Science.gov

Sample records for bahan sel surya

  1. Recent SEL experiments and studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pajerski, Rose; Smith, Donald

    1993-01-01

    The studies discussed in this paper are all examples of activities that are performed as part of the Software Engineering Laboratory's (SEL's) process improvement model. Using this model, the SEL starts by understanding the product and process, then assesses the impact of new technologies, and finally packages what was learned. The preliminary examination of maintenance effort, error, and change profiles to establish a maintenance baseline exemplifies understanding-phase activities. The ongoing testing study that is examining the effects of various testing approaches on process and product measures is an example of typical assessing efforts. Finally, the derivation of cost and schedule estimation models from locally driven factors such as reuse level, application type, and language is an example of experience packaging. In the SEL, no study is ever really completed. Studies will be repeated and iterated upon in the future as part of the ongoing software improvement process.

  2. SEL's Software Process-Improvement Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, Victor; Zelkowitz, Marvin; McGarry, Frank; Page, Jerry; Waligora, Sharon; Pajerski, Rose

    1995-01-01

    The goals and operations of the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) is reviewed. For nearly 20 years the SEL has worked to understand, assess, and improve software and the development process within the production environment of the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The SEL was established in 1976 with the goals of reducing: (1) the defect rate of delivered software, (2) the cost of software to support flight projects, and (3) the average time to produce mission-support software. After studying over 125 projects of FDD, the results have guided the standards, management practices, technologies, and the training within the division. The results of the studies have been a 75 percent reduction in defects, a 50 percent reduction in cost, and a 25 percent reduction in development time. Over time the goals of SEL have been clarified. The goals are now stated as: (1) Understand baseline processes and product characteristics, (2) Assess improvements that have been incorporated into the development projects, (3) Package and infuse improvements into the standard SEL process. The SEL improvement goal is to demonstrate continual improvement of the software process by carrying out analysis, measurement and feedback to projects with in the FDD environment. The SEL supports the understanding of the process by study of several processes including, the effort distribution, and error detection rates. The SEL assesses and refines the processes. Once the assessment and refinement of a process is completed, the SEL packages the process by capturing the process in standards, tools and training.

  3. Data collection procedures for the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heller, Gerard; Valett, Jon; Wild, Mary

    1992-01-01

    This document is a guidebook to collecting software engineering data on software development and maintenance efforts, as practiced in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL). It supersedes the document entitled Data Collection Procedures for the Rehosted SEL Database, number SEL-87-008 in the SEL series, which was published in October 1987. It presents procedures to be followed on software development and maintenance projects in the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) of Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for collecting data in support of SEL software engineering research activities. These procedures include detailed instructions for the completion and submission of SEL data collection forms.

  4. Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) cleanroom process model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Scott; Basili, Victor; Godfrey, Sally; Mcgarry, Frank; Pajerski, Rose; Waligora, Sharon

    1991-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) cleanroom process model is described. The term 'cleanroom' originates in the integrated circuit (IC) production process, where IC's are assembled in dust free 'clean rooms' to prevent the destructive effects of dust. When applying the clean room methodology to the development of software systems, the primary focus is on software defect prevention rather than defect removal. The model is based on data and analysis from previous cleanroom efforts within the SEL and is tailored to serve as a guideline in applying the methodology to future production software efforts. The phases that are part of the process model life cycle from the delivery of requirements to the start of acceptance testing are described. For each defined phase, a set of specific activities is discussed, and the appropriate data flow is described. Pertinent managerial issues, key similarities and differences between the SEL's cleanroom process model and the standard development approach used on SEL projects, and significant lessons learned from prior cleanroom projects are presented. It is intended that the process model described here will be further tailored as additional SEL cleanroom projects are analyzed.

  5. Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) database organization and user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    So, Maria; Heller, Gerard; Steinberg, Sandra; Spiegel, Douglas

    1989-01-01

    The organization of the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) database is presented. Included are definitions and detailed descriptions of the database tables and views, the SEL data, and system support data. The mapping from the SEL and system support data to the base tables is described. In addition, techniques for accessing the database, through the Database Access Manager for the SEL (DAMSEL) system and via the ORACLE structured query language (SQL), are discussed.

  6. Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) relationships, models, and management rules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, William; Hendrick, Robert; Valett, Jon D.

    1991-01-01

    Over 50 individual Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) research results, extracted from a review of published SEL documentation, that can be applied directly to managing software development projects are captured. Four basic categories of results are defined and discussed - environment profiles, relationships, models, and management rules. In each category, research results are presented as a single page that summarizes the individual result, lists potential uses of the result by managers, and references the original SEL documentation where the result was found. The document serves as a concise reference summary of applicable research for SEL managers.

  7. Studies and experiments in the Software Engineering Lab (SEL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgarry, F. E.; Card, D. N.

    1985-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) is an organization created nearly 10 years ago for the purpose of identifying, measuring and applying quality software engineering techniques in a production environment. The members of the SEL include NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC, the sponsor and organizer), University of Maryland, and Computer Sciences Corporation. Since its inception the SEL has conducted numerous experiments, and has evaluated a wide range of software technologies. This paper describes several of the more recent experiments as well as some of the general conclusions to which the SEL has arrived.

  8. Comparison of cardiorespiratory responses between Surya Namaskar and bicycle exercise at similar energy expenditure level.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Biswajit; Sinha, Tulika Dasgupta; Pathak, Anjana; Tomer, O S

    2013-01-01

    Surya Namaskar (SN), a popular traditional Indian yogic practice called "Sun Salutations", includes practice of twelve physical postures involving alternate backward bending and forward bending postures. The practice of twelve postures in succession makes one round of its practice. Many people practise it as part of their daily physical fitness regimen. No study is available to compare cardiorespiratory responses of SN with bicycle exercise (BE). 20 healthy Yoga instructors practicing various Yogic practices including SN since last 7-8 years participated in the study. They performed SN in the laboratory according to their customary daily practice routine. The subject also performed incremental load bicycle exercise test till exhaustion on their second visit for measuring their VO2 max. SN and BE were compared at three similar exercise intensity levels in terms of % of VO2 max. The exercise intensities were light (10-20% VO2 max), moderate (21-40% VO2 max) and high intensities (41-50% VO2 max). Heart rate at high work intensity was significantly higher in BE than SN (P < .001). Ventilation and carbon dioxide output were significantly higher in BE than SN at high exercise intensity (P < 0.001). Overall, cardiorespiratory stress is less in SN than BE at similar work intensities.

  9. Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) data and information policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgarry, Frank

    1991-01-01

    The policies and overall procedures that are used in distributing and in making available products of the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) are discussed. The products include project data and measures, project source code, reports, and software tools.

  10. IsoSel: Protein Isoform Selector for phylogenetic reconstructions

    PubMed Central

    Philippon, Héloïse; Souvane, Alexia; Brochier-Armanet, Céline

    2017-01-01

    The reliability of molecular phylogenies is strongly dependent on the quality of the assembled datasets. In the case of eukaryotes, the selection of only one protein isoform per genomic locus is mandatory to avoid biases linked to redundancy. Here, we present IsoSel, a tool devoted to the selection of alternative isoforms in the context of phylogenetic reconstruction. It provides a better alternative to the widely used approach consisting in the selection of the longest isoforms and it performs better than Guidance, its only available counterpart. IsoSel is publicly available at http://doua.prabi.fr/software/isosel. PMID:28323858

  11. SIMULATING WAVES IN THE UPPER SOLAR ATMOSPHERE WITH SURYA: A WELL-BALANCED HIGH-ORDER FINITE-VOLUME CODE

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, F. G.; McMurry, A. D.; Mishra, S.; Waagan, K. E-mail: a.d.mcmurry@ifi.uio.no E-mail: kwaagan@cscamm.umd.edu

    2011-05-10

    We consider the propagation of waves in a stratified non-isothermal magnetic atmosphere. The situation of interest corresponds to waves in the outer solar (chromosphere and corona) and other stellar atmospheres. The waves are simulated by using a high-resolution, well-balanced finite-volume-based massively parallel code named SURYA. Numerical experiments in both two and three space dimensions involving realistic temperature distributions, driving forces, and magnetic field configurations are described. Diverse phenomena such as mode conversion, wave acceleration at the transition layer, and driving-dependent wave dynamics are observed. We obtain evidence for the presence of coronal Alfven waves in some three-dimensional configurations. Although some of the incident wave energy is transmitted into the corona, a large proportion of it is accumulated in the chromosphere, providing a possible mechanism for chromospheric heating.

  12. Transcriptional activation of antioxidants may compensate for selenoprotein deficiencies in Amblyomma maculatum (Acari: Ixodidae) injected with selK- or selM-dsRNA

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, Steven; Browning, Rebecca; Singh, Parul; Nobles, Sarah; Villarreal, Ashley; Karim, Shahid

    2014-01-01

    The Gulf-Coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum, possesses an elaborate set of selenoprotein, which prevent the deleterious effects from oxidative stress that occur during feeding. In the current work, we examined the role of Selenoprotein K (SelK) and Selenoprotein M (SelM) in feeding A. maculatum by bioinformatics, transcriptional gene expression, RNA interference and antioxidant assays. The transcriptional expression of SelK does not vary significantly in salivary glands or midguts throughout the blood meal. However, there is a 58-fold increase in transcript levels of SelM in tick midguts. Ticks injected with selK-dsRNA or selM-dsRNA did not reveal any observable differences in egg viability but oviposition was reduced. Surprisingly, salivary antioxidant activity was higher in selenoprotein knockouts compared to controls, which is likely due to compensatory transcriptional expression of genes involved in combating reactive oxygen species. In fact, RT-qPCR data suggest the transcriptional expression of catalase increased in ticks injected with selM-dsRNA. Additionally, the transcriptional expression of selN decreased ~90% in both SelK/SelM knockdowns. PMID:24698418

  13. Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) database organization and user's guide, revision 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morusiewicz, Linda; Bristow, John

    1992-01-01

    The organization of the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) database is presented. Included are definitions and detailed descriptions of the database tables and views, the SEL data, and system support data. The mapping from the SEL and system support data to the base table is described. In addition, techniques for accessing the database through the Database Access Manager for the SEL (DAMSEL) system and via the ORACLE structured query language (SQL) are discussed.

  14. Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) programmer workbench phase 1 evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Phase 1 of the SEL programmer workbench consists of the design of the following three components: communications link, command language processor, and collection of software aids. A brief description, and evaluation, and recommendations are presented for each of these three components.

  15. Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) and Student Benefits: Implications for the Safe Schools/Healthy Students Core Elements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This brief shares the latest research on the effects of social and emotional learning (SEL) on students and includes strategies for implementing SEL. It explains how SEL works, elaborates on how SEL can be an integrative prevention framework that addresses the Safe Schools/Healthy Students (SS/HS) core elements, and spells out implications of the…

  16. Crystal structure of SEL1L: Insight into the roles of SLR motifs in ERAD pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hanbin; Sim, Hyo Jung; Song, Eun Kyung; Lee, Hakbong; Ha, Sung Chul; Jun, Youngsoo; Park, Tae Joo; Lee, Changwook

    2016-01-01

    Terminally misfolded proteins are selectively recognized and cleared by the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. SEL1L, a component of the ERAD machinery, plays an important role in selecting and transporting ERAD substrates for degradation. We have determined the crystal structure of the mouse SEL1L central domain comprising five Sel1-Like Repeats (SLR motifs 5 to 9; hereafter called SEL1Lcent). Strikingly, SEL1Lcent forms a homodimer with two-fold symmetry in a head-to-tail manner. Particularly, the SLR motif 9 plays an important role in dimer formation by adopting a domain-swapped structure and providing an extensive dimeric interface. We identified that the full-length SEL1L forms a self-oligomer through the SEL1Lcent domain in mammalian cells. Furthermore, we discovered that the SLR-C, comprising SLR motifs 10 and 11, of SEL1L directly interacts with the N-terminus luminal loops of HRD1. Therefore, we propose that certain SLR motifs of SEL1L play a unique role in membrane bound ERAD machinery. PMID:27064360

  17. Assessing efficiency of software production for NASA-SEL data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonmayrhauser, Anneliese; Roeseler, Armin

    1993-01-01

    This paper uses production models to identify and quantify efficient allocation of resources and key drivers of software productivity for project data in the NASA-SEL database. While analysis allows identification of efficient projects, many of the metrics that could have provided a more detailed analysis are not at a level of measurement to allow production model analysis. Production models must be used with proper parameterization to be successful. This may mean a new look at which metrics are helpful for efficiency assessment.

  18. Sustainable Schoolwide Social and Emotional Learning (SEL): Implementation Guide and Toolkit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devaney, Elizabeth; O'Brien, Mary Utne; Resnik, Hank; Keister, Susan; Weissberg, Roger P.

    2006-01-01

    Following up on the SEL program guide, "Safe and Sound: An Educational Leader's Guide to Evidence-Based Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) Programs," this latest tool for front-line educators provides answers to questions frequently asked by educators, such as, "Now that I have selected a good program, how do I integrate it with the rest of what…

  19. Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) Data Base Maintenance System (DBAM) user's guide and system description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, P. S.; Card, D.

    1983-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) Data Base Maintenance System (DBAM) is explained. The various software facilities of the SEL, DBAM operating procedures, and DBAM system information are described. The relationships among DBAM components (baseline diagrams), component descriptions, overlay descriptions, indirect command file listings, file definitions, and sample data collection forms are provided.

  20. Finding relationships between effort and other variables in the SEL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, Victor R.; Panlilio-Yap, N. Monina

    1985-01-01

    Estimating the amount of effort required for a software development project is one of the major aspects of resource estimation for that project. In this study, the relationship between effort and other variables for 23 Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) projects that were developed for NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center was examined. These variables fell into two categories: those which can be determined in the early stages of project development and may therefore be useful in a baseline equation for predicting effort in future projects, and those which can be used mainly to characterize or evaluate effort requirements and thus enhance the understanding of the software development process in this environment. Some results of the analyses are presented.

  1. Impacts of object-oriented technologies: Seven years of SEL studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, Michael

    1992-01-01

    The premise that object-oriented technology (OOT) is the most significant technology ever examined by the Software Engineering Laboratory is examined. The evolution of the use of OOT in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) 'experience factory' is described in terms of the SEL's original expectations, focusing on how successive generations of projects have used OOT. General conclusions are drawn on how the usage of the technology has evolved in this environment.

  2. Impacts of object-oriented technologies: Seven years of SEL studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, Mike

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the premise that object-oriented technology (OOT) is the most significant technology ever examined by the Software Engineering Laboratory. The evolution of the use of OOT in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) 'Experience Factory' is described in terms of the SEL's original expectations, focusing on how successive generations of projects have used OOT. General conclusions are drawn on how the usage of the technology has evolved in this environment.

  3. The maturing of the quality improvement paradigm in the SEL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, Victor R.

    1993-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory uses a paradigm for improving the software process and product, called the quality improvement paradigm. This paradigm has evolved over the past 18 years, along with our software development processes and product. Since 1976, when we first began the SEL, we have learned a great deal about improving the software process and product, making a great many mistakes along the way. Quality improvement paradigm, as it is currently defined, can be broken up into six steps: characterize the current project and its environment with respect to the appropriate models and metrics; set the quantifiable goals for successful project performance and improvement; choose the appropriate process model and supporting methods and tools for this project; execute the processes, construct the products, and collect, validate, and analyze the data to provide real-time feedback for corrective action; analyze the data to evaluate the current practices, determine problems, record findings, and make recommendations for future project improvements; and package the experience gained in the form of updated and refined models and other forms of structured knowledge gained from this and prior projects and save it in an experience base to be reused on future projects.

  4. SelInv - An Algorithm for Selected Inversion of a Sparse Symmetric Matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Lin; Yang, Chao; Meza, Juan C.; Lu, Jianfeng; Ying, Lexing; E, Weinan

    2009-10-16

    We describe an efficient implementation of an algorithm for computing selected elements of a general sparse symmetric matrix A that can be decomposed as A = LDL^T, where L is lower triangular and D is diagonal. Our implementation, which is called SelInv, is built on top of an efficient supernodal left-looking LDL^T factorization of A. We discuss how computational efficiency can be gained by making use of a relative index array to handle indirect addressing. We report the performance of SelInv on a collection of sparse matrices of various sizes and nonzero structures. We also demonstrate how SelInv can be used in electronic structure calculations.

  5. Optimization of biodegradable plastic production on sugar cane molasses in Enterobacter sp. SEL2

    PubMed Central

    Naheed, Nighat; Jamil, Nazia

    2014-01-01

    Contaminated environments have a large number of bacteria which can accumulate PHA as their energy reserves. Out of 54 isolated bacterial strains from three groups of contaminated sites 48 were found PHA positive. The sites were grouped on the basis of the type of carbon sources i.e. sugars, fatty acids and much diverse type. Strains MFD5, MFD11, UML3, USL2, SEL2, SEL3, SEL10 and PFW1 produced 69.9 ± 0.29, 75.27 ± 0.45, 65.43 ± 0.1, 72.54 ± 0.27, 76.61 ± 0.28, 61.81 ± 0.05, 71.16 ± 0.09 and 74.92 ± 0.5 percent of PHA to their constant cell weight (CCW) respectively in PHA detection media supplemented with 2% glucose. Molasses, whey, crumbs hydrolysate and palm oil were checked as inexpensive carbon sources. Molasses alone could supply the required nutrients for growth and PHA production. Strain SEL2 produced 47.36 ± 0.45% PHA using 2% molasses at 37 °C and pH 7.0. Upon production optimization the best accumulation (80.95 ± 0.01%) was observed in PHA detection media with 0.2% nitrogen source, 3% molasses, pH 5.0 and 37 °C by the strain SEL2. The overall effect of the presence of increased molasses concentration in the media was positive it increased the accumulation period till 72 h. Enterobacter sp. SEL2 (JF901810) is first time being reported for PHA production. PMID:25242924

  6. Optimization of biodegradable plastic production on sugar cane molasses in Enterobacter sp. SEL2.

    PubMed

    Naheed, Nighat; Jamil, Nazia

    2014-01-01

    Contaminated environments have a large number of bacteria which can accumulate PHA as their energy reserves. Out of 54 isolated bacterial strains from three groups of contaminated sites 48 were found PHA positive. The sites were grouped on the basis of the type of carbon sources i.e. sugars, fatty acids and much diverse type. Strains MFD5, MFD11, UML3, USL2, SEL2, SEL3, SEL10 and PFW1 produced 69.9 ± 0.29, 75.27 ± 0.45, 65.43 ± 0.1, 72.54 ± 0.27, 76.61 ± 0.28, 61.81 ± 0.05, 71.16 ± 0.09 and 74.92 ± 0.5 percent of PHA to their constant cell weight (CCW) respectively in PHA detection media supplemented with 2% glucose. Molasses, whey, crumbs hydrolysate and palm oil were checked as inexpensive carbon sources. Molasses alone could supply the required nutrients for growth and PHA production. Strain SEL2 produced 47.36 ± 0.45% PHA using 2% molasses at 37 °C and pH 7.0. Upon production optimization the best accumulation (80.95 ± 0.01%) was observed in PHA detection media with 0.2% nitrogen source, 3% molasses, pH 5.0 and 37 °C by the strain SEL2. The overall effect of the presence of increased molasses concentration in the media was positive it increased the accumulation period till 72 h. Enterobacter sp. SEL2 (JF901810) is first time being reported for PHA production.

  7. SEL2 servicing: increased science return via on-orbit propellant replenishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Benjamin B.; DeWeese, Keith; Kienlen, Michael; Aranyos, Thomas; Pellegrino, Joseph; Bacon, Charles; Qureshi, Atif

    2016-07-01

    Spacecraft designers are driving observatories to the distant Sun-Earth Lagrange Point 2 (SEL2) to meet ever-increasing science requirements. The mass fraction dedicated to propellant for these observatories to reach and operate at SEL2 will be allocated with the upmost care, as it comes at the expense of optics and instrument masses. As such, these observatories could benefit from on-orbit refueling, allowing greater dry-to-wet mass ratio at launch and/or longer mission life. NASA is developing technologies, capabilities and integrated mission designs for multiple servicing applications in low Earth orbit (LEO), geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) and cisluner locations. Restore-L, a mission officially in formulation, will launch a free-flying robotic servicer to refuel a government-owned satellite in LEO by mid 2020. This paper will detail the results of a point design mission study to extend Restore-L servicing technologies from LEO to SEL2. This SEL2 mission would launch an autonomous, robotic servicer spacecraft equipped to extend the life of two space assets through refueling. Two space platforms were chosen to 1) drive the requirements for achieving SEL2 orbit and rendezvous with a spacecraft, and 2) to drive the requirements to translate within SEL2 to conduct a follow-on servicing mission. Two fuels, xenon and hydrazine, were selected to assess a multiple delivery system. This paper will address key mission drivers, such as servicer autonomy (necessitated due to communications latency at L2). Also discussed will be the value of adding cooperative servicing elements to the client observatories to reduce mission risk.

  8. Overexpression of Selenoprotein SelK in BGC-823 Cells Inhibits Cell Adhesion and Migration.

    PubMed

    Ben, S B; Peng, B; Wang, G C; Li, C; Gu, H F; Jiang, H; Meng, X L; Lee, B J; Chen, C L

    2015-10-01

    Effects of human selenoprotein SelK on the adhesion and migration ability of human gastric cancer BGC-823 cells using Matrigel adhesion and transwell migration assays, respectively, were investigated in this study. The Matrigel adhesion ability of BGC-823 cells that overexpressed SelK declined extremely significantly (p < 0.01) compared with that of the cells not expressing the protein. The migration ability of BGC-823 cells that overexpressed SelK also declined extremely significantly (p < 0.01). On the other hand, the Matrigel adhesion ability and migration ability of the cells that overexpressed C-terminally truncated SelK did not decline significantly. The Matrigel adhesion ability and migration ability of human embryonic kidney HEK-293 cells that overexpressed SelK did not show significant change (p > 0.05) with the cells that overexpressed the C-terminally truncated protein. In addition to the effect on Matrigel adhesion and migration, the overexpression of SelK also caused a loss in cell viability (as measured by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H tetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay) and induced apoptosis as shown by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. The cytosolic free Ca2+ level of these cells was significantly increased as detected by flow cytometry. But the overexpression of SelK in HEK-293 cells caused neither significant loss in cell viability nor apoptosis induction. Only the elevation of cytosolic free Ca2+ level in these cells was significant. Taken together, the results suggest that the overexpression of SelK can inhibit human cancer cell Matrigel adhesion and migration and cause both the loss in cell viability and induction of apoptosis. The release of intracellular Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum might be a mechanism whereby the protein exerted its impact. Furthermore, only the full-length protein, but not C-terminally truncated form, was capable of producing such impact. The embryonic cells were not influenced by the

  9. Toward full life cycle control: Adding maintenance measurement to the SEL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rombach, H. Dieter; Ulery, Bradford T.; Valett, Jon D.

    1992-01-01

    Organization-wide measurement of software products and processes is needed to establish full life cycle control over software products. The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL)--a joint venture between NASA GSFC, the University of Maryland, and Computer Sciences Corporation--started measurement of software development more than 15 years ago. Recently, the measurement of maintenance was added to the scope of the SEL. In this article, the maintenance measurement program is presented as an addition to the already existing and well-established SEL development measurement program and evaluated in terms of its immediate benefits and long-term improvement potential. Immediate benefits of this program for the SEL include an increased understanding of the maintenance domain, the differences and commonalities between development and maintenance, and the cause-effect relationships between development and maintenance. Initial results from a sample maintenance study are presented to substantiate these benefits. The long-term potential of this program includes the use of maintenance baselines to better plan and manage future projects and to improve development and maintenance practices for future projects wherever warranted.

  10. SEL as a Component of a Literature Class to Improve Relationships, Behavior, Motivation, and Content Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shechtman, Zipora; Abu Yaman, Mary

    2012-01-01

    The study assesses the effect of social and emotional learning (SEL) integrated in a literature class, named here "affective teaching," as compared to conventional teaching. Dependent variables include relationships, behavior, motivation to learn, and content knowledge. Participants were 36 teacher trainees in one college in Israel and…

  11. A Climate for Learning Science. Concept Paper. SEL (The Skills Essential to Learning Project) Phase II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Lazer

    Commissioned for use during the design phase of the "Skills Essential to Learning" (SEL) video project, this concept paper makes a number of suggestions for facilitating effective scientific learning. These include: (1) establishing a positive climate for science learning in which the student can ask and pursue questions, change routes,…

  12. Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL). Data base organization and user's guide, revision 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, P. S.; Wyckoff, D.; Page, J.; Mcgarry, F. E.

    1983-01-01

    The structure of the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) data base is described. It defines each data base file in detail and provides information about how to access and use the data for programmers and other users. Several data base reporting programs are described also.

  13. Testing Causal Impacts of a School-Based SEL Intervention Using Instrumental Variable Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrente, Catalina; Nathanson, Lori; Rivers, Susan; Brackett, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Children's social-emotional skills, such as conflict resolution and emotion regulation, have been linked to a number of highly regarded academic and social outcomes. The current study presents preliminary results from a causal test of the theory of change of RULER, a universal school-based approach to social and emotional learning (SEL).…

  14. Measuring the software process and product: Lessons learned in the SEL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, V. R.

    1985-01-01

    The software development process and product can and should be measured. The software measurement process at the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) has taught a major lesson: develop a goal-driven paradigm (also characterized as a goal/question/metric paradigm) for data collection. Project analysis under this paradigm leads to a design for evaluating and improving the methodology of software development and maintenance.

  15. Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) data base reporting software user's guide and system description. Volume 1: Introduction and user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Reporting software programs provide formatted listings and summary reports of the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) data base contents. The operating procedures and system information for 18 different reporting software programs are described. Sample output reports from each program are provided.

  16. Texas Instruments-Digital Signal Processor(TI-DSP)SMJ320F20 SEL Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Anthony B.; Poivey, C.; Kim, H. S.; Gee, George B.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the testing of the Texas Instrument Digital Signal Processor(TI-DSP)SMJ320F20. Tests were performed to screen for susceptibility to Single Event Latchup (SEL) and measure sensitivity as a function of Linear Energy Transfer (LET) for an application specific test setup. The Heavy Ion Testing of two TI-DSP SMJ320F240 devices experienced Single Event Latchup (SEL) conditions at an LET of 1.8 MeV/(mg/square cm) The devices were exposed from a fluence of 1.76 x l0(exp 3) to 5.00 x 10(exp 6) particles/square cm of the Neon, Argon and Krypton ion beams. For DI(sub DD) an average latchup current occurred at about 700mA, which is a magnitude of 10 over the nominal current of 700mA.

  17. Effects of the Nanoparticle-Based Vaccine, SEL-068, on Nicotine Discrimination in Squirrel Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Rajeev I; Bergman, Jack

    2015-01-01

    A key feature of addiction to nicotine likely resides in its ability to produce subjective effects that, in turn, may be reflected in its discriminative-stimulus properties. Vaccination against such effects of nicotine offers an intriguing therapeutic approach for smoking cessation, but a reliably effective and immunologically safe vaccine remains to be identified. Here we report on the ability of SEL-068, a nanoparticle-based vaccine that targets nicotine, to modify the discriminative-stimulus effects of nicotine in a primate species. Results indicate that squirrel monkeys vaccinated with SEL-068 failed to acquire 0.1 mg/kg nicotine discrimination but readily learned to discriminate 0.001 mg/kg of the nicotinic full agonist (+)-epibatidine ((+)-EPI). After (+)-EPI training, doses of nicotine ⩾0.32 mg/kg, which produced behaviorally adverse actions, still failed to substitute for the (+)-EPI training stimulus in immunized monkeys, whereas (+)-EPI and the partial agonist varenicline engendered, respectively, complete and partial substitution in all monkeys with potency comparable to their potency in non-immunized subjects. In other subjects, nicotine was trained as a discriminative-stimulus and then replaced by (+)-EPI. Subsequent vaccination with SEL-068 led to a threefold and long-lasting (>30 weeks) decrease in the potency of nicotine but not (+)-EPI or varenicline. Collectively, our results show that SEL-068 can block the development of nicotine discrimination and attenuate nicotine's effects in nicotine-experienced monkeys without altering the discriminative-stimulus properties of other nicotinic drugs. The difference in the vaccine's effects in naive and nicotine-experienced subjects provides important insight into the conditions under which immunotherapy may be effective in combating nicotine addiction. PMID:25742871

  18. Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus-encoded latency-associated nuclear antigen stabilizes intracellular activated Notch by targeting the Sel10 protein.

    PubMed

    Lan, Ke; Verma, Subhash C; Murakami, Masanao; Bajaj, Bharat; Kaul, Rajeev; Robertson, Erle S

    2007-10-09

    Deregulation of the evolutionarily conserved Notch signaling is highly correlated with oncogenesis. Intracellular activated Notch (ICN) is a protooncogene linked to the transcription activation of a number of cellular genes involved in cell cycle regulation, differentiation, and proliferation. Stability of ICN is tightly regulated by the Sel10-mediated ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Sel10 can function as a negative regulator of Notch and exhibits activities of a tumor-suppressor protein. This article shows that the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) directly interacts with Sel10 and forms a complex in KSHV-infected cells. This results in suppression of ICN ubiquitination and degradation. The carboxyl terminus of LANA interacts with the F-box and WD40 domains of Sel10 and competes with ICN for binding to Sel10. This elevated level of ICN is also critical for maintaining the enhanced proliferation of KSHV-infected tumor cells. These findings describe a mechanism by which the KSHV-encoded LANA protein regulates ubiquitination of ICN mediated by the F-box component of the E3 ligase Sel10, leading to proliferation of the virus-infected cells.

  19. Comparative evaluation of volatiles, phenolics, sugars, organic acids and antioxidant properties of Sel-42 and Tainung papaya varieties.

    PubMed

    Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan; Gubbuk, Hamide; Gunes, Esma

    2015-04-15

    The present study was designed to determine the phenolic compounds, organic acids, sugars, aroma profiles and antioxidant properties of Sel-42 and Tainung papayas grown in Turkey. High-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method was used for the phenolic compounds analysis. Twelve phenolic compounds were identified and quantified in the samples. The total phenolic content of Sel-42 was clearly higher than that of Tainung. Protocatechuic acid-hexoside, gallic acid-deoxyhexoside, ferulic acid and chlorogenic acids were the most abundant phenolics in both cultivars. Aroma composition of papaya was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 46 and 42 aroma compounds, including esters, alcohols, terpenes, lactones, acids, carbonyl compounds, and volatile phenols were identified in the Sel-42 and Tainung, respectively. The significant linear correlation was confirmed between the values for the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of papaya extracts.

  20. A Critical Discourse Analysis of the New Labour Discourse of Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) across Schools in England and Wales: Conversations with Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Carl

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a critical discourse analysis (CDA) of the New Labour (1997-2010) discourse of Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) in schools, and how it was understood and enacted by policymakers in England and in Wales within the context of devolved government across the UK. By SEL I mean universal school-based programs, located in the…

  1. Holding the Line: Sustaining an SEL-Driven Whole-School Approach in a Time of Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasler, Jonathan; Elias, Maurice J.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, a growing body of research has focused on the sustainability of evidence-based interventions aimed at promoting the social emotional and character development of children (SEL) and preventing or reducing problem behaviors in schools. Current discussions of systemic reform in the education system address the capacity of individual schools…

  2. Stochastic sensitivity and variability of glycolytic oscillations in the randomly forced Sel'kov model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashkirtseva, Irina; Ryashko, Lev

    2017-01-01

    In present paper, we study underlying mechanisms of the stochastic excitability in glycolysis on the example of the model proposed by Sel'kov. A stochastic variant of this model with the randomly forced influx of the substrate is considered. Our analysis is based on the stochastic sensitivity function technique. A detailed parametric analysis of the stochastic sensitivity of attractors is carried out. A range of parameters where the stochastic model is highly sensitive to noise is determined, and a supersensitive Canard cycle is found. Phenomena of the stochastic excitability and variability of forced equilibria and cycles are demonstrated and studied. It is shown that in the zone of Canard cycles noise-induced chaos is observed.

  3. Protective Action of Se-Supplement Against Acute Alcoholism Is Regulated by Selenoprotein P (SelP) in the Liver.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenbiao; Guo, Yingfang; Qiu, Changwei; Deng, Ganzhen; Guo, Mengyao

    2017-02-01

    Acute alcoholism is a major cause of cirrhosis and liver failure around the world. Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient promoting liver health in humans and animals. Selenoprotein P (SelP) is a glycoprotein secreted within the liver, which interacts with cytokines and the growth factor pathway to provide protection for hepatic cells. The present study was conducted to confirm the effect and mechanism of Se and SelP action in livers affected by acute alcoholism. In this study, a mouse model of acute alcoholism, as well as a hepatocyte model, was successfully established. The Se content of the liver was detected by atomic fluorescence spectrophotometry. The expression of messenger RNA (mRNA) was analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The protein expression of inflammatory factors was detected by ELISA. The other proteins were analyzed by western blotting. The results showed that pathological damage to the liver was gradually weakened by Se-supplementation, which was evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and TUNEL staining. Se-supplementation inhibited expression of pro-inflammatory factors TNF-α and IL-1β and promoted production of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in the liver with acute alcoholism. Se-supplementation also prevented the apoptosis of hepatocytes by suppressing the cleavage of caspases-9, 3, 6, 7, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Through correlational analysis, it was determined that the effects of Se-supplement were closely related to SelP expression, inflammatory cytokines, and apoptosis molecule production. The sienna of SelP further confirmed the protective action of Se-supplementation on the liver and that the mechanism of SelP involves the regulation of inflammatory cytokines and apoptosis molecules in acute alcoholism. These findings provide information regarding a new potential target for the treatment of acute alcoholism.

  4. SEL1L SNP rs12435998, a predictor of glioblastoma survival and response to radio-chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Storaci, Alessandra Maria; Annovazzi, Laura; Cassoni, Paola; Melcarne, Antonio; De Blasio, Pasquale; Schiffer, Davide; Biunno, Ida

    2015-01-01

    The suppressor of Lin-12-like (C. elegans) (SEL1L) is involved in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation pathway, malignant transformation and stem cells. In 412 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded brain tumors and 39 Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell lines, we determined the frequency of five SEL1L single nucleotide genetic variants with regulatory and coding functions by a SNaPShot™ assay. We tested their possible association with brain tumor risk, prognosis and therapy. We studied the in vitro cytotoxicity of valproic acid (VPA), temozolomide (TMZ), doxorubicin (DOX) and paclitaxel (PTX), alone or in combination, on 11 GBM cell lines, with respect to the SNP rs12435998 genotype. The SNP rs12435998 was prevalent in anaplastic and malignant gliomas, and in meningiomas of all histologic grades, but unrelated to brain tumor risks. In GBM patients, the SNP rs12435998 was associated with prolonged overall survival (OS) and better response to TMZ-based radio-chemotherapy. GBM stem cells with this SNP showed lower levels of SEL1L expression and enhanced sensitivity to VPA. PMID:25948789

  5. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the mRNA-binding domain of elongation factor SelB from Escherichia coli in complex with RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, Nicolas; Fourmy, Dominique; Yoshizawa, Satoko

    2007-05-01

    The mRNA-binding domain of E. coli selenocysteine-specific elongation factor SelB (residues 478–614; SelB-WH3/4) was overproduced in E. coli and its cognate mRNA ligand, 23 nucleotides of the SECIS RNA hairpin, was prepared by in vitro transcription. The purified SelB-WH3/4–SECIS RNA complex crystallized in space group C2 and diffracted to 2.3 Å. In bacteria, selenocysteine (the 21st amino acid) is incorporated into proteins via machinery that includes SelB, a specific translational elongation factor. SelB binds to an mRNA hairpin called the selenocysteine-insertion sequence (SECIS) and delivers selenocysteyl-tRNA{sup Sec} to the ribosomal A site. The minimum C-terminal fragment (residues 478–614) of Escherichia coli SelB (SelB-WH3/4) required for SECIS binding has been overexpressed and purified. This protein was crystallized in complex with 23 nucleotides of the SECIS hairpin at 294 K using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. A data set was collected to 2.3 Å resolution from a single crystal at 100 K using ESRF beamline BM-30. The crystal belongs to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 103.50, b = 56.51, c = 48.41 Å. The asymmetric unit contains one WH3/4-domain–RNA complex. The Matthews coefficient was calculated to be 3.37 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and the solvent content was estimated to be 67.4%.

  6. A new approach to the analysis of SEU and SEL data to obtain the sensitive volume thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Barak, J.; Levinson, J.; Akkerman, A.; Zentner, A.; David, D.; Even, O.; Lifshitz, Y.; Hass, M.; Victoria, M.

    1996-06-01

    It is proposed to use short-range ions (along with long-range ions) to obtain the thickness of the sensitive volume, d, and the SEU and SEL cross sections vs the energy deposited in this volume, {sigma}{sub ion}({var_epsilon}). These {sigma}{sub ion}({var_epsilon}) and d can be used for calculating the proton induced cross sections {sigma}{sub p}. A study of HM65162 demonstrates this method. The calculated {sigma}{sub p} is in good agreement with the experimental {sigma}{sub p}.

  7. What Constitutes High-Quality Implementation of SEL Programs? A Latent Class Analysis of Second Step® Implementation.

    PubMed

    Low, Sabina; Smolkowski, Keith; Cook, Clay

    2016-11-01

    With the increased number of schools adopting social-emotional learning (SEL) programming, there is increased emphasis on the role of implementation in obtaining desired outcomes. Despite this, the current knowledge of the active ingredients of SEL programming is lacking, and there is a need to move from a focus on "whether" implementation matters to "what" aspects of implementation matter. To address this gap, the current study utilizes a latent class approach with data from year 1 of a randomized controlled trial of Second Step® (61 schools, 321 teachers, over 7300 students). Latent classes of implementation were identified, then used to predict student outcomes. Teachers reported on multiple dimensions of implementation (adherence, dosage, competency), as well as student outcomes. Observational data were also used to assess classroom behavior (academic engagement and disruptive behavior). Results suggest that a three-class model fits the data best, labeled as high-quality, low-engagement, and low-adherence classes. Only the low-engagement class showed significant associations with poorer outcomes, when compared to the high-quality class (not the low-adherence class). Findings are discussed in terms of implications for program development and implementation science more broadly.

  8. The limits of applicability of the sound exposure level (SEL) metric to temporal threshold shifts (TTS) in beluga whales, Delphinapterus leucas.

    PubMed

    Popov, Vladimir V; Supin, Alexander Ya; Rozhnov, Viatcheslav V; Nechaev, Dmitry I; Sysueva, Evgenia V

    2014-05-15

    The influence of fatiguing sound level and duration on post-exposure temporary threshold shift (TTS) was investigated in two beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas). The fatiguing sound was half-octave noise with a center frequency of 22.5 kHz. TTS was measured at a test frequency of 32 kHz. Thresholds were measured by recording rhythmic evoked potentials (the envelope following response) to a test series of short (eight cycles) tone pips with a pip rate of 1000 s(-1). TTS increased approximately proportionally to the dB measure of both sound pressure (sound pressure level, SPL) and duration of the fatiguing noise, as a product of these two variables. In particular, when the noise parameters varied in a manner that maintained the product of squared sound pressure and time (sound exposure level, SEL, which is equivalent to the overall noise energy) at a constant level, TTS was not constant. Keeping SEL constant, the highest TTS appeared at an intermediate ratio of SPL to sound duration and decreased at both higher and lower ratios. Multiplication (SPL multiplied by log duration) better described the experimental data than an equal-energy (equal SEL) model. The use of SEL as a sole universal metric may result in an implausible assessment of the impact of a fatiguing sound on hearing thresholds in odontocetes, including under-evaluation of potential risks.

  9. Software Transition Project Retrospectives and the Application of SEL Effort Estimation Model and Boehm's COCOMO to Complex Software Transition Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNeill, Justin

    1995-01-01

    The Multimission Image Processing Subsystem (MIPS) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has managed transitions of application software sets from one operating system and hardware platform to multiple operating systems and hardware platforms. As a part of these transitions, cost estimates were generated from the personal experience of in-house developers and managers to calculate the total effort required for such projects. Productivity measures have been collected for two such transitions, one very large and the other relatively small in terms of source lines of code. These estimates used a cost estimation model similar to the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) Effort Estimation Model. Experience in transitioning software within JPL MIPS have uncovered a high incidence of interface complexity. Interfaces, both internal and external to individual software applications, have contributed to software transition project complexity, and thus to scheduling difficulties and larger than anticipated design work on software to be ported.

  10. Hydrogeochemical investigation of Küçük Menderes River coastal wetland, Selçuk-Izmir, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somay, A. Melis; Gemici, Ünsal; Filiz, Sevki

    2008-07-01

    Küçük Menderes River forms a rich coastal wetland inside in the Selçuk plain. Three saline/brackish lakes, one swamp and Küçük Menderes River are these wetlands’ components. Alkaline-slightly alkaline type lakes are recharged from precipitation and karstic springs that discharge from marble-schist and marble-alluvium contacts in the northern and southern parts of the study area. Water types of the wetland are Na-Cl and Na-Ca-Mg-HCO3-Cl in both rainy and dry seasons. Both seawater intrusion and evaporation, as being the sources of the ions, justify the presence of Na-Cl, Na-SO4 and Cl-SO4, in the wetland water. Environmental isotopes were used to identify the relationship between wetland and groundwater in the Selçuk plain. The δ18O and δD composition of wetland area samples have changed between -6.42 to -4.56‰, and -36.40 to -23.80‰, respectively. The lakes and rivers are plotted on the mixing line by slope of 5.2 and these data indicate that wetland is affected from seawater intrusion. The recharge area that was sampled in order to compare the wetland has Ca-HCO3 water type with a neutral-slightly alkaline pH values and the main hydrogeochemical process is weathering the different types of silicates. Iron, manganese and selenium are the dominant minor ions due to the high biological activities and organic matters in the lakes. There are two contamination risks for this wetland: (1) waste disposal site and (2) water treatment plant where the purified waters are released into the river. EC, Al, As, Cd, Cu, Fe and Zn values exceed those of aquatic life standards. In the near future these sites will pose a danger for wetland wild life and surrounding irrigation water suppliers.

  11. Heterogeneous response to differentiation induction with different polar compounds in a clonal rat rhabdomyosarcoma cell line (BA-HAN-1C).

    PubMed Central

    Gerharz, C. D.; Gabbert, H. E.; Engers, R.; Ramp, U.; Mayer, H.; Luley, C.

    1989-01-01

    The clonal rat rhabdomyosarcoma cell line BA-HAN-1C was tested for its susceptibility to differentiation induction with different polar compounds. This cell line is composed of proliferating mononuclear tumour cells, some of which spontaneously fuse to form terminally differentiated postmitotic myotube-like giant cells. Exposure of BA-HAN-1C cells to dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO), hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA), sodium butyrate (NaBut) and N-monomethylformamide (NMF) resulted in a significant inhibition of proliferation (P less than 0.001) and in a simultaneous increase in differentiation. The response was most pronounced after exposure to NMF as evidenced by a marked increase in the creatine kinase activity used as a biochemical marker of differentiation (P less than 0.05) and the number of terminally differentiated myotube-like giant cells (P less than 0.001). Furthermore, about 5% of the mononuclear cells exhibited thick and thin myofilaments which were never observed in the mononuclear cells of the control. In contrast, the effects of DMSO, HMBA and NaBut were exclusively confined to a significant increase in biochemical differentiation (P less than 0.05), whereas no increase in morphological differentiation was observed and the number of myotube-like giant cells even significantly (P less than 0.001) decreased. This heterogeneous response to differentiation induction with different polar compounds probably indicates different mechanisms of action and suggests that the induction of biochemical differentiation might be independently regulated from events leading to cell fusion and terminal differentiation. Images Figure 1 PMID:2803927

  12. spr-2, a suppressor of the egg-laying defect caused by loss of sel-12 presenilin in Caenorhabditis elegans, is a member of the SET protein subfamily

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Chenhui; Levitan, Diane; Li, Xiajun; Greenwald, Iva

    2000-01-01

    Presenilin plays critical roles in the genesis of Alzheimer's disease and in LIN-12/Notch signaling during development. Here, we describe a screen for genes that influence presenilin level or activity in Caenorhabditis elegans. We identified four spr (suppressor of presenilin) genes by reverting the egg-laying defective phenotype caused by a null allele of the sel-12 presenilin gene. We analyzed the spr-2 gene in some detail. We show that loss of spr-2 activity suppresses the egg-laying defective phenotype of different sel-12 alleles and requires activity of the hop-1 presenilin gene, suggesting that suppression is accomplished by elevating presenilin activity rather than by bypassing the need for presenilin activity. We also show that SPR-2 is a nuclear protein and is a member of a protein subfamily that includes human SET, which has been identified in numerous different biochemical assays and at translocation breakpoints associated with a subtype of acute myeloid leukemia. PMID:11114162

  13. Selenomethionine alleviates AFB1-induced damage in primary chicken hepatocytes by inhibiting CYP450 1A5 expression via upregulated SelW expression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xingxiang; Che, Chaoping; Korolchuk, Viktor I; Gan, Fang; Pan, Cuiling; Huang, Kehe

    2017-03-13

    This study aims to evaluate the protective effects of selenomethionine (SeMet) on Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced hepatotoxicity in primary chicken hepatocytes. Cell viability and lactic dehydrogenase activity assays revealed the dose-dependency of AFB1 toxicity to chicken hepatocytes. AFB1 concentrations above 0.05 μg/mL significantly reduced glutathione and total superoxide dismutase levels, as well as increased malondialdehyde concentration and cytochrome P450 enzyme 1A5 (CYP450 1A5) mRNA levels (P < 0.05). AFB1, however, did not affect CYP450 3A37 mRNA levels. Supplementation with 2 μM SeMet protected against AFB1-induced changes and significantly increased selenoprotein W (SelW) mRNA levels (P < 0.05). Additionally, SelW knockdown attenuated the protective effect of SeMet on AFB1-induced damage and significantly increased CYP450 1A5 expression (P < 0.05). Therefore, SeMet alleviates AFB1-induced damage in primary chicken hepatocytes by improving SelW expression, thus inhibiting CYP450 1A5 expression.

  14. Enterotoxin Gene Cluster-Encoded SEI and SElN from Staphylococcus aureus Isolates are Crucial for the Induction of Human Blood Cell Proliferation and Pathogenicity in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Roetzer, Andreas; Gruener, Corina S.; Haller, Guenter; Beyerly, John; Model, Nina; Eibl, Martha M.

    2016-01-01

    Among the toxin family of bacterial superantigens, the six members of the enterotoxin gene cluster (egc) seem to have unusual characteristics. They are present in the majority of Staphylococcus aureus strains, but their role in disease remains uncertain. We assessed secretion levels, immunogenicity, and toxicity of native and recombinant egc proteins. After having developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, we found different quantities of egc proteins secreted by bacterial isolates. Supernatants induced proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. However, purified recombinant egc proteins were shown to have differing superantigenicity potentials. Immunization with identical amounts of all members of egc, and the prominent toxic agent SEB, resulted in neutralizing antisera. Two egc proteins, SEI and SElN, were found to play a predominant role within the cluster. Both displayed the highest potential to activate blood cells, and were essential to be neutralized in supernatants. The application of a supernatant of a strain bearing only egc was sufficient for a lethal outcome in a rabbit model. Again, neutralization of SEI and SElN led to the survival of all tested animals. Finally, nanogram amounts of purified rSEI and rSElN led to lethality in vivo, pointing out the importance of both as virulence determinants among egc superantigens. PMID:27801832

  15. PPR protein PDM1/SEL1 is involved in RNA editing and splicing of plastid genes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Dao; Cui, Yong-Lan; Huang, Chao; Yin, Qian-Qian; Qin, Xue-Mei; Xu, Te; He, Xiao-Fang; Zhang, Yi; Li, Zi-Ran; Yang, Zhong-Nan

    2015-12-01

    After transcription, most chloroplast precursor RNAs undergo further post-transcriptional processing including cleavage, editing, and splicing. Previous investigation has shown that the cleavage of the rpoA transcript and most editing sites, including accD-1, are defective in the knockout mutant of PDM1/SEL1, a PLS-type PPR protein, and that PDM1 is associated with the rpoA transcript. In this work, we found that the splicing of group II introns in trnK and ndhA is also affected in pdm1. Co-immunoprecipitation mass spectrometry experiments were performed to identify proteins that are associated with PDM1. We obtained 126 non-redundant proteins, of which MORF9 was reported to be involved in RNA editing in chloroplast. Yeast two-hybrid assays showed that PDM1 interacts directly with MORF9, MORF2, and MORF8. RNA immunoprecipitation showed that PDM1 associates with the transcripts of trnK and ndhA, as well as accD-1, suggesting that PDM1 is involved in RNA editing and splicing. Therefore, PDM1 is an important protein for post-transcriptional regulation in chloroplast.

  16. The polyamine oxidase from lycophyte Selaginella lepidophylla (SelPAO5), unlike that of angiosperms, back-converts thermospermine to norspermidine.

    PubMed

    Sagor, G H M; Inoue, Masataka; Kim, Dong Wook; Kojima, Seiji; Niitsu, Masaru; Berberich, Thomas; Kusano, Tomonobu

    2015-10-07

    In the phylogeny of plant polyamine oxidases (PAOs), clade III members from angiosperms, such as Arabidopsis thaliana PAO5 and Oryza sativa PAO1, prefer spermine and thermospermine as substrates and back-convert both of these substrates to spermidine in vitro. A clade III representative of lycophytes, SelPAO5 from Selaginella lepidophylla, also prefers spermine and thermospermine but instead back-converts these substrates to spermidine and norspermidine, respectively. This finding indicates that the clade III PAOs of lycophytes and angiosperms oxidize thermospermine at different carbon positions. We discuss the physiological significance of this difference.

  17. Can Universal SEL Programs Benefit Universally? Effects of the Positive Action Program on Multiple Trajectories of Social-Emotional and Misconduct Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Robert; Washburn, Isaac J; Lewis, Kendra M; Bavarian, Niloofar; DuBois, David L; Acock, Alan C; Vuchinich, Samuel; Flay, Brian R

    2017-02-01

    Behavioral trajectories during middle childhood are predictive of consequential outcomes later in life (e.g., substance abuse, violence). Social and emotional learning (SEL) programs are designed to promote trajectories that reflect both growth in positive behaviors and inhibited development of negative behaviors. The current study used growth mixture models to examine effects of the Positive Action (PA) program on behavioral trajectories of social-emotional and character development (SECD) and misconduct using data from a cluster-randomized trial that involved 14 schools and a sample of predominately low-income, urban youth followed from 3rd through 8th grade. For SECD, findings indicated that PA was similarly effective at improving trajectories within latent classes characterized as "high/declining" and "low/stable". Favorable program effects were likewise evident to a comparable degree for misconduct across observed latent classes that reflected "low/rising" and "high/rising" trajectories. These findings suggest that PA and perhaps other school-based universal SEL programs have the potential to yield comparable benefits across subgroups of youth with differing trajectories of positive and negative behaviors, making them promising strategies for achieving the intended goal of school-wide improvements in student outcomes.

  18. A SelB/EF-Tu/aIF2γ-like protein from Methanosarcina mazei in the GTP-bound form binds cysteinyl-tRNA(Cys.).

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Tatsuo; Ishii, Ryohei; Hikida, Yasushi; Fukunaga, Ryuya; Sengoku, Toru; Sekine, Shun-ichi; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2015-03-01

    The putative translation elongation factor Mbar_A0971 from the methanogenic archaeon Methanosarcina barkeri was proposed to be the pyrrolysine-specific paralogue of EF-Tu ("EF-Pyl"). In the present study, the crystal structures of its homologue from Methanosarcina mazei (MM1309) were determined in the GMPPNP-bound, GDP-bound, and apo forms, by the single-wavelength anomalous dispersion phasing method. The three MM1309 structures are quite similar (r.m.s.d. < 0.1 Å). The three domains, corresponding to domains 1, 2, and 3 of EF-Tu/SelB/aIF2γ, are packed against one another to form a closed architecture. The MM1309 structures resemble those of bacterial/archaeal SelB, bacterial EF-Tu in the GTP-bound form, and archaeal initiation factor aIF2γ, in this order. The GMPPNP and GDP molecules are visible in their co-crystal structures. Isothermal titration calorimetry measurements of MM1309·GTP·Mg(2+), MM1309·GDP·Mg(2+), and MM1309·GMPPNP·Mg(2+) provided dissociation constants of 0.43, 26.2, and 222.2 μM, respectively. Therefore, the affinities of MM1309 for GTP and GDP are similar to those of SelB rather than those of EF-Tu. Furthermore, the switch I and II regions of MM1309 are involved in domain-domain interactions, rather than nucleotide binding. The putative binding pocket for the aminoacyl moiety on MM1309 is too small to accommodate the pyrrolysyl moiety, based on a comparison of the present MM1309 structures with that of the EF-Tu·GMPPNP·aminoacyl-tRNA ternary complex. A hydrolysis protection assay revealed that MM1309 binds cysteinyl (Cys)-tRNA(Cys) and protects the aminoacyl bond from non-enzymatic hydrolysis. Therefore, we propose that MM1309 functions as either a guardian protein that protects the Cys moiety from oxidation or an alternative translation factor for Cys-tRNA(Cys).

  19. Down-modulation of SEL1L, an unfolded protein response and endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation protein, sensitizes glioma stem cells to the cytotoxic effect of valproic acid.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Monica; Baronchelli, Simona; Schiffer, Davide; Mellai, Marta; Caldera, Valentina; Saccani, Gloria Jotti; Dalpra, Leda; Daga, Antonio; Orlandi, Rosaria; DeBlasio, Pasquale; Biunno, Ida

    2014-01-31

    Valproic acid (VPA), an histone deacetylase inhibitor, is emerging as a promising therapeutic agent for the treatments of gliomas by virtue of its ability to reactivate the expression of epigenetically silenced genes. VPA induces the unfolded protein response (UPR), an adaptive pathway displaying a dichotomic yin yang characteristic; it initially contributes in safeguarding the malignant cell survival, whereas long-lasting activation favors a proapoptotic response. By triggering UPR, VPA might tip the balance between cellular adaptation and programmed cell death via the deregulation of protein homeostasis and induction of proteotoxicity. Here we aimed to investigate the impact of proteostasis on glioma stem cells (GSC) using VPA treatment combined with subversion of SEL1L, a crucial protein involved in homeostatic pathways, cancer aggressiveness, and stem cell state maintenance. We investigated the global expression of GSC lines untreated and treated with VPA, SEL1L interference, and GSC line response to VPA treatment by analyzing cell viability via MTT assay, neurosphere formation, and endoplasmic reticulum stress/UPR-responsive proteins. Moreover, SEL1L immunohistochemistry was performed on primary glial tumors. The results show that (i) VPA affects GSC lines viability and anchorage-dependent growth by inducing differentiative programs and cell cycle progression, (ii) SEL1L down-modulation synergy enhances VPA cytotoxic effects by influencing GSCs proliferation and self-renewal properties, and (iii) SEL1L expression is indicative of glioma proliferation rate, malignancy, and endoplasmic reticulum stress statuses. Targeting the proteostasis network in association to VPA treatment may provide an alternative approach to deplete GSC and improve glioma treatments.

  20. La teneur en iode du sel de cuisine consommé à Lubumbashi et le statut iode des personnes vulnérables: cas de femmes enceintes de milieux défavorisés

    PubMed Central

    Banza, Bienvenue Ilunga; Lumbu, Jean Baptiste Simbi; Donnen, Philippe; Twite, Eugène Kabange; Kwete, Daniel Mikobi; Kazadi, Costa Mwadianvita; Ozoza, Jean Okolonken; Habimana, Laurence; Kalenga, Prosper Muenze Kayamba; Robert, Annie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction La consommation du sel faiblement iodé peut engendrer des troubles divers liés à la carence iodée Ce travail a pour objectif d’évaluer la teneur en iode du sel consommé à Lubumbashi et de déterminer le statut iodé des femmes enceintes, cible privilégiée de la carence iodée. Méthodes Une étude transversale descriptive a été consacrée à une analyse iodométrique d'iode dans 739 échantillons de sel collectés dans les ménages et marchés de Lubumbashi en 2014. Précédemment, l'iode urinaire a été déterminé par la technique de minéralisation au persulfate d'ammonium chez 225 femmes enceintes reçues en consultation du 15 mars 2009 au 25 avril 2011. Résultats Notre enquête a révélé 47,5% des échantillons de sels de cuisine adéquatement iodés (15 à 40 ppm), 36,9% d’échantillons faiblement iodés, 7,4% d’échantillons trop riches en iode et 8,1% des échantillons non iodés. La disponibilité en iode du sel de cuisine analysé était globalement de 54,9%, se trouvant nettement en dessous des normes OMS (90%). En mesurant l'iode urinaire chez la femme enceinte, la carence iodée (iode urinaire <150 µg/l) a été observée dans une proportion de 52%. Conclusion La faible disponibilité en iode du sel consommé à Lubumbashi pourrait être responsable d'une grande proportion de la carence iodée observée chez la femme enceinte, ce qui expose celle-ci aux risques majeurs des troubles dus à la carence en iode. PMID:27279956

  1. SEL Ada reuse analysis and representations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kester, Rush

    1990-01-01

    Overall, it was revealed that the pattern of Ada reuse has evolved from initial reuse of utility components into reuse of generalized application architectures. Utility components were both domain-independent utilities, such as queues and stacks, and domain-specific utilities, such as those that implement spacecraft orbit and attitude mathematical functions and physics or astronomical models. The level of reuse was significantly increased with the development of a generalized telemetry simulator architecture. The use of Ada generics significantly increased the level of verbatum reuse, which is due to the ability, using Ada generics, to parameterize the aspects of design that are configurable during reuse. A key factor in implementing generalized architectures was the ability to use generic subprogram parameters to tailor parts of the algorithm embedded within the architecture. The use of object oriented design (in which objects model real world entities) significantly improved the modularity for reuse. Encapsulating into packages the data and operations associated with common real world entities creates natural building blocks for reuse.

  2. An old paper revisited: "a mathematical model of carbohydrate energy metabolism. Interaction between glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and the H-transporting shuttles at varying ATPases load" by V.V. Dynnik, R. Heinrich and E.E. Sel'kov.

    PubMed

    Nazaret, Christine; Mazat, Jean-Pierre

    2008-06-07

    We revisit an old Russian paper by V.V. Dynnik, R. Heinrich and E.E. Sel'kov (1980a,b) describing: "A mathematical model of carbohydrate energy metabolism. Interaction between glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and the H-transporting shuttles at varying ATPases load". We analyse the model mathematically and calculate the control coefficients as a function of ATPase loads. We also evaluate the structure of the metabolic network in terms of elementary flux modes. We show how this model can respond to an ATPase load as well as to the glucose supply. We also show how this simple model can help in understanding the articulation between the major blocks of energetic metabolism, i.e. glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and the H-transporting shuttles.

  3. Essais de capillarité et d'évaporation sous tomodensitométrie RX imagerie de la répartition de l'eau. Conséquences sur les flux et la localisation des zones de précipitation des sels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Géraud, Y.; Tournier, B.; Surma, F.; Mazerolle, F.

    2002-07-01

    La tomodensitométrie Rx est utilisée pour suivre la saturation et le séchage des pierres utilisées dans la construction de certains monuments. Les mesures d'atténuation des rayons X sont interprétées pour déterminer la répartition des phases minérales qui composent le matériau ainsi que la répartition de la porosité. Les essais de saturation ou de séchage effectués sous tomodensitométrie RX permettent de suivre les variations de saturation du réseau poreux au cours des essais. Les interfaces entre zones saturées en fluides et zones sèches localisent de possibles zones de précipitation de sels, processus important dans le dégradation de pierres d'œuvre.

  4. Acheii Bahane': Naaki Gone' Yiltsiligii II = Grandfather Stories: Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yellowhair, Marvin

    At one time all Navaho stories were handed down from generation to generation by word of mouth. Some stories were recorded and then trnsalated into English. In the process of translation, the stories often times lost their meaning. To avoid this, the second volume of "Grandfather Stories," which were told by elders living in the vicinity…

  5. Response to Comments by Bahan, Montgomery, Ladd and Further Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Graham H.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the meaning of deaf culture with reference to the views of other specialists in the field. The author observes that he is not floating a rival analysis of the constituents of Deaf culture; attempting to relabel phenomena; searching for the definition; claiming that the idea of deaf cultures is either qualitatively or quantitatively…

  6. Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) Ada performance study report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, Eric W.; Stark, Michael E.

    1991-01-01

    The goals of the Ada Performance Study are described. The methods used are explained. Guidelines for future Ada development efforts are given. The goals and scope of the study are detailed, and the background of Ada development in the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) is presented. The organization and overall purpose of each test are discussed. The purpose, methods, and results of each test and analyses of these results are given. Guidelines for future development efforts based on the analysis of results from this study are provided. The approach used on the performance tests is discussed.

  7. Annotated bibliography of Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) literature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, D.

    1982-01-01

    An annotated bibliography of technical papers, documents, and memorandums produced by or related to the Software Engineering Laboratory is presented. More than 75 publications are summarized. An index of these publications by subject is also included. These publications cover many areas of software engineering and range from research reports to software documentation.

  8. Laboratory Performance Evaluation Report of SEL 421 Phasor Measurement Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zhenyu; faris, Anthony J.; Martin, Kenneth E.; Hauer, John F.; Bonebrake, Christopher A.; Shaw, James M.

    2007-12-01

    PNNL and BPA have been in close collaboration on laboratory performance evaluation of phasor measurement units for over ten years. A series of evaluation tests are designed to confirm accuracy and determine measurement performance under a variety of conditions that may be encountered in actual use. Ultimately the testing conducted should provide parameters that can be used to adjust all measurements to a standardized basis. These tests are performed with a standard relay test set using recorded files of precisely generated test signals. The test set provides test signals at a level and in a format suitable for input to a PMU that accurately reproduces the signals in both signal amplitude and timing. Test set outputs are checked to confirm the accuracy of the output signal. The recorded signals include both current and voltage waveforms and a digital timing track used to relate the PMU measured value with the test signal. Test signals include steady-state waveforms to test amplitude, phase, and frequency accuracy, modulated signals to determine measurement and rejection bands, and step tests to determine timing and response accuracy. Additional tests are included as necessary to fully describe the PMU operation. Testing is done with a BPA phasor data concentrator (PDC) which provides communication support and monitors data input for dropouts and data errors.

  9. Investigation of specification measures for the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Requirements specification measures are investigated for potential application in the Software Engineering Laboratory. Eighty-seven candidate measures are defined; sixteen are recommended for use. Most measures are derived from a new representation, the Composite Specification Model, which is introduced. The results of extracting the specification measures from the requirements of a real system are described.

  10. When Districts Support and Integrate Social and Emotional Learning (SEL): Findings from an Ongoing Evaluation of Districtwide Implementation of SEL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendziora, Kimberly; Yoder, Nick

    2016-01-01

    The Issue: Students need more than just academic knowledge to succeed in college, careers, and personal and public life. They need to understand their own skills and abilities, manage their emotions and behavior, communicate effectively, negotiate conflict, care about others, and make responsible decisions. Social and emotional skills undergird…

  11. Simulating Waves in the Upper Solar Atmosphere with Surya: A Well-Balanced High-Order Finite Volume Code

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-19

    waves in the outer solar ( chromosphere and corona) and other stellar atmospheres. The waves are simulated by using a high-resolution, well-balanced...configurations. Although some of the incident wave energy is transmitted into the corona, a large proportion of it is accumulated in the chromosphere ...providing a possible mechanism for chromospheric heating. 1. Introduction Waves and oscillations are a significant means for the transport and

  12. Usability Characteristics of Sel-Fadministered Computer-Assisted Interviewing in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, D. B.; Nakhasi, A.; Nelson, B.; Rice, S.; Abbott, P. A.; Saber Tehrani, A. S.; Rothman, R. E.; Lehmann, H. P.; Newman-Toker, D. E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Self-administered computer-assisted interviewing (SACAI) gathers accurate information from patients and could facilitate Emergency Department (ED) diagnosis. As part of an ongoing research effort whose long-range goal is to develop automated medical interviewing for diagnostic decision support, we explored usability attributes of SACAI in the ED. Methods Cross-sectional study at two urban, academic EDs. Convenience sample recruited daily over six weeks. Adult, non-level I trauma patients were eligible. We collected data on ease of use (self-reported difficulty, researcher documented need for help), efficiency (mean time-per-click on a standardized interview segment), and error (self-report age mismatched with age derived from electronic health records) when using SACAI on three different instruments: Elo TouchSystems ESY15A2 (finger touch), Toshiba M200 (with digitizer pen), and Motion C5 (with digitizer pen). We calculated descriptive statistics and used regression analysis to evaluate the impact of patient and computer factors on time-per-click. Results 841 participants completed all SACAI questions. Few (<1%) thought using the touch computer to ascertain medical information was difficult. Most (86%) required no assistance. Participants needing help were older (54 ± 19 vs. 40 ± 15 years, p<0.001) and more often lacked internet at home (13.4% vs. 7.3%, p = 0.004). On multivariate analysis, female sex (p<0.001), White (p<0.001) and other (p = 0.05) race (vs. Black race), younger age (p<0.001), internet access at home (p<0.001), high school graduation (p = 0.04), and touch screen entry (vs. digitizer pen) (p = 0.01) were independent predictors of decreased time-per-click. Participant misclick errors were infrequent, but, in our sample, occurred only during interviews using a digitizer pen rather than a finger touch-screen interface (1.9% vs. 0%, p = 0.09). Discussion Our results support the facility of interactions between ED patients and SACAI. Demographic factors associated with need for assistance or slower interviews could serve as important triggers to offering human support for SACAI interviews during implementation. Conclusion Understanding human-computer interactions in real-world clinical settings is essential to implementing automated interviewing as means to a larger long-term goal of enhancing clinical care, diagnostic accuracy, and patient safety. PMID:23874364

  13. Crystallization and X-ray analysis of the salmon-egg lectin SEL24K

    SciTech Connect

    Murata, Kenji; Fisher, Andrew J.; Hedrick, Jerry L.

    2007-05-01

    The 24 kDa egg lectin of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) was purified by affinity chromatography from salmon eggs and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method using 15/4 EO/OH (pentaerythritol ethoxylate) as a precipitant. The 24 kDa egg lectin of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) is released from the egg during the cortical reaction. The lectin functions in blocking polyspermy during the fertilization process. The egg lectin was purified by affinity chromatography from salmon eggs and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method using 15/4 EO/OH (pentaerythritol ethoxylate) as a precipitant. The crystal diffracted synchrotron-radiation X-rays to 1.63 Å resolution. The crystal belongs to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 93.0, b = 73.6, c = 113.6 Å, α = 90, β = 92.82, γ = 90°. The crystal is likely to contain eight molecules in the asymmetric unit (V{sub M} = 2.3 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}), corresponding to a solvent content of 45.5%. A self-rotation function suggests an arrangement with 222 point symmetry within the asymmetric unit.

  14. A study of the portability of an Ada system in the software engineering laboratory (SEL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jun, Linda O.; Valett, Susan Ray

    1990-01-01

    A particular porting effort is discussed, and various statistics on analyzing the portability of Ada and the total staff months (overall and by phase) required to accomplish the rehost, are given. This effort is compared to past experiments on the rehosting of FORTRAN systems. The discussion includes an analysis of the types of errors encountered during the rehosting, the changes required to rehost the system, experiences with the Alsys IBM Ada compiler, the impediments encountered, and the lessons learned during this study.

  15. A DoD Software Measurement Pilot: Applying the SEl Core Measures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-05-01

    Availability Codes Dist m . Avail and/or Special Approved for public release. Distribution unlimited. Software Engineering Institute Carnegie Mellon...Goethert] [Grady] [Humphrey] [McAndrews] [Park] [Paulk] [Rifkin] [Rozum92] Basili, V., and D. M . Weiss, "A Methodology for Collecting Valid Software...Date of Report: Changed (yes/no)* Miana me- tcnrrm. WK i (dd-mmm-yy) (mmm-yy

  16. USDA's Systematic Entomology Laboratory (SEL): Global leadership and innovation in insect systematics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A longstanding agreement between the USDA and the Smithsonian Institution created the National Insect Collection, one of the premiere entomological resources on the planet. Since its inception, USDA scientists associated with the National Insect Collection have been at the forefront of documenting i...

  17. Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) data base reporting software user's guide and system description. Volume 2: Program descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The structure and functions of each reporting software program for the Software Engineering Laboratory data base are described. Baseline diagrams, module descriptions, and listings of program generation files are included.

  18. Endosymbiont hunting in the metagenome of Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) (7th Annual SFAF Meeting, 2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Surya

    2012-06-01

    Surya Saha on "Endosymbiont hunting in the metagenome of Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri)" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  19. Endosymbiont hunting in the metagenome of Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) (7th Annual SFAF Meeting, 2012)

    ScienceCinema

    Saha, Surya [Cornell University

    2016-07-12

    Surya Saha on "Endosymbiont hunting in the metagenome of Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri)" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  20. Molecular characterization and NF-κB-regulated transcription of selenoprotein S from the Bama mini-pig.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ningbo; Jing, Wenqian; Cheng, Jiayue; Cui, Wentao; Mu, Yulian; Li, Kui; Lei, Xingen

    2011-10-01

    Selenoprotein S (SelS), a member of selenoprotein family, plays important regulatory function in inflammation and metabolic diseases. SelS expression is up-regulated response to the inflammatory stimulus in many mammal cells, animal models as well as patients. In order to further understand the function of SelS gene, molecular characterization and transcriptional regulation of SelS from a Bama mini-pig were analyzed in the present study. The results showed that pig SelS encoded a protein of 190 amino acid with estimated molecular weight of 21.23 kDa and pI of 9.526. The genomic structure, promoter and deduced amino acid sequence were analyzed and found to share high similarity with those of human SelS. Pig SelS fusion protein was demonstrated to localize in the cytoplasm by fluorescence microscopy. Real-time PCR revealed the ubiquitous expression pattern of pig SelS in diverse tissues, a high level expression was observed in the liver and lung, relatively low expression in other tissues, especially in muscle. Promoter deletion analysis further suggests that an NF-κB binding site within the SelS promoter is responsible for the up-regulation of SelS transcription.

  1. Non-invasive Detection of Lactate as a Biomarker of Response Using Spectral-Selective Multiple Quantum Editing Sequence (SS-SelMQC)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    function of Herceptin and Avastin. We completed quantification of 1D spectra and made significant progress in 2D quantification to explain tumor... Herceptin . We are in the process of completing all unfinished analysis of treatment data along with the histologic image correlations to finalize the

  2. Noninvasive Detection of Lactate as a Biomarker of Response Using Spectral-Selective Multiple Quantum Editing Sequence (SS-SelMQC)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    Tuli Rakesh. And Khetrapal, C.L. (2010). Metabolic and Histopathological alterations of Jatropha Mosoic begamovirus infected Jatropha Curcus L. by HR-MAS NMR Spectroscopy and Magnetic Resonace Imaging. Planta . 232: 85-93

  3. Non-Invasive Detection of Lactate as a Biomarker of Response using Spectral Selective Multiple Quantum Editing Sequence (SS-SelMQC)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    characterized as being "glucose starved" to "glucose addicted" in compari- son with other tissues, reflecting an imbalance between poor supply and high...intake by responding to hormonal and nutrient signals in the hypothalamus. Nature 2004;428:569–74. 39. Sedoris KC, Thomas SD, Miller DM. c-myc promoter

  4. Composites graphite/sel pour le stockage d'énergie à haute température : étude des effets du graphite et de la microstructure des composites sur les propriétés de changement de phase des sels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Jérôme; Dumas, Jean-Pierre; Palomo del Barrio, Elena

    2008-07-01

    Thermal energy storage at high temperature is an efficient way for energy saving in the industrial sector, as well as a key component for power generation based on renewable energy resources. Thermal energy storage technology based on phase change materials (mainly salts) has been identified to meet the requirements of investment costs and compactness. However, the low thermal conductivity of salts (˜1 W/m/K) could be a limiting factor concerning power. To overcome such a drawback, new materials combining salts with graphite have been developed. Nevertheless, it is important to verify that no degradation of the salts storage properties is induced by their thermal conductivity enhancement. In this Note, the effects of the graphite and the composites graphite/salt microstructure on the phase change properties of salts are analysed. To cite this article: J. Lopez et al., C. R. Mecanique 336 (2008).

  5. 78 FR 25268 - Proposed Guidance on Deposit Advance Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... losses. Compliance with applicable federal consumer protection statutes, management's oversight, and... safe and sound banking practices and consumer protection in connection with deposit advance credit... Management Policy, (202) 898-3898; Surya Sen, Section Chief, Supervisory Policy, (202) 898-6699;...

  6. Learning the Critical Points for Addition in Matematika GASING

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siregar, Johannes Hamonangan; Wiyanti, Wiwik; Wakhyuningsih, Nur Safitri; Godjali, Ali

    2014-01-01

    We propose learning Matematika GASING to help students better understand the addition material. Matematika GASING is a way of learning mathematics in an easy, fun and enjoyable fashion. GASING is short for GAmpang, aSyIk, and menyenaNGkan (Bahasa Indonesia for easy, fun and enjoyable). It was originally developed by Prof. Yohanes Surya at the…

  7. Tectonique en radeaux au toit d'un ≪ glacier de sel ≫ sous-marin albien de Tunisie du Nord-Ouest: exemple du secteur minier de Gueurn Halfaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vila, Jean-Marie; Youssef, Mohamed Ben; Bouhlel, Salah; Ghanmi, Mohamed; Kassa, Samia; Miaadi, Fethi

    1998-10-01

    In northwestern Tunisia, the new study of the Gueurn Halfaya mining area allows us to define the relationships of the Triassic masses with the surrounding Cretaceous and Miocene formations, and to specify the genesis of several mineralizations (Fe, Sr, Pb-Zn), from an Aptian-Albian tilted block extensional setting, later tectonically inverted during the Tertiary. During the Lower-Middle Cretaceous, a sedimentary slope with boulders, determined by normal faulting, receives a submarine 'salt glacier', like in the Gulf of Mexico. This is then overlain by two successive sedimentary covers (Middle-Upper Albian and Vraconian-Turonian); the depocentres of the second cover directly overlie the saliferous Triassic rocks after the rafting of the first cover. This organisation is similar to the Kuanza basin setting in Angola. The Lower-Middle Cretaceous tectono-sedimentary evolution proposed here, very different to the 'classical' forceful diapiric interpretation, is continuously drived from the extensional tectonics (sedimentation and mineralizations, before, during and after the halokinesis), and afterwards tectonically inverted by the two Tertiary contractional events.

  8. Selenoprotein O deficiencies suppress chondrogenic differentiation of ATDC5 cells.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jidong; Fei, Yao; Han, Yan; Lu, Shemin

    2016-10-01

    Selenoprotein O (Sel O) is a selenium-containing protein, but its function is still unclear. In the present study, we observed that the mRNA and protein expression levels of Sel O increased during chondrogenic induction of ATDC5 cells. The effects of Sel O on chondrocyte differentiation were then examined through shRNA-mediated gene silencing technique. The expression of Sel O was significantly suppressed at both mRNA and protein levels in a stable cell line transfected with a Sel O-specific target shRNA construct. Thereafter, we demonstrated that Sel O deficiencies suppress chondrogenic differentiation of ATDC5 cells. Sel O deficiencies inhibited expression of chondrogenic gene Sox9, Col II, and aggrecan. Sel O-deficient cells also accumulated a few cartilage glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and decreased the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP). In addition, Sel O deficiencies inhibited chondrocyte proliferation through delayed cell cycle progression by suppression of cyclin D1 expression. Moreover, Sel O deficiencies induced chondrocyte death through cell apoptosis. In summary, we describe the expression patterns and the essential roles of Sel O in chondrocyte viability, proliferation, and chondrogenic differentiation. Additionally, Sel O deficiency-mediated impaired chondrogenesis may illustrate the mechanisms of Se deficiency in the pathophysiological process of the endemic osteoarthropathy.

  9. Improving College and Career Readiness by Incorporating Social and Emotional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dymnicki, Allison; Sambolt, Megan; Kidron, Yael

    2013-01-01

    This issue brief was written to assist state policymakers in better understanding how social and emotional learning (SEL) can help students to be college and career ready. The brief provides a short description of what SEL is, why it is needed, and what it looks like in practice. In addition, examples of standards that support SEL at the federal…

  10. Social and Emotional Learning Policies and Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Jenn; Wright, Paul

    2014-01-01

    There is a current push to broaden the educational agenda by integrating social and emotional learning (SEL) competencies into the academic curriculum. This article describes how physical education (PE) provides a strong platform for integrating SEL standards into the curriculum. The alignment between SEL and the affective learning objectives of…

  11. 76 FR 65707 - Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to LG Electronics, Inc. From the Department of Energy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ...-listed air-source and water-source units: Wall Mounted: ARNU073SEL2, ARNU093SEL2, ARNU123SEL2... to commercial package air-source and water-source central air conditioners and heat pumps. The waiver is specific to the LG Multi V SYNC II and Multi V Water II variable refrigerant flow (VRF)...

  12. Establishing Systemic Social and Emotional Learning Approaches in Schools: A Framework for Schoolwide Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberle, Eva; Domitrovich, Celene E.; Meyers, Duncan C.; Weissberg, Roger P.

    2016-01-01

    Social and emotional learning (SEL) is a fundamental part of education. Incorporating high-quality SEL programming into day-to-day classroom and school practices has emerged as a main goal for many practitioners over the past decade. The present article overviews the current state of SEL research and practice, with a particular focus on the United…

  13. 15 CFR 922.10 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Site Evaluation List (SEL) § 922.10 General. (a) The Site Evaluation List (SEL) was established as a comprehensive list of marine sites with high natural resource values... evaluation for possible designation as National Marine Sanctuaries. (b) The SEL is currently...

  14. Collected software engineering papers, volume 12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This document is a collection of selected technical papers produced by participants in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) from November 1993 through October 1994. The purpose of the document is to make available, in one reference, some results of SEL research that originally appeared in a number of different forums. This is the 12th such volume of technical papers produced by the SEL. Although these papers cover several topics related to software engineering, they do not encompass the entire scope of SEL activities and interests. Additional information about the SEL and its research efforts may be obtained from the sources listed in the bibliography at the end of this document.

  15. Collected software engineering papers, volume 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This document is a collection of selected technical papers produced by participants in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) from November 1992 through November 1993. The purpose of the document is to make available, in one reference, some results of SEL research that originally appeared in a number of different forums. This is the 11th such volume of technical papers produced by the SEL. Although these papers cover several topics related to software engineering, they do not encompass the entire scope of SEL activities and interests. Additional information about the SEL and its research efforts may be obtained from the sources listed in the bibliography at the end of this document.

  16. Proteomic analysis of kidneys from selenoprotein M transgenic rats in response to increased bioability of selenium

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To characterize changes in global protein expression in kidneys of transgenic rats overexpressing human selenoprotein M (SelM) in response to increased bioabivility of selenium (Sel), total proteins extracted from kidneys of 10-week-old CMV/hSelM Tg and wild-type rats were separated by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and measured for changes in expression. Results Ten and three proteins showing high antioxidant enzymatic activity were up- and down-regulated, respectively, in SelM-overexpressing CMV/hSelM Tg rats compared to controls based on an arbitrary 2-fold difference. Up-regulated proteins included LAP3, BAIAP2L1, CRP2, CD73 antigen, PDGF D, KIAA143 homolog, PRPPS-AP2, ZFP313, HSP-60, and N-WASP, whereas down-regulated proteins included ALKDH3, rMCP-3, and STC-1. After Sel treatment, five of the up-regulated proteins were significantly increased in expression in wild-type rats, whereas there were no changes in CMV/hSelM Tg rats. Only two of the down-regulated proteins showed reduced expression in wild-type and Tg rats after Sel treatment. Conclusions These results show the primary novel biological evidences that new functional protein groups and individual proteins in kidneys of Tg rats relate to Sel biology including the response to Sel treatment and SelM expression. PMID:23937859

  17. Food Poisoning and Staphylococcus aureus Enterotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Argudín, María Ángeles; Mendoza, María Carmen; Rodicio, María Rosario

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus produces a wide variety of toxins including staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs; SEA to SEE, SEG to SEI, SER to SET) with demonstrated emetic activity, and staphylococcal-like (SEl) proteins, which are not emetic in a primate model (SElL and SElQ) or have yet to be tested (SElJ, SElK, SElM to SElP, SElU, SElU2 and SElV). SEs and SEls have been traditionally subdivided into classical (SEA to SEE) and new (SEG to SElU2) types. All possess superantigenic activity and are encoded by accessory genetic elements, including plasmids, prophages, pathogenicity islands, vSa genomic islands, or by genes located next to the staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) implicated in methicillin resistance. SEs are a major cause of food poisoning, which typically occurs after ingestion of different foods, particularly processed meat and dairy products, contaminated with S. aureus by improper handling and subsequent storage at elevated temperatures. Symptoms are of rapid onset and include nausea and violent vomiting, with or without diarrhea. The illness is usually self-limiting and only occasionally it is severe enough to warrant hospitalization. SEA is the most common cause of staphylococcal food poisoning worldwide, but the involvement of other classical SEs has been also demonstrated. Of the new SE/SEls, only SEH have clearly been associated with food poisoning. However, genes encoding novel SEs as well as SEls with untested emetic activity are widely represented in S. aureus, and their role in pathogenesis may be underestimated. PMID:22069659

  18. Center for Autonomous Solar Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-26

    surface. it is apparent that the quantum efficiency (number of electrons produced per photon ) improves with etching of the deposited and annealed CZTS...3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) over carbon fiber paper and ionic liquid based gel polymer electrolyte. The PEDOT-coated carbon paper...on June 14, 2012 Synthesis o/FeS2 Nano Crystals for Ink-Based Solar Cells, Lakshmi Kanth Ganta, Tara P. Dhakal, Surya Rajendran and Charles R

  19. A Unified View of Global Instability of Compressible Flow over Open Cavities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-28

    AUTHOR(S) Dr. Vassilios Theofilis 5e. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Nu-modeling, Inc. C /. Mariano...RESPONSIBLE PERSON SURYA SURAMPUDI a. REPORT UNCLAS b. ABSTRACT UNCLAS c . THIS PAGE UNCLAS 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UL 18, NUMBER OF...method (IRAM). However, it should be noted that the matrix C = L-1 R discretizing the EVP may be formed and kept in memory, in single-domain

  20. Glossary of Software Engineering Laboratory terms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A glossary of terms used in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) is given. The terms are defined within the context of the software development environment for flight dynamics at the Goddard Space Flight Center. A concise reference for clarifying the language employed in SEL documents and data collection forms is given. Basic software engineering concepts are explained and standard definitions for use by SEL personnel are established.

  1. An overview of the Software Engineering Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the background and structure of the SEL organization, the SEL process improvement approach, and its experimentation and data collection process. Results of some sample SEL studies are included. It includes a discussion of the overall implication of trends observed over 17 years of process improvement efforts and looks at the return on investment based on a comparison of total investment in process improvement with the measurable improvements seen in the organization's software product.

  2. Automatic Construction of Explanation Networks for a Cooperative User Interface

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    Crossrefs : (Description Uses) SelChar: "SOJ Description: [ Module: BuildDescr OwnFields: (Syntax DescrExamples) Crossrefs : (Structure) SelChar: 00"J Uses...Module: BuildUse OtherFields: [Object: (Components) Operation: (Parameters)] Crossrefs : (Structure Description) SelChar: "TI it indicates...the corresponding portion of the aspect description for Object could be Uses: Module: NewBuildUse OwnFields: (UsedAs) Crossrefs : (Structure

  3. Process improvement as an investment: Measuring its worth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgarry, Frank; Jeletic, Kellyann

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses return on investment (ROI) generated from software process improvement programs. It details the steps needed to compute ROI and compares these steps from the perspective of two process improvement approaches: the widely known Software Engineering Institute's capability maturity model and the approach employed by NASA's Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL). The paper then describes the specific investments made in the SEL over the past 18 years and discusses the improvements gained from this investment by the production organization in the SEL.

  4. Closing the loop on improvement: Packaging experience in the Software Engineering Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waligora, Sharon R.; Landis, Linda C.; Doland, Jerry T.

    1994-01-01

    As part of its award-winning software process improvement program, the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) has developed an effective method for packaging organizational best practices based on real project experience into useful handbooks and training courses. This paper shares the SEL's experience over the past 12 years creating and updating software process handbooks and training courses. It provides cost models and guidelines for successful experience packaging derived from SEL experience.

  5. Promoting social-emotional learning in adolescent Latino ELLs: a study of the culturally adapted Strong Teens program.

    PubMed

    Castro-Olivo, Sara M

    2014-12-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of the culturally adapted Jóvenes Fuertes (Strong Teens) Social-Emotional Learning (SEL) program on the social-emotional outcomes of Latino English language learners (ELLs). A quasi-experimental design with random assignment by classrooms was used to assess the intervention's effects on students' knowledge of SEL and resiliency. A sample of 102 Spanish-dominant Latino ELLs enrolled in middle or high school participated in this study. The results indicated significant intervention effects on SEL knowledge and social-emotional resiliency. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for preventive, culturally responsive SEL programs in school settings.

  6. What's Happening in the Software Engineering Laboratory?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pajerski, Rose; Green, Scott; Smith, Donald

    1995-01-01

    Since 1976 the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) has been dedicated to understanding and improving the way in which one NASA organization the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) at Goddard Space Flight Center, develops, maintains, and manages complex flight dynamics systems. This paper presents an overview of recent activities and studies in SEL, using as a framework the SEL's organizational goals and experience based software improvement approach. It focuses on two SEL experience areas : (1) the evolution of the measurement program and (2) an analysis of three generations of Cleanroom experiments.

  7. Direct Interaction between Selenoprotein P and Tubulin

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xiubo; Qiu, Shi; Wang, Zhi; Wang, Ruoran; Wang, Chao; Tian, Jing; Liu, Qiong

    2014-01-01

    Selenium (Se), an essential trace element for human health, mainly exerts its biological function via selenoproteins. Among the 25 selenoproteins identified in human, selenoprotein P (SelP) is the only one that contains multiple selenocysteines (Sec) in the sequence, and has been suggested to function as a Se transporter. Upon feeding a selenium-deficient diet, mice lacking SelP develop severe neurological dysfunction and exhibit widespread brainstem neurodegeneration, indicating an important role of SelP in normal brain function. To further elucidate the function of SelP in the brain, SelP was screened by the yeast two-hybrid system from a human fetal brain cDNA library for interactive proteins. Our results demonstrated that SelP interacts with tubulin, alpha 1a (TUBA1A). The interaction between SelP and tubulin was verified by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) assays. We further found that SelP interacts with the C-terminus of tubulin by its His-rich domain, as demonstrated by FRET and Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) assays. The implications of the interaction between SelP and tubulin in the brain and in Alzheimer’s disease are discussed. PMID:24914767

  8. The Spinal Ependymal Layer in Health and Disease.

    PubMed

    Moore, S A

    2016-07-01

    Ependymal cells are epithelial support cells that line the central canal and ventricular cavities of the central nervous system, providing the interface between the cerebrospinal fluid and the parenchyma of the brain and spinal cord. The spinal ependymal layer (SEL) is composed of 3 main cell types: tanycytes, ependymocytes, and cerebrospinal fluid-contacting neurons. A fourth cell type, termed the supraependymal cell, is also occasionally described. Cells of the SEL show restricted proliferative capacity in health but display neural stem cell properties both in vitro and in vivo in various disease states. A growing body of literature is devoted to the regenerative roles of the SEL, particularly in the context of spinal cord injury, where mechanical damage to the spinal cord leads to a significant increase in SEL proliferation. SEL-derived cell progeny migrate to sites of injury within the injured spinal cord parenchyma and contribute primarily to glial scar formation. In additional to their role as endogenous neural stem cells, cells of the SEL may be an important source of cytokines and other cell signaling molecules, such as tumor necrosis factor, heat shock proteins, and various growth factors. The SEL has become of recent interest to neuroscience researchers because of its potential to participate in and respond to diseases affecting the spinal cord (eg, traumatic spinal cord injury) and neurodegenerative disease. The intimate association of the SEL with the cerebrospinal fluid makes intrathecal therapies a viable option, and recent studies highlight the potential promise of treatments that augment SEL responses to disease.

  9. Selenoprotein K modulate intracellular free Ca(2+) by regulating expression of calcium homoeostasis endoplasmic reticulum protein.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Li, Ruimin; Huang, Yalan; Wang, Miao; Yang, Fan; Huang, Dana; Wu, Chunli; Li, Yue; Tang, Yijun; Zhang, Renli; Cheng, Jinquan

    2017-03-18

    Selenoprotein K (SelK) is an 11-kDa selenoprotein, which may be involved in the regulation of oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and immune response. To explore the function of SelK in the process of immune response, several short-hairpin RNAs (shRNA) were designed for the construction of recombinant plasmids to down-regulate the expression of SelK gene in vitro. These shRNAs specifically and efficiently interfered with the expression of SelK at both mRNA and protein levels. The expression of calcium homoeostasis endoplasmic reticulum protein (CHERP) and the intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration were significantly down-regulated in anti-CD3 stimulated SelK-knockdown cells. The expression of Interleukin 2 receptor alpha chain (IL-2Rα) and the secretion of Interleukin 4 (IL-4), which play a significant role in the process of T cell activation and proliferation, were also reduced in SelK-knockdown cells. Selenomethionine (Se-Met) at an optimum concentration of 5 μM could up-regulate SelK expression and reverse the change of the expression of CHERP and the intracellular free calcium caused by SelK-knockdown. These results hereby imply SelK may regulate the release of Ca(2+) by CHERP and play an important role in the proliferation and differentiation of T cell by TCR stimulation.

  10. Social and Emotional Learning Strategies to Support Students in Challenging Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marulanda, Zandra K.

    2010-01-01

    New and veteran educators often face particular challenges in the classroom. Problems include classroom management, student academic achievement, and job satisfaction. This research examines the effects of implementing a Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) approach for students as part of the regular education for elementary public schools. SEL is…

  11. Collaboration for a Curriculum of Caring: The Zeitgeist Is Right

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Emily R.; Gill Lopez, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Recent catastrophic school shootings have drawn worldwide attention to issues of gun control and mental health. In the wake of these tragedies, more and more schools have begun to adopt school-wide social and emotional learning (SEL) programs. However, we have few examples of what it looks like to integrate SEL skills into content curricula.…

  12. An Increase in Emotional Support, a Reduction in Negative Social Emotional Skills, or Both?: Examining How Universal Social Emotional Programs Achieve Reductions in Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portnow, Sam; Downer, Jason; Brown, Josh

    2015-01-01

    Participation in Social Emotional Learning (SEL) programs reduces aggressive and antisocial behavior (Durlak, Weissberg, Dymnicki, Taylor, & Schellinger, 2011). Theoretically, SEL programs foster social and emotionally intelligent youth through improving children's social and emotional skills, defined in the present study as the ability to…

  13. Replication of Effects of the "Positive Action" Program in Randomized Trials in Hawai'i and Chicago Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flay, Brian R.

    2014-01-01

    Several social-emotional learning (SEL) or social-emotional and character development (SECD) programs have been shown to be effective at improving SEL/SECD skills, and some have also provided evidence of effectiveness in improving student behavior and academic achievement (Durlak, Weissberg, Dymnicki, Taylor, & Schellinger, 2011). Very few SEL…

  14. Development and Preliminary Validation of the Social-Emotional Assets and Resiliency Scale for Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravitch, Nancy Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of social and emotional learning (SEL) in young children is critical to understanding developmental progress and informing care and instruction. The current study investigated the development of a behavior rating scale designed to measure SEL skills in preschool-age children. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the…

  15. Emotional Intelligence in the K-12 Curriculum and its Relationship to American Workplace Needs: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opengart, Rose

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review the content of existing social-emotional learning (SEL) programs in the American K-12 curriculum and the relationship between the programs and the needs of the American workplace. SEL programs were examined for their content and compared to the research indicating critical EI skills for the workplace.…

  16. Progress in Teachers' Readiness to Promote Positive Youth Development among Students during the Lions Quest Teaching Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talvio, Markus; Berg, Minna; Ketonen, Elina; Komulainen, Erkki; Lonka, Kirsti

    2015-01-01

    Modern learning psychology places an emphasis on the ability of teachers to promote their students' social and emotional learning (SEL) and living a good life. Research on precisely how teachers promote SEL and well-being among their students, however, remains scarce. This study focused on evaluating the Lions Quest teaching workshop (LQ), which…

  17. Cultivating Fertile Grounds: Enhancing and Extending the Scientific Base of Social and Emotional Learning--A Commentary on "The Scientific Base Linking Social and Emotional Learning to School Success," a Chapter by Joseph E. Zins, Michelle R. Bloodworth, Roger P. Weissberg, and Herbert J. Walberg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manz, Patricia H.

    2007-01-01

    Joseph Zins was a forerunner in empirically demonstrating the interrelationship of SEL interventions and school success. This commentary highlights his perspectives on the accumulating body of evidence for the academic gains that have been associated with various SEL interventions and aims to show how new research methodologies can further extend…

  18. Reflecting on Social Emotional Learning: A Critical Perspective on Trends in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Diane M.

    2009-01-01

    This critical cultural analysis of trends in the field of social emotional learning (SEL) in the United States considers how ideas concerning emotional skills and competencies have informed programmatic discourse. While currently stressing links between SEL and academic achievement, program literature also places emphasis on ideals of caring,…

  19. Promoting "Social and Emotional Learning" through Service-Learning Art Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Robert L.; Hutzel, Karen

    2007-01-01

    This article intends to encourage teachers to explore ways "social and emotional learning" (SEL) and art education can enhance each other. Service-learning art projects were presented as one example, employing collaborate-and-create, asset-based methods integrated with SEL instruction. Advantages anticipated from combining these methods result…

  20. An Observation Tool for Monitoring Social Skill Implementation in Contextually Relevant Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Joseph John; Hsiao, Yun-Ju; Dobbins, Nicole; Brown, Nancy B.; Lyons, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Skills related to social-emotional learning (SEL) are essential for college and career readiness. Failure to use appropriate skills for SEL in school is often linked to several negative academic outcomes, including rejection by school community members, academic deficits, and higher rates of problematic behavior. Social skills interventions are…

  1. Advancing the Science and Practice of Social and Emotional Learning: Looking Back and Moving Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osher, David; Kidron, Yael; Brackett, Marc; Dymnicki, Allison; Jones, Stephanie; Weissberg, Roger P.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the results of nearly 100 years of research on school-based social and emotional learning (SEL). The SEL field has grown out of research in many fields and subfields with which educators, researchers, and policymakers are familiar, including the promotion of social competence, bullying prevention, prevention of drug use and…

  2. Cultivating the Socially Competent Body: Bodies and Risk in Swedish Programmes for Social Emotional Learning in Preschools and Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholdsson, Åsa; Gustafsson-Lundberg, Johanna; Hultin, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Social emotional learning (SEL) is common in preschools and schools both in Europe and North America today. Programmes for socio-emotional training and the rise of what is labelled therapeutic education have dramatically increased during the first decade of the millennium. In this article, a manual-based programme used for SEL in a Swedish school…

  3. The Impact of Trial Stage, Developer Involvement and International Transferability on Universal Social and Emotional Learning Programme Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigelsworth, M.; Lendrum, A.; Oldfield, J.; Scott, A.; ten Bokkel, I.; Tate, K.; Emery, C.

    2016-01-01

    This study expands upon the extant prior meta-analytic literature by exploring previously theorised reasons for the failure of school-based, universal social and emotional learning (SEL) programmes to produce expected results. Eighty-nine studies reporting the effects of school-based, universal SEL programmes were examined for differential effects…

  4. Software Engineering Laboratory Series: Collected Software Engineering Papers. Volume 15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) is an organization sponsored by NASA/GSFC and created to investigate the effectiveness of software engineering technologies when applied to the development of application software. The activities, findings, and recommendations of the SEL are recorded in the Software Engineering Laboratory Series, a continuing series of reports that includes this document.

  5. "Practice What You Preach": Teachers' Perceptions of Emotional Competence and Emotionally Supportive Classroom Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinsser, Katherine M.; Denham, Susanne A.; Curby, Timothy W.; Shewark, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The connections between parents' emotional competence (emotion expression, regulation, and knowledge) and children's social-emotional learning (SEL) have been well studied; however, the associations among teachers' emotional competencies and children's SEL remain widely understudied. In the present study, private preschool and…

  6. Reflections on the Laws of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, Maurice J.; Klein, Dena A.; DeLuca, Amy; Smith, David R.; Fattal, Laura F.; Bento, Angela; Leverett, Larry

    2006-01-01

    The Laws of Life is an international essay contest and social and emotional learning (SEL) initiative that many school districts use to build students' SEL and related abilities. In the contest, students reflect on their identities--who they are, who they want to become, and what they want their lives to stand for--by writing about the main values…

  7. Relating to Romeo: Connecting Students and Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beland, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how Amy Corvino, an English teacher, implements the social and emotional learning (SEL) curriculum to increase her students' interest and engagement in English literatures. SEL is the process by which people develop the skills to recognize and manage emotions, form positive relationships, solve problems that…

  8. Software Engineering Laboratory Series: Collected Software Engineering Papers. Volume 14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) is an organization sponsored by NASA/GSFC and created to investigate the effectiveness of software engineering technologies when applied to the development of application software. The activities, findings, and recommendations of the SEL are recorded in the Software Engineering Laboratory Series, a continuing series of reports that includes this document.

  9. Quantum well, beam deflecting surface emitting lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jae H. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    This invention relates to surface emitting semiconductor lasers (SELs), with integrated 45 deg. beam deflectors. A SEL is formed on a wafer including vertical mirrors and 45 deg. beam deflectors formed in grooves by tilted ion beam etching. A SEL is a lattice matched, or unstrained, AlGaAs/GaAs GRINSCH SQW SEL. An alternate embodiment is shown, in which a SEL is lattice mismatched, strained or pseudomorphic, or InGaAs/AlGaAs GRINSCH SQW SEL which emits radiation at a wavelength to which its substrate is transparent. Both SELs exhibit high output power, low threshold current density, and relatively high efficiency, and each are processing compatible with conventional large scale integration technology. Such SELs may be fabricated in large numbers from single wafers. The novel features of this invention include the use of tilted ion beam etching to form a pair of grooves each including vertical mirrors and 45 deg. beam deflectors. The embodiment provides substantial circuit design flexibility because radiation may be coupled both up and/or down through the substrate.

  10. Glossary of software engineering laboratory terms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A glossary of terms used in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) is presented. The terms are defined within the context of the software development environment for flight dynamics at Goddard Space Flight Center. A concise reference for clarifying and understanding the language employed in SEL documents and data collection forms is provided.

  11. Implementing "Strong Kids" School-Wide to Reduce Internalizing Behaviors and Increase Prosocial Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Thomas J.; Caldarella, Paul; Young, K. Richard; Fischer, Lane; Warren, Jared S.

    2014-01-01

    Instruction and training in social and emotional learning (SEL) is an important component in addressing the emotional and behavioral needs of students. This study is the first to examine whether "Strong Kids", an SEL program, delivered school-wide in all classrooms, could result in decreased internalizing behaviors and increased…

  12. Task Groups in the School Setting: Promoting Children's Social and Emotional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Velsor, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Through social and emotional learning (SEL), individuals develop skill in negotiating relationships successfully and expressing emotions appropriately. The socially and emotionally intelligent child reaps benefits in school and later life. Counselors are best qualified to promote children's SEL and the task group in the classroom provides an…

  13. Software Engineering Laboratory Series: Collected Software Engineering Papers. Volume 13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) is an organization sponsored by NASA/GSFC and created to investigate the effectiveness of software engineering technologies when applied to the development of application software. The activities, findings, and recommendations of the SEL are recorded in the Software Engineering Laboratory Series, a continuing series of reports that includes this document.

  14. 76 FR 62378 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... sound exposure level thresholds, accounting for the multiple types and quantities of rounds to be used... system is capable of detecting differences in temperature from thermal energy (heat) radiated from living... SEL (sound energy level). Level B TTS Dual Criterion 182 dB re 1 Pa\\2\\-sec \\1/ 3\\ Octave SEL. Level...

  15. Software Engineering Laboratory Series: Proceedings of the Twenty-First Annual Software Engineering Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) is an organization sponsored by NASA/GSFC and created to investigate the effectiveness of software engineering technologies when applied to the development of application software. The activities, findings, and recommendations of the SEL are recorded in the Software Engineering Laboratory Series, a continuing series of reports that includes this document.

  16. Soluble P-selectin rescues viper venom–induced mortality through anti-inflammatory properties and PSGL-1 pathway-mediated correction of hemostasis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Der-Shan; Ho, Pei-Hsun; Chang, Hsin-Hou

    2016-01-01

    Venomous snakebites are lethal and occur frequently worldwide each year, and receiving the antivenom antibody is currently the most effective treatment. However, the specific antivenom might be unavailable in remote areas. Snakebites by Viperidae usually lead to hemorrhage and mortality if untreated. In the present study, challenges of rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) venom markedly increased the circulating soluble P-selectin (sP-sel) level, but not P-selectin (P-sel, Selp−/−) mutants, in wild-type mice. Because sP-sel enhances coagulation through the P-selectin ligand 1 (PSGL-1, Selplg) pathway to produce tissue factor–positive microparticles, we hypothesized that increasing the plasma sP-sel level can be a self-rescue response in hosts against snake venom–mediated suppression of the coagulation system. Confirming our hypothesis, our results indicated that compared with wild-type mice, Selp−/− and Selplg−/− mice were more sensitive to rattlesnake venom. Additionally, administration of recombinant sP-sel could effectively reduce the mortality rate of mice challenged with venoms from three other Viperidae snakes. The antivenom property of sP-sel is associated with improved coagulation activity in vivo. Our data suggest that the elevation of endogenous sP-sel level is a self-protective response against venom-suppressed coagulation. The administration of recombinant sP-sel may be developed as a new strategy to treat Viperidae snakebites. PMID:27779216

  17. Do Effects of Social-Emotional Learning Programs Vary by Level of Parent Participation? Evidence from the Randomized Trial of INSIGHTS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Meghan P.; Cappella, Elise; O'Connor, Erin; Hill, Jennifer L.; McClowry, Sandee

    2016-01-01

    Social-Emotional Learning (SEL) programs aim to improve students' social-emotional competencies in order to enhance their achievement. Although SEL programs typically implement classroom curricula, some programs also include a component for parents. Yet, little is known about the types of parents likely to participate in services, and whether…

  18. Software Engineering Laboratory Series: Proceedings of the Twenty-Second Annual Software Engineering Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) is an organization sponsored by NASA/GSFC and created to investigate the effectiveness of software engineering technologies when applied to the development of application software. The activities, findings, and recommendations of the SEL are recorded in the Software Engineering Laboratory Series, a continuing series of reports that includes this document.

  19. Software Engineering Laboratory Series: Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Software Engineering Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) is an organization sponsored by NASA/GSFC and created to investigate the effectiveness of software engineering technologies when applied to the development of application software. The activities, findings, and recommendations of the SEL are recorded in the Software Engineering Laboratory Series, a continuing series of reports that includes this document.

  20. Is Sound Exposure Level a Convenient Metric to Characterize Fatiguing Sounds? A Study in Beluga Whales.

    PubMed

    Supin, Alexander; Popov, Vladimir; Nechaev, Dmitry; Sysueva, Evgenia; Rozhnov, Viatcheslav

    2016-01-01

    Both the level and duration of fatiguing sounds influence temporary threshold shifts (TTSs) in odontocetes. These two parameters were combined into a sound exposure level (SEL). In the beluga whale Delphinapterus leucas, TTSs were investigated at various sound pressure level (SPL)-to-duration ratios at a specific SEL. At low SPL-to-duration ratios, the dependence was positive: shorter high-level sounds produced greater TTSs than long low-level sounds of the same SEL. At high SPL-to-duration ratios, the dependence was negative: long low-level sounds produced greater TTSs than short high-level sounds of the same SEL. Thus, the validity of SEL as a metric for fatiguing sound efficiency is limited.

  1. Changes and challenges in the Software Engineering Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pajerski, Rose

    1994-01-01

    Since 1976, the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) has been dedicated to understanding and improving the way in which one NASA organization, the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD), develops, maintains, and manages complex flight dynamics systems. The SEL is composed of three member organizations: NASA/GSFC, the University of Maryland, and Computer Sciences Corporation. During the past 18 years, the SEL's overall goal has remained the same: to improve the FDD's software products and processes in a measured manner. This requires that each development and maintenance effort be viewed, in part, as a SEL experiment which examines a specific technology or builds a model of interest for use on subsequent efforts. The SEL has undertaken many technology studies while developing operational support systems for numerous NASA spacecraft missions.

  2. Screening of nanosatellite microprocessors using californium single-event latch-up test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomioka, Takahiro; Okumura, Yuta; Masui, Hirokazu; Takamiya, Koichi; Cho, Mengu

    2016-09-01

    A single-event latch-up (SEL) test using a 252Cf radioisotope was carried out. The results were compared with those of a proton test and from observation in orbit. A radioisotope can reproduce phenomena observed in orbit that are caused by protons. Considering the inexpensive nature of the 252Cf test, it is more suitable for nanosatellites that require low cost and fast delivery. A SEL occurrence rate of a commercial-off-the-shelf microprocessor was derived from the ground test results. The 252Cf test provided a SEL rate approximately 1×106 times greater than that in orbit. This data can be used to derive the minimum SEL occurrence rate in orbit and help satellite designers to evaluate the risk of SEL and take measures if necessary.

  3. Evolution of selenium utilization traits

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Héctor; Zhang, Yan; Gladyshev, Vadim N; Salinas, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    Background The essential trace element selenium is used in a wide variety of biological processes. Selenocysteine (Sec), the 21st amino acid, is co-translationally incorporated into a restricted set of proteins. It is encoded by an UGA codon with the help of tRNASec (SelC), Sec-specific elongation factor (SelB) and a cis-acting mRNA structure (SECIS element). In addition, Sec synthase (SelA) and selenophosphate synthetase (SelD) are involved in the biosynthesis of Sec on the tRNASec. Selenium is also found in the form of 2-selenouridine, a modified base present in the wobble position of certain tRNAs, whose synthesis is catalyzed by YbbB using selenophosphate as a precursor. Results We analyzed completely sequenced genomes for occurrence of the selA, B, C, D and ybbB genes. We found that selB and selC are gene signatures for the Sec-decoding trait. However, selD is also present in organisms that do not utilize Sec, and shows association with either selA, B, C and/or ybbB. Thus, selD defines the overall selenium utilization. A global species map of Sec-decoding and 2-selenouridine synthesis traits is provided based on the presence/absence pattern of selenium-utilization genes. The phylogenies of these genes were inferred and compared to organismal phylogenies, which identified horizontal gene transfer (HGT) events involving both traits. Conclusion These results provide evidence for the ancient origin of these traits, their independent maintenance, and a highly dynamic evolutionary process that can be explained as the result of speciation, differential gene loss and HGT. The latter demonstrated that the loss of these traits is not irreversible as previously thought. PMID:16086848

  4. Selenoprotein K and Protein Palmitoylation

    PubMed Central

    Fredericks, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Selenoprotein K (SelK) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein, and its expression is sensitive to dietary selenium levels. A recently described role for SelK as a cofactor in catalyzing protein palmitoylation reactions provides an important link between low dietary selenium intake and suboptimal cellular functions that depend on this selenoprotein for palmitoylation. Recent Advances: A recent breakthrough provided insight into the contribution of SelK to calcium (Ca2+) flux in immune cells. In particular, SelK is required for palmitoylation of the Ca2+ channel protein, inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (IP3R) in the ER membrane. Without this post-translational modification, expression and function of the IP3R is impaired. SelK is required for palmitoylation of another transmembrane protein, CD36, and very likely other proteins. SelK serves as a cofactor during protein palmitoylation by binding to the protein acyltransferase, DHHC6, thereby facilitating addition of the palmitate via a thioester bond to the sulfhydryl group of cysteine residues of target proteins. Critical Issues: The association of DHHC6 and SelK is clearly important for immune cell functions and possibly other cell types. The step in the DHHC6 catalyzed S-acylation reaction on which SelK acts remains unclear and possible mechanisms of how the kinetics of the reaction are impacted by SelK binding to DHHC6 are presented here. Future Directions: Uncovering the specific role of SelK in promoting DHHC6 catalyzed protein palmitoylation may open a new line of inquiry into other selenoproteins playing similar roles as cofactors for different enzymatic processes. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 854–862. PMID:26058750

  5. NASA advanced design program: Analysis, design, and construction of a solar powered aircraft. B.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Agnes; Conley, Kristin; Javorski, Christian T.; Cheung, Kwok-Hung; Crivelli, Paul M.; Torrey, Nancy P.; Traver, Michael L.

    1992-01-01

    Increase in energy demands coupled with rapid depletion of natural energy resources have deemed solar energy as the most logical alternative source of power. The major objective of this project was to build a solar powered remotely controlled aircraft to demonstrate the feasibility of solar energy as an effective, alternate source of power. The final design was optimized for minimum weight and maximum strength of the structure. These design constraints necessitated a carbon fiber composite structure. Surya is a lightweight, durable aircraft capable of achieving level flight powered entirely by solar cells.

  6. Solar powered multipurpose remotely powered aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexandrou, A. N.; Durgin, W. W.; Cohn, R. F.; Olinger, D. J.; Cody, Charlotte K.; Chan, Agnes; Cheung, Kwok-Hung; Conley, Kristin; Crivelli, Paul M.; Javorski, Christian T.

    1992-01-01

    Increase in energy demands coupled with rapid depletion of natural energy resources have deemed solar energy as an attractive alternative source of power. The focus was to design and construct a solar powered, remotely piloted vehicle to demonstrate the feasibility of solar energy as an effective, alternate source of power. The final design included minimizing the power requirements and maximizing the strength-to-weight and lift-to-drag ratios. Given the design constraints, Surya (the code-name given to the aircraft), is a lightweight aircraft primarily built using composite materials and capable of achieving level flight powered entirely by solar energy.

  7. Regulation of Selenocysteine Content of Human Selenoprotein P by Dietary Selenium and Insertion of Cysteine in Place of Selenocysteine.

    PubMed

    Turanov, Anton A; Everley, Robert A; Hybsier, Sandra; Renko, Kostja; Schomburg, Lutz; Gygi, Steven P; Hatfield, Dolph L; Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2015-01-01

    Selenoproteins are a unique group of proteins that contain selenium in the form of selenocysteine (Sec) co-translationally inserted in response to a UGA codon with the help of cis- and trans-acting factors. Mammalian selenoproteins contain single Sec residues, with the exception of selenoprotein P (SelP) that has 7-15 Sec residues depending on species. Assessing an individual's selenium status is important under various pathological conditions, which requires a reliable selenium biomarker. Due to a key role in organismal selenium homeostasis, high Sec content, regulation by dietary selenium, and availability of robust assays in human plasma, SelP has emerged as a major biomarker of selenium status. Here, we found that Cys is present in various Sec positions in human SelP. Treatment of cells expressing SelP with thiophosphate, an analog of the selenium donor for Sec synthesis, led to a nearly complete replacement of Sec with Cys, whereas supplementation of cells with selenium supported Sec insertion. SelP isolated directly from human plasma had up to 8% Cys inserted in place of Sec, depending on the Sec position. These findings suggest that a change in selenium status may be reflected in both SelP concentration and its Sec content, and that availability of the SelP-derived selenium for selenoprotein synthesis may be overestimated under conditions of low selenium status due to replacement of Sec with Cys.

  8. Selenoprotein H Suppresses Cellular Senescence through Genome Maintenance and Redox Regulation*

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ryan T. Y.; Cao, Lei; Chen, Benjamin P. C.; Cheng, Wen-Hsing

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress and persistent DNA damage response contribute to cellular senescence, a degeneration process critically involving ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and p53. Selenoprotein H (SelH), a nuclear selenoprotein, is proposed to carry redox and transactivation domains. To determine the role of SelH in genome maintenance, shRNA knockdown was employed in human normal and immortalized cell lines. SelH shRNA MRC-5 diploid fibroblasts under ambient O2 displayed a distinct profile of senescence including β-galactosidase expression, autofluorescence, growth inhibition, and ATM pathway activation. Such senescence phenotypes were alleviated in the presence of ATM kinase inhibitors, by p53 shRNA knockdown, or by maintaining the cells under 3% O2. During the course of 5-day recovery, the induction of phospho-ATM on Ser-1981 and γH2AX by H2O2 treatment (20 μm) subsided in scrambled shRNA but exacerbated in SelH shRNA MRC-5 cells. Results from clonogenic assays demonstrated hypersensitivity of SelH shRNA HeLa cells to paraquat and H2O2, but not to hydroxyurea, neocarzinostatin, or camptothecin. While SelH mRNA expression was induced by H2O2 treatment, SelH-GFP did not mobilize to sites of oxidative DNA damage. The glutathione level was lower in SelH shRNA than scrambled shRNA HeLa cells, and the H2O2-induced cell death was rescued in the presence of N-acetylcysteine, a glutathione precursor. Altogether, SelH protects against cellular senescence to oxidative stress through a genome maintenance pathway involving ATM and p53. PMID:25336634

  9. Software process improvement in the NASA software engineering laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgarry, Frank; Pajerski, Rose; Page, Gerald; Waligora, Sharon; Basili, Victor; Zelkowitz, Marvin

    1994-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) was established in 1976 for the purpose of studying and measuring software processes with the intent of identifying improvements that could be applied to the production of ground support software within the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The SEL has three member organizations: NASA/GSFC, the University of Maryland, and Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC). The concept of process improvement within the SEL focuses on the continual understanding of both process and product as well as goal-driven experimentation and analysis of process change within a production environment.

  10. Proceedings of the 19th Annual Software Engineering Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) is an organization sponsored by NASA/GSFC and created to investigate the effectiveness of software engineering technologies when applied to the development of applications software. The goals of the SEL are: (1) to understand the software development process in the GSFC environment; (2) to measure the effects of various methodologies, tools, and models on this process; and (3) to identify and then to apply successful development practices. The activities, findings, and recommendations of the SEL are recorded in the Software Engineering Laboratory Series, a continuing series of reports that include this document.

  11. Impact of Ada and object-oriented design in the flight dynamics division at Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waligora, Sharon; Bailey, John; Stark, Mike

    1995-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) is an organization sponsored by NASA/GSFC and created to investigate the effectiveness of software engineering technologies when applied to the development of applications software. The goals of the SEL are (1) to understand the software development process in the GSFC environment; (2) to measure the effects of various methodologies, tools, and models on this process; and (3) to identify and then to apply successful development practices. The activities, findings, and recommendations of the SEL are recorded in the Software Engineering Laboratory Series, a continuing series of reports that includes this document.

  12. Collected software engineering papers, volume 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A collection of selected technical papers produced by participants in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) during the period November 1989 through October 1990 is presented. The purpose of the document is to make available, in one reference, some results of SEL research that originally appeared in a number of different forums. Although these papers cover several topics related to software engineering, they do not encompass the entire scope of SEL activities and interests. Additional information about the SEL and its research efforts may be obtained from the sources listed in the bibliography. The seven presented papers are grouped into four major categories: (1) experimental research and evaluation of software measurement; (2) studies on models for software reuse; (3) a software tool evaluation; and (4) Ada technology and studies in the areas of reuse and specification.

  13. Somatic embryo-like structures of strawberry regenerated in vitro on media supplemented with 2,4-D and BAP.

    PubMed

    Omar, Genesia F; Mohamed, Fouad H; Haensch, Klaus-Thomas; Sarg, Sawsan H; Morsey, Mohamed M

    2013-09-01

    Somatic embryo-like structures (SELS) were produced in vitro from leaf disk and petiole explants of two cultivars of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch) on Murashige and Skoog medium with different concentrations and combinations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and sucrose to check the embryonic nature of these structures histologically. A large number of SELS could be regenerated in both cultivars on media with 2-4 mg L(-1) 2,4-D in combination with 0.5 -1 mg L(-1) BAP and 50 g x L(-1) sucrose. Histological examination of SELS revealed the absence of a root pole. Therefore these structures cannot be strictly classified as somatic embryos. The SELS formed under the tested culture conditions represent malformed shoot-like and leaf-like structures. The importance of these results for the propagation of strawberries via somatic embryogenesis is discussed.

  14. 75 FR 26310 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... Power Pharmaceuticals Inc. Holdings Co Ltd. 158 CTIC Cell Therapeutics 250 TLB Talbots Inc. Inc. 159 MDT.... Discretionary Sel. Sec. SPDR Fund. 188 CLF Cliffs Natural 262 LDK LDK Solar Co Ltd. Resources Inc. 190...

  15. 75 FR 26312 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... STP Suntech Power Pharmaceuticals Inc. Holdings Co Ltd. 158 CTIC Cell Therapeutics 250 TLB Talbots Inc... NetFlix Inc. Discretionary Sel. Sec. SPDR Fund. 188 CLF Cliffs Natural 262 LDK LDK Solar Co...

  16. 75 FR 25890 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ... Suntech Power Pharmaceuticals Holdings Co Inc. Ltd. 158 CTIC Cell 250 TLB Talbots Inc. Therapeutics Inc... NFLX NetFlix Inc. Discretionary Sel. Sec. SPDR Fund. 188 CLF Cliffs Natural 262 LDK LDK Solar...

  17. 75 FR 26301 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... Holdings Inc. Co Ltd. 158 CTIC Cell Therapeutics Inc.... 250 TLB Talbots Inc. 159 MDT Medtronic Inc 251.... Sel. Sec. SPDR Fund. 188 CLF Cliffs Natural Resources 262 LDK LDK Solar Co Ltd. Inc. 190 ZION...

  18. Collected Software Engineering Papers, Volume 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This document is a collection of selected technical papers produced by participants in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) from Oct. 1991 - Nov. 1992. The purpose of the document is to make available, in one reference, some results of SEL research that originally appeared in a number of different forums. Although these papers cover several topics related to software engineering, they do not encompass the entire scope of SEL activities and interests. Additional information about the SEL and its research efforts may be obtained from the sources listed in the bibliography at the end of this document. For the convenience of this presentation, the 11 papers contained here are grouped into 5 major sections: (1) the Software Engineering Laboratory; (2) software tools studies; (3) software models studies; (4) software measurement studies; and (5) Ada technology studies.

  19. Self-Directed Learning with Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Youngeun; Anderson, William

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a weekly writing assignment named SelFeed (Self-Directed Learning with Feedback), in which students are asked to identify their own questions relevant to the lecture content and provide logical answers.

  20. The Improvement Cycle: Analyzing Our Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pajerski, Rose; Waligora, Sharon

    1996-01-01

    NASA's Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL), one of the earliest pioneers in the areas of software process improvement and measurement, has had a significant impact on the software business at NASA Goddard. At the heart of the SEL's improvement program is a belief that software products can be improved by optimizing the software engineering process used to develop them and a long-term improvement strategy that facilitates small incremental improvements that accumulate into significant gains. As a result of its efforts, the SEL has incrementally reduced development costs by 60%, decreased error rates by 85%, and reduced cycle time by 25%. In this paper, we analyze the SEL's experiences on three major improvement initiatives to better understand the cyclic nature of the improvement process and to understand why some improvements take much longer than others.

  1. The Effects of Architecture and Process on the Hardness of Programmable Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard; Wang, J. J.; Reed, R.; Kleyner, I.; DOrdine, M.; McCollum, J,; Cronquist, B.; Howard, J.

    1999-01-01

    Architecture and process, combined, significantly affect the hardness of programmable technologies. The effects of high energy ions, ferroelectric memory architectures, and shallow trench isolation are investigated. A detailed single event latchup (SEL) study has been performed.

  2. From Dodge City to Emerald City: The Importance of Joseph E. Zins' Work in Teacher Education Programs--A Commentary on "The Scientific Base Linking Social and Emotional Learning to School Success," a Chapter by Joseph E. Zins, Michelle R. Bloodworth, Roger P. Weissberg, and Herbert J. Walberg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, David Lee

    2007-01-01

    This commentary argues that Joseph Zins' work can contribute and enhance university-based teacher preparation programs. Focusing on secondary English Education, it examines how SEL competencies can improve the curricula and field experiences to support pre-service teachers.

  3. Secure Control Systems for the Energy Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Rhett; Stewart, John; Chavez, Adrian

    2014-10-22

    The Padlock Project is an alliance between Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories Inc. (SEL). SEL is the prime contractor on the Padlock project. Rhett Smith (SEL) is the project director and Adrian Chaves (SNL) and John Stewart (TVA) are principle investigators. SEL is the world’s leader in microprocessor-based electronic equipment for protecting electric power systems. The Tennessee Valley Authority, a corporation owned by the U.S. government, provides electricity for 9 million people in parts of seven southeastern states at prices below the national average. TVA, which receives no taxpayer money and makes no profits, also provides flood control, navigation and land management for the Tennessee River system and assists utilities, and state and local governments with economic development.

  4. Single- and double-electron detachment from H- in collisions with He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Víkor, L.; Sarkadi, L.; Penent, F.; Báder, A.; Pálinkás, J.

    1996-09-01

    The single- and double-electron detachment processes have been studied for 85 keV H- on He collisions measuring the energy spectra of the electrons emitted in forward direction. In the spectrum belonging to the single-electron loss (SEL) the nonresonant part (cusp) has been resolved from the resonant part [lines from the (2s2p)1Po shape resonance of H-]. The ratio of the integrated yield of the double-electron loss (DEL) to that of SEL was found to be 0.36+/-0.02. The yield of the cusp in the SEL spectrum was found to be surprisingly small, only (70+/-20)% of the yield of the cusp in the DEL spectrum. The formation of the cusp in SEL is interpreted as a result of dipolar interaction between the electron and the outgoing H0 atom.

  5. Collected software engineering papers, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Topics addressed include: summaries of the software engineering laboratory (SEL) organization, operation, and research activities; results of specific research projects in the areas of resource models and software measures; and strategies for data collection for software engineering research.

  6. Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual Software Engineering Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Topics covered in the workshop included studies and experiments conducted in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL), a cooperative effort of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, the University of Maryland, and Computer Sciences Corporation; software models; software products; and software tools.

  7. PIFCGT: A PIF autopilot design program for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broussard, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    This report documents the PIFCGT computer program. In FORTRAN, PIFCGT is a computer design aid for determing Proportional-Integral-Filter (PIF) control laws for aircraft autopilots implemented with a Command Generator Tracker (CGT). The program uses Linear-Quadratic-Regulator synthesis algorithms to determine feedback gains, and includes software to solve the feedforward matrix equation which is useful in determining the command generator tracker feedforward gains. The program accepts aerodynamic stability derivatives and computes the corresponding aerodynamic linear model. The nine autopilot modes that can be designed include four maneuver modes (ROLL SEL, PITCH SEL, HDG SEL, ALT SEL), four final approach models (APR GS, APR LOCI, APR LOCR, APR LOCP), and a BETA HOLD mode. The program has been compiled and executed on a CDC computer.

  8. Selenium Deficiency Affects the mRNA Expression of Inflammatory Factors and Selenoprotein Genes in the Kidneys of Broiler Chicks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiu-Li; Xu, Bo; Huang, Xiao-Dan; Gao, Yu-Hong; Chen, Yu; Shan, An-Shan

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of Se deficiency on the transcription of inflammatory factors and selenoprotein genes in the kidneys of broiler chicks. One hundred fifty 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to two groups fed with either a low-Se diet (L group, 0.033 mg/kg Se) or an adequate Se diet (C group, 0.2 mg/kg Se). The levels of uric acid (UA) and creatinine (Cr) in the serum and the mRNA levels of 6 inflammatory factors and 25 selenoprotein genes in the kidneys were measured as the clinical signs of Se deficiency occurred at 20 days old. The results indicated that the contents of UA and Cr in the serum increased in L group (p < 0.05), and the mRNA levels of the inflammatory factors (NF-κB, iNOS, COX-2, and TNF-α) increased in L group (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, the mRNA levels of PTGEs and HO-1 were not changed. In addition, 25 selenoprotein transcripts displayed ubiquitous expression in the kidneys of the chicks. The mRNA levels of 14 selenoprotein genes (Dio1, Dio2, GPx3, Sepp1, SelH, SelI, SelK, Sepn1, SelO, SelW, Sep15, SelT, SelU, and SelS) decreased, and 9 selenoprotein genes (GPx1, GPx2, GPx4, SelPb, Txnrd1, Txnrd2, Txnrd3, SPS2, and SelM) increased in L group (p < 0.05), but the Dio3 and Sepx1 mRNA levels did not change. The results indicated that Se deficiency resulted in kidney dysfunction, activation of the NF-κB pathway, and a change in selenoprotein gene expression. The changes of inflammatory factor and selenoprotein gene expression levels were directly related to the abnormal renal functions induced by Se deficiency.

  9. Safety equipment list for the 241-SY-101 RAPID mitigation project

    SciTech Connect

    MORRIS, K.L.

    1999-06-29

    This document provides the safety classification for the safety (safety class and safety RAPID Mitigation Project. This document is being issued as the project SEL until the supporting authorization basis documentation, this document will be superseded by the TWRS SEL (LMHC 1999), documentation istlralized. Upon implementation of the authorization basis significant) structures, systems, and components (SSCS) associated with the 241-SY-1O1 which will be updated to include the information contained herein.

  10. Selenoprotein N in skeletal muscle: from diseases to function.

    PubMed

    Castets, Perrine; Lescure, Alain; Guicheney, Pascale; Allamand, Valérie

    2012-10-01

    Selenoprotein N (SelN) deficiency causes several inherited neuromuscular disorders collectively termed SEPN1-related myopathies, characterized by early onset, generalized muscle atrophy, and muscle weakness affecting especially axial muscles and leading to spine rigidity, severe scoliosis, and respiratory insufficiency. SelN is ubiquitously expressed and is located in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum; however, its function remains elusive. The predominant expression of SelN in human fetal tissues and the embryonic muscle phenotype reported in mutant zebrafish suggest that it is involved in myogenesis. In mice, SelN is also mostly expressed during embryogenesis and especially in the myotome, but no defect was detected in muscle development and growth in the Sepn1 knock-out mouse model. By contrast, we recently demonstrated that SelN is essential for muscle regeneration and satellite cell maintenance in mice and humans, hence opening new avenues regarding the pathomechanism(s) leading to SEPN1-related myopathies. At the cellular level, recent data suggested that SelN participates in oxidative and calcium homeostasis, with a potential role in the regulation of the ryanodine receptor activity. Despite the recent and exciting progress regarding the physiological function(s) of SelN in muscle tissue, the pathogenesis leading to SEPN1-related myopathies remains largely unknown, with several unsolved questions, and no treatment available. In this review, we introduce SelN, its properties and expression pattern in zebrafish, mice, and humans, and we discuss its potential roles in muscle tissue and the ensuing clues for the development of therapeutic options.

  11. Guide to data collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Guidelines and recommendations are presented for the collection of software development data. Motivation and planning for, and implementation and management of, a data collection effort are discussed. Topics covered include types, sources, and availability of data; methods and costs of data collection; types of analyses supported; and warnings and suggestions based on software engineering laboratory (SEL) experiences. This document is intended as a practical guide for software managers and engineers, abstracted and generalized from 5 years of SEL data collection.

  12. Identification and characterization of a selenoprotein family containing a diselenide bond in a redox motif.

    PubMed

    Shchedrina, Valentina A; Novoselov, Sergey V; Malinouski, Mikalai Yu; Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2007-08-28

    Selenocysteine (Sec, U) insertion into proteins is directed by translational recoding of specific UGA codons located upstream of a stem-loop structure known as Sec insertion sequence (SECIS) element. Selenoproteins with known functions are oxidoreductases containing a single redox-active Sec in their active sites. In this work, we identified a family of selenoproteins, designated SelL, containing two Sec separated by two other residues to form a UxxU motif. SelL proteins show an unusual occurrence, being present in diverse aquatic organisms, including fish, invertebrates, and marine bacteria. Both eukaryotic and bacterial SelL genes use single SECIS elements for insertion of two Sec. In eukaryotes, the SECIS is located in the 3' UTR, whereas the bacterial SelL SECIS is within a coding region and positioned at a distance that supports the insertion of either of the two Sec or both of these residues. SelL proteins possess a thioredoxin-like fold wherein the UxxU motif corresponds to the catalytic CxxC motif in thioredoxins, suggesting a redox function of SelL proteins. Distantly related SelL-like proteins were also identified in a variety of organisms that had either one or both Sec replaced with Cys. Danio rerio SelL, transiently expressed in mammalian cells, incorporated two Sec and localized to the cytosol. In these cells, it occurred in an oxidized form and was not reducible by DTT. In a bacterial expression system, we directly demonstrated the formation of a diselenide bond between the two Sec, establishing it as the first diselenide bond found in a natural protein.

  13. Proceedings of the Twenty-Third Annual Software Engineering Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The Twenty-third Annual Software Engineering Workshop (SEW) provided 20 presentations designed to further the goals of the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) of the NASA-GSFC. The presentations were selected on their creativity. The sessions which were held on 2-3 of December 1998, centered on the SEL, Experimentation, Inspections, Fault Prediction, Verification and Validation, and Embedded Systems and Safety-Critical Systems.

  14. USSR Report, Agriculture.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    obtained from copyright owner, JPRS-UAG-84-021 12 June 1984 USSR REPORT AGRICULTURE CONTENTS MAJOR CROP PROGRESS AND WEATHER REPORTING Details...KHOZYAYSTVA, No 3, Mar 84) - b - MAJOR CROP PROGRESS AND WEATHER REPORTING DETAILS OF SOWING PROGRESS IN ROSTOVSKAYA OBLAST Moscow SEL’SKAYA ZHIZN1...MAJOR CROP PROGRESS AND WEATHER REPORTING SPRING SOWING OPERATIONS IN BELORUSSIAN SSR REVIEWED Minsk SEL’SKAYA GAZETA in Russian 20 Apr 84 p 1

  15. Selenium regulates gene expression of selenoprotein W in chicken skeletal muscle system.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Hongfeng; Zhang, Ziwei; Wu, Qiong; Yao, Haidong; Li, Jinlong; Li, Shu; Xu, Shiwen

    2012-01-01

    Selenoprotein W (SelW) is abundantly expressed in skeletal muscles of mammals and necessary for the metabolism of skeletal muscles. However, its expression pattern in skeletal muscle system of birds is still uncovered. Herein, to investigate the distribution of SelW mRNA in chicken skeletal muscle system and its response to different selenium (Se) status, 1-day-old chickens were exposed to various concentrations of Se as sodium selenite in the feed for 35 days. In addition, myoblasts were treated with different concentrations of Se in the medium for 72 h. Then the levels of SelW mRNA in skeletal muscles (wing muscle, pectoral muscle, thigh muscle) and myoblasts were determined on days 1, 15, 25, and 35 and at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. The results showed that SelW was detected in all these muscle components and it increased both along with the growth of organism and the differentiation process of myoblasts. The thigh muscle is more responsive to Se intake than the other two skeletal muscle tissues while the optimal Se supplementation for SelW mRNA expression in chicken myoblasts was 10(-7) M. In summary, Se plays important roles in the development of chicken skeletal muscles. To effect optimal SelW gene expression, Se must be provided in the diet and the media in adequate amounts and neither at excessive nor deficient levels.

  16. Selenoprotein R Protects Human Lens Epithelial Cells against D-Galactose-Induced Apoptosis by Regulating Oxidative Stress and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jie; Liu, Hongmei; Zhou, Jun; Huang, Kaixun

    2016-02-10

    Selenium is an essential micronutrient for humans. Much of selenium's beneficial influence on health is attributed to its presence within 25 selenoproteins. Selenoprotein R (SelR), known as methionine sulfoxide reductase B1 (MsrB1), is a selenium-dependent enzyme that, like other Msrs, is required for lens cell viability. In order to investigate the roles of SelR in protecting human lens epithelial (hLE) cells against damage, the influences of SelR gene knockdown on d-galactose-induced apoptosis in hLE cells were studied. The results showed that both d-galactose and SelR gene knockdown by siRNA independently induced oxidative stress. When SelR-gene-silenced hLE cells were exposed to d-galactose, glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) protein level was further increased, mitochondrial membrane potential was significantly decreased and accompanied by a release of mitochondrial cytochrome c. At the same time, the apoptosis cells percentage and the caspase-3 activity were visibly elevated in hLE cells. These results suggested that SelR might protect hLE cell mitochondria and mitigating apoptosis in hLE cells against oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induced by d-galactose, implying that selenium as a micronutrient may play important roles in hLE cells.

  17. Selenoprotein R Protects Human Lens Epithelial Cells against d-Galactose-Induced Apoptosis by Regulating Oxidative Stress and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Jie; Liu, Hongmei; Zhou, Jun; Huang, Kaixun

    2016-01-01

    Selenium is an essential micronutrient for humans. Much of selenium’s beneficial influence on health is attributed to its presence within 25 selenoproteins. Selenoprotein R (SelR), known as methionine sulfoxide reductase B1 (MsrB1), is a selenium-dependent enzyme that, like other Msrs, is required for lens cell viability. In order to investigate the roles of SelR in protecting human lens epithelial (hLE) cells against damage, the influences of SelR gene knockdown on d-galactose-induced apoptosis in hLE cells were studied. The results showed that both d-galactose and SelR gene knockdown by siRNA independently induced oxidative stress. When SelR-gene-silenced hLE cells were exposed to d-galactose, glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) protein level was further increased, mitochondrial membrane potential was significantly decreased and accompanied by a release of mitochondrial cytochrome c. At the same time, the apoptosis cells percentage and the caspase-3 activity were visibly elevated in hLE cells. These results suggested that SelR might protect hLE cell mitochondria and mitigating apoptosis in hLE cells against oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induced by d-galactose, implying that selenium as a micronutrient may play important roles in hLE cells. PMID:26875981

  18. Selenoprotein P protects cells from lipid hydroperoxides generated by 15-LOX-1

    PubMed Central

    Rock, Colleen; Moos, Philip J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Reactive lipid hydroperoxides formed by lipoxygenases and cyclooxygenases can contribute to disease through cellular oxidative damage. Several selenoproteins have lipid hydroperoxidase activity including glutathione peroxidase 4, thioredoxin reductase, and selenoprotein P (SelP). SelP is an extracellular glycoprotein that functions both in selenium distribution and has antioxidant activity. The major objective of this study was to determine if SelP, at physiological concentrations and in selenium replete media, possessed hydroperoxidase activity directed at lipid hydroperoxides generated from the metabolism of arachidonic acid by 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1). SelP displayed in vitro lipid hydroperoxidase activity of 15-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HpETE), attenuated 15-HpETE oxidation in cellular assays, and in a transcellular assay when 15-LOX-1 is metabolically active. These results suggest that SelP can function as an antioxidant enzyme against reactive lipid intermediates formed during inflammation, but SelP has modest activity. Nevertheless, this effect may help protect cells against the oxidative damage induced by these lipid metabolites. PMID:20826080

  19. Formation of a Ternary Complex for Selenocysteine Biosynthesis in Bacteria*

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Ivan R.; Serrão, Vitor H. B.; Manzine, Livia R.; Faim, Lívia M.; da Silva, Marco T. A.; Makki, Raphaela; Saidemberg, Daniel M.; Cornélio, Marinônio L.; Palma, Mário S.; Thiemann, Otavio H.

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of selenocysteine-containing proteins (selenoproteins) involves the interaction of selenocysteine synthase (SelA), tRNA (tRNASec), selenophosphate synthetase (SelD, SPS), a specific elongation factor (SelB), and a specific mRNA sequence known as selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS). Because selenium compounds are highly toxic in the cellular environment, the association of selenium with proteins throughout its metabolism is essential for cell survival. In this study, we demonstrate the interaction of SPS with the SelA-tRNASec complex, resulting in a 1.3-MDa ternary complex of 27.0 ± 0.5 nm in diameter and 4.02 ± 0.05 nm in height. To assemble the ternary complex, SPS undergoes a conformational change. We demonstrated that the glycine-rich N-terminal region of SPS is crucial for the SelA-tRNASec-SPS interaction and selenoprotein biosynthesis, as revealed by functional complementation experiments. Taken together, our results provide new insights into selenoprotein biosynthesis, demonstrating for the first time the formation of the functional ternary SelA-tRNASec-SPS complex. We propose that this complex is necessary for proper selenocysteine synthesis and may be involved in avoiding the cellular toxicity of selenium compounds. PMID:26378233

  20. Social-Emotional Learning Profiles of Preschoolers’ Early School Success: A Person-Centered Approach

    PubMed Central

    Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.; Mincic, Melissa; Kalb, Sara; Way, Erin; Wyatt, Todd; Segal, Yana

    2011-01-01

    Examined how aspects of social-emotional learning (SEL)—specifically, emotion knowledge, emotional and social behaviors, social problem-solving, and self-regulation—clustered to typify groups of children who differ in terms of their motivation to learn, participation in the classroom, and other indices of early school adjustment and academic success. 275 four-year-old children from private day schools and Head Start were directly assessed and observed in these areas, and preschool and kindergarten teachers provided information on social and academic aspects of their school success. Three groups of children were identified: SEL Risk, SEL Competent-Social/Expressive, and SEL Competent-Restrained. Group members differed on demographic dimensions of gender and center type, and groups differed in meaningful ways on school success indices, pointing to needed prevention/intervention programming. In particular, the SEL Risk group could benefit from emotion-focused programming, and the long-term developmental trajectory of the SEL Competent-Restrained group requires study. PMID:22408363

  1. A Digital Self Excited Loop for Accelerating Cavity Field Control

    SciTech Connect

    Curt Hovater; Trent Allison; Jean Delayen; John Musson; Tomasz Plawski

    2007-06-22

    We have developed a digital process that emulates an analog oscillator and ultimately a self excited loop (SEL) for field control. The SEL, in its analog form, has been used for many years for accelerating cavity field control. In essence the SEL uses the cavity as a resonant circuit -- much like a resonant (tank) circuit is used to build an oscillator. An oscillating resonant circuit can be forced to oscillate at different, but close, frequencies to resonance by applying a phase shift in the feedback path. This allows the circuit to be phased-locked to a master reference, which is crucial for multiple cavity accelerators. For phase and amplitude control the SEL must be forced to the master reference frequency, and feedback provided for in both dimensions. The novelty of this design is in the way digital signal processing (DSP) is structured to emulate an analog system. While the digital signal processing elements are not new, to our knowledge this is the first time that the digital SEL concept has been designed and demonstrated. This paper reports on the progress of the design and implementation of the digital SEL for field control of superconducting accelerating cavities.

  2. Increased Muscle Stress-Sensitivity Induced by Selenoprotein N Inactivation in Mouse: A Mammalian Model for SEPN1-Related Myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Arbogast, Sandrine; Lainé, Jeanne; Vassilopoulos, Stéphane; Beuvin, Maud; Dubourg, Odile; Vignaud, Alban; Ferry, Arnaud; Krol, Alain; Allamand, Valérie; Guicheney, Pascale; Ferreiro, Ana; Lescure, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element and selenoprotein N (SelN) was the first selenium-containing protein shown to be directly involved in human inherited diseases. Mutations in the SEPN1 gene, encoding SelN, cause a group of muscular disorders characterized by predominant affection of axial muscles. SelN has been shown to participate in calcium and redox homeostasis, but its pathophysiological role in skeletal muscle remains largely unknown. To address SelN function in vivo, we generated a Sepn1-null mouse model by gene targeting. The Sepn1−/− mice had normal growth and lifespan, and were macroscopically indistinguishable from wild-type littermates. Only minor defects were observed in muscle morphology and contractile properties in SelN-deficient mice in basal conditions. However, when subjected to challenging physical exercise and stress conditions (forced swimming test), Sepn1−/− mice developed an obvious phenotype, characterized by limited motility and body rigidity during the swimming session, as well as a progressive curvature of the spine and predominant alteration of paravertebral muscles. This induced phenotype recapitulates the distribution of muscle involvement in patients with SEPN1-Related Myopathy, hence positioning this new animal model as a valuable tool to dissect the role of SelN in muscle function and to characterize the pathophysiological process. PMID:21858002

  3. Possible correlation of selenoprotein W with inflammation factors in chicken skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiong; Yao, Hai-Dong; Tan, Si-Ran; Zhang, Zi-Wei; Zhu, Yao-Hong; Xu, Shiwen

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible correlation of selenoprotein W (SelW) with inflammatory injury induced by dietary selenium (Se) deficiency in chicken. One-day-old male chickens were fed either a commercial diet or a Se-deficient diet for 55 days. Then, the expression levels of SelW messenger RNA (mRNA) and inflammation-related genes (NF-κB, TNF-α, iNOS, COX-2, and PTGES) in chicken skeletal muscles (wing muscle, pectoral muscle, and thigh muscle) were determined at 15, 25, 35, 45, and 55 days old, respectively. In addition, the correlation between SelW mRNA expression and inflammation-related genes were assessed. The results showed that dietary Se deficiency reduced the mRNA expression of SelW in chicken wing, pectorals, and thigh muscles. In contrast, Se deficiency increased the mRNA expression levels of inflammation-related genes in chicken skeletal muscle tissues at different time points. The Pearson's correlation coefficients showed that the mRNA expression levels of inflammation-related genes were significantly negative related to SelW (p < 0.05). These data showed that Se deficiency induced the inflammatory response in chicken skeletal muscle. As one important selenoprotein gene in skeletal muscles, SelW may play a role in the regulation of inflammation reaction in Se-deficiency myopathy.

  4. Common, but complex, mode of resistance of Plutella xylostella to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac.

    PubMed

    Sayyed, Ali H; Gatsi, Roxani; Ibiza-Palacios, M Sales; Escriche, Baltasar; Wright, Denis J; Crickmore, Neil

    2005-11-01

    A field collected population of Plutella xylostella (SERD4) was selected in the laboratory with Bacillus thuringiensis endotoxins Cry1Ac (Cry1Ac-SEL) and Cry1Ab (Cry1Ab-SEL). Both subpopulations showed similar phenotypes: high resistance to the Cry1A toxins and little cross-resistance to Cry1Ca or Cry1D. A previous analysis of the Cry1Ac-SEL showed incompletely dominant resistance to Cry1Ac with more than one factor, at least one of which was sex influenced. In the present study reciprocal mass crosses between Cry1Ab-SEL and a laboratory susceptible population (ROTH) provided evidence that Cry1Ab resistance was also inherited as incompletely dominant trait with more than one factor, and at least one of the factors was sex influenced. Analysis of single pair mating indicated that Cry1Ab-SEL was still heterogeneous for Cry1Ab resistance genes, showing genes with different degrees of dominance. Binding studies showed a large reduction of specific binding of Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac to midgut membrane vesicles of the Cry1Ab-SEL subpopulation. Cry1Ab-SEL was found to be more susceptible to trypsin-activated Cry1Ab toxin than protoxin, although no defect in toxin activation was found. Present and previous results indicate a common basis of resistance to both Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac in selected subpopulations and suggest that a similar set of resistance genes are responsible for resistance to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac and are selected whichever toxin was used. The possibility of an incompletely dominant trait of resistant to these toxins should be taken into account when considering refuge resistance management strategies.

  5. Aberrant gene expression in the Arabidopsis SULTR1;2 mutants suggests a possible regulatory role for this sulfate transporter in response to sulfur nutrient status.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Pasini, Rita; Dan, Hanbin; Joshi, Naveen; Zhao, Yihong; Leustek, Thomas; Zheng, Zhi-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Sulfur is required for the biosynthesis of cysteine, methionine and numerous other metabolites, and thus is critical for cellular metabolism and various growth and developmental processes. Plants are able to sense their physiological state with respect to sulfur availability, but the sensor remains to be identified. Here we report the isolation and characterization of two novel allelic mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana, sel1-15 and sel1-16, which show increased expression of a sulfur deficiency-activated gene β-glucosidase 28 (BGLU28). The mutants, which represent two different missense alleles of SULTR1;2, which encodes a high-affinity sulfate transporter, are defective in sulfate transport and as a result have a lower cellular sulfate level. However, when treated with a very high dose of sulfate, sel1-15 and sel1-16 accumulated similar amounts of internal sulfate and its metabolite glutathione (GSH) to wild-type, but showed higher expression of BGLU28 and other sulfur deficiency-activated genes than wild-type. Reduced sensitivity to inhibition of gene expression was also observed in the sel1 mutants when fed with the sulfate metabolites Cys and GSH. In addition, a SULTR1;2 knockout allele also exhibits reduced inhibition in response to sulfate, Cys and GSH, consistent with the phenotype of sel1-15 and sel1-16. Taken together, the genetic evidence suggests that, in addition to its known function as a high-affinity sulfate transporter, SULTR1;2 may have a regulatory role in response to sulfur nutrient status. The possibility that SULTR1;2 may function as a sensor of sulfur status or a component of a sulfur sensory mechanism is discussed.

  6. Barriers to heterologous expression of a selenoprotein gene in bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Tormay, P; Böck, A

    1997-01-01

    The specificity parameters counteracting the heterologous expression in Escherichia coli of the Desulfomicrobium baculatum gene (hydV) coding for the large subunit of the periplasmic hydrogenase which is a selenoprotein have been studied. hydV'-'lacZ fusions were constructed, and it was shown that they do not direct the incorporation of selenocysteine in E. coli. Rather, the UGA codon is efficiently suppressed by some other aminoacyl-tRNA in an E. coli strain possessing a ribosomal ambiguity mutation. The suppression is decreased by the strA1 allele, indicating that the hydV selenocysteine UGA codon has the properties of a "normal" and suppressible nonsense codon. The SelB protein from D. baculatum was purified; in gel shift experiments, D. baculatum SelB displayed a lower affinity for the E. coli fdhF selenoprotein mRNA than E. coli SelB did and vice versa. Coexpression of the hydV'-'lacZ fusion and of the selB and tRNA(Sec) genes from D. baculatum, however, did not lead to selenocysteine insertion into the protein, although the formation of the quaternary complex between SelB, selenocysteyl-tRNA(Sec), and the hydV mRNA recognition sequence took place. The results demonstrate (i) that the selenocysteine-specific UGA codon is readily suppressed under conditions where the homologous SelB protein is absent and (ii) that apart from the specificity of the SelB-mRNA interaction, a structural compatibility of the quaternary complex with the ribosome is required. PMID:9006007

  7. The PACAP-regulated gene selenoprotein T is highly induced in nervous, endocrine, and metabolic tissues during ontogenetic and regenerative processes.

    PubMed

    Tanguy, Yannick; Falluel-Morel, Anthony; Arthaud, Sébastien; Boukhzar, Loubna; Manecka, Destiny-Love; Chagraoui, Abdeslam; Prevost, Gaetan; Elias, Salah; Dorval-Coiffec, Isabelle; Lesage, Jean; Vieau, Didier; Lihrmann, Isabelle; Jégou, Bernard; Anouar, Youssef

    2011-11-01

    Selenoproteins contain the essential trace element selenium whose deficiency leads to major disorders including cancer, male reproductive system failure, or autoimmune thyroid disease. Up to now, 25 selenoprotein-encoding genes were identified in mammals, but the spatiotemporal distribution, regulation, and function of some of these selenium-containing proteins remain poorly documented. Here, we found that selenoprotein T (SelT), a new thioredoxin-like protein, is regulated by the trophic neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in differentiating but not mature adrenomedullary cells. In fact, our analysis revealed that, in rat, SelT is highly expressed in most embryonic structures, and then its levels decreased progressively as these organs develop, to vanish in most adult tissues. In the brain, SelT was abundantly expressed in neural progenitors in various regions such as the cortex and cerebellum but was undetectable in adult nervous cells except rostral migratory-stream astrocytes and Bergmann cells. In contrast, SelT expression was maintained in several adult endocrine tissues such as pituitary, thyroid, or testis. In the pituitary gland, SelT was found in secretory cells of the anterior lobe, whereas in the testis, the selenoprotein was present only in spermatogenic and Leydig cells. Finally, we found that SelT expression is strongly stimulated in liver cells during the regenerative process that occurs after partial hepatectomy. Taken together, these data show that SelT induction is associated with ontogenesis, tissue maturation, and regenerative mechanisms, indicating that this PACAP-regulated selenoprotein may play a crucial role in cell growth and activity in nervous, endocrine, and metabolic tissues.

  8. In Situ Electron Microscopy of Lactomicroselenium Particles in Probiotic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Gabor; Pinczes, Gyula; Pinter, Gabor; Pocsi, Istvan; Prokisch, Jozsef; Banfalvi, Gaspar

    2016-01-01

    Electron microscopy was used to test whether or not (a) in statu nascendi synthesized, and in situ measured, nanoparticle size does not differ significantly from the size of nanoparticles after their purification; and (b) the generation of selenium is detrimental to the bacterial strains that produce them. Elemental nano-sized selenium produced by probiotic latic acid bacteria was used as a lactomicroselenium (lactomicroSel) inhibitor of cell growth in the presence of lactomicroSel, and was followed by time-lapse microscopy. The size of lactomicroSel produced by probiotic bacteria was measured in situ and after isolation and purification. For these measurements the TESLA BS 540 transmission electron microscope was converted from analog (aTEM) to digital processing (dTEM), and further to remote-access internet electron microscopy (iTEM). Lactobacillus acidophilus produced fewer, but larger, lactomicroSel nanoparticles (200–350 nm) than Lactobacillus casei (L. casei), which generated many, smaller lactomicroSel particles (85–200 nm) and grains as a cloudy, less electrodense material. Streptococcus thermophilus cells generated selenoparticles (60–280 nm) in a suicidic manner. The size determined in situ in lactic acid bacteria was significantly lower than those measured by scanning electron microscopy after the isolation of lactomicroSel particles obtained from lactobacilli (100–500 nm), but higher relative to those isolated from Streptococcus thermopilus (50–100 nm). These differences indicate that smaller lactomicroSel particles could be more toxic to the producing bacteria themselves and discrepancies in size could have implications with respect to the applications of selenium nanoparticles as prebiotics. PMID:27376279

  9. Idiopathic Spinal Epidural Lipomatosis in the Lumbar Spine.

    PubMed

    Al-Omari, Ali A; Phukan, Rishabh D; Leonard, Dana A; Herzog, Tyler L; Wood, Kirkham B; Bono, Christopher M

    2016-05-01

    Overgrowth of epidural fat, known as spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL), can cause symptomatic compression of the spinal cord, conus medullaris, or cauda equina. Suggested predisposing factors such as obesity, steroid use, and diabetes mellitus have been based on a few reported cases, many of which were not surgically confirmed. There is a paucity of epidemiological data in surgically confirmed cases for this disorder. The purpose of this independently reviewed, retrospective, matched cohort analysis was to compare the demographics and incidence of comorbidities of patients who underwent lumbar decompression for SEL vs degenerative stenosis without SEL. Two surgeons' databases were reviewed to identify patients older than 18 years who underwent decompression surgery for magnetic resonance imaging-verified, symptomatic lumbar SEL. A matched control group comprised an equal number of patients with degenerative stenosis (n=14). Demographic data, body mass index, symptom type/duration, comorbidities, complications, treatment history, and associated pathology were collected from medical records. Previously suggested risk factors, such as obesity, endocrinopathy, and epidural steroid injections, were not significantly different between the SEL and control groups. Furthermore, there were no differences in operative times, complications, or blood loss. The only noted difference between the 2 groups was the preoperative duration of symptoms, on average double in patients with SEL. This series represents the largest of its kind reported to date. Because symptom duration was the only difference noted, it is postulated to be the result of lack of awareness of SEL. Future prospective study in a larger group of patients is warranted. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):163-168.].

  10. Containing Climate Change With Black Carbon Reductions: A Grand Challenge Field Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, V.

    2009-12-01

    The manmade greenhouse gases that are now blanketing the planet is thick enough to push the system beyond the tipping point for several elements of the climate system such as the arctic sea ice and the Himalayan-Tibetan glaciers, to name a few. Even with a targeted reduction in CO2 emission of 50% by 2050, we would still be adding more than 50 ppm of CO2 and thicken the manmade blanket by another 30%. Fortunately there are scientific ways to contain the warming and these will be outlined. But these need a truly transformational and interdisciplinary approach that brings together social scientists, natural scientists, energy experts and engineers to develop effective mitigation pathways. Towards this goal an interdisciplinary team of academics, NGOs and intergovernmental organizations from US, Europe and India have developed Project Surya to drastically decrease emissions of the major non-CO2 climate warmers (soot, methane, ozone precursor gases) from rural areas in India and China. Surya will undertake the most comprehensive data collection, to-date, on the impact of reducing biomass burning on climate forcing, health and the wellbeing of rural inhabitants most of whom live under a dollar a day. The experiment thus offers the opportunity to field test our ideas and hypotheses about the impact of black carbon and brown clouds on dimming, the Asian monsoon and the melting of the Himalayan-Tibetan glaciers. The data from this soft ‘geo-engineering’ experiment is also anticipated to lead to a sustainable way of energy consumption for the roughly 4 billion who are forced to use solid bio-fuels for all of their energy needs.

  11. Social and Emotional Learning Services and Child Outcomes in Third Grade: Evidence from a Cohort of Head Start Participants

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Fuhua; Raver, C. Cybele; Jones, Stephanie M.

    2015-01-01

    A variety of universal school-based social and emotional learning (SEL) programs have been designed in the past decades to help children improve social-emotional and academic skills. Evidence on the effectiveness of SEL programs has been mixed in the literature. Using data from a longitudinal follow-up study of children (n = 414) originally enrolled in a clustered randomized controlled trial (RCT) when they were in Head Start, we examined whether universal SEL services in third grade were associated with the development of children from disadvantaged families. We took advantage of pairwise matching in the RCT design to compare children who had similar family background and preschool experiences but received different doses of SEL services in third grade. The results showed that the frequent (i.e., weekly to daily) exposure to SEL opportunities was associated with favorable social-emotional and academic development in third grade, including increased social skills, student-teacher relationship, and academic skills, as well as reduced impulsiveness. PMID:26236063

  12. A γ-Secretase Independent Role for Presenilin in Calcium Homeostasis Impacts Mitochondrial Function and Morphology in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Sarasija, Shaarika; Norman, Kenneth R

    2015-12-01

    Mutations in the presenilin (PSEN) encoding genes (PSEN1 and PSEN2) occur in most early onset familial Alzheimer's Disease. Despite the identification of the involvement of PSEN in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) ∼20 years ago, the underlying role of PSEN in AD is not fully understood. To gain insight into the biological function of PSEN, we investigated the role of the PSEN homolog SEL-12 in Caenorhabditis elegans. Using genetic, cell biological, and pharmacological approaches, we demonstrate that mutations in sel-12 result in defects in calcium homeostasis, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. Moreover, consistent with mammalian PSEN, we provide evidence that SEL-12 has a critical role in mediating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium release. Furthermore, we found that in SEL-12-deficient animals, calcium transfer from the ER to the mitochondria leads to fragmentation of the mitochondria and mitochondrial dysfunction. Additionally, we show that the impact that SEL-12 has on mitochondrial function is independent of its role in Notch signaling, γ-secretase proteolytic activity, and amyloid plaques. Our results reveal a critical role for PSEN in mediating mitochondrial function by regulating calcium transfer from the ER to the mitochondria.

  13. Dominant fitness costs of resistance to fipronil in Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Abbas, Naeem; Shah, Rizwan Mustafa; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Azher, Faheem

    2016-08-15

    House fly, Musca domestica L., (Diptera: Muscidae) a common pest of poultry, has developed resistance to the commonly used insecticide fipronil. The life history traits were examined in the fipronil-selected (Fipro-SEL), susceptible counterpart (UNSEL), and their hybrid progeny strains in order to design an effective resistant management strategy. Compared to the UNSEL strain, the Fipro-SEL was 181.94-fold resistant to fipronil. This resistance was unstable after five generations without selection. The Fipro-SEL had a significantly longer larval duration, lower pupal weight, lower fecundity, lower hatchability, lower number of next generation larvae, lower intrinsic rate of population increase and lower biotic potential than the UNSEL strain. Most fitness parameters of the hybrid progeny were similar and significantly lower than that in the UNSEL strain, suggesting autosomal and dominant fitness costs. Compared to the UNSEL strain, relative the fitness of the Fipro-SEL, Hybrid1 and Hybrid2 was 0.13, 0.33 and 0.30, respectively. Fipronil resistance resulted in high fitness costs and these fitness costs were dominant and autosomal in the Fipro-SEL strain of M. domestica. Rotation of fipronil with other insecticides having no cross resistance should be useful for delaying the development of resistance in M. domestica.

  14. A γ-Secretase Independent Role for Presenilin in Calcium Homeostasis Impacts Mitochondrial Function and Morphology in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Sarasija, Shaarika; Norman, Kenneth R.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the presenilin (PSEN) encoding genes (PSEN1 and PSEN2) occur in most early onset familial Alzheimer’s Disease. Despite the identification of the involvement of PSEN in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) ∼20 years ago, the underlying role of PSEN in AD is not fully understood. To gain insight into the biological function of PSEN, we investigated the role of the PSEN homolog SEL-12 in Caenorhabditis elegans. Using genetic, cell biological, and pharmacological approaches, we demonstrate that mutations in sel-12 result in defects in calcium homeostasis, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. Moreover, consistent with mammalian PSEN, we provide evidence that SEL-12 has a critical role in mediating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium release. Furthermore, we found that in SEL-12-deficient animals, calcium transfer from the ER to the mitochondria leads to fragmentation of the mitochondria and mitochondrial dysfunction. Additionally, we show that the impact that SEL-12 has on mitochondrial function is independent of its role in Notch signaling, γ-secretase proteolytic activity, and amyloid plaques. Our results reveal a critical role for PSEN in mediating mitochondrial function by regulating calcium transfer from the ER to the mitochondria. PMID:26500256

  15. Aircraft noise-induced awakenings are more reasonably predicted from relative than from absolute sound exposure levels.

    PubMed

    Fidell, Sanford; Tabachnick, Barbara; Mestre, Vincent; Fidell, Linda

    2013-11-01

    Assessment of aircraft noise-induced sleep disturbance is problematic for several reasons. Current assessment methods are based on sparse evidence and limited understandings; predictions of awakening prevalence rates based on indoor absolute sound exposure levels (SELs) fail to account for appreciable amounts of variance in dosage-response relationships and are not freely generalizable from airport to airport; and predicted awakening rates do not differ significantly from zero over a wide range of SELs. Even in conjunction with additional predictors, such as time of night and assumed individual differences in "sensitivity to awakening," nominally SEL-based predictions of awakening rates remain of limited utility and are easily misapplied and misinterpreted. Probabilities of awakening are more closely related to SELs scaled in units of standard deviates of local distributions of aircraft SELs, than to absolute sound levels. Self-selection of residential populations for tolerance of nighttime noise and habituation to airport noise environments offer more parsimonious and useful explanations for differences in awakening rates at disparate airports than assumed individual differences in sensitivity to awakening.

  16. Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility safety equipment list

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-02-24

    This document provides the safety equipment list (SEL) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). The SEL was prepared in accordance with the procedure for safety structures, systems, and components (SSCs) in HNF-PRO-516, ''Safety Structures, Systems, and Components,'' Revision 0 and HNF-PRO-097, Engineering Design and Evaluation, Revision 0. The SEL was developed in conjunction with HNF-SO-SNF-SAR-O02, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems (Garvin 1998). The SEL identifies the SSCs and their safety functions, the design basis accidents for which they are required to perform, the design criteria, codes and standards, and quality assurance requirements that are required for establishing the safety design basis of the SSCs. This SEL has been developed for the CVDF Phase 2 Safety Analysis Report (SAR) and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future phases of the CVDF SAR until the CVDF final SAR is approved.

  17. Collected software engineering papers, volume 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This document is a collection of selected technical papers produced by participants in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) from November 1990 through October 1991. The purpose of the document is to make available, in one reference, some results of SEL research that originally appeared in a number of different forums. This is the ninth such volume of technical papers produced by the SEL. Although these papers cover several topics related to software engineering, they do not encompass the entire scope of SEL activities and interests. For the convenience of this presentation, the eight papers contained here are grouped into three major categories: (1) software models studies; (2) software measurement studies; and (3) Ada technology studies. The first category presents studies on reuse models, including a software reuse model applied to maintenance and a model for an organization to support software reuse. The second category includes experimental research methods and software measurement techniques. The third category presents object-oriented approaches using Ada and object-oriented features proposed for Ada. The SEL is actively working to understand and improve the software development process at GSFC.

  18. Potential Population Consequences of Active Sonar Disturbance in Atlantic Herring: Estimating the Maximum Risk.

    PubMed

    Sivle, Lise Doksæter; Kvadsheim, Petter Helgevold; Ainslie, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Effects of noise on fish populations may be predicted by the population consequence of acoustic disturbance (PCAD) model. We have predicted the potential risk of population disturbance when the highest sound exposure level (SEL) at which adult herring do not respond to naval sonar (SEL(0)) is exceeded. When the population density is low (feeding), the risk is low even at high sonar source levels and long-duration exercises (>24 h). With densely packed populations (overwintering), a sonar exercise might expose the entire population to levels >SEL(0) within a 24-h exercise period. However, the disturbance will be short and the response threshold used here is highly conservative. It is therefore unlikely that naval sonar will significantly impact the herring population.

  19. Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual Software Engineering Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) is an organization sponsored by GSFC and created for the purpose of investigating the effectiveness of software engineering technologies when applied to the development of applications software. The goals of the SEL are: (1) to understand the software development process in the GSFC environment; (2) to measure the effect of various methodologies, tools, and models on this process; and (3) to identify and then to apply successful development practices. Fifteen papers were presented at the Fifteenth Annual Software Engineering Workshop in five sessions: (1) SEL at age fifteen; (2) process improvement; (3) measurement; (4) reuse; and (5) process assessment. The sessions were followed by two panel discussions: (1) experiences in implementing an effective measurement program; and (2) software engineering in the 1980's. A summary of the presentations and panel discussions is given.

  20. Thiamethoxam Resistance in the House Fly, Musca domestica L.: Current Status, Resistance Selection, Cross-Resistance Potential and Possible Biochemical Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Akram, Waseem; Iqbal, Javaid; Naeem-Ullah, Unsar

    2015-01-01

    The house fly, Musca domestica L., is an important ectoparasite with the ability to develop resistance to insecticides used for their control. Thiamethoxam, a neonicotinoid, is a relatively new insecticide and effectively used against house flies with a few reports of resistance around the globe. To understand the status of resistance to thiamethoxam, eight adult house fly strains were evaluated under laboratory conditions. In addition, to assess the risks of resistance development, cross-resistance potential and possible biochemical mechanisms, a field strain of house flies was selected with thiamethoxam in the laboratory. The results revealed that the field strains showed varying level of resistance to thiamethoxam with resistance ratios (RR) at LC50 ranged from 7.66-20.13 folds. Continuous selection of the field strain (Thia-SEL) for five generations increased the RR from initial 7.66 fold to 33.59 fold. However, resistance declined significantly when the Thia-SEL strain reared for the next five generations without exposure to thiamethoxam. Compared to the laboratory susceptible reference strain (Lab-susceptible), the Thia-SEL strain showed cross-resistance to imidacloprid. Synergism tests revealed that S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF) and piperonyl butoxide (PBO) produced synergism of thiamethoxam effects in the Thia-SEL strain (2.94 and 5.00 fold, respectively). In addition, biochemical analyses revealed that the activities of carboxylesterase (CarE) and mixed function oxidase (MFO) in the Thia-SEL strain were significantly higher than the Lab-susceptible strain. It seems that metabolic detoxification by CarE and MFO was a major mechanism for thiamethoxam resistance in the Thia-SEL strain of house flies. The results could be helpful in the future to develop an improved control strategy against house flies.

  1. Selenoprotein T Exerts an Essential Oxidoreductase Activity That Protects Dopaminergic Neurons in Mouse Models of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Boukhzar, Loubna; Hamieh, Abdallah; Cartier, Dorthe; Tanguy, Yannick; Alsharif, Ifat; Castex, Matthieu; Arabo, Arnaud; Hajji, Sana El; Bonnet, Jean-Jacques; Errami, Mohammed; Falluel-Morel, Anthony; Chagraoui, Abdeslam; Lihrmann, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Oxidative stress is central to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), but the mechanisms involved in the control of this stress in dopaminergic cells are not fully understood. There is increasing evidence that selenoproteins play a central role in the control of redox homeostasis and cell defense, but the precise contribution of members of this family of proteins during the course of neurodegenerative diseases is still elusive. Results: We demonstrated first that selenoprotein T (SelT) whose gene disruption is lethal during embryogenesis, exerts a potent oxidoreductase activity. In the SH-SY5Y cell model of dopaminergic neurons, both silencing and overexpression of SelT affected oxidative stress and cell survival. Treatment with PD-inducing neurotoxins such as 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) or rotenone triggered SelT expression in the nigrostriatal pathway of wild-type mice, but provoked rapid and severe parkinsonian-like motor defects in conditional brain SelT-deficient mice. This motor impairment was associated with marked oxidative stress and neurodegeneration and decreased tyrosine hydroxylase activity and dopamine levels in the nigrostriatal system. Finally, in PD patients, we report that SelT is tremendously increased in the caudate putamen tissue. Innovation: These results reveal the activity of a novel selenoprotein enzyme that protects dopaminergic neurons against oxidative stress and prevents early and severe movement impairment in animal models of PD. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that selenoproteins such as SelT play a crucial role in the protection of dopaminergic neurons against oxidative stress and cell death, providing insight into the molecular underpinnings of this stress in PD. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 24, 557–574. PMID:26866473

  2. Selenoprotein W redox-regulated Ca2+ channels correlate with selenium deficiency-induced muscles Ca2+ leak

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xia; Zhao, Wenchao; Liu, Wei; Yang, Jie; Sattar, Hamid; Zhao, Jinxin; Zhang, Ziwei; Xu, Shiwen

    2016-01-01

    Selenium (Se) deficiency induces Ca2+ leak and calcification in mammal skeletal muscles; however, the exact mechanism is still unclear. In the present study, both Se-deficient chicken muscle models and selenoprotein W (SelW) gene knockdown myoblast and embryo models were used to study the mechanism. The results showed that Se deficiency-induced typical muscular injuries accompanied with Ca2+ leak and oxidative stress (P < 0.05) injured the ultrastructure of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and mitochondria; decreased the levels of the Ca2+ channels, SERCA, SLC8A, CACNA1S, ORAI1, STIM1, TRPC1, and TRPC3 (P < 0.05); and increased the levels of Ca2+ channel PMCA (P < 0.05). Similarly, SelW knockdown also induced Ca2+ leak from the SR and cytoplasm; increased mitochondrial Ca2+ levels and oxidative stress; injured SR and mitochondrial ultrastructure; decreased levels of SLC8A, CACNA1S, ORA1, TRPC1, and TRPC3; and caused abnormal activities of Ca2+ channels in response to inhibitors in myoblasts and chicken embryos. Thus, both Se deficiency and SelW knockdown induced Ca2+ leak, oxidative stress, and Ca2+ channel reduction. In addition, Ca2+ levels and the expression of the Ca2+ channels, RyR1, SERCA, CACNA1S, TRPC1, and TRPC3 were recovered to normal levels by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) treatment compared with SelW knockdown cells. Thus, with regard to the decreased Ca2+ channels, SelW knockdown closely correlated Se deficiency with Ca2+ leak in muscles. The redox regulation role of SelW is crucial in Se deficiency-induced Ca2+ leak in muscles. PMID:27557522

  3. Chemistry Related to Semiconductor Growth Involving Organometallics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-11

    layer of ZnSxSel.x compared with % S in the gas phase: * for H2S, H2Se; 0 for thiophene, selenophene. 13 sulphur in grown ZnSxSel.x is compared with the...proportion of sulphur in the gas phase. Ideally, the curve should be a straight line of slope = 1 through the origin. The stoichiometry of the solid...deposition (MOCVD) is receiving increasing public scrutiny. The extreme toxicity of arsine and phosphine, which must be stored in high-pressure steel

  4. A racetrack mode-locked silicon evanescent laser.

    PubMed

    Fang, Alexander W; Koch, Brian R; Gan, Kian-Giap; Park, Hyundai; Jones, Richard; Cohen, Oded; Paniccia, Mario J; Blumenthal, Daniel J; Bowers, John E

    2008-01-21

    By utilizing a racetrack resonator topography, an on-chip mode locked silicon evanescent laser (ML-SEL) is realized that is independent of facet polishing. This enables integration with other devices on silicon and precise control of the ML-SEL's repetition rate through lithographic definition of the cavity length. Both passive and hybrid mode-locking have been achieved with transform limited, 7 ps pulses emitted at a repetition rate of 30 GHz. Jitter and locking range are measured under hybrid mode locking with a minimum absolute jitter and maximum locking range of 364 fs, and 50 MHz, respectively.

  5. Thermal Radiometer Signal Processing Using Radiation Hard CMOS Application Specific Integrated Circuits for Use in Harsh Planetary Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quilligan, G.; DuMonthier, J.; Aslam, S.; Lakew, B.; Kleyner, I.; Katz, R.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal radiometers such as proposed for the Europa Clipper flyby mission require low noise signal processing for thermal imaging with immunity to Total Ionizing Dose (TID) and Single Event Latchup (SEL). Described is a second generation Multi- Channel Digitizer (MCD2G) Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) that accurately digitizes up to 40 thermopile pixels with greater than 50 Mrad (Si) immunity TID and 174 MeV-sq cm/mg SEL. The MCD2G ASIC uses Radiation Hardened By Design (RHBD) techniques with a 180 nm CMOS process node.

  6. System Considerations in the Design of Residue Processors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-03-01

    MANDEVILLE , J E GOODMAN AFOSR-77-3219 UNCLASSIFIED SU-SEL-79G008 AFOSR-TR-81-0744 NL 2 ffffffffffff AFOSR-TR. 8 -074 A LEVEL/v SEL-79-008 SYSTM...CONSIDERAT IONS IN THE DESIGN OF RESIDUE PROCESSORS Alan Huang Jon Mandeville Joseph W. Goodman Ott Satoshi Ishihara ,W. March 1979 This manuscript is...GRANT NUMBERIs) Alan Huang, Jon Mandeville , AFOSR-77-3219 Joseph W. Goodman, S. Ishihara 9 PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  7. Proceedings of the Seventeenth Annual Software Engineering Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Proceedings of the Seventeenth Annual Software Engineering Workshop are presented. The software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) is an organization sponsored by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and created to investigate the effectiveness of software engineering technologies when applied to the development of applications software. Topics covered include: the Software Engineering Laboratory; process measurement; software reuse; software quality; lessons learned; and is Ada dying.

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF BRAZED ALUMINUM OIL COOLERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at sel...

  9. Changes in molecular genetic variation at ALFP loci associated with naturalization and domestication of the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) is an important commercial species in the US Pacific Northwest with a history of propagation first using wild-caught seed imported directly from the Miyagi region of northern Japan (1920s – 1970s) followed by an extended period of seed collection from a few sel...

  10. Reviving Oral Reading Practices with English Learners by Integrating Social-Emotional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dresser, Rocio

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide background on integrating social-emotional learning (SEL) into classroom oral reading practices. The section that follows outlines some of the language and academic demands English learners (ELs) face at school. Another section considers the relationship between academic and social-emotional learning. The…

  11. Course of Action Assessment Tool (COAAT) Software Description

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    Primary reason for this function is to start from crash without initializing variables, ;Reset to the main menu (RESET-COAAT) ;Start up the main menu...PUSHI-CURSORFOS (U-st curr-.x curr-y) cursorpos-table) (setf cursorpos-table (POP-CURSRPOS curso ~pos-anble)) (sel( cursorpos-table (POP-CURSORPOS

  12. Emotional Pedagogy and the Gendering of Social and Emotional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Rhiannon

    2017-01-01

    Social and emotional learning (SEL) has predominantly been conceptualised as a neurological process, which has precluded understanding of how social, cultural and material discourses inform the expression of emotional experiences. Gender remains a notable omission. This article explores the micro-practices through which gender structures the…

  13. Developing a Fidelity of Implementation Measure for the "Responsive Classroom" Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Lori

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the psychometric properties, reliability, and validity of a measure designed to assess fidelity of implementation of the "Responsive Classroom"[R] ("RC") approach. The Classroom Practices Teacher Survey (CPTS) assesses teachers' use of the "RC" approach, a social and emotional learning (SEL) intervention currently under…

  14. Reserve Educational Assistance Program (REAP), Chapter 1607 Title 10, U.S. Code

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Veterans Affairs, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Reserve Education Assistance Program, or REAP (Chapter 1607 of title 10, U.S. Code), is a new benefit providing educational assistance to members of the reserve components--Selected Reserve (Sel Res) and Individual Ready Reserve (IRR)--who are called or ordered to active service in response to a war or national emergency, as declared by the…

  15. Genome-wide association study for identifying genome loci that affect fillet yield in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fillet yield (FY, %) is an economically important trait in rainbow trout aquaculture that reflects production efficiency. Despite that, FY has not received much attention in breeding programs because it is costly to measure and difficult to select on, limiting the genetic progress in traditional sel...

  16. Genotyping and DNA microarray based characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from rabbit carcasses.

    PubMed

    Merz, Axel; Stephan, Roger; Johler, Sophia

    2016-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus can cause staphylococcal food poisoning. Although the organism is frequently detected on rabbit carcasses, little is known about the characteristics of S. aureus strains contaminating rabbit meat. In this study, 137 S. aureus isolates originating from 137 rabbit carcasses were spa typed and characterized by DNA microarray. The isolates were assigned to CC5, CC7, CC8, CC15, CC96, CC101, CC121, and ST890, and to 13 spa types (t056, t085, t091, t160, t179, t681, t741, t745, t1190, t1773, t4770, t8456, t14871). Enterotoxin genes detected included sea, sed, sej, and ser. In addition, the egc operon, encoding the newly described staphylococcal enterotoxins SEG/SEI/SElM/SElN/SElO/SElU, was found in all isolates except those of t091. While none of the examined isolates presented genes conferring methicillin, vancomycin, or aminoglycoside resistance, we frequently detected blaZ/I/R conferring resistance to penicillin. The isolates represented a heterogeneous group assigned to clonal lineages detected among humans and animals, with two spa types exclusively associated with rabbit meat (t4770, t8456).

  17. Teacher Perspectives on Factors Facilitating Implementation of Whole School Approaches for Resolving Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Elizabeth; Wertheim, Eleanor H.; Trinder, Margot

    2014-01-01

    While social-emotional learning programmes in schools often have positive outcomes, many such initiatives are not well implemented and maintained. This paper reports on teacher reflections on the process of planning and implementing a whole school social-emotional learning (SEL) programme with a conflict resolution focus, called "Enhancing…

  18. Integrating Social Emotional Learning into Secondary Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    When students are able to cope with, manage and maneuver the social and emotional landscapes of their lives, their ability to learn on all levels improves. Teaching Social / Emotional Learning (SEL), as a component of secondary education, not only increases academic performance, but prepares students to meet the challenges of lifelong learning in…

  19. Selenium speciation analysis of Misgurnus anguillicaudatus selenoprotein by HPLC-ICP-MS and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analytical methods for selenium (Se) speciation were developed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to either inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) or electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Separations of selenomethionine (Se-Met) and sel...

  20. The Effects of Linear Microphone Array Changes on Computed Sound Exposure Level Footprints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Arnold W.; Wilson, Mark R.

    1997-01-01

    Airport land planning commissions often are faced with determining how much area around an airport is affected by the sound exposure levels (SELS) associated with helicopter operations. This paper presents a study of the effects changing the size and composition of a microphone array has on the computed SEL contour (ground footprint) areas used by such commissions. Descent flight acoustic data measured by a fifteen microphone array were reprocessed for five different combinations of microphones within this array. This resulted in data for six different arrays for which SEL contours were computed. The fifteen microphone array was defined as the 'baseline' array since it contained the greatest amount of data. The computations used a newly developed technique, the Acoustic Re-propagation Technique (ART), which uses parts of the NASA noise prediction program ROTONET. After the areas of the SEL contours were calculated the differences between the areas were determined. The area differences for the six arrays are presented that show a five and a three microphone array (with spacing typical of that required by the FAA FAR Part 36 noise certification procedure) compare well with the fifteen microphone array. All data were obtained from a database resulting from a joint project conducted by NASA and U.S. Army researchers at Langley and Ames Research Centers. A brief description of the joint project test design, microphone array set-up, and data reduction methodology associated with the database are discussed.

  1. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PROTOTYPE PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at sel...

  2. Nutrition Recommendations and Interventions for Diabetes–2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) is important in preventing diabetes, managing existing diabetes, and preventing, or at least slowing, the rate of development of diabetes complications. It is, therefore, important at all levels of diabetes prevention. MNT is also an integral component of diabetes sel...

  3. Teacher Change and Development during Training in Social and Emotional Learning Programs in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimber, Birgitta; Skoog, Therése; Sandell, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the results from a thematic analysis of the process diaries of teachers involved in teacher training in social and emotional learning (SEL) in Sweden. Twenty-nine out of the 122 diaries available were analyzed until saturation was reached. The following themes and sub-themes were extracted: development (professional and…

  4. Comparative research on “high currents” induced by single event latch-up and transient-induced latch-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rui; Han, Jian-Wei; Zheng, Han-Sheng; Yu, Yong-Tao; Shangguang, Shi-Peng; Feng, Guo-Qiang; Ma, Ying-Qi

    2015-04-01

    By using the pulsed laser single event effect facility and electro-static discharge (ESD) test system, the characteristics of the “high current”, relation with external stimulus and relevance to impacted modes of single event latch-up (SEL) and transient-induced latch-up (TLU) are studied, respectively, for a 12-bit complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) analog-to-digital converter. Furthermore, the sameness and difference in physical mechanism between “high current” induced by SEL and that by TLU are disclosed in this paper. The results show that the minority carrier diffusion in the PNPN structure of the CMOS device which initiates the active parasitic NPN and PNP transistors is the common reason for the “high current” induced by SEL and for that by TLU. However, for SEL, the minority carrier diffusion is induced by the ionizing radiation, and an underdamped sinusoidal voltage on the supply node (the ground node) is the cause of the minority carrier diffusion for TLU. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41304148).

  5. Enhancing Social Integration of Immigrant Pupils at Risk for Social, Emotional and/or Behavioural Difficulties: The Outcomes of a Small-Scale Social-Emotional Learning Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doikou-Avlidou, Maro; Dadatsi, Katerina

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the outcomes of a small-scale social and emotional learning (SEL) intervention programme regarding the social behaviour and the social position of pupils from culturally diverse backgrounds. Seven primary and secondary education teachers participated in the study along with the pupils attending their classes;…

  6. Developing a Tiered Response Model for Social-Emotional Learning through Interdisciplinary Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maras, Melissa A.; Thompson, Aaron M.; Lewis, Christie; Thornburg, Kathy; Hawks, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    A tiered response model for social-emotional learning (SEL) is needed to address the significant mental health needs of young people in this country. In collaboration with other school mental health professionals, school psychologists have a unique expertise that situates them to be systems change agents in this work. This article describes a…

  7. Social and Emotional Learning in the Classroom: Promoting Mental Health and Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrell, Kenneth W.; Gueldner, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    This highly engaging, eminently practical book provides essential resources for implementing social and emotional learning (SEL) in any K-12 setting. Numerous vivid examples illustrate the nuts and bolts of this increasingly influential approach to supporting students' mental health, behavior, and academic performance. Helpful reproducibles are…

  8. Digital systems design language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, S. G.

    1979-01-01

    Digital Systems Design Language (DDL) is implemented on the SEL-32 Computer Systems. The detaileds of the language, the translator, and the simulator, and the smulator programs are given. Several example descriptions and a tutorial on hardware description languages are provided, to guide the user.

  9. Cryopreservation of Salix sp. dormant winter buds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In cryopreservation, using dormant winter buds (DB) as source plant materials is economically advantageous over tissue culture options (TC). Processing DB does not require aseptic conditions and elaborate cryopreservation procedures. However, the DB approach is only feasible for cryopreserving a sel...

  10. A Pilot Study of Strong Start: Preliminary Evidence of Feasibiliy and Efficacy of Social and Emotional Learning in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felver, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Social and emotional competencies have received increased attention as important components of school readiness for young children. Universal programs incorporating social and emotional learning (SEL) instruction for all preschool students are needed given the relation between social and emotional competencies in early childhood and later…

  11. Relationship between Target Orientations and Perceived Motivational Climate Levels of Students Engaged in Individual and Team Sports Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslanoglu, Cansel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between perceived motivational climate and target orientations of team and individual athletes who participate in sports at the Physical Education and Sports Departments of faculties. A total of 200 athletes (students at the Physical Education and Sports Departments of Gazi University, Selçuk…

  12. An Investigation into Psychological Well-Being Levels of Higher Education Students with Respect to Personality Traits and Self-Compassion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saricaoglu, Halim; Arslan, Coskun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the correlation between psychological well-being, personal traits and self-compassion levels, and to find out whether personal traits and self-compassion level significantly predict psychological well-being. The study sample is composed of 232 (36.5%) students from Education Faculty of Selçuk University,…

  13. Antimycobacterial activity of bacteriocins and their complexes with liposomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacteriocins (Bcn) are natural peptides that are secreted by taxonomically distinct bacteria which exert bactericidal activity against other bacterial species. Their capacity to inhibit growth of virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv was evaluated in this study. Five Bcn were purified from sel...

  14. The cleanroom case study in the Software Engineering Laboratory: Project description and early analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Scott; Kouchakdjian, Ara; Basili, Victor; Weidow, David

    1990-01-01

    This case study analyzes the application of the cleanroom software development methodology to the development of production software at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. The cleanroom methodology emphasizes human discipline in program verification to produce reliable software products that are right the first time. Preliminary analysis of the cleanroom case study shows that the method can be applied successfully in the FDD environment and may increase staff productivity and product quality. Compared to typical Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) activities, there is evidence of lower failure rates, a more complete and consistent set of inline code documentation, a different distribution of phase effort activity, and a different growth profile in terms of lines of code developed. The major goals of the study were to: (1) assess the process used in the SEL cleanroom model with respect to team structure, team activities, and effort distribution; (2) analyze the products of the SEL cleanroom model and determine the impact on measures of interest, including reliability, productivity, overall life-cycle cost, and software quality; and (3) analyze the residual products in the application of the SEL cleanroom model, such as fault distribution, error characteristics, system growth, and computer usage.

  15. Promoting Social-Emotional Learning in Adolescent Latino ELLs: A Study of the Culturally Adapted "Strong Teens" Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro-Olivo, Sara M.

    2014-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of the culturally adapted "Jóvenes Fuertes" ("Strong Teens") Social-Emotional Learning (SEL) program on the social-emotional outcomes of Latino English language learners (ELLs). A quasi-experimental design with random assignment by classrooms was used to assess the intervention's…

  16. The Software Engineering Laboratory: An operational software experience factory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, Victor R.; Caldiera, Gianluigi; Mcgarry, Frank; Pajerski, Rose; Page, Gerald; Waligora, Sharon

    1992-01-01

    For 15 years, the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) has been carrying out studies and experiments for the purpose of understanding, assessing, and improving software and software processes within a production software development environment at NASA/GSFC. The SEL comprises three major organizations: (1) NASA/GSFC, Flight Dynamics Division; (2) University of Maryland, Department of Computer Science; and (3) Computer Sciences Corporation, Flight Dynamics Technology Group. These organizations have jointly carried out several hundred software studies, producing hundreds of reports, papers, and documents, all of which describe some aspect of the software engineering technology that was analyzed in the flight dynamics environment at NASA. The studies range from small, controlled experiments (such as analyzing the effectiveness of code reading versus that of functional testing) to large, multiple project studies (such as assessing the impacts of Ada on a production environment). The organization's driving goal is to improve the software process continually, so that sustained improvement may be observed in the resulting products. This paper discusses the SEL as a functioning example of an operational software experience factory and summarizes the characteristics of and major lessons learned from 15 years of SEL operations.

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A METAL PARTS COATING PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at sel...

  18. Modulation Effects in Multi-Section Semiconductor Lasers (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    resonant modulation of semiconductor lasers beyond relaxation oscillation frequency,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 63, 1459–1461 (1993). [26] J. Helms and K. Petermann ...5, 4–6 (1993). [28] K. Petermann , “External optical feedback phenomena in semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Elec- tron., 1, 480–489

  19. Linking Prevention Science and Social and Emotional Learning: The Oregon Resiliency Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrell, Kenneth W.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the contributions of the Oregon Resiliency Project, an effort to enhance positive social-emotional development of children and youth through social and emotional learning (SEL). The project was launched in 2001 as a collaborative effort between faculty and graduate student researchers at the University of Oregon. The primary…

  20. The Role of Social-Emotional Learning in Bullying Prevention Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Brian H.; Low, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    This article examines how social emotional learning contributes to bullying prevention efforts in schools. Bullying behavior is impacted by multiple levels of the social-ecology of schools. Social emotional learning (SEL) is a structured way to improve a wide range of students' social and emotional competencies and impact bullying at the…

  1. Interpersonal Reactivity Index: Analysis of Invariance and Gender Differences in Spanish Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holgado Tello, Francisco Pablo; Delgado Egido, Begona; Carrasco Ortiz, Miguel A.; Del Barrio Gandara, M. V.

    2013-01-01

    Empathy is understood as a multidimensional construct involving both cognitive and emotional factors for which, traditionally, gender differences have been reported. The Interpersonal Reactivity Index (Davis in Catalog Sel Documents Psychol 10:1-19, 1980) is an instrument made up of four subscales, each measuring a different dimension of the…

  2. Owning the Environment: Stealth Soldier - Research Outline

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    the ocean (ruse), • Besiege Wei to rescue Zhao (feint), • Slough off cicada’s golden shell (camouflage), and • Openly repair the gallery roads but...ARMY RSRCH LAB RDRL SEL K SNAIL BLDG 205 2800 POWDER MILL RD ADELPHI MD 20783-1197 1 RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK (ARO) RDRL ROP L

  3. Dam line and sire line effects on turkey embryo survival and thyroid hormone concentrations at the plateau stage in oxygen consumption

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inheritance of embryo thyroid function was measured in lines of turkeys. Two lines that had been selected for either increased egg production (E) or increased 16-wk BW (F) and their respective randombred controls (i.e., RBC1 and RBC2) were examined. Reciprocal crosses of dams and sires from each sel...

  4. Sequence analysis reveals genomic factors affecting EST-SSR primer performance and polymorphism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Search for simple sequence repeat (SSR) motifs and design of flanking primers in expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences can be easily done at a large scale using bioinformatics programs. However, failed amplification and/or detection, along with lack of polymorphism, is often seen among randomly sel...

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF COMPRESSED AIR EQUIPMENT COMPONENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at sel...

  6. A Critical Approach to Social Emotional Learning Instruction through Community-Based Service Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay-Jackson, Cassandra

    2014-01-01

    The traditional teaching of reading, writing, and arithmetic alone will not fully prepare students to lead with integrity, govern fairly, analyze problems, and work collectively with people different from themselves. Social emotional learning (SEL) has been described as one of the missing links in academic education, but a restrictive approach to…

  7. The Prevention of Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties in Schools: Teachers' Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulou, Maria

    2005-01-01

    Teachers are highly concerned about students with Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties (EBD). Lately, much emphasis has been given to the field of prevention in schools, through the Competence-Enhancement Perspective. Emotional Intelligence (EI) and Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) provide the necessary skills to be acquired by students. The…

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF HEATING, VENTILATING, AND AIR CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at sel...

  9. Social and Emotional Learning as a Catalyst for Academic Excellence. White Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchesi, Antonio G.; Cook, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    ICF International's white paper explores how implementation of social and emotional learning (SEL) has the potential to prepare students for workforce success and positively influence student engagement and academic performance while reducing dropout rates. Self-improvement and leadership development sections of bookstores are replete with texts…

  10. How Are Trait Emotional Intelligence and Social Skills Related to Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties in Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulou, Maria S.

    2014-01-01

    Trait emotional intelligence construct shifted the interest in personality research to the investigation of the effect of global personality characteristics on behaviour. The Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) movement emphasised the cultivation of social skills for positive relationships. In this paper we investigate the role of students' global…

  11. Selection methods in forage breeding: a quantitative appraisal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage breeding can be extraordinarily complex because of the number of species, perenniality, mode of reproduction, mating system, and the genetic correlation for some traits evaluated in spaced plants vs. performance under cultivation. Aiming to compare eight forage breeding methods for direct sel...

  12. Making the Most Out of School-Based Prevention: Lessons from the Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning (SEAL) Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, Neil; Lendrum, Ann; Wigelsworth, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the role played by universal, school-based social and emotional learning (SEL) programmes in addressing the mental health needs of children and young people. Theory and research in the field are discussed. Particular attention is paid to the social and emotional aspects of learning (SEAL) programme in England, a flagship…

  13. An Examination of the Technical Product Knowledge of Contracting Professionals at Air Force System Program Offices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-12

    8217 D Ruponu ~till R .. pocae COUll I s 14 10. Briefly idantffy tn• product! sel ’\\flcce for whieh you contract; for example GPS aatemte, F . 22. or...ORGANIZATION .................................................................10  F .  METHODOLOGY...EXPECTATIONS ..........................................................................................34  F .  SUMMARY

  14. Interdisciplinary Collaboration Supporting Social-Emotional Learning in Rural School Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Adena B.; Tobin, Renée M.; Huber, Brenda J.; Conway, Dawn E.; Shelvin, Kristal H.

    2015-01-01

    In this article we illustrate the roles of school psychologists, administrators, social workers, teachers, and parents in school reform by describing the adoption, initial implementation, and formative evaluation of an evidence-based social and emotional learning (SEL) program within several rural Midwestern school districts in a geographically…

  15. Enhancing Cognitive and Social-Emotional Development through a Simple-to-Administer Mindfulness-Based School Program for Elementary School Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.; Oberle, Eva; Lawlor, Molly Stewart; Abbott, David; Thomson, Kimberly; Oberlander, Tim F.; Diamond, Adele

    2015-01-01

    The authors hypothesized that a social and emotional learning (SEL) program involving mindfulness and caring for others, designed for elementary school students, would enhance cognitive control, reduce stress, promote well-being and prosociality, and produce positive school outcomes. To test this hypothesis, 4 classes of combined 4th and 5th…

  16. Comparative selenoproteome analysis reveals a reduced utilization of selenium in parasitic platyhelminthes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Liang; Zhu, Hua-Zhang; Xu, Yin-Zhen; Ni, Jia-Zuan; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Qiong

    2013-01-01

    Background. The selenocysteine(Sec)-containing proteins, selenoproteins, are an important group of proteins present in all three kingdoms of life. Although the selenoproteomes of many organisms have been analyzed, systematic studies on selenoproteins in platyhelminthes are still lacking. Moreover, comparison of selenoproteomes between free-living and parasitic animals is rarely studied. Results. In this study, three representative organisms (Schmidtea mediterranea, Schistosoma japonicum and Taenia solium) were selected for comparative analysis of selenoproteomes in Platyhelminthes. Using a SelGenAmic-based selenoprotein prediction algorithm, a total of 37 selenoprotein genes were identified in these organisms. The size of selenoproteomes and selenoprotein families were found to be associated with different lifestyles: free-living organisms have larger selenoproteome whereas parasitic lifestyle corresponds to reduced selenoproteomes. Five selenoproteins, SelT, Sel15, GPx, SPS2 and TR, were found to be present in all examined platyhelminthes as well as almost all sequenced animals, suggesting their essential role in metazoans. Finally, a new splicing form of SelW that lacked the first exon was found to be present in S. japonicum. Conclusions. Our data provide a first glance into the selenoproteomes of organisms in the phylum Platyhelminthes and may help understand function and evolutionary dynamics of selenium utilization in diversified metazoans.

  17. Logic synthesis from DDL description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, S. G.

    1980-01-01

    The implementation of DDLTRN and DDLSIM programs on SEL-2 computer system is reported. These programs were tested with DDL descriptions of various complexity. An algorithm to synthesize the combinational logic using the cells available in the standard IC cell library was formulated. The algorithm is implemented as a FORTRAN program and a description of the program is given.

  18. An Investigation of Turkish Elementary Social Studies Textbooks in Terms of Social Emotional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usakli, Hakan

    2017-01-01

    Social emotional learning (SEL) is very important to the well-being of students and their academic achievement in school. The purpose of this study was to search any relation between social studies text books [SSTB] and social emotional learning. This study was conducted as a qualitative study. 9 SSTBs were investigated by 21 fourth grade…

  19. The Missing Piece: A National Teacher Survey on How Social and Emotional Learning Can Empower Children and Transform Schools. A Report for CASEL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeland, John; Bruce, Mary; Hariharan, Arya

    2013-01-01

    The central message of this report is that teachers across America understand that social and emotional learning (SEL) is critical to student success in school, work, and life. Social and emotional learning involves the processes of developing competencies, including self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, relationship skills, and…

  20. The Missing Piece: A National Teacher Survey on How Social and Emotional Learning Can Empower Children and Transform Schools. A Report for CASEL. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeland, John; Bruce, Mary; Hariharan, Arya

    2013-01-01

    The central message of this report is that teachers across America understand that social and emotional learning (SEL) is critical to student success in school, work, and life. Social and emotional learning involves the processes of developing competencies, including self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, relationship skills, and…

  1. Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Software Engineering Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Experiences in measurement, utilization, and evaluation of software methodologies, models, and tools are discussed. NASA's involvement in ever larger and more complex systems, like the space station project, provides a motive for the support of software engineering research and the exchange of ideas in such forums. The topics of current SEL research are software error studies, experiments with software development, and software tools.

  2. Does an Evidence-Based Healthy Relationships Program for 9th Graders Show Similar Effects for 7th and 8th Graders? Results from 57 Schools Randomized to Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crooks, C. V.; Scott, K. L.; Broll, R.; Zwarych, S.; Hughes, R.; Wolfe, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    Integrating social and emotional learning (SEL) programming throughout curricula to support the development of healthy behaviors and prevent violence is critical for a comprehensive approach to school health. This study used a post-test comparison design to evaluate a healthy relationships program for eighth grade students that applies a SEL…

  3. Enhancing Cognitive and Social–Emotional Development Through a Simple-to-Administer Mindfulness-Based School Program for Elementary School Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.; Oberle, Eva; Lawlor, Molly Stewart; Abbott, David; Thomson, Kimberly; Oberlander, Tim F.; Diamond, Adele

    2015-01-01

    The authors hypothesized that a social and emotional learning (SEL) program involving mindfulness and caring for others, designed for elementary school students, would enhance cognitive control, reduce stress, promote well-being and prosociality, and produce positive school outcomes. To test this hypothesis, 4 classes of combined 4th and 5th graders (N = 99) were randomly assigned to receive the SEL with mindfulness program versus a regular social responsibility program. Measures assessed executive functions (EFs), stress physiology via salivary cortisol, well-being (self-reports), prosociality and peer acceptance (peer reports), and math grades. Relative to children in the social responsibility program, children who received the SEL program with mindfulness (a) improved more in their cognitive control and stress physiology; (b) reported greater empathy, perspective-taking, emotional control, optimism, school self-concept, and mindfulness, (c) showed greater decreases in self-reported symptoms of depression and peer-rated aggression, (d) were rated by peers as more prosocial, and (e) increased in peer acceptance (or sociometric popularity). The results of this investigation suggest the promise of this SEL intervention and address a lacuna in the scientific literature—identifying strategies not only to ameliorate children's problems but also to cultivate their well-being and thriving. Directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25546595

  4. Social Resilience within a Social and Emotional Learning Framework: The Perceptions of Teachers in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulou, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Given the link between social skills, problem solving and resilience, it could be a helpful way forward to link the construct of social resilience to the social and emotional learning (SEL) framework. This article first discusses core ideas of both constructs, and supports the integration of the social resiliency framework into a broader…

  5. Circle Solutions, a Philosophy and Pedagogy for Learning Positive Relationships: What Promotes and Inhibits Sustainable Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roffey, Sue; McCarthy, Florence

    2013-01-01

    Educators are increasingly aware that the efficacy of social and emotional learning (SEL) is dependent on implementation factors, not just program content. These include the philosophy underpinning an intervention, the beliefs as well as the skills of facilitators, and the classroom/whole school context in which the intervention takes place. This…

  6. Looking into Burnout Levels among English Language Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirel, Eda Ercan; Cephe, Pasa Tevfik

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the burnout levels of English language instructors who are currently teaching at School of Foreign Languages, namely Konya Necmettin Erbakan University, Selçuk University and Gazi University, to look for the factors leading to burnout and to see if there is a relationship between their burnout levels and teaching…

  7. Can Social-Emotional Learning Reduce School Dropout in Developing Countries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Huan; Chu, James; Loyalka, Prashant; Xin, Tao; Shi, Yaojiang; Qu, Qinghe; Yang, Chu

    2016-01-01

    An alarming number of students drop out of junior high school in developing countries. In this study, we examine the impacts of providing a social-emotional learning (SEL) program on the dropout behavior and learning anxiety of students in the first two years of junior high. We do so by analyzing data from a randomized controlled trial involving…

  8. Development and validation of 697 novel polymorphic genomic and EST-SSR Markers in the American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait., is an economically important North American fruit crop that is consumed because of its unique flavor and potential health benefits. However, a lack of abundant, genome-wide molecular markers has limited the adoption of modern molecular assisted sel...

  9. Alternate Reality Teaching: OurSpace

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-08

    including Sony (Uncharted), THQ (WWE) and Game of Thrones . With Flint Dille, Michael reinvented EA’s first million-selling videogame franchise with...15. SUBJECT TERMS ENGAGE, Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM), Social/Emotional Learning (SEL), Educational Game , Prototype...6 2.1. Task 1: Identify desired educational outcomes, STEM focus, develop game concept(s

  10. Digital systems design language. Design synthesis of digital systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, S. G.

    1979-01-01

    The Digital Systems Design Language (DDL) is implemented on the SEL-32 computer systems. The details of the language, translator and simulator programs are included. Several example descriptions and a tutorial on hardware description languages are provided, to guide the user.

  11. Registration of ‘Transit’ High ß-glucan Spring Barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transit’ (Reg. No. ______PI ); a two-rowed spring high ß-glucan barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was developed and submitted for release in 2009 by the Agricultural Research Service-USDA, Aberdeen, ID, in cooperation with the University of Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station. Transit is a sel...

  12. Teaching to Diversity: Creating Compassionate Learning Communities for Diverse Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Jennifer; Porath, Marion

    2011-01-01

    Emotional and behavioral outcomes of the Respecting Diversity (RD) program, a social and emotional learning (SEL) intervention to develop self-awareness, self-respect and respect for diverse others, were investigated with 218 students in Grades four to seven and their teachers. Intervention and control groups were assessed pre and post…

  13. Social Emotional Learning in a Guatemalan Preschool Sample: Does Socioeconomic Status Moderate the Effects of a School-Based Prevention Program?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, Amanda B.; Edstrom, Leihua; Mildon, Heather A.; Davila, Lesliann

    2015-01-01

    Researchers evaluated the effectiveness of a universal social skills program and compared social emotional knowledge on individual skills interviews with 100 Guatemalan preschool children from resource rich (N?=?47) and resource poor (N?=?53) backgrounds. Participant ages ranged from 3- to 6-years-old. SEL was evaluated prior and subsequent to…

  14. Integrative Literature Review: Emotional Intelligence in the K-12 Curriculum and Its Relationship to American Workplace Needs--A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opengart, Rose

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the content of existing social-emotional learning programs in the American K-12 curriculum and the relationship between the school-based programs and the needs of the American workplace. Social and emotional learning (SEL) programs were examined for their content and compared to research on critical…

  15. Histological and morphometric lesions in the pre-clinical, developmental phase of insulin-induced laminitis in Standardbred horses.

    PubMed

    de Laat, Melody A; Patterson-Kane, Janet C; Pollitt, Christopher C; Sillence, Martin N; McGowan, Catherine M

    2013-03-01

    Lamellar pathology in experimentally-induced equine laminitis associated with euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemia is substantial by the acute, clinical phase (∼48h post-induction). However, lamellar pathology of the developmental, pre-clinical phase requires evaluation. The aim of this study was to analyse lamellar lesions both qualitatively and quantitatively, 6, 12 and 24h after the commencement of hyperinsulinaemia. Histological and histomorphometrical analyses of lamellar pathology at each time-point included assessment of lamellar length and width, epidermal cell proliferation and death, basement membrane (BM) pathology and leucocyte infiltration. Archived lamellar tissue from control horses and those with acute, insulin-induced laminitis (48h) was also assessed for cellular proliferative activity by counting the number of cells showing positive nuclear immuno labelling for TPX2. Decreased secondary epidermal lamellar (SEL) width and increased histomorphological evidence of SEL epidermal basal (and supra-basal) cell death occurred early in disease progression (6h). Increased cellular proliferation in SELs, infiltration of the dermis with small numbers of leucocytes and BM damage occurred later (24 and 48h). Some lesions, such as narrowing of the SELs, were progressive over this time period (6-48h). Cellular pathology preceded leucocyte infiltration and BM pathology, indicating that the latter changes may be secondary or downstream events in hyperinsulinaemic laminitis.

  16. Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Opportunities for Civil Works Projects Unique to the US Army Corps of Engineers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-26

    facilities; large pumping plants; fish barriers; canals , channels, harbors, and other navigation waterways; as well as docked vessels. This report documents...8 3.1.2 The Chain of Rocks Canal ...plants; fish barriers; canals , channels, harbors, and other navigation waterways; as well as docked ves- sels. This work was undertaken to analyze GE

  17. Revisiting Gordon's Teacher Effectiveness Training: An Intervention Study on Teachers' Social and Emotional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talvio, Markus; Lonka, Kirsti; Komulainen, Erkki; Kuusela, Marjo; Lintunen, Taru

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This study explored the development of teachers' social and emotional learning (SEL) skills by using "Teacher Effectiveness Training (TET)" (Gordon Training International) as an intervention with two groups of teachers. Further Gordon's model was approached from the perspective of modern educational psychology. The effects…

  18. Preventing Academic Disengagement through a Middle School-Based Social and Emotional Learning Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Amanda Moore; Chung, Saras; Robertson, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Behaviors that warrant school discipline (e.g., fighting, victimizing peers) is detrimental to school climate and the learning process. This study examines the effectiveness of preventing school disciplinary incidents in middle school through an experiential, social and emotional learning (SEL) program. A community youth development organization,…

  19. Introducing Social Emotional Learning to Music Education Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, Scott N.

    2013-01-01

    There are more knowledge bases, skills, and dispositions that teachers need to have than can be covered in undergraduate music teacher education. One knowledge base that music teachers could benefit from, which is rarely covered in preservice teacher education, is social emotional learning (SEL) and techniques to implement it in their classrooms.…

  20. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PRINTED LABELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at sel...

  1. Plasmodesmal-mediated cell-to-cell transport in wheat roots is modulated by anaerobic stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleland, R. E.; Fujiwara, T.; Lucas, W. J.

    1994-01-01

    Cell-to-cell transport of small molecules and ions occurs in plants through plasmodesmata. Plant roots are frequently subjected to localized anaerobic stress, with a resultant decrease in ATP. In order to determine the effect of this stress on plasmodesmal transport, fluorescent dyes of increasing molecular weight (0.46 to 1OkDa) were injected into epidermal and cortical cells of 3-day-old wheat roots, and their movement into neighboring cells was determined by fluorescence microscopy. Anaerobiosis was generated by N2 gas or simulated by the presence of sodium azide, both of which reduced the ATP levels in the tissue by over 80%. In the absence of such stress, the upper limit for movement, or size exclusion limit (SEL), of cortical plasmodesmata was <1 kDa. The ATP analogue TNP-ADP (mw 681) moved across the plasmodesmata of unstressed roots, indicating that plasmodesmata may be conduits for nucleotide (ATP and ADP) exchange between cells. Upon imposition of stress, the SEL rose to between 5 and 10 kDa. This response of plasmodesmata to a decrease in the level of ATP suggests that they are constricted by an ATP-dependent process so as to maintain a restricted SEL. When roots are subjected to anaerobic stress, an increase in SEL may permit enhanced delivery of sugars to the affected cells of the root where anaerobic respiration could regenerate the needed ATP.

  2. Mindfulness in Practice: Considerations for Implementation of Mindfulness-Based Programming for Adolescents in School Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawlor, Molly Steward

    2014-01-01

    Schools are considered one of the primary settings in which prevention and intervention initiatives can be implemented successfully, reaching a large number of young people. Especially when promoting social and emotional learning (SEL), many adolescents benefit from universal programs implemented in the school context. This chapter embeds…

  3. 14 CFR Appendix J to Part 36 - Alternative Noise Certification Procedure for Helicopters Under Subpart H Having a Maximum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to calculate the noise evaluation quantity designated as Sound Exposure Level (SEL); and (c) The... level pressure of 2116 pounds per square foot (76 centimeters mercury); (2) Ambient temperature of 77... surrounded by terrain having no excessive sound absorption characteristics, such as might be caused by...

  4. 78 FR 73794 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Air Force Launches...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... the vehicle types and the sound exposure levels (SELs) produced by each missile or rocket are... digital audio tape (DAT) recorder during the launch. Since acoustic data was only gathered with the sound... noise. The A-weighted 1-hour average sound levels at VAFB in the Oil Well Canyon area typically...

  5. 14 CFR Appendix J to Part 36 - Alternative Noise Certification Procedure for Helicopters Under Subpart H Having a Maximum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the noise evaluation quantity designated as Sound Exposure Level (SEL); and (c) The noise limits for... pounds per square foot (76 centimeters mercury); (2) Ambient temperature of 77 degrees Fahrenheit (25... terrain having no excessive sound absorption characteristics, such as might be caused by thick, matted,...

  6. 75 FR 80773 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... ranging from technical issues to adverse weather. The AAC anticipates the KLC can accommodate up to 45... weather periods ambient sound pressures at sea level can exceed 100 dBA (SEL). The island's eastern shore... collect video footage of pinnipeds during launches; however, weather, technical, and accessibility...

  7. Mechanisms of staphylococcal enterotoxin-induced emesis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dong-Liang; Nakane, Akio

    2014-01-05

    Pathogenic bacteria use various strategies to interact with the host organisms. Among them, toxin production constitutes an efficient way to alter specific functions of target cells. Various enterotoxins interact with the enteric nervous system, by stimulating afferent neurons or inducing neurotransmitter release from enterochromaffin cells which result either in vomiting, diarrhea, or in the intestinal inflammation process. Staphylococcus aureus produces a wide variety of toxins including staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) with demonstrated emetic activity; and staphylococcal enterotoxin-like (SEl) proteins, which are not emetic in a primate model or have yet to be tested. SEs and SEls have been traditionally subdivided into classical (SEA to SEE) and new (SEG to SElX) types. These toxins possess superantigenic activity and are highly resistant to denaturation which allows them to remain intact in contaminated foods and trigger food poisoning outbreaks. Symptoms are of rapid onset, and include nausea and violent vomiting. SEA is the most recognizable toxin causing food poisoning in humans throughout the world. However, it remains unclear how SEs induce emesis and via which signal pathway. This review is divided into four parts, and will focus on the following: (1) how bacterial toxins interact with the nervous system, (2) biological characteristics of SEs and SEls, (3) mechanisms of SE-induced emesis, and (4) use of a vaccine for the prevention of SE-induced emesis.

  8. PCR primers for the detection of staphylococcal enterotoxins K, L, and M and survey of staphylococcal enterotoxin types in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from food poisoning cases in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Yu-Cheng; Chang, Li-Tung; Lin, Chia-Wei; Yang, Chi-Yea; Tsen, Hau-Yang

    2006-05-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are important causative agents in gastroenteritidis and food poisoning cases. They are serologically grouped into five major classical types, i.e., SEA, SEB, SEC, SED, and SEE. In addition, new SEs, such as SEG through SEM, have recently been identified and characterized. In an attempt to survey the distribution of classical and new SEs in organisms responsible for staphylococcal infections in Taiwan, we developed PCR primers for the genes that define the SEK, SEL, and SEM types. Bacterial strains other than sek, sel, and sem Staphylococcus aureus, including strains of other Staphylococcus species, did not generate any false-positive results when examined with these primers. The expression potential for the sek, sel, and sem types were also determined by reverse transcription-PCR. Together with the PCR primers specific for the classical SEs and other new SEs, including SEG, SEH, SEI, and SEJ, we surveyed the SE genes in S. aureus strains isolated from food poisoning cases. For 147 S. aureus isolates originating from food poisoning cases, 109 (74.1%) were positive for one or more SE genes. Of them, the major classical enterotoxin type was sea (28.6%), followed by seb (20.4%), sec (8.2%), and sed (2.0%). For the new SE types, sei (30.6%) was detected the most often, followed by sek (18.4%), sem (12.9%), and sel (8.2%). Also, 64 (43.5%) of the total bacterial strains had more than one enterotoxin gene.

  9. MHD (Magnetohydrodynamic) Simulation of a Comet Magnetosphere.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-12

    Rosenberg ATTN: Reading Roo Harvard University Princeton University Center for Astrophysics Princeton, New Jersey 08540 60 Garden Street Attn...Thomas Moore (SEL, R-43) Stevens Institute of Technology W. Bernstein Hoboken, Kew Jersey 07030 D. Williams ATTN: Z . Rosen G. Schmidt Sandia

  10. Learning Strategies in Different Socioeconomic Levels. Final Report, June 27, 1968 - September 1, 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Martin M.; And Others

    Learning behavior of young children of contrasting socioeconomic backgrounds is examined in this study, which poses the question: what are the necessary or sufficient environmental conditions for the establishment of identifiable patterns of behavior? Socioeconomic level (SEL), the principal independent variable, was defined in terms of parental…

  11. Results of Single-Event Latchup Measurements Conducted by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irom, Farokh; Miyahira, Tetsuo F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports recent single-event latchup (SEL) results for a variety of microelectronic devices that include OpAmp, Voltage Reference, Motor Controller, Switch Mode Controller, Resolver-to-Digital Converter and Analog-to-Digital Converter. The data was collected to evaluate these devices for possible use in NASA spacecraft.

  12. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF SPEED REDUCTION EQUIPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at sel...

  13. Reprioritization of Research for Combat Casualty Care

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    rehabilitation specialists, physical and occupational therapists, pain medicine experts, psychologists, and epidemiologists decided on current...for early hemor- rhage control and injury prevention included the development of mecha- nisms to obtain junctional large ves- sel control in the groin ...from service. This condition also greatly affects the ability of wounded warriors to lead active, pain -free lives after completing their service. Animal

  14. IRE1α is an endogenous substrate of endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shengyi; Shi, Guojun; Sha, Haibo; Ji, Yewei; Han, Xuemei; Shu, Xin; Ma, Hongming; Inoue, Takamasa; Gao, Beixue; Kim, Hana; Bu, Pengcheng; Guber, Robert D.; Shen, Xiling; Lee, Ann-Hwee; Iwawaki, Takao; Paton, Adrienne W.; Paton, James C.; Fang, Deyu; Tsai, Billy; Yates, John R.; Wu, Haoquan; Kersten, Sander; Long, Qiaoming; Duhamel, Gerald E.; Simpson, Kenneth W.; Qi, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) represents a principle quality control mechanism to clear misfolded proteins in the ER; however its physiological significance and the nature of endogenous ERAD substrates remain largely unexplored. Here we discover that IRE1α, the sensor of unfolded protein response (UPR), is a bona fide substrate of the Sel1L-Hrd1 ERAD complex. ERAD-mediated IRE1α degradation occurs under basal conditions in a BiP-dependent manner, requires both intramembrane hydrophilic residues of IRE1α and lectin protein OS9, and is attenuated by ER stress. ERAD deficiency causes IRE1α protein stabilization, accumulation and mild activation both in vitro and in vivo. Although enterocyte-specific Sel1L-knockout mice (Sel1LΔIEC) are viable and appear normal, they are highly susceptible to experimental colitis and inflammation-associated dysbiosis, in an IRE1α-dependent but CHOP-independent manner. Hence, Sel1L-Hrd1 ERAD serves a distinct, essential function in restraint of IRE1α signaling in vivo by managing its protein turnover. PMID:26551274

  15. The Investigation of the Effects of Physical Education Lessons Planned in Accordance with Cooperative Learning Approach on Secondary School Students' Problem Solving Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorucu, Alpaslan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to investigate the effects of physical education lessons planned in accordance with cooperative learning approach on secondary school students' problem solving skills. The research was conducted on 48 students studying at Konya/Selçuklu Sehit Mustafa Çuhadar Secondary School in fall semester of 2015-2016…

  16. An Examination of the Relationship among Teachers' Perceptions of Social-Emotional Learning, Teaching Efficacy, Teacher-Student Interactions, and Students' Behavioral Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulou, Maria S.

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated how teachers' perceptions of emotional intelligence (EI), social and emotional learning (SEL) skills, and teaching efficacy relate to perceptions of teacher-student relationships and students' emotional and behavioral difficulties. Ninety-eight elementary teachers from public schools in central Greece completed the…

  17. An analysis of the mode of gene action affecting pupa weight in Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Goodwill, R

    1975-02-01

    Triple-testcross experiments (Kearsey and Jinks 1968) were employed to investigate the mode of gene action affecting pupa weight in Tribolium castaneum. Their experimental design involves two inbred lines, the F1 progeny and a segregating population derived from the cross of the inbred lines. In the present experiments, four segregating populations were used. These populations included the F2 generation, a select line (SEL) and two relaxed select lines (RSI and RSII). In addition, all possible reciprocal crosses were made among the RSI, RSII, and SEL populations. It was observed that: (1) additive, dominant and epistatic gene effects all made significant contributions to the pupa weight of the progeny from all four segregating populations: (2) there was no evidence of either accumulation of epistasis as a result of selection in the SEL population or decline in epistasis as a result of removing selection pressure from the RSI and RSII populations; and (3) significant negative heterosis and maternal effects contributed to the pupa weight of the crossbred progeny of the RSI, RSII and SEL populations.

  18. SST Technology Follow-On Program-Phase 2. ADEDS Flight Test Report. Volume 3. Flight Test Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-07-01

    No. «-’I RNI (Radio Navigation Interface) card failure 51 .-...^.-^ _ TABLE 2-2.-NA VIGA TION COMPUTER SOFTWARE CHANGES Change No. 2...T PTA X Y Z NAV DATA SEL LOJK UP UP DN G ALT REJ CLR FIGURE 6-10.-NA V DATA 3 (NA VIGA TION DA TA 3) MODE I41

  19. A global perspective of selenium deficiency and toxicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selenium is an essential nutrient that has a relatively narrow margin between ingested amounts that cause deficiency and toxicosis. Both selenium deficiency and toxicosis occur in several regions in many countries throughout the world and result in substantial losses to the livestock industry. Sel...

  20. Ultrashort Laser Retinal Damage Threshold Mechanisms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-15

    pulses in the rabbit eye. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1995;36(9): 1910–7. [19] Laser Institute of America . American National Standard for Safe Use of...32] Lin CP, Kelly MW, Sibayan SAB, Latina MA, Anderson RR. Selective cell killing by microparticle absorption of pulsed laser radiation. IEEE J Sel Top

  1. Giving Youth the Social and Emotional Skills to Succeed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deerin, Ginny

    2005-01-01

    In these days of tremendous political pressure for results measured by standardized tests, time constraints can make social and emotional learning (SEL) a difficult undertaking for many classroom teachers. It seemed that after-school programs would be effective learning environments for supplying the missing piece in children's education. In this…

  2. Enhancing cognitive and social-emotional development through a simple-to-administer mindfulness-based school program for elementary school children: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A; Oberle, Eva; Lawlor, Molly Stewart; Abbott, David; Thomson, Kimberly; Oberlander, Tim F; Diamond, Adele

    2015-01-01

    The authors hypothesized that a social and emotional learning (SEL) program involving mindfulness and caring for others, designed for elementary school students, would enhance cognitive control, reduce stress, promote well-being and prosociality, and produce positive school outcomes. To test this hypothesis, 4 classes of combined 4th and 5th graders (N = 99) were randomly assigned to receive the SEL with mindfulness program versus a regular social responsibility program. Measures assessed executive functions (EFs), stress physiology via salivary cortisol, well-being (self-reports), prosociality and peer acceptance (peer reports), and math grades. Relative to children in the social responsibility program, children who received the SEL program with mindfulness (a) improved more in their cognitive control and stress physiology; (b) reported greater empathy, perspective-taking, emotional control, optimism, school self-concept, and mindfulness, (c) showed greater decreases in self-reported symptoms of depression and peer-rated aggression, (d) were rated by peers as more prosocial, and (e) increased in peer acceptance (or sociometric popularity). The results of this investigation suggest the promise of this SEL intervention and address a lacuna in the scientific literature-identifying strategies not only to ameliorate children's problems but also to cultivate their well-being and thriving. Directions for future research are discussed.

  3. Effects of organic selenium and zinc on the aging process of laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the study was to determine whether supplementing the diets of post-molted hens with organic selenium (Se) (Sel-Plex®) and/or organic Zinc (Zn) (Bio-Plex®) could improve laying hen performance. Prior to molting, 120-78 wk old laying hens were separated into four treatment groups of ...

  4. A Goal VPN Protection Profile for Protecting Sensitive Information

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    26 5.1 TOEOU Security Functional Requirements ________________________________________ 26 Class FAU ...Requirements_________________________________________ 51 Class FAU : Security Audit ________________________________________________________ 55 Class FCS...Audit ReviewSAR – Security Audit Review .2 Restricted Audit Review FAU – Security Audit SEL – Selective Audit .1 Selective Audit FCO - Communication None

  5. Software Engineering Laboratory Ada performance study: Results and implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, Eric W.; Stark, Michael E.

    1992-01-01

    The SEL is an organization sponsored by NASA/GSFC to investigate the effectiveness of software engineering technologies applied to the development of applications software. The SEL was created in 1977 and has three organizational members: NASA/GSFC, Systems Development Branch; The University of Maryland, Computer Sciences Department; and Computer Sciences Corporation, Systems Development Operation. The goals of the SEL are as follows: (1) to understand the software development process in the GSFC environments; (2) to measure the effect of various methodologies, tools, and models on this process; and (3) to identify and then to apply successful development practices. The activities, findings, and recommendations of the SEL are recorded in the Software Engineering Laboratory Series, a continuing series of reports that include the Ada Performance Study Report. This paper describes the background of Ada in the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD), the objectives and scope of the Ada Performance Study, the measurement approach used, the performance tests performed, the major test results, and the implications for future FDD Ada development efforts.

  6. 75 FR 69471 - Sony Electronics, Inc.; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ... Employment and Training Administration Sony Electronics, Inc.; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance TA-W-71,501, Sony Electronics, Inc., SEL Headquarters, Including...-71,501A, Sony Electronics, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers of Selectremedy, Staffmark,...

  7. 77 FR 3499 - Sony Electronics, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Selectremedy Park Ridge, NJ...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ...] Sony Electronics, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Selectremedy Park Ridge, NJ; Amended... of Sony Electronics, Inc., SEL Headquarters, including on-site leased workers of SelectRemedy, StaffMark, and Payrolling.com , San Diego, California (TA-W-71,501); Sony Electronics, Inc., including...

  8. The Unintended Consequences of Targeting: Young People's Lived Experiences of Social and Emotional Learning Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Rhiannon; Scourfield, Jonathan; Murphy, Simon

    2015-01-01

    In the past twenty years there has been a proliferation of targeted school-based social and emotional learning (SEL) interventions. However, the lived experience of young peoples' participation is often elided, while the potential for interventions to confer unintended and even adverse effects remains under-theorised and empirically…

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION AND INDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses environmental technology verification and indoor air. RTI has responsibility for a pilot program for indoor air products as part of the U.S. EPA's Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program. The program objective is to further the development of sel...

  10. Cyromazine resistance in a field strain of house flies, Musca domestica L.: Resistance risk assessment and bio-chemical mechanism.

    PubMed

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Akram, Waseem

    2017-01-01

    Developing resistance management strategies for eco-friendly insecticides is essential for the management of insect pests without harming the environment. Cyromazine is a biorational insecticide with very low mammalian toxicity. Resistance to cyromazine has recently been reported in house flies from Punjab, Pakistan. In order to propose a resistance management strategy for cyromazine, experiments were planned to study risk for resistance development, possibility of cross-resistance and bio-chemical mechanisms. A field strain of house flies with 8.78 fold resistance ratio (RR) to cyromazine was re-selected under laboratory conditions. After seven rounds of selection (G1-G7), the RR values rapidly increased from 8.8 to 211 fold. However, these values declined to 81fold when the cyromazine selected (CYR-SEL) strain was reared without selection pressure, suggesting an unstable nature of resistance. The CYR-SEL strain showed lack of cross-resistance to pyriproxyfen, diflubenzuron, and methoxyfenozide. Synergism bioassays using enzyme inhibitors: piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF), and metabolic enzyme analyses revealed increased activity of carboxylesterase (CarE) and mixed-function oxidase (MFO) in the CYR-SEL strain compared to the laboratory susceptible (Lab-susceptible) strain, suggesting the metabolic resistance mechanism responsible for cyromazine resistance in the CYR-SEL strain. In conclusion, risk of rapid development of cyromazine resistance under consistent selection pressure discourages the sole reliance on cyromazine for controlling house flies in the field. The unstable nature of cyromazine resistance provides window for restoring cyromazine susceptibility by uplifting selection pressure in the field. Moreover, lack of cross-resistance between cyromazine and pyriproxyfen, diflubenzuron, or methoxyfenozide in the CYR-SEL strain suggest that cyromazine could be rotated with these insecticides whenever resistance crisis occur

  11. Conceptual Design of the TPF-O SC Buses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, Lloyd R.

    2007-01-01

    The Terrestrial Planet Finder - Occulter (TPF-O) mission has two Spacecraft (SC) buses, one for a space telescope and the other for a formation-flying occulter. SC buses typically supply the utilities (support structures, propulsion, attitude control, power, communications, etc) required by the payloads. Unique requirements for the occulter SC bus are to provide the large delta V required for the slewing maneuvers of the occulter, and comunications for formation flying. The TPF-O telescope SC bus shares some key features of the one for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST): both support space telescopes designed to observe in the visible to near infrared range of wavelengths with comparable primary mirror apertures (2.4 m for HST, 2.4 - 4.0 m for TPF-O). However, TPF-O is expected to have a Wide Field Camera (WFC) with a Field of View (FOV) much larger than that of HST. Ths WFC is also expected to provide fine guidance. TPF-O is designed to operate in an orbit around the Sun-Earth Lagrange 2 (SEL2) point. The longer communications range to SEL2 and the large science FOV require higher performance communications than HST. Maintaining a SEL2 orbit requires TPF-O, unlike HST, to have a propulsion system. The velocity required for reachng SEL2 and the limited capabilities of affordable launch vehicles require both TPF-O elements to have compact, low-mass designs. Finally, it is possible that TPF-O may utilize a modular design derived fiom that of HST to allow servicing in the SEL2 orbit.

  12. IZI: INFERRING THE GAS PHASE METALLICITY (Z) AND IONIZATION PARAMETER (q) OF IONIZED NEBULAE USING BAYESIAN STATISTICS

    SciTech Connect

    Blanc, Guillermo A.; Kewley, Lisa; Vogt, Frédéric P. A.; Dopita, Michael A.

    2015-01-10

    We present a new method for inferring the metallicity (Z) and ionization parameter (q) of H II regions and star-forming galaxies using strong nebular emission lines (SELs). We use Bayesian inference to derive the joint and marginalized posterior probability density functions for Z and q given a set of observed line fluxes and an input photoionization model. Our approach allows the use of arbitrary sets of SELs and the inclusion of flux upper limits. The method provides a self-consistent way of determining the physical conditions of ionized nebulae that is not tied to the arbitrary choice of a particular SEL diagnostic and uses all the available information. Unlike theoretically calibrated SEL diagnostics, the method is flexible and not tied to a particular photoionization model. We describe our algorithm, validate it against other methods, and present a tool that implements it called IZI. Using a sample of nearby extragalactic H II regions, we assess the performance of commonly used SEL abundance diagnostics. We also use a sample of 22 local H II regions having both direct and recombination line (RL) oxygen abundance measurements in the literature to study discrepancies in the abundance scale between different methods. We find that oxygen abundances derived through Bayesian inference using currently available photoionization models in the literature can be in good (∼30%) agreement with RL abundances, although some models perform significantly better than others. We also confirm that abundances measured using the direct method are typically ∼0.2 dex lower than both RL and photoionization-model-based abundances.

  13. Structure and evolution of the Rockeskyllerkopf Volcanic Complex, West Eifel Volcanic Field, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Cliff S. J.; Woodland, Alan B.; Hopp, Jens; Trenholm, Nesha D.

    2010-10-01

    The Rockeskyllerkopf Volcanic Complex (RVC) comprises three overlapping monogenetic volcanic centers: Southeast Lammersdorf (SEL), Mäuseberg (M) and Rockeskyllerkopf (RKK). Each volcanic center comprises proximal wall deposits with a well defined crater wall unconformity and crater fill deposits that partially to completely cover the outer crater wall. The SEL Center is a phreatomagmatic tuff ring composed of lithic rich tephra deposited by pyroclastic falls and surges. The second center, Mäuseberg, with its crater to the northwest of the SEL Center is predominantly magmatic. Topographic and outcrop patterns suggest that this center may have formed a series of overlapping scoria cones along a N-S trending fissure. The youngest center, RKK, which lies on a poorly developed palaeosol within the earlier Mäuseberg deposits, comprises a well developed proximal crater wall sequence. This sequence of magmatic, likely Strombolian, fall and grain avalanche deposits passes upward into a crater fill sequence that comprises variably welded bombs. The final eruptions in the center were massive lava flows that were ponded within the RKK crater. Ar-Ar age dating of reequilibrated fragments of phlogopite megacrysts in the SEL lavas indicates volcanic activity began at 474 ± 39 ka. Literature K-Ar dates for the youngest lava flows in the RKK Center give ages of 360 ± 60 to 470 ka. Our interpretation of the age data and the presence of the poorly developed palaeosol between the Mäuseberg and RKK centers indicates that volcanism in the RVC began around 470 ka with the eruption of the SEL and Mäuseberg centers followed a few thousand years later by the eruption of the RKK Center.

  14. Spirotetramat Resistance Selected in the Phenacoccus solenopsis (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae): Cross-Resistance Patterns, Stability, and Fitness Costs Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ejaz, Masood; Ali Shad, Sarfraz

    2017-03-02

    The Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) is a major agricultural and horticultural pest of crops throughout the world. To develop a better resistance management strategy for P. solenopsis, we conducted a study on life history parameters of different populations of this pest, one selected with spirotetramat (Spiro-SEL), an unselected (UNSEL) population, and their reciprocal crosses. We also studied the cross-resistance and the stability of spirotetramat resistance. The Spiro-SEL of P. solenopsis exhibited a 328.69-fold resistance compared to the susceptible population (Lab-PK). The Spiro-SEL population also displayed a moderate level of cross-resistance to profenofos and bifenthrin and a high level of cross-resistance to abamectin. Resistance to spirotetramat in Spiro-SEL was unstable in the absence of selection. The study of life history parameters showed that there was a significant reduction in fitness parameters of Spiro-SEL population with a relative fitness value of 0.14. There was a significant decrease in survival rate, pupal weight, fecundity, egg hatching percentage, male and female generation time, intrinsic rate of population increase of males and females, biotic potential, and mean relative growth rate. It is concluded that selection with spirotetramat had marked effect on resistance development in P. solenopsis and upon removal of selection pressure spirotetramat resistance declined significantly, indicating unstable resistance. Development of resistance led to high fitness costs for the spirotetramat-selected population. Our study may provide the basic information on spirotetramat resistance and its mechanism to help develop the resistance management strategies.

  15. Characterization of a Selenate-Resistant Arabidopsis Mutant. Root Growth as a Potential Target for Selenate Toxicity1[OA

    PubMed Central

    El Kassis, Elie; Cathala, Nicole; Rouached, Hatem; Fourcroy, Pierre; Berthomieu, Pierre; Terry, Norman; Davidian, Jean-Claude

    2007-01-01

    Screening an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) T-DNA mutant library for selenate resistance enabled us to isolate a selenate-resistant mutant line (sel1-11). Molecular and genetic characterization showed that the mutant contained a lesion in the SULTR1;2 gene that encodes a high affinity root sulfate transporter. We showed that SULTR1;2 is the only gene among 13 mutated genes of the Arabidopsis sulfate transporter family whose mutation conferred selenate resistance to Arabidopsis. The selenate resistance phenotype of the sel1-11 mutant was mirrored by an 8-fold increase of root growth in the presence of selenate as shown by the calculated lethal concentration values. The impairment of SULTR1;2 activity in sel1-11 resulted in a reduced 35S-sulfate uptake capacity by both roots and calli and a reduced sulfate and selenate content in root, shoot, and calli. Comparing sulfate-to-selenate ratios instead of absolute sulfate and selenate contents in roots and shoots enabled us to gain better insight into the mechanism of selenate toxicity in Arabidopsis. Roots of the sel1-11 mutant line showed a higher sulfate to selenate ratio than that of wild-type roots, while there were no significant differences in sulfate to selenate ratios in shoots of wild-type and mutant lines. These results indicated that the mechanism that confers the selenate resistance phenotype to the sel1-11 line takes place rather in the roots. It might be in part the result of a lower selenate uptake and of a protective effect of sulfate against the toxic effects of selenate on root growth. These results revealed in plants a central and specific role of the transporter SULTR1;2 in selenate sensitivity; they further suggested that root growth and potentially the root tip activity might be a specific target of selenate toxicity in Arabidopsis. PMID:17208959

  16. Varietal differences in the bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from mango (Mangifera indica) and papaya (Carica papaya) fruits.

    PubMed

    Veda, Supriya; Platel, Kalpana; Srinivasan, K

    2007-09-19

    Mango and papaya, which are rich sources of beta-carotene, are widely consumed in India. In this study, beta-carotene content and its bioaccessibility were determined in six locally available varieties of mango, namely, Badami, Raspuri, Mallika, Malgoa, Totapuri, and Neelam, and two varieties of papaya, namely, Honey Dew and Surya. Varietal differences were evident in both beta-carotene content and its bioaccessibility in the case of mango. beta-Carotene content in ripe mango ranged from 0.55 +/- 0.03 mg/100 g in the Malgoa variety to 3.21 +/- 0.25 mg/100 g in the Badami variety. Similarly, in the Honey Dew and Surya varieties of papaya, beta-carotene contents were 0.70 +/- 0.10 and 0.74 +/- 0.12 mg/100 g, respectively. Bioaccessibility of beta-carotene ranged from 24.5% in Badami to 39.1% in Raspuri varieties of mango. Considering both the percent bioaccessibility and the inherent beta-carotene content, the amount of bioaccessible beta-carotene was highest in the Mallika variety (0.89 mg/100 g), followed by Badami (0.79 mg/100 g). Because mango and papaya are also consumed as a blend with milk, the influence of the presence of milk on the bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from these fruits was also examined. Addition of milk generally brought about a significant increase in the bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from mango, the increase ranging from 12 to 56%. Bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from the two varieties of papaya examined was similar (31.4-34.3%). Addition of milk increased this bioaccessibility by 19 and 38% in these two varieties. Considering the beta-carotene content of mango and papaya, the latter has to be consumed in amounts roughly 3 times that of mango to derive the same amount of beta-carotene. Thus, this study has indicated that varietal differences exist in the content and bioaccessibility of beta-carotene in mango and that the addition of milk is advantageous in deriving this provitamin A from the fruit pulp of mango and papaya.

  17. Looking for underlying features in automatic and reviewed seismic bulletins through a neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carluccio, R.; Console, R.; Chiappini, M.; Chiappini, S.

    2009-12-01

    SEL1 bulletins are, among all IDC products, a fundamental tool for NDCs in their task of national assessment of compliance with the CTBT. This is because SEL1s are expected to be disseminated within 2 hours from the occurrence of any detected waveform event, and the National Authorities are supposed to take a political decision in nearly real time, especially in the case when the event could triggers the request for an on site inspection. In this context not only the rapidity, but also the reliability of the SEL1 is a fundamental requirement. Our last years experience gained in the comparison between SEL1 and Italian Seismic Bulletin events has shown that SEL1s usually contain a big fraction of bogus events (sometimes close to 50%). This is due to many factors, all related to the availability of processing data and to the fast automatic algorithms involved. On the other hand, REBs are much more reliable as proved by our experience. Therefore, in spite of their relevant time delay by which they are distributed, which prevents their real-time use, REBs can be still useful in a retrospective way as reference information for comparison with SEL1s. This study tries to set up a sort of logical filter on the SEL1s that, while maintaining the rapidity requirements, improves their reliability. Our idea is based on the assumption that the SEL1s are produced by systematic algorithm of phase association and therefore some patterns among the input and output data could exist and be recognized. Our approach was initially based on a set of rules suggested by human experts on their personal experience, and its application on large datasets on a global scale. Other approaches not involving human interaction (data mining techniques) do exist. This study refers specifically to a semi-automatic approach: fitting of multi-parametric relationships hidden in the data set, through the application of neural networks by an algorithm of supervised learning. Full SEL1 and REB bulletins from

  18. Some important aspects of nadipariksha from basavarajiyam.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Goli Penchala; Bharati, K; Swamy, R K

    2004-07-01

    Nadi Pariksha has been said as one of the important Ashta sthana parikshas. Though, there are some physicians who are doing miracles just by examining Nadi, this system of examination in many views has became extinct now a days. The main reason for this is, now a days very little research and practice is going on regarding this technique. So, many resent samhitas and Chikitsa granthas like Sarangadhara, Yogaratnakara, etc., have highlighted Nadi pariksha. Basavarajiyam is also one of those resent treatises (19(th) century), which has highlighted this ancient type of examination of the patient. Basavarajiyam is a popular Ayurvedic heritage of Andhra Pradesh written by Basavaraju, son of Namahshivaya and disciple of Ramadeshika. The author has referred many books and collected many slokas from various ancient granthas and quoted them in 25 Prakaranas along with his own views and quotations. This book was translated in Telugu language by Puvvada surya Narayana Rao and lppublished by A.B.S.publications, Rajahmundry A.P. In this paper Nadi sthanas (Location), Nadi types, Nadi Pareeksha vidhi (examination of Nadi) and its utilities in different aspects of the disease are dealt, which have been mentioned in Basavarajeeyam.

  19. Effects of Isha Hatha Yoga on Core Stability and Standing Balance.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sendhil; Prasad, Shyam; Balakrishnan, Bhavani; Muthukumaraswamy, Karunambigai; Ganesan, Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Context • Isha Hatha yoga is a form of yoga practice that practitioners claim can improve health. Gaining a scientific understanding of its effects on health is a crucial step in claiming health benefits. Objective • The study intended to investigate the effects of Isha Hatha yoga on core stability and standing balance in healthy volunteers. Design • The research team designed a quasiexperimental study. Setting • The setting was at Isha Yoga Center at Isha Foundation in Coimbatore, India. Participants • Participants were individuals registered for a residential program providing training in Isha Hatha yoga at the Isha Yoga Center. Intervention • The training consisted of 21 d of training in Isha Hatha yoga, including Upa yoga, Surya Kriya, Angamardhana, Bhuta Suddhi, and asanas. Outcome Measures • The single-leg stork test and the plank test were conducted before and after the training. Results • Significant increases occurred in the standing-stork test scores on the right (P = .014) and left (P = .033) sides and in the plank test scores (P < .001). Conclusions • The current study concluded that healthy volunteers who underwent 21 d of training in Isha Hatha yoga showed significant improvements in core strength and balance.

  20. Diversity of Ralstonia solanacearum in French Guiana expands knowledge of the "emerging ecotype".

    PubMed

    Deberdt, P; Guyot, J; Coranson-Beaudu, R; Launay, J; Noreskal, M; Rivière, P; Vigné, F; Laplace, D; Lebreton, L; Wicker, E

    2014-06-01

    Although bacterial wilt remains a major plant disease throughout South America and the Caribbean, the diversity of prevalent Ralstonia solanacearum populations is largely unknown. The genetic and phenotypic diversity of R. solanacearum strains in French Guiana was assessed using diagnostic polymerase chain reactions and sequence-based (egl and mutS) genotyping on a 239-strain collection sampled on the families Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae, revealing an unexpectedly high diversity. Strains were distributed within phylotypes I (46.9%), IIA (26.8%), and IIB (26.3%), with one new endoglucanase sequence type (egl ST) found within each group. Phylotype IIB strains consisted mostly (97%) of strains with the emerging ecotype (IIB/sequevar 4NPB). Host range of IIB/4NPB strains from French Guiana matched the original emerging reference strain from Martinique. They were virulent on cucumber; virulent and highly aggressive on tomato, including the resistant reference Hawaii 7996; and only controlled by eggplant SM6 and Surya accessions. The emerging ecotype IIB/4NPB is fully established in French Guiana in both cultivated fields and uncultivated forest, rendering the hypothesis of introduction via ornamental or banana cuttings unlikely. Thus, this ecotype may have originated from the Amazonian region and spread throughout the Caribbean region.

  1. Collected software engineering papers, volume 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    A collection is presented of selected technical papers produced by participants in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) during the period Dec. 1988 to Oct. 1989. The purpose of the document is to make available, in one reference, some results of SEL research that originally appeared in a number of different forums. For the convenience of this presentation, the seven papers contained here are grouped into three major categories: (1) Software Measurement and Technology Studies; (2) Measurement Environment Studies; and (3) Ada Technology Studies. The first category presents experimental research and evaluation of software measurement and technology; the second presents studies on software environments pertaining to measurement. The last category represents Ada technology and includes research, development, and measurement studies.

  2. Calculating Stress: From Entropy to a Thermodynamic Concept of Health and Disease.

    PubMed

    Bienertová-Vašků, Julie; Zlámal, Filip; Nečesánek, Ivo; Konečný, David; Vasku, Anna

    2016-01-01

    To date, contemporary science has lacked a satisfactory tool for the objective expression of stress. This text thus introduces a new-thermodynamically derived-approach to stress measurement, based on entropy production in time and independent of the quality or modality of a given stressor or a combination thereof. Hereto, we propose a novel model of stress response based on thermodynamic modelling of entropy production, both in the tissues/organs and in regulatory feedbacks. Stress response is expressed in our model on the basis of stress entropic load (SEL), a variable we introduced previously; the mathematical expression of SEL, provided here for the first time, now allows us to describe the various states of a living system, including differentiating between states of health and disease. The resulting calculation of stress response regardless of the type of stressor(s) in question is thus poised to become an entirely new tool for predicting the development of a living system.

  3. Transformation of a wobble 2-thiouridine to 2-selenouridine via S-geranyl-2-thiouridine as a possible cellular pathway.

    PubMed

    Bartos, Paulina; Maciaszek, Anna; Rosinska, Anna; Sochacka, Elzbieta; Nawrot, Barbara

    2014-10-01

    The newly discovered S-geranylated 2-thiouridines (geS2U) (Dumelin et al., 2012) and 2-selenouridines (Se2U) were recently shown to be synthesized by a single enzyme (selenouridine synthase, SelU) through two distinct pathways using the same 2-thiouridine substrate (S2U); however, no clear catalytic mechanism was proposed. We suggest that S-geranyl-2-thiouridine is an intermediate of the SelU-catalyzed conversion of S2U to Se2U. The successful chemical transformation of S2U→geS2U→Se2U is demonstrated here as an initial approximation of the intracellular pathway. The structure of Se2U was confirmed by spectroscopic methods, which included, for the first time, (77)Se NMR data (δ 354ppm).

  4. Parkin is a component of an SCF-like ubiquitin ligase complex and protects postmitotic neurons from kainate excitotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Staropoli, John F; McDermott, Caroline; Martinat, Cécile; Schulman, Brenda; Demireva, Elena; Abeliovich, Asa

    2003-03-06

    Mutations in parkin, which encodes a RING domain protein associated with ubiquitin ligase activity, lead to autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease characterized by midbrain dopamine neuron loss. Here we show that parkin functions in a multiprotein ubiquitin ligase complex that includes the F-box/WD repeat protein hSel-10 and Cullin-1. HSel-10 serves to target the parkin ubiquitin ligase activity to cyclin E, an hSel-10-interacting protein previously implicated in the regulation of neuronal apoptosis. Consistent with the notion that cyclin E is a substrate of the parkin ubiquitin ligase complex, parkin deficiency potentiates the accumulation of cyclin E in cultured postmitotic neurons exposed to the glutamatergic excitotoxin kainate and promotes their apoptosis. Furthermore, parkin overexpression attenuates the accumulation of cyclin E in toxin-treated primary neurons, including midbrain dopamine neurons, and protects them from apoptosis.

  5. DEASEL: An expert system for software engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valett, J. D.; Raskin, A.

    1985-01-01

    For the past ten year, the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) has been collecting data on software projects carried out in the Systems Development Branch of the Flight Dynamics Division at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Through a series of studies using this data, much knowledge has been gained on how software is developed within this environment. Two years ago work began on a software tool which would make this knowledge readily available to software managers. Ideally, the Dynamic Management Information Tool (DynaMITe) will aid managers in comparison across projects, prediction of a project's future, and assessment of a project's current state. This paper describes an effort to create the assessment portion of DynaMITe, called the DynaMITe Expert Advisor for the SEL (DEASEL).

  6. Primary prevention: educational approaches to enhance social and emotional learning.

    PubMed

    Elias, M J; Weissberg, R P

    2000-05-01

    The 1995 publication of Goleman's Emotional Intelligence triggered a revolution in mental health promotion. Goleman's examination of Gardner's work on multiple intelligences and current brain research, and review of successful programs that promoted emotional health, revealed a common objective among those working to prevent specific problem behaviors: producing knowledgeable, responsible, nonviolent, and caring individuals. Advances in research and field experiences confirm that school-based programs that promote social and emotional learning (SEL) in children can be powerful in accomplishing these goals. This article reviews the work of the Collaborative to Advance Social and Emotional Learning (CASEL), its guidelines for promoting mental health in children and youth based on SEL, key principles, and examples of exemplary programs.

  7. A computer-controlled, on-board data acquisition system for wind-tunnel testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finger, H. J.; Cambra, J. M.

    1974-01-01

    A computer-controlled data acquisition system has been developed for the 40x80-foot wind tunnel at Ames Research Center. The system, consisting of several small onboard units installed in the model and a data-managing, data-displaying ground station, is capable of sampling up to 256 channels of raw data at a total sample rate of 128,000 samples/sec. Complete signal conditioning is contained within the on-board units. The sampling sequence and channel gain selection is completely random and under total control of the ground station. Outputs include a bar-graph display, digital-to-analog converters, and digital interface to the tunnel's central computer, an SEL 840MP. The system can be run stand-alone or under the control of the SEL 840MP.

  8. Considering symptomatic spinal epidural lipomatosis in the differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Adriana; Induru, Raghava; Lagman, Ruth

    2013-09-01

    Spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) is the abnormal accumulation of normal fat within the spinal canal. It is more frequent in those patients receiving chronic glucocorticoid therapy or in cases of endogenous hypercortisolism states. We report a case of SEL in a patient with metastatic prostate cancer with history of steroid treatment as part of his chemotherapy regimen, presenting with clinical manifestations of partial cord compression. Magnetic resonance imaging images of the lumbar spine revealed the presence of epidural tumor suspicious for metastatic disease. Operative findings were consistent with epidural lipomatosis. Spinal epidural lipomatosis is a rare condition that needs to be included in the differential diagnosis of patients with risk factors, presenting with symptomatic cord compression.

  9. On Nibbles and Bytes: The Conundrum of Memory for Space Systems - NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) and Efforts in Memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Ladbury, Ray; Pellish, Jonathan; Sheldon, Douglas; Oldham, Timothy; Berg, Melanie D.; Cohn, Lewis M.

    2009-01-01

    Radiation requirements and trends. TID: 1) >90% of NASA applications are < 100 krads-Si in piecepart requirements. a) Many commercial devices (NVM and SDRAMs) meet or come close to this. b) Charge pump TID tolerance has improved an order magnitude over the last 10 years. 2) There are always a few programs with higher level needs and, of course, defense needs SEL: 1) Prefer none or rates that are considered low risk. a) Latent damage is a bear to deal with. 2) As we re packing cells tighter and even with lower Vdd, we re seeing SEL on commercial devices regularly (<90nm). a) Often in power conversion, I/O, or control areas. SEU: 1) It s not the bit errors, it s the SEFIs errors that are the biggest issues. a) Scrubbing concerns for risk, power, speed.

  10. Collected software engineering papers, volume 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A collection is presented of technical papers produced by participants in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) during the period 1 Jun. 1987 to 1 Jan. 1989. The purpose of the document is to make available, in one reference, some results of SEL research that originally appeared in a number of different forums. For the convenience of this presentation, the twelve papers contained here are grouped into three major categories: (1) Software Measurement and Technology Studies; (2) Measurement Environment Studies; and (3) Ada Technology Studies. The first category presents experimental research and evaluation of software measurement and technology; the second presents studies on software environments pertaining to measurement. The last category represents Ada technology and includes research, development, and measurement studies.

  11. Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Airspace Training Initiative Shaw Air Force Base, South Carolina

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-09

    Aircraft Overflights in Wilderness. NOISE-CON 90, University of Texas. Austin, Texas. October. Head, H. H., R. C. Kull, Jr., M. S. Campos , K. C...Lockewood Drive, Lake City, SC 29560 The Honorable Henry Brown, United States Senate, 1800 N Oak Street #C, Myrtle Beach, SC 29577 Willie & Grace...7 Summerton, SC 29148 8 Sel Hemingway, Chairman, Georgetown County, 37 E. Main Street, Andrews, SC 29520 [ 9 James Henry , Chairman, Jenkins

  12. Fire Protection of Weapon Storage and Water Mist Redundancy Philosophies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    xposed dies EPORT Research Ins e view of the rios fire was sel ment was a circul th water and on top of the d under the f the fuel and low device t...cenario. , A=1.08 m for each test o reasons; t reeboard in stant at 25 m and causing xposed to th ~ 74°C was heptane was time of 30 s n systems

  13. Selenocysteine biosynthesis and insertion machinery in Naegleria gruberi.

    PubMed

    da Silva, M T A; Caldas, V E A; Costa, F C; Silvestre, D A M M; Thiemann, O H

    2013-04-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element primarily found in selenoproteins as the 21st amino acid (selenocysteine, Sec, or U). Selenoproteins play an important role in growth and proliferation and are typically involved in cellular redox balance. Selenocysteine is encoded by an in-frame UGA codon specified by a stem-loop structure, the Sec insertion sequence element (SECIS), which, in eukaryotes, is located in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR). The availability of the Naegleria gruberi (ATCC 30224) genome sequence and the use of this organism as a model system for the pathogenic amoeba N. fowleri allowed us to investigate the Sec incorporation pathway in this primitive eukaryote. Using bioinformatics tools, we identified gene sequences encoding PSTK (O-phosphoseryl-tRNA(Sec) kinase), SepSecS (O-phosphoseryl-tRNA:selenocysteinyl-tRNA synthase), SelD/SPS2 (selenophosphate synthetase), EFSec (selenocysteine-specific elongation factor) and SBP (SECIS binding protein). These findings were confirmed by RT-PCR and by sequencing. A potential tRNA(Ser)Sec (SelC) gene and a putative selenoprotein with sequence similarity to a mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase (TR3) were also identified. Our results show that the selenocysteine incorporation machinery is indeed present in N. gruberi. Interestingly, the SelD/SPS2 gene is 2214 bp in length and contains two distinct domains. The N-terminal region shows sequence similarity to predicted methyltransferase proteins, and the C-terminal region is homologous to prokaryotic SelD/SPS2. Our results suggest the possibility of novel selenoproteins.

  14. Should the United States Marine Corps Refine Its System of Active Component Enlisted Recruitment in Order to Target the Needs of Select Marine Corps Reserve Units?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-23

    Training (RIT) OIC, Reserve Affairs. In person interview conducted with the author on January 19, 2012. 29 Anita Hattiangadi and Lewis G. Lee ...Command and Staff College (January 4, 2012). Hattiangadi, Anita U., and Ann D. Parcell. SelRes Attrition and the Selected Reserve Incentive Program...in the Marine Corps Reserve (CNA Research Memorandum D0013618.A2). Alexandria, VA: The CNA Coorporation, 2006. Hattiangadi, Anita , and Lewis G. Lee

  15. Turbocharging of Small Internal Combustion Engine as a Means of Improving Engine/Application System Fuel Economy-Further Turbocharger Improvements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    turbine nozzles, a ball bearing supported rotor and a sel f-contained lubrication system. Using results from this previous a effort, the current contract...instrumentation B. Test procedure C. Test results IV Rotor Bearing System Analy~sis and Test................................... 25 A. Analysis B. Test Plan C...velocity leaving the rotor wheel. The parallel wall portion then diffuses through an area ratio of 1.320. The constant velocity scroll used to collect the

  16. USSR Report, Life Sciences Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-13

    Nosoy? SEL’SKAYA GAZETA, 17 May 83) 8 Principles of Average Scale Mapping of Distribution of Ixodid Ticks Based on Aerial Photography (I. V. Kuzikov...OP AVERAGE SCALE HAPPING OP DISTRIBUTION OP IXODID TICKS BASED ON AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY Moscow ZOOLOGICHESKIY ZHURNAL in Russian Vol 41, No 12, Dec 83...study was to develop a new method for average scale mapping of the distribution of ixodid ticks based on deciphering aerial photography and on

  17. Basic cluster compression algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilbert, E. E.; Lee, J.

    1980-01-01

    Feature extraction and data compression of LANDSAT data is accomplished by BCCA program which reduces costs associated with transmitting, storing, distributing, and interpreting multispectral image data. Algorithm uses spatially local clustering to extract features from image data to describe spectral characteristics of data set. Approach requires only simple repetitive computations, and parallel processing can be used for very high data rates. Program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on SEL 32/55.

  18. Single-Event Effect (SEE) Survey of Advanced Reconfigurable Field Programmable Gate Arrays: NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program Office of Safety and Mission Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    The NEPP Reconfigurable Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) task has been charged to evaluate reconfigurable FPGA technologies for use in space. Under this task, the Xilinx single-event-immune, reconfigurable FPGA (SIRF) XQR5VFX130 device was evaluated for SEE. Additionally, the Altera Stratix-IV and SiliconBlue iCE65 were screened for single-event latchup (SEL).

  19. Miniaturization and Optimization of Nanoscale Resonant Oscillators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-07

    dielectric cavities can be grouped into two main categories: (i) surface bound (that is, surface plasmon polariton (SPP)) resonant modes and (ii...photonic molecule lasing. IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 78–85 (2006). 7. Min, B. K. et al. High-Q surface-plasmon– polariton whispering-gallery... polaritons on planar metallic waveguides. Opt. Express 12, 4072–4079 (2004). 16. P. Yeh, A. Yariv, and E. Marom, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1196 (1978). 17. A

  20. Acoustic Inverse Scattering for Breast Cancer Microcalcification Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    ultrasound imaging Ravi Shankar Vaidyanathan*a, Matthew A. Lewis*a, Gaik Ambartsoumianb, Tuncay Aktosunb aGraduate Program in Biomedical Engineering...using a three-dimensional reconstruction algorithm”, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electronics, 7, 918-923, (2001). [2] Oraevsky A.A., Andreev V.A...EXTERIOR SPHERICAL RADON TRANSFORM- BASED ULTRASOUND IMAGING Ravi Shankar Vaidyanathan, Matthew A. Lewis, Advanced Radiological Sciences UT Southwestern

  1. Recommended approach to software development, revision 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Linda; Waligora, Sharon; Mcgarry, Frank; Pajerski, Rose; Stark, Mike; Johnson, Kevin Orlin; Cover, Donna

    1992-01-01

    Guidelines for an organized, disciplined approach to software development that is based on studies conducted by the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) since 1976 are presented. It describes methods and practices for each phase of a software development life cycle that starts with requirements definition and ends with acceptance testing. For each defined life cycle phase, guidelines for the development process and its management, and for the products produced and their reviews are presented.

  2. Manager's handbook for software development, revision 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Methods and aids for the management of software development projects are presented. The recommendations are based on analyses and experiences of the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) with flight dynamics software development. The management aspects of the following subjects are described: organizing the project, producing a development plan, estimating costs, scheduling, staffing, preparing deliverable documents, using management tools, monitoring the project, conducting reviews, auditing, testing, and certifying.

  3. Growth of MM-Thick Orientation-Patterned GaAs for IR and THZ Generation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-30

    21| K. Gruter, M. Deschler. H. Jurgensen . R . Beccard. p. Balk. J. Crystal Growth 94 (1989)607. [221 S- Lourdudoss. 0. Kjebon. IEEE J. Sel. Top...J. Napierala. D. Castelluci. A . Pimpinelli. R . Cadoret. B. Gerard. J. Crystal Growth 222 (2001) 482. ...Journal of Crystal Growth 310 (2008) 5241 -5247 i-;-’" ;*;--’ r ! I SI \\’ll R Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Journal of Crystal Growth

  4. Equine laminitis: comparative histopathology 48 hours after experimental induction with insulin or alimentary oligofructose in standardbred horses.

    PubMed

    de Laat, M A; van Eps, A W; McGowan, C M; Sillence, M N; Pollitt, C C

    2011-11-01

    Laminitis has many triggers and comparing the histopathology of lesions induced by different causes may help to establish whether a common mechanism or multiple pathologies are involved. The aim of this study was to describe the microscopical lesions and to quantify morphometric changes in the lamellae of horses with insulin-induced (n=4) and oligofructose (OF)-induced laminitis (n=4) compared with normal controls (n=4). Archived lamellar samples collected during two previous studies were used. Laminitis was induced within 48 h in standardbred horses with either a euglycaemic, hyperinsulinaemic clamp (EHC) technique or, in a separate experiment, with an overdose of alimentary OF. Normal tissue was obtained from control horses in the EHC experiment that received a balanced electrolyte solution intravenously for 48 h. Six measurements of lamellar length and width were recorded for each hoof. Leucocyte infiltration was assessed by immunolocalization of calprotectin. All control horses exhibited normal lamellar architecture, whereas treated horses developed clinical and histopathological changes consistent with laminitis. Laminitic samples displayed lengthening and narrowing of secondary epidermal lamellae (SELs), rounded epidermal basal cell (EBC) nuclei, mitosis and apoptosis. In the fore feet of laminitic horses, the length from the end of the keratinized axis to the axial tip of the primary epidermal lamellae (PELs) was increased (P<0.05). SELs were significantly longer (P<0.05) and narrower (P<0.05) in the treated horses compared with controls. The two treated groups did not differ from each other in SEL length or width. Calprotectin expression was absent in control horses, moderate in hyperinsulinaemic horses and marked in OF-treated horses. Laminitis induced experimentally with insulin or OF results in comparable lengthening and narrowing of the SELs and elongation of the axial end of the PELs at 48 h. Immunolocalization of calprotectin indicated that

  5. Criteria for Developing a Successful Privatization Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    perception and adequate profit . :" iii BIOGRAPHICAL SKSI wEf; Thoas C. McSwain, Jr. Colonel (Sel) Thomas C. McSwain, Jr is a career Services Officer. He...the private sector in lieu of traditional governrmental financing and operation. In return, private sector entrepreneurs realize profits through long...military and DOD civilian con unity. The banks and credit unions derive normal profit through services they provide. More recently, Congressional and

  6. Industry Study Paper: The Aircraft Industry, AY 2004, Seminar 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    Orozco, European Aeronautic Defence and Space (EADS) Company CDR Thomas J. Payne, USN Ms. Mary C. Puckett, Dept. of Air Force COL Jorge L. Silveira...Logistics Agency, Defense Supply Center Richmond COL Jorge L. Silveira, USA and Col (Sel) Ricky Valentine, USAF CAPT Stephen Morris, USN, Faculty Advisor...Interview with Rich Golaszewski from Gelman Research Associates, 27 Feb 2004. xlvii Industry Study Session Number 4 with Teal Group, 11 Feb 2004

  7. Highly Efficient Simplified Single-Emitting-Layer Hybrid WOLEDs with Low Roll-off and Good Color Stability through Enhanced Förster Energy Transfer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongdong; Cai, Minghan; Zhang, Yunge; Zhang, Deqiang; Duan, Lian

    2015-12-30

    Single-emitting layer hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes (SEL-hybrid-WOLEDs) usually suffer from low efficiency, significant roll-off, and poor color stability, attributed to the incomplete energy transfer from the triplet states of the blue fluorophores to the phosphors. Here, we demonstrate highly efficient SEL-hybrid-WOLEDs with low roll-off and good color-stability utilizing blue thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) materials as the host emitters. The triplet states of the blue TADF host emitter can be up-converted into its singlet states, and then the energy is transferred to the complementary phosphors through the long-range Förster energy transfer, enhancing the energy transfer from the host to the dopant. Simplified SEL-hybrid-WOLEDs achieve the highest forward-viewing external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 20.8% and power efficiency of 51.2 lm/W with CIE coordinates of (0.398, 0.456) at a luminance of 500 cd/m(2). The device EQE only slightly drops to 19.6% at a practical luminance of 1000 cd/m(2) with a power efficiency of 38.7 lm/W. Furthermore, the spectra of the device are rather stable with the raising voltage. The reason can be assigned to the enhanced Förster energy transfer, wide charge recombination zone, as well as the bipolar charge transporting ability of the host emitter. We believe that our work may shed light on the future development of highly efficient SEL-hybrid-WOLEDs with simultaneous low roll-off and good color stability.

  8. Data-acquisition system for the fast criticals ZPR-6 and ZPR-9

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, C.E.

    1981-10-01

    This system is used for experimental data acquisition and processing for the ZPR-6 and ZPR-9 fast critical assemblies. It replaces a setup based on a Systems SEL-840 computer that had been in use for almost a decade. It is noteworthy for a number of departures from standard Harris hardware and software. These were made to minimize expense and to facilitate this changeover as well as future changeovers. 2 refs.

  9. Computationally Efficient Modeling of Hydrocarbon Oxidation Chemistry and Flames Using Constituents and Species

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-10

    Fig. 10, at the high temperature conditions representative of die- sel, gas turbine and HCCI engines , the model performs very well; the same holds for...predictions are at high pressure which is the regime of choice for the operation of diesel, gas turbine and HCCI engines . As stated above, for the very...temperature conditions representative of diesel, gas turbine and HCCI engines , the model performs very well; the same holds for the very rich conditions

  10. Conceptual Design of the TPF-O SC Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, Lloyd R.

    2007-01-01

    One option under current study for the Terrestrial Planet Finder-Occulter (TPF-O) observatory shares some key features of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Both are space telescopes with a primary mirror aperture of around 2.4 meters and designed to observe in the visible to near infrared range of wavelengths, with the major difference in science capability being that TPF-O has an areal FOV on the order of 100 times larger than that of HST. This larger FOV, whose science camera is also expected to provide fine guidance, and other mission differences, mean that most TPF-O SC bus subsystems will have very different requirements than those of HST. Unlike HST in LEO, TPF-O is designed to operate in an orbit around the Sun-Earth lagrange 2 (SEL2) point. The longer communications range to SEL2 and the large FOV require much higher performance data processing and communications than HST. Maintaining a SEL2 orbit requires TPF-O, unlike HST, to have a propulsion system. TPF-O will have a specialized tracking system that allows the formation flying occulter to maintain its required position. However, despite these additional features, the velocity required for reaching SEL2 and the limited capabilities of affordable launch vehicles require TPF-O to have a compact and low-mass design relative to HST. Finally, TPF-O may utilize a modular design to reduce development cost and, if it required, allow servicing using approaches different from those of HST.

  11. Generic Environmental Impact Statement. Air Force Low Altitude Flying Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    Geoecology Data Base, Oak Ridge, Tenn . Petera, F. (Wyoming Game & Fih Department) 1987. Letter to R. L Kroodsma, ORNL, August 12. Phillips, A., J...of moigts Perceived Alt. Sit. NOWe Support for miliaz Porn 5g Age of respondent Nowe Porn Populatio density Ne& Nag. Nose Far of crumbe Nag. Sit. L...Young POrn . Porn Presnent of elderly Ng Hog. Population density None Nowe Comcern about crube Porn Porn Interupte activities Pam. PO. 1&M. Nome Nowe SEL

  12. Trends in Selenium Utilization in Marine Microbial World Revealed through the Analysis of the Global Ocean Sampling (GOS) Project

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2008-01-01

    Selenium is an important trace element that occurs in proteins in the form of selenocysteine (Sec) and in tRNAs in the form of selenouridine. Recent large-scale metagenomics projects provide an opportunity for understanding global trends in trace element utilization. Herein, we characterized the selenoproteome of the microbial marine community derived from the Global Ocean Sampling (GOS) expedition. More than 3,600 selenoprotein gene sequences belonging to 58 protein families were detected, including sequences representing 7 newly identified selenoprotein families, such as homologs of ferredoxin–thioredoxin reductase and serine protease. In addition, a new eukaryotic selenoprotein family, thiol reductase GILT, was identified. Most GOS selenoprotein families originated from Cys-containing thiol oxidoreductases. In both Pacific and Atlantic microbial communities, SelW-like and SelD were the most widespread selenoproteins. Geographic location had little influence on Sec utilization as measured by selenoprotein variety and the number of selenoprotein genes detected; however, both higher temperature and marine (as opposed to freshwater and other aquatic) environment were associated with increased use of this amino acid. Selenoproteins were also detected with preference for either environment. We identified novel fusion forms of several selenoproteins that highlight redox activities of these proteins. Almost half of Cys-containing SelDs were fused with NADH dehydrogenase, whereas such SelD forms were rare in terrestrial organisms. The selenouridine utilization trait was also analyzed and showed an independent evolutionary relationship with Sec utilization. Overall, our study provides insights into global trends in microbial selenium utilization in marine environments. PMID:18551170

  13. Ribosome dynamics during decoding.

    PubMed

    Rodnina, Marina V; Fischer, Niels; Maracci, Cristina; Stark, Holger

    2017-03-19

    Elongation factors Tu (EF-Tu) and SelB are translational GTPases that deliver aminoacyl-tRNAs (aa-tRNAs) to the ribosome. In each canonical round of translation elongation, aa-tRNAs, assisted by EF-Tu, decode mRNA codons and insert the respective amino acid into the growing peptide chain. Stop codons usually lead to translation termination; however, in special cases UGA codons are recoded to selenocysteine (Sec) with the help of SelB. Recruitment of EF-Tu and SelB together with their respective aa-tRNAs to the ribosome is a multistep process. In this review, we summarize recent progress in understanding the role of ribosome dynamics in aa-tRNA selection. We describe the path to correct codon recognition by canonical elongator aa-tRNA and Sec-tRNA(Sec) and discuss the local and global rearrangements of the ribosome in response to correct and incorrect aa-tRNAs. We present the mechanisms of GTPase activation and GTP hydrolysis of EF-Tu and SelB and summarize what is known about the accommodation of aa-tRNA on the ribosome after its release from the elongation factor. We show how ribosome dynamics ensures high selectivity for the cognate aa-tRNA and suggest that conformational fluctuations, induced fit and kinetic discrimination play major roles in maintaining the speed and fidelity of translation.This article is part of the themed issue 'Perspectives on the ribosome'.

  14. Studies of Compound States of Negative Ions Using Laser Beams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-15

    Beams" under Office of Naval Research (ONR) task NR 393-071. The reader will note a change in the title of the proposal from that of the previous year...final results, referring the reader to the papers in Appendix I for details. We will separate discussions of the progress into two parts. Part I will...were observed. Thus, neither model could explain the also included. The reader is referred to the articles by Sel- enhanced doubly differential cross

  15. Proper-Motion Study of the Magellanic Clouds Using SPM Material

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    their financial support during her graduate career . She and the other authors are grateful to the NSF and to Yale University for support of the SPM...124, 2639 van Leeuwen, F. (ed.) 2007 .in Astrophysics and Space Science Library, Vol. 350, Hipparcos. The New Reduction of the Raw Data Veron-Cetty...Tucker (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press). 201 Westerlund, B. E. 1997, Cambridge Astrophysics Series, 29 Wilson, R. E. 1915, Proe, Natl Aead. SeL, 1

  16. Hearing threshold shifts and recovery in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) after octave-band noise exposure at 4 kHz.

    PubMed

    Kastelein, Ronald A; Gransier, Robin; Hoek, Lean; Macleod, Amy; Terhune, John M

    2012-10-01

    Safety criteria for underwater sounds from offshore pile driving are needed to protect marine mammals. As a first step toward understanding effects of impulsive sounds, two harbor seals were exposed to octave-band white noise centered at 4 kHz at three mean received sound pressure levels (SPLs; 124, 136, and 148 dB re 1 μPa) at up to six durations (7.5, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 min); mean received sound exposure level (SEL) range was 166-190 dB re 1 μPa(2) s. Hearing thresholds were determined before and after exposure. Temporary hearing threshold shifts (TTS) and subsequent recovery were quantified as changes in hearing thresholds at 1-4, 4-8, 8-12, 48, and 96 min after noise exposure in seal 01, and at 12-16, 16-20, 20-24, 60, and 108 min after exposure in seal 02. Maximum TTS (1-4 min after 120 min exposure to 148 dB re 1 μPa; 187 dB SEL) was 10 dB. Recovery occurred within ~60 min. Statistically significant TTSs (>2.5 dB) began to occur at SELs of ~170 (136 SPL, 60 min) and 178 dB re 1 μPa(2) s (148 SPL, 15 min). However, SEL is not an optimal predictor of TTS for long duration, low SPL continuous noise, as duration and SPL play unequal roles in determining induced TTS.

  17. Contributions to the Science Modeling Requirements Document; Earth Limb & Auroral Backgrounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Ionosphere Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory K Planetary index Lyman-Birge-Hopfield Low resolution transmission model Local...measurements of atmospheric parameters (Hedin, 1983). MSIS-83 modeled magnetic storm variations in terms of the 3hr ap index and extended its region of...stations. NOAA/SEL issues provisional estimates of the planetary range indices Ap and Kp. These indices derive from real-time measurements of

  18. Integration Toolkit and Methods (ITKM) Manufacturing Methods and Prototype Toolkit. A Combined Modeling Method Using IDEFO, IDEF1x and XSpec

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-01

    IDEFix and XSpec SElECTE JUN 24 1993 Industrial Technology InstituteP.O. Box 1485 Ann Arbor, MI 48106 July 1992 Final Report for Period June 1991 June... IDEFIx , and XSpec. IDEFO is a high level modeling tool based on functional decompositions, IDEFIx is a detailed data modeling tool and XSpec is a...15. NUMBER OF PAGES IDEF, IDEFO, IDEFIx , XSpec, Activity Based Modeling, Engineering Modeling Language, Object Oriented, 52 Meta-Model. 16. PRICE CODE

  19. Novel selective TOCSY method enables NMR spectral elucidation of metabolomic mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKinnon, Neil; While, Peter T.; Korvink, Jan G.

    2016-11-01

    Complex mixture analysis is routinely encountered in NMR-based investigations. With the aim of component identification, spectral complexity may be addressed chromatographically or spectroscopically, the latter being favored to reduce sample handling requirements. An attractive experiment is selective total correlation spectroscopy (sel-TOCSY), which is capable of providing tremendous spectral simplification and thereby enhancing assignment capability. Unfortunately, isolating a well resolved resonance is increasingly difficult as the complexity of the mixture increases and the assumption of single spin system excitation is no longer robust. We present TOCSY optimized mixture elucidation (TOOMIXED), a technique capable of performing spectral assignment particularly in the case where the assumption of single spin system excitation is relaxed. Key to the technique is the collection of a series of 1D sel-TOCSY experiments as a function of the isotropic mixing time (τm), resulting in a series of resonance intensities indicative of the underlying molecular structure. By comparing these τm -dependent intensity patterns with a library of pre-determined component spectra, one is able to regain assignment capability. After consideration of the technique's robustness, we tested TOOMIXED firstly on a model mixture. As a benchmark we were able to assign a molecule with high confidence in the case of selectively exciting an isolated resonance. Assignment confidence was not compromised when performing TOOMIXED on a resonance known to contain multiple overlapping signals, and in the worst case the method suggested a follow-up sel-TOCSY experiment to confirm an ambiguous assignment. TOOMIXED was then demonstrated on two realistic samples (whisky and urine), where under our conditions an approximate limit of detection of 0.6 mM was determined. Taking into account literature reports for the sel-TOCSY limit of detection, the technique should reach on the order of 10 μ M

  20. Terbium to Quantum Dot FRET Bioconjugates for Clinical Diagnostics: Influence of Human Plasma on Optical and Assembly Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-12

    99, 2344-2354. 11. Selvin, P.R. Lanthanide -based resonance energy transfer. IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 1996, 2, 1077-1087. 12. Van der Meer...Hildebrandt, N.; Ziessel, R.F.; Löhmannsröben, H.G. Lanthanides to quantum dots resonance energy transfer in time-resolved fluoro-immunoassays and...transfer between cadmium telluride nanoparticle and lanthanide (III) chelate in competitive bioaffinity assays of biotin and estradiol. Anal. Chim. Acta

  1. Staphylococcus enterotoxin profile of China isolates and the superantigenicity of some novel enterotoxins.

    PubMed

    Shen, Menglu; Li, Yi; Zhang, Linlin; Dai, Songbao; Wang, Jiashun; Li, Yongqing; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Jinhai

    2017-02-24

    The genus of staphylococcus widely distributes in environments and contributes to a variety of animal and human diseases. The enterotoxins (SEs) secreted by this type of pathogen have been the leading cause of bacterial toxic shock syndrome and food poisoning, and thus present a substantial concern to public health. In this study, we analyzed the superantigen profile of 122 staphylococcus strains isolated from diverse sources. When screened for the presence and prevalence of 17 known se or se-like (sel) genes, except selj, all other genes were detected in these isolates. In particular, 95.9% of the isolates harbored at least one se/sel gene. Moreover, 47.5% of them bore at least 5. Remarkably, several non-pathogenic species of animal- and environment-origin were also found to carry multiple se/sels. The most frequent genes detected were tsst (62.3%), sei (54.1%), and seb (46.7%), followed by some sel genes (selo, selu, and selm), which also were present at relatively high frequency (20-30%). The generated data improved understanding of strain-specific differences in enterotoxin expression. The gene products of the latter (selo and selu) were subsequently analyzed for their antigenicity in a mouse model using purified E. coli-based recombinant proteins. The studies revealed a strong activity for SEO in induction of T-lymphocyte proliferation and production of various inflammatory cytokines either in vivo or in vitro. In contrast, SEU exhibited little superantigenic effects. The molecular basis for the difference in antigenicity was analyzed by 3D homology remodeling, which revealed a difference in binding and affinities for MHC-II molecules and TCR Vβ region.

  2. An Experimental Basis for the Estimation of Auditory System Hazard Following Exposure to Impulse Noise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    Impulse Noise (Reprint) DTIC By SElEC.’E APR 21 1992 James H. Patterson, Jr. D Sensory Research Division and Roger P. Hamernik Auditory Research Laboratory...FRMA LTC, MS Director, Sens y Research Released for publication: ReV W. ,.DPh.D. DVDH E Chairman, Scientif-ic- Colonel, MC, FS Review Committee...more than the conventional A-weighting function. In the second study, the exposures consisted of 20. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY OF ABSTRACT 21 . ABSTRACT

  3. ASP, Art and Science of Practice: Educating Military Operations Research Practitioners

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    USMC: Assess- ing Resiliency of the JP-8 Distribution System on Guam (C). • LT Matthew T. Yokeley, USN: Effects of Sleep Deprivation on U.S. Navy...factors in many Navy mishaps. In addition to sleep deprivation , fatigue can also result from inadequately staffed ves- sels. Reduced staffing...5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School (NPS),Operations Research Department,Monterey,CA

  4. National Energy Policy: Report of the National Energy Policy Development Group

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-05-01

    Earmark $1.2 billion of bid bonuses from the environmentally responsible leasing of ANWR to fund research into alterna- tive and renewable energy...exploration in ANWR to fund land conservation efforts. • Implement new guidelines to reduce truck idling emissions at truck stops. Increase Energy Security...energy securi- ty, displacing more oil than any other alter- native fuel. Other biofuels, such as biodie- sel, which can be made from soybean, canola

  5. Borehole X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (XRFS): User’s Manual, Software Description, and Performance Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    interface. The computer to which the DP4 interfaces must contain software to communicate via the serial port (USB or RS-232). The current revision of the...SCA7 8 SCA5 12 GND GATE and BUFFER_SEL inputs: VIL (logic low): -0.5 to + 0.7V VIH (logic high): +2.4 to +5.5V Inputs: SN74LVC2G14, Vcc=3.3V

  6. An Analysis of Aircraft Flyover Noise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-04-01

    characteristics of other aircraft and revised noise level versus distance curves calculated. Comparison of these revised curves with available measured data and...with levels predicted using the current NOISEMAP procedures should be made. The possible impact of a revision to the present prediction procedures...study, it is recommended that revisions be considered for the relationship currently used in the NOISEMAP procedure to relate A-level and SEL as a

  7. Laser Simulation of Single-Event Effects: A State of the Art Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-03-01

    accurately simulate the effects of cosmic rays. Two alternate techniques that have been proposed for SEE testing are a pulsed laser and californium ...shielded cables. 49 8. Perspectives A combination of ion beams, pulsed lasers and Californium is perhaps the ideal way of doing SEE testing. The main...disadvantage of Californium is that the ions emitted have a small range and, therefore, are limited with respect to SEL testing. Lasers and

  8. Application of Density Estimation Methods to Datasets from a Glider

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    Glider Elizabeth Thorp Küsel and Martin Siderius Portland State University Electrical and Computer Engineering Department 1900 SW 4th Ave...Fitting the glider with two recording sensors, instead of one, provides the opportunity to investigate other density estimation modalities ( Thomas and...Am. 134, 3506-3512. Carretta, J. V., Forney, K. A., Lowry , M. S., Barlow, J., Baker, J., Johnston, D., Hanson, B., Brownell Jr., R. L., Robbins

  9. Ada developers' supplement to the recommended approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kester, Rush; Landis, Linda

    1993-01-01

    This document is a collection of guidelines for programmers and managers who are responsible for the development of flight dynamics applications in Ada. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the Recommended Approach to Software Development (SEL-81-305), which describes the software development life cycle, its products, reviews, methods, tools, and measures. The Ada Developers' Supplement provides additional detail on such topics as reuse, object-oriented analysis, and object-oriented design.

  10. The Software Management Environment (SME)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valett, Jon D.; Decker, William; Buell, John

    1988-01-01

    The Software Management Environment (SME) is a research effort designed to utilize the past experiences and results of the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) and to incorporate this knowledge into a tool for managing projects. SME provides the software development manager with the ability to observe, compare, predict, analyze, and control key software development parameters such as effort, reliability, and resource utilization. The major components of the SME, the architecture of the system, and examples of the functionality of the tool are discussed.

  11. Ribosome dynamics during decoding

    PubMed Central

    Maracci, Cristina; Stark, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Elongation factors Tu (EF-Tu) and SelB are translational GTPases that deliver aminoacyl-tRNAs (aa-tRNAs) to the ribosome. In each canonical round of translation elongation, aa-tRNAs, assisted by EF-Tu, decode mRNA codons and insert the respective amino acid into the growing peptide chain. Stop codons usually lead to translation termination; however, in special cases UGA codons are recoded to selenocysteine (Sec) with the help of SelB. Recruitment of EF-Tu and SelB together with their respective aa-tRNAs to the ribosome is a multistep process. In this review, we summarize recent progress in understanding the role of ribosome dynamics in aa-tRNA selection. We describe the path to correct codon recognition by canonical elongator aa-tRNA and Sec-tRNASec and discuss the local and global rearrangements of the ribosome in response to correct and incorrect aa-tRNAs. We present the mechanisms of GTPase activation and GTP hydrolysis of EF-Tu and SelB and summarize what is known about the accommodation of aa-tRNA on the ribosome after its release from the elongation factor. We show how ribosome dynamics ensures high selectivity for the cognate aa-tRNA and suggest that conformational fluctuations, induced fit and kinetic discrimination play major roles in maintaining the speed and fidelity of translation. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Perspectives on the ribosome’. PMID:28138068

  12. High temperature ceramic membrane reactors for coal liquid upgrading. Quarterly report No. 1, September 21, 1989--December 20, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Tsotsis, T.T.

    1992-06-19

    In this project we well evaluate the performance of Sel-Gel alumina membranes in coal liquid upgrading processes under realistic temperature and pressure conditions and investigate the feasibility of using such membranes in a membrane reactor based coal liquid upgrading process. In addition, the development of novel ceramic membranes with enhanced catalytic activity for coal-liquid upgrading applications, such as carbon-coated alumina membranes, will be also investigated. (VC)

  13. High temperature ceramic membrane reactors for coal liquid upgrading

    SciTech Connect

    Tsotsis, T.T.

    1992-06-19

    In this project we well evaluate the performance of Sel-Gel alumina membranes in coal liquid upgrading processes under realistic temperature and pressure conditions and investigate the feasibility of using such membranes in a membrane reactor based coal liquid upgrading process. In addition, the development of novel ceramic membranes with enhanced catalytic activity for coal-liquid upgrading applications, such as carbon-coated alumina membranes, will be also investigated. (VC)

  14. Differential downstream functions of protein kinase Ceta and -theta in EL4 mouse thymoma cells.

    PubMed

    Resnick, M S; Kang, B S; Luu, D; Wickham, J T; Sando, J J; Hahn, C S

    1998-10-16

    Sensitive EL4 mouse thymoma cells (s-EL4) respond to phorbol esters with growth inhibition, adherence to substrate, and production of cytokines including interleukin 2. Since these cells express several of the phorbol ester-sensitive protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes, the function of each isozyme remains unclear. Previous studies demonstrated that s-EL4 cells expressed substantially more PKCeta and PKCtheta than did EL4 cells resistant to phorbol esters (r-EL4). To examine potential roles for PKCeta and PKCtheta in EL4 cells, wild type and constitutively active versions of the isozymes were transiently expressed using a Sindbis virus system. Expression of constitutively active PKCeta, but not PKCtheta, in s- and r-EL4 cells altered cell morphology and cytoskeletal structure in a manner similar to that of phorbol ester treatment, suggesting a role for PKCeta in cytoskeletal organization. Prolonged treatment of s-EL4 cells with phorbol esters results in inhibition of cell cycling along with a decreased expression of most of the PKC isozymes, including PKCtheta. Introduction of virally expressed PKCtheta, but not PKCeta, overcame the inhibitory effects of the prolonged phorbol ester treatment on cell cycle progression, suggesting a possible involvement of PKCtheta in cell cycle regulation. These results support differential functions for PKCeta and PKCtheta in T cell activation.

  15. Toxicity of selenomethionine- and seleno-contaminated sediment to the amphipod Corophium sp.

    PubMed

    Hyne, Ross V; Hogan, Alicia C; Pablo, Fleur; Roach, Anthony C

    2002-05-01

    The acute toxicity of four chemical species of selenium to juvenile amphipods (Corophium sp.) was assessed in water-only tests. The seleno-amino acid compounds seleno-L-methionine and seleno-DL-cystine were found to be more toxic (96-h LC(50) values of 1.5 and 12.7 microg Se/L) than the inorganic selenite and selenate (96-h NOEC values of 58 and 116 microg Se/L). New marine sediment testing procedures were developed using juvenile and adult Corophium sp. Both life stages were highly sensitive to seleno-L-methionine-spiked sediment. The juveniles were approximately five times more sensitive, with a 10-day LC(50) of 1.6 microg Se/g (dry weight) compared to 7.6 microg Se/g (dry weight) for the adults. Sediment collected from three sites in Lake Macquarie, a marine barrier lagoon with elevated concentrations of total selenium, had no effect on the survival of adult Corophium over 10 days. The toxicity of seleno-L-methionine to other amphipod species occurring in Lake Macquarie was assessed in water-only tests, with Paracalliope australis being highly sensitive (96-h LC(50) 2.58 microg Se/L).

  16. Effects of chronic postnatal opioid receptor blockade by naltrexone upon proliferation capacity in the prenatally x-irradiated brain of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Schmahl, W.; Miaskowski, U. )

    1991-01-01

    We recently reported that in rats prenatally x-irradiated on gestation day 14 with 1 Gy, postnatal chronic application of the opioid antagonist naltrexone (Nx) led to a remarkable growth spurt of the microencephalic brain. In the present study we present histological and autoradiographic results found in the subependymal layer (SEL) of the forebrain lateral ventricles. Nx led to an intermittent augmentation of the mitotic index of the x-irradiated brains within a postnatal observation period of 24 weeks. The most conspicuous finding was transient hyperplasia of the SEL at 4-6 weeks of age which occurred in close proximity to an intact ependymal lining. Districts of the lateral ventricles which were denuded from ependyme and where the rest of the ependymal layer (EL) was dislocated peripherally showed upon Nx treatment a long-lasting SEL hyperplasia with a tendency towards dysplasia. These results revealed that repair proliferation of embryotoxic x-irradiation is normally under strong control by the opioid system. If that system, which exerts a suppressing effect upon glial growth, is blocked by Nx, prominent hyperplastic reactions occur which may be useful for repairing the lesion pattern.

  17. Cluster-randomized trial demonstrating impact on academic achievement of elementary social-emotional learning.

    PubMed

    Schonfeld, David J; Adams, Ryan E; Fredstrom, Bridget K; Weissberg, Roger P; Gilman, Richard; Voyce, Charlene; Tomlin, Ricarda; Speese-Linehan, Dee

    2015-09-01

    This study evaluated the results of a social and emotional learning (SEL) program on academic achievement among students attending a large, urban, high-risk school district. Using a cluster-randomized design, 24 elementary schools were assigned to receive either the intervention curriculum (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies, or PATHS) or a curriculum that delivered few if any SEL topics (i.e., the control group). In addition to state mastery test scores, demographic data, school attendance, and dosage information were obtained from 705 students who remained in the same group from the 3rd to the 6th grade. Analyses of odds ratios revealed that students enrolled in the intervention schools demonstrated higher levels of basic proficiency in reading, writing, and math at some grade levels. Although these between-groups differences held for race/ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status, significant within-group differences also were noted across these variables. Collectively, these findings indicated that social development instruction may be a promising approach to promote acquisition of academic proficiency, especially among youth attending high-risk school settings. Implications of these findings with respect to SEL programs conclude the article.

  18. SPAM: A Canned Internet-Accessible Database of Interest to Solar Flare Researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canfield, R. C.; Hudson, H. S.; Kiernan, E.; Metcalf, T. R.; Wulser, J.-P.

    1992-05-01

    We have established a searchable database, called SPAM (Spectroscopy and Polarimetry at Mees), which contains logs of observations made at Mees Solar Observatory (Haleakala, Maui). Of more general interest, the database also includes the Events List and Region Report from the Space Environment Laboratory (Boulder). Logs from YOHKOH are currently being added. Hence, SPAM can be used to determine, for example, whether Mees has vector magnetograms of a certain NOAA AR or whether YOHKOH has certain types of observations in specified time ranges. As well, it can be used to search the SEL database for flares with selected attributes. Included logs (and searchable attributes, in addition to date, day of year, and time) are: Mees Solar Observatory Log (instrument, NOAA AR, data type, observing setup), SEL Event List (NOAA AR, X-ray Class), SEL Region Report (NOAA AR), YOHKOH Orbit Summary, YOHKOH SXT Quiet Mode PFI Observations (latitude, longitude, X-ray and optical image size), YOHKOH Flare Observations (latitude, longitude, specific channel counts or ratios). SPAM runs on a Sun workstation at Mees Solar Observatory, and is available over Internet. Simply access (e.g., telnet) koa.ifa.hawaii.edu (128.171.167.1) from any vt100, Sun, or xterm emulator. Log on as spam (lower case); there is no password. New users are asked to read release notes and hints.

  19. The Package-Based Development Process in the Flight Dynamics Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parra, Amalia; Seaman, Carolyn; Basili, Victor; Kraft, Stephen; Condon, Steven; Burke, Steven; Yakimovich, Daniil

    1997-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) has been operating for more than two decades in the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) and has adapted to the constant movement of the software development environment. The SEL's Improvement Paradigm shows that process improvement is an iterative process. Understanding, Assessing and Packaging are the three steps that are followed in this cyclical paradigm. As the improvement process cycles back to the first step, after having packaged some experience, the level of understanding will be greater. In the past, products resulting from the packaging step have been large process documents, guidebooks, and training programs. As the technical world moves toward more modularized software, we have made a move toward more modularized software development process documentation, as such the products of the packaging step are becoming smaller and more frequent. In this manner, the QIP takes on a more spiral approach rather than a waterfall. This paper describes the state of the FDD in the area of software development processes, as revealed through the understanding and assessing activities conducted by the COTS study team. The insights presented include: (1) a characterization of a typical FDD Commercial Off the Shelf (COTS) intensive software development life-cycle process, (2) lessons learned through the COTS study interviews, and (3) a description of changes in the SEL due to the changing and accelerating nature of software development in the FDD.

  20. The nucleotide exchange factors Grp170 and Sil1 induce cholera toxin release from BiP to enable retrotranslocation.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jeffrey M; Inoue, Takamasa; Chen, Grace; Tsai, Billy

    2015-06-15

    Cholera toxin (CT) intoxicates cells by trafficking from the cell surface to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where the catalytic CTA1 subunit hijacks components of the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) machinery to retrotranslocate to the cytosol and induce toxicity. In the ER, CT targets to the ERAD machinery composed of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Hrd1-Sel1L complex, in part via the activity of the Sel1L-binding partner ERdj5. This J protein stimulates BiP's ATPase activity, allowing BiP to capture the toxin. Presumably, toxin release from BiP must occur before retrotranslocation. Here, using loss-and gain-of-function approaches coupled with binding studies, we demonstrate that the ER-resident nucleotide exchange factors (NEFs) Grp170 and Sil1 induce CT release from BiP in order to promote toxin retrotranslocation. In addition, we find that after NEF-dependent release from BiP, the toxin is transferred to protein disulfide isomerase; this ER redox chaperone is known to unfold CTA1, which allows the toxin to cross the Hrd1-Sel1L complex. Our data thus identify two NEFs that trigger toxin release from BiP to enable successful retrotranslocation and clarify the fate of the toxin after it disengages from BiP.

  1. Evolution of the Selenoproteome in Helicobacter pylori and Epsilonproteobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Cravedi, Pietro; Mori, Giulia; Fischer, Frédéric; Percudani, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    By competing for the acquisition of essential nutrients, Helicobacter pylori has the unique ability to persist in the human stomach, also causing nutritional insufficiencies in the host. Although the H. pylori genome apparently encodes selenocysteine synthase (SelA, HP1513), a key pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme for the incorporation of selenium into bacterial proteins, nothing is known about the use of this essential element in protein synthesis by this pathogen. We analyzed the evolution of the complete machinery for incorporation of selenium into proteins and the selenoproteome of several H. pylori strains and related Epsilonproteobacteria. Our searches identified the presence of selenoproteins—including the previously unknown DUF466 family—in various Epsilonproteobacteria, but not in H. pylori. We found that a complete system for selenocysteine incorporation was present in the Helicobacteriaceae ancestor and has been recently lost before the split of Helicobacter acinonychis and H. pylori. Our results indicate that H. pylori, at variance with other gastric and enterohepatic Helicobacter, does not use selenocysteine in protein synthesis and does not use selenium for tRNA wobble base modification. However, selA has survived as a functional gene, having lost the domain for the binding of selenocysteine tRNA, but maintaining the ability to bind the PLP cofactor. The evolutionary modifications described for the SelA protein of H. pylori find parallels in other bacterial and archaeal species, suggesting that an alternative enzymatic function is hidden in many proteins annotated as selenocysteinyl-tRNA synthase. PMID:26342139

  2. Efficacy of single-incision needle-knife biopsy for sampling subepithelial lesions

    PubMed Central

    Shimamura, Yuto; Hwang, Jason; Cirocco, Maria; May, Gary R.; Mosko, Jeffrey; Teshima, Christopher W.

    2017-01-01

    Background and study aims Single-incision needle-knife (SINK) biopsy is a diagnostic method for acquiring tissue samples for subepithelial lesions (SELs). A single linear incision is made in the overlying mucosa and tissue samples are obtained by passing conventional biopsy forceps through the opening and deep into the lesion. The aim of this study was to describe the efficacy and safety of this technique. Patients and methods Consecutive patients who underwent SINK biopsy for an upper gastrointestinal SEL between October 2013 and September 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Results Forty-nine patients underwent 50 SINK biopsies. Sufficient sampling for a definite pathologic diagnosis was obtained in 42 (86 %) cases, with 91 % (40/44) having sufficient sample to perform immunohistochemistry when deemed clinically relevant. Of the 26 patients with prior non-diagnostic biopsies or FNA, a specific diagnosis was obtained in 85 % (22/26). There were no significant adverse events. Conclusions SINK biopsy is a safe and feasible strategy for obtaining a definitive tissue diagnosis with immunohistochemistry for SELs. PMID:28337478

  3. In vitro culture of Babesia bovis in a bovine serum-free culture medium supplemented with insulin, transferrin, and selenite.

    PubMed

    Rojas Martínez, C; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Figueroa Millán, J V; Acosta Viana, K Y; Gutiérrez Ruiz, E J; Álvarez Martínez, J A

    2016-11-01

    Bovine serum is an important factor for the optimal growth of Babesia bovis in vitro. This protozoan can be cultured in M-199 with Earle's salts medium (M-199) supplemented with 40% bovine serum (BS). In the present study, four media were assessed along with the control medium M-199. The effect on the proliferation of B. bovis in vitro was tested when these media were combined with insulin (Ins), transferrin (Trans) and selenite (Sel) in the absence of bovine serum. Treatment with Advanced DMEM/F12 medium (A-DMEM/F12) achieved the highest percentage of parasitized erythrocytes (PPE), reaching a maximum value of 9.59%. A-DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with a mixture of Ins (2000 mg/L), Trans (1100 mg/L), and Sel (1.34 mg/L) allowed for the adaptation and proliferation of B. bovis without bovine serum, showed a constant increase in PPE, and reached a maximum value of 9.7% during seven cycles of in vitro culture. It was concluded that continuous proliferation of B. bovis in vitro could be achieved using A-DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with Ins-Trans-Sel, without bovine serum. After adaptation for proliferation in serum-free medium, the B. bovis strain of parasites could have future use in the study of this economically important protozoan species that affects cattle.

  4. Preliminary safety equipment list for Tank 241-C-106 Manipulator Retrieval System, Project W-340

    SciTech Connect

    Guthrie, R.L.

    1994-09-23

    This document identifies the anticipated safety classification of the estimated major subsystems, based on the projected major functions, that will be used as guidance for the development of the conceptual design of the Manipulator Retrieval System for Tank 241-C-106. This document is intended to be updated as the design of the Manipulator Retrieval System evolves through the conceptual and definitive design phases. The Manipulator Retrieval System is to be capable of removing the hardened sludge heel at the bottom of single shell Tank 241-C-106 and to perform an overall clean out of the tank that leaves a maximum of 360 ft{sup 3} (TPA milestone M-45-00). The thickness of the heel prior to initiation of waste retrieval with the Manipulator Retrieval System is estimated to be 1- to 2-ft. The Manipulator Retrieval System is currently in the pre-conceptual phase with no definitive systems or subsystems. The anticipated retrieval functions for the Manipulator Retrieval System is based on Table 6-2 of WHC-SD-W340-ES-001, Rev. 1. Projected equipment to accomplish these functions were based on the following systems and equipment: Rotary Mode Core Sampling Equipment (WHC-SD-WM-SEL-032); Light Duty Utility Arm System Equipment (WHC-SD-WM-SEL-034); Single Shell Tanks Equipment (WHC-SD-WM-SEL-020).

  5. Genetics, cross-resistance and mechanism of resistance to spinosad in a field strain of Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Akram, Waseem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali

    2014-02-01

    The house fly, Musca domestica L., is a cosmopolitan insect with the ability to develop resistance to insecticides used for their management. In the present study, we investigated the genetics of spinosad resistance, and cross-resistance potential to other insecticides by selecting a field strain with a commercial spinosad formulation. Bioassays with the field strain, before selection with spinosad, gave resistance ratios (RRs) of 4, 5, 66, 21 and 5 fold for spinosad, indoxacarb, abamectin, imidacloprid and deltamethrin, respectively, in comparison to a laboratory susceptible (Lab-susceptible) strain. After continuous selection of the field strain (Spin-SEL) with spinosad, the RR was increased up to 155 fold; however, the resistance was unstable (RR decreased 1.43 fold) when this strain was not exposed to spinosad for five generations. The Spin-SEL strain did not show cross-resistance to abamectin, indoxacarb or deltamethrin, but showed negative cross-resistance to imidacloprid. Crosses between the Spin-SEL and Lab-susceptible strains revealed an autosomal and incomplete dominant mode of resistance to spinosad. A direct test using a monogenic inheritance model based on Chi-square analysis revealed that the resistance was governed by more than one gene. Moreover, the resistance was neither overcome with the insecticide synergist piperonyl butoxide nor with S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate. Lack of cross-resistance and instability of resistance suggest that rotation with spinosad could be an effective resistance management strategy.

  6. Contact and fumigant toxicity of Cyperus rotundus steam distillate constituents and related compounds to insecticide-susceptible and -resistant Blattella germanica.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kyu-Sik; Shin, E-Hyun; Park, Chan; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2012-05-01

    We assessed the toxicity of 17 steam distillate constituents of Cyperus rotundus (L.) rhizome, another seven known compounds of C. rotundus rhizome, and 14 structurally related compounds to females from an insecticide-susceptible KSS strain and two field-collected SEL and DJN colonies of Blattella germanica (L.). High contact + fumigant toxicity to KSS females was produced by p-cymene, nerol, linalool, o-cymene, (S)-(-)-citronellal, (1S)-(-)-camphor, terpinolene, and m-cymene (LD50, 0.29-0.47 mg/cm2). The toxicity of these compounds was virtually identical against females from any of the three strains, even though SEL and DJN females were resistant to six acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and three pyrethroids (resistance ratio, 9-154 and 12-195). These results indicate that the compounds and insecticides do not share a common mode of action or elicit cross-resistance. The test compounds were effective in closed but not in open containers against SEL females, indicating that their route of insecticidal action was largely a result of vapor action. Structure-activity relationship indicates that structural characteristics, such as types of functional groups, appear to play a role in determining the terpenoid toxicities to B. germanica. C. rotundus rhizome steam distillate constituents and related compounds described merit further study as potential fumigants for the control of resistant cockroach populations in light of global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in indoor environments.

  7. Effects of Phos-Chek® G75-F and Silv-Ex® on red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) embryos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buscemi, D.M.; Hoffman, D.J.; Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Kuenzel, W.J.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of field application levels of wildfire control chemicals, Phos-Chek® G75-F (PC) and Silv-Ex® (SE), were examined on red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) embryos. Embryos were more sensitive to PC and SE when eggs were immersed for 10 s at an early developmental stage (days 3–5 of incubation) than at a later stage (days 6–9 of incubation). The LC50 (concentration causing 50% mortality) for early stage embryos exposed to PC was 213.3 g/L (slope = 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 129.1–326.1). The no observed effect concentration (NOEC) was below 135 g PC/L, which caused a significant increase in embryonic mortality and represents the lowest field coverage level of 1 gal/100 feet2. The LC50 for early stage embryos exposed to SE was 19.8 g/L (slope = 1.5; 95% CI = 11.7–52.2). Significant mortality was observed at 10 g SE/L and marginal at 7.5 g SE/L with an apparent NOEC around 5 g SE/L. Neither chemical resulted in apparent developmental malformations.

  8. The Distribution of 18 Enterotoxin and Enterotoxin-Like Genes in Staphylococcus aureus Strains from Different Sources in East China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jinghua; Wang, Yan; Cao, Yongzhong; Yan, Wenguang; Niu, Xiaosai; Zhou, Liping; Chen, Jianhao; Sun, Ying; Li, Chenxi; Zhang, Xiaorong; Wu, Yantao

    2016-04-01

    The distribution of 18 staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) or SE-like (SEl) genes in Staphylococcus aureus strains from different sources in east China was investigated. Among all 496 S. aureus strains, 291 strains carried one or more SE genes. The more frequently occurred genes were sea, seb, seg, selk, sell, selm, selo, and seq; the less frequent occurred genes were sec, selj, and ser. The classic SE genes and the enterotoxin gene cluster (egc) (seg, sei, selm, seln, selo, and/or selu) accounted for 25.67% and 61.68% of all detected genes, respectively. There were three gene clusters (egc, sea-sek-seq, and sed-sej-ser), of which the egc cluster was the important one that could generate novel complexes, and the sea-sek-seq cluster was a close relative to the hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus. The SE gene distributions were different among strains of different sources and formed diverse toxin gene profiles. The human- and foodborne-origin strains harbored classic and novel SE and SEl genes, whereas animal-origin strains harbored egc and other novel SE and SEl genes mainly. The foodborne- and human-origin strains were the main dangerous factors of classic staphylococcal foodborne poisoning, whereas the strains (especially from animals) that carried egc and other novel genes mainly should be new potential dangerous factors for food safety.

  9. She's supporting them; who's supporting her? Preschool center-level social-emotional supports and teacher well-being.

    PubMed

    Zinsser, Katherine M; Christensen, Claire G; Torres, Luz

    2016-12-01

    Preschool teachers across the country have been charged to prepare children socially and emotionally for kindergarten. Teachers working in preschool centers are supporting children's social and emotional learning (SEL) within a rich ecology of emotion and social relationships and the present study considers how the supports implemented for children's SEL at the center-level are associated with teachers' psychological health and workplace experiences. Hierarchical linear models were constructed using data from the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey 2009 cohort. Results indicate that although teachers work in individual classrooms, they share common perceptions at the center-level of their workplace climate, access to support, and, although to a lesser extent, experience commonalities in psychological health and job satisfaction. Furthermore, in centers that had implemented more supports for children's SEL (including access to mental health consultants, classroom curriculum, and training and resources for teachers) teachers were less depressed, more satisfied with their jobs, felt more supported in managing challenging behavior, and viewed the workplace climate of their center as more positive. Findings are discussed in light of the national efforts to increase and retain a high-quality early childhood workforce.

  10. The nucleotide exchange factors Grp170 and Sil1 induce cholera toxin release from BiP to enable retrotranslocation

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jeffrey M.; Inoue, Takamasa; Chen, Grace; Tsai, Billy

    2015-01-01

    Cholera toxin (CT) intoxicates cells by trafficking from the cell surface to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where the catalytic CTA1 subunit hijacks components of the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) machinery to retrotranslocate to the cytosol and induce toxicity. In the ER, CT targets to the ERAD machinery composed of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Hrd1-Sel1L complex, in part via the activity of the Sel1L-binding partner ERdj5. This J protein stimulates BiP's ATPase activity, allowing BiP to capture the toxin. Presumably, toxin release from BiP must occur before retrotranslocation. Here, using loss-and gain-of-function approaches coupled with binding studies, we demonstrate that the ER-resident nucleotide exchange factors (NEFs) Grp170 and Sil1 induce CT release from BiP in order to promote toxin retrotranslocation. In addition, we find that after NEF-dependent release from BiP, the toxin is transferred to protein disulfide isomerase; this ER redox chaperone is known to unfold CTA1, which allows the toxin to cross the Hrd1-Sel1L complex. Our data thus identify two NEFs that trigger toxin release from BiP to enable successful retrotranslocation and clarify the fate of the toxin after it disengages from BiP. PMID:25877869

  11. [Spinal epidural lymphoma. A study using computed tomography].

    PubMed

    Ibarra, B; Romero, F J; Torrents, C; Rovira, M

    1990-02-01

    We have gone through the computerized tomographies (CT) of four cases of spinal epidural lymphomas (SEL) studied in our department. Paraparesis with a sensitive level was the beginning of the disease three times; sciatic pain with recurrent fever once. A myelography followed by CT was done in the three cases of paraparesis while a non-contrast CT and a contrast-enhanced study was done in the case of sciatic pain. An homogeneous intraspinal mass stretching at least along one vertebral segment was the most usual finding. This mass spread into paraspinal tissue effacing fat lines. The mass was hyperdense in relation to dural sack and was limited to intraspinal space in one occasion. We have revised bibliography about osseous lesions in SEL and have found out disagreement on it. We have found them only once in our study. Intrathecal contrast was useless in determining tumour nature but useful in delimiting intraspinal extent. We have searched for tomographic features in order to establish differential diagnosis with other spinal epidural diseases. We did not find any SEL-exclusive features but we found that an homogeneous intra-extraspinal mass, extended at least along one vertebral segment and either producing or not producing osseous lesions can make us think of the presence of spinal epidural lymphoma.

  12. Effects of dietary supplementation with an organic source of selenium on characteristics of semen quality and in vitro fertility in boars.

    PubMed

    Speight, S M; Estienne, M J; Harper, A F; Crawford, R J; Knight, J W; Whitaker, B D

    2012-03-01

    Semen characteristics in boars fed organic or inorganic sources of Se were assessed in 3 experiments. Crossbred boars were randomly assigned at weaning to 1 of 3 dietary treatments: I) basal diets with no supplemental Se (control), II) basal diets with 0.3 mg/kg of supplemental Se from an organic source (Sel-Plex, Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY), and III) basal diets supplemented with 0.3 mg/kg of supplemental Se from sodium selenite (Premium Selenium 270, North American Nutrition Co. Inc., Lewisburg, OH). For Exp. 1, semen was collected from boars (n = 10/dietary treatment) on 5 consecutive days at 15 mo of age. Effects of treatment × day were detected for the proportions of progressively motile (P = 0.02) and rapidly moving (P = 0.03) spermatozoa, and measures of sperm velocity, including path velocity of the smoothed cell path (P = 0.05) and average velocity measured in a straight line from the beginning to the end of the track (P = 0.05). Negative effects of day of semen collection on sperm motility were least pronounced in boars fed Sel-Plex. Experiment 2 was conducted when boars were 17 mo of age, and semen was collected (n = 10 boars/dietary treatment), diluted in commercially available extenders, and stored at 18°C for 9 d. Effects of treatment × day were detected for percentages of motile (P = 0.01) and static (P = 0.01) spermatozoa, amplitude of lateral head displacement (P = 0.02), frequency with which the sperm track crossed the sperm path (P = 0.04), straightness (P = 0.01), and average size of all sperm heads (P = 0.03). In general, sperm cells from boars fed Sel-Plex were better able to maintain motility during liquid storage compared with boars fed sodium selenite. For Exp. 3, semen was collected from boars (n = 6/dietary treatment) at 23 mo of age, and spermatozoa were evaluated at d 1 and 8 after semen collection using in vitro fertilization procedures. There was a tendency for an effect (P = 0.11) of dietary treatment on fertilization rate

  13. Geochemistry and mineralogy of sediments from the Ventersdorp and Transvaal Supergroups, South Africa: Cratonic evolution during the early Proterozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wronkiewicz, David J.; Condie, Kent C.

    1990-02-01

    Approximately 100 pelite and 12 quartzite samples from the Ventersdorp (~2.7 Ga) and Transvaal Supergroups (~2.6-2.1 Ga) have been analyzed to monitor the early Proterozoic evolution of the Kaapvaal Craton, southern Africa. From oldest to youngest, pelites were sampled from the Ventersdorp-Bothaville (BOT), Transvaal-Selati (SEL), Black Reef (BR), Timeball Hill (TH), Strubenkop (STR), and Silverton (SIL) Formations. Paleocurrent measurements in Transvaal quartzites indicate sources lying predominantly to the north and east. Relative to the BOT-SEL-BR, pelites from the TH-STR-SIL are enriched in heavy-REE, LILE, Zr, Hf, Nb, and Ta, depleted in K 2O, MgO, Ni, and Cr, and have lower Cr/Zr, Sc/Th, K 2O/Na 2O, and K/ Rb ratios. Compared to SEL-BR, BOT-TH-STR-SIL pelites have higher light-REE contents and La/Yb ratios, and lower Eu/Eu∗ ratios (0.61-0.66). Relative to NASC (North American Shale Composite), THSTR-SIL pelites are enriched in light-REE, Th, U, Ta, Nb, Sc, Cs, have higher La/Yb ratios, and are depleted in K 2O and MgO. BOT-SEL-BR pelites are enriched in K 2O, MgO, Cr, and Ni, have higher K 2O/Na 2O, Sc/Th, and Eu/Eu∗ ratios, and are depleted in Th, U, heavy-REE, and High Field Strength Elements (HFSE) relative to NASC. Compositions of TH-STR-SIL pelites suggest a provenance similar to average Phanerozoic uppercontinental crust. This source is more evolved than that of BOT-SEL-BR pelites, indicating a transformation from primitive (mafic-rich) to evolved (felsic-rich) upper-crust at 2.2 Ga. This transition follows earlier primitive to evolved trends in Moodies-Pongola (3.3-3.0 Ga) and Witwatersrand (~2.8 Ga) successions. These data suggest that several cycles of changing upper-continental crust occurred in the Kaapvaal craton between 3.3-2.1 Ga.

  14. Visual Astronomy in the Mythology and Ritual of India: The Sun Temples of Varanasi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malville, J. McKim; Singh, Rana P. B.

    We use Varanasi, the paradigmatic holy city of India, as an illustration of the incorporation of visual astronomy into Hindu culture. In the city the Sun is honored in three ways: at morning worship, during pilgrimage, and as an icon in temples. Specific attributes of the Sun are symbolized by the adityas, represented by fourteen temples which were destroyed during the years of Mughal occupation of the city after A.D. 1192. According to local tradition the locations of these temples remained in the communal memory of the city and are marked today by Sun disks, lotus-form stones or images of Surya, that are set into the walls of houses or installed in shrines or temples. Many of the sites are included in pilgrimage routes of the city. With the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS) we have mapped the positions of the adityas and find that most lie along the sides of a triangle which surrounded the original center of the city. The major text that deals with Varanasi and its spiritual traditions, the Kashi Khanda, gives the myths, stories and rituals associated with each of the former Sun temples and reveals the significance of the Sun for inhabitants and pilgrims. The Sun is understood to be a caring and protective deity, providing relief from life's ordinary problems such as skin disease, infertility, hunger and the problems of old age and death. The Kashi Khanda also includes references to probable observations of naked-eye sunspots, meteor showers, and the total solar eclipse of A.D. 1054.

  15. Hemipelagic cephalopods from the Maastrichtian (late Cretaceous) Parras Basin at La Parra, Coahuila, Mexico, and their implications for the correlation of the lower Difunta Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ifrim, Christina; Stinnesbeck, Wolfgang; Garza, Rufino Rodríguez; Ventura, José Flores

    2010-04-01

    Few biostratigraphic data exist from the Parras and La Popa basins, mainly due to the absence of index fossils. This paper describes 19 ammonoid species from 15 genera and 1 nautilid from La Parra, southeastern Coahuila, Mexico. The assemblage consists of Tethyan [( Baculites ovatus, Brahmaites ( Anabrahmaites) vishnu, Fresvillia constricta, Hauericeras rembda, Pachydiscus ( P.) ex gr. neubergicus, Solenoceras reesidei, Tetragonites cf. superstes], cosmopolitan ( Anagaudryceras politissimum, Desmophyllites diphylloides, Diplomoceras cylindraceum, Gaudryceras kayei, Phyllopachyceras forbesianum, Pseudophyllites indra), and cold water taxa [ Fresvillia teres, Hypophylloceras ( Neophylloceras) surya, H. ( N.) hetonaiense, Pachydiscus ( P.) cf. egertoni]. Eutrephoceras sp. and Menuites juv. sp. were not determined to species level. A similar assemblage was recently described from the coeval Méndez Formation at Cerralvo, Nuevo León. Species endemic to North America, particularly the Western Interior Seaway, are absent at La Parra. The ammonoid assemblage and associated planktonic foraminifers allow for precise biostratigraphic assignation to the early Maastrichtian planktonic foraminiferal zone CF 5, and thus provide an important marker level for correlation of the lower Difunta Group. The new biostratigraphic data presented herein allow for the first time precise dating of the Cañon del Tule Formation of the Difunta Group. Their combination with existing sequence- and magnetostratigraphic data improve the correlation of the lower Difunta Group with time-equivalent lithostratigraphic units such as the Cárdenas Formation in Mexico. They also provide new insight into ammonoid migration patterns induced by sea-level changes. Baculites ovatus migrated into the La Popa Basin as a result of the sea-level highstand documented at La Parra.

  16. Selenoproteins protect against avian nutritional muscular dystrophy by metabolizing peroxides and regulating redox/apoptotic signaling.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jia-Qiang; Ren, Fa-Zheng; Jiang, Yun-Yun; Xiao, Chen; Lei, Xin Gen

    2015-06-01

    Nutritional muscular dystrophy (NMD) of chicks is induced by dietary selenium (Se)/vitamin E (Vit. E) deficiencies and may be associated with oxidative cell damage. To reveal the underlying mechanisms related to the presumed oxidative cell damage, we fed four groups of 1-day-old broiler chicks (n = 40/group) with a basal diet (BD; 10 μg Se/kg; no Vit. E added, -Se -Vit. E) or the BD plus all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate at 50mg/kg (-Se +Vit. E), Se (as sodium selenite) at 0.3mg/kg (+Se -Vit. E), or both of these nutrients (+Se +Vit. E) for 6 weeks. High incidences of NMD (93%) and mortality (36%) of the chicks were induced by the BD, starting at week 3. Dietary Se deficiency alone also induced muscle fiber rupture and coagulation necrosis in the pectoral muscle of chicks at week 3 and thereafter, with increased (P < 0.05) malondialdehyde, decreased (P < 0.05) total antioxidant capacity, and diminished (P < 0.05) glutathione peroxidase activities in the muscle. To link these oxidative damages of the muscle cells to the Se-deficiency-induced NMD, we first determined gene expression of the potential 26 selenoproteins in the muscle of the chicks at week 2 before the onset of symptoms. Compared with the +Se chicks, the -Se chicks had lower (P < 0.05) muscle mRNA levels of Gpx1, Gpx3, Gpx4, Sepp1, Selo, Selk, Selu, Selh, Selm, Sepw1, and Sep15. The -Se chicks also had decreased (P < 0.05) production of 6 selenoproteins (long-form selenoprotein P (SelP-L), GPx1, GPx4, Sep15, SelW, and SelN), but increased levels (P < 0.05) of the short-form selenoprotein P in muscle at weeks 2 and 4. Dietary Se deficiency elevated (P < 0.05) muscle p53, cleaved caspase 3, cleaved caspase 9, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), focal adhesion kinase (FAK), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), phospho-Akt, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), phospho-p38 MAPK, phospho-JNK, and phospho-ERK and decreased (P < 0.05) muscle procaspase 3, procaspase 9, and NF

  17. [Motivation and barriers in the consumption of five daily servings of fruit and vegetables by mothers of school age children and primary school teachers].

    PubMed

    Olivares, Sonia; Lera, Lydia; Mardones, María Angélica; Araneda, Jacqueline; Olivares, María Antonieta; Colque, Maria Ester

    2009-06-01

    As a baseline for the promotion of health and the design of educational interventions, the benefits, barriers and stages of change related to the consumption of five daily servings of fruit and vegetables were studied in 463 mothers of school age children from different socioeconomic levels (SEL) and 412 primary school teachers in 3 cities in Chile. These groups were selected because of their influence over children's eating habits. For the evaluation of stages changes, a questionnaire designed by the American Institute for Cancer Research was adapted and applied. The questionnaire was answered voluntarily by the participants. 58% of the mothers and 60% of the teachers ate 1-2 servings of fruit and vegetables daily; 29.4 and 32.3% ate 3-4 servings and only 10 and 4% respectively ate 5 servings. Benefits reported from fruit and vegetable consumption in both groups were pleasure, wellness, a sense of well being and weight management. Barriers mentioned were forgetfulness, time constraints, nonsatisfaction of appetite and lack of motivation. The price of fruit and vegetables was considered high by 15.1% of mothers of medium high SEL and by 26.4% of medium low SEL (p < 0.002). Among teachers, 25.4% of men and 11.7% of women also considered price as a barrier (p < 0.002). Such results show that both mothers and teachers need specific interventions to improve their own motivation for eating more fruit and vegetables and to thus support this healthy eating habit in children.

  18. Subacute toxicity of nano-selenium compared to other selenium species in mice.

    PubMed

    Benko, Ilona; Nagy, Gabor; Tanczos, Bence; Ungvari, Eva; Sztrik, Attila; Eszenyi, Peter; Prokisch, Jozsef; Banfalvi, Gaspar

    2012-12-01

    Sixteen groups of mice were fed diets containing different selenium species to compare their toxicity. Inorganic sodium selenate and sodium hydroselenite, elementary nanoSe, organic Sel-Plex, and Lacto-MicroSelenium were administered for 14 d at concentrations of 0.5, 5, and 50 ppm Se, equivalent to 0.5, 5, and 50 mg Se/kg food, corresponding to an estimated 4, 40, and 400 µg/kg body weight/d Se uptake, respectively. At the end of the treatment, body, liver, spleen, kidney, heart, and brain weights were measured, mice were subjected to necropsy, and histological examinations were performed on the liver. At lower Se doses (0.5 and 5 ppm) a moderate reduction was observed in the number of bone marrow and white blood cells and in granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units (GM-CFUs) relative to the untreated control group of mice. A comparison of lowest toxic doses of sodium selenite in mice (0.5 ppm) and mallard (10 ppm) indicates that birds are more resistant to Se than rodents. In mice, a small but measurable weight loss was observed after 5 ppm selenate and LactoMicroSe treatment. The most significant changes took place after 50-ppm administration in body and spleen weight, hematology, and liver histology. Toxicity was more pronounced when inorganic Se was applied than after subacute application of Sel-Plex, nanoSe, or LactoMicroSe. To summarize the effects, the authors' 14-d murine subacute toxicity study showed that the toxicity of Se species decreased in the following order: selenate > selenite > nanoSe > Sel-Plex > LactoMicroSe.

  19. Conditioned hearing sensitivity change in the harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena).

    PubMed

    Nachtigall, Paul E; Supin, Alexander Ya; Pacini, Aude F; Kastelein, Ronald A

    2016-08-01

    Hearing sensitivity, during trials in which a warning sound preceding a loud sound, was investigated in two harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena). Sensitivity was measured using pip-train test stimuli and auditory evoked potential recording. When a hearing test/warning stimulus, with a frequency of either 45 or 32 kHz, preceded a loud 32 kHz tone with a sound pressure level of 152 dB re 1 μPa root mean square, lasting 2 s yielding an sound exposure level (SEL) of 155 dB re 1 μPa(2)s, pooled hearing thresholds measured just before the loud sound increased relative to baseline thresholds. During two experimental sessions the threshold increased up to 17 dB for the test frequency of 45 kHz and up to 11 dB for the test frequency of 32 kHz. An extinction test revealed very rapid threshold recovery within the first two experimental sessions. The SEL producing the hearing dampening effect was low compared to previous other odontocete hearing change efforts with each individual trial equal to 155 dB re 1 μPa(2) but the cumulative SEL for each subsession may have been as high as 168 dB re 1 μPa(2). Interpretations of conditioned hearing sensation change and possible change due to temporary threshold shifts are considered for the harbor porpoise and discussed in the light of potential mechanisms and echolocation.

  20. Development of the analog ASIC for multi-channel readout X-ray CCD camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Hiroshi; Matsuura, Daisuke; Idehara, Toshihiro; Anabuki, Naohisa; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Doty, John P.; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Katayama, Haruyoshi; Kitamura, Hisashi; Uchihori, Yukio

    2011-03-01

    We report on the performance of an analog application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) developed aiming for the front-end electronics of the X-ray CCD camera system onboard the next X-ray astronomical satellite, ASTRO-H. It has four identical channels that simultaneously process the CCD signals. Distinctive capability of analog-to-digital conversion enables us to construct a CCD camera body that outputs only digital signals. As the result of the front-end electronics test, it works properly with low input noise of ≤30μV at the pixel rate below 100 kHz. The power consumption is sufficiently low of ˜150mW/chip. The input signal range of ±20 mV covers the effective energy range of the typical X-ray photon counting CCD (up to 20 keV). The integrated non-linearity is 0.2% that is similar as those of the conventional CCDs in orbit. We also performed a radiation tolerance test against the total ionizing dose (TID) effect and the single event effect. The irradiation test using 60Co and proton beam showed that the ASIC has the sufficient tolerance against TID up to 200 krad, which absolutely exceeds the expected amount of dose during the period of operating in a low-inclination low-earth orbit. The irradiation of Fe ions with the fluence of 5.2×108 Ion/cm2 resulted in no single event latchup (SEL), although there were some possible single event upsets. The threshold against SEL is higher than 1.68 MeV cm2/mg, which is sufficiently high enough that the SEL event should not be one of major causes of instrument downtime in orbit.

  1. Towards a mature measurement environment: Creating a software engineering research environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, Victor R.

    1990-01-01

    Software engineering researchers are building tools, defining methods, and models; however, there are problems with the nature and style of the research. The research is typically bottom-up, done in isolation so the pieces cannot be easily logically or physically integrated. A great deal of the research is essentially the packaging of a particular piece of technology with little indication of how the work would be integrated with other prices of research. The research is not aimed at solving the real problems of software engineering, i.e., the development and maintenance of quality systems in a productive manner. The research results are not evaluated or analyzed via experimentation or refined and tailored to the application environment. Thus, it cannot be easily transferred into practice. Because of these limitations we have not been able to understand the components of the discipline as a coherent whole and the relationships between various models of the process and product. What is needed is a top down experimental, evolutionary framework in which research can be focused, logically and physically integrated to produce quality software productively, and evaluated and tailored to the application environment. This implies the need for experimentation, which in turn implies the need for a laboratory that is associated with the artifact we are studying. This laboratory can only exist in an environment where software is being built, i.e., as part of a real software development and maintenance organization. Thus, we propose that Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) type activities exist in all organizations to support software engineering research. We describe the SEL from a researcher's point of view, and discuss the corporate and government benefits of the SEL. The discussion focuses on the benefits to the research community.

  2. Combined speciation analysis by X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy, ion chromatography, and solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to evaluate biotreatment of concentrated selenium wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Markus; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Farges, François; Nikitenko, Sergei; Corvini, Philippe F X; Lens, Piet N L

    2011-02-01

    In this study we evaluate the potential of anaerobic granular sludge as an inoculum for the bioremediation of selenium-contaminated waters using species-specific analytical methods. Solid species formed by microbial reduction were investigated using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy at the selenium K-edge. Furthermore, dissolved selenium species were specifically determined by ion chromatography (IC) and solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). Least-squares linear combination of the XANES spectra for samples incubated with the highest selenate/selenite concentrations (10(-3) M) show the predominance of elemental selenium and a Se(-I) selenide, such as ferroselite, the thermodynamically most stable iron selenide. In contrast, elemental selenium and Se(-II) selenides are the main species detected at the lower selenate/selenite concentrations. In each repeated fed batch incubation, most aqueous selenite anions were converted into solid selenium species, regardless of the type of electron donor used (acetate or H(2)/CO(2)) and the selenium concentration applied. On the other hand, at higher concentrations of selenate (10(-4) and 10(-3) M), significant amounts of the oxyanion remained unconverted after consecutive incubations. SPME-GC-MS demonstrated selenium alkylation with both electron donors investigated, as dimethyl selenide (DMSe) and dimethyl diselenide (DMDSe). Selenite was even more alkylated in the presence of H(2)/CO(2) (maximum 2156 μg of Se/L of DMSe + DMDSe) as compared to acetate (maximum 50 μg of Se/L). In contrast, selenate was less alkylated using both electron donors (maximum 166 and 3 μg of Se/L, respectively). The high alkylation potential for selenite limits its bioremediation in selenium laden waters involving H(2)/CO(2) as the electron donor despite the fact that nontoxic elemental selenium and thermodynamically stable metal selenide species are formed.

  3. Selective rescue of selenoprotein expression in mice lacking a highly specialized methyl group in selenocysteine tRNA.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Bradley A; Xu, Xue-Ming; Gladyshev, Vadim N; Hatfield, Dolph L

    2005-02-18

    Selenocysteine (Sec) is the 21st amino acid in the genetic code. Its tRNA is variably methylated on the 2'-O-hydroxyl site of the ribosyl moiety at position 34 (Um34). Herein, we identified a role of Um34 in regulating the expression of some, but not all, selenoproteins. A strain of knock-out transgenic mice was generated, wherein the Sec tRNA gene was replaced with either wild type or mutant Sec tRNA transgenes. The mutant transgene yielded a tRNA that lacked two base modifications, N(6)-isopentenyladenosine at position 37 (i(6)A37) and Um34. Several selenoproteins, including glutathione peroxidases 1 and 3, SelR, and SelT, were not detected in mice rescued with the mutant transgene, whereas other selenoproteins, including thioredoxin reductases 1 and 3 and glutathione peroxidase 4, were expressed in normal or reduced levels. Northern blot analysis suggested that other selenoproteins (e.g. SelW) were also poorly expressed. This novel regulation of protein expression occurred at the level of translation and manifested a tissue-specific pattern. The available data suggest that the Um34 modification has greater influence than the i(6)A37 modification in regulating the expression of various mammalian selenoproteins and Um34 is required for synthesis of several members of this protein class. Many proteins that were poorly rescued appear to be involved in responses to stress, and their expression is also highly dependent on selenium in the diet. Furthermore, their mRNA levels are regulated by selenium and are subject to nonsense-mediated decay. Overall, this study described a novel mechanism of regulation of protein expression by tRNA modification that is in turn regulated by levels of the trace element, selenium.

  4. SEPP1 Influences Breast Cancer Risk among Women with Greater Native American Ancestry: The Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study

    PubMed Central

    Pellatt, Andrew J.; Wolff, Roger K.; John, Esther M.; Torres-Mejia, Gabriela; Hines, Lisa M.; Baumgartner, Kathy B.; Giuliano, Anna R.; Lundgreen, Abbie; Slattery, Martha L.

    2013-01-01

    Selenoproteins are a class of proteins containing a selenocysteine residue, many of which have been shown to have redox functions, acting as antioxidants to decrease oxidative stress. Selenoproteins have previously been associated with risk of various cancers and redox-related diseases. In this study we evaluated possible associations between breast cancer risk and survival and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the selenoprotein genes GPX1, GPX2, GPX3, GPX4, SELS, SEP15, SEPN1, SEPP1, SEPW1, TXNRD1, and TXNRD2 among Hispanic/Native American (2111 cases, 2597 controls) and non-Hispanic white (NHW) (1481 cases, 1586 controls) women in the Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study. Adaptive Rank Truncated Product (ARTP) analysis was used to determine both gene and pathway significance with these genes. The overall selenoprotein pathway PARTP was not significantly associated with breast cancer risk (PARTP = 0.69), and only one gene, GPX3, was of borderline significance for the overall population (PARTP =0.09) and marginally significant among women with 0-28% Native American (NA) ancestry (PARTP=0.06). The SEPP1 gene was statistically significantly associated with breast cancer risk among women with higher NA ancestry (PARTP=0.002) and contributed to a significant pathway among those women (PARTP=0.04). GPX1, GPX3, and SELS were associated with Estrogen Receptor-/Progesterone Receptor+ status (PARTP = 0.002, 0.05, and 0.01, respectively). Four SNPs (GPX3 rs2070593, rsGPX4 rs2074451, SELS rs9874, and TXNRD1 rs17202060) significantly interacted with dietary oxidative balance score after adjustment for multiple comparisons to alter breast cancer risk. GPX4 was significantly associated with breast cancer survival among those with the highest NA ancestry (PARTP = 0.05) only. Our data suggest that SEPP1 alters breast cancer risk among women with higher levels of NA ancestry. PMID:24278290

  5. Unilateral basement membrane zone alteration of the regenerated laminar region in equine chronic laminitis.

    PubMed

    Kuwano, Atsutoshi; Ueno, Takanori; Katayama, Yoshinari; Nishiyama, Toshio; Arai, Katsuhiko

    2005-07-01

    Between the laminar epidermis and the laminar dermis of laminar region (LR) in equine foot, it can be observed the basement membrane zone (BMZ), which is composed of a basement membrane and its accompaniments like the hemidesmosome and anchoring fibril. Alteration in the BMZ in equine laminitis is possibly related with not only development but also recovery outcome and recurrence of this disease. However, there is little known about the structure of the BMZ during the recovery phase of this disease. To assess the condition of the BMZ of LR affected by chronic laminitis, the tissue was examined in three cases at two weeks, four weeks and three months after the onset of laminitis, using pathological, immunohistochemical and electron microscopic techniques. Histologically in all laminitis cases, there was a regenerated laminar epidermis with proliferating keratinocytes between the Stratum medium and the dermis, but it included the undeveloped secondary epidermal laminae (ud-SELs) structure in one side of the primary epidermal laminae, especially in the part of the deep area of LR. Immunohistochemical results were positive for the anti-type IV collagen, anti-type VII collagen and anti-laminin 5 antibodies in the most BMZs. However, partial BMZs adjacent to the ud-SELs were negative for the anti-type VII collagen and anti-laminin 5 antibodies. Ultrastructurally, in the BMZ of the ud-SEL, the lamina densa and the lamina lucida were present. In contrast, the anchoring fibrils and the hemidesmosomes were either absent, or present at lower than normal levels. In conclusion, the present study indicated that the part of regenerated LR in chronic laminitis was not able to fully restore to construct the BMZ for a long time, especially in the unilateral side of laminar epidermis. It might be related with recurrence of this disease.

  6. Detecting and Measuring Selection from Gene Frequency Data

    PubMed Central

    Vitalis, Renaud; Gautier, Mathieu; Dawson, Kevin J.; Beaumont, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The recent advent of high-throughput sequencing and genotyping technologies makes it possible to produce, easily and cost effectively, large amounts of detailed data on the genotype composition of populations. Detecting locus-specific effects may help identify those genes that have been, or are currently, targeted by natural selection. How best to identify these selected regions, loci, or single nucleotides remains a challenging issue. Here, we introduce a new model-based method, called SelEstim, to distinguish putative selected polymorphisms from the background of neutral (or nearly neutral) ones and to estimate the intensity of selection at the former. The underlying population genetic model is a diffusion approximation for the distribution of allele frequency in a population subdivided into a number of demes that exchange migrants. We use a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm for sampling from the joint posterior distribution of the model parameters, in a hierarchical Bayesian framework. We present evidence from stochastic simulations, which demonstrates the good power of SelEstim to identify loci targeted by selection and to estimate the strength of selection acting on these loci, within each deme. We also reanalyze a subset of SNP data from the Stanford HGDP–CEPH Human Genome Diversity Cell Line Panel to illustrate the performance of SelEstim on real data. In agreement with previous studies, our analyses point to a very strong signal of positive selection upstream of the LCT gene, which encodes for the enzyme lactase–phlorizin hydrolase and is associated with adult-type hypolactasia. The geographical distribution of the strength of positive selection across the Old World matches the interpolated map of lactase persistence phenotype frequencies, with the strongest selection coefficients in Europe and in the Indus Valley. PMID:24361938

  7. Spatial and Temporal Evolution of the Rockeskyllerkopf Volcanic Centre, West Eifel Volcanic Field, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, C.; Woodland, A. B.; Hopp, J.; Trenholm, N.

    2009-04-01

    The Rockeskyllerkopf volcanic center in the Quaternary West Eifel volcanic field, Germany was active between 474 ± 39 ka and 360 ± 40 ka during which time phreatomagmatic to magmatic eruptions occurred sequentially at three distinct centers: SE Lammersdorf (SEL), Rockeskyllerkopf (RKK) and Franzosenbuche (FB). Eruptions at the SEL center were predominantly phreatomagmatic which resulted in deposition of lithic-rich pyroclastic flow deposits with minor juvenile-lapilli dominated, magmatic eruptions in the middle of the sequence. These deposits have their source in an elongate crater to the north east of the present outcrop. The N-S trending RKK center is dominated by lithic-poor, magmatic, coarse grained partially welded deposits with a distinct horizon of fine-grained airfall deposits. The RKK deposits fill a small valley and likely form the main mass of the current topographic high at Rockeskyllerkopf. The deposits of the FB center locally overlie a palaeosol and plant fossil rich horizon that indicate a significant hiatus in eruptive activity prior to this last eruptive phase. The FB deposits are magmatic and comprise an elongate scoria cone with a deep crater that has been filled by airfall deposits and later lava flows. The geochemical signatures of the lavas at each center are distinct, indicating that the mantle source region is heterogeneous on the scale of 100's of m to ~ 1 km. All the lavas have incompatible trace element characteristics indicative of derivation from depths corresponding to the garnet - spinel transition zone in the presence of hydrous phases: phlogopite in the source of the SEL magma, amphibole in the FB source and both amphibole and phlogopite in the RKK source region.

  8. Resistance of green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens to nitenpyram: Cross-resistance patterns, mechanism, stability, and realized heritability.

    PubMed

    Mansoor, Muhammad Mudassir; Raza, Abu Bakar Muhammad; Abbas, Naeem; Aqueel, Muhammad Anjum; Afzal, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    The green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) is a major generalist predator employed in integrated pest management (IPM) plans for pest control on many crops. Nitenpyram, a neonicotinoid insecticide has widely been used against the sucking pests of cotton in Pakistan. Therefore, a field green lacewing strain was exposed to nitenpyram for five generations to investigate resistance evolution, cross-resistance pattern, stability, realized heritability, and mechanisms of resistance. Before starting the selection with nitenpyram, a field collected strain showed 22.08-, 23.09-, 484.69- and 602.90-fold resistance to nitenpyram, buprofezin, spinosad and acetamiprid, respectively compared with the Susceptible strain. After continuous selection for five generations (G1-G5) with nitenpyram in the laboratory, the Field strain (Niten-SEL) developed a resistance ratio of 423.95 at G6. The Niten-SEL strain at G6 showed no cross-resistance to buprofezin and acetamiprid and negative cross-resistance to spinosad compared with the Field strain (G1). For resistance stability, the Niten-SEL strain was left unexposed to any insecticide for four generations (G6-G9) and bioassay results at G10 showed that resistance to nitenpyram, buprofezin and spinosad was stable, while resistance to acetamiprid was unstable. The realized heritability values were 0.97, 0.16, 0.03, and -0.16 to nitenpyram, buprofezin, acetamiprid and spinosad, respectively, after five generations of selection. Moreover, the enzyme inhibitors (PBO or DEF) significantly decreased the nitenpyram resistance in the resistant strain, suggesting that resistance was due to microsomal oxidases and esterases. These results are very helpful for integration of green lacewings in IPM programs.

  9. Impact of membrane-associated hydrogenases on the F₀F₁-ATPase in Escherichia coli during glycerol and mixed carbon fermentation: ATPase activity and its inhibition by N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide in the mutants lacking hydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Blbulyan, Syuzanna; Trchounian, Armen

    2015-08-01

    Escherichia coli is able to ferment glycerol and to produce molecular hydrogen (H2) by four membrane-associated hydrogenases (Hyd) changing activity in response to different conditions. In this study, overall ATPase activity of glycerol alone and mixed carbon sources (glucose and glycerol) fermented E. coli wild type and different Hyd mutants and its inhibition by N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) were first investigated. ATPase activity was higher in glycerol fermented wild type cells at pH 7.5 compared to pH 6.5 and pH 5.5; DCCD inhibited markedly ATPase activity at pH 7.5. The ATPase activity at pH 7.5, compared with wild type, was lower in selC and less in hypF single mutants, suppressed in hyaB hybC selC triple mutant. Moreover, total ATPase activity of mixed carbon fermented wild type cells was maximal at pH 7.5 and lowered at pH 5.5. The ATPase activities of hypF and hyaB hybC selC mutants were higher at pH 5.5, compared with wild type; DCCD inhibited markedly ATPase activity of hypF mutant. These results demonstrate that in E. coli during glycerol fermentation the membrane proton-translocating FOF1-ATPase has major input in overall ATPase activity and alkaline pH is more optimal for the FOF1-ATPase operation. Hyd-1 and Hyd-2 are required for the FOF1-ATPase activity upon anaerobic fermentation of glycerol. The impact of Hyd-1 and Hyd-2 on the FOF1-ATPase is more obvious during mixed carbon fermentation at slightly acidic pH.

  10. Radiation characterization report for the GPS Receiver microcontroller chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-06-01

    The overall objective of this characterization test was to determine the sensitivity of the Motorola 68332 32-bit microcontroller to radiation induced single event upset and latch-up (SEU/SEL). The microcontroller is a key component of the GPS Receiver which will be a subsystem of the satellite required for the 'FORTE' experiment. Testing was conducted at the Single Event Effects Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The results obtained included a latch-up (SEL) threshold LET (Linear Energy Transfer) of 20 MeV-sq cm/mg and an upset (SEU) threshold LET of 5 MeV-sq cm/mg. The SEU threshold is typical of this technology, commercial 0.8 micrometers HCMOS. Some flow errors were observed that were not reset by the internal watchdog timer of the 68332. It is important that the Receiver design include a monitor of the device, such as an external watch-dog timer, that would initiate a reset of the program when this type of upset occurs. The SEL threshold is lower than would be expected for this 12 micrometer epi layer process and suggests the need for a strategy that would allow for a hard reset of the controller when a latch-up event occurs. Analysis of the galactic cosmic ray spectrum for the FORTE orbit was done and the results indicate a worst case latch-up rate for this device of 6.3 x 10(exp -5) latch-ups per device day or roughly one latch-up per 43.5 device years.

  11. Laboratory selection and characterization of resistance to the Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3Aa toxin in Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Pickett, Brian R; Gulzar, Asim; Ferré, Juan; Wright, Denis J

    2017-02-17

    Laboratory selection with Vip3Aa of a field-derived population of Heliothis virescens produced >2040-fold resistance in 12 generations of selection. The Vip-Sel resistant population showed little cross-resistance to Cry1Ab and no cross-resistance to Cry1Ac. Resistance was unstable after 15 generations without exposure to the toxin. F1 reciprocal crosses between Vip-Unsel and Vip-Sel indicated a strong paternal influence on the inheritance of resistance. Resistance ranged from almost completely recessive (mean h = 0.04 if the resistant parental was female) to incompletely dominant (mean h = 0.53 if the resistant parental was male). Results from bioassays on the offspring from backcrosses of the F1 progeny with Vip-Sel insects indicated that resistance was due to more than one locus. The results described in this paper provide the useful information for the insecticide resistance management strategies designed to overcome the evolution of resistance to Vip3Aa in the insect pests.ImportanceHeliothis virescens is an important pest which has the ability to feed on many plant species. The extensive use of Bt crops or spray has already led to the evolution of insect resistance in the field for some species of Lepidoptera and Coleoptera. The development of resistance in insect pests is the main threat to of Bt crops. The effective resistance management strategies are very important to prolong the life of Bt plants. The lab selection is the key step to test the assumption and predictions of management strategies prior to the field evaluation. Resistant insects offer useful information to determine the inheritance of resistance and the frequency of resistance alleles, and to study the mechanism of resistance to insecticides.

  12. Temporary threshold shifts and recovery in a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) after octave-band noise at 4 kHz.

    PubMed

    Kastelein, Ronald A; Gransier, Robin; Hoek, Lean; Olthuis, Juul

    2012-11-01

    Safety criteria for underwater sound produced during offshore pile driving are needed to protect marine mammals. A harbor porpoise was exposed to fatiguing noise at 18 sound pressure level (SPL) and duration combinations. Its temporary hearing threshold shift (TTS) and hearing recovery were quantified with a psychoacoustic technique. Octave-band white noise centered at 4 kHz was the fatiguing stimulus at three mean received SPLs (124, 136, and 148 dB re 1 μPa) and at six durations (7.5, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 min). Approximate received sound exposure levels (SELs) varied between 151 and 190 dB re 1 μPa(2) s. Hearing thresholds were determined for a narrow-band frequency-swept sine wave (3.9-4.1 kHz; 1 s) before exposure to the fatiguing noise, and at 1-4, 4-8, 8-12, 48, and 96 min after exposure. The lowest SEL (151 dB re 1 μPa(2) s) which caused a significant TTS(1-4) was due to exposure to an SPL of 124 dB re 1 μPa for 7.5 min. The maximum TTS(1-4), induced after a 240 min exposure to 148 dB re 1 μPa, was around 15 dB at a SEL of 190 dB re 1 μPa(2) s. Recovery time following TTS varied between 4 min and under 96 min, depending on the exposure level, duration, and the TTS induced.

  13. Differentiating between underwater construction noise of monopile and jacket foundations for offshore windmills: a case study from the Belgian part of the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Norro, Alain Michel Jules; Rumes, Bob; Degraer, Steven Johan

    2013-01-01

    Steel monopiles, jackets requiring four steel pinpiles, and gravity-based foundations were applied in offshore wind farms in the Belgian part of the North Sea. This paper compares the underwater noise generated during the piling activities of steel monopiles at the Belwind wind farm (Blighbank) with that of jacket pinpiles at the C-Power project (Thorntonbank). Underwater noise was measured at various distances from the pile driving location. The underwater noise was quantified by its zero to peak sound pressure level (L(z-p)), unweighted sound exposure level (SEL), cumulative SEL, and 1/3 octave spectra. No significant differences in L(z-p) could be demonstrated (monopile L(z-p): 179-194 dB  re 1  μPa, jacket L(z-p): 172-189 dB  re 1  μPa). SEL showed no statistical difference between monopile and jacket and varied between 145 and 168 dB  re 1  μPa(2)s. Furthermore, near identical spectra were measured for both types of piling. Piling of the jacket pinpiles took, however, about 2.5 times the time of the monopile. When standardised to megawatt installed per foundation both types of piling scored near equally. As an illustration, the radius of major behavioural disturbance (L(p-p) = 155 dB  re 1  μPa) in the harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena was estimated by a model at 16 km for monopiles and at 8 km for jacket.

  14. Sonar Test and Test Instrumentation Support.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-11-10

    6487 < rM SEL ECTE CO, BU 9 1 Approved for public release;distribution unlimited. 611 095 A DNAR IA ST WI EST INSTRUMENTATIONJUPPORT.J ) Quaterly ...INSTRUMENTATION TEST AND EVALUATION 17 A. Introduction 17 B. Operational Testing of the AN/WQM-7 Sonar Test Set 17 C. AN/SQM-( ) Feasibility Study 19 VII. STUDY ...AN/WQM-5 Sonar Test Set Field Support IV. Special Purpose Passive Sonar Systems Support V. Sonar Instrumentation Test and Evaluation VI. Study of

  15. Stabilised electromagnetic levitation at 2-13 MHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danley, T. J.; Schiffman, R. A.; Weber, J. K. R.; Krishnan, S.; Rey, C. A.; Bruno, P. A.; Nordine, P. C.

    1991-01-01

    SEL, the Stabilised Electromagnetic Levitator, has been developed to exploit the unique design opportunities available in containerless microgravity experiments. Efficiency and versatility are obtained with multiple coils driven by individual broadband amplifiers whose phase and frequency are controlled. The heating and positioning fields are decoupled. Specimen translation, spin, and for liquids, shape may be adjusted. An open coil structure provides access for optical and diagnostic probes. Results of experiments with a prototype device are discussed. Levitating and heating materials on earth were demonstrated at frequencies up to 13 MHz.

  16. Built-in-Test Verification Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-01

    X 100% where ffr - sum of fault failw-e rates detected by BIT ifr - sum of fault failure rates isolatable by BIT sfr - sum of all failure rates...BIT capabilities, as veil as being costly. BIT on equipment in the field can selý’om be tested to discover failures in the BIT circuitry, which results...Technology 2-26 2.4 Impact on BIT Design 2-28 3.0 TSV/TSCA Techniques 3-1 3.1 TSV Techniques 3-2 3.1.1 Figures of Merit 3-4 3.1.2 Failure Modes and Effects

  17. Stabilised electromagnetic levitation at 2-13 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danley, T. J.; Schiffman, R. A.; Weber, J. K. R.; Krishnan, S.; Nordine, P. C.; Rey, C. A.; Bruno, P. A.

    SEL, the Stabilized Electromagnetic Levitator, has been developed to exploit the unique design opportunities available in containerless microgravity experiments. Efficiency and versatility are obtained with multiple coils driven by individual broadband amplifiers whose phase and frequency are controlled. The heating and positioning fields are decoupled. Specimen translation, spin, and for liquids, shape, may be adjusted. An open coil structure provides access for optical and diagnostic probes. Results of experiments with a prototype device are discussed. Levitating and heating materials on earth were demonstrated at frequencies up to 13 MHz.

  18. Impact of a process improvement program in a production software environment: Are we any better?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heller, Gerard H.; Page, Gerald T.

    1990-01-01

    For the past 15 years, Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) has participated in a process improvement program as a member of the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL), which is sponsored by GSFC. The benefits CSC has derived from involvement in this program are analyzed. In the environment studied, it shows that improvements were indeed achieved, as evidenced by a decrease in error rates and costs over a period in which both the size and the complexity of the developed systems increased substantially. The principles and mechanics of the process improvement program, the lessons CSC has learned, and how CSC has capitalized on these lessons are also discussed.

  19. Nutrient Recycling Impacts by Zebra Mussels in Harper’s Ferry Slough, Upper Mississippi River

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-12-01

    Reservoir, Wisconsin,” Lake Reserv. Manage. 8, 61-71. James, W. F., Barko, J. W., and Eakin, H. L. (1997). “Nutrient regeneration by the zebra ...1993), and fish er ies (Rich ard son and Bartsch 1997). In an other riverine en vi ron ment, the Sen eca River (New York), high ze bra mus sel den...Nutrient Recycling Impacts by Zebra Mussels in Harper’s Ferry Slough, Upper Mississippi River by W. F. James, J. W. Barko, H. L. Eakin, J. S

  20. Optoelectronics Research Center

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-03

    Stone, A. Malcoci, R. E. Miles, and I . Camara Mayorga, Electron. Lett., 41, 128–129, (2005). 10S. D. Roh, T. S. Yeoh, R. B. Swint, A. E. Huber, C. Y...and K. A. Shore, Unlocking dynamical diversity, Wiley, 2005. 14F. Grillot, K. Veselinov, M. Gioannini, I . Montrosset, J. Even, R. Piron, E. Homeyer, S...Bimberg, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., 8, pp. 984-991, (2002). 16M. A. Cataluna, D. I . Nikitichev, S. Mikroulis, H. Simos, C. Simos, C

  1. Simultaneous measurement of J(HH) and two different (n)J(CH) coupling constants from a single multiply edited 2D cross-peak.

    PubMed

    Saurí, Josep; Parella, Teodor

    2013-07-01

    Three different J-editing methods (IPAP, E.COSY and J-resolved) are implemented in a single NMR experiment to provide spin-state-edited 2D cross-peaks from which a simultaneous measurement of different homonuclear and heteronuclear coupling constants can be performed. A new J-selHSQMBC-IPAP experiment is proposed for the independent measurement of two different (n)J(CH) coupling constants along the F2 and F1 dimensions of the same 2D cross-peak. In addition, the E.COSY pattern provides additional information about the magnitude and relative sign between J(HH) and (n)J(CH) coupling constants.

  2. U. S. Naval Forces, Vietnam Monthly Historical Summary for August 1968

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1968-09-01

    unfavorable weather. During the month MARKIT TIE units made a total of 94,194 detections of junks and sampans in their patrol areas. Of these...COIFFIDXAIAL image and support of revolutionary development. MEDCAPs continued to be the best media to gain the support of the people. More prevalent...ci-iliaii v1.u~ti4 agencies 2 Average percent ot seL’f-help b7 r-1 civilians 23 &’nomic Dewualopmat 6 3,000 aLiacation 23 23s756 Social Welfa~re 608

  3. Coronal Photometry and Analysis of the Eclipse Corona of July 22, 1990

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-01

    Light corona has been performed with selected p.• from the French Falcon-20 aircraft experiment flown above Finland. Isophote maps are given as well as...To display the whole range of ine 0)is~- ,served from the i,,ner parts to the outer-miost parts at 3.1. ISOPHOTE MAPS AND THE FLATrTENING INDEX R...corona, th.’ posit ion of Iiiiiuews s r- are seen all around the luniar limb, Figure, 2 gives thle perted fromn ground- las’,-l n.cis l~-ra oi sel isophote

  4. Three-Function Logic Gate Controlled by Analog Voltage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zebulum, Ricardo; Stoica, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    The figure is a schematic diagram of a complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) electronic circuit that performs one of three different logic functions, depending on the level of an externally applied control voltage, V(sub sel). Specifically, the circuit acts as A NAND gate at V(sub sel) = 0.0 V, A wire (the output equals one of the inputs) at V(sub sel) = 1.0 V, or An AND gate at V(sub sel) = -1.8 V. [The nominal power-supply potential (VDD) and logic "1" potential of this circuit is 1.8 V.] Like other multifunctional circuits described in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, this circuit was synthesized following an automated evolutionary approach that is so named because it is modeled partly after the repetitive trial-and-error process of biological evolution. An evolved circuit can be tested by computational simulation and/or tested in real hardware, and the results of the test can provide guidance for refining the design through further iteration. The evolutionary synthesis of electronic circuits can now be implemented by means of a software package Genetic Algorithms for Circuit Synthesis (GACS) that was developed specifically for this purpose. GACS was used to synthesize the present trifunctional circuit. As in the cases of other multifunctional circuits described in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, the multiple functionality of this circuit, the use of a single control voltage to select the function, and the automated evolutionary approach to synthesis all contribute synergistically to a combination of features that are potentially advantageous for the further development of robust, multiple-function logic circuits, including, especially, field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). These advantages include the following: This circuit contains only 9 transistors about half the number of transistors that would be needed to obtain equivalent NAND/wire/AND functionality by use of components from a standard digital design library. If

  5. Environmental Noise Assessment for Military Aircraft Training Routes. Volume 1. SAC (Strategic Air Command) Low-Level Routes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    Det 24 IR-986 43 SW Andersen AFB GU 2000/1000 320 Det 24 IR-982 43 SW Osan AB, Korea 1000 320 Det 9 Bann STR HQ USAFE/DOOB Bann , Germany Det 4 STRC HQ...operates under the MS-DOS operating system. A BASIC program was used to initialize and program the LD-700s, and to read data and store them for subsequent...dB (L eq) Interval Data Interval Period I Hour Basic Data Stored Leq , SEL, Lmax Lmi n Statistical Levels L01 , L10 , L50 , L9 0 Exceedance Counts RMS

  6. Bibliography of Soviet Laser Developments, Number 79, September - October 1985.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    2, 1985, 627-643. (RZFZA, 85/9N492). 646. Semak , D.G.; Turyanitsa, I.I.; Khabibulina, L.R. (. Solubility of chalcogenide glassy semiconductors in...SEGLIN’SH YA A 42,54,55,63 38,39,40 RUBANOV V S 26 SEKOWSKI B j8 79,81,82 RUBINOV A N 6,7,33,77 SEL’KIN A V 76 83,86,89 RUBTSOVA N N 78 SEMAK D G 69 PROTSENKO

  7. F100 Multivariable Control Synthesis Program. Computer Implementation of the F100 Multivariable Control Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soeder, J. F.

    1983-01-01

    As turbofan engines become more complex, the development of controls necessitate the use of multivariable control techniques. A control developed for the F100-PW-100(3) turbofan engine by using linear quadratic regulator theory and other modern multivariable control synthesis techniques is described. The assembly language implementation of this control on an SEL 810B minicomputer is described. This implementation was then evaluated by using a real-time hybrid simulation of the engine. The control software was modified to run with a real engine. These modifications, in the form of sensor and actuator failure checks and control executive sequencing, are discussed. Finally recommendations for control software implementations are presented.

  8. Annotated bibliography of software engineering laboratory literature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buhler, Melanie; Valett, Jon

    1989-01-01

    An annotated bibliography is presented of technical papers, documents, and memorandums produced by or related to the Software Engineering Laboratory. The bibliography was updated and reorganized substantially since the original version (SEL-82-006, November 1982). All materials were grouped into eight general subject areas for easy reference: (1) The Software Engineering Laboratory; (2) The Software Engineering Laboratory: Software Development Documents; (3) Software Tools; (4) Software Models; (5) Software Measurement; (6) Technology Evaluations; (7) Ada Technology; and (8) Data Collection. Subject and author indexes further classify these documents by specific topic and individual author.

  9. Annotated bibliography of Software Engineering Laboratory literature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    An annotated bibliography of technical papers, documents, and memorandums produced by or related to the Software Engineering Laboratory is presented. More than 100 publications are summarized. These publications are summarized. These publications cover many areas of software engineering and range from research reports to software documentation. This document has been updated and reorganized substantially since the original version (SEL-82-006, November 1982). All materials are grouped into five general subject areas for easy reference: (1) the software engineering laboratory; (2) software tools; (3) models and measures; (4) technology evaluations; and (5) data collection. An index further classifies these documents by specific topic.

  10. Annotated bibliography of Software Engineering Laboratory literature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morusiewicz, Linda; Valett, Jon

    1993-01-01

    This document is an annotated bibliography of technical papers, documents, and memorandums produced by or related to the Software Engineering Laboratory. Nearly 200 publications are summarized. These publications cover many areas of software engineering and range from research reports to software documentation. This document has been updated and reorganized substantially since the original version (SEL-82-006, November 1982). All materials have been grouped into eight general subject areas for easy reference: the Software Engineering Laboratory; the Software Engineering Laboratory: software development documents; software tools; software models; software measurement; technology evaluations; Ada technology; and data collection. This document contains an index of these publications classified by individual author.

  11. Annotated bibliography of software engineering laboratory literature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groves, Paula; Valett, Jon

    1990-01-01

    An annotated bibliography of technical papers, documents, and memorandums produced by or related to the Software Engineering Laboratory is given. More than 100 publications are summarized. These publications cover many areas of software engineering and range from research reports to software documentation. This document has been updated and reorganized substantially since the original version (SEL-82-006, November 1982). All materials have been grouped into eight general subject areas for easy reference: the Software Engineering Laboratory; the Software Engineering Laboratory-software development documents; software tools; software models; software measurement; technology evaluations; Ada technology; and data collection. Subject and author indexes further classify these documents by specific topic and individual author.

  12. The development of an automated flight test management system for flight test planning and monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewett, Marle D.; Tartt, David M.; Duke, Eugene L.; Antoniewicz, Robert F.; Brumbaugh, Randal W.

    1988-01-01

    The development of an automated flight test management system (ATMS) as a component of a rapid-prototyping flight research facility for AI-based flight systems concepts is described. The rapid-prototyping facility includes real-time high-fidelity simulators, numeric and symbolic processors, and high-performance research aircraft modified to accept commands for a ground-based remotely augmented vehicle facility. The flight system configuration of the ATMS includes three computers: the TI explorer LX and two GOULD SEL 32/27s.

  13. Maximizing reuse: Applying common sense and discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waligora, Sharon; Langston, James

    1992-01-01

    Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC)/System Sciences Division (SSD) has maintained a long-term relationship with NASA/Goddard, providing satellite mission ground-support software and services for 23 years. As a partner in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) since 1976, CSC has worked closely with NASA/Goddard to improve the software engineering process. This paper examines the evolution of reuse programs in this uniquely stable environment and formulates certain recommendations for developing reuse programs as a business strategy and as an integral part of production. It focuses on the management strategy and philosophy that have helped make reuse successful in this environment.

  14. Benchmarking carcass characteristics and muscles from commercially identified beef and dairy cull cow carcasses for Warner-Bratzler shear force and sensory attributes.

    PubMed

    Stelzleni, A M; Patten, L E; Johnson, D D; Calkins, C R; Gwartney, B L

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to benchmark carcasses and muscles from commercially identified fed (animals that were perceived to have been fed an increased plane of nutrition before slaughter) and nonfed cull beef and dairy cows and A-maturity, USDA Select steers, so that the muscles could be identified from cull cow carcasses that may be used to fill a void of intermediately priced beef steaks. Carcass characteristics were measured at 24 h postmortem for 75 carcasses from 5 populations consisting of cull beef cows commercially identified as fed (B-F, n = 15); cull beef cows commercially identified as nonfed (B-NF, n = 15); cull dairy cows commercially identified as fed (D-F, n = 15); cull dairy cows commercially identified as nonfed (D-NF, n = 15); and A-maturity, USDA Select grade steers (SEL, n = 15). Nine muscles were excised from each carcass [m. infraspinatus, m. triceps brachii (lateral and long heads), m. teres major, m. longissimus dorsi (also termed LM), m. psoas major, m. gluteus medius, m. rectus femoris, and m. tensor fasciae latae] and subjected to Warner-Bratzler shear force testing and objective sensory panel evaluation after 14 d of postmortem aging. Carcass characteristics differed (P < 0.05) among the 5 commercially identified slaughter groups for the traits of lean maturity, bone maturity, muscle score, HCW, fat color, subjective lean color, marbling, ribeye area, 12th-rib fat thickness, and preliminary yield grade. Carcasses from commercially identified, fed cull cows exhibited more (P < 0.01) weight in carcass lean than did commercially identified, nonfed cull cows. There was a group x muscle interaction (P = 0.02) for Warner-Bratzler shear force. Warner-Bratzler shear force and sensory overall tenderness values demonstrates that muscles from the SEL group were the most tender (P < 0.01), whereas muscles from the B-NF group were the least tender (P < 0.01). Sensory, beef flavor intensity was similar (P > 0.20) among cull cow carcass groups

  15. Software Management Environment (SME): Components and algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendrick, Robert; Kistler, David; Valett, Jon

    1994-01-01

    This document presents the components and algorithms of the Software Management Environment (SME), a management tool developed for the Software Engineering Branch (Code 552) of the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The SME provides an integrated set of visually oriented experienced-based tools that can assist software development managers in managing and planning software development projects. This document describes and illustrates the analysis functions that underlie the SME's project monitoring, estimation, and planning tools. 'SME Components and Algorithms' is a companion reference to 'SME Concepts and Architecture' and 'Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) Relationships, Models, and Management Rules.'

  16. Voice Verification Upgrade.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    to develop speaker verification techniques for use over degraded commun- ication channels -- specifically telephone lines. A test of BISS type speaker...verification technology was performed on a degraded channel and compensation techniques were then developed . The fifth program [103 (Total Voice SV...UPGAW. *mbit aL DuI~sel Jme T. SImmoon e~d David L. Cox AAWVLP FIR MIEW RMAS Utgl~rIMIW At" DT11C AU9 231f CD, _ ROME AIR DEVELOPMENT CENTER Air

  17. Compact Cr:ZnS Channel Waveguide Laser Operating at 2333 nm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-24

    Schepler, R. D. Peterson, P. A . Berry, and J. B . McKay, “Thermal effects in Cr2+:ZnSe thin disk lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3...NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a . REPORT unclassified b . ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98...K. Chattopadhyay , O. O. Adetunji, D. E. Zelmon, and A . Burger, “Thermal diffusion of Cr2+ in bulk ZnSe,” J. Cryst. Growth 240(1-2), 176–184 (2002

  18. The Military Theater Distribution Network Design Problem

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    Patter n Colo rindex = x l Au tomatic . The meColor = x lTh emeColorDa r k 1 . TintAndSh ade = - 0 . 3 4 998 6 2 66670736 . PatternTintAndSh ade = 0...PatternColorlndex = xlAu tomatic . Color = 15 773696 . TintAndShade = 0 . PatternTintAndShade = 0 End With End If Next i This section shades DC d...f irst Row + numArcs) , 2 )) . Sel e c t Wit h Se l ection. Interior . Pattern = x l Solid . PatternColor index = x l Au tomat i.c . The me

  19. Procedures and results of the measurements on large area photomultipliers for the NEMO project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiello, S.; Leonora, E.; Aloisio, A.; Ameli, F.; Amore, I.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anzalone, A.; Barbarino, G.; Barbarito, E.; Battaglieri, M.; Bazzotti, M.; Bellotti, R.; Bersani, A.; Beverini, N.; Biagi, S.; Bonori, M.; Bouhdaef, B.; Cacopardo, G.; Calı, C.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Carminati, G.; Cassano, B.; Ceres, A.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Cocimano, R.; Coniglione, R.; Cordelli, M.; Costa, M.; D'Amico, A.; DeBonis, G.; DeRosa, G.; DeRuvo, G.; DeVita, R.; Distefano, C.; Flaminio, V.; Fratini, K.; Gabrielli, A.; Galeotti, S.; Gandolfi, E.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgi, F.; Giovanetti, G.; Grimaldi, A.; Grmek, A.; Habel, R.; Imbesi, M.; Lonardo, A.; LoPresti, D.; Lucarelli, F.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martini, A.; Masullo, R.; Maugeri, F.; Migneco, E.; Minutoli, S.; Mongelli, M.; Morganti, M.; Musico, P.; Musumeci, M.; Orlando, A.; Osipenko, M.; Papaleo, R.; Pappalardo, V.; Piattelli, P.; Piombo, D.; Raffaelli, F.; Raia, G.; Randazzo, N.; Reito, S.; Ricco, G.; Riccobene, G.; Ripani, M.; Rovelli, A.; Ruppi, M.; Russo, G. V.; Russo, S.; Sapienza, P.; Sedita, M.; Shirokov, E.; Simeone, F.; Sciliberto, D.; Sipala, V.; Sollima, C.; Spurio, M.; Stefani, F.; Taiuti, M.; Terreni, G.; Trasatti, L.; Urso, S.; Vecchi, M.; Vicini, P.; Wischnewski, R.

    2010-03-01

    The selection of the photomultiplier plays a crucial role in the R&D activity related to a large-scale underwater neutrino telescope. This paper illustrates the main procedures and facilities used to characterize the performances of 72 large area photomultipliers, Hamamatsu model R7081 sel. The voltage to achieve a gain of 5×10 7, dark count rate and single photoelectron time and charge properties of the overall response were measured with a properly attenuated 410 nm pulsed laser. A dedicated study of the spurious pulses was also performed. The results prove that the photomultipliers comply with the general requirements imposed by the project.

  20. Development of New Protocol Hardware and Software for LSI-11 to Accommodate AUTODIN II ADCCP-HDLC, and X.25. Appendix D. Maintenance Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    hvJry in OI 3l C* j4’. ,414rW AI~ffR A,’ 1 V b~O C ECO BZ,� XCACK- I twevx- -, SriE AA 1 DXSf i C XO TCAE - It U240f 2 TUJCE - q D~fi- 15 - ItPR DV3...85’ RICE- .. CS- 02 SEL- B 5 07’ 02 SVCR- ... C3 C4’ TCACK- B 5’ TCAE - ... CS’ 02 TCSCK . . .B8- 04 02 TCSCK- B 5’ 88to TCSE- C5 .c s’. X~jE

  1. Decision Theory: Individual Biases and Their Effect on Forecasting in an Organization.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    tasks. Rflef. 6] :°11 4’, B. HNRISTICS AND BIASES Recent research suggests that the decision process ’sel by the decision maker is fundamentally...different from th. normative model. Some of the research on judgmental processes attempts to evaluate man’s ability tc assess subjective probabilities, that...8217 ’r ,-,. ---.,.: ,’- . " ,.•"." ’. .- ,-.,- I. ZU. IhL IM.. .- TA 2R~iGA. 1! There has been a great deal of research conducted into how

  2. Single event and TREE latchup mitigation for a star tracker sensor: An innovative approach to system level latchup mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Kimbrough, J.R.; Colella, N.J.; Davis, R.W.; Bruener, D.B.; Coakley, P.G.; Lutjens, S.W.; Mallon, C.E.

    1994-08-01

    Electronic packages designed for spacecraft should be fault-tolerant and operate without ground control intervention through extremes in the space radiation environment. If designed for military use, the electronics must survive and function in a nuclear radiation environment. This paper presents an innovative ``blink`` approach rather than the typical ``operate through`` approach to achieve system level latchup mitigation on a prototype star tracker camera. Included are circuit designs, flash x-ray test data, and heavy ion data demonstrating latchup mitigation protecting micro-electronics from current latchup and burnout due to Single Event Latchup (SEL) and Transient Radiation Effects on Electronics (TREE).

  3. Non-Invasive Markers of Tumor Growth, Metastases, and Sensitivity to Anti-Neoplastic Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    co-resonating lipid (Lip) resonances as well as water resonance in a single scan. This sequence employs all frequency selective pulses to prepare...data in Fig.1, the 5mm sagittal 2D CSI was overlaid on a T2-weighted MR image and the lipid and water suppression is still effective similar to the...regular selMQC without slice selection. Minimal peaks are seen in the area containing lipid and signal is largely confined to the lactate area. In

  4. Implementation of a production Ada project: The GRODY study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godfrey, Sara; Brophy, Carolyn Elizabeth

    1989-01-01

    The use of the Ada language and design methodologies that encourage full use of its capabilities have a strong impact on all phases of the software development project life cycle. At the National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) conducted an experiment in parallel development of two flight dynamics systems in FORTRAN and Ada. The differences observed during the implementation, unit testing, and integration phases of the two projects are described and the lessons learned during the implementation phase of the Ada development are outlined. Included are recommendations for future Ada development projects.

  5. Real-Time Configuration of Networked Embedded Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    Journal on Selected Areas in Communica- tions, vol. 8, pp. 762–771, June 1990. [13] D. A. Maltz, J. Broch , and D. B. Johnson, “Lessons from a Full-Scale...J. Broch , and D. B. Johnson, “Lessons from a Full-Scale Multihop Wireless Ad Hoc Network Testbed,” IEEE Personal Communications, vol. 8, pp. 8–15, Feb...IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 762–771, Jun. 1990. [18] D. A. Maltz, J. Broch , and D. B. Johnson, “Lessons from a full-scale multihop

  6. RELAP5-3D code validation for RBMK phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, J.E.

    1999-09-01

    The RELAP5-3D thermal-hydraulic code was assessed against Japanese Safety Experiment Loop (SEL) and Heat Transfer Loop (HTL) tests. These tests were chosen because the phenomena present are applicable to analyses of Russian RBMK reactor designs. The assessment cases included parallel channel flow fluctuation tests at reduced and normal water levels, a channel inlet pipe rupture test, and a high power, density wave oscillation test. The results showed that RELAP5-3D has the capability to adequately represent these RBMK-related phenomena.

  7. RELAP5-3D Code Validation for RBMK Phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, James Ebberly

    1999-09-01

    The RELAP5-3D thermal-hydraulic code was assessed against Japanese Safety Experiment Loop (SEL) and Heat Transfer Loop (HTL) tests. These tests were chosen because the phenomena present are applicable to analyses of Russian RBMK reactor designs. The assessment cases included parallel channel flow fluctuation tests at reduced and normal water levels, a channel inlet pipe rupture test, and a high power, density wave oscillation test. The results showed that RELAP5-3D has the capability to adequately represent these RBMK-related phenomena.

  8. Selective Targeting of Proteins within Secretory Pathway for Endoplasmic Reticulum-associated Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Vecchi, Lara; Petris, Gianluca; Bestagno, Marco; Burrone, Oscar R.

    2012-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) is a cellular quality control mechanism to dispose of misfolded proteins of the secretory pathway via proteasomal degradation. SEL1L is an ER-resident protein that participates in identification of misfolded molecules as ERAD substrates, therefore inducing their ER-to-cytosol retrotranslocation and degradation. We have developed a novel class of fusion proteins, termed degradins, composed of a fragment of SEL1L fused to a target-specific binding moiety located on the luminal side of the ER. The target-binding moiety can be a ligand of the target or derived from specific mAbs. Here, we describe the ability of degradins with two different recognition moieties to promote degradation of a model target. Degradins recognize the target protein within the ER both in secretory and membrane-bound forms, inducing their degradation following retrotranslocation to the cytosol. Thus, degradins represent an effective technique to knock-out proteins within the secretory pathway with high specificity. PMID:22523070

  9. Genetics, realized heritability and possible mechanism of chlorfenapyr resistance in Oxycarenus hyalinipennis (Lygaeidae: Hemiptera).

    PubMed

    Ullah, Saif; Shah, Rizwan Mustafa; Shad, Sarfraz Ali

    2016-10-01

    Dusky cotton bug (DCB), Oxycarenus hyalinipennis (Lygaeidae: Hemiptera) is a serious pest of cotton and other malvaceous plants. Chlorfenapyr, a broad spectrum, N-substituted, halogenated pyrrole insecticide is used extensively to control many insect pests in cotton, including DCB. In this study, we investigated a field strain of DCB to assess its potential to develop resistance to chlorfenapyr. After six generations of continuous selection pressure with chlorfenapyr, DCB had a 7.24-fold and 149.06-fold resistance ratio (RR) at G1 and G6, respectively. The genetic basis of inheritance of chlorfenapyr resistance was also studied by crossing the chlorfenapyr selected (Chlorfenapyr-SEL) and laboratory population (Lab-PK). Results revealed an autosomal and incompletely dominant mode of inheritance for chlorfenapyr resistance in the Chlorfenapyr-SEL population of DCB. The results of the monogenic model test showed chlorfenapyr resistance was controlled by multiple genes. Estimated realized heritability for chlorfenapyr resistance in the tested DCB strain was 0.123. Synergism bioassays with piperonyl butoxide and S, S, S-butyl phosphorotrithioate revealed chlorfenapyr resistance might be due to esterase activity. These results would be useful for devising an effective resistance management strategy against DCB.

  10. Promoting social-emotional competence: An evaluation of the elementary version of Second Step®.

    PubMed

    Low, Sabina; Cook, Clayton R; Smolkowski, Keith; Buntain-Ricklefs, Jodie

    2015-12-01

    Research has consistently linked social-emotional skills to important educational and life outcomes. Many children begin their school careers, however, without the requisite social and emotional skills that facilitate learning, which has prompted schools nationwide to adopt specific curricula to teach students the social-emotional skills that enable them to maintain optimal engagement in the learning process. Second Step® is one of the most widely disseminated social-emotional learning (SEL) programs; however, its newly revised version has never been empirically evaluated. The purpose of this study was to conduct a randomized controlled trial investigating the impact of the 4th Edition Second Step® on social-behavioral outcomes over a 1-year period when combined with a brief training on proactive classroom management. Participants were kindergarten to 2nd grade students in 61 schools (321 teachers, 7300 students) across six school districts. Hierarchical models (time×condition) suggest that the program had few main effects from teacher-reported social and behavioral indices, with small effect sizes. The majority of significant findings were moderated effects, with 8 out of 11 outcome variables indicating the intervention-produced significant improvements in social-emotional competence and behavior for children who started the school year with skill deficits relative to their peers. All the significant findings were based on teacher-report data highlighting a need for replication using other informants and sources of data. Findings provide program validation and have implications for understanding the reach of SEL programs.

  11. Enhanced Protective Effect of the Combination of Uncaria and Semen Raphani on Vascular Endothelium in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yun-lun; Jiang, Yue-Hua; Yang, Chuan-Hua; Sun, Jing-Chang; Wang, Miao-Miao; Yang, Wen-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation are closely associated with hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. The combination of Uncaria (U) and Semen Raphani (R) is common in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of hypertension and heart diseases. We aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of the combination of Uncaria and Semen Raphani on spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), and valsartan was used as a positive control. In the present study, all extracts decreased systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, and mean arterial pressure. U alone showed antihypertensive efficacy and effectively decreased CECs count, while R alone showed efficacy in relieving inflammatory level. The combination of U and R showed enhanced effectiveness at lowering activated CECs and improving endothelial integrity of thoracic aorta and mesenteric artery and normalized the level of plasma biomarkers of endothelial damage. The combination of U and R decreased the mRNA level of VCAM-1, Sel-L, TFPI, and Sel-P, while it elevated mRNA expression of FGF-1 and THBD of the thoracic aorta, which may be, at least in part, involved in the mechanism of protective effect on hypertensive endothelial injury. PMID:26539222

  12. Pseudorandom selective excitation in NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walls, Jamie D.; Coomes, Alexandra

    2011-09-01

    In this work, average Hamiltonian theory is used to study selective excitation under a series of small flip-angle θ-pulses θ ≪ {π}/{3} applied either periodically [corresponding to the DANTE pulse sequence] or aperiodically to a spin-1/2 system. First, an average Hamiltonian description of the DANTE pulse sequence is developed that is valid for frequencies either at or very far from integer multiples of {1}/{τ}, where τ is the interpulse delay. For aperiodic excitation, a single resonance, νsel, can be selectively excited if the θ-pulse phases are modulated in concert with the interpulse delays. The conditions where average Hamiltonian theory can be accurately applied to describe the dynamics under aperiodic selective pulses, which are referred to as pseudorandom-DANTE or p-DANTE sequences, are similar to those found for the DANTE sequence. Signal averaging over different p-DANTE sequences improves the apparent selectivity at νsel by reducing the excitations at other frequencies. Experimental demonstrations of p-DANTE sequences and comparisons with the theory are presented.

  13. Inflammatory responses induced by fluoride and arsenic at toxic concentration in rabbit aorta.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yanqin; Niu, Ruiyan; Sun, Zilong; Wang, Jinming; Luo, Guangying; Zhang, Jianhai; Wang, Jundong

    2012-06-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have demonstrated the atherogenic effects of environmental toxicant arsenic and fluoride. Inflammatory mechanism plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study is to determine the effect of chronic exposure to arsenic and fluoride alone or combined on inflammatory response in rabbit aorta. We analyzed the expression of genes involved in leukocyte adhesion [P-selectin (P-sel) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1(VCAM-1)], recruitment and transendothelial migration of leukocyte [interleukin-8 (IL-8) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1)] and those involved in pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin-6 (IL-6)]. We found that fluoride and arsenic alone or combined increased the expression of VCAM-1, P-sel, MCP-1, IL-8, and IL-6 at the RNA and protein levels. The gene expressions of inflammatory-related molecules were attenuated when co-exposure to the two toxicants compared with just one of them. We also examined the lipid profile of rabbits exposed to fluoride and (or) arsenic. The results showed that fluoride slightly increased the serum lipids but arsenic decreased serum triglyceride. We showed that inflammatory responses but not lipid metabolic disorder may play a crucial role in the mechanism of the cardiovascular toxicity of arsenic and fluoride.

  14. Platelet-Monocyte Aggregates and C-Reactive Protein are Associated with VTE in Older Surgical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Lauren; Kaplan, David; Kraiss, Larry W.; Casper, T. Charles; Pendleton, Robert C.; Peters, Christopher L.; Supiano, Mark A.; Zimmerman, Guy A.; Weyrich, Andrew S.; Rondina, Matthew T.

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence implicates platelets as key mediators of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Nevertheless, the pathways by which platelets and circulating procoagulant proteins synergistically orchestrate VTE remain incompletely understood. We prospectively determined whether activated platelets and systemic procoagulant factors were associated with VTE in 32 older orthopedic surgery patients. Circulating platelet-monocyte aggregates (PMAs), p-selectin expression (P-SEL), and integrin αIIbβ3 activation (PAC-1 binding) were assessed pre-operatively and 24 hours post-operatively. The proinflammatory and procoagulant molecule C-reactive protein (CRP), which induces PMA formation in vitro, along with plasma d-dimer and fibrinogen levels were also measured. The primary outcome was VTE occurring within 30 days post-operatively. Overall, 40.6% of patients developed VTE. Patients with VTE had a significant increase in circulating PMAs and CRP post-operatively, compared to those without VTE. Changes in PMA and CRP in VTE patients were significantly correlated (r2 = 0.536, p = 0.004). In contrast, P-SEL expression and PAC-1 binding, fibrinogen levels, and d-dimers were not associated with VTE. This is the first study to identify that increased circulating PMAs and CRP levels are early markers associated with post-surgical VTE. Our findings also provide new clinical evidence supporting the interplay between PMAs and CRP in patients with VTE. PMID:27270163

  15. Discovery and biological characterization of geranylated RNA in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Dumelin, Christoph E.; Chen, Yiyun; Leconte, Aaron M.; Chen, Y. Grace; Liu, David R.

    2012-01-01

    A general mass spectrometry-based screen for unusually hydrophobic cellular small-molecule RNA conjugates revealed geranylated RNA in E. coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella thyphimurium. The geranyl group is conjugated to the sulfur atom in two 5-methylaminomethyl-2-thiouridine nucleotides. These geranylated nucleotides occur in the first anticodon position of tRNAGluUUC, tRNALysUUU, tRNAGlnUUG at a frequency of up to 6.7% (~400 geranylated nucleotides per cell). RNA geranylation levels can be increased or abolished by mutation or deletion of the selU (ybbB) gene in E. coli, and purified SelU protein in the presence of geranyl pyrophosphate and tRNA can produce geranylated tRNA. The presence or absence of the geranyl group in tRNAGluUUC, tRNALysUUU, and tRNAGlnUUG affects codon bias and frameshifting during translation. These RNAs represent the first reported examples of oligoisoprenylated cellular nucleic acids. PMID:22983156

  16. Effects of space radiation on electronic microcircuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolasinski, W. A.

    1989-01-01

    The single event effects or phenomena (SEP), which so far have been observed as events falling on one or another of the SE classes: Single Event Upset (SEU), Single Event Latchup (SEL) and Single Event Burnout (SEB), are examined. Single event upset is defined as a lasting, reversible change in the state of a multistable (usually bistable) electronic circuit such as a flip-flop or latch. In a computer memory, SEUs manifest themselves as unexplained bit flips. Since latchup is in general caused by a single event of short duration, the single event part of the SEL term is superfluous. Nevertheless, it is used customarily to differentiate latchup due to a single heavy charged particle striking a sensitive cell from more ordinary kinds of latchup. Single event burnout (SEB) refers usually to total instantaneous failure of a power FET when struck by a single particle, with the device shorting out the power supply. An unforeseen failure of these kinds can be catastrophic to a space mission, and the possibilities are discussed.

  17. Secure Control Systems for the Energy Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Rhett; Campbell, Jack; Hadley, Mark

    2012-03-31

    Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories (SEL) will conduct the Hallmark Project to address the need to reduce the risk of energy disruptions because of cyber incidents on control systems. The goals is to develop solutions that can be both applied to existing control systems and designed into new control systems to add the security measures needed to mitigate energy network vulnerabilities. The scope of the Hallmark Project contains four primary elements: 1. Technology transfer of the Secure Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Communications Protocol (SSCP) from Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) to Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories (SEL). The project shall use this technology to develop a Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 140-2 compliant original equipment manufacturer (OEM) module to be called a Cryptographic Daughter Card (CDC) with the ability to directly connect to any PC enabling that computer to securely communicate across serial to field devices. Validate the OEM capabilities with another vendor. 2. Development of a Link Authenticator Module (LAM) using the FIPS 140-2 validated Secure SCADA Communications Protocol (SSCP) CDC module with a central management software kit. 3. Validation of the CDC and Link Authenticator modules via laboratory and field tests. 4. Creation of documents that record the impact of the Link Authenticator to the operators of control systems and on the control system itself. The information in the documents can assist others with technology deployment and maintenance.

  18. Design and analysis of an adaptive lens that mimics the performance of the crystalline lens in the human eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago-Alvarado, Agustin; Cruz-Félix, Angel S.; Iturbide-Jiménez, F.; Martínez-López, M.; Ramírez-Como, M.; Armengol-Cruz, V.; Vásquez-Báez, I.

    2014-09-01

    Tunable lenses are optical systems that have attracted much attention due to their potential applications in such areas like ophthalmology, machine vision, microscopy and laser processing. In recent years we have been working in the analysis and performance of a liquid-filled variable focal length lens, this is a lens that can modify its focal length by changing the amount of water within it. Nowadays we extend our study to a particular adaptive lens known as solid elastic lens (SEL) that it is formed by an elastic main body made of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS Sylgard 184). In this work, we present the design, simulation and analysis of an adaptive solid elastic lens that in principle imitates the accommodation process of the crystalline lens in the human eye. For this work, we have adopted the parameters of the schematic eye model developed in 1985 by Navarro et al.; this model represents the anatomy of the eye as close as possible to reality by predicting an acceptable and accurate quantity of spherical and chromatic aberrations without any shape fitting. An opto-mechanical analysis of the accommodation process of the adaptive lens is presented, by simulating a certain amount of radial force applied onto the SEL using the finite element method with the commercial software SolidWorks®. We also present ray-trace diagrams of the simulated compression process of the adaptive lens using the commercial software OSLO®.

  19. Single event effects in 0.18μm CMOS image sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushton, Joseph E.; Stefanov, Konstantin D.; Holland, Andrew D.; Bugnet, Henri; Mayer, Frederic; Cordrey-Gale, Matthew; Endicott, James

    2016-08-01

    CMOS image sensors are widely used on Earth and are becoming increasingly favourable for use in space. Advantages, such as low power consumption, and ever-improving imaging peformance make CMOS an attractive option. The ability to integrate camera functions on-chip, such as biasing and sequencing, simplifies designing with CMOS sensors and can improve system reliability. One potential disadvantage to the use of CMOS is the possibility of single event effects, such as single event latchup (SEL), which can cause malfunctions or even permanent destruction of the sensor. These single event effects occur in the space environment due to the high levels of radiation incident on the sensor. This work investigates the ocurrence of SEL in CMOS image sensors subjected to heavy-ion irradiation. Three devices are investigated, two of which have triple-well doping implants. The resulting latchup cross-sections are presented. It is shown that using a deep p well on 18 μm epitaxial silicon increases the radiation hardness of the sensor against latchup. The linear energy transfer (LET) threshold for latchup is increased when using this configuration. Our findings suggest deep p wells can be used to increase the radiation tolerance of CMOS image sensors for use in future space missions.

  20. The Responsive Classroom approach and fifth grade students' math and science anxiety and self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Griggs, Marissa Swaim; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E; Merritt, Eileen G; Patton, Christine L

    2013-12-01

    Self-efficacy forecasts student persistence and achievement in challenging subjects. Thus, it is important to understand factors that contribute to students' self-efficacy, a key factor in their success in math and science. The current cross-sectional study examined the contribution of students' gender and math and science anxiety as well as schools' use of Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) practices to students' math and science self-efficacy. Fifth graders (n = 1,561) completed questionnaires regarding their feelings about math and science. Approximately half of the students attended schools implementing the Responsive Classroom® (RC) approach, an SEL intervention, as part of a randomized controlled trial. Results suggested no difference in math and science self-efficacy between boys and girls. Students who self-reported higher math and science anxiety also reported less self-efficacy toward these subjects. However, the negative association between students' anxiety and self-efficacy was attenuated in schools using more RC practices compared with those using fewer RC practices. RC practices were associated with higher science self-efficacy. Results highlight anxiety as contributing to poor self-efficacy in math and science and suggest that RC practices create classroom conditions in which students' anxiety is less strongly associated with negative beliefs about their ability to be successful in math and science.

  1. TRNSYS HYBRID wind diesel PV simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, P.J.A.; Mitchell, J.W.; Klein, S.A.; Beckman, W.A.; Blair, N.J.

    1996-12-31

    The Solar Energy Laboratory (SEL) has developed a wind diesel PV hybrid systems simulator, UW-HYBRID 1.0, an application of the TRNSYS 14.2 time-series simulation environment. An AC/DC bus links up to five diesels and wind turbine models, along with PV modules, a battery bank, and an AC/DC converter. Multiple units can be selected. PV system simulations include solar angle and peak power tracking options. Weather data are Typical Meteorological Year data, parametrically generated synthesized data, or external data files. PV performance simulations rely on long-standing SEL-developed algorithms. Loads data are read as scalable time series. Diesel simulations include estimated fuel-use and waste heat output, and are dispatched using a least-cost of fuel strategy. Wind system simulations include varying air density, wind shear and wake effects. Time step duration is user-selectable. UW-HYBRID 1.0 runs in Windows{reg_sign}, with TRNSED providing a customizable user interface. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Lactate Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (LATEST) Imaging in vivo A Biomarker for LDH Activity

    PubMed Central

    DeBrosse, Catherine; Nanga, Ravi Prakash Reddy; Bagga, Puneet; Nath, Kavindra; Haris, Mohammad; Marincola, Francesco; Schnall, Mitchell D.; Hariharan, Hari; Reddy, Ravinder

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive imaging of lactate is of enormous significance in cancer and metabolic disorders where glycolysis dominates. Here, for the first time, we describe a chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method (LATEST), based on the exchange between lactate hydroxyl proton and bulk water protons to image lactate with high spatial resolution. We demonstrate the feasibility of imaging lactate with LATEST in lactate phantoms under physiological conditions, in a mouse model of lymphoma tumors, and in skeletal muscle of healthy human subjects pre- and post-exercise. The method is validated by measuring LATEST changes in lymphoma tumors pre- and post-infusion of pyruvate and correlating them with lactate determined from multiple quantum filtered proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (SEL-MQC 1H-MRS). Similarly, dynamic LATEST changes in exercising human skeletal muscle are correlated with lactate determined from SEL-MQC 1H-MRS. The LATEST method does not involve injection of radioactive isotopes or labeled metabolites. It has over two orders of magnitude higher sensitivity compared to conventional 1H-MRS. It is anticipated that this technique will have a wide range of applications including diagnosis and evaluation of therapeutic response of cancer, diabetes, cardiac, and musculoskeletal diseases. The advantages of LATEST over existing methods and its potential challenges are discussed. PMID:26794265

  3. Association of a retroelement with a P4-like cryptic prophage (retronphage phi R73) integrated into the selenocystyl tRNA gene of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Sun, J; Inouye, M; Inouye, S

    1991-01-01

    A new multicopy single-stranded DNA (msDNA-Ec73) was found in a clinical strain of Escherichia coli. Retron-Ec73, consisting of an msDNA-coding region and the gene for reverse transcriptase (RT), was found to be a part of a 12.7-kb foreign DNA fragment flanked by 29-bp direct repeats and integrated into the gene for selenocystyl-tRNA (selC) at 82 min on the E. coli chromosome. Except for the 2.4-kb retron region, the integrated DNA fragment showed remarkable homology to most of the bacteriophage P4 genome. Among the phage genes found in this element, however, the integrase gene had very low identity (40%) to P4 integrase, indicating that the cryptic prophage associated with the retroelement has its own unique site-specific integrase different from P4 integrase. Recently, we have shown that P2 phage can act as a helper to excise the cryptic prophage and to package its genome into an infectious virion. The newly formed phage (retronphage phi R73) can also lysogenize a new host strain, reintegrating its genome into the selC gene and enabling the newly formed lysogen to produce msDNA-Ec73 (S. Inouye, M. G. Sunshine, E. W. Six, and M. Inouye, Science 252:969-971, 1991). PMID:1712012

  4. Selenoprotein Gene Nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Gladyshev, Vadim N; Arnér, Elias S; Berry, Marla J; Brigelius-Flohé, Regina; Bruford, Elspeth A; Burk, Raymond F; Carlson, Bradley A; Castellano, Sergi; Chavatte, Laurent; Conrad, Marcus; Copeland, Paul R; Diamond, Alan M; Driscoll, Donna M; Ferreiro, Ana; Flohé, Leopold; Green, Fiona R; Guigó, Roderic; Handy, Diane E; Hatfield, Dolph L; Hesketh, John; Hoffmann, Peter R; Holmgren, Arne; Hondal, Robert J; Howard, Michael T; Huang, Kaixun; Kim, Hwa-Young; Kim, Ick Young; Köhrle, Josef; Krol, Alain; Kryukov, Gregory V; Lee, Byeong Jae; Lee, Byung Cheon; Lei, Xin Gen; Liu, Qiong; Lescure, Alain; Lobanov, Alexei V; Loscalzo, Joseph; Maiorino, Matilde; Mariotti, Marco; Sandeep Prabhu, K; Rayman, Margaret P; Rozovsky, Sharon; Salinas, Gustavo; Schmidt, Edward E; Schomburg, Lutz; Schweizer, Ulrich; Simonović, Miljan; Sunde, Roger A; Tsuji, Petra A; Tweedie, Susan; Ursini, Fulvio; Whanger, Philip D; Zhang, Yan

    2016-11-11

    The human genome contains 25 genes coding for selenocysteine-containing proteins (selenoproteins). These proteins are involved in a variety of functions, most notably redox homeostasis. Selenoprotein enzymes with known functions are designated according to these functions: TXNRD1, TXNRD2, and TXNRD3 (thioredoxin reductases), GPX1, GPX2, GPX3, GPX4, and GPX6 (glutathione peroxidases), DIO1, DIO2, and DIO3 (iodothyronine deiodinases), MSRB1 (methionine sulfoxide reductase B1), and SEPHS2 (selenophosphate synthetase 2). Selenoproteins without known functions have traditionally been denoted by SEL or SEP symbols. However, these symbols are sometimes ambiguous and conflict with the approved nomenclature for several other genes. Therefore, there is a need to implement a rational and coherent nomenclature system for selenoprotein-encoding genes. Our solution is to use the root symbol SELENO followed by a letter. This nomenclature applies to SELENOF (selenoprotein F, the 15-kDa selenoprotein, SEP15), SELENOH (selenoprotein H, SELH, C11orf31), SELENOI (selenoprotein I, SELI, EPT1), SELENOK (selenoprotein K, SELK), SELENOM (selenoprotein M, SELM), SELENON (selenoprotein N, SEPN1, SELN), SELENOO (selenoprotein O, SELO), SELENOP (selenoprotein P, SeP, SEPP1, SELP), SELENOS (selenoprotein S, SELS, SEPS1, VIMP), SELENOT (selenoprotein T, SELT), SELENOV (selenoprotein V, SELV), and SELENOW (selenoprotein W, SELW, SEPW1). This system, approved by the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee, also resolves conflicting, missing, and ambiguous designations for selenoprotein genes and is applicable to selenoproteins across vertebrates.

  5. The efficacy of the enhanced Aussie Optimism Positive Thinking Skills Program in improving social and emotional learning in middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Myles-Pallister, Jacqueline D; Hassan, Sharinaz; Rooney, Rosanna M; Kane, Robert T

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of the modified and enhanced Aussie Optimism Positive Thinking Skills Program (AO-PTS) on Year 4 and 5 children's social and emotional learning (SEL) skills. AO-PTS is a universal-school based program that is implemented by class teachers as part of regular school curricula and was developed for the prevention of depression and anxiety. The study comprised a total of 683 Year 4 and 5 students from 10 private primary schools in Western Australia. Students were assessed on two subscales of emotional attribution at school whilst parents reported on their children's externalizing and internalizing problems outside of school and at home. Two analyses were conducted: seven intervention schools were assessed at pre- and post-test (Analysis 1) and pre-post change in three intervention schools were compared to pre-post change in three matched control schools (Analysis 2). Results from Analysis 1 showed that the intervention children had increased in their overall emotional attribution accuracy and decreased in total difficulties and hyperactivity; Results from Analysis 2 revealed no intervention effect on emotional attribution accuracy or internalizing or externalizing problems. These findings suggest that the enhanced AO-PTS's effects on SEL were not evident in the short-term period after intervention. The non-significant findings and future directions for AO-PTS research and program modification were discussed.

  6. Building an experience factory for maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valett, Jon D.; Condon, Steven E.; Briand, Lionel; Kim, Yong-Mi; Basili, Victor R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports the preliminary results of a study of the software maintenance process in the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC). This study is being conducted by the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL), a research organization sponsored by the Software Engineering Branch of the FDD, which investigates the effectiveness of software engineering technologies when applied to the development of applications software. This software maintenance study began in October 1993 and is being conducted using the Quality Improvement Paradigm (QIP), a process improvement strategy based on three iterative steps: understanding, assessing, and packaging. The preliminary results represent the outcome of the understanding phase, during which SEL researchers characterized the maintenance environment, product, and process. Findings indicate that a combination of quantitative and qualitative analysis is effective for studying the software maintenance process, that additional measures should be collected for maintenance (as opposed to new development), and that characteristics such as effort, error rate, and productivity are best considered on a 'release' basis rather than on a project basis. The research thus far has documented some basic differences between new development and software maintenance. It lays the foundation for further application of the QIP to investigate means of improving the maintenance process and product in the FDD.

  7. Does an evidence-based healthy relationships program for 9th graders show similar effects for 7th and 8th graders? Results from 57 schools randomized to intervention.

    PubMed

    Crooks, C V; Scott, K L; Broll, R; Zwarych, S; Hughes, R; Wolfe, D A

    2015-06-01

    Integrating social and emotional learning (SEL) programming throughout curricula to support the development of healthy behaviors and prevent violence is critical for a comprehensive approach to school health. This study used a post-test comparison design to evaluate a healthy relationships program for eighth grade students that applies a SEL approach. The program was adapted from the Fourth R, an evidence-based program for ninth graders, but matches the curriculum and developmental context for eighth graders. Surveys were collected post-intervention from 1012 students within 57 schools randomized to intervention or control conditions. Multivariate multilevel analysis accounted for the nested nature of students within schools. There were significant group differences on three of four outcomes following intervention, including improved knowledge about violence, critical thinking around the impact of violence, and identification of more successful coping strategies. There was no group difference on general acceptance of violence. Overall, students learned relevant information and strategies and were able to apply that knowledge to demonstrate critical thinking, suggesting that adapting an evidence-based approach for use with younger students provided similar benefits. These findings build a case for 2 years of consecutive evidence-based healthy relationships programming in grades 8 and 9, consistent with best practice guidelines.

  8. Engineering the elongation factor Tu for efficient selenoprotein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Haruna, Ken-ichi; Alkazemi, Muhammad H; Liu, Yuchen; Söll, Dieter; Englert, Markus

    2014-09-01

    Selenocysteine (Sec) is naturally co-translationally incorporated into proteins by recoding the UGA opal codon with a specialized elongation factor (SelB in bacteria) and an RNA structural signal (SECIS element). We have recently developed a SECIS-free selenoprotein synthesis system that site-specifically--using the UAG amber codon--inserts Sec depending on the elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu). Here, we describe the engineering of EF-Tu for improved selenoprotein synthesis. A Sec-specific selection system was established by expression of human protein O(6)-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (hAGT), in which the active site cysteine codon has been replaced by the UAG amber codon. The formed hAGT selenoprotein repairs the DNA damage caused by the methylating agent N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, and thereby enables Escherichia coli to grow in the presence of this mutagen. An EF-Tu library was created in which codons specifying the amino acid binding pocket were randomized. Selection was carried out for enhanced Sec incorporation into hAGT; the resulting EF-Tu variants contained highly conserved amino acid changes within members of the library. The improved UTu-system with EF-Sel1 raises the efficiency of UAG-specific Sec incorporation to >90%, and also doubles the yield of selenoprotein production.

  9. Proceedings of the Twenty-Fourth Annual Software Engineering Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    On December 1 and 2, the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL), a consortium composed of NASA/Goddard, the University of Maryland, and CSC, held the 24th Software Engineering Workshop (SEW), the last of the millennium. Approximately 240 people attended the 2-day workshop. Day 1 was composed of four sessions: International Influence of the Software Engineering Laboratory; Object Oriented Testing and Reading; Software Process Improvement; and Space Software. For the first session, three internationally known software process experts discussed the influence of the SEL with respect to software engineering research. In the Space Software session, prominent representatives from three different NASA sites- GSFC's Marti Szczur, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Rick Doyle, and the Ames Research Center IV&V Facility's Lou Blazy- discussed the future of space software in their respective centers. At the end of the first day, the SEW sponsored a reception at the GSFC Visitors' Center. Day 2 also provided four sessions: Using the Experience Factory; A panel discussion entitled "Software Past, Present, and Future: Views from Government, Industry, and Academia"; Inspections; and COTS. The day started with an excellent talk by CSC's Frank McGarry on "Attaining Level 5 in CMM Process Maturity." Session 2, the panel discussion on software, featured NASA Chief Information Officer Lee Holcomb (Government), our own Jerry Page (Industry), and Mike Evangelist of the National Science Foundation (Academia). Each presented his perspective on the most important developments in software in the past 10 years, in the present, and in the future.

  10. Selenium metabolites in urine of cancer patients receiving L-selenomethionine at high doses

    SciTech Connect

    Kuehnelt, Doris; Juresa, Dijana; Francesconi, Kevin A. . E-mail: kevin.francesconi@uni-graz.at; Fakih, Marwan; Reid, Mary E.

    2007-04-15

    We investigated, with quantitative HPLC/mass spectrometry, the selenium metabolites in urine from five cancer patients receiving high doses of L-selenomethionine over an extended period (2 x 4000 {mu}g Se/day for 7 days, then 4000 {mu}g Se/day for 21 days) as an adjunct to their normal cancer chemotherapy. Urine samples were collected at day 0 (all 5 patients), and at 2-3 additional collection times ranging from 1 to 33 days. The background selenium concentrations ranged from 12 to 55 {mu}g Se/L and increased to 870 to 4420 {mu}g Se/L for the five patients during the study. All five patients had appreciable levels of selenosugars in their background urine sample, and the concentrations increased dramatically after selenium intake. Trimethylselenonium ion (TMSe), on the other hand, was generally present as only a trace metabolite in background urine, and, although the concentration of TMSe increased following selenium exposure, it became a less significant proportion relative to selenosugars. These data refute the currently accepted role of TMSe as the preferred excretion metabolite when selenium exposure is high.

  11. A polyphasic approach to detect enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus and diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in raw milk Italian cheeses by multiplex PCR.

    PubMed

    Bernini, Valentina; Sgarbi, Elisa; Bove, Claudio Giorgio; Gatti, Monica; Neviani, Erasmo

    2010-12-01

    A polyphasic approach was evaluated for the detection of eight staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE)-encoding genes (sea, sec, sed, seg, seh, sei, sej, sel) and the Escherichia coli genes most commonly associated with virulence factors (eae, elt, ipaH, stx) in traditional soft cheeses, manufactured artisanally from whole raw milk in the Lombardy region (northern Italy). To determine the presence of the target genes, two multiplex PCRs were performed on DNA extracted both directly from cheese samples (culture-independent approach) and from whole cultivable cells, formed by harvesting colonies from the first serial dilution agar plates of selective media, as representative of cultivable community ("bulk"). Genes associated with enteroinvasive E. coli, ipaH, and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, stx, were detected in two of the bulk samples analyzed; no virulence genes were found by amplifying DNA directly extracted from cheeses. SE-encoding genes were found in three cheeses (sea in all three samples, associated with sed and sej in two of these). More SE-encoding genes were detected by amplifying DNA obtained from bulk samples: sea, sed, sej, sec, seg, sel, and sei. No samples harbored the gene encoding for SE type H. The polyphasic approach followed has been useful in enhancing detection of target genes. Our results indicate that some of the artisanal cheeses examined may constitute a potential hazard for consumer health.

  12. APL-1, a Caenorhabditis elegans protein related to the human β-amyloid precursor protein, is essential for viability

    PubMed Central

    Hornsten, Angela; Lieberthal, Jason; Fadia, Shruti; Malins, Richard; Ha, Lawrence; Xu, Xiaomeng; Daigle, Isabelle; Markowitz, Mindy; O'Connor, Gregory; Plasterk, Ronald; Li, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Dominant mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene are associated with rare cases of familial Alzheimer's disease; however, the normal functions of APP and related proteins remain unclear. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has a single APP-related gene, apl-1, that is expressed in multiple tissues. Loss of apl-1 disrupts several developmental processes, including molting and morphogenesis, and results in larval lethality. The apl-1 lethality can be rescued by neuronal expression of the extracellular domain of APL-1. These data highlight the importance of the extracellular domain of an APP family member and suggest that APL-1 acts noncell-autonomously during development. Overexpression of APL-1 also causes several defects, including a high level of larval lethality. Decreased activity of sel-12, a C. elegans homologue of the human γ-secretase component presenilin 1, partially rescues the lethality associated with APL-1 overexpression, suggesting that SEL-12 activity regulates APL-1 activity either directly or indirectly. PMID:17267616

  13. South Atlantic anomaly and CubeSat design considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fennelly, Judy A.; Johnston, William R.; Ober, Daniel M.; Wilson, Gordon R.; O'Brien, T. Paul; Huston, Stuart L.

    2015-09-01

    Effects of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) on spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO) are well known and documented. The SAA exposes spacecraft in LEO to high dose of ionizing radiation as well as higher than normal rates of Single Event Upsets (SEU) and Single Event Latch-ups (SEL). CubeSats, spacecraft built around 10 x 10 x 10 cm cubes, are even more susceptible to SEUs and SELs due to the use of commercial off-the-shelf components for electronics and payload instrumentation. Examination of the SAA using both data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and a new set of models for the flux of particles is presented. The models, AE9, AP9, and SPM for energetic electrons, energetic protons and space plasma, were developed for use in space system design. These models introduce databased statistical constraints on the uncertainties from measurements and climatological variability. Discussion of the models' capabilities and limitations with regard to LEO CubeSat design is presented.

  14. Molecular modeling and computational analyses suggests that the Sinorhizobium meliloti periplasmic regulator protein ExoR adopts a superhelical fold and is controlled by a unique mechanism of proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Wiech, Eliza M; Cheng, Hai-Ping; Singh, Shaneen M

    2015-03-01

    The Sinorhizobium meliloti periplasmic ExoR protein and the ExoS/ChvI two-component system form a regulatory mechanism that directly controls the transformation of free-living to host-invading cells. In the absence of crystal structures, understanding the molecular mechanism of interaction between ExoR and the ExoS sensor, which is believed to drive the key regulatory step in the invasion process, remains a major challenge. In this study, we present a theoretical structural model of the active form of ExoR protein, ExoRm , generated using computational methods. Our model suggests that ExoR possesses a super-helical fold comprising 12 α-helices forming six Sel1-like repeats, including two that were unidentified in previous studies. This fold is highly conducive to mediating protein-protein interactions and this is corroborated by the identification of putative protein binding sites on the surface of the ExoRm protein. Our studies reveal two novel insights: (a) an extended conformation of the third Sel1-like repeat that might be important for ExoR regulatory function and (b) a buried proteolytic site that implies a unique proteolytic mechanism. This study provides new and interesting insights into the structure of S. meliloti ExoR, lays the groundwork for elaborating the molecular mechanism of ExoRm cleavage, ExoRm -ExoS interactions, and studies of ExoR homologs in other bacterial host interactions.

  15. Validation of Aircraft Noise Models at Lower Levels of Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, Juliet A.; Plotkin, Kenneth J.; Carey, Jeffrey N.; Bradley, Kevin A.

    1996-01-01

    Noise levels around airports and airbases in the United States arc computed via the FAA's Integrated Noise Model (INM) or the Air Force's NOISEMAP (NMAP) program. These models were originally developed for use in the vicinity of airports, at distances which encompass a day night average sound level in decibels (Ldn) of 65 dB or higher. There is increasing interest in aircraft noise at larger distances from the airport. including en-route noise. To evaluate the applicability of INM and NMAP at larger distances, a measurement program was conducted at a major air carrier airport with monitoring sites located in areas exposed to an Ldn of 55 dB and higher. Automated Radar Terminal System (ARTS) radar tracking data were obtained to provide actual flight parameters and positive identification of aircraft. Flight operations were grouped according to aircraft type. stage length, straight versus curved flight tracks, and arrival versus departure. Sound exposure levels (SEL) were computed at monitoring locations, using the INM, and compared with measured values. While individual overflight SEL data was characterized by a high variance, analysis performed on an energy-averaging basis indicates that INM and similar models can be applied to regions exposed to an Ldn of 55 dB with no loss of reliability.

  16. Effect of temperature on the fitness of a Vip3A resistant population of Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Gulzar, Asim; Pickett, Brian; Sayyed, Ali H; Wright, Denis J

    2012-06-01

    Microbial insecticides derived from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have become increasingly important for pest management. In addition to crystal (Cry) insecticidal protein toxins formed during sporulation, vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip) toxins can be produced during the vegetative phase. Resistance to Cry toxins has been reported in laboratory- and field-selected populations of various Lepidoptera species and several studies have identified fitness costs associated with Cry toxin resistance. Here, fitness costs are examined in the first insect population to be reported with resistance to a Vip toxin, a laboratory-selected Vip3A-resistant subpopulation of the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (L.) (Vip-Sel). The Vip-Sel population showed reduced survival to adult eclosion compared with an unselected subpopulation at all test temperatures, including the culture temperature (25 degrees C). Vip3A resistance was also associated with reduced egg viability and mating success and a lower intrinsic rate of population increase (r(m)) at temperatures below (20 degrees C) and above (30 degrees C) the optimal laboratory culture temperature. The latter findings agree with previous studies, that fitness costs associated with resistance are usually greater under stressful conditions. Such data can help predict the impact of fitness costs on the rate of development of resistance in the field and in the development of resistance management strategies that more fully exploit fitness costs.

  17. Detection of classical enterotoxins and identification of enterotoxin genes in Staphylococcus aureus from milk and dairy products.

    PubMed

    Morandi, S; Brasca, M; Lodi, R; Cremonesi, P; Castiglioni, B

    2007-09-20

    Milk and dairy products are frequently contaminated with enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus, which is often involved in staphylococcal food poisoning. The distribution of genes encoding staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE) in S. aureus isolated from bovine, goat, sheep and buffalo milk and dairy products was verified by the presence of the corresponding SE production. A total of 112 strains of S. aureus were tested for SE production by immuno-enzymatic (SEA-SEE) and reversed passive latex agglutination (SEA-SED) methods, while multiplex-PCR was applied for SE genes (sea, sec, sed, seg, seh, sei, sej and sel). Of the total strains studied, 67% were detected to have some SE genes (se), but only 52% produced a detectable amount of the classic antigenic SE types. The bovine isolates frequently had enterotoxin SEA, SED and sej, while SEC and sel predominated in the goat and sheep strains. The results demonstrated (i) marked enterotoxigenic S. aureus strain variations, in accordance with strain origin and (ii) the two methods resulted in different information but concurred on the risk of foodstuff infection by S. aureus.

  18. In vitro and in vivo characterization of plant growth promoting Bacillus strains isolated from extreme environments of Eastern Algeria.

    PubMed

    Ait-Kaki, Asma; Kacem-Chaouche, Noreddine; Ongena, Marc; Kara-Ali, Mounira; Dehimat, Laid; Kahlat, Karima; Thonart, Philippe

    2014-02-01

    This report is to our knowledge the first to study plant growth promotion and biocontrol characteristics of Bacillus isolates from extreme environments of Eastern Algeria. Seven isolates of 14 (50 %) were screened for their ability to inhibit growth of some phytopathogenic fungi on PDA and some roots exudates. The bacteria identification based on 16S r-RNA and gyrase-A gene sequence analysis showed that 71 % of the screened isolates belonged to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and the rest were closely related to B. atrophaeus and B. mojavensis. Most of them had high spore yields (22 × 10(8)-27 × 10(8) spores/ml). They produced protease and cellulase cell wall-degrading enzymes while the chitinase activity was only observed in the B. atrophaeus (6SEL). A wide variety of lipopeptides homologous was detected by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry analysis. Interestingly, some additional peaks with new masses were characterized, which may correspond to new fengycin classes. The isolates produced siderophores and indole-3- acetic acid phytohormone. The greenhouse experiment using a naturally infested soil with Sclerotonia sclerotiorum showed that the B. atrophaeus (6SEL) significantly increased the size of the chickpea plants and reduced the stem rot disease (P < 0.05). These results suggest that these isolates may be used further as bio-inoculants to improve crop systems.

  19. Genetics and realized heritability of resistance to imidacloprid in a poultry population of house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Hussnain; Abbas, Naeem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Afzal, Muhammad Babar Shahzad

    2014-09-01

    Imidacloprid, a post-synaptic, nicotinic insecticide, has been commonly used for the management of different pests including Musca domestica worldwide. Many pests have developed resistance to this insecticide. A 16-fold imidacloprid-resistant population of M. domestica infesting poultry was selected using imidacloprid for 13 continuous generations to study the inheritance and realized heritability of resistance. Toxicological bioassay at G14 showed that the imidacloprid-selected population developed 106-fold resistance when compared to the susceptible population. Reciprocal crosses of susceptible and resistant populations showed an autosomal trait of resistance to imidacloprid in M. domestica. There was incompletely recessive resistance in F1 (Imida-SEL ♂ × Susceptible ♀) and F1(†) (Imida-SEL ♀ × Susceptible ♂) having dominance value 0.53 and 0.31, respectively. Monogenic model of inheritance showed that imidacloprid resistance was controlled by multiple factors. The realized heritability value was 0.09 in the imidacloprid-selected population of M. domestica. It was concluded that imidacloprid resistance in M. domestica was autosomally inherited, incompletely recessive and polygenic. These findings should be helpful for better and more successful management of M. domestica.

  20. Biological interaction between transition metals (Ag, Cd and Hg), selenide/sulfide and selenoprotein P.

    PubMed

    Sasakura, C; Suzuki, K T

    1998-09-01

    The interaction between transition metals (Ag+, Cd2+ and Hg2+) and selenium (Se) in the bloodstream was studied in vitro by means of the HPLC--inductively coupled argon plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP MS) method. Transition metal ions and selenide (produced in vitro from selenite in the presence of glutathione) or sulfide (Na2S) formed a (metal-Se/S) complex, which then bound to a plasma protein, selenoprotein P (Sel P), to form a ternary complex, (metal-Se/S)-Sel P. The molar ratios of metals to Se were 1:1 for Hg/Se and Cd/Se, but either 1:1 or 2:1 for Ag/Se, depending on the ratio of their doses. The results indicate that the interaction between transition metals and Se occurs through the general mechanism, i.e., transition metal ions and selenide form the unit complex (metal-Se)n, and then the complex binds to selenoprotein P to form the ternary complex ¿(metal-Se)n¿m--seleno-protein P in the bloodstream.

  1. A low-tech analytical method for diethylcarbamazine citrate in medicated salt.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Abigail; Brown, Patrick; Huey, Shannon; Magallon, Marco; Bollman, E Brennan; Mares, Dominique; Streit, Thomas G; Lieberman, Marya

    2011-02-08

    The World Health Organization has called for an effort to eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) around the world. In regions where the disease is endemic, local production and distribution of medicated salt dosed with diethylcarbamazine (DEC) has been an effective method for eradicating LF. A partner of the Notre Dame Haiti program, Group SPES in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, produces a medicated salt called Bon Sel. Coarse salt is pre-washed and sprayed with a solution of DEC citrate and potassium iodate. Iodine levels are routinely monitored on site by a titrimetric method. However, the factory had no method for monitoring DEC. Critical analytical issues include 1) determining whether the amount of DEC in each lot of Bon Sel is within safe and therapeutically useful limits, 2) monitoring variability within and between production runs, and 3) determining the effect of a common local practice (washing salt before use) on the availability of DEC. This paper describes a novel titrimetric method for analysis of DEC citrate in medicated salt. The analysis needs no electrical power and requires only a balance, volumetric glassware, and burets that most salt production programs have on hand for monitoring iodine levels. The staff of the factory used this analysis method on site to detect underloading of DEC on the salt by their sprayer and to test a process change that fixed the problem.

  2. How viruses hijack the ERAD tuning machinery.

    PubMed

    Noack, Julia; Bernasconi, Riccardo; Molinari, Maurizio

    2014-09-01

    An essential step during the intracellular life cycle of many positive-strand RNA viruses is the rearrangement of host cell membranes to generate membrane-bound replication platforms. For example, Nidovirales and Flaviviridae subvert the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) for their replication. However, the absence of conventional ER and secretory pathway markers in virus-induced ER-derived membranes has for a long time hampered a thorough understanding of their biogenesis. Recent reports highlight the analogies between mouse hepatitis virus-, equine arteritis virus-, and Japanese encephalitis virus-induced replication platforms and ER-associated degradation (ERAD) tuning vesicles (or EDEMosomes) that display nonlipidated LC3 at their cytosolic face and segregate the ERAD factors EDEM1, OS-9, and SEL1L from the ER lumen. In this Gem, we briefly summarize the current knowledge on ERAD tuning pathways and how they might be hijacked for viral genome replication. As ERAD tuning components, such as SEL1L and nonlipidated LC3, appear to contribute to viral infection, these cellular pathways represent novel candidate drug targets to combat positive-strand RNA viruses.

  3. The Impact of Ada and Object-Oriented Design in NASA Goddard's Flight Dynamics Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waligora, Sharon; Bailey, John; Stark, Mike

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the highlights and key findings of 10 years of use and study of Ada and object-oriented design in NASA Goddard's Flight Dynamics Division (FDD). In 1985, the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) began investigating how the Ada language might apply to FDD software development projects. Although they began cautiously using Ada on only a few pilot projects, they expected that, if the Ada pilots showed promising results, the FDD would fully transition its entire development organization from FORTRAN to Ada within 10 years. However, 10 years later, the FDD still produced 80 percent of its software in FORTRAN and had begun using C and C++, despite positive results on Ada projects. This paper presents the final results of a SEL study to quantify the impact of Ada in the FDD, to determine why Ada has not flourished, and to recommend future directions regarding Ada. Project trends in both languages are examined as are external factors and cultural issues that affected the infusion of this technology. The detailed results of this study were published in a formal study report in March of 1995. This paper supersedes the preliminary results of this study that were presented at the Eighteenth Annual Software Engineering Workshop in 1993.

  4. PREFACE: 1st International Conference in Applied Physics and Materials Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-06-01

    We are delighted to come up with thirty two (32) contributed research papers in these proceedings, focusing on Materials Science and Applied Physics as an output of the 2013 International Conference in Applied Physics and Materials Science (ICAMS2013) held on October 22-24, 2013 at the Ateneo de Davao University, Davao City, Philippines. The conference was set to provide a high level of international forum and had brought together leading academic scientists, industry professionals, researchers and scholars from universities, industries and government agencies who have shared their experiences, research results and discussed the practical challenges encountered and the solutions adopted as well as the advances in the fields of Applied Physics and Materials Science. This conference has provided a wide opportunity to establish multidisciplinary collaborations with local and foreign experts. ICAMS2013, held concurrently with 15th Samahang Pisika ng Visayas at Mindanao (SPVM) National Physics Conference and 2013 International Meeting for Complex Systems, was organized by the Samahang Pisika ng Visayas at Mindanao (Physics Society of Visayas and Mindanao) based in MSU-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City, Philippines. The international flavor of converging budding researchers and experts on Materials Science and Applied Physics was the first to be organized in the 19 years of SPVM operation in the Philippines. We highlighted ICAMS2013 gathering by the motivating presence of Dr. Stuart Parkin, a British Physicist, as one of our conference's plenary speakers. Equal measures of gratitude were also due to all other plenary speakers, Dr. Elizabeth Taylor of Institute of Physics (IOP) in London, Dr. Surya Raghu of Advanced Fluidics in Maryland, USA and Prof. Hitoshi Miyata of Niigata University, Japan, Prof. Djulia Onggo of Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia, and Dr. Hironori Katagiri of Nagaoka National College of Technology, Japan. The warm hospitality of the host

  5. Study on the time difference of solar polar field reversal between the north and south hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukuya, D.; Kusano, K.

    2013-12-01

    Dynamo is a mechanism whereby the kinetic energy of plasma is converted to the magnetic energy. This mechanism works to generate and maintain the solar and stellar magnetic field. Since the sun is only a star whose magnetic field can be directly observed, the understanding of solar dynamo can provide clues to clarify dynamo mechanisms. On the other hand, because solar activities, which are caused by solar dynamo, can influence the Earth's climate, solar variability is an important issue also to understand long-term evolution of the Earth's climate. It is widely known that the polarity of the solar magnetic fields on the north and south poles periodically reverses at every sunspot maxima. It is also known that the reversal at one pole is followed by that on the other pole. The time difference of magnetic field reversal between the poles was first noted by Babcock (1959) from the very first observation of polar field. Recently, it was confirmed by detailed observations with the HINODE satellite (Shiota et al. 2012). Svalgaard and Kamide (2013) indicated that there is a relationship between the time difference of the polarity reversal and the hemispheric asymmetry of the sunspot activity. However, the mechanisms for the hemispheric asymmetry are still open to be revealed. In this paper, we study the asymmetric feature of the solar dynamo based on the flux transport dynamo model (Chatterjee et al. 2004) to explain the time difference of magnetic polarity reversal between the north and south poles. In order to calculate long-term variations of solar activities, we use the mean field kinematic dynamo model, which is derived from magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equation through the mean field and other approximations. We carried out the mean field dynamo simulations using the updated SURYA code which was developed originally by Choudhuri and his collaborators (2004). We decomposed the symmetric and asymmetric components of magnetic field, which correspond respectively to the

  6. The Use of Fluorescent Tracers to Characterize the Post-Phloem Transport Pathway in Maternal Tissues of Developing Wheat Grains.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, N.; Fisher, D. B.

    1994-01-01

    Various polar fluorescent tracers were used to characterize the pathways for apoplastic and symplastic transport in the "crease tissues" (i.e. the vascular strand, chalaza, nucellus, and adjacent pericarp) of developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grains. With mostly minor exceptions, the results strongly support existing views of phloem unloading and post-phloem transport pathways in the crease. Apoplastic movement of Lucifer yellow CH (LYCH) from the endosperm cavity into the crease was virtually blocked in the chalazal cell walls before reaching the vascular tissue. However, LYCH could move slowly along the cell wall pathway from the chalaza into the vascular parenchyma. Slow uptake of LYCH into nucellar cell cytoplasm was observed, but no subsequent symplastic movement occurred. Carboxyfluorescein (CF) imported into attached grains moved symplastically from the phloem across the chalaza and into the nucellus, but was not released from the nucellus. In addition, CF moved in the opposite direction (nucellus to vascular parenchyma) in attached grains. Thus, the post-phloem symplastic pathway can accommodate bidirectional transport even when there is an intense net assimilate flux in one direction. When fresh sections of the crease were placed in fluorochrome solutions (e.g. LYCH or pyrene trisulfonate), dye was rapidly absorbed into intact cells, apparently via unsealed plasmodesmata. Uptake was not visibly reduced by cold or by respiratory inhibitors, but was greatly reduced by plasmolysis. Once absorbed, the dye moved intercellularly via the symplast. Based on this finding, a size-graded series of fluorescein-labeled dextrans was used to estimate the size-exclusion limits (SEL) for the post-phloem symplastic pathway. In most, and perhaps all, cells of the crease tissues except for the pericarp, the molecular diameter for the SEL was about 6.2 nm. The SEL in much of the vascular parenchyma may be smaller, but it is still at least 3.6 nm. Channel diameters would

  7. Extra-Zodiacal-Cloud Astronomy via Solar Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Scott W.; Falck, Robert D.; Oleson, Steven R.; Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Kruk, Jeffrey W.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Thronson, Harley A.; Vaughn, Frank J.; Fixsen, Dale J.

    2011-01-01

    Solar electric propulsion (SEP) is often considered as primary propulsion for robotic planetary missions, providing the opportunity to deliver more payload mass to difficult, high-delta-velocity destinations. However, SEP application to astrophysics has not been well studied. This research identifies and assesses a new application of SEP as primary propulsion for low-cost high-performance robotic astrophysics missions. The performance of an optical/infrared space observatory in Earth orbit or at the Sun-Earth L2 point (SEL2) is limited by background emission from the Zodiacal dust cloud that has a disk morphology along the ecliptic plane. By delivering an observatory to a inclined heliocentric orbit, most of this background emission can be avoided, resulting in a very substantial increase in science performance. This advantage enabled by SEP allows a small-aperture telescope to rival the performance of much larger telescopes located at SEL2. In this paper, we describe a novel mission architecture in which SEP technology is used to enable unprecedented telescope sensitivity performance per unit collecting area. This extra-zodiacal mission architecture will enable a new class of high-performance, short-development time, Explorer missions whose sensitivity and survey speed can rival flagship-class SEL2 facilities, thus providing new programmatic flexibility for NASA's astronomy mission portfolio. A mission concept study was conducted to evaluate this application of SEP. Trajectory analyses determined that a 700 kg-class science payload could be delivered in just over 2 years to a 2 AU mission orbit inclined 15 to the ecliptic using a 13 kW-class NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) SEP system. A mission architecture trade resulted in a SEP stage architecture, in which the science spacecraft separates from the stage after delivery to the mission orbit. The SEP stage and science spacecraft concepts were defined in collaborative engineering environment studies. The

  8. Single-Event Latchup Testing of the Micrel MIC4424 Dual Power MOSFET Driver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellish, J. A.; Boutte, A.; Kim, H.; Phan, A.; Topper, A.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted 47 exposures of four different MIC4424 devices and did not observe any SEL or high-current events. This included worst-case conditions with a LET of 81 MeV-sq cm/mg, applied voltage of 18.5 V, a case temperature greater than 120 C, and a final fluence of 1x10(exp 7)/sq cm. We also monitored both the outputs for the presence of SETs. While the period of the 1 MHz square wave was slightly altered in some cases, no pulses were added or deleted. 1. Purpose: The purpose of this testing is to characterize the BiCMOS/DMOS Micrel MIC4424 dual, non-inverting MOSFET driver for single-event latchup (SEL) susceptibility. These data will be used for flight lot evaluation purposes. 2. Devices Tested: The MIC4423/4424/4425 family are highly reliable BiCMOS/DMOS buffer/driver MOSFET drivers. They are higher output current versions of the MIC4426/4427/4428. They can survive up to 5V of noise spiking, of either polarity, on the ground pin. They can accept, without either damage or logic upset, up to half an amp of reverse current (either polarity) forced back into their outputs. Primarily intended for driving power MOSFETs, the MIC4423/4424/4425 drivers are suitable for driving other loads (capacitive, resistive, or inductive) which require low-impedance, high peak currents, and fast switching times. Heavily loaded clock lines, coaxial cables, or piezoelectric transducers are some examples. The only known limitation on loading is that total power dissipated in the driver must be kept within the maximum power dissipation limits of the package. Five (5) parts were provided for SEL testing. We prepared four parts for irradiation and reserved one piece as an un-irradiated control. More information about the devices can be found in Table 1. The parts were prepared for testing by removing the lid from the CDIP package to expose the target die. The parts were then soldered to small copper circuit adapter boards for easy handling. These parts are fabricated in a bulk Bi

  9. Mechanisms of Mass-independent Fractionation of Sulfur Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, J. R.

    2006-05-01

    Sulfur mass-independent fractionation (MIF) is believed to arise from gas-phase atmospheric reactions involving SO2 and H2S [1]. However, a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms remains elusive. Here I will discuss two MIF mechanisms for sulfur isotopes, and use existing laboratory data to place constraints on these mechanisms. The relevant laboratory data includes the following: 1) Photolysis of H2S [2]; 2) spark discharge of SO2 [3]; 3) SO2 photolysis from 190-210 nm [3]; 4) SO2 photolysis at wavelengths > 220 nm [4]. Experiments 1 and 2 yielded elemental sulfur (Sel) that exhibited primarily mass-dependent fractionation, while experiment 3 produced Sel with a large MIF signature, and experiment 4 yielded sulfate with a smaller MIF signature. One likely MIF mechanism is intramolecular disequilibrium (or non-RRKM) effects, as proposed for O + O2 -- > O3 [5]. The isoelectronic sulfur reaction, S + S2 --> S3, may also exhibit non-RRKM effects, but for several reasons that I will discuss such effects may either be reduced in magnitude or of negligible importance. A second possible source of MIF is isotope-selective photodissociation during predissociation. This process is likely in SO and SH, may occur in SO2, and unlikely in H2S, but in all cases depends on wavelength. SO2 dissociation is also likely to depend on the oxygen isotopes present, because an O isotope substitution will change SO2 symmetry. Although this may produce a MIF signature in oxygen isotopes, it's not clear that this would be accompanied by a MIF effect in S. I will present kinetics simulations of the above H2S and SO2 photolysis experiments, and show how it is possible to use the results of these experiments to constrain the mechanism of MIF for atmospheric sulfur species. For example, simulations of Sel formation by H2S photolysis predict little MIF in experiments, but possible MIF in the atmosphere. [1] J. Farquhar et al. (2000) Science 289 756-758. [2] J. Farquhar et al. (2000) Nature

  10. Prevalence of staphylococcal enterotoxins, toxin genes and genetic-relatedness of foodborne Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated in the Marmara Region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Ali; Sudagidan, Mert; Muratoglu, Karlo

    2011-08-02

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major foodborne pathogen and it has the ability to produce a number of extracellular toxins. We analyzed 1070 food samples obtained from retail markets and dairy farms in the Marmara Region of Turkey for the presence of S. aureus. Out of 147 isolates, 92 (62.6%) were enterotoxigenic. PCR was used to investigate the presence of staphylococcal enterotoxin genes (sea, seb, sec, sed, see, seg, seh, sei, sej, sek, sel, sem, sen, seo, sep, seq and seu), exfoliative toxin genes (eta and etb) and the toxic-shock syndrome toxin gene (tst). The PCR results showed that 53.3% of the isolates contained staphylococcal enterotoxin-like (SEl) toxin genes (seg, seh, sei, sej, sek, sel, sem, sen, seo, sep, seq and seu) which were more frequent than classical enterotoxin genes (sea to see). Furthermore, seo, sei, sem, seg, seu and sec were found in 37.0, 32.7, 30.4, 29.3, 29.3 and 27.2% of the isolates, respectively. The tst gene was detected and confirmed by DNA sequencing in 9 isolates. The presence of eta and etb were not found in the isolates. Enterotoxigenic capabilities of isolates with SEA-SEE were investigated by ELISA. Enterotoxigenic S. aureus isolates produced one to three enterotoxins, with the most frequently produced types being enterotoxin A and C. There was a correlation of 72.1% between production of a specific toxin and the presence of the respective genes. PFGE analysis was used to identify genetic-relatedness of enterotoxigenic S. aureus isolates and the results revealed that 13 groups of isolates from different or the same origin that contained the same genes showed 100% homology with indistinguishable band patterns. The other enterotoxigenic isolates showed related band patterns with 72-86% homology in sea-, 61-90% homology in sec-, 80-96% homology in seh-, and 69-96% homology in sep-positive isolates. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine enterotoxins and related gene contents of S. aureus food isolates in the Marmara

  11. Waterborne Transportation Lines of the United States 1987

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    TREATMENT I 200-A ?UPGEST DR. SYSTEMS I ?ROUSSARD LA 70313 03! NEW YORI CROSS HARBOR RAILROAD I P. 3. 9OX 102 TERMINAL CORP. I TROOKLTN NY 11232 03! NEW...21.01 3.5! - 1 7001 4.0!NONE ILA ORGA ! * 1956 ! 1 ! ! 60.0! 71.0! 1.0! 1 ! I CITY I I! ! I ! ! ! ! I I I (32) HERB -S., INC. ! ! 1 ! ! ! ! ! I ! HER9...OlDIE]EL DEEP WELLIAL KOaLE 1 982 II I I1 05.if 38,1 it ,0of - . ! PNp MF 712 166294k I 901SA701 195.11 3S.El 9.61 - 1 107161 I8.OIDIESEL DEEP WELLIAL

  12. C++ Coding Standards and Style Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Steven; Jun, Linda; Shoan, Wendy

    2005-01-01

    This document is based on the "C Style Guide" (SEL-94-003). It contains recommendations for C++ implementations that build on, or in some cases replace, the style described in the C style guide. Style guidelines on any topics that are not covered in this document can be found in the "C Style Guide." An attempt has been made to indicate when these recommendations are just guidelines or suggestions versus when they are more strongly encouraged. Using coding standards makes code easier to read and maintain. General principles that maximize the readability and maintainability of C++ are: (1) Organize classes using encapsulation and information hiding techniques. (2) Enhance readability through the use of indentation and blank lines. (3) Add comments to header files to help users of classes. (4) Add comments to implementation files to help maintainers of classes. (5) Create names that are meaningful and readable.

  13. The protozoa dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina contains selenoproteins and the relevant translation apparatus.

    PubMed

    Osaka, Takashi; Beika, Asa; Hattori, Asuka; Kohno, Yoshinori; Kato, Koichi H; Mizutani, Takaharu

    2003-01-03

    In the phylogenetic tree, selenoproteins and the corresponding translation machinery are found in Archaea, Eubacteria, and animals, but not in fungi and higher plants. As very little is known about Protozoa, we searched for the presence of selenoproteins in the primitive dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina, belonging to the Protoctista kingdom. Four selenoproteins could be obtained from O. marina cells cultured in the presence of 75Se. Using O. marina or bovine liver cytosolic extracts, we could serylate and selenylate in vitro total O. marina tRNAs. Moreover, the existence of a tRNA(Sec) could be deduced from in vivo experiments. Lastly, an anti-serum against the specialized mammalian translation elongation factor mSelB reacted with a protein of 48-kDa molecular mass. Altogether, our data showed that O. marina contains selenoproteins and suggests that the corresponding translation machinery is related to that found in animals.

  14. F-4C/D Life Extension Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    Engineering Laboratory (SEL) Systems 86 digital computer for raw data collection, magnetic tape storage , and on-line data processing for test...calibration/standardization output for all channels. Several random strain gage, load cell, and deflection channels, 41 AFWAL-TR-82-3047 0 0 ui c Ic , 0r 0002...1S’ 31 AFT PINE’! SE�T ON It T r .1 EM.~ t m- v"A. " ICE OF ’ �,140 COOKS -qfGF ON eWft NG’ ’!tI 14 I NKAt 5f 2-32-1-431 4A6 ERAMtN A1 . 4--.K

  15. [Degradation of trace nitrobenzene in aqueous solution by ozone with catalysis of nanosized TiO2 supported on haydite].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Ma, Jun; Yang, Yi-xin; Wang, Sheng-jun; Qin, Qing-dong

    2007-10-01

    This paper presented the results of catalytic degradation of nitrobenzene by ozone in the presence of nanosized TiO2 supported on haydite, and evaluated influencing factors and the pathway of degradation. Catalysts were prepared by sol-sel method, and sintered in electrical resistance furnace. The optimum sinter temperature was found for preparing the catalyst. The SEM was also used to characterize the catalyst. When the catalyst was sintered at 700 degrees C, it had the best property of catalysis. The catalytic ozonation of nitrobenzene was first order reaction with respect to the concentration of nitrobenzene, and OH* was the dominating species in the oxidation process. As the dose of catalyst increased, the removing rate of nitrobenzene also increased. The highest ozonation rate of this compound, which is 46.5%, was found when pH value was approximately 10. Besides, the catalyst showed good ability after 3 times repeated uses.

  16. Compositions and methods for making selenocysteine containing polypeptides

    DOEpatents

    Soll, Dieter; Aldag, Caroline; Hohn, Michael

    2016-10-11

    Non-naturally occurring tRNA.sup.Sec and methods of using them for recombinant expression of proteins engineered to include one or more selenocysteine residues are disclosed. The non-naturally occurring tRNA.sup.Sec can be used for recombinant manufacture of selenocysteine containing polypeptides encoded by mRNA without the requirement of an SECIS element. In some embodiments, selenocysteine containing polypeptides are manufactured by co-expressing a non-naturally occurring tRNA.sup.Sec a recombinant expression system, such as E. coli, with SerRS, EF-Tu, SelA, or PSTK and SepSecS, and an mRNA with at least one codon that recognizes the anticodon of the non-naturally occurring tRNA.sup.Sec.

  17. An empirical study of software design practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, David N.; Church, Victor E.; Agresti, William W.

    1986-01-01

    Software engineers have developed a large body of software design theory and folklore, much of which was never validated. The results of an empirical study of software design practices in one specific environment are presented. The practices examined affect module size, module strength, data coupling, descendant span, unreferenced variables, and software reuse. Measures characteristic of these practices were extracted from 887 FORTRAN modules developed for five flight dynamics software projects monitored by the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL). The relationship of these measures to cost and fault rate was analyzed using a contingency table procedure. The results show that some recommended design practices, despite their intuitive appeal, are ineffective in this environment, whereas others are very effective.

  18. Missile Liquid Propellant Systems Maintenance. AFS 445X1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    I 0 0.I Ia 0 0 I a3 (A a 4a Iaaa a .- t,0,- 0 p a, a~w a . I I , IgIt 0, 04 I . I’ l, sel ,s t ... ,a a ’ a a a a aa, a a, •~ =, aza coo atai . 6 3 a...I 514,5 S.SJ iha ’S +iSI 6 8 A.4 oIL , I o0 00f0 50 0, 106 1591 1 0 xj 5I 0 I1 V t ŕi .1 01 :l1 ll 9 I.,I I IaAa I40 4 o IA 4IA- C 4 .Il4 t O. II

  19. Japanese plan for SSF utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizuno, Toshio

    1992-01-01

    The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) program has made significant progress. The JEM preliminary design review was completed in July 1992; construction of JEM operation facilities has begun; and the micro-G airplane, drop shaft, and micro-G experiment rocket are all operational. The national policy for JEM utilization was also established. The Space Experiment Laboratory (SEL) opened in June '92 and will function as a user support center. Eight JEM multiuser facilities are in phase B, and scientific requirements are being defined for 17 candidate multiuser facilities. The National Joint Research Program is about to start. Precursor missions and early Space Station utilization activities are being defined. This paper summarizes the program in outline and graphic form.

  20. Crystal structures of the human elongation factor eEFSec suggest a non-canonical mechanism for selenocysteine incorporation

    PubMed Central

    Dobosz-Bartoszek, Malgorzata; Pinkerton, Mark H.; Otwinowski, Zbyszek; Chakravarthy, Srinivas; Söll, Dieter; Copeland, Paul R.; Simonović, Miljan

    2016-01-01

    Selenocysteine is the only proteinogenic amino acid encoded by a recoded in-frame UGA codon that does not operate as the canonical opal stop codon. A specialized translation elongation factor, eEFSec in eukaryotes and SelB in prokaryotes, promotes selenocysteine incorporation into selenoproteins by a still poorly understood mechanism. Our structural and biochemical results reveal that four domains of human eEFSec fold into a chalice-like structure that has similar binding affinities for GDP, GTP and other guanine nucleotides. Surprisingly, unlike in eEF1A and EF-Tu, the guanine nucleotide exchange does not cause a major conformational change in domain 1 of eEFSec, but instead induces a swing of domain 4. We propose that eEFSec employs a non-canonical mechanism involving the distinct C-terminal domain 4 for the release of the selenocysteinyl-tRNA during decoding on the ribosome. PMID:27708257