vitro and in vivo. Sel1L deficiency disturbs ER homeostasis, activates ER stress, attenuates translation, and promotes cell death. Serendipitously, using a biochemical approach coupled with mass spectrometry, we found that Sel1L deficiency causes the aggregation of both small and large ribosomal subunits. Thus, Sel1L is an indispensable component of the mammalian Hrd1 ERAD complex and ER homeostasis, which is essential for protein translation, pancreatic function, and cellular and organismal survival. PMID:24453213

  7. Epithelial Sel1L is required for the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shengyi; Lourie, Rohan; Cohen, Sara B.; Ji, Yewei; Goodrich, Julia K.; Poole, Angela C.; Ley, Ruth E.; Denkers, Eric Y.; McGuckin, Michael A.; Long, Qiaoming; Duhamel, Gerald E.; Simpson, Kenneth W.; Qi, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an incurable chronic idiopathic disease that drastically decreases quality of life. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)–associated degradation (ERAD) is responsible for the clearance of misfolded proteins; however, its role in disease pathogenesis remains largely unexplored. Here we show that the expression of SEL1L and HRD1, the most conserved branch of mammalian ERAD, is significantly reduced in ileal Crohn’s disease (CD). Consistent with this observation, laboratory mice with enterocyte-specific Sel1L deficiency (Sel1LΔIEC) develop spontaneous enteritis and have increased susceptibility to Toxoplasma gondii–induced ileitis. This is associated with profound defects in Paneth cells and a disproportionate increase of Ruminococcus gnavus, a mucolytic bacterium with known association with CD. Surprisingly, whereas both ER stress sensor IRE1α and effector CHOP are activated in the small intestine of Sel1LΔIEC mice, they are not solely responsible for ERAD deficiency–associated lesions seen in the small intestine. Thus our study points to a constitutive role of Sel1L-Hrd1 ERAD in epithelial cell biology and the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation in CD. PMID:26631554

  8. Effect of 11 months of yoga training on cardiorespiratory responses during the actual practice of Surya Namaskar

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Biswajit; Sinha, Tulika Dasgupta

    2014-01-01

    Background: Surya Namaskar (SN), a popular traditional Indian yogic practice, includes practicing 12 physical postures with alternate forward and backward bending movement of the body along with deep breathing maneuvers. The practice of SN has become popular among yoga practitioners and other fitness conscious people. The long-term effect of practicing SN and other yogic practices on cardiorespiratory responses during SN are lacking. Aim: The present study was conducted to study the effect of yogic training on various cardiorespiratory responses during the SN practice in yoga trainees after a time interval of 3, 6, and 11 months. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 9 healthy male Army soldiers who underwent training in various yoga postures including SN, meditation, and pranayama for 1 h daily for 11 months. First, second, and third phase of the study was conducted in the laboratory after completion of 3, 6, and 11 months of the yoga training. The participants performed SN along with other yogic practices in the laboratory as per their daily practice schedule. The cardiorespiratory responses of the volunteers were recorded during actual practice of SN. Statistical Analysis: One-way repeated measure ANOVA followed by Tukey HSD. Results: Oxygen consumption and heart rate during actual practice of SN was 0.794 ± 0.252, 0.738 ± 0.229, and 0.560 ± 0.165 L/min and 92.1 ± 11.6, 97.9 ± 7.3 and 87.4 ± 9.2 beats/min respectively at 1st , 2nd , and 3rd phase of yoga training. Minute ventilation and tidal volume also reduced from 19.9 ± 4.65 to 17.8 ± 4.41 L/min and 1.091 ± 0.021 to 0.952 L/breath from 1st phase to 3rd phase of yoga training. However, respiratory parameters like breathing rate (fR) did not show any reduction across the three phases. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicated that yogic training caused conditioning of cardiorespiratory parameters except fR, which did not reduce across three phases of training. PMID

  9. SelInv - An Algorithm for Selected Inversion of a Sparse Symmetric Matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Lin; Yang, Chao; Meza, Juan C.; Lu, Jianfeng; Ying, Lexing; E, Weinan

    2009-10-16

    We describe an efficient implementation of an algorithm for computing selected elements of a general sparse symmetric matrix A that can be decomposed as A = LDL^T, where L is lower triangular and D is diagonal. Our implementation, which is called SelInv, is built on top of an efficient supernodal left-looking LDL^T factorization of A. We discuss how computational efficiency can be gained by making use of a relative index array to handle indirect addressing. We report the performance of SelInv on a collection of sparse matrices of various sizes and nonzero structures. We also demonstrate how SelInv can be used in electronic structure calculations.

  10. Optimization of biodegradable plastic production on sugar cane molasses in Enterobacter sp. SEL2

    PubMed Central

    Naheed, Nighat; Jamil, Nazia

    2014-01-01

    Contaminated environments have a large number of bacteria which can accumulate PHA as their energy reserves. Out of 54 isolated bacterial strains from three groups of contaminated sites 48 were found PHA positive. The sites were grouped on the basis of the type of carbon sources i.e. sugars, fatty acids and much diverse type. Strains MFD5, MFD11, UML3, USL2, SEL2, SEL3, SEL10 and PFW1 produced 69.9 ± 0.29, 75.27 ± 0.45, 65.43 ± 0.1, 72.54 ± 0.27, 76.61 ± 0.28, 61.81 ± 0.05, 71.16 ± 0.09 and 74.92 ± 0.5 percent of PHA to their constant cell weight (CCW) respectively in PHA detection media supplemented with 2% glucose. Molasses, whey, crumbs hydrolysate and palm oil were checked as inexpensive carbon sources. Molasses alone could supply the required nutrients for growth and PHA production. Strain SEL2 produced 47.36 ± 0.45% PHA using 2% molasses at 37 °C and pH 7.0. Upon production optimization the best accumulation (80.95 ± 0.01%) was observed in PHA detection media with 0.2% nitrogen source, 3% molasses, pH 5.0 and 37 °C by the strain SEL2. The overall effect of the presence of increased molasses concentration in the media was positive it increased the accumulation period till 72 h. Enterobacter sp. SEL2 (JF901810) is first time being reported for PHA production. PMID:25242924

  11. Optimization of biodegradable plastic production on sugar cane molasses in Enterobacter sp. SEL2.

    PubMed

    Naheed, Nighat; Jamil, Nazia

    2014-01-01

    Contaminated environments have a large number of bacteria which can accumulate PHA as their energy reserves. Out of 54 isolated bacterial strains from three groups of contaminated sites 48 were found PHA positive. The sites were grouped on the basis of the type of carbon sources i.e. sugars, fatty acids and much diverse type. Strains MFD5, MFD11, UML3, USL2, SEL2, SEL3, SEL10 and PFW1 produced 69.9 ± 0.29, 75.27 ± 0.45, 65.43 ± 0.1, 72.54 ± 0.27, 76.61 ± 0.28, 61.81 ± 0.05, 71.16 ± 0.09 and 74.92 ± 0.5 percent of PHA to their constant cell weight (CCW) respectively in PHA detection media supplemented with 2% glucose. Molasses, whey, crumbs hydrolysate and palm oil were checked as inexpensive carbon sources. Molasses alone could supply the required nutrients for growth and PHA production. Strain SEL2 produced 47.36 ± 0.45% PHA using 2% molasses at 37 °C and pH 7.0. Upon production optimization the best accumulation (80.95 ± 0.01%) was observed in PHA detection media with 0.2% nitrogen source, 3% molasses, pH 5.0 and 37 °C by the strain SEL2. The overall effect of the presence of increased molasses concentration in the media was positive it increased the accumulation period till 72 h. Enterobacter sp. SEL2 (JF901810) is first time being reported for PHA production. PMID:25242924

  12. Optimization of biodegradable plastic production on sugar cane molasses in Enterobacter sp. SEL2.

    PubMed

    Naheed, Nighat; Jamil, Nazia

    2014-01-01

    Contaminated environments have a large number of bacteria which can accumulate PHA as their energy reserves. Out of 54 isolated bacterial strains from three groups of contaminated sites 48 were found PHA positive. The sites were grouped on the basis of the type of carbon sources i.e. sugars, fatty acids and much diverse type. Strains MFD5, MFD11, UML3, USL2, SEL2, SEL3, SEL10 and PFW1 produced 69.9 ± 0.29, 75.27 ± 0.45, 65.43 ± 0.1, 72.54 ± 0.27, 76.61 ± 0.28, 61.81 ± 0.05, 71.16 ± 0.09 and 74.92 ± 0.5 percent of PHA to their constant cell weight (CCW) respectively in PHA detection media supplemented with 2% glucose. Molasses, whey, crumbs hydrolysate and palm oil were checked as inexpensive carbon sources. Molasses alone could supply the required nutrients for growth and PHA production. Strain SEL2 produced 47.36 ± 0.45% PHA using 2% molasses at 37 °C and pH 7.0. Upon production optimization the best accumulation (80.95 ± 0.01%) was observed in PHA detection media with 0.2% nitrogen source, 3% molasses, pH 5.0 and 37 °C by the strain SEL2. The overall effect of the presence of increased molasses concentration in the media was positive it increased the accumulation period till 72 h. Enterobacter sp. SEL2 (JF901810) is first time being reported for PHA production.

  13. SEL2 servicing: increased science return via on-orbit propellant replenishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Benjamin B.; DeWeese, Keith; Kienlen, Michael; Aranyos, Thomas; Pellegrino, Joseph; Bacon, Charles; Qureshi, Atif

    2016-07-01

    Spacecraft designers are driving observatories to the distant Sun-Earth Lagrange Point 2 (SEL2) to meet ever-increasing science requirements. The mass fraction dedicated to propellant for these observatories to reach and operate at SEL2 will be allocated with the upmost care, as it comes at the expense of optics and instrument masses. As such, these observatories could benefit from on-orbit refueling, allowing greater dry-to-wet mass ratio at launch and/or longer mission life. NASA is developing technologies, capabilities and integrated mission designs for multiple servicing applications in low Earth orbit (LEO), geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) and cisluner locations. Restore-L, a mission officially in formulation, will launch a free-flying robotic servicer to refuel a government-owned satellite in LEO by mid 2020. This paper will detail the results of a point design mission study to extend Restore-L servicing technologies from LEO to SEL2. This SEL2 mission would launch an autonomous, robotic servicer spacecraft equipped to extend the life of two space assets through refueling. Two space platforms were chosen to 1) drive the requirements for achieving SEL2 orbit and rendezvous with a spacecraft, and 2) to drive the requirements to translate within SEL2 to conduct a follow-on servicing mission. Two fuels, xenon and hydrazine, were selected to assess a multiple delivery system. This paper will address key mission drivers, such as servicer autonomy (necessitated due to communications latency at L2). Also discussed will be the value of adding cooperative servicing elements to the client observatories to reduce mission risk.

  14. Se Enhances MLCK Activation by Regulating Selenoprotein T (SelT) in the Gastric Smooth Muscle of Rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia-Ping; Zhou, Jing-Xuan; Wang, Qi; Gu, Gao-Qin; Yang, Shi-Jin; Li, Cheng-Ye; Qiu, Chang-Wei; Deng, Gan-Zhen; Guo, Meng-Yao

    2016-09-01

    Selenium (Se), a nutritionally essential trace element, is associated with health and disease. Selenoprotein T (SelT) was identified as a redoxin protein with a selenocystein, localizing in the endoplasmic reticulum. The myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and myosin light chain (MLC) play key roles in the contraction process of smooth muscle. The present study was to detect the effect and mechanism of SelT on the contraction process of gastric smooth muscle. The WT rats were fed with different Se concentration diets, and Se and Ca(2+) concentrations were detected in the gastric smooth muscle. Western blot and qPCR were performed to determine SelT, CaM, MLCK, and MLC expressions. MLCK activity was measured by identifying the rates of [γ-32P]ATP incorporated into the MLC. The results showed Se and Ca(2+) concentrations were enhanced with Se intake in gastric smooth muscle tissues. With increasing Se, SelT, CaM, MLCK and MLC expressions increased, and MLCK and MLC activation improved in gastric smooth muscle tissue. The SelT RNA interference experiments showed that Ca(2+) release, MLCK activation, and MLC phosphorylation were regulated by SelT. Se affected the gastric smooth muscle constriction by regulating Ca(2+) release, MLCK activation, and MLC phosphorylation through SelT. Se plays a major role in regulating the contraction processes of gastric smooth muscle with the SelT.

  15. Testing Causal Impacts of a School-Based SEL Intervention Using Instrumental Variable Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrente, Catalina; Nathanson, Lori; Rivers, Susan; Brackett, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Children's social-emotional skills, such as conflict resolution and emotion regulation, have been linked to a number of highly regarded academic and social outcomes. The current study presents preliminary results from a causal test of the theory of change of RULER, a universal school-based approach to social and emotional learning (SEL).…

  16. Toward full life cycle control: Adding maintenance measurement to the SEL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rombach, H. Dieter; Ulery, Bradford T.; Valett, Jon D.

    1992-01-01

    Organization-wide measurement of software products and processes is needed to establish full life cycle control over software products. The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL)--a joint venture between NASA GSFC, the University of Maryland, and Computer Sciences Corporation--started measurement of software development more than 15 years ago. Recently, the measurement of maintenance was added to the scope of the SEL. In this article, the maintenance measurement program is presented as an addition to the already existing and well-established SEL development measurement program and evaluated in terms of its immediate benefits and long-term improvement potential. Immediate benefits of this program for the SEL include an increased understanding of the maintenance domain, the differences and commonalities between development and maintenance, and the cause-effect relationships between development and maintenance. Initial results from a sample maintenance study are presented to substantiate these benefits. The long-term potential of this program includes the use of maintenance baselines to better plan and manage future projects and to improve development and maintenance practices for future projects wherever warranted.

  17. Measuring the software process and product: Lessons learned in the SEL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, V. R.

    1985-01-01

    The software development process and product can and should be measured. The software measurement process at the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) has taught a major lesson: develop a goal-driven paradigm (also characterized as a goal/question/metric paradigm) for data collection. Project analysis under this paradigm leads to a design for evaluating and improving the methodology of software development and maintenance.

  18. Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL). Data base organization and user's guide, revision 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, P. S.; Wyckoff, D.; Page, J.; Mcgarry, F. E.

    1983-01-01

    The structure of the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) data base is described. It defines each data base file in detail and provides information about how to access and use the data for programmers and other users. Several data base reporting programs are described also.

  19. Crystal structure of the full-length bacterial selenocysteine-specific elongation factor SelB.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Yuzuru; Sekine, Shun-Ichi; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2015-10-15

    Selenocysteine (Sec), the 21(st) amino acid in translation, uses its specific tRNA (tRNA(Sec)) to recognize the UGA codon. The Sec-specific elongation factor SelB brings the selenocysteinyl-tRNA(Sec) (Sec-tRNA(Sec)) to the ribosome, dependent on both an in-frame UGA and a Sec-insertion sequence (SECIS) in the mRNA. The bacterial SelB binds mRNA through its C-terminal region, for which crystal structures have been reported. In this study, we determined the crystal structure of the full-length SelB from the bacterium Aquifex aeolicus, in complex with a GTP analog, at 3.2-Å resolution. SelB consists of three EF-Tu-like domains (D1-3), followed by four winged-helix domains (WHD1-4). The spacer region, connecting the N- and C-terminal halves, fixes the position of WHD1 relative to D3. The binding site for the Sec moiety of Sec-tRNA(Sec) is located on the interface between D1 and D2, where a cysteine molecule from the crystallization solution is coordinated by Arg residues, which may mimic Sec binding. The Sec-binding site is smaller and more exposed than the corresponding site of EF-Tu. Complex models of Sec-tRNA(Sec), SECIS RNA, and the 70S ribosome suggest that the unique secondary structure of tRNA(Sec) allows SelB to specifically recognize tRNA(Sec) and characteristically place it at the ribosomal A-site. PMID:26304550

  20. Crystal structure of the full-length bacterial selenocysteine-specific elongation factor SelB

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, Yuzuru; Sekine, Shun-ichi; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2015-01-01

    Selenocysteine (Sec), the 21st amino acid in translation, uses its specific tRNA (tRNASec) to recognize the UGA codon. The Sec-specific elongation factor SelB brings the selenocysteinyl-tRNASec (Sec-tRNASec) to the ribosome, dependent on both an in-frame UGA and a Sec-insertion sequence (SECIS) in the mRNA. The bacterial SelB binds mRNA through its C-terminal region, for which crystal structures have been reported. In this study, we determined the crystal structure of the full-length SelB from the bacterium Aquifex aeolicus, in complex with a GTP analog, at 3.2-Å resolution. SelB consists of three EF-Tu-like domains (D1–3), followed by four winged-helix domains (WHD1–4). The spacer region, connecting the N- and C-terminal halves, fixes the position of WHD1 relative to D3. The binding site for the Sec moiety of Sec-tRNASec is located on the interface between D1 and D2, where a cysteine molecule from the crystallization solution is coordinated by Arg residues, which may mimic Sec binding. The Sec-binding site is smaller and more exposed than the corresponding site of EF-Tu. Complex models of Sec-tRNASec, SECIS RNA, and the 70S ribosome suggest that the unique secondary structure of tRNASec allows SelB to specifically recognize tRNASec and characteristically place it at the ribosomal A-site. PMID:26304550

  1. Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) data base reporting software user's guide and system description. Volume 1: Introduction and user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Reporting software programs provide formatted listings and summary reports of the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) data base contents. The operating procedures and system information for 18 different reporting software programs are described. Sample output reports from each program are provided.

  2. Effects of Se on the Diversity of SelT Synthesis and Distribution in Different Smooth Muscle Tissues in Rats.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mengyao; Gao, Xuejiao; Zhang, Naisheng; Qiu, Changwei; Li, Chengye; Deng, Ganzhen

    2016-04-01

    Selenium (Se) is a nutritionally essential trace element associated with health and disease, including many muscle diseases. Selenoprotein T (SelT) has been identified as a member of the redoxin protein family that includes selenocysteine, localizing to the endoplasmic reticulum. The synthesis of selenoprotein is influenced by Se. However, there is currently no data concerning the pattern of SelT expression in smooth muscle tissues. To investigate the effects of dietary Se on the expression of SelT, 90 rats were randomly allocated into three groups: LG, NG, and HG. The LG group was fed a basal diet deficient in Se (containing 0.023 mg/kg Se); the NG and HG groups were fed Se-supplemented diets containing either 0.3 or 1.5 mg/kg Se, respectively, for 90 days. The smooth muscle of the esophagus, trachea, stomach, intestine, and blood vessels was collected when the rats were 90 days old. The Se content in the blood and tissues was examined. The messenger RNA (mRNA) of selenocysteine-tRNA([Ser]Sec) synthase (SecS), selenophosphate synthetase 1 (SPS1), selenophosphate synthetase 2 (SPS2), and SelT were examined using qPCR, and SelT protein was detected by Western blotting. The results indicated that Se had an effect on the mRNA levels of SecS, with little effect on those of SPS1 in smooth muscle tissues. SelT was expressed in the smooth muscle tissues of blood vessels, esophagus, bronchus, stomach, and intestine, and the transcription of the SelT was very sensitive to dietary Se. Thus, SelT may play a major role in the mechanisms underlying the biological activity of Se in smooth muscle tissues. PMID:26280902

  3. Thermodynamics of the GTP-GDP-operated conformational switch of selenocysteine-specific translation factor SelB.

    PubMed

    Paleskava, Alena; Konevega, Andrey L; Rodnina, Marina V

    2012-08-10

    SelB is a specialized translation factor that binds GTP and GDP and delivers selenocysteyl-tRNA (Sec-tRNA(Sec)) to the ribosome. By analogy to elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu), SelB is expected to control the delivery and release of Sec-tRNA(Sec) to the ribosome by the structural switch between GTP- and GDP-bound conformations. However, crystal structures of SelB suggested a similar domain arrangement in the apo form and GDP- and GTP-bound forms of the factor, raising the question of how SelB can fulfill its delivery function. Here, we studied the thermodynamics of guanine nucleotide binding to SelB by isothermal titration calorimetry in the temperature range between 10 and 25 °C using GTP, GDP, and two nonhydrolyzable GTP analogs, guanosine 5'-O-(γ-thio)triphosphate (GTPγS) and guanosine 5'-(β,γ-imido)-triphosphate (GDPNP). The binding of SelB to either guanine nucleotide is characterized by a large heat capacity change (-621, -467, -235, and -275 cal × mol(-1) × K(-1), with GTP, GTPγS, GDPNP, and GDP, respectively), associated with compensatory changes in binding entropy and enthalpy. Changes in heat capacity indicate a large decrease of the solvent-accessible surface area in SelB, amounting to 43 or 32 amino acids buried upon binding of GTP or GTPγS, respectively, and 15-19 amino acids upon binding GDP or GDPNP. The similarity of the GTP and GDP forms in the crystal structures can be attributed to the use of GDPNP, which appears to induce a structure of SelB that is more similar to the GDP than to the GTP-bound form.

  4. Texas Instruments-Digital Signal Processor(TI-DSP)SMJ320F20 SEL Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Anthony B.; Poivey, C.; Kim, H. S.; Gee, George B.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the testing of the Texas Instrument Digital Signal Processor(TI-DSP)SMJ320F20. Tests were performed to screen for susceptibility to Single Event Latchup (SEL) and measure sensitivity as a function of Linear Energy Transfer (LET) for an application specific test setup. The Heavy Ion Testing of two TI-DSP SMJ320F240 devices experienced Single Event Latchup (SEL) conditions at an LET of 1.8 MeV/(mg/square cm) The devices were exposed from a fluence of 1.76 x l0(exp 3) to 5.00 x 10(exp 6) particles/square cm of the Neon, Argon and Krypton ion beams. For DI(sub DD) an average latchup current occurred at about 700mA, which is a magnitude of 10 over the nominal current of 700mA.

  5. Mutations in genes involved in nonsense mediated decay ameliorate the phenotype of sel-12 mutants with amber stop mutations in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Gontijo, Alisson M; Aubert, Sylvie; Roelens, Ingele; Lakowski, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Background Presenilin proteins are part of a complex of proteins that can cleave many type I transmembrane proteins, including Notch Receptors and the Amyloid Precursor Protein, in the middle of the transmembrane domain. Dominant mutations in the human presenilin genes PS1 and PS2 lead to Familial Alzheimer's disease. Mutations in the Caenorhabditis elegans sel-12 presenilin gene cause a highly penetrant egg-laying defect due to reduction of signalling through the lin-12/Notch receptor. Mutations in six spr genes (for suppressor of presenilin) are known to strongly suppress sel-12. Mutations in most strong spr genes suppress sel-12 by de-repressing the transcription of the largely functionally equivalent hop-1 presenilin gene. However, how mutations in the spr-2 gene suppress sel-12 is unknown. Results We show that spr-2 mutations increase the levels of sel-12 transcripts with Premature translation Termination Codons (PTCs) in embryos and L1 larvae. mRNA transcripts from sel-12 alleles with PTCs undergo degradation by a process known as Nonsense Mediated Decay (NMD). However, spr-2 mutations do not appear to affect NMD. Mutations in the smg genes, which are required for NMD, can restore sel-12(PTC) transcript levels and ameliorate the phenotype of sel-12 mutants with amber PTCs. However, the phenotypic suppression of sel-12 by smg genes is nowhere near as strong as the effect of previously characterized spr mutations including spr-2. Consistent with this, we have identified only two mutations in smg genes among the more than 100 spr mutations recovered in genetic screens. Conclusion spr-2 mutations do not suppress sel-12 by affecting NMD of sel-12(PTC) transcripts and appear to have a novel mechanism of suppression. The fact that mutations in smg genes can ameliorate the phenotype of sel-12 alleles with amber PTCs suggests that some read-through of sel-12(amber) alleles occurs in smg backgrounds. PMID:19302704

  6. Effects of the Nanoparticle-Based Vaccine, SEL-068, on Nicotine Discrimination in Squirrel Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Rajeev I; Bergman, Jack

    2015-01-01

    A key feature of addiction to nicotine likely resides in its ability to produce subjective effects that, in turn, may be reflected in its discriminative-stimulus properties. Vaccination against such effects of nicotine offers an intriguing therapeutic approach for smoking cessation, but a reliably effective and immunologically safe vaccine remains to be identified. Here we report on the ability of SEL-068, a nanoparticle-based vaccine that targets nicotine, to modify the discriminative-stimulus effects of nicotine in a primate species. Results indicate that squirrel monkeys vaccinated with SEL-068 failed to acquire 0.1 mg/kg nicotine discrimination but readily learned to discriminate 0.001 mg/kg of the nicotinic full agonist (+)-epibatidine ((+)-EPI). After (+)-EPI training, doses of nicotine ⩾0.32 mg/kg, which produced behaviorally adverse actions, still failed to substitute for the (+)-EPI training stimulus in immunized monkeys, whereas (+)-EPI and the partial agonist varenicline engendered, respectively, complete and partial substitution in all monkeys with potency comparable to their potency in non-immunized subjects. In other subjects, nicotine was trained as a discriminative-stimulus and then replaced by (+)-EPI. Subsequent vaccination with SEL-068 led to a threefold and long-lasting (>30 weeks) decrease in the potency of nicotine but not (+)-EPI or varenicline. Collectively, our results show that SEL-068 can block the development of nicotine discrimination and attenuate nicotine's effects in nicotine-experienced monkeys without altering the discriminative-stimulus properties of other nicotinic drugs. The difference in the vaccine's effects in naive and nicotine-experienced subjects provides important insight into the conditions under which immunotherapy may be effective in combating nicotine addiction. PMID:25742871

  7. Effects of the Nanoparticle-Based Vaccine, SEL-068, on Nicotine Discrimination in Squirrel Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Desai, Rajeev I; Bergman, Jack

    2015-08-01

    A key feature of addiction to nicotine likely resides in its ability to produce subjective effects that, in turn, may be reflected in its discriminative-stimulus properties. Vaccination against such effects of nicotine offers an intriguing therapeutic approach for smoking cessation, but a reliably effective and immunologically safe vaccine remains to be identified. Here we report on the ability of SEL-068, a nanoparticle-based vaccine that targets nicotine, to modify the discriminative-stimulus effects of nicotine in a primate species. Results indicate that squirrel monkeys vaccinated with SEL-068 failed to acquire 0.1 mg/kg nicotine discrimination but readily learned to discriminate 0.001 mg/kg of the nicotinic full agonist (+)-epibatidine ((+)-EPI). After (+)-EPI training, doses of nicotine ⩾ 0.32 mg/kg, which produced behaviorally adverse actions, still failed to substitute for the (+)-EPI training stimulus in immunized monkeys, whereas (+)-EPI and the partial agonist varenicline engendered, respectively, complete and partial substitution in all monkeys with potency comparable to their potency in non-immunized subjects. In other subjects, nicotine was trained as a discriminative-stimulus and then replaced by (+)-EPI. Subsequent vaccination with SEL-068 led to a threefold and long-lasting (>30 weeks) decrease in the potency of nicotine but not (+)-EPI or varenicline. Collectively, our results show that SEL-068 can block the development of nicotine discrimination and attenuate nicotine's effects in nicotine-experienced monkeys without altering the discriminative-stimulus properties of other nicotinic drugs. The difference in the vaccine's effects in naive and nicotine-experienced subjects provides important insight into the conditions under which immunotherapy may be effective in combating nicotine addiction.

  8. SelR reverses Mical-mediated oxidation of actin to regulate F-actin dynamics.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ruei-Jiun; Spaeth, Christopher S; Yesilyurt, Hunkar Gizem; Terman, Jonathan R

    2013-12-01

    Actin's polymerization properties are markedly altered by oxidation of its conserved Met 44 residue. Mediating this effect is a specific oxidation-reduction (redox) enzyme, Mical, that works with Semaphorin repulsive guidance cues and selectively oxidizes Met 44. We now find that this actin-regulatory process is reversible. Employing a genetic approach, we identified a specific methionine sulfoxide reductase (MsrB) enzyme SelR that opposes Mical redox activity and Semaphorin-Plexin repulsion to direct multiple actin-dependent cellular behaviours in vivo. SelR specifically catalyses the reduction of the R isomer of methionine sulfoxide (methionine-R-sulfoxide) to methionine, and we found that SelR directly reduced Mical-oxidized actin, restoring its normal polymerization properties. These results indicate that Mical oxidizes actin stereospecifically to generate actin Met-44-R-sulfoxide (actin(Met(R)O-44)), and also implicate the interconversion of specific Met/Met(R)O residues as a precise means to modulate protein function. Our results therefore uncover a specific reversible redox actin regulatory system that controls cell and developmental biology.

  9. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the mRNA-binding domain of elongation factor SelB in complex with RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Rasubala, Linda; Fourmy, Dominique; Ose, Toyoyuki; Kohda, Daisuke; Maenaka, Katsumi Yoshizawa, Satoko

    2005-03-01

    The mRNA-binding domain of M. thermoacetica selenocysteine-specific elongation factor SelB (residues 512–634, SelB-M) was overproduced in E. coli and its cognate mRNA ligand, 23 nucleotides of the SECIS RNA hairpin, was chemically prepared. The purified SelB-M–SECIS RNA complex has been crystallized in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 and diffracted to 2.3 Å.

  10. The Fast Spiral-SelMQC Technique for In Vivo MR Spectroscopic Imaging of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA) in Human Breast Tissue‡

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, He; Rubin, Denis; He, Qiuhong

    2011-01-01

    The Selective Multiple-Quantum Coherence Transfer (Sel-MQC) method has been applied to image polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) distributions in human breast tissues in vivo for cancer detection, with complete suppression of the unwanted lipid and water signals in a single scan. The Cartesian k-space mapping of PUFA in vivo using the Sel-MQC CSI technique, however, requires excessive MR scan time. In this article, we report a fast Spiral-SelMQC sequence employing a rapid spiral k-space sampling scheme. The Spiral-SelMQC images of PUFA distribution in human breast were acquired using two-interleaved spirals on a 3T GE Signa MRI scanner. Approximately 160-fold reduction of acquisition time was observed as compared to the corresponding Sel-MQC CSI method with an equivalent number of scans, permitting acquisition of high-resolution PUFA images in minutes. The reconstructed Spiral-SelMQC PUFA images of human breast tissues achieved a sub-millimeter resolution of 0.54×0.54 or 0.63×0.63mm2/pixel for FOV = 14 or 16cm, respectively. The Spiral-SelMQC parameters for PUFA detection were optimized in 2D Sel-MQC experiments to suppress monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and other lipid signals. The fast in vivo Spiral-SelMQC imaging method will be applied to study human breast cancer and other human diseases in extracranial organs. PMID:22028250

  11. Effect of particle size of rice flour on physical and sensory properties of Sel-roti.

    PubMed

    Subba, Dilip; Katawal, Surendra Bahadur

    2013-02-01

    Sel-roti is a delicious, deep-fat fried, puffed, ring shaped spongy doughnut like Nepalese indigenous food prepared from the batter of rice flour, ghee and sugar. A study was conducted to determine the effect of particle size of rice flour on bulk density, oil uptake and texture of Sel-roti. Rice was soaked in water and ground with the help of iron mortar and pestle and the flour was analyzed for particle size distribution by using standard sieves and separated into three particle size categories as coarse (> 890 u), medium (120-890 u) and fine (< 120 u). The rice flour of different particle sizes were mixed in different proportions and Sel-roti was prepared from these flours. Bulk density and oil uptake were determined and sensory test was carried out. The results showed significant good positive correlation between mean particle size and bulk density (r = 0.97, p ≤ 0.05) and a good negative correlation between mean particle size and oil-uptake (r = 0.90, p ≤ 0.05). Good positive correlation of mean particle size with texture attributes like hardness (r = 0.99, p ≤ 0.05) and fracturability (r = 0.96, p ≤ 0.05) and good negative correlation with smoothness (r  = -0.97, p ≤ 0.05), cohesiveness (r = -0.92, p ≤ 0.05), stickiness (r = -0.76, p ≤ 0.05) and oily mouth feel (r = -0.85, p ≤ 0.05) and fair positive correlation with chewiness (r = 0.65, p > 0.05) were found. PMID:24425906

  12. Comparative evaluation of volatiles, phenolics, sugars, organic acids and antioxidant properties of Sel-42 and Tainung papaya varieties.

    PubMed

    Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan; Gubbuk, Hamide; Gunes, Esma

    2015-04-15

    The present study was designed to determine the phenolic compounds, organic acids, sugars, aroma profiles and antioxidant properties of Sel-42 and Tainung papayas grown in Turkey. High-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method was used for the phenolic compounds analysis. Twelve phenolic compounds were identified and quantified in the samples. The total phenolic content of Sel-42 was clearly higher than that of Tainung. Protocatechuic acid-hexoside, gallic acid-deoxyhexoside, ferulic acid and chlorogenic acids were the most abundant phenolics in both cultivars. Aroma composition of papaya was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 46 and 42 aroma compounds, including esters, alcohols, terpenes, lactones, acids, carbonyl compounds, and volatile phenols were identified in the Sel-42 and Tainung, respectively. The significant linear correlation was confirmed between the values for the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of papaya extracts.

  13. An Integrated Approach to Universal Prevention: Independent and Combined Effects of PBIS and SEL on Youths’ Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Clayton R.; Frye, Megan; Slemrod, Tal; Lyon, Aaron R.; Renshaw, Tyler L.; Zhang, Yanchen

    2015-01-01

    Mental health among children and adolescents is a growing national concern and schools have taken center stage in efforts to prevent problems and promote wellness. Although research and policymakers support the integration of mental health services into the schools, there is limited agreement on the ways to package or combine existing supports to achieve prevention-oriented goals. Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) and Social Emotional Learning (SEL) are two of the most widely-adopted, evidence-based approaches that have been advocated to address student mental health. These universal prevention approaches, however, stem from different theoretical camps and are often advocated and implemented apart from one another. The purpose of this study was to examine the independent and combined effects of PBIS and SEL on student mental health outcomes. A quasi-randomized control design at the classroom-level was used to make comparisons across four conditions: business-as-usual (BAU), PBIS alone, SEL alone, and COMBO condition with regard to their acceptability to teachers, integrity of program delivery, and student outcomes. As predicted, the COMBO condition produced significantly greater improvements in overall mental health and reductions in externalizing behaviors when compared to all other conditions. The results also indicated that the PBIS and SEL only conditions were both able to produce significant improvements in overall mental health functioning as compared to the BAU control. The implications of an integrated approach for school-based universal prevention and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25602629

  14. An integrated approach to universal prevention: Independent and combined effects of PBIS and SEL on youths' mental health.

    PubMed

    Cook, Clayton R; Frye, Megan; Slemrod, Tal; Lyon, Aaron R; Renshaw, Tyler L; Zhang, Yanchen

    2015-06-01

    Mental health among children and adolescents is a growing national concern and schools have taken center stage in efforts to prevent problems and promote wellness. Although research and policymakers support the integration of mental health services into the schools, there is limited agreement on the ways to package or combine existing supports to achieve prevention-oriented goals. Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) and Social Emotional Learning (SEL) are 2 of the most widely adopted, evidence-based approaches that have been advocated to address student mental health. These universal prevention approaches, however, stem from different theoretical camps and are often advocated and implemented apart from one another. The purpose of this study was to examine the independent and combined effects of PBIS and SEL on student mental health outcomes. A quasi-randomized control design at the classroom level was used to make comparisons across 4 conditions: business-as-usual (BAU), PBIS alone, SEL alone, and COMBO condition with regard to their acceptability to teachers, integrity of program delivery, and student outcomes. As predicted, the COMBO condition produced significantly greater improvements in overall mental health and reductions in externalizing behaviors when compared to all other conditions. The results also indicated that the PBIS- and SEL-only conditions were both able to produce significant improvements in overall mental health functioning as compared with the BAU control. The implications of an integrated approach for school-based universal prevention and directions for future research are discussed.

  15. Safe and Sound: An Educational Leader's Guide to Evidence-Based Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) Programs. Illinois Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (NJ1), 2005

    2005-01-01

    Based on a three-year study funded by the Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools (OSDFS) in the U.S. Department of Education, "Safe and Sound" is a comprehensive and inclusive guide for social and emotional learning (SEL) programming. The guide provides a road map for schools and districts that are launching or adding social, emotional, and academic…

  16. Holding the Line: Sustaining an SEL-Driven Whole-School Approach in a Time of Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasler, Jonathan; Elias, Maurice J.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, a growing body of research has focused on the sustainability of evidence-based interventions aimed at promoting the social emotional and character development of children (SEL) and preventing or reducing problem behaviors in schools. Current discussions of systemic reform in the education system address the capacity of individual schools…

  17. Multi-processing control system for the SEL 840MP (MPCS/1) users guide. Volume 1: Programming guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A programmer's manual is presented for the SEL 840MP multiprocessing control system MPCS. The topics discussed include task control; defining displays; MPCS calls for task control functions; MPCS calls and system interfaces for display functions; MPCS calls for input/output functions and services, file management, and utility services; and MPCS assembly language call sequence summary.

  18. SEL1L SNP rs12435998, a predictor of glioblastoma survival and response to radio-chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Storaci, Alessandra Maria; Annovazzi, Laura; Cassoni, Paola; Melcarne, Antonio; De Blasio, Pasquale; Schiffer, Davide; Biunno, Ida

    2015-01-01

    The suppressor of Lin-12-like (C. elegans) (SEL1L) is involved in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation pathway, malignant transformation and stem cells. In 412 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded brain tumors and 39 Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell lines, we determined the frequency of five SEL1L single nucleotide genetic variants with regulatory and coding functions by a SNaPShot™ assay. We tested their possible association with brain tumor risk, prognosis and therapy. We studied the in vitro cytotoxicity of valproic acid (VPA), temozolomide (TMZ), doxorubicin (DOX) and paclitaxel (PTX), alone or in combination, on 11 GBM cell lines, with respect to the SNP rs12435998 genotype. The SNP rs12435998 was prevalent in anaplastic and malignant gliomas, and in meningiomas of all histologic grades, but unrelated to brain tumor risks. In GBM patients, the SNP rs12435998 was associated with prolonged overall survival (OS) and better response to TMZ-based radio-chemotherapy. GBM stem cells with this SNP showed lower levels of SEL1L expression and enhanced sensitivity to VPA. PMID:25948789

  19. SelR/MsrB Reverses Mical-mediated Oxidation of Actin to Regulate F-actin Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Ruei-Jiun; Spaeth, Christopher S.; Yesilyurt, Hunkar Gizem; Terman, Jonathan R.

    2014-01-01

    Actin's polymerization properties are dramatically altered by oxidation of its conserved methionine (Met)-44 residue. Mediating this effect is a specific oxidation-reduction (Redox) enzyme, Mical, that works with Semaphorin repulsive guidance cues and selectively oxidizes Met-44. We now find that this actin regulatory process is reversible. Employing a genetic approach, we identified a specific methionine sulfoxide reductase enzyme SelR that opposes Mical Redox activity and Semaphorin/Plexin repulsion to direct multiple actin-dependent cellular behaviors in vivo. SelR specifically catalyzes the reduction of the R-isomer of methionine sulfoxide (methionine-R-sulfoxide) to methionine, and we found that SelR directly reduced Mical-oxidized actin, restoring its normal polymerization properties. These results indicate that Mical oxidizes actin stereo-specifically to generate actin Met-44-R-sulfoxide (actinMet(R)O-44) – and they also implicate the interconversion of specific Met/Met(R)O residues as a precise means to modulate protein function. Our results therefore uncover a specific reversible Redox actin regulatory system that controls cell and developmental biology. PMID:24212093

  20. Hardening techniques to counter cumulated dose on SEU and SEL in space environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessot, D.

    1991-04-01

    The total dose effect of space particles acting on semiconductor devices by creating charges in the silicon and the silicon dioxide and by creating displacement damage, from the beginning of charge creation to the parameter shifts, is reviewed. Detailed investigations on three phenomena are described: the Single Event Upset (SEU) caused by the heavy ions and the protons which come from the galactic rays and resulting in a transient upset of a critical node voltage; the Single Event Latchup (SEL) caused by the galactic and solar flares cosmic heavy ions and which may be destructive; the displacement damage induced by high energy trapped protons lying in the radiation belts (Van Allen), which involves the creation of permanent defaults over time which act on the mean carrier life, the carrier mobility and the resistivity, thus increasing either generation or recombination rate. These studies allow definition of techniques for the design and fabrication of circuits that are the least vulnerable to radiation. Simulation and test give guarantee that these new techniques assure the margins of the desired specification in space applications.

  1. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the mRNA-binding domain of elongation factor SelB from Escherichia coli in complex with RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, Nicolas; Fourmy, Dominique; Yoshizawa, Satoko

    2007-05-01

    The mRNA-binding domain of E. coli selenocysteine-specific elongation factor SelB (residues 478–614; SelB-WH3/4) was overproduced in E. coli and its cognate mRNA ligand, 23 nucleotides of the SECIS RNA hairpin, was prepared by in vitro transcription. The purified SelB-WH3/4–SECIS RNA complex crystallized in space group C2 and diffracted to 2.3 Å. In bacteria, selenocysteine (the 21st amino acid) is incorporated into proteins via machinery that includes SelB, a specific translational elongation factor. SelB binds to an mRNA hairpin called the selenocysteine-insertion sequence (SECIS) and delivers selenocysteyl-tRNA{sup Sec} to the ribosomal A site. The minimum C-terminal fragment (residues 478–614) of Escherichia coli SelB (SelB-WH3/4) required for SECIS binding has been overexpressed and purified. This protein was crystallized in complex with 23 nucleotides of the SECIS hairpin at 294 K using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. A data set was collected to 2.3 Å resolution from a single crystal at 100 K using ESRF beamline BM-30. The crystal belongs to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 103.50, b = 56.51, c = 48.41 Å. The asymmetric unit contains one WH3/4-domain–RNA complex. The Matthews coefficient was calculated to be 3.37 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and the solvent content was estimated to be 67.4%.

  2. The Sel1L-Hrd1 Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation Complex Manages a Key Checkpoint in B Cell Development.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yewei; Kim, Hana; Yang, Liu; Sha, Haibo; Roman, Christopher A; Long, Qiaoming; Qi, Ling

    2016-09-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) is a principal mechanism that targets ER-associated proteins for cytosolic proteasomal degradation. Here, our data demonstrate a critical role for the Sel1L-Hrd1 complex, the most conserved branch of ERAD, in early B cell development. Loss of Sel1L-Hrd1 ERAD in B cell precursors leads to a severe developmental block at the transition from large to small pre-B cells. Mechanistically, we show that Sel1L-Hrd1 ERAD selectively recognizes and targets the pre-B cell receptor (pre-BCR) for proteasomal degradation in a BiP-dependent manner. The pre-BCR complex accumulates both intracellularly and at the cell surface in Sel1L-deficient pre-B cells, leading to persistent pre-BCR signaling and pre-B cell proliferation. This study thus implicates ERAD mediated by Sel1L-Hrd1 as a key regulator of B cell development and reveals the molecular mechanism underpinning the transient nature of pre-BCR signaling. PMID:27568564

  3. The limits of applicability of the sound exposure level (SEL) metric to temporal threshold shifts (TTS) in beluga whales, Delphinapterus leucas.

    PubMed

    Popov, Vladimir V; Supin, Alexander Ya; Rozhnov, Viatcheslav V; Nechaev, Dmitry I; Sysueva, Evgenia V

    2014-05-15

    The influence of fatiguing sound level and duration on post-exposure temporary threshold shift (TTS) was investigated in two beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas). The fatiguing sound was half-octave noise with a center frequency of 22.5 kHz. TTS was measured at a test frequency of 32 kHz. Thresholds were measured by recording rhythmic evoked potentials (the envelope following response) to a test series of short (eight cycles) tone pips with a pip rate of 1000 s(-1). TTS increased approximately proportionally to the dB measure of both sound pressure (sound pressure level, SPL) and duration of the fatiguing noise, as a product of these two variables. In particular, when the noise parameters varied in a manner that maintained the product of squared sound pressure and time (sound exposure level, SEL, which is equivalent to the overall noise energy) at a constant level, TTS was not constant. Keeping SEL constant, the highest TTS appeared at an intermediate ratio of SPL to sound duration and decreased at both higher and lower ratios. Multiplication (SPL multiplied by log duration) better described the experimental data than an equal-energy (equal SEL) model. The use of SEL as a sole universal metric may result in an implausible assessment of the impact of a fatiguing sound on hearing thresholds in odontocetes, including under-evaluation of potential risks.

  4. Deficiency of Suppressor Enhancer Lin12 1 Like (SEL1L) in Mice Leads to Systemic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Embryonic Lethality*

    PubMed Central

    Francisco, Adam B.; Singh, Rajni; Li, Shuai; Vani, Anish K.; Yang, Liu; Munroe, Robert J.; Diaferia, Giuseppe; Cardano, Marina; Biunno, Ida; Qi, Ling; Schimenti, John C.; Long, Qiaoming

    2010-01-01

    Stress in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays an important causal role in the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases such as Alzheimer, Parkinson, and diabetes mellitus. Insight into the genetic determinants responsible for ER homeostasis will greatly facilitate the development of therapeutic strategies for the treatment of these debilitating diseases. Suppressor enhancer Lin12 1 like (SEL1L) is an ER membrane protein and was thought to be involved in the quality control of secreted proteins. Here we show that the mice homozygous mutant for SEL1L were embryonic lethal. Electron microscopy studies revealed a severely dilated ER in the fetal liver of mutant embryos, indicative of alteration in ER homeostasis. Consistent with this, several ER stress responsive genes were significantly up-regulated in the mutant embryos. Mouse embryonic fibroblast cells deficient in SEL1L exhibited activated unfolded protein response at the basal state, impaired ER-associated protein degradation, and reduced protein secretion. Furthermore, markedly increased apoptosis was observed in the forebrain and dorsal root ganglions of mutant embryos. Taken together, our results demonstrate an essential role for SEL1L in protein quality control during mouse embryonic development. PMID:20197277

  5. The limits of applicability of the sound exposure level (SEL) metric to temporal threshold shifts (TTS) in beluga whales, Delphinapterus leucas.

    PubMed

    Popov, Vladimir V; Supin, Alexander Ya; Rozhnov, Viatcheslav V; Nechaev, Dmitry I; Sysueva, Evgenia V

    2014-05-15

    The influence of fatiguing sound level and duration on post-exposure temporary threshold shift (TTS) was investigated in two beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas). The fatiguing sound was half-octave noise with a center frequency of 22.5 kHz. TTS was measured at a test frequency of 32 kHz. Thresholds were measured by recording rhythmic evoked potentials (the envelope following response) to a test series of short (eight cycles) tone pips with a pip rate of 1000 s(-1). TTS increased approximately proportionally to the dB measure of both sound pressure (sound pressure level, SPL) and duration of the fatiguing noise, as a product of these two variables. In particular, when the noise parameters varied in a manner that maintained the product of squared sound pressure and time (sound exposure level, SEL, which is equivalent to the overall noise energy) at a constant level, TTS was not constant. Keeping SEL constant, the highest TTS appeared at an intermediate ratio of SPL to sound duration and decreased at both higher and lower ratios. Multiplication (SPL multiplied by log duration) better described the experimental data than an equal-energy (equal SEL) model. The use of SEL as a sole universal metric may result in an implausible assessment of the impact of a fatiguing sound on hearing thresholds in odontocetes, including under-evaluation of potential risks. PMID:24829327

  6. Inactivation of the selB Gene in Methanococcus maripaludis: Effect on Synthesis of Selenoproteins and Their Sulfur-Containing Homologs

    PubMed Central

    Rother, Michael; Mathes, Isabella; Lottspeich, Friedrich; Böck, August

    2003-01-01

    The genome of Methanococcus maripaludis harbors genes for at least six selenocysteine-containing proteins and also for homologs that contain a cysteine codon in the position of the UGA selenocysteine codon. To investigate the synthesis and function of both the Se and the S forms, a mutant with an inactivated selB gene was constructed and analyzed. The mutant was unable to synthesize any of the selenoproteins, thus proving that the gene product is the archaeal translation factor (aSelB) specialized for selenocysteine insertion. The wild-type form of M. maripaludis repressed the synthesis of the S forms of selenoproteins, i.e., the selenium-independent alternative system, in selenium-enriched medium, but the mutant did not. We concluded that free selenium is not involved in regulation but rather a successional compound such as selenocysteyl-tRNA or some selenoprotein. Apart from the S forms, several enzymes from the general methanogenic route were affected by selenium supplementation of the wild type or by the selB mutation. Although the growth of M. maripaludis on H2/CO2 is only marginally affected by the selB lesion, the gene is indispensable for growth on formate because M. maripaludis possesses only a selenocysteine-containing formate dehydrogenase. PMID:12486046

  7. SEL, a Selective Enrichment Broth for Simultaneous Growth of Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyochin; Bhunia, Arun K.

    2008-01-01

    Multipathogen detection on a single-assay platform not only reduces the cost for testing but also provides data on the presence of pathogens in a single experiment. To achieve this detection, a multipathogen selective enrichment medium is essential to allow the concurrent growth of pathogens. SEL broth was formulated to allow the simultaneous growth of Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes. The results were compared to those obtained with the respective individual selective enrichment broths, Rappaport-Vassiliadis (RV) for S. enterica, modified E. coli broth with 20 mg of novobiocin/liter for E. coli O157:H7, and Fraser broth for L. monocytogenes, and a currently used universal preenrichment broth (UPB). The growth of each pathogen in SEL inoculated at 101 or 103 CFU/ml was superior to that in the respective individual enrichment broth, except in the case of RV, in which Salmonella cells inoculated at both concentrations grew equally well. In mixed-culture experiments with cells of the three species present in equal concentrations or at a 1:10:1,000 ratio, the overall growth was proportional to the initial inoculation levels; however, the growth of L. monocytogenes was markedly suppressed when cells of this species were present at lower concentrations than those of the other two species. Further, SEL was able to resuscitate acid- and cold-stressed cells, and recovery was comparable to that in nonselective tryptic soy broth containing 6% yeast extract but superior to that in the respective individual selective broths. SEL promoted the growth of all three pathogens in a mixture in ready-to-eat salami and in turkey meat samples. Moreover, each pathogen was readily detected by a pathogen-specific immunochromatographic lateral-flow or multiplex PCR assay. Even though the growth of each pathogen in SEL was comparable to that in UPB, SEL inhibited greater numbers of nontarget organisms than did UPB. In summary, SEL was demonstrated to

  8. Software Transition Project Retrospectives and the Application of SEL Effort Estimation Model and Boehm's COCOMO to Complex Software Transition Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNeill, Justin

    1995-01-01

    The Multimission Image Processing Subsystem (MIPS) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has managed transitions of application software sets from one operating system and hardware platform to multiple operating systems and hardware platforms. As a part of these transitions, cost estimates were generated from the personal experience of in-house developers and managers to calculate the total effort required for such projects. Productivity measures have been collected for two such transitions, one very large and the other relatively small in terms of source lines of code. These estimates used a cost estimation model similar to the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) Effort Estimation Model. Experience in transitioning software within JPL MIPS have uncovered a high incidence of interface complexity. Interfaces, both internal and external to individual software applications, have contributed to software transition project complexity, and thus to scheduling difficulties and larger than anticipated design work on software to be ported.

  9. Hydrogeochemical investigation of Küçük Menderes River coastal wetland, Selçuk-Izmir, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somay, A. Melis; Gemici, Ünsal; Filiz, Sevki

    2008-07-01

    Küçük Menderes River forms a rich coastal wetland inside in the Selçuk plain. Three saline/brackish lakes, one swamp and Küçük Menderes River are these wetlands’ components. Alkaline-slightly alkaline type lakes are recharged from precipitation and karstic springs that discharge from marble-schist and marble-alluvium contacts in the northern and southern parts of the study area. Water types of the wetland are Na-Cl and Na-Ca-Mg-HCO3-Cl in both rainy and dry seasons. Both seawater intrusion and evaporation, as being the sources of the ions, justify the presence of Na-Cl, Na-SO4 and Cl-SO4, in the wetland water. Environmental isotopes were used to identify the relationship between wetland and groundwater in the Selçuk plain. The δ18O and δD composition of wetland area samples have changed between -6.42 to -4.56‰, and -36.40 to -23.80‰, respectively. The lakes and rivers are plotted on the mixing line by slope of 5.2 and these data indicate that wetland is affected from seawater intrusion. The recharge area that was sampled in order to compare the wetland has Ca-HCO3 water type with a neutral-slightly alkaline pH values and the main hydrogeochemical process is weathering the different types of silicates. Iron, manganese and selenium are the dominant minor ions due to the high biological activities and organic matters in the lakes. There are two contamination risks for this wetland: (1) waste disposal site and (2) water treatment plant where the purified waters are released into the river. EC, Al, As, Cd, Cu, Fe and Zn values exceed those of aquatic life standards. In the near future these sites will pose a danger for wetland wild life and surrounding irrigation water suppliers.

  10. Selenium Supplementation in Fish: A Combined Chemical and Biomolecular Study to Understand Sel-Plex Assimilation and Impact on Selenoproteome Expression in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    Sweetman, John; Martin, Samuel A. M.; Feldmann, Jörg; Secombes, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Selenium (Se) is an essential oligonutrient, as a component of several Se-containing proteins (selenoproteins), which exert important biological functions within an organism. In livestock, Se-enriched products have been proposed as dietary supplements to be included into functional feeds for animal preventive health care. To this end, it is important to understand the optimal range of concentrations for supplementation and how long it takes to be assimilated into the organism. Methods In this study, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were fed a control diet containing 0.9 g Kg-1 Se or the same diet supplemented with a Se-Yeast product (Sel-Plex) to achieve Se concentrations ranging from 1.5–8.9 g Kg-1 for a period of ten weeks. Fish were sampled every two weeks for analysis. The kinetics of Se bioaccumulation and the effects on fish selenoprotein expression was determined in different tissues combining chemical and bimolecular techniques. Results The Sel-Plex enriched diets did not have any effect on survival and growth performance. The highest Se levels were found in liver and kidney followed by muscle and blood cells. Analysis of the Se concentration factor showed that liver is able to initially regulate the amount of Se accumulated. However, with higher dietary Se level (4.8 and 8.9 g Kg-1) and longer times of exposure (10 weeks), regulation is ineffective and the Se tissue concentration increases. The expression of the selected trout selenoprotein transcripts showed an inverse correlation with Sel-Plex augmentation in most cases. In liver, kidney and blood cells the highest up-regulation of the trout selenoprotein genes was seen mostly in the group fed the diet enriched with the lowest concentration of Sel-Plex (0.5 g Kg-1) for 10 weeks. Conclusion Sel-Plex may represent an excellent Se supplement to deliver a high level of Se without provoking harm to the fish and to guarantee the maximal absorption of the element. According to our results, a

  11. [cDNA cloning, expression and determination of substrate specificity of mice selenocysteine-containing protein SelV (Selenoprotein V)].

    PubMed

    Varlamova, E G; Novoselov, S V; Novoselov, V I

    2015-01-01

    To date various bioinformatics tools allowed to identify 25 selenocysteine-containing mammalian proteins. The name of these proteins assumes that they contain the amino acid selenocysteine (Sec). Functionally characterized selenocysteine-containing proteins are oxidoreductases with various functions, including glutathione peroxidases, thioredoxin reductases, deiodinases etc. However, the functions of more than half of identified proteins are still unclear, and mammalian selenoprotein SeIV is among them. We studied the selV in all stages of postnatal development with the maximum level of mRNA expression during puberty, whereas in adult mice (8-18 months) we observed a gradual decrease of expression. In order to get closer to the functional role of Selenoprotein V, we have carried out experiments on the substrate specificity and enzymatic activity measurement of this selenocysteine-containing protein. It was shown that SelV posseses glutathionperoxidase and thioredoxinreductase activities. PMID:26510596

  12. Rétention de sels simples par une membrane chargée d'ultrafiltration à base d'alumine gamma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benalla, R.; Persin, M.; Toreis, N.; Sarrazin, J.; Larbot, A.; Bouhaouss, A.

    1999-09-01

    Filtration of different electrolytes solutions was performed by means of a γ alumina ultrafiltration membrane. The experimental determination of the rejection rate for the salts leads to their phenomenologic parameters σ and P. The observed rejection are in agreement with a Donnan mechanism of exclusion of the coion outside of the membrane pore. Une membrane d'ultrafiltration en alumine γ a été utilisée pour la filtration de différentes solutions salines. Les rétentions des différents sels ont été d'abord mesurées à l'aide de cette membrane puis les coefficients de réflexion σ et les perméabilités P pour chaque sel ont été déterminées. La rétention des sels peut être expliquée par un mécanisme d'exclusion de type Donnan.

  13. PPR protein PDM1/SEL1 is involved in RNA editing and splicing of plastid genes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Dao; Cui, Yong-Lan; Huang, Chao; Yin, Qian-Qian; Qin, Xue-Mei; Xu, Te; He, Xiao-Fang; Zhang, Yi; Li, Zi-Ran; Yang, Zhong-Nan

    2015-12-01

    After transcription, most chloroplast precursor RNAs undergo further post-transcriptional processing including cleavage, editing, and splicing. Previous investigation has shown that the cleavage of the rpoA transcript and most editing sites, including accD-1, are defective in the knockout mutant of PDM1/SEL1, a PLS-type PPR protein, and that PDM1 is associated with the rpoA transcript. In this work, we found that the splicing of group II introns in trnK and ndhA is also affected in pdm1. Co-immunoprecipitation mass spectrometry experiments were performed to identify proteins that are associated with PDM1. We obtained 126 non-redundant proteins, of which MORF9 was reported to be involved in RNA editing in chloroplast. Yeast two-hybrid assays showed that PDM1 interacts directly with MORF9, MORF2, and MORF8. RNA immunoprecipitation showed that PDM1 associates with the transcripts of trnK and ndhA, as well as accD-1, suggesting that PDM1 is involved in RNA editing and splicing. Therefore, PDM1 is an important protein for post-transcriptional regulation in chloroplast.

  14. SelTarbase, a database of human mononucleotide-microsatellite mutations and their potential impact to tumorigenesis and immunology.

    PubMed

    Woerner, Stefan M; Yuan, Yan P; Benner, Axel; Korff, Sebastian; von Knebel Doeberitz, Magnus; Bork, Peer

    2010-01-01

    About 15% of human colorectal cancers and, at varying degrees, other tumor entities as well as nearly all tumors related to Lynch syndrome are hallmarked by microsatellite instability (MSI) as a result of a defective mismatch repair system. The functional impact of resulting mutations depends on their genomic localization. Alterations within coding mononucleotide repeat tracts (MNRs) can lead to protein truncation and formation of neopeptides, whereas alterations within untranslated MNRs can alter transcription level or transcript stability. These mutations may provide selective advantage or disadvantage to affected cells. They may further concern the biology of microsatellite unstable cells, e.g. by generating immunogenic peptides induced by frameshifts mutations. The Selective Targets database (http://www.seltarbase.org) is a curated database of a growing number of public MNR mutation data in microsatellite unstable human tumors. Regression calculations for various MSI-H tumor entities indicating statistically deviant mutation frequencies predict TGFBR2, BAX, ACVR2A and others that are shown or highly suspected to be involved in MSI tumorigenesis. Many useful tools for further analyzing genomic DNA, derived wild-type and mutated cDNAs and peptides are integrated. A comprehensive database of all human coding, untranslated, non-coding RNA- and intronic MNRs (MNR_ensembl) is also included. Herewith, SelTarbase presents as a plenty instrument for MSI-carcinogenesis-related research, diagnostics and therapy. PMID:19820113

  15. The polyamine oxidase from lycophyte Selaginella lepidophylla (SelPAO5), unlike that of angiosperms, back-converts thermospermine to norspermidine.

    PubMed

    Sagor, G H M; Inoue, Masataka; Kim, Dong Wook; Kojima, Seiji; Niitsu, Masaru; Berberich, Thomas; Kusano, Tomonobu

    2015-10-01

    In the phylogeny of plant polyamine oxidases (PAOs), clade III members from angiosperms, such as Arabidopsis thaliana PAO5 and Oryza sativa PAO1, prefer spermine and thermospermine as substrates and back-convert both of these substrates to spermidine in vitro. A clade III representative of lycophytes, SelPAO5 from Selaginella lepidophylla, also prefers spermine and thermospermine but instead back-converts these substrates to spermidine and norspermidine, respectively. This finding indicates that the clade III PAOs of lycophytes and angiosperms oxidize thermospermine at different carbon positions. We discuss the physiological significance of this difference.

  16. Sel1 repeat protein LpnE is a Legionella pneumophila virulence determinant that influences vacuolar trafficking.

    PubMed

    Newton, Hayley J; Sansom, Fiona M; Dao, Jenny; McAlister, Adrian D; Sloan, Joan; Cianciotto, Nicholas P; Hartland, Elizabeth L

    2007-12-01

    The environmental pathogen Legionella pneumophila possesses five proteins with Sel1 repeats (SLRs) from the tetratricopeptide repeat protein family. Three of these proteins, LpnE, EnhC, and LidL, have been implicated in the ability of L. pneumophila to efficiently establish infection and/or manipulate host cell trafficking events. Previously, we showed that LpnE is important for L. pneumophila entry into macrophages and epithelial cells. In further virulence studies here, we show that LpnE is also required for efficient infection of Acanthamoeba castellanii by L. pneumophila and for replication of L. pneumophila in the lungs of A/J mice. In addition, we found that the role of LpnE in host cell invasion is dependent on the eight SLR regions of the protein. A truncated form of LpnE lacking the two C-terminal SLR domains was unable to complement the invasion defect of an lpnE mutant of L. pneumophila 130b in both the A549 and THP-1 cell lines. The lpnE mutant displayed impaired avoidance of LAMP-1 association, suggesting that LpnE influenced trafficking of the L. pneumophila vacuole, similar to the case for EnhC and LidL. We also found that LpnE was present in L. pneumophila culture supernatants and that its export was independent of both the Lsp type II secretion system and the Dot/Icm type IV secretion system. The fact that LpnE was exported suggested that the protein may interact with a eukaryotic protein. Using LpnE as bait, we screened a HeLa cell cDNA library for interacting partners, using the yeast two-hybrid system. Examination of the protein-protein interaction between LpnE and a eukaryotic protein, obscurin-like protein 1, suggested that LpnE can interact with eukaryotic proteins containing immunoglobulin-like folds via the SLR regions. This investigation has further characterized the contribution of LpnE to L. pneumophila virulence and, more specifically, the importance of the SLR regions to LpnE function.

  17. Down-modulation of SEL1L, an unfolded protein response and endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation protein, sensitizes glioma stem cells to the cytotoxic effect of valproic acid.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Monica; Baronchelli, Simona; Schiffer, Davide; Mellai, Marta; Caldera, Valentina; Saccani, Gloria Jotti; Dalpra, Leda; Daga, Antonio; Orlandi, Rosaria; DeBlasio, Pasquale; Biunno, Ida

    2014-01-31

    Valproic acid (VPA), an histone deacetylase inhibitor, is emerging as a promising therapeutic agent for the treatments of gliomas by virtue of its ability to reactivate the expression of epigenetically silenced genes. VPA induces the unfolded protein response (UPR), an adaptive pathway displaying a dichotomic yin yang characteristic; it initially contributes in safeguarding the malignant cell survival, whereas long-lasting activation favors a proapoptotic response. By triggering UPR, VPA might tip the balance between cellular adaptation and programmed cell death via the deregulation of protein homeostasis and induction of proteotoxicity. Here we aimed to investigate the impact of proteostasis on glioma stem cells (GSC) using VPA treatment combined with subversion of SEL1L, a crucial protein involved in homeostatic pathways, cancer aggressiveness, and stem cell state maintenance. We investigated the global expression of GSC lines untreated and treated with VPA, SEL1L interference, and GSC line response to VPA treatment by analyzing cell viability via MTT assay, neurosphere formation, and endoplasmic reticulum stress/UPR-responsive proteins. Moreover, SEL1L immunohistochemistry was performed on primary glial tumors. The results show that (i) VPA affects GSC lines viability and anchorage-dependent growth by inducing differentiative programs and cell cycle progression, (ii) SEL1L down-modulation synergy enhances VPA cytotoxic effects by influencing GSCs proliferation and self-renewal properties, and (iii) SEL1L expression is indicative of glioma proliferation rate, malignancy, and endoplasmic reticulum stress statuses. Targeting the proteostasis network in association to VPA treatment may provide an alternative approach to deplete GSC and improve glioma treatments.

  18. La teneur en iode du sel de cuisine consommé à Lubumbashi et le statut iode des personnes vulnérables: cas de femmes enceintes de milieux défavorisés

    PubMed Central

    Banza, Bienvenue Ilunga; Lumbu, Jean Baptiste Simbi; Donnen, Philippe; Twite, Eugène Kabange; Kwete, Daniel Mikobi; Kazadi, Costa Mwadianvita; Ozoza, Jean Okolonken; Habimana, Laurence; Kalenga, Prosper Muenze Kayamba; Robert, Annie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction La consommation du sel faiblement iodé peut engendrer des troubles divers liés à la carence iodée Ce travail a pour objectif d’évaluer la teneur en iode du sel consommé à Lubumbashi et de déterminer le statut iodé des femmes enceintes, cible privilégiée de la carence iodée. Méthodes Une étude transversale descriptive a été consacrée à une analyse iodométrique d'iode dans 739 échantillons de sel collectés dans les ménages et marchés de Lubumbashi en 2014. Précédemment, l'iode urinaire a été déterminé par la technique de minéralisation au persulfate d'ammonium chez 225 femmes enceintes reçues en consultation du 15 mars 2009 au 25 avril 2011. Résultats Notre enquête a révélé 47,5% des échantillons de sels de cuisine adéquatement iodés (15 à 40 ppm), 36,9% d’échantillons faiblement iodés, 7,4% d’échantillons trop riches en iode et 8,1% des échantillons non iodés. La disponibilité en iode du sel de cuisine analysé était globalement de 54,9%, se trouvant nettement en dessous des normes OMS (90%). En mesurant l'iode urinaire chez la femme enceinte, la carence iodée (iode urinaire <150 µg/l) a été observée dans une proportion de 52%. Conclusion La faible disponibilité en iode du sel consommé à Lubumbashi pourrait être responsable d'une grande proportion de la carence iodée observée chez la femme enceinte, ce qui expose celle-ci aux risques majeurs des troubles dus à la carence en iode. PMID:27279956

  19. Polymorphisms in genes encoding antioxidant enzymes (SOD2, CAT, GPx, TXNRD, SEPP1, SEP15 and SELS) and risk of chronic kidney disease in Japanese - cross-sectional data from the J-MICC study.

    PubMed

    Hishida, Asahi; Okada, Rieko; Naito, Mariko; Morita, Emi; Wakai, Kenji; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Hosono, Satoyo; Nanri, Hinako; Turin, Tanvir Chowdhury; Suzuki, Sadao; Kuwabara, Kazuyo; Mikami, Haruo; Budhathoki, Sanjeev; Watanabe, Isao; Arisawa, Kokichi; Kubo, Michiaki; Tanaka, Hideo

    2013-07-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is well known as a strong risk factor for both of end-stage renal disease and cardiovascular disease. To clarify the association of polymorphisms in the genes encoding antioxidant enzymes (SOD2, CAT, GPx, TXNRD, SEPP1, SEP15 and SELS) with the risk of CKD in Japanese, we examined this association using the cross-sectional data of Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study. The subjects were 3,285 men and women, aged 35-69 years, selected from J-MICC Study participants for whom genotyping were conducted by multiplex polymerase chain reaction-based Invader assay. The prevalence of CKD was determined for CKD stages 3-5 (eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). When those with CAT C-262T C/C were defined as reference, those with CAT C-262T C/T demonstrated the OR for CKD of 0.67 (95% CI 0.43-1.06) with the marginally significant trend for decreased odds ratio with increasing numbers of T allele (p = 0.070). There were no significant associations between the other polymorphisms with CKD risk. The present study found a marginally significant trend of the decreased risk of CKD with increasing numbers of T allele of CAT, which may suggest the possibility of personalized risk estimation of this life-limiting disease in the near future.

  20. SEL Ada reuse analysis and representations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kester, Rush

    1990-01-01

    Overall, it was revealed that the pattern of Ada reuse has evolved from initial reuse of utility components into reuse of generalized application architectures. Utility components were both domain-independent utilities, such as queues and stacks, and domain-specific utilities, such as those that implement spacecraft orbit and attitude mathematical functions and physics or astronomical models. The level of reuse was significantly increased with the development of a generalized telemetry simulator architecture. The use of Ada generics significantly increased the level of verbatum reuse, which is due to the ability, using Ada generics, to parameterize the aspects of design that are configurable during reuse. A key factor in implementing generalized architectures was the ability to use generic subprogram parameters to tailor parts of the algorithm embedded within the architecture. The use of object oriented design (in which objects model real world entities) significantly improved the modularity for reuse. Encapsulating into packages the data and operations associated with common real world entities creates natural building blocks for reuse.

  1. An old paper revisited: "a mathematical model of carbohydrate energy metabolism. Interaction between glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and the H-transporting shuttles at varying ATPases load" by V.V. Dynnik, R. Heinrich and E.E. Sel'kov.

    PubMed

    Nazaret, Christine; Mazat, Jean-Pierre

    2008-06-01

    We revisit an old Russian paper by V.V. Dynnik, R. Heinrich and E.E. Sel'kov (1980a,b) describing: "A mathematical model of carbohydrate energy metabolism. Interaction between glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and the H-transporting shuttles at varying ATPases load". We analyse the model mathematically and calculate the control coefficients as a function of ATPase loads. We also evaluate the structure of the metabolic network in terms of elementary flux modes. We show how this model can respond to an ATPase load as well as to the glucose supply. We also show how this simple model can help in understanding the articulation between the major blocks of energetic metabolism, i.e. glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and the H-transporting shuttles.

  2. Acheii Bahane': Naaki Gone' Yiltsiligii II = Grandfather Stories: Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yellowhair, Marvin

    At one time all Navaho stories were handed down from generation to generation by word of mouth. Some stories were recorded and then trnsalated into English. In the process of translation, the stories often times lost their meaning. To avoid this, the second volume of "Grandfather Stories," which were told by elders living in the vicinity of Rough…

  3. Teaching Multiplication of Numbers from 1 to 10 to STKIP Surya Students Using Matematika GASING

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusuma, Josephine; Sulistiawati

    2014-01-01

    Multiplication of numbers from 1 to 10 is very important as it provides the basis for learning multiplication of other larger numbers as well as other related mathematical operations. How do students learn multiplication? Usually students just memorize the results of multiplication. This is often performed without a complete comprehension of the…

  4. Annotated bibliography of Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) literature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, D.

    1982-01-01

    An annotated bibliography of technical papers, documents, and memorandums produced by or related to the Software Engineering Laboratory is presented. More than 75 publications are summarized. An index of these publications by subject is also included. These publications cover many areas of software engineering and range from research reports to software documentation.

  5. Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) Ada performance study report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, Eric W.; Stark, Michael E.

    1991-01-01

    The goals of the Ada Performance Study are described. The methods used are explained. Guidelines for future Ada development efforts are given. The goals and scope of the study are detailed, and the background of Ada development in the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) is presented. The organization and overall purpose of each test are discussed. The purpose, methods, and results of each test and analyses of these results are given. Guidelines for future development efforts based on the analysis of results from this study are provided. The approach used on the performance tests is discussed.

  6. Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) compendium of tools, revision 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A set of programs used to aid software product development is listed. Known as software tools, such programs include requirements analyzers, design languages, precompilers, code auditors, code analyzers, and software librarians. Abstracts, resource requirements, documentation, processing summaries, and availability are indicated for most tools.

  7. Crystallization and X-ray analysis of the salmon-egg lectin SEL24K

    SciTech Connect

    Murata, Kenji; Fisher, Andrew J.; Hedrick, Jerry L.

    2007-05-01

    The 24 kDa egg lectin of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) was purified by affinity chromatography from salmon eggs and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method using 15/4 EO/OH (pentaerythritol ethoxylate) as a precipitant. The 24 kDa egg lectin of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) is released from the egg during the cortical reaction. The lectin functions in blocking polyspermy during the fertilization process. The egg lectin was purified by affinity chromatography from salmon eggs and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method using 15/4 EO/OH (pentaerythritol ethoxylate) as a precipitant. The crystal diffracted synchrotron-radiation X-rays to 1.63 Å resolution. The crystal belongs to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 93.0, b = 73.6, c = 113.6 Å, α = 90, β = 92.82, γ = 90°. The crystal is likely to contain eight molecules in the asymmetric unit (V{sub M} = 2.3 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}), corresponding to a solvent content of 45.5%. A self-rotation function suggests an arrangement with 222 point symmetry within the asymmetric unit.

  8. Usability Characteristics of Sel-Fadministered Computer-Assisted Interviewing in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, D. B.; Nakhasi, A.; Nelson, B.; Rice, S.; Abbott, P. A.; Saber Tehrani, A. S.; Rothman, R. E.; Lehmann, H. P.; Newman-Toker, D. E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Self-administered computer-assisted interviewing (SACAI) gathers accurate information from patients and could facilitate Emergency Department (ED) diagnosis. As part of an ongoing research effort whose long-range goal is to develop automated medical interviewing for diagnostic decision support, we explored usability attributes of SACAI in the ED. Methods Cross-sectional study at two urban, academic EDs. Convenience sample recruited daily over six weeks. Adult, non-level I trauma patients were eligible. We collected data on ease of use (self-reported difficulty, researcher documented need for help), efficiency (mean time-per-click on a standardized interview segment), and error (self-report age mismatched with age derived from electronic health records) when using SACAI on three different instruments: Elo TouchSystems ESY15A2 (finger touch), Toshiba M200 (with digitizer pen), and Motion C5 (with digitizer pen). We calculated descriptive statistics and used regression analysis to evaluate the impact of patient and computer factors on time-per-click. Results 841 participants completed all SACAI questions. Few (<1%) thought using the touch computer to ascertain medical information was difficult. Most (86%) required no assistance. Participants needing help were older (54 ± 19 vs. 40 ± 15 years, p<0.001) and more often lacked internet at home (13.4% vs. 7.3%, p = 0.004). On multivariate analysis, female sex (p<0.001), White (p<0.001) and other (p = 0.05) race (vs. Black race), younger age (p<0.001), internet access at home (p<0.001), high school graduation (p = 0.04), and touch screen entry (vs. digitizer pen) (p = 0.01) were independent predictors of decreased time-per-click. Participant misclick errors were infrequent, but, in our sample, occurred only during interviews using a digitizer pen rather than a finger touch-screen interface (1.9% vs. 0%, p = 0.09). Discussion Our results support the facility of interactions between ED patients and SACAI. Demographic factors associated with need for assistance or slower interviews could serve as important triggers to offering human support for SACAI interviews during implementation. Conclusion Understanding human-computer interactions in real-world clinical settings is essential to implementing automated interviewing as means to a larger long-term goal of enhancing clinical care, diagnostic accuracy, and patient safety. PMID:23874364

  9. USDA's Systematic Entomology Laboratory (SEL): Global leadership and innovation in insect systematics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A longstanding agreement between the USDA and the Smithsonian Institution created the National Insect Collection, one of the premiere entomological resources on the planet. Since its inception, USDA scientists associated with the National Insect Collection have been at the forefront of documenting i...

  10. Comportement de quelques materiaux envisageables dans un reacteur nucleaire a sels fondus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broc, M.; Fauvet, P.; Sannier, J.; Santarini, G.

    1983-12-01

    This work presents a set of experiments aimed at an evaluation of the behaviour of different materials in contact with liquid or solid media likely to be encountered in a molten salt nuclear reactor. The main results are as follows: graphite can be used to build test loops working for thousands of hours in the presence of molten fluorides; low-alloyed steels may be used in the presence of solid fluorides without risk of severe corrosion; the simultaneous presences of carbon materials and metallic alloys in contact with molten fluorides may give rise to mass transfers; no noticeable galvanic coupling effect is observed at 550°C between liquid lead and steels in the presence of molten fluorides; the phenomena involved in the wetting of steels in contact simultaneously with liquid lead and molten fluorides develop with time, though it seems that at equilibrium a steel surface is wetted more by lead than by fluorides.

  11. Booklists for the Teaching of Mathematics in Schools: Selections from the Recommended Books (Ref: SEL).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematical Association, Leicester (England).

    Presented is a listing of general books on mathematics which are highly recommended by the Mathematical Association of the United Kingdom. The following information on each book is provided: author; title; publisher; cost to the nearest pound; categories of use; and a code that indicates if the book is out of print, reprinted, and/or highly…

  12. A study of the portability of an Ada system in the software engineering laboratory (SEL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jun, Linda O.; Valett, Susan Ray

    1990-01-01

    A particular porting effort is discussed, and various statistics on analyzing the portability of Ada and the total staff months (overall and by phase) required to accomplish the rehost, are given. This effort is compared to past experiments on the rehosting of FORTRAN systems. The discussion includes an analysis of the types of errors encountered during the rehosting, the changes required to rehost the system, experiences with the Alsys IBM Ada compiler, the impediments encountered, and the lessons learned during this study.

  13. Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) report to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, V. R.

    1982-01-01

    Software development predictors, error analysis, reliability models and software metric analysis are studied. The use of dynamic characteristics as predictors for software development is also studied.

  14. Measuring Ada as a software development technology in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agresti, W. W.

    1985-01-01

    An experiment is in progress to measure the effectiveness of Ada in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Space Flight Center flight dynamics software development environment. The experiment features the parallel development of software in FORTRAN and Ada. The experiment organization, objectives, and status are discussed. Experiences with an Ada training program and data from the development of a 5700-line Ada training exercise are reported.

  15. Selenoprotein S expression in reactive astrocytes following brain injury.

    PubMed

    Fradejas, Noelia; Serrano-Pérez, Maria Del Carmen; Tranque, Pedro; Calvo, Soledad

    2011-06-01

    Selenoprotein S (SelS) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident protein involved in the unfolded protein response. Besides reducing ER-stress, SelS attenuates inflammation by decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokines. We have recently shown that SelS is responsive to ischemia in cultured astrocytes. To check the possible association of SelS with astrocyte activation, here we investigate the expression of SelS in two models of brain injury: kainic acid (KA) induced excitotoxicity and cortical mechanical lesion. The regulation of SelS and its functional consequences for neuroinflammation, ER-stress, and cell survival were further analyzed using cultured astrocytes from mouse and human. According to our immunofluorescence analysis, SelS expression is prominent in neurons and hardly detectable in astrocytes from control mice. However, brain injury intensely upregulates SelS, specifically in reactive astrocytes. SelS induction by KA was evident at 12 h and faded out after reaching maximum levels at 3-4 days. Analysis of mRNA and protein expression in cultured astrocytes showed SelS upregulation by inflammatory stimuli as well as ER-stress inducers. In turn, siRNA-mediated SelS silencing combined with adenoviral overexpression assays demonstrated that SelS reduces ER-stress markers CHOP and spliced XBP-1, as well as inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6 in stimulated astrocytes. SelS overexpression increased astrocyte resistance to ER-stress and inflammatory stimuli. Conversely, SelS suppression compromised astrocyte viability. In summary, our results reveal the upregulation of SelS expression in reactive astrocytes, as well as a new protective role for SelS against inflammation and ER-stress that can be relevant to astrocyte function in the context of inflammatory neuropathologies. PMID:21456042

  16. Une mesure de la perméabilité et du fluage d'une caverne dans le sel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bérest, Pierre; Bergues, Jean; Brouard, Benoît; Durup, Gérard; Guerber, Benoît

    1999-07-01

    Rock mass properties differ significantly from those measured on samples in the laboratory. A test has been performed on a deep brine-filled cavern, with the objective of measuring the equilibrium pressure reached when the cavern was closed. Such an equilibrium is reached when salt mass creep, which leads to cavern shrinkage, balances brine permeation through the cavern wall. A K= 2·10 -19 m 2 value of the average in situ intrinsic permeability has been deduced from the test; it is significantly higher than the intrinsic permeability measured in a well or in the laboratory. This result supports cavern abandonment scenarios in which the risk of natural fracturation due to high brine pressures is alleviated.

  17. Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) data base reporting software user's guide and system description. Volume 2: Program descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The structure and functions of each reporting software program for the Software Engineering Laboratory data base are described. Baseline diagrams, module descriptions, and listings of program generation files are included.

  18. Pro178 and Pro183 of Selenoprotein S Are Essential Residues for Interaction with p97(VCP) during Endoplasmic Reticulum-associated Degradation*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jea Hwang; Kwon, Joon Hyun; Jeon, Yeong Ha; Ko, Kwan Young; Lee, Seung-Rock; Kim, Ick Young

    2014-01-01

    During endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation, p97(VCP) is recruited to the ER membrane through interactions with transmembrane proteins, such as selenoprotein S (SelS), selenoprotein K (SelK), hrd1, and gp78. SelS has a single-spanning transmembrane domain and protects cells from ER stress-induced apoptosis through interaction with p97(VCP). The cytosolic tail of SelS consists of a coiled-coil domain, a putative VCP-interacting motif (VIM), and an unpronounced glycine- and proline-rich secondary structure. To understand the regulatory mechanism of SelS during ER stress, we investigated the interaction of the protein with p97(VCP) using mouse neuroblastoma cells and human embryonic kidney 293 cells. The SelS expression level increased when ER stress was induced. In addition, the effect of ER stress was enhanced, and recruitment of p97(VCP) to the ER membrane was inhibited in SelS knockdown cells. The effect of SelS knockdown was rescued by ectopic expression of SelS U188C. p97(VCP) interacted with SelS U188C and was recruited to the ER membrane. The expression of SelS[ΔVIM], which is a VIM deletion mutant of SelS, also showed both a recovery effect and an interaction with p97(VCP) in cells. However, mutants in which the proline residue positions 178 or 183 of SelS were changed to alanine or were deleted did not interact with p97(VCP). The proline mutants did not rescue ER stress in SelS knockdown cells. These results suggest that both Pro178 and Pro183 of SelS play important roles in the translocation of p97(VCP) to the ER membrane and protect cells from ER stress. PMID:24700463

  19. Endosymbiont hunting in the metagenome of Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) (7th Annual SFAF Meeting, 2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Surya

    2012-06-01

    Surya Saha on "Endosymbiont hunting in the metagenome of Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri)" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  20. Endosymbiont hunting in the metagenome of Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) (7th Annual SFAF Meeting, 2012)

    ScienceCinema

    Saha, Surya [Cornell University

    2016-07-12

    Surya Saha on "Endosymbiont hunting in the metagenome of Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri)" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  1. 15 CFR 922.10 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... List (SEL) was established as a comprehensive list of marine sites with high natural resource values... site on the SEL, or selection of a site from the SEL as an active candidate for designation as...

  2. Fluctuations of different endogenous phenolic compounds and cinnamic acid in the first days of the rooting process of cherry rootstock 'GiSelA 5' leafy cuttings.

    PubMed

    Trobec, Mateja; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert; Osterc, Gregor

    2005-05-01

    The relationship between the phenol composition of rooting zones and rootability was studied in the first days after the establishment of cuttings. The trial included two different types of cuttings (basal and terminal). Additionally, the influence of exogenously applied auxin (IBA) was observed. The best rooting results (55.6%) were achieved with terminal IBA treated cuttings, while only 1.9% of basal cuttings formed roots. The auxin treatment increased the root formation in terminal, but not in basal cuttings. Low rooting rate of basal cuttings was probably due to higher lignification rate of the basal tissue which can represent a mechanical barrier for root emergence. When measuring phenolic compounds and cinnamic acid, terminal cuttings contained higher (rutin, vanillic acid, (-)-epicatechin, caffeic acid and sinapinic acid) or equal concentrations of detected phenols as basal cuttings, while applied auxin did not influence the level of any of discussed phenolics, neither of cinnamic acid. It is to assume that cuttings for starting of root induction phase should contain certain levels of several phenolic compounds, but higher influence on rooting success is to be ascribed to the impact of the auxin level. During the time of the experiment concentrations of monophenols sinapinic acid and vanillic acid rapidly decreased. This decrease was more pronounced in terminal cuttings, which might have a better mechanism of lowering those two compounds to which a negative influence on rooting is ascribed. Fluctuations and differences between treatments of other phenolics were not significant enough to influence the rooting process. PMID:15940876

  3. Fluctuations of different endogenous phenolic compounds and cinnamic acid in the first days of the rooting process of cherry rootstock 'GiSelA 5' leafy cuttings.

    PubMed

    Trobec, Mateja; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert; Osterc, Gregor

    2005-05-01

    The relationship between the phenol composition of rooting zones and rootability was studied in the first days after the establishment of cuttings. The trial included two different types of cuttings (basal and terminal). Additionally, the influence of exogenously applied auxin (IBA) was observed. The best rooting results (55.6%) were achieved with terminal IBA treated cuttings, while only 1.9% of basal cuttings formed roots. The auxin treatment increased the root formation in terminal, but not in basal cuttings. Low rooting rate of basal cuttings was probably due to higher lignification rate of the basal tissue which can represent a mechanical barrier for root emergence. When measuring phenolic compounds and cinnamic acid, terminal cuttings contained higher (rutin, vanillic acid, (-)-epicatechin, caffeic acid and sinapinic acid) or equal concentrations of detected phenols as basal cuttings, while applied auxin did not influence the level of any of discussed phenolics, neither of cinnamic acid. It is to assume that cuttings for starting of root induction phase should contain certain levels of several phenolic compounds, but higher influence on rooting success is to be ascribed to the impact of the auxin level. During the time of the experiment concentrations of monophenols sinapinic acid and vanillic acid rapidly decreased. This decrease was more pronounced in terminal cuttings, which might have a better mechanism of lowering those two compounds to which a negative influence on rooting is ascribed. Fluctuations and differences between treatments of other phenolics were not significant enough to influence the rooting process.

  4. Overexpression of pig selenoprotein S blocks OTA-induced promotion of PCV2 replication by inhibiting oxidative stress and p38 phosphorylation in PK15 cells.

    PubMed

    Gan, Fang; Hu, Zhihua; Huang, Yu; Xue, Hongxia; Huang, Da; Qian, Gang; Hu, Junfa; Chen, Xingxiang; Wang, Tian; Huang, Kehe

    2016-04-12

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the primary cause of porcine circovirus disease, and ochratoxin A (OTA)-induced oxidative stress promotes PCV2 replication. In humans, selenoprotein S (SelS) has antioxidant ability, but it is unclear whether SelS affects viral infection. Here, we stably transfected PK15 cells with pig pCDNA3.1-SelS to overexpress SelS. Selenium (Se) at 2 or 4 μM and SelS overexpression blocked the OTA-induced increases of PCV2 DNA copy number and infected cell numbers. SelS overexpression also increased glutathione (GSH), NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) mRNA, and γ-glutamyl-cysteine synthetase mRNA levels; decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels; and inhibited p38 phosphorylation in PCV2-infected PK15 cells, regardless of OTA treatment. Buthionine sulfoximine reversed all of the above SelS-induced changes. siRNA-mediated SelS knockdown decreased Nrf2 mRNA and GSH levels, increased ROS levels, and promoted PCV2 replication in OTA-treated PK15 cells. These data indicate that pig SelS blocks OTA-induced promotion of PCV2 replication by inhibiting the oxidative stress and p38 phosphorylation in PK15 cells. PMID:26943035

  5. Overexpression of pig selenoprotein S blocks OTA-induced promotion of PCV2 replication by inhibiting oxidative stress and p38 phosphorylation in PK15 cells

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Fang; Hu, Zhihua; Huang, Yu; Xue, Hongxia; Huang, Da; Qian, Gang; Hu, Junfa; Chen, Xingxiang; Wang, Tian; Huang, Kehe

    2016-01-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the primary cause of porcine circovirus disease, and ochratoxin A (OTA)-induced oxidative stress promotes PCV2 replication. In humans, selenoprotein S (SelS) has antioxidant ability, but it is unclear whether SelS affects viral infection. Here, we stably transfected PK15 cells with pig pCDNA3.1-SelS to overexpress SelS. Selenium (Se) at 2 or 4 μM and SelS overexpression blocked the OTA-induced increases of PCV2 DNA copy number and infected cell numbers. SelS overexpression also increased glutathione (GSH), NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) mRNA, and γ-glutamyl-cysteine synthetase mRNA levels; decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels; and inhibited p38 phosphorylation in PCV2-infected PK15 cells, regardless of OTA treatment. Buthionine sulfoximine reversed all of the above SelS-induced changes. siRNA-mediated SelS knockdown decreased Nrf2 mRNA and GSH levels, increased ROS levels, and promoted PCV2 replication in OTA-treated PK15 cells. These data indicate that pig SelS blocks OTA-induced promotion of PCV2 replication by inhibiting the oxidative stress and p38 phosphorylation in PK15 cells. PMID:26943035

  6. Composites graphite/sel pour le stockage d'énergie à haute température : étude des effets du graphite et de la microstructure des composites sur les propriétés de changement de phase des sels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Jérôme; Dumas, Jean-Pierre; Palomo del Barrio, Elena

    2008-07-01

    Thermal energy storage at high temperature is an efficient way for energy saving in the industrial sector, as well as a key component for power generation based on renewable energy resources. Thermal energy storage technology based on phase change materials (mainly salts) has been identified to meet the requirements of investment costs and compactness. However, the low thermal conductivity of salts (˜1 W/m/K) could be a limiting factor concerning power. To overcome such a drawback, new materials combining salts with graphite have been developed. Nevertheless, it is important to verify that no degradation of the salts storage properties is induced by their thermal conductivity enhancement. In this Note, the effects of the graphite and the composites graphite/salt microstructure on the phase change properties of salts are analysed. To cite this article: J. Lopez et al., C. R. Mecanique 336 (2008).

  7. Selenoprotein K form an intermolecular diselenide bond with unusually high redox potential

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Zhengqi; Rozovsky, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Selenoprotein K (SelK) is a membrane protein involved in antioxidant defense, calcium regulation and the ER-associated protein degradation pathway. We found that SelK exhibits a peroxidase activity with a rate that is low but within the range of other peroxidases. Notably, SelK reduced hydrophobic substrates, such as phospholipid hydroperoxides, which damage membranes. Thus, SelK might be involved in membrane repair or related pathways. SelK was also found to contain a diselenide bond — the first intramolecular bond of that kind reported for a selenoprotein. The redox potential of SelK was −257 mV, significantly higher than that of diselenide bonds in small molecules or proteins. Consequently, SelK can be reduced by thioredoxin reductase. These finding are essential for understanding SelK activity and function. PMID:25117454

  8. Social and Emotional Learning and the Work of Itinerant Teachers of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing.

    PubMed

    Norman, Nancy; Jamieson, Janet R

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated how social and emotional learning (SEL) is reflected in the attitudes, beliefs, and practices of itinerant teachers of the deaf and hard of hearing (ITDHHs). A mixed-methods approach was taken to survey 53 ITDHHs about their comfort with teaching SEL, commitment to ongoing professional development in SEL skills, and perceptions of SEL in school cultures. Follow-up interviews with 11 ITDHHs provided a deeper perspective on how these teachers prioritize and teach SEL skills within their unique teaching role. Overall, the findings revealed that ITDHHs overwhelmingly recognized the need to provide SEL support to their students, and very often provided direct teaching of SEL skills. However, they did not necessarily feel adequately prepared, nor supported by their schools, in terms of teaching SEL. Implications of the findings for professional preparation and practice are discussed.

  9. Learning the Critical Points for Addition in Matematika GASING

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siregar, Johannes Hamonangan; Wiyanti, Wiwik; Wakhyuningsih, Nur Safitri; Godjali, Ali

    2014-01-01

    We propose learning Matematika GASING to help students better understand the addition material. Matematika GASING is a way of learning mathematics in an easy, fun and enjoyable fashion. GASING is short for GAmpang, aSyIk, and menyenaNGkan (Bahasa Indonesia for easy, fun and enjoyable). It was originally developed by Prof. Yohanes Surya at the…

  10. Development of an Implementation and Evaluation Plan for Strong Teens, a Social and Emotional Learning Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Tajara Dovie

    2012-01-01

    Recent research on social emotional learning (SEL) curricula has shown that implementing SEL instruction within the classroom is a qualified evidenced-based intervention to help students develop fundamental skills for success in life. SEL curricula help teach students essential skills such as recognizing and managing emotions, developing caring…

  11. 78 FR 38848 - Re-establishing the Sanctuary Nomination Process

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... replaced this process with the Site Evaluation List (SEL) (48 FR 24295). As described in NOAA regulations... updated every five years. When it was published in 1983, the SEL included 29 sites (48 FR 35568), four of... sanctuaries (NMS). The list of sites on the SEL can be found at...

  12. Selenoprotein O deficiencies suppress chondrogenic differentiation of ATDC5 cells.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jidong; Fei, Yao; Han, Yan; Lu, Shemin

    2016-10-01

    Selenoprotein O (Sel O) is a selenium-containing protein, but its function is still unclear. In the present study, we observed that the mRNA and protein expression levels of Sel O increased during chondrogenic induction of ATDC5 cells. The effects of Sel O on chondrocyte differentiation were then examined through shRNA-mediated gene silencing technique. The expression of Sel O was significantly suppressed at both mRNA and protein levels in a stable cell line transfected with a Sel O-specific target shRNA construct. Thereafter, we demonstrated that Sel O deficiencies suppress chondrogenic differentiation of ATDC5 cells. Sel O deficiencies inhibited expression of chondrogenic gene Sox9, Col II, and aggrecan. Sel O-deficient cells also accumulated a few cartilage glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and decreased the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP). In addition, Sel O deficiencies inhibited chondrocyte proliferation through delayed cell cycle progression by suppression of cyclin D1 expression. Moreover, Sel O deficiencies induced chondrocyte death through cell apoptosis. In summary, we describe the expression patterns and the essential roles of Sel O in chondrocyte viability, proliferation, and chondrogenic differentiation. Additionally, Sel O deficiency-mediated impaired chondrogenesis may illustrate the mechanisms of Se deficiency in the pathophysiological process of the endemic osteoarthropathy.

  13. Establishing Systemic Social and Emotional Learning Approaches in Schools: A Framework for Schoolwide Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberle, Eva; Domitrovich, Celene E.; Meyers, Duncan C.; Weissberg, Roger P.

    2016-01-01

    Social and emotional learning (SEL) is a fundamental part of education. Incorporating high-quality SEL programming into day-to-day classroom and school practices has emerged as a main goal for many practitioners over the past decade. The present article overviews the current state of SEL research and practice, with a particular focus on the United…

  14. Social and Emotional Learning Policies and Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Jenn; Wright, Paul

    2014-01-01

    There is a current push to broaden the educational agenda by integrating social and emotional learning (SEL) competencies into the academic curriculum. This article describes how physical education (PE) provides a strong platform for integrating SEL standards into the curriculum. The alignment between SEL and the affective learning objectives of…

  15. Assessing Teachers' Beliefs about Social and Emotional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brackett, Marc A.; Reyes, Maria R.; Rivers, Susan E.; Elbertson, Nicole A.; Salovey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Teachers are the primary implementers of social and emotional learning (SEL) programs. Their beliefs about SEL likely influence program delivery, evaluation, and outcomes. A simple tool for measuring these beliefs could be used by school administrators to determine school readiness for SEL programming and by researchers to better understand…

  16. The intrinsically disordered membrane protein selenoprotein S is a reductase in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun; Li, Fei; Rozovsky, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Selenoprotein S (SelS, VIMP) is an intrinsically disordered membrane enzyme that provides protection against reactive oxidative species. SelS is a member of the endoplasmic reticulum associated protein degradation pathway but its precise enzymatic function is unknown. Since it contains the rare amino acid selenocysteine, it belongs to the family of selenoproteins, which are typically oxidoreductases. Its exact enzymatic function is key to understanding how the cell regulates the response to oxidative stress and thus influences human health and aging. In order to identify its enzymatic function, we have isolated the selenocysteine-containing enzyme by relying on the aggregation of forms that do not have this reactive residue. That allows us to establish that SelS is primarily a thioredoxin-dependent reductase. It is capable of reducing hydrogen peroxide but is not an efficient or broad-spectrum peroxidase. Only the selenocysteine-containing enzyme is active. In addition, the reduction potential of SelS was determined to be −234 mV using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. This value agrees with SelS being a partner of thioredoxin. Based on this information, SelS can directly combat reactive oxygen species but is also likely to participate in a signaling pathway, via a yet unidentified substrate. PMID:23566202

  17. Collected software engineering papers, volume 12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This document is a collection of selected technical papers produced by participants in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) from November 1993 through October 1994. The purpose of the document is to make available, in one reference, some results of SEL research that originally appeared in a number of different forums. This is the 12th such volume of technical papers produced by the SEL. Although these papers cover several topics related to software engineering, they do not encompass the entire scope of SEL activities and interests. Additional information about the SEL and its research efforts may be obtained from the sources listed in the bibliography at the end of this document.

  18. Collected software engineering papers, volume 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This document is a collection of selected technical papers produced by participants in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) from November 1992 through November 1993. The purpose of the document is to make available, in one reference, some results of SEL research that originally appeared in a number of different forums. This is the 11th such volume of technical papers produced by the SEL. Although these papers cover several topics related to software engineering, they do not encompass the entire scope of SEL activities and interests. Additional information about the SEL and its research efforts may be obtained from the sources listed in the bibliography at the end of this document.

  19. Selenoprotein S is involved in maintenance and transport of multiprotein complexes.

    PubMed

    Turanov, Anton A; Shchedrina, Valentina A; Everley, Robert A; Lobanov, Alexei V; Yim, Sun Hee; Marino, Stefano M; Gygi, Steven P; Hatfield, Dolph L; Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2014-09-15

    SelS (Selenoprotein S) is a selenocysteine-containing protein with roles in ER (endoplasmic reticulum) function and inflammation. It has been implicated in ERAD (ER-associated protein degradation), and clinical studies revealed an association of its promoter polymorphism with cytokine levels and human diseases. However, the pathways and interacting proteins that could shed light on pathogenesis of SelS-associated diseases have not been studied systematically. We performed a large-scale affinity isolation of human SelS and its mutant forms and analysed the proteins that interact with them. All previously known SelS targets and nearly two hundred additional proteins were identified that were remarkably enriched for various multiprotein complexes. Subsequent chemical cross-linking experiments identified the specific interacting sites in SelS and its several targets. Most of these interactions involved coiled-coil domains. The data suggest that SelS participates in intracellular membrane transport and maintenance of protein complexes by anchoring them to the ER membrane. PMID:24897171

  20. Selenoprotein S is a marker but not a regulator of endoplasmic reticulum stress in intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Speckmann, Bodo; Gerloff, Kirsten; Simms, Lisa; Oancea, Iulia; Shi, Wei; McGuckin, Michael A; Radford-Smith, Graham; Khanna, Kum Kum

    2014-02-01

    Selenoproteins are candidate mediators of selenium-dependent protection against tumorigenesis and inflammation in the gut. Expression and roles of only a limited number of intestinal selenoproteins have been described so far. Selenoprotein S (SelS) has been linked to various inflammatory diseases and is suggested to be involved in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis regulation and antioxidative protection in a cell-type-dependent manner, but its protein expression, regulation, and function in the gut are not known. We here analyzed the expression and localization of SelS in the healthy and inflamed gut and studied its regulation and function in intestinal epithelial cell lines. SelS was expressed in the intestinal epithelium of the small and large intestine and colocalized with markers of Paneth cells and macrophages. It was upregulated in inflamed ileal tissue from Crohn's disease patients and in two models of experimental colitis in mice. We detected SelS in colorectal cell lines, where it colocalized with the ER marker calnexin. SelS protein expression was unaffected by enterocytic differentiation but increased in response to selenium supplementation and after treatment with the ER stress inducer tunicamycin. On the other hand, depletion of SelS in LS174T, HT29, and Caco-2 cells by RNA interference did not cause or modulate ER stress and had no effect on hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death. In summary, we introduce SelS as a novel marker of Paneth cells and intestinal ER stress. Although it is upregulated in Crohn's disease, its role in disease etiology remains to be established.

  1. Food Poisoning and Staphylococcus aureus Enterotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Argudín, María Ángeles; Mendoza, María Carmen; Rodicio, María Rosario

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus produces a wide variety of toxins including staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs; SEA to SEE, SEG to SEI, SER to SET) with demonstrated emetic activity, and staphylococcal-like (SEl) proteins, which are not emetic in a primate model (SElL and SElQ) or have yet to be tested (SElJ, SElK, SElM to SElP, SElU, SElU2 and SElV). SEs and SEls have been traditionally subdivided into classical (SEA to SEE) and new (SEG to SElU2) types. All possess superantigenic activity and are encoded by accessory genetic elements, including plasmids, prophages, pathogenicity islands, vSa genomic islands, or by genes located next to the staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) implicated in methicillin resistance. SEs are a major cause of food poisoning, which typically occurs after ingestion of different foods, particularly processed meat and dairy products, contaminated with S. aureus by improper handling and subsequent storage at elevated temperatures. Symptoms are of rapid onset and include nausea and violent vomiting, with or without diarrhea. The illness is usually self-limiting and only occasionally it is severe enough to warrant hospitalization. SEA is the most common cause of staphylococcal food poisoning worldwide, but the involvement of other classical SEs has been also demonstrated. Of the new SE/SEls, only SEH have clearly been associated with food poisoning. However, genes encoding novel SEs as well as SEls with untested emetic activity are widely represented in S. aureus, and their role in pathogenesis may be underestimated. PMID:22069659

  2. Paclitaxel inhibits selenoprotein S expression and attenuates endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hong-Shuang; Yu, Pei-Pei; Sun, Ying; Wang, Dan-Feng; Deng, Xiao-Fen; Bao, Yong-Li; Song, Jun; Sun, Lu-Guo; Song, Zhen-Bo; Li, Yu-Xin

    2016-06-01

    The primary effect of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response or unfolded protein response (UPR) is to reduce the load of unfolded protein and promote survival. However, prolonged and severe ER stress leads to tissue injury and serious diseases. Thus, it is important to identify drugs that can attenuate ER stress for the treatment of diseases. Natural products continue to provide lead compounds for drug discovery and front‑line pharmacotherapy for people worldwide. Previous studies have indicated that selenoprotein S (SelS) is a sensitive and ideal maker of ER stress. In the present study, a firefly luciferase reporter driven by the SelS gene promoter was used to screen for natural compounds capable of attenuating ER stress. From this, paclitaxel (PTX) was identified to efficiently inhibit the promoter activity of the SelS gene, and further results revealed that PTX significantly inhibited the tunicamycin‑induced upregulation of SelS at the mRNA and protein levels in HepG2 and HEK293T cells. In addition, PTX was able to efficiently inhibit the expression of the ER stress marker, glucose‑regulated protein 78, in ER stress, indicating that PTX may reverse ER stress. Taken together, these results suggest that PTX is able to inhibit SelS expression during ER stress and attenuate ER stress. PMID:27109260

  3. Glossary of Software Engineering Laboratory terms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A glossary of terms used in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) is given. The terms are defined within the context of the software development environment for flight dynamics at the Goddard Space Flight Center. A concise reference for clarifying the language employed in SEL documents and data collection forms is given. Basic software engineering concepts are explained and standard definitions for use by SEL personnel are established.

  4. Process improvement as an investment: Measuring its worth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgarry, Frank; Jeletic, Kellyann

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses return on investment (ROI) generated from software process improvement programs. It details the steps needed to compute ROI and compares these steps from the perspective of two process improvement approaches: the widely known Software Engineering Institute's capability maturity model and the approach employed by NASA's Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL). The paper then describes the specific investments made in the SEL over the past 18 years and discusses the improvements gained from this investment by the production organization in the SEL.

  5. Closing the loop on improvement: Packaging experience in the Software Engineering Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waligora, Sharon R.; Landis, Linda C.; Doland, Jerry T.

    1994-01-01

    As part of its award-winning software process improvement program, the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) has developed an effective method for packaging organizational best practices based on real project experience into useful handbooks and training courses. This paper shares the SEL's experience over the past 12 years creating and updating software process handbooks and training courses. It provides cost models and guidelines for successful experience packaging derived from SEL experience.

  6. An overview of the Software Engineering Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the background and structure of the SEL organization, the SEL process improvement approach, and its experimentation and data collection process. Results of some sample SEL studies are included. It includes a discussion of the overall implication of trends observed over 17 years of process improvement efforts and looks at the return on investment based on a comparison of total investment in process improvement with the measurable improvements seen in the organization's software product.

  7. Promoting social-emotional learning in adolescent Latino ELLs: a study of the culturally adapted Strong Teens program.

    PubMed

    Castro-Olivo, Sara M

    2014-12-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of the culturally adapted Jóvenes Fuertes (Strong Teens) Social-Emotional Learning (SEL) program on the social-emotional outcomes of Latino English language learners (ELLs). A quasi-experimental design with random assignment by classrooms was used to assess the intervention's effects on students' knowledge of SEL and resiliency. A sample of 102 Spanish-dominant Latino ELLs enrolled in middle or high school participated in this study. The results indicated significant intervention effects on SEL knowledge and social-emotional resiliency. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for preventive, culturally responsive SEL programs in school settings. PMID:24708282

  8. Promoting social-emotional learning in adolescent Latino ELLs: a study of the culturally adapted Strong Teens program.

    PubMed

    Castro-Olivo, Sara M

    2014-12-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of the culturally adapted Jóvenes Fuertes (Strong Teens) Social-Emotional Learning (SEL) program on the social-emotional outcomes of Latino English language learners (ELLs). A quasi-experimental design with random assignment by classrooms was used to assess the intervention's effects on students' knowledge of SEL and resiliency. A sample of 102 Spanish-dominant Latino ELLs enrolled in middle or high school participated in this study. The results indicated significant intervention effects on SEL knowledge and social-emotional resiliency. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for preventive, culturally responsive SEL programs in school settings.

  9. The Spinal Ependymal Layer in Health and Disease.

    PubMed

    Moore, S A

    2016-07-01

    Ependymal cells are epithelial support cells that line the central canal and ventricular cavities of the central nervous system, providing the interface between the cerebrospinal fluid and the parenchyma of the brain and spinal cord. The spinal ependymal layer (SEL) is composed of 3 main cell types: tanycytes, ependymocytes, and cerebrospinal fluid-contacting neurons. A fourth cell type, termed the supraependymal cell, is also occasionally described. Cells of the SEL show restricted proliferative capacity in health but display neural stem cell properties both in vitro and in vivo in various disease states. A growing body of literature is devoted to the regenerative roles of the SEL, particularly in the context of spinal cord injury, where mechanical damage to the spinal cord leads to a significant increase in SEL proliferation. SEL-derived cell progeny migrate to sites of injury within the injured spinal cord parenchyma and contribute primarily to glial scar formation. In additional to their role as endogenous neural stem cells, cells of the SEL may be an important source of cytokines and other cell signaling molecules, such as tumor necrosis factor, heat shock proteins, and various growth factors. The SEL has become of recent interest to neuroscience researchers because of its potential to participate in and respond to diseases affecting the spinal cord (eg, traumatic spinal cord injury) and neurodegenerative disease. The intimate association of the SEL with the cerebrospinal fluid makes intrathecal therapies a viable option, and recent studies highlight the potential promise of treatments that augment SEL responses to disease.

  10. What's Happening in the Software Engineering Laboratory?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pajerski, Rose; Green, Scott; Smith, Donald

    1995-01-01

    Since 1976 the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) has been dedicated to understanding and improving the way in which one NASA organization the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) at Goddard Space Flight Center, develops, maintains, and manages complex flight dynamics systems. This paper presents an overview of recent activities and studies in SEL, using as a framework the SEL's organizational goals and experience based software improvement approach. It focuses on two SEL experience areas : (1) the evolution of the measurement program and (2) an analysis of three generations of Cleanroom experiments.

  11. Identification of a redox-modulatory interaction between selenoprotein W and 14-3-3 protein.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Yeong Ha; Ko, Kwan Young; Lee, Jea Hwang; Park, Ki Jun; Jang, Jun Ki; Kim, Ick Young

    2016-01-01

    Selenoprotein W (SelW) contains a selenocysteine (Sec, U) in a conserved CXXU motif corresponding to the CXXC redox motif of thioredoxin, suggesting a putative redox function of SelW. We have previously reported that the binding of 14-3-3 protein to its target proteins, including CDC25B, Rictor and TAZ, is inhibited by the interaction of 14-3-3 protein with SelW. However, the binding mechanism is unclear. In this study, we sought to determine the binding site of SelW to understand the regulatory mechanism of the interaction between SelW and 14-3-3 and its biological effects. Phosphorylated Ser(pS) or Thr(pT) residues in RSXpSXP or RXXXp(S/T)XP motifs are well-known common 14-3-3-binding sites, but Thr41, Ser59, and T69 of SelW, which are computationally predicted to serve are phosphorylation sites, were neither phosphorylation sites nor sites involved in the interaction. A mutant SelW in which Sec13 is changed to Ser (U13S) was unable to interact with 14-3-3 protein and thus did not inhibit the interaction of 14-3-3 to other target proteins. However, other Cys mutants of SelW(C10S, C33S and C37S) normally interacted with 14-3-3 protein. The interaction of SelW to 14-3-3 protein was enhanced by diamide or H2O2 and decreased by dithiothreitol (DTT). Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the Sec of SelW is involved in its interaction with 14-3-3 protein and that this interaction is increased under oxidative stress conditions. Thus, SelW may have a regulatory function in redox cell signaling by interacting with 14-3-3 protein. PMID:26474786

  12. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of selenoprotein W gene and its mRNA expression patterns in response to metabolic status and cadmium exposure in goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenbo; Zhang, Zhen; Dong, Haiyan; Jiang, Xiaoxue

    2015-06-01

    Selenoprotein W (SelW) is a low molecular weight and selenocysteine containing protein with redox activity involved in the antioxidant response. In the present study, the full-length cDNA of goldfish (Carassius auratus) selenoprotein W (gfSelW) was successfully cloned from the liver tissue by rapid amplification of cDNA ends technique. The obtained gfSelW cDNA was 730 bp long with a 79 bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), a 390 bp 3'-UTR containing the consensus polyadenylation signal AATAAA and a 261 bp open reading frame coding a protein of 86 amino acid residues. gfSelW mRNA was observed in all regions of brain and peripheral tissues by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, and the most abundant was detected in testis. After fasting for 1 week, gfSelW mRNA expression levels were significantly decreased compared to the fed group in hypothalamus and liver. After refeeding for 7 days, gfSelW mRNA expression levels were increased back. Furthermore, the mRNA expressions of gfSelW in hypothalamus and liver were varied in periprandial changes and significantly up-regulated after meal 2 h and 4 h, respectively. With cadmium exposure for 24 h, gfSelW mRNA expression levels in gill and leucocytes were significantly decreased at different cadmium concentrations changing from 0.5 ppm to 10 ppm. However, the gfSelW mRNA expression level was sharply increased in liver, relatively to the control about 4.98-fold at 0.5 ppm. The results in this study provide molecular characterization of SelW in goldfish and imply that SelW mRNA expression may be associated with metabolic status and oxidative stress and regulated by metabolic factors and cadmium in fish.

  13. Cultivating Fertile Grounds: Enhancing and Extending the Scientific Base of Social and Emotional Learning--A Commentary on "The Scientific Base Linking Social and Emotional Learning to School Success," a Chapter by Joseph E. Zins, Michelle R. Bloodworth, Roger P. Weissberg, and Herbert J. Walberg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manz, Patricia H.

    2007-01-01

    Joseph Zins was a forerunner in empirically demonstrating the interrelationship of SEL interventions and school success. This commentary highlights his perspectives on the accumulating body of evidence for the academic gains that have been associated with various SEL interventions and aims to show how new research methodologies can further extend…

  14. Promoting Social and Emotional Learning in Preschool Students: A Study of "Strong Start Pre-K"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Leslie; Caldarella, Paul; Korth, Byran B.; Young, K. Richard

    2012-01-01

    The inclusion of social and emotional learning (SEL) curricula in preschools may help prevent emotional and behavioral problems. This study evaluated the effects of a SEL curriculum, "Strong Start Pre-K," on the social and emotional competence of 52 preschool students using a quasi-experimental, non-equivalent control group design. Teachers rated…

  15. Social-Emotional Learning Skill, Self-Regulation, and Social Competence in Typically Developing and Clinic-Referred Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKown, Clark; Gumbiner, Laura M.; Russo, Nicole M.; Lipton, Meryl

    2009-01-01

    Social-emotional learning (SEL) skill includes the ability to encode, interpret, and reason about social and emotional information. In two related studies, we examined the relationship between children's SEL skill, their ability to regulate their own behavior, and the competence of their social interactions. Study 1 included 158 typically…

  16. A Planning and Development Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Rebeca

    In view of the rapidly changing hardware technology along with the quality and quantity of software and general attitudes toward educational technology, the configuration of the Audio-Visual Distribution System and the Science and Engineering Library (SEL) should be flexible enough to incorporate these variables. SEL has made significant thrusts…

  17. An Observation Tool for Monitoring Social Skill Implementation in Contextually Relevant Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Joseph John; Hsiao, Yun-Ju; Dobbins, Nicole; Brown, Nancy B.; Lyons, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Skills related to social-emotional learning (SEL) are essential for college and career readiness. Failure to use appropriate skills for SEL in school is often linked to several negative academic outcomes, including rejection by school community members, academic deficits, and higher rates of problematic behavior. Social skills interventions are…

  18. Implementing "Strong Kids" School-Wide to Reduce Internalizing Behaviors and Increase Prosocial Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Thomas J.; Caldarella, Paul; Young, K. Richard; Fischer, Lane; Warren, Jared S.

    2014-01-01

    Instruction and training in social and emotional learning (SEL) is an important component in addressing the emotional and behavioral needs of students. This study is the first to examine whether "Strong Kids", an SEL program, delivered school-wide in all classrooms, could result in decreased internalizing behaviors and increased…

  19. Program Review Rating Scales: Introduction and Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    "Safe and Sound: An Educational Leader's Guide to Evidence-Based Social and Emotional Learning Programs" introduces the concepts of SEL and comprehensive approaches to SEL, describes the value of such programming to the essential academic mission of schools, and suggests how to approach implementing such programming. This packet contains the…

  20. The Impact of Trial Stage, Developer Involvement and International Transferability on Universal Social and Emotional Learning Programme Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigelsworth, M.; Lendrum, A.; Oldfield, J.; Scott, A.; ten Bokkel, I.; Tate, K.; Emery, C.

    2016-01-01

    This study expands upon the extant prior meta-analytic literature by exploring previously theorised reasons for the failure of school-based, universal social and emotional learning (SEL) programmes to produce expected results. Eighty-nine studies reporting the effects of school-based, universal SEL programmes were examined for differential effects…

  1. Emotional Intelligence in the K-12 Curriculum and its Relationship to American Workplace Needs: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opengart, Rose

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review the content of existing social-emotional learning (SEL) programs in the American K-12 curriculum and the relationship between the programs and the needs of the American workplace. SEL programs were examined for their content and compared to the research indicating critical EI skills for the workplace.…

  2. Quantum well, beam deflecting surface emitting lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jae H. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    This invention relates to surface emitting semiconductor lasers (SELs), with integrated 45 deg. beam deflectors. A SEL is formed on a wafer including vertical mirrors and 45 deg. beam deflectors formed in grooves by tilted ion beam etching. A SEL is a lattice matched, or unstrained, AlGaAs/GaAs GRINSCH SQW SEL. An alternate embodiment is shown, in which a SEL is lattice mismatched, strained or pseudomorphic, or InGaAs/AlGaAs GRINSCH SQW SEL which emits radiation at a wavelength to which its substrate is transparent. Both SELs exhibit high output power, low threshold current density, and relatively high efficiency, and each are processing compatible with conventional large scale integration technology. Such SELs may be fabricated in large numbers from single wafers. The novel features of this invention include the use of tilted ion beam etching to form a pair of grooves each including vertical mirrors and 45 deg. beam deflectors. The embodiment provides substantial circuit design flexibility because radiation may be coupled both up and/or down through the substrate.

  3. Software Engineering Laboratory Series: Collected Software Engineering Papers. Volume 14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) is an organization sponsored by NASA/GSFC and created to investigate the effectiveness of software engineering technologies when applied to the development of application software. The activities, findings, and recommendations of the SEL are recorded in the Software Engineering Laboratory Series, a continuing series of reports that includes this document.

  4. Software Engineering Laboratory Series: Proceedings of the Twenty-First Annual Software Engineering Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) is an organization sponsored by NASA/GSFC and created to investigate the effectiveness of software engineering technologies when applied to the development of application software. The activities, findings, and recommendations of the SEL are recorded in the Software Engineering Laboratory Series, a continuing series of reports that includes this document.

  5. Software Engineering Laboratory Series: Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Software Engineering Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) is an organization sponsored by NASA/GSFC and created to investigate the effectiveness of software engineering technologies when applied to the development of application software. The activities, findings, and recommendations of the SEL are recorded in the Software Engineering Laboratory Series, a continuing series of reports that includes this document.

  6. Software Engineering Laboratory Series: Collected Software Engineering Papers. Volume 15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) is an organization sponsored by NASA/GSFC and created to investigate the effectiveness of software engineering technologies when applied to the development of application software. The activities, findings, and recommendations of the SEL are recorded in the Software Engineering Laboratory Series, a continuing series of reports that includes this document.

  7. Collaboration for a Curriculum of Caring: The Zeitgeist Is Right

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Emily R.; Gill Lopez, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Recent catastrophic school shootings have drawn worldwide attention to issues of gun control and mental health. In the wake of these tragedies, more and more schools have begun to adopt school-wide social and emotional learning (SEL) programs. However, we have few examples of what it looks like to integrate SEL skills into content curricula.…

  8. Reflections on the Laws of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, Maurice J.; Klein, Dena A.; DeLuca, Amy; Smith, David R.; Fattal, Laura F.; Bento, Angela; Leverett, Larry

    2006-01-01

    The Laws of Life is an international essay contest and social and emotional learning (SEL) initiative that many school districts use to build students' SEL and related abilities. In the contest, students reflect on their identities--who they are, who they want to become, and what they want their lives to stand for--by writing about the main values…

  9. Do Effects of Social-Emotional Learning Programs Vary by Level of Parent Participation? Evidence from the Randomized Trial of INSIGHTS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Meghan P.; Cappella, Elise; O'Connor, Erin; Hill, Jennifer L.; McClowry, Sandee

    2016-01-01

    Social-Emotional Learning (SEL) programs aim to improve students' social-emotional competencies in order to enhance their achievement. Although SEL programs typically implement classroom curricula, some programs also include a component for parents. Yet, little is known about the types of parents likely to participate in services, and whether…

  10. Cultivating the Socially Competent Body: Bodies and Risk in Swedish Programmes for Social Emotional Learning in Preschools and Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholdsson, Åsa; Gustafsson-Lundberg, Johanna; Hultin, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Social emotional learning (SEL) is common in preschools and schools both in Europe and North America today. Programmes for socio-emotional training and the rise of what is labelled therapeutic education have dramatically increased during the first decade of the millennium. In this article, a manual-based programme used for SEL in a Swedish school…

  11. Development and Preliminary Validation of the Social-Emotional Assets and Resiliency Scale for Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravitch, Nancy Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of social and emotional learning (SEL) in young children is critical to understanding developmental progress and informing care and instruction. The current study investigated the development of a behavior rating scale designed to measure SEL skills in preschool-age children. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the…

  12. Progress in Teachers' Readiness to Promote Positive Youth Development among Students during the Lions Quest Teaching Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talvio, Markus; Berg, Minna; Ketonen, Elina; Komulainen, Erkki; Lonka, Kirsti

    2015-01-01

    Modern learning psychology places an emphasis on the ability of teachers to promote their students' social and emotional learning (SEL) and living a good life. Research on precisely how teachers promote SEL and well-being among their students, however, remains scarce. This study focused on evaluating the Lions Quest teaching workshop (LQ), which…

  13. Galectin-1 is an interactive protein of selenoprotein M in the brain.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xifeng; Tian, Jing; Chen, Ping; Wang, Chao; Ni, Jiazuan; Liu, Qiong

    2013-01-01

    Selenium, an essential trace element for human health, mainly exerts its biological function through selenoproteins. Selenoprotein M (SelM) is one of the highly expressed selenoproteins in the brain, but its biological effect and molecular mechanism remain unclear. Thus, the interactive protein of SelM was investigated in this paper to guide further study. In order to avoid protein translational stop, the selenocysteine-encoding UGA inside the open reading frame of SelM was site-directly changed to the cysteine-encoding UGC to generate the SelM' mutant. Meanwhile, its N terminal transmembrane signal peptide was also cut off. This truncated SelM' was used to screen a human fetal brain cDNA library by the yeast two-hybrid system. A new interactive protein of SelM' was found to be galectin-1 (Gal-1). This protein-protein interaction was further verified by the results of fluorescence resonance energy transfer techniques, glutathione S-transferase pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays. As Gal-1 plays important roles in preventing neurodegeneration and promoting neuroprotection in the brain, the interaction between SelM' and Gal-1 displays a new direction for studying the biological function of SelM in the human brain. PMID:24284396

  14. Software Engineering Laboratory Series: Collected Software Engineering Papers. Volume 13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) is an organization sponsored by NASA/GSFC and created to investigate the effectiveness of software engineering technologies when applied to the development of application software. The activities, findings, and recommendations of the SEL are recorded in the Software Engineering Laboratory Series, a continuing series of reports that includes this document.

  15. Task Groups in the School Setting: Promoting Children's Social and Emotional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Velsor, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Through social and emotional learning (SEL), individuals develop skill in negotiating relationships successfully and expressing emotions appropriately. The socially and emotionally intelligent child reaps benefits in school and later life. Counselors are best qualified to promote children's SEL and the task group in the classroom provides an…

  16. An Increase in Emotional Support, a Reduction in Negative Social Emotional Skills, or Both?: Examining How Universal Social Emotional Programs Achieve Reductions in Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portnow, Sam; Downer, Jason; Brown, Josh

    2015-01-01

    Participation in Social Emotional Learning (SEL) programs reduces aggressive and antisocial behavior (Durlak, Weissberg, Dymnicki, Taylor, & Schellinger, 2011). Theoretically, SEL programs foster social and emotionally intelligent youth through improving children's social and emotional skills, defined in the present study as the ability to…

  17. Replication of Effects of the "Positive Action" Program in Randomized Trials in Hawai'i and Chicago Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flay, Brian R.

    2014-01-01

    Several social-emotional learning (SEL) or social-emotional and character development (SECD) programs have been shown to be effective at improving SEL/SECD skills, and some have also provided evidence of effectiveness in improving student behavior and academic achievement (Durlak, Weissberg, Dymnicki, Taylor, & Schellinger, 2011). Very few SEL…

  18. Software Engineering Laboratory Series: Proceedings of the Twenty-Second Annual Software Engineering Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) is an organization sponsored by NASA/GSFC and created to investigate the effectiveness of software engineering technologies when applied to the development of application software. The activities, findings, and recommendations of the SEL are recorded in the Software Engineering Laboratory Series, a continuing series of reports that includes this document.

  19. "Practice What You Preach": Teachers' Perceptions of Emotional Competence and Emotionally Supportive Classroom Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinsser, Katherine M.; Denham, Susanne A.; Curby, Timothy W.; Shewark, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The connections between parents' emotional competence (emotion expression, regulation, and knowledge) and children's social-emotional learning (SEL) have been well studied; however, the associations among teachers' emotional competencies and children's SEL remain widely understudied. In the present study, private preschool and…

  20. Quantum well, beam deflecting surface emitting lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae H.

    1992-10-01

    This invention relates to surface emitting semiconductor lasers (SELs), with integrated 45 deg. beam deflectors. A SEL is formed on a wafer including vertical mirrors and 45 deg. beam deflectors formed in grooves by tilted ion beam etching. A SEL is a lattice matched, or unstrained, AlGaAs/GaAs GRINSCH SQW SEL. An alternate embodiment is shown, in which a SEL is lattice mismatched, strained or pseudomorphic, or InGaAs/AlGaAs GRINSCH SQW SEL which emits radiation at a wavelength to which its substrate is transparent. Both SELs exhibit high output power, low threshold current density, and relatively high efficiency, and each are processing compatible with conventional large scale integration technology. Such SELs may be fabricated in large numbers from single wafers. The novel features of this invention include the use of tilted ion beam etching to form a pair of grooves each including vertical mirrors and 45 deg. beam deflectors. The embodiment provides substantial circuit design flexibility because radiation may be coupled both up and/or down through the substrate.

  1. Quantum well, beam deflecting surface emitting lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae H.

    1991-06-01

    This invention relates to surface emitting semiconductor lasers (SELs), with integrated 45 deg. beam deflectors. A SEL is formed on a wafer including vertical mirrors and 45 deg. beam deflectors formed in grooves by tilted ion beam etching. A SEL is a lattice matched, or unstrained, AlGaAs/GaAs GRINSCH SQW SEL. An alternate embodiment is shown, in which a SEL is lattice mismatched, strained or pseudomorphic, or InGaAs/AlGaAs GRINSCH SQW SEL which emits radiation at a wavelength to which its substrate is transparent. Both SELs exhibit high output power, low threshold current density, and relatively high efficiency, and each are processing compatible with conventional large scale integration technology. Such SELs may be fabricated in large numbers from single wafers. The novel features of this invention include the use of tilted ion beam etching to form a pair of grooves each including vertical mirrors and 45 deg. beam deflectors. The embodiment provides substantial circuit design flexibility because radiation may be coupled both up and/or down through the substrate.

  2. Promoting Social and Emotional Learning in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMeulenaere, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Michelle DeMeulenaere discusses social/emotional learning (SEL), with a focus on helping preschool children gain knowledge about feelings and getting along with others. SEL is the process in which children are able to acknowledge and recognize the emotions of others, develop empathy, make good decisions, establish friendships, and…

  3. Plutonium finishing plant safety systems and equipment list

    SciTech Connect

    Bergquist, G.G.

    1995-01-06

    The Safety Equipment List (SEL) supports Analysis Report (FSAR), WHC-SD-CP-SAR-021 and the Plutonium Finishing Plant Operational Safety Requirements (OSRs), WHC-SD-CP-OSR-010. The SEL is a breakdown and classification of all Safety Class 1, 2, and 3 equipment, components, or system at the Plutonium Finishing Plant complex.

  4. Glossary of software engineering laboratory terms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A glossary of terms used in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) is presented. The terms are defined within the context of the software development environment for flight dynamics at Goddard Space Flight Center. A concise reference for clarifying and understanding the language employed in SEL documents and data collection forms is provided.

  5. Soluble P-selectin rescues viper venom–induced mortality through anti-inflammatory properties and PSGL-1 pathway-mediated correction of hemostasis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Der-Shan; Ho, Pei-Hsun; Chang, Hsin-Hou

    2016-01-01

    Venomous snakebites are lethal and occur frequently worldwide each year, and receiving the antivenom antibody is currently the most effective treatment. However, the specific antivenom might be unavailable in remote areas. Snakebites by Viperidae usually lead to hemorrhage and mortality if untreated. In the present study, challenges of rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) venom markedly increased the circulating soluble P-selectin (sP-sel) level, but not P-selectin (P-sel, Selp−/−) mutants, in wild-type mice. Because sP-sel enhances coagulation through the P-selectin ligand 1 (PSGL-1, Selplg) pathway to produce tissue factor–positive microparticles, we hypothesized that increasing the plasma sP-sel level can be a self-rescue response in hosts against snake venom–mediated suppression of the coagulation system. Confirming our hypothesis, our results indicated that compared with wild-type mice, Selp−/− and Selplg−/− mice were more sensitive to rattlesnake venom. Additionally, administration of recombinant sP-sel could effectively reduce the mortality rate of mice challenged with venoms from three other Viperidae snakes. The antivenom property of sP-sel is associated with improved coagulation activity in vivo. Our data suggest that the elevation of endogenous sP-sel level is a self-protective response against venom-suppressed coagulation. The administration of recombinant sP-sel may be developed as a new strategy to treat Viperidae snakebites. PMID:27779216

  6. The Positive Impact of Social and Emotional Learning for Kindergarten to Eighth-Grade Students: Findings from Three Scientific Reviews. Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payton, John; Weissberg, Roger P.; Durlak, Joseph A.; Dymnicki, Allison B.; Taylor, Rebecca D.; Schellinger, Kriston B.; Pachan, Molly

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes results from three large-scale reviews of research on the impact of social and emotional learning (SEL) programs on elementary and middle-school students--that is, programs that seek to promote various social and emotional skills. Collectively the three reviews included 317 studies and involved 324,303 children. SEL programs…

  7. Social and Emotional Learning Strategies to Support Students in Challenging Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marulanda, Zandra K.

    2010-01-01

    New and veteran educators often face particular challenges in the classroom. Problems include classroom management, student academic achievement, and job satisfaction. This research examines the effects of implementing a Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) approach for students as part of the regular education for elementary public schools. SEL is…

  8. Is Sound Exposure Level a Convenient Metric to Characterize Fatiguing Sounds? A Study in Beluga Whales.

    PubMed

    Supin, Alexander; Popov, Vladimir; Nechaev, Dmitry; Sysueva, Evgenia; Rozhnov, Viatcheslav

    2016-01-01

    Both the level and duration of fatiguing sounds influence temporary threshold shifts (TTSs) in odontocetes. These two parameters were combined into a sound exposure level (SEL). In the beluga whale Delphinapterus leucas, TTSs were investigated at various sound pressure level (SPL)-to-duration ratios at a specific SEL. At low SPL-to-duration ratios, the dependence was positive: shorter high-level sounds produced greater TTSs than long low-level sounds of the same SEL. At high SPL-to-duration ratios, the dependence was negative: long low-level sounds produced greater TTSs than short high-level sounds of the same SEL. Thus, the validity of SEL as a metric for fatiguing sound efficiency is limited.

  9. Is Sound Exposure Level a Convenient Metric to Characterize Fatiguing Sounds? A Study in Beluga Whales.

    PubMed

    Supin, Alexander; Popov, Vladimir; Nechaev, Dmitry; Sysueva, Evgenia; Rozhnov, Viatcheslav

    2016-01-01

    Both the level and duration of fatiguing sounds influence temporary threshold shifts (TTSs) in odontocetes. These two parameters were combined into a sound exposure level (SEL). In the beluga whale Delphinapterus leucas, TTSs were investigated at various sound pressure level (SPL)-to-duration ratios at a specific SEL. At low SPL-to-duration ratios, the dependence was positive: shorter high-level sounds produced greater TTSs than long low-level sounds of the same SEL. At high SPL-to-duration ratios, the dependence was negative: long low-level sounds produced greater TTSs than short high-level sounds of the same SEL. Thus, the validity of SEL as a metric for fatiguing sound efficiency is limited. PMID:26611076

  10. The impact of enhancing students' social and emotional learning: a meta-analysis of school-based universal interventions.

    PubMed

    Durlak, Joseph A; Weissberg, Roger P; Dymnicki, Allison B; Taylor, Rebecca D; Schellinger, Kriston B

    2011-01-01

    This article presents findings from a meta-analysis of 213 school-based, universal social and emotional learning (SEL) programs involving 270,034 kindergarten through high school students. Compared to controls, SEL participants demonstrated significantly improved social and emotional skills, attitudes, behavior, and academic performance that reflected an 11-percentile-point gain in achievement. School teaching staff successfully conducted SEL programs. The use of 4 recommended practices for developing skills and the presence of implementation problems moderated program outcomes. The findings add to the growing empirical evidence regarding the positive impact of SEL programs. Policy makers, educators, and the public can contribute to healthy development of children by supporting the incorporation of evidence-based SEL programming into standard educational practice.

  11. p24 proteins and quality control of LIN-12 and GLP-1 trafficking in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Wen, C; Greenwald, I

    1999-06-14

    Mutations in the Caenorhabditis elegans sel-9 gene elevate the activity of lin-12 and glp-1, which encode members of the LIN-12/NOTCH family of receptors. Sequence analysis indicates SEL-9 is one of several C. elegans p24 proteins. Allele-specific genetic interactions suggest that reducing sel-9 activity increases the activity of mutations altering the extracellular domains of LIN-12 or GLP-1. Reducing sel-9 activity restores the trafficking to the plasma membrane of a mutant GLP-1 protein that would otherwise accumulate within the cell. Our results suggest a role for SEL-9 and other p24 proteins in the negative regulation of transport of LIN-12 and GLP-1 to the cell surface, and favor a role for p24 proteins in a quality control mechanism for endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi transport. PMID:10366590

  12. Screening of nanosatellite microprocessors using californium single-event latch-up test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomioka, Takahiro; Okumura, Yuta; Masui, Hirokazu; Takamiya, Koichi; Cho, Mengu

    2016-09-01

    A single-event latch-up (SEL) test using a 252Cf radioisotope was carried out. The results were compared with those of a proton test and from observation in orbit. A radioisotope can reproduce phenomena observed in orbit that are caused by protons. Considering the inexpensive nature of the 252Cf test, it is more suitable for nanosatellites that require low cost and fast delivery. A SEL occurrence rate of a commercial-off-the-shelf microprocessor was derived from the ground test results. The 252Cf test provided a SEL rate approximately 1×106 times greater than that in orbit. This data can be used to derive the minimum SEL occurrence rate in orbit and help satellite designers to evaluate the risk of SEL and take measures if necessary.

  13. Changes and challenges in the Software Engineering Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pajerski, Rose

    1994-01-01

    Since 1976, the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) has been dedicated to understanding and improving the way in which one NASA organization, the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD), develops, maintains, and manages complex flight dynamics systems. The SEL is composed of three member organizations: NASA/GSFC, the University of Maryland, and Computer Sciences Corporation. During the past 18 years, the SEL's overall goal has remained the same: to improve the FDD's software products and processes in a measured manner. This requires that each development and maintenance effort be viewed, in part, as a SEL experiment which examines a specific technology or builds a model of interest for use on subsequent efforts. The SEL has undertaken many technology studies while developing operational support systems for numerous NASA spacecraft missions.

  14. Prediction of selenoprotein T structure and its response to selenium deficiency in chicken immune organs.

    PubMed

    You, Lu; Liu, Ci; Yang, Zi-Jiang; Li, Ming; Li, Shu

    2014-08-01

    Selenoprotein T (SelT) is associated with the regulation of calcium homeostasis and neuroendocrine secretion. SelT can also change cell adhesion and is involved in redox regulation and cell fixation. However, the structure and function of chicken SelT and its response to selenium (Se) remains unclear. In the present study, 150 1-day-old chickens were randomly divided into a low Se group (L group, fed a Se-deficient diet containing 0.020 mg/kg Se) and a control group (C group, fed a diet containing sodium selenite at 0.2 mg/kg Se). The immune organs (spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius) were collected at 15, 25, 35, 45, and 55 days of age. We performed a sequence analysis and predicted the structure and function of SelT. We also investigated the effects of Se deficiency on the expression of SelT, selenophosphate synthetase-1 (SPS1), and selenocysteine synthase (SecS) using RT-PCR and the oxidative stress in the chicken immune organs. The data showed that the coding sequence (CDS) and deduced amino acid sequence of SelT were highly similar to those of 17 other animals. Se deficiency induced lower (P < 0.05) levels of SelT, SPS1, and SecS, reduced the catalase (CAT) activity, and increased the levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hydroxyl radical (-OH) in immune organs. In conclusion, the CDS and deduced amino acid sequence of chicken SelT are highly homologous to those of various mammals. The redox function and response to the Se deficiency of chicken SelT may be conserved. A Se-deficient diet led to a decrease in SelT, SecS, and SPS1 and induced oxidative stress in the chicken immune organs. To our knowledge, this is the first report of predictions of chicken SelT structure and function. The present study demonstrated the relationship between the selenoprotein synthases (SPS1, SecS) and SelT expression in the chicken immune organs and further confirmed oxidative stress caused by Se deficiency. Thus, the information presented in this study is helpful to

  15. Link between local scale BC emissions in the Indo-Gangetic Plains and large scale atmospheric solar absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praveen, P. S.; Ahmed, T.; Kar, A.; Rehman, I. H.; Ramanathan, V.

    2012-01-01

    Project Surya has documented indoor and outdoor concentrations of black carbon (BC) from traditional biomass burning cook stoves in a rural village located in the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) region of N. India from November 2009-September 2010. In this paper, we systematically document the link between local scale aerosol properties and column averaged regional aerosol optical properties and atmospheric radiative forcing. We document observations from the first phase of Project Surya and estimate the source dependent (biomass and fossil fuels) aerosol optical properties from local to regional scale. Data were collected using surface based observations of BC, organic carbon (OC), aerosol light absorption, scattering coefficient at the Surya village (SVI_1) located in IGP region and integrated with satellite and AERONET observations at the regional scale (IGP). The daily mean BC concentrations at SVI1 showed a large increase of BC during the dry season (December to February) with values reaching 35 μg m-3. Space based LIDAR data revealed how the biomass smoke was trapped within the first kilometer during the dry season and extended to above 5 km during the pre-monsoon season. As a result, during the dry season, the variance in the daily mean single scattering albedo (SSA), the ratio of scattering to extinction coefficient, and column aerosol optical properties at the local IGP site correlated (with slopes in the range of 0.85 to 1.06 and R2>0.4) well with the "IGP_AERONET" (mean of six AERONET sites). The statistically significant correlation suggested that in-situ observations can be used to derive spatial mean forcing, at least for the dry season. The atmospheric forcing due to BC and OC exceeded 20 Wm-2 during all months from November to May, supporting the deduction that elimination of cook stove smoke emissions through clean cooking technologies will likely have a major positive impact not only on human health but also on regional climate.

  16. Link between local scale BC emissions and large scale atmospheric solar absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praveen, P. S.; Ahmed, T.; Kar, A.; Rehman, I. H.; Ramanathan, V.

    2011-07-01

    Project Surya has documented indoor and outdoor concentrations of black carbon (BC) from traditional biomass burning cook stoves in a rural village located in the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) region of N. India from November 2009- September 2010. In this paper, we systematically document the link between local scale aerosol properties and column averaged regional aerosol optical properties and atmospheric radiative forcing. We report observations from the first phase of Project Surya to estimate the source dependent (biomass and fossil fuels) aerosol optical properties from local to regional scale. Data were collected using surface based observations of BC, organic carbon (OC), aerosol light absorption, scattering coefficient at the Surya village (SVI_1) located in IGP region, and satellite and AERONET observations at the regional scale (IGP). The daily mean BC concentrations at SVI1 showed the large increase of BC during the dry season (December to February) with values reaching 35 μg m-3. Space based LIDAR data reveal how the biomass smoke is trapped within the first kilometre during the dry season and its extension to above 5 km during the pre-monsoon season. As a result during the dry season, the variance in the daily mean SSA and column aerosol optical properties at the local IGP site correlated (with slopes in the range of 0.85 to 1.06 and R2>0.4) well with the "IGP_AERONET" (mean of six AERONET sites), thus suggesting in-situ observations at few locations can be used to infer spatial mean forcing. The atmospheric forcing due to BC and OC exceeded 20 W m-2 during all months from November to May, leading to the deduction that elimination of cook stove smoke emissions through clean cooking technologies will likely have a major positive impact on health and the regional climate.

  17. Regulation of Selenocysteine Content of Human Selenoprotein P by Dietary Selenium and Insertion of Cysteine in Place of Selenocysteine.

    PubMed

    Turanov, Anton A; Everley, Robert A; Hybsier, Sandra; Renko, Kostja; Schomburg, Lutz; Gygi, Steven P; Hatfield, Dolph L; Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2015-01-01

    Selenoproteins are a unique group of proteins that contain selenium in the form of selenocysteine (Sec) co-translationally inserted in response to a UGA codon with the help of cis- and trans-acting factors. Mammalian selenoproteins contain single Sec residues, with the exception of selenoprotein P (SelP) that has 7-15 Sec residues depending on species. Assessing an individual's selenium status is important under various pathological conditions, which requires a reliable selenium biomarker. Due to a key role in organismal selenium homeostasis, high Sec content, regulation by dietary selenium, and availability of robust assays in human plasma, SelP has emerged as a major biomarker of selenium status. Here, we found that Cys is present in various Sec positions in human SelP. Treatment of cells expressing SelP with thiophosphate, an analog of the selenium donor for Sec synthesis, led to a nearly complete replacement of Sec with Cys, whereas supplementation of cells with selenium supported Sec insertion. SelP isolated directly from human plasma had up to 8% Cys inserted in place of Sec, depending on the Sec position. These findings suggest that a change in selenium status may be reflected in both SelP concentration and its Sec content, and that availability of the SelP-derived selenium for selenoprotein synthesis may be overestimated under conditions of low selenium status due to replacement of Sec with Cys. PMID:26452064

  18. NASA advanced design program: Analysis, design, and construction of a solar powered aircraft. B.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Agnes; Conley, Kristin; Javorski, Christian T.; Cheung, Kwok-Hung; Crivelli, Paul M.; Torrey, Nancy P.; Traver, Michael L.

    1992-01-01

    Increase in energy demands coupled with rapid depletion of natural energy resources have deemed solar energy as the most logical alternative source of power. The major objective of this project was to build a solar powered remotely controlled aircraft to demonstrate the feasibility of solar energy as an effective, alternate source of power. The final design was optimized for minimum weight and maximum strength of the structure. These design constraints necessitated a carbon fiber composite structure. Surya is a lightweight, durable aircraft capable of achieving level flight powered entirely by solar cells.

  19. Identification and Characterization of a Novel Staphylococcal Emetic Toxin.

    PubMed

    Ono, Hisaya K; Sato'o, Yusuke; Narita, Kouji; Naito, Ikunori; Hirose, Shouhei; Hisatsune, Junzo; Asano, Krisana; Hu, Dong-Liang; Omoe, Katsuhiko; Sugai, Motoyuki; Nakane, Akio

    2015-10-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) produced by Staphylococcus aureus have superantigenic and emetic activities, which cause toxic shock syndrome and staphylococcal food poisoning, respectively. Our previous study demonstrated that the sequence of SET has a low level of similarity to the sequences of other SEs and exhibits atypical bioactivities. Hence, we further explored whether there is an additional SET-related gene in S. aureus strains. One SET-like gene was found in the genome of S. aureus isolates that originated from a case of food poisoning, a human nasal swab, and a case of bovine mastitis. The deduced amino acid sequence of the SET-like gene showed 32% identity with the amino acid sequence of SET. The SET-like gene product was designated SElY. In the food poisoning and nasal swab isolates, mRNA encoding SElY was highly expressed in the early log phase of cultivation, whereas a high level of expression of this mRNA was found in the bovine mastitis isolate at the early stationary phase. To estimate whether SElY has both superantigenic and emetic activities, recombinant SElY was prepared. Cell proliferation and cytokine production were examined to assess the superantigenic activity of SElY. SElY exhibited superantigenic activity in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells but not in mouse splenocytes. In addition, SElY exhibited emetic activity in house musk shrews after intraperitoneal and oral administration. However, the stability of SElY against heating and pepsin and trypsin digestion was different from that of SET and SEA. From these results, we identified SElY to be a novel staphylococcal emetic toxin. PMID:26231643

  20. Selenoprotein H Suppresses Cellular Senescence through Genome Maintenance and Redox Regulation*

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ryan T. Y.; Cao, Lei; Chen, Benjamin P. C.; Cheng, Wen-Hsing

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress and persistent DNA damage response contribute to cellular senescence, a degeneration process critically involving ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and p53. Selenoprotein H (SelH), a nuclear selenoprotein, is proposed to carry redox and transactivation domains. To determine the role of SelH in genome maintenance, shRNA knockdown was employed in human normal and immortalized cell lines. SelH shRNA MRC-5 diploid fibroblasts under ambient O2 displayed a distinct profile of senescence including β-galactosidase expression, autofluorescence, growth inhibition, and ATM pathway activation. Such senescence phenotypes were alleviated in the presence of ATM kinase inhibitors, by p53 shRNA knockdown, or by maintaining the cells under 3% O2. During the course of 5-day recovery, the induction of phospho-ATM on Ser-1981 and γH2AX by H2O2 treatment (20 μm) subsided in scrambled shRNA but exacerbated in SelH shRNA MRC-5 cells. Results from clonogenic assays demonstrated hypersensitivity of SelH shRNA HeLa cells to paraquat and H2O2, but not to hydroxyurea, neocarzinostatin, or camptothecin. While SelH mRNA expression was induced by H2O2 treatment, SelH-GFP did not mobilize to sites of oxidative DNA damage. The glutathione level was lower in SelH shRNA than scrambled shRNA HeLa cells, and the H2O2-induced cell death was rescued in the presence of N-acetylcysteine, a glutathione precursor. Altogether, SelH protects against cellular senescence to oxidative stress through a genome maintenance pathway involving ATM and p53. PMID:25336634

  1. Peak sound pressure and sound exposure level from underwater explosions in shallow water.

    PubMed

    Soloway, Alexander G; Dahl, Peter H

    2014-09-01

    Experimental measurements of the peak pressure and sound exposure level (SEL) from underwater explosions collected 7 km off the coast of Virginia Beach, Virginia are presented. The peak pressures are compared to results from previous studies and a semi-empirical equation that is a function of measurement range and charge weight, and are found to be in good agreement. An empirical equation for SEL that similarly employs a scaling approach involving charge weight and range is also presented and shows promise for the prediction of SEL in shallow water.

  2. Impact of Ada and object-oriented design in the flight dynamics division at Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waligora, Sharon; Bailey, John; Stark, Mike

    1995-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) is an organization sponsored by NASA/GSFC and created to investigate the effectiveness of software engineering technologies when applied to the development of applications software. The goals of the SEL are (1) to understand the software development process in the GSFC environment; (2) to measure the effects of various methodologies, tools, and models on this process; and (3) to identify and then to apply successful development practices. The activities, findings, and recommendations of the SEL are recorded in the Software Engineering Laboratory Series, a continuing series of reports that includes this document.

  3. Proceedings of the 19th Annual Software Engineering Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) is an organization sponsored by NASA/GSFC and created to investigate the effectiveness of software engineering technologies when applied to the development of applications software. The goals of the SEL are: (1) to understand the software development process in the GSFC environment; (2) to measure the effects of various methodologies, tools, and models on this process; and (3) to identify and then to apply successful development practices. The activities, findings, and recommendations of the SEL are recorded in the Software Engineering Laboratory Series, a continuing series of reports that include this document.

  4. Software process improvement in the NASA software engineering laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgarry, Frank; Pajerski, Rose; Page, Gerald; Waligora, Sharon; Basili, Victor; Zelkowitz, Marvin

    1994-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) was established in 1976 for the purpose of studying and measuring software processes with the intent of identifying improvements that could be applied to the production of ground support software within the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The SEL has three member organizations: NASA/GSFC, the University of Maryland, and Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC). The concept of process improvement within the SEL focuses on the continual understanding of both process and product as well as goal-driven experimentation and analysis of process change within a production environment.

  5. Mapping probability of shipping sound exposure level.

    PubMed

    Gervaise, Cédric; Aulanier, Florian; Simard, Yvan; Roy, Nathalie

    2015-06-01

    Mapping vessel noise is emerging as one method of identifying areas where sound exposure due to shipping noise could have negative impacts on aquatic ecosystems. The probability distribution function (pdf) of sound exposure levels (SEL) is an important metric for identifying areas of concern. In this paper a probabilistic shipping SEL modeling method is described to obtain the pdf of SEL using the sonar equation and statistical relations linking the pdfs of ship traffic density, source levels, and transmission losses to their products and sums.

  6. Collected software engineering papers, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Topics addressed include: summaries of the software engineering laboratory (SEL) organization, operation, and research activities; results of specific research projects in the areas of resource models and software measures; and strategies for data collection for software engineering research.

  7. Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual Software Engineering Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Topics covered in the workshop included studies and experiments conducted in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL), a cooperative effort of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, the University of Maryland, and Computer Sciences Corporation; software models; software products; and software tools.

  8. Somatic embryo-like structures of strawberry regenerated in vitro on media supplemented with 2,4-D and BAP.

    PubMed

    Omar, Genesia F; Mohamed, Fouad H; Haensch, Klaus-Thomas; Sarg, Sawsan H; Morsey, Mohamed M

    2013-09-01

    Somatic embryo-like structures (SELS) were produced in vitro from leaf disk and petiole explants of two cultivars of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch) on Murashige and Skoog medium with different concentrations and combinations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and sucrose to check the embryonic nature of these structures histologically. A large number of SELS could be regenerated in both cultivars on media with 2-4 mg L(-1) 2,4-D in combination with 0.5 -1 mg L(-1) BAP and 50 g x L(-1) sucrose. Histological examination of SELS revealed the absence of a root pole. Therefore these structures cannot be strictly classified as somatic embryos. The SELS formed under the tested culture conditions represent malformed shoot-like and leaf-like structures. The importance of these results for the propagation of strawberries via somatic embryogenesis is discussed. PMID:24377134

  9. Single- and double-electron detachment from H- in collisions with He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Víkor, L.; Sarkadi, L.; Penent, F.; Báder, A.; Pálinkás, J.

    1996-09-01

    The single- and double-electron detachment processes have been studied for 85 keV H- on He collisions measuring the energy spectra of the electrons emitted in forward direction. In the spectrum belonging to the single-electron loss (SEL) the nonresonant part (cusp) has been resolved from the resonant part [lines from the (2s2p)1Po shape resonance of H-]. The ratio of the integrated yield of the double-electron loss (DEL) to that of SEL was found to be 0.36+/-0.02. The yield of the cusp in the SEL spectrum was found to be surprisingly small, only (70+/-20)% of the yield of the cusp in the DEL spectrum. The formation of the cusp in SEL is interpreted as a result of dipolar interaction between the electron and the outgoing H0 atom.

  10. Collected software engineering papers, volume 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A collection of selected technical papers produced by participants in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) during the period November 1989 through October 1990 is presented. The purpose of the document is to make available, in one reference, some results of SEL research that originally appeared in a number of different forums. Although these papers cover several topics related to software engineering, they do not encompass the entire scope of SEL activities and interests. Additional information about the SEL and its research efforts may be obtained from the sources listed in the bibliography. The seven presented papers are grouped into four major categories: (1) experimental research and evaluation of software measurement; (2) studies on models for software reuse; (3) a software tool evaluation; and (4) Ada technology and studies in the areas of reuse and specification.

  11. Performance of free-space optical communication system using differential phase-shift keying subcarrier-intensity modulated over the exponentiated Weibull channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhengguang; Liu, Hongzhan; Liao, Renbo; Ma, Xiaoping

    2015-10-01

    A differential phase-shift keying modulation for free-space optical (FSO) communication is considered in atmospheric turbulence modeled by the exponentiated Weibull distribution. The selection combining (SelC) spatial diversity is used to mitigate the effects of atmospheric turbulence. We analyze the average bit error rate (BER) of the system using SelC spatial diversity by Gauss-Laguerre approximation. The effect of aperture averaging and spatial diversity on the outage probability is also studied. The numerical results show that it requires a smaller level of signal-to-noise ratio to reach the same BER when large aperture and SelC spatial diversity are deployed in the FSO system. Moreover, it is proved that aperture averaging and SelC spatial diversity are effective for improving the performance of the system's outage probability.

  12. Somatic embryo-like structures of strawberry regenerated in vitro on media supplemented with 2,4-D and BAP.

    PubMed

    Omar, Genesia F; Mohamed, Fouad H; Haensch, Klaus-Thomas; Sarg, Sawsan H; Morsey, Mohamed M

    2013-09-01

    Somatic embryo-like structures (SELS) were produced in vitro from leaf disk and petiole explants of two cultivars of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch) on Murashige and Skoog medium with different concentrations and combinations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and sucrose to check the embryonic nature of these structures histologically. A large number of SELS could be regenerated in both cultivars on media with 2-4 mg L(-1) 2,4-D in combination with 0.5 -1 mg L(-1) BAP and 50 g x L(-1) sucrose. Histological examination of SELS revealed the absence of a root pole. Therefore these structures cannot be strictly classified as somatic embryos. The SELS formed under the tested culture conditions represent malformed shoot-like and leaf-like structures. The importance of these results for the propagation of strawberries via somatic embryogenesis is discussed.

  13. High-power AlGaAs/GaAs single quantum well surface-emitting lasers with integrated 45° beam deflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae-Hoon; Lang, Robert J.; Larsson, Anders; Lee, Luke P.; Narayanan, Authi A.

    1990-11-01

    We report on high-power AlGaAs/GaAs graded-index single quantum well surface-emitting lasers (SELs), with etched vertical mirrors and integrated 45° beam deflectors fabricated by a tilted ion beam etching technique. 100-μm-wide, 500-μm-long, broad-area SELs exhibited a threshold current of 300 mA, a peak power of more than 380 mW, and an external differential quantum efficiency of 17% without facet coating. The SELs showed stable operation up to 7th. These results show the highest power and external differential quantum efficiency reported to date for 45° beam deflecting SELs. The full widths at half maximum of the surface-emitting far-field pattern parallel and perpendicular to the laser axis were 8.5° and 14°, respectively.

  14. Collected Software Engineering Papers, Volume 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This document is a collection of selected technical papers produced by participants in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) from Oct. 1991 - Nov. 1992. The purpose of the document is to make available, in one reference, some results of SEL research that originally appeared in a number of different forums. Although these papers cover several topics related to software engineering, they do not encompass the entire scope of SEL activities and interests. Additional information about the SEL and its research efforts may be obtained from the sources listed in the bibliography at the end of this document. For the convenience of this presentation, the 11 papers contained here are grouped into 5 major sections: (1) the Software Engineering Laboratory; (2) software tools studies; (3) software models studies; (4) software measurement studies; and (5) Ada technology studies.

  15. From Dodge City to Emerald City: The Importance of Joseph E. Zins' Work in Teacher Education Programs--A Commentary on "The Scientific Base Linking Social and Emotional Learning to School Success," a Chapter by Joseph E. Zins, Michelle R. Bloodworth, Roger P. Weissberg, and Herbert J. Walberg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, David Lee

    2007-01-01

    This commentary argues that Joseph Zins' work can contribute and enhance university-based teacher preparation programs. Focusing on secondary English Education, it examines how SEL competencies can improve the curricula and field experiences to support pre-service teachers.

  16. The Effects of Architecture and Process on the Hardness of Programmable Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard; Wang, J. J.; Reed, R.; Kleyner, I.; DOrdine, M.; McCollum, J,; Cronquist, B.; Howard, J.

    1999-01-01

    Architecture and process, combined, significantly affect the hardness of programmable technologies. The effects of high energy ions, ferroelectric memory architectures, and shallow trench isolation are investigated. A detailed single event latchup (SEL) study has been performed.

  17. Secure Control Systems for the Energy Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Rhett; Stewart, John; Chavez, Adrian

    2014-10-22

    The Padlock Project is an alliance between Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories Inc. (SEL). SEL is the prime contractor on the Padlock project. Rhett Smith (SEL) is the project director and Adrian Chaves (SNL) and John Stewart (TVA) are principle investigators. SEL is the world’s leader in microprocessor-based electronic equipment for protecting electric power systems. The Tennessee Valley Authority, a corporation owned by the U.S. government, provides electricity for 9 million people in parts of seven southeastern states at prices below the national average. TVA, which receives no taxpayer money and makes no profits, also provides flood control, navigation and land management for the Tennessee River system and assists utilities, and state and local governments with economic development.

  18. PIFCGT: A PIF autopilot design program for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broussard, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    This report documents the PIFCGT computer program. In FORTRAN, PIFCGT is a computer design aid for determing Proportional-Integral-Filter (PIF) control laws for aircraft autopilots implemented with a Command Generator Tracker (CGT). The program uses Linear-Quadratic-Regulator synthesis algorithms to determine feedback gains, and includes software to solve the feedforward matrix equation which is useful in determining the command generator tracker feedforward gains. The program accepts aerodynamic stability derivatives and computes the corresponding aerodynamic linear model. The nine autopilot modes that can be designed include four maneuver modes (ROLL SEL, PITCH SEL, HDG SEL, ALT SEL), four final approach models (APR GS, APR LOCI, APR LOCR, APR LOCP), and a BETA HOLD mode. The program has been compiled and executed on a CDC computer.

  19. Safety equipment list for the 241-SY-101 RAPID mitigation project

    SciTech Connect

    MORRIS, K.L.

    1999-06-29

    This document provides the safety classification for the safety (safety class and safety RAPID Mitigation Project. This document is being issued as the project SEL until the supporting authorization basis documentation, this document will be superseded by the TWRS SEL (LMHC 1999), documentation istlralized. Upon implementation of the authorization basis significant) structures, systems, and components (SSCS) associated with the 241-SY-1O1 which will be updated to include the information contained herein.

  20. Proceedings of the Twenty-Third Annual Software Engineering Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The Twenty-third Annual Software Engineering Workshop (SEW) provided 20 presentations designed to further the goals of the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) of the NASA-GSFC. The presentations were selected on their creativity. The sessions which were held on 2-3 of December 1998, centered on the SEL, Experimentation, Inspections, Fault Prediction, Verification and Validation, and Embedded Systems and Safety-Critical Systems.

  1. Guide to data collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Guidelines and recommendations are presented for the collection of software development data. Motivation and planning for, and implementation and management of, a data collection effort are discussed. Topics covered include types, sources, and availability of data; methods and costs of data collection; types of analyses supported; and warnings and suggestions based on software engineering laboratory (SEL) experiences. This document is intended as a practical guide for software managers and engineers, abstracted and generalized from 5 years of SEL data collection.

  2. Formation of a Ternary Complex for Selenocysteine Biosynthesis in Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ivan R; Serrão, Vitor H B; Manzine, Livia R; Faim, Lívia M; da Silva, Marco T A; Makki, Raphaela; Saidemberg, Daniel M; Cornélio, Marinônio L; Palma, Mário S; Thiemann, Otavio H

    2015-12-01

    The synthesis of selenocysteine-containing proteins (selenoproteins) involves the interaction of selenocysteine synthase (SelA), tRNA (tRNA(Sec)), selenophosphate synthetase (SelD, SPS), a specific elongation factor (SelB), and a specific mRNA sequence known as selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS). Because selenium compounds are highly toxic in the cellular environment, the association of selenium with proteins throughout its metabolism is essential for cell survival. In this study, we demonstrate the interaction of SPS with the SelA-tRNA(Sec) complex, resulting in a 1.3-MDa ternary complex of 27.0 ± 0.5 nm in diameter and 4.02 ± 0.05 nm in height. To assemble the ternary complex, SPS undergoes a conformational change. We demonstrated that the glycine-rich N-terminal region of SPS is crucial for the SelA-tRNA(Sec)-SPS interaction and selenoprotein biosynthesis, as revealed by functional complementation experiments. Taken together, our results provide new insights into selenoprotein biosynthesis, demonstrating for the first time the formation of the functional ternary SelA-tRNA(Sec)-SPS complex. We propose that this complex is necessary for proper selenocysteine synthesis and may be involved in avoiding the cellular toxicity of selenium compounds. PMID:26378233

  3. Selenoprotein R Protects Human Lens Epithelial Cells against D-Galactose-Induced Apoptosis by Regulating Oxidative Stress and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jie; Liu, Hongmei; Zhou, Jun; Huang, Kaixun

    2016-01-01

    Selenium is an essential micronutrient for humans. Much of selenium's beneficial influence on health is attributed to its presence within 25 selenoproteins. Selenoprotein R (SelR), known as methionine sulfoxide reductase B1 (MsrB1), is a selenium-dependent enzyme that, like other Msrs, is required for lens cell viability. In order to investigate the roles of SelR in protecting human lens epithelial (hLE) cells against damage, the influences of SelR gene knockdown on d-galactose-induced apoptosis in hLE cells were studied. The results showed that both d-galactose and SelR gene knockdown by siRNA independently induced oxidative stress. When SelR-gene-silenced hLE cells were exposed to d-galactose, glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) protein level was further increased, mitochondrial membrane potential was significantly decreased and accompanied by a release of mitochondrial cytochrome c. At the same time, the apoptosis cells percentage and the caspase-3 activity were visibly elevated in hLE cells. These results suggested that SelR might protect hLE cell mitochondria and mitigating apoptosis in hLE cells against oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induced by d-galactose, implying that selenium as a micronutrient may play important roles in hLE cells.

  4. Inducing P-selectin ligand formation in CD8 T cells: IL-2 and IL-12 are active in vitro but not required in vivo.

    PubMed

    Carlow, Douglas A; Williams, Michael J; Ziltener, Hermann J

    2005-04-01

    In vitro studies have demonstrated that IL-2 and IL-12 can support formation of P-selectin ligands (P-SelL) in activated T cells, ligands that are variably required for efficient lymphocyte recruitment to sites of inflammation. To ascertain whether these cytokines were required for P-SelL formation in vivo, TCR transgenic CD8 T cells specific for male Ag (HY) were transferred into male mice under conditions in which either IL-2 and/or IL-15 or IL-12Rp40 were absent. P-SelL formation at day 2 was unperturbed in HY-TCR IL-2(null) CD8 T cells responding in doubly deficient IL-2(null)IL-12(null) or IL-2(null)IL-15(null) male recipients. HY-specific CD8 T cell proliferative responses detected in both spleen and peritoneum occurred vigorously, but only splenic CD8 T cells up-regulated P-SelL, demonstrating that in vivo induction of P-SelL is an active, nonprogrammed event following T cell activation and that despite the efficacy of IL-2 and IL-12 in supporting P-SelL formation in vitro, these cytokines appear to be dispensable for this purpose in vivo.

  5. Formation of a Ternary Complex for Selenocysteine Biosynthesis in Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ivan R; Serrão, Vitor H B; Manzine, Livia R; Faim, Lívia M; da Silva, Marco T A; Makki, Raphaela; Saidemberg, Daniel M; Cornélio, Marinônio L; Palma, Mário S; Thiemann, Otavio H

    2015-12-01

    The synthesis of selenocysteine-containing proteins (selenoproteins) involves the interaction of selenocysteine synthase (SelA), tRNA (tRNA(Sec)), selenophosphate synthetase (SelD, SPS), a specific elongation factor (SelB), and a specific mRNA sequence known as selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS). Because selenium compounds are highly toxic in the cellular environment, the association of selenium with proteins throughout its metabolism is essential for cell survival. In this study, we demonstrate the interaction of SPS with the SelA-tRNA(Sec) complex, resulting in a 1.3-MDa ternary complex of 27.0 ± 0.5 nm in diameter and 4.02 ± 0.05 nm in height. To assemble the ternary complex, SPS undergoes a conformational change. We demonstrated that the glycine-rich N-terminal region of SPS is crucial for the SelA-tRNA(Sec)-SPS interaction and selenoprotein biosynthesis, as revealed by functional complementation experiments. Taken together, our results provide new insights into selenoprotein biosynthesis, demonstrating for the first time the formation of the functional ternary SelA-tRNA(Sec)-SPS complex. We propose that this complex is necessary for proper selenocysteine synthesis and may be involved in avoiding the cellular toxicity of selenium compounds.

  6. Selenium metabolism in Trypanosoma: characterization of selenoproteomes and identification of a Kinetoplastida-specific selenoprotein.

    PubMed

    Lobanov, Alexey V; Gromer, Stephan; Salinas, Gustavo; Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2006-01-01

    Proteins containing the 21st amino acid selenocysteine (Sec) are present in the three domains of life. However, within lower eukaryotes, particularly parasitic protists, the dependence on the trace element selenium is variable as many organisms lost the ability to utilize Sec. Herein, we analyzed the genomes of Trypanosoma and Leishmania for the presence of genes coding for Sec-containing proteins. The selenoproteomes of these flagellated protozoa have three selenoproteins, including distant homologs of mammalian SelK and SelT, and a novel multidomain selenoprotein designated SelTryp. In SelK and SelTryp, Sec is near the C-terminus, and in all three selenoproteins, it is within predicted redox motifs. SelTryp has neither Sec- nor cysteine-containing homologs in the human host and appears to be a Kinetoplastida-specific protein. The use of selenium for protein synthesis was verified by metabolically labeling Trypanosoma cells with 75Se. In addition, genes coding for components of the Sec insertion machinery were identified in the Kinetoplastida genomes. Finally, we found that Trypanosoma brucei brucei cells were highly sensitive to auranofin, a compound that specifically targets selenoproteins. Overall, these data establish that Trypanosoma, Leishmania and likely other Kinetoplastida utilize and depend on the trace element selenium, and this dependence is due to occurrence of selenium in at least three selenoproteins.

  7. Clinical and economic evaluation of BBL CHROMagar Salmonella (CHROMSal) versus subculture after selenite broth enrichment to CHROMSal and Hektoen enteric agars to detect enteric Salmonella in a large regional microbiology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Church, Deirdre L; Emshey, Diana; Lloyd, Tracie; Pitout, Johann

    2010-09-01

    Stool culture for enteric pathogens is one of the most labor-intensive clinical microbiology procedures. Direct plating of stool to BBL CHROMagar Salmonella (CHROMSal) (BD Diagnostics, Sparks, MD) versus subculture after selenite broth enrichment (Sel) to CHROMSal (Sel-CHROMSal) and Hektoen enteric agar (Sel-Hek) (PML Microbiologicals, Eugene, OR) to detect Salmonella were compared. The number of colony picks and biochemical/serotyping tests per plate was recorded. A cost comparison was done. Fifty-one of 2999 (1.7%) stools yielded Salmonella sp., and 80% of isolates grew on CHROMSal by 24 h. CHROMSal demonstrated much less false-positive growth compared to Sel-Hek (P < 0.0001), which reduced biochemical and serotyping tests by 85% and 20%, respectively. Sel-CHROMSal and CHROMSal versus Sel-Hek improved enteric Salmonella detection when compared to a true positive "gold standard" (i.e., recovery by any culture method) with a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 100% and 94.12%, 100% and 99.97%, 100% and 97.96%, and 100% and 99.90%, respectively. CHROMSal use would result in substantial cost and labor savings.

  8. In Situ Electron Microscopy of Lactomicroselenium Particles in Probiotic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Gabor; Pinczes, Gyula; Pinter, Gabor; Pocsi, Istvan; Prokisch, Jozsef; Banfalvi, Gaspar

    2016-01-01

    Electron microscopy was used to test whether or not (a) in statu nascendi synthesized, and in situ measured, nanoparticle size does not differ significantly from the size of nanoparticles after their purification; and (b) the generation of selenium is detrimental to the bacterial strains that produce them. Elemental nano-sized selenium produced by probiotic latic acid bacteria was used as a lactomicroselenium (lactomicroSel) inhibitor of cell growth in the presence of lactomicroSel, and was followed by time-lapse microscopy. The size of lactomicroSel produced by probiotic bacteria was measured in situ and after isolation and purification. For these measurements the TESLA BS 540 transmission electron microscope was converted from analog (aTEM) to digital processing (dTEM), and further to remote-access internet electron microscopy (iTEM). Lactobacillus acidophilus produced fewer, but larger, lactomicroSel nanoparticles (200-350 nm) than Lactobacillus casei (L. casei), which generated many, smaller lactomicroSel particles (85-200 nm) and grains as a cloudy, less electrodense material. Streptococcus thermophilus cells generated selenoparticles (60-280 nm) in a suicidic manner. The size determined in situ in lactic acid bacteria was significantly lower than those measured by scanning electron microscopy after the isolation of lactomicroSel particles obtained from lactobacilli (100-500 nm), but higher relative to those isolated from Streptococcus thermopilus (50-100 nm). These differences indicate that smaller lactomicroSel particles could be more toxic to the producing bacteria themselves and discrepancies in size could have implications with respect to the applications of selenium nanoparticles as prebiotics. PMID:27376279

  9. Characterization of Selenoprotein M and Its Response to Selenium Deficiency in Chicken Brain.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jia-Qiang; Ren, Fa-Zheng; Jiang, Yun-Yun; Lei, XinGen

    2016-04-01

    Selenoprotein M (SelM) may function as thiol disulfide oxidoreductase that participates in the formation of disulfide bonds and can be implicated in calcium responses. SelM may have a functional role in catalyzing free radicals and has been associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, studies of SelM in chicken remain very limited. In this study, two groups of day-old broiler chicks (n = 40/group) were fed a corn-soy basal diet (BD, 13 μg Se/kg) and BD supplemented with Se (as sodium selenite) at 0.3 mg/kg. The brain was collected at 14, 21, 28, and 42 days of age. We performed a sequence analysis and predicted the structure and function of SelM. We also investigated the effects of Se deficiency on the expression of Selt, Selw, and Selm and the Se status in the chicken brain. The results show that Se deficiency induced the lower (P < 0.05) Se content, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) activities; increased (P < 0.05) malondialdehyde (MDA) content; and reduced (P < 0.05) the expression of Selm messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein abundance of SelM in the brain. However, there were no significant brain Selt and Selw mRNA levels by dietary Se deficiency in chicks. The different regulations of these three redox (Rdx) protein expressions by Se deficiency represent a novel finding of the present study. Our results demonstrated that SelM may have an important role in protecting against oxidative damage in the brain of chicken, which might shed light on the role of SelM in human neurodegenerative disease. More studies are needed to confirm our conclusion. PMID:26315306

  10. Bioavailability of seleno-compounds in the lactating rat

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.M.; Picciano, M.F.

    1986-03-01

    Previously the authors reported an increased selenium (Se) requirement for lactating rats of at least 0.2 ppm dietary Se if provided as selenite (SEL). In the present study bioavailability of selenomethionine (SEM), Se yeast (SEY) and SEL was assessed. A casein-based diet (0.025 ppm Se) was fed to 9 groups of 8 rats each during pregnancy to produce a marginal Se deficiency. During lactation each group was fed the same diet containing either 0.1, 0.25, or 0.5 ppm Se as SEL, SEM, or SEY. On day 18 of lactation dams and pups were sacrificed and tissue Se and glutathione peroxidase activities (GPx) determined. Although food intake of the dams and growth of the pups did not vary, selenium and GPx activities were dependent upon quantity and form of Se consumed. Using slope-ratio analysis linear increases in blood, tissue and milk Se content the bioavailabilities were SEM>SEY>SEL. Maximal GPx depended on the form of dietary Se with SEM>SEY>SEL. Maximal GPx occurred at 0.25 ppm dietary Se as SEM and SEY, but did not reach this activity when fed at 0.5 ppm Se as SEL. These results indicate that regardless of form, the NRC requirement for growing rats of 0.1 ppm Se, is not adequate during lactation to maintain maximum tissue GSH-Px in nursing pups. Based on higher tissue Se in dams and GPx in nursing pups the bioavailability of dietary Se to the lactating rat is greater when fed as SEM and SEY than as SEL.

  11. Selenium Alleviates Aflatoxin B₁-Induced Immune Toxicity through Improving Glutathione Peroxidase 1 and Selenoprotein S Expression in Primary Porcine Splenocytes.

    PubMed

    Hao, Shu; Hu, Junfa; Song, Suquan; Huang, Da; Xu, Haibing; Qian, Gang; Gan, Fang; Huang, Kehe

    2016-02-17

    Selenium (Se) is generally known as an essential micronutrient and antioxidant for humans and animals. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a frequent contaminant of food and feed, causing immune toxicity and hepatotoxicity. Little has been done about the mechanisms of how Se protects against AFB1-induced immune toxicity. The aim of this present study is to investigate the protective effects of Se against AFB1 and the underlying mechanisms. The primary splenocytes isolated from healthy pigs were stimulated by anti-pig-CD3 monoclonal antibodies and treated by various concentrations of different Se forms and AFB1. The results showed that Se supplementation alleviated the immune toxicity of AFB1 in a dose-dependent manner, as demonstrated by increasing T-cell proliferation and interleukin-2 production. Addition of buthionine sulfoximine abrogated the protective effects of SeMet against AFB1. SeMet enhanced mRNA and protein expression of glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1), selenoprotein S (SelS), and thioredoxin reductase 1 without and with AFB1 treatments. Furthermore, knockdown of GPx1 and SelS by GPx1-specific siRNA and SelS-specific siRNA diminished the protective effects of SeMet against AFB1-induced immune toxicity. It is concluded that SeMet diminishes AFB1-induced immune toxicity through increasing antioxidant ability and improving GPx1 and SelS expression in splenocytes. This study suggests that organic selenium may become a promising supplementation to protect humans and animals against the decline in immunity caused by AFB1.

  12. In Situ Electron Microscopy of Lactomicroselenium Particles in Probiotic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Gabor; Pinczes, Gyula; Pinter, Gabor; Pocsi, Istvan; Prokisch, Jozsef; Banfalvi, Gaspar

    2016-01-01

    Electron microscopy was used to test whether or not (a) in statu nascendi synthesized, and in situ measured, nanoparticle size does not differ significantly from the size of nanoparticles after their purification; and (b) the generation of selenium is detrimental to the bacterial strains that produce them. Elemental nano-sized selenium produced by probiotic latic acid bacteria was used as a lactomicroselenium (lactomicroSel) inhibitor of cell growth in the presence of lactomicroSel, and was followed by time-lapse microscopy. The size of lactomicroSel produced by probiotic bacteria was measured in situ and after isolation and purification. For these measurements the TESLA BS 540 transmission electron microscope was converted from analog (aTEM) to digital processing (dTEM), and further to remote-access internet electron microscopy (iTEM). Lactobacillus acidophilus produced fewer, but larger, lactomicroSel nanoparticles (200–350 nm) than Lactobacillus casei (L. casei), which generated many, smaller lactomicroSel particles (85–200 nm) and grains as a cloudy, less electrodense material. Streptococcus thermophilus cells generated selenoparticles (60–280 nm) in a suicidic manner. The size determined in situ in lactic acid bacteria was significantly lower than those measured by scanning electron microscopy after the isolation of lactomicroSel particles obtained from lactobacilli (100–500 nm), but higher relative to those isolated from Streptococcus thermopilus (50–100 nm). These differences indicate that smaller lactomicroSel particles could be more toxic to the producing bacteria themselves and discrepancies in size could have implications with respect to the applications of selenium nanoparticles as prebiotics. PMID:27376279

  13. Escherichia coli genes whose products are involved in selenium metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Leinfelder, W.; Forchhammer, K.; Zinoni, F.; Sawers, G.; Mandrand-Berthelot, M.A.; Boeck, A.

    1988-02-01

    Mutants of Escherichia coli were isolated which were affected in the formation of both formate dehydrogenase N (phenazine methosulfate reducing) (FDN/sub N/) and formate dehydrogenase H (benzylviologen reducing) (FDH/sub H/). They were analyzed, together with previously characterized pleiotropic fdh mutants (fdhA, fdhB, and fdhC), for their ability to incorporate selenium into the selenopolypeptide subunits of FDH/sub N/ and FDH/sub H/. Results of this study support the notion that the pleiotropic fdh mutants analyzed possess a lesion in the gene(s) encoding the biosynthesis or the incorporation of selenocysteine. The gene complementing the defect in one of the isolated mutants was cloned from a cosmid library. Subclones were tested for complementation of other pleiotropic fdh mutants. The results revealed that the mutations in the eight isolates fell into two complementation groups, one of them containing the fdhA mutation. fdhB, fdhC, and two of the new fdh isolates do not belong to these complementation groups. A new nomenclature (sel) is proposed for pleiotropic fdh mutations affecting selenium metabolism. Four genes have been identified so far: selA and selB (at the fdhA locus), selC (previously fdhC), and selD (previously fdhB).

  14. Distribution and fine structural analysis of undifferentiated cells in the primate subependymal layer.

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, K W; Lantos, P L

    1991-01-01

    The subependymal layer (SEL) of the postnatal marmoset, a simian primate, has been investigated by histological and electron microscopic techniques. Although well documented in rodents, little is known about this layer in primates. The distribution of the SEL in marmosets is most extensive at birth around the anterior lateral ventricles, where the layer is generally 5-10 cells deep; however, there is considerable regional variation. With age the size of the SEL decreases dramatically, becoming very poorly demarcated in adult animals. Ultrastructurally, many subependymal cells in neonatal and young brains display the features of undifferentiated cells, although neurons and glia are also present. Cells displaying features intermediate between astrocytes and undifferentiated SEL cells are occasionally encountered. In adults undifferentiated cells are seen rarely and the former SEL is composed primarily of glial and neuronal processes. Thus the layer in primates probably represents a site of continued cellular differentiation in the postnatal brain and as such must play an important role in the final stages of cortical development. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10(a,b) Fig. 11 PMID:1810935

  15. A γ-Secretase Independent Role for Presenilin in Calcium Homeostasis Impacts Mitochondrial Function and Morphology in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Sarasija, Shaarika; Norman, Kenneth R

    2015-12-01

    Mutations in the presenilin (PSEN) encoding genes (PSEN1 and PSEN2) occur in most early onset familial Alzheimer's Disease. Despite the identification of the involvement of PSEN in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) ∼20 years ago, the underlying role of PSEN in AD is not fully understood. To gain insight into the biological function of PSEN, we investigated the role of the PSEN homolog SEL-12 in Caenorhabditis elegans. Using genetic, cell biological, and pharmacological approaches, we demonstrate that mutations in sel-12 result in defects in calcium homeostasis, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. Moreover, consistent with mammalian PSEN, we provide evidence that SEL-12 has a critical role in mediating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium release. Furthermore, we found that in SEL-12-deficient animals, calcium transfer from the ER to the mitochondria leads to fragmentation of the mitochondria and mitochondrial dysfunction. Additionally, we show that the impact that SEL-12 has on mitochondrial function is independent of its role in Notch signaling, γ-secretase proteolytic activity, and amyloid plaques. Our results reveal a critical role for PSEN in mediating mitochondrial function by regulating calcium transfer from the ER to the mitochondria.

  16. Association of selenoprotein S gene polymorphism with ischemic stroke in a Chinese case-control study.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Xia; Guan, Hong-Jun; Liu, Jian-Ping; Guo, Yu-Peng; Yang, Yong; Niu, Ying-Ying; Yao, Li-Yan; Yang, Yin-Dong; Yue, Hong-Yu; Meng, Li-Li; Cui, Xin-Yu; Yang, Xiao-Wei; Gao, Jin-Xiao

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies showed that selenoprotein S (SELS) was associated with a range of inflammatory markers, and its gene expression was influenced by a polymorphism in the promoter region. The genetic basis of the ischemic stroke has now been largely determined, so the aim of the study was to examine the role of SELS genetic variants in the ischemic stroke risk in a Chinese population. We conducted a case-control study with 239 ischemic stroke patients and 240 controls. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in SELS genes were analyzed for association with the risk of ischemic stroke in the Chinese Han population. No evidence of ischemic stroke association was observed with the SNP rs34713741. Interestingly, the strongest evidence showed that SELS SNP rs4965814 was associated with ischemic stroke (P < 0.05). We found a significant association with increased ischemic stroke risk in women carrying the CC genotype of rs4965814 [hazard ratio: 2.43(1.03-5.75)]; a similar trend was also found in men carrying the TC genotype of rs4965814 [hazard ratio: 1.81(1.06-3.08)]. SNP rs4965814 of SELS may affect the susceptibility to ischemic stroke. Understanding the inflammatory mechanisms of ischemic stroke may give new therapeutic targets to pharmacologists. PMID:25390504

  17. Collected software engineering papers, volume 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This document is a collection of selected technical papers produced by participants in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) from November 1990 through October 1991. The purpose of the document is to make available, in one reference, some results of SEL research that originally appeared in a number of different forums. This is the ninth such volume of technical papers produced by the SEL. Although these papers cover several topics related to software engineering, they do not encompass the entire scope of SEL activities and interests. For the convenience of this presentation, the eight papers contained here are grouped into three major categories: (1) software models studies; (2) software measurement studies; and (3) Ada technology studies. The first category presents studies on reuse models, including a software reuse model applied to maintenance and a model for an organization to support software reuse. The second category includes experimental research methods and software measurement techniques. The third category presents object-oriented approaches using Ada and object-oriented features proposed for Ada. The SEL is actively working to understand and improve the software development process at GSFC.

  18. Dominant fitness costs of resistance to fipronil in Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Abbas, Naeem; Shah, Rizwan Mustafa; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Azher, Faheem

    2016-08-15

    House fly, Musca domestica L., (Diptera: Muscidae) a common pest of poultry, has developed resistance to the commonly used insecticide fipronil. The life history traits were examined in the fipronil-selected (Fipro-SEL), susceptible counterpart (UNSEL), and their hybrid progeny strains in order to design an effective resistant management strategy. Compared to the UNSEL strain, the Fipro-SEL was 181.94-fold resistant to fipronil. This resistance was unstable after five generations without selection. The Fipro-SEL had a significantly longer larval duration, lower pupal weight, lower fecundity, lower hatchability, lower number of next generation larvae, lower intrinsic rate of population increase and lower biotic potential than the UNSEL strain. Most fitness parameters of the hybrid progeny were similar and significantly lower than that in the UNSEL strain, suggesting autosomal and dominant fitness costs. Compared to the UNSEL strain, relative the fitness of the Fipro-SEL, Hybrid1 and Hybrid2 was 0.13, 0.33 and 0.30, respectively. Fipronil resistance resulted in high fitness costs and these fitness costs were dominant and autosomal in the Fipro-SEL strain of M. domestica. Rotation of fipronil with other insecticides having no cross resistance should be useful for delaying the development of resistance in M. domestica.

  19. Effect of selenium and grape seed extract on indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers in rats.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Amr M; Sakr, Hussein F

    2013-09-01

    Indomethacin (IND) is a non-steroid anti-inflammatory agent that is known to induce severe gastric mucosal lesions. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of selenium (SEL), grape seed extract (GSE), and both on IND-induced gastric mucosal ulcers in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g) were given SEL, GSE, and both by oral gavage for 28 days, and then gastric ulcers were induced by oral administration of 25 mg/kg IND. Malondialdehyde (MDA), non-enzymatic (reduced glutathione, GSH) and enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) antioxidants, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in gastric mucosa, and serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were measured. Moreover, gastric ulcer index and preventive index were determined. Indomethacin increased the gastric ulcer index, MDA, TNF-α, and decreased PGE2 and non-enzymatic (GSH) and enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) antioxidants. Pretreatment with SEL, GSE, and both significantly decreased the gastric ulcer index, MDA, and TNF and increased antioxidants and PGE2. Histopathological observations confirm the gastric ulcer index and biochemical parameters. Selenium and GSE have a protective effect against IND-induced gastric ulcers through prevention of lipid peroxidation, increase of GSH, activation of radical scavenging enzymes, PGE2 generation, and anti-inflammatory activity. Co-administration of GSE and SEL is more effective than GSE or SEL alone.

  20. Mechanism, stability and fitness cost of resistance to pyriproxyfen in the house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Shah, Rizwan Mustafa; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Abbas, Naeem

    2015-03-01

    Pyriproxyfen, a bio-rational insecticide, used worldwide for the management of many insect pests including the house fly, Musca domestica. To devise a retrospective resistance management strategy, biological parameters of pyriproxyfen resistant (Pyri-SEL), unselected (UNSEL), Cross1 and Cross2M. domestica strains were studied in the laboratory. Additionally, the stability and mechanism of resistance was also investigated. After 30 generations of pyriproxyfen selection, a field-collected strain developed 206-fold resistance compared with susceptible strain. Synergists such as piperonyl butoxide and S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate did not alter the LC50 values, suggesting another cause of target site resistance to pyriproxyfen in the Pyri-SEL strain. The resistance to all tested insecticides was unstable in Pyri-SEL strain. The relative fitness of 0.51 with lower fecundity, hatchability, lower number of next generation larvae, reduced mean population growth rate and net reproductive rate were observed in the Pyri-SEL strain compared with the UNSEL strain. The cost of fitness associated with pyriproxyfen resistance was evident in Pyri-SEL strain. The present study provides useful information for making pro-active resistance management strategies to delay resistance development.

  1. Aircraft noise-induced awakenings are more reasonably predicted from relative than from absolute sound exposure levels.

    PubMed

    Fidell, Sanford; Tabachnick, Barbara; Mestre, Vincent; Fidell, Linda

    2013-11-01

    Assessment of aircraft noise-induced sleep disturbance is problematic for several reasons. Current assessment methods are based on sparse evidence and limited understandings; predictions of awakening prevalence rates based on indoor absolute sound exposure levels (SELs) fail to account for appreciable amounts of variance in dosage-response relationships and are not freely generalizable from airport to airport; and predicted awakening rates do not differ significantly from zero over a wide range of SELs. Even in conjunction with additional predictors, such as time of night and assumed individual differences in "sensitivity to awakening," nominally SEL-based predictions of awakening rates remain of limited utility and are easily misapplied and misinterpreted. Probabilities of awakening are more closely related to SELs scaled in units of standard deviates of local distributions of aircraft SELs, than to absolute sound levels. Self-selection of residential populations for tolerance of nighttime noise and habituation to airport noise environments offer more parsimonious and useful explanations for differences in awakening rates at disparate airports than assumed individual differences in sensitivity to awakening.

  2. Containing Climate Change With Black Carbon Reductions: A Grand Challenge Field Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, V.

    2009-12-01

    The manmade greenhouse gases that are now blanketing the planet is thick enough to push the system beyond the tipping point for several elements of the climate system such as the arctic sea ice and the Himalayan-Tibetan glaciers, to name a few. Even with a targeted reduction in CO2 emission of 50% by 2050, we would still be adding more than 50 ppm of CO2 and thicken the manmade blanket by another 30%. Fortunately there are scientific ways to contain the warming and these will be outlined. But these need a truly transformational and interdisciplinary approach that brings together social scientists, natural scientists, energy experts and engineers to develop effective mitigation pathways. Towards this goal an interdisciplinary team of academics, NGOs and intergovernmental organizations from US, Europe and India have developed Project Surya to drastically decrease emissions of the major non-CO2 climate warmers (soot, methane, ozone precursor gases) from rural areas in India and China. Surya will undertake the most comprehensive data collection, to-date, on the impact of reducing biomass burning on climate forcing, health and the wellbeing of rural inhabitants most of whom live under a dollar a day. The experiment thus offers the opportunity to field test our ideas and hypotheses about the impact of black carbon and brown clouds on dimming, the Asian monsoon and the melting of the Himalayan-Tibetan glaciers. The data from this soft ‘geo-engineering’ experiment is also anticipated to lead to a sustainable way of energy consumption for the roughly 4 billion who are forced to use solid bio-fuels for all of their energy needs.

  3. Research on diversity receive technology for wireless optical communication using PPM in weak turbulence atmosphere channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Guo-an

    2014-09-01

    In order to mitigate atmospheric turbulence, the free space optical (FSO) system model with spatial diversity is analyzed based on intensity detection pulse position modulation (PPM) in the weak turbulence atmosphere. The slot error rate (SER) calculating formula of the system without diversity is derived under pulse position modulation firstly. Then as a benchmark, independent of identical distribution, the average slot error rates of the three linear combining technologies, which are the maximal ratio combining (MRC), equal gain combining (EGC) and selection combining (SelC), are compared. Simulation results show that the performance of system is the best improved by MRC, followed by EGC, and is poor by SelC, but SelC is simpler and more convenient. Spatial diversity is efficient to improve the performance and has strong ability on resistance to atmospheric channel decline. The above scheme is more suitable for optical wireless communication systems.

  4. Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual Software Engineering Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) is an organization sponsored by GSFC and created for the purpose of investigating the effectiveness of software engineering technologies when applied to the development of applications software. The goals of the SEL are: (1) to understand the software development process in the GSFC environment; (2) to measure the effect of various methodologies, tools, and models on this process; and (3) to identify and then to apply successful development practices. Fifteen papers were presented at the Fifteenth Annual Software Engineering Workshop in five sessions: (1) SEL at age fifteen; (2) process improvement; (3) measurement; (4) reuse; and (5) process assessment. The sessions were followed by two panel discussions: (1) experiences in implementing an effective measurement program; and (2) software engineering in the 1980's. A summary of the presentations and panel discussions is given.

  5. Pseudomorphic In(y)Ga(1-y)As/GaAs/Al(x)Ga(1-x)As single quantum well surface-emitting lasers with integrated 45 deg beam deflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae-Hoon; Larsson, Anders; Lee, Luke P.

    1991-01-01

    The paper reports on the first demonstration of pseudomorphic InGaAs single quantum well surface-emitting lasers (SELs), with etched vertical mirrors and integrated 45-deg beam deflectors fabricated by ion beam etching. 100-micron-wide broad-area SELs exhibited a threshold current of 320 mA, a total power of 126 mW, and a total external differential quantum efficiency of 0.09 W/A for a 500-micron-long cavity. The perpendicular far-field pattern of broad-area SELs showed a full width at half maximum of about 20 deg. Lasers with various types of cavities fabricated from the same wafer were compared. Broad-area edge-emitting lasers had a threshold current of 200 mA, a total power of 700 mW, and a total external differential quantum efficiency of 0.52 W/A.

  6. Potential Population Consequences of Active Sonar Disturbance in Atlantic Herring: Estimating the Maximum Risk.

    PubMed

    Sivle, Lise Doksæter; Kvadsheim, Petter Helgevold; Ainslie, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Effects of noise on fish populations may be predicted by the population consequence of acoustic disturbance (PCAD) model. We have predicted the potential risk of population disturbance when the highest sound exposure level (SEL) at which adult herring do not respond to naval sonar (SEL(0)) is exceeded. When the population density is low (feeding), the risk is low even at high sonar source levels and long-duration exercises (>24 h). With densely packed populations (overwintering), a sonar exercise might expose the entire population to levels >SEL(0) within a 24-h exercise period. However, the disturbance will be short and the response threshold used here is highly conservative. It is therefore unlikely that naval sonar will significantly impact the herring population.

  7. Evaluating software development by analysis of changes - Some data from the Software Engineering Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, D. M.; Basili, V. R.

    1985-01-01

    Basili and Weiss (1984) have discussed an approach for obtaining valid data which may be used to evaluate software development methodologies in a production environment. The methodology consists of five elements, including the identification of goals, the determination of questions of interest from the goals, the development of a data collection form, the development of data collection procedures, and the validation and analysis of the data. The current investigation is concerned with the presentation of the results from such an evaluation. The presented data were collected as part of studies reported by Basili et al. (1977). These studies had been conducted by NASA's Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL). Attention is given to an overview of the SEL, the application of the considered methodology, the results of a data analysis, and conclusions about the SEL environment.

  8. Potential Population Consequences of Active Sonar Disturbance in Atlantic Herring: Estimating the Maximum Risk.

    PubMed

    Sivle, Lise Doksæter; Kvadsheim, Petter Helgevold; Ainslie, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Effects of noise on fish populations may be predicted by the population consequence of acoustic disturbance (PCAD) model. We have predicted the potential risk of population disturbance when the highest sound exposure level (SEL) at which adult herring do not respond to naval sonar (SEL(0)) is exceeded. When the population density is low (feeding), the risk is low even at high sonar source levels and long-duration exercises (>24 h). With densely packed populations (overwintering), a sonar exercise might expose the entire population to levels >SEL(0) within a 24-h exercise period. However, the disturbance will be short and the response threshold used here is highly conservative. It is therefore unlikely that naval sonar will significantly impact the herring population. PMID:26610962

  9. Association of lipoprotein subclass distribution with use of selective and non-selective beta-blocker medications in patients with coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Superko, H R; Haskell, W L; Krauss, R M

    1993-06-01

    The relationship of beta-blocker drug use to plasma low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), lipoprotein mass distribution, (LDL, Sf0-12), intermediate density lipoproteins (IDL, Sf12-20), very low density lipoproteins (VLDL, Sf20-400), and high density lipoproteins (HDL, F(1.2)0-9) were examined in 206 men with coronary heart disease. Thirty-three used non-selective (NSEL), 49 used selective (SEL), and were compared to 124 who used no beta-blockade (NoBB). No significant between group differences were seen for potentially confounding variables. LDL and IDL mass, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were not significantly different between groups. HDL-C was significantly lower in both NSEL (P < 0.005) and SEL (P < 0.01). NSEL and SEL had significantly lower HDL mass (P < 0.005 and P < 0.005) and SEL (P < 0.01 and P = 0.06), and HDL3 mass (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05). VLDL mass was significantly higher (P < 0.02) only in NSEL. Small LDL (Sf0-7) was not significantly different between groups and large LDL (Sf7-12) was significantly lower in NSEL (P < 0.05) and SEL (P < 0.05). LDL peak Sf was significantly lower in both NSEL (P < 0.005) and SEL (P < 0.02) compared to NoBB. Despite the lack of differences in levels of LDL-cholesterol, beta-blocker use is associated with a significant difference in the distribution of larger, more buoyant to smaller, more dense LDL particles. Reduced HDL levels in subjects on beta-blockade therapy are associated with reductions in both HDL2 and HDL3 subclasses.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Selenoprotein M gene expression, peroxidases activity and hydrogen peroxide concentration are differentially regulated in gill and hepatopancreas of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei during hypoxia and reoxygenation.

    PubMed

    García-Triana, Antonio; Peregrino-Uriarte, Alma Beatriz; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria

    2016-09-01

    In many organisms, episodes of low O2 concentration (hypoxia) and the subsequent rise of O2 concentration (reoxygenation) result in the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress. Selenoprotein M (SelM), is a selenocysteine containing protein with redox activity involved in the antioxidant response. It was previously shown that in the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, the silencing of SelM by RNAi decreased peroxidase activity in gill. In this work, we report the structure of the SelM gene (LvSelM) and its relative expression in hepatopancreas and gill after 24h of hypoxia followed by 1h of reoxygenation. The gene is composed by four exons interrupted by tree introns. In gills and hepatopancreas, SelM expression increased after 24h of hypoxia followed by 1h of reoxygenation, while peroxidases activity diminished in hepatopancreas but increased in gills. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration was higher in hepatopancreas in response to hypoxia for 6h and did not change after 24 of hypoxia followed by reoxygenation; conversely, no change was detected in gill. SelM appears to be a key enzyme in gill oxidative stress regulation, since the higher expression is associated with an increase in peroxidases activity while maintaining H2O2 concentration. In contrast, in hepatopancreas there is a higher expression after hypoxia and reoxygenation for 24h, but peroxidases activity was lower and the change in H2O2 occurred after 6h of hypoxia and this level was maintained during reoxygenation. PMID:27112516

  11. Thiamethoxam Resistance in the House Fly, Musca domestica L.: Current Status, Resistance Selection, Cross-Resistance Potential and Possible Biochemical Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Akram, Waseem; Iqbal, Javaid; Naeem-Ullah, Unsar

    2015-01-01

    The house fly, Musca domestica L., is an important ectoparasite with the ability to develop resistance to insecticides used for their control. Thiamethoxam, a neonicotinoid, is a relatively new insecticide and effectively used against house flies with a few reports of resistance around the globe. To understand the status of resistance to thiamethoxam, eight adult house fly strains were evaluated under laboratory conditions. In addition, to assess the risks of resistance development, cross-resistance potential and possible biochemical mechanisms, a field strain of house flies was selected with thiamethoxam in the laboratory. The results revealed that the field strains showed varying level of resistance to thiamethoxam with resistance ratios (RR) at LC50 ranged from 7.66-20.13 folds. Continuous selection of the field strain (Thia-SEL) for five generations increased the RR from initial 7.66 fold to 33.59 fold. However, resistance declined significantly when the Thia-SEL strain reared for the next five generations without exposure to thiamethoxam. Compared to the laboratory susceptible reference strain (Lab-susceptible), the Thia-SEL strain showed cross-resistance to imidacloprid. Synergism tests revealed that S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF) and piperonyl butoxide (PBO) produced synergism of thiamethoxam effects in the Thia-SEL strain (2.94 and 5.00 fold, respectively). In addition, biochemical analyses revealed that the activities of carboxylesterase (CarE) and mixed function oxidase (MFO) in the Thia-SEL strain were significantly higher than the Lab-susceptible strain. It seems that metabolic detoxification by CarE and MFO was a major mechanism for thiamethoxam resistance in the Thia-SEL strain of house flies. The results could be helpful in the future to develop an improved control strategy against house flies. PMID:25938578

  12. Detection of the staphylococcal enterotoxin D-like gene from staphylococcal food poisoning isolates over the last two decades in Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yasunori; Kobayashi, Makiko; Matsushita, Shigeru; Uehara, Satomi; Kato, Rei; Sato'o, Yusuke; Ono, Hisaya K; Sadamasu, Kenji; Kai, Akemi; Kamata, Yoichi

    2015-08-01

    The plasmid is a very well-known mobile genetic element that participates in the acquisition of virulence genes, such as staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs), via horizontal transfer. SEs are emetic toxins and causative agents in staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP). We herein identified the types of plasmids harbored by seven SFP isolates and examined their production of plasmid-related SE/SEl to determine whether the new types of plasmid-related SE or SE-like (SEl) toxins (i.e. SElJ and SER) were involved in SFP. These isolates harbored pIB485-like plasmids, and all, except for one isolate, produced SElJ and SER. The amount of SER produced by each isolate accounted for the highest or second highest percentage of the total amount of SE/SEl produced. These new types of plasmid-related SE/SEls as well as classical SE may play a role in SFP. The seven isolates were classified into two SED-production types; a high SED-production type (>500 ng/ml) and no SED-production type. A nucleotide sequencing analysis revealed that three plasmids harbored by the SED-non-producing isolates had a single-base deletion in the sed gene with a resulting stop codon (from 233 amino acids of the intact SED to 154 amino acids of the mutant SED (mSED)). A real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis showed that the mRNA of the msed gene was transcribed in the isolates. If the msed gene was translated as a protein, mSED may act as an emetic toxin instead of intact SED.

  13. A Novel Core Genome-Encoded Superantigen Contributes to Lethality of Community-Associated MRSA Necrotizing Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Gillian J.; Seo, Keun Seok; Cartwright, Robyn A.; Connelley, Timothy; Chuang-Smith, Olivia N.; Merriman, Joseph A.; Guinane, Caitriona M.; Park, Joo Youn; Bohach, Gregory A.; Schlievert, Patrick M.; Morrison, W. Ivan; Fitzgerald, J. Ross

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial superantigens (SAg) stimulate T-cell hyper-activation resulting in immune modulation and severe systemic illnesses such as Staphylococcus aureus toxic shock syndrome. However, all known S. aureus SAgs are encoded by mobile genetic elements and are made by only a proportion of strains. Here, we report the discovery of a novel SAg staphylococcal enterotoxin-like toxin X (SElX) encoded in the core genome of 95% of phylogenetically diverse S. aureus strains from human and animal infections, including the epidemic community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) USA300 clone. SElX has a unique predicted structure characterized by a truncated SAg B-domain, but exhibits the characteristic biological activities of a SAg including Vβ-specific T-cell mitogenicity, pyrogenicity and endotoxin enhancement. In addition, SElX is expressed by clinical isolates in vitro, and during human, bovine, and ovine infections, consistent with a broad role in S. aureus infections of multiple host species. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the selx gene was acquired horizontally by a progenitor of the S. aureus species, followed by allelic diversification by point mutation and assortative recombination resulting in at least 17 different alleles among the major pathogenic clones. Of note, SElX variants made by human- or ruminant-specific S. aureus clones demonstrated overlapping but distinct Vβ activation profiles for human and bovine lymphocytes, indicating functional diversification of SElX in different host species. Importantly, SElX made by CA-MRSA USA300 contributed to lethality in a rabbit model of necrotizing pneumonia revealing a novel virulence determinant of CA-MRSA disease pathogenesis. Taken together, we report the discovery and characterization of a unique core genome-encoded superantigen, providing new insights into the evolution of pathogenic S. aureus and the molecular basis for severe infections caused by the CA-MRSA USA300 epidemic clone. PMID

  14. Thiamethoxam Resistance in the House Fly, Musca domestica L.: Current Status, Resistance Selection, Cross-Resistance Potential and Possible Biochemical Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Akram, Waseem; Iqbal, Javaid; Naeem-Ullah, Unsar

    2015-01-01

    The house fly, Musca domestica L., is an important ectoparasite with the ability to develop resistance to insecticides used for their control. Thiamethoxam, a neonicotinoid, is a relatively new insecticide and effectively used against house flies with a few reports of resistance around the globe. To understand the status of resistance to thiamethoxam, eight adult house fly strains were evaluated under laboratory conditions. In addition, to assess the risks of resistance development, cross-resistance potential and possible biochemical mechanisms, a field strain of house flies was selected with thiamethoxam in the laboratory. The results revealed that the field strains showed varying level of resistance to thiamethoxam with resistance ratios (RR) at LC50 ranged from 7.66-20.13 folds. Continuous selection of the field strain (Thia-SEL) for five generations increased the RR from initial 7.66 fold to 33.59 fold. However, resistance declined significantly when the Thia-SEL strain reared for the next five generations without exposure to thiamethoxam. Compared to the laboratory susceptible reference strain (Lab-susceptible), the Thia-SEL strain showed cross-resistance to imidacloprid. Synergism tests revealed that S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF) and piperonyl butoxide (PBO) produced synergism of thiamethoxam effects in the Thia-SEL strain (2.94 and 5.00 fold, respectively). In addition, biochemical analyses revealed that the activities of carboxylesterase (CarE) and mixed function oxidase (MFO) in the Thia-SEL strain were significantly higher than the Lab-susceptible strain. It seems that metabolic detoxification by CarE and MFO was a major mechanism for thiamethoxam resistance in the Thia-SEL strain of house flies. The results could be helpful in the future to develop an improved control strategy against house flies.

  15. Selenoprotein T Exerts an Essential Oxidoreductase Activity That Protects Dopaminergic Neurons in Mouse Models of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Boukhzar, Loubna; Hamieh, Abdallah; Cartier, Dorthe; Tanguy, Yannick; Alsharif, Ifat; Castex, Matthieu; Arabo, Arnaud; Hajji, Sana El; Bonnet, Jean-Jacques; Errami, Mohammed; Falluel-Morel, Anthony; Chagraoui, Abdeslam; Lihrmann, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Oxidative stress is central to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), but the mechanisms involved in the control of this stress in dopaminergic cells are not fully understood. There is increasing evidence that selenoproteins play a central role in the control of redox homeostasis and cell defense, but the precise contribution of members of this family of proteins during the course of neurodegenerative diseases is still elusive. Results: We demonstrated first that selenoprotein T (SelT) whose gene disruption is lethal during embryogenesis, exerts a potent oxidoreductase activity. In the SH-SY5Y cell model of dopaminergic neurons, both silencing and overexpression of SelT affected oxidative stress and cell survival. Treatment with PD-inducing neurotoxins such as 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) or rotenone triggered SelT expression in the nigrostriatal pathway of wild-type mice, but provoked rapid and severe parkinsonian-like motor defects in conditional brain SelT-deficient mice. This motor impairment was associated with marked oxidative stress and neurodegeneration and decreased tyrosine hydroxylase activity and dopamine levels in the nigrostriatal system. Finally, in PD patients, we report that SelT is tremendously increased in the caudate putamen tissue. Innovation: These results reveal the activity of a novel selenoprotein enzyme that protects dopaminergic neurons against oxidative stress and prevents early and severe movement impairment in animal models of PD. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that selenoproteins such as SelT play a crucial role in the protection of dopaminergic neurons against oxidative stress and cell death, providing insight into the molecular underpinnings of this stress in PD. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 24, 557–574. PMID:26866473

  16. Chemical properties of cow and beef muscles: benchmarking the differences and similarities.

    PubMed

    Patten, L E; Hodgen, J M; Stelzleni, A M; Calkins, C R; Johnson, D D; Gwartney, B L

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify muscles from cow populations that are equivalent or may possibly be made equivalent to muscles from A-maturity, Select-grade cattle in terms of chemical, compositional, and color characteristics. Objective color, expressible moisture, proximate composition, pH, heme iron concentration, and total collagen content were determined for 9 muscles (M. gluteus medius, M. infraspinatus, M. longissimus dorsi, M. psoas major, M. rectus femoris, M. tensor fascia latae, M. teres major, M. triceps brachii lateral-head, and M. triceps brachii long-head) from 15 cattle from each of 5 commercially identified populations [fed beef cows (B-F), non-fed beef cows (B-NF), fed dairy cows (D-F), non-fed dairy cows (D-NF), and A-maturity, Select-grade cattle (SEL)]. Muscles from B-F and B-NF populations were more similar to the SEL than were the D-F and D-NF. There were 2 muscles, the M. infraspinatus and M. teres major, from the population of B-F that were similar, physically and chemically, to SEL in most traits. The majority of the 9 muscles from the cows did not differ (P < 0.05) from SEL for percentage expressible moisture, proximate composition, and total collagen content. However, notable differences in pH, objective color L*, total pigment content, and heme iron content existed between cow populations and SEL. The muscles from SEL had significantly (P < 0.05) lower total pigment and heme iron concentrations. These differences likely relate to the visual appearance of muscles from the different populations of cattle. Two of the 9 muscles studied were similar among cow populations and A-maturity, Select-grade beef. PMID:18375663

  17. Thermal Radiometer Signal Processing Using Radiation Hard CMOS Application Specific Integrated Circuits for Use in Harsh Planetary Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quilligan, G.; DuMonthier, J.; Aslam, S.; Lakew, B.; Kleyner, I.; Katz, R.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal radiometers such as proposed for the Europa Clipper flyby mission require low noise signal processing for thermal imaging with immunity to Total Ionizing Dose (TID) and Single Event Latchup (SEL). Described is a second generation Multi- Channel Digitizer (MCD2G) Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) that accurately digitizes up to 40 thermopile pixels with greater than 50 Mrad (Si) immunity TID and 174 MeV-sq cm/mg SEL. The MCD2G ASIC uses Radiation Hardened By Design (RHBD) techniques with a 180 nm CMOS process node.

  18. Thermal Radiometer Signal Processing using Radiation Hard CMOS Application Specific Integrated Circuits for use in Harsh Planetary Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quilligan, G.; DuMonthier, J.; Aslam, S.; Lakew, B.; Kleyner, I.; Katz, R.

    2015-10-01

    Thermal radiometers such as proposed for the Europa Clipper flyby mission [1] require low noise signal processing for thermal imaging with immunity to Total Ionizing Dose (TID) and Single Event Latchup (SEL). Described is a second generation Multi- Channel Digitizer (MCD2G) Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) that accurately digitizes up to 40 thermopile pixels with greater than 50 Mrad (Si) immunity TID and 174 MeV-cm2/mg SEL. The MCD2G ASIC uses Radiation Hardened By Design (RHBD) techniques with a 180 nm CMOS process node.

  19. Cumulative Effects of Exposure to Continuous and Intermittent Sounds on Temporary Hearing Threshold Shifts Induced in a Harbor Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena).

    PubMed

    Kastelein, Ronald A; Gransier, Robin; Hoek, Lean

    2016-01-01

    The effects of exposure to continuous and intermittent anthropogenic sounds on temporary hearing threshold shifts (TTSs) in a harbor porpoise were investigated by testing hearing before and after exposure to 1- to 2-kHz downsweeps of 1 s, without harmonics, presented as paired-intermittent and continuous-exposure combinations with identical cumulative sound exposure levels (SEL(cum)). Exposure to intermittent sounds resulted in lower TTSs than exposure to continuous sounds with the same SEL(cum). Therefore, the hearing of marine mammals is at less risk from intermittent anthropogenic noises than from continuous ones at the same received sound pressure level and duration. PMID:26611000

  20. Scoliosis associated with idiopathic lumbosacral epidural lipomatosis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    There are very few reports of spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) in association with scoliosis. A 49-year-old man presented with persistent back pain and right hip lump. The lumbar spine X-rays showed scoliosis (Lenke classification 5BN). Lumbar MRI demonstrated circumferential epidural fat deposit from L1 to lower S2 level. There was no obvious etiology of SEL except mild increased body mass index (BMI). The patient was managed with conservative treatment. After 6 months medication (limaprost and ginkgo), his symptoms were relieved.

  1. Cumulative Effects of Exposure to Continuous and Intermittent Sounds on Temporary Hearing Threshold Shifts Induced in a Harbor Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena).

    PubMed

    Kastelein, Ronald A; Gransier, Robin; Hoek, Lean

    2016-01-01

    The effects of exposure to continuous and intermittent anthropogenic sounds on temporary hearing threshold shifts (TTSs) in a harbor porpoise were investigated by testing hearing before and after exposure to 1- to 2-kHz downsweeps of 1 s, without harmonics, presented as paired-intermittent and continuous-exposure combinations with identical cumulative sound exposure levels (SEL(cum)). Exposure to intermittent sounds resulted in lower TTSs than exposure to continuous sounds with the same SEL(cum). Therefore, the hearing of marine mammals is at less risk from intermittent anthropogenic noises than from continuous ones at the same received sound pressure level and duration.

  2. GaN-based high contrast grating surface-emitting lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tzeng-Tsong; Wu, Shu-Hsien; Lu, Tien-Chang; Wang, Shing-Chung

    2013-02-01

    GaN-based high contrast grating surface-emitting lasers (HCG SELs) with AlN/GaN distributed Bragg reflectors were reported. The device exhibited a low threshold pumping energy density of about 0.56 mJ/cm2 and the lasing wavelength was at 393.6 nm with a high degree of polarization of 73% at room temperature. The specific lasing mode and polarization characterisitcs agreed well with the theoretical modeling. The low threshold characteristics of our GaN-based HCG SELs faciliated by the Fano resonance can serve as the best candidate in blue surface emitting laser sources.

  3. A practical experience with independent verification and validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, Gerald; Mcgarry, Frank E.; Card, David N.

    1985-01-01

    One approach to reducing software cost and increasing reliability is the use of an independent verification and validation (IV & V) methodology. The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) applied the IV & V methodology to two medium-size flight dynamics software development projects. Then, to measure the effectiveness of the IV & V approach, the SEL compared these two projects with two similar past projects, using measures like productivity, reliability, and maintain ablilty. Results indicated that the use of the IV & V methodology did not help the overall process nor improve the product in these cases.

  4. Scoliosis associated with idiopathic lumbosacral epidural lipomatosis.

    PubMed

    Han, Seong Rok

    2016-03-01

    There are very few reports of spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) in association with scoliosis. A 49-year-old man presented with persistent back pain and right hip lump. The lumbar spine X-rays showed scoliosis (Lenke classification 5BN). Lumbar MRI demonstrated circumferential epidural fat deposit from L1 to lower S2 level. There was no obvious etiology of SEL except mild increased body mass index (BMI). The patient was managed with conservative treatment. After 6 months medication (limaprost and ginkgo), his symptoms were relieved. PMID:27683700

  5. Enhancing cognitive and social-emotional development through a simple-to-administer mindfulness-based school program for elementary school children: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A; Oberle, Eva; Lawlor, Molly Stewart; Abbott, David; Thomson, Kimberly; Oberlander, Tim F; Diamond, Adele

    2015-01-01

    The authors hypothesized that a social and emotional learning (SEL) program involving mindfulness and caring for others, designed for elementary school students, would enhance cognitive control, reduce stress, promote well-being and prosociality, and produce positive school outcomes. To test this hypothesis, 4 classes of combined 4th and 5th graders (N = 99) were randomly assigned to receive the SEL with mindfulness program versus a regular social responsibility program. Measures assessed executive functions (EFs), stress physiology via salivary cortisol, well-being (self-reports), prosociality and peer acceptance (peer reports), and math grades. Relative to children in the social responsibility program, children who received the SEL program with mindfulness (a) improved more in their cognitive control and stress physiology; (b) reported greater empathy, perspective-taking, emotional control, optimism, school self-concept, and mindfulness, (c) showed greater decreases in self-reported symptoms of depression and peer-rated aggression, (d) were rated by peers as more prosocial, and (e) increased in peer acceptance (or sociometric popularity). The results of this investigation suggest the promise of this SEL intervention and address a lacuna in the scientific literature-identifying strategies not only to ameliorate children's problems but also to cultivate their well-being and thriving. Directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25546595

  6. A global perspective of selenium deficiency and toxicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selenium is an essential nutrient that has a relatively narrow margin between ingested amounts that cause deficiency and toxicosis. Both selenium deficiency and toxicosis occur in several regions in many countries throughout the world and result in substantial losses to the livestock industry. Sel...

  7. Relationship between Target Orientations and Perceived Motivational Climate Levels of Students Engaged in Individual and Team Sports Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslanoglu, Cansel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between perceived motivational climate and target orientations of team and individual athletes who participate in sports at the Physical Education and Sports Departments of faculties. A total of 200 athletes (students at the Physical Education and Sports Departments of Gazi University, Selçuk…

  8. The cleanroom case study in the Software Engineering Laboratory: Project description and early analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Scott; Kouchakdjian, Ara; Basili, Victor; Weidow, David

    1990-01-01

    This case study analyzes the application of the cleanroom software development methodology to the development of production software at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. The cleanroom methodology emphasizes human discipline in program verification to produce reliable software products that are right the first time. Preliminary analysis of the cleanroom case study shows that the method can be applied successfully in the FDD environment and may increase staff productivity and product quality. Compared to typical Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) activities, there is evidence of lower failure rates, a more complete and consistent set of inline code documentation, a different distribution of phase effort activity, and a different growth profile in terms of lines of code developed. The major goals of the study were to: (1) assess the process used in the SEL cleanroom model with respect to team structure, team activities, and effort distribution; (2) analyze the products of the SEL cleanroom model and determine the impact on measures of interest, including reliability, productivity, overall life-cycle cost, and software quality; and (3) analyze the residual products in the application of the SEL cleanroom model, such as fault distribution, error characteristics, system growth, and computer usage.

  9. Enhancing Academic Performance and Social and Emotional Competence with the RULER Feeling Words Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brackett, Marc A.; Rivers, Susan E.; Reyes, Maria R.; Salovey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A pre- and post-test quasi-experimental design was used to test the impact of a 30-week, theoretically-based social and emotional learning (SEL) curriculum, The RULER Feeling Words Curriculum ("RULER"), on the academic performance and social and emotional competence of 5th and 6th grade students (N = 273) in fifteen classrooms in three schools.…

  10. How Are Trait Emotional Intelligence and Social Skills Related to Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties in Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulou, Maria S.

    2014-01-01

    Trait emotional intelligence construct shifted the interest in personality research to the investigation of the effect of global personality characteristics on behaviour. The Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) movement emphasised the cultivation of social skills for positive relationships. In this paper we investigate the role of students'…

  11. Enhancing Cognitive and Social-Emotional Development through a Simple-to-Administer Mindfulness-Based School Program for Elementary School Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.; Oberle, Eva; Lawlor, Molly Stewart; Abbott, David; Thomson, Kimberly; Oberlander, Tim F.; Diamond, Adele

    2015-01-01

    The authors hypothesized that a social and emotional learning (SEL) program involving mindfulness and caring for others, designed for elementary school students, would enhance cognitive control, reduce stress, promote well-being and prosociality, and produce positive school outcomes. To test this hypothesis, 4 classes of combined 4th and 5th…

  12. Mindfulness in Practice: Considerations for Implementation of Mindfulness-Based Programming for Adolescents in School Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawlor, Molly Steward

    2014-01-01

    Schools are considered one of the primary settings in which prevention and intervention initiatives can be implemented successfully, reaching a large number of young people. Especially when promoting social and emotional learning (SEL), many adolescents benefit from universal programs implemented in the school context. This chapter embeds…

  13. A Mixed-Method Examination of Preschool Teacher Beliefs about Social-Emotional Learning and Relations to Observed Emotional Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinsser, Katherine M.; Shewark, Elizabeth A.; Denham, Susanne A.; Curby, Timothy W.

    2014-01-01

    The connections between parents' socialization practices and beliefs about emotions, and children's emotional development have been well studied; however, teachers' impacts on children's social-emotional learning (SEL) remain widely understudied. In the present study, private preschool and Head Start teachers (N?=?32) were…

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A METAL PARTS COATING PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at sel...

  15. Giving Youth the Social and Emotional Skills to Succeed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deerin, Ginny

    2005-01-01

    In these days of tremendous political pressure for results measured by standardized tests, time constraints can make social and emotional learning (SEL) a difficult undertaking for many classroom teachers. It seemed that after-school programs would be effective learning environments for supplying the missing piece in children's education. In this…

  16. How Social and Emotional Development Add Up: Getting Results in Math and Science Education. Series on Social Emotional Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Norris M., Ed.; Ben-Avie, Michael, Ed.; Ensign, Jacque, Ed.

    This book is for math and science teachers who are eager to find creative and stimulating ways to engage student interest and boost their academic performance. A group of contributors including both psychologists and teachers outline the principles of social emotional learning (SEL) that educators can follow to help all students achieve in the…

  17. Reviving Oral Reading Practices with English Learners by Integrating Social-Emotional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dresser, Rocio

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide background on integrating social-emotional learning (SEL) into classroom oral reading practices. The section that follows outlines some of the language and academic demands English learners (ELs) face at school. Another section considers the relationship between academic and social-emotional learning. The…

  18. Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Software Engineering Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Experiences in measurement, utilization, and evaluation of software methodologies, models, and tools are discussed. NASA's involvement in ever larger and more complex systems, like the space station project, provides a motive for the support of software engineering research and the exchange of ideas in such forums. The topics of current SEL research are software error studies, experiments with software development, and software tools.

  19. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PROTOTYPE PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at sel...

  20. Translating Knowledge of Social-Emotional Learning and Evidence-Based Practice into Responsive School Innovations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoiber, Karen Callan

    2011-01-01

    As the number of children engaging in problem behaviors grows, teachers increasingly report feeling unprepared to effectively meet students' mental health needs. Social-emotional learning (SEL) should be a prominent goal of school programs because social competence prevents school failure. This commentary reviews the challenges associated with…

  1. Sequence analysis reveals genomic factors affecting EST-SSR primer performance and polymorphism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Search for simple sequence repeat (SSR) motifs and design of flanking primers in expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences can be easily done at a large scale using bioinformatics programs. However, failed amplification and/or detection, along with lack of polymorphism, is often seen among randomly sel...

  2. A Critical Approach to Social Emotional Learning Instruction through Community-Based Service Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay-Jackson, Cassandra

    2014-01-01

    The traditional teaching of reading, writing, and arithmetic alone will not fully prepare students to lead with integrity, govern fairly, analyze problems, and work collectively with people different from themselves. Social emotional learning (SEL) has been described as one of the missing links in academic education, but a restrictive approach to…

  3. Social and Emotional Learning as a Catalyst for Academic Excellence. White Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchesi, Antonio G.; Cook, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    ICF International's white paper explores how implementation of social and emotional learning (SEL) has the potential to prepare students for workforce success and positively influence student engagement and academic performance while reducing dropout rates. Self-improvement and leadership development sections of bookstores are replete with texts…

  4. Dam line and sire line effects on turkey embryo survival and thyroid hormone concentrations at the plateau stage in oxygen consumption

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inheritance of embryo thyroid function was measured in lines of turkeys. Two lines that had been selected for either increased egg production (E) or increased 16-wk BW (F) and their respective randombred controls (i.e., RBC1 and RBC2) were examined. Reciprocal crosses of dams and sires from each sel...

  5. The Software Engineering Laboratory: An operational software experience factory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, Victor R.; Caldiera, Gianluigi; Mcgarry, Frank; Pajerski, Rose; Page, Gerald; Waligora, Sharon

    1992-01-01

    For 15 years, the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) has been carrying out studies and experiments for the purpose of understanding, assessing, and improving software and software processes within a production software development environment at NASA/GSFC. The SEL comprises three major organizations: (1) NASA/GSFC, Flight Dynamics Division; (2) University of Maryland, Department of Computer Science; and (3) Computer Sciences Corporation, Flight Dynamics Technology Group. These organizations have jointly carried out several hundred software studies, producing hundreds of reports, papers, and documents, all of which describe some aspect of the software engineering technology that was analyzed in the flight dynamics environment at NASA. The studies range from small, controlled experiments (such as analyzing the effectiveness of code reading versus that of functional testing) to large, multiple project studies (such as assessing the impacts of Ada on a production environment). The organization's driving goal is to improve the software process continually, so that sustained improvement may be observed in the resulting products. This paper discusses the SEL as a functioning example of an operational software experience factory and summarizes the characteristics of and major lessons learned from 15 years of SEL operations.

  6. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PRINTED LABELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at sel...

  7. Proceedings of the Seventeenth Annual Software Engineering Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Proceedings of the Seventeenth Annual Software Engineering Workshop are presented. The software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) is an organization sponsored by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and created to investigate the effectiveness of software engineering technologies when applied to the development of applications software. Topics covered include: the Software Engineering Laboratory; process measurement; software reuse; software quality; lessons learned; and is Ada dying.

  8. Does an Evidence-Based Healthy Relationships Program for 9th Graders Show Similar Effects for 7th and 8th Graders? Results from 57 Schools Randomized to Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crooks, C. V.; Scott, K. L.; Broll, R.; Zwarych, S.; Hughes, R.; Wolfe, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    Integrating social and emotional learning (SEL) programming throughout curricula to support the development of healthy behaviors and prevent violence is critical for a comprehensive approach to school health. This study used a post-test comparison design to evaluate a healthy relationships program for eighth grade students that applies a SEL…

  9. Looking into Burnout Levels among English Language Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirel, Eda Ercan; Cephe, Pasa Tevfik

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the burnout levels of English language instructors who are currently teaching at School of Foreign Languages, namely Konya Necmettin Erbakan University, Selçuk University and Gazi University, to look for the factors leading to burnout and to see if there is a relationship between their burnout levels and teaching…

  10. Circle Solutions, a Philosophy and Pedagogy for Learning Positive Relationships: What Promotes and Inhibits Sustainable Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roffey, Sue; McCarthy, Florence

    2013-01-01

    Educators are increasingly aware that the efficacy of social and emotional learning (SEL) is dependent on implementation factors, not just program content. These include the philosophy underpinning an intervention, the beliefs as well as the skills of facilitators, and the classroom/whole school context in which the intervention takes place. This…

  11. Software Engineering Laboratory Ada performance study: Results and implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, Eric W.; Stark, Michael E.

    1992-01-01

    The SEL is an organization sponsored by NASA/GSFC to investigate the effectiveness of software engineering technologies applied to the development of applications software. The SEL was created in 1977 and has three organizational members: NASA/GSFC, Systems Development Branch; The University of Maryland, Computer Sciences Department; and Computer Sciences Corporation, Systems Development Operation. The goals of the SEL are as follows: (1) to understand the software development process in the GSFC environments; (2) to measure the effect of various methodologies, tools, and models on this process; and (3) to identify and then to apply successful development practices. The activities, findings, and recommendations of the SEL are recorded in the Software Engineering Laboratory Series, a continuing series of reports that include the Ada Performance Study Report. This paper describes the background of Ada in the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD), the objectives and scope of the Ada Performance Study, the measurement approach used, the performance tests performed, the major test results, and the implications for future FDD Ada development efforts.

  12. The Unintended Consequences of Targeting: Young People's Lived Experiences of Social and Emotional Learning Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Rhiannon; Scourfield, Jonathan; Murphy, Simon

    2015-01-01

    In the past twenty years there has been a proliferation of targeted school-based social and emotional learning (SEL) interventions. However, the lived experience of young peoples' participation is often elided, while the potential for interventions to confer unintended and even adverse effects remains under-theorised and empirically…

  13. Teacher Change and Development during Training in Social and Emotional Learning Programs in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimber, Birgitta; Skoog, Therése; Sandell, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the results from a thematic analysis of the process diaries of teachers involved in teacher training in social and emotional learning (SEL) in Sweden. Twenty-nine out of the 122 diaries available were analyzed until saturation was reached. The following themes and sub-themes were extracted: development (professional and…

  14. Genome-wide association study for identifying genome loci that affect fillet yield in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fillet yield (FY, %) is an economically important trait in rainbow trout aquaculture that reflects production efficiency. Despite that, FY has not received much attention in breeding programs because it is costly to measure and difficult to select on, limiting the genetic progress in traditional sel...

  15. Self-Assessing Social and Emotional Instruction and Competencies: A Tool for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Social and emotional learning (SEL) is crucial for improved educational attainment. As teachers help students achieve new college and career readiness standards, they need to use teaching practices that promote student social and emotional learning in the classroom. Our new resource, "Self-Assessing Social and Emotional Instruction and…

  16. Genotyping and DNA microarray based characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from rabbit carcasses.

    PubMed

    Merz, Axel; Stephan, Roger; Johler, Sophia

    2016-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus can cause staphylococcal food poisoning. Although the organism is frequently detected on rabbit carcasses, little is known about the characteristics of S. aureus strains contaminating rabbit meat. In this study, 137 S. aureus isolates originating from 137 rabbit carcasses were spa typed and characterized by DNA microarray. The isolates were assigned to CC5, CC7, CC8, CC15, CC96, CC101, CC121, and ST890, and to 13 spa types (t056, t085, t091, t160, t179, t681, t741, t745, t1190, t1773, t4770, t8456, t14871). Enterotoxin genes detected included sea, sed, sej, and ser. In addition, the egc operon, encoding the newly described staphylococcal enterotoxins SEG/SEI/SElM/SElN/SElO/SElU, was found in all isolates except those of t091. While none of the examined isolates presented genes conferring methicillin, vancomycin, or aminoglycoside resistance, we frequently detected blaZ/I/R conferring resistance to penicillin. The isolates represented a heterogeneous group assigned to clonal lineages detected among humans and animals, with two spa types exclusively associated with rabbit meat (t4770, t8456).

  17. The Role of Social-Emotional Learning in Bullying Prevention Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Brian H.; Low, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    This article examines how social emotional learning contributes to bullying prevention efforts in schools. Bullying behavior is impacted by multiple levels of the social-ecology of schools. Social emotional learning (SEL) is a structured way to improve a wide range of students' social and emotional competencies and impact bullying at the…

  18. P-selectin-mediated platelet adhesion promotes the metastasis of murine melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Qi, Cui-Ling; Wei, Bo; Ye, Jie; Yang, Yang; Li, Bin; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Li, Jiang-Chao; He, Xiao-Dong; Lan, Tian; Wang, Li-Jing

    2014-01-01

    Studies have indicated that the aggregation of activated platelets with cancer cells facilitates tumor metastasis; the adhesion molecule P-selectin may be an important mediator of this process, but the detailed mechanism is unclear. In the current study, we established a B16F10 (B16) cell metastatic model in P-selectin knockout (P-sel-/-) mice to determine the effect of P-selectin-mediated platelet adhesion on metastasis. Compared with C57 mice, P-sel-/- mice developed fewer metastatic foci, and cell proliferation within the metastatic tumors was inhibited by P-selectin deficiency. The platelet refusion assay demonstrated that mice with P-sel-/- platelets developed fewer lung metastatic foci (P<0.01) with a lower microvascular density (MVD) than mice with wild-type platelets. A co-culture model of platelets and B16 cells was utilized to determine the difference in VEGF concentration in the supernatants. The results demonstrated that the supernatant from the P-sel-/- platelet/B16 co-culture had a lower concentration of VEGF. Therefore, our findings indicated that P-selectin deficiency inhibited the metastasis of B16 cells and that wild-type platelet refusion reversed this inhibition. The P-selectin-mediated interaction between platelets and B16 cells promoted angiogenesis by up-regulating VEGF.

  19. Social and Emotional Learning Hikes Interest and Resiliency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beland, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    Social Emotional Learning (SEL) is the process by which people develop the skills to recognize and manage emotions, form positive relationships, solve problems that arise, motivate themselves to accomplish a goal, make responsible decisions, and avoid risky behavior. The Collaborative for Social and Emotional Learning (CASEL), at the University of…

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION AND INDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses environmental technology verification and indoor air. RTI has responsibility for a pilot program for indoor air products as part of the U.S. EPA's Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program. The program objective is to further the development of sel...

  1. Effects of hypoxia, anoxia, and endogenous ethanol on thermoregulation in goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Rausch, R N; Crawshaw, L I; Wallace, H L

    2000-03-01

    Effects of hypoxia, anoxia, and endogenous ethanol (EtOH) on selected temperature (T(sel)) and activity in goldfish were evaluated. Blood and brain EtOH concentrations ([EtOH]) and brain oxygen partial pressure (PO(2)) were quantified at crucial ambient oxygen pressures. Below a threshold value near 31 Torr, T(sel) decreased as a function of environmental PO(2). T(sel) of 15 degrees C-acclimated fish was approximately 10 degrees C at the onset of anoxia and changed little over 2 h. Activity showed a similar response pattern. Brain [EtOH] was significantly elevated above control levels after 1 h anoxia. In normoxic water, T(sel) remained different in previously anoxic and normoxic control fish for approximately 20 min. Blood [EtOH] of previously anoxic fish remained significantly elevated ([EtOH] >4.0 micromol/g blood), and activity was significantly depressed at 20 min. Brain PO(2) reached normal levels in <3 min. We conclude that [EtOH] (brain or blood) and brain PO(2) are not proximal causes of either behavioral anapyrexia (hypothermia) or inactivity in goldfish exposed to oxygen-depleted environments.

  2. Integrative Literature Review: Emotional Intelligence in the K-12 Curriculum and Its Relationship to American Workplace Needs--A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opengart, Rose

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the content of existing social-emotional learning programs in the American K-12 curriculum and the relationship between the school-based programs and the needs of the American workplace. Social and emotional learning (SEL) programs were examined for their content and compared to research on critical…

  3. The Effects of Linear Microphone Array Changes on Computed Sound Exposure Level Footprints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Arnold W.; Wilson, Mark R.

    1997-01-01

    Airport land planning commissions often are faced with determining how much area around an airport is affected by the sound exposure levels (SELS) associated with helicopter operations. This paper presents a study of the effects changing the size and composition of a microphone array has on the computed SEL contour (ground footprint) areas used by such commissions. Descent flight acoustic data measured by a fifteen microphone array were reprocessed for five different combinations of microphones within this array. This resulted in data for six different arrays for which SEL contours were computed. The fifteen microphone array was defined as the 'baseline' array since it contained the greatest amount of data. The computations used a newly developed technique, the Acoustic Re-propagation Technique (ART), which uses parts of the NASA noise prediction program ROTONET. After the areas of the SEL contours were calculated the differences between the areas were determined. The area differences for the six arrays are presented that show a five and a three microphone array (with spacing typical of that required by the FAA FAR Part 36 noise certification procedure) compare well with the fifteen microphone array. All data were obtained from a database resulting from a joint project conducted by NASA and U.S. Army researchers at Langley and Ames Research Centers. A brief description of the joint project test design, microphone array set-up, and data reduction methodology associated with the database are discussed.

  4. Involvement of selenoprotein P and GPx4 gene expression in cadmium-induced testicular pathophysiology in rat.

    PubMed

    Messaoudi, Imed; Banni, Mohamed; Saïd, Lamia; Saïd, Khaled; Kerkeni, Abdelhamid

    2010-10-01

    To investigate the effect of co-exposure to cadmium (Cd) and selenium (Se) on selenoprotein P (SelP) and phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (GPx4) gene expression in testis and to evaluate their possible involvement in Cd-induced testicular pathophysiology, male rats received either tap water, Cd or Cd+Se in their drinking water for 5 weeks. Cd exposure caused a down-regulation of SelP and GPx4 gene expression and a significant decrease in plasma and testicular concentrations of Se. These changes were accompanied by decreased plasma testosterone level, sperm count and motility, GSH content, protein-bound sulfhydryl concentration (PSH), enzymatic activities of catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) as well as by increased glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity, lipid peroxidation (as malondialdehyde, MDA) and proteins carbonyls (PC). The decrease of testicular SelP and GPx4 gene expression under Cd influence was significantly restored in Cd+Se group. Co-treatment with Cd and Se also totally reversed the Cd-induced depletion of Se, decrease in plasma testosterone level and partially restored Cd-induced oxidative stress and decrease in sperm count and motility. Taken together, these data suggest that down-regulation of SelP and GPx4 gene expression induces plasma and testicular Se depletion leading, at least in part, to Cd-induced testicular pathophysiology. PMID:20643113

  5. Can Social-Emotional Learning Reduce School Dropout in Developing Countries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Huan; Chu, James; Loyalka, Prashant; Xin, Tao; Shi, Yaojiang; Qu, Qinghe; Yang, Chu

    2016-01-01

    An alarming number of students drop out of junior high school in developing countries. In this study, we examine the impacts of providing a social-emotional learning (SEL) program on the dropout behavior and learning anxiety of students in the first two years of junior high. We do so by analyzing data from a randomized controlled trial involving…

  6. Does a Preschool Social and Emotional Learning Intervention Pay Off for Classroom Instruction and Children's Behavior and Academic Skills? Evidence from the Foundations of Learning Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Pamela; Millenky, Megan; Raver, C. Cybele; Jones, Stephanie M.

    2013-01-01

    This article tests the hypothesis that children's learning environment will improve through a social and emotional learning (SEL) intervention that provides preschool teachers with new skills to manage children's disruptive behavior by reporting results from the Foundations of Learning (FOL) Demonstration, a place-randomized,…

  7. Development and validation of 697 novel polymorphic genomic and EST-SSR Markers in the American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait., is an economically important North American fruit crop that is consumed because of its unique flavor and potential health benefits. However, a lack of abundant, genome-wide molecular markers has limited the adoption of modern molecular assisted sel...

  8. The Investigation of the Effects of Physical Education Lessons Planned in Accordance with Cooperative Learning Approach on Secondary School Students' Problem Solving Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorucu, Alpaslan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to investigate the effects of physical education lessons planned in accordance with cooperative learning approach on secondary school students' problem solving skills. The research was conducted on 48 students studying at Konya/Selçuklu Sehit Mustafa Çuhadar Secondary School in fall semester of 2015-2016…

  9. Enhancing cognitive and social-emotional development through a simple-to-administer mindfulness-based school program for elementary school children: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A; Oberle, Eva; Lawlor, Molly Stewart; Abbott, David; Thomson, Kimberly; Oberlander, Tim F; Diamond, Adele

    2015-01-01

    The authors hypothesized that a social and emotional learning (SEL) program involving mindfulness and caring for others, designed for elementary school students, would enhance cognitive control, reduce stress, promote well-being and prosociality, and produce positive school outcomes. To test this hypothesis, 4 classes of combined 4th and 5th graders (N = 99) were randomly assigned to receive the SEL with mindfulness program versus a regular social responsibility program. Measures assessed executive functions (EFs), stress physiology via salivary cortisol, well-being (self-reports), prosociality and peer acceptance (peer reports), and math grades. Relative to children in the social responsibility program, children who received the SEL program with mindfulness (a) improved more in their cognitive control and stress physiology; (b) reported greater empathy, perspective-taking, emotional control, optimism, school self-concept, and mindfulness, (c) showed greater decreases in self-reported symptoms of depression and peer-rated aggression, (d) were rated by peers as more prosocial, and (e) increased in peer acceptance (or sociometric popularity). The results of this investigation suggest the promise of this SEL intervention and address a lacuna in the scientific literature-identifying strategies not only to ameliorate children's problems but also to cultivate their well-being and thriving. Directions for future research are discussed.

  10. Genetic Perspectives on Loss of Diversity in Elite Maize Breeding Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selection and genetic drift are two processes that are very well understood if treated separately, but very poorly understood when acting in concert. As a result, existing quantitative genetic theory does not provide any good methods for developing optimal strategies for maintaining sustainable sel...

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF BRAZED ALUMINUM OIL COOLERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at sel...

  12. 15 CFR 922.21 - Selection of active candidates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Selection of active candidates. 922.21... Selection of active candidates. (a) The Secretary shall, from time to time, select a limited number of sites from the SEL for Active Candidate consideration based on a preliminary assessment of the...

  13. 15 CFR 922.21 - Selection of active candidates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Selection of active candidates. 922.21... Selection of active candidates. (a) The Secretary shall, from time to time, select a limited number of sites from the SEL for Active Candidate consideration based on a preliminary assessment of the...

  14. 15 CFR 922.21 - Selection of active candidates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Selection of active candidates. 922.21... Selection of active candidates. (a) The Secretary shall, from time to time, select a limited number of sites from the SEL for Active Candidate consideration based on a preliminary assessment of the...

  15. 15 CFR 922.21 - Selection of active candidates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Selection of active candidates. 922.21... Selection of active candidates. (a) The Secretary shall, from time to time, select a limited number of sites from the SEL for Active Candidate consideration based on a preliminary assessment of the...

  16. 15 CFR 922.21 - Selection of active candidates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Selection of active candidates. 922.21... Selection of active candidates. (a) The Secretary shall, from time to time, select a limited number of sites from the SEL for Active Candidate consideration based on a preliminary assessment of the...

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF COMPRESSED AIR EQUIPMENT COMPONENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at sel...

  18. A Pilot Study of Strong Start: Preliminary Evidence of Feasibiliy and Efficacy of Social and Emotional Learning in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felver, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Social and emotional competencies have received increased attention as important components of school readiness for young children. Universal programs incorporating social and emotional learning (SEL) instruction for all preschool students are needed given the relation between social and emotional competencies in early childhood and later…

  19. Plasmodesmal-mediated cell-to-cell transport in wheat roots is modulated by anaerobic stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleland, R. E.; Fujiwara, T.; Lucas, W. J.

    1994-01-01

    Cell-to-cell transport of small molecules and ions occurs in plants through plasmodesmata. Plant roots are frequently subjected to localized anaerobic stress, with a resultant decrease in ATP. In order to determine the effect of this stress on plasmodesmal transport, fluorescent dyes of increasing molecular weight (0.46 to 1OkDa) were injected into epidermal and cortical cells of 3-day-old wheat roots, and their movement into neighboring cells was determined by fluorescence microscopy. Anaerobiosis was generated by N2 gas or simulated by the presence of sodium azide, both of which reduced the ATP levels in the tissue by over 80%. In the absence of such stress, the upper limit for movement, or size exclusion limit (SEL), of cortical plasmodesmata was <1 kDa. The ATP analogue TNP-ADP (mw 681) moved across the plasmodesmata of unstressed roots, indicating that plasmodesmata may be conduits for nucleotide (ATP and ADP) exchange between cells. Upon imposition of stress, the SEL rose to between 5 and 10 kDa. This response of plasmodesmata to a decrease in the level of ATP suggests that they are constricted by an ATP-dependent process so as to maintain a restricted SEL. When roots are subjected to anaerobic stress, an increase in SEL may permit enhanced delivery of sugars to the affected cells of the root where anaerobic respiration could regenerate the needed ATP.

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF HEATING, VENTILATING, AND AIR CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at sel...

  1. The Missing Piece: A National Teacher Survey on How Social and Emotional Learning Can Empower Children and Transform Schools. A Report for CASEL. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeland, John; Bruce, Mary; Hariharan, Arya

    2013-01-01

    The central message of this report is that teachers across America understand that social and emotional learning (SEL) is critical to student success in school, work, and life. Social and emotional learning involves the processes of developing competencies, including self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, relationship skills, and…

  2. The Missing Piece: A National Teacher Survey on How Social and Emotional Learning Can Empower Children and Transform Schools. A Report for CASEL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeland, John; Bruce, Mary; Hariharan, Arya

    2013-01-01

    The central message of this report is that teachers across America understand that social and emotional learning (SEL) is critical to student success in school, work, and life. Social and emotional learning involves the processes of developing competencies, including self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, relationship skills, and…

  3. Changes in molecular genetic variation at ALFP loci associated with naturalization and domestication of the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) is an important commercial species in the US Pacific Northwest with a history of propagation first using wild-caught seed imported directly from the Miyagi region of northern Japan (1920s – 1970s) followed by an extended period of seed collection from a few sel...

  4. Developing a Fidelity of Implementation Measure for the "Responsive Classroom" Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Lori

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the psychometric properties, reliability, and validity of a measure designed to assess fidelity of implementation of the "Responsive Classroom"[R] ("RC") approach. The Classroom Practices Teacher Survey (CPTS) assesses teachers' use of the "RC" approach, a social and emotional learning (SEL) intervention currently under…

  5. 14 CFR Appendix J to Part 36 - Alternative Noise Certification Procedure for Helicopters Under Subpart H Having a Maximum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the noise evaluation quantity designated as Sound Exposure Level (SEL); and (c) The noise limits for... terrain having no excessive sound absorption characteristics, such as might be caused by thick, matted, or... 10 dB of the maximum A-weighted sound level, no obstruction that significantly influences the...

  6. 14 CFR Appendix J to Part 36 - Alternative Noise Certification Procedure for Helicopters Under Subpart H Having a Maximum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the noise evaluation quantity designated as Sound Exposure Level (SEL); and (c) The noise limits for... terrain having no excessive sound absorption characteristics, such as might be caused by thick, matted, or... 10 dB of the maximum A-weighted sound level, no obstruction that significantly influences the...

  7. Comparative selenoproteome analysis reveals a reduced utilization of selenium in parasitic platyhelminthes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Liang; Zhu, Hua-Zhang; Xu, Yin-Zhen; Ni, Jia-Zuan; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Qiong

    2013-01-01

    Background. The selenocysteine(Sec)-containing proteins, selenoproteins, are an important group of proteins present in all three kingdoms of life. Although the selenoproteomes of many organisms have been analyzed, systematic studies on selenoproteins in platyhelminthes are still lacking. Moreover, comparison of selenoproteomes between free-living and parasitic animals is rarely studied. Results. In this study, three representative organisms (Schmidtea mediterranea, Schistosoma japonicum and Taenia solium) were selected for comparative analysis of selenoproteomes in Platyhelminthes. Using a SelGenAmic-based selenoprotein prediction algorithm, a total of 37 selenoprotein genes were identified in these organisms. The size of selenoproteomes and selenoprotein families were found to be associated with different lifestyles: free-living organisms have larger selenoproteome whereas parasitic lifestyle corresponds to reduced selenoproteomes. Five selenoproteins, SelT, Sel15, GPx, SPS2 and TR, were found to be present in all examined platyhelminthes as well as almost all sequenced animals, suggesting their essential role in metazoans. Finally, a new splicing form of SelW that lacked the first exon was found to be present in S. japonicum. Conclusions. Our data provide a first glance into the selenoproteomes of organisms in the phylum Platyhelminthes and may help understand function and evolutionary dynamics of selenium utilization in diversified metazoans.

  8. Enhancing Cognitive and Social–Emotional Development Through a Simple-to-Administer Mindfulness-Based School Program for Elementary School Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.; Oberle, Eva; Lawlor, Molly Stewart; Abbott, David; Thomson, Kimberly; Oberlander, Tim F.; Diamond, Adele

    2015-01-01

    The authors hypothesized that a social and emotional learning (SEL) program involving mindfulness and caring for others, designed for elementary school students, would enhance cognitive control, reduce stress, promote well-being and prosociality, and produce positive school outcomes. To test this hypothesis, 4 classes of combined 4th and 5th graders (N = 99) were randomly assigned to receive the SEL with mindfulness program versus a regular social responsibility program. Measures assessed executive functions (EFs), stress physiology via salivary cortisol, well-being (self-reports), prosociality and peer acceptance (peer reports), and math grades. Relative to children in the social responsibility program, children who received the SEL program with mindfulness (a) improved more in their cognitive control and stress physiology; (b) reported greater empathy, perspective-taking, emotional control, optimism, school self-concept, and mindfulness, (c) showed greater decreases in self-reported symptoms of depression and peer-rated aggression, (d) were rated by peers as more prosocial, and (e) increased in peer acceptance (or sociometric popularity). The results of this investigation suggest the promise of this SEL intervention and address a lacuna in the scientific literature—identifying strategies not only to ameliorate children's problems but also to cultivate their well-being and thriving. Directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25546595

  9. A validated genome wide association study to breed cattle adapted to an environment altered by climate change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Continued production of food in areas predicted to be most affected by climate change, such as dairy farming regions of Australia, will be a major challenge in coming decades. Along with rising temperatures and water shortages, scarcity of inputs such as high energy feeds is predicted. Genomic sel...

  10. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF SPEED REDUCTION EQUIPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at sel...

  11. Developing a Tiered Response Model for Social-Emotional Learning through Interdisciplinary Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maras, Melissa A.; Thompson, Aaron M.; Lewis, Christie; Thornburg, Kathy; Hawks, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    A tiered response model for social-emotional learning (SEL) is needed to address the significant mental health needs of young people in this country. In collaboration with other school mental health professionals, school psychologists have a unique expertise that situates them to be systems change agents in this work. This article describes a…

  12. Learning Strategies in Different Socioeconomic Levels. Final Report, June 27, 1968 - September 1, 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Martin M.; And Others

    Learning behavior of young children of contrasting socioeconomic backgrounds is examined in this study, which poses the question: what are the necessary or sufficient environmental conditions for the establishment of identifiable patterns of behavior? Socioeconomic level (SEL), the principal independent variable, was defined in terms of parental…

  13. Social and Emotional Learning: A Resource Guide and New Approach to Measurement in ExpandED Schools. A TASC Resource Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ExpandED Schools, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This guide is a list of tools that can be used in continued implementation of strong programming powered by Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) competencies. This curated resource pulls from across the landscape of policy, research and practice, with a description of each tool gathered directly from its website.

  14. Relations Among the Structure of Learning Tasks, Achievement, and Changes in Self-Efficacy in Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lodewyk, Ken R.; Winne, Philip H.

    2005-01-01

    Although much has been discovered about relations between self-efficacy and academic achievement, questions remain about links between achievement, the structure of learning tasks, and changes in students' self-efficacy as students engage with a single, complex authentic task. Students' self-efficacy for learning (SEL) and for performance (SEP)…

  15. Interpersonal Reactivity Index: Analysis of Invariance and Gender Differences in Spanish Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holgado Tello, Francisco Pablo; Delgado Egido, Begona; Carrasco Ortiz, Miguel A.; Del Barrio Gandara, M. V.

    2013-01-01

    Empathy is understood as a multidimensional construct involving both cognitive and emotional factors for which, traditionally, gender differences have been reported. The Interpersonal Reactivity Index (Davis in Catalog Sel Documents Psychol 10:1-19, 1980) is an instrument made up of four subscales, each measuring a different dimension of the…

  16. Teacher Perspectives on Factors Facilitating Implementation of Whole School Approaches for Resolving Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Elizabeth; Wertheim, Eleanor H.; Trinder, Margot

    2014-01-01

    While social-emotional learning programmes in schools often have positive outcomes, many such initiatives are not well implemented and maintained. This paper reports on teacher reflections on the process of planning and implementing a whole school social-emotional learning (SEL) programme with a conflict resolution focus, called "Enhancing…

  17. Social Emotional Learning in a Guatemalan Preschool Sample: Does Socioeconomic Status Moderate the Effects of a School-Based Prevention Program?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, Amanda B.; Edstrom, Leihua; Mildon, Heather A.; Davila, Lesliann

    2015-01-01

    Researchers evaluated the effectiveness of a universal social skills program and compared social emotional knowledge on individual skills interviews with 100 Guatemalan preschool children from resource rich (N?=?47) and resource poor (N?=?53) backgrounds. Participant ages ranged from 3- to 6-years-old. SEL was evaluated prior and subsequent to…

  18. Linking Prevention Science and Social and Emotional Learning: The Oregon Resiliency Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrell, Kenneth W.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the contributions of the Oregon Resiliency Project, an effort to enhance positive social-emotional development of children and youth through social and emotional learning (SEL). The project was launched in 2001 as a collaborative effort between faculty and graduate student researchers at the University of Oregon. The primary…

  19. Comparative research on “high currents” induced by single event latch-up and transient-induced latch-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rui; Han, Jian-Wei; Zheng, Han-Sheng; Yu, Yong-Tao; Shangguang, Shi-Peng; Feng, Guo-Qiang; Ma, Ying-Qi

    2015-04-01

    By using the pulsed laser single event effect facility and electro-static discharge (ESD) test system, the characteristics of the “high current”, relation with external stimulus and relevance to impacted modes of single event latch-up (SEL) and transient-induced latch-up (TLU) are studied, respectively, for a 12-bit complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) analog-to-digital converter. Furthermore, the sameness and difference in physical mechanism between “high current” induced by SEL and that by TLU are disclosed in this paper. The results show that the minority carrier diffusion in the PNPN structure of the CMOS device which initiates the active parasitic NPN and PNP transistors is the common reason for the “high current” induced by SEL and for that by TLU. However, for SEL, the minority carrier diffusion is induced by the ionizing radiation, and an underdamped sinusoidal voltage on the supply node (the ground node) is the cause of the minority carrier diffusion for TLU. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41304148).

  20. An Investigation into Psychological Well-Being Levels of Higher Education Students with Respect to Personality Traits and Self-Compassion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saricaoglu, Halim; Arslan, Coskun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the correlation between psychological well-being, personal traits and self-compassion levels, and to find out whether personal traits and self-compassion level significantly predict psychological well-being. The study sample is composed of 232 (36.5%) students from Education Faculty of Selçuk University,…

  1. Digital systems design language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, S. G.

    1979-01-01

    Digital Systems Design Language (DDL) is implemented on the SEL-32 Computer Systems. The detaileds of the language, the translator, and the simulator, and the smulator programs are given. Several example descriptions and a tutorial on hardware description languages are provided, to guide the user.

  2. Social and Emotional Learning in the Classroom: Promoting Mental Health and Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrell, Kenneth W.; Gueldner, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    This highly engaging, eminently practical book provides essential resources for implementing social and emotional learning (SEL) in any K-12 setting. Numerous vivid examples illustrate the nuts and bolts of this increasingly influential approach to supporting students' mental health, behavior, and academic performance. Helpful reproducibles are…

  3. Digital systems design language. Design synthesis of digital systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, S. G.

    1979-01-01

    The Digital Systems Design Language (DDL) is implemented on the SEL-32 computer systems. The details of the language, translator and simulator programs are included. Several example descriptions and a tutorial on hardware description languages are provided, to guide the user.

  4. Revisiting Gordon's Teacher Effectiveness Training: An Intervention Study on Teachers' Social and Emotional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talvio, Markus; Lonka, Kirsti; Komulainen, Erkki; Kuusela, Marjo; Lintunen, Taru

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This study explored the development of teachers' social and emotional learning (SEL) skills by using "Teacher Effectiveness Training (TET)" (Gordon Training International) as an intervention with two groups of teachers. Further Gordon's model was approached from the perspective of modern educational psychology.…

  5. Making the Most Out of School-Based Prevention: Lessons from the Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning (SEAL) Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, Neil; Lendrum, Ann; Wigelsworth, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the role played by universal, school-based social and emotional learning (SEL) programmes in addressing the mental health needs of children and young people. Theory and research in the field are discussed. Particular attention is paid to the social and emotional aspects of learning (SEAL) programme in England, a flagship…

  6. IMP-32--An Interactive Management Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, L. Susan; Vogel, Judith A.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the development by Gould, Inc., S.E.L. Computer Systems Division, of an Information Management Package (IMP-32) for use in administration of the company's technical information center. Designing the system, the programs which are components of the system, and system functions are discussed. Included are eight figures illustrating system…

  7. 76 FR 58473 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... area in less than 1.8 m of water. The proposed survey will take place on Apache's leases in Cook Inlet... in deeper water is called Ocean Bottom Receiver Location, which uses a small volume air gun (10 in\\3... terms of SEL than from the single water gun impulse (estimated at 188 dB re 1 Pa\\2\\-s) in...

  8. How Preschoolers' Social-Emotional Learning Predicts Their Early School Success: Developing Theory-Promoting, Competency-Based Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.; Zinsser, Katherine; Wyatt, Todd M.

    2014-01-01

    Starting on positive trajectories at school entry is important for children's later academic success. Using partial least squares, we sought to specify interrelations among all theory-based components of social-emotional learning (SEL), and their ability to predict later classroom adjustment and academic readiness in a modelling context.…

  9. Results of Single-Event Latchup Measurements Conducted by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irom, Farokh; Miyahira, Tetsuo F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports recent single-event latchup (SEL) results for a variety of microelectronic devices that include OpAmp, Voltage Reference, Motor Controller, Switch Mode Controller, Resolver-to-Digital Converter and Analog-to-Digital Converter. The data was collected to evaluate these devices for possible use in NASA spacecraft.

  10. Selenium speciation analysis of Misgurnus anguillicaudatus selenoprotein by HPLC-ICP-MS and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analytical methods for selenium (Se) speciation were developed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to either inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) or electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Separations of selenomethionine (Se-Met) and sel...

  11. The Role of School Leaders in Teacher Leadership Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringler, Marjorie C.; O'Neal, Debra; Rawls, Jana; Cumiskey, Shelia

    2013-01-01

    In rural eastern North Carolina, the rapid growth of English Learners (ELs) unintentionally makes mainstream classrooms sheltered instruction classrooms. Sheltered instruction is content-based instruction (CBI) where ELs acquire language while learning content. In addition to ELs, this region has a high number of Standard English Learners (SELs).…

  12. IZI: INFERRING THE GAS PHASE METALLICITY (Z) AND IONIZATION PARAMETER (q) OF IONIZED NEBULAE USING BAYESIAN STATISTICS

    SciTech Connect

    Blanc, Guillermo A.; Kewley, Lisa; Vogt, Frédéric P. A.; Dopita, Michael A.

    2015-01-10

    We present a new method for inferring the metallicity (Z) and ionization parameter (q) of H II regions and star-forming galaxies using strong nebular emission lines (SELs). We use Bayesian inference to derive the joint and marginalized posterior probability density functions for Z and q given a set of observed line fluxes and an input photoionization model. Our approach allows the use of arbitrary sets of SELs and the inclusion of flux upper limits. The method provides a self-consistent way of determining the physical conditions of ionized nebulae that is not tied to the arbitrary choice of a particular SEL diagnostic and uses all the available information. Unlike theoretically calibrated SEL diagnostics, the method is flexible and not tied to a particular photoionization model. We describe our algorithm, validate it against other methods, and present a tool that implements it called IZI. Using a sample of nearby extragalactic H II regions, we assess the performance of commonly used SEL abundance diagnostics. We also use a sample of 22 local H II regions having both direct and recombination line (RL) oxygen abundance measurements in the literature to study discrepancies in the abundance scale between different methods. We find that oxygen abundances derived through Bayesian inference using currently available photoionization models in the literature can be in good (∼30%) agreement with RL abundances, although some models perform significantly better than others. We also confirm that abundances measured using the direct method are typically ∼0.2 dex lower than both RL and photoionization-model-based abundances.

  13. Conceptual Design of the TPF-O SC Buses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, Lloyd R.

    2007-01-01

    The Terrestrial Planet Finder - Occulter (TPF-O) mission has two Spacecraft (SC) buses, one for a space telescope and the other for a formation-flying occulter. SC buses typically supply the utilities (support structures, propulsion, attitude control, power, communications, etc) required by the payloads. Unique requirements for the occulter SC bus are to provide the large delta V required for the slewing maneuvers of the occulter, and comunications for formation flying. The TPF-O telescope SC bus shares some key features of the one for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST): both support space telescopes designed to observe in the visible to near infrared range of wavelengths with comparable primary mirror apertures (2.4 m for HST, 2.4 - 4.0 m for TPF-O). However, TPF-O is expected to have a Wide Field Camera (WFC) with a Field of View (FOV) much larger than that of HST. Ths WFC is also expected to provide fine guidance. TPF-O is designed to operate in an orbit around the Sun-Earth Lagrange 2 (SEL2) point. The longer communications range to SEL2 and the large science FOV require higher performance communications than HST. Maintaining a SEL2 orbit requires TPF-O, unlike HST, to have a propulsion system. The velocity required for reachng SEL2 and the limited capabilities of affordable launch vehicles require both TPF-O elements to have compact, low-mass designs. Finally, it is possible that TPF-O may utilize a modular design derived fiom that of HST to allow servicing in the SEL2 orbit.

  14. Looking for underlying features in automatic and reviewed seismic bulletins through a neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carluccio, R.; Console, R.; Chiappini, M.; Chiappini, S.

    2009-12-01

    SEL1 bulletins are, among all IDC products, a fundamental tool for NDCs in their task of national assessment of compliance with the CTBT. This is because SEL1s are expected to be disseminated within 2 hours from the occurrence of any detected waveform event, and the National Authorities are supposed to take a political decision in nearly real time, especially in the case when the event could triggers the request for an on site inspection. In this context not only the rapidity, but also the reliability of the SEL1 is a fundamental requirement. Our last years experience gained in the comparison between SEL1 and Italian Seismic Bulletin events has shown that SEL1s usually contain a big fraction of bogus events (sometimes close to 50%). This is due to many factors, all related to the availability of processing data and to the fast automatic algorithms involved. On the other hand, REBs are much more reliable as proved by our experience. Therefore, in spite of their relevant time delay by which they are distributed, which prevents their real-time use, REBs can be still useful in a retrospective way as reference information for comparison with SEL1s. This study tries to set up a sort of logical filter on the SEL1s that, while maintaining the rapidity requirements, improves their reliability. Our idea is based on the assumption that the SEL1s are produced by systematic algorithm of phase association and therefore some patterns among the input and output data could exist and be recognized. Our approach was initially based on a set of rules suggested by human experts on their personal experience, and its application on large datasets on a global scale. Other approaches not involving human interaction (data mining techniques) do exist. This study refers specifically to a semi-automatic approach: fitting of multi-parametric relationships hidden in the data set, through the application of neural networks by an algorithm of supervised learning. Full SEL1 and REB bulletins from

  15. Varietal differences in the bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from mango (Mangifera indica) and papaya (Carica papaya) fruits.

    PubMed

    Veda, Supriya; Platel, Kalpana; Srinivasan, K

    2007-09-19

    Mango and papaya, which are rich sources of beta-carotene, are widely consumed in India. In this study, beta-carotene content and its bioaccessibility were determined in six locally available varieties of mango, namely, Badami, Raspuri, Mallika, Malgoa, Totapuri, and Neelam, and two varieties of papaya, namely, Honey Dew and Surya. Varietal differences were evident in both beta-carotene content and its bioaccessibility in the case of mango. beta-Carotene content in ripe mango ranged from 0.55 +/- 0.03 mg/100 g in the Malgoa variety to 3.21 +/- 0.25 mg/100 g in the Badami variety. Similarly, in the Honey Dew and Surya varieties of papaya, beta-carotene contents were 0.70 +/- 0.10 and 0.74 +/- 0.12 mg/100 g, respectively. Bioaccessibility of beta-carotene ranged from 24.5% in Badami to 39.1% in Raspuri varieties of mango. Considering both the percent bioaccessibility and the inherent beta-carotene content, the amount of bioaccessible beta-carotene was highest in the Mallika variety (0.89 mg/100 g), followed by Badami (0.79 mg/100 g). Because mango and papaya are also consumed as a blend with milk, the influence of the presence of milk on the bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from these fruits was also examined. Addition of milk generally brought about a significant increase in the bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from mango, the increase ranging from 12 to 56%. Bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from the two varieties of papaya examined was similar (31.4-34.3%). Addition of milk increased this bioaccessibility by 19 and 38% in these two varieties. Considering the beta-carotene content of mango and papaya, the latter has to be consumed in amounts roughly 3 times that of mango to derive the same amount of beta-carotene. Thus, this study has indicated that varietal differences exist in the content and bioaccessibility of beta-carotene in mango and that the addition of milk is advantageous in deriving this provitamin A from the fruit pulp of mango and papaya.

  16. Particulate Matter Levels in Ambient Air Adjacent to Industrial Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, R. M. S. R.; Nizam, N. M. S.; Al-Gheethi, A. A.; Lajis, A.; Kassim, A. H. M.

    2016-07-01

    Air quality in the residential areas adjacent to the industrial regions is of great concern due to the association with human health risks. In this work, the concentrations of particulate matter (PM10) in the ambient air of UTHM campus was investigated tostudy the air qualityand their compliance to the Malaysian Ambient Air Quality Guidelines (AAQG). The PM10 samples were taken over 24 hours from the most significant area at UTHM including Stadium, KolejKediamanTunDr. Ismail (KKTDI) and MakmalBahan. The meteorological parameters; temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction as well as particulate matterwere estimated by using E-Sampler Particulate Matter (PM10) Collector. The highest concentrations of PM10 (55.56 µg/m3) was recorded at MakmalBahan during the working and weekend days. However, these concentrations are less than 150 pg/m3. It can be concluded that although UTHM is surrounded by the industrial area, the air quality in the campus still within the standards limits.

  17. Abnormal P-selectin localization during megakaryocyte development determines thrombosis in the gata1low model of myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Zetterberg, Eva; Verrucci, Maria; Martelli, Fabrizio; Zingariello, Maria; Sancillo, Laura; D'Amore, Emanuela; Rana, Rosa Alba; Migliaccio, Anna Rita

    2014-01-01

    Patients with primary myelofibrosis have increased risk for bleeding and thrombosis. It is debated whether propensity to thrombosis is due to increased numbers of platelet microparticles and/or to pathological platelet-neutrophil interactions. Platelet neutrophil interactions are mediated by P-selectin and even though the megakaryocytes of myelofibrosis patients express normal levels of P-selectin, it remains abnormally localized to the demarcation membrane system rather than being assembled into the α-granules in platelets. Mice carrying the hypomorphic Gata1(low) mutation express the same megakaryocyte abnormalities presented by primary myelofibrosis patients, including abnormal P-selectin localization to the DMS and develop with age myelofibrosis, a disease that closely resembles human primary myelofibrosis. Whether these mice would also develop thrombosis has not been investigated as yet. The aim of this study was to determine whether Gata1(low) mice would develop thrombosis with age and, in this case, the role played by P-selectin in the development of the trait. To this aim, Gata1(low) mice were crossed with P-sel(null) mice according to standard genetic protocols and Gata1(low)P-sel(wt), Gata1(low)P-sel(null) and Gata1(WT)P-sel(null) or Gata1(wt)P-sel(wt) (as controls) littermates obtained. It was shown that platelet counts, but not hematocrit, are reduced in Gata1(low) mice. Moreover, platelet microparticles are reduced in Gata1(low) mice and P-selectin positive platelet microparticles were not found. To determine the phenotypic implications of the different mutations, bleeding time was estimated by a tail cut procedure. Mutant mice were sacrificed and presence of thrombosis was determined by immunohistological staining of organs. Gata1(low) mice with or without the P-selectin null trait had a prolonged bleeding time compared to wild type mice. However, in Gata1(low) mice significantly higher frequency of thrombotic events was seen in adult and old Gata1

  18. Evaluation of a tunable bandpass reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer for the determination of selenium in serum and urine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nixon, David E.; Neubauer, Kenneth R.; Eckdahl, Steven J.; Butz, John A.; Burritt, Mary F.

    2003-01-01

    A Dynamic Reaction Cell™ inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (DRC-ICP-MS) was evaluated for the determination of selenium in serum and urine. Reaction cell conditions were evaluated for the suppression of Ar 2+ dimer at m/ z 78 and 80 using methane as the reaction gas. A diluent containing 10% ethanol, 1% nitric acid, 0.5% Triton X-100 with gallium and yttrium internal standards was used to dilute urine and serum samples. Instrument response calibration was achieved by using aqueous acidic standards spiked into a urine matrix. Slopes for aqueous inorganic selenium, seleno- DL-cystine, seleno- DL-methionine and trimethylselenonium iodide spiked into urine and serum matrices were nearly identical. In general, reagent blank readings and detection limits were significantly lower in the DRC mode (reaction cell pressurized) than the standard mode (cell vented). Average results for the analysis of National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material (NIST SRM) 1598 bovine serum (attained over 13 days) are: 43.8±3.6 μg Se/l. Reference concentration is 43.6±3.6 μg Se/l. For NIST SRM 2670 Normal Urine the DRC-ICP-MS results are 30.7±4.6 μg Se/l with a certified concentration of 30±8 μg Se/l. For NIST SRM 2670 Elevated Urine the DRC-ICP-MS results are 463±35 μg Se/l with a certified concentration of 460±30 μg Se/l. The DRC-ICP-MS results for selenium determinations in urine and serum survey samples from the Institut National de Sante Publique du Quebec were compared with the reference concentrations and results produced by conventional ICP-MS. While conventional ICP-MS gave acceptable results for survey samples, DRC-ICP-MS gave excellent results for both urine and sera. Closer correlation was observed for DRC-ICP-MS results with target concentrations than with conventional ICP-MS.

  19. The evolving versatility of selenium in biology.

    PubMed

    Brigelius-Flohé, Regina

    2015-10-01

    This editorial shortly summarizes the highlights described in the Forum, novelties about selenoproteins. Two articles describe the selenoprotein biosynthesis and the role of so far identified proteins involved, including that of selenocysteine-β-lyase, which also may link selenoproteins to energy metabolism. Novel and, in part, unexpected functions are reviewed. Thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1) can change from an anti- to a pro-oxidant and appears to be involved in the regulation of the Nrf2/Keap1 system. Methionine sulfoxide reductase B1 (MsrB1) catalyzes a novel posttranslational protein modification. The membrane proteins, Sel K,S,T,N, and I, form selenylsulfide bonds leading to the formation and stabilization of protein complexes required for protein trafficking. By this mechanism, selenoprotein K (SelK) supports palmitoylation of membrane-associated proteins. Thus, selenium and selenoproteins obviously have functions by far exceeding that of counteracting oxidative stress and even also catalyzing oxidoreductive processes.

  20. On Nibbles and Bytes: The Conundrum of Memory for Space Systems - NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) and Efforts in Memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Ladbury, Ray; Pellish, Jonathan; Sheldon, Douglas; Oldham, Timothy; Berg, Melanie D.; Cohn, Lewis M.

    2009-01-01

    Radiation requirements and trends. TID: 1) >90% of NASA applications are < 100 krads-Si in piecepart requirements. a) Many commercial devices (NVM and SDRAMs) meet or come close to this. b) Charge pump TID tolerance has improved an order magnitude over the last 10 years. 2) There are always a few programs with higher level needs and, of course, defense needs SEL: 1) Prefer none or rates that are considered low risk. a) Latent damage is a bear to deal with. 2) As we re packing cells tighter and even with lower Vdd, we re seeing SEL on commercial devices regularly (<90nm). a) Often in power conversion, I/O, or control areas. SEU: 1) It s not the bit errors, it s the SEFIs errors that are the biggest issues. a) Scrubbing concerns for risk, power, speed.

  1. An approach to software baseline generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romeu, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    A current Data & Analysis Center for Software (DACS) effort to develop software baselines is summarized. This baseline effort is an on-going activity; that is, the baselines are meant to be updated as new software data becomes available. The information presented and processed was organized to make periodic updating a much simpler task. A baseline, for this effort, consists of an estimation of any characteristic of a software project that is helpful to a developer, manager, or monitor to manage, control, or influence a software product. The objective of these baselines is to provide a tool for aiding software developers in their daily work. Baselines were synthesized from an empirical dataset provided by the Software Engineering Laboratory at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/SEL). These data were selected because the data collection effort developed at the NASA/SEL is the most thorough and complete available.

  2. Primary prevention: educational approaches to enhance social and emotional learning.

    PubMed

    Elias, M J; Weissberg, R P

    2000-05-01

    The 1995 publication of Goleman's Emotional Intelligence triggered a revolution in mental health promotion. Goleman's examination of Gardner's work on multiple intelligences and current brain research, and review of successful programs that promoted emotional health, revealed a common objective among those working to prevent specific problem behaviors: producing knowledgeable, responsible, nonviolent, and caring individuals. Advances in research and field experiences confirm that school-based programs that promote social and emotional learning (SEL) in children can be powerful in accomplishing these goals. This article reviews the work of the Collaborative to Advance Social and Emotional Learning (CASEL), its guidelines for promoting mental health in children and youth based on SEL, key principles, and examples of exemplary programs.

  3. Collected software engineering papers, volume 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    A collection is presented of selected technical papers produced by participants in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) during the period Dec. 1988 to Oct. 1989. The purpose of the document is to make available, in one reference, some results of SEL research that originally appeared in a number of different forums. For the convenience of this presentation, the seven papers contained here are grouped into three major categories: (1) Software Measurement and Technology Studies; (2) Measurement Environment Studies; and (3) Ada Technology Studies. The first category presents experimental research and evaluation of software measurement and technology; the second presents studies on software environments pertaining to measurement. The last category represents Ada technology and includes research, development, and measurement studies.

  4. A computer-controlled, on-board data acquisition system for wind-tunnel testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finger, H. J.; Cambra, J. M.

    1974-01-01

    A computer-controlled data acquisition system has been developed for the 40x80-foot wind tunnel at Ames Research Center. The system, consisting of several small onboard units installed in the model and a data-managing, data-displaying ground station, is capable of sampling up to 256 channels of raw data at a total sample rate of 128,000 samples/sec. Complete signal conditioning is contained within the on-board units. The sampling sequence and channel gain selection is completely random and under total control of the ground station. Outputs include a bar-graph display, digital-to-analog converters, and digital interface to the tunnel's central computer, an SEL 840MP. The system can be run stand-alone or under the control of the SEL 840MP.

  5. Cauda Equina Syndrome Caused by Idiopathic Epidural Lipomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yun Seong; Ju, Chang Il; Kim, Hyeun Sung

    2015-01-01

    Spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) is a rare condition that presents as a back pain with progressive neurologic symptoms. Most affected patients are obese and receiving steroid therapy, or have an endocrinopathies. We report a rare case of cauda equina syndrome caused by SEL in a non-obese healthy young man without any evident traumatic episode. A healthy 19-year-old man, who had experienced lower back pain for two months, visited our emergency room because of the sudden development of motor weakness and voiding difficulty. Lumbar magnetic resonance image revealed extradural fat compressing the cauda equina. Urgent decompression via posterior laminectomy and excision of excess epidural fat resulted in an immediate symptom improvement. PMID:26834816

  6. Calculating Stress: From Entropy to a Thermodynamic Concept of Health and Disease.

    PubMed

    Bienertová-Vašků, Julie; Zlámal, Filip; Nečesánek, Ivo; Konečný, David; Vasku, Anna

    2016-01-01

    To date, contemporary science has lacked a satisfactory tool for the objective expression of stress. This text thus introduces a new-thermodynamically derived-approach to stress measurement, based on entropy production in time and independent of the quality or modality of a given stressor or a combination thereof. Hereto, we propose a novel model of stress response based on thermodynamic modelling of entropy production, both in the tissues/organs and in regulatory feedbacks. Stress response is expressed in our model on the basis of stress entropic load (SEL), a variable we introduced previously; the mathematical expression of SEL, provided here for the first time, now allows us to describe the various states of a living system, including differentiating between states of health and disease. The resulting calculation of stress response regardless of the type of stressor(s) in question is thus poised to become an entirely new tool for predicting the development of a living system.

  7. Calculating Stress: From Entropy to a Thermodynamic Concept of Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nečesánek, Ivo; Konečný, David; Vasku, Anna

    2016-01-01

    To date, contemporary science has lacked a satisfactory tool for the objective expression of stress. This text thus introduces a new–thermodynamically derived–approach to stress measurement, based on entropy production in time and independent of the quality or modality of a given stressor or a combination thereof. Hereto, we propose a novel model of stress response based on thermodynamic modelling of entropy production, both in the tissues/organs and in regulatory feedbacks. Stress response is expressed in our model on the basis of stress entropic load (SEL), a variable we introduced previously; the mathematical expression of SEL, provided here for the first time, now allows us to describe the various states of a living system, including differentiating between states of health and disease. The resulting calculation of stress response regardless of the type of stressor(s) in question is thus poised to become an entirely new tool for predicting the development of a living system. PMID:26771542

  8. Relationships matter: the role for social-emotional learning in an interprofessional global health education.

    PubMed

    Guerin, Toby Treem

    2014-12-01

    As global health curricula and competencies are defined, the instructional foundation of practice-based learning and soft skills training requires reexamination. This paper explores the integration of social-emotional instruction into global health education, specifically highlighting its role in interprofessional learning environments. One method to teach the core competencies in the higher education context is through restorative practices. Restorative practices is a "social science that integrates developments from a variety of disciplines and fields in order to build healthy communities, increase social capital, decrease crime and antisocial behavior, repair harm and restore relationships." The restorative philosophy incorporates the core competencies of socio-emotional learning and views conflict as an opportunity for learning. The first part discusses the foundations of social-emotional learning (SEL). It then explores the applicability of SEL in interprofessional and global health education. PMID:25564709

  9. Collected software engineering papers, volume 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A collection is presented of technical papers produced by participants in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) during the period 1 Jun. 1987 to 1 Jan. 1989. The purpose of the document is to make available, in one reference, some results of SEL research that originally appeared in a number of different forums. For the convenience of this presentation, the twelve papers contained here are grouped into three major categories: (1) Software Measurement and Technology Studies; (2) Measurement Environment Studies; and (3) Ada Technology Studies. The first category presents experimental research and evaluation of software measurement and technology; the second presents studies on software environments pertaining to measurement. The last category represents Ada technology and includes research, development, and measurement studies.

  10. Primary prevention: educational approaches to enhance social and emotional learning.

    PubMed

    Elias, M J; Weissberg, R P

    2000-05-01

    The 1995 publication of Goleman's Emotional Intelligence triggered a revolution in mental health promotion. Goleman's examination of Gardner's work on multiple intelligences and current brain research, and review of successful programs that promoted emotional health, revealed a common objective among those working to prevent specific problem behaviors: producing knowledgeable, responsible, nonviolent, and caring individuals. Advances in research and field experiences confirm that school-based programs that promote social and emotional learning (SEL) in children can be powerful in accomplishing these goals. This article reviews the work of the Collaborative to Advance Social and Emotional Learning (CASEL), its guidelines for promoting mental health in children and youth based on SEL, key principles, and examples of exemplary programs. PMID:10900595

  11. The evolving versatility of selenium in biology.

    PubMed

    Brigelius-Flohé, Regina

    2015-10-01

    This editorial shortly summarizes the highlights described in the Forum, novelties about selenoproteins. Two articles describe the selenoprotein biosynthesis and the role of so far identified proteins involved, including that of selenocysteine-β-lyase, which also may link selenoproteins to energy metabolism. Novel and, in part, unexpected functions are reviewed. Thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1) can change from an anti- to a pro-oxidant and appears to be involved in the regulation of the Nrf2/Keap1 system. Methionine sulfoxide reductase B1 (MsrB1) catalyzes a novel posttranslational protein modification. The membrane proteins, Sel K,S,T,N, and I, form selenylsulfide bonds leading to the formation and stabilization of protein complexes required for protein trafficking. By this mechanism, selenoprotein K (SelK) supports palmitoylation of membrane-associated proteins. Thus, selenium and selenoproteins obviously have functions by far exceeding that of counteracting oxidative stress and even also catalyzing oxidoreductive processes. PMID:26406357

  12. Impact of air gun noise on the behaviour of marine fish and squid.

    PubMed

    Fewtrell, J L; McCauley, R D

    2012-05-01

    In this study various species of captive marine fish and one species of squid were exposed to the noise from a single air gun. Six trials were conducted off the coast of Western Australia with each trial using a different noise exposure regime. Noise levels received by the animals ranged between 120 and 184 dB re 1 μPa(2).s (SEL). Behavioural observations of the fish and squid were made before, during and after air gun noise exposure. Results indicate that as air gun noise levels increase, fish respond by moving to the bottom of the water column and swimming faster in more tightly cohesive groups. Significant increases in alarm responses were observed in fish and squid to air gun noise exceeding 147-151 dB re 1 μPa SEL. An increase in the occurrence of alarm responses was also observed as noise level increased.

  13. Diversity of Ralstonia solanacearum in French Guiana expands knowledge of the "emerging ecotype".

    PubMed

    Deberdt, P; Guyot, J; Coranson-Beaudu, R; Launay, J; Noreskal, M; Rivière, P; Vigné, F; Laplace, D; Lebreton, L; Wicker, E

    2014-06-01

    Although bacterial wilt remains a major plant disease throughout South America and the Caribbean, the diversity of prevalent Ralstonia solanacearum populations is largely unknown. The genetic and phenotypic diversity of R. solanacearum strains in French Guiana was assessed using diagnostic polymerase chain reactions and sequence-based (egl and mutS) genotyping on a 239-strain collection sampled on the families Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae, revealing an unexpectedly high diversity. Strains were distributed within phylotypes I (46.9%), IIA (26.8%), and IIB (26.3%), with one new endoglucanase sequence type (egl ST) found within each group. Phylotype IIB strains consisted mostly (97%) of strains with the emerging ecotype (IIB/sequevar 4NPB). Host range of IIB/4NPB strains from French Guiana matched the original emerging reference strain from Martinique. They were virulent on cucumber; virulent and highly aggressive on tomato, including the resistant reference Hawaii 7996; and only controlled by eggplant SM6 and Surya accessions. The emerging ecotype IIB/4NPB is fully established in French Guiana in both cultivated fields and uncultivated forest, rendering the hypothesis of introduction via ornamental or banana cuttings unlikely. Thus, this ecotype may have originated from the Amazonian region and spread throughout the Caribbean region.

  14. Effects of Isha Hatha Yoga on Core Stability and Standing Balance.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sendhil; Prasad, Shyam; Balakrishnan, Bhavani; Muthukumaraswamy, Karunambigai; Ganesan, Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Context • Isha Hatha yoga is a form of yoga practice that practitioners claim can improve health. Gaining a scientific understanding of its effects on health is a crucial step in claiming health benefits. Objective • The study intended to investigate the effects of Isha Hatha yoga on core stability and standing balance in healthy volunteers. Design • The research team designed a quasiexperimental study. Setting • The setting was at Isha Yoga Center at Isha Foundation in Coimbatore, India. Participants • Participants were individuals registered for a residential program providing training in Isha Hatha yoga at the Isha Yoga Center. Intervention • The training consisted of 21 d of training in Isha Hatha yoga, including Upa yoga, Surya Kriya, Angamardhana, Bhuta Suddhi, and asanas. Outcome Measures • The single-leg stork test and the plank test were conducted before and after the training. Results • Significant increases occurred in the standing-stork test scores on the right (P = .014) and left (P = .033) sides and in the plank test scores (P < .001). Conclusions • The current study concluded that healthy volunteers who underwent 21 d of training in Isha Hatha yoga showed significant improvements in core strength and balance. PMID:27250211

  15. Single-Event Effect (SEE) Survey of Advanced Reconfigurable Field Programmable Gate Arrays: NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program Office of Safety and Mission Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    The NEPP Reconfigurable Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) task has been charged to evaluate reconfigurable FPGA technologies for use in space. Under this task, the Xilinx single-event-immune, reconfigurable FPGA (SIRF) XQR5VFX130 device was evaluated for SEE. Additionally, the Altera Stratix-IV and SiliconBlue iCE65 were screened for single-event latchup (SEL).

  16. Severity of presentation is associated with time to recovery in spinal epidural lipomatosis.

    PubMed

    Praver, Moshe; Kennedy, Benjamin C; Ellis, Jason A; D'Amico, Randy; Mandigo, Christopher E

    2015-08-01

    We present a patient with prednisone-induced spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) and relatively acute neurologic deterioration followed by rapid recovery after surgical decompression. SEL is a rare disease characterized by hypertrophy of epidural fat, most commonly associated with exogenous steroid use. To our knowledge, an analysis of the dynamics of steroid dose related to time to onset has never been performed, or of patient presentation features with respect to patient outcome. We retrospectively reviewed the literature for English language series and case reports of SEL associated with prednisone use from 1975-2013. Data were compiled for 41 patients regarding the prescribed dose of prednisone and length of treatment, as well as the severity of symptoms on the Ranawat scale, time to onset, time to recovery, and degree of recovery of neurological symptoms. Fisher's exact test and analysis of variance were used for comparing proportions, and p values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. We found that the mean cumulative dose of prednisone trended towards an association with a lack of recovery (p=0.06) and may be related to rate of recovery. Prescribed prednisone dose varied inversely with the time before onset of neurological symptoms, but failed to reach statistical significance. Higher severity of presenting symptoms on the Ranawat scale were found to be associated with a higher likelihood of delayed recovery (p=0.035). Patients with symptoms lower on the Ranawat scale more frequently experienced complete neurologic recovery, though this did not reach significance. The acuity of neurological deterioration was not related to the time to recovery or ultimate degree of recovery. Severity of presentation on the Ranawat scale is associated with rate of recovery and may be related to degree of recovery in SEL patients. Cumulative dose of prednisone may be related to degree and rate of recovery. Prescribed dose of prednisone may be related to time to onset

  17. Risk assessment, cross-resistance potential, and biochemical mechanism of resistance to emamectin benzoate in a field strain of house fly (Musca domestica Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Akram, Waseem; Khan, Tiyyabah; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Iqbal, Naeem; Zubair, Muhammad

    2016-05-01

    Reduced sensitivity to insecticides in insect pests often results in control failures and increases in the dose and frequency of applications, ultimately polluting the environment. Reduced sensitivity to emamectin benzoate, a broad-spectrum agrochemical belonging to the avermectin group of pesticides, was reported in house flies (Musca domestica L.) collected from Punjab, Pakistan, in 2013. The aim of the present study was to investigate the risk for resistance development, biochemical mechanism, and cross-resistance potential to other insecticides in an emamectin benzoate selected (EB-SEL) strain of house flies. A field-collected strain showing reduced sensitivity to emamectin was re-selected in the laboratory for five consecutive generations and compared with a laboratory susceptible (Lab-Susceptible) reference strain, using bioassays. The field strain showed rapid development of resistance to emamectin (resistance ratio (RR) increased from 35.15 to 149.26-fold) as a result of selection experiments; however, resistance declined when the selection pressure uplifted. The EB-SEL strain showed reduction in resistance to abamectin, indoxacarb, and thiamethoxam. The results of synergism experiments using piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF) enzyme inhibitors and biochemical analyses revealed that the metabolic resistance mechanism was not responsible in developing emamectin resistance in the EB-SEL strain. In conclusion, the risk for the rapid development of emamectin resistance under continuous selection pressure suggests using a multifaceted integrated pest management approach for house flies. Moreover, the instable nature of emamectin resistance in the EB-SEL strain and lack of cross-resistance to other insecticides provide windows for the rotational use of insecticides with different modes of action. This will ultimately reduce emamectin selection pressure and help improving management programs for house flies without polluting the

  18. The Software Management Environment (SME)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valett, Jon D.; Decker, William; Buell, John

    1988-01-01

    The Software Management Environment (SME) is a research effort designed to utilize the past experiences and results of the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) and to incorporate this knowledge into a tool for managing projects. SME provides the software development manager with the ability to observe, compare, predict, analyze, and control key software development parameters such as effort, reliability, and resource utilization. The major components of the SME, the architecture of the system, and examples of the functionality of the tool are discussed.

  19. Environmental report 1994. Volume No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Rath, K.S.; Harrach, R.J.; Gallegos, G.M.; Failor, R.A.; Christofferson, E.

    1995-09-01

    This volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) annual Environmental Report 1994 is a detailed data report that provides individual data points, where applicable, along with some summary data and more detailed accounts of sample collection and analytical methods. Six chapters have information on monitoring of air, surface water, groundwater, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuffs, and environmental radiation; two other chapters cover compliance sel-monitoring and quality assurance.

  20. Selenoproteins of African trypanosomes are dispensable for parasite survival in a mammalian host.

    PubMed

    Bonilla, Mariana; Krull, Erika; Irigoín, Florencia; Salinas, Gustavo; Comini, Marcelo A

    2016-01-01

    The trace element selenium is found in polypeptides as selenocysteine, the 21(st) amino acid that is co-translationally inserted into proteins at a UGA codon. In proteins, selenocysteine usually plays a role as an efficient redox catalyst. Trypanosomatids previously examined harbor a full set of genes encoding the machinery needed for selenocysteine biosynthesis and incorporation into three selenoproteins: SelK, SelT and, the parasite-specific, Seltryp. We investigated the selenoproteome of kinetoplastid species in recently sequenced genomes and assessed the in vivo relevance of selenoproteins for African trypanosomes. Database mining revealed that SelK, SelT and Seltryp genes are present in most kinetoplastids, including the free-living species Bodo saltans, and Seltryp was lost in the subgenus Viannia from the New World Leishmania. Homology and sinteny with bacterial sulfur dioxygenases and sulfur transferases suggest a putative role for Seltryp in sulfur metabolism. A Trypanosoma brucei selenocysteine synthase (SepSecS) null-mutant, in which selenoprotein synthesis is abolished, displayed similar sensitivity to oxidative stress induced by a short-term exposure to high concentrations of methylglyoxal or H2O2 to that of the parental wild-type cell line. Importantly, the infectivity of the SepSecS knockout cell line was not impaired when tested in a mouse infection model and compensatory effects via up-regulation of proteins involved in thiol-redox metabolism were not observed. Collectively, our data show that selenoproteins are not required for survival of African trypanosomes in a mammalian host and exclude a role for selenoproteins in parasite antioxidant defense and/or virulence. On this basis, selenoproteins can be disregarded as drug target candidates. PMID:26975431

  1. Basic cluster compression algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilbert, E. E.; Lee, J.

    1980-01-01

    Feature extraction and data compression of LANDSAT data is accomplished by BCCA program which reduces costs associated with transmitting, storing, distributing, and interpreting multispectral image data. Algorithm uses spatially local clustering to extract features from image data to describe spectral characteristics of data set. Approach requires only simple repetitive computations, and parallel processing can be used for very high data rates. Program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on SEL 32/55.

  2. High temperature ceramic membrane reactors for coal liquid upgrading. Quarterly report No. 1, September 21, 1989--December 20, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Tsotsis, T.T.

    1992-06-19

    In this project we well evaluate the performance of Sel-Gel alumina membranes in coal liquid upgrading processes under realistic temperature and pressure conditions and investigate the feasibility of using such membranes in a membrane reactor based coal liquid upgrading process. In addition, the development of novel ceramic membranes with enhanced catalytic activity for coal-liquid upgrading applications, such as carbon-coated alumina membranes, will be also investigated. (VC)

  3. High temperature ceramic membrane reactors for coal liquid upgrading

    SciTech Connect

    Tsotsis, T.T.

    1992-06-19

    In this project we well evaluate the performance of Sel-Gel alumina membranes in coal liquid upgrading processes under realistic temperature and pressure conditions and investigate the feasibility of using such membranes in a membrane reactor based coal liquid upgrading process. In addition, the development of novel ceramic membranes with enhanced catalytic activity for coal-liquid upgrading applications, such as carbon-coated alumina membranes, will be also investigated. (VC)

  4. Manager's handbook for software development, revision 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Methods and aids for the management of software development projects are presented. The recommendations are based on analyses and experiences of the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) with flight dynamics software development. The management aspects of the following subjects are described: organizing the project, producing a development plan, estimating costs, scheduling, staffing, preparing deliverable documents, using management tools, monitoring the project, conducting reviews, auditing, testing, and certifying.

  5. Risk assessment, cross-resistance potential, and biochemical mechanism of resistance to emamectin benzoate in a field strain of house fly (Musca domestica Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Akram, Waseem; Khan, Tiyyabah; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Iqbal, Naeem; Zubair, Muhammad

    2016-05-01

    Reduced sensitivity to insecticides in insect pests often results in control failures and increases in the dose and frequency of applications, ultimately polluting the environment. Reduced sensitivity to emamectin benzoate, a broad-spectrum agrochemical belonging to the avermectin group of pesticides, was reported in house flies (Musca domestica L.) collected from Punjab, Pakistan, in 2013. The aim of the present study was to investigate the risk for resistance development, biochemical mechanism, and cross-resistance potential to other insecticides in an emamectin benzoate selected (EB-SEL) strain of house flies. A field-collected strain showing reduced sensitivity to emamectin was re-selected in the laboratory for five consecutive generations and compared with a laboratory susceptible (Lab-Susceptible) reference strain, using bioassays. The field strain showed rapid development of resistance to emamectin (resistance ratio (RR) increased from 35.15 to 149.26-fold) as a result of selection experiments; however, resistance declined when the selection pressure uplifted. The EB-SEL strain showed reduction in resistance to abamectin, indoxacarb, and thiamethoxam. The results of synergism experiments using piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF) enzyme inhibitors and biochemical analyses revealed that the metabolic resistance mechanism was not responsible in developing emamectin resistance in the EB-SEL strain. In conclusion, the risk for the rapid development of emamectin resistance under continuous selection pressure suggests using a multifaceted integrated pest management approach for house flies. Moreover, the instable nature of emamectin resistance in the EB-SEL strain and lack of cross-resistance to other insecticides provide windows for the rotational use of insecticides with different modes of action. This will ultimately reduce emamectin selection pressure and help improving management programs for house flies without polluting the

  6. Recommended approach to software development, revision 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Linda; Waligora, Sharon; Mcgarry, Frank; Pajerski, Rose; Stark, Mike; Johnson, Kevin Orlin; Cover, Donna

    1992-01-01

    Guidelines for an organized, disciplined approach to software development that is based on studies conducted by the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) since 1976 are presented. It describes methods and practices for each phase of a software development life cycle that starts with requirements definition and ends with acceptance testing. For each defined life cycle phase, guidelines for the development process and its management, and for the products produced and their reviews are presented.

  7. [Anthropometric characteristics of school children graduated from basic and secondary education in the Metropolitan area of Santiago de Chile].

    PubMed

    Ivanović, D; Barrera, G; Alvarez, M L; Muzzo, S

    1985-09-01

    An anthropometric assessment of the nutritional status and growth of students graduating from Basic (8th grade) and Secondary (4th grade) Education was carried out. A group sample of 522 students from the Metropolitan Area of Santiago, Chile, was randomly selected. The same number of students by sex, dependency (public and private schools) from high, medium and low socioeconomic levels (SEL) was chosen. SEL was measured through the Graffar Modified Scale, and the percentage of weight for age (% W/A), height/age (% H/A) and weight/height (% W/H) were evaluated in accordance with the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) reference pattern. The % adequacy of head circumference/age (% HC/A) was determined by the Tanner Tables, and the % of upper to lower segment ratio (% US/LS), by the Tables of Muzzo et al. Results revealed that the % of W/A and of H/A were diminished in students of both sexes, while the % of UP/LS, was increased in males of low SEL, from Basic Education; this impact is lost in males graduating from Secondary Education and persists only in the LSE females. No differences in the nutritional status (% W/H) of students according to SEL, were found. Females registered values over 110% of the WHO standard, a finding suggesting a high prevalence of overweight and obesity. We conclude that there is a growth retardation in students graduating from 8th Basic Grade, which persists only in females from 4th grade of Secondary Education. This finding indicates that, in addition to possible environmental factors, other factors, probably of genetic order, also influence the latter. Overweight and obesity, therefore, constitute an important problem that merits measures of preventive nature directed to avoid future consequences. PMID:3842049

  8. Staphylococcal Enterotoxin O Exhibits Cell Cycle Modulating Activity

    PubMed Central

    Hodille, Elisabeth; Alekseeva, Ludmila; Berkova, Nadia; Serrier, Asma; Badiou, Cedric; Gilquin, Benoit; Brun, Virginie; Vandenesch, François; Terman, David S.; Lina, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Maintenance of an intact epithelial barrier constitutes a pivotal defense mechanism against infections. Staphylococcus aureus is a versatile pathogen that produces multiple factors including exotoxins that promote tissue alterations. The aim of the present study is to investigate the cytopathic effect of staphylococcal exotoxins SEA, SEG, SEI, SElM, SElN and SElO on the cell cycle of various human cell lines. Among all tested exotoxins only SEIO inhibited the proliferation of a broad panel of human tumor cell lines in vitro. Evaluation of a LDH release and a DNA fragmentation of host cells exposed to SEIO revealed that the toxin does not induce necrosis or apoptosis. Analysis of the DNA content of tumor cells synchronized by serum starvation after exposure to SEIO showed G0/G1 cell cycle delay. The cell cycle modulating feature of SEIO was confirmed by the flow cytometry analysis of synchronized cells exposed to supernatants of isogenic S. aureus strains wherein only supernatant of the SElO producing strain induced G0/G1 phase delay. The results of yeast-two-hybrid analysis indicated that SEIO’s potential partner is cullin-3, involved in the transition from G1 to S phase. In conclusion, we provide evidence that SEIO inhibits cell proliferation without inducing cell death, by delaying host cell entry into the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. We speculate that this unique cell cycle modulating feature allows SEIO producing bacteria to gain advantage by arresting the cell cycle of target cells as part of a broader invasive strategy. PMID:27148168

  9. Selenoproteins of African trypanosomes are dispensable for parasite survival in a mammalian host.

    PubMed

    Bonilla, Mariana; Krull, Erika; Irigoín, Florencia; Salinas, Gustavo; Comini, Marcelo A

    2016-01-01

    The trace element selenium is found in polypeptides as selenocysteine, the 21(st) amino acid that is co-translationally inserted into proteins at a UGA codon. In proteins, selenocysteine usually plays a role as an efficient redox catalyst. Trypanosomatids previously examined harbor a full set of genes encoding the machinery needed for selenocysteine biosynthesis and incorporation into three selenoproteins: SelK, SelT and, the parasite-specific, Seltryp. We investigated the selenoproteome of kinetoplastid species in recently sequenced genomes and assessed the in vivo relevance of selenoproteins for African trypanosomes. Database mining revealed that SelK, SelT and Seltryp genes are present in most kinetoplastids, including the free-living species Bodo saltans, and Seltryp was lost in the subgenus Viannia from the New World Leishmania. Homology and sinteny with bacterial sulfur dioxygenases and sulfur transferases suggest a putative role for Seltryp in sulfur metabolism. A Trypanosoma brucei selenocysteine synthase (SepSecS) null-mutant, in which selenoprotein synthesis is abolished, displayed similar sensitivity to oxidative stress induced by a short-term exposure to high concentrations of methylglyoxal or H2O2 to that of the parental wild-type cell line. Importantly, the infectivity of the SepSecS knockout cell line was not impaired when tested in a mouse infection model and compensatory effects via up-regulation of proteins involved in thiol-redox metabolism were not observed. Collectively, our data show that selenoproteins are not required for survival of African trypanosomes in a mammalian host and exclude a role for selenoproteins in parasite antioxidant defense and/or virulence. On this basis, selenoproteins can be disregarded as drug target candidates.

  10. Platelet and endothelial activation in catastrophic and quiescent antiphospholipid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bontadi, A; Ruffatti, A; Falcinelli, E; Giannini, S; Marturano, A; Tonello, M; Hoxha, A; Pengo, V; Punzi, L; Momi, S; Gresele, P

    2013-05-01

    Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) seem to induce a prothrombotic state by activating endothelium and platelets, but no studies have evaluated systematically the effects of aPL from patients with the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) in quiescent versus catastrophic phase. Our aims were to evaluate the in vitro effects on platelet activation of anti-β2 glycoprotein I (anti-β2GPI) antibodiesisolated from APS patientin either quiescent or catastrophic phase and to investigate ex vivo platelet and endothelial activation in patients with quiescent or catastrophic APS. Anti-β2GPI antibodies were isolated from plasma of a pregnant woman in two different stages of APS (quiescent and catastrophic, respectively). They were co-incubated with washed platelets from healthy controls that were then challenged with TRAP-6 (thrombin receptor activating peptide 6) and the expression of P- selectin (P-sel) on platelets was assessed by flow cytometry. Moreover, plasma samples from six patients with quiescent, four with catastrophic APS and 10 controls were assessed for several markers of platelet and endothelial activation. The results showed that purified anti-β2GPI antibodies co-incubated with platelets enhanced TRAP-6- induced platelet P-sel expression. Notably, anti-β2GPI antibodies isolated during the catastrophic phase enhanced platelet P-sel expression more than antibodies isolated from the same patient in the quiescent stage of disease. Moreover, APS patients had significantly higher plasma levels of soluble (s) Psel, sCD40 ligand, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 than control subjects. In addition, sP-sel and von Willebrand factor activity were significantly higher during catastrophic than in quiescent phase. PMID:23572134

  11. Comparison of two culture techniques used to detect environmental contamination with Salmonella enterica in a large-animal hospital.

    PubMed

    Lyle, Catriona H; Annandale, Cornelius H; Gouws, Johan; Morley, Paul S

    2015-08-13

    Salmonellosis is a common healthcare-associated infection in large-animal hospitals, and surveillance for Salmonella is an integral part of comprehensive infection control programmes in populations at risk. The present study compares the effectiveness of two culture techniques for recovery of Salmonella from environmental samples obtained in a large-animal referral veterinary hospital during a Salmonella outbreak. Environmental samples were collected using household cleaning cloths that were incubated overnight in buffered peptone water (BPW). Aliquots of BPW were then processed using two different selective enrichment and culture techniques. In the first technique (TBG-RV-XLT4) samples were incubated at 43 °C in tetrathionate broth and then Rappaport-Vassiliadis broth before plating on XLT4 agar. The second technique (SEL-XLD) involved incubation at 37 °C in selenite broth before plating on XLD agar. Salmonella was recovered from 49.7% (73/147) of samples using the TBG-RV-XLT4 technique, but only 10.2% (15/147) of samples using the SEL-XLD method. Fourteen samples (9.5%) were culture-positive using both methods, and 73 (49.7%) were culture-negative using both techniques. There were discordant results for 60 samples, including 59 that were only culture-positive using the TBG-RV-XLT4 method, and one sample that was only culture-positive using the SEL-XLD method. Salmonella was much more likely to be recovered using the TBG-RV-XLT4 method, and there appeared to be five times more false-negative results using the SEL-XLD technique. Environmental contamination with Salmonella may be underestimated by certain culture techniques, which may impair efforts to control spread in veterinary hospitals.

  12. Selenium dietary supplementation as a mechanism to restore hepatic selenoprotein regulation in rat pups exposed to alcohol.

    PubMed

    Jotty, Karick; Ojeda, M Luisa; Nogales, Fátima; Murillo, M Luisa; Carreras, Olimpia

    2013-11-01

    Ethanol exposure during gestation and lactation decreases selenium (Se) intake, disrupting body Se balance and inducing oxidative stress in rat offspring. Selenium-supplemented diet (0.5 ppm) was administered to ethanol-exposed (20% v/v) dams during gestation and lactation. When the dams' pups were 21 days old, the pups' levels of the main hepatic selenoproteins glutathione peroxidase (GPx1 and GPx4) and selenoprotein P (SelP) were measured. The pups were divided into control (C), alcohol (A), control-selenium (CS), and alcohol-selenium (AS) groups. The purpose was to evaluate the effect of the selenium-supplemented diet on the levels of Se deposits present in the livers of their pups. Alcohol decreases hepatic Se deposits, GPx activity, and GPx1 expression; alcohol increases GPx4 and SelP expression. Se was measured by furnace graphite atomic absorption spectrometry, the antioxidant activity of GPx and concentration of hepatic phospholipids (PL) were determined by spectrophotometry, and the selenoprotein expressions were detected by Western blotting. Selenite treatment prevented alcohol's effects of diminishing the Se deposits, GPx activity, and GPx1 expression, while maintaining the high levels of the expression of GPx4 and SelP. These results suggest that depletion of hepatic Se levels in rat pups, caused by ethanol exposure to their dams, affects the synthesis of the 3 main hepatic selenoproteins in different ways, which is related to a decrease in GPx activity and PL concentration, and an increase in serum Se levels. Selenium supplementation to the dams increased the expression of GPx1, GPx4, and SelP in their pups.

  13. The PM/S module and the BIO/TSR requirements comparison report summary

    SciTech Connect

    PEERY, B.Q.

    1999-02-24

    This report summarizes the comparison between the Preventive Maintenance/Surveillance System (PM/S) database and the requirements identified in the Tank Waste Remediation Systems Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) (HNF-SD-WM-BIO-001); the Technical Safety Requirements (TSR's) (HNF-SD-WM-TSR-006); The Tank Farms Administrative Controls Manual, (HNF-IP-1266); and The TWRS Facility Safety Equipment List, (HNF-SD-WM-SEL-0404). Corrective actions identified are completed or in process.

  14. Selenocysteine biosynthesis and insertion machinery in Naegleria gruberi.

    PubMed

    da Silva, M T A; Caldas, V E A; Costa, F C; Silvestre, D A M M; Thiemann, O H

    2013-04-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element primarily found in selenoproteins as the 21st amino acid (selenocysteine, Sec, or U). Selenoproteins play an important role in growth and proliferation and are typically involved in cellular redox balance. Selenocysteine is encoded by an in-frame UGA codon specified by a stem-loop structure, the Sec insertion sequence element (SECIS), which, in eukaryotes, is located in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR). The availability of the Naegleria gruberi (ATCC 30224) genome sequence and the use of this organism as a model system for the pathogenic amoeba N. fowleri allowed us to investigate the Sec incorporation pathway in this primitive eukaryote. Using bioinformatics tools, we identified gene sequences encoding PSTK (O-phosphoseryl-tRNA(Sec) kinase), SepSecS (O-phosphoseryl-tRNA:selenocysteinyl-tRNA synthase), SelD/SPS2 (selenophosphate synthetase), EFSec (selenocysteine-specific elongation factor) and SBP (SECIS binding protein). These findings were confirmed by RT-PCR and by sequencing. A potential tRNA(Ser)Sec (SelC) gene and a putative selenoprotein with sequence similarity to a mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase (TR3) were also identified. Our results show that the selenocysteine incorporation machinery is indeed present in N. gruberi. Interestingly, the SelD/SPS2 gene is 2214 bp in length and contains two distinct domains. The N-terminal region shows sequence similarity to predicted methyltransferase proteins, and the C-terminal region is homologous to prokaryotic SelD/SPS2. Our results suggest the possibility of novel selenoproteins.

  15. The Distribution of 18 Enterotoxin and Enterotoxin-Like Genes in Staphylococcus aureus Strains from Different Sources in East China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jinghua; Wang, Yan; Cao, Yongzhong; Yan, Wenguang; Niu, Xiaosai; Zhou, Liping; Chen, Jianhao; Sun, Ying; Li, Chenxi; Zhang, Xiaorong; Wu, Yantao

    2016-04-01

    The distribution of 18 staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) or SE-like (SEl) genes in Staphylococcus aureus strains from different sources in east China was investigated. Among all 496 S. aureus strains, 291 strains carried one or more SE genes. The more frequently occurred genes were sea, seb, seg, selk, sell, selm, selo, and seq; the less frequent occurred genes were sec, selj, and ser. The classic SE genes and the enterotoxin gene cluster (egc) (seg, sei, selm, seln, selo, and/or selu) accounted for 25.67% and 61.68% of all detected genes, respectively. There were three gene clusters (egc, sea-sek-seq, and sed-sej-ser), of which the egc cluster was the important one that could generate novel complexes, and the sea-sek-seq cluster was a close relative to the hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus. The SE gene distributions were different among strains of different sources and formed diverse toxin gene profiles. The human- and foodborne-origin strains harbored classic and novel SE and SEl genes, whereas animal-origin strains harbored egc and other novel SE and SEl genes mainly. The foodborne- and human-origin strains were the main dangerous factors of classic staphylococcal foodborne poisoning, whereas the strains (especially from animals) that carried egc and other novel genes mainly should be new potential dangerous factors for food safety. PMID:27074376

  16. Development of a constructed wetland water treatment system for selenium removal: use of mesocosms to evaluate design parameters.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jung-Chen; Passeport, Elodie; Terry, Norman

    2012-11-01

    The Salton Sea in California is an important habitat for fish and waterfowl. Its ecosystem is threatened due to diminishing water supplies and increasing salinity. An alternative source of water to support species conservation habitat may be obtained from local rivers (e.g., Alamo or New Rivers), provided that a wetland treatment system can be developed to remove selenium (Se), fertilizer nutrients, and other contaminants. Here, we used mesocosms to evaluate a number of potential design options (e.g., plant species selection, sediment composition and arrangement, forced aeration, organic amendments, etc.) to improve the efficiency of Se removal using treatment wetlands. Our results show that, of five different substrate arrangements tested for Se removal, the most efficient was obtained for cattails growing in a substrate of cattail litter overlying sand and peat moss sediment (water column Se was reduced from 15 μg Se/L to <0.1 μg Se/L in 72 h). The addition of organic amendments in the form of alfalfa hay or alfalfa meal was also helpful in lowering Se levels. These results suggest that it may be possible to design constructed wetland water treatment systems capable of reducing Se concentrations in river water to values below 1 μg Se/L. PMID:23057702

  17. Evaluation of lactate detection using selective multiple quantum coherence in phantoms and brain tumours

    PubMed Central

    Harris, L M; Tunariu, N; Messiou, C; Hughes, J; Wallace, T; DeSouza, N M; Leach, M O; Payne, G S

    2015-01-01

    Lactate is a product of glucose metabolism. In tumour tissues, which exhibit enhanced glycolytic metabolism, lactate signals may be elevated, making lactate a potential useful tumour biomarker. Methods of lactate quantitation are complicated because of overlap between the lactate methyl doublet CH3 resonance and a lipid resonance at 1.3 ppm. This study presents the use of a selective homonuclear multiple quantum coherence transfer sequence (SelMQC-CSI), at 1.5 T, to better quantify lactate in the presence of lipids. Work performed on phantoms showed good lactate detection (49%) and lipid suppression (98%) efficiencies. To evaluate the method in the brain, the sequence was tested on a group of 23 patients with treated brain tumours, either glioma (N = 20) or secondary metastases in the brain (N = 3). Here it was proved to be of use in determining lactate concentrations in vivo. Lactate was clearly seen in SelMQC spectra of glioma, even in the presence of lipids, with high grade glioma (7.3 ± 1.9 mM, mean ± standard deviation) having higher concentrations than low grade glioma (1.9 ± 1.5 mM, p = 0.048). Lactate was not seen in secondary metastases in the brain. SelMQC-CSI is shown to be a useful technique for measuring lactate in tumours whose signals are otherwise contaminated by lipid. © 2015 The Authors NMR in Biomedicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25586623

  18. Evaluation of lactate detection using selective multiple quantum coherence in phantoms and brain tumours.

    PubMed

    Harris, L M; Tunariu, N; Messiou, C; Hughes, J; Wallace, T; DeSouza, N M; Leach, M O; Payne, G S

    2015-03-01

    Lactate is a product of glucose metabolism. In tumour tissues, which exhibit enhanced glycolytic metabolism, lactate signals may be elevated, making lactate a potential useful tumour biomarker. Methods of lactate quantitation are complicated because of overlap between the lactate methyl doublet CH3 resonance and a lipid resonance at 1.3 ppm. This study presents the use of a selective homonuclear multiple quantum coherence transfer sequence (SelMQC-CSI), at 1.5 T, to better quantify lactate in the presence of lipids. Work performed on phantoms showed good lactate detection (49%) and lipid suppression (98%) efficiencies. To evaluate the method in the brain, the sequence was tested on a group of 23 patients with treated brain tumours, either glioma (N=20) or secondary metastases in the brain (N=3). Here it was proved to be of use in determining lactate concentrations in vivo. Lactate was clearly seen in SelMQC spectra of glioma, even in the presence of lipids, with high grade glioma (7.3 ± 1.9 mM, mean ± standard deviation) having higher concentrations than low grade glioma (1.9 ± 1.5 mM, p=0.048). Lactate was not seen in secondary metastases in the brain. SelMQC-CSI is shown to be a useful technique for measuring lactate in tumours whose signals are otherwise contaminated by lipid.

  19. Evolution of the Selenoproteome in Helicobacter pylori and Epsilonproteobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Cravedi, Pietro; Mori, Giulia; Fischer, Frédéric; Percudani, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    By competing for the acquisition of essential nutrients, Helicobacter pylori has the unique ability to persist in the human stomach, also causing nutritional insufficiencies in the host. Although the H. pylori genome apparently encodes selenocysteine synthase (SelA, HP1513), a key pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme for the incorporation of selenium into bacterial proteins, nothing is known about the use of this essential element in protein synthesis by this pathogen. We analyzed the evolution of the complete machinery for incorporation of selenium into proteins and the selenoproteome of several H. pylori strains and related Epsilonproteobacteria. Our searches identified the presence of selenoproteins—including the previously unknown DUF466 family—in various Epsilonproteobacteria, but not in H. pylori. We found that a complete system for selenocysteine incorporation was present in the Helicobacteriaceae ancestor and has been recently lost before the split of Helicobacter acinonychis and H. pylori. Our results indicate that H. pylori, at variance with other gastric and enterohepatic Helicobacter, does not use selenocysteine in protein synthesis and does not use selenium for tRNA wobble base modification. However, selA has survived as a functional gene, having lost the domain for the binding of selenocysteine tRNA, but maintaining the ability to bind the PLP cofactor. The evolutionary modifications described for the SelA protein of H. pylori find parallels in other bacterial and archaeal species, suggesting that an alternative enzymatic function is hidden in many proteins annotated as selenocysteinyl-tRNA synthase. PMID:26342139

  20. The Distribution of 18 Enterotoxin and Enterotoxin-Like Genes in Staphylococcus aureus Strains from Different Sources in East China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jinghua; Wang, Yan; Cao, Yongzhong; Yan, Wenguang; Niu, Xiaosai; Zhou, Liping; Chen, Jianhao; Sun, Ying; Li, Chenxi; Zhang, Xiaorong; Wu, Yantao

    2016-04-01

    The distribution of 18 staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) or SE-like (SEl) genes in Staphylococcus aureus strains from different sources in east China was investigated. Among all 496 S. aureus strains, 291 strains carried one or more SE genes. The more frequently occurred genes were sea, seb, seg, selk, sell, selm, selo, and seq; the less frequent occurred genes were sec, selj, and ser. The classic SE genes and the enterotoxin gene cluster (egc) (seg, sei, selm, seln, selo, and/or selu) accounted for 25.67% and 61.68% of all detected genes, respectively. There were three gene clusters (egc, sea-sek-seq, and sed-sej-ser), of which the egc cluster was the important one that could generate novel complexes, and the sea-sek-seq cluster was a close relative to the hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus. The SE gene distributions were different among strains of different sources and formed diverse toxin gene profiles. The human- and foodborne-origin strains harbored classic and novel SE and SEl genes, whereas animal-origin strains harbored egc and other novel SE and SEl genes mainly. The foodborne- and human-origin strains were the main dangerous factors of classic staphylococcal foodborne poisoning, whereas the strains (especially from animals) that carried egc and other novel genes mainly should be new potential dangerous factors for food safety.

  1. Selective up-regulation of human selenoproteins in response to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Zahia, Touat-Hamici; Yona, Legrain; Anne-Laure, Bulteau; Laurent, Chavatte

    2014-10-01

    Selenocysteinse is inserted into selenoproteins via the translational recoding of a UGA codon, normally used as a stop signal. This process depends on the nature of the SECIS element located in the 3'UTR of selenoprotein mRNAs, selenium bioavailability, and possibly exogenous stimuli. To further understand the function and regulation of selenoproteins in antioxidant defense and redox homeostasis, we have investigated how oxidative stress influences selenoprotein expression as a function of different selenium concentrations. We found that selenium supplementation of the culture media, which resulted in a hierarchical upregulation of selenoproteins, protected HEK293 cells from ROS formation. Furthermore, in response to oxidative stress, we identified a selective upregulation of several selenoproteins involved in antioxidant defense (Gpx1, Gpx4, TR1, SelS, SelK and Sps2). Interestingly, the response was more efficient when selenium was limiting. While a modest change in mRNA levels was noted, we identified a novel translational control mechanism stimulated by oxidative stress that is characterized by upregulation of UGA-selenocysteine recoding efficiency and relocalization of SBP2, EFsec and L30 recoding factors from cytoplasm to nucleus. PMID:26461318

  2. Cluster-randomized trial demonstrating impact on academic achievement of elementary social-emotional learning.

    PubMed

    Schonfeld, David J; Adams, Ryan E; Fredstrom, Bridget K; Weissberg, Roger P; Gilman, Richard; Voyce, Charlene; Tomlin, Ricarda; Speese-Linehan, Dee

    2015-09-01

    This study evaluated the results of a social and emotional learning (SEL) program on academic achievement among students attending a large, urban, high-risk school district. Using a cluster-randomized design, 24 elementary schools were assigned to receive either the intervention curriculum (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies, or PATHS) or a curriculum that delivered few if any SEL topics (i.e., the control group). In addition to state mastery test scores, demographic data, school attendance, and dosage information were obtained from 705 students who remained in the same group from the 3rd to the 6th grade. Analyses of odds ratios revealed that students enrolled in the intervention schools demonstrated higher levels of basic proficiency in reading, writing, and math at some grade levels. Although these between-groups differences held for race/ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status, significant within-group differences also were noted across these variables. Collectively, these findings indicated that social development instruction may be a promising approach to promote acquisition of academic proficiency, especially among youth attending high-risk school settings. Implications of these findings with respect to SEL programs conclude the article.

  3. Content-based high-resolution remote sensing image retrieval with local binary patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, A. P.; Wang, S. G.

    2006-10-01

    Texture is a very important feature in image analysis including content-based image retrieval (CBIR). A common way of retrieving images is to calculate the similarity of features between a sample images and the other images in a database. This paper applies a novel texture analysis approach, local binary patterns (LBP) operator, to 1m Ikonos images retrieval and presents an improved LBP histogram spatially enhanced LBP (SEL) histogram with spatial information by dividing the LBP labeled images into k*k regions. First different neighborhood P and scale factor R were chosen to scan over the whole images, so that their labeled LBP and local variance (VAR) images were calculated, from which we got the LBP, LBP/VAR, and VAR histograms and SEL histograms. The histograms were used as the features for CBIR and a non-parametric statistical test G-statistic was used for similarity measure. The result showed that LBP/VAR based features got a very high retrieval rate with certain values of P and R, and SEL features that are more robust to illumination changes than LBP/VAR also obtained higher retrieval rate than LBP histograms. The comparison to Gabor filter confirmed the effectiveness of the presented approach in CBIR.

  4. Effects of chronic postnatal opioid receptor blockade by naltrexone upon proliferation capacity in the prenatally x-irradiated brain of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Schmahl, W.; Miaskowski, U. )

    1991-01-01

    We recently reported that in rats prenatally x-irradiated on gestation day 14 with 1 Gy, postnatal chronic application of the opioid antagonist naltrexone (Nx) led to a remarkable growth spurt of the microencephalic brain. In the present study we present histological and autoradiographic results found in the subependymal layer (SEL) of the forebrain lateral ventricles. Nx led to an intermittent augmentation of the mitotic index of the x-irradiated brains within a postnatal observation period of 24 weeks. The most conspicuous finding was transient hyperplasia of the SEL at 4-6 weeks of age which occurred in close proximity to an intact ependymal lining. Districts of the lateral ventricles which were denuded from ependyme and where the rest of the ependymal layer (EL) was dislocated peripherally showed upon Nx treatment a long-lasting SEL hyperplasia with a tendency towards dysplasia. These results revealed that repair proliferation of embryotoxic x-irradiation is normally under strong control by the opioid system. If that system, which exerts a suppressing effect upon glial growth, is blocked by Nx, prominent hyperplastic reactions occur which may be useful for repairing the lesion pattern.

  5. Glycopeptide analogues of PSGL-1 inhibit P-selectin in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Venkata R; Sardar, Mohammed Y R; Ying, Yu; Song, Xuezheng; Haller, Carolyn; Dai, Erbin; Wang, Xiaocong; Hanjaya-Putra, Donny; Sun, Lijun; Morikis, Vasilios; Simon, Scott I; Woods, Robert J; Cummings, Richard D; Chaikof, Elliot L

    2015-01-01

    Blockade of P-selectin (P-sel)/PSGL-1 interactions holds significant potential for treatment of disorders of innate immunity, thrombosis and cancer. Current inhibitors remain limited due to low binding affinity or by the recognized disadvantages inherent to chronic administration of antibody therapeutics. Here we report an efficient approach for generating glycosulfopeptide mimics of N-terminal PSGL-1 through development of a stereoselective route for multi-gram scale synthesis of the C2 O-glycan building block and replacement of hydrolytically labile tyrosine sulfates with isosteric sulfonate analogues. Library screening afforded a compound of exceptional stability, GSnP-6, that binds to human P-sel with nanomolar affinity (Kd~22 nM). Molecular dynamics simulation defines the origin of this affinity in terms of a number of critical structural contributions. GSnP-6 potently blocks P-sel/PSGL-1 interactions in vitro and in vivo and represents a promising candidate for the treatment of diseases driven by acute and chronic inflammation.

  6. Development of a constructed wetland water treatment system for selenium removal: use of mesocosms to evaluate design parameters.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jung-Chen; Passeport, Elodie; Terry, Norman

    2012-11-01

    The Salton Sea in California is an important habitat for fish and waterfowl. Its ecosystem is threatened due to diminishing water supplies and increasing salinity. An alternative source of water to support species conservation habitat may be obtained from local rivers (e.g., Alamo or New Rivers), provided that a wetland treatment system can be developed to remove selenium (Se), fertilizer nutrients, and other contaminants. Here, we used mesocosms to evaluate a number of potential design options (e.g., plant species selection, sediment composition and arrangement, forced aeration, organic amendments, etc.) to improve the efficiency of Se removal using treatment wetlands. Our results show that, of five different substrate arrangements tested for Se removal, the most efficient was obtained for cattails growing in a substrate of cattail litter overlying sand and peat moss sediment (water column Se was reduced from 15 μg Se/L to <0.1 μg Se/L in 72 h). The addition of organic amendments in the form of alfalfa hay or alfalfa meal was also helpful in lowering Se levels. These results suggest that it may be possible to design constructed wetland water treatment systems capable of reducing Se concentrations in river water to values below 1 μg Se/L.

  7. Effects of Phos-Chek? G75-F and Silv-Ex? on red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) embryos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buscemi, D.M.; Hoffman, D.J.; Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Kuenzel, W.J.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of field application levels of wildfire control chemicals, Phos-Chek? G75-F (PC) and Silv-Ex? (SE), were examined on red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) embryos. Embryos were more sensitive to PC and SE when eggs were immersed for 10 s at an early developmental stage (days 3?5 of incubation) than at a later stage (days 6?9 of incubation). The LC50 (concentration causing 50% mortality) for early stage embryos exposed to PC was 213.3 g/L (slope = 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 129.1?326.1). The no observed effect concentration (NOEC) was below 135 g PC/L, which caused a significant increase in embryonic mortality and represents the lowest field coverage level of 1 gal/100 feet2. The LC50 for early stage embryos exposed to SE was 19.8 g/L (slope = 1.5; 95% CI = 11.7?52.2). Significant mortality was observed at 10 g SE/L and marginal at 7.5 g SE/L with an apparent NOEC around 5 g SE/L. Neither chemical resulted in apparent developmental malformations. Embryos of songbirds are potentially at risk from the wildfire control chemicals, Phos-Chek? G75-F and Silv-Ex?.

  8. Grey-scale sonography and sonoelastography for diagnosing carpal tunnel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Hideaki; Morizaki, Yutaka; Kashiyama, Takahiro; Tanaka, Sakae

    2016-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common peripheral entrapment neuropathy of the median nerve at wrist level, and is thought to be caused by compression of the median nerve in the carpal tunnel. There is no standard quantitative reference for the diagnosis of CTS. Grey-scale sonography and sonoelastography (SEL) have been used as diagnostic tools. The most commonly agreed findings in grey-scale sonography for the diagnosis of CTS is enlargement of the median nerve cross-sectional area (CSA). Several authors have assessed additional parameters. “Delta CSA” is the difference between the proximal median nerve CSA at the pronator quadratus and the maximal CSA within the carpal tunnel. The “CSA ratio” is the ratio of CSA in the carpal tunnel to the CSA at the mid forearm. These additional parameters showed better diagnostic accuracy than CSA measurement alone. Recently, a number of studies have investigated the elasticity of the median nerve using SEL, and have shown that this also has diagnostic value, as it was significantly stiffer in CTS patients compared to healthy volunteers. In this review, we summarize the usefulness of grey-scale sonography and SEL in diagnosing CTS. PMID:27027498

  9. On the Bayesness, minimaxity and admissibility of point estimators of allelic frequencies.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Carlos Alberto; Khare, Kshitij; Elzo, Mauricio A

    2015-10-21

    In this paper, decision theory was used to derive Bayes and minimax decision rules to estimate allelic frequencies and to explore their admissibility. Decision rules with uniformly smallest risk usually do not exist and one approach to solve this problem is to use the Bayes principle and the minimax principle to find decision rules satisfying some general optimality criterion based on their risk functions. Two cases were considered, the simpler case of biallelic loci and the more complex case of multiallelic loci. For each locus, the sampling model was a multinomial distribution and the prior was a Beta (biallelic case) or a Dirichlet (multiallelic case) distribution. Three loss functions were considered: squared error loss (SEL), Kulback-Leibler loss (KLL) and quadratic error loss (QEL). Bayes estimators were derived under these three loss functions and were subsequently used to find minimax estimators using results from decision theory. The Bayes estimators obtained from SEL and KLL turned out to be the same. Under certain conditions, the Bayes estimator derived from QEL led to an admissible minimax estimator (which was also equal to the maximum likelihood estimator). The SEL also allowed finding admissible minimax estimators. Some estimators had uniformly smaller variance than the MLE and under suitable conditions the remaining estimators also satisfied this property. In addition to their statistical properties, the estimators derived here allow variation in allelic frequencies, which is closer to the reality of finite populations exposed to evolutionary forces. PMID:26271891

  10. SPAM: A Canned Internet-Accessible Database of Interest to Solar Flare Researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canfield, R. C.; Hudson, H. S.; Kiernan, E.; Metcalf, T. R.; Wulser, J.-P.

    1992-05-01

    We have established a searchable database, called SPAM (Spectroscopy and Polarimetry at Mees), which contains logs of observations made at Mees Solar Observatory (Haleakala, Maui). Of more general interest, the database also includes the Events List and Region Report from the Space Environment Laboratory (Boulder). Logs from YOHKOH are currently being added. Hence, SPAM can be used to determine, for example, whether Mees has vector magnetograms of a certain NOAA AR or whether YOHKOH has certain types of observations in specified time ranges. As well, it can be used to search the SEL database for flares with selected attributes. Included logs (and searchable attributes, in addition to date, day of year, and time) are: Mees Solar Observatory Log (instrument, NOAA AR, data type, observing setup), SEL Event List (NOAA AR, X-ray Class), SEL Region Report (NOAA AR), YOHKOH Orbit Summary, YOHKOH SXT Quiet Mode PFI Observations (latitude, longitude, X-ray and optical image size), YOHKOH Flare Observations (latitude, longitude, specific channel counts or ratios). SPAM runs on a Sun workstation at Mees Solar Observatory, and is available over Internet. Simply access (e.g., telnet) koa.ifa.hawaii.edu (128.171.167.1) from any vt100, Sun, or xterm emulator. Log on as spam (lower case); there is no password. New users are asked to read release notes and hints.

  11. Modulation of the Ras/MAPK signalling pathway by the redox function of selenoproteins in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Morey, M; Serras, F; Baguñà, J; Hafen, E; Corominas, M

    2001-10-01

    Modulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a key role in signal transduction pathways. Selenoproteins act controlling the redox balance of the cell. We have studied how the alteration of the redox balance caused by patufet (selD(ptuf)), a null mutation in the Drosophila melanogaster selenophosphate synthetase 1 (sps1) gene, which codes for the SelD enzyme of the selenoprotein biosynthesis, affects the Ras/MAPK signalling pathway. The selD(ptuf) mutation dominantly suppresses the phenotypes in the eye and the wing caused by hyperactivation of the Ras/MAPK cassette and the activated forms of the Drosophila EGF receptor (DER) and Sevenless (Sev) receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), which signal in the eye and wing, respectively. No dominant interaction is observed with sensitized conditions in the Wnt, Notch, Insulin-Pi3K, and DPP signalling pathways. Our current hypothesis is that selenoproteins selectively modulate the Ras/MAPK signalling pathway through their antioxidant function. This is further supported by the fact that a selenoprotein-independent increase in ROS caused by the catalase amorphic Cat(n1) allele also reduces Ras/MAPK signalling. Here, we present the first evidence for the role of intracellular redox environment in signalling pathways in Drosophila as a whole organism.

  12. Contact and fumigant toxicity of Cyperus rotundus steam distillate constituents and related compounds to insecticide-susceptible and -resistant Blattella germanica.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kyu-Sik; Shin, E-Hyun; Park, Chan; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2012-05-01

    We assessed the toxicity of 17 steam distillate constituents of Cyperus rotundus (L.) rhizome, another seven known compounds of C. rotundus rhizome, and 14 structurally related compounds to females from an insecticide-susceptible KSS strain and two field-collected SEL and DJN colonies of Blattella germanica (L.). High contact + fumigant toxicity to KSS females was produced by p-cymene, nerol, linalool, o-cymene, (S)-(-)-citronellal, (1S)-(-)-camphor, terpinolene, and m-cymene (LD50, 0.29-0.47 mg/cm2). The toxicity of these compounds was virtually identical against females from any of the three strains, even though SEL and DJN females were resistant to six acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and three pyrethroids (resistance ratio, 9-154 and 12-195). These results indicate that the compounds and insecticides do not share a common mode of action or elicit cross-resistance. The test compounds were effective in closed but not in open containers against SEL females, indicating that their route of insecticidal action was largely a result of vapor action. Structure-activity relationship indicates that structural characteristics, such as types of functional groups, appear to play a role in determining the terpenoid toxicities to B. germanica. C. rotundus rhizome steam distillate constituents and related compounds described merit further study as potential fumigants for the control of resistant cockroach populations in light of global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in indoor environments.

  13. Selenium Induces an Anti-tumor Effect Via Inhibiting Intratumoral Angiogenesis in a Mouse Model of Transplanted Canine Mammary Tumor Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenyu; Guo, Mengyao; Liu, Yuzhu; Mu, Weiwei; Deng, Ganzhen; Li, Chengye; Qiu, Changwei

    2016-06-01

    Selenium (Se) has been widely reported to possess anti-tumor effects. Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels and is required to supply oxygen, nutrients, and growth factors for tumor growth, progression, and metastasis. To explore whether the anti-tumor effect of Se was associated with angiogenesis in vivo, we studied the effects of sodium selenite (Sel) and methylseleninic acid (MSA) on tumors induced by canine mammary tumor cells (CMT1211) in mice; cyclophosphamide (CTX) served as a positive control. The results showed that the Se content was significantly increased in the Sel and MSA groups. Se significantly inhibited the tumor weights and volumes. Large necrotic areas and scattered and abnormal small necrotic areas were observed in the Se treatment group. Immunofluorescence double staining showed a reduction in the microvessel density (MVD) and increment in the vessel maturation index (VMI) compared with the untreated control group. As expected, the protein and mRNA levels of the angiogenesis factors angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were decreased in the Se-treated tumors by IHC, as shown by western blotting and RT-QPCR. We also found that organic Se MSA provided stronger inhibition of tumor growth compared with inorganic sodium selenite (Sel). Altogether, our results indicated that Se exerted anti-tumor effects in vivo at least partially by inhibiting angiogenic factors. PMID:26507439

  14. Molecular characterization of enterotoxigenic and borderline oxacillin resistant Staphylococcus strains from ovine milk.

    PubMed

    Perillo, Jusy; Ceccarelli, Daniela; Spagnoletti, Matteo; Lollai, Stefano; Cappuccinelli, Piero; Colombo, Mauro M

    2012-12-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) produced by Staphylococcus spp. are superantigens responsible for food-poisoning and are associated to mobile genetic elements such as Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity islands (SaPI). The presence of 13 enterotoxin genes (sea, seb, sec, sed, see, seg, seh, sei, sej, sel, sek, seq, and tst) was tested in 15 S. aureus and 24 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS) multi-resistant strains isolated from ovine milk in Sardinia. All CNS isolates were enterotoxin-negative, whereas co-presence of sec, sel and tst was observed in most of the S. aureus strains. One isolate of S. aureus was characterized by tst alone. A multiplex PCR assay aimed at discriminating between the integrase genes of pathogenicity islands SaPI2, SaPIbov1, and SaPIMW2 was developed. We demonstrated that strains harboring sec, sel and tst were associated with SaPIbov1, whereas the strain positive for tst was associated with SaPI2. Borderline oxacillin resistant S. aureus strains were also detected. RAPD analysis of the Staphylococcus strains showed that clonal relationships were correlated with pathogenic profiles.

  15. Evolution of the Selenoproteome in Helicobacter pylori and Epsilonproteobacteria.

    PubMed

    Cravedi, Pietro; Mori, Giulia; Fischer, Frédéric; Percudani, Riccardo

    2015-09-01

    By competing for the acquisition of essential nutrients, Helicobacter pylori has the unique ability to persist in the human stomach, also causing nutritional insufficiencies in the host. Although the H. pylori genome apparently encodes selenocysteine synthase (SelA, HP1513), a key pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme for the incorporation of selenium into bacterial proteins, nothing is known about the use of this essential element in protein synthesis by this pathogen. We analyzed the evolution of the complete machinery for incorporation of selenium into proteins and the selenoproteome of several H. pylori strains and related Epsilonproteobacteria. Our searches identified the presence of selenoproteins-including the previously unknown DUF466 family-in various Epsilonproteobacteria, but not in H. pylori. We found that a complete system for selenocysteine incorporation was present in the Helicobacteriaceae ancestor and has been recently lost before the split of Helicobacter acinonychis and H. pylori. Our results indicate that H. pylori, at variance with other gastric and enterohepatic Helicobacter, does not use selenocysteine in protein synthesis and does not use selenium for tRNA wobble base modification. However, selA has survived as a functional gene, having lost the domain for the binding of selenocysteine tRNA, but maintaining the ability to bind the PLP cofactor. The evolutionary modifications described for the SelA protein of H. pylori find parallels in other bacterial and archaeal species, suggesting that an alternative enzymatic function is hidden in many proteins annotated as selenocysteinyl-tRNA synthase. PMID:26342139

  16. The Package-Based Development Process in the Flight Dynamics Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parra, Amalia; Seaman, Carolyn; Basili, Victor; Kraft, Stephen; Condon, Steven; Burke, Steven; Yakimovich, Daniil

    1997-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) has been operating for more than two decades in the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) and has adapted to the constant movement of the software development environment. The SEL's Improvement Paradigm shows that process improvement is an iterative process. Understanding, Assessing and Packaging are the three steps that are followed in this cyclical paradigm. As the improvement process cycles back to the first step, after having packaged some experience, the level of understanding will be greater. In the past, products resulting from the packaging step have been large process documents, guidebooks, and training programs. As the technical world moves toward more modularized software, we have made a move toward more modularized software development process documentation, as such the products of the packaging step are becoming smaller and more frequent. In this manner, the QIP takes on a more spiral approach rather than a waterfall. This paper describes the state of the FDD in the area of software development processes, as revealed through the understanding and assessing activities conducted by the COTS study team. The insights presented include: (1) a characterization of a typical FDD Commercial Off the Shelf (COTS) intensive software development life-cycle process, (2) lessons learned through the COTS study interviews, and (3) a description of changes in the SEL due to the changing and accelerating nature of software development in the FDD.

  17. Expression of Selenoprotein Genes Is Affected by Heat Stress in IPEC-J2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lei; Tang, Jiayong; Li, Qiang; Xu, Jingyang; Jia, Gang; Liu, Guangmang; Chen, Xiaoling; Shang, Haiying; Cai, Jingyi; Zhao, Hua

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the impacts of heat stress (HS) on expressions of selenoprotein genes in IPEC-J2 cells. Cells were cultured with 5 % CO2-humidified chamber at 37 °C until the cells grew to complete confluence and then exposed to a mild hyperthermia at 41.5 °C (HS) or 37 °C (control) for another 24 h, finally harvested for total RNA or protein extraction. Real-time quantitative PCRs (qPCRs) were performed to compare gene expression of 25 selenoprotein genes, 3 tight junction-related genes, and 10 inflammation-related genes. Protein expressions of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and selenoprotein X and P (SelX and SelP) were also investigated by Western blot. The results showed that HS up-regulated (P < 0.05) Hsp70 and one tight junction-related gene [zonula occludens-1 (Zo-1)] in IPEC-J2 cells. At the same time, HS up-regulated (P < 0.05) 4 selenoprotein genes (Gpx3, Dio2, Selk, Sels) and three inflammation-related genes (Il-6, Icam-1, Tgf-β) and down-regulated (P < 0.05 or as indicated) six selenoprotein genes (Gpx2, Gpx6, Txnrd1, Selh, Selm, Selx) and three inflammation-related genes (Ifn-β, Mcp-1, Tnf-α) in the cells. HS also exhibited impacts on protein expressions, which up-regulated Hsp70, down-regulated SelX, and showed no effect on SelP in IPEC-J2 cells. Our results showed that HS affected the expression of inflammation-related genes and up-regulated gene and protein expressions of Hsp70. The changes of so many selenoprotein genes expression implied a potential link between selenoprotein genes and HS. Moreover, the results provided by this IPEC-J2 model may be used to further study the interactive mechanisms between selenoprotein function and potential intestinal damage induced by HS.

  18. Genetics and mechanism of resistance to deltamethrin in the house fly, Musca domestica L., from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Akram, Waseem; Haider, Muhammad Saleem

    2015-08-01

    Deltamethrin (a pyrethroid insecticide) has widely been used against the house fly, Musca domestica, a pest found in livestock facilities worldwide. Although, cases of both metabolic and physiological resistance to deltamethrin have been reported in different parts of the world, no studies have been reported to characterize this resistance in house flies from Pakistan. In the present study, we investigated a field strain of house flies for potential to develop resistance to deltamethrin. Also, its stability, possible mechanisms and cross-resistance potential to other insecticides. Before the selection experiments, the field strain showed 8.41-, 3.65-, 8.39-, 2.68-, 19.17- and 5.96-fold resistance to deltamethrin, bifenthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos, profenofos and spinosad, respectively, compared with the reference strain (Lab-susceptible). Continuous selection of the field strain (Delta-SEL) with deltamethrin for six generations (G1-G6) in the laboratory increased the resistance ratio to 176.34 after bioassay at G7. The Delta-SEL strain was reared for the next four generations without exposure to deltamethrin and bioassayed at G11 which revealed that the resistance was stable. The Delta-SEL strain at G7 showed cross-resistance to all other insecticides except spinosad, when compared to the bioassays before the selection experiment (G1). Crosses between Delta-SEL and Lab-susceptible strains revealed an autosomal and incomplete dominant mode of resistance to deltamethrin. A direct test using a monogenic inheritance model revealed that the resistance was governed by more than one factor. Moreover, synergism studies with the enzyme inhibitors PBO and DEF reduced the resistance to deltamethrin in the selected strain up to 2.51- and 2.19-fold, respectively, which revealed that the resistance was possibly due to microsomal oxidase and esterase activity. It is concluded that the resistance to deltamethrin was autosomal and incompletely dominant. The high cross

  19. Genetics and mechanism of resistance to deltamethrin in the house fly, Musca domestica L., from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Akram, Waseem; Haider, Muhammad Saleem

    2015-08-01

    Deltamethrin (a pyrethroid insecticide) has widely been used against the house fly, Musca domestica, a pest found in livestock facilities worldwide. Although, cases of both metabolic and physiological resistance to deltamethrin have been reported in different parts of the world, no studies have been reported to characterize this resistance in house flies from Pakistan. In the present study, we investigated a field strain of house flies for potential to develop resistance to deltamethrin. Also, its stability, possible mechanisms and cross-resistance potential to other insecticides. Before the selection experiments, the field strain showed 8.41-, 3.65-, 8.39-, 2.68-, 19.17- and 5.96-fold resistance to deltamethrin, bifenthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos, profenofos and spinosad, respectively, compared with the reference strain (Lab-susceptible). Continuous selection of the field strain (Delta-SEL) with deltamethrin for six generations (G1-G6) in the laboratory increased the resistance ratio to 176.34 after bioassay at G7. The Delta-SEL strain was reared for the next four generations without exposure to deltamethrin and bioassayed at G11 which revealed that the resistance was stable. The Delta-SEL strain at G7 showed cross-resistance to all other insecticides except spinosad, when compared to the bioassays before the selection experiment (G1). Crosses between Delta-SEL and Lab-susceptible strains revealed an autosomal and incomplete dominant mode of resistance to deltamethrin. A direct test using a monogenic inheritance model revealed that the resistance was governed by more than one factor. Moreover, synergism studies with the enzyme inhibitors PBO and DEF reduced the resistance to deltamethrin in the selected strain up to 2.51- and 2.19-fold, respectively, which revealed that the resistance was possibly due to microsomal oxidase and esterase activity. It is concluded that the resistance to deltamethrin was autosomal and incompletely dominant. The high cross

  20. The CEO's real legacy.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Kenneth W

    2004-11-01

    The literature on CEO succession planning is nearly unanimous in its advice: Begin early, look first inside your company for exceptional talent, see that candidates gain experience in all aspects of the business, and help them develop the skills they will need in the top job. It all makes sense and sounds pretty straightforward. Nevertheless, the list of CEOs who last no more than a few years on the job continues to grow. Implicit in many, if not all, of these unceremonious departures is the absence of an effective CEO succession plan. The problem is, most boards simply don't want to talk about CEO succession: Why rock the boat when things are going well? Why risk offending the current CEO? Meanwhile, most CEOs can't imagine that anyone could adequately replace them. In this article, Kenneth W. Freeman, the retired CEO of Quest Diagnostics, discusses his own recent handoff experience (Surya N. Mohapatra became chief executive in May 2004) and offers his approach to succession planning. He says it falls squarely on the incumbent CEO to put ego aside and initiate and actively manage the process of selecting and grooming a successor. Aggressive succession planning is one of the best ways for CEOs to ensure the long-term health of the company, he says. Plus, thinking early and often about a successor will likely improve the chief executive's performance during his tenure. Freeman advocates the textbook rules for succession planning but adds to that list a few more that apply specifically to the incumbent CEO: Insist that the board become engaged in succession planning, look for a successor who is different from you, and make the successor's success your own. After all, Freeman argues, the CEO's true legacy is determined by what happens after he leaves the corner office.

  1. Detecting and measuring selection from gene frequency data.

    PubMed

    Vitalis, Renaud; Gautier, Mathieu; Dawson, Kevin J; Beaumont, Mark A

    2014-03-01

    The recent advent of high-throughput sequencing and genotyping technologies makes it possible to produce, easily and cost effectively, large amounts of detailed data on the genotype composition of populations. Detecting locus-specific effects may help identify those genes that have been, or are currently, targeted by natural selection. How best to identify these selected regions, loci, or single nucleotides remains a challenging issue. Here, we introduce a new model-based method, called SelEstim, to distinguish putative selected polymorphisms from the background of neutral (or nearly neutral) ones and to estimate the intensity of selection at the former. The underlying population genetic model is a diffusion approximation for the distribution of allele frequency in a population subdivided into a number of demes that exchange migrants. We use a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm for sampling from the joint posterior distribution of the model parameters, in a hierarchical Bayesian framework. We present evidence from stochastic simulations, which demonstrates the good power of SelEstim to identify loci targeted by selection and to estimate the strength of selection acting on these loci, within each deme. We also reanalyze a subset of SNP data from the Stanford HGDP-CEPH Human Genome Diversity Cell Line Panel to illustrate the performance of SelEstim on real data. In agreement with previous studies, our analyses point to a very strong signal of positive selection upstream of the LCT gene, which encodes for the enzyme lactase-phlorizin hydrolase and is associated with adult-type hypolactasia. The geographical distribution of the strength of positive selection across the Old World matches the interpolated map of lactase persistence phenotype frequencies, with the strongest selection coefficients in Europe and in the Indus Valley. PMID:24361938

  2. Conditioned hearing sensitivity change in the harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena).

    PubMed

    Nachtigall, Paul E; Supin, Alexander Ya; Pacini, Aude F; Kastelein, Ronald A

    2016-08-01

    Hearing sensitivity, during trials in which a warning sound preceding a loud sound, was investigated in two harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena). Sensitivity was measured using pip-train test stimuli and auditory evoked potential recording. When a hearing test/warning stimulus, with a frequency of either 45 or 32 kHz, preceded a loud 32 kHz tone with a sound pressure level of 152 dB re 1 μPa root mean square, lasting 2 s yielding an sound exposure level (SEL) of 155 dB re 1 μPa(2)s, pooled hearing thresholds measured just before the loud sound increased relative to baseline thresholds. During two experimental sessions the threshold increased up to 17 dB for the test frequency of 45 kHz and up to 11 dB for the test frequency of 32 kHz. An extinction test revealed very rapid threshold recovery within the first two experimental sessions. The SEL producing the hearing dampening effect was low compared to previous other odontocete hearing change efforts with each individual trial equal to 155 dB re 1 μPa(2) but the cumulative SEL for each subsession may have been as high as 168 dB re 1 μPa(2). Interpretations of conditioned hearing sensation change and possible change due to temporary threshold shifts are considered for the harbor porpoise and discussed in the light of potential mechanisms and echolocation. PMID:27586728

  3. Luminal bacterial flora determines physiological expression of intestinal epithelial cytoprotective heat shock proteins 25 and 72.

    PubMed

    Arvans, Donna L; Vavricka, Stephan R; Ren, Hongyu; Musch, Mark W; Kang, Lisa; Rocha, Flavio G; Lucioni, Alvaro; Turner, Jerrold R; Alverdy, John; Chang, Eugene B

    2005-04-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSP) 25 and 72 are expressed normally by surface colonocytes but not by small intestinal enterocytes. We hypothesized that luminal commensal microflora maintain the observed colonocyte HSP expression. The ability of the small intestine to respond to bacteria and their products and modulate HSPs has not been determined. The effects of luminal bacterial flora in surgically created midjejunal self-filling (SFL) vs. self-emptying (SEL) small-bowel blind loops on epithelial HSP expression were studied. HSP25 and HSP72 expression were assessed by immunoblot and immunohistochemistry. SFL were chronically colonized, whereas SEL contained levels of bacteria normal for the proximal small intestine. SFL creation significantly increased HSP25 and HSP72 expression relative to corresponding sections from SEL. Metronidazole treatment, which primarily affects anaerobic bacteria as well as a diet lacking fermentable fiber, significantly decreased SFL HSP expression. Small bowel incubation with butyrate ex vivo induced a sustained and significant upregulation of HSP25 and altered HSP72 expression, confirming the role of short-chain fatty acids. To determine whether HSPs induction altered responses to an injury, effects of the oxidant, monochloramine, on epithelial resistance and short-circuit current (I(sc)) responses to carbachol and glucose were compared. Increased SFL HSP expression was associated with protection against oxidant-induced decreases in transmural resistance and I(sc) responses to glucose, but not secretory responses to carbachol. In conclusion, luminal microflora and their metabolic byproducts direct expression of HSPs in gut epithelial cells, an effect that contributes to preservation of epithelial cell viability under conditions of stress.

  4. Polymorphisms in the selenoprotein S and 15-kDa selenoprotein genes are associated with altered susceptibility to colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Alison; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Relton, Caroline; Ahn, Yoon-Ok

    2010-01-01

    Selenium (Se), a dietary trace metal essential for human health, is incorporated into ~25 selenoproteins including selenoprotein S (SelS) and the 15-kDa selenoprotein (Sep15) both of which have functions in the endoplasmic reticulum protein unfolding response. The aim of this study was to investigate whether genetic variants in such selenoprotein genes are associated with altered risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). A Korean population of 827 patients with CRC and 733 healthy controls was genotyped for 7 SNPs in selenoprotein genes and one SNP in the gene encoding manganese superoxide dismutase using Sequenom technology. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that after adjustment for lifestyle factors three SNP variants were associated with altered disease risk. There was a mean odds ratio of 2.25 [95% CI 1.13,4.48] in females homozygous TT for rs34713741 in SELS with the T variant being associated with higher risk of rectal cancer, and odds ratios of 2.47 and 2.51, respectively, for rs5845 and rs5859 in SEP15 with the minor A and T alleles being associated with increased risk of male rectal cancer. The data indicate that the minor alleles for rs5845, rs5859 and rs34713741 are associated with increased rectal cancer risk and that the effects of the three SNPs are dependent on gender. The results highlight potential links between Se, the function of two selenoproteins involved in the protein unfolding response and CRC risk. Further studies are required to investigate whether the effects of the variants on CRC risk are also modulated by dietary Se intake. PMID:21052528

  5. Differentiating between underwater construction noise of monopile and jacket foundations for offshore windmills: a case study from the Belgian part of the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Norro, Alain Michel Jules; Rumes, Bob; Degraer, Steven Johan

    2013-01-01

    Steel monopiles, jackets requiring four steel pinpiles, and gravity-based foundations were applied in offshore wind farms in the Belgian part of the North Sea. This paper compares the underwater noise generated during the piling activities of steel monopiles at the Belwind wind farm (Blighbank) with that of jacket pinpiles at the C-Power project (Thorntonbank). Underwater noise was measured at various distances from the pile driving location. The underwater noise was quantified by its zero to peak sound pressure level (L(z-p)), unweighted sound exposure level (SEL), cumulative SEL, and 1/3 octave spectra. No significant differences in L(z-p) could be demonstrated (monopile L(z-p): 179-194 dB  re 1  μPa, jacket L(z-p): 172-189 dB  re 1  μPa). SEL showed no statistical difference between monopile and jacket and varied between 145 and 168 dB  re 1  μPa(2)s. Furthermore, near identical spectra were measured for both types of piling. Piling of the jacket pinpiles took, however, about 2.5 times the time of the monopile. When standardised to megawatt installed per foundation both types of piling scored near equally. As an illustration, the radius of major behavioural disturbance (L(p-p) = 155 dB  re 1  μPa) in the harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena was estimated by a model at 16 km for monopiles and at 8 km for jacket.

  6. Development of the analog ASIC for multi-channel readout X-ray CCD camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Hiroshi; Matsuura, Daisuke; Idehara, Toshihiro; Anabuki, Naohisa; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Doty, John P.; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Katayama, Haruyoshi; Kitamura, Hisashi; Uchihori, Yukio

    2011-03-01

    We report on the performance of an analog application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) developed aiming for the front-end electronics of the X-ray CCD camera system onboard the next X-ray astronomical satellite, ASTRO-H. It has four identical channels that simultaneously process the CCD signals. Distinctive capability of analog-to-digital conversion enables us to construct a CCD camera body that outputs only digital signals. As the result of the front-end electronics test, it works properly with low input noise of ≤30μV at the pixel rate below 100 kHz. The power consumption is sufficiently low of ˜150mW/chip. The input signal range of ±20 mV covers the effective energy range of the typical X-ray photon counting CCD (up to 20 keV). The integrated non-linearity is 0.2% that is similar as those of the conventional CCDs in orbit. We also performed a radiation tolerance test against the total ionizing dose (TID) effect and the single event effect. The irradiation test using 60Co and proton beam showed that the ASIC has the sufficient tolerance against TID up to 200 krad, which absolutely exceeds the expected amount of dose during the period of operating in a low-inclination low-earth orbit. The irradiation of Fe ions with the fluence of 5.2×108 Ion/cm2 resulted in no single event latchup (SEL), although there were some possible single event upsets. The threshold against SEL is higher than 1.68 MeV cm2/mg, which is sufficiently high enough that the SEL event should not be one of major causes of instrument downtime in orbit.

  7. Characterization of gene-environment interactions by behavioral profiling of selectively bred rats: the effect of NMDA receptor inhibition and social isolation.

    PubMed

    Petrovszki, Zita; Adam, Gabor; Tuboly, Gabor; Kekesi, Gabriella; Benedek, Gyorgy; Keri, Szabolcs; Horvath, Gyongyi

    2013-03-01

    Gene-environment interactions have an important role in the development of psychiatric disorders. To generate and validate a new substrain of rats with signs related to schizophrenia, we used selective breeding after postweaning social isolation and chronic ketamine treatment through several generations of animals and compared the subsequent strain to naive rats that were not genetically manipulated. We further investigated whether social isolation and ketamine treatment augmented the appearance of schizophrenic-like signs in these rats. Four experimental groups were studied (n=6-15 rats/group): naive rats without any treatment (NaNo); naive rats with postweaning social isolation and ketamine treatment (NaTr); 15th generation of selectively bred animals without any treatment (SelNo) or selectively bred rats with both isolation and ketamine treatment (SelTr). The startle reaction, tail-flick and novel object recognition tests were used to classify the animals into low- or high-risk for schizophrenia. Reduced pain sensitivity, higher degree of the startle reaction, disturbed prepulse inhibition, altered motor activity and decreased differentiation index in the memory test were observed in the 15th generation of the substrain, along with enhanced grooming behavior. Five functional indices (TF latency, startle reaction, prepulse inhibition, differentiation index, and grooming activity) were rated from 0 to 2, and the analysis of the summarized score revealed that the NaNo group had the lowest overall indication of schizophrenic-like signs, while the SelTr animals scored the highest, suggesting that both heritable and environmental factors were important in the generation of the behavioral alterations. We assume that further breeding after this complex treatment may lead to a valid and reliable animal model of schizophrenia. PMID:23195116

  8. CD43 deficiency has no impact in competitive in vivo assays of neutrophil or activated T cell recruitment efficiency.

    PubMed

    Carlow, Douglas A; Ziltener, Hermann J

    2006-11-01

    Using noncompetitive methodologies comparing CD43(+/+) and CD43(-/-) mice, it has been reported that CD43(-/-) leukocytes exhibit reduced recruitment efficiency to sites of inflammation. More recent analyses demonstrate that CD43 on activated T cells can function as an E-selectin ligand (E-SelL) in vitro, suggesting that CD43 might promote rolling interactions during recruitment of leukocytes and account for the reported recruitment deficits in CD43(-/-) T cells and neutrophils in vivo. Internally controlled competitive in vivo methods using fluorescent tracking dyes were applied to compare recruitment efficiency of CD43(+/+) vs CD43(-/-) activated T cells to inflamed skin and of peripheral blood neutrophils to inflamed peritoneum. A simple CFSE perfusion method was developed to distinguish arterial/venous vasculature and confirm appropriate extravasation through venules in a Con A-induced cutaneous inflammation model. In vivo recruitment of peripheral blood neutrophils to inflamed peritoneum was core 2 GlcNAcT-I dependent, but recruitment efficiency was not influenced by absence of CD43. There were also no significant differences in core 2 GlcNAcT-I-dependent, selectin-dependent, cutaneous recruitment of activated T cells from CD43(+/+) and congenic CD43(-/-) mice in either B6 or P-selectin(-/-) recipients despite biochemical confirmation that a CD43-specific E-SelL was present on activated T cells. We conclude that recruitment of neutrophils and activated T cells in these in vivo models is not influenced by CD43 expression and that if CD43 on activated T cells performs an E-SelL function in vivo, it contributes in a limited physiological context.

  9. Differentiating between underwater construction noise of monopile and jacket foundations for offshore windmills: a case study from the Belgian part of the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Norro, Alain Michel Jules; Rumes, Bob; Degraer, Steven Johan

    2013-01-01

    Steel monopiles, jackets requiring four steel pinpiles, and gravity-based foundations were applied in offshore wind farms in the Belgian part of the North Sea. This paper compares the underwater noise generated during the piling activities of steel monopiles at the Belwind wind farm (Blighbank) with that of jacket pinpiles at the C-Power project (Thorntonbank). Underwater noise was measured at various distances from the pile driving location. The underwater noise was quantified by its zero to peak sound pressure level (L(z-p)), unweighted sound exposure level (SEL), cumulative SEL, and 1/3 octave spectra. No significant differences in L(z-p) could be demonstrated (monopile L(z-p): 179-194 dB  re 1  μPa, jacket L(z-p): 172-189 dB  re 1  μPa). SEL showed no statistical difference between monopile and jacket and varied between 145 and 168 dB  re 1  μPa(2)s. Furthermore, near identical spectra were measured for both types of piling. Piling of the jacket pinpiles took, however, about 2.5 times the time of the monopile. When standardised to megawatt installed per foundation both types of piling scored near equally. As an illustration, the radius of major behavioural disturbance (L(p-p) = 155 dB  re 1  μPa) in the harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena was estimated by a model at 16 km for monopiles and at 8 km for jacket. PMID:23576910

  10. Fitness costs limit the development of resistance to indoxacarb and deltamethrin in Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Sayyed, Ali H; Ahmad, Munir; Crickmore, Neil

    2008-12-01

    Insecticide resistance in Heliothis virescens (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) has been documented from all over the world and is often associated with reduced fitness. Fitness costs could delay the development of resistance depending upon the prevailing conditions. We were interested in establishing whether a field-collected population from Washington County, MS, was resistant to spinosad, indoxacarb, and deltamethrin and whether any such resistance was associated with fitness costs. Bioassays results showed that the insecticides were equally toxic to the field population. Upon laboratory selection (generations [G]3 to G8), the resistance ratio increased only 2-, 3-, and 1-fold for spinosad, deltamethrin, and indoxacarb, respectively, compared with the field population. In contrast, the resistance ratios increased 213-, 65-, and 55-fold compared with an unselected population at G9. The estimated realized heritability (h2) after six generations of selection was 0.17, 0.03, and 0.12, respectively, and the number of generations required for 10-fold increase in LC50 of Spino-SEL, Indoxa-SEL, and Delta-SEL was estimated to be 14.3, 50, and 14.3. Comparison of life traits between the selected and unselected populations revealed that the selected populations laid a significantly lower number of eggs and that a lower percentage of eggs hatched. This also was reflected in both the net replacement rate and the intrinsic rate of population increase, which were both lower for the selected populations. It also was observed that the mean relative growth rate of the larvae was lower for the selected populations; not only did the larvae take longer to pupate but the mean weight of the prepupae from the selected populations was lower. Our data suggest that due to fitness costs the development of resistance to the insecticides was limited such that after six generations of selection the larvae were no less susceptible to the insecticides than the field population although were

  11. [Motivation and barriers in the consumption of five daily servings of fruit and vegetables by mothers of school age children and primary school teachers].

    PubMed

    Olivares, Sonia; Lera, Lydia; Mardones, María Angélica; Araneda, Jacqueline; Olivares, María Antonieta; Colque, Maria Ester

    2009-06-01

    As a baseline for the promotion of health and the design of educational interventions, the benefits, barriers and stages of change related to the consumption of five daily servings of fruit and vegetables were studied in 463 mothers of school age children from different socioeconomic levels (SEL) and 412 primary school teachers in 3 cities in Chile. These groups were selected because of their influence over children's eating habits. For the evaluation of stages changes, a questionnaire designed by the American Institute for Cancer Research was adapted and applied. The questionnaire was answered voluntarily by the participants. 58% of the mothers and 60% of the teachers ate 1-2 servings of fruit and vegetables daily; 29.4 and 32.3% ate 3-4 servings and only 10 and 4% respectively ate 5 servings. Benefits reported from fruit and vegetable consumption in both groups were pleasure, wellness, a sense of well being and weight management. Barriers mentioned were forgetfulness, time constraints, nonsatisfaction of appetite and lack of motivation. The price of fruit and vegetables was considered high by 15.1% of mothers of medium high SEL and by 26.4% of medium low SEL (p < 0.002). Among teachers, 25.4% of men and 11.7% of women also considered price as a barrier (p < 0.002). Such results show that both mothers and teachers need specific interventions to improve their own motivation for eating more fruit and vegetables and to thus support this healthy eating habit in children.

  12. Thrombogenic changes in young and old mice upon subchronic exposure to air pollution in an urban roadside tunnel.

    PubMed

    Emmerechts, Jan; De Vooght, Vanessa; Haenen, Steven; Loyen, Serena; Van kerckhoven, Soetkin; Hemmeryckx, Bianca; Vanoirbeek, Jeroen A J; Hoet, Peter H; Nemery, Ben; Hoylaerts, Marc F

    2012-10-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that elderly persons are particularly susceptible to the cardiovascular health complications of air pollution, but pathophysiological mechanisms behind the increased susceptibility remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated how continuous traffic-related air pollution exposure affects haemostasis parameters in young and old mice. Young (10 weeks) and old (20 months) mice were placed in an urban roadside tunnel or in a clean environment for 25 or 26 days and markers of inflammation and endothelial cells or blood platelet activation were measured, respectively. Plasma microvesicles and pro/anticoagulant factors were analysed, and thrombin generation analysis was performed. Despite elevated macrophage carbon load, tunnel mice showed no overt pulmonary or systemic inflammation, yet manifested reduced pulmonary thrombomudulin expression and elevated endothelial von Willebrand factor (VWF) expression in lung capillaries. In young mice, soluble P-selectin (sP-sel) increased with exposure and correlated with soluble E-selectin and VWF. Baseline plasma factor VIII (FVIII), sP-sel and VWF were higher in old mice, but did not pronouncedly increase further with exposure. Traffic-related air pollution markedly raised red blood cell and blood platelet numbers in young and old mice and procoagulant blood platelet-derived microvesicle numbers in old animals. Changes in coagulation factors and thrombin generation were mild or absent. Hence, continuous traffic-related air pollution did not trigger overt lung inflammation, yet modified pulmonary endothelial cell function and enhanced platelet activity. In old mice, subchronic exposure to polluted air raised platelet numbers, VWF, sP-sel and microvesicles to the highest values presently recorded, collectively substantiating a further elevation of thrombogenicity, already high at old age.

  13. Towards a mature measurement environment: Creating a software engineering research environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, Victor R.

    1990-01-01

    Software engineering researchers are building tools, defining methods, and models; however, there are problems with the nature and style of the research. The research is typically bottom-up, done in isolation so the pieces cannot be easily logically or physically integrated. A great deal of the research is essentially the packaging of a particular piece of technology with little indication of how the work would be integrated with other prices of research. The research is not aimed at solving the real problems of software engineering, i.e., the development and maintenance of quality systems in a productive manner. The research results are not evaluated or analyzed via experimentation or refined and tailored to the application environment. Thus, it cannot be easily transferred into practice. Because of these limitations we have not been able to understand the components of the discipline as a coherent whole and the relationships between various models of the process and product. What is needed is a top down experimental, evolutionary framework in which research can be focused, logically and physically integrated to produce quality software productively, and evaluated and tailored to the application environment. This implies the need for experimentation, which in turn implies the need for a laboratory that is associated with the artifact we are studying. This laboratory can only exist in an environment where software is being built, i.e., as part of a real software development and maintenance organization. Thus, we propose that Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) type activities exist in all organizations to support software engineering research. We describe the SEL from a researcher's point of view, and discuss the corporate and government benefits of the SEL. The discussion focuses on the benefits to the research community.

  14. Differentiating between Underwater Construction Noise of Monopile and Jacket Foundations for Offshore Windmills: A Case Study from the Belgian Part of the North Sea

    PubMed Central

    Norro, Alain Michel Jules; Rumes, Bob; Degraer, Steven Johan

    2013-01-01

    Steel monopiles, jackets requiring four steel pinpiles, and gravity-based foundations were applied in offshore wind farms in the Belgian part of the North Sea. This paper compares the underwater noise generated during the piling activities of steel monopiles at the Belwind wind farm (Blighbank) with that of jacket pinpiles at the C-Power project (Thorntonbank). Underwater noise was measured at various distances from the pile driving location. The underwater noise was quantified by its zero to peak sound pressure level (Lz−p), unweighted sound exposure level (SEL), cumulative SEL, and 1/3 octave spectra. No significant differences in Lz−p could be demonstrated (monopile Lz−p: 179–194 dB re 1 μPa, jacket Lz−p: 172–189 dB re 1 μPa). SEL showed no statistical difference between monopile and jacket and varied between 145 and 168 dB re 1 μPa2s. Furthermore, near identical spectra were measured for both types of piling. Piling of the jacket pinpiles took, however, about 2.5 times the time of the monopile. When standardised to megawatt installed per foundation both types of piling scored near equally. As an illustration, the radius of major behavioural disturbance (Lp−p = 155 dB re 1 μPa) in the harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena was estimated by a model at 16 km for monopiles and at 8 km for jacket. PMID:23576910

  15. Neural network based detection of hard exudates in retinal images.

    PubMed

    García, María; Sánchez, Clara I; López, María I; Abásolo, Daniel; Hornero, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is an important cause of visual impairment in developed countries. Automatic recognition of DR lesions in fundus images can contribute to the diagnosis of the disease. The aim of this study is to automatically detect one of these lesions, hard exudates (EXs), in order to help ophthalmologists in the diagnosis and follow-up of the disease. We propose an algorithm which includes a neural network (NN) classifier for this task. Three NN classifiers were investigated: multilayer perceptron (MLP), radial basis function (RBF) and support vector machine (SVM). Our database was composed of 117 images with variable colour, brightness, and quality. 50 of them (from DR patients) were used to train the NN classifiers and 67 (40 from DR patients and 27 from healthy retinas) to test the method. Using a lesion-based criterion, we achieved a mean sensitivity (SE(l)) of 88.14% and a mean positive predictive value (PPV(l)) of 80.72% for MLP. With RBF we obtained SE(l)=88.49% and PPV(l)=77.41%, while we reached SE(l)=87.61% and PPV(l)=83.51% using SVM. With an image-based criterion, a mean sensitivity (SE(i)) of 100%, a mean specificity (SP(i)) of 92.59% and a mean accuracy (AC(i)) of 97.01% were obtained with MLP. Using RBF we achieved SE(i)=100%, SP(i)=81.48% and AC(i)=92.54%. With SVM the image-based results were SE(i)=100%, SP(i)=77.78% and AC(i)=91.04%.

  16. Temporary threshold shifts and recovery in a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) after octave-band noise at 4 kHz.

    PubMed

    Kastelein, Ronald A; Gransier, Robin; Hoek, Lean; Olthuis, Juul

    2012-11-01

    Safety criteria for underwater sound produced during offshore pile driving are needed to protect marine mammals. A harbor porpoise was exposed to fatiguing noise at 18 sound pressure level (SPL) and duration combinations. Its temporary hearing threshold shift (TTS) and hearing recovery were quantified with a psychoacoustic technique. Octave-band white noise centered at 4 kHz was the fatiguing stimulus at three mean received SPLs (124, 136, and 148 dB re 1 μPa) and at six durations (7.5, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 min). Approximate received sound exposure levels (SELs) varied between 151 and 190 dB re 1 μPa(2) s. Hearing thresholds were determined for a narrow-band frequency-swept sine wave (3.9-4.1 kHz; 1 s) before exposure to the fatiguing noise, and at 1-4, 4-8, 8-12, 48, and 96 min after exposure. The lowest SEL (151 dB re 1 μPa(2) s) which caused a significant TTS(1-4) was due to exposure to an SPL of 124 dB re 1 μPa for 7.5 min. The maximum TTS(1-4), induced after a 240 min exposure to 148 dB re 1 μPa, was around 15 dB at a SEL of 190 dB re 1 μPa(2) s. Recovery time following TTS varied between 4 min and under 96 min, depending on the exposure level, duration, and the TTS induced. PMID:23145632

  17. Impact of membrane-associated hydrogenases on the F₀F₁-ATPase in Escherichia coli during glycerol and mixed carbon fermentation: ATPase activity and its inhibition by N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide in the mutants lacking hydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Blbulyan, Syuzanna; Trchounian, Armen

    2015-08-01

    Escherichia coli is able to ferment glycerol and to produce molecular hydrogen (H2) by four membrane-associated hydrogenases (Hyd) changing activity in response to different conditions. In this study, overall ATPase activity of glycerol alone and mixed carbon sources (glucose and glycerol) fermented E. coli wild type and different Hyd mutants and its inhibition by N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) were first investigated. ATPase activity was higher in glycerol fermented wild type cells at pH 7.5 compared to pH 6.5 and pH 5.5; DCCD inhibited markedly ATPase activity at pH 7.5. The ATPase activity at pH 7.5, compared with wild type, was lower in selC and less in hypF single mutants, suppressed in hyaB hybC selC triple mutant. Moreover, total ATPase activity of mixed carbon fermented wild type cells was maximal at pH 7.5 and lowered at pH 5.5. The ATPase activities of hypF and hyaB hybC selC mutants were higher at pH 5.5, compared with wild type; DCCD inhibited markedly ATPase activity of hypF mutant. These results demonstrate that in E. coli during glycerol fermentation the membrane proton-translocating FOF1-ATPase has major input in overall ATPase activity and alkaline pH is more optimal for the FOF1-ATPase operation. Hyd-1 and Hyd-2 are required for the FOF1-ATPase activity upon anaerobic fermentation of glycerol. The impact of Hyd-1 and Hyd-2 on the FOF1-ATPase is more obvious during mixed carbon fermentation at slightly acidic pH.

  18. The development of an automated flight test management system for flight test planning and monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewett, Marle D.; Tartt, David M.; Duke, Eugene L.; Antoniewicz, Robert F.; Brumbaugh, Randal W.

    1988-01-01

    The development of an automated flight test management system (ATMS) as a component of a rapid-prototyping flight research facility for AI-based flight systems concepts is described. The rapid-prototyping facility includes real-time high-fidelity simulators, numeric and symbolic processors, and high-performance research aircraft modified to accept commands for a ground-based remotely augmented vehicle facility. The flight system configuration of the ATMS includes three computers: the TI explorer LX and two GOULD SEL 32/27s.

  19. METHODOLOGICAL NOTES: Brusselator — an abstract chemical reaction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrova, Anastasiya I.; Postnikov, E. B.; Romanovsky, Yurii M.

    2009-12-01

    In this paper we consider the Brusselator and the Sel'kov model, which describes the irreversible reaction of glycolysis in the regime of self-sustained oscillations. We show that these two differently constructed models can be reduced to a single equation — a generalized Rayleigh equation. The physical basis for this generality is investigated. The advantages of this equation as a tool for qualitative and quantitative analyses, as well as the similarities and differences of the solutions realized for each of the two concrete models in the cases of almost harmonic and relaxation self-sustained oscillations, are discussed.

  20. Noise Exposure Criteria for Harbor Porpoises.

    PubMed

    Tougaard, Jakob; Wright, Andrew J; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

    2016-01-01

    Despite a major research effort, no generally accepted exposure limits are available for harbor porpoises. Recent studies of the temporary threshold shift (TTS) in porpoises indicate that the sound exposure levels (SELs) required to induce low levels of TTS depend on stimulus frequency and roughly parallel the shape of the audiogram. A number of studies on behavioral avoidance reactions (negative phonotaxis) to pingers, seal scarers, and pile driving show a similar dependence on stimulus frequency. Both TTS and behavioral data suggest that weighting sound pressure levels with a filter function resembling the inverted audiogram would be appropriate.

  1. Self-Evaluating in Teaching Process as a Factor of Improved Engagement and Success of the Pupils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misic, T.; Nesic, Lj.; Djordjevic, G.

    2007-04-01

    Psychological and motivational factors are very important for work in general, and also for engagement in teaching process. The goal of introduction of the self-evaluating list into the schools is to motivate as large as possible number of pupils to be active in the class. The whole concept of the list lies in its application: it emphasizes the role of the pupils and their own evaluation of work and engagement during the teaching process. In this article we present main results of investigation concerning the application the SEL (self-evaluating list) in the some primary schools in Nis.

  2. Maximizing reuse: Applying common sense and discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waligora, Sharon; Langston, James

    1992-01-01

    Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC)/System Sciences Division (SSD) has maintained a long-term relationship with NASA/Goddard, providing satellite mission ground-support software and services for 23 years. As a partner in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) since 1976, CSC has worked closely with NASA/Goddard to improve the software engineering process. This paper examines the evolution of reuse programs in this uniquely stable environment and formulates certain recommendations for developing reuse programs as a business strategy and as an integral part of production. It focuses on the management strategy and philosophy that have helped make reuse successful in this environment.

  3. Annotated bibliography of software engineering laboratory literature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buhler, Melanie; Valett, Jon

    1989-01-01

    An annotated bibliography is presented of technical papers, documents, and memorandums produced by or related to the Software Engineering Laboratory. The bibliography was updated and reorganized substantially since the original version (SEL-82-006, November 1982). All materials were grouped into eight general subject areas for easy reference: (1) The Software Engineering Laboratory; (2) The Software Engineering Laboratory: Software Development Documents; (3) Software Tools; (4) Software Models; (5) Software Measurement; (6) Technology Evaluations; (7) Ada Technology; and (8) Data Collection. Subject and author indexes further classify these documents by specific topic and individual author.

  4. Annotated bibliography of Software Engineering Laboratory literature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morusiewicz, Linda; Valett, Jon

    1993-01-01

    This document is an annotated bibliography of technical papers, documents, and memorandums produced by or related to the Software Engineering Laboratory. Nearly 200 publications are summarized. These publications cover many areas of software engineering and range from research reports to software documentation. This document has been updated and reorganized substantially since the original version (SEL-82-006, November 1982). All materials have been grouped into eight general subject areas for easy reference: the Software Engineering Laboratory; the Software Engineering Laboratory: software development documents; software tools; software models; software measurement; technology evaluations; Ada technology; and data collection. This document contains an index of these publications classified by individual author.

  5. Annotated bibliography of software engineering laboratory literature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groves, Paula; Valett, Jon

    1990-01-01

    An annotated bibliography of technical papers, documents, and memorandums produced by or related to the Software Engineering Laboratory is given. More than 100 publications are summarized. These publications cover many areas of software engineering and range from research reports to software documentation. This document has been updated and reorganized substantially since the original version (SEL-82-006, November 1982). All materials have been grouped into eight general subject areas for easy reference: the Software Engineering Laboratory; the Software Engineering Laboratory-software development documents; software tools; software models; software measurement; technology evaluations; Ada technology; and data collection. Subject and author indexes further classify these documents by specific topic and individual author.

  6. Annotated bibliography of Software Engineering Laboratory literature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    An annotated bibliography of technical papers, documents, and memorandums produced by or related to the Software Engineering Laboratory is presented. More than 100 publications are summarized. These publications are summarized. These publications cover many areas of software engineering and range from research reports to software documentation. This document has been updated and reorganized substantially since the original version (SEL-82-006, November 1982). All materials are grouped into five general subject areas for easy reference: (1) the software engineering laboratory; (2) software tools; (3) models and measures; (4) technology evaluations; and (5) data collection. An index further classifies these documents by specific topic.

  7. Stabilised electromagnetic levitation at 2-13 MHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danley, T. J.; Schiffman, R. A.; Weber, J. K. R.; Krishnan, S.; Rey, C. A.; Bruno, P. A.; Nordine, P. C.

    1991-01-01

    SEL, the Stabilised Electromagnetic Levitator, has been developed to exploit the unique design opportunities available in containerless microgravity experiments. Efficiency and versatility are obtained with multiple coils driven by individual broadband amplifiers whose phase and frequency are controlled. The heating and positioning fields are decoupled. Specimen translation, spin, and for liquids, shape may be adjusted. An open coil structure provides access for optical and diagnostic probes. Results of experiments with a prototype device are discussed. Levitating and heating materials on earth were demonstrated at frequencies up to 13 MHz.

  8. F100 Multivariable Control Synthesis Program. Computer Implementation of the F100 Multivariable Control Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soeder, J. F.

    1983-01-01

    As turbofan engines become more complex, the development of controls necessitate the use of multivariable control techniques. A control developed for the F100-PW-100(3) turbofan engine by using linear quadratic regulator theory and other modern multivariable control synthesis techniques is described. The assembly language implementation of this control on an SEL 810B minicomputer is described. This implementation was then evaluated by using a real-time hybrid simulation of the engine. The control software was modified to run with a real engine. These modifications, in the form of sensor and actuator failure checks and control executive sequencing, are discussed. Finally recommendations for control software implementations are presented.

  9. Impact of a process improvement program in a production software environment: Are we any better?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heller, Gerard H.; Page, Gerald T.

    1990-01-01

    For the past 15 years, Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) has participated in a process improvement program as a member of the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL), which is sponsored by GSFC. The benefits CSC has derived from involvement in this program are analyzed. In the environment studied, it shows that improvements were indeed achieved, as evidenced by a decrease in error rates and costs over a period in which both the size and the complexity of the developed systems increased substantially. The principles and mechanics of the process improvement program, the lessons CSC has learned, and how CSC has capitalized on these lessons are also discussed.

  10. RELAP5-3D Code Validation for RBMK Phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, James Ebberly

    1999-09-01

    The RELAP5-3D thermal-hydraulic code was assessed against Japanese Safety Experiment Loop (SEL) and Heat Transfer Loop (HTL) tests. These tests were chosen because the phenomena present are applicable to analyses of Russian RBMK reactor designs. The assessment cases included parallel channel flow fluctuation tests at reduced and normal water levels, a channel inlet pipe rupture test, and a high power, density wave oscillation test. The results showed that RELAP5-3D has the capability to adequately represent these RBMK-related phenomena.

  11. RELAP5-3D code validation for RBMK phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, J.E.

    1999-09-01

    The RELAP5-3D thermal-hydraulic code was assessed against Japanese Safety Experiment Loop (SEL) and Heat Transfer Loop (HTL) tests. These tests were chosen because the phenomena present are applicable to analyses of Russian RBMK reactor designs. The assessment cases included parallel channel flow fluctuation tests at reduced and normal water levels, a channel inlet pipe rupture test, and a high power, density wave oscillation test. The results showed that RELAP5-3D has the capability to adequately represent these RBMK-related phenomena.

  12. Software Management Environment (SME): Components and algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendrick, Robert; Kistler, David; Valett, Jon

    1994-01-01

    This document presents the components and algorithms of the Software Management Environment (SME), a management tool developed for the Software Engineering Branch (Code 552) of the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The SME provides an integrated set of visually oriented experienced-based tools that can assist software development managers in managing and planning software development projects. This document describes and illustrates the analysis functions that underlie the SME's project monitoring, estimation, and planning tools. 'SME Components and Algorithms' is a companion reference to 'SME Concepts and Architecture' and 'Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) Relationships, Models, and Management Rules.'

  13. Selenium speciation in paired serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples of sheep.

    PubMed

    Humann-Ziehank, Esther; Ganter, Martin; Michalke, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to characterise selenium (Se) and Se species in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of sheep and its relation to the respective Se concentrations in serum. Paired samples from 10 adult sheep were used for the study. Five sheep were fed a diet with a marginal Se concentration of <0.05mg Se/kg diet dry weight (dw, Se(-)), and five animals were fed the same diet supplemented with sodium selenite revealing a concentration of 0.2mg Se/kg diet dw (Se(+)). The feeding strategy was conducted for two years; The results on metabolic effects were published previously. At the end of the feeding period, paired samples of serum and CSF were collected and analysed using ion exchange chromatography inductively coupled plasma-dynamic reaction cell-mass spectrometry (IEC-ICP-DRC-MS) technique for total Se concentration and concentrations of Se species. Albumin concentrations were analysed additionally. The feeding strategy caused significant differences (p<0.01) in serum Se concentrations with 33.1±5.11μg Se/l in the Se(-) group and 96.5±18.3μg Se/l in the Se(+) group, respectively. The corresponding total Se concentrations in CSF were 4.38±1.02μg Se/l and 6.13±1.64μg Se/l in the Se(-) and the Se(+) group, respectively, missing statistical significance (p=0.077). IEC-ICP-DRC-MS technique was able to differentiate the Se species selenoprotein P-bound Se (SePP), selenomethionine, glutathione peroxidase-bound Se (Se-GPx), selenocystine, thioredoxin reductase-bound Se, ovine serum albumin-bound Se (Se-OSA), SeIV and SeVI in ovine serum and CSF. Quantitatively, SePP is the main selenoprotein in ovine serum followed by Se-GPx. The CSF/blood ratio of albumin (QAlbumin) reflected a physiological function of the blood-CSF barrier in all sheep. QSe-species were higher than QAlbumin both feeding groups, supporting the hypothesis of local production of Se species in the brain. Significant positive regression lines for CSF vs. serum were found for albumin and Se-OSA only

  14. Implementation of a production Ada project: The GRODY study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godfrey, Sara; Brophy, Carolyn Elizabeth

    1989-01-01

    The use of the Ada language and design methodologies that encourage full use of its capabilities have a strong impact on all phases of the software development project life cycle. At the National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) conducted an experiment in parallel development of two flight dynamics systems in FORTRAN and Ada. The differences observed during the implementation, unit testing, and integration phases of the two projects are described and the lessons learned during the implementation phase of the Ada development are outlined. Included are recommendations for future Ada development projects.

  15. Monitoring software development through dynamic variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doerflinger, Carl W.; Basili, Victor R.

    1983-01-01

    Research conducted by the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) on the use of dynamic variables as a tool to monitor software development is described. Project independent measures which may be used in a management tool for monitoring software development are identified. Several FORTRAN projects with similar profiles are examined. The staff was experienced in developing these types of projects. The projects developed serve similar functions. Because these projects are similar some underlying relationships exist that are invariant between projects. These relationships, once well defined, may be used to compare the development of different projects to determine whether they are evolving the same way previous projects in this environment evolved.

  16. Monitoring software development through dynamic variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doerflinger, C. W.; Basili, V. R.

    1985-01-01

    Research conducted by the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) on the use of dynamic variables as a tool to monitor software development is described. Project independent measures which may be used in a management tool for monitoring software development are identified. Several FORTRAN projects with similar profiles are examined. The staff was experienced in developing these types of projects. The projects developed serve similar functions. Because these projects are similar some underlying relationships exist that are invariant between the projects. These relationships, once well defined, may be used to compare the development of different projects to determine whether they are evolving the same way previous projects in this environment evolved.

  17. Monitoring software development through dynamic variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doerflinger, C. W.; Basili, V. R.

    1983-01-01

    Research conducted by the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) on the use of dynamic variables as a tool to monitor software development is described. Project independent measures which may be used in a management tool for monitoring software development are identified. Several FORTRAN projects with similar profiles are examined. The staff was experienced in developing these types of projects. The projects developed serve similar functions. Because these projects are similar some underlying relationships exist that are invariant between the projects. These relationships, once well defined, may be used to compare the development of different projects to determine whether they are evolving the same way previous projects in this environment evolved.

  18. Single event and TREE latchup mitigation for a star tracker sensor: An innovative approach to system level latchup mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Kimbrough, J.R.; Colella, N.J.; Davis, R.W.; Bruener, D.B.; Coakley, P.G.; Lutjens, S.W.; Mallon, C.E.

    1994-08-01

    Electronic packages designed for spacecraft should be fault-tolerant and operate without ground control intervention through extremes in the space radiation environment. If designed for military use, the electronics must survive and function in a nuclear radiation environment. This paper presents an innovative ``blink`` approach rather than the typical ``operate through`` approach to achieve system level latchup mitigation on a prototype star tracker camera. Included are circuit designs, flash x-ray test data, and heavy ion data demonstrating latchup mitigation protecting micro-electronics from current latchup and burnout due to Single Event Latchup (SEL) and Transient Radiation Effects on Electronics (TREE).

  19. A comparison of software verification techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    A controlled experiment performed by the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) to compare the effectiveness of code reading, functional testing, and structural testing as software verification techniques is described. The experiment results indicate that code reading provides the greatest error detection capability at the lowest cost, whereas structural testing is the least effective technique. The experiment plan is explained, the experiment results are described, related results from other studies are discussed. The application of these results to the development of software in the flight dynamics environment is considered. Appendices summarize the experiment data and list the test programs.

  20. Study of total dose effect on semiconductor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanno, Toru

    1993-10-01

    This memorandum describes single event phenomena of power MOS (Metal Oxide Semiconductor) - FET (Field Effect Transistor) and SRAM (Static Random Access Memory), and total dose resistance of 256 k bit EEPROM (Electrically Erasable and Programmable Read Only Memory). The single event is a phenomenon that causes permanent failure and malfunction by a single high energy heavy atom entering into a semiconductor device. This study evaluated power MOS-FET and SRAM for Single Event Burnout (SEB) and Single Event Latchup (SEL) using newly developed Energetic Particle Induced Charge Spectroscopy (EPICS). As a result, influence of LET (Linear Energy Transfer) on avalanche effect and phenomena relating with nuclear reaction/recoil were observed, and mechanism of SEB was suggested. In addition, SEL occurrence probability was determined in wide range of LET using an accelerator of heavy ions. This study evaluated total dose effect of EEPROM, and malfunction site and the total dose mechanism were proposed. However, the total dose resistance was not sufficient to be used in outer space. Because it will require enormous change of processes to improve this device, and because degeneration of peripheral circuits were too fast to be evaluated, development of space ROM (Read Only Memory) seems to be difficult in this stage.

  1. Formulation and in vivo evaluation for anti-aging effects of an emulsion containing basil extract using non- invasive biophysical techniques

    PubMed Central

    Rasul, A.; Akhtar, N.

    2011-01-01

    Background and the purpose of study Skin aging is a complex process induced by constant exposure to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and damages human skin. UV generates reactive oxygen species leading to collagen deficiency and eventually skin wrinkling. Basil contains a number of phenolics and favonoids which possess antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to formulate and investigate the antiaging potential of a cream containing Basil extract. Methods A single blinded study was conducted using non-invasive methods. Formulation containing 3% of the concentrated extract of Basil was developed by entrapping in the inner aqueous phase of w/o emulsion and base contained no extract. Both creams were stored at different storage conditions of 8°C, 25°C, 40°C and 40°C+ 75% relative humidity to predict their stabilities. The formulation and base were evaluated for their effects on various skin parameters i.e., moisture and trans epidermal water loss (TEWL), volume, energy and surface evaluation of the living skin (SELS). Results Significant effects (p≤0.05) were observed for both creams in the case of TEWL. The base showed insignificant (p≤0.05) while formulation showed significant effects on skin moisture. Volume, SELS SEr (skin roughness), SEsc (skin scaliness), SEsm (skin smoothness), SEw (skin wrinkles) parameter showed significant decline while texture parameter of ‘Energy’ showed significant increase. Conclusion The results statistically indicated that the active formulation containg extract of Basil exert antiaging effects when applied topically. PMID:22615680

  2. Molecular modeling and computational analyses suggests that the Sinorhizobium meliloti periplasmic regulator protein ExoR adopts a superhelical fold and is controlled by a unique mechanism of proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Wiech, Eliza M; Cheng, Hai-Ping; Singh, Shaneen M

    2015-01-01

    The Sinorhizobium meliloti periplasmic ExoR protein and the ExoS/ChvI two-component system form a regulatory mechanism that directly controls the transformation of free-living to host-invading cells. In the absence of crystal structures, understanding the molecular mechanism of interaction between ExoR and the ExoS sensor, which is believed to drive the key regulatory step in the invasion process, remains a major challenge. In this study, we present a theoretical structural model of the active form of ExoR protein, ExoRm, generated using computational methods. Our model suggests that ExoR possesses a super-helical fold comprising 12 α-helices forming six Sel1-like repeats, including two that were unidentified in previous studies. This fold is highly conducive to mediating protein–protein interactions and this is corroborated by the identification of putative protein binding sites on the surface of the ExoRm protein. Our studies reveal two novel insights: (a) an extended conformation of the third Sel1-like repeat that might be important for ExoR regulatory function and (b) a buried proteolytic site that implies a unique proteolytic mechanism. This study provides new and interesting insights into the structure of S. meliloti ExoR, lays the groundwork for elaborating the molecular mechanism of ExoRm cleavage, ExoRm–ExoS interactions, and studies of ExoR homologs in other bacterial host interactions. PMID:25492513

  3. Effects of exposure to pile-driving sounds on the lake sturgeon, Nile tilapia and hogchoker.

    PubMed

    Halvorsen, Michele B; Casper, Brandon M; Matthews, Frazer; Carlson, Thomas J; Popper, Arthur N

    2012-12-01

    Pile-driving and other impulsive sound sources have the potential to injure or kill fishes. One mechanism that produces injuries is the rapid motion of the walls of the swim bladder as it repeatedly contacts nearby tissues. To further understand the involvement of the swim bladder in tissue damage, a specially designed wave tube was used to expose three species to pile-driving sounds. Species included lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens)--with an open (physostomous) swim bladder, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)--with a closed (physoclistous) swim bladder and the hogchoker (Trinectes maculatus)--a flatfish without a swim bladder. There were no visible injuries in any of the exposed hogchokers, whereas a variety of injuries were observed in the lake sturgeon and Nile tilapia. At the loudest cumulative and single-strike sound exposure levels (SEL(cum) and SEL(ss) respectively), the Nile tilapia had the highest total injuries and the most severe injuries per fish. As exposure levels decreased, the number and severity of injuries were more similar between the two species. These results suggest that the presence and type of swim bladder correlated with injury at higher sound levels, while the extent of injury at lower sound levels was similar for both kinds of swim bladders.

  4. Genetics and realized heritability of resistance to imidacloprid in a poultry population of house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Hussnain; Abbas, Naeem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Afzal, Muhammad Babar Shahzad

    2014-09-01

    Imidacloprid, a post-synaptic, nicotinic insecticide, has been commonly used for the management of different pests including Musca domestica worldwide. Many pests have developed resistance to this insecticide. A 16-fold imidacloprid-resistant population of M. domestica infesting poultry was selected using imidacloprid for 13 continuous generations to study the inheritance and realized heritability of resistance. Toxicological bioassay at G14 showed that the imidacloprid-selected population developed 106-fold resistance when compared to the susceptible population. Reciprocal crosses of susceptible and resistant populations showed an autosomal trait of resistance to imidacloprid in M. domestica. There was incompletely recessive resistance in F1 (Imida-SEL ♂ × Susceptible ♀) and F1(†) (Imida-SEL ♀ × Susceptible ♂) having dominance value 0.53 and 0.31, respectively. Monogenic model of inheritance showed that imidacloprid resistance was controlled by multiple factors. The realized heritability value was 0.09 in the imidacloprid-selected population of M. domestica. It was concluded that imidacloprid resistance in M. domestica was autosomally inherited, incompletely recessive and polygenic. These findings should be helpful for better and more successful management of M. domestica. PMID:25175648

  5. Selenium metabolites in urine of cancer patients receiving L-selenomethionine at high doses

    SciTech Connect

    Kuehnelt, Doris; Juresa, Dijana; Francesconi, Kevin A. . E-mail: kevin.francesconi@uni-graz.at; Fakih, Marwan; Reid, Mary E.

    2007-04-15

    We investigated, with quantitative HPLC/mass spectrometry, the selenium metabolites in urine from five cancer patients receiving high doses of L-selenomethionine over an extended period (2 x 4000 {mu}g Se/day for 7 days, then 4000 {mu}g Se/day for 21 days) as an adjunct to their normal cancer chemotherapy. Urine samples were collected at day 0 (all 5 patients), and at 2-3 additional collection times ranging from 1 to 33 days. The background selenium concentrations ranged from 12 to 55 {mu}g Se/L and increased to 870 to 4420 {mu}g Se/L for the five patients during the study. All five patients had appreciable levels of selenosugars in their background urine sample, and the concentrations increased dramatically after selenium intake. Trimethylselenonium ion (TMSe), on the other hand, was generally present as only a trace metabolite in background urine, and, although the concentration of TMSe increased following selenium exposure, it became a less significant proportion relative to selenosugars. These data refute the currently accepted role of TMSe as the preferred excretion metabolite when selenium exposure is high.

  6. On Complex Nuclei Energetics in LENR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miley, George H.; Hora, Heinz

    2005-03-01

    Swimming Electron Layer (SEL) theory plus fission of ``complex nuclei'' were proposed earlier to explain reaction products observed in electrolysis with multi-layer thin-film metallic electrodesootnotetext1.G.H. Miley, and J.A. Patterson, J. New Energy, Vol. 1, pp.11-15, (1996).. SEL was then extended to treat gas-diffusion driven transmutation experimentsootnotetextG. H. Miley and H. Hora, ``Nuclear Reactions in Solids,'' APS DNP Mtg., East Lansing, MI, Oct (2002).. It is also consistent with measured charged-particle emission during thin-film electrolysis and x-ray emission during plasma bombardment experimentsootnotetextA. Karabut, ``X-ray emission in high-current glow discharge,'' Proc., ICCF-9, Beijing China, May (2002).. The binding energy per complex nucleon can be estimated by an energy balance combined with identification of products for each complex e.g. complexes of A 39 have ˜ 0.05 MeV/Nucleon, etc, in thin film electrolysis. Energies in gas diffusion experiments are lower due to the reduced trap site potential at the multi-atom surface. In the case of x-ray emission, complexes involve subsurface defect center traps, giving only a few keV/Nucleon, consistent with experiments^3.

  7. Secure Control Systems for the Energy Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Rhett; Campbell, Jack; Hadley, Mark

    2012-03-31

    Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories (SEL) will conduct the Hallmark Project to address the need to reduce the risk of energy disruptions because of cyber incidents on control systems. The goals is to develop solutions that can be both applied to existing control systems and designed into new control systems to add the security measures needed to mitigate energy network vulnerabilities. The scope of the Hallmark Project contains four primary elements: 1. Technology transfer of the Secure Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Communications Protocol (SSCP) from Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) to Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories (SEL). The project shall use this technology to develop a Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 140-2 compliant original equipment manufacturer (OEM) module to be called a Cryptographic Daughter Card (CDC) with the ability to directly connect to any PC enabling that computer to securely communicate across serial to field devices. Validate the OEM capabilities with another vendor. 2. Development of a Link Authenticator Module (LAM) using the FIPS 140-2 validated Secure SCADA Communications Protocol (SSCP) CDC module with a central management software kit. 3. Validation of the CDC and Link Authenticator modules via laboratory and field tests. 4. Creation of documents that record the impact of the Link Authenticator to the operators of control systems and on the control system itself. The information in the documents can assist others with technology deployment and maintenance.

  8. Portable Sonic Boom Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salamone, Joe

    2006-05-01

    A method is presented to simulate sonic booms using high fidelity and custom-built audio equipment that output to an acoustically treated listening environment, all of which is contained in a portable vehicle. The audio system has inherent low and high frequency performance limitations and also introduces distortion due to the frequency response of the system. The limitations of the system are compensated for by band-pass filtering a full-fidelity sonic boom signature and applying a system equalization filter. The purpose of the band-pass filter is to remove frequency content above and below the capabilities of the system yet retain the audible and felt characteristics of the full-fidelity waveform. The equalization filter, computed from time-domain Wiener filtering, compensates for the frequency-dependent system response of the audio system at several listening positions. The system performance is evaluated by comparing the PLdB, SEL(A) and SEL(C) of the measured system output to the full-fidelity waveform. Results show good agreement between the loudness levels of the full-fidelity waveform and the corresponding measured system output.

  9. Nucleotide Bias Observed with a Short SELEX RNA Aptamer Library

    PubMed Central

    Thiel, William H.; Bair, Thomas; Thiel, Kristina Wyatt; Dassie, Justin P.; Rockey, William M.; Howell, Craig A.; Liu, Xiuying Y.; Dupuy, Adam J.; Huang, Lingyan; Owczarzy, Richard; Behlke, Mark A.; McNamara, James O.

    2011-01-01

    Systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) is a powerful in vitro selection process used for over 2 decades to identify oligonucleotide sequences (aptamers) with desired properties (usually high affinity for a protein target) from randomized nucleic acid libraries. In the case of RNA aptamers, several highly complex RNA libraries have been described with RNA sequences ranging from 71 to 81 nucleotides (nt) in length. In this study, we used high-throughput sequencing combined with bioinformatics analysis to thoroughly examine the nucleotide composition of the sequence pools derived from several selections that employed an RNA library (Sel2N20) with an abbreviated variable region. The Sel2N20 yields RNAs 51 nt in length, which unlike longer RNAs, are more amenable to large-scale chemical synthesis for therapeutic development. Our analysis revealed a consistent and early bias against inclusion of adenine, resulting in aptamers with lower predicted minimum free energies (ΔG) (higher structural stability). This bias was also observed in control, “nontargeted” selections in which the partition step (against the target) was omitted, suggesting that the bias occurred in 1 or more of the amplification and propagation steps of the SELEX process. PMID:21793789

  10. RNA-dependent conversion of phosphoserine forms selenocysteine in eukaryotes and archaea

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jing; Palioura, Sotiria; Salazar, Juan Carlos; Su, Dan; O'Donoghue, Patrick; Hohn, Michael J.; Cardoso, Alexander Machado; Whitman, William B.; Söll, Dieter

    2006-01-01

    The trace element selenium is found in proteins as selenocysteine (Sec), the 21st amino acid to participate in ribosome-mediated translation. The substrate for ribosomal protein synthesis is selenocysteinyl-tRNASec. Its biosynthesis from seryl-tRNASec has been established for bacteria, but the mechanism of conversion from Ser-tRNASec remained unresolved for archaea and eukarya. Here, we provide evidence for a different route present in these domains of life that requires the tRNASec-dependent conversion of O-phosphoserine (Sep) to Sec. In this two-step pathway, O-phosphoseryl-tRNASec kinase (PSTK) converts Ser-tRNASec to Sep-tRNASec. This misacylated tRNA is the obligatory precursor for a Sep-tRNA:Sec-tRNA synthase (SepSecS); this protein was previously annotated as SLA/LP. The human and archaeal SepSecS genes complement in vivo an Escherichia coli Sec synthase (SelA) deletion strain. Furthermore, purified recombinant SepSecS converts Sep-tRNASec into Sec-tRNASec in vitro in the presence of sodium selenite and purified recombinant E. coli selenophosphate synthetase (SelD). Phylogenetic arguments suggest that Sec decoding was present in the last universal common ancestor. SepSecS and PSTK coevolved with the archaeal and eukaryotic lineages, but the history of PSTK is marked by several horizontal gene transfer events, including transfer to non-Sec-decoding Cyanobacteria and fungi. PMID:17142313

  11. The Responsive Classroom approach and fifth grade students' math and science anxiety and self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Griggs, Marissa Swaim; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E; Merritt, Eileen G; Patton, Christine L

    2013-12-01

    Self-efficacy forecasts student persistence and achievement in challenging subjects. Thus, it is important to understand factors that contribute to students' self-efficacy, a key factor in their success in math and science. The current cross-sectional study examined the contribution of students' gender and math and science anxiety as well as schools' use of Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) practices to students' math and science self-efficacy. Fifth graders (n = 1,561) completed questionnaires regarding their feelings about math and science. Approximately half of the students attended schools implementing the Responsive Classroom® (RC) approach, an SEL intervention, as part of a randomized controlled trial. Results suggested no difference in math and science self-efficacy between boys and girls. Students who self-reported higher math and science anxiety also reported less self-efficacy toward these subjects. However, the negative association between students' anxiety and self-efficacy was attenuated in schools using more RC practices compared with those using fewer RC practices. RC practices were associated with higher science self-efficacy. Results highlight anxiety as contributing to poor self-efficacy in math and science and suggest that RC practices create classroom conditions in which students' anxiety is less strongly associated with negative beliefs about their ability to be successful in math and science.

  12. An optical disk archive for a data base management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Douglas T.

    1985-01-01

    An overview is given of a data base management system that can catalog and archive data at rates up to 50M bits/sec. Emphasis is on the laser disk system that is used for the archive. All key components in the system (3 Vax 11/780s, a SEL 32/2750, a high speed communication interface, and the optical disk) are interfaced to a 100M bits/sec 16-port fiber optic bus to achieve the high data rates. The basic data unit is an autonomous data packet. Each packet contains a primary and secondary header and can be up to a million bits in length. The data packets are recorded on the optical disk at the same time the packet headers are being used by the relational data base management software ORACLE to create a directory independent of the packet recording process. The user then interfaces to the VAX that contains the directory for a quick-look scan or retrieval of the packet(s). The total system functions are distributed between the VAX and the SEL. The optical disk unit records the data with an argon laser at 100M bits/sec from its buffer, which is interfaced to the fiber optic bus. The same laser is used in the read cycle by reducing the laser power. Additional information is given in the form of outlines, charts, and diagrams.

  13. Proceedings of the Twenty-Fourth Annual Software Engineering Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    On December 1 and 2, the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL), a consortium composed of NASA/Goddard, the University of Maryland, and CSC, held the 24th Software Engineering Workshop (SEW), the last of the millennium. Approximately 240 people attended the 2-day workshop. Day 1 was composed of four sessions: International Influence of the Software Engineering Laboratory; Object Oriented Testing and Reading; Software Process Improvement; and Space Software. For the first session, three internationally known software process experts discussed the influence of the SEL with respect to software engineering research. In the Space Software session, prominent representatives from three different NASA sites- GSFC's Marti Szczur, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Rick Doyle, and the Ames Research Center IV&V Facility's Lou Blazy- discussed the future of space software in their respective centers. At the end of the first day, the SEW sponsored a reception at the GSFC Visitors' Center. Day 2 also provided four sessions: Using the Experience Factory; A panel discussion entitled "Software Past, Present, and Future: Views from Government, Industry, and Academia"; Inspections; and COTS. The day started with an excellent talk by CSC's Frank McGarry on "Attaining Level 5 in CMM Process Maturity." Session 2, the panel discussion on software, featured NASA Chief Information Officer Lee Holcomb (Government), our own Jerry Page (Industry), and Mike Evangelist of the National Science Foundation (Academia). Each presented his perspective on the most important developments in software in the past 10 years, in the present, and in the future.

  14. Selenoprotein X Gene Knockdown Aggravated H2O2-Induced Apoptosis in Liver LO2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jiayong; Cao, Lei; Li, Qiang; Wang, Longqiong; Jia, Gang; Liu, Guangmang; Chen, Xiaoling; Cai, Jingyi; Shang, Haiying; Zhao, Hua

    2016-09-01

    To determine the roles of selenoprotein X gene (Selx) in protecting liver cells against oxidative damage, the influences of Selx knockdown on H2O2-induced apoptosis in human normal hepatocyte (LO2) cells were studied. pSilencer 3.1 was used to develop knockdown vector targeting the 3'-UTR of human Selx. The Selx knockdown and control cells were further exposed to H2O2, and cell viability, cell apoptosis rate, and the expression levels of mRNA and protein of apoptosis-related genes were detected. The results showed that vector targeting the 3'-UTR of Selx successfully silenced mRNA or protein expression of SelX in LO2 cells. Selx knockdown resulted in decreased cell viability, increased percentage of early apoptotic cells, decreased Bcl2A1 and Bcl-2 expression, and increased phosphorylation of P38 in LO2 cells. When Selx knockdown LO2 cells were exposed to H2O2, characteristics of H2O2-induced cell dysfunctions were further exacerbated. Taken together, our findings suggested that SelX played important roles in protecting LO2 cells against oxidative damage and reducing H2O2-induced apoptosis in liver cells.

  15. Building an experience factory for maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valett, Jon D.; Condon, Steven E.; Briand, Lionel; Kim, Yong-Mi; Basili, Victor R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports the preliminary results of a study of the software maintenance process in the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC). This study is being conducted by the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL), a research organization sponsored by the Software Engineering Branch of the FDD, which investigates the effectiveness of software engineering technologies when applied to the development of applications software. This software maintenance study began in October 1993 and is being conducted using the Quality Improvement Paradigm (QIP), a process improvement strategy based on three iterative steps: understanding, assessing, and packaging. The preliminary results represent the outcome of the understanding phase, during which SEL researchers characterized the maintenance environment, product, and process. Findings indicate that a combination of quantitative and qualitative analysis is effective for studying the software maintenance process, that additional measures should be collected for maintenance (as opposed to new development), and that characteristics such as effort, error rate, and productivity are best considered on a 'release' basis rather than on a project basis. The research thus far has documented some basic differences between new development and software maintenance. It lays the foundation for further application of the QIP to investigate means of improving the maintenance process and product in the FDD.

  16. Lactate Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (LATEST) Imaging in vivo A Biomarker for LDH Activity

    PubMed Central

    DeBrosse, Catherine; Nanga, Ravi Prakash Reddy; Bagga, Puneet; Nath, Kavindra; Haris, Mohammad; Marincola, Francesco; Schnall, Mitchell D.; Hariharan, Hari; Reddy, Ravinder

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive imaging of lactate is of enormous significance in cancer and metabolic disorders where glycolysis dominates. Here, for the first time, we describe a chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method (LATEST), based on the exchange between lactate hydroxyl proton and bulk water protons to image lactate with high spatial resolution. We demonstrate the feasibility of imaging lactate with LATEST in lactate phantoms under physiological conditions, in a mouse model of lymphoma tumors, and in skeletal muscle of healthy human subjects pre- and post-exercise. The method is validated by measuring LATEST changes in lymphoma tumors pre- and post-infusion of pyruvate and correlating them with lactate determined from multiple quantum filtered proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (SEL-MQC 1H-MRS). Similarly, dynamic LATEST changes in exercising human skeletal muscle are correlated with lactate determined from SEL-MQC 1H-MRS. The LATEST method does not involve injection of radioactive isotopes or labeled metabolites. It has over two orders of magnitude higher sensitivity compared to conventional 1H-MRS. It is anticipated that this technique will have a wide range of applications including diagnosis and evaluation of therapeutic response of cancer, diabetes, cardiac, and musculoskeletal diseases. The advantages of LATEST over existing methods and its potential challenges are discussed. PMID:26794265

  17. Effects of space radiation on electronic microcircuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolasinski, W. A.

    1989-01-01

    The single event effects or phenomena (SEP), which so far have been observed as events falling on one or another of the SE classes: Single Event Upset (SEU), Single Event Latchup (SEL) and Single Event Burnout (SEB), are examined. Single event upset is defined as a lasting, reversible change in the state of a multistable (usually bistable) electronic circuit such as a flip-flop or latch. In a computer memory, SEUs manifest themselves as unexplained bit flips. Since latchup is in general caused by a single event of short duration, the single event part of the SEL term is superfluous. Nevertheless, it is used customarily to differentiate latchup due to a single heavy charged particle striking a sensitive cell from more ordinary kinds of latchup. Single event burnout (SEB) refers usually to total instantaneous failure of a power FET when struck by a single particle, with the device shorting out the power supply. An unforeseen failure of these kinds can be catastrophic to a space mission, and the possibilities are discussed.

  18. Biological interaction between transition metals (Ag, Cd and Hg), selenide/sulfide and selenoprotein P.

    PubMed

    Sasakura, C; Suzuki, K T

    1998-09-01

    The interaction between transition metals (Ag+, Cd2+ and Hg2+) and selenium (Se) in the bloodstream was studied in vitro by means of the HPLC--inductively coupled argon plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP MS) method. Transition metal ions and selenide (produced in vitro from selenite in the presence of glutathione) or sulfide (Na2S) formed a (metal-Se/S) complex, which then bound to a plasma protein, selenoprotein P (Sel P), to form a ternary complex, (metal-Se/S)-Sel P. The molar ratios of metals to Se were 1:1 for Hg/Se and Cd/Se, but either 1:1 or 2:1 for Ag/Se, depending on the ratio of their doses. The results indicate that the interaction between transition metals and Se occurs through the general mechanism, i.e., transition metal ions and selenide form the unit complex (metal-Se)n, and then the complex binds to selenoprotein P to form the ternary complex ¿(metal-Se)n¿m--seleno-protein P in the bloodstream. PMID:9833321

  19. Platelet-Monocyte Aggregates and C-Reactive Protein are Associated with VTE in Older Surgical Patients.

    PubMed

    Shih, Lauren; Kaplan, David; Kraiss, Larry W; Casper, T Charles; Pendleton, Robert C; Peters, Christopher L; Supiano, Mark A; Zimmerman, Guy A; Weyrich, Andrew S; Rondina, Matthew T

    2016-06-07

    Emerging evidence implicates platelets as key mediators of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Nevertheless, the pathways by which platelets and circulating procoagulant proteins synergistically orchestrate VTE remain incompletely understood. We prospectively determined whether activated platelets and systemic procoagulant factors were associated with VTE in 32 older orthopedic surgery patients. Circulating platelet-monocyte aggregates (PMAs), p-selectin expression (P-SEL), and integrin αIIbβ3 activation (PAC-1 binding) were assessed pre-operatively and 24 hours post-operatively. The proinflammatory and procoagulant molecule C-reactive protein (CRP), which induces PMA formation in vitro, along with plasma d-dimer and fibrinogen levels were also measured. The primary outcome was VTE occurring within 30 days post-operatively. Overall, 40.6% of patients developed VTE. Patients with VTE had a significant increase in circulating PMAs and CRP post-operatively, compared to those without VTE. Changes in PMA and CRP in VTE patients were significantly correlated (r(2) = 0.536, p = 0.004). In contrast, P-SEL expression and PAC-1 binding, fibrinogen levels, and d-dimers were not associated with VTE. This is the first study to identify that increased circulating PMAs and CRP levels are early markers associated with post-surgical VTE. Our findings also provide new clinical evidence supporting the interplay between PMAs and CRP in patients with VTE.

  20. Determination of selenium in serum by FI-HG-AAS and calculation of dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Li, F; Rossipal, E; Micetic-Turk, D

    2000-03-01

    A method was developed for the determination of selenium concentration in serum by flow injection-hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HG-AAS) following microwave digestion of serum samples and reduction of selenate to selenite. The detection limit of the method was 0.3 microg Se/L and the characteristic concentration, corresponding to the 0.0044 absorbance signal, was 0.12 microg Se/L. The results from the analysis of two Seronorm standard reference materials showed good agreement with the certified values. The method was then used to analyze selenium in sera of Austrian and Slovenian people for the calculation of dietary intakes. The selenium concentrations in sera of mothers at delivery, their neonates, and the male and female adults were 71+/-14, 42+/-6, 75+/-21, and 65+/-16 microg/L for the Austrians and 62+/-15, 34+/-7, 70+/-12, and 66+/-15 microg/L for the Slovenians. The dietary intakes of selenium of the mothers and the male and the female adults were calculated as 52, 37, and 46 microg/d for the Austrians and 45, 38, and 32 microg/d for the Slovenians.

  1. Enhancement of human skin facial revitalization by moringa leaf extract cream

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Naveed; Chowdhary, Farzana

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Solar ultraviolet exposure is the main cause of skin damage by initiation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to skin collagen imperfection and eventually skin roughness. This can be reduced by proper revitalization of skin enhancing younger and healthier appearance. Aim To evaluate the skin facial revitalization effect of a cream formulation containing the Moringa oleifera leaf extract on humans. Material and methods Active cream containing 3% of the concentrated extract of moringa leaves was developed by entrapping in the inner aqueous phase of cream. Base contained no extract. Skin revitalizing parameters, i.e. surface, volume, texture parameters and surface evaluation of the living skin (SELS) were assessed comparatively after application of the base and active cream on human face using Visioscan® VC 98 for a period of 3 months. Results Surface values were increased by the base and decreased by the active cream. Effects produced for the base and active cream were significant and insignificant, respectively, as observed in the case of surface. Unlike the base, the active cream showed significant effects on skin volume, texture parameters (energy, variance and contrast) and SELS, SEr (skin roughness), SEsc (skin scaliness), SEsm (skin smoothness), and SEw (skin wrinkles) parameters. Conclusions The results suggested that moringa cream enhances skin revitalization effect and supports anti-aging skin effects. PMID:25097471

  2. Validation of Aircraft Noise Models at Lower Levels of Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, Juliet A.; Plotkin, Kenneth J.; Carey, Jeffrey N.; Bradley, Kevin A.

    1996-01-01

    Noise levels around airports and airbases in the United States arc computed via the FAA's Integrated Noise Model (INM) or the Air Force's NOISEMAP (NMAP) program. These models were originally developed for use in the vicinity of airports, at distances which encompass a day night average sound level in decibels (Ldn) of 65 dB or higher. There is increasing interest in aircraft noise at larger distances from the airport. including en-route noise. To evaluate the applicability of INM and NMAP at larger distances, a measurement program was conducted at a major air carrier airport with monitoring sites located in areas exposed to an Ldn of 55 dB and higher. Automated Radar Terminal System (ARTS) radar tracking data were obtained to provide actual flight parameters and positive identification of aircraft. Flight operations were grouped according to aircraft type. stage length, straight versus curved flight tracks, and arrival versus departure. Sound exposure levels (SEL) were computed at monitoring locations, using the INM, and compared with measured values. While individual overflight SEL data was characterized by a high variance, analysis performed on an energy-averaging basis indicates that INM and similar models can be applied to regions exposed to an Ldn of 55 dB with no loss of reliability.

  3. Pseudorandom selective excitation in NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walls, Jamie D.; Coomes, Alexandra

    2011-09-01

    In this work, average Hamiltonian theory is used to study selective excitation under a series of small flip-angle θ-pulses θ ≪ {π}/{3} applied either periodically [corresponding to the DANTE pulse sequence] or aperiodically to a spin-1/2 system. First, an average Hamiltonian description of the DANTE pulse sequence is developed that is valid for frequencies either at or very far from integer multiples of {1}/{τ}, where τ is the interpulse delay. For aperiodic excitation, a single resonance, νsel, can be selectively excited if the θ-pulse phases are modulated in concert with the interpulse delays. The conditions where average Hamiltonian theory can be accurately applied to describe the dynamics under aperiodic selective pulses, which are referred to as pseudorandom-DANTE or p-DANTE sequences, are similar to those found for the DANTE sequence. Signal averaging over different p-DANTE sequences improves the apparent selectivity at νsel by reducing the excitations at other frequencies. Experimental demonstrations of p-DANTE sequences and comparisons with the theory are presented.

  4. TRNSYS HYBRID wind diesel PV simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, P.J.A.; Mitchell, J.W.; Klein, S.A.; Beckman, W.A.; Blair, N.J.

    1996-12-31

    The Solar Energy Laboratory (SEL) has developed a wind diesel PV hybrid systems simulator, UW-HYBRID 1.0, an application of the TRNSYS 14.2 time-series simulation environment. An AC/DC bus links up to five diesels and wind turbine models, along with PV modules, a battery bank, and an AC/DC converter. Multiple units can be selected. PV system simulations include solar angle and peak power tracking options. Weather data are Typical Meteorological Year data, parametrically generated synthesized data, or external data files. PV performance simulations rely on long-standing SEL-developed algorithms. Loads data are read as scalable time series. Diesel simulations include estimated fuel-use and waste heat output, and are dispatched using a least-cost of fuel strategy. Wind system simulations include varying air density, wind shear and wake effects. Time step duration is user-selectable. UW-HYBRID 1.0 runs in Windows{reg_sign}, with TRNSED providing a customizable user interface. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Effect of alternative salt use on broiler breast meat yields, tenderness, flavor, and sodium concentration.

    PubMed

    Broadway, P R; Behrends, J M; Schilling, M W

    2011-12-01

    Fresh chicken breast fillets were marinated with gourmet-style salts: Himalayan pink salt, Sonoma gourmet salt, sel gus de Guerande, and Bolivian rose salt to evaluate their effects on marination and cook loss yields, tenderness, sensory attributes, and sodium concentration. Fresh chicken breast fillets (48-h postmortem) were vacuum tumbled (137 kPa at 20 rpm for 17 min) in a solution of water, salt, and sodium tripolyphosphate at a level of 20% of the meat weights. Instrumental analyses showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) in meat quality with respect to marination yield, cook yield, or shear-force value. There were also no significant differences (P > 0.05) in sensory descriptors between salt treatments. However, Sonoma gourmet salt showed a tendency (P = 0.0693) to score increased savory note values from panelists, whereas Bolivian rose salt received the lowest score. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in sodium concentrations between salt treatments, but numerically, sel gus de Guerande had the lowest sodium concentration, which could be important in producing reduced sodium products. Understanding different salts and sodium concentrations allows the poultry industry to use gourmet salts in products and maintain overall meat quality and flavor.

  6. Design and analysis of an adaptive lens that mimics the performance of the crystalline lens in the human eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago-Alvarado, Agustin; Cruz-Félix, Angel S.; Iturbide-Jiménez, F.; Martínez-López, M.; Ramírez-Como, M.; Armengol-Cruz, V.; Vásquez-Báez, I.

    2014-09-01

    Tunable lenses are optical systems that have attracted much attention due to their potential applications in such areas like ophthalmology, machine vision, microscopy and laser processing. In recent years we have been working in the analysis and performance of a liquid-filled variable focal length lens, this is a lens that can modify its focal length by changing the amount of water within it. Nowadays we extend our study to a particular adaptive lens known as solid elastic lens (SEL) that it is formed by an elastic main body made of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS Sylgard 184). In this work, we present the design, simulation and analysis of an adaptive solid elastic lens that in principle imitates the accommodation process of the crystalline lens in the human eye. For this work, we have adopted the parameters of the schematic eye model developed in 1985 by Navarro et al.; this model represents the anatomy of the eye as close as possible to reality by predicting an acceptable and accurate quantity of spherical and chromatic aberrations without any shape fitting. An opto-mechanical analysis of the accommodation process of the adaptive lens is presented, by simulating a certain amount of radial force applied onto the SEL using the finite element method with the commercial software SolidWorks®. We also present ray-trace diagrams of the simulated compression process of the adaptive lens using the commercial software OSLO®.

  7. High-throughput mutagenesis reveals functional determinants for DNA targeting by activation-induced deaminase

    PubMed Central

    Gajula, Kiran S.; Huwe, Peter J.; Mo, Charlie Y.; Crawford, Daniel J.; Stivers, James T.; Radhakrishnan, Ravi; Kohli, Rahul M.

    2014-01-01

    Antibody maturation is a critical immune process governed by the enzyme activation-induced deaminase (AID), a member of the AID/APOBEC DNA deaminase family. AID/APOBEC deaminases preferentially target cytosine within distinct preferred sequence motifs in DNA, with specificity largely conferred by a small 9–11 residue protein loop that differs among family members. Here, we aimed to determine the key functional characteristics of this protein loop in AID and to thereby inform our understanding of the mode of DNA engagement. To this end, we developed a methodology (Sat-Sel-Seq) that couples saturation mutagenesis at each position across the targeting loop, with iterative functional selection and next-generation sequencing. This high-throughput mutational analysis revealed dominant characteristics for residues within the loop and additionally yielded enzymatic variants that enhance deaminase activity. To rationalize these functional requirements, we performed molecular dynamics simulations that suggest that AID and its hyperactive variants can engage DNA in multiple specific modes. These findings align with AID's competing requirements for specificity and flexibility to efficiently drive antibody maturation. Beyond insights into the AID-DNA interface, our Sat-Sel-Seq approach also serves to further expand the repertoire of techniques for deep positional scanning and may find general utility for high-throughput analysis of protein function. PMID:25064858

  8. Implementation of a school-based social and emotional learning intervention: understanding diffusion processes within complex systems.

    PubMed

    Evans, Rhiannon; Murphy, Simon; Scourfield, Jonathan

    2015-07-01

    Sporadic and inconsistent implementation remains a significant challenge for social and emotional learning (SEL) interventions. This may be partly explained by the dearth of flexible, causative models that capture the multifarious determinants of implementation practices within complex systems. This paper draws upon Rogers (2003) Diffusion of Innovations Theory to explain the adoption, implementation and discontinuance of a SEL intervention. A pragmatic, formative process evaluation was conducted in alignment with phase 1 of the UK Medical Research Council's framework for Developing and Evaluating Complex Interventions. Employing case-study methodology, qualitative data were generated with four socio-economically and academically contrasting secondary schools in Wales implementing the Student Assistance Programme. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 programme stakeholders. Data suggested that variation in implementation activity could be largely attributed to four key intervention reinvention points, which contributed to the transformation of the programme as it interacted with contextual features and individual needs. These reinvention points comprise the following: intervention training, which captures the process through which adopters acquire knowledge about a programme and delivery expertise; intervention assessment, which reflects adopters' evaluation of an intervention in relation to contextual needs; intervention clarification, which comprises the cascading of knowledge through an organisation in order to secure support in delivery; and intervention responsibility, which refers to the process of assigning accountability for sustainable delivery. Taken together, these points identify opportunities to predict and intervene with potential implementation problems. Further research would benefit from exploring additional reinvention activity. PMID:25726153

  9. Comparison between liquid and solid tunable focus lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago-Alvarado, A.; Vazquez-Montiel, S.; Munoz-López, J.; Cruz-Martínez, V. M.; Díaz-González, G.; Campos-García, M.

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays more reports in the use of tunable lenses are reported, it is due to the benefits they offer in optical systems design. A tunable lens is an optical system that can focus on a range of positions by changing dynamically one of its geometric parameters. There are several types of tunable lenses, the most known types are the liquid, the solid elastic, with variable refractive index, and lenses that use a dielectric medium. This paper presents the analysis and opto-mechanical design of two tunable lenses, a liquid lens and another Solid Elastic Lens (SEL). Both lenses are made in mounting aluminium and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as refractor medium, the liquid lens use two elastic membranes containing a liquid medium between them while the SEL only use PDMS material as body of the lens (medium refractor). We describe the opto-mechanical performance of both types of lens highlighting the main features of each. Finally, results of a opto-functional comparison between these prototypes are showed.

  10. Genetics and realized heritability of resistance to imidacloprid in a poultry population of house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Hussnain; Abbas, Naeem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Afzal, Muhammad Babar Shahzad

    2014-09-01

    Imidacloprid, a post-synaptic, nicotinic insecticide, has been commonly used for the management of different pests including Musca domestica worldwide. Many pests have developed resistance to this insecticide. A 16-fold imidacloprid-resistant population of M. domestica infesting poultry was selected using imidacloprid for 13 continuous generations to study the inheritance and realized heritability of resistance. Toxicological bioassay at G14 showed that the imidacloprid-selected population developed 106-fold resistance when compared to the susceptible population. Reciprocal crosses of susceptible and resistant populations showed an autosomal trait of resistance to imidacloprid in M. domestica. There was incompletely recessive resistance in F1 (Imida-SEL ♂ × Susceptible ♀) and F1(†) (Imida-SEL ♀ × Susceptible ♂) having dominance value 0.53 and 0.31, respectively. Monogenic model of inheritance showed that imidacloprid resistance was controlled by multiple factors. The realized heritability value was 0.09 in the imidacloprid-selected population of M. domestica. It was concluded that imidacloprid resistance in M. domestica was autosomally inherited, incompletely recessive and polygenic. These findings should be helpful for better and more successful management of M. domestica.

  11. South Atlantic anomaly and CubeSat design considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fennelly, Judy A.; Johnston, William R.; Ober, Daniel M.; Wilson, Gordon R.; O'Brien, T. Paul; Huston, Stuart L.

    2015-09-01

    Effects of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) on spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO) are well known and documented. The SAA exposes spacecraft in LEO to high dose of ionizing radiation as well as higher than normal rates of Single Event Upsets (SEU) and Single Event Latch-ups (SEL). CubeSats, spacecraft built around 10 x 10 x 10 cm cubes, are even more susceptible to SEUs and SELs due to the use of commercial off-the-shelf components for electronics and payload instrumentation. Examination of the SAA using both data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and a new set of models for the flux of particles is presented. The models, AE9, AP9, and SPM for energetic electrons, energetic protons and space plasma, were developed for use in space system design. These models introduce databased statistical constraints on the uncertainties from measurements and climatological variability. Discussion of the models' capabilities and limitations with regard to LEO CubeSat design is presented.

  12. Overproduction of a selenocysteine-containing polypeptide in Escherichia coli: the fdhF gene product.

    PubMed

    Chen, G T; Axley, M J; Hacia, J; Inouye, M

    1992-03-01

    The fdhF gene of Escherichia coli codes for the selenocysteine-including protein subunit of formate dehydrogenase H. The protein subunit consists of 715 amino acid residues containing a single selenocysteine residue at position 140 which is encoded by a UGA codon. The decoding of this opal termination codon occurs under anaerobic growth conditions by means of a specific tRNA, i.e. the selC gene product. The ability of E. coli cells to overproduce a selenopolypeptide was examined using the fdhF gene as a model system. Surprisingly, E. coli was able to synthesize the fdhF gene product at the level of approximately 12% of the total cellular protein. This was achieved by cloning fdhF in a multicopy plasmid together with a synthetic selC gene under the Ipp promoter. FdhF production was absolutely dependent upon the addition of selenium to the culture medium and was almost completely blocked in the presence of oxygen. The product was specifically labelled with 75Se, proving that it consisted of a selenoprotein. The product was purified to homogeneity and shown to exhibit the catalytic properties characteristic of formate dehydrogenase H. PMID:1533438

  13. Engineering the elongation factor Tu for efficient selenoprotein synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Haruna, Ken-ichi; Alkazemi, Muhammad H.; Liu, Yuchen; Söll, Dieter; Englert, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Selenocysteine (Sec) is naturally co-translationally incorporated into proteins by recoding the UGA opal codon with a specialized elongation factor (SelB in bacteria) and an RNA structural signal (SECIS element). We have recently developed a SECIS-free selenoprotein synthesis system that site-specifically—using the UAG amber codon—inserts Sec depending on the elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu). Here, we describe the engineering of EF-Tu for improved selenoprotein synthesis. A Sec-specific selection system was established by expression of human protein O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (hAGT), in which the active site cysteine codon has been replaced by the UAG amber codon. The formed hAGT selenoprotein repairs the DNA damage caused by the methylating agent N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, and thereby enables Escherichia coli to grow in the presence of this mutagen. An EF-Tu library was created in which codons specifying the amino acid binding pocket were randomized. Selection was carried out for enhanced Sec incorporation into hAGT; the resulting EF-Tu variants contained highly conserved amino acid changes within members of the library. The improved UTu-system with EF-Sel1 raises the efficiency of UAG-specific Sec incorporation to >90%, and also doubles the yield of selenoprotein production. PMID:25064855

  14. Use of steam explosion liquor from sugar cane bagasse for lignin peroxidase production by Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Maria Antonieta; Bon, Elba P S; Araujo Neto, Julio Silva

    2002-01-01

    The possibility of using two by-products of the sugar cane industry, molasses and bagasse steam explosion liquor (SEL), for lignin peroxidase (LiP) production by Phanerochaete chrysosporium was investigated. For comparison, the fungus was initially cultivated in synthetic media containing either glucose, sucrose, xylose, or xylan as sole carbon sources. The effect of veratryl alcohol (VA) was also investigated in relation to the enzyme activity levels. Results showed that sucrose was not metabolized by this fungus, which precluded the use of molasses as a carbon source. Glucose, xylose, and xylan promoted equivalent cell growth. Enzyme levels in the absence of VA were lower than 28 UI/L and in the presence of VA reached 109 IU/L with glucose and 85 IU/L with xylose or xylan. SEL was adequate for P. chrysosporium LiP production as LiP activity reached 90 IU/L. When VA was added to this medium, enzyme concentration increased to 155 IU/L.

  15. Temporary shift in masked hearing thresholds in a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) after exposure to seismic airgun stimuli.

    PubMed

    Lucke, Klaus; Siebert, Ursula; Lepper, Paul A; Blanchet, Marie-Anne

    2009-06-01

    An auditory study was conducted to derive data on temporary threshold shift (TTS) induced by single impulses. This information should serve as basis for the definition of noise exposure criteria for harbor porpoises. The measurements of TTS were conducted on a harbor porpoise by measuring the auditory evoked potentials in response to amplitude-modulated sounds. After obtaining baseline hearing data the animal was exposed to single airgun stimuli at increasing received levels. Immediately after each exposure the animal's hearing threshold was tested for significant changes. The received levels of the airgun impulses were increased until TTS was reached. At 4 kHz the predefined TTS criterion was exceeded at a received sound pressure level of 199.7 dB(pk-pk) re 1 microPa and a sound exposure level (SEL) of 164.3 dB re 1 microPa(2) s. The animal consistently showed aversive behavioral reactions at received sound pressure levels above 174 dB(pk-pk) re 1 microPa or a SEL of 145 dB re 1 microPa(2) s. Elevated levels of baseline hearing sensitivity indicate potentially masked acoustic thresholds. Therefore, the resulting TTS levels should be considered masked temporary threshold shift (MTTS) levels. The MTTS levels are lower than for any other cetacean species tested so far. PMID:19507987

  16. HINDERED DIFFUSION OF ASPHALTENES AT EVALUATED TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE

    SciTech Connect

    JAMES A. GUIN; SURYA VADLAMANI

    1998-10-03

    During this time period, the PhD student working on this project, Mr. X. Yang, graduated and has obtained employment with Michelin Tire Company in their research and development laboratory. A new MS student, Mr. Surya Vadlamani, is now working on the project. The work conducted in this time period will form part of Mr. Vadlamani�s MS thesis. Also during the current time period, a no-cost extension was obtained for the project, which will allow Mr. Vadlamani to complete the research work required for the MS degree in chemical engineering. Since Mr. Vadlamani was new to the project and in order to provide appropriate training, it was necessary to conduct some experimental work in the same ranges as performed earlier by Mr. Yang in order to provide continuity and insure duplication of the experimental data. The new data obtained by Mr. Vadlamani agree well in general with the earlier data obtained by Mr. Yang and extend the earlier data to a higher temperature range. Specifically, during this time period, uptake experiments were performed at temperatures from 25 0 C to 300 o C for the adsorptive diffusion of quinoline in cyclohexane and mineral oil onto alumina catalyst pellets. These experiments were conducted in a 40 cm 3 microautoclave, as contrasted with the previous work done in the much larger 1-liter autoclave. The use of the microautoclave is more economical from both a purchasing and waste disposal standpoint due to the small quantities of solvents and catalysts utilized, and is also significantly safer at the higher temperatures. Model simulation results showed that the mathematical model incorporating diffusion and adsorption mechanisms satisfactorily fitted the adsorptive diffusion of quinoline onto the alumina catalyst in a fairly wide temperature range of 25 o C to 300 o C. The logarithm of the adsorption constant, obtained by simulating the experimental data with the model solution, was found to be linearly dependent on temperature. The data obtained

  17. PREFACE: 1st International Conference in Applied Physics and Materials Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-06-01

    We are delighted to come up with thirty two (32) contributed research papers in these proceedings, focusing on Materials Science and Applied Physics as an output of the 2013 International Conference in Applied Physics and Materials Science (ICAMS2013) held on October 22-24, 2013 at the Ateneo de Davao University, Davao City, Philippines. The conference was set to provide a high level of international forum and had brought together leading academic scientists, industry professionals, researchers and scholars from universities, industries and government agencies who have shared their experiences, research results and discussed the practical challenges encountered and the solutions adopted as well as the advances in the fields of Applied Physics and Materials Science. This conference has provided a wide opportunity to establish multidisciplinary collaborations with local and foreign experts. ICAMS2013, held concurrently with 15th Samahang Pisika ng Visayas at Mindanao (SPVM) National Physics Conference and 2013 International Meeting for Complex Systems, was organized by the Samahang Pisika ng Visayas at Mindanao (Physics Society of Visayas and Mindanao) based in MSU-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City, Philippines. The international flavor of converging budding researchers and experts on Materials Science and Applied Physics was the first to be organized in the 19 years of SPVM operation in the Philippines. We highlighted ICAMS2013 gathering by the motivating presence of Dr. Stuart Parkin, a British Physicist, as one of our conference's plenary speakers. Equal measures of gratitude were also due to all other plenary speakers, Dr. Elizabeth Taylor of Institute of Physics (IOP) in London, Dr. Surya Raghu of Advanced Fluidics in Maryland, USA and Prof. Hitoshi Miyata of Niigata University, Japan, Prof. Djulia Onggo of Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia, and Dr. Hironori Katagiri of Nagaoka National College of Technology, Japan. The warm hospitality of the host

  18. Potential new therapeutics for Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia.

    PubMed

    Zeldis, Jerome B; Schafer, Peter H; Bennett, Brydon L; Mercurio, Frank; Stirling, David I

    2003-04-01

    Thalidomide the first commercially available immune modulatory drug (IMiD), has activity in the treatment of Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (WM), as well as multiple myeloma, myelodysplastic syndrome, myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and B-cell lymphomas. Although its molecular mechanisms of action have not yet been elucidated, thalidomide and the IMiDs affect a variety of cytokines and inflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), interleukin (IL)-1beta, interferon gamma (IFNgamma), IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, and COX-2 and angiogenesis factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor. The IMiDs also affect adhesion molecules such as ICAM-1, ICAM-2, and L-CAM, in addition to preferentially stimulating CD8 cells and expanding natural killer (NK) cell populations. Since most IMiDs share these properties, it would be expected that the second-generation IMiDs (REVIMID, ACTIMID) would have activity similar to thalidomide in WM with an improved safety profile. TNFalpha and angiogenesis most likely play a role in promoting the growth and development of WM. The selective cytokine inhibitory drugs (SelCIDs) are potent phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE-4) inhibitors that inhibit TNFalpha production and are highly antiangiogenic. In addition, inhibition of PDE-4 induces apoptosis in human CLL lymphocytes. It is therefore expected that the SelCIDs might have activity in Waldenstrom's tumors. Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is a component of signaling cascades that modulate apoptosis, the induction of an inflammatory response via the AP-1 pathway, and modulation of cellular proliferation. In a variety of tumors, including multiple myeloma, JNK is induced as part of a protective mechanism. It is hypothesized that inhibition of JNK activity might allow other chemotherapeutic agents to be more effective in a similar manner to corticosteroids. Work is in progress to evaluate this. Inhibitors of the E3

  19. Extra-Zodiacal-Cloud Astronomy via Solar Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Scott W.; Falck, Robert D.; Oleson, Steven R.; Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Kruk, Jeffrey W.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Thronson, Harley A.; Vaughn, Frank J.; Fixsen, Dale J.

    2011-01-01

    Solar electric propulsion (SEP) is often considered as primary propulsion for robotic planetary missions, providing the opportunity to deliver more payload mass to difficult, high-delta-velocity destinations. However, SEP application to astrophysics has not been well studied. This research identifies and assesses a new application of SEP as primary propulsion for low-cost high-performance robotic astrophysics missions. The performance of an optical/infrared space observatory in Earth orbit or at the Sun-Earth L2 point (SEL2) is limited by background emission from the Zodiacal dust cloud that has a disk morphology along the ecliptic plane. By delivering an observatory to a inclined heliocentric orbit, most of this background emission can be avoided, resulting in a very substantial increase in science performance. This advantage enabled by SEP allows a small-aperture telescope to rival the performance of much larger telescopes located at SEL2. In this paper, we describe a novel mission architecture in which SEP technology is used to enable unprecedented telescope sensitivity performance per unit collecting area. This extra-zodiacal mission architecture will enable a new class of high-performance, short-development time, Explorer missions whose sensitivity and survey speed can rival flagship-class SEL2 facilities, thus providing new programmatic flexibility for NASA's astronomy mission portfolio. A mission concept study was conducted to evaluate this application of SEP. Trajectory analyses determined that a 700 kg-class science payload could be delivered in just over 2 years to a 2 AU mission orbit inclined 15 to the ecliptic using a 13 kW-class NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) SEP system. A mission architecture trade resulted in a SEP stage architecture, in which the science spacecraft separates from the stage after delivery to the mission orbit. The SEP stage and science spacecraft concepts were defined in collaborative engineering environment studies. The

  20. Structure- and cell-specific effects of imidoselenocarbamates on selenoprotein expression and activity in liver cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Elena; Stoedter, Mette; Hofmann, Peter Josef; Plano, Daniel; Calvo, Alfonso; Nguewa, Paul A; Palop, Juan Antonio; Sanmartín, Carmen; Schomburg, Lutz

    2012-12-01

    The essential micronutrient selenium (Se) exerts its biological effects mainly through selenoproteins thereby affecting a number of physiological pathways including intracellular redox control, stress response and cancer cell proliferation. Besides affecting selenoprotein expression, some selenocompounds have been synthesized and analyzed in order to serve as chemotherapeutic substances preferentially targeting cancer cells. This promising chemotherapeutic potential has recently been verified for a particular imidoselenocarbamate in a mouse tumor model. In the present study we tested the effects of this and a number of related Se-methyl- and Se-benzyl-imidoselenocarbamates on selenoprotein expression in nontransformed and hepatic carcinoma cells in culture. Most of the Se-benzyl-imidoselenocarbamates strongly stimulated selenoprotein P (SePP) secretion while the Se-methyl-imidoselenocarbamates elicited less pronounced effects in hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. However, most of the Se-methyl-imidoselenocarbamates increased glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and decreased thioredoxin reductase (TXNRD) activity in parallel, while the majority of the Se-benzyl-imidoselenocarbamates were without a respective effect in HepG2 cells. Performing inhibitor assays in vitro, GPx activity was unaffected by the imidoselenocarbamates. In contrast, most of the Se-methyl-imidoselenocarbamates inhibited TXNRD activity in vitro in line with the results in HepG2 cells. Both classes of imidoselenocarbamates strongly induced selenoprotein S (SELS) expression without a respective increase in ER stress or unfolded protein response which are known inducers of SELS biosynthesis. Notably, many of these effects were cancer cell-specific, and not observed in nontransformed AML12 hepatocytes. Our results indicate that these novel selenocompounds affect expression and activity of crucial selenoenzymes in a compound- and cell-specific way in hepatocytes. Especially the Se

  1. Loss Function Based Ranking in Two-Stage, Hierarchical Models

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Rongheng; Louis, Thomas A.; Paddock, Susan M.; Ridgeway, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Performance evaluations of health services providers burgeons. Similarly, analyzing spatially related health information, ranking teachers and schools, and identification of differentially expressed genes are increasing in prevalence and importance. Goals include valid and efficient ranking of units for profiling and league tables, identification of excellent and poor performers, the most differentially expressed genes, and determining “exceedances” (how many and which unit-specific true parameters exceed a threshold). These data and inferential goals require a hierarchical, Bayesian model that accounts for nesting relations and identifies both population values and random effects for unit-specific parameters. Furthermore, the Bayesian approach coupled with optimizing a loss function provides a framework for computing non-standard inferences such as ranks and histograms. Estimated ranks that minimize Squared Error Loss (SEL) between the true and estimated ranks have been investigated. The posterior mean ranks minimize SEL and are “general purpose,” relevant to a broad spectrum of ranking goals. However, other loss functions and optimizing ranks that are tuned to application-specific goals require identification and evaluation. For example, when the goal is to identify the relatively good (e.g., in the upper 10%) or relatively poor performers, a loss function that penalizes classification errors produces estimates that minimize the error rate. We construct loss functions that address this and other goals, developing a unified framework that facilitates generating candidate estimates, comparing approaches and producing data analytic performance summaries. We compare performance for a fully parametric, hierarchical model with Gaussian sampling distribution under Gaussian and a mixture of Gaussians prior distributions. We illustrate approaches via analysis of standardized mortality ratio data from the United States Renal Data System. Results show that SEL

  2. Dietary selenium and prolonged exercise alter gene expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes in equine skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    White, S H; Johnson, S E; Bobel, J M; Warren, L K

    2016-07-01

    Untrained Thoroughbred horses (6 mares and 6 geldings; 11 yr [SE 1] and 565 kg [SE 11]) were used to evaluate antioxidant gene expression and enzyme activity in blood and skeletal muscle in response to prolonged exercise after receiving 2 levels of dietary selenium for 36 d: 0.1 (CON; = 6) or 0.3 mg/kg DM (SEL; = 6). Horses were individually fed 1.6% BW coastal bermudagrass hay, 0.4% BW whole oats, and a mineral/vitamin premix containing no Se. Sodium selenite was added to achieve either 0.1 or 0.3 mg Se/kg DM in the total diet. On d 35, horses underwent 2 h of submaximal exercise in a free-stall exerciser. Blood samples were obtained before (d 0) and after 34 d of Se supplementation and on d 35 to 36 immediately after exercise and at 6 and 24 h after exercise. Biopsies of the middle gluteal muscle were obtained on d 0, before exercise on d 34, and at 6 and 24 h after exercise. Supplementation with Se above the NRC requirement (SEL) increased serum Se ( = 0.011) and muscle thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity ( = 0.051) but had no effect on glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in plasma, red blood cell (RBC) lysate, or muscle in horses at rest. Serum creatine kinase activity increased ( < 0.0001) in response to prolonged exercise but was not affected by dietary treatment. Serum lipid hydroperoxides were affected by treatment ( = 0.052) and were higher ( = 0.012) in horses receiving CON than SEL immediately following exercise. Muscle expression of was unchanged at 6 h but increased ( = 0.005) 2.8-fold 24 h after exercise, whereas muscle TrxR activity remained unchanged. Glutathione peroxidase activity increased in plasma (P < 0.0001) and decreased in RBC lysate ( = 0.010) after prolonged exercise. A Se treatment × time interaction was observed for RBC GPx activity (P = 0.048). Muscle and expression and GPx activity did not change during the 24-h period after exercise. Level of dietary Se had no overall effect on expression of , , , , , , or in muscle following

  3. Formulation development of a cream containing fennel extract: in vivo evaluation for anti-aging effects.

    PubMed

    Rasul, A; Akhtar, N; Khan, B A; Mahmood, T; Uz Zaman, S; Khan, H M Shoaib

    2012-01-01

    This study was aimed to formulate and evaluate anti-aging effects of a topical cream (w/o emulsion) containig extract of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) versus its base. Formulation containing 4% concentrated extract of Foeniculum vulgare was developed by entrapping in the inner aqueous phase of w/o emulsion and base contained no extract. Both the base and formulation were stored under different storage conditions to predict their stability. The formulation and base were evaluated for effect on skin moisture and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). The base showed insignificant while the formulation showed significant effects on skin moisture and TEWL. The parameter volume and surface evaluation of living skin (SELS) parameters SEr, SEsc, SEsm, SEw were also evaluated and showed a significant (p < or = 0.05) decline. The texture parameter energy showed a significant increase proving that the formulation possesses potential anti-aging effects.

  4. [Degradation of trace nitrobenzene in aqueous solution by ozone with catalysis of nanosized TiO2 supported on haydite].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Ma, Jun; Yang, Yi-xin; Wang, Sheng-jun; Qin, Qing-dong

    2007-10-01

    This paper presented the results of catalytic degradation of nitrobenzene by ozone in the presence of nanosized TiO2 supported on haydite, and evaluated influencing factors and the pathway of degradation. Catalysts were prepared by sol-sel method, and sintered in electrical resistance furnace. The optimum sinter temperature was found for preparing the catalyst. The SEM was also used to characterize the catalyst. When the catalyst was sintered at 700 degrees C, it had the best property of catalysis. The catalytic ozonation of nitrobenzene was first order reaction with respect to the concentration of nitrobenzene, and OH* was the dominating species in the oxidation process. As the dose of catalyst increased, the removing rate of nitrobenzene also increased. The highest ozonation rate of this compound, which is 46.5%, was found when pH value was approximately 10. Besides, the catalyst showed good ability after 3 times repeated uses.

  5. MIMO Free-Space Optical Communication Employing Subcarrier Intensity Modulation in Atmospheric Turbulence Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghassemlooy, Zabih; Popoola, Wasiu O.; Ahmadi, Vahid; Leitgeb, Erich

    In this paper, we analyse the error performance of transmitter/receiver array free-space optical (FSO) communication system employing binary phase shift keying (BPSK) subcarrier intensity modulation (SIM) in clear but turbulent atmospheric channel. Subcarrier modulation is employed to eliminate the need for adaptive threshold detector. Direct detection is employed at the receiver and each subcarrier is subsequently demodulated coherently. The effect of irradiance fading is mitigated with an array of lasers and photodetectors. The received signals are linearly combined using the optimal maximum ratio combining (MRC), the equal gain combining (EGC) and the selection combining (SelC). The bit error rate (BER) equations are derived considering additive white Gaussian noise and log normal intensity fluctuations. This work is part of the EU COST actions and EU projects.

  6. The FORTRAN static source code analyzer program (SAP) user's guide, revision 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, W.; Taylor, W.; Eslinger, S.

    1982-01-01

    The FORTRAN Static Source Code Analyzer Program (SAP) User's Guide (Revision 1) is presented. SAP is a software tool designed to assist Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) personnel in conducting studies of FORTRAN programs. SAP scans FORTRAN source code and produces reports that present statistics and measures of statements and structures that make up a module. This document is a revision of the previous SAP user's guide, Computer Sciences Corporation document CSC/TM-78/6045. SAP Revision 1 is the result of program modifications to provide several new reports, additional complexity analysis, and recognition of all statements described in the FORTRAN 77 standard. This document provides instructions for operating SAP and contains information useful in interpreting SAP output.

  7. Derivation and selection of freshwater sediment quality values in Washington state

    SciTech Connect

    Cubbage, J.; Breidenbach, S.; Batts, D.

    1995-12-31

    To derive chemical-based Freshwater Sediment Quality Values (FSQV), bioassay data (Hyalella azteca, Microtox, Chironomus tentans, Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Hexagenia limbata) and chemistry data (metals, PAH, pesticide/PCBs, and phenols) were merged from 33 studies and 245 sites in Washington and Oregon into a single database. Apparent Effects Thresholds (AET) and Probable AETs (PAET: 95th percentile of no effects sites) were calculated for Hyalella azteca (n = 228) and Microtox. The efficiency and sensitivity of these values in predicting biological response from chemical concentrations were compared with Ontario`s Severe Effects Level (SEL), Environment Canada`s Probable Effects Level (PEL) and Threshold Effects Level (TEL), EPA`s Equilibrium Partitioning (EQP), and Washington`s marine Sediment management Standards (SMS). For PAH, dry weight normalized values for AETs and PAETs were significantly more sensitive and efficient than organic carbon normalized values. TEL was always the most sensitive and least efficient.

  8. High temperature ceramic membrane reactors for coal liquid upgrading

    SciTech Connect

    Tsotsis, T.T.

    1992-06-19

    Ceramic membranes are a new class of materials, which have shown promise in a variety of industrial applications. Their mechanical and chemical stability coupled with a wide range of operating temperatures and pressures make them suitable for environments found in coal liquid upgrading. In this project we will evaluate the performance of Sel-Gel alumina membranes in coal liquid upgrading processes under realistic temperature and pressure conditions and investigate the feasibility of using such membranes in a membrane reactor based coal liquid upgrading process. In addition, the development of novel ceramic membranes with enhanced catalytic activity for coal-liquid upgrading applications, such as carbon-coated alumina membranes, will be also investigated.

  9. High temperature ceramic membrane reactors for coal liquid upgrading. Quarterly report No. 2, December 21, 1989--March 20, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Tsotsis, T.T.

    1992-06-19

    Ceramic membranes are a new class of materials, which have shown promise in a variety of industrial applications. Their mechanical and chemical stability coupled with a wide range of operating temperatures and pressures make them suitable for environments found in coal liquid upgrading. In this project we will evaluate the performance of Sel-Gel alumina membranes in coal liquid upgrading processes under realistic temperature and pressure conditions and investigate the feasibility of using such membranes in a membrane reactor based coal liquid upgrading process. In addition, the development of novel ceramic membranes with enhanced catalytic activity for coal-liquid upgrading applications, such as carbon-coated alumina membranes, will be also investigated.

  10. High temperature ceramic membrane reactors for coal liquid upgrading. Quarterly report No. 7, March 21, 1991--June 20, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Tsotsis, T.T.

    1992-06-19

    Ceramic membranes are a new class of materials, which have shown promise in a variety of industrial applications. Their mechanical and chemical stability coupled with a wide range of operating temperatures and pressures make them suitable for environments found in coal liquid upgrading. In this project we will evaluate the performance of Sel-Gel alumina membranes in coal liquid upgrading processes under realistic temperature and pressure conditions and investigate the feasibility of using such membranes in a membrane reactor based coal liquid upgrading process. In addition, the development of novel ceramic membranes with enhanced catalytic activity for coal-liquid upgrading applications, such as carbon-coated alumina membranes, will be also investigated.

  11. Periodic orbits in glycolytic oscillators: from elliptic orbits to relaxation oscillations.

    PubMed

    Roy, T; Bhattacharjee, J K; Mallik, A K

    2011-02-01

    We consider the Sel'kov model of glycolytic oscillator for a quantitative study of the limit cycle oscillations in the system. We identify a region of parameter space where perturbation theory holds and use both Linstedt Poincaré technique and harmonic balance to obtain the shape and frequency of the limit cycle. The agreement with the numerically obtained result is excellent. We also find a different extreme, where the limit cycle is of the relaxation oscillator variety, has a large time period and it is seen that, as a particular parameter in the model is varied, the time period increases indefinitely. We characterize this divergence numerically. A calculational method is devised to capture the divergence approximately.

  12. AAV-mediated in vivo functional selection of tissue-protective factors against ischaemia

    PubMed Central

    Ruozi, Giulia; Bortolotti, Francesca; Falcione, Antonella; Dal Ferro, Matteo; Ukovich, Laura; Macedo, Antero; Zentilin, Lorena; Filigheddu, Nicoletta; Cappellari, Gianluca Gortan; Baldini, Giovanna; Zweyer, Marina; Barazzoni, Rocco; Graziani, Andrea; Zacchigna, Serena; Giacca, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Functional screening of expression libraries in vivo would offer the possibility of identifying novel biotherapeutics without a priori knowledge of their biochemical function. Here we describe a procedure for the functional selection of tissue-protective factors based on the in vivo delivery of arrayed cDNA libraries from the mouse secretome using adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors. Application of this technique, which we call FunSel, in the context of acute ischaemia, revealed that the peptide ghrelin protects skeletal muscle and heart from ischaemic damage. When delivered to the heart using an AAV9 vector, ghrelin markedly reduces infarct size and preserves cardiac function over time. This protective activity associates with the capacity of ghrelin to sustain autophagy and remove dysfunctional mitochondria after myocardial infarction. Our findings describe an innovative tool to identify biological therapeutics and reveal a novel role of ghrelin as an inducer of myoprotective autophagy. PMID:26066847

  13. Single event effects in static and dynamic registers in a 0.25{micro}m CMOS technology

    SciTech Connect

    Faccio, F.; Kloukinas, K.; Marchioro, A.; Calin, T.; Cosculluela, J.; Nicolaidis, M.; Velazco, R.

    1999-12-01

    The authors have studied Single Event Effects in static and dynamic registers designed in a quarter micron CMOS process. In the design, they systematically used guard rings and enclosed (edgeless) transistor geometry to improve the total dose tolerance. This design technique improved both the SEL and SEU sensitivity of the circuits. Using SPICE simulations, the measured smooth transition of the cross-section curve between LET threshold and saturation has been traced to the presence of four different upset modes, each corresponding to a different critical charge and sensitive area. A new architecture to protect the content of storage cells has been developed, and a threshold LET around 89 MeVcm{sup 2}mg{sup {minus}1} has been measured for this cell at a power supply voltage of 2 V.

  14. To the Die Smartly: Heavy Ion Testing of PEMs on COTS Boards Through the Plastic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wert, J. L.; Normand, E.; Oberg, D. L.; Stevens, L.; Blumer, J.; Fisher, E.; Wode, G.

    1999-01-01

    Seven commercial off the shelf (COTS) boards containing electronic devices (all in plastic packages, PEMS), under consideration for use in a spacecraft subsystem, were exposed to beams of very high energy ions at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (MSU). The ion energies were high enough that an entire board could be exposed in air, and it could still penetrate through the plastic and reach the silicon die. A total of about 300 runs were made, and for each, the LET of the ion entering the silicon die had to be determined, based on the thickness of the plastic lid and the thickness of overlaying materials (e.g., aluminum degraders). Single event latchup (SEL) and functional interrupt (SEFI) were determined during each run, the SEFI by means of simple programs being continuously written to and read from the boards to monitor functionality, while each part was being exposed to the heavy ions.

  15. Crystal structures of the human elongation factor eEFSec suggest a non-canonical mechanism for selenocysteine incorporation

    PubMed Central

    Dobosz-Bartoszek, Malgorzata; Pinkerton, Mark H.; Otwinowski, Zbyszek; Chakravarthy, Srinivas; Söll, Dieter; Copeland, Paul R.; Simonović, Miljan

    2016-01-01

    Selenocysteine is the only proteinogenic amino acid encoded by a recoded in-frame UGA codon that does not operate as the canonical opal stop codon. A specialized translation elongation factor, eEFSec in eukaryotes and SelB in prokaryotes, promotes selenocysteine incorporation into selenoproteins by a still poorly understood mechanism. Our structural and biochemical results reveal that four domains of human eEFSec fold into a chalice-like structure that has similar binding affinities for GDP, GTP and other guanine nucleotides. Surprisingly, unlike in eEF1A and EF-Tu, the guanine nucleotide exchange does not cause a major conformational change in domain 1 of eEFSec, but instead induces a swing of domain 4. We propose that eEFSec employs a non-canonical mechanism involving the distinct C-terminal domain 4 for the release of the selenocysteinyl-tRNA during decoding on the ribosome. PMID:27708257

  16. Evolutionary Based Techniques for Fault Tolerant Field Programmable Gate Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larchev, Gregory V.; Lohn, Jason D.

    2006-01-01

    The use of SRAM-based Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) is becoming more and more prevalent in space applications. Commercial-grade FPGAs are potentially susceptible to permanently debilitating Single-Event Latchups (SELs). Repair methods based on Evolutionary Algorithms may be applied to FPGA circuits to enable successful fault recovery. This paper presents the experimental results of applying such methods to repair four commonly used circuits (quadrature decoder, 3-by-3-bit multiplier, 3-by-3-bit adder, 440-7 decoder) into which a number of simulated faults have been introduced. The results suggest that evolutionary repair techniques can improve the process of fault recovery when used instead of or as a supplement to Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR), which is currently the predominant method for mitigating FPGA faults.

  17. Posttranscriptional Regulation of Glycoprotein Quality Control in the Endoplasmic Reticulum Is Controlled by the E2 Ub-Conjugating Enzyme UBC6e.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Masatoshi; Ling, Jingjing; Koenig, Paul-Albert; Ploegh, Hidde L

    2016-09-01

    ER-associated degradation (ERAD) is essential for protein quality control in the ER, not only when the ER is stressed, but also at steady state. We report a new layer of homeostatic control, in which ERAD activity itself is regulated posttranscriptionally and independently of the unfolded protein response by adjusting the endogenous levels of EDEM1, OS-9, and SEL1L (ERAD enhancers). Functional UBC6e requires its precise location in the ER to form a supramolecular complex with Derlin2. This complex targets ERAD enhancers for degradation, a function that depends on UBC6e's enzymatic activity. Ablation of UBC6e causes upregulation of active ERAD enhancers and so increases clearance not only of terminally misfolded substrates, but also of wild-type glycoproteins that fold comparatively slowly in vitro and in vivo. The levels of proteins that comprise the ERAD machinery are thus carefully tuned and adjusted to prevailing needs. PMID:27570074

  18. Configuration and orientation of saroe and artamugarri in the Basque country.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaldua, L. M.

    The precise origin and function of stone octagons in Euskal Herria are unknown. Although the first written testimonies bearing witness to their presence date back to the 12th century, their existence can be perceived in 11th century documentation. Additionally, in Cantabria, only a short distance from Euskal Herria, there is documentary evidence that the term sel, or stone octagon was already in use in the 9th century. Even so, the most recent archaeological work suggests an even earlier chronological axis for the data. Stone octagons should be not be understood as exclusive to Euskal Herria for they are encountered all cross the Cantabrian facade of the Iberian Peninsula (Galicia, Asturias, Cantabria), and their presence is documented further south in Extremadura and Castilla-La Mancha. It is likewise possible that stone octagons or similar structures may have existed further to the north along the atlantic facade in Breizh (Brittany).

  19. Software engineering laboratory series: Annotated bibliography of software engineering laboratory literature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morusiewicz, Linda; Valett, Jon

    1992-01-01

    This document is an annotated bibliography of technical papers, documents, and memorandums produced by or related to the Software Engineering Laboratory. More than 100 publications are summarized. These publications cover many areas of software engineering and range from research reports to software documentation. This document has been updated and reorganized substantially since the original version (SEL-82-006, November 1982). All materials have been grouped into eight general subject areas for easy reference: (1) the Software Engineering Laboratory; (2) the Software Engineering Laboratory: Software Development Documents; (3) Software Tools; (4) Software Models; (5) Software Measurement; (6) Technology Evaluations; (7) Ada Technology; and (8) Data Collection. This document contains an index of these publications classified by individual author.

  20. Annotated bibliography of software engineering laboratory literature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kistler, David; Bristow, John; Smith, Don

    1994-01-01

    This document is an annotated bibliography of technical papers, documents, and memorandums produced by or related to the Software Engineering Laboratory. Nearly 200 publications are summarized. These publications cover many areas of software engineering and range from research reports to software documentation. This document has been updated and reorganized substantially since the original version (SEL-82-006, November 1982). All materials have been grouped into eight general subject areas for easy reference: (1) The Software Engineering Laboratory; (2) The Software Engineering Laboratory: Software Development Documents; (3) Software Tools; (4) Software Models; (5) Software Measurement; (6) Technology Evaluations; (7) Ada Technology; and (8) Data Collection. This document contains an index of these publications classified by individual author.