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Sample records for bahlui river romania

  1. Reconnaissance Study of Water Quality in the Mining-Affected Aries River Basin, Romania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedel, Michael J.; Tindall, James A.; Sardan, Daniel; Fey, David L.; Poputa, G.L.

    2008-01-01

    The Aries River basin of western Romania has been subject to mining activities as far back as Roman times. Present mining activities are associated with the extraction and processing of various metals including Au, Cu, Pb, and Zn. To understand the effects of these mining activities on the environment, this study focused on three objectives: (1) establish a baseline set of physical parameters, and water- and sediment-associated concentrations of metals in river-valley floors and floodplains; (2) establish a baseline set of physical and chemical measurements of pore water and sediment in tailings; and (3) provide training in sediment and water sampling to personnel in the National Agency for Mineral Resources and the Rosia Poieni Mine. This report summarizes basin findings of physical parameters and chemistry (sediment and water), and ancillary data collected during the low-flow synoptic sampling of May 2006.

  2. Heavy metals in potable groundwater of mining-affected river catchments, northwestern Romania.

    PubMed

    Bird, Graham; Macklin, Mark G; Brewer, Paul A; Zaharia, Sorin; Balteanu, Dan; Driga, Basarab; Serban, Mihaela

    2009-12-01

    Groundwater, accessed using wells and municipal springs, represents the major source of potable water for the human population outside of major urban areas in northwestern Romania, a region with a long history of metal mining and metallurgy. The magnitude and spatial distribution of metal contamination in private-supply groundwater was investigated in four mining-affected river catchments in Maramureş and Satu Mare Counties through the collection of 144 groundwater samples. Bedrock geology, pH and Eh were found to be important controls on the solubility of metals in groundwater. Peak metal concentrations were found to occur in the Lapuş catchment, where metal levels exceed Dutch target and intervention values in up to 49% and 14% of samples, respectively. A 700 m wide corridor in the Lapuş catchment on either side of the main river channel was identified in which peak Cd (31 μg l(-1)), Cu (50 μg l(-1)), Pb (50 μg l(-1)) and Zn (3,000 μg l(-1)) concentrations were found to occur. Given the generally similar bedrock geologies, lower metal levels in other catchments are believed to reflect differences in the magnitude of metal loading to the local environment from both metal mining and other industrial and municipal sources. Sampling of groundwater in northwestern Romania has indicated areas of potential concern for human health, where heavy metal concentrations exceed accepted environmental quality guidelines. The presence of elevated metal levels in groundwater also has implications for the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) and achieving 'good' status for groundwater in this part of the Danube River Basin District (RBD).

  3. The assessment of river basin and flood management from early twentieth century to the present on the lower Siret River (Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salit, F.; Beltrando, B.; Zaharia, L.

    2012-04-01

    The river basin management and flood depends on the politico-historical, economic and environmental context in which it is thought. There is a similar evolution in Romania, where political developments have had as much impact on flood management than hydro-climatic events. The aim of this work is to understand of management systems in a diachronic logic in Romania from the beginning of the 20th century to the Communist period and to accession to the European Union. This work focuses on the lower Siret River. The Siret catchment is one of the last major tributaries of the Danube River east of the Carpathians and the most important of Romania in terms of flow and drainage area. To study the assessment of river basin management, a GIS was constructed using a series of Romanian and Russian topographic maps extending over the period 1916-1990 and Google earth images from 2009 and 2010. The study of the current period was enhanced by field observations (records of existing dykes, testimonials ...) from 2010-2011. Finally, this study is based on the technical literature for the regularization of rivers and the various reports made over this period. Three periods were identified: the major floods of 1970 and 2005 marked a turning point in the logical management of river basin and especially in the fight against flood. From the beginning of the period to 1970, dyke protection was sporadic: they are intended primarily to protect the villages directly threatened by recurrent flood. In 1970 a major flood (3500 m3/s) occurred on the lower Siret and other minor floods in succession from 1970 to 1975. By 1976 a national plan was drawn up to fight against the harmful effects of water. The entire sector of the lower Siret River and its major tributaries is arranged, a network of levees protects not only the villages but also all economic assets in this sector, namely the agricultural land, the main wealth of the region. In 2005 an exceptionally large flood (4650 m3/s) affected the

  4. A Flash Flood Study on the Small Montaneous River Catchments in Western Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Győri, Maria-Mihaela; Haidu, Ionel; Humbert, Joël

    2013-04-01

    The present study focuses on flash flood modeling on several mountaneous catchments situated in Western Romania by the use of two methodologies, when rainfall and catchment characteristics are known. Hence, the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) Method and the Rational Method will be employed for the generation of the 1%, 2% and 10% historical flash flood hydrographs on the basis of data spanning from 1989-2009. The SCS Method has been applied on the three gauged catchments in the study area: Petris, Troas and Monorostia making use of the existing interconnection between GIS and the rainfall-runoff models. The DEM, soil data and land use preprocessing in GIS allowed a determination of the hydrologic parameters needed for the rainfall-runoff model, with special emphasis on determining the time of concentration, Lag time and the weighted Curve Number according to Antecedent Moisture Conditions II, adapted for the Romanian territory. HEC-HMS rainfall-runoff model (Hydrologic Engineering Center- Hydrologic Modeling System) facilitates the historical 1%, 2% and 10% flash flood hydrograph generation for the three afore mentioned watersheds. The model is calibrated against measured streamflow data from the three existing gauging stations. The results show a good match between the resulted hydrographs and the observed hydrographs under the form of the Peak Weighted Error RMS values. The hydrographs generated by surface runoff on the ungauged catchments in the area is based on an automation of a workflow in GIS, built with ArcGIS Model Builder graphical interface, as a large part of the functions needed were available as ArcGIS tools. The several components of this model calculate: the runoff depth in mm, the runoff coefficient, the travel time and finally the discharge module which is an application of the rational method, allowing the discharge computation for every cell within the catchment. The result consists of discharges for each isochrones that will be subsequently

  5. Morphological and sedimentological evidences of repeated avulsions of Someşu Mic River (Romania), associated to salt tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persoiu, I.; Radoane, M.

    2009-04-01

    Over the last decades, the Holocene evolution of the rivers became an important topic for the scientific community. Whereas most of these studies emphasized the role of climate in the rivers' evolution, little attention has been paid to tectonics, especially at small scale. Here we present a model of Holocene river evolution from the Transylvanian Basin (Romania), where salt tectonics plays an important role. Someşul Mic River (105 km long, 20 mc/s) is located in the NW part of the Transylvanian Basin, Romania. It has a dranage basin of 3773 km2 and the catchment's area is located in the Apuseni Mountains. The river has a well-developed floodplain, with a length of 75 km (calculated along its axis) and an average width of 2 km. In the upper sector, the river flows on red clays, sandstones and limestone of Eocene and Oligocene age (disposed in monoclinal strata), while in the lower sector, the bedrock consists of marls and volcanic tuffs of Miocene age, affected by diapiric alignments. The sedimentary structure of the floodplain is simple, with coarse Lateglacial gravels at the bottom and more fine Holocene sediments (pebble, sand, clay and silt) in its upper part; but some deviations from this general model, attributed to active tectonics, are observed along the river (e.g., absence of the coarser complex, variable proportion of the two complexes, etc). The main characteristic of the river is the high degree of alternation of channel types, from sinuous, meandering and even braided, to anabranched reaches. In order to decipher which mechanism is responsible for the development of the floodplain, we have analyzed in detail a section of the river, using a combination of high-resolution topographic surveys, electrical imaging, core drilling and granulometric analyses. In the investigated area, the river flows on Miocene marls partly covered by sediments, having a sinuous reach, with 2-3 m high banks. To the east, a diapiric syncline stretches parallel to the valley

  6. Initial Sediment Transport Model of the Mining-Affected Aries River Basin, Romania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedel, Michael J.; Linard, Joshua I.

    2008-01-01

    The Romanian government is interested in understanding the effects of existing and future mining activities on long-term dispersal, storage, and remobilization of sediment-associated metals. An initial Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was prepared using available data to evaluate hypothetical failure of the Valea Sesei tailings dam at the Rosia Poieni mine in the Aries River basin. Using the available data, the initial Aries River Basin SWAT model could not be manually calibrated to accurately reproduce monthly streamflow values observed at the Turda gage station. The poor simulation of the monthly streamflow is attributed to spatially limited soil and precipitation data, limited constraint information due to spatially and temporally limited streamflow measurements, and in ability to obtain optimal parameter values when using a manual calibration process. Suggestions to improve the Aries River basin sediment transport model include accounting for heterogeneity in model input, a two-tier nonlinear calibration strategy, and analysis of uncertainty in predictions.

  7. Migration and habitats of diadromous Danube River sturgeons in Romania: 1998-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kynard, B.; Suciu, R.; Horgan, M.

    2002-01-01

    Upstream migrant adults of stellate sturgeon, Acipenser stellatus (10 in 1998, 43 in 1999) and Russian sturgeon, A. gueldenstaedtii (three in 1999) were captured at river km (rkm) 58-137, mostly in the spring, and tagged with acoustic tags offering a reward for return. The overharvest was revealed by tag returns (38% in 1998, 28% in 1999) and by harvest within 26 days (and before reaching spawning grounds) of the six stellate sturgeon tracked upstream. A drop-back of > 50% of the tagged sturgeon, some to the Black Sea, shows a high sensitivity to interruption of migration and capture/handling/holding. Harvesting and dropback prevented tracking of sturgeon to spawning sites. Gillnetting and tracking of stellate sturgeon showed that the autumn migration ended in early October (river temperature 16??C) and identified a likely wintering area at river km (rkm) 75-76 (St George Branch). Thus, fishery harvesting after early October captures wintering fish, not migrants. Rare shoreline cliffs in the lower river likely create the only rocky habitat for sturgeon spawning. A survey for potential spawning habitats found five sites with rocky substrate and moderate water velocity, all ???rkm 258. Drift netting caught early life-stages of 17 fish species and one sturgeon, a beluga, Huso huso, larva likely spawned at ???rkm 258. All diadromous Danube sturgeons likely spawn at ???rkm 258.

  8. Sediment budget for Rediu reservoir catchment, North-Eastern Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todosi, Cristian; Niculita, Mihai

    2016-04-01

    Sediment budgets are a useful tool for geomorphologic analysis, catchment management and environmental assessment, despite the uncertainties related to their assessment. We present the sediment budget construction and validation for a small catchment of 9.5319 kmp (953.19 ha) situated in the North-Eastern part of Romania. The Rediu reservoir was built between 1986 and 1988, on Rediu valley, a left tributary of Bahlui river, north-west from Iasi city. The catchment of the reservoir has 6.5 km in length and 2.5 km in maximum width, the altitudes decreasing from 170 m in the northern part, to 52 m in the southern part. The valley is symmetric, the altitude of the hillslopes going between 200 m to 75 m in one km length, in the transversal section with the maximum width. The floodplain is narrow having between 20 m to 210 m (in the area of confluence with Breazu tributary). The mean slope of the catchment is 6.4 degree, the maximum slope being 24.6 degrees. The length of channels which show banks of up to 2 m is 19.98 km. The land is used predominantly as crops (58.1 %), 16.7 % being covered by pastures (from which over half are eroded), 11.5 % percent of the catchment being covered by planted forests, 9.2 % by rural constructions and roads, 2.9 % by hayfields, 1.5 % by lakes and 0.1 % by orchards. Beside the Rediu reservoir, there are three ponds (15 771, 1761 and 751 sqm) in the catchment. We considered the trap efficiency for the reservoir and the ponds to be 95%. Aerial images from 1963, 1978 , 1984, 2005, 2008, 2010, 2012 and 2014 were used to assess the state of geomorphological processes before and after the reservoir construction. After 1970 a gully system situated in Breazu tributary sub-catchment and several active landslides along the main valley left side were forested. Beside these processes, soil erosion and human impact by constructions are the main processes generating sediment in the study area. The sediment yields were quantified by estimating the

  9. Monitoring and evaluation of the water quality of Budeasa Reservoir-Arges River, Romania.

    PubMed

    Ion, Antoanela; Vladescu, Luminita; Badea, Irinel Adriana; Comanescu, Laura

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to monitor and record the specific characteristics and properties of the Arges River water in the Budeasa Reservoir (the principal water resources of municipal tap water of the big Romanian city Pitesti and surrounding area) for a period of 5 years (2005-2009). The monitored physical and chemical parameters were turbidity, pH, electrical conductivity, chemical oxygen demand, 5 days biochemical oxygen demand, free dissolved oxygen, nitrite, nitrate, ammonia nitrogen, chloride, total dissolved iron ions, sulfate, manganese, phosphate, total alkalinity, and total hardness. The results were discussed in correlation with the precipitation values during the study. Monthly and annual values of each parameter determined in the period January 2005-December 2009 were used as a basis for the classification of Budeasa Reservoir water, according to the European legislation, as well as for assessing its quality as a drinking water supply. Principal component analysis and Pearson correlation coefficients were used as statistical procedures in order to evaluate the data obtained during this study.

  10. Characterization and assessment of potential environmental risk of tailings stored in seven impoundments in the Aries river basin, Western Romania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to examine the potential environmental risk of tailings resulted after precious and base metal ores processing, stored in seven impoundments located in the Aries river basin, Romania. The tailings were characterized by mineralogical and elemental composition, contamination indices, acid rock drainage generation potential and water leachability of hazardous/priority hazardous metals and ions. Multivariate statistical methods were used for data interpretation. Results Tailings were found to be highly contaminated with several hazardous/priority hazardous metals (As, Cu, Cd, Pb), and pose potential contamination risk for soil, sediments, surface and groundwater. Two out of the seven studied impoundments does not satisfy the criteria required for inert wastes, shows acid rock drainage potential and thus can contaminate the surface and groundwater. Three impoundments were found to be highly contaminated with As, Pb and Cd, two with As and other two with Cu. The tailings impoundments were grouped based on the enrichment factor, geoaccumulation index, contamination factor and contamination degree of 7 hazardous/priority hazardous metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) considered typical for the studied tailings. Principal component analysis showed that 47% of the elemental variability was attributable to alkaline silicate rocks, 31% to acidic S-containing minerals, 12% to carbonate minerals and 5% to biogenic elements. Leachability of metals and ions was ascribed in proportion of 61% to silicates, 11% to acidic minerals and 6% to the organic matter. A variability of 18% was attributed to leachability of biogenic elements (Na, K, Cl-, NO3-) with no potential environmental risk. Pattern recognition by agglomerative hierarchical clustering emphasized the grouping of impoundments in agreement with their contamination degree and acid rock drainage generation potential. Conclusions Tailings stored in the studied impoundments were found to

  11. Using stable isotopes in tracing contaminant sources in an industrial area: A case study on the hydrological basin of the Olt River, Romania.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Raluca; Mimmo, Tanja; Dinca, Oana Romina; Capici, Calogero; Costinel, Diana; Sandru, Claudia; Ionete, Roxana Elena; Stefanescu, Ioan; Axente, Damian

    2015-11-15

    Tracing pollution sources and transformation of nitrogen compounds in surface- and groundwater is an issue of great significance worldwide due to the increased human activity, translated in high demand of water resources and pollution. In this work, the hydrological basin of an important chemical industrial platform in Romania (Ramnicu Valcea industrial area) was characterized in terms of the physico-chemical and isotope composition of δ(18)O and δ(2)H in water samples and δ(15)N of the inorganic nitrogen species. Throughout a period of one year, water samples from the Olt River and its more important tributaries were collected monthly in the industrial area, when the seasonal and spatial isotope patterns of the surface waters and the main sources of pollution were determined. Higher inorganic nitrogen concentrations (up to 10.2 mg N L(-1)) were measured between November 2012 and April 2013, which were designated as anthropogenic additions using the mixing calculations. The main sources of pollution with inorganic nitrogen were agriculture and residential release. The inorganic nitrogen from the industrial waste water duct had a distinct δ(15)N fingerprint (mean of -8.6‰). Also, one industrial release into the environment was identified for Olt River, at Ionesti site, in November 2012. The mean precipitation samples had the lowest inorganic nitrogen concentrations (less than 5.5 mg N L(-1)) with a distinct δ(15)N fingerprint compared to the surface and industrial waters.

  12. Establishing the Ecological Status of Mining-Impacted Freshwaters from Abrud River Catchment Area Using Benthic Diatom Communities (Ros, ia MontanÄă, Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olenici, Adriana; Baciu, Calin; Momeu, Laura; Cozma, Alexandra; Brahaita, Dorian; Pop, Cristian; Lazar, Laura; Popita, Gabriela; Teodosiu, Gabriela

    2015-04-01

    Keywords: diatom communities, indicator species, mine waters, water quality, Romania. Diatoms are a very distinct group of algae, identifiable under the light microscope by their yellow - brown coloration and by the presence of a thick silica cell wall. The potential for freshwater organisms to reflect changes in environmental conditions was first noted by Kolenati (1848) and Cohn (1853), who observed that biota in polluted waters were different from those in non-polluted situations. Diatoms are widely used to monitor river pollution because they are sensitive to water chemistry, especially to ionic content, pH, dissolved organic matter and nutrients. Wide geographic distribution and well-studied ecology of most diatom species are mentioned as major advantages of using diatoms as indicator organisms. At the same time water quality has begun to deteriorate increasingly, mainly as a result of the physical, chemical and bacteriological alterations, and the aquatic ecosystems are evermore affected by various types of pollution, the anthropic one being almost always included. A good example is Abrud River and its main tributaries (Roșia Montană and surrounding areas, Romania), which has suffered along the years because of the mining waters discharge. In this context, this study presents data on benthic diatom communities from the Abrud River catchment area. Sixteen sites have been sampled seasonal and the best represented diatom genera were Navicula, Nitzschia, Cymbella, Gomphonema, Achnantes, Surirella and Fragilaria. Qualitatively, the number of diatom species exhibited significant variation among sampling sites, also suggesting seasonal dynamics. For instance, in some sampling sites, algal assemblages were absent, as diatom communities were strongly affected by acid mine waters, released from old mining works and waste rocks depots. Some dominant taxa have been observed as well, suggesting critical saprobic levels of the Abrud River and some of its tributaries. The

  13. Histopatological alterations and oxidative stress in liver and kidney of Leuciscus cephalus following exposure to heavy metals in the Tur River, North Western Romania.

    PubMed

    Hermenean, Anca; Damache, Georgiana; Albu, Paul; Ardelean, Aurel; Ardelean, Gavril; Puiu Ardelean, Doru; Horge, Monica; Nagy, Tibor; Braun, Mihály; Zsuga, Miklós; Kéki, Sándor; Costache, Marieta; Dinischiotu, Anca

    2015-09-01

    Pollution of the aquatic environment by heavy metals is a great concern worldwide. Freshwater fish ingests various metals through gills, skin or diet. Our aim was to investigate the oxidative stress and histopathological injuries induced by Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd in the liver and kidney of Leuciscus cephalus. Fish samples were collected from two sites in the Tur River, NW Romania, in upstream and downstream of a pollution source. Metals were differently distributed in the liver and kidney of fish. The highest concentrations of Fe, Cu and Pb were found in liver, whereas Zn and Cd concentrations were the highest in kidney in specimens collected from the downstream site. The histopathological changes were associated with metal bioaccumulation, being more severe in kidney than liver. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) increased significantly in the liver and kidney of fish from downstream site compared to upstream one, whereas reduced glutathione (GSH) decreased. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) increased significantly in livers, whereas SOD increased in kidney. Our study revealed that liver has a higher capacity and adaptability to counteract ROS compared to kidney. The more pronounced increase of hepatic SOD, CAT and GST activities is related milder structural changes observed in liver compared to kidney, where lesions were not reduced by antioxidant defense system.

  14. Geochemistry and provenance of some detrital heavy minerals of alluvial sediments from Neagra Şarului River, Eastern Carpathians, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciortescu, Catalina; Iancu, Ovidiu Gabriel; Bulgariu, Dumitru; Popa, Ciprian

    2014-05-01

    The present work focuses on the analyses of a selection of heavy mineral assemblages sampled from the Neagra Şarului River's alluvia, in order to determine their provenance and distribution, using their geochemical and physical characteristics. The study focused on a mountain river of about 30 km long, located in the north-western part of the Eastern Carpathians, an important tributary of the Bistria River. The bedrocks in the river drainage basin are constituted mainly by igneous rocks from Călimani Volcanic Complex in the west, and secondarily by a small area of low to medium grade metamorphic rocks, part of Crystalline-Mesozoic Zone, in the east. In order to trace the source of each individual mineral species, we prepared our samples via field separation and subsequent laboratory sieving using 8 different size fractions. An electromagnetic separator (Frantz Isodynamic) was used to separate and classify each heavy minerals species, depending on their magnetic susceptibility. Thus prepared, more than 500 grains per samples (from the 0.5-1 mm size fraction) were mounted on thin sections and analyzed using a Cambridge Microscan M9 with EDS system. These analyses served for mineral identification and relative abundance determination. The classification of the minerals and the nature of their inclusions are derived from the major element compositions computed from SEM-EDX analysis. We also used a stereo microscope in order to determine complementary properties of the grains, such as: color, degree of roundness and degree of alteration. In order of abundance, the main heavy minerals are magnetite, hematite, pyroxene, pyrite, manganese oxides, garnet, apatite, titanium oxides (ilmenite, titanite and rutile/anatase), chlorite, olivine, epidote, biotite and rhodochrosite. A particularity of the studied area is the presence of an altered magnetite caused first by the hydrothermal alteration and strong weathering of the source rocks and second by the river's acid water

  15. Inventory of Long-Term Braiding Activity at a Regional Scale as a Tool for Detecting Alterations to a Rivers' Hydromorphological State: A Case Study for Romania's South-Eastern Subcarpathians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioana-Toroimac, Gabriela

    2016-07-01

    The inventory of long-term braiding activity is a useful tool for detecting alterations in a rivers' hydromorphological state and for a river's management in the context of the Water Framework Directive on integrated river basin management for Europe. Our study focuses on braided sectors of rivers in South-Eastern Subcarpathians (Romania). The inventory evaluates types of alterations based on the spatial analysis of fluvial morphology indicators (i.e., length of the river sector forming a braided pattern; width of the braided active channel), and vegetation cover (i.e., length of banks covered by forest and shrubs; area of in-stream patches of shrubs) accumulated over the last century. Furthermore, we performed a regional scale hierarchical cluster analysis to estimate the degree of alteration when compared to an historical baseline. In South-Eastern Subcarpathians, the studied rivers experienced a decrease of braiding activity revealed by the shortening and narrowing of their braided sectors, expansion of riparian forests, and the diminishment of vegetated islands' areas. We separated three types of river clusters, corresponding to low (cluster 1), moderate (cluster 2), and high (cluster 3) degree of alteration. Moreover, the clusters demonstrate the evolutionary path of the braided pattern alterations until the functioning of another channel pattern. The inventory is relevant for differing types and levels of alterations. Additionally, this tool may serve as a first step toward the restoration of altered sectors by identifying rivers in cluster 1 as potential candidates of present-day reference sites for altered rivers with similar natural conditions as in cluster 3.

  16. Inventory of Long-Term Braiding Activity at a Regional Scale as a Tool for Detecting Alterations to a Rivers' Hydromorphological State: A Case Study for Romania's South-Eastern Subcarpathians.

    PubMed

    Ioana-Toroimac, Gabriela

    2016-07-01

    The inventory of long-term braiding activity is a useful tool for detecting alterations in a rivers' hydromorphological state and for a river's management in the context of the Water Framework Directive on integrated river basin management for Europe. Our study focuses on braided sectors of rivers in South-Eastern Subcarpathians (Romania). The inventory evaluates types of alterations based on the spatial analysis of fluvial morphology indicators (i.e., length of the river sector forming a braided pattern; width of the braided active channel), and vegetation cover (i.e., length of banks covered by forest and shrubs; area of in-stream patches of shrubs) accumulated over the last century. Furthermore, we performed a regional scale hierarchical cluster analysis to estimate the degree of alteration when compared to an historical baseline. In South-Eastern Subcarpathians, the studied rivers experienced a decrease of braiding activity revealed by the shortening and narrowing of their braided sectors, expansion of riparian forests, and the diminishment of vegetated islands' areas. We separated three types of river clusters, corresponding to low (cluster 1), moderate (cluster 2), and high (cluster 3) degree of alteration. Moreover, the clusters demonstrate the evolutionary path of the braided pattern alterations until the functioning of another channel pattern. The inventory is relevant for differing types and levels of alterations. Additionally, this tool may serve as a first step toward the restoration of altered sectors by identifying rivers in cluster 1 as potential candidates of present-day reference sites for altered rivers with similar natural conditions as in cluster 3.

  17. Ecological assessment of water quality in relation to hydrogeology in a shallow urban aquifer: Somesul Mic River aquifer (North-Western, Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iepure, Sanda; Marin, Constantin; Fekete, Alexandru; Rajka, Geza; Brad, Traian; Samsudean, Cristian

    2014-05-01

    The River Basin Management Plan is the main instrument for the implementation of the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/CE), one of its main requirements being the evaluation and quantification of human impacts on aquatic environments including the groundwater or groundwater dependent ecosystems. The Someş-Tisa basin is the largest hydrographical basin in NW Romania (22,380 km2), containing 15 Quaternary detrital groundwater bodies prone to intensive agricultural and urban industrial use. So far, no studies have addressed the groundwater fauna assemblages and their ecological response to human disturbances and aquifer contamination. Here we investigate a Quaternary shallow detrital aquifer (< 30 m depth) associated with the Someşul Mic River affected by both urban-industrial and agricultural contaminants, aiming to evaluate the sensitivity and structural patterns of groundwater crustaceans communities to aquifer contamination with trace metals (Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Mo, Pb), As, Se and nitrates. We conducted a survey in seven monitoring boreholes (1-8 m beneath the surface) through the Quaternary porrous aquifer of the Somesul Mic River on a 10 km long longitudinal transect. Hydrologic and geologic variables (rainfall amount, drainage network density, aquifer and drainage elevation, transmisivity and aquifer porosity) were extracted from previous works and Pearson correlations were calculated for paired variables. Water and faunal sampling was performed on a seasonal basis at one pristine and six impacted sites during 2013. Invertebrates were sampled with a submersible pump by extracting a volume of 50-100 l of water and filtering through a 63 microns planktonic net. Subsequently, 2 l of water was extracted after pumping for compositional analyses of major constituents, trace elements (by ICP-MS) and nutrients. The results of water geochemical analyses indicate a significant pollutant charge of groundwater with Mn (max. 29.26 μg/l), Ni (16.55 μg/l), Fe

  18. Land degradation due to erosion in public perception. Case study: Secaşul Mare river basin settlements (Transylvanian Depression, Romania).

    PubMed

    Costea, Marioara; Tăuşan, Ioan

    2016-04-01

    According to the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR 1990-1999), the risk indicates potential losses due to particular natural phenomenon, and these could be reduced by improving of prevention and education. People perceive these losses differently depending on phenomenon occurrence, severity, and impact in time. Starting from this idea, this research presents public perception on land degradation through erosion in a small area from the central part of Romania (south-west of Transylvanian Depression). The research was based on a questionnaire consisting of 16 questions. The items were structured by issues: awareness assessment regarding hazard and risk phenomena, assessment of type of property and land use, assessment of knowledge and information on the possible production of negative effects by natural phenomena, and evaluation of land owners' attitudes towards the occurrence of erosion on their land. Results reveal that the public perception on erosion is weak. This process is perceived as insignificant due to lack of phenomenon knowledge and especially because of scarcity preoccupation in land's quality monitoring. Even though the owned lands are affected by erosion forms, the owners are not aware of the phenomenon that generates them. Material damages caused by erosion, loss of soil quality, and land fertility decrease are less perceived because the economic losses fill only at long term. This perception leads to underestimating erosion risk compared to other natural phenomena and to a passive attitude towards this particular phenomenon.

  19. Stable isotopic composition of bottled mineral waters from Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bădăluţă, Carmen; Nagavciuc, Viorica; Perșoiu, Aurel

    2015-04-01

    Romania has a high potential of mineral waters resources, featuring one of the largest mineral resources at European and global level. In the last decade, due to increased in consumption of bottled water, numerous brands have appeared on the market, with equally numerous and variable sources of provenance. In this study we have analyzed the isotopic composition of bottled mineral waters from Romania in order to determine their source and authenticity. We have analysed 32 carbonated and 24 non-carbonated mineral waters from Romania. and the results were analysed in comparison with stable isotope data from precipitation and river waters. Generally, the isotopic values of the mineral waters follow those in precipitation; however, differences occur in former volcanic regions (due to deep circulation of meteoric waters and increased exchange with host rock and volcanic CO2), as well as in mountainous regions, where high-altitude recharge occurs.

  20. Romania: Health System Review.

    PubMed

    Vladescu, Cristian; Scintee, Silvia Gabriela; Olsavszky, Victor; Hernandez-Quevedo, Cristina; Sagan, Anna

    2016-08-01

    This analysis of the Romanian health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The Romanian health care system is a social health insurance system that has remained highly centralized despite recent efforts to decentralize some regulatory functions. It provides a comprehensive benefits package to the 85% of the population that is covered, with the remaining population having access to a minimum package of benefits. While every insured person has access to the same health care benefits regardless of their socioeconomic situation, there are inequities in access to health care across many dimensions, such as rural versus urban, and health outcomes also differ across these dimensions. The Romanian population has seen increasing life expectancy and declining mortality rates but both remain among the worst in the European Union. Some unfavourable trends have been observed, including increasing numbers of new HIV/AIDS diagnoses and falling immunization rates. Public sources account for over 80% of total health financing. However, that leaves considerable out-of-pocket payments covering almost a fifth of total expenditure. The share of informal payments also seems to be substantial, but precise figures are unknown. In 2014, Romania had the lowest health expenditure as a share of gross domestic product (GDP) among the EU Member States. In line with the government's objective of strengthening the role of primary care, the total number of hospital beds has been decreasing. However, health care provision remains characterized by underprovision of primary and community care and inappropriate use of inpatient and specialized outpatient care, including care in hospital emergency departments. The numbers of physicians and nurses are relatively low in Romania compared to EU averages. This has mainly been attributed to the high rates of workers emigrating abroad over the

  1. Romania ends compulsory childbearing.

    PubMed

    David, H

    1990-06-01

    In 1965, the birth rate in Romania had declined to 15.6/1000 populations (from 25.6 in 1955). The importing of contraceptives was prohibited. The maternal mortality rate increased from 86 maternal deaths/100,000 live births in 1966 to 140 in 1981 and nearly 150 in 1984, when 86% of maternal deaths came from abortions. Employed women up to age 45 were asked to undergo monthly gynecological exams at their places of work. Those who did not were denied dental and medical care, social security and pensions, and the right to spend their holidays at the resort maintained by their work place. Plant employees had to achieve a state- given monthly birth quota or physicians would not receive their full monthly salaries. Demographic committees supervised mandatory quarterly pregnancy tests. Unmarried people over age 25 were assessed 10% of their monthly salary. If after 2 years of marriage there were no children, and there was no medical reason for infertility, each partner had to pay more taxes. As of January, 1990 birth information for the 1986-88 had not been published or reported to the UN. Total fertility rates have not been attained since 1983. A 30-day delay was put into effect on birth registration to avoid acknowledging neonatal mortality. This is a way to lie with statistics to reduce the infant mortality rate. Women were abandoning unwanted babies in overcrowded orphanages. However, condoms are now being imported again. Abortions are being done at about US $3.00 per procedure (compared to US $50 for an illegal abortion). 2500 abortions per week are done in 12 Bucharest hospitals. Women are still coming to hospitals for treatment of sequela of self- induced abortions. They do not know that abortion is now legal. Plans are going made for a national family planning program.

  2. Rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leopold, Luna Bergere

    1962-01-01

    Rivers are both the means and the routes by which the products of continental weathering are carried to the oceans of the world. Except in the most arid areas more water falls as precipitation than is lost by evaporation and transpiration from the land surface to the atmosphere. Thus there is an excess of water, which must flow to the ocean. Rivers, then, are the routes by which this excess water flows to the ultimate base level. The excess of precipitation over evaporation and transpiration provides the flow of rivers and springs, recharges ground-water storage, and is the supply from which man draws water for his needs.

  3. Open Geodata Initiative for Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craciunescu, Vasile; Iosifescu, Ionut; Ilie, Codrina Maria; Gaitanaru, Dragos; Radu Gogu, Constantin; Hurni, Lorenz

    2013-04-01

    The concept of open data access is a very important topic nowadays. The concept assumes that all data collected or generated by public sector bodies (excepting personal data and data protected under existing privacy protection or accessibility rules) is made publicly accessible in commonly-used, machine-readable formats and can be re-used for any purpose, commercial or non-commercial. Governmental agencies are considered to be the most significant data owners and providers in modern societies. The sheer volume and wealth of this data makes apparent the potential benefits of reusing, combining, and processing governmental data. Even though metadata (information about the data) is sometimes published, administrations typically express reluctance to making their data available, for various reasons, cultural, political, legal, institutional and technical. The governmental spatial information (also called geospatial data, georeferenced data or geodata) producers in Romania are no exception -with the additional situation that even metadata is not usually available. Starting from 2013 a joint program between a Swiss partner (The Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH- Zurich - Institute of Cartography and Geoinformation) and a Romanian partner (Technical University of Civil Engineering - UTCB) is developed in order to establish a new approach on the open geodata topic. The main objective of the project GEOIDEA.RO (GEodata Openness Initiative for Development and Economic Advancement in ROmania) is to improve the scientific basis for open geodata model adoption in Romania. Is our believe that publishing government geodata in Romania over the Internet,under an open license and in a reusable format can strengthen citizen engagement and yield new innovative businesses, bringing substantial social and economic gains.

  4. Landslide study at Sacele reservoir in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannata, Massimiliano; Ambrosi, Christian; Spataro, Alessio; Martin, James; Olgun, Guney

    2010-05-01

    Sacele reservoir is locate on the river Tàrlung, about 3 Km upstream from Sacele and about 12 Km from Brasov (Romania). It represents the main drinking water source for Brasov. The Sacele reservoir is recognized as a dam of exceptional importance and therefore it requires special surveillance. In the East side of the basin, in proximity of the barrage, the slope shows evidences of instability; for this reason stabilization works, mainly consisting in re-profiling the slope, and drainage installation, has been conducted without success. This study, financed by the World Bank, aims to provide important information for the estabilishment of an authomatic monitoring system able to reduce the existing risk. Conducted studies includes: - analysis of existing informations - data acquisition by mean of field survey (geodetical and gelogical) and in situ investigation (boreholes, geophisical, sample test) - developement of GIS based geological model - developement of landslide models based on FLAC and FLAC3D Finally the model results leading to the identification of the triggering factors are discussed. The conducted work is a comprehensive study (from data to models) that highligth some interesting conclusions showing how the "stabilization" works increased total displacements and shear strain, and produced a new deeper cinematic.

  5. District heating systems in Oradea, Romania

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.

    1997-08-01

    Oradea is located on the Crisul Repede River, in the northwestern corner of Romania almost due west of Budapest, Hungary. The city has a population around half a million people and can trace its origins back to the Neolithic Age. It was an urban settlement beginning in the 13th century and has been an economic and cultural center for the region. It is a geothermal city with 12 wells drilled within the city limits, six in the nearby Felix Spa and five in the Bors geothermal area to the west, with one doublet set at Nufarul. Currently, there are a variety of geothermal uses in the area, including space and greenhouse heating, domestic hot water supply, process heat, balneology and swimming pools. Wellhead temperatures range from 70 to 105{degrees}C with artesian flows of from 5 to 25 L/s. The present installed capacity is 25 MWt and the heat supply is estimated at 60,000 MWh per year (216,000 GJ/yr). With pumping, the production would double and adding four more doublets, the installed capacity be increased to 65 MWt.

  6. Water from Romania's heart!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lup, M.

    2012-04-01

    As viewed on a map, the borders of Alba County, which lies in the centre of Transylvania, resembles the shape of a heart. The landscape is of great diversity: the plain of the river Mureş and the Apuseni Mountains. These surroundings are bestowed with three types of gold: yellow gold-Au, green gold - the forests and blue gold - water, joined with the red and brown nuances of specific flora and fauna. Every spring the Forestry Service of Alba Iulia and the association "Silvic Progress" initiate and promote events designed to raise community awareness with regard to protection of the environment. For this purpose, they have created partnerships with different types of institutions, including educational partners. The campaign, "Forest month" is one such action for preserving the treasures of our little universe, such as the area of the city of Teiuş, a town located 19 km North-East of the city of Alba Iulia. It is bordered by the valley of the Mureş River on the East, which gently flows from the Trascău Mountains, situated Northwest of the aforementioned area. It is a place of sweet waters, flora and fauna protected by tree species such as poplar trees, willow trees, species of elderberry, oak trees, fir trees, etc. One day I decided together with the students I teach to engage in an activity for the afforestation of the area. We proceeded using the following steps: Information and curiosity We began with a viewing of a short film produced by the "Silvic Progress" association regarding the mutual relationships between water and the forest, flora and fauna. We identified the benefits of water, which is rich in minerals for the trees and plants of the Apuseni Mountains. Keeping water in the vicinity of the roots requires removing weeds, without increasing evaporation or triggering soil erosion. Each species of trees have a different way of absorbing water from the environment. Annual evaporation depends on the species as well, with the spruce having the greatest

  7. [Variability of blood group frequencies in Romania].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, H D; Scheil, H G

    2001-09-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of two population samples from Dobruja and Muntenia (Romania) as well as data from the literature (AB0, MN, Rhesus (D/d) and HPA). The data have been pooled according to the different regions of Romania. Interestingly, the Carpathian Mountains do not form a genetical barrier: there are clear genetical similarities between the provinces east and west as well as between the provinces south and north from the mountains. The differences and similarities between Romania as a whole and other populations in this region reflect the historical processes of the last centuries.

  8. Interrelationship of age and diet in Romania's oldest human burial.

    PubMed

    Bonsall, Clive; Boroneanţ, Adina; Soficaru, Andrei; McSweeney, Kathleen; Higham, Tom; Miriţoiu, Nicolae; Pickard, Catriona; Cook, Gordon

    2012-04-01

    In 1968, excavations in the Climente II cave in the Iron Gates gorge of the River Danube in southwest Romania unearthed the skeleton of an adult male. The burial was assumed to be of Late Pleistocene age because of the presence of Late Upper Palaeolithic (LUP) artefacts in the cave. However, there was no strong supporting stratigraphic evidence, and the body position is reminiscent of Early Neolithic burial practice in the region. Here, we report the results of radiocarbon and stable isotope analyses of the Climente II skeleton, which show that the skeleton dates to the Bølling-Allerød Interstadial ~14,500 cal BP. This is several millennia older than any previously dated human remains from the Iron Gates region and confirms its status as the oldest known burial from Romania. The stable isotope results indicate a diet with an emphasis on aquatic resources, contrary to the commonly held view that the LUP inhabitants of the Iron Gates subsisted mainly by hunting large land mammals.

  9. Interrelationship of age and diet in Romania's oldest human burial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonsall, Clive; Boroneanţ, Adina; Soficaru, Andrei; McSweeney, Kathleen; Higham, Tom; Miriţoiu, Nicolae; Pickard, Catriona; Cook, Gordon

    2012-04-01

    In 1968, excavations in the Climente II cave in the Iron Gates gorge of the River Danube in southwest Romania unearthed the skeleton of an adult male. The burial was assumed to be of Late Pleistocene age because of the presence of Late Upper Palaeolithic (LUP) artefacts in the cave. However, there was no strong supporting stratigraphic evidence, and the body position is reminiscent of Early Neolithic burial practice in the region. Here, we report the results of radiocarbon and stable isotope analyses of the Climente II skeleton, which show that the skeleton dates to the Bølling-Allerød Interstadial ~14,500 cal BP. This is several millennia older than any previously dated human remains from the Iron Gates region and confirms its status as the oldest known burial from Romania. The stable isotope results indicate a diet with an emphasis on aquatic resources, contrary to the commonly held view that the LUP inhabitants of the Iron Gates subsisted mainly by hunting large land mammals.

  10. Contraception and abortion in Romania.

    PubMed

    Johnson, B R; Horga, M; Andronache, L

    1993-04-03

    After the downfall of the Ceausescu regime in December, 1989, the new Government of Romania abolished the law that prohibited abortions on request. Subsequently, the rate of legally induced abortions increased significantly while the rate of maternal mortality declined dramatically. Despite the large number of women who request induced abortions, most women and gynaecologists say that they would prefer to prevent unwanted pregnancies through the use of modern contraception. In this paper we examine factors that contribute to the disparity between women's desire to use modern contraception to prevent unwanted pregnancies and their practice of having induced abortions to prevent unwanted births. The results show that women (and suggest that men) need a wide choice of dependably available high-quality contraceptives; they need to be able to obtain information, counselling, and methods from a wide range of sources/health-care providers; both women's and men's perceptions about, and use of, modern contraception could be positively affected through sexual education started in secondary school; and, to reduce repeat abortions, women's post-abortion family-planning needs must not be neglected.

  11. Studies on the Environmental Improvement in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogaki, Mitsuharu; Yoshizumi, Koji; Motonaka, Junko; Yabutani, Tomoki; Nakamoto, Yumi; Stanescu, Rodica; Plesca, Marinela

    In Romania, the communist planned economy system was in place for 42 years but ended due to a revolution in 1989. An environmental administration was started 1990. In order to assist with environment related activities, one of the authors worked in Bucharest for two years from March 2002 to March 2004 as a JICA (Japan International Cooperation Activity) member. One of the most important problems regarding environmental protection in Romania is waste management. In Japan, the regulations and penalties system of waste management have been used for a long time. However, there are many serious problems with the system, such as a decrease in waste disposal facilities and illegally disposed waste. The authors studied a new plan that uses a certification system in order to promote recycling industries. This system is both efficient and inexpensive so it is possible that this method of waste management could be transmitted to Romania.

  12. Evaluation of endometrial cancer epidemiology in Romania.

    PubMed

    Bohîlțea, R E; Furtunescu, F; Dosius, M; Cîrstoiu, M; Radoi, V; Baroș, A; Bohîlțea, L C

    2015-01-01

    Endometrial cancer represents the most frequent gynecological malignant affection in the developed countries, in which the incidence of cervical cancer has significantly decreased due to the rigorous application of screening methods and prophylaxis. According to its frequency, endometrial cancer is situated on the fourth place in the category of women's genital-mammary malignant diseases, after breast, cervical and ovarian cancer in Romania. The incidence and mortality rates due to endometrial cancer have registered an increasing trend worldwide and also in Romania, a significant decrease of the age of appearance for the entire endometrial pathology sphere being noticed. At the national level, the maximum incidence is situated between 60 and 64 years old, the mortality rate of the women under 65 years old being high in Romania. The study evaluates endometrial cancer, from an epidemiologic point of view, at the national level compared to the international statistic data.

  13. Spatial distribution of Dermacentor reticulatus in Romania.

    PubMed

    Chitimia-Dobler, Lidia

    2015-11-30

    Dermacentor reticulatus (Fabricius, 1794), also known as the marsh tick or ornate dog tick is the second most significant vector (next to Ixodes ricinus) of protozoan, rickettsial and viral pathogens in Europe. Until now, only limited information on the distribution of D. reticulatus in Romania is available. A study was conducted on the distribution of D. reticulatus in Romania during 2012-2014. In this study, D. reticulatus was detected in 17 counties, in 14 of which the species was recorded for the first time. Tick activity was evident throughout the year, except during July and August. Additionally, D. reticulatus was recorded for the first time in Romania from wild boar, foxes and humans. These data suggest that this tick species has a broader geographic range and may have more veterinary and medical importance than previously known.

  14. Secure Transportation of HEU in Romania

    SciTech Connect

    2009-07-06

    The National Nuclear Security Administration has announced the final shipments of Russian-origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) nuclear fuel from Romania. The material was removed and returned to Russia by air for storage at two secure nuclear facilities, making Romania the first country to remove all HEU since President Obama outlined his commitment to securing all vulnerable nuclear material around the world within four years. This was also the first time NNSA has shipped spent HEU by airplane, a development that will help accelerate efforts to meet the Presidents objective.

  15. Parental Migration and Children's Outcomes in Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robila, Mihaela

    2011-01-01

    Although Eastern European migration has increased greatly, the research on its impact on children and families has been limited. In this study I examined the impact of parental economic migration on children psychosocial and academic outcomes in Romania, one of largest Eastern European migrant sending country. Surveys were conducted with 382…

  16. The Leonid Fireball Night from Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigore, V.; Berinde, S.

    1999-02-01

    An overview of the 1998 Leonid activity as seen from Romania by SARM members, with a description of the event on November 16-17 as seen by Valentin Grigore (GRIVA) at Targoviste, lambda=25deg 29' 00'' E, phi=44deg 57' 18'' N, h=350m.

  17. Restless Youth: Emigration and Enterprise in Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihailescu, Ioan

    2004-01-01

    The political changes in Romania after 1989 were followed by structural changes that affected all areas of social, economic, political, and cultural life. The transition from a 'closed' to an 'open' society has been difficult for East European countries, as the creation of institutions oriented towards competition and diversity has not led to an…

  18. Ethnic Attitudes of Hungarian Students in Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ives, Bob; Obenchain, Kathryn M.; Oikonomidoy, Eleni

    2012-01-01

    Participants in this study were ethnic Hungarian secondary students attending high schools in Romania in which Hungarian was the primary language of instruction. Attitudes of participants toward ethnic and cultural groups were measured using a variation of the Bogardus (1933) Scale of Social Distance. Results were consistent with predictions based…

  19. Professional Counseling in Romania: An Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szilagyi, Andreea; Paredes, Daniel M.

    2010-01-01

    The formalization and professionalization processes in Romania resemble the early history of counseling in the United States, where development initially took place in the educational and career/vocational sectors. Brief accounts of the relationship between select periods in Romanian history and access to education and career/vocational support…

  20. The Structure of Vocational Interests in Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iliescu, Dragos; Ispas, Dan; Ilie, Alexandra; Ion, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    Using data provided by the Self-Directed Search (SDS) on a sample of 1,519 participants comprising 3 subsamples containing high school students, university students, and working adults, the authors examine the structure of vocational interests in Romania. Three competing structural models of vocational interests (Holland's circumplex model and…

  1. Cleft lip and palate care in Romania.

    PubMed

    Martin, Vanessa

    2011-11-01

    Vanessa Martin travelled with a surgical team to Romania over a period of 12 years to support nurses and improve practice in the treatment of cleft lip and palate. She recounts her experiences and the changes that took place during that time.

  2. Latest climate changes in Romania :tornadoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Latest climate changes in Romania :tornadoes As climate change has been considered a research priority in the European Strategy for enduring development , I have done a detailed research with my students of the new climate change that has been going on in Romania for the past decade. More precisely I have studied together with my students the phenomenon of tornadoes that have seriously affected on some occasions some our our country's locations, such as Facaeni, in the county of Ialomita, in August 2002. A quite unusual phenomenon occurred on that location situated at 44.56 degrees northern latitude and at 27.89 degrees eastern longitude, that caused severe damage to the local environment and three persons lost their lives in the process, as well as other thirty people suffering from bad injuries. The magnitude of that strong phenomenon rose on the Fujita scale at level F3 which implied wing gusts between 252-300 km/ hour . A main cause of occurrence of such a severe weather was the difference in temperature of two huge air masses, one of Polar origin, and other coming from tropical latitudes . Their crossroads was on that precise territory of Romania. The duration of the worst part of the tornado path lasted only for two minutes, but the consequences of its passage were colossal : total destruction of 33 households, and other 395 were partially damaged, 1,000 people afflicted by the devastation and 100 acres of acacia tree forest ripped off the ground. The first ever recorded tornado phenomenon in Romania was around 1894-1896, considered at that time " a freak of nature" was seen as a cloud formation abnormality , an uncontrolled force of nature that had a huge impact , and at the same time, it vanished into "thin air " fast. The most affected areas in Romania by tornadoes are the south-eastern planes where the cloud formations can create fast columns of air rotating up to 500 km/hour. The local people compared the cloud funnels created on the planes to "serpents

  3. Epidemiological review of toxoplasmosis in humans and animals in Romania.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Hotea, I; Olariu, T R; Jones, J L; Dărăbuş, G

    2014-03-01

    Infections by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii are widely prevalent in humans and other animals worldwide. However, information from eastern European countries is sketchy. In many eastern European countries, including Romania, it has been assumed that chronic T. gondii infection is a common cause of infertility and abortion. For this reason, many women in Romania with these problems were needlessly tested for T. gondii infection. Most papers on toxoplasmosis in Romania were published in Romanian in local journals and often not available to scientists in other countries. Currently, the rate of congenital infection in Romania is largely unknown. In addition, there is little information on genetic characteristics of T. gondii or prevalence in animals and humans in Romania. In the present paper we review prevalence, clinical spectrum and epidemiology of T. gondii in humans and animals in Romania. This knowledge should be useful to biologists, public health workers, veterinarians and physicians.

  4. Diversity and distribution of reptiles in Romania

    PubMed Central

    Cogălniceanu, Dan; Rozylowicz, Laurentiu; Székely, Paul; Samoilă, Ciprian; Stănescu, Florina; Tudor, Marian; Székely, Diana; Iosif, Ruben

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The reptile fauna of Romania comprises 23 species, out of which 12 species reach here the limit of their geographic range. We compiled and updated a national database of the reptile species occurrences from a variety of sources including our own field surveys, personal communication from specialists, museum collections and the scientific literature. The occurrence records were georeferenced and stored in a geodatabase for additional analysis of their spatial patterns. The spatial analysis revealed a biased sampling effort concentrated in various protected areas, and deficient in the vast agricultural areas of the southern part of Romania. The patterns of species richness showed a higher number of species in the warmer and drier regions, and a relatively low number of species in the rest of the country. Our database provides a starting point for further analyses, and represents a reliable tool for drafting conservation plans. PMID:24146598

  5. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Western Romania.

    PubMed

    Olariu, Tudor Rares; Petrescu, Cristina; Darabus, Gheorghe; Lighezan, Rodica; Mazilu, Octavian

    2015-08-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that most commonly causes asymptomatic infection in immunocompetent hosts, but can have devastating consequences in congenitally infected infants and immunocompromised patients. We evaluated the seroprevalence of T. gondii in the general population in Western Romania. Sera from 304 individuals were analysed with the Pastorex Toxo test, which allows the simultaneous detection of T. gondii IgG and/or IgM antibodies. T. gondii antibodies were demonstrated in 197 individuals (64.8%) and the prevalence increased with age: 35.0% in those < 20 years versus 76.8% in those ≥ 70 years (p < 0.001). There was a higher prevalence of T. gondii antibodies in rural areas (76.9%) than in urban regions (55.3%) (p < 0.001). Our results suggest a high prevalence of T. gondii antibodies in Western Romania.

  6. Epidemiological management of rabies in Romania

    PubMed Central

    Najar, Hagit; Streinu-Cercel, Anca

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Transmission of rabies to humans occurs rarely in Europe but in the absence of vaccination, it almost invariably leads to a fatal disease. In 2007, Romania implemented a program for rabies eradication in foxes. Methods We performed a descriptive study evaluating the trend of rabies disease in Romania, both in animals and in humans, between 2008-2012. Results In the past years, a large number of adults have presented to the Antirabic Center of the National Institute for Infectious Diseases “Prof.Dr. Matei Balş”, Bucharest, Romania. The major bite-inflicting animals were cats and dogs, particularly stray dogs (more than two thirds of the cases). Most cases of animal rabies were recorded in 2008 (1089 cases), with a subsequent decline in the following years: 516 in 2009, 469 in 2010, and 195 in 2011. Six cases of human rabies have been reported in Romania from 2008 to 2012, two of which were located in the Bacău district. Four of the cases occurred in females, and two in males; half were children and half adults. The animals inflicting the bites were domestic cats and stray dogs in half of the cases. Discussion Domestic animals, particularly cats, appear to be a major cause of rabies transmission to humans. Therefore, vaccination after cat bites should be taken into account. There is stringent need for specific measures to increase the awareness regarding the problem. People should be educated that cats in rural areas or in the vicinity of forests pose the same level of risk as dogs or wild animals. Conclusion There is need for a new strategy regarding the prevention of animal rabies and its transmission to humans. Proper surveillance systems and continuous monitoring for the disease in wildlife and cities is of utmost importance and should be continued, together with the programs for vaccination of stray dogs and foxes in order to eliminate rabies infection. PMID:24432269

  7. [Tuberculosis in Romania between 2006-2008].

    PubMed

    Marica, Constantin; Chiotan, Domnica; Didilescu, Cristian; Popescu-Hagen, Mara; Tănăsescu, Mihaela; Galie, Nicolae

    2009-01-01

    The high level of TB incidence places Romania among first places in Europe and on the first place in European Union; in the last years a slowly, but hopefully descending trend can be observed (from 114.2 per hundred thousand in 2006 to 109.8 per hundred thousand in 2007 and 108 per hundred thousand in 2008). TB incidence in children has also decreased from 31.6 per hundred thousand in 2006 to 30.8 per hundred thousand in 2007 and 28.5 per hundred thousand in 2008. TB mortality decreased to 7.8 per hundred thousand in 2006 and 7.4 per hundred thousand in 2007. Every year, 800 cases with MDR TB are notified in Romania. The results obtained in the cohort of new patients with pulmonary SS(+) tuberculosis: the success rate reached in 2003 was 79.5% and 83.9% in 2006. The success rate was greater in pulmonary patients confirmed by culture: 82% in 2003 and 85.5% in 2006. In conclusion, the results of NTP implementation in Romania, reflected by the evolution of the principal epidemio-metrical indicators (decrease of the global incidence, TB incidence at children, TB mortality and increase of therapeutical successes) confirms the TB control activities efficacy.

  8. Aging in Romania: research and public policy.

    PubMed

    Bodogai, Simona I; Cutler, Stephen J

    2014-04-01

    Romania has entered a period of rapid and dramatic population aging. Older Romanians are expected to make up more than 30% of the total population by 2050. Yet, gerontological research is sparse and the few studies of older Romanians that exist are not well used by policy makers. Much of the research is descriptive and focused on needs assessments. Most databases created from studies of older adults are not available for secondary analysis, nor is Romania among the countries included in the Survey of Health and Retirement in Europe. The pension and health insurance systems and the system of social welfare services address the specific needs of older Romanians, but comparing the social protection systems in the European Union with those in Romania suggests the existence of a development lag. The relevant legislation exists but there are still issues regarding the implementation of specially developed social services for older persons. As a result, there are major inadequacies in the organization of the social service system: too few public services, insufficient budget funds, insufficient collaboration between public and private services, and frequently overlapping services.

  9. Epidemiological review of Toxoplasmosis in humans and animals in Romania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infections by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii are widely prevalent in humans and other animals worldwide. However, information from former East European countries, including Romania is sketchy. Unfortunately, in many Eastern European countries, including Romania it has been assumed that T. ...

  10. Bulgaria and Romania: Geography and Economics. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1996 (Bulgaria and Romania).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirtland, Jack

    This lesson plan on Romania and Bulgaria could be adapted for various grade levels and ability groups. Topics addressed include cultural diversity, the period of Soviet control in the region and its lasting effects, factors contributing to political instability, the current attempts to move towards a market economy, and traditions and customs…

  11. Inclusive Education in Romania: Policies and Practices in Post-Communist Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Gabriela

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses current inclusive education policies and practices in Romania. There are few accounts of and no systematic study published on this topic. The Romanian special educational policies began to evolve towards integration and inclusion. Today, Romanian special education functions according to democratic principles and Romanian…

  12. Impact of metals on the environment due to technical accident at Aurul Baia Mare, Romania.

    PubMed

    Michnea, A; Gherheş, I

    2001-01-01

    The S.C. Aurul S.A. is a joint venture company owned by the Esmeralda from Australia and the "Remin" National Company of Precious and Non-ferrous Metals in Romania, established in 1992. The design concept was to transport the mining waste away from the city, while the gold and silver in the tailings could be recovered, using efficient and modern technology that was not available at the time the dam was established. On 30 January, 2000, at 22.00, the dam burst and released 100,000 cubic meters of tailing pulp, heavily contaminated with cyanide and cyanide complexes, especially with copper, into the Lapus and Somes tributaries of the river Tisa. The paper deals with the impact of metals on the environment associated with their presence in surface waters, river sediments and soils.

  13. Exceptional floods in the Prut basin, Romania, in the context of heavy rains in the summer of 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanescu, Gheorghe; Constantin Stoleriu, Cristian

    2017-03-01

    The year 2010 was characterized by devastating flooding in central and eastern Europe, including Romania, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Bosnia-Herzegovina. This study focuses on floods that occurred during the summer of 2010 in the Prut River basin, which has a high percentage of hydrotechnical infrastructure. Strong floods occurred in eastern Romania on the Prut River, which borders the Republic of Moldova and Ukraine, and the Siret River. Atmospheric instability from 21 June to 1 July 2010 caused remarkable amounts of rain, with rates of 51.2 mm/50 min and 42.0 mm/30 min. In the middle Prut basin, there are numerous ponds that help mitigate floods as well as provide water for animals, irrigation, and so forth. The peak discharge of the Prut River during the summer of 2010 was 2310 m3 s-1 at the Rădăuţi-Prut gauging station. High discharges were also recorded on downstream tributaries, including the Baseu, Jijia, and Miletin. High discharges downstream occurred because of water from the middle basin and the backwater from the Danube (a historic discharge of 16 300 m3 s-1). The floods that occurred in the Prut basin in the summer of 2010 could not be controlled completely because the discharges far exceeded foreseen values.

  14. The Role of ESERO Romania in Space and Astronomy Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop, Virgiliu

    2015-08-01

    ESERO Romania (The European Space Education Resource Office - Romania) has been established in 2014 as a collaboration between the Europen Space Agency and the Romanian Space Agency. The key aim of ESERO Romania is to increase STEM literacy in Romania by using space as an appealing context to make the teaching and learning of Science, Technology, Engineering and Math subjects more attractive and accessible. In Romania, the Office intends to bridge the gap between the prize-winning elites and the scientifically illiterate mass through the training of teachers, through raising awareness of space activities and through the dissemination of materials, making full use of ESA’s literature and logistical support in this process. The Romanian ESERO is also serving as the main interface between ESA Education and the Romanian educational community. The ultimate aim is to assure the formation of a future work force active in the space and engineering fields - including astronomy. This paper will outline the ways in which ESERO Romania contributes to space and astronomy education in Romania, as well as the challenges and opportunities encountered during the first year of its existence.

  15. New records of Sylvicola (Diptera: Anisopodidae) from Romania

    PubMed Central

    Dvořák, Libor; Beuk, Paul LT

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Anisopodidae (window gnats or wood gnats) is a small family of nematocerous Diptera. Until now only Sylvicola (Anisopus) punctatus (Fabricius, 1787) and Sylvicola (Sylvicola) fenestralis (Scopoli, 1763)​ were reported from Romania. New information New faunistic records of Sylvicola (Diptera: Anisopodidae) are presented. Sylvicola (Sylvicola) cinctus (Fabricius, 1787) and S. (Anisopus) fuscatus (Fabricius, 1775) are recorded from Romania for the first time. An identification key and illustrations of Romanian Sylvicola species are presented. PMID:26929721

  16. Morpho-bathymetrical conditions and the silting rate in Stanca-Costesti reservoir (Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanescu, Gheorghe; Stoleriu, Cristian; Romanescu, Ana Maria; Mihu-Pintilie, Alin

    2015-04-01

    Stanca-Costesti Reservoir holds the largest amount of water among reservoirs located in Romania and has multiple purposes, such as flood mitigation, hydropower production, irrigation etc. Our bathymetric survey was conducted along longitudinal, as well as transverse alignments, so as to cover the entire lacustrine surface by using an echo sounder. Data from three different surveys were employed, i.e. topographical (dating back to 1977, before the onset of flooding) and bathymetrical (1986 and 2000) surveys. The drainage basin of this reservoir extends accross three countries, Romania, Ukraine and Republic of Moldova, and whereas the mountain sector of the basin is mostly covered by forest, the lowland (the Moldavian Plateau) is used for agriculture, i.e., cereal crops. Thus, deforestation and inappropriate tillage techniques employed within this basin result in increased soil erosion. Most of the sediment load is carried during flood events, which have grown increasingly common, particularly in summer. The terraces formed along the downstream sector of the reservoir are not covered by alluvium, whereas the corresponding terraces from its upper sector have been covered by submerged glacises. Moreover, in the area of Ciugur river mouth we observed a submerged valley, as well as several submerged natural levees. The deepest area of the reservoir (29.2 m) is located adjacent to the dam and is thought to be the outcome of a circular current generated by the lake bottom morphology. The silting degree is rather high, ranging up to an index value of 7.3% over 33 years.

  17. Structural and compositional investigation of ancient ceramics from a fortified settlement in south-western Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponta, O.; Vulpoi, A.; Zirra, V. V.; Simon, S.

    2016-10-01

    We report on an interdisciplinary study focused on investigation of pottery fragments collected from the foundation of the wall of protohistoric site La Cetate, Bazdana village, Romania, close to the river Danube, dated towards the end of fourth century BC. The occurrence of pottery pieces under walls of that times is related to the foundation ritual. The samples were analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies. The characterization of the samples includes chemical composition and microstructural properties imposed by processing conditions. They are slightly calcareous ceramic matrices. The identified crystalline phases are preponderantly quartz, with plagioclase, mica, wollastonite and magnetite. The results indicate that the possible firing temperature in air could be above 1100 °C, or lower - if the artisans used reducing atmosphere, that is impressive for that times.

  18. Drought phenomena and groundwater scarcity in Eastern Romania (Siret-Prut region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iulian Catalin, Stanga; Ionut, Minea

    2013-04-01

    Droughts are caused essentially by the climatic elements' variability, being the most known recurring phenomena and one of the most frequent natural disasters in many regions of the world. Acting as disturbances of the natural water cycle, the increasing drought frequency and severity has a high impact on water resources having multiple consequences, especially in regions of high population density or scarce water reserves. In this context, the current approach aims to assess the impact of drought phenomena on groundwater, to improve water management in one of the driest regions of Romania. The study area includes the region between Siret and Prut rivers (about 25,000 km2, in Eastern Romania), being characterized by a hilly and plateau relief, a temperate continental climate with excessive tendencies and a dominant vegetation cover specific to steppe, silvo-steppe and forest domains. Water resources are relatively modest in terms of groundwater or river discharge and characterized by a high time variability. Groundwater reserves and dynamics depend mainly on the climatic conditions, but also on the hydrostatic level depth, the reservoir and drainage conditions. Moreover, the last time, the significant human pressure manifests through a very high density of wells and a continuously increasing consumption, which affect the regenerative capacity of aquifers and perpetuate the water scarcity. In the context of the present climatic changes, the increased frequency and the more accentuated intensity of drought and dryness phenomena significantly affect groundwater reserves. Processing a consistent database from meteorological stations and 256 hydrogeological drills from the eastern part of Romania allowed highlighting some significant correlation between the hydro-climatic elements, with the purpose of relieving the degree of drought exposure of the phreatic aquifers. According to the typology of phreatic aquifers (floodplain or terrace alluvia, proluvio-coluvial slope

  19. Gis Based Multi-Risk and Vulnerability Assessment. A Case Study for Niraj basin area (Transylvanian Depression, Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosca, Sanda; Petrea, Danut; Bilasco, Stefan; Vescan, Iuliu; Fodorean, Ioan

    2015-04-01

    Natural hazards such as landslides, meandering and flash floods have caused economical damage and environmental changes in the last period of time increasing the risk level of the built-up areas and roads from Romania. Thus, an essential role in the prevention of negative effects and the identification of natural risks is played by the generation of hazard and risk maps. The purpose of the study is represented by the generation of multi-hazard and multi-risk maps using GIS technologies, which requires the identification of cumulated risk for each administrative-territorial unit situated in the study area of Niraj river basin from Transylvania Depression, Romania. The first stage in this approach was to develop the flood risk zonation which is based on floodable stripes, obtained using statistical analysis of past data series and their integration in determinist spatial analysis models, generated as a product of temporal flood probability and vulnerability of the territory. The probability of landslide occurrence was estimated using bivariate statistical analysis, by evaluating the importance of each class of preparatory factors depending of the characteristic/local conditions: lithology, geomorphology, structure, hydro-climatic factors, hydrogeology, seismicity, forestry and anthropogenic factor. Finally, the assessment of the risk associated to lateral river erosion, or meandering, was obtained by using the largest time span available (of the last 102 years) in order to identify the river's present dynamic trends of each river meander. The average and the maximum rate of erosion values were used to determine the meandering potential and to identify the meandering risk zones. Therefore, in order to accurately identify the local risk level, we calculated the spatial and temporal probability of occurrence of potential damaging events, as well as the distribution of the elements at risk based on their characteristic vulnerability. The final results represent valuable

  20. Vulnerability of housing buildings in Bucharest, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostenaru, M.

    2009-04-01

    The author participates to the World Housing Encyclopedia project (www.world-housing.net), an internet based database of housing buildings in earthquake prone areas of the world. This is a voluntary project run by the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, Oakland, California and the International Association of Earthquake Engineering, financial means being available only for the website where the information is shared. For broader dissemination in 2004 a summary publication of the reports to date was published. The database can be querried for various parameters and browsed after geographic distribution. Participation is open to any housing experts. Between 2003 and 2006 the author was also member of the editorial board. The author contributed numerous reports about building types in Romania, and each one about building types in Germany and Switzerland. This presentation will be about the contributed reports on building types in Romania. To the Encyclopedia eight reports on building types from Bucharest were contributed, while in further research of the author one more was similarly described regarding the vulnerability and the seismic retrofit. The selection of these types was done considering the historic development of the built substance in Bucharest from 1850 on, time from which a representative amount of housing buildings which can be classified in typologies can be found in Bucharest. While the structural types are not necessarily characteristic for the style, since the style has other time limits, often appearing before the type became common and then remaining being practiced also after another style gained ground, a historic succession can be seen also in this case. The nine types considered can be grouped in seven time categories: - the time 1850-1880, for a vernacular housing type with masonry load bearing walls and timber floors, - the time 1880-1920, for the type of two storey or multi-storey house with masonry walls and timber floors (in which

  1. E-health progresses in Romania.

    PubMed

    Moisil, Ioana; Jitaru, Elena

    2006-01-01

    The paper is presenting the recent evolution of e-health aspects in Romania. Data presented are based on governmental reports. Surveys organized by the "Lucian Blaga" University of Sibiu and studies carried on by the national Institute for Research and Development in Informatics (I.C.I.) have shown that Romania has important health problems, from cardio vascular diseases (CVD) to cancer and infectious diseases, a high score on mortality and morbidity and a low one on natality. Poor management of the health sector did not help to solve all these problems. In the last 14 years there were several attempts to reform healthcare but none succeeded until now. The health insurance system is operational but needs still to be improved. Acknowledging the deep crisis of the health system the Prime Minister nominated a new minister of health and important changes in the health management approach are to be envisaged. One of this is the introduction of the e-procurement system for all health related goods. In spite of the crisis of the health system, e-health applications are flourishing. We can distinguish applications at national and local level and also punctual applications. The main applications refer to hospital information systems (HIS), electronic health records (EHR), e-procurement, image processing, diagnosis and treatment aids, telediagnosis, teleconsultation, education, research and domain oriented web support services. Most academic clinical hospital is now members of a web community "mednet". Unfortunately a lot of medical web sites have disappeared for lack of funds. As the health sector is in general funded from the public budget and the health crisis is deepened in the last years, the driving force in implementing e-health concepts and technologies is not the Ministry of Health but the Information Technology (IT) community, with a strong support from the Ministry of Information Technology and Communications and also from the Ministry of Education and Research

  2. 78 FR 2709 - Finding Regarding Foreign Social Insurance or Pension System-Romania

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ... ADMINISTRATION Finding Regarding Foreign Social Insurance or Pension System-- Romania AGENCY: Social Security Administration (SSA) ACTION: Notice of Finding Regarding Foreign Social Insurance or Pension System--Romania... Commissioner of the Office of International Programs has approved a finding that Romania, beginning January...

  3. Selected persistent organochlorine pollutants in Romania.

    PubMed

    Covaci, A; Hura, C; Schepens, P

    2001-12-03

    Selected persistent organochlorine pollutants, including PCBs, DDT and its metabolites (DDTs) and hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs) were determined in soil, animal fat and human serum samples from Romania. All methods were rigorously tested and adequate quality control was ensured. Soil samples from lassy County showed a lower contamination with organochlorines than samples from other Romanian regions. While DDTs concentrations in soil were significantly higher at rural sites, only few samples (three out of 47) exceeded the official Romanian norms for DDTs. PCBs concentrations were low in rural sites (< 8 ng/g soil), but rather high (up to 134 ng/g soil) in urban soils collected mostly from parks (Bucharest, Arad, Baia Mare, Pitesti and Ploicsti). Animal fat samples from lassy showed high concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (HCHs concentrations up to 12370 ng/g fat), but similar PCB concentrations when compared with Arad samples. Two samples (from 24) exceeded the EU norms (1000 ng/g fat) for HCHs and DDTs in animal fat. Organochlorines were found in higher concentrations in some samples of human serum from Timisoara due to a broader age range. Samples of human serum from lassy mothers showed higher HCHs and DDTs concentrations than samples from a similar group from Antwerp, Belgium. HCB and PCBs were higher in Antwerp cohort. Romanian samples showed a higher ratio DDT/sigmaDDTs, but similar ratios PCB 153/sigmaPCBs.

  4. Analysing connectivity through landslide-channel geomorphic coupling in a large drainage system of Southern Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurchescu, Marta

    2014-05-01

    Unlike creep, splash erosion and linear erosion which sometimes are called "continuous" slope processes, since they are perceived as causing relatively continuous erosion on slopes and a rather rapid transport towards river channels, mass movement processes, excepting flows, have a discontinuous behavior, manifesting stochastically on time intervals ranging from one year to tens of years, while the displaced material can remain suspended in different parts of the slope forming sediment stores. It is obviously why estimating the sediment delivered to the river network by landslides becomes a difficult task. Landslide control on channel dynamics is just one of the several forms of hillslope-channel coupling. Landslide-channel connectivity is relevant for understanding the way landslides are contributing to the sediment flux within catchments and how their study should be integrated in the estimation of sediment budgets. This paper explores the geomorphic coupling of landslides with river channels based on an extensive landslide inventory. The study area is a large drainage basin (> 2400 km2) in southern Romania encompassing four different geomorphic units (mountains, hills, piedmont and plain). The region is highly affected by a wide range of geomorphic processes which contribute to supplying sediments to the drainage network. The presence of a reservoir at the river outlet emphasizes the importance of estimating sediment budgets, the first stage of which consists in studying sediment sources. High sediment transport is associated to flash floods, a fraction of which is due to the slope failures occurring in response to the undercutting of river channels. Nominal classification systems as well as quantitative measures available in the connectivity literature are adopted here to describe the landslides-channels contact zones. Characteristics of the geomorphic coupling interfaces are further linked to the resulting geomorphic effects of landslides on the drainage

  5. Review of the family Veliidae in Romania (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Gerromorpha).

    PubMed

    Berchi, Gavril Marius; Kment, Petr

    2015-05-25

    A critical review of the family Veliidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Gerromorpha) in Romania is provided. In total, two genera and eight species (Microvelia Westwood, 1834-3 species, Velia Latreille, 1804-5 species) are known from the country. Microvelia buenoi Drake, 1920 and Velia serbica Tamanini, 1951 are recorded for the first time from Romania. The occurrence of V. affinis filippii Tamanini, 1947 and V. mancinii mancinii Tamanini, 1947 is confirmed by additional records. Based on proven or suspected misidentifications, V. currens (Fabricius, 1794) and V. rivulorum (Fabricius, 1775) are excluded from the Romanian fauna. A checklist of the Veliidae of Romania and updated distribution maps are provided. Biogeographical aspects of the fauna are summarized.

  6. Waste Management in the Circular Economy. The Case of Romania.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iuga, Anca N.

    2016-11-01

    Applying the principles of sustainable development in Romania involves a new approach to ecological waste using basic concepts of circular economy to weigh accurately the proposed projects in this area taking into account existing environmental resources and zero waste objectives. The paper is focused on: quantitative and qualitative measures of waste prevention in Romania, the changing status of the waste by selling it as product, the mechanisms for paying for treatment and / or disposal which discourage waste generation and the use of financial resources obtained from secondary raw materials for the efficiency of waste management.

  7. First Successful Haploidentical Stem Cell Transplantation in Romania.

    PubMed

    Tănase, Alina; Tomuleasa, C; Mărculescu, Alexandra; Bardaş, A; Coliţă, Anca; Ciurea, Ş O

    2016-09-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is an established treatment for many malignant and non-malignant haematological disorders. In the current case report, we describe the first haploidentical stem cell transplantation, used for the first time in Romania, the case of a 33 year-old young woman diagnosed with Hodgkin's lymphoma that has underwent a haploSCT after she relapsed from several chemotherapy regimens, as well as after an autologous stem cell transplantation. This success represents a prèmiere in Romanian clinical hematology, being the first case of a haploSCT in Romania, as well as in South-Eastern Europe.

  8. Ixodid ticks parasitizing wild carnivores in Romania.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Gianluca; Dumitrache, Mirabela Oana; Matei, Ioana Adriana; Ionică, Angela Monica; Gherman, Călin Mircea; Sándor, Attila David; Modrý, David; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2017-02-01

    In Romania, data regarding hard-tick diversity and tick-host associations in wild carnivores are scarce. We aimed to identify tick species in wild carnivores and to establish reliable data on tick-host associations. The study was conducted in various Romanian localities from all five ecoregions found in the country. Fourteen species of wild carnivores were examined. Immature and adult ticks were collected and identified using the morphological keys. The frequency and mean intensity of tick infestation, overall and differentiated by species, developmental stage and host were calculated. Of 202 wild carnivores, 68 were parasitized by seven tick species (predominantly Ixodes ricinus, I. hexagonus and Dermacentor reticulatus). The mean intensity of tick infestation was similar in males (6.97, BCa 95% CI 5.15-9.88) and females (5.76, BCa 95% CI 4.15-9.17). The highest prevalence of infested animals was recorded in the pannonian and steppic ecoregions, 66.7 and 52.7%, respectively. In the continental ecoregion the prevalence was 26.7%, whereas in the pontic ecoregion it was 28%. The lowest value, 16.7% was recorded in the alpine ecoregion. In total 430 ticks were collected, and 24.8% (n = 50) of the animals were infested with more than one tick species. Fourteen new tick-host associations were recorded. Our results suggest that anthropogenic changes of the environment lead to the diminishing of the boundaries, between wild and domestic animals, increasing the exposure for both animals and humans, to infective agents, including tick-borne pathogens.

  9. Lower Pliocene Fast and Repetitive Vegetation Changes In Southwestern Romania As A Response To Milankovitch Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, S.-M.; Suc, J.-P.; Loutre, M. F.

    High-resolution pollen analyses on the lignite-clay Lupoaia section (from 4.9 to 4.3 Ma) in southwestern Romania provide an accurate record of the Lower Pliocene veg- etation changes in the Danube paleodelta environment close to the Carpathians. Many major fluctuations concern thermophilous trees vs. altitudinal trees (chiefly in agree- ment with lignite-clay alternations) and have been referred to changes in temperature. Thanks to a reliable magnetostratigraphic calibration of the section, such changes are to be linked to eccentricity cycles, that provides a more precise chronologic control to the section (Popescu, in press). In addition, regular secondary fluctuations occur which oppose swamp trees (such as most of the Taxodiaceae) to marsh herbs (such as Cyperaceae). They evoke the present-day landscape of the Mississippi delta where swamp forests (constituted by Taxodium distichum mainly) are in competition with herbaceous marshes (made of Cyperaceae such as Mariscus jamaicensis in addition to some Cyrillaceae and Myrica). The latest require significantly more water than the swamps (Roberts, 1986). These plant environments cause two kinds of lignite deposition that have been also identified in the Lupoaia section (Ticleanu and Dia- conita, 1997). According to the chronologic frame previously defined, it is possible to evidence a precession forcing for these alternations. Minima in precession probably caused increasing rainfall over the region and expansion of marshes. So, it is sug- gested that during Lower Pliocene the West Asian monsoon influenced climate of the northeastern Mediterranean region. References. Popescu, S.-M., in press. Repetitive changes in Lower Pliocene vegetation revealed by high-resolution pollen analysis: revised cyclostratigraphy of Southwest- ern Romania. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. Roberts, H.H., 1986. Selected depositional en- vironments of the Mississippi River deltaic plain. Geol. Sc. America Centennial Field Guide-Southeastern Section

  10. A strategic assessment of abortion and contraception in Romania.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Brooke R; Horga, Mihai; Fajans, Peter

    2004-11-01

    The history of fertility regulation in Romania illustrates the complex interactions between politics, women's reproductive health and rights and access to high quality care. This paper describes the current situation of abortion and contraception in Romania, based on national statistics, recent reproductive health surveys and the findings of a strategic assessment led by the Ministry of Health in late 2001. This rapid assessment employed a participatory, qualitative methodology. Over 500 people were interviewed from 145 institutions in 25 cities, towns and villages in Romania, about the range of actions needed to prevent unwanted pregnancies, reduce abortion-related morbidity and mortality and improve the quality, accessibility and availability of abortion and contraceptive services. Although much progress has been made in contraceptive services over the past ten years, improvements in abortion care have lagged considerably The assessment played an important role in raising team members' awareness and motivation to take action. Some of the issues identified are already being addressed by the institutions that took part. National standards and guidelines for comprehensive abortion care have been developed, contraceptive services have been expanded at primary health care level, sexual and reproductive health education provided by classroom teachers has been introduced in schools, and a study to test a model of comprehensive abortion care services for Romania is planned.

  11. The First Dated Eemian Lacustrine Deposit in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroniu Onac, Bogdan; Björkman, Leif; Björck, Svante; Clichici, Octavian; Tamas, Tudor; Peate, David; Wohlfarth, Barbara

    2001-07-01

    A complex interglacial sequence of lacustrine sediments has been found near the village of Turbuta in NW Romania. Mollusk, plant macrofossil, and pollen analyses reflect climatic and environmental changes around the last interglacial climatic optimum. U-Th TIMS dating of snails strongly indicates an Eemian age of the organic sediments.

  12. Secondary Education in Romania. Guide to Secondary Education in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgescu, Dakmara-Ana

    Secondary education in Romania is characterized by innovations introduced by the communist system and by recent efforts to restructure the system. This book presents a systematic and coherent exposition of the Romanian educational system, and outlines the essential problems the system faces. The book opens with the historical, social, and…

  13. Overview of the investigation of transgenic plums in Romania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic plums of Prunus domestica L. transformed with the Plum pox virus coat protein gene (PPV-CP) were the subjects of three experiments undertaken in Romania. In the first experiment, PPV-CP transgenic clones C2, C3, C4, C5, C6 and PT3 were evaluated for Sharka resistance under high natural i...

  14. Overview on the investigations of transgenic plums in Romania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic plums of Prunus domestica L. transformed with the Plum pox virus coat protein gene (PPV-CP) were the subjects of three experiments undertaken in Romania. In the first experiment, PPV-CP transgenic clones C2, C3, C4, C5, C6, PT3 and PT5 were evaluated for Sharka resistance under high natu...

  15. The Earthquake from 24 September in Moldova and Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex; Cristian, Adrian

    2016-10-01

    On reports the earthquake from 24 September 2016 which took place in Vrancea, Romania in the night and was registered in the Republic of Moldova also. General problems on earthquakes has been discussed. A part of the report discusses and compares (at a popular level) the similarities and differencies between mechanical (acoustic) waves produced by earthquakes and gravitational waves.

  16. Background Study on Employment and Labour Market in Romania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciobanu, Adrian; Parciog, Speranta

    Romania's adoption of a more gradual approach in restructuring and privatizing the state-owned sector has resulted in industry with an unchanged structure that remains the main cause of social and economic decline. Employment has shown a steady decline. Industrial employment has decreased dramatically. Sectors like transport, hotels, and…

  17. Seismicity in Romania--evidence for the sinking lithosphere.

    PubMed

    Roman, C

    1970-12-19

    The revision of Romanian earthquakes shows a distribution suggesting a sinking lithosphere under the Carpathian arc. Thermal and gravitational anomalies, as well as petrological and tectonic features, provide further evidence on the cause and character of intermediate earthquakes of Romania. This is consistent with the theory of plate tectonics in south-east Europe.

  18. NATO Enlargement: Is Romania Ready to Join the Alliance?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    other East European countries. The autocratic and often cruel brand of socialist ideology practiced by Nicolae Ceausescu left the population...sometimes stormy 1996-98 political caldron, see, Romania: Background and Issues for Congress, by Carl Ek, CSR Report for Congress, August 17, 1998

  19. Preparation of School/Educational Psychologists in Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Negovan, Valeria; Dinca, Margareta

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the academic and professional training of educational/school psychologists in Romania. Their training mirrors the country's history, legal provisions, social qualities, and current professional status of psychologists and their specialization. Efforts to increase the quality of training for educational/school psychologists…

  20. Attachment in Institutionalized and Community Children in Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeanah, Charles H.; Smyke, Anna T.; Koga, Sebastian F.; Carlson, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    This study examined attachment in institutionalized and community children 12-31 months of age in Bucharest, Romania. Attachment was assessed using ratings of attachment behaviors and ratings of caregiver descriptions in a structured interview. As predicted, children raised in institutions exhibited serious disturbances of attachment as assessed…

  1. Health Promotion Theory, Praxis, and Needs in Transylvania, Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeman, C.; Byrd, B.; Sinca, A.; Vlad, M.; Depken, D.

    2005-01-01

    Working with Romanian colleagues from the Institute of Public Health, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, researchers set out to discover what health promotion strategies and interventions were being used by Romanian health professionals, to find out who Romanian citizens learn healthy behaviors from, and to discover the perceived needs regarding health…

  2. The potential of subfossil trunks for deriving floating dendrochronologies in NE Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantin, Nechita; Maria, Radoane; Francisca, Chiriloaei; Nicolae, Radoane; Ionel, Popa

    2015-04-01

    The subfossil wood material collected along rivers from north-eastern part of Romania was dated with radiocarbon and dendrochronological investigated. The study area is represented by Siret and Moldova rivers. Both rivers originate in the Eastern Carpathians where they collect the majority of their tributaries, further crossing through the eastern sector of the mountains by creating transverse valleys. Along these rivers, on reaches covering lengths of 100 km and 140 km, tree-rings samples were collected (n = 40 along Moldova River and n = 37 along Siret River). Of the total number of 77 collected wood samples, we dated 26 in order to determine the absolute age. The species of subfossil trunks belong to Quercus (n=51), Ulmus (n=20) and Alnus genus (n=3). The ratio between the average growth and the trunk age varies greatly, from trees aged as little as 38 years with average diameters above 32 cm, to trees as old as 184 years with diameters of just 45 cm. The absolute age of subfossil trunks varied from few decades to 6900-6670 cal yrs BP. The obtained result consists in dendrochronological series which covers periods from Mid to Late Holocene. The highest concentration of deposited subfossil trunks was carried out in the last 3000 yrs BP. Therefore, it is possible to create an exclusively dendrochronological sequence for this time frame. A first step in this direction is the extension of living tree rings series (180 yrs.) with modern wood in order to create an enlarged series of 383 years, (as illustrated for rings series of modern oaks in Dolhasca site, Siret Valley). Albeit there are many gaps in the reconstruction of these phases, several clusters are easily distinguishable, i.e. 3500-2900 years BP, 2200-2075 years BP, and 1000-800 years BP extending to LIA. By relating this data to obtained information from other proxies (lacustrine sediments, pollen records, lake levels, etc) we may conclude that the two major periods in Holocene history were characterized by

  3. Trends of rheumatoid arthritis monitorization in Romania

    PubMed Central

    Stoica, V; Mihai, C; Ciofu, C; Bojincă, M; Milicescu, M; Ciofu, C; Crişan, V; Banciu, M

    2010-01-01

    Background: rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with the loss of overall functionality, which leads to substantial economic losses. Second line agents used in RA treatment require careful monitorization in terms of efficiency and tolerability. Objective: trends, predictive factors and characteristics of clinical, biological and radiological RA monitorization in a cross sectional observational cohort study, conducted on over 206 patients in Romania, with a 12 months follow up (December 2007 – December 2008). Method: Cases were recruited from the south–west region of the country, covering a geographical area of 23 counties. Patients were invited to complete three sets of interviews (collected by post) in a consent letter, containing self reported questionnaires, at 6 months intervals: an original questionnaire (which included quantitative self reported of pain, disease activity and fatigue on visual analogue scale – VAS), Health Assessment Questionnaire – HAQ – Disability and Discomfort Scales and EUROQOL EQ–5D, validated in Romanian (obtaining a user agreement by authors of the original version). Results: analysis was carried out in SPSS 10. The cohort enrolled 206 patients, with the average age of 54.90 ± 12.67 years, 66% urban, 86.4% women, 29.1% professionally active, 48.5% graduates of primary education. The average disease duration after diagnosis of RA was of 9.40 ± 8.87 years. The duration of the treatment reported at baseline was of 2.70 ± 2.64 years. Most patients followed a program of monthly monitoring at a general practitioner (GP) (41.7% at baseline and 37.1% to 12 months). Visits to the rheumatologist followed a monthly regimen (32.3% at baseline and 31.7% to 12 months) or a 2 months interval (19.4% at baseline and 29.6% to 12 months, p = 0.000). Biological monitoring was quarterly (39.6% and 53.2% at 12 months; p = 0.000) or at 2 months interval (26.2% at baseline and 16.7% to 12 months, p = 0.000). X–ray monitoring lacked in over

  4. New aspects concerning geoelectrical tests on shallow landslides in Telega, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maftei, R.-M.; Rusu, E.; Ciurean, R.; Avram, O.; Scutelnicu, I.; Grigorescu, S.; Grigorescu, A.

    2009-04-01

    New aspects concerning geoelectrical tests on shallow landslides in Telega, Romania Raluca Maftei, Emil Rusu, Roxana Ciurean, Ovidiu Avram, Ionut Scutelnicu, Stefan Grigorescu, Andrei Grigorescu (1) (1) GIR, Bucharest, Romania The analysis of natural hazards involved by landslides requires the revealing of both depth and relief of the slipping surface, and also to show the extension of the dislocated material areas. A particular aspect in Romania is related to the frequent occurrence of salt. It is to be mentioned that Romania contains the largest salt resources/reserves throughout Europe. This potential of about three billion tons could supply salt for the whole world population for over four hundred years. Telega village, separated by Campina town through Doftana River, is situated at 5 km from it, in the west part of Prahova County. The village covers a medium altitude relief (550m), characterized by irregularities of ground, many valleys and swales crossed by streams. On the left bank of Telega valley, the landslides' effects have a large extension, in some places being catastrophic. Among these, the one called at "Butoi" area presents a huge interest according of their produced destructions and because of the influence on Telega Spa, main communal road etc. In the above-mentioned sector, the slope is badly affected over a 0.4 sqkm surface. The morphology presents many scars, sometimes with steeps, waves with variable amplitudes and counter slope aspects in which water accumulates as lakes and swamps, with transversal and longitudinal fissures with different lengths and depths. The slope is very steep, especially in crest area. Besides the covering deluvial, clayey, yellow-gray quaternary rocks, other rocks form the basement are moving, in the detachment area marly, gray-black, fine stratified, sandy rocks interbeded with soft, gray sandstones of Meotian age are affected. Also, the rocks of the "salt breccias horizon" of Badenian age are affected. Predominantly

  5. West Nile virus reemergence in Romania: a serologic survey in host species.

    PubMed

    Ludu Oslobanu, Elena Luanda; Mihu-Pintilie, Alin; Anită, Dragos; Anita, Adriana; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Savuta, Gheorghe

    2014-05-01

    The presence of West Nile virus (WNV) in humans has been known in Romania since the 1950s; the 1996 epidemics emphasized the reemergence potential of WNV in Romania. Serological surveys made on susceptible species, known as good sentinels or reservoir hosts, e.g., horses, wild and domestic birds were undertaken from 2006-2011. Our results corroborated incidence data in human patients and other recent seroprevalence studies in animals, and should partially clarify the emergence of WNV in the eastern rural territories of Romania. It also highlighted risk zones for endemic WNV infection in Romania.

  6. First report of OXA-72 producing Acinetobacter baumannii in Romania.

    PubMed

    Georgescu, M; Gheorghe, I; Dudu, A; Czobor, I; Costache, M; Cristea, V-C; Lazăr, V; Chifiriuc, M C

    2016-09-01

    This is the first report of an OXA-72-producing Acinetobacter baumannii strain in Romania, isolated from chronic leg ulcer samples. Identification of the strain was performed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Presence of carbapenem resistance genes was investigated by PCR and sequencing. Our data support the spread of the bla OXA-72 gene in Eastern Europe.

  7. Tineret Plus-Perseide 2004, an international project in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigore, V.; Ogescu, D. M.

    2005-02-01

    It is presented the 12th editions of Perseide (Perseids) manifestation organized by SARM, the most important astronomical event in Romania since 1993. Named this year Tineret Plus-Perseide 2004, it had two usually components, the summer astronomical school and the national observing Perseids network and a special tourist program. Over 80~participants attended this event, including observers from the Netherlands, Belgium and Germany.

  8. The German Military Mission to Romania, 1940-1941

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    its own problems upon itself by its prior pro-Allied policy. Hitler also Finnish Volunteer Battalion of German Waffen- SS return home from front in...youth of 19, while Antonescu assumed dictatorial powers and the title of “Leader,” much in keeping with his Nazi and Fascist colleagues.5 With...connections to the Nazi Party, and the Nazis had newspapers and political organizations in Romania. Not surprisingly, German language newspapers ran

  9. Heat pump assisted geothermal heating system for Felix Spa, Romania

    SciTech Connect

    Rosca, Marcel; Maghiar, Teodor

    1996-01-24

    The paper presents a pre-feasibility type study of a proposed heat pump assisted geothermal heating system for an average hotel in Felix Spa, Romania. After a brief presentation of the geothermal reservoir, the paper gives the methodology and the results of the technical and economical calculations. The technical and economical viability of the proposed system is discussed in detail in the final part of the paper.

  10. Black Sea and Caspian Sea, Symposium II, Constanta, Romania

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    research on intelligence issues that distills lessons and improves Intelligence Community capabilities for policy-level and operational consumers . Th...ese proceedings are from the Second Symposium on Black Sea and Caspian Sea Security Issues conducted 18-23 May 2007 in Constanta, Romania. Th is...participants with a better understanding of the security issues . Th is publication is almost the entirety of their presentations, and the views expressed

  11. Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks from Romania.

    PubMed

    Matei, Ioana Adriana; Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Magdaş, Cristian; Magdaş, Virginia; Toriay, Hortenzia; Dumitrache, Mirabela Oana; Ionică, Angela Monica; D'Amico, Gianluca; Sándor, Attila D; Mărcuţan, Daniel Ioan; Domşa, Cristian; Gherman, Călin Mircea; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Granulocytic anaplasmosis is a common vector-borne disease of humans and animals with natural transmission cycle that involves tick vectors, among which Ixodes ricinus is the most important. The present paper reports the prevalence and geographical distribution of A. phagocytophilum in 10,438 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks collected at 113 locations from 40 counties of Romania. The unfed ticks were examined for the presence of A. phagocytophilum by PCR targeting a portion of ankA gene. The overall prevalence of infection was 3.42%, with local prevalences ranging between 0.29% and 22.45%, with an average prevalence of 5.39% in the infected localities. The infection with A. phagocytophilum was detected in 72 out of 113 localities and in 34 out of 40 counties. The highest prevalence was recorded in females followed by males and nymphs. The results and the distribution model have shown a large distribution of A. phagocytophilum, covering Romania's entire territory. This study is the first large scale survey of the presence of A. phagocytophilum in questing I. ricinus ticks from Romania.

  12. The use of historical topographic maps in the study of forest-cover changes in Southern Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imecs, Zoltán; Bartos-Elekes, Zsombor; Timár, Gábor; Magyari-Sáska, Zsolt

    2014-05-01

    In the post-communist period the term "deforestation" becomes well known in Romania. By the middle of 19th-century more than 27% of the country was covered by forests, but since then certain changes took place in this respect. The study of the phenomena can be done by the help of maps. In this regard it is very important to have old maps which can emphasize the situation from the past. As the map of Southern Romania, made about Walachia in 1864, called Charta României Meridionale is now georeferenced and accessible on the web, it can be used as a basis for such studies. Researchers are now able to make quantitative studies. In our poster we made a study of two different regions from Southern Romania: one from a mountain region and one from a plain region. Both are in the basin of Argeş river, tributary of Danube. The mountain region lies in the upper basin of Argeş river which is now occupied Vidraru artificial lake. The plain region lies on wetland and today is a natural reserve. The study regions have almost the same size (about 400 km2). In order to follow the evolution in time of the forest cover we used four data sources which covers a period of more than 150 years: Charta României Meridionale (the survey was made between 1855 and 1859); Lambert-Cholesky maps (the survey was made at the end of the 19th century); Gauss-Krüger maps (from the 1960s) and orthophotographs made in 2005. All these materials are georeferenced. With the help of GIS software we digitized the areas covered by forests in both regions. The areas were determined and compared. Using GIS techniques we can overlap the areas covered by forests, the illustrations were made this way. As a conclusion we can say that the plain region suffered important changes as the natural landscape turns into an agricultural-human landscape in the first part of the 20th century. We can say that the actual forest is preserved only because now it is a protected area. In the mountain region the territory was

  13. Geogenic methane emissions in central and eastern Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baciu, Calin; Ionescu, Artur; Pop, Cristian; Etiope, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    Keywords: methane, greenhouse gases, geogenic emissions, Romania Relatively often, the hydrocarbon reservoirs are not completely sealed, thus permitting the channeling to the surface of various amounts of gas, mainly consisting of methane and homologues. When important volumes of gas are released, features as mud volcanoes and everlasting fires may occur. When the gas amount is low, the degassing can be revealed by instrumental means only. The gas seeps may be useful as indicators in the hydrocarbon exploration, but may be also hazardous when gas is accumulating in closed spaces. Additionally, the geogenic methane degassing represents an important contribution to the atmospheric budget of greenhouse gases. Romania is one of the European important hydrocarbon producers, with oil and gas deposits in different geologic and tectonic contexts. As well, the frequency of gas emitting features and seepage areas is high. Some relevant hydrocarbon-prone areas from Romania, namely the Neogene Transylvanian Basin, the Carpathian Foredeep, and the Moldavian Platform, are comparatively analysed within the current work from the point of view of methane emissions. The Carpathian Foredeep hosts the most impressive mud volcanoes and everlasting fires in Romania, classified among the biggest in Europe. The degassing area also extends in the Carpathian Flysch zone. The Transylvanian Basin hosts numerous gas-bearing structures, mainly of biogenic origin. With some exceptions, the methane-emitting features are small, releasing relatively low amounts of gas. A relatively high number of seeps have been described on the Moldavian Platform, although no commercial hydrocarbon reservoirs have been identified. The seeps are small, and they are releasing low amounts of methane. However, it is important to notice that the investigated zone partly corresponds to an area of interest for shale gas, related to the deep-seated Silurian shales. For all mentioned areas, the main geochemical

  14. 76 FR 44608 - Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan and Romania; Scheduling of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... COMMISSION Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan and Romania; Scheduling of..., Line, and Pressure Pipe from Japan and Romania AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... pressure pipe from Japan and Romania would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  15. Music/Drama Project. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997. (Romania and Bulgaria).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radashaw, Sharon L.

    This unit developed for middle school students utilizes the countries of Romania and Bulgaria as the basis for a study of their music and drama. Middle school students will recognize the commonalities of world music, dance, and theater by developing skills and understanding of elements of each art. Folk music and dance from Romania and Bulgaria…

  16. 76 FR 60083 - Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan and Romania

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... COMMISSION Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan and Romania Determinations... standard, line, and pressure pipe from Japan and Romania would be likely to lead to continuation or... the determination regarding small- diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line, and...

  17. Scholastic Attainment Following Severe Early Institutional Deprivation: A Study of Children Adopted from Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckett, Celia; Maughan, Barbara; Rutter, Michael; Castle, Jenny; Colvert, Emma; Groothues, Christine; Hawkins, Amanda; Kreppner, Jana; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Stevens, Suzanne; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between severe early institutional deprivation and scholastic attainment at age 11 in 127 children (68 girls and 59 boys) adopted from institutions in Romania was compared to the attainment of 49 children (17 girls and 32 boys) adopted within the UK from a non-institutional background. Overall, children adopted from Romania had…

  18. The first record of Pyxidium tardigradum Van der Land, 1964 (Ciliophora) in Romania.

    PubMed

    Ciobanu, Daniel Adrian; Roszkowska, Milena; Moglan, Ioan; Kaczmarek, Łukasz

    2015-04-02

    In three lichen samples collected from eastern part of Romania, three populations of Ramazzottius cf. oberhaeuseri (Doyère, 1840) infested by Pyxidium tardigradum Van der Land 1964 were found. In this short correspondence we present a first record of P. tardigradum in Romania and infestation rates in studied populations according to the different life stages.

  19. Higher Education in Romania: Evolution and Views from the Business Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolescu, Luminita

    2003-01-01

    Describes the evolution of higher education in Romania after 1990 and presents the results of a survey concerning the relationship between higher education and the business community in Romania. The survey had as its main objective to analyze the evolution and performance of graduates, from both private and state universities, in the labor market,…

  20. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Romania are carriers of Toxoplasma gondii but not Neospora caninum.

    PubMed

    Şuteu, Ovidiu; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel; Paştiu, Anamaria Ioana; Györke, Adriana; Matei, Ioana Adriana; Ionică, Angela; Balea, Anamaria; Oltean, Miruna; D'Amico, Gianluca; Sikó, Sándor Barabási; Ionescu, Dan; Gherman, Călin Mircea; Cozma, Vasile

    2014-07-01

    Brain samples from 182 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Romania were examined using a standard PCR technique. Results provide evidence of Toxoplasma gondii (11 foxes=6.0%) and Neospora caninum (1 fox=0.5%) DNA in red foxes from Romania. No coinfections were found.

  1. River meanders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Langbein, Walter Basil

    1966-01-01

    The striking geometric regularity of a winding river is no accident. Meanders appear to be the form in which a river does the least work in turning; hence they are the most probable form a river can take

  2. Dr. Lenke Horvath (1917-1991): Creator of Pediatric Neurosurgery in Romania.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Dumitru; Moisa, Horatiu Alexandru; Nica, Dan Aurel; Ciurea, Alexandru Vlad

    2016-04-01

    The development of neurosurgery as an independent specialty took place with great difficulty in Romania. In this respect, the most revered personalities are those of Professor Alexandru Moruzzi (1900-1957) (in Iasi) and Professor Dimitrie Bagdasar (1893-1946) (in Bucharest), who are the fathers of modern neurosurgery in Romania. Professor Bagdasar was schooled in Professor Harvey Cushing's clinic in Boston and is credited with creating the first completely independent neurosurgical unit in Romania. His legacy was carried on with honor by Professor Constantin Arseni (1912-1994), who, in 1975, tasked Dr. Lenke Horvath (1917-1991) with creating the first autonomous pediatric neurosurgery unit in Bucharest. This article is a small tribute to the founder of pediatric neurosurgery in Romania and one of the female pioneer neurosurgeons, who, by personal example of dedication and hard work, radically changed medical thinking and neurosurgery in Romania.

  3. Carbon implications of forest restitution in post-socialist Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olofsson, P.; Kuemmerle, T.; Griffiths, P.; Knorn, J.; Baccini, A.; Gancz, V.; Blujdea, V.; Houghton, R. A.; Abrudan, I. V.; Woodcock, C. E.

    2011-10-01

    The collapse of socialism in 1989 triggered a phase of institutional restructuring in Central and Eastern Europe. Several countries chose to privatize forests or to return them to pre-socialist owners. Here, we assess the implications of forest restitution on the terrestrial carbon balance. New forest owners have strong incentives to immediately clearcut their forests, resulting in increased terrestrial emissions. On the other hand, logging generally decreased after 1989 and forests are expanding on unused or abandoned farmland, both of which may offset increased logging on restituted forests. We mapped changes in forest cover for the entire country of Romania using Landsat satellite images from 1990 to 2010. We use our satellite estimates, together with historic data on logging rates and changes in forest cover, to parameterize a carbon book-keeping model for estimating the terrestrial carbon flux (above and below ground) as a consequence of land use change and forest harvest. High logging rates during socialism resulted in substantial terrestrial carbon emissions and Romania was a net carbon source until the 1980s. After the collapse of the Soviet Union forest harvest rates decreased dramatically, but since restitution laws were implemented they have increased by 60% (from 15 122 ± 5397 ha y - 1 in 2000 to 23 884 ± 11 510 ha y - 1 in 2010), but still remain lower than prior to 1989. Romania currently remains a terrestrial carbon sink, offsetting 7.6% ± 2.5% of anthropogenic carbon emissions. A further increase in logging could result in net emissions from terrestrial ecosystems during the coming decades. However, forest expansion on degraded land and abandoned farmland offers great potential for carbon sequestration.

  4. Earthquake early warning for Romania - most recent improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmureanu, Alexandru; Elia, Luca; Martino, Claudio; Colombelli, Simona; Zollo, Aldo; Cioflan, Carmen; Toader, Victorin; Marmureanu, Gheorghe; Marius Craiu, George; Ionescu, Constantin

    2014-05-01

    EWS for Vrancea earthquakes uses the time interval (28-32 sec.) between the moment when the earthquake is detected by the local seismic network installed in the epicenter area (Vrancea) and the arrival time of the seismic waves in the protected area (Bucharest) to send earthquake warning to users. In the last years, National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP) upgraded its seismic network in order to cover better the seismic zones of Romania. Currently the National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP) operates a real-time seismic network designed to monitor the seismic activity on the Romania territory, dominated by the Vrancea intermediate-depth (60-200 km) earthquakes. The NIEP real-time network consists of 102 stations and two seismic arrays equipped with different high quality digitizers (Kinemetrics K2, Quanterra Q330, Quanterra Q330HR, PS6-26, Basalt), broadband and short period seismometers (CMG3ESP, CMG40T, KS2000, KS54000, KS2000, CMG3T,STS2, SH-1, S13, Ranger, gs21, Mark l22) and acceleration sensors (Episensor). Recent improvement of the seismic network and real-time communication technologies allows implementation of a nation-wide EEWS for Vrancea and other seismic sources from Romania. We present a regional approach to Earthquake Early Warning for Romania earthquakes. The regional approach is based on PRESTo (Probabilistic and Evolutionary early warning SysTem) software platform: PRESTo processes in real-time three channel acceleration data streams: once the P-waves arrival have been detected, it provides earthquake location and magnitude estimations, and peak ground motion predictions at target sites. PRESTo is currently implemented in real- time at National Institute for Earth Physics, Bucharest for several months in parallel with a secondary EEWS. The alert notification is issued only when both systems validate each other. Here we present the results obtained using offline earthquakes originating from Vrancea area together with several real

  5. Leishmaniasis--an unusual cause of splenomegaly in Romania.

    PubMed

    Alexa, Teodora; Luca, A; Crăcană, Irina; Merticariu, Amalia; Dănăilă, C

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic infection caused by protozoans classified as Leishmania species. Romania is not considered an endemic country and there are only few reports of sporadic cases in the last 100 years. However, studies suggest that the disease is spreading north. We present the case of a 44 year old female that presented with asthenia, perspirations, vertigo, weight loss and menometrorhagias in small to medium quantity. Clinical exam revealed the presence of splenomegaly and her blood tests indicated she had pancitopenia; differential diagnosis included myeloproliferative or lymphoproliferative disorders, infections that evolve with spleen enlargement, autoimmune-related splenomegaly and hepatic--all tests were negative. She refused the bone marrow aspiration. Three months later, her condition worsened and the menometrorragias became more severe. Bone marrow aspiration revealed the presence of numerous intra and extracellular Leishmania spp. amastigotes. A detailed anamnesis showed that she had worked for six months in Italy as a care-giver nine months ago. She was transferred to Bucharest where she received optimal treatment. However, due to the continuous bleeding, the evolution was unfavourable. This is an alarm sign for physicians that should take into account the fact that, due to population migration and global warming, tropical infectious diseases are becoming more and more common. The signs and symptoms, as well as the treatment in leishmaniasis are reviewed, as well as a brief history of leishmaniasis in Romania.

  6. Hand, foot and mouth disease--outbreak in Romania?

    PubMed

    Chiriac, Anca; Foia, Liliana; Chiriac, Anca; Nanescu, Sonia; Filip, Florina; Solovan, C; Gorduza, E V

    2013-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a viral illness usually occurring during the summer months in children younger than 5 years of age. In the North-East area of Romania the incidence is usually low, each dermatologist reporting 1-2 cases or even less per year. The diagnosis is usually based on the characteristic clinical aspect: vesicles and papules on the hands and feet and superficial oral ulcers. HFMD is typically a benign and self-limiting disease that resolves in approximately 7 days; in Asia there have been few reported severe cases that developed neurological complications and even death, while in certain areas of China this disease is a more and more serious public health problem. In the summer of 2012 in North-East Romania numerous cases of disease have been reported, some with atypical clinical manifestations and most of them with mild or moderate forms of disease. The present article is a discussion on one of these cases. The diagnosis was made based on lesions location and clinical appearance. An outbreak of HFMD should be confirmed by virology tests.

  7. Validation and Upscaling of Soil Moisture Satellite Products in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandric, I.; Diamandi, A.; Oana, N.; Saizu, D.; Vasile, C.; Lucaschi, B.

    2016-06-01

    The study presents the validation of SMOS soil moisture satellite products for Romania. The validation was performed with in-situ measurements spatially distributed over the country and with in-situ measurements concentrated in on small area. For country level a number of 20 stations from the national meteorological observations network in Romania were selected. These stations have in-situ measurements for soil moisture in the first 5 cm of the soil surface. The stations are more or less distributed in one pixel of SMOS, but it has the advantage that covers almost all the country with a wide range of environmental conditions. Additionally 10 mobile soil moisture measurements stations were acquired and installed. These are spatially concentrated in one SMOS pixel in order to have a more detailed validation against the soil type, soil texture, land surface temperature and vegetation type inside one pixel. The results were compared and analyzed for each day, week, season, soil type, and soil texture and vegetation type. Minimum, maximum, mean and standard deviation were extracted and analyzed for each validation criteria and a hierarchy of those were performed. An upscaling method based on the relations between soil moisture, land surface temperature and vegetation indices was tested and implemented. The study was financed by the Romanian Space Agency within the framework of ASSIMO project http://assimo.meteoromania.ro.

  8. Epidemiology and history of human parasitic diseases in Romania.

    PubMed

    Neghina, Raul; Neghina, Adriana M; Marincu, Iosif; Iacobiciu, Ioan

    2011-06-01

    Intestinal parasitic diseases such as enterobiasis, giardiasis, and ascariasis are detected most frequently in Romania, but their importance is definitely surpassed by trichinellosis, cystic echinococcosis, and toxoplasmosis. Malaria was common until its eradication in 1963, and only imported cases are reported nowadays. The aim of this review was to bring together essential data on the epidemiology and history of human parasitoses in Romania. Information on 43 parasitic diseases was collected from numerous sources, most of them unavailable abroad or inaccessible to the international scientific community. Over time, Romanian people of all ages have paid a significant tribute to the pathogenic influences exerted by the parasites. Sanitary and socio-economical consequences of the parasites diseases have great negative impact on the quality of life of affected individuals and the overall well-being of the population. Implementation of efficient public health measures and informative campaigns for the masses as well as changing the inadequate habits that are deeply rooted in the population are mandatory for cutting successfully this Gordian knot.

  9. Regional variability of extreme rainfall events in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breza, Traian; Cheval, Sorin; Baciu, Madalina; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Antonescu, Bogdan; Burcea, Sorin

    2010-05-01

    Extreme rainfall events triggering flash floods occur quite often over the territory of Romania, leaving behind significant damages and casualties. This research is a contribution to the FP6 Project HYDRATE (Hydrometeorological data resources and technologies for effective flash flood forecasting). It aims at investigating the spatial patterns of the extreme rainfall events in Romania, based on the characteristics of their intensity-duration-frequency (IDF). The study uses the peak-over-threshold concept, which basically consists of analyzing all precipitation amounts above certain thresholds selected for different durations. The data come from 60 weather stations. They cover the warm interval (generally, April-October, but less extended for mountain stations), and at least 30 years-datasets have been used. The regional differences were retrieved from the IDF curves and they were also approached by GIS-based mapping the intensities corresponding to sub-daily durations (5 - 180 min.) and to different return periods (10,50, 100 years). The results highlight significant regional variations, that improve the understanding of the impact of the extreme rainfall events and the consequent flash floods on the natural and social environment. At the same time, overlapping the extreme rainfall data and land cover information, we have empahsized the hazard potential of the precipitation events.

  10. Web-GIS platform for green infrastructure in Bucharest, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sercaianu, Mihai; Petrescu, Florian; Aldea, Mihaela; Oana, Luca; Rotaru, George

    2015-06-01

    In the last decade, reducing urban pollution and improving quality of public spaces became a more and more important issue for public administration authorities in Romania. The paper describes the development of a web-GIS solution dedicated to monitoring of the green infrastructure in Bucharest, Romania. Thus, the system allows the urban residents (citizens) to collect themselves and directly report relevant information regarding the current status of the green infrastructure of the city. Consequently, the citizens become an active component of the decision-support process within the public administration. Besides the usual technical characteristics of such geo-information processing systems, due to the complex legal and organizational problems that arise in collecting information directly from the citizens, additional analysis was required concerning, for example, local government involvement, environmental protection agencies regulations or public entities requirements. Designing and implementing the whole information exchange process, based on the active interaction between the citizens and public administration bodies, required the use of the "citizen-sensor" concept deployed with GIS tools. The information collected and reported from the field is related to a lot of factors, which are not always limited to the city level, providing the possibility to consider the green infrastructure as a whole. The "citizen-request" web-GIS for green infrastructure monitoring solution is characterized by a very diverse urban information, due to the fact that the green infrastructure itself is conditioned by a lot of urban elements, such as urban infrastructures, urban infrastructure works and construction density.

  11. Altitude-Dependent Prevalence of Canine Granulocytic Anaplasmosis in Romania.

    PubMed

    Matei, Ioana Adriana; Ionică, Angela Monica; D'Amico, Gianluca; Corduneanu, Alexandra; Daskalaki, Aikaterini Alexandra; Lefkaditis, Menelaos; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Canine granulocytic anaplasmosis (CGA) is an important tick-borne disease with worldwide distribution. The importance of this disease resides in the ability of Anaplasma phagocytophilum to infect humans and several animal species. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence rate of CGA in different altitudinal areas of Romania. A total of 357 canine blood samples were collected during 2010-2013 from eight counties. To assess the influence of the altitude on A. phagocytophilum prevalence, the samples were collected from four different altitude areas (coastal 0-5 meters; lowland 6-100 meters; hilly areas 200-300 meters; low mountain areas >500 meters). These samples were evaluated for the presence of A. phagocytophilum DNA by amplifying part of the Ankyrin repeat protein (AnkA) gene. A higher prevalence was obtained for coastal compared with remaining areas, suggesting an influence of altitude on the CGA. Moreover, the results suggest an influence of climate and rainfall. In the present research work, we highlight the risk of granulocytic anaplasmosis in Central and Southern Romania, with a greater risk associated to Southern lowland region, especially in coastal areas. The importance of these results resides in the zoonotic potential of the canine A. phagocytophilum strains. In conclusion, the altitude and precipitation level may be risk factors for A. phagocytophilum infection in dogs and other hosts, including humans.

  12. Three new Fridericia species (Oligochaeta, Enchytraeidae) from Transylvania, Romania.

    PubMed

    Boros, Gergely; Dózsa-Farkas, Klára

    2015-01-20

    We give descriptions of three new Fridericia species (Enchytraeidae, Oligochaeta) from Transylvania, Romania. Fridericia transylvanica sp. n. is a large-sized worm with a maximum of 4 chaetae per bundle. The spermathecae are separate entally and have two sac-like diverticula bent distad with the ampulla forming a common U-shaped sperm-containing chamber. The species was found not only in the Transylvanian Plateau but also in different regions of the Carpathians in Romania and Serbia. Fridericia gyromonodactyla sp. n. is medium-sized with a maximum of 3 chaetae per bundle. There are only four pairs of preclitellar nephridia. The spermathecal ectal duct is contractile and shorter than the body diameter; each ampulla has only one diverticulum, elongate and coiled, and there is one sessile gland at the orifice. Fridericia longeaurita sp.n. is large-sized with 4(5) chaetae per preclitellar bundle but only two or one in postclitellar bundles. The spermathecal ectal duct is shorter than the body diameter, with one small and sessile ectal gland at the orifice. Each ampulla has two long, ear-shaped, and sac-like diverticula. None of the three species were rare at the sites where they occurred. 

  13. Use of GIS Technology in Surface Water Monitoring fro Targeted Policy Intervention in a Mountainous Catchment in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giali, Gabriela; Schneider, Petra

    2015-04-01

    USE OF GIS TECHNOLOGY IN SURFACE WATER MONITORING FOR TARGETED POLICY INTERVENTION IN A MOUNTAINOUS CATCHMENT IN ROMANIA The collection of information on surface water quality is a specific activity that takes place systematically and regularly at regional and national scale, and it is important for the assessment of the water quality as well as for water management policy-making. A data base information management using a Geographical Information System (GIS) forms an important aspect of environmental management, which provides the frame for processing and visualisation of water monitoring data and information as well as for the optimisation of monitoring concepts. This paper presents an architecture performed by a GIS which provides a grafic database and attributes the nesessary measurements of the water quality to different sections of the mountainous catchment of the Suceava river in the north of Romania. With this approach the location of the water sampling points can be optimised in terms of the selection and setting of the river sections. To facilitate the setting of the sampling locations in the various sections of water sampling in the river, the presented GIS system provides to the user different information layers with combined or isolated data according to the objectives. In the frame of the research were created 5 layers of information in the basin under study, underlying the determination of a new information layer, namely the "Hydrografic Network Graded to Hydrographic Sections". Practically, in the studied basin were established 8 sections for water sampling locations, and the water quality characterization was done by the consideration of 15 quality indicators. The GIS system presented in this research is a valuable, useful and adaptable to land use changes data base that can be exploited by any number of combinations, its capabilities justify it's role as "tool to support decision making." With this characteristics it supports the policy-making of

  14. Observed variability of drought and aridity and its impact on the hydrological regime in the Barlad catchment (Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borcan, Mihaela; Cheval, Sorin; Chendes, Viorel

    2015-04-01

    The drought is a complex phenomenon with slow manifestation which engages, depending on its duration and intensity, a number of different components of the climatic, hydrologic, pedologic systems. This paper investigates the relationships between drought and aridity on one hand and hydrological regime, on the other hand, in Bârlad river basin, in the eastern part of Romania. Recent studies have revealed that both meteorological and hydrological drought events have a significant frequency and magnitude in the area, so that an important impact on the hydrological regime is likely to occur. For the next decades, climate change scenarios estimate increasing temperatures and relatively low decreasing of precipitation. Therefore, eventual changes in the aridity characteristics can be expected, and they might have a considerable impact on the water supply or agriculture in the Bârlad catchment. The analysis covers the period 1961-2013 and it is based on monthly data from meteorological and hydrological stations. Seasonal indices were calculated for characterising the drought (SPI, SFI, PDSI, PHDI) and aridity (UNEP, de Martonne, Pinna), while their temporal variability was further investigated in relations with specific hydrological parameters (monthly discharge time series). The spatial distribution of the selected indices was analysed in the same context using co-variables integrated in a GIS framework. The results show that the hydrological drought is influenced and determined mostly by the meteorological drought. The highest variability between the aridity indices has been identified for the summer season, where the time lag between the hydrological response to the meteorological impulse is up to 2 months. The work has been financed by the research project Changes in climate extremes and associated impact in hydrological events in Romania (CLIMHYDEX), Cod PN II-ID-2011-2-0073, sponsored by the National Authority for Scientific Research.

  15. A Short Cultural-Astronomical History on Asteroids, Comets and Meteors in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigore, V.; Gheorghe, A. D.

    2012-05-01

    The poster presents significant moments in astronomy history and culture of meteors, comets and asteroids in Romania and the modern role of the Romanian Society for Meteors and Astronomy (SARM) in research, education, and culture in these fields.

  16. From Partner to Ally -- Romania’s Interest and War on Terrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-29

    Romania. But this treaty did not make Romania safe. To be more certain of American support, Romanian minister of foreign affairs Mircea Geoana, a...Romania’s interests are stipulated in Romania’s National Security Strategy, signed by President Traian Basescu in 2007, and include: real...taking into account the existing common risks and opportunities. This intention was confirmed by President Basescu , who declared: The next

  17. Charles River

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information on the efforts of the US EPA, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, the municipalities within the Charles River Watershed and nongovernmental organizations to improve the water quality of the Charles River.

  18. Neurologic Complications of Influenza B Virus Infection in Adults, Romania

    PubMed Central

    Florescu, Simin A.; Lupulescu, Emilia; Zaharia, Mihaela; Tardei, Gratiela; Lazar, Mihaela; Ceausu, Emanoil; Ruta, Simona M.

    2017-01-01

    We characterized influenza B virus–related neurologic manifestations in an unusually high number of hospitalized adults at a tertiary care facility in Romania during the 2014–15 influenza epidemic season. Of 32 patients with a confirmed laboratory diagnosis of influenza B virus infection, neurologic complications developed in 7 adults (median age 31 years). These complications were clinically diagnosed as confirmed encephalitis (4 patients), possible encephalitis (2 patients), and cerebellar ataxia (1 patient). Two of the patients died. Virus sequencing identified influenza virus B (Yam)-lineage clade 3, which is representative of the B/Phuket/3073/2013 strain, in 4 patients. None of the patients had been vaccinated against influenza. These results suggest that influenza B virus can cause a severe clinical course and should be considered as an etiologic factor for encephalitis. PMID:28322689

  19. Site characterization for LIL radioactive waste disposal in Romania

    SciTech Connect

    Diaconu, D. R.; Birdsell, K. H.; Witkowski, M. S.

    2001-01-01

    Recent studies in radioactive waste management in Romania have focussed mainly on the disposal of low and intermediate level waste from the operation of the new nuclear power plant at Cernavoda. Following extensive geological, hydrological, seismological, physical and chemical investigations, a disposal site at Saligny has been selected. This paper presents description of the site at Saligny as well as the most important results of the site characterisation. These are reflected in the three-dimensional, stratigraphical representation of the loess and clay layers and in representative parameter values for the main layers. Based on these data, the simulation of the background, unsaturated-zone water flow at the Saligny site, calculated by the FEHM code, is in a good agreement with the measured moisture profile.

  20. Astronomical Orientation in the Ancient Dacian Sanctuaries of Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stănescu, Florin

    Sarmizegetusa Regia, the former capital city of the Dacians' kingdom, is situated in the Şureanu (Orăştie) Mountains in the Southern Carpathians, Romania. This chapter reviews, from the astronomical point of view, two of the monuments located on its Sacred Terrace - the altar known as the "Andesite Sun" and the Central Apse of the Great Round Sanctuary - as well as sanctuaries at the nearby site of Costeşti. Astronomical analyses taking into consideration (a) the astronomical-geometrical methods of the time (the analemma of a sundial after Vitruvius and the stereographical projection in the sense of Hipparchus), (b) astronomical instruments of the time (the gnomon, the sundial and the astrolabe), and (c) other instruments known to the Dacians (the compass), have concluded that these monuments may have enabled the Dacians to carry out a number of astronomical observations. This would confirm several reports by contemporary historians regarding the Dacians' knowledge of astronomy.

  1. Neurologic Complications of Influenza B Virus Infection in Adults, Romania.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Corneliu P; Florescu, Simin A; Lupulescu, Emilia; Zaharia, Mihaela; Tardei, Gratiela; Lazar, Mihaela; Ceausu, Emanoil; Ruta, Simona M

    2017-04-01

    We characterized influenza B virus-related neurologic manifestations in an unusually high number of hospitalized adults at a tertiary care facility in Romania during the 2014-15 influenza epidemic season. Of 32 patients with a confirmed laboratory diagnosis of influenza B virus infection, neurologic complications developed in 7 adults (median age 31 years). These complications were clinically diagnosed as confirmed encephalitis (4 patients), possible encephalitis (2 patients), and cerebellar ataxia (1 patient). Two of the patients died. Virus sequencing identified influenza virus B (Yam)-lineage clade 3, which is representative of the B/Phuket/3073/2013 strain, in 4 patients. None of the patients had been vaccinated against influenza. These results suggest that influenza B virus can cause a severe clinical course and should be considered as an etiologic factor for encephalitis.

  2. Income inequality in Romania: The exponential-Pareto distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oancea, Bogdan; Andrei, Tudorel; Pirjol, Dan

    2017-03-01

    We present a study of the distribution of the gross personal income and income inequality in Romania, using individual tax income data, and both non-parametric and parametric methods. Comparing with official results based on household budget surveys (the Family Budgets Survey and the EU-SILC data), we find that the latter underestimate the income share of the high income region, and the overall income inequality. A parametric study shows that the income distribution is well described by an exponential distribution in the low and middle incomes region, and by a Pareto distribution in the high income region with Pareto coefficient α = 2.53. We note an anomaly in the distribution in the low incomes region (∼9,250 RON), and present a model which explains it in terms of partial income reporting.

  3. Modeling the carbon monoxide dissipation in Timisoara, Romania.

    PubMed

    Barbulescu, Alina; Barbes, Lucica

    2017-02-26

    Modeling the evolution of pollutants' concentration is important for predicting their impact on the human health and implementing measures for a sustainable development and environmental protection. Since the carbon dioxide (CO) is one of the main pollutants that affect the urban environment, the present study aimed at building a model for the evolution of the mean daily and monthly concentration in Timisoara, Romania. We found a non-linear direct dependence of CO concentration on the temperature and humidity and an inverse proportional relationship with the wind speed. The models have been linearized and validated by statistical tests. The extreme values distributions have also been detected, and comparisons of the data with the admissible values are provided.

  4. Air Shipment of Spent Nuclear Fuel from Romania to Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Igor Bolshinsky; Ken Allen; Lucian Biro; Alexander Buchelnikov

    2010-10-01

    Romania successfully completed the world’s first air shipment of spent nuclear fuel transported in Type B(U) casks under existing international laws and without shipment license special exceptions when the last Romanian highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel was transported to the Russian Federation in June 2009. This air shipment required the design, fabrication, and licensing of special 20 foot freight containers and cask tiedown supports to transport the eighteen TUK 19 shipping casks on a Russian commercial cargo aircraft. The new equipment was certified for transport by road, rail, water, and air to provide multi modal transport capabilities for shipping research reactor spent fuel. The equipment design, safety analyses, and fabrication were performed in the Russian Federation and transport licenses were issued by both the Russian and Romanian regulatory authorities. The spent fuel was transported by truck from the VVR S research reactor to the Bucharest airport, flown by commercial cargo aircraft to the airport at Yekaterinburg, Russia, and then transported by truck to the final destination in a secure nuclear facility at Chelyabinsk, Russia. This shipment of 23.7 kg of HEU was coordinated by the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR), as part of the U.S. Department of Energy Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), in close cooperation with the Rosatom State Atomic Energy Corporation and the International Atomic Energy Agency, and was managed in Romania by the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN). This paper describes the planning, shipment preparations, equipment design, and license approvals that resulted in the safe and secure air shipment of this spent nuclear fuel.

  5. Vermiculation patterns in Coiba Mare cave, Bihor Mountains, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojar, Ana-Voica; Guja, Ovidiu; Stefanescu, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Vermiculation patterns developing on cave surfaces are certainly a spectacular feature. Sometimes vermiculation cover hundreds of square meters, like for example in Coiba Mare cave, which is situated in the Bihor Mountains, Romania. The Coiba Mare Cave is located at 1020 m altitude, on the Gardisoara Valley, not far from the Casa de Piatra Hamlet, in the Apuseni Natural Park (Bihor Mountains) situated in the western part of Romania. The first written document concerning the cave dates back to 1929, when R. Jeannel and E. Racovitza presented a brief description. Speleological investigations, which were started by I. Viehmann, D. Coman and M. Bleahu in 1953, were continued by several speleological clubs during 1975-1976. In this study, we are investigating the mineralogy, stable isotope distribution and patterns of vermiculations in the Coiba Mare cave. Material from the vermiculations developed on cave wall was analysed using Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) and energy dispersive analyses (EDS). The material consists mainly of calcite with traces of quartz, muscovite, chlinochlore, kaolinite, potassium feldspar and organic material. In Coiba Mare, the general look of the vermiculation pattern is that of a "pelli de leopardo" (Leopard's spots), a term used by Bini et al. (1978) for large vermiculations composed of clay. In the light of previous literature and according, to the own field and laboratory data a mechanism responsible for the formation of vermiculations is proposed. Evaporation and water film rupture cause the concentration of the loose particles. Evaporation is also associated with the formation of calcite microcrystals at the water-air interface. Concentration of the particle in vermiculations patterns and crystallisation is the result of evaporation and shrinking water spots.

  6. Amazon River

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Mouth of the Amazon River     View ... of the world's mightiest rivers. This image of the Amazon's mouth was captured by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) ... available at JPL September 8, 2000 - Mouth of the mighty Amazon River. project:  MISR ...

  7. Temporal and spatial distributions of δ18O and δ2H in precipitation in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagavciuc, Viorica; Bădăluță, Carmen-Andreea; Perșoiu, Aurel

    2015-04-01

    Stable isotope ratios of meteoric water have an important role in climatic, paleoclimatic, hydrological and meteorological studies. While such data are available from most of Europe, so far, in Romania (East Central Europe), no systematic study of the stable isotopic composition of precipitation exists. In this context, the aim of this study is to analyze the isotopic composition of rainwater, its temporal and spatial distribution, the identification of the main factors influencing these variations and the creation of the first map of spatial distribution of stable isotopes in precipitation in Romania. Between March 2012 and March 2014 we have collected monthly samples from 22 stations in Romania, which were subsequently analyzed for their δ18O and δ2H at the Stable Isotopes Laboratory, Stefan cel Mare University, Suceava, Romania. Precipitation in W and NW Romania plot along the GMWL, while those in the East are slightly below it, on an evaporative trend. The LMWL for Romania is defined as δ2H=7,27*δ18O + 6,92. The W-E gradient in the distribution of δ18O and δ2H are less marked than the N-S ones, with local influences dominating in areas of strong evaporation (intramountain basins, rain-shadow areas etc). In SW, and especially in autumn and winter, Meditteranean cyclones carry moisture from the Eastern Mediterranean, the δ18O and δ2H values in precipitation in the area plotting between the GMWL and the Eastern Mediterranean Meteoric Water Line. The isotopic composition of rainwater in Romania correlates well with air temperature, and is influenced to a lesser extent by other factors such as the amount of precipitation, topography configuration, the effect of continentalism and season of the year.

  8. National Decision Making during the Holocaust. Romania and Bulgaria: A Study in Contrasts. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997. (Romania and Bulgaria).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schindler, Carolyn B.

    This one-week intensive study is intended for use within a one semester course focusing on the Holocaust and human behavior for the upper level high school student. The unit examines the history of Romania and Bulgaria, especially during Nazi occupation in World War II. Students explore the decisions of each nation and the impact they had on the…

  9. Ground motion simulations for seismic stations in southern and eastern Romania and seismic hazard assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavel, Florin; Vacareanu, Radu

    2017-03-01

    This research focuses on the evaluation of soil conditions for seismic stations in southern and eastern Romania, their influence on stochastic finite-fault simulations, and the impact of using them on the seismic hazard assessment. First, the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratios (HVSR) are evaluated using ground motions recorded in 32 seismic stations during small magnitude (M W ≤ 6.0) Vrancea seismic events. Most of the seismic stations situated in the southern part of Romania exhibit multiple HVSR peaks over a broad period range. However, only the seismic stations in the eastern-most part of Romania have clear short-period predominant periods. Subsequently, stochastic finite-fault simulations are performed in order to evaluate the influence of the soil conditions on the ground motion amplitudes. The analyses show that the earthquake magnitude has a larger influence on the computed ground motion amplitudes for the short- and medium-period range, while the longer-period spectral ordinates tend to be influenced more by the soil conditions. Next, the impact of the previously evaluated soil conditions on the seismic hazard results for Romania is also investigated. The results reveal a significant impact of the soil conditions on the seismic hazard levels, especially for the sites characterized by long-period amplifications (sites situated mostly in southern Romania), and a less significant influence in the case of sites which have clear short predominant periods.

  10. Research Reactor Preparations for the Air Shipment of Highly Enriched Uranium from Romania

    SciTech Connect

    K. J. Allen; I. Bolshinsky; L. L. Biro; M. E. Budu; N. V. Zamfir; M. Dragusin; C. Paunoiu; M. Ciocanescu

    2010-03-01

    In June 2009 two air shipments transported both unirradiated (fresh) and irradiated (spent) Russian-origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) nuclear fuel from two research reactors in Romania to the Russian Federation for conversion to low enriched uranium. The Institute for Nuclear Research at Pitesti (SCN Pitesti) shipped 30.1 kg of HEU fresh fuel pellets to Dimitrovgrad, Russia and the Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH) shipped 23.7 kilograms of HEU spent fuel assemblies from the VVR S research reactor at Magurele, Romania, to Chelyabinsk, Russia. Both HEU shipments were coordinated by the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), were managed in Romania by the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN), and were conducted in cooperation with the Russian Federation State Corporation Rosatom and the International Atomic Energy Agency. Both shipments were transported by truck to and from respective commercial airports in Romania and the Russian Federation and stored at secure nuclear facilities in Russia until the material is converted into low enriched uranium. These shipments resulted in Romania becoming the 3rd country under the RRRFR program and the 14th country under the GTRI program to remove all HEU. This paper describes the research reactor preparations and license approvals that were necessary to safely and securely complete these air shipments of nuclear fuel.

  11. Air Shipment of Highly Enriched Uranium Spent Nuclear Fuel from Romania

    SciTech Connect

    K. J. Allen; I. Bolshinsky; L. L. Biro; M. E. Budu; N. V. Zamfir; M. Dragusin

    2010-07-01

    Romania safely air shipped 23.7 kilograms of Russian origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel from the VVR S research reactor at Magurele, Romania, to the Russian Federation in June 2009. This was the world’s first air shipment of spent nuclear fuel transported in a Type B(U) cask under existing international laws without special exceptions for the air transport licenses. This shipment was coordinated by the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR), part of the U.S. Department of Energy Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), in cooperation with the Romania National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN), the Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), and the Russian Federation State Corporation Rosatom. The shipment was transported by truck to and from the respective commercial airports in Romania and the Russian Federation and stored at a secure nuclear facility in Russia where it will be converted into low enriched uranium. With this shipment, Romania became the 3rd country under the RRRFR program and the 14th country under the GTRI program to remove all HEU. This paper describes the work, equipment, and approvals that were required to complete this spent fuel air shipment.

  12. 77 FR 67336 - Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Romania...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure... order on certain small diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line and pressure pipe from Romania... diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line and pressure pipe from Romania. See Certain...

  13. Endoparasites in mammals from seven zoological gardens in Romania.

    PubMed

    Dărăbuş, Gheorghe; Afrenie, Mihăită; Hotea, Ionela; Imre, Mirela; Morariu, Sorin

    2014-06-01

    Animals from seven zoological gardens located in Romania, including 18 species of herbivores, 10 species of carnivores, and 13 species of omnivores, were screened for the presence of parasites. Overall, the prevalences of parasites identified in the sampled population were 54.2% (58/107) for herbivores, 54.5% (24/44) for carnivores, and 32.6% (17/52) for omnivores. In herbivores, Eimeria spp., Dicrocelium lanceolatum, and pulmonary and digestive strongyles were detected. In carnivores, the genera Eimeria and Cystoisospora and nematodes from Ancylostomatidae, Strongyloidae, Ascaridae, Capillariidae and Trichocephalidae were identified. Of 13 omnivore species included in the study, parasites from Eimeridae, Ascaridae, Strongyloidae, and Trichocephalidae were identified in seven species. Toxoplasma antibodies were identified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in all definitive hosts (lions and wild cats) examined. In intermediate hosts (herbivores and omnivores), antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii had a prevalence of 58.8%, except in wild boars (Sus scrofa), in which the prevalence was 100%.

  14. Towards a research pole in photonics in Western Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duma, Virgil-Florin; Negrutiu, Meda L.; Sinescu, Cosmin; Rominu, Mihai; Miutescu, Eftimie; Burlea, Amelia; Vlascici, Miomir; Gheorghiu, Nicolae; Cira, Octavian; Hutiu, Gheorghe; Mnerie, Corina; Demian, Dorin; Marcauteanu, Corina; Topala, Florin; Rolland, Jannick P.; Voiculescu, Ioana; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2014-07-01

    We present our efforts in establishing a Research Pole in Photonics in the future Arad-Timisoara metropolitan area projected to unite two major cities of Western Romania. Research objectives and related training activities of various institutions and groups that are involved are presented in their evolution during the last decade. The multi-disciplinary consortium consists principally of two universities, UAVA (Aurel Vlaicu University of Arad) and UMF (Victor Babes Medicine and Pharmacy University of Timisoara), but also of the Arad County Emergency University Hospital and several innovative SMEs, such as Bioclinica S.A. (the largest array of medical analysis labs in the region) and Inteliform S.R.L. (a competitive SME focused on mechatronics and mechanical engineering). A brief survey of the individual and joint projects of these institutions is presented, together with their teaching activities at graduate and undergraduate level. The research Pole collaborates in R&D, training and education in biomedical imaging with universities in USA and Europe. Collaborative activities, mainly on Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) projects are presented in a multidisciplinary approach that includes optomechatronics, precision mechanics and optics, dentistry, medicine, and biology.

  15. Bionic hand exoprosthesis--perspectives for the future in Romania.

    PubMed

    Pogarasteanu, M E; Barbilian, A G

    2014-01-01

    Prosthetics is a modern area of interest and a challenge in Orthopedics. Over time, there has been a transition from an artisanal method of prosthetics production to modern concepts and materials, including a re-education through virtual reality. The conditions for an efficient fitting of a prosthesis include the necessity that the prosthesis respects the form and function of the lost limb, both anatomically and biomechanically. Prosthetics are made individually, personalized according to sex, age, physiological characteristics, profession and preference. In our country, thoracic limb prosthetics has a relatively short-recorded history of approximately a century, the most preeminent centers being in Iasi, Cluj and Bucharest. Currently, thoracic limb prosthetics, and particularly hand prosthetics, are in a period of development. A technique for amputation and stump reamputation called "circumferential osteoneuromioplasty" (CONM) is currently being used in the Orthopedics and Trauma Clinic of the Central Military University Emergency Hospital in Bucharest. The method was created with the purpose of obtaining distinct myoelectric signals of better quality, following the contraction of each muscle. The CONM method can be used in conjuncture with both the new hand prostheses that are currently available in Romania, and with the model that is being developed by a mixed team from the Polytechnic University in Bucharest, in collaboration with the Central Military University Emergency Hospital in Bucharest.

  16. Micro-scale hydrological field experiments in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minea, Gabriel; Moroşanu, Gabriela A.

    2016-02-01

    The paper (communication) presents an overview of hydrologic field experiments at micro-scale in Romania. In order to experimentally investigate micro (plot)-scale hydrological impact of soil erosion, the National Institute of Hydrology and Water Management founded Voineşti Experimental Basin (VES) in 1964 and the Aldeni Experimental Basins (AEB) in 1984. AEB and VES are located in the Curvature Subcarpathians. Experimental plots are organized in a double systems and have an area of 80 m2 (runoff plots) at AEB and 300 m2 (water balance plots) at VES. Land use of plot: first plot "grass-land" is covered with perennial grass and second plot (control) consists in "bare soil". Over the latter one, the soil is hoeing, which results in a greater development of infiltration than in the first plot. Experimental investigations at micro-scale are aimed towards determining the parameters of the water balance equation, during natural and artificial rainfalls, researching of flows and soil erosion processes on experimental plots, extrapolating relations involving runoff coefficients from a small scale to medium scale. Nowadays, the latest evolutions in data acquisition and transmission equipment are represented by sensors (such as: sensors to determinate the soil moisture content). Exploitation and dissemination of hydrologic data is accomplished by research themes/projects, year-books of basic data and papers.

  17. A Long Journey of Mathematics and Astronomy in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavinschi, Magda

    2010-10-01

    Bucharest Astronomical Observatory celebrated recently its centenary. Its founders were all mathematicians or, better said, astronomers specialized in celestial mechanics. Their first doctoral theses were defended at Sorbonne, in the second half of the 19th century, under the guidance of the greatest specialists of the time. After they returned home, they continued what they had begun in Paris, namely celestial mechanics. The instruments they ordered and the first programmes of astronomical observations had an increasingly closer relation to mathematics, as they referred to astrometry and especially to stellar catalogues. Naturally, there were also astrophysical concerns, timid ones in the beginning, and then ever larger, especially beginning with the International Geophysical Year. The evolution of world astronomy, as well as that of Romania, seems to be following but one direction: astrophysics. The truth is that astrometry and celestial mechanics continue to lie at the basis of all astrophysical researches, actually in an entirely new and modern form. The astrometry schools recently organized, the new astrometry textbooks, as well as the IAU working groups dedicated to modern astrometry prove that the long journey of mathematics and astronomy is not over yet.

  18. Stratigraphic and structural distribution of reservoirs in Romania

    SciTech Connect

    Stefanescu, M.O. )

    1991-08-01

    In Romania, there are reservoirs at different levels of the whole Cambrian-Pliocene interval, but only some of these levels have the favorable structural conditions to accumulate hydrocarbons in commercial quantities. These levels are the Devonian, Triassic, Middle Jurassic, Lower Cretaceous (locally including the uppermost Jurassic), Eocene, Oligocene-lower Miocene, middle and upper Miocene, and Pliocene. The productive reservoirs are represented either by carbonate rocks (in Devonian, Middle Triassic and uppermost Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous) or by detrital rocks (in Lower and Upper Triassic, Middle Jurassic, Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, and Pliocene). From the structural point of view, the Romanian territory is characterized by the coexistence both of platforms (East European, Scythian, and Moesian platforms) and of the strongly tectonized orogenes (North Dobrogea and Carpathian orogenes). Each importance crust shortening was followed by the accumulation of post-tectonic covers, some of them being folded during subsequently tectonic movements. The youngest post-tectonic cover is common both for the platforms (foreland) and Carpathian orogene, representing the Carpathian foredeep. Producing reservoirs are present in the East European and Moesian platforms, in the outer Carpathian units (Tarcau and Marginal folds nappes) and in certain post-tectonic covers which fill the Carpathian foredeep and the Transylvanian and Pannonian basins. In the platforms, hydrocarbons accumulated both in calcareous and detrital reservoirs, whereas in the Carpathian units and in their reservoirs, whereas in the Carpathian units and in their post-tectonic covers, hydrocarbons accumulated only in detrital reservoirs.

  19. Antibacterial activity of different natural honeys from Transylvania, Romania.

    PubMed

    Vica, Mihaela Laura; Glevitzky, Mirel; Dumitrel, Gabriela-Alina; Junie, Lia Monica; Popa, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Honey is used in food industry and medicine due to its nutritive, therapeutic and dietetic qualities. The microbiological characteristics of 10 unpasteurized honey samples of known origin, collected from Transylvania beekeepers (Romania) were determined. The antibacterial activity of these types of honey against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella anatum, Salmonella choleraesuis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis subsp. spizizenii and Listeria monocytogenes strains was studied. The most sensitive to the antibacterial activity were the two staphylococus strains (the largest diameter of inhibition zone was 18 mm) and B. subtilis strains (13.5 mm). The strains of B. cereus, E. coli, L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. were found to present resistance to some of the honey samples. Manna, sunflower and polyfloral honeys presented high antibacterial activity while acacia and linden honeys had a lower activity in terms of the number of sensible strains. Statistical analysis shows that the type of strains and the type of honey have influence on the diameter of inhibition.

  20. Which rainfall spatial information for flash flood response modelling? A numerical investigation based on data from the Carpathian range, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanon, Francesco; Zoccatelli, Davide; Antonescu, Bogdan; Stancalie, George

    2010-05-01

    In this work, we introduce a spatial rainfall organisation metric to clarify the dependence existing between spatial rainfall distribution, basin morphology and runoff response. The metric provides a description of overall spatial rainfall organisation, in terms of concentration and dispersion statistics, as a function of the travel time measured along the river network. The statistics are based on the observation that runoff routing through branched channel networks imposes an effective averaging of spatial rainfall excess at equal travel time, in spite of the inherent spatial variability. High resolution radar rainfall fields and a distributed hydrologic model are employed to examine how effective are these statistics in describing the degree of spatial rainfall organisation which is important for runoff modelling, and in quantifying the effects of neglecting the spatial rainfall variability on flood modelling. The investigation focuses on three extreme flash flood events occurred on the Carpathian Range (Romania) in the period 2005-2007. The size of the study catchments ranges between 36 to 167 km2. The analysis reported here shows that neglecting the spatial rainfall variability results in a considerable loss of simulation Nash-Sutcliffe (NS) efficiency in almost 30% of the cases (NS less than 0.8), with NS less than 0.6 in one of the cases. This provides a significant documentation of the influence of the spatial rainfall variability on runoff modeling for catchment size less than 160 km2. Moreover, it is shown that these rainfall statistics, used in combination, are able to isolate and describe the features of rainfall spatial variability which have significant impact on runoff simulation. Overall, this implies that rainfall organization measured along the river network by using the travel time coordinate may be a significant property of rainfall spatial variability when considering flood response modelling.

  1. Which rainfall spatial information for flash flood response modelling? A numerical investigation based on data from the Carpathian range, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoccatelli, D.; Borga, M.; Zanon, F.; Antonescu, B.; Stancalie, G.

    2010-11-01

    SummaryThis paper aims to clarify the dependence existing between spatial rainfall organisation, basin morphology and runoff response. This is obtained by applying a spatial rainfall metric which describes the spatial rainfall organisation in terms of concentration and dispersion statistics as a function of the flow travel time measured along the river network. The metric is based on the observation that runoff routing through branched channel networks imposes an effective averaging of spatial rainfall excess at equal travel time, in spite of the inherent spatial variability. High resolution radar rainfall fields and a distributed hydrologic model are employed to examine how effective are these statistics in describing the degree of spatial rainfall organisation which is important for runoff modelling, and in quantifying the effects of neglecting the spatial rainfall variability on flood modelling. The investigation focuses on three extreme flash flood events occurred on the Carpathian range (Romania) in the period 2005-2007. The size of the study catchments ranges between 36 and 167 km2. The analysis reported here shows that neglecting the spatial rainfall variability results in a considerable loss of simulation Nash-Sutcliffe (NS) efficiency in almost 30% of the cases (NS less than 0.8), with NS less than 0.6 in one of the cases. This provides a significant documentation of the influence of the spatial rainfall variability on runoff modelling for catchment size less than 160 km2. Moreover, it is shown that these rainfall statistics, used in combination, are able to isolate and describe the features of rainfall spatial organisation which have significant impact on runoff simulation. An alternative rainfall spatial variability index, which is computed irrespective of flow travel time structure, provides a comparatively poor description of the influence of neglecting rainfall spatial variability on flood modelling. Overall, this implies that rainfall organisation

  2. River restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, Ellen; Angermeier, Paul L.; Bledsoe, Brian; Kondolf, G. Mathias; Macdonnell, Larry; Merritt, David M.; Palmer, Margaret A.; Poff, N. Leroy; Tarboton, David

    2005-10-01

    River restoration is at the forefront of applied hydrologic science. However, many river restoration projects are conducted with minimal scientific context. We propose two themes around which a research agenda to advance the scientific basis for river restoration can be built. First, because natural variability is an inherent feature of all river systems, we hypothesize that restoration of process is more likely to succeed than restoration aimed at a fixed end point. Second, because physical, chemical, and biological processes are interconnected in complex ways across watersheds and across timescales, we hypothesize that restoration projects are more likely to be successful in achieving goals if undertaken in the context of entire watersheds. To achieve restoration objectives, the science of river restoration must include (1) an explicit recognition of the known complexities and uncertainties, (2) continued development of a theoretical framework that enables us to identify generalities among river systems and to ask relevant questions, (3) enhancing the science and use of restoration monitoring by measuring the most effective set of variables at the correct scales of measurement, (4) linking science and implementation, and (5) developing methods of restoration that are effective within existing constraints. Key limitations to river restoration include a lack of scientific knowledge of watershed-scale process dynamics, institutional structures that are poorly suited to large-scale adaptive management, and a lack of political support to reestablish delivery of the ecosystem amenities lost through river degradation. This paper outlines an approach for addressing these shortcomings.

  3. Mississippi River

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Mississippi River Flooding during Spring 2001   ... 794 x 390 South TIFF: 1024 x 724 The Mississippi River, from its source at Lake Itasca Minnesota to the Gulf of ... lower valley occurred in 1927 and the largest in the upper Mississippi in 1993. In April 2001 another flooding event in the upper ...

  4. SWOT analysis of the renewable energy sources in Romania - case study: solar energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupu, A. G.; Dumencu, A.; Atanasiu, M. V.; Panaite, C. E.; Dumitrașcu, Gh; Popescu, A.

    2016-08-01

    The evolution of energy sector worldwide triggered intense preoccupation on both finding alternative renewable energy sources and environmental issues. Romania is considered to have technological potential and geographical location suitable to renewable energy usage for electricity generation. But this high potential is not fully exploited in the context of policies and regulations adopted globally, and more specific, European Union (EU) environmental and energy strategies and legislation related to renewable energy sources. This SWOT analysis of solar energy source presents the state of the art, potential and future prospects for development of renewable energy in Romania. The analysis concluded that the development of solar energy sector in Romania depends largely on: viability of legislative framework on renewable energy sources, increased subsidies for solar R&D, simplified methodology of green certificates, and educating the public, investors, developers and decision-makers.

  5. Selective waste collection optimization in Romania and its impact to urban climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihai, Šercǎianu; Iacoboaea, Cristina; Petrescu, Florian; Aldea, Mihaela; Luca, Oana; Gaman, Florian; Parlow, Eberhard

    2016-08-01

    According to European Directives, transposed in national legislation, the Member States should organize separate collection systems at least for paper, metal, plastic, and glass until 2015. In Romania, since 2011 only 12% of municipal collected waste was recovered, the rest being stored in landfills, although storage is considered the last option in the waste hierarchy. At the same time there was selectively collected only 4% of the municipal waste. Surveys have shown that the Romanian people do not have selective collection bins close to their residencies. The article aims to analyze the current situation in Romania in the field of waste collection and management and to make a proposal for selective collection containers layout, using geographic information systems tools, for a case study in Romania. Route optimization is used based on remote sensing technologies and network analyst protocols. Optimizing selective collection system the greenhouse gases, particles and dust emissions can be reduced.

  6. Trace element distribution in the water and sediments of certain storage lakes from the Jijia catchment, (Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dughila, A.; Iancu, O. G.; Romanescu, G. T.

    2012-04-01

    The present study aims at investigating the concentrations and distribution levels of a series of trace elements in water and sediment samples collected from six storage lakes located in the Jijia catchment - NE of Romania. The lakes are multi-purpose water reservoirs, three of them being mainly used as a source of municipal drinking water, or for fishing, irrigation for the farms in the area, protection against floods and the regulation of river flows. By contrast, agricultural wastes, fertilizers, raw sewage effluents and road runoff constitute the predominant anthropogenic sources, which supply the lakes in question with Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. The present study was conducted on a series of 63 sediment samples and 18 water samples, collected from the same locations, in order to establish the distribution levels of certain trace elements from the water through sediments. Sediment cores were collected from two sections across each lake by means of a motor boat, using a system that consists of a graduated sampling tube (0.9 m in length and 72.5 mm in diameter) made of Plexiglas (Eijkelkamp sample tube guide). Prior to the analyses, the samples were air-dried, ground and homogenized using an agate mortar, oven-dried at 50 °C for 6 days and then sieved through 63 µm sieves. The sediment and water samples were subjected to a digestion technique with concentrated nitric acid using a microwave oven (Berghof type), and analyzed for the following elements: Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Cr and Ni. The total concentration of the elements was measured through atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) with an RSD of < 10 % from solutions. The vertical distribution of most elements in the cores examined could be characterized as relatively uniform, with higher concentrations for those collected from the lakes which are more influenced by anthropogenic factors, compared to those situated in forested areas. The lake-water quality characteristics were below the recommended drinking water standards

  7. The Impact of a Research Ethics Training Program: Romania as a Case Study.

    PubMed

    Loue, Sana

    2014-12-01

    Case Western Reserve University's (CWRU) Training Program in International Research Ethics, funded by the Fogarty International Center, has been ongoing in Romania since 2000. The program consists of multiple components: a U.S.- based MA degree program for long-term trainees, Romania-based short courses, a U.S.-based opportunity for mid-and senior-level personnel to develop collaborative writing or research projects and present lectures, and a newsletter and various Internet-based activities. We evaluated the impact of the training program on bioethics in Romania through a survey of the training program's long-term trainees, a literature search for trainee publications, interviews with key informants, and identification of key events during the course of the program. Findings indicate that the program has had a considerable impact in the field of bioethics through trainee authorship of peer-reviewed publications, books, and chapters; trainee career trajectories that encompass activities related to research ethics; and the development of a Romania-based master's degree program in bioethics and a Center of Bioethics and Health Policy. We attribute these achievements to the establishment of strong relationships between CWRU in Cleveland and the University of Medicine and Pharmacy Gr. T. Popa in Iasi, Romania, prior to the initiation of the training program; collaboration with key Romania-based institutional partners that are equally invested in the program's success; reliance of the program on a solid theoretical framework; ongoing program responsiveness to trainee and country needs; and a sustained commitment of time, expertise, and funding by the funders, sponsors, and in-country collaborators.

  8. Late Miocene/Pliocene Ostracod Biostratigraphy from South Carpathian Foredeep, Romania (Badislava-Topolog Area)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floroiu, Alina; Stoica, Marius; Vasiliev, Iuliana; Krijgsman, Wout

    2016-04-01

    The Paratethys epicontinental sea has been an essential paleogeographic feature defining the Eurasian interior since Oligocene. By the end of the Miocene, ongoing tectonic activity in the region determined severe restrictions of the connection of the large former Paratethys sea resulting in the formation of several smaller subbasins: the Pannonian basin, the Dacian basin, the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. In the western part of the Dacian Basin, the thick and continuous Mio-Pliocene sedimentary successions of the Getic Depression of Romania provide an exceptional opportunity to study the paleoecological changes in the Eastern Paratethys during the time when the Mediterranean and Black Sea experienced important sea level changes related to the Messinian Salinity Crisis. These sedimentary successions were the basis of high-resolution magnetobiostratigraphic studies that allow a detailed correlation to the Geological Time Scale. Here, we present the main characteristics of the ostracod assemblages of the Late Miocene/Pliocene sedimentary succession from Badislava-Topolog section covering the Eastern Paratethys regional Maeotian and Pontian, stages that are, at moment, under ongoing formal stratigraphic definition process. The Mio-Pliocene is exposed in the central part of the Getic Depression, especially Topolog-Arges area, where it riches up to 500 m in thickness being incorporated into a large monocline structure with 15o-20o plungeto the south. The Upper Maeotian deposits from the area have developed mainly in fluviatile-deltaic facies with frequent continental intercalations. The ostracod assemblage is represented by rare fresh water ostracods of Candona, Pseudocandona and Ilyocypris genera, capable to populate unstable environments like flood-plains, lakes and rivers with temporary existence. The scarce Maeotian ostracod fauna from this marginal section differs essentially from the more diversified one of the same age recorded in areas that evolved in basinal

  9. Characterizing the hydrological system in Rosia Montana mining area (Romania) for AMD mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cozma, Alexandra; Baciu, Calin; Olenici, Adriana; Brahaita, Dorian; Pop, Cristian; Lazar, Laura; Roba, Carmen; Popita, Gabriela

    2015-04-01

    Keywords: mining, AMD mitigation, isotopic analyses, Romania Rosia Montana is one of the most important European gold fields, with a long history of mining. The extraction of gold started on site during the Roman age, and the mining operations that spanned over almost two millennia have produced a visible environmental footprint. More than 140 km of mining galleries are documented by historical sources and recent surveys. Water streams are the main vectors spreading the pollution outside the mining area. The main streams, Rosia, Corna, and Saliste, tributaries of Abruzel River are significantly impacted by the acid waters issued by adits, exposed rock surfaces, or rock waste heaps, and tailings depots. Low contamination has been observed in the streams outside the mining area, artificial ponds, and shallow groundwater. Excepting the shallow groundwater system that can be sampled in domestic wells and some springs, the circulation of groundwater is largely unknown. An important amount of the infiltration water is channelled through galleries. The waters sampled at the galleries outlets have low pH, generally between 2 and 3, and very high content of heavy metals. A systematic approach based on monthly sampling and chemical analyses, and isotopic measurements, has been initiated, in order to better understand the underground itinerary of water and the chemical transformations that occur. A sampling network of 28 water points, including streams, ponds, dug wells, springs, and gallery outlets has been setup. Beyond producing a water circulation model in the mining area, the main purpose of the research is to identify ways of decreasing the acid water production and to design low cost techniques for the AMD mitigation. The deposit still hosts about 300 tonnes of gold, and 1600 tonnes of silver. A new large scale mining project is currently under permitting. Cost-effective solutions for the water treatment would be beneficial, especially for the post-mining stage of any

  10. Snow cover - characteristics and trends for the meteorological mountain stations in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manea, A.; Ralita, I.; Dumitrescu, Al.; Boroneant, C.

    2009-04-01

    Snow cover represents an important climatological parameter for the specialized analysis because it can provide useful information regarding the climatological evolution of one region, taking into account the variability of the climate. The latest years brought milder winters for Romania. The number of days with snow cover and the depth of snow cover are very important factors for the mountain tourism and the winter sports. This paper presents the trends of the number of days with snow cover and the snow depth over the 1961-2007 period for 18 mountain meteorological stations in Romania. In this case, "mountain station" refers to a station located at an altitude higher than 1000 m.

  11. Gender stereotypes in management: a comparative study of communist and postcommunist Romania.

    PubMed

    Curşeu, Petru Lucian; Boroş, Smaranda

    2011-08-01

    This study sets out to investigate the changes in the perception of women in leading positions in communist and postcommunist Romania. The study uses a noninvasive paradigm of analyzing the content of obituaries for women and men in leading positions published in a national journal, and shows that the gender gap in management widened during the postcommunist period. In postcommunist Romania, women are perceived as being less able to lead/manage and more relational in their leadership style as compared to men, while in the communist period the gender differences were not significant.

  12. Alcoholism in Romania in the Late Nineteenth Century and at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century

    PubMed Central

    ANDREESCU, OANA; LEAŞU, FLORIN; ROGOZEA, LILIANA

    2014-01-01

    Although alcohol consumption has been described from the earliest times, alcohol abuse has grown significantly since the mid-nineteenth century as a consequence of the industrialization progress. Due to the socio-economic profile of Romania, which was considered to be agrarian, the idea of developing mainly the industry branches belonging to agriculture was considered. Amongst these branches, the production of alcohol appeared to be the most appropriate. The political state leaders from Romania enjoyed the taxes collected from alcohol commercialization, disregarding the costs involved in alcoholism which went far beyond them. PMID:26528038

  13. Regional and County-Level Disparities in the Post-Socialist Urban System of Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Török, Ibolya; Veress, Nóra-Csilla

    2016-10-01

    The evolution of the urban system in Romania in the last decades has been strongly influenced by its historical background, as well as the changing political, social and economic context. The main step in this process was marked by the year 2004 when 38 settlements received the urban status, influencing thus not only the country's urbanization level but the increased inter-regional disparities as well. The paper aims to analyze the post-urbanization process in Romania, highlighting those factors which have contributed to the deepening development differences between the country's urban areas.

  14. First report of canine ocular thelaziosis in the Muntenia Region, Romania.

    PubMed

    Tudor, Poliana; Bădicu, Adina; Mateescu, Romaniţa; Tudor, Niculae; Mateescu, Cosmin; Ionaşcu, Iuliana

    2016-04-01

    Ocular thelaziosis by Thelazia callipaeda is a vector-borne disease that infects domestic and wild carnivores as well as humans. In this paper, we present two cases of ocular thelaziosis in dogs that had never traveled outside Romania. Both presented with moderate conjunctivitis and ocular discharge. In total, 41 adult nematodes were removed from the conjunctival sacs of both dogs; these were identified via morphology as T. callipaeda. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of canine ocular thelaziosis caused by T. callipaeda from the Muntenia Region of Romania.

  15. RAPID COMMUNICATION-- POLIO VACCINE COVERAGE IN THE ACUTE FLACCID PARALYSIS (AFP) CASES IN ROMANIA.

    PubMed

    Băicuş, Anda

    2015-01-01

    Poliovirus (PV), a member of the Enterovirus genus, is the etiological agent of poliomyelitis. A study carried out between 2013-2014 on 30 serum samples from acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases, showed a protective antibody level of 90% against poliovirus Sabin strains type 1 and type 2 and of 88% against type 3. No PV strains were isolated from 2009 to 2015 in Romania. Maintaining a high vaccine coverage level against polio is mandatory until global polio eradication, especially as the risk of polio importation remains elevated in Romania.

  16. Tamarugite from Diana Cave (SW Romania) -first true karst occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pušcaš, C. M.; Onac, B. P.; Effenberger, H. S.; Povarǎ, I.

    2012-04-01

    Diana Cave is located within the town limits of Baile Herculane (SW Romania) and develops as a 14 m long, westward oriented, unique passage guided by the Diana fault [1]. At the far end of the cave, the thermo-mineral Diana Spring wells forth. In the early 1970s a mine gallery that intersected the cave was created to drain the water into a pumping station and the original cave passage was somewhat altered and reinforced with concrete. Today the concrete and the silty limestone cave walls are heavily corroded by H2SO4 outgassing from the hot water (ca. 50°C) and display abundant gypsum crusts, soggy aggregates of native S, and a variety of more exotic sulfates. Among them, a mineral that has been previously identified in caves only in connection to volcanic activity, either as thermal springs or fumaroles [2]: tamarugite [NaAl(SO4)26H2O]. It was [3] that first mentioned the occurrence of this Na and Al sulfate in Diana Cave, our research aiming to give a detailed description of this mineral, its paragenesis, and mechanisms of precipitation. Recently, tamarugite has also been identified in a sulfuric acid cave from Greece [4]. Along with powder X-ray diffractions coupled with Rietveld refinement, scanning electron microscope, and electron probe micro-analysis, δ18O and δ34S compositions of the sulfate mineral as well as precipitates from the water were analyzed to identify and better constrain the genesis of this rare sulfate. Regrettably, the crystal size of our specimens is inappropriate for identification by means of single crystal X-ray diffraction. Physical and chemical parameters of Diana Spring were as well measured on several occasions. Geochemical analysis suggests that the minute, white tamarugite flakes precipitated in Diana Cave as a result of the interactions between the thermo-mineral water or water vapor and the original limestone bedrock and concrete that blankets the mine gallery. [1] Povara, I., Diaconu, G., Goran, C. (1972). Observations pr

  17. Revealing the crust of western Romania using CCP tehniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tataru, D.; Stuart, G.; Grecu, B.

    2012-04-01

    The western part of Romania was poorly investigated until now in terms of crust and lithosphere structure. The South Carpathian Project (SCP) is a joint project in Romania aimed at determining the lithospheric structure and geodynamical evolution of the South Carpathian Orogen using a dense, temporary network of broad-band seismographs. Alongside existing permanent broad band stations in the study region (12), 33 broadband seismic stations were installed in September 2009 to operate autonomously for two years. We analyze teleseismic P-to-S receiver functions to image crustal structure and uppermost lithosphere. The receiver functions (RF) are calculated in time domain by iterative deconvolution. The further data processing and analysis was performed using FuncLab, a GUI-based MATLAB receiver function processing toolkit (Eagar and Fouch, submitted 2011). We apply a common conversion point (CCP) stacking of receiver functions - a method used to image smooth regional topography on subhorizontal interfaces (Eagar et al. 2010). It is a back-projection method in which the receiver function amplitudes are placed in the appropriate position along the raypath based on a time-to-depth conversion. These amplitudes are then binned at each depth based on the position of the ray piercing point and then stacked to enhance the signal originating from that approximate position. We first perform 1-D ray tracing, then accommodate for large lateral variations in seismic velocities across the region by applying linear timing corrections based on a high resolution regional S wave tomography model (Young et al., in preparation) and then compute the time-to-depth conversion of the receiver functions. The final step in the workflow is CCP stacking. We also apply a Gaussian-weighted common conversion point stacking (GCCP) by weighting the receiver functions within the stacks by the distance of the piercing point from the image point, which is the same as the center point of the CCP bin. The

  18. Sustainable gold mining management waste policy in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudor, Elena; Filipciuc, Constantina

    2016-04-01

    Sustainable mining practices and consistent implementation of the mining for the closure planning approach, within an improved legislative framework, create conditions for the development of creative, profitable, environmentally-sound and socially-responsible management and reuse of mine lands. According to the World Commission on Environment and Development definition, sustainable development is the type of development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Romania has the largest gold reserves in Europe (760 million tons of gold-silver ores, of which 40 million tons in 68 gold deposits in the Apuseni Mountains. New mining projects draw particular attention regarding the environmental risks they cause. Rehabilitation is an ongoing consideration throughout the mine's lifecycle, both from a technical and a financial standpoint. The costs of land rehabilitation are classified as the mine's operating costs. According to Directive 2004/35/EC on environmental liability, the prevention and remedying of environmental damage should be implemented by applying the "polluter pays" principle, in line with the principle of sustainable development. Directive on the management of waste from extractive industries and amending Directive obliges operators to provide (and periodically adjust in size) a financial guarantee for waste facility maintenance and post-closure site restoration, including land rehabilitation. According to the Romanian Mining Law, the license holder has the following obligations related to land use and protection: to provide environmental agreements as one of the prerequisites for a building permit; to regularly update the mine closure plan; to set up and maintain the financial guarantee for environmental rehabilitation; and to execute and finalize the environmental rehabilitation of affected land in the mining site, according to the mine closure plan, including the post

  19. Prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities in infertile couples in romania

    PubMed Central

    Mierla, D; Malageanu, M; Tulin, R; Albu, D

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a correlation between the presence of chromosomal abnormalities in one of the partners and infertility. This retrospective study was performed at the Department of Reproductive Medicine, Life Memorial Hospital, Bucharest, Romania, between August 2007 to December 2011. Two thousand, one hundred and ninety-five patients with reproductive problems were investigated, and the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities was calculated. The control group consisting of 87 fertile persons who had two or more children, was investigated in this retrospective study. All the patients of this study were investigated by cytogenetic techniques and the results of the two groups were compared by a two-tailed Fisher’s exact test. In this study, 94.99% patients had a normal karyotype and 5.01% had chromosomal abnormalities (numerical and structural chromosomal abnormalities). In the study group, numerical chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 1.14% of infertile men and 0.62% of infertile women, and structural chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 1.38% of infertile men and 1.87% of infertile women, respectively. The correlation between the incidence of chromosomal anomalies in the two sexes in couple with reproductive problems was not statistically significant. Recently, a possible association between infertility and chromosomal abnormalities with a significant statistical association has been reported. Our study shows that there is no association between chromosomal abnormalities and infertility, but this study needs to be confirmed with further investigations and a larger control group to establish the role of chromosomal abnormalities in the etiology of infertility. PMID:26929902

  20. Ancient human footprints in Ciur-Izbuc Cave, Romania.

    PubMed

    Webb, David; Robu, Marius; Moldovan, Oana; Constantin, Silviu; Tomus, Bogdan; Neag, Ionel

    2014-09-01

    In 1965, Ciur-Izbuc Cave in the Carpathian Mountains of Romania was discovered to contain about 400 ancient human footprints. At that time, researchers interpreted the footprints to be those of a man, woman and child who entered the cave by an opening which is now blocked but which was usable in antiquity. The age of the prints (≈10-15 ka BP) was based partly on their association with cave bear (Ursus spelaeus) footprints and bones, and the belief that cave bears became extinct near the end of the last ice age. Since their discovery, the human and bear evidence and the cave itself have attracted spelunkers and other tourists, with the result that the ancient footprints are in danger of destruction by modern humans. In an effort to conserve the footprints and information about them and to reanalyze them with modern techiques, Ciur-Izbuc Cave was restudied in summer of 2012. Modern results are based on fewer than 25% of the originally described human footprints, the rest having been destroyed. It is impossible to confirm some of the original conclusions. The footprints do not cluster about three different sizes, and the number of individuals is estimated to be six or seven. Two cases of bears apparently overprinting humans help establish antiquity, and C-14 dates suggest a much greater age than originally thought. Unfortunately, insufficient footprints remain to measure movement variables such as stride length. However, detailed three-dimensional mapping of the footprints does allow a more precise description of human movements within the cave.

  1. Landslide development within the Barlad Plateau of Eastern Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niacsu, Lilian; Ionita, Ion

    2014-05-01

    The Barlad Plateau, extending about 8,230 square kilometers is considered as the most typical unit of the Moldavian Plateau of the Eastern Romania. The Miocene-Pliocene clay-sandy layers are inter-bedded with shallow sandstone and limestone seams. These sedimentary layers that have outcropped as a result of erosion are gently dipping toward S-SE in the form of a monocline. Landslides have been recognized as an important environmental threat in the major subunits of the Barlad Plateau, namely: Central Moldavian Plateau, Falciu Hills and Tutova Rolling Hills. Four main areas of monitoring landslides were explored such as successive aerial photographs of the 1960, 1970, 2005 and 2009 flights, repeated field surveys for a thorough reconnaissance of the study area, classical levelling work and GIS software applications as TNT Mips and Arc GIS. Also, the Caesium-137 technique has been used to get information on documenting sedimentation rates in some small catchments. Results have indicated that the landslide development is strongly controlled by the northern and western looking steep faces of cuestas, by changes of rock composition and by human impact. Also, it showed great pulses in conjunction with the rainfall distribution. For example, half of the Upper Barlad catchment that drains an area of 22,560 ha is covered by landslides. Furthermore, the active landslides amounted 11% of the total (2,317 ha) after the rainy 1968-1973 period and since 1982 under drier conditions they gradually limited to 444.0 ha (2% of the total).

  2. Relationship between gullying and landslides within the Barlad Plateau, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niacsu, Lilian; Ionita, Ion

    2016-04-01

    Located in the eastern Romania and extending on 8200 km2 the Barlad Plateau is considered the most typical subunit of the Moldavian Plateau. The sedimentary Miocene-Pliocene clay-sandy layers, inter-bedded with shallow sandstone and limestone are gently dipping toward S-SE as homoclinal structure. Land degradation through soil erosion, gullying and landslides represent the most important environmental threat in the region. By using both the classical research methods such as repeated field surveys and mapping, mathematical-statistical processing as well as the present-day methods based on the GIS software it was possible to precisely measure and evaluate the gully erosion rates and triggered landslides during the last two centuries, especially with a very high accuracy since 1960. Results have indicated that the landslide development is strongly controlled by gullying. Generally, by combining the areal growth of both gullying and new landslides within the selected study catchments, it is noticeable that 62 % of the total recent land degradation occurred during the last 55 years, with the remainder pre-1960. In addition, half of the gully areal growth occurred since 1961 but the new triggered landslides amount over three-quarters of the total area under landslides. This asymmetrical distribution reveals that usually a preparing time lag of tens of years is required for triggering landslides by gullying and this pattern depicts the common mechanism for landslide development. Acknowledgements: This work was partly supported by a grant from the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research, CNDI-UEFISCDI, Project number PN-II-PT-PCCA-2011-3.2-0975.

  3. Meteorological environment of a tornado outbreak in Southern Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oprea, I. C.; Bell, A.

    2009-04-01

    On 7 May 2005, a squall line with an embedded bow echo formed over Southern Romania causing severe wind damage. The length of the wind damage was around 150 km. Three tornadoes have been reported, two of them being recorded by video camera. One of the tornadoes occurred in Buftea (near Bucharest), the second in Ciobanu village (near Medgidia radar site) and the third in Movilita village, 40 km to the northeast of Bucharest. The site surveys confirmed wind damage associated with these tornadoes. Based on damage, the Movilita village tornado was classified as an F1 type on the Fujita scale, and the Buftea and Ciobanu village tornadoes were classified as F0. Large scale forcing was provided by a vigorous upper level trough. The squall line developed in the warm sector of a low, ahead of the cold front. The Bucharest EEC-DWSR-2500C Doppler velocity depicted cyclonically rotational structures associated with the left end of the bow echo. In two hours this squall line traversed the southern part of the country. The northern end of the line preserved the bowed structures and high reflectivity gradient in front of them. The dry air associated with the descending rear inflow jet was evident as rear inflow notches in the reflectivity field of the Bucharest C-band radar and the Medgidia S-band WSR-98 D radar. The synoptic and mesoscale environment associated with 7 May 2005 bow echo had many similarities to the "dynamic" pattern described by John and Hirt (1987). Herein are analyzed the combined effects of synoptic and mesoscale circulations, together with the data provided by C-band EEC-DWSR-2500C and S-band WSR-98D radars, and the ECMWF and ALADIN model output data. Some operational aspects of the warning process are also discussed.

  4. Mine waste management legislation. Gold mining areas in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maftei, Raluca-Mihaela; Filipciuc, Constantina; Tudor, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Problems in the post-mining regions of Eastern Europe range from degraded land and landscapes, huge insecure dumps, surface cracks, soil pollution, lowering groundwater table, deforestation, and damaged cultural potentials to socio economic problems like unemployment or population decline. There is no common prescription for tackling the development of post-mining regions after mine closure nor is there a common definition of good practices or policy in this field. Key words : waste management, legislation, EU Directive, post mining Rosia Montana is a common oh 16 villages; one of them is also called Rosia Montana, a traditional mining Community, located in the Apuseni Mountains in the North-Western Romania. Beneath part of the village area lays one of the largest gold and silver deposits in Europe. In the Rosia Montana area mining had begun ever since the height of the Roman Empire. While the modern approach to mining demands careful remediation of environmental impacts, historically disused mines in this region have been abandoned, leaving widespread environmental damage. General legislative framework Strict regulations and procedures govern modern mining activity, including mitigation of all environmental impacts. Precious metals exploitation is put under GO no. 190/2000 re-published in 2004. The institutional framework was established and organized based on specific regulations, being represented by the following bodies: • The Ministry of Economy and Commerce (MEC), a public institution which develops the Government policy in the mining area, also provides the management of the public property in the mineral resources area; • The National Agency for the development and implementation of the mining Regions Reconstruction Programs (NAD), responsible with promotion of social mitigation measures and actions; • The Office for Industry Privatization, within the Education Ministry, responsible with privatization of companies under the CEM; • The National

  5. River Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auldridge, Teresa; And Others

    The James River is one of the most precious resources of Virginia. It was the site of the first permanent English settlement in the New World; the power of the water at the Fall Zone was a major factor in the development of Richmond; and the river served as a primary transportation route to the West via the Kanawha Canal. Both the water itself and…

  6. Characterization of Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (Tan Spot of Wheat) Races in Baltic States and Romania

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Sidrat; Sehgal, Sunish Kumar; Ali, Shaukat; Liatukas, Zilvinas; Ittu, Mariana; Kaur, Navjot

    2017-01-01

    Tan spot, caused by the fungus Pyrenophora triticirepentis, is economically important foliar disease in Latvia, Lithuania, and Romania; however, race structure from Baltic States and Romania is not known. In this study, we performed genotypic and phenotypic race characterization of a large collection of P. triticirepentis isolates from these countries to determine race structure and utilize this information for better disease management and breeding wheat for tan spot resistance. We characterized 231 single spore isolates from Latvia (n = 15), Lithuania (n = 107), and Romania (n = 109) for Ptr ToxA and Ptr ToxB genes using two genes specific primers. A subset (139) of 231 isolates were further characterized for their race structure by inoculating them individually on tan spot wheat differentials set. Majority (83%) of the 231 isolates amplified Ptr ToxA gene suggesting prevalence of race 1 and 2. Further, phenotypic characterization of 139 isolates also showed wide prevalence of races 1 (68%), 2 (8%), 3 (11%), and 4 (5%) were also identified from Baltic States as well as Romania. Eighteen of the isolates (13%) did not seem to be of any of the eight known races as they lacked Ptr ToxA gene but they behaved like either race 1 or race 2, suggesting possibility of novel toxins in these isolates as their virulence tools. PMID:28381960

  7. The Use and Abuse of the University: Higher Education in Romania, 1860-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedlak, Jan

    1991-01-01

    A review of the history of university education in Romania since 1860 looks at the internal structure of the institutions, governance, faculty who played an active role in political life, nationalism and the ascendancy of communism, and trends since World War II. (MSE)

  8. Educational Reform and Educational Research in Central-Eastern Europe: The Case of Romania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birzea, Cesar

    This report describes difficulties in educational reform faced by countries in transition, those post-communist countries from Eastern and Central Europe that have been changing their social, economic, and political systems since 1989. Romania is the case study used for this example and is viewed in terms of four stages: (1) deconstruction, an…

  9. Affirmative Action in Romania's Higher Education: Roma Students' Perceived Meanings and Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantea, Maria-Carmen

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative paper explores Roma students' perceptions on the policy of assigning "special places" for Roma in Romania's universities. Findings suggest that Roma see themselves as occupying a precarious social space, concerned not as much to hide perceived merit violation but to handle (alleged) inadequacies given by their…

  10. Preliminary results regarding the first map of residential radon in some regions in Romania.

    PubMed

    Cosma, C; Cucoş Dinu, A; Dicu, T

    2013-07-01

    Radon represents the most important contribution of population exposure to natural ionising radiation. This article presents the first indoor radon map in some regions of Romania based on 883 surveyed buildings in the Ştei-BăiŢa radon-prone region and 864 in other regions of Romania. Indoor radon measurements were performed in the last 10 y by using CR-39 nuclear track detectors exposed for 3-12 months on ground floor levels of dwellings. Excluding the Ştei-BăiŢa radon-prone region, an average indoor radon concentration of 126 Bq m(-3) was calculated for Romanian houses. In the Ştei-BăiŢa radon-prone area, the average indoor concentration was 292 Bq m(-3). About 21 % of the investigated dwellings in the Ştei-BăiŢa radon-prone region exceed the threshold of 400 Bq m(-3), while 5 % of the dwellings in other areas of Romania exceed the same threshold. As expected, indoor radon concentration is not uniformly distributed throughout Romania. The map shows a high variability among surveyed regions, mainly due to the differences in geology. The radon emanation rate is substantially influenced by the soil characteristics, such as the soil permeability and soil gas radon concentration. Since higher permeability enables the increased migration of soil gas and radon from the soil into the building, elevated levels of indoor radon can be expected in more permeable soil environments.

  11. Toxoplasma gondii in horse meat intended for human consumption in Romania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, an economically important zoonotic protozoan, was investigated in horses slaughtered for export and human consumption in the North of Romania. This study has aimed to assess the potential impact of Romanian horses’ toxoplasmosis on the public health. Pairs of sam...

  12. "Nobody Told Us about What Happened": The Current State of Holocaust Education in Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misco, Tomas

    2008-01-01

    This research study sought to understand the current state of Holocaust education in Romanian classrooms and how sociocultural and institutional forces influence its treatment. By identifying the obstacles, challenges, and successes of Holocaust education in Romania, this study can both disseminate the techniques and conditions that bring about…

  13. Examination of Mathematics Textbooks in Use in Hungarian Primary Schools in Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tünde, Baranyai; Gabriella, Stark

    2011-01-01

    A good textbook must meet a number of pedagogical, psychological, scientific, esthetical, and other requirements. The presented research examines whether the mathematics textbooks in use in Hungarian primary schools in Romania meet those requirements. We used documentation, contents analysis and surveys as research methods. We examined the…

  14. Some aspects on radiation protection in conventional and digital radiology in Romania.

    PubMed

    Milu, Constantin; Dumitrescu, Alina

    2008-01-01

    Since 1965, medical radiation exposure in the population of Romania has been evaluated by the Network of Radiation Hygiene Laboratories of the Ministry of Public Health, including 23 laboratories throughout the whole country; the network is co-ordinated by the Institute of Public Health Bucharest. In Romania, for a population of 22.5 million inhabitants, 465 X-ray examinations were reported during the last survey, the most frequent being chest examination. There was no specific reference to digital radiology. Digital radiology has been introduced only recently in Romania, and only some rough data on the situation can be presented. Siemens AG is now present in Romania with 23 installations, type SIEREGRAPH CF and AXIOM ICONOS. A digital image intensifier technique is used only for fluoroscopy, and radiography is performed using a conventional film/screen combination. The company Philips has nine installations for angiography, model INTEGRIS, and uses a computed radiography technique. Several direct digital radiography MULTISYSTEM SWISSRAY installations (about 40 units) are also available for adult and paediatric examinations. The Council Directive 97/43/EURATOM on health protection of individuals against dangers of ionising radiation in relation to medical exposure was fully transformed into Romanian legislation in 2002.

  15. The Hard Work of Interpretation: The National Politics of PISA Reception in Hungary and Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Eszter; Kiss, Adel; Fejes, Ildiko

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the dynamic interaction between global policy and knowledge flows and two post-communist education systems--Hungary and Romania--with special attention to the appropriation of post-bureaucratic regulation tools and the structural changes enhanced by the knowledge transmitted by the Programme for International Student…

  16. The Road to Change? A Case Study Examining Educational Reform in Sibiu County, Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Stan; Trotman, Dave; Rusu, Horatiu; Mara, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This article examines processes of educational reform and change in a post-Communist Eastern European country. Focusing on the experiences and challenges facing one geographical community in Sibiu County, Romania, an attempt is made to understand some of the macro and micro factors, influences and external policy drivers, shaping the organization…

  17. Prevalence of Sedentary Behaviour in Young People in Romania and Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soos, Istvan; Biddle, Stuart; Boros-Balint, Iuliana; Sandor, Iosif; Szabo, Peter; Hamar, Pal; Simonek, Jaromir

    2012-01-01

    Sedentary behaviour is becoming a popular area of health research, but most studies report data on samples from Australia, the UK and USA, and on a narrow range of behaviours. The present study reports on the prevalence of multiple sedentary behaviours in a sample of secondary school students (n = 635; mean age 16.0 years) from Romania and…

  18. Teacher Education Budget Cuts in Romania and the US: Points of Contrast and Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ives, B.; Alama, M.; Mosora, C. L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Budgets for teacher education programmes have been substantially reduced as a result of the global economic crisis. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the teacher education budget cutting processes and procedures for universities in Romania versus one university in the United States. Sample: The data were collected from…

  19. National Testing of Pupils in Europe: Objectives, Organisation and Use of Results. Romania 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihail, Roxana

    2009-01-01

    For ISCED levels 1 and ISCED 2 student assessment is conducted according to the same principles applicable in the whole pre-university education in Romania: the specific policies and strategies developed by The Ministry of Education, Research and Innovation (1) are seeking a balance between teacher made, school-based assessment, and national…

  20. Molecular evidence for bacterial and protozoan pathogens in hard ticks from Romania.

    PubMed

    Ionita, Mariana; Mitrea, Ioan Liviu; Pfister, Kurt; Hamel, Dietmar; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to provide a preliminary insight into the diversity of tick-borne pathogens circulating at the domestic host-tick interface in Romania. For this, feeding and questing ticks were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu latu, and by PCR and subsequent sequencing for Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp. and Theileria spp. A total of 382 ticks, encompassing 5 species from 4 genera, were collected in April-July 2010 from different areas of Romania; of them, 40 were questing ticks and the remainder was collected from naturally infested cattle, sheep, goats, horses or dogs. Tick species analyzed included Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor marginatus, Hyalomma marginatum, Rhipicephalus bursa, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Four rickettsiae of the spotted fever group of zoonotic concern were identified for the first time in Romania: Rickettsia monacensis and Rickettsia helvetica in I. ricinus, and Rickettsia slovaca and Rickettsia raoultii in D. marginatus. Other zoonotic pathogens such as A. phagocytophilum, Borrelia afzelii, and Babesia microti were found in I. ricinus. Pathogens of veterinary importance were also identified, including Theileria equi in H. marginatum, Babesia occultans in D. marginatus and H. marginatum, Theileria orientalis/sergenti/buffeli-group in I. ricinus and in H. marginatum and E. canis in R. sanguineus. These findings show a wide distribution of very diverse bacterial and protozoan pathogens at the domestic host-tick interface in Romania, with the potential of causing both animal and human diseases.

  1. Hierarchy, Complicity and Culture in the Library and Information Science Preservation Agenda: Observations from Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klimaszewski, Cheryl; Bader, Gail E.; Nyce, James M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that researchers involved in cultural heritage preservation need to adopt a more inclusive ethnographic research methodology that pays special attention to how power, class, and status shape the communities we study. Based on observations from field research in Ghimes-Faget, Romania, we discuss why the Hungarian ethnic identity…

  2. Critical Approaches to Financial Delegation in Public Education in Post-Communist Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popescu, Ana-Cristina

    2011-01-01

    The article focuses on tracking financial delegation (introduced nationally in January 2010) as part of the broader process of education restructuring and decentralisation in post-communist Romania. The aim is to critically pinpoint some of the challenges specific to the Romanian context, such as the multitude of policies and legislation (due to…

  3. Faculty and Peer Influences on Academic Integrity: College Cheating in Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teodorescu, Daniel; Andrei, Tudorel

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine student perceptions of academic integrity among faculty and peers at a sample of public universities in Romania. The study explores the factors that influence academic dishonesty among college students and compares the relative importance of faculty influences and peer influences on students' intent to…

  4. Private Pre-University Education in Romania: Mixing Control with Lack of Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanus, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    This paper approaches private provision of pre-university education in Romania, exploring available data on the sector's size and main characteristics and evaluating the extent to which the current regulatory framework enables positive effects in terms of freedom of choice, quality, equity, and social cohesion. The paper argues that the lack of a…

  5. The Supply of Birth Control Methods, Education, and Fertility: Evidence from Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pop-Eleches, Cristian

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of the supply of birth control methods on fertility behavior by examining Romania's 23-year period of pronatalist policies. Following the lifting of the restrictions in 1989 the immediate decrease in fertility was 30 percent. Women who spent most of their reproductive years under the restrictive regime…

  6. Situation Report - Denmark, France, German Federal Republic, Luxembourg, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain, and Switzerland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in nine foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Denmark, France, German Federal Republic, Luxembourg, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain, and Switzerland. Information is provided in the following areas where appropriate and if it is available: (1) statistics…

  7. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe. Romania 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chirea, Veronica-Gabriela; Modrescu, Alexandru; Modrescu, Tincuta

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on Romania's arts and cultural education. The Ministry of Education, Research and Youth is responsible for setting the aims for cultural and creative dimensions of formal education provided by the national education system. However, the Ministry of Culture and Cults promotes programmes and projects in the domain of adult…

  8. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in dairy goats from Romania.

    PubMed

    Iovu, Anamaria; Györke, Adriana; Mircean, Viorica; Gavrea, Raluca; Cozma, Vasile

    2012-05-25

    Little information is available about the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum infections in goats in Romania and even in Europe. During 2007-2010, 735 serum samples were collected from dairy goats located in 4 historical regions (Crişana, Maramureş, Transylvania and Muntenia) of Romania. Sera were analyzed for T. gondii and N. caninum antibodies (IgG type) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using two commercial kits (Chekit Toxotest Antibody ELISA and Chekit Neospora caninum Antibody ELISA; Idexx-Bommeli, Switzerland). Three hundred and eighty-eight out of 735 (52.8%) goats presented T. gondii antibodies and 12 out of 512 (2.3%) goats had N. caninum antibodies. The high seroprevalence of T. gondii suggests that infection with this parasite is common in dairy goats in Romania, and less common the infection with N. caninum. This is the first time that infection with N. caninum in goats has been reported in Romania and the first extended study on seroepidemiology of T. gondii.

  9. Doctoral Studies in Romania: Admission Procedures, Social, and Legal Aspects of Doctoral Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miclea, Mircea

    2008-01-01

    This contribution presents a concise and up-to-date report of doctoral studies in Romania, with a special emphasis on legal and social aspects. The author also argues that in order to be sustainable, the reform of doctoral studies should be substantiated by the differentiation of universities, reliable post-doctoral programmes, and a substantive…

  10. Minority Rights and Majority Rule: Ethnic Tolerance in Romania and Bulgaria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Mary E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of data from national surveys of majority ethnic groups in Romania and Bulgaria examined the effects on tolerance toward minority groups of education, community ethnic composition, urbanism, age, gender, perceived threat to national security from the minority group's homeland, democratic values, and prevailing political ideology. Contains…

  11. The Eclipse of the Moon from 16-17 August 2008 in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alimpie, Laurentiu; Dragan, Dorin; Gaina, Alex; Stanescu, Octavian

    2008-08-01

    The web page presents a number of photographs and a discussion of the cicumstances of the Partial Eclipse of the Moon from 16-17 August 2008 observed from the city of Timisoara in Romania and Chisinau in the Republic of Moldova

  12. Scenarios of Mentor Education in Romania--Towards Improving Teacher Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stîngu, Mihaela; Eisenschmidt, Eve; Iucu, Romi?a

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the induction programme for newly qualified teachers and mentor education in Estonia, providing a comparative analysis of existing Estonian and possible Romanian models of mentoring. While the Estonian induction programme has been in place for more than ten years, induction in Romania is a relatively new and has…

  13. Community Perception of Water Quality in a Mining-Affected Area: A Case Study for the Certej Catchment in the Apuseni Mountains in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogaru, Diana; Zobrist, Jürg; Balteanu, Dan; Popescu, Claudia; Sima, Mihaela; Amini, Manouchehr; Yang, Hong

    2009-06-01

    Mining-contaminated sites and the affected communities at risk are important issues on the agenda of both researchers and policy makers, particularly in the former communist block countries in Eastern Europe. Integrated analyses and expert based assessments concerning mining affected areas are important in providing solid policy guidelines for environmental and social risk management and mitigation. Based on a survey for 103 households conducted in a former mining site in the Certej Catchment of the Apuseni Mountains, western Romania, this study assesses local communities’ perceptions on the quality of water in their living area. Logistic regression was used to examine peoples’ perception on the quality of the main river water and of the drinking water based on several predictors relating to social and economic conditions. The results from the perception analysis were then compared with the measurements of heavy metal contamination of the main river and drinking water undertaken in the same study area. The findings indicate that perception and measurement results for the water quality in the Certej Catchment are convergent, suggesting an obvious risk that mining activities pose on the surface water. However, the perception on drinking water quality was little predicted by the regression model and does not seem to be so much related to mining as to other explanatory factors, such as special mineralogy of rock and soils or improper water treatment infrastructure, facts suggested by the measurements of the contaminants. Discussion about the implications of these joint findings for risk mitigation policies completes this article.

  14. Community perception of water quality in a mining-affected area: a case study for the Certej catchment in the Apuseni Mountains in Romania.

    PubMed

    Dogaru, Diana; Zobrist, Jürg; Balteanu, Dan; Popescu, Claudia; Sima, Mihaela; Amini, Manouchehr; Yang, Hong

    2009-06-01

    Mining-contaminated sites and the affected communities at risk are important issues on the agenda of both researchers and policy makers, particularly in the former communist block countries in Eastern Europe. Integrated analyses and expert based assessments concerning mining affected areas are important in providing solid policy guidelines for environmental and social risk management and mitigation. Based on a survey for 103 households conducted in a former mining site in the Certej Catchment of the Apuseni Mountains, western Romania, this study assesses local communities' perceptions on the quality of water in their living area. Logistic regression was used to examine peoples' perception on the quality of the main river water and of the drinking water based on several predictors relating to social and economic conditions. The results from the perception analysis were then compared with the measurements of heavy metal contamination of the main river and drinking water undertaken in the same study area. The findings indicate that perception and measurement results for the water quality in the Certej Catchment are convergent, suggesting an obvious risk that mining activities pose on the surface water. However, the perception on drinking water quality was little predicted by the regression model and does not seem to be so much related to mining as to other explanatory factors, such as special mineralogy of rock and soils or improper water treatment infrastructure, facts suggested by the measurements of the contaminants. Discussion about the implications of these joint findings for risk mitigation policies completes this article.

  15. Phylodynamics of HIV-1 subtype F1 in Angola, Brazil and Romania.

    PubMed

    Bello, Gonzalo; Afonso, Joana Morais; Morgado, Mariza G

    2012-07-01

    The HIV-1 subtype F1 is exceptionally prevalent in Angola, Brazil and Romania. The epidemiological context in which the spread of HIV occurred was highly variable from one country to another, mainly due to the existence of a long-term civil war in Angola and the contamination of a large number of children in Romania. Here we apply phylogenetic and Bayesian coalescent-based methods to reconstruct the phylodynamic patterns of HIV-1 subtype F1 in such different epidemiological settings. The phylogenetic analyses of HIV-1 subtype F1 pol sequences sampled worldwide confirmed that most sequences from Angola, Brazil and Romania segregated in country-specific monophyletic groups, while most subtype F1 sequences from Romanian children branched as a monophyletic sub-cluster (Romania-CH) nested within sequences from adults. The inferred time of the most recent common ancestor of the different subtype F1 clades were as follow: Angola=1983 (1978-1989), Brazil=1977 (1972-1981), Romania adults=1980 (1973-1987), and Romania-CH=1985 (1978-1989). All subtype F1 clades showed a demographic history best explained by a model of logistic population growth. Although the expansion phase of subtype F1 epidemic in Angola (mid 1980s to early 2000s) overlaps with the civil war period (1975-2002), the mean estimated growth rate of the Angolan F1 clade (0.49 year(-1)) was not exceptionally high, but quite similar to that estimated for the Brazilian (0.69 year(-1)) and Romanian adult (0.36 year(-1)) subtype F1 clades. The Romania-CH subtype F1 lineage, by contrast, displayed a short and explosive dissemination phase, with a median growth rate (2.47 year(-1)) much higher than that estimated for adult populations. This result supports the idea that the AIDS epidemic that affected the Romanian children was mainly caused by the spread of the HIV through highly efficient parenteral transmission networks, unlike adult populations where HIV is predominantly transmitted through sexual route.

  16. Spatiotemporal Variability of the Meteorological Drought in Romania using the Standardized Precipitation Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheval, Sorin; Busuioc, Aristita; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Birsan, Marius-Victor

    2013-04-01

    Drought events occur over any geographical area, and may impact severely the environment and society. In terms of economic losses, droughts are one of the major natural hazards affecting Romania, so that the topic has been constantly approached. In general, the climatic projections over the 21st century display increasing temperatures and very likely declining summer precipitation (Busuioc et al., 2010), probably causing better drought conditions. This study examines the variability of the droughts in Romania, aiming to characterize the droughts intensity, durations and frequency (a), to identify spatial and temporal patterns (b), trends (c), and potential triggering factors (d). Besides, we consider comparing the performance of different instances of the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) (McKee et al., 1993), such as time scale and probability distribution functions (gamma and Pearson type III), for retrieving drought characteristics. Homogenous monthly precipitation amounts from 98 weather stations run by the Romanian Meteorological Administration covering the period 1961-2010 were the primary data for calculating 1, 3, 6, and 12-month time scale SPI. The Mann-Kendall statistics sustained the trend significance examination, while Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis synthesizes the climate signal related to spatial and temporal characteristics of variability over Romania. The SPI variability over Romania is mainly influenced by the large-scale mechanisms (e.g. North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO)) accounting for more than 50% from the observed variance, on second place being the Carpathians accounting for the highest influence in winter (11%). Thus, the Carpathians separate Romania in two major regions in terms of drought characteristics, namely outside and inside the mountainous arch. Significant trends towards dry conditions are noted at very few stations in winter, spring and summer, while trend to

  17. Molecular detection of Rickettsia conorii and other zoonotic spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks, Romania.

    PubMed

    Ionita, Mariana; Silaghi, Cornelia; Mitrea, Ioan Liviu; Edouard, Sophie; Parola, Philippe; Pfister, Kurt

    2016-02-01

    The diverse tick fauna as well as the abundance of tick populations in Romania represent potential risks for both human and animal health. Spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae are recognized as important agents of emerging human tick-borne diseases worldwide. However, the epidemiology of rickettsial diseases has been poorly investigated in Romania. In urban habitats, companion animals which are frequently exposed to tick infestation, play a role in maintenance of tick populations and as reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of SFG rickettsiae in ticks infesting dogs in a greater urban area in South-eastern Romania. Adult ixodid ticks (n=205), including Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (n=120), Dermacentor reticulatus (n=76) and Ixodes ricinus (n=9) were collected from naturally infested dogs and were screened for SFG rickettsiae using conventional PCR followed by sequencing. Additionally, ticks were screened for DNA of Babesia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma platys. Four zoonotic SFG rickettsiae were identified: Rickettsia raoultii (16%) and Rickettsia slovaca (3%) in D. reticulatus, Rickettsia monacensis (11%) in I. ricinus, and Rickettsia conorii (0.8%) in Rh. sanguineus s.l. Moreover, pathogens of veterinary importance, such as B. canis (21%) in D. reticulatus and E. canis (7.5%) in Rh. sanguineus s.l. were identified. The findings expand the knowledge on distribution of SFG rickettsiae as well as canine pathogens in Romania. Additionally, this is the first report describing the molecular detection of R. conorii in ticks from Romania.

  18. Canine babesiosis in Romania due to Babesia canis and Babesia vogeli: a molecular approach.

    PubMed

    Ionita, Mariana; Mitrea, Ioan Liviu; Pfister, Kurt; Hamel, Dietmar; Buzatu, Catalin Marius; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2012-05-01

    Canine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by the protozoa Babesia spp. that affects dogs worldwide. In Romania, canine babesiosis has become quite frequent in the last few years, with a wide variety of clinical signs, ranging from mild, nonspecific illness to peracute collapse, and even death. Traditionally, a Babesia infection in dogs is diagnosed based on the morphologic appearance of the intraerythrocytic piroplasms observed in peripheral blood smears. To date, no data on genetic characterization of Babesia species in dogs has been documented for Romania. Therefore, a molecular survey on natural Babesia infections of dogs in Romania using polymerase chain reaction and genetic sequence analysis of a fragment of the ssRNA gene was performed. A total number of 16 blood samples were tested for the presence of Babesia DNA. Blood samples were collected from 11 dogs with symptoms of babesiosis and microscopically proven positive for Babesia and from a group of five asymptomatic dogs, not tested microscopically for Babesia, which were included in the study for comparative analysis. The piroplasm-specific PCR amplifying the partial 18S rRNA gene confirmed Babesia spp. infection in all 11 samples from dogs with clinical babesiosis, and in one of the clinically normal dogs. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of Babesia canis in all clinically affected dogs and Babesia vogeli in one clinically normal dog. This is the first molecular evidence of B. canis and B. vogeli in dogs from Romania. The results of the study provide basic information toward a better understanding of the epidemiology of canine babesiosis in Romania and will help to promote an effective control program.

  19. The improved broadband Real-Time Seismic Network in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neagoe, C.; Ionescu, C.

    2009-04-01

    Starting with 2002 the National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP) has developed its real-time digital seismic network. This network consists of 96 seismic stations of which 48 broad band and short period stations and two seismic arrays are transmitted in real-time. The real time seismic stations are equipped with Quanterra Q330 and K2 digitizers, broadband seismometers (STS2, CMG40T, CMG 3ESP, CMG3T) and strong motions sensors Kinemetrics episensors (+/- 2g). SeedLink and AntelopeTM (installed on MARMOT) program packages are used for real-time (RT) data acquisition and exchange. The communication from digital seismic stations to the National Data Center in Bucharest is assured by 5 providers (GPRS, VPN, satellite communication, radio lease line and internet), which will assure the back-up communications lines. The processing centre runs BRTT's AntelopeTM 4.10 data acquisition and processing software on 2 workstations for real-time processing and post processing. The Antelope Real-Time System is also providing automatic event detection, arrival picking, event location and magnitude calculation. It provides graphical display and reporting within near-real-time after a local or regional event occurred. Also at the data center was implemented a system to collect macroseismic information using the internet on which macro seismic intensity maps are generated. In the near future at the data center will be install Seiscomp 3 data acquisition processing software on a workstation. The software will run in parallel with Antelope software as a back-up. The present network will be expanded in the near future. In the first half of 2009 NIEP will install 8 additional broad band stations in Romanian territory, which also will be transmitted to the data center in real time. The Romanian Seismic Network is permanently exchanging real -time waveform data with IRIS, ORFEUS and different European countries through internet. In Romania, magnitude and location of an earthquake are now

  20. Application And Implication Of Nanomaterials In The Environment: An Overview Of Current Research At The Environmental Protection Agency (Romania)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this presentation is to teach a course on analytical techniques, quality assurance, environmental research protocols, and basic soil environmental chemistry at the Environmental Health Center and Babes Bolyai University in Cluj, Romania. FOR FURTHER INFORMATI...

  1. Old and new radionuclide presence in Romania after Chernobyl and Fukushima disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosma, Constantin; Iurian, Andra; Nita, Dan; Pantelica, Ana; Prodan, Eugen

    2013-04-01

    Our laboratory measured the radionuclide presence in Transylvania region both after Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents. The paper presents old and new data connected with these disasters obtained not only by us but also by others laboratories from Romania. It is an attempt to mark the mainly aspects regarding the radioactive contamination in our country connected with these catastrophes. After the Chernobyl accident the radioactive cloud passage over Romania on NE - SW direction brought relatively intesive radionuclide deposition. On this direction the highest deposition were found in the areas where this passage during April 30-st and May 1-st were accompanied by rainfalls. In the rain water and fresh sediment colected at May 1-st, 1986 and measured the next days, all radionuclide species from Chernobyl could be identified [1]. Additional measurements of 90Sr and 239/240Pu have been made several years later in different environmental samples (roof sediment, soil, pollen, sand, roof-water, street dust) collected in 1986 from Cluj-Napoca, Romania [2]. In the case of Fukushima disaster the air transport from west and north-west brought small quantities of radionuclides over the Romanian teritorry. Even if in this case the radioactive cloud was very dilluted, 131I could be clearly identified and measured in air, rain water and other products as: milk, vegetables, grass, fresh meat from the NW of Romania [3]. Measurements have been also conducted in Bucharest and Pitesti. During the last 5 years suplimentary 137Cs measurements were made in different areas as an attempt to use this radionuclide as soil and sediment tracer. [1]. C. Cosma, Some Aspects of Radioactive Contamination after Chernobyl Accident in Romania, J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., 251, 2, 221-226 (2002) [2]. C. Cosma, Strontium-90 Measurement without Chemical Separation in Samples after Chernobyl Accident, Spectrochimica Acta, Part B, 55, 1165-1171 (2000) [3]. C. Cosma, AR. Iurian, DC. Ni?, R. Begy R, C. C

  2. Early findings in outbreak of haemolytic uraemic syndrome among young children caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Romania, January to February 2016.

    PubMed

    Peron, Emilie; Zaharia, Alina; Zota, Lavinia Cipriana; Severi, Ettore; Mårdh, Otilia; Usein, Codruta; Bălgrădean, Mihaela; Espinosa, Laura; Jansa, Josep; Scavia, Gaia; Rafila, Alexandru; Serban, Amalia; Pistol, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    As at 29 February 2016, 15 cases of haemolytic uraemic syndrome with onset between 25 January and 22 February were reported among children between five and 38 months in Romania, and three of them died. Cases were mostly from southern Romania. Six cases tested positive for Escherichia coli O26 by serology. Fruits, vegetables, meat and dairy products were among the possible common food exposures. Investigations are ongoing in Romania to control the outbreak.

  3. Niger River

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-15

    ... third largest river in Africa, the Niger, forms an inland delta in central Mali. This Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image ... the region as it appears after the rainy season, when the delta is flooded. The image covers an area measuring about 400 kilometers x 450 ...

  4. Mississippi River

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... to melt and the Wapsipinicon River was 52 centimeters above flood stage at De Witt, Iowa (between Clinton and Davenport). By mid-April ... slightly below the level reached in the record-setting flood of 1993. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion ...

  5. Using GIS techniques to detect the impact of territorial evolution on producing natural hazard in Northern Romania, commune Vorniceni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gălbău, Ionela

    2015-04-01

    Using techniques of information, such as Geographic Information Systems (GIS), on spatial analysis, offers numerous possibilities in terms of spatial emphasizing the study area and marking hazard risk areas (especially landslides). Although the means ultra modern techniques have advanced, using GIS in spatial planning remains the most important technique used. Also, GIS maps obtained are more objective than paper made by hand, using the same data and the same conceptual model. The study area, commune Vorniceni is situated in the north of Romania, Ibaneasa River basin, a tributary of Jijiei and occupies an area of 63 km2. The area has experienced over the past 50 years, a trend not only territorial but also morphological and morphometric. This study involves a relation between the evolution of territorial distribution of the population of the commune Vorniceni and influence on the environment. The construction of the dam reservoir Ibaneasa River using poor borrow pits, meant a starting point for the development of landslides. Brutal antropic intervention on the environment by building a dam or lake clogging the two reservoirs (ponds) increased possibility of negative phenomena in the area. These phenomena directly affect the village population as territorial evolution involved the construction of settlements in areas with potential risk of landslides. The analysis of the factors that have influenced the evolution of territorial and producing negative phenomena and making GIS database will be followed by the realization of a hypsometric map of slopes, slope inclination and land use. All this, highlights the relationship anthropic environment - natural environment, and not turning both low population provides another opportunity to use the land in a beneficial way by harnessing the risk map obtained. Although not without shortcomings, the method proved to be a feasible and cost-effective approach for assessing landslide susceptibility and mapping. "ACKNOWLEDGMENT This

  6. 33 CFR 162.90 - White River, Arkansas Post Canal, Arkansas River, and Verdigris River between Mississippi River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Arkansas River, and Verdigris River between Mississippi River, Ark., and Catoosa, Okla.; use... White River, Arkansas Post Canal, Arkansas River, and Verdigris River between Mississippi River, Ark... apply to: (1) Waterways. White River between Mississippi River and Arkansas Post Canal, Ark.;...

  7. Pulmonary tuberculosis in Romania at the dawn of the millennium--a major public health issue.

    PubMed

    Marica, C

    2009-01-01

    TB incidence in our country is still quite high compared to the average of the European Union countries (1st place among EU countries and 3rd place among WHO European Region countries), which means that a national coordinated response against this disease needs to become the priority of the current health care policy. The multi-factorial conditioning, which includes the social and economic dimensions of TB spreading, requires a multi-disciplinary and inter-sectorial approach to this pathology, going beyond healthcare services. The National Tuberculosis Control Strategy is a part of Romania's Country Strategy based on the guidelines set out in WHO's 2006-2015 Global Plan to Stop Tuberculosis (MDGs 2015) and it provides the necessary framework for refining and harmonizing the national legislation and regulations with the European laws after Romania's integration in the EU.

  8. New Cases of Thelazia callipaeda Haplotype 1 in Dogs Suggest a Wider Distribution in Romania.

    PubMed

    Ioniţă, Mariana; Mitrea, Ioan Liviu; Ionică, Angela Monica; Morariu, Sorin; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Thelazia callipaeda is an emerging vector-borne zoonotic helminth parasitizing the conjunctival sac of a broad spectrum of definitive hosts, such as dogs, cats, rabbits, wild carnivores, and humans. Its presence is associated with mild to severe ocular disease. Here, we report two new clinical cases in dogs originating from western and southern Romania, with no travel history. On clinical examination, the nematodes were retrieved from the conjunctival sac and identified using morphological keys and molecular tools. Twenty-two adult nematodes (8 males, 14 females) were collected and were identified as T. callipaeda by morphology. The molecular analysis revealed a 100% identity with haplotype h1 of T. callipaeda. This study describes the occurrence of new autochthonous cases of thelaziosis in Romania, reinforcing the spreading trend of this zoonotic eyeworm and highlighting the need for increased awareness among medical and veterinary practitioners. Moreover, we provide additional molecular evidence for the exclusive distribution of haplotype 1 of T. callipaeda in Europe.

  9. A framework for the ecological rehabilitation of degraded soilscapes in Eastern Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bireescu, Geanina; Lo Papa, Giuseppe; Dazzi, Carmelo

    2016-04-01

    In the last 20 years, particularly in the Eastern part of Romania, anthropogenic unreasonable and aggressive actions corroborated with soil water erosion, accentuated the processes of environmental degradation and decreased the productive potential of the soilscapes. This research starts from the practical necessity to increase the functional efficiency of these soilscapes, through the assessment of the risk factors, for diminishing the negative impact of degradation. The target is to develop a Sustainable Management Plan based of a general matrix description of the environmental factors in the Eastern part of Romania, to intervene (in terms of scientific, technological, administrative-economical and managerial aspects) for the ecological rehabilitation of the soilscapes. Thus, the research has an applicative character, establishing the measures for decreasing soil vulnerability to degradation and increasing the soil resilience.

  10. The unexpected finding of Parapholidoptera castaneoviridis in south-eastern Romania (Insecta, Orthoptera, Tettigoniidae)

    PubMed Central

    Iorgu, Ionuț Ștefan; Chobanov, Dragan Petrov; Iorgu, Elena Iulia

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The Balkano-Anatolian genus Parapholidoptera comprises 21 species and the westernmost one, Parapholidoptera castaneoviridis, previously recognized to occur in western Turkey, north-eastern Greece and south-eastern Bulgaria is recorded for the first time from south-eastern Romania, almost 300 km away from the closest known locality. Illustrations and measurements of morphological characters are given and the male calling song from this new, northernmost population is described. PMID:28144178

  11. Considerations over the distribution of the organic matter in the soil cover of Transylvania Plain (Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacovean, Horia; Man, Titus; Rusu, Teodor

    2010-05-01

    Considerations over the distribution of the organic matter in the soil cover of Transylvania Plain (Romania) Horea Cacovean*, Titus Man**, Teodor Rusu*** *OSPA-Cluj- 1Faglui street, Cluj Napoca, RO-40048, Romania- turda75@yahoo.com ** Faculty of Geographie, University of Babes-Bolyai, 5-7 Clinicilor street, Cluj Napoca, RO-400006, Romania *** Faculty of Agriculture, USAMV, 3-5 Calea Manastur street,Cluj Napoca, RO-400372, Romania Soil degradation has become a major concern in the Transylvania Plain. Erosion, landslides, salinization, gleysation, and loss of humus are the main forms of soil deterioration in that region. This factsheet deals with the role of organic matter in soil productivity and the effects of various management practices and abandonment of the lands on soil organic matter. Soils in Transylvania Plain are analyzed concerning the amount of humus they contain. The influence of soil texture, climatic variables, and soil management on the qualitative soil humus content was studied in the top 20 cm of different managed loess soils of more then 100 profiles along a climosequence in that region. Taken together, soil, landform, land use and vegetation data suggest: (1) summit positions are relatively stable with immobilizing humus environments; (2) the content of humus increase progressively down steep at the contact with the floodplains; 3) without the influx of organic materials, erodible backslopes may become humus depleted as it happen the poor inputs of grassland and forest litter are mixed with surface soil horizon; 4) influx of mixed sediment and organic materials from backslopes maintains concentrations of humus on footslopes and toeslopes. This influence was more pronounced in the heavy clayey soils, suggesting that the accumulation of humus was enhanced by organo-mineral interactions. Entrenchment of drainage ways can circumvent these translocation processes. The results underscore the importance of functional connectivity between upland

  12. Overview of the wind energy market and renewable energy policy in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chioncel, C. P.; Tirian, G. O.; Gillich, N.; Hatiegan, C.; Spunei, E.

    2017-01-01

    The modern, developed society becomes aware of the necessity to conserve and protect the environment, increasing the gained benefits from a rational use of the natural resources. The pollution and the limitation of the fossil fuels, associated with the political situation worldwide that affects direct the energy strategies, have opened opportunities in the area of operation renewable energy sources. The development of the exploitation of renewable energy sources is directly linked to the energy politic, which, in terms of Romania, has the focus to integrate into the European Union energy strategy. The year 2014 brought in Romania many legislative changes to the renewable support scheme, that proves, once again, the legislative unpredictability and limitations introduced by the legislator ”during the game” that overthrew all economic profitability calculation of the existent and planned investments in this sector. The actual stage of the wind energy across Europe and the particular situation in Romania are highlighted; also a 2020 forecast for Romania tries to evaluate the perspective for the wind, and general, renewable energy market. The actual Romanian renewable energy support scheme, mainly regulated by “Law 220/2008” ends December 2016. The so-called “ready to build” projects especially wind- or hydropower, can’t be finalized until this deadline, being unable to qualify to the existing, mainly to inoperable, support scheme. Another legislation that has to clarify how investments in renewable energy will be supported is still not in place, blocking any project development, implementation and economical benefit of the producer. The paper presents in this respect an updated overview of the Romanian renewable energy sector and its perspective.

  13. From laboratories to chambers of parliament and beyond: producing bioethics in France and Romania.

    PubMed

    Bretonnière, Sandrine

    2013-09-01

    In a European context marked by heterogeneous Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) practices, this article will elucidate and compare the norm elaboration processes pertaining to ART in France and Romania. Using an experimental five-phase model encompassing experimentation, excesses, social mobilization, legislation and contestation, I will examine the processes linking micro (everyday medical practices), meso (institutional regulation) and macro (legislation) levels of ART bioethics in the two countries since the 1980s. ART has developed in France and Romania on different time frames, and Romania's management of ART is decisively influenced by Ceauşescu's pro-natalist policy. However, I will show how the two countries share similar trajectories along the proposed model's first three phases of norm elaboration, and, in recent years, how both have witnessed the emergence of social actors' claims for a more liberal and state-sponsored access to ART, requiring a redefinition of bioethics in line with reproductive social justice at national levels. This is fed by contemporary medical practices and social values, and an increasing transnational interconnectedness between social actors.

  14. West Nile virus circulation in South-Eastern Romania, 2011 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Dinu, S; Cotar, A I; Pănculescu-Gătej, I R; Fălcuţă, E; Prioteasa, F L; Sîrbu, A; Oprişan, G; Bădescu, D; Reiter, P; Ceianu, C S

    2015-05-21

    Lineage 2 West Nile virus (WNV), previously found only in sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar, was identified in Hungary in 2004 and has rapidly expanded in Europe in the past decade. Following a significant outbreak of West Nile fever with neurological cases caused by lineage 1 WNV in Romania in 1996, scattered cases have been recorded in the south-east of the country in each transmission season. Another outbreak, affecting a larger area and caused by lineage 2 WNV, was recorded in 2010. We analysed human sera from neuroinvasive West Nile fever cases and mosquitoes, sampled in south-eastern Romania between 2011 and 2013, for the presence of WNV genome, and obtained partial NS5 and envelope glycoprotein sequences. Human- and mosquito-derived WNV sequences were highly similar (99%) to Volgograd 2007 lineage 2 WNV and differed from isolates previously detected in central and southern Europe. WNV was detected in one pool of Culex pipiens s.l. males, documenting vertical transmission. Lineage 4 WNV, of unknown pathogenicity to mammals, was found in the amphibian-feeding mosquito Uranotaenia unguiculata from the Danube Delta. Our results present molecular evidence for the maintenance of the same isolates of Volgograd 2007-like lineage 2 WNV in south-eastern Romania between 2011 and 2013.

  15. Carbapenemase-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Romania: A Six-Month Survey.

    PubMed

    Lixandru, Brandusa Elena; Cotar, Ani Ioana; Straut, Monica; Usein, Codruta Romanita; Cristea, Dana; Ciontea, Simona; Tatu-Chitoiu, Dorina; Codita, Irina; Rafila, Alexandru; Nica, Maria; Buzea, Mariana; Baicus, Anda; Ghita, Mihaela Camelia; Nistor, Irina; Tuchiluş, Cristina; Indreas, Marina; Antohe, Felicia; Glasner, Corinna; Grundmann, Hajo; Jasir, Aftab; Damian, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the first characterization of carbapenem-non-susceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates by means of a structured six-month survey performed in Romania as part of an Europe-wide investigation. Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates from different anatomical sites were tested for antibiotic susceptibility by phenotypic methods and confirmed by PCR for the presence of four carbapenemase genes. Genome macrorestriction fingerprinting with XbaI was used to analyze the relatedness of carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates collected from eight hospitals. Among 75 non-susceptible isolates, 65 were carbapenemase producers. The most frequently identified genotype was OXA-48 (n = 51 isolates), eight isolates were positive for blaNDM-1 gene, four had the blaKPC-2 gene, whereas two were positive for blaVIM-1. The analysis of PFGE profiles of OXA-48 and NDM-1 producing K. pneumoniae suggests inter-hospitals and regional transmission of epidemic clones. This study presents the first description of K. pneumoniae strains harbouring blaKPC-2 and blaVIM-1 genes in Romania. The results of this study highlight the urgent need for the strengthening of hospital infection control measures in Romania in order to curb the further spread of the antibiotic resistance.

  16. Molecular typing of MRSA and of clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates from Iaşi, Romania.

    PubMed

    Monecke, Stefan; Müller, Elke; Dorneanu, Olivia Simona; Vremeră, Teodora; Ehricht, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Romania is one of the countries with the highest prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the world. To obtain data on affiliation of MRSA to strains and clonal complexes and on the population of methicillin susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), clinical isolates from bloodstream infections, skin and soft tissue infections as well as from screening swabs were collected at hospitals in Ia?i, a city in the North-Eastern part of Romania. Isolates were characterised by microarray hybridisation. Nearly half of all isolates (47%), and about one third (34%) of bloodstream isolates were MRSA. The prevalence of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) was also high (31% among MRSA, 14% among MSSA). The most common MRSA strain was a PVL-negative CC1-MRSA-IV that might have emerged locally, as a related MSSA was also common. PVL-positive CC8-MRSA-IV ("USA300") and PVL-negative ST239-like MRSA-III were also frequently found while other MRSA strains were only sporadically detected. Among MSSA, PVL-positive CC121 as well as PVL-negative CC1, CC22 and CC45 predominated. Although this study provides only a snapshot of S. aureus/MRSA epidemiology in Romania, it confirms the high burden of MRSA and PVL on Romanian healthcare settings.

  17. Transmission and molecular characterisation of wild measles virus in Romania, 2008 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Necula, G; Lazar, M; Stanescu, A; Pistol, A; Santibanez, S; Mankertz, A; Lupulescu, E

    2013-12-12

    Molecular characterisation of measles virus is a powerful tool for tracing transmission. Genotyping may prove the absence of endemic circulation of measles virus, i.e. transmission for more than 12 months, which is one of the criteria for verifying elimination of the disease. We have genetically characterised measles viruses detected in Romania from 2008 to 2012, focusing on the recent outbreaks from 2010 to 2012 that affected mainly groups with limited access to healthcare and schools. The findings emphasise the importance of genotyping during the different phases of an outbreak. A total of 8,170 cases were notified, and 5,093 (62%) of the 7,559 possible cases were serologically confirmed. RT-PCR was performed for 104 samples: from the 101 positive samples obtained from sporadic measles cases or clusters from different counties, 73 were genotyped. Sporadic measles cases associated with D4 and D5 viruses were observed from2008 to 2009. Genotype D4-Manchester was predominant in 2011 and 2012. In addition, the related variant D4-Maramures and MVs/Limoges.FRA/17.10[D4] and a few D4-Hamburg strains were detected. The detection of several distinct MV-D4 genotypes suggests multiple virus importations to Romania. The outbreak associated with D4 genotype is the second largest outbreak in Romania in less than 10 years.

  18. Mortality in Digestive Cancers, 2012: International Data and Data from Romania.

    PubMed

    Valean, Simona; Acalovschi, Monica; Diculescu, Mircea; Manuc, Mircea; Goldis, Adrian; Sfarti, Catalin; Trifan, Anca

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to compare the difference in case fatality rate between more developed and very high Human Development Index (HDI) regions, less developed and low HDI regions, and Romania. The incidence and mortality rates for digestive cancers were obtained from the IARC/WHO 2012 database. World mean mortality-to-incidence ratios registered the highest values in pancreatic cancer (0.97/0.94), and liver cancer (0.93/0.96) in males/females, respectively. The lowest values were recorded in colorectal cancer (0.48 in both sexes). Mortality-to-incidence ratios were generally higher in less developed areas, low HDI populations, and in Romania. The difference in case fatality rate between different areas showed higher variations for colorectal, gastric and gallbladder cancers, and smaller variations for esophageal, liver, and pancreatic cancers. In summary, mortality-to-incidence ratios of digestive cancers were high in 2012; higher values were registered in less developed and low HDI regions, and in Romania. Mortality-to-incidence ratios were similar in both sexes, even though the incidence was generally higher in men. Digestive cancer mortality variation suggests the necessity of finding better strategies for prevention, early diagnosis and treatment of digestive cancers.

  19. Changes in precipitation, runoff and sediment transport in the Eastern Romania during the period 1950 to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maria, Radoane; Constantin, Nechita; Francisca, Chiriloaei; Nicolae, Radoane

    2016-04-01

    dendrochronological analysis we will establish years with exceptional hydrological events prior to years with instrumental registrations. The obtained data will be modeled considering the known data in order to reconstruct water discharge (Q), suspended sediments (Qs) This application was elaborated for Eastern part of Romania, covered by the hydrographic basins of Siret and Prut, respectively for an area of more than 43000 km2. The conditions for geological structure, relief, land use, etc. offers the potential to better understand the spatial variability of some natural processes behavior in the last 6 decades. Also, a number of human interventions have occurred within the Siret and Prut River's drainage basins (i.e., dam construction, channelization, sediment mining, and deforestation), primarily during the past century. The history of human interventions in the area began during the twentieth century with the construction of bank protection structures, especially following the catastrophic 1970-1975 flood events. Natural reforestation, which followed several centuries of intense deforestation, has been most intense from the 1950s onward.

  20. Total Petroleum Systems of the Carpathian - Balkanian Basin Province of Romania and Bulgaria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pawlewicz, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey defined the Moesian Platform Composite Total Petroleum System and the Dysodile Schist-Tertiary Total Petroleum System, which contain three assessment units, in the Carpathian-Balkanian Basin Province of Romania and Bulgaria. The Moesian Platform Assessment Unit, contained within the Moesian Platform Composite Total Petroleum System, is composed of Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks within the Moesian platform region of southern Romania and northern Bulgaria and also within the Birlad depression in the northeastern platform area. In Romania, hydrocarbon sources are identified as carbonate rocks and bituminous claystones within the Middle Devonian, Middle Jurassic, Lower Cretaceous, and Neogene stratigraphic sequences. In the Birlad depression, Neogene pelitic strata have the best potential for generating hydrocarbons. In Bulgaria, Middle and Upper Jurassic shales are the most probable hydrocarbon sources. The Romania Flysch Zone Assessment Unit in the Dysodile Schist-Tertiary Total Petroleum System encompasses three structural and paleogeographic subunits within the Pre-Carpathian Mountains region: (1) the Getic depression, a segment of the Carpathian foredeep; (2) the flysch zone of the eastern Carpathian Mountains (also called the Marginal Fold nappe); and (3) the Miocene zone (also called the Sub-Carpathian nappe). Source rocks are interpreted to be Oligocene dysodile schist and black claystone, along with Miocene black claystone and marls. Also part of the Dysodile Schist-Tertiary Total Petroleum System is the Romania Ploiesti Zone Assessment Unit, which includes a zone of diapir folds. This zone lies between the Rimnicu Sarat and Dinibovita valleys and between the folds of the inner Carpathian Mountains and the external flanks of the Carpathian foredeep. The Oligocene Dysodile Schist is considered the main hydrocarbon source rock and Neogene black marls and claystones are likely secondary sources; all are thought to be at their maximum

  1. Seismic Hazard and risk assessment for Romania -Bulgaria cross-border region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeonova, Stela; Solakov, Dimcho; Alexandrova, Irena; Vaseva, Elena; Trifonova, Petya; Raykova, Plamena

    2016-04-01

    Among the many kinds of natural and man-made disasters, earthquakes dominate with regard to their social and economical impact on the urban environment. Global seismic hazard and vulnerability to earthquakes are steadily increasing as urbanization and development occupy more areas that are prone to effects of strong earthquakes. The assessment of the seismic hazard and risk is particularly important, because it provides valuable information for seismic safety and disaster mitigation, and it supports decision making for the benefit of society. Romania and Bulgaria, situated in the Balkan Region as a part of the Alpine-Himalayan seismic belt, are characterized by high seismicity, and are exposed to a high seismic risk. Over the centuries, both countries have experienced strong earthquakes. The cross-border region encompassing the northern Bulgaria and southern Romania is a territory prone to effects of strong earthquakes. The area is significantly affected by earthquakes occurred in both countries, on the one hand the events generated by the Vrancea intermediate-depth seismic source in Romania, and on the other hand by the crustal seismicity originated in the seismic sources: Shabla (SHB), Dulovo, Gorna Orjahovitza (GO) in Bulgaria. The Vrancea seismogenic zone of Romania is a very peculiar seismic source, often described as unique in the world, and it represents a major concern for most of the northern part of Bulgaria as well. In the present study the seismic hazard for Romania-Bulgaria cross-border region on the basis of integrated basic geo-datasets is assessed. The hazard results are obtained by applying two alternative approaches - probabilistic and deterministic. The MSK64 intensity (MSK64 scale is practically equal to the new EMS98) is used as output parameter for the hazard maps. We prefer to use here the macroseismic intensity instead of PGA, because it is directly related to the degree of damages and, moreover, the epicentral intensity is the original

  2. Dobrava virus carried by the yellow-necked field mouse Apodemus flavicollis, causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Romania.

    PubMed

    Panculescu-Gatej, Raluca Ioana; Sirbu, Anca; Dinu, Sorin; Waldstrom, Maria; Heyman, Paul; Murariu, Dimitru; Petrescu, Angela; Szmal, Camelia; Oprisan, Gabriela; Lundkvist, Ake; Ceianu, Cornelia S

    2014-05-01

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) has been confirmed by serological methods during recent years in Romania. In the present study, focus-reduction neutralization tests (FRNT) confirmed Dobrava hantavirus (DOBV) as the causative agent in some HFRS cases, but could not distinguish between DOBV and Saaremaa virus (SAAV) infections in other cases. DOBV was detected by a DOBV-specific TaqMan assay in sera of nine patients out of 22 tested. Partial sequences of the M genomic segment of DOBV were obtained from sera of three patients and revealed the circulation of two DOBV lineages in Romania. Investigation of rodents trapped in Romania found three DOBV-positive Apodemus flavicollis out of 83 rodents tested. Two different DOBV lineages were also detected in A. flavicollis as determined from partial sequences of the M and S genomic segments. Sequences of DOBV in A. flavicollis were either identical or closely related to the sequences obtained from the HFRS patients. The DOBV strains circulating in Romania clustered in two monophyletic groups, together with strains from Slovenia and the north of Greece. This is the first evidence for the circulation of DOBV in wild rodents and for a DOBV etiology of HFRS in Romania.

  3. Professor Gheorghe Bilaşcu’s contribution to the development of science and culture in Romania

    PubMed Central

    ROTARU, ALEXANDRU; PETROVAI, ION; ROTARU, HORATIU

    2016-01-01

    When speaking about Professor Gheorghe Bilaşcu (1863–1926) and his major contribution to the establishment of Romanian medical education in Cluj, he should be considered not only in terms of scientist and creator of the Dental School, but also through his commitment to the development of science and culture in Romania. A wealthy dentist in Budapest where he graduated from the Dental School, he supported a lot of Romanian students to attend schools and universities in the Budapest, thus contributing to the development of culture in his own country. Finally, he left his private practice in the Capital of Hungary to come to Cluj to support the efforts of building the Dental School and profession in Romania. This paper illustrates the contribution that Professor Gheorghe Bilaşcu made to the development of higher education in Romania, as well as his support of the local culture. PMID:27547068

  4. Climate Monitoring and Recommendations on the Optimum Sowing Period for the Main Crops in the Transylvanian Plain, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusu, T.; Moraru, P. I.; Sopterean, M. L.; Pop, A. I.; Cacovean, H.

    2012-04-01

    The Transylvanian Plain (TP) is a geographical region located in north-central Romania and is bordered by large rivers to the north and south, the Somes and the Mures, respectively. TP with an area of approx. 395,616 ha, includes areas of three counties (Cluj - CJ, Mures -MS, Bistrita-Nasaud - BN), has a predominantly agricultural character, and is characterized by hilly climate floor with oceanic influences, 6-10 0C average annual temperatures and 500-700 mm/year average annual precipitations. The presence of the Carpathian mountains ring and the arrangement, almost concentric, of the relief from Transylvanian Depression, determines the development of a zonal sequence of soil types, a horizontal zonality as a direct influence of lithology and indirect of the relief, by changing climate and vegetation. Diversity of the pedogenetical factors - highly fragmented relief, forest and herbaceous vegetation grafted on a lithological background predominantly acid in the north - west and predominantly basic in south - est, parent rock composition and especially their combination in the contact zones, have conditioned in this hilly area of TP a tessellated soil cover. During soil pedogenesis, soil properties and features developed in response to differential lithology and macro/microrelief. Evaluated soils were found to largely be a complex mix of Cernisols, Luvisols and Antrisols. Zoning cultures and establishing the optimum sowing periods was made after the observations arising from practice and after the results obtained in the agricultural experimental research stations. Climate changes in recent years and climate monitoring from TP offers the possibility to check the calendar for the optimum sowing period. Monitorization of the thermal and water regime from TP was performed with twenty HOBO microstations which determine the temperature (to a height of 1 m) and rainfalls, same as temperature (at 10, 30, 50 cm depth in soil) and soil moisture (at 10 cm depth). Recorded

  5. Local community perception and awareness of flash floods vulnerability at a small catchment scale in the Bend Subcarpathians, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micu, Dana; Balteanu, Dan; Sima, Mihaela; Dumitrascu, Monica; Chendes, Viorel; Grigorescu, Ines; Dragota, Carmen; Dogaru, Diana; Costache, Andra

    2015-04-01

    The study aims to identify local communities perception and awareness in terms of hydro-meteorological extreme events in order to better understand the local context of vulnerability and communities resilience to flash floods as well as the mitigation measures undertaken by local authorities to cope with these phenomena. The study-area is located in the Bend Subcarpathians, Romania, a region well known for high tectonic mobility and dynamics of hydro-geomorphic processes (e.g. floods and flash floods, landslides). The study was conducted in the framework of VULMIN project (PN-II-PT-PCCA-2011-3.1-1587), funded by the Ministry of National Education for the period 2012-2016 (http://www.igar-vulmin.ro). The previous analyses conducted in the project showed a high exposure to flash floods of small river catchments (generally below 200 km2 ) located in the study-area (Teleajen-Buzau hydrographic area). Some of the most recent events (2005, 2008, 2010 and 2014) had a high impact on local communities in terms of important losses to their assets and psychological effects. Thus, in the summer 2014, a questionnaire-based survey was addressed to over 50 households (from 5 villages), significantly affected by flash floods and structured interviews were held with local authorities (local municipalities, county Civil Protection Inspectorates). The questionnaire was focused on the perception of human vulnerability to environmental change and extreme events, mainly floods, aiming to outline the personal experience, post-disaster rehabilitation, awareness, worrying and opinion on the measures aimed to prevent and mitigate the effects of flooding. The flash flood events are of major concern for local community, due to their high return period (1-5 years) and magnitude in the recent years. This influences also the population response and adaptive capacity to these events, which is limited to individual measures (e.g. buildings consolidations and relocations). The survey showed a

  6. Paleoenvironmental evolution of the East Carpathian foredeep during the late Miocene-early Pliocene (Dacian Basin; Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoica, M.; Lazăr, I.; Krijgsman, W.; Vasiliev, I.; Jipa, D.; Floroiu, A.

    2013-04-01

    The thick and continuous Mio-Pliocene sedimentary successions of the Focşani Depression in the Dacian Basin of Romania provide an excellent opportunity to study the paleoecological changes in the Eastern Paratethys during the time when the Mediterranean and Black Sea experienced major sea level fluctuations related to the closure and re-opening of the marine connection to the Atlantic Ocean during the Messinian Salinity Crisis. These successions form the basis of high-resolution magneto-biostratigraphic studies that allow a detailed correlation to the standard Geological Time Scale. Here, we analyze the paleoenvironmental evolution of the East Carpathian foredeep by integrating micro- and macropaleontological data and sedimentological analyses. The ostracod and mollusc fossil associations from the Râmnicu Sărat river section indicate that the late Maeotian depositional environment was characterized by shallow waters and littoral to fluvio-deltaic sediments. The Maeotian-Pontian boundary (6.04 Ma) is marked by a marine ingression, comprising benthic (agglutinated and calcareous) and planktonic (Streptochilus spp.) foraminifera and nanofossils. Following this marine ingression, the Lower Pontian (Odessian; 6.04-5.8 Ma) fauna shows an increased bathymetry of the basin. The presence of ostracod species with eye tubercles indicates depositional environments within the photic zone (< 100 m). The Middle Pontian (Portaferrian; 5.8-5.5 Ma) is marked by a widespread sea level lowering resulting in dominant fluvio-deltaic conditions. This ecostratigraphy demonstrates that the main Messinian sea-level draw down (at 5.6-5.5 Ma) occurred in mid-Portaferrian times. Paleoenvironmental indicators show that the water level in the Foçsani Depression dropped less than 100 m during Mediterranean desiccation. The Dacian Basin remained filled with water, suggesting a positive hydrological balance for the region. This is compatible with the presence of a shallow barrier at Dobrogea

  7. Phylogenetic evidence for a new species of Barbus in the Danube River basin.

    PubMed

    Antal, László; László, Brigitta; Kotlík, Petr; Mozsár, Attila; Czeglédi, István; Oldal, Miklós; Kemenesi, Gábor; Jakab, Ferenc; Nagy, Sándor Alex

    2016-03-01

    Three species of small-sized rheophilic Barbus fishes are endemic to and widely distributed throughout the mountain regions in the Danube River basin. In Hungary, barbels referred to as B. petenyi occur in streams in the foothills of the Carpathians near the borders with Slovakia, Ukraine and Romania. However, up to now, no genetic investigations were carried out on rheophilic barbels in this region. This study aims to clarify the taxonomic identity and distribution of the rheophilic barbels in the Hungarian plain based on molecular and morphological analyses. Two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b, ATPase 6/8) and one nuclear gene (beta-actin intron 2) were sequenced and several morphometric and meristic characters were recorded. Phylogenetic and morphological analyses revealed that there are four genetically distinct lineages among the rheophilic barbels in the Carpathian Basin. The results demonstrated that North-Hungarian Barbus populations belong to B. carpathicus and that B. petenyi presumably does not occur in Hungary. As expected, B. balcanicus was only recorded in samples from the Balkans analyzed for reference. A distinct species, new to science, was discovered to be present in Sebes-Körös River (Crişul Repede) in eastern Hungary and western Romania and is formally described here as B. biharicus Antal, László, Kotlík - sp. nov.

  8. Estimation of m.w.e (meter water equivalent) depth of the salt mine of Slanic Prahova, Romania

    SciTech Connect

    Mitrica, B.; Margineanu, R.; Stoica, S.; Petcu, M.; Brancus, I. M.; Petre, M.; Toma, G.; Saftoiu, A.; Apostu, A.; Jipa, A.; Lazanu, I.; Sima, O.; Haungs, A.; Rebel, H.

    2010-11-24

    A new mobile detector was developed in IFIN-HH, Romania, for measuring muon flux at surface and in underground. The measurements have been performed in the salt mines of Slanic Prahova, Romania. The muon flux was determined for 2 different galleries of the Slanic mine at different depths. In order to test the stability of the method, also measurements of the muon flux at surface at different altitudes were performed. Based on the results, the depth of the 2 galleries was established at 610 and 790 m.w.e. respectively.

  9. Study Case of Air-Mass Modification over Poland and Romania Observed by the Means of Multiwavelength Raman Depolarization Lidars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa-Surós, Montserrat; Janicka, Lucja; Stachlewska, Iwona S.; Nemuc, Anca; Talianu, Camelia; Heese, Birgit; Engelmann, Ronny

    2016-06-01

    An air-mass modification, on its way from Poland to Romania, observed between 19-21 July 2014 is discussed. The air-mass was investigated using data of two multi-wavelength lidars capable of performing regular elastic, depolarization and Raman measurements in Warsaw, Poland, and in Magurele, Romania. The analysis was focused on evaluating optical properties of aerosol in order to search for similarities and differences in the vertical profiles describing the atmospheric layers above the two stations within given period.

  10. AIR SHIPMENT OF HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL FROM ROMANIA AND LIBYA

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher Landers; Igor Bolshinsky; Ken Allen; Stanley Moses

    2010-07-01

    In June 2009 Romania successfully completed the world’s first air shipment of highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel transported in Type B(U) casks under existing international laws and without special exceptions for the air transport licenses. Special 20-foot ISO shipping containers and cask tiedown supports were designed to transport Russian TUK 19 shipping casks for the Romanian air shipment and the equipment was certified for all modes of transport, including road, rail, water, and air. In December 2009 Libya successfully used this same equipment for a second air shipment of HEU spent nuclear fuel. Both spent fuel shipments were transported by truck from the originating nuclear facilities to nearby commercial airports, were flown by commercial cargo aircraft to a commercial airport in Yekaterinburg, Russia, and then transported by truck to their final destinations at the Production Association Mayak facility in Chelyabinsk, Russia. Both air shipments were performed under the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR) as part of the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI). The Romania air shipment of 23.7 kg of HEU spent fuel from the VVR S research reactor was the last of three HEU fresh and spent fuel shipments under RRRFR that resulted in Romania becoming the 3rd RRRFR participating country to remove all HEU. Libya had previously completed two RRRFR shipments of HEU fresh fuel so the 5.2 kg of HEU spent fuel air shipped from the IRT 1 research reactor in December made Libya the 4th RRRFR participating country to remove all HEU. This paper describes the equipment, preparations, and license approvals required to safely and securely complete these two air shipments of spent nuclear fuel.

  11. Management of waste electrical and electronic equipment in Romania: A mini-review.

    PubMed

    Ciocoiu, Carmen Nadia; Colesca, Sofia Elena; Rudăreanu, Costin; Popescu, Maria-Loredana

    2016-02-01

    Around the world there are growing concerns for waste electrical and electronic equipment. This is motivated by the harmful effects of waste electrical and electronic equipment on the environment, but also by the perspectives of materials recovery. Differences between countries regarding waste electrical and electronic equipment management are notable in the European Union. Romania is among the countries that have made significant efforts to comply with European Union regulations, but failed reaching the collection target. The article presents a mini review of the waste electrical and electronic equipment management system in Romania, based on legislation and policy documents, statistical data, research studies and reports published by national and international organisations. The article debates subjects like legislative framework, the electrical and electronic equipment Romanian market, the waste electrical and electronic equipment collection system, waste electrical and electronic equipment processing and waste electrical and electronic equipment behaviour. The recast of the European directive brings new challenges to national authorities and to other stakeholders involved in the waste electrical and electronic equipment management. Considering the fact that Romania has managed a collection rate of roughly 1 kg capita(-1) in the last years, the new higher collection targets established by the waste electrical and electronic equipment Directive offer a serious challenge for the management system. Therefore, another aim of the article is to highlight the positive and negative aspects in the Romanian waste electrical and electronic equipment field, in order to identify the flows that should be corrected and the opportunities that could help improve this system to the point of meeting the European standards imposed by the European Directive.

  12. Changes in heat waves indices in Romania over the period 1961-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croitoru, Adina-Eliza; Piticar, Adrian; Ciupertea, Antoniu-Flavius; Roşca, Cristina Florina

    2016-11-01

    In the last two decades many climate change studies have focused on extreme temperatures as they have a significant impact on environment and society. Among the weather events generated by extreme temperatures, heat waves are some of the most harmful. The main objective of this study was to detect and analyze changes in heat waves in Romania based on daily observation data (maximum and minimum temperature) over the extended summer period (May-Sept) using a set of 10 indices and to explore the spatial patterns of changes. Heat wave data series were derived from daily maximum and minimum temperature data sets recorded in 29 weather stations across Romania over a 55-year period (1961-2015). In this study, the threshold chosen was the 90th percentile calculated based on a 15-day window centered on each calendar day, and for three baseline periods (1961-1990, 1971-2000, and 1981-2010). Two heat wave definitions were considered: at least three consecutive days when maximum temperature exceeds 90th percentile, and at least three consecutive days when minimum temperature exceeds 90th percentile. For each of them, five variables were calculated: amplitude, magnitude, number of events, duration, and frequency. Finally, 10 indices resulted for further analysis. The main results are: most of the indices have statistically significant increasing trends; only one index for one weather station indicated statistically significant decreasing trend; the changes are more intense in case of heat waves detected based on maximum temperature compared to those obtained for heat waves identified based on minimum temperature; western and central regions of Romania are the most exposed to increasing heat waves.

  13. Type-specific prevalence of human papillomavirus by cervical cytology among women in Brasov, Romania.

    PubMed

    Moga, Marius Alexandru; Irimie, Marius; Oanta, Alexandru; Pascu, Alina; Burtea, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    The oncogenic role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in triggering cervical cancer, the second most common cancer in women worldwide, is well established. Romania ranks in first place in Europe in terms of the incidence of cervical cancer. Geographical widespread data on HPV type-distribution are essential for estimating the impact of HPV vaccines and cervical cancer screening programmes. In this study we aimed to identify the prevalence of HPV genotypes and to establish correlations with abnormal cervical cytology among the female population of Brasov County, Romania. A total of 1,000 women aged 17.3-57 years, attending routine cervical examination in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Brasov, Romania, and undergoing both cytological examination and HPV genotyping were screened. Infection with 35 different HPV genotypes was detected in 39.6% of cytological specimens. Overall HPV infections were highest in young women under 25 years (p<0.0001), in which cervical cytological abnormalities also reached the highest prevalence. Patients infected by HPV-16 or HPV-18 showed the highest prevalence of cervical cytological abnormalities. Some 48.2% of women with abnormal cytology were infected with high-risk HPV types whereas less than 3% of them were infected only with low-risk HPV types. Our study showed that the prevalence of high-risk HPV infection among Romanian women is higher compared to other studies in other geographic areas. Thus, we consider that in areas where there is an increased prevalence of high-risk HPV infections, HPV genotyping should be performed in all women aged between 18 and 45 years, and Pap test should be performed every 6 months in women with high-risk HPV infection, even those with previous normal cervical cytology.

  14. Diversity of Flea (Siphonaptera) Parasites on Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Romania.

    PubMed

    Foley, P; Foley, J; Sándor, A D; Ionica, A M; Matei, I A; D'Amico, G; Gherman, C M; Dom A, C; Mihalca, A D

    2017-03-25

    Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes (L.)) are widespread across Europe, tolerant of synanthropic ecosystems, and susceptible to diseases potentially shared with humans and other animals. We describe flea fauna on red foxes in Romania, a large, ecologically diverse country, in part because fleas may serve as an indicator of the risk of spillover of vector-borne disease. We found 912 individual fleas of seven species on the 305 foxes assessed, for an infestation prevalence of 49.5%. Mean flea load per fox was 5.8 (range 0-44 fleas), and flea detections were most abundant in fall and early spring. Fleas included generalists (Ctenocephalides canis (Curtis), 32.6% of all fleas), Ct. felis (Bouché, 0.1%), and Pulex irritans L. (29.9%), the fox specialist Chaetopsylla globiceps (Taschenberg, 32.5%), mesocarnivore fleas Paraceras melis Walker (3.2%) and Ch. trichosa Kohaut (1.5%), and the small mammal flea Ctenophthalmus assimilis (Taschenberg, 0.1%), which is rarely or never reported from carnivores. There were significantly more female than male Ch. globiceps, Ct. canis, and Pu. irritans, and these three species were the most broadly distributed geographically. Diversity indices suggested reduced diversity in mountainous areas above 700 m. When compared to other flea studies on foxes in Europe, Romania had flea diversity near the median of reports, which was unexpected given Romania's high ecological diversity. Notably absent prey specialists, compared to other studies, include Archaeopsylla erinacei (Bouché) and Spilopsyllus cuniculi (Dale). Further studies of possible disease agents in fox fleas could help elucidate possible risks of vector-borne disease in foxes, domestic animals, and humans as well.

  15. Milnesium berladnicorum sp. n. (Eutardigrada, Apochela, Milnesiidae), a new species of water bear from Romania

    PubMed Central

    Ciobanu, Daniel Adrian; Zawierucha, Krzysztof; Moglan, Ioan; Kaczmarek, Łukasz

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In a lichen sample collected from a tree in Bârlad town (Vaslui County, Romania), a new tardigrade species belonging to the genus Milnesium (granulatum group) was found. Milnesium berladnicorum sp. n. is most similar (in the type of dorsal sculpture) to Milnesium beasleyi Kaczmarek et al., 2012 but differs from it mainly by having a different claw configuration and some morphometric characters. Additionally, the new species differs from other congeners of the granulatum group by the different type of dorsal sculpture, claw configuration and some morphometric characters. PMID:25147467

  16. Romania’s Intelligence Community: From an Instrument of Dictatorship to Serving Democracy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Control of Armed Forces (DCAF), (Bucharest, 2004). 32 Profil, nr. 7, March 2005, p. 9. http://www.sri.ro/index.php?nav= biblioteca &subnav=publicatii&tabela...pp. 14–17, http://www.sri.ro/ index.php?nav= biblioteca &subnav=publicatii&tabela=publicatii_bl 66 Interview by Ion Petrescu with General Lieutenant dr... biblioteca &subnav=publicatii&tabela=publicatii_bl 83 Radu Tudor, ‘‘Romania Creates New Counterterrorism Unit,’’ Jane’s Intelligence Review, 1 January 2005

  17. Dissemination of Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Romania

    PubMed Central

    Flonta, Mirela; Boudehen, Yves-Marie; Creton, Elodie; Bernabeu, Sandrine; Vogel, Anaïs; Naas, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Fifteen carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates and 12 carbapenemase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were recovered from patients hospitalized between August 2011 and March 2013 at the Hospital of Infectious Disease, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. One KPC-, nine NDM-1-, four OXA-48-, and one VIM-4-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates along with 11 VIM-2-producing and one IMP-13-producing P. aeruginosa isolates were recovered from clinical samples. All carbapenemase genes were located on self-conjugative plasmids and were associated with other resistance determinants, including extended-spectrum β-lactamases and RmtC methylases. PMID:26303798

  18. Landfill monitoring using remote sensing: a case study of Glina, Romania.

    PubMed

    Iacoboaea, Cristina; Petrescu, Florian

    2013-10-01

    Landfill monitoring is one of the most important components of waste management. This article presents a case study on landfill monitoring using remote sensing technology. The study area was the Glina landfill, one of the largest municipal waste disposal sites in Romania. The methodology consisted of monitoring the differences of temperature computed for several distinct waste disposal zones with respect to a ground reference area, all of them located within the landfill site. The remote sensing data used were Landsat satellite multi-temporal data. The differences of temperature were computed using Landsat thermal infrared data. The study confirmed the use of multi-temporal Landsat imagery as a complementary data source.

  19. Infant mortality evolution in Romania: perspectives from a country in transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlea, A.-M.; Muntele, I.

    2012-04-01

    In the last two decades transition was a word used to describe the important mutations that have characterized social and economic structures in Romania. All the changes left their mark on every aspects of life including on population health status, and all modifications were reflected in the evolution of health indicators. Considered one of the most sensitive indicators of living conditions, population health literacy level and healthcare system efficiency infant mortality rate is a negative indicator which reflects the intensity of children deaths before their first anniversary. Based on the current statistical data collected at county level, this research aims to underline the existing spatial differences in Romania at county level, to identify spatial patterns, time trend and to point out the territories that need special attention and a more profound analysis for understanding the causes that are generating them. Using mathematical and statistical methods we have calculated infant mortality for a previous and available period of time (1990 - 2010) and identified a trend influenced by exogenous and endogenous factors. With the help of GIS techniques we have created cartographic material for allowing us an easier identification of spatial disparities. Following the global trend, Romania achieved significant progress in reduction infant mortality. From values that exceeded 26 ‰ at the beginning of the nineties this indicator has continued to diminish until 9.79 ‰ in 2010. But, with all the improvements, value is still double in compare with European Union average. Although characteristic for Romania is the general downward trend, at the county level there can be identified different types of evolution and different spatial pattern. Having the lowest economic development level in the country, Northeast and Southeast counties maintain high values for infant mortality rate. Positive examples are given by Bucharest and some central and western districts, all with

  20. An aberrant island-dwelling theropod dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous of Romania.

    PubMed

    Csiki, Zoltán; Vremir, Mátyás; Brusatte, Stephen L; Norell, Mark A

    2010-08-31

    Islands are noted for the occurrence of aberrant, endemic, and dwarfed taxa (the "island effect"). Late Cretaceous vertebrate assemblages of Romania and elsewhere in Europe are classic examples of island faunas in the fossil record, and are characterized by dwarfed herbivorous dinosaurs and other endemic taxa that are noticeably primitive relative to their mainland contemporaries. Fossils of the predators inhabiting the European paleoislands, however, are exceptionally rare and fragmentary. We describe a new dromaeosaurid theropod, based on an articulated skeleton from the Maastrichtian of Romania, which represents the most complete predatory dinosaur from the middle to Late Cretaceous of Europe. This taxon is characterized by a peculiar body plan, most notably extensive fusion in the hand and distal hindlimb, a highly retroverted pelvis with enlarged femoral muscle attachments, and a pair of hyperextensive pedal claws. However, unlike the island-dwelling herbivorous dinosaurs, its closest relatives are contemporary similar-sized Laurasian taxa, indicating faunal connections between Asia and the European islands late into the Cretaceous. This theropod provides support for the aberrant nature of the Late Cretaceous European island-dwelling dinosaurs, but indicates that predators on these islands were not necessarily small, geographically endemic, or primitive.

  1. Paleoclimate record from Zidita Cave (Romania) using guano-derived δ13C isotopic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forray, Ferenc L.; Giurgiu, Alexandra; Onac, Bogdan P.; Tămaş, Tudor

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we measured the carbon isotopic composition of a core taken from a bat guano deposit in Zidita Cave (Metaliferi Mountains, Romania). The cave develops in Late Jurassic limestones, has a total length of 547 m, and its entrance was fortified during the XIV - XVIII centuries. The cave is a fossil maze with a filling represented by limestone blocks, clay sediments, and scarce calcite speleothems. The guano accumulation, 1.5 m thick, is located in a small room towards the end of the cave, under a Rhinolophus euryale roost site.The core was recovered with a Russian peat corer. 14C dating performed on the guano indicates a continuous deposition since ca. 500 years BP, but however, the upper first meter of the core has a modern age and high radiocarbon activity acquired from atmospheric radiocarbon bomb pulse. The core was sampled at 2 cm ± 2 mm intervals for δ13C analyses (76 samples) and at 5 cm for pollen. The investigations were carried out using a Picarro G2121-i δ13C analyzer (Combustion Module coupled with a Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy technique) at the Stable Isotope Laboratory of the Department of Geology, Babes-Bolyai University (Cluj-Napoca, Romania). The result shows that guano δ13C range from -24.07 to -27.61 o‰The carbon isotopic profile indicates two major wet periods and 2 to 3 shorter periods characterized by drier climate.

  2. Evaluating solar radiation on a tilted surfaces - a study case in Timis (Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasar, C.; Prostean, O.; Prostean, G.

    2016-02-01

    In the last years the usage of solar energy has grown considerably in Romania, as well as in Europe, stimulated by various factors as government programs, green pricing policies, decreasing of photovoltaic components cost etc. Also, the rising demand of using Solar Energy Conversion Systems (SECS) is driven by the desire of individuals or companies to obtain energy from a clean renewable source. In many applications, remote consumers far from other energetic grids can use solar systems more cost-effectively than extending the grid to reach the location. Usually the solar energy is measured or forecast on horizontal surface, but in SECS there is needed the total solar radiation incident on the collector surface, that is oriented in a position that maximize the harvested energy. There are many models that convert the solar radiation from horizontal surface to a tilted surface, but they use empirical coefficients and the accuracy is influenced by different facts as geographical location or sky conditions. Such models were used considering measured values for solar radiation on horizontal plane, in the western part of Romania. Hourly values measured for global solar irradiation on the horizontal plane, diffuse solar irradiation on the horizontal plane and reflected solar irradiation by ground are used to compute the total solar radiation incident on different tilted surfaces. The calculated incident radiation is then compared with the real radiation measured on tilted surface in order to evaluate the performance of the considered conversion models.

  3. Integrated approach of environmental impact and risk assessment of Rosia Montana Mining Area, Romania.

    PubMed

    Stefănescu, Lucrina; Robu, Brînduşa Mihaela; Ozunu, Alexandru

    2013-11-01

    The environmental impact assessment of mining sites represents nowadays a large interest topic in Romania. Historical pollution in the Rosia Montana mining area of Romania caused extensive damage to environmental media. This paper has two goals: to investigate the environmental pollution induced by mining activities in the Rosia Montana area and to quantify the environmental impacts and associated risks by means of an integrated approach. Thus, a new method was developed and applied for quantifying the impact of mining activities, taking account of the quality of environmental media in the mining area, and used as case study in the present paper. The associated risks are a function of the environmental impacts and the probability of their occurrence. The results show that the environmental impacts and quantified risks, based on quality indicators to characterize the environmental quality, are of a higher order, and thus measures for pollution remediation and control need to be considered in the investigated area. The conclusion drawn is that an integrated approach for the assessment of environmental impact and associated risks is a valuable and more objective method, and is an important tool that can be applied in the decision-making process for national authorities in the prioritization of emergency action.

  4. Epidemiology of acute drug poisoning in a tertiary center from Iasi County, Romania.

    PubMed

    Sorodoc, Victorita; Jaba, Irina M; Lionte, Catalina; Mungiu, Ostin C; Sorodoc, Laurentiu

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this retrospective epidemiological study was to investigate the demographical, etiological and clinical characteristics of acute drug poisonings in Iasi County, Romania. All patients were referred and admitted in the Toxicology Clinic of "Sf. Ioan" Emergency Clinic Hospital Iasi, Romania. Between 2003 and 2009, 811 cases of acute drug poisonings were recorded, counting for 28.43% from the total number of poisonings. The majority of these poisonings resulted in mild (51.94%) and medium (28.35%) clinical forms, while 19.71% were coma situations. In all, 63.51% of patients originated from urban areas, 39.94% were unemployed and the patients were predominantly women (66.46%). A high percentage (97.27%) were suicide attempts, using only one type of drug (65.88%) and the 21-30 years group (29.8%) records the highest incidence, for both women and men. The most frequently involved drugs were benzodiazepines 13.69%, anticonvulsive drugs 8.63%, barbiturates 8.51% and cardiovascular drugs 5.92%. Drugs combinations were recorded in 32.92% of cases and 1.2% were combinations between drugs and other substances. Mortality was the outcome in 0.3% of the total registered number of acute drug poisonings. This study underlines that in order to provide a proper management of these situations, a Regional Poison Information Center is absolutely necessary.

  5. Statistical downscaling of extreme rainfall events in Romania using artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birsan, Marius-Victor; Busuioc, Aristita; Dumitrescu, Alexandru

    2013-04-01

    The main purpose of statistical downscaling methods is to model the relationship between large-scale atmospheric circulation and climatic variables on a regional and subregional scale. Downscaling is an important area of research as it bridges the gap between predictions of future circulation generated by General Circulation Models (GCMs) and the effects of climate change on smaller areas. In this study we present the first results of a statistical downscaling model, using a neural network-based approach by means of multi-layer perceptron networks. As predictands, various indices associated to temperature and precipitation extremes in Romania are used over the entire country (for temperature extremes) and on selected homogenous areas (for precipitation extremes). Several large-scale predictors (sea-level pressure, temperature at 850 / 700 hPa, specific humidity at 850 / 700 hPa) are tested, in order to select the optimum statistical model for each predictand. Predictands are considered separately or in various combinations. This work has been realised within the research project "Changes in climate extremes and associated impact in hydrological events in Romania" (CLIMHYDEX), code PN II-ID-2011-2-0073, financed by the Romanian Executive Agency for Higher Education Research, Development and Innovation Funding (UEFISCDI).

  6. Molecular Survey of Hepatozoon canis in Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Romania.

    PubMed

    Imre, Mirela; Dudu, Andreea; Ilie, Marius S; Morariu, Sorin; Imre, Kálmán; Dărăbuş, Gheorghe

    2015-08-01

    Blood samples of 119 red foxes, originating from 44 hunting grounds of 3 western counties (Arad, Hunedoara, and Timiş) of Romania, have been examined for the presence of Hepatozoon canis infection using the conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the fragment of 18S rRNA gene. Overall, 15 (12.6%) samples were found to be PCR-positive. Of the sampled hunting grounds, 29.5% (13/44) were found positive. Positive samples were recorded in all screened counties with the prevalence of 14.8% (9/61) in Arad, 9.8% (5/51) in Timiş, and 14.3% (1/7) in Hunedoara, respectively. No correlation was found (P > 0.05) between H. canis positivity and gender or territorial distribution of the infection. To confirm PCR results, 9 randomly selected amplicons were sequenced. The obtained sequences were identical to each other, confirmed the results of the conventional PCR, and showed 98-100% homology to other H. canis sequences. The results of the current survey support the role of red foxes as sylvatic reservoirs of H. canis in Romania.

  7. Wild Birds in Romania Are More Exposed to West Nile Virus Than to Newcastle Disease Virus.

    PubMed

    Paştiu, Anamaria Ioana; Pap, Péter László; Vágási, Csongor István; Niculae, Mihaela; Páll, Emőke; Domşa, Cristian; Brudaşcă, Florinel Ghe; Spînu, Marina

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of West Nile virus (WNV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in wild and domestic birds from Romania. During 2011-2014, 159 plasma samples from wild birds assigned to 11 orders, 27 families, and 61 species and from 21 domestic birds (Gallus gallus domesticus, Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) were collected. The sera were assayed by two commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) kits for antibodies against WNV and NDV. We found a high prevalence of WNV antibodies in both domestic (19.1%) and wild (32.1%) birds captured after the human epidemic in 2010. Moreover, the presence of anti-NDV antibodies among wild birds from Romania (5.4%) was confirmed serologically for the first time, as far as we are aware. Our findings provide evidence that wild birds, especially resident ones are involved in local West Nile and Newcastle disease enzootic and epizootic cycles. These may allow virus maintenance and spread and also enhance the chance of new outbreaks.

  8. Survey of babesiosis in symptomatic dogs from Romania: occurrence of Babesia gibsoni associated with breed.

    PubMed

    Imre, Mirela; Farkas, Róbert; Ilie, Marius Stelian; Imre, Kálmán; Dărăbuş, Gheorghe

    2013-12-01

    Blood samples from 49 symptomatic dogs from 5 western and north-western counties of Romania were screened using microscopic examination, polymerase-chain-reaction-restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism procedure (PCR-RFLP), and sequence analysis. Results of the microscopic evaluation of stained blood smears revealed 45 positive samples with the presence of large and small intraerythrocytic piroplasms in 35 and 10 samples, respectively. Babesia canis (35/49, 71.4%) and Babesia gibsoni (14/49, 28.6%) were identified and differentiated by PCR-RFLP targeting the 18S rRNA gene. Results of the sequence analysis of all B. gibsoni and 17 randomly selected B. canis PCR products confirmed the PCR-RFLP-diagnosed species. The distribution of B. gibsoni infection was positively associated (p<0.001) with fighting dog breeds including infection in 12 American Pit Bull Terriers and one American Staffordshire Terrier. This report is the first to present molecular evidence of the occurrence of B. gibsoni in Romania confirmed by sequencing.

  9. Linking landslide susceptibility to sediment yield at regional scale: application to Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broeckx, Jente; Vanmaercke, Matthias; Bălteanu, Dan; Chendeş, Viorel; Sima, Mihaela; Enciu, Petru; Poesen, Jean

    2016-09-01

    It is generally accepted that catchment sediment yield (SY, t km- 2 y- 1) can be strongly influenced by landsliding. Nevertheless, due to data requirements, only few studies investigated this effect at a regional scale. The objective of this study is therefore to explore the potential of a landslide susceptibility map for explaining the spatial variation of SY in Romania. We selected 133 catchments in Romania for which SY was measured during a period of at least 10 years. For each catchment, we derived a variety of proxies that potentially explain SY, including several indicators of landslide occurrence. The latter were derived from a published landslide susceptibility map. Results show that SY is significantly correlated with mean landslide susceptibility (r2 = 0.30). Estimates of average sheet and rill erosion rates showed a much weaker correlation with SY (r2 = 0.06). Further analyses showed that the strong correlation between SY and landslide susceptibility is mainly attributed to regional variations in lithology and seismicity. Especially the latter may play a crucial role in understanding denudation rates at regional scales, e.g. by facilitating the occurrence of landslides. Using landslide proxies that also account for sediment connectivity did not result in stronger correlations. Overall, our results show that landslide susceptibility maps can be a highly useful tool to predict SY at regional scales, provided that they incorporate all relevant factors.

  10. Mass media coverage of HPV vaccination in Romania: a content analysis.

    PubMed

    Penţa, Marcela A; Băban, Adriana

    2014-12-01

    Romania has the highest cervical cancer burden in Europe. Despite the implementation of two human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programmes, the uptake remained extremely low and the programmes were discontinued. Given that media are a common source of information for the public and may influence vaccination decisions, this article sought to explore the content and quality of HPV vaccine media coverage in Romania. We conducted a content analysis of 271 media reports (from newspapers, magazines, videos and informational websites) published online between November 2007 and January 2012. Overall, results indicated that 31.4% of the materials were neutral, 28% were negative or extremely negative, 17% were mixed, while 23.6% were positive towards the vaccine. The most dominant vaccine-related concerns were side effects and insufficient testing. Elementary information about the vaccine and HPV was constantly left out and sometimes inaccuracies were found. Negatively disposed reports were more likely to contain incorrect data about vaccine efficacy and less likely to provide comprehensive information about the vaccine and HPV-related diseases. Some dimensions of media coverage varied across time and media outlets. The present findings suggest that educational interventions are greatly needed as a response to suboptimal and incomplete media coverage of HPV vaccination.

  11. Epidemiological and molecular investigation of a rubella outbreak, Romania, 2011 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Lazar, Mihaela; Abernathy, Emily; Chen, Min-hsin; Icenogle, Joseph; Janta, Denisa; Stanescu, Aurora; Pistol, Adriana; Santibanez, Sabine; Mankertz, Annette; Hübschen, Judith M; Mihaescu, Grigore; Necula, Gheorghe; Lupulescu, Emilia

    2016-01-01

    We describe a rubella outbreak that occurred in Romania between September 2011 and December 2012. During this period 24,627 rubella cases, 41.1% (n=10,134) of which female, were notified based on clinical criteria, and a total of 6,182 individuals were found serologically positive for IgM-specific rubella antibody. The median age of notified cases was 18 years (range: <1–65) and the most affected age group 15 to 19 years (n=16,245 cases). Of all notified cases, 24,067 cases (97.7%) reported no history of vaccination. Phylogenetic analysis of 19 sequences (739 nucleotides each), from 10 districts of the country revealed that the outbreak was caused by two distinct rubella virus strains of genotype 2B, which co-circulated with both temporal and geographical overlap. In addition to the 6,182 IgM-positive rubella cases, 28 cases of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) were identified, including 11 neonatal deaths and one stillbirth. The outbreak underscores the need to encourage higher vaccination uptake in the population, particularly in women of reproductive age, and to strengthen epidemiological and laboratory investigations of suspected rubella cases. Genetic characterisation of wild-type rubella virus is an essential component to enhance surveillance and here we report rubella virus sequences from Romania. PMID:27684329

  12. European cold wave during February 2012 and impacts in wine growing regions of Moldavia (Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planchon, Olivier; Quénol, Hervé; Irimia, Liviu; Patriche, Cristi

    2015-05-01

    A severe cold wave hits a large part of Europe between late January and mid-February 2012 and caused damages in the vineyard of Moldavia in Northeastern Romania. During the cold wave, the daily minimum temperature fell near -30 °C at some weather stations in Moldavia, but the hilly terrain caused strong temperature differences at small scales: up to 10 °C in a few kilometres. Three main cold spells with very low minimum temperatures were identified in association with the succession of three circulation types (according to the Hess-Brezowsky classification): Fennoscandian high anticyclonic (HFA, January 29-February 4), Central European ridge (BM, February 5-7) and northeast anticyclonic NEA (NEA, February 8-11). A multi-scale agroclimatic analysis in the vineyard of Cotnari (Moldavia, Romania) was carried out in the particular meteorological context of the early 2012 European cold wave. The results especially pointed out the local-scale (topoclimatic) effects on the high spatial variability of temperature and consequently a contrasting spatial distribution of damage on grape vine. The analysis of data recorded from temperature loggers installed in several test sites in the vineyard of Cotnari, depending on its topographical features, and of the observations of frost damage on grape vines (on vine buds, vine canes and even vine arms and trunks) pointed out a significant correlation between the topographic position and the grape vine variety.

  13. Dilemmatic human-animal boundaries in Britain and Romania: post-materialist and materialist dehumanization.

    PubMed

    Marcu, Afrodita; Lyons, Evanthia; Hegarty, Peter

    2007-12-01

    Theories of dehumanization generally assume a single clear-cut, value-free and non-dilemmatic boundary between the categories 'human' and 'animal'. The present study highlights the relevance of dilemmas involved in drawing that boundary. In six focus groups carried out in Romania and Britain, 42 participants were challenged to think about dilemmas pertaining to animal and human life. Four themes were identified: rational autonomy, sentience, speciesism and maintaining materialist and post-materialist values. Sentience made animals resemble humans, while humans' rational autonomy made them distinctive. Speciesism underlay the human participants' prioritization of their own interests over those of animals, and a conservative consensus that the existing social system could not change supported this speciesism when it was challenged. Romanian participants appealed to Romania's lack of modernity and British participants to Britain's modernity to justify such conservatism. The findings suggest that the human-animal boundary is not essentialized; rather it seems that such boundary is constructed in a dilemmatic and post hoc way. Implications for theories of dehumanization are discussed.

  14. U Th ages constraining the Neanderthal footprint at Vârtop Cave, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onac, Bogdan P.; Viehmann, Iosif; Lundberg, Joyce; Lauritzen, Stein-Erik; Stringer, Chris; Popiţă, Vasile

    2005-05-01

    Early human footprints are rare in the fossil record. A survey of the literature reveals very few well documented and dated cases. Here, we report the first clear Homo neanderthalensis footprint. It was found in Vârtop Cave, Romania. The individual stepped into calcareous mud that later hardened. The 22 cm long print suggests a body height of ˜1.46 m; a gap of 1.6 cm marks the separation of big and second toes. The date of the footprint is constrained by three coeval dates of ˜62 kyr on sub-samples from the basal layer of a nearby stalagmite that grew on top of the layer of calc-tufa covering the footprint. The lower constraint is a poorly constrained uranium (U)-thorium (Th) isochron date of ˜97 kyr on the calc-tufa layer in which the footprint is embedded. Thus, the Vârtop Cave individual lived in Romania sometime before 62 kyr, long before the appearance of Homo sapiens in Central and Eastern Europe, the earliest records of which date from only ˜35 kyr. To our knowledge, this is the first recognised and dated Homo neanderthalensis footprint.

  15. Reductions in abortion-related mortality following policy reform: evidence from Romania, South Africa and Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Unsafe abortion is a significant contributor to worldwide maternal mortality; however, abortion law and policy liberalization could lead to drops in unsafe abortion and related deaths. This review provides an analysis of changes in abortion mortality in three countries where significant policy reform and related service delivery occurred. Drawing on peer-reviewed literature, population data and grey literature on programs and policies, this paper demonstrates the policy and program changes that led to declines in abortion-related mortality in Romania, South Africa and Bangladesh. In all three countries, abortion policy liberalization was followed by implementation of safe abortion services and other reproductive health interventions. South Africa and Bangladesh trained mid-level providers to offer safe abortion and menstrual regulation services, respectively, Romania improved contraceptive policies and services, and Bangladesh made advances in emergency obstetric care and family planning. The findings point to the importance of multi-faceted and complementary reproductive health reforms in successful implementation of abortion policy reform. PMID:22192901

  16. 77 FR 21734 - Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Romania...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure... and pressure pipe from Romania for the period August 1, 2010, through July 31, 2011. See Initiation...

  17. 78 FR 63164 - Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Romania...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure... antidumping duty order on certain small diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line and pressure pipe... small diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line and pressure pipe from Romania.\\1\\ We...

  18. 78 FR 41369 - Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Romania...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure... on certain small diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line and pressure pipe (small diameter... Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe from Romania,'' dated concurrently with this notice (Preliminary...

  19. The bush-cricket Isophya kraussii (Orthoptera: Phaneropteridae): bioacoustics, distribution and description of a new subspecies from Romania.

    PubMed

    Iorgu, Ionuţ Ştefan; Heller, Klaus-Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Isophya kraussii Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1878, one of the widest spread bush-crickets within this genus, is confirmed to be present east of the Carpathian Mountains. Based on acoustic analysis and morphological characters, the populations from NE Romania are considered to belong to a different subspecies, I. kraussii moldavica ssp. n. A map with distribution of both subspecies is presented.

  20. First report of fatal systemic Halicephalobus gingivalis infection in two Lipizzaner horses from Romania: clinical, pathological, and molecular characterization.

    PubMed

    Taulescu, Marian A; Ionicã, Angela M; Diugan, Eva; Pavaloiu, Alexandra; Cora, Roxana; Amorim, Irina; Catoi, Cornel; Roccabianca, Paola

    2016-03-01

    Halicephalobus gingivalis (H. gingivalis) causes a rare and fatal infection in horses and humans. Despite the zoonotic potential and severity of the disease, the epidemiology and pathogenesis of halicephalobiasis are still poorly understood. Several European cases of equine halicephalobiasis have been documented; however, in South-Eastern European countries, including Romania, equine neurohelminthiasis caused by H. gingivalis has not been previously described. Two Lipizzaner horses with a clinical history of progressive neurological signs were referred to the Pathology Department of the Cluj-Napoca (Romania) for necropsy. Both horses died with severe neurological signs. Gross examination and cytological, histological, and molecular analyses were performed. The stallions came from two different breeding farms. No history of traveling outside Romania was recorded. At necropsy, granulomatous and necrotizing lesions were observed in the kidneys, lymph nodes, brain, retroperitoneal adipose tissue, and lungs, indicating a systemic infection. Parasitological and histopathological analyses evidenced larval and adult forms of rhabditiform nematodes consistent with Halicephalobus species. Parasites were observed in both lymph and blood vessels of different organs and were also identified in urine samples. A subunit of the large-subunit ribosomal RNA gene (LSU rDNA) of H. gingivalis (673 bp) was amplified from lesions in both horses.To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of equine systemic H. gingivalis infection in Romania and in South-Eastern Europe. Our findings provide new insights into the geographic distribution of specific genetic lineages of H. gingivalis, while also raising public health awareness, as the parasite is zoonotic.

  1. The Bologna Process as a Reform Initiative in Higher Education in the Balkan Countries: The Case of Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damian, Radu Mircea

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the Bologna process in Romania. The historical context covers the last years of the communist regime through 1989. From 1990 free elections of university leadership, the foundation of private universities and new democratic legislation, and projects for reforming higher education funded by different sources…

  2. Romanian Higher Education as a Facilitator of Romania's Continued Formal and Informal Integration in the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salajan, Florin D.; Chiper, Sorina

    2013-01-01

    This article conducts an exploration of Romania's European integration process through higher education. It contends that integration occurs at "formal" and "informal levels" through institutional norms and human agency, respectively. Through theoretical and empirical analysis, the authors discuss the modalities through which…

  3. Constructing interethnic conflict and cooperation: why some people harmed Jews and others helped them during the Holocaust in Romania.

    PubMed

    Dumitru, Diana; Johnson, Carter

    2011-01-01

    The authors draw on a natural experiment to demonstrate that states can reconstruct conflictual interethnic relationships into cooperative relationships in relatively short periods of time. The article examines differences in how the gentile population in each of two neighboring territories in Romania treated its Jewish population during the Holocaust. These territories had been part of tsarist Russia and subject to state-sponsored anti-Semitism until 1917. During the interwar period one territory became part of Romania, which continued anti-Semitic policies, and the other became part of the Soviet Union, which pursued an inclusive nationality policy, fighting against inherited anti-Semitism and working to integrate its Jews. Both territories were then reunited under Romanian administration during World War II, when Romania began to destroy its Jewish population. The authors demonstrate that, despite a uniform Romanian state presence during the Holocaust that encouraged gentiles to victimize Jews, the civilian population in the area that had been part of the Soviet Union was less likely to harm and more likely to aid Jews as compared with the region that had been part of Romania. Their evidence suggests that the state construction of interethnic relationships can become internalized by civilians and outlive the life of the state itself.

  4. The Effects of Early Experience on Face Recognition: An Event-Related Potential Study of Institutionalized Children in Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulson, Margaret C.; Westerlund, Alissa; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    Data are reported from 3 groups of children residing in Bucharest, Romania. Face recognition in currently institutionalized, previously institutionalized, and never-institutionalized children was assessed at 3 time points: preintervention (n = 121), 30 months of age (n = 99), and 42 months of age (n = 77). Children watched photographs of caregiver…

  5. Typhus Exanthematicus in Romania During the Second World War (1940–1945) Reflected by Romanian Medical Journals of the Time

    PubMed Central

    JEICAN, IONUŢ ISAIA; BOTIŞ, FLORIN OVIDIU; GHEBAN, DAN

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a picture of exanthematic Typhus in Romania during the Second World War: epidemiological aspects of this disease in the inner zone and in the zone of military operations, as well as information about the diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of the Typhus in our country during this period. PMID:26528054

  6. The Development of National Qualifications and Quality Assurance Frameworks in the Context of the TVET Reform in Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, John; Rogojinaru, Adela

    2007-01-01

    Romania is reforming its Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) system and introducing a National Qualifications Framework (NQF) and a National Quality Assurance Framework (NQAF) to create a new and comprehensive national quality assurance system for qualifications. These reforms have their origins in the social and economic…

  7. Assessment of small hydropower potential for the Olanesti River using advanced software techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldoveanu, A.; Galie, A.; Moldoveanu, M.; Popa, F.; Tica, E.; Popa, B.

    2017-01-01

    The assessment of small hydropower potential for rivers is essential for the Renewable Energy Sources Directive implementation, in order to identify and analyze opportunities for new small hydropower developments. As the Water Framework Directive requirement is the non-deterioration of the status of the river water bodies, the aspects regarding the consistency of a flow regime downstream hydropower plant and the environmental objectives are important. The paper presents a case study, the Olanesti River (Romania), using software techniques dedicated to the assessment of small hydropower potential. The hydropower potential of the river was assessed considering the heads based on the Digital Terrain Model and the mean flow. In addition, the environmental flow was considered for the installed capacity assessment, in order to cope with the Water Framework Directive requirements. The harnessed hydropower potential, the optimal distance between the water intake and power plant location, their optimum positions along the river sector, installed capacity and electricity production, calculated at an average lifetime, are the outcomes of the software. The applicability of the tool might be extended on a regional scale in order to support the decision making authorities, taking into account the increasing demand for energy as well as the environmental issues.

  8. Mystic River Watershed

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information on the efforts of the US EPA, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, the municipalities within the Mystic River Watershed and nongovernmental organizations to improve the water quality of the Mystic River.

  9. 33 CFR 165.510 - Delaware Bay and River, Salem River, Christina River and Schuylkill River-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Delaware Bay and River, Salem... Limited Access Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.510 Delaware Bay and River, Salem River, Christina... Regulated Navigation Area: The navigable waters of Delaware Bay and River, Salem River, Christina River,...

  10. Analytical analyses of startup measurements associated with the first use of LEU fuel in Romania`s 14-MW TRIGA reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Bretscher, M.M.; Snelgrove, J.L.; Ciocanescu, M.

    1992-12-01

    The 14-MW TRIGA steady state reactor (SSR) is located in Pitesti, Romania. Beginning with an HEU core (10 wt% U), the reactor first went critical in November 1979 but was shut down ten years later because of insufficient excess reactivity. Last November the Institute for Nuclear Research (INR), which operates the SSR, received from the ANL RERTR program a shipment of 125 LEU pins fabricated by General Atomics and of the same geometry as the original fuel but with an enrichment of 19.7% 235U and a loading of 45 wt% U. Using 100 of these pins, four LEU clusters, each containing a 5 x 5 square array of fuel rods, were assembled. These four LEU clusters replaced the four most highly burned HEU elements in the SSR. The reactor resumed operations last February with a 35-element mixed HEU/LEU core configuration. In preparation for full power operation of the SSR with this mixed HEU/LEU core, a number of measurements were made. These included control rod calibrations, excess reactivity determinations, worths of experiment facilities, reaction rate distributions, and themocouple measurements of fuel temperatures as a function of reactor power. This paper deals with a comparison of some of these measured reactor parameters with corresponding analytical calculations.

  11. Flowing with Rivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Heather

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a lesson in which students compare how artists have depicted rivers in paintings, using different styles, compositions, subject matter, colors, and techniques. They create a watercolor landscape that includes a river. Students can learn about rivers by studying them on site, through environmental study, and through works of…

  12. Rethinking the River.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenenbaum, David

    1994-01-01

    Examines the ecological impacts of the Mississippi River flood of 1993 and the rethinking of river management practices that has resulted. Provides a map of the flood area which shows the occurrence of rare wildlife found in or near the region's rivers. (LZ)

  13. Mathematics. Rivers Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brueggeman, Gail; Clendenin, Donna

    The Rivers Project at Southern Illinois University began in February, 1990 as a pilot program involving eight high schools along the Mississippi and lower Illinois River. The Rivers Project network has grown through the training of teachers from across the United States and Canada. With scientific literacy as the ultimate goal, students collect…

  14. Measuring River Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayyavoo, Gabriel

    2004-01-01

    The Don River watershed is located within Canada's most highly urbanized area--metropolitan Toronto. Many residential and commercial uses, including alterations to the river's course with bridges, have had a significant impact on the Don's fauna and flora. Pollutants have degraded the river's water quality, a situation exacerbated by the…

  15. A new giant pterosaur with a robust skull from the latest Cretaceous of Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buffetaut, E.; Grigorescu, D.; Csiki, Z.

    2002-02-01

    A new giant pterosaur, Hatzegopteryx thambema, nov.gen., nov.sp., from the Maastrichtian Densuş-Ciula Formation of Romania is remarkable for its very large size (estimated wing span >=12 m) and for the robustness of its large skull, which may have been nearly 3 m long. The stout skull bones contrast with the usually thin and slender skull elements of other pterosaurs, and raise the question of how the weight of the skull was reduced in order to make flight possible. The answer probably lies in the very peculiar internal structure of the bones, which consists of a dense network of very thin trabeculae enclosing small alveoli. This structure is reminiscent of expanded polystyrene and, like it, probably combined strength with lightness.

  16. A new giant pterosaur with a robust skull from the latest cretaceous of Romania.

    PubMed

    Buffetaut, E; Grigorescu, D; Csiki, Z

    2002-04-01

    A new giant pterosaur, Hatzegopteryx thambema, nov.gen., nov.sp., from the Maastrichtian Densuş-Ciula Formation of Romania is remarkable for its very large size (estimated wing span > or = 12 m) and for the robustness of its large skull, which may have been nearly 3 m long. The stout skull bones contrast with the usually thin and slender skull elements of other pterosaurs, and raise the question of how the weight of the skull was reduced in order to make flight possible. The answer probably lies in the very peculiar internal structure of the bones, which consists of a dense network of very thin trabeculae enclosing small alveoli. This structure is reminiscent of expanded polystyrene and, like it, probably combined strength with lightness.

  17. Climate Change Is Increasing the Risk of the Reemergence of Malaria in Romania

    PubMed Central

    Bodale, Ilie; Florescu, Simin-Aysel; Roman, Constantin; Acatrinei, Dumitru

    2016-01-01

    The climatic modifications lead to global warming; favouring the risk of the appearance and development of diseases are considered until now tropical diseases. Another important factor is the workers' immigration, the economic crisis favouring the passive transmission of new species of culicidae from different areas. Malaria is the disease with the widest distribution in the globe. Millions of people are infected every year in Africa, India, South-East Asia, Middle East, and Central and South America, with more than 41% of the global population under the risk of infestation with malaria. The increase of the number of local cases reported in 2007–2011 indicates that the conditions can favour the high local transmission in the affected areas. In the situation presented, the establishment of the level of risk concerning the reemergence of malaria in Romania becomes a priority. PMID:27847824

  18. Shielding activation of petawatt laser facilities in Romania: a FLUKA preliminary evaluation.

    PubMed

    Florescu, Gabriela M; Duliu, O G

    2016-03-01

    The FLUKA 2011.2c code was used to evaluate the activity induced in the irradiation chamber walls by secondary charged particles emitted during the interaction of 1 petawatt laser beam with the targets. The results have shown that, even in the most conservative approaches, i.e. 300 and 100 MeV secondary electrons and protons, respectively, the maximum equivalent dose rate, at 1 cm in front of the chamber wall, 1 min after the end of irradiation, was of ∼23 nSv h(-1). Three minutes later, it falls at ∼60 pSv h(-1), negligible with respect to the environmental radiation background of 90-110 nSv h(-1), as reported for Romania.

  19. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Abandoned Mine Lands as Signifcant Contamination Problem in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, E.; Jordan, G.; Fugedi, U.; Bartha, A.; Kuti, L.; Heltai, G.; Kalmar, J.; Waldmann, I.; Napradean, I.; Damian, G.

    2009-04-01

    INTRODUCTION Wide-spread environmental contamination associated with historic mining in Europe has triggered social responses to improve related environmental legislation, the environmental assessment and management methods for the mining industry. Pollution by acid mine drainage (AMD) from ore and coal mining is the outstanding and most important source of mining-induced environmental pollution. Younger et al. (2002) estimates that watercourses polluted by coal mine drainage could be in the order of 2,000 to 3,000 km, and 1,000 to 1,500 km polluted by metal mine discharges for the EU 15 Member States (Younger et al. 2002). Significance of contamination risk posed by mining is also highlighted by mine accidents such as those in Baia Mare, Romania in 2002 and in Aznalcollar, Spain in 1999 (Jordan and D'Alessandro 2004). The new EU Mine Waste Directive (Directive 2006/21/EC) requires the risk-based inventory of abandoned mines in the EU. The cost-effective implementation of the inventory is especially demanding in countries with extensive historic mining and great number of abandoned mine sites, like Romania. The problem is further complicated in areas with trans-boundary effects. The objective of this investigation to carry out the risk-based contamination assessment of a mine site with possible trans-boundary effects in Romania. Assessment follows the source-pathway-receptor chain with a special attention to heavy metal leaching from waste dumps as sources and to transport modelling along surface water pathways. STUDY AREA In this paper the Baiut mine catchment located in the Gutai Mts., Romania, close to the Hungarian border is studied. The polymetallic deposites in the Tertiary Inner-Carpathian Volcanic Arc are exposed by a series of abandoned Zn and Pb mines first operated in the 14th century. Elevation in the high relief catchment ranges from 449m to 1044m. Geology is characterised by andesites hosting the ore deposits and paleogene sediments dominating at the

  20. Epidemiologic particularities of influenza in 1986 in a large urban centre of Romania.

    PubMed

    Mágureanu, E; Busuioc, C; Ionescu, V; Guguianu, E; Stoicescu, A; Horhogea, G; Murgoci, R; Coban, V; Dobrescu, A

    1987-01-01

    The study presents the evolutive peculiarities of the epidemiologic influenza process in 1986 in a large urban centre in Romania, inferrable from the active control by a complex methodology based on clinical, epidemiologic and laboratory investigations. The prevalent part of A (H1N1 and H3N2) and B influenza viruses in causing seasonal morbidity risings is being stressed. A (H3N2) and B influenza viruses determined an epidemic rising during the first trimester and A (H1N1) and A (H3N2) during the fourth trimester in 1986. The epidemiologic influenza impact in 1986 is discussed from the point of view of the complex relationships between the antigenic structure of circulating influenza viruses and the antiinfluenza immune structure of the population.

  1. Epidemiologic features of influenza in a large urban centre (B.) in Romania, in 1987.

    PubMed

    Măgureanu, E; Busuioc, C; Ionescu, V; Guguianu, E; Stoicescu, A; Murgoci, R; Dobrescu, A; Cristescu, D; Morea, M

    1988-01-01

    The study presents the peculiarities of influenza evolution in 1987 in a large town in Romania. These features were defined by a complex methodology, based on clinical, epidemiologic and laboratory investigations, used in the active control of the epidemiologic process kinetics. The influenza viruses type A (H1N1 and H3N2) had a major role in the infecting and immunizing contacts in all age groups whereas the influenza virus type B had a reduced circulation. The epidemiologic influenza impact in 1987 is discussed from the point of view of the complex relationships between the antigenic structure of circulating influenza viruses and the anti-influenza immune profile of the population under the influence of extremely complex economic, social and natural factors.

  2. New records of Protura (Entognatha, Arthropoda) from Romania, with an identification key to the Romanian species

    PubMed Central

    Shrubovych, Julia; Fiera, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Romanian Protura were studied based on 175 specimens collected from Romania, along with bibliographic data. The main publication on the Romanian proturans was written by M.A. Ionescu (1951), who described 13 species mainly from soil and forest litter from 15 collecting points. The current paper represents the first study at a national level. Faunal data on Protura were obtained from 22 sites, mostly from forests of the Romanian Carpathians and also from a peri-urban area of Bucharest, which had not been studied before. As a result, the Romanian Protura fauna now consists of 27 known taxa in 6 genera and 4 families. Of the 27 taxa, 15 species are new records for Romanian fauna. An identification key to the Romanian Protura species is provided. PMID:26865814

  3. Entangled traditions of race: Physical anthropology in Hungary and Romania, 1900-1940.

    PubMed

    Turda, Marius

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the relationship between race and physical anthropology in Hungary and Romania between 1900 and 1940. It begins by looking at institutional developments in both countries and how these influenced the most important Hungarian and Romanian anthropologists' professional and research agendas. Drawing from a wide range of primary sources, the article reveals the significant role the concept of race played in articulating anthropological and ethnic narratives of national belonging. It is necessary to understand the appeal of the idea of race in this context. With idealized images of national communities and racial hierarchies creeping back into Eastern European popular culture and politics, one needs to understand the latent and often unrecognized legacies of race in shaping not only scientific disciplines like anthropology, but also the emergence and entrancement of modern Hungarian and Romanian nationalism.

  4. Whooping cough in South-East Romania: a 1-year study.

    PubMed

    Dinu, Sorin; Guillot, Sophie; Dragomirescu, Cristiana Cerasella; Brun, Delphine; Lazăr, Stefan; Vancea, Geta; Ionescu, Biatrice Mariana; Gherman, Mariana Felicia; Bjerkestrand, Andreea-Florina-Dana; Ungureanu, Vasilica; Guiso, Nicole; Damian, Maria

    2014-03-01

    The incidence of whooping cough in Romania is substantially underestimated, and, as noted by the health authorities, this is mostly due to the lack of both awareness and biological diagnosis. We conducted a 1-year study in Bucharest in order to assess the circulation of Bordetella pertussis, the main etiological agent of whooping cough. Fifty-one subjects suspected of whooping cough were enrolled. Culture, real-time PCR, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used for laboratory diagnosis. Whooping cough patients (63%) were distributed among all age groups, and most were unvaccinated, incompletely vaccinated, or had been vaccinated more than 5 years previously. Bordetella holmesii DNA was detected in 22% of the bordetellosis cases; these patients included adults; teenagers; and, surprisingly, young children. B. pertussis isolates were similar to the clinical isolates currently circulating elsewhere in Europe. One isolate does not express pertactin, an antigen included in some acellular pertussis vaccines.

  5. [Thirty years of urban dynamics in Romania: between homogeneous and specific regional development].

    PubMed

    Ianos, I

    1994-01-01

    "It is necessary to give a brief account of the major characteristics of recent urban dynamics in Bucharest (a) because of the impact of images on urban changes and (b) because urbanisation in Romania took place at a late stage and at a very moderate pace (50% in 1985). The urbanisation policy tended towards uniformity, which has resulted in medium-sized cities being over-represented in the urban network.... The first urban changes to emerge as a result of the post-socialist transition are a consequence of the effects of the size of cities on the one hand, and of the revival of historical provinces on the other." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUM)

  6. Multiyear Aerosol Study Based on Lidar&Sunphotometer Measurements in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemuc, Anca; Binietoglou, Ioannis; Andrei, Simona; Dandocsi, Alexandru; Stefanie, Horatiu

    2016-06-01

    This observational study focused on three-years time-averaged data set (January 2012-2015). An investigation of long-term trends was performed on two different data sets derived from active and passive remote sensing measurements in Magurele, Romania. Measurements of sun photometer aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 500 nm and 340 nm show the mean values of 0.230 ±0 .118 and 0.398 ± 0.185, respectively. The lidar AOD at 532 and 355nm has a mean of 0.271 ±.0.164 and 0.472 ± 0.165 respectively. The highest seasonal mean value was measured by the lidar during the summer of 2014 while the lowest seasonal value was measured by the sunphotometer in February 2012. The origin of atmospheric aerosols has been analyzed using both backtajectories of Hysplit and Circulation Type Classification (CTCs) methods.

  7. Zoonotic ocular onchocercosis caused by Onchocerca lupi in dogs in Romania.

    PubMed

    Tudor, Poliana; Turcitu, Mihai; Mateescu, Cosmin; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Tudor, Niculae; Bărbuceanu, Florica; Ciuca, Lavinia; Burcoveanu, Ioana; Acatrinei, Dumitru; Rinaldi, Laura; Mateescu, Romanița; Bădicu, Adina; Ionașcu, Iuliana; Otranto, Domenico

    2016-02-01

    Onchocerca lupi is a filarial nematode, which infects the scleral conjunctival tissue of dogs, wolves and cats. Whilst adult nematodes localize in the conjunctive tissue of sclera or in the retrobulbar, microfilariae are found in the skin, and they are rarely diagnosed in asymptomatic animals. Since the first report of human ocular infection 5 years ago, up to 10 zoonotic cases have been identified in patients worldwide. We report, for the first time in Romania, three cases of canine ocular onchocercosis in dogs. Fragments of the harvested worms were characterized morphologically and molecularly. This article expands knowledge on the distribution of this parasite in Eastern Europe and sounds an alarm bell for ophthalmologists about the possible occurrence of human cases of O. lupi infection.

  8. Microphysical Properties of Warm Clouds During The Aircraft Take-Off and Landing Over Bucharest, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefan, Sabina; Nicolae Vajaiac, Sorin; Boscornea, Andreea

    2016-06-01

    This paper is focused on airborne measurements of microphysical parameters into warm clouds when the aircraft penetrates the cloud, both during take-off and landing. The experiment was conducted during the aircraft flight between Bucharest and Craiova, in the southern part of Romania. The duration of the experimental flight was 2 hours and 35 minutes in October 7th, 2014, but the present study is dealing solely with the analysis of cloud microphysical properties at the beginning of the experiment (during the aircraft take-off) and at the end, when it got finalized by the aircraft landing procedure. The processing and interpretation of the measurements showed the differences between microphysical parameters, emphasizing that the type of cloud over Bucharest changed, as it was expected. In addition, the results showed that it is important to take into account both the synoptic context and the cloud perturbation due to the velocity of the aircraft, in such cases.

  9. Toxoplasma gondii in horse meat intended for human consumption in Romania.

    PubMed

    Paştiu, Anamaria Ioana; Györke, Adriana; Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Bolfă, Pompei; Rosenthal, Benjamin Martin; Oltean, Miruna; Villena, Isabelle; Spînu, Marina; Cozma, Vasile

    2015-09-15

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, an economically important zoonotic protozoan, was investigated in horses slaughtered for export and human consumption in the North of Romania. Pairs of samples, sera and heart tissues, were collected from 82 slaughtered horses. Examination of horse sera by ELISA at a dilution of 1:10, and by modified agglutination test (MAT) at a dilution of 1:6, revealed that 32 (39%) and 31(37.8%) horses, respectively, had antibodies against T. gondii. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, T. gondii DNA was not found in any heart sample collected from horses. By bioassay in mice, we obtained viable isolates of T. gondii from two of ten horses determined to be strongly positive by serological assay/ELISA. The prevalence estimated in horses highlighted the potential risk for human contamination by consumption of raw or undercooked meat.

  10. National Human Research Ethics: A Preliminary Comparative Case Study of Germany, Great Britain, Romania, and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Bernard; Berman, Anne H.; Bieganski, Justyna; Jones, Adele D.; Foca, Liliana; Raikes, Ben; Schiratzki, Johanna; Urban, Mirjam; Ullman, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Although international research is increasing in volume and importance, there remains a dearth of knowledge on similarities and differences in “national human research ethics” (NHREs), that is, national ethical guidelines (NEGs), Institutional Review Boards (IRBs), and research stakeholder’ ethical attitudes and behaviors (EABs). We begin to address this situation by reporting upon our experiences in conducting a multinational study into the mental health of children who had a parent/carer in prison. The study was conducted in 4 countries: Germany, Great Britain, Romania, and Sweden. Data on NHREs were gathered via a questionnaire survey, two ethics-related seminars, and ongoing contact between members of the research consortium. There was correspondence but even more so divergence between countries in the availability of NEGs and IRBs and in researcher’ EABs. Differences in NHREs have implications particularly in terms of harmonization but also for ethical philosophy and practice and for research integrity. PMID:27746664

  11. Cirque form and development in Romania: Allometry and the buzzsaw hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mîndrescu, M.; Evans, I. S.

    2014-03-01

    A complete inventory of the 631 glacial cirques in Romania (and adjacent Ukraine) shows that they are scale-specific and develop allometrically, extending in length more rapidly than they deepen: shape changes with size. Horizontal dimensions are around 700 m, vertical around 300 m. On each quantitative measure they form a single, unimodal population with limited variation in size (on a logarithmic scale). Cirque axial gradients (15-33°) are appropriate to occupation by rotationally-flowing glaciers. Lake basins are more common (26%) on granitic rocks, compared with 10.6% of all cirques. Geology also affects vertical dimensions and gradients. The relation between subjective (five grades) and objective measures of cirque development is shown by an r2 of 62% when Grade is predicted from maximum gradient, minimum gradient, and plan closure. Cirques larger in horizontal dimensions have better grades.

  12. Entangled traditions of race: Physical anthropology in Hungary and Romania, 1900-1940

    PubMed Central

    Turda, Marius

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the relationship between race and physical anthropology in Hungary and Romania between 1900 and 1940. It begins by looking at institutional developments in both countries and how these influenced the most important Hungarian and Romanian anthropologists’ professional and research agendas. Drawing from a wide range of primary sources, the article reveals the significant role the concept of race played in articulating anthropological and ethnic narratives of national belonging. It is necessary to understand the appeal of the idea of race in this context. With idealized images of national communities and racial hierarchies creeping back into Eastern European popular culture and politics, one needs to understand the latent and often unrecognized legacies of race in shaping not only scientific disciplines like anthropology, but also the emergence and entrancement of modern Hungarian and Romanian nationalism. PMID:24363494

  13. Payment systems and incentives in primary care: implications of recent reforms in Estonia and Romania.

    PubMed

    Dan, Sorin; Savi, Riin

    2015-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, major reform in healthcare has been adopted in former communist countries in Central and Eastern Europe. More than 20 years after, reform in healthcare still draws much interest from policy makers and academics alike. One of the dynamic components of reform has been the reform of payment systems in primary care. This article looks at recent developments in payment systems and financial incentives in Estonia and Romania. We conclude that finding the appropriate mix in paying and incentivizing primary care providers in a transitional context is no easy solution for healthcare policy makers who need to carefully weigh in the advantages and inherent problems of various payment arrangements. In a transitional, rapidly changing healthcare system and society, and a context of financial stringency, the theoretical effects of payment mechanisms may be more difficult to predict and manage than it is expected.

  14. Study on river regulation measures of dried-up rivers of Haihe River basin, China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jing; Li, Shaoming; Qi, Lan

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the ecological environment of plain rivers within Haihe River basin is questionable because of severe water shortages. Most of the rivers dry up regularly and it is therefore necessary to take measures to improve the river ecological environment. Meanwhile, flood control is the principal function for most of the dried-up rivers, so river regulation works for flood control also should be undertaken. In this paper, some measures of river regulation were selected applied to the Haihe River basin, taking these measures not only ensure the river security but also realize its ecological benefit. Examples of the application of selected measures for the representative rivers, Yongding River and Hutuo River, both located within the Haihe River basin, are also assessed. These measures provide practical solutions to ecological and flood control problems of dried-up rivers, are generic in nature, and could therefore be applied to other same type rivers.

  15. Drought Variability in Eastern Part of Romania and its Connection with Large-Scale Air Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbu, Nicu; Stefan, Sabina; Georgescu, Florinela

    2014-05-01

    Drought is a phenomenon that appears due to precipitation deficit and it is intensified by strong winds, high temperatures, low relative humidity and high insolation; in fact, all these factors lead to increasing of evapotranspiration processes that contribute to soil water deficit. The Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) take into account all this factors listed above. The temporal variability of the drought in Eastern part of Romania for 50 years, during the period 1961-2010, is investigated. This study is focused on the drought variability related to large scale air circulation. The gridded dataset with spatial resolution of 0.5º lat/lon of SPEI, (https://digital.csic.es/handle/10261/72264) were used to analyze drought periods in connection with large scale air circulation determinate from the two catalogues (GWT - GrossWetter-Typen and WLK - WetterLargenKlassifikation) defined in COST733Action. The GWT catalogue uses at input dataset the sea level pressure and the WLK catalogue uses as input dataset the geopotential field at 925 hPa and 500 hPa, wind at 700 hPa and total water content for entire atmospheric column. In this study we use the GWT catalogue with 18 circulation types and the WLK catalogue with 40 circulation types. The analysis for Barlad Hydrological Basin indicated that the negative values (that means water deficit - drought period) of SPEI are associated with prevailing anticyclonic regime and positive values (that means water excess - rainy period) of SPEI are associated with prevailing cyclonic regime as was expected. In last decade was observed an increase of dry period associated with an increase of anticyclonic activity over Romania. Using GWT18 catalogue the drought are associated with the north-eastern anticyclonic circulation type (NE-A). According to the WLK40 catalogue, the dominant circulation type associated with the drought is north-west-anticyclonic-dry anticyclonic (NW-AAD) type. keywords: drought, SPEI

  16. Zoogeography of epigean freshwater Amphipoda (Crustacea) in Romania: fragmented distributions and wide altitudinal variability.

    PubMed

    Copilaș-Ciocianu, Denis; Grabowski, Michał; Pârvulescu, Lucian; Petrusek, Adam

    2014-12-08

    Inland epigean freshwater amphipods of Romania are diverse and abundant for this region has a favourable geographical position between the Balkans and the Black Sea. Excluding Ponto-Caspian species originating in brackish waters and freshwater subterranean taxa, there are 11 formally recognized epigean freshwater species recorded from this country. They belong to 3 genera, each representing a different family: Gammarus (Gammaridae, 8 species or species complexes), Niphargus (Niphargidae, 2 epigean species) and Synurella (Crangonyctidae, one species). Their large-scale distribution patterns nevertheless remain obscure due to insufficient data, consequently limiting biogeographical interpretations. We provide extensive new data with high resolution distribution maps, thus improving the knowledge of the ranges of these taxa. Gammarus species display substantial altitudinal variability and patchy, fragmented distribution patterns. They occur abundantly, particularly in springs and streams, from lowlands to sub-mountainous and mountainous regions. In the light of recent molecular research, we hypothesize that the complex geomorphological dynamics of the Carpathian region during the Late Tertiary probably contributed to their allopatric distribution pattern. Contrasting with Gammarus, the genera Niphargus and Synurella exhibit low altitudinal variability, broad ecological valences and overlapping distributions, being widespread throughout the lowlands. The current distribution of N. hrabei and N. valachicus seems to be linked to the extent of the Paratethys during the Early Pliocene or Pleistocene. We further discuss the taxonomic validity of two synonymized and one apparently undescribed taxon, and provide an updated pictorial identification key that includes all taxa and forms discussed in our study. The mosaic distribution of epigean freshwater amphipod species in Romania shows that this region is particularly suitable for phylo- and biogeographical analyses of this

  17. Assessing health literacy in rural settings: a pilot study in rural areas of Cluj County, Romania.

    PubMed

    Pop, Oana M; Brînzaniuc, Alexandra; Sirlincan, Emanuela O; Baba, Catalin O; Chereches, Razvan M

    2013-12-01

    Health literacy improves knowledge and builds skills to help individuals make appropriate decisions regarding their health. Over the past 20 years, several studies have described associations between health literacy and health outcomes. With respect to Romania, evidence is scarce on the level of health literacy, as well as on its determinants. Thus, the objectives of this study were to briefly screen functional health literacy levels in a sample of rural inhabitants, to assess the relationship between health literacy and reported health status, as well as to explore health literacy determinants within this population. Data were collected between September-November 2010, in four villages in Cluj County, Romania, using a cross-sectional survey. The mean age of respondents in the sample was 56 years, with roughly half of respondents being retired. The brief screening of health literacy suggested inadequate to marginal levels within the sample. Significant associations were observed between health literacy score and education, and self-perceived health status, whereas the relationship between health literacy and gender, and the presence of a chronic disease was not statistically significant. Limited health literacy has been shown to be common in people who rated their health as poor, those who attended only middle school, and individuals lacking basic information about their body. In order to minimize the adverse effects of low health literacy on health and health outcomes, efforts should be invested in identifying and addressing the health needs of adults with low and marginal health literacy, especially in underserved areas such as rural and remote settings, where access to health-related information is limited.

  18. Heatwave risks in urban area - a case study for Arad municipality in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojariu, Roxana; Roxana Cica, Diana; Velea, Liliana; Turcus, Cosmin; Golea, Marius

    2013-04-01

    Robust signs of climate change, especially in temperature-related climate behaviour, are already present. Heatwave frequency, intensity and persitance are changing under climate change conditions and so are the exposure to them and associated risks. Urban areas have additional thermal-related vulnerabilities due to effects of urban heat island on large populations concentrated in a human-transformed space. The goal of our study is to use climate and socio-economic data to assess changes in heatwave risks for the urban area of Arad municipality in Romania. Arad municipality is in the top ten towns in Romania with largest contribution to gross domestic product (GDP), covering of 253 km2 and with a population of 169327. Arad is representative for towns situated over plane areas and the results of our study can be translated for other Romanian towns as well. For our purpose we used remote sense and climate data with health, demography and land use information to develop a climate change risk assessment for heatwaves. We used skin temperature from Modis products (2000-2010), air temperature from Arad weather station (1961-2010), Corine land cover and demographic information from 2004 census. Results from regional climate models obtained from FP6 ENSEMBLES project are used for future projection of air temperature in 21st century. Our analysis builds on the EU Council conclusions on "Further Developing Risk Assessment for Disaster Management within the European Union" adopted in March 2011 that aims for a common approach and harmonisation on the prevention of natural and man-made disasters setting out an overall disaster prevention framework.

  19. Comparison between radar estimations and rain gauge precipitations in the Moldavian Plateau (Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheval, Sorin; Burcea, Sorin; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Antonescu, Bogdan; Bell, Aurora; Breza, Traian

    2010-05-01

    Heavy rainfall events have produced significant damages and casualties in the Moldavian Plateau (Romania) in the last decades. Such phenomena are characterized by large spatial and temporal variations, and the forecast of their occurrence is thus very challenging. This study aims to compare the radar estimations and the rain gauge measurements, in order to improve the quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) in the area of interest. The research uses data from the WSR-98D S-band Doppler radar located in Bârnova, and from rain gauges within weather stations run by Meteo Romania (Romanian National Meteorological Administration). We have focused on daily (24 h) accumulations registered at weather stations, and the output sustains the radar calibration, fostering the hydrological modeling, including flash flood forecast. The differences between R and G were investigated based on two objectives functions -the ratio R/G (BIAS) and the Root Mean Square Factor (RMSf)- while the correlations used the Pearson scores. Considerable spatial distinctions between areas with good radar accuracy for QPE and perimeters where radar is not capable to provide robust information have been emphasized during the investigations. The validation aimed to predict the rain gauge amounts in certain spots by using the radar information and resulted adjustment parameters. It has been demonstrated that the Bârnova radar data are reliable within approx. 150 km radius, and the comparison with rain gauge measurements can foster consistently the QPE accuracy in the area. This research was completed in the framework of the EU FP6 Project HYDRATE (Hydrometeorological data resources and technologies for effective flash flood forecasting), Contract no: 037024, 2006-2009.

  20. ASSESSMENT OF THE INDOOR ENVIRONMENT AND IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH IN ROMA VILLAGES IN SLOVAKIA AND ROMANIA

    PubMed Central

    Majdan, Marek; Coman, Alexandru; Gallová, Eva; Ďuricová, Janka; Kállayová, Daniela; Kvaková, Mária; Bošák, Ľuboš

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Objectives The objective of this paper is to provide information on indoor air quality and on the quality of the broader indoor environment of the houses in Roma villages in Slovakia and Romania and to discuss possible implications for health. Methods Indoor air was sampled in 11 houses in a Romanian Roma village and in 19 houses in a Slovakian Roma village. Levels of Carbon Monoxide (CO), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), total particulate matter (PM), temperature and humidity were measured. A questionnaire and a checklist were used to obtain additional information on the indoor environment and behavioural factors. We have sampled the same houses in winter and in summer. Results Levels of CO and CO2 were higher in winter in both countries as compared to summer. The limit value of 10 mg/m3 CO was exceeded in a few cases in both countries. In general, levels of CO, CO2 and PM were higher in Romania. Further environmental and behavioural hazards such as indoor smoking, pets inside or lack of ventilation were found. The reported self-perceived quality of the indoor environment was poor in many aspects. Conclusions Our findings of CO, CO2 and PM levels suggest that indoor air pollution in Roma settlements has the potential to be a health threat. The fact that the inhabitants spend a relatively long time inside the houses and that a number of additional environmental and behavioural hazards were identified by our study emphasizes the importance of the indoor air quality for health and thus priority attention should be paid to these issues by health authorities and researchers. Further research is essential and study designs must consider cultural background and specific characteristics of the community, especially in order to obtain valid data on health outcomes. PMID:23285520

  1. State of the art development of a real time system for earthquake emergency management in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionescu, Constantin; Marmureanu, Alexandru; Manea, Liviu

    2013-04-01

    Earthquake represents a major natural disaster. The main problem after the occurrence of a strong earthquake is to minimize the total number of fatalities. As a consequence, a rapid early warning system was developed in Romania that provides a 25-32 seconds warning time to Bucharest facilities for Vrancea earthquakes. The Rapid Earthquake Warning System (REWS) was developed for Southern part of Romania and for Northern part of Bulgaria. A Rapid Earthquake Warning System provides few to tens of seconds of advanced warning time of impending ground motions, allowing mitigation actions to be taken in the short term, immediately after the strong motion occurs. The information is the key point in the disaster management, and the communication system is one of the most important component. After a strong earthquake is detected in the epicenter area, REWS (Romanian Earthquake Early Warning System) will generate an alarm notification, AlertMap, computation of the parameters of earthquakes, ShakeMap and loss estimation. All these are generated by the Romanian and Bulgarian data centers, in parallel. Warning message containing the necessary parameters are sent to local emergency centers via a software module for notifications. The above mentioned module provides notifications for all the existing subscribers related to the seismic events detected by the acquisition and evaluation modules. In the first step, the user notification message center module uses the computed real-time parameters of the detected events and a set of customizable rules to generate messages that contains the parameters of the events. Then the messages are sent by using specific channels of communication, in order to be received by the user. The system produces different types of notifications: visual, audible, SMS, email and web page content customized for the user. All notifications are issued based on predefined conditions such as recipient's needs and are based on user's criteria. All notifications

  2. An astroclimatological study of candidate sites to host an imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radu, A. A.; Angelescu, T.; Curtef, V.; Felea, D.; Hasegan, D.; Lucaschi, B.; Manea, A.; Popa, V.; Ralita, I.

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents an astroclimatological study of meteorological data on relative humidity, dew-point temperature, air temperature, wind speed and barometric air pressure recorded at four Romanian locations (Baisoara, Rosia Montana, Semenic, Ceahlau) and the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) located at the Observatorio del Roque de Los Muchachos (ORM), on the island of La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain. Long-term trends of microclimates are compared in order to identify site-to-site variations. We performed this analysis as part of a site testing campaign aimed at finding the best location for the establishment of a small Cherenkov telescope in Romania. The conditions at the Romanian sites are compared with those of the Canary Islands considered as a reference. A statistical approach is used for data analysis. Monthly and annual samples are extracted from series of raw data for night-time, day-time and entire-day intervals. For each of these samples, the median values, the standard deviations and the percentages of time when the weather conditions were suitable for the safe operation of a Cherenkov telescope are computed. The distributions of these medians, standard deviations and percentages are analysed in this paper. Significant differences are found between the Romanian sites and the NOT site. The comparison of the Romanian locations indicates Baisoara to be the best site for the establishment of the telescope, closely followed by Rosia Montana. As these two sites are both located in the Apuseni Mountains, we consider this area to be the optimal place for performing astronomical observations in Romania.

  3. Climate variability of the hydro-meteorological extreme events in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mares, Constantin; Adler, Mary-Jeanne; Mares, Ileana; Chelcia, Silvia; Branescu, Emilia

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze climate extremes for monthly and seasonal values of temperatures, precipitation and discharges defined in 27 stations distributed relatively evenly throughout Romania. For the beginning, for each season a drought index was calculated from the difference between standardized temperature and precipitation (STPDI) for a period of 68 years (1931-1998) compared with self-calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index (sc-PDSI). The sc_PDSI values with a resolution of 0.5 degrees longitude by 0.5 degrees latitude were extracted from Climate Research Unit (http://www.cru.uea.ac.uk/data/). The analyses of histograms of the two indices for several stations in Romania revealed as values defining extremes depend on the season and location, but generally the values higher than 4 in the absolute value, indicate drastic extreme events, with the only difference that the two indices have reverse signs. A negative value of sc_PDSI < - 4 indicates an extreme drought, while a value < - 4 of STPDI shows an extremely wet event and vice versa. The sc-PDSI is more sensitive to location where is calculated, in comparison with classical PDSI and therefore it can give more accurate differentiation between different areas described by this index. In the next step of our analysis we retained only STPDI for several reasons. First, STPDI is a better predictor for discharges in Romania than sc-PDSI (correlations are closer between STPDI and discharge than between sc_PDSI and discharge). Response to large-scale atmospheric circulation expressed here by North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is better and this index is easier to estimate from the values simulated by climate models (GCMs / RCMs). In addition, spatial climate differences can be outlined just as well as using sc-PDSI values by means of modes 2 and 3 of the EOF decompositions. Climate variability of STPDI was analyzed both for the entire country by the EOF decomposition and separate for each of the 27

  4. Urban Vulnerability Assessment to Seismic Hazard through Spatial Multi-Criteria Analysis. Case Study: the Bucharest Municipality/Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armas, Iuliana; Dumitrascu, Silvia; Bostenaru, Maria

    2010-05-01

    In the context of an explosive increase in value of the damage caused by natural disasters, an alarming challenge in the third millennium is the rapid growth of urban population in vulnerable areas. Cities are, by definition, very fragile socio-ecological systems with a high level of vulnerability when it comes to environmental changes and that are responsible for important transformations of the space, determining dysfunctions shown in the state of the natural variables (Parker and Mitchell, 1995, The OFDA/CRED International Disaster Database). A contributing factor is the demographic dynamic that affects urban areas. The aim of this study is to estimate the overall vulnerability of the urban area of Bucharest in the context of the seismic hazard, by using environmental, socio-economic, and physical measurable variables in the framework of a spatial multi-criteria analysis. For this approach the capital city of Romania was chosen based on its high vulnerability due to the explosive urban development and the advanced state of degradation of the buildings (most of the building stock being built between 1940 and 1977). Combining these attributes with the seismic hazard induced by the Vrancea source, Bucharest was ranked as the 10th capital city worldwide in the terms of seismic risk. Over 40 years of experience in the natural risk field shows that the only directly accessible way to reduce the natural risk is by reducing the vulnerability of the space (Adger et al., 2001, Turner et al., 2003; UN/ISDR, 2004, Dayton-Johnson, 2004, Kasperson et al., 2005; Birkmann, 2006 etc.). In effect, reducing the vulnerability of urban spaces would imply lower costs produced by natural disasters. By applying the SMCA method, the result reveals a circular pattern, signaling as hot spots the Bucharest historic centre (located on a river terrace and with aged building stock) and peripheral areas (isolated from the emergency centers and defined by precarious social and economic

  5. Scientific investigation of the Imperial Gates belonging to the wooden church from Săcel, Turda County, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Măruţoiu, C.; Bratu, I.; Troşan, L.; Neamtu, C.; Măruţoiu, V. C.; Pop, D.; Tănăselia, C.; Garabagiu, S.

    2016-01-01

    Cultural heritage objects have a major contribution to the historical patrimony of every country. In Romania, wooden churches are famous, they are mostly dated in between the XVth and XXth century, but unfortunately many of them have been destroyed, by natural or anthropic means. Therefore, the necessity of conservation and restoration has appeared, to the ones that still exist, as legacy for the future generations. In the present article, an Imperial Gate from a wooden church in Cluj County, Romania, has been investigated, using scientific techniques (FTIR and XRF). A 3D reconstruction has been performed, using similar colors with the original artwork, as resulted from the scientific investigation of the painting materials. A limited number of constituent materials have been used for this artwork, and the wood species used was lime, due to the ease of carving.

  6. The Management of the Radioactive Waste Generated by Cernavoda NPP, Romania, an Example of International Cooperation - 13449

    SciTech Connect

    Barariu, Gheorghe

    2013-07-01

    The design criteria and constraints for the development of the management strategy for radioactive waste generated from operating and decommissioning of CANDU Nuclear Units from Cernavoda NPP in Romania, present many specific aspects. The main characteristics of CANDU type waste are its high concentrations of tritium and radiocarbon. Also, the existing management strategy for radioactive waste at Cernavoda NPP provides no treatment or conditioning for radioactive waste disposal. These characteristics embodied a challenging effort, in order to select a proper strategy for radioactive waste management at present, when Romania is an EU member and a signatory country of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management. The helping of advanced countries in radioactive waste management, directly or into the frame of the international organizations, like IAEA, become solve the aforementioned challenges at adequate level. (authors)

  7. New insights into the molecular epidemiology of Trichinella infection in domestic pigs, wild boars, and bears in Romania.

    PubMed

    Nicorescu, Isabela Madalina Dragoi; Ionita, Mariana; Ciupescu, Laurentiu; Buzatu, Cristian Vasile; Tanasuica, Rodica; Mitrea, Ioan Liviu

    2015-09-15

    Trichinellosis is a food-borne zoonosis caused by the parasitic nematode Trichinella, characterized by an extremely wide host range and geographical distribution. In Romania, it is recognized as one of the most serious zoonotic diseases. A cross-sectional study, covering all regions of Romania, was conducted in 2014 to investigate and update the prevalence of Trichinella infection among domestic pigs, wild boars, and bears. Additional, molecular identification of Trichinella species circulating among these animals was performed in order to establish the biogeography of Trichinella species within the seven geographical regions of Romania. For this, a total of 113,383 pigs raised in non-controlled housing conditions (backyards), 5596 hunted wild boars and 147 hunted bears were subjected to Trichinella analysis. The highest prevalence of Trichinella infections was found in bears (12.93%), followed by wild boars (1.66%) and domestic pigs (0.20%). Of 294 Trichinella isolates that tested positive by multiplex PCR, 219 (74.49%) were identified as Trichinella spiralis, 66 (22.45%) as Trichinella britovi, and 9 isolates (3.06%) as mixed infections of T. spiralis and T. britovi. T. spiralis was more prevalent in domestic pigs (165/228; 72.37%) than in game (63/228; 27.63%), while T. britovi showed a higher prevalence in game (50/75; 66.66%) than in domestic pigs (25/75; 33.33%). Moreover, the present study revealed a significant host- and area- related distribution of Trichinella species within the seven regions of Romania. Therefore, these findings are of epidemiological relevance, updating data on the prevalence and distribution of Trichinella species circulating among domestic and wild animals in South-Eastern Europe.

  8. [The costs of extreme values and case resolved in a public hospital from Iaşi, Romania].

    PubMed

    Bogdănici, Camelia; Bârliba, I

    2008-01-01

    For calculating the estimated costs for health care services in public hospitals from Romania case mixed index and mean of hospital duration are used especially. Medical insurance give for medical practice a fixed allowance based on a historical cost. For hospitals with severe cases there is necessary to introduce the term "extreme values, or cases" for improving the cost for intensive care units, for complicated cases.

  9. Current surveys on the prevalence and distribution of Dirofilaria spp. and Acanthocheilonema reconditum infections in dogs in Romania.

    PubMed

    Ionică, Angela Monica; Matei, Ioana Adriana; Mircean, Viorica; Dumitrache, Mirabela Oana; D'Amico, Gianluca; Győrke, Adriana; Pantchev, Nikola; Annoscia, Giada; Albrechtová, Kateřina; Otranto, Domenico; Modrý, David; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2015-03-01

    During the last decades, Dirofilaria spp. infection in European dogs has rapidly spread from historically endemic areas towards eastern and northeastern countries, but little or no information is available from these geographical regions. The present study provides a picture of filarial infections in dogs from Romania and compares two tests for the diagnosis of Dirofilaria immitis. From July 2010 to March 2011, blood samples were collected from 390 dogs from nine counties of Romania and serological SNAP tests were performed for the detection of D. immitis antigen. The remaining blood clots were subsequently used for DNA extraction followed by multiplex PCR for assessing filarioid species diversity (i.e. D. immitis, Dirofilaria repens and Acanthocheilonema reconditum). Based on molecular detection, an overall prevalence of 6.92 % (n = 27; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 4.70-10.03 %) for D. repens, 6.15 % (n = 24; 95 % CI 4.07-9.14 %) for D. immitis and 2.05 % (n = 8; 95 % CI 0.96-4.16 %) for A. reconditum was recorded, with significant variations according to sampling areas. Coinfections of D. immitis and D. repens were recorded in 23.91 % (n = 11) positive dogs. A slightly higher prevalence for D. immitis was detected at the SNAP test (n = 28, 7.17 %; 95 % CI 4.91-10.33 %), but this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.66). However, only 53.57 % (n = 15) of antigen-positive dogs were confirmed by PCR, while other dogs (n = 9) PCR positive for D. immitis were negative at the serology. The present study shows that Dirofilaria species are endemic in the southern and southeastern areas of Romania, This article also provides, for the first time, an epidemiological picture of the distribution of A. reconditum in Romania.

  10. Educational Actions of some Greek Scholars in Romania: end of 16th-beginning of 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovithis, Petros; Rovithis-Livaniou, Eleni

    2008-09-01

    The scientific work of some outstanding personalities like Chrysanthos Notaras (1668-1732), Nikiforos Theotokis (1731-1800) and Benjamin Lesvios (1759-1824), who acted and worked in Greece and Romania and contributed in the Cultural Heritage of both countries are presented and discussed. Their important role in the development and spreading of their times' sciences, mainly in Mathematics, Physics, Geography and Astronomy are referred, too.

  11. Intended long term performances of cementitious engineered barriers for future storage and disposal facilities for radioactive wastes in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fako, R.; Barariu, Gh.; Toma, R.; Georgescu, R.; Sociu, F.

    2013-07-01

    Considering the EU statements, Romania is engaged to endorse in the near future the IAEA relevant publications on geological repository (CNCANa), to update the Medium and Long Term National Strategy for Safe Management of Radioactive Waste and to approve the Road Map for Geological Repository Development. Currently, for example, spent fuel is wet stored for 6 years and after this period it is transported to dry storage in MACSTOR-200 (a concrete monolithic module) where it is intended to remain at least 50 years. The present situation for radioactive waste management in Romania is reviewed in the present paper. Focus will be done on existent disposal facilities but, also, on future facilities planned for storage / disposal of radioactive wastes. Considering specific data for Romanian radioactive waste inventory, authors are reviewing the advance in the radioactive waste management in Romania considering its particularities. The team tries to highlight the expected limitations and unknown data related with cementitious engineered barriers that has to be faced in the near future incase of interim storage or for the upcoming long periods of disposal.

  12. An Updated Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment for Romania and Comparison with the Approach and Outcomes of the SHARE Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavel, Florin; Vacareanu, Radu; Douglas, John; Radulian, Mircea; Cioflan, Carmen; Barbat, Alex

    2016-06-01

    The probabilistic seismic hazard analysis for Romania is revisited within the framework of the BIGSEES national research project (http://infp.infp.ro/bigsees/default.htm) financed by the Romanian Ministry of Education and Scientific Research in the period 2012-2016. The scope of this project is to provide a refined description of the seismic action for Romanian sites according to the requirements of Eurocode 8. To this aim, the seismicity of all the sources influencing the Romanian territory is updated based on new data acquired in recent years. The ground-motion models used in the analysis, as well as their corresponding weights, are selected based on the results from several recent papers also published within the framework of the BIGSEES project. The seismic hazard analysis for Romania performed in this study are based on the traditional Cornell-McGuire approach. Finally, the results are discussed and compared with the values obtained in the recently completed SHARE research project. The BIGSEES and SHARE results are not directly comparable since the considered soil conditions are different—actual soil classes for BIGSEES and rock for SHARE. Nevertheless, the analyses of the seismic hazard results for 200 sites in Romania reveal considerable differences between the seismic hazard levels obtained in the present study and the SHARE results and point out the need for further analyses and thorough discussions related to the two seismic hazard models, especially in the light of a possible future harmonized hazard map for Europe.

  13. Ice Atlas 1985 - 1986. Monongahela River, Allegheny River, Ohio River, Illinois River and Kankakee River.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    V 0 1m =1 uvydae aury1,18 Belevlle oo Sufc MAPUNTS( MArea concentration MAP NITS(in 2 x 106) (%/) Oppen water 24.97 NA Solid ice cover 0.00 NA Solid...January 28, 1986 ideo Ta-pe 14 Lock and Dam #3 Pool.- Allegheny River: 1/1 / New Kensington Bridge 19- Lock and Dam #2 Pool Surface MArea

  14. Rivers: Nature's Wondrous Waterways.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, David L.

    Rivers play a vital role in the life of the planet. They provide water for wildlife, plant life, and people, and they help to fertilize fields where corn and other crops grow. But how were these rivers made? This children's book takes readers/students on a journey down a river from its source at the top of a mountain to its mouth where it meets…

  15. Mountain Rivers Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2011-12-01

    Published in 2000, the original Mountain Rivers was written to provide a concise summary of the scientific understanding of the distinct subset of rivers that gave the book its name. Spurred by developments in the field in the past decade, the book's author, Ellen Wohl, produced Mountain Rivers Revisited, an updated edition aimed at graduate students and professional researchers. In this interview, Eos talks to Wohl about steep channels, climate change, and opportunities for future research.

  16. Student-Designed River Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkall, Sheila Florian

    1996-01-01

    Describes an integrated student-designed investigation in which students explore different aspects of the Chagrin River including the river ecosystem, velocity and average depth, river flooding, water quality, and economic and political factors. (JRH)

  17. Middle Miocene coralline algal facies from the NW Transylvanian Basin (Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelaru, Ramona; Bucur, Ioan I.; Sǎsǎran, Emanoil; Bǎlc, Ramona; Tǎmas, Tudor

    2016-04-01

    The current study focus on the coralline algae from the Middle Miocene limestones in NW Transylvania to provide an outline for their systematics and palaeoecology. The investigated samples were collected from three carbonate outcrops: Vǎlenii Șomcutei, Ciolt 1 and Ciolt 2, named after the respective localities situated in the vicinity of the Țicǎu-Preluca Mountains (NW Romania). The microfacies analysis suggest shallowing upward tendency in middle to proximal shelf environments. The coralline algae are present in the carbonate successions as detritus, branches, crusts and rhodoliths. The Vǎlenii Șomcutei section shows a depositional model where large and spheroidal rhodoliths develop in high energy conditions, most probably generated by storm waves. The sections from the Ciolt area are distinguished by the presence of green algae in association with the encrusting and geniculate coralline specimens. The identified species belong to Ord. Corallinales (Hydrolithon, Spongites, Lithophyllum, Jania), Hapalidales (Lithothamnion and Mesophyllum) and Sporolithales (Sporolithon). In the taxonomic identification of coralline red algae we used as many diagnostic features as possible, known from the description of present - day species, such as: shape of epithallial cells and roof morphology for melobesioids; presence/absence of a layer of elongated cells below sporangial compartments and number of cells in paraphyses for sporolithoids. The identified coralline algal assemblages are discussed according to different paleoenvironmental conditions (paleo-depth, hydrodynamic energy) and then compared with similar fossil assemblages and recent analogs like modern maërl and rhodolith pavements. The study of the calcareous nannoplankton assemblages from the Vǎlenii Șomcutei section [1] and the presence of previously dated tuffite intercalations of Dej Tuff [2] in the two sections near the Ciolt village confirm the Badenian age (NN5) of these deposits. [1] Chelaru R., S

  18. Sexual behaviour and sexual and reproductive health education: a cross-sectional study in Romania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Up-to-date, genuine sexual and reproductive health (SRH) education programmes have been possible in Romania only since communism collapsed in 1990. Since 2006, Romania has had no national strategy in this field. Under current global circumstances (high labour mobility, internationally mixed marriages), issues previously considered solely national have become worldwide concerns. Methods In 2011–2012, 1215 respondents homogeneously distributed on background, gender, educational level and age group (18–74) were sampled. This article uses a 96-item questionnaire about family and SRH, presenting results on nine items: first intercourse (FI), virginity, knowing first sexual partner, safe sex, number of sexual partners and sexual education. The data were analysed using Pearson chi-square tests and latent class analysis. Results Some participants (7.2%) engaged in FI at age 15 or earlier. The average age at FI was lower for men (18.08), for individuals with a lower education level (18.07) and for those in rural areas (18.27), compared with that for women, those with more education and those in urban areas, respectively. The average age at FI was over 2.5 years lower for people aged 18–24 (16.99) than for those aged 60–74 (p < 0.001). More than 60% were not married or partnered with their FI partner, and 17.8% engaged in FI less than a month after meeting their partner. Less than one-fourth practiced safe sex at FI, with higher proportions for the urban sample, those with an average level of education and those aged 18–35 (p < 0.001). Higher average numbers of sexual partners were found among men (6.56, compared with 2.37 among women), in urban areas (5.07, compared with 3.75 in rural areas) and among those with higher levels of education (p < 0.005). On average, subjects first received information on SRH at 15.39 years of age, with only 10% listing the school, doctors or medics as a source. Conclusions Unsafe sex, early initiation of

  19. Landslides and fortified settlements as valuable geoheritage sites in the Moldavian Plateau, North-Eastern Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niculita, Mihai; Bucci, Francesco; Santangelo, Michele; Ciprian Margarint, Mihai

    2016-04-01

    Landslides are widespread natural phenomena that shape the earth surface. As such, they are part of the environment where people live, playing an important role as natural hazard, but also making a place peculiar for its specific morphology. Nowadays, like in the past, people living in hilly to mountainous areas have always had to face landslides. In the Eastern Carpathians lowlands, landslides have carved a landscape with inaccessible escarpments tens of meters high, providing old populations with panoramic and naturally defensive places to build their settlements. This interaction produced an association of landslide morphologies and archaeological remains that is unique in Romaina. In this study, we present the case of chalcolitic and thraco-getic (6.5 ka BP to 500 BP) fortified settlements, for which landslides provided a favorable place for their construction on one hand, and acted as a natural hazard on the other hand. In the Moldavian Plateau, North-Eastern Romania, more than 50 sites were identified on structural plateaus bounded by wide scarps of Pleistocene landslides, on cuesta ridges bounded by scarps of Holocene landslides, or situated on hillslopes, on erosional remnants of landslide bodies. For nine out of the 50 sites, we produced accurate geomorphological landslide inventories, mapping more than 500 landslides starting from high resolution LiDAR DEM derived images. Such inventories provide information on landslide type and relative ages (very old, old, recent landslides) based on the morphological appearance of each slope failure. Analysis of the relations between the sites hosting the fortified settlements, their archaeological remains and very old landslides distribution, provides evidences that landslide scarps and their deposits were used by these populations as defensive sites. In particular, the scarps were used as natural walls, allowing to save material and manpower required to erect walls on the gentle and open parts of the sites. Besides

  20. New cosmic rays experiments in the underground laboratory of IFIN-HH from Slanic Prahova, Romania

    SciTech Connect

    Mitrica, Bogdan; Stanca, Denis; Brancus, Iliana; Margineanu, Romul; Blebea-Apostu, Ana-Maria; Gomoiu, Claudia; Saftoiu, Alexandra; Toma, Gabriel; Gherghel-Lascu, Alexandru; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, Mihai; Rebel, Heinigerd; Haungs, Andreas; Sima, Octavian

    2015-02-24

    Since 2006 a modern laboratory has been developed by IFIN-HH in the underground of Slanic Prahova salt ore. This work presents a short review of previous scientific activities performed in the underground laboratory, in parallel with some plans for the future. A mobile detector for cosmic muon flux measurements has been set up at IFIN-HH, Romania. The device is used to measure the muon flux on different locations at the surface and underground and it consists of two detection layers, each one including four large scintillator plates. A new rotatable detector for measurements of the directional variation of the muon flux has been designed and it is presently under preliminary tests. Built from four layers of sensitive material and using for collecting the signals and directing them to the micro PMTs a new technique, through optical fibers instead wave length shifters, it allows an easy discrimination of the moun flux on the arrival directions of muons. Combining the possibility to rotate and the directionality properties, the underground muon detector is acting like a muon tomography device, being able to scan, using cosmic muons, the rock material above the detector. In parallel new detection system based on SiPM will be also installed in the following weeks. It should be composed by four layers, each layer consisting in 4 scintillator plates what we consider in the following as a module of detection. For this purpose, first two scintillator layers, with the optical fibers positioned on perpendicular directions are put in coincidence with other two layers, 1 m distance from the first two, with similar optical fiber arrangement, thus allowing reconstructing muon trajectory. It is intended also to design and construct an experimental device for the investigation of such radio antennas and the behavior of the signal in rock salt at the Slanic salt mine in Romania. Another method to detect high energy neutrinos is based on the detection of secondary particles resulting

  1. β-Thalassemia Haplotypes in Romania in the Context of Genetic Mixing in the Mediterranean Area.

    PubMed

    Cherry, Laudy; Calo, Carla; Talmaci, Rodica; Perrin, Pascale; Gavrila, Lucian

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this meta-study was to investigate β-thalassemia (β-thal) mutations and their chromosomal background in order to highlight the origin and spread of thalassemia alleles in the European and Mediterranean areas. Screening of more than 100 new Romanian β-thal alleles was also conducted. The results suggest an ancient introduction of mutations at codon 39 (C > T) (HBB: c.118C > T) and IVS-I-6 (T > C) (HBB: c.92 + 6T > C) in Romania. A comparative study was performed based on restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) haplotypes associated with β-thal mutations in Romania and in Mediterranean countries. Each common β-thal allele from different populations exhibits a high degree of haplotype similarity, a sign of a clear unicentric origin for the IVS-I-110 (G > A) (HBB: c.93-21G > A), IVS-I-6, IVS-II-745 (C > G) (HBB: c.316-106C > G) and codon 39 mutations (the 17a [+ - - - - + +], 13c [ - + + - - - +], 17c [ + - - - - - +] and 14a [- + + - + + + ] ancestral RFLP background, respectively), followed by recurrent recombination events. This study also showed that geographic distances played a major role in shaping the spread of the predominant β-thal alleles, whereas no genetic boundaries were detected between broad groups of populations living in the Middle East, Europe and North Africa. The analyses revealed some discrepancies concerning Morocco and Serbia, which suggest some peculiar genetic flows. Marked variations in β(A) were observed between Southeast Asia and the Mediterranean, whereas a relative genetic homogeneity was found around the Mediterranean Basin. This homogeneity is undoubtedly the result of the high level of specific historic human migrations that occurred in this area.

  2. Georeferenced historical forest maps of Bukovina (Northern Romania) - important tool for paleoenvironmental analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa, Ionel; Crǎciunescu, Vasile; Candrea, Bogdan; Timár, Gábor

    2010-05-01

    The historical region of Bukovina is one of the most forested areas of Romania. The name itself, beech land, suggest the high wood resources located here. The systematic wood exploitation started in Bukovina during the Austrian rule (1775 - 1918). To fully asses the region's wood potential and to make the exploitation and replantation processes more efficient, the Austrian engineers developed a dedicated mapping system. The result was a series of maps, surveyed for each forest district. In the first editions, we can find maps crafted at different scales (e.g. 1:50 000, 1: 20 000, 1: 25 000). Later on (after 1900), the map sheets scale was standardized to 1: 25 000. Each sheet was accompanied by a register with information regarding the forest parcels. The system was kept after 1918, when Bukovina become a part of Romania. For another 20 years, the forest districts were periodically surveyed and the maps updated. The basemap content also changed during time. For most of the maps, the background was compiled from the Austrian Third Military Survey maps. After the Second World War, the Romanian military maps ("planurile directoare de tragere") were also used. The forest surveys were positioned using the Austrian triangulation network with the closest baseline at Rădăuţi. Considered lost after WWII, an important part of this maps were recently recovered by a fortunate and accidental finding. Such informations are highly valuable for the today forest planners. By careful studying this kind of documents, a modern forest manager can better understand the way forests were managed in the past and the implications of that management in today's forest reality. In order to do that, the maps should be first georeferenced into a known coordinate system of the Third Survey and integrated with recent geospatial datasets using a GIS environment. The paper presents the challenges of finding and applying the right informations regarding the datum and projection used by the

  3. Heavy metals in soils from Baia Mare mining impacted area (Romania) and their bioavailability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roba, Carmen; Baciu, Calin; Rosu, Cristina; Pistea, Ioana; Ozunu, Alexandru

    2015-04-01

    Keywords: heavy metals, soil contamination, bioavailability, Romania The fate of various metals, including chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, mercury, cadmium, and lead, and metalloids, like arsenic, antimony, and selenium, in the natural environment is of great concern, particularly in the vicinity of former mining sites, dumps, tailings piles, and impoundments, but also in urban areas and industrial centres. Most of the studies focused on the heavy metal pollution in mining areas present only the total amounts of metals in soils. The bioavailable concentration of metals in soil may be a better predictor for environmental impact of historical and current dispersion of metals. Assessment of the metal bioavailability and bioaccessibility is critical in understanding the possible effects on soil biota. The bioavailability of metals in soil and their retention in the solid phase of soil is affected by different parameters like pH, metal amount, cation-exchange capacity, content of organic matter, or soil mineralogy. The main objectives of the present study were to determine the total fraction and the bioavailable fraction of Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn from soil in a well-known mining region in Romania, and to evaluate the influence of soil pH on the metal bioavailability in soil. The heavy metal contents and their bioavailability were monitored in a total of 50 soil samples, collected during June and July 2014 from private gardens of the inhabitants from Baia-Mare area. The main mining activities developed in the area consisted of non-ferrous sulphidic ores extraction and processing, aiming to obtain concentrates of lead, copper, zinc and precious metals. After 2006, the metallurgical industry has considerably reduced its activity by closing or diminishing its production capacity. The analysed soil samples proved to have high levels of Pb (50 - 830 mg/kg), Cu (40 - 600 mg/kg), Zn (100 - 700 mg/kg) and Cd (up to 10 mg/kg). The metal abundance in the total fraction is

  4. In Romania, exposure to Toxoplasma gondii occurs twice as often in swine raised for familial consumption as in hunted wild boar, but occurs rarely if ever among fattening pigs raised in confinement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A wide range of swine husbandry practices prevail in Romania: pork for human consumption is derived from hunting wild boar, from household rearing of small numbers of backyard pigs, and from indoor, industrial production of swine raised in confinement indoors. Romania thus represents an instructive ...

  5. One river, many stories

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interactive exhibition elements include opportunity to add stories, drawings, and place names to maps of the river; record & share your vision for the river with public television. The Duluth Art Institute will present the kick-off event for the month-long media focus around ...

  6. Umpqua River Entrance, Oregon.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    In a letter from the Portland District dated 28 March 1975, subject: ’Tidal Hydraulics Committee Services - Umpqua River Entrance, Oregon,’ the...Committee on Tidal Hydraulics was requested to assist in the evaluation of navigation problems at the entrance to the Umpqua River. As a result, the 80th

  7. Alaska Glaciers and Rivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image on October 7, 2007, showing the Alaska Mountains of south-central Alaska already coated with snow. Purple shadows hang in the lee of the peaks, giving the snow-clad land a crumpled appearance. White gives way to brown on the right side of the image where the mountains yield to the lower-elevation Susitna River Valley. The river itself cuts a silver, winding path through deep green forests and brown wetlands and tundra. Extending from the river valley, are smaller rivers that originated in the Alaska Mountains. The source of these rivers is evident in the image. Smooth white tongues of ice extend into the river valleys, the remnants of the glaciers that carved the valleys into the land. Most of the water flowing into the Gulf of Alaska from the Susitna River comes from these mountain glaciers. Glacier melt also feeds glacier lakes, only one of which is large enough to be visible in this image. Immediately left of the Kahiltna River, the aquamarine waters of Chelatna Lake stand out starkly against the brown and white landscape.

  8. Mississippi River. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchberg, Wendy

    Based on novels and books about the Mississippi River, this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that the Mississippi River has made its mark on America's geography, commerce, and literature; and that booktalks provide a summary, explains what kind of reader the book will appeal to, and may also contain a oral…

  9. First record of autochthonous canine ehrlichiosis caused by Ehrlichia canis in Romania.

    PubMed

    Morar, Doru; Dărăbuş, Gheorghe; Imre, Mirela; Ilie, Marius Stelian; Imre, Kálmán

    2015-06-01

    This case study describes the first genetically confirmed and clinically manifested autochthonous Ehrlichia canis infection in a 9-year-old female mixed-breed dog from Romania. Health screening of the dog included clinical examination, evaluation of stained peripheral blood smear and hematologic variables, as well as serologic testing and molecular analysis. Clinical signs included fever, apathy, dehydration, pale mucous membranes, and weakness. The microscopic examination of the blood smear and immunologic assays for Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and E canis antibodies, and for Dirofilaria immitis antigen yielded negative results. Hematologic abnormalities included moderate nonregenerative anemia, leucopenia with neutropenia, and moderate thrombocytopenia. The biochemical abnormalities identified were hypoalbuminemia, and mildly increased serum enzyme activities of AST and ALT. In addition, increased urea and creatinine levels associated with low urine specific gravity and proteinuria were also present. Nested PCR amplification of the partial E canis 16S rRNA gene demonstrated the presence of this rickettsial pathogen in the dog's blood, which subsequently was confirmed through sequencing based on the 100% homology with GenBank deposited E canis isolates. After specific treatment with doxycycline (10 mg/kg, orally, SID) for one month, the proteinuria, and hematologic and serum biochemical abnormalities with the exception of mild azotemia resolved. This report supports the geographical expansion of canine ehrlichiosis caused by E canis in nonendemic regions of Europe.

  10. Assessing legal advocacy to advance Roma health in Macedonia, Romania, and Serbia.

    PubMed

    Abdikeeva, Alphia; Ezer, Tamar; Covaci, Alina

    2013-12-01

    Across Europe, Roma suffer extreme marginalisation, negatively impacting their health. Many cannot access healthcare at all. For others, the health system is a hostile place. At the same time, good legal frameworks are in place to protect health rights, and there is increasing recognition of systemic violations experienced by Roma. Essential to building on this momentum and closing the gap between standards and implementation is Roma ability to conduct legal advocacy Since 2010, the Open Society Foundations has supported Roma engagement in Macedonia, Romania and Serbia in the following advocacy strategies: i) legal empowerment, ii) documentation and advocacy, iii) media advocacy, and iv) strategic litigation. This article presents a framework developed to evaluate the effectiveness of these efforts and a baseline against which outcomes can be measured in a few years. The evaluation framework provides a qualitative assessment of Roma capacity, accountability for violations, changes in law and practice, and impact on communities. Findings reveal that that presently Roma lack knowledge of their rights and rarely challenge violations. Accountability in healthcare is practically non-existent. However, where legal advocacy has been used, violations decrease, and power dynamics shift. As healthcare becomes more responsive to communities, it also better serves non-Roma citizens.

  11. Crustal Structure Within the Southeastern Carpathian Arc, Transylvanian Basin, Romania from Teleseismic Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanciu, A. C.; Russo, R. M.; Mocanu, V. I.; Munteanu, L.

    2013-05-01

    We present new measurements of receiver functions at 4 broadband stations temporarily deployed in the Transylvanian Basin within the Carpathian Arc, Romania. Receiver functions can reveal depths to sharp crustal seismic velocity boundaries, which in complex tectonic environments such as the study area provide a good diagnostic for the regional tectonics. As a result of Africa (Adria) collision with Europe and subduction of a part of Tethys Ocean, Tisza-Dacia and Alcapa blocks escaped the collision and were emplaced in an embayment of this ocean, and form today the basement of the Transylvanian Basin. The collision of these terranes with the European continent culminated in the formation, in the Romanian part, of the Eastern Carpathians at the contact between the Transylvanian Basin and the East European Platform along the Tornquist-Teisseyre Suture zone, and of Southern Carpathians at the contact with Moesian Platform. In the foreland of the Carpathian Bend Zone, connecting the two mountain chains, in a very constrained area, a high velocity seismic body was contoured by hypocenters between 70 and 200 km depth. We constructed receiver functions using teleseismic P waves generated by events located between 30 and 95 degrees epicentral angle using the method of Ligorria and Ammon (1999) for individual measurements. We used the H-K method of Zhu and Kanamori (2000) to derive boundary interfaces depths and receiver function complexity from binned stacks. Preliminary results show a relatively shallow Moho depth beneath the Transylvanian Basin.

  12. Archaeal and bacterial diversity in two hot spring microbial mats from a geothermal region in Romania.

    PubMed

    Coman, Cristian; Drugă, Bogdan; Hegedus, Adriana; Sicora, Cosmin; Dragoş, Nicolae

    2013-05-01

    The diversity of archaea and bacteria was investigated in two slightly alkaline, mesophilic hot springs from the Western Plain of Romania. Phylogenetic analysis showed a low diversity of Archaea, only three Euryarchaeota taxa being detected: Methanomethylovorans thermophila, Methanomassiliicoccus luminyensis and Methanococcus aeolicus. Twelve major bacterial groups were identified, both springs being dominated by Cyanobacteria, Chloroflexi and Proteobacteria. While at the phylum/class-level the microbial mats share a similar biodiversity; at the species level the geothermal springs investigated seem to be colonized by specific consortia. The dominant taxa were filamentous heterocyst-containing Fischerella, at 45 °C and non-heterocyst Leptolyngbya and Geitlerinema, at 55 °C. Other bacterial taxa (Thauera sp., Methyloversatilis universalis, Pannonibacter phragmitetus, Polymorphum gilvum, Metallibacterium sp. and Spartobacteria) were observed for the first time in association with a geothermal habitat. Based on their bacterial diversity the two mats were clustered together with other similar habitats from Europe and part of Asia, most likely the water temperature playing a major role in the formation of specific microbial communities that colonize the investigated thermal springs.

  13. [The epidemiological characteristics of influenza in a large urban center (B.) of Romania in 1991].

    PubMed

    Ciufecu, C; Busuioc, C; Ionescu, V; Murgoci, R; Hîra, L; Stoicescu, A; Guguianu, E; Dorobanţu, S; Velea, L; Cîrlan, D

    1992-01-01

    The peculiarities of the 1991 influenza epidemics in a big urban centre (B.) of Romania were evaluated through clinical and epidemiological active survey and laboratory assays. The results revealed the low rate of endemic morbidity and its significant risk during the fourth trimester as compared to the first, the important implication of the infant population in maintaining the endemic morbidity and of the less than one year old children in the seasonal peaks of the first and fourth trimesters. The laboratory assays revealed the simultaneous circulation but with variable intensity of type A(H3N2), A(H1N1) and B influenza viruses, inducing a high humoral specific protection level in the population. So the risk is low of an important epidemics during 1992. The opportunity is discussed of the prophylactic vaccination with type A(H3N2), A(H1N1) and B circulating strains of all high risk groups, especially of the preschool children from collectivities.

  14. An early modern human from Romania with a recent Neanderthal ancestor

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Qiaomei; Hajdinjak, Mateja; Moldovan, Oana Teodora; Constantin, Silviu; Mallick, Swapan; Skoglund, Pontus; Patterson, Nick; Rohland, Nadin; Lazaridis, Iosif; Nickel, Birgit; Viola, Bence; Prüfer, Kay; Meyer, Matthias; Kelso, Janet; Reich, David; Pääbo, Svante

    2015-01-01

    Neanderthals are thought to have disappeared in Europe ~39,000–41,000 years ago but they have contributed one to three percent of the DNA of present-day people in Eurasia1. Here, we analyze DNA from a 37,000–42,000-year-old2 modern human from Peştera cu Oase, Romania. Although the specimen contains small amounts of human DNA, we use an enrichment strategy to isolate sites that are informative about its relationship to Neanderthals and present-day humans. We find that on the order of six to nine percent of the genome of the Oase individual is derived from Neanderthals, more than any other modern human sequenced to date. Three chromosomal segments of Neanderthal ancestry are over 50 centimorgans in size, indicating that this individual had a Neanderthal ancestor as recently as four to six generations back. However, the Oase individual does not share more alleles with later Europeans than with East Asians, suggesting that the Oase population did not contribute substantially to later humans in Europe. PMID:26098372

  15. Mercury in soil and perennial plants in a mining-affected urban area from Northwestern Romania.

    PubMed

    Senilă, Marin; Levei, Erika A; Senilă, Lăcrimioara R; Oprea, Gabriela M; Roman, Cecilia M

    2012-01-01

    The mercury (Hg) concentrations were evaluated in soils and perennial plants sampled in four districts of Baia Mare city, a historical mining and ore processing center in Northwestern Romania. The results showed that the Hg concentration exceeded the guideline value of 1.0 mg kg(-1) dry weight (dw) established by the Romanian Legislation, in 24 % of the analyzed soil samples, while the median Hg concentration (0.70 mg kg(-1) dw) was lower than the guideline value. However, Hg content in soil was generally higher than typical values in soils from residential and agricultural areas of the cities all over the world. The median Hg concentration was 0.22 mg kg(-1) dw in the perennial plants, and exceeded the maximum level of Hg (0.10 mg kg(-1)) established by European Directive 2002/32/EC for plants used in animal feed in order to prevent its transfer and further accumulation in the higher levels of food chain. No significant correlations were found between soil Hg and other analyzed metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) resulted from the non-ferrous smelting activities, probably due to the different physicochemical properties, that led to different dispersion patterns.

  16. A new ion beam facility based on a 3 MV Tandetron™ at IFIN-HH, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burducea, I.; Straticiuc, M.; Ghiță, D. G.; Moșu, D. V.; Călinescu, C. I.; Podaru, N. C.; Mous, D. J. W.; Ursu, I.; Zamfir, N. V.

    2015-09-01

    A 3 MV Tandetron™ accelerator system has been installed and commissioned at the "Horia Hulubei" National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering - IFIN-HH, Măgurele, Romania. The main purpose of this machine is to strengthen applied nuclear physics research ongoing in our institute for more than four decades. The accelerator system was developed by High Voltage Engineering Europa B.V. (HVE) and comprises three high energy beam lines. The first beam line is dedicated to ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques: Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry - RBS, Nuclear Reaction Analysis - NRA, Particle Induced X-ray and γ-ray Emission - PIXE and PIGE and micro-beam experiments - μ-PIXE. The second beam line is dedicated to high energy ion implantation experiments and the third beam line was designed mainly for nuclear cross-sections measurements used in nuclear astrophysics. A unique feature, the first time in operation at an accelerator facility is the Na charge exchange canal (CEC), which is used to obtain high intensity beams of He- of at least 3 μA. The results of the acceptance tests demonstrate the huge potential of this new facility in various fields, from IBA to radiation hardness studies and from medical or environmental applications to astrophysics. The main features of the accelerator are presented in this paper.

  17. An Integrated Geospatial System for earthquake precursors assessment in Vrancea tectonic active zone in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, Maria A.; Savastru, Roxana S.; Savastru, Dan M.

    2015-10-01

    With the development of space-based technologies to measure surface geophysical parameters and deformation at the boundaries of tectonic plates and large faults, earthquake science has entered a new era. Using time series satellite data for earthquake prediction, it is possible to pursue the behaviors of earthquake precursors in the future and to announce early warnings when the differences between the predicted value and the observed value exceed the pre-define threshold value. Starting with almost one week prior to a moderate or strong earthquake a transient thermal infrared rise in LST of several Celsius degrees (oC) and the increased OLR values higher than the normal have been recorded around epicentral areas, function of the magnitude and focal depth, which disappeared after the main shock. Also are recorded associated geomagnetic and ionospheric distrurbances. Vrancea tectonic active zone in Romania is characterized by a high seismic hazard in European- Mediterranean region, being responsible of strong or moderate intermediate depth and normal earthquakes generation on a confined epicentral area. Based on recorded geophysical parameters anomalies was developed an integrated geospatial system for earthquake precursors assessment in Vrancea active seismic zone. This system integrates derived from time series MODIS Terra/Aqua, NOAA-AVHRR, ASTER, Landsat TM/ETM satellite data multi geophysical parameters (land surface temperature -LST, outgoing long-wave radiation- OLR, and mean air temperature- AT as well as geomagnetic and ionospheric data in synergy with in-situ data for surveillance and forecasting of seismic events.

  18. Dobrogeria aegyssensis, a new early Spathian (Early Triassic) coelacanth from North Dobrogea (Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavin, Lionel; Grădinaru, Eugen

    2014-06-01

    The Early Triassic witnessed the highest taxic diversity of coelacanths (or Actinistia), a clade with a single living genus today. This peak of diversity is accentuated here with the description of a new coelacanth discovered in the lower Spathian (Upper Olenekian, Lower Triassic) cropping out in the Tulcea Veche (Old Tulcea) promontory, in the city of Tulcea, in North Dobrogea, Romania. The bone remains were preserved in a block of limestone, which was chemically dissolved. The resulting 3D and matrix-free ossifications correspond mostly to elements of the skull and branchial apparatus. Posterior parietals, postparietal with associated prootic and basisphenoid allow a precise description of the neurocranium. Ossifications of the lower jaw, together with branchial and pectoral elements, complete the description of this coelacanth and support the coining of a new generic and specific name, Dobrogeria aegyssensis. A phylogenetic analysis of actinistians with the new species recovers clades which were found in most recent analyses, i.e. the Sasseniidae, the Laugiidae, the Coelacanthiformes, the Latimerioidei, the Mawsoniidae and the Latimeriidae, and identifies the new taxon as a non-latimerioid coelacanthiform.

  19. Oral lichen planus: A retrospective study of 633 patients from Bucharest, Romania

    PubMed Central

    Parlatescu, Ioanina; Gheorghe, Carmen; Tovaru, Mihaela; Costache, Mariana; Sardella, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In this retrospective study, patients’ medical records were reviewed to investigate the profiles of 633 OLP cases in a group of Romania. Material and Methods: In this retrospective study, the following clinical data were obtained from the medical charts of patients: gender, age, clinical presentation of OLP, site affected, presence of symptoms, extraoral manifestations of lichen planus, presence of systemic diseases, and history of medications. Results: Most (78.67%) OLP patients were female and the mean age at presentation was 52 years. The white type of the disease (reticular/papular/plaque lesions) was the main form encountered in this sample (48.97%). Among patients with available hepatitis C virus test results, 9.6% were serum-positive. OLP was associated with gallbladder disease (i.e. cholecystitis, cholelithiasis) in 19% of patients. Six patients (0.95%) developed squamous cell carcinoma at a site with confirmed OLP lesions. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, no similar study has been conducted in a Romanian population. The present investigation revealed the predominance of OLP among middle-aged white women and the prevalence of bilateral involvement of the buccal mucosa with reticular white lesions. Anti-HCV circulating antibodies were more common in patients with OLP than in the general population and, notably, OLP was associated with gallbladder disease (cholecystitis, cholelithiasis) in 19% of patients. Key words:Oral lichen planus, oral mucosal diseases, retrospective study. PMID:23229244

  20. Low level arsenic contaminated water consumption and birth outcomes in Romania-An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Michael S; Neamtiu, Iulia A; Surdu, Simona; Pop, Cristian; Anastasiu, Doru; Appleton, Allison A; Fitzgerald, Edward F; Gurzau, Eugen S

    2016-01-01

    Women are exposed to drinking water with low arsenic concentrations (<10.0μg/L) worldwide, yet little work has been done to assess the risk. To begin to address this data gap, we conducted an exploratory study of birth outcomes in Timis County, Romania. We prospectively followed 122 women with singleton deliveries, for whom we constructed individual exposure indicators using self-reported water consumption weighted by arsenic measured in drinking water sources. There were no overall confounder-adjusted effects for arsenic exposure on birth outcomes. Yet, higher average arsenic (10μg/L) was associated with a -2.45 lower birth weight Z-score (P=0.021) and a -1.17 shorter birth length Z-score (P=0.029) among smokers. Higher average iAs (10μg/L) was also associated with smaller ponderal index in boys (P=0.023). Our results suggest smoking may potentiate an otherwise benign arsenic exposure. A larger, more definitive biomarker-based study is needed to investigate the potential risks in conjunction with smoking.

  1. Radon and radium concentration in water from North-West of Romania and the estimated doses.

    PubMed

    Moldovan, M; Benea, V; Niţă, D C; Papp, B; Burghele, B D; Bican-Brişan, N; Cosma, C

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, the measurements of radon were carried out using the LUK-VR system based on radon gas measurements with Lucas cells. The radium concentration in water was determined, with the same device, immediately after was established the radon equilibrium with radium. The results presented here are from a survey carried out in the N-W region of Transylvania (Romania) in which were investigated the radon concentrations in natural (spring, well and surface) and drinking (tap) waters. The results showed radon concentrations within the range of 0.4-187.3 Bq l(-1) with an average value of 15.9 Bq l(-1) whereas radium concentration varied between 0.05 and 0.825 Bq l(-1) with an average value of 0.087 Bq l(-1) for all types of water covered within this survey. The corresponding annual effective ingestion dose due to radon and radium from water was determined from drinking water used by the population inhabiting the area.

  2. Changes in the type of precipitation and associated cloud types in Eastern Romania (1961-2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manea, Ancuta; Birsan, Marius-Victor; Tudorache, George; Cărbunaru, Felicia

    2016-03-01

    Recent climate change is characterized (among other things) by changes in the frequency of some meteorological phenomena. This paper deals with the long-term changes in various precipitation types, and the connection between their variability and cloud type frequencies, at 11 meteorological stations from Eastern Romania over 1961-2008. These stations were selected with respect to data record completeness for all considered variables (weather phenomena and cloud type). The meteorological variables involved in the present study are: monthly number of days with rain, snowfall, snow showers, rain and snow (sleet), sleet showers and monthly frequency of the Cumulonimbus, Nimbostratus and Stratus clouds. Our results show that all stations present statistically significant decreasing trends in the number of days with rain in the warm period of the year. Changes in the frequency of days for each precipitation type show statistically significant decreasing trends for non-convective (stratiform) precipitation - rain, drizzle, sleet and snowfall -, while the frequencies of rain shower and snow shower (convective precipitation) are increasing. Cloud types show decreasing trends for Nimbostratus and Stratus, and increasing trends for Cumulonimbus.

  3. Traces of radioactive 131I in rainwater and milk samples in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mărgineanu, Romul; Mitrică, Bogdan; Apostu, Ana; Gomoiu, Claudia

    2011-07-01

    Measurements of 131I (T1/2 = 8.04 days) activities have been performed in the IFIN HH (Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering) underground laboratory situated in Unirea salt mine, Slănic-Prahova, Romania. The rainwater samples were collected starting on 27 March from Braşov and Slănic-Prahova. Also sheep and goat milk samples were collected in the Slănic, Braşov and Iaşi areas and measurements were subsequently made on them. The measurements on the samples were made at the IFIN HH's underground laboratory in an ultra-low radiation background, using a high resolution gamma-ray spectrometer equipped with a GeHP (hyperpure) detector having a full width at half-maximum of 1.80 keV at 1332.48 keV for the second 60Co gamma ray and a relative efficiency of 22.8%. The results show a specific activity of 131I from < 0.063 to 0.75 Bq l - 1 for rain. In the milk samples the specific activity varied from < 0.12 to 5.2 Bq l - 1.

  4. Erwinia amylovora strains isolated in Romania from outbreaks of fire blight disease: phenotypic characterization.

    PubMed

    Măruţescu, Luminita; Sesan, Tatiana-Eugenia; Manole, Filofteia

    2008-01-01

    The fire blight disease was described for the first time in Romania, in 1992. Since then by continuous spreading, this disease has caused severe damages of the fruit trees production, particularly of the pear and quince orchards in different regions of the country, being advantaged by certain weather conditions (high temperatures and humidity). An epidemiological surveillance of this disease that was spreading over different regions of the country, has been instituted since 2002. During the year 2005 a total number of 785 samples were collected from the affected areas. The isolation and identification of Erwinia (E.) amylovora were performed on NSA and King's media and by indirect immunofluorescence (IFA) assay using monoclonal antiserum. Four hundred and fifty strains proved levan-type colonies on sucrose nutrient-agar and were IF-positive. Biochemical characterization of 46 selected strains, by help of the API 20E system, revealed a great homogeneity, for 80% of the strains, belonging to one of the two major API 20E profiles described for E. amylovora, the 20% remaining strains showing minor differences. Hypersensitivity test performed on tobacco leaves was positive. Six of the selected strains were susceptible to streptomycin. The present study can be considered as the first attempt of phenotypic characterization of E. amylovora strains isolated from Romanian area.

  5. Analysis of predictors related to soil contamination in recreational areas of Romania.

    PubMed

    Gagiu, C; Pica, E M; Querol, X; Botezan, C S

    2015-12-01

    Soil contamination in recreational areas can considerably affect children's health, as they are the segment of the population most sensitive to anthropogenic contamination. Soil contamination in recreational areas is influenced by a number of factors such as type and age of the recreational area, nearby traffic intensity, proximity to industrial areas, presence of vegetation, level of usage, treated wood structures, and the extent of maintenance operations carried out in the area. These can most often be observed during a simple site visit. The purpose of the present research is to analyze to which extent the presence of these factors can trigger an alarm signal, highlighting soil contamination in urban recreational areas. In this regard, soil contamination was scaled using the integrated pollution index applied on nine distinctive contaminants (As, Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Hg, Co, Ni, Mg) identified using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Multiple linear regression analysis was performed in order to assess predictors of soil contamination. The research was carried out in a number of 88 recreational areas, parks, and playgrounds from 19 Romanian cities, revealing the fact that proximity to industrial areas and intensive traffic had statistically significant effects on soil contamination. Furthermore, it was observed that in 78 out of the 88 analyzed locations, the concentrations of contaminants exceeded the guidelines established through national legislation, thus confirming the presumption that high concentrations of contaminants exist in the parks and playgrounds of Romania.

  6. Established Population of the Invasive Mosquito Species Aedes albopictus in Romania, 2012-14.

    PubMed

    Prioteasa, Liviu F; Dinu, Sorin; Fălcuţă, Elena; Ceianu, Cornelia S

    2015-06-01

    During an entomological investigation carried out in Bucharest and surroundings in fall of 2012, 45 adult mosquitoes (38 females and 7 males) of Aedes albopictus were collected in a neighborhood from the southern area of the city. The morphological identification of the species was further confirmed by sequencing 2 mitochondrial DNA markers: the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 genes. Aedes albopictus was collected again in 2013 in the same area from July until October. During late summer the species was found also in another location in the city, downtown Bucharest. Larvae were found in water barrels and other types of household containers, as well as in rain catch basins. In 2014, following a nuisance complaint of a Bucharest inhabitant, the entomological investigation found aggressive Ae. albopictus adults on his property that harbored many mosquito larvae in container-type breeding habitats. These findings are the 1st records of this invasive species and of its breeding population in Romania, and show maintenance of the species over 2 winter seasons. Surveillance of the species outside the area of the capital city was not performed, therefore it is not known whether Ae. albopictus has been introduced in other regions of the country. The presence of Ae. albopictus has been reported every year (2012-14) to competent public health authorities, stressing on the importance of surveillance and of implementation of control measures.

  7. Using fish communities to assess streams in Romania: Initial development of an index of biotic integrity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angermeier, P.L.; Davideanu, G.

    2004-01-01

    Multimetric biotic indices increasingly are used to complement physicochemical data in assessments of stream quality. We initiated development of multimetric indices, based on fish communities, to assess biotic integrity of streams in two physiographic regions of central Romania. Unlike previous efforts to develop such indices for European streams, our metrics and scoring criteria were selected largely on the basis of empirical relations in the regions of interest. We categorised 54 fish species with respect to ten natural-history attributes, then used this information to compute 32 candidate metrics of five types (taxonomic, tolerance, abundance, reproductive, and feeding) for each of 35 sites. We assessed the utility of candidate metrics for detecting anthropogenic impact based on three criteria: (a) range of values taken, (b) relation to a site-quality index (SQI), which incorporated information on hydrologic alteration, channel alteration, land-use intensity, and water chemistry, and (c) metric redundancy. We chose seven metrics from each region to include in preliminary multimetric indices (PMIs). Both PMIs included taxonomic, tolerance, and feeding metrics, but only two metrics were common to both PMIs. Although we could not validate our PMIs, their strong association with the SQI in each region suggests that such indices would be valuable tools for assessing stream quality and could provide more comprehensive assessments than the traditional approaches based solely on water chemistry.

  8. Stable isotopes composition of precipitation fallen over Cluj-Napoca, Romania, between 2009-2012

    SciTech Connect

    Puscas, R.; Feurdean, V.; Simon, V.

    2013-11-13

    The paper presents the deuterium and oxygen 18 content from All precipitations events, which have occured over Cluj-Napoca, Romania from 2009 until 2012. Time series for δ{sup 2}H and δ{sup 18}O values point out both the seasonal variation that has increased amplitude reflecting the continental character of the local climate as well as dramatic variations of isotopic content of successive precipitation events, emphasizing the anomalous values. These fluctuations are the footprint of the variations and trends in climate events. Local Meteoric Water Line (LMWL), reflecting the δ{sup 2}H - δ{sup 18}O correlation, has the slop and the intercept slightly deviated from the GMWL, indicating that the dominant process affecting local precipitations are close to the equilibrium condition. LMWL has a slope smaller then that of the GMWL in the warm season due to lower humidity and a slope closest to the slop of GMWL in cold season with high humidity. The δ{sup 2}H and δ{sup 18}O values both for the precipitation events and monthly mean values are positively correlated with the temperature values with a very good correlation factor. The values of δ{sup 2}H and δ{sup 18}O are not correlated with amount of precipitation, the 'amount effect' of isotopic composition of precipitation is not observed for this site.

  9. Building an optomechatronics group in a young university in Western Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duma, Virgil-Florin; Hutiu, Gheorghe; Cira, Octavian; Demian, Dorin; Mnerie, Corina; Kaposta, Iosif

    2014-07-01

    We present our experience regarding the establishing of an interdisciplinary group with Optics as one of its main topic at the Aurel Vlaicu University of Arad (UAVA) - linked with the improvement through research of our educational activities. The 3OM Group (in Opto-Mechatronics, Optical Metrology, and Optics and Mechanics) is described in its evolution from optomechanics to photonics, the latter with a focus on OCT (Optical Coherence Tomography) - with the national and the international collaborations established, with universities from Romania, Europe and USA. While the research directions of the 3OM Group are presented, they are linked with the educational components implemented in the various subjects we teach, for both undergraduate and graduate students, both in Mechanical and in Electrical Engineering. The main effort is to integrate education and research, to move teaching beyond the classical aspects to put the stress on hands-on-experiments, as well as on research-based activities - even with undergraduates. The main goals of this approach are to obtain an early orientation towards innovation and discovery, with a taste for novelties and with a clear focus on international standards. While this account is only one of many, it offers our experience in passing through the difficulties of developing both research and education in Optics in a young university in an emergent economy in Eastern Europe.

  10. Low level arsenic contaminated water consumption and birth outcomes in Romania - an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, Michael S.; Neamtiu, Iulia A.; Surdu, Simona; Pop, Cristian; Anastasiu, Doru; Appleton, Allison A.; Fitzgerald, Edward F.; Gurzau, Eugen S.

    2015-01-01

    Women are exposed to drinking water with low arsenic concentrations (<10.0 μg/L) worldwide, yet little work has been done to assess the risk. To begin to address this data gap, we conducted an exploratory study of birth outcomes in Timis County, Romania. We prospectively followed 122 women with singleton deliveries, for whom we constructed individual exposure indicators using self-reported water consumption weighted by arsenic measured in drinking water sources. There were no overall confounder-adjusted effects for arsenic exposure on birth outcomes. Yet, higher average arsenic (10 μg/L) was associated with a −2.45 lower birth weight Z-score (P=0.021) and a −1.17 shorter birth length Z-score (P=0.029) among smokers. Higher average iAs (10 μg/L) was also associated with smaller ponderal index in boys (P=0.023). Our results suggest smoking may potentiate an otherwise benign arsenic exposure. A larger, more definitive biomarker-based study is needed to investigate the potential risks in conjunction with smoking. PMID:26518419

  11. Opportunistic pathogens and faecal indicators in drinking water associated biofilms in Cluj, Romania.

    PubMed

    Farkas, A; Drăgan-Bularda, M; Ciatarâş, D; Bocoş, B; Tigan, S

    2012-09-01

    Biofouling occurs without exception in all water systems, with undesirable effects such as biocorrosion and deterioration of water quality. Drinking water associated biofilms represent a potential risk to human health by harbouring pathogenic or toxin-releasing microorganisms. This is the first study investigating the attached microbiota, with potential threat to human health, in a public water system in Romania. The presence and the seasonal variation of viable faecal indicators and opportunistic pathogens were investigated within naturally developed biofilms in a drinking water treatment plant. Bacterial frequencies were correlated with microbial loads in biofilms as well as with physical and chemical characteristics of biofilms and raw water. The biofilms assessed in the current study proved to be extremely active microbial consortia. High bacterial numbers were recovered by cultivation, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Aeromonas hydrophila, intestinal enterococci and Clostridium perfringens. There were no Legionella spp. detected in any biofilm sample. Emergence of opportunistic pathogens in biofilms was not significantly affected by the surface material, but by the treatment process. Implementation of a water safety plan encompassing measures to prevent microbial contamination and to control biofouling would be appropriate.

  12. Elaboration of climatic maps using GIS. Case study: Olãnesti drainage basin, Romania.

    PubMed

    Tîrlã, Laura

    2012-04-01

    Creating precise climatic maps (temperature and precipitation map especially) on small areas such as drainage basins or landform units is always very useful for ecology of plants, distribution of vegetation and also different types of agricultural land. The geographic information system (GIS) analysis of several key-factors (aspect and slope of terrain, insolation degree, thermal gradient, geology and structure of landforms) offers the necessary tools to operate with in order to create an accurate climatic map. This method was applied in order to create a map showing the distribution of temperatures in the Olanesti drainages basin, a 235 km2 area located at middle latitude, in Romania. After creating the DEM, aspect and slope of the terrain, reclassifying categories and calculating the thermal gradient, a map showing the distribution of the annual mean temperature is obtained. Other climatic parameters could be calculated for small areas too, with precise results. These demonstrate that not only elevation and mathematical location of an area are important factors in the distribution of temperature, but also the aspect, the gradient, the insolation, the type of rock and the structure.

  13. Microbiological investigation of methane- and hydrocarbon-discharging mud volcanoes in the Carpathian Mountains, Romania.

    PubMed

    Alain, Karine; Holler, Thomas; Musat, Florin; Elvert, Marcus; Treude, Tina; Krüger, Martin

    2006-04-01

    Paclele Mici is a terrestrial mud volcano field located in the Carpathian Mountains (Romania), where thermal alteration of sedimentary organic compounds leads to methane, higher hydrocarbons and other petroleum compounds that are continuously released into the environment. The hydrocarbons represent potential substrates for microorganisms. We studied lipid biomarkers, stable isotope ratios, the effect of substrate (methane, other organic compounds) addition and 16S rRNA genes to gain insights into the hitherto unknown microbial community at this site. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that bacteria were much more abundant than archaea. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rDNA clone sequences indicated the presence of bacterial and archaeal lineages generally associated with the methane cycle (methanogens, aerobic and anaerobic methanotrophs), the sulfur cycle (sulfate reducers), and groups linked to the anaerobic degradation of alkanes or aromatic hydrocarbons. The presence of sulfate reducers, methanogens and methanotrophs in this habitat was also confirmed by concurrent surveys of lipid biomarkers and their isotopic signatures. Incubation experiments with several common and complex substrates revealed the potential of the indigenous microbial community for sulfate reduction, methanogenesis and aerobic methanotrophy. Additionally, consistently to the detection of methane-oxidizing archaea (ANME) and 13C-depleted archaeal lipids, a weak but significant activity of anaerobic methane oxidation was measured by radiotracer techniques and in vitro. This survey is the first to report the presence and activity of ANME in a terrestrial environment.

  14. Aristolochic acid exposure in Romania and implications for renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Turesky, Robert J; Yun, Byeong Hwa; Brennan, Paul; Mates, Dana; Jinga, Viorel; Harnden, Patricia; Banks, Rosamonde E; Blanche, Helene; Bihoreau, Marie-Therese; Chopard, Priscilia; Letourneau, Louis; Lathrop, G Mark; Scelo, Ghislaine

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aristolochic acid (AA) is a nephrotoxicant associated with AA nephropathy (AAN) and upper urothelial tract cancer (UUTC). Whole-genome sequences of 14 Romanian cases of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) recently exhibited mutational signatures consistent with AA exposure, although RCC had not been previously linked with AAN and AA exposure was previously reported only in localised rural areas. Methods: We performed mass spectrometric measurements of the aristolactam (AL) DNA adduct 7-(deoxyadenosin-N6-yl) aristolactam I (dA-AL-I) in nontumour renal tissues of the 14 Romanian RCC cases and 15 cases from 3 other countries. Results: We detected dA-AL-I in the 14 Romanian cases at levels ranging from 0.7 to 27 adducts per 108 DNA bases, in line with levels reported in Asian and Balkan populations exposed through herbal remedies or food contamination. The 15 cases from other countries were negative. Interpretation: Although the source of exposure is uncertain and likely different in AAN regions than elsewhere, our results demonstrate that AA exposure in Romania exists outside localised AAN regions and provide further evidence implicating AA in RCC. PMID:26657656

  15. Future Forest Cover Change Scenarios with Implications for Landslide Risk: An Example from Buzau Subcarpathians, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, Žiga; Boerboom, Luc; Glade, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    This study focuses on future forest cover change in Buzau Subcarpathians, a landslide prone region in Romania. Past and current trends suggest that the area might expect a future increase in deforestation. We developed spatially explicit scenarios until 2040 to analyze the spatial pattern of future forest cover change and potential changes to landslide risk. First, we generated transition probability maps using the weights of evidence method, followed by a cellular automata allocation model. We performed expert interviews, to develop two future forest management scenarios. The Alternative scenario (ALT) was defined by 67 % more deforestation than the Business as Usual scenario (BAU). We integrated the simulated scenarios with a landslide susceptibility map. In both scenarios, most of deforestation was projected in areas where landslides are less likely to occur. Still, 483 (ALT) and 276 (BAU) ha of deforestation were projected on areas with a high-landslide occurrence likelihood. Thus, deforestation could lead to a local-scale increase in landslide risk, in particular near or adjacent to forestry roads. The parallel process of near 10 % forest expansion until 2040 was projected to occur mostly on areas with high-landslide susceptibility. On a regional scale, forest expansion could so result in improved slope stability. We modeled two additional scenarios with an implemented landslide risk policy, excluding high-risk zones. The reduction of deforestation on high-risk areas was achieved without a drastic decrease in the accessibility of the areas. Together with forest expansion, it could therefore be used as a risk reduction strategy.

  16. Future Forest Cover Change Scenarios with Implications for Landslide Risk: An Example from Buzau Subcarpathians, Romania.

    PubMed

    Malek, Žiga; Boerboom, Luc; Glade, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    This study focuses on future forest cover change in Buzau Subcarpathians, a landslide prone region in Romania. Past and current trends suggest that the area might expect a future increase in deforestation. We developed spatially explicit scenarios until 2040 to analyze the spatial pattern of future forest cover change and potential changes to landslide risk. First, we generated transition probability maps using the weights of evidence method, followed by a cellular automata allocation model. We performed expert interviews, to develop two future forest management scenarios. The Alternative scenario (ALT) was defined by 67% more deforestation than the Business as Usual scenario (BAU). We integrated the simulated scenarios with a landslide susceptibility map. In both scenarios, most of deforestation was projected in areas where landslides are less likely to occur. Still, 483 (ALT) and 276 (BAU) ha of deforestation were projected on areas with a high-landslide occurrence likelihood. Thus, deforestation could lead to a local-scale increase in landslide risk, in particular near or adjacent to forestry roads. The parallel process of near 10% forest expansion until 2040 was projected to occur mostly on areas with high-landslide susceptibility. On a regional scale, forest expansion could so result in improved slope stability. We modeled two additional scenarios with an implemented landslide risk policy, excluding high-risk zones. The reduction of deforestation on high-risk areas was achieved without a drastic decrease in the accessibility of the areas. Together with forest expansion, it could therefore be used as a risk reduction strategy.

  17. An early modern human from Romania with a recent Neanderthal ancestor.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiaomei; Hajdinjak, Mateja; Moldovan, Oana Teodora; Constantin, Silviu; Mallick, Swapan; Skoglund, Pontus; Patterson, Nick; Rohland, Nadin; Lazaridis, Iosif; Nickel, Birgit; Viola, Bence; Prüfer, Kay; Meyer, Matthias; Kelso, Janet; Reich, David; Pääbo, Svante

    2015-08-13

    Neanderthals are thought to have disappeared in Europe approximately 39,000-41,000 years ago but they have contributed 1-3% of the DNA of present-day people in Eurasia. Here we analyse DNA from a 37,000-42,000-year-old modern human from Peştera cu Oase, Romania. Although the specimen contains small amounts of human DNA, we use an enrichment strategy to isolate sites that are informative about its relationship to Neanderthals and present-day humans. We find that on the order of 6-9% of the genome of the Oase individual is derived from Neanderthals, more than any other modern human sequenced to date. Three chromosomal segments of Neanderthal ancestry are over 50 centimorgans in size, indicating that this individual had a Neanderthal ancestor as recently as four to six generations back. However, the Oase individual does not share more alleles with later Europeans than with East Asians, suggesting that the Oase population did not contribute substantially to later humans in Europe.

  18. Archaeometric studies of Byzantine pottery from Hârşova-Carsium, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugoi, Roxana; Talmaţchi, Cristina; Haitǎ, Constantin; Ceccato, Daniele

    2015-04-01

    A set of 36 ceramic shards excavated at Hârşova, Romania, dated to the 11th century A.D., was investigated using Optical Microscopy (OM) and PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission). The study aimed at revealing the raw materials and the manufacturing techniques employed by the potters from the Lower Danube zone during the Byzantine period and to distinguish the local products from the supposedly imported ones. The division of the ceramic shards based on stylistic grounds was refined by the petrographic observations that identified four types of fabrics. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the PIXE data singled out two categories of ceramic: one made from kaolinitic clays and another produced from local sedimentary resources, with or without temper addition. Micro-PIXE scans of the interfaces between the green glaze and the underlying ceramic body indicated a high Pb content in the decorative layers. Glazing was made through the application of PbO onto a non-calcareous clay body. The petrographic and compositional data interpreted in correlation with archaeological information led to the characterization of a representative assemblage of ceramic finds from the Byzantine period, subject rarely tackled in the scientific literature.

  19. Consensus statement on the management of patients with HCV infection in Romania

    PubMed Central

    Ancuța, Ioan

    2017-01-01

    Background HCV direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have made treatment easier for both patients and healthcare practitioners, but have also brought new challenges in terms of patient management and monitoring prior to, during, and after treatment. Methods To sum up and unify the clinical experience of Romanian DAA prescribing physicians, we have organized a Consensus Meeting in November 2016 in Bucharest, Romania. Consensus Statement The Consensus Meeting has provided expert answers to ten significant questions regarding HCV infection, namely: How do we diagnose patients with HCV infection? How do we stage liver disease in patients with HCV infection? How do we monitor patients with HCV infection prior to treatment? Which patients with HCV infection do we treat? When do we start treatment for HCV infection? What regimens do we use for treating HCV infection? How do we monitor patients with HCV infection during treatment? What adverse events should we expect during treatment of HCV infection and how do we prevent/manage them? How do we monitor patients with HCV infection after treatment? How do we expect the landscape of HCV to change in the following years? PMID:28331840

  20. 76 FR 51887 - Safety Zone; Patuxent River, Patuxent River, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Patuxent River, Patuxent River, MD AGENCY... safety zone during the ``NAS Patuxent River Air Expo '11,'' which consists of aerial practices, performance demonstrations and air shows, to be held over certain waters of the Patuxent River adjacent...

  1. 36 CFR 7.89 - New River Gorge National River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false New River Gorge National River. 7.89 Section 7.89 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.89 New River Gorge National River....

  2. Structured Coupling of Probability Loss Distributions: Assessing Joint Flood Risk in Multiple River Basins.

    PubMed

    Timonina, Anna; Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan; Pflug, Georg; Jongman, Brenden; Rojas, Rodrigo

    2015-11-01

    Losses due to natural hazard events can be extraordinarily high and difficult to cope with. Therefore, there is considerable interest to estimate the potential impact of current and future extreme events at all scales in as much detail as possible. As hazards typically spread over wider areas, risk assessment must take into account interrelations between regions. Neglecting such interdependencies can lead to a severe underestimation of potential losses, especially for extreme events. This underestimation of extreme risk can lead to the failure of riskmanagement strategies when they are most needed, namely, in times of unprecedented events. In this article, we suggest a methodology to incorporate such interdependencies in risk via the use of copulas. We demonstrate that by coupling losses, dependencies can be incorporated in risk analysis, avoiding the underestimation of risk. Based on maximum discharge data of river basins and stream networks, we present and discuss different ways to couple loss distributions of basins while explicitly incorporating tail dependencies. We distinguish between coupling methods that require river structure data for the analysis and those that do not. For the later approach we propose a minimax algorithm to choose coupled basin pairs so that the underestimation of risk is avoided and the use of river structure data is not needed. The proposed methodology is especially useful for large-scale analysis and we motivate and apply our method using the case of Romania. The approach can be easily extended to other countries and natural hazards.

  3. Late Holocene fluvial activity and correlations with dendrochronology of subfossil trunks: Case studies of northeastern Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rădoane, Maria; Nechita, Constantin; Chiriloaei, Francisca; Rădoane, Nicolae; Popa, Ionel; Roibu, Cătălin; Robu, Delia

    2015-06-01

    The main objective of this paper is to describe the late Holocene behaviour of rivers using an interdisciplinary approach combining fluvial geomorphology and subfossil trunk dendrochronology. The subfossil wood material collected along the rivers was investigated for dendrometric and dendrochronologic parameters. The research methods in these fields helped us to understand the effect of the fluvial environment on riparian trees and their records and helped in reconstructing the riparian palaeoenvironment. The study area consists of two rivers with different typologies but comparable sizes: the Moldova River, which features a braided to wandering channel in its lower reach, and the Siret River, which features a sinuous-meandering channel. Along the 100-km-long floodplain of the former and the 144-km-long floodplain of the latter, we found and sampled 77 subfossil trunks, of which 26 were subjected to 14C dating. The resulting data consist of floodplain facies mapping data, electric resistivity measurements, absolute dates, and dendrometric and dendrochronologic data. The results indicate that during a 100-year period, the two rivers were sensitive to climate change and anthropogenic effects, particularly a narrowing of the active channel by 76% in the braided channel and 38% in the sinuous-meandering channel. During the past 3300-3000 YBP, the Moldova River maintained its braided style, whereas the sinuous-meandering style has been characteristic of the Siret River for the previous 6800-4600 YBP. The two distinct fluvial environments are recorded in the dendrometric structure of the trunks buried in the channel-fill sediments. The braided fluvial environment was more effective in uprooting riparian trees and incorporating them in the floodplain deposits, whereas the sinuous-meandering style of stream effectively buried tree trunks in lateral accretion lobes. Absolute and dendrochronologic dating allowed for the reconstruction of timelines of the felling of the trees

  4. Why Not Extended Deterrence from Romania? U.S. European Phased Adaptive Approach (EPAA) and NATO’s Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) Site at Deveselu Air Base in Romania

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    kilometers, Iran’s tested solid-fuel Sajiil 2 and liquid-fuel Shahab 3 missiles readily can reach as far as Turkey, Greece, Bulgaria, and Romania.7...Efforts toward a Shahab 3 variant, also known as Shahab 3A, and the Ashura may realize a three-stage missile that ranges 3,700 kilometers, meaning...1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE December 2011 3 . REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Why

  5. Management of Spent Nuclear Fuel of Nuclear Research Reactor VVR-S at the National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biro, Lucian

    2009-05-01

    The Nuclear Research Reactor VVR-S (RR-VVR-S) located in Magurele-Bucharest, Romania, was designed for research and radioisotope production. It was commissioned in 1957 and operated without any event or accident for forty years until shut down in 1997. In 2002, by government decree, it was permanently shutdown for decommissioning. The National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH) is responsible for decommissioning the RR-VVR-S, the first nuclear decommissioning project in Romania. In this context, IFIN-HH prepared and obtained approval from the Romanian Nuclear Regulatory Body for the Decommissioning Plan. One of the most important aspects for decommissioning the RR-VVR-S is solving the issue of the fresh and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) stored on site in wet storage pools. In the framework of the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR), managed by the U.S. Department of Energy and in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Rosatom State Corporation, Romania repatriated all fresh HEU fuel to the Russian Federation in 2003 and the HEU SNF will be repatriated to Russia in 2009. With the experience and lessons learned from this action and with the financial support of the Romanian Government it will be possible for Romania to also repatriate the LEU SNF to the Russian Federation before starting the dismantling and decontamination of the nuclear facility. [4pt] In collaboration with K. Allen, Idaho National Laboratory, USA; L. Biro, National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control, Romania; and M. Dragusin, National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest-Magurele, Romania.

  6. Uranium in river water

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, M.R. ); Edmond, J.M. )

    1993-10-01

    The concentration of dissolved uranium has been determined in over 250 river waters from the Orinoco, Amazon, and Ganges basins. Uranium concentrations are largely determined by dissolution of limestones, although weathering of black shales represents an important additional source in some basins. In shield terrains the level of dissolved U is transport limited. Data from the Amazon indicate that floodplains do not represent a significant source of U in river waters. In addition, the authors have determined dissolved U levels in forty rivers from around the world and coupled these data with previous measurements to obtain an estimate for the global flux of dissolved U to the oceans. The average concentration of U in river waters is 1.3 nmol/kg, but this value is biased by very high levels observed in the Ganges-Brahmaputra and Yellow rivers. When these river systems are excluded from the budget, the global average falls to 0.78 nmol/kg. The global riverine U flux lies in the range of 3-6 [times] 10[sup 7] mol/yr. The major uncertainty that restricts the accuracy of this estimate (and that of all other dissolved riverine fluxes) is the difficulty in obtaining representative samples from rivers which show large seasonal and annual variations in runoff and dissolved load.

  7. No-tillage system applied to the sunflower (hybrid pioneer PR64E83) resistant to the tribenuron-methyl in the conditions from Romania.

    PubMed

    Sarpe, Nicolae; Poienaru, Stefan; Maschio, Mirco

    2007-01-01

    In the year 2006, the first experience with the NO-TILLAGE system for sunflower crops was organized in Romania, using the Pioneer PR64E83 sunflower hybrid resistant to the tribenuron-methyl herbicide. The experience took place in the Danube river flood plain, on an alluvial soil with a content between 3.1-4.5% and a content of clay of 34-40%. In the conventional system, in the fall of the year 2005, autumn ploughing was carried out, along with harrowing, and in spring the land was tilled two more times, using both the disk and the harrow. Before sowing, the land was prepared by using the combiner-machine. After the sunflower sprouted, three-time mechanical hoeing between the rows, as well as three-time manual hoeing on the sunflower row were performed. In the no-tillage system, no autumn ploughing, nor any other soil work were performed, and the sunflower was sowed directly, by using the Gaspardo seeder. Before sowing, the soil was covered in proportion of 70% by species of weeds of the Cirsum, Sonchus and Polygonum amphibium type. To destroy these species of weeds, 3 days before sowing, the soil was treated with the Roundup herbicide in a dose of 7 litres/ha. After the sunflower sprouted, when the plants had 4-5 leaves, the following sulphonylurea herbicides were applied post-emergently. (1) Express 50SG--which contains tribenuron-methyl (2) Granstar 75DF--which contains 75% tribenuron-methyl (3) Titus 25DF--which contains 25% rimsulfuron (4) Mistral--which contains 40 g/L nicosulfuron (5) Lintur 70WG--which contains 4.1% triasulfuron + 65.9% dicamba (6) Peak 75WG--which contains 75% prosulfuron The Express 50SG and Granstar 75DF herbicides were selective for the sunflower hybrid PR64E83, and the other herbicides although belonging o the same sulphonylurea group, they proved to have a very phytotoxic effect upon the sunflower crop. In the report, selectivity is presented depending on the dose of herbicide, weed control and sunflower production.

  8. Seismic investigations of the Earth's lithosphere and asthenosphere in two unique convergent margin settings: The Carpathians, Romania, and U.S. Cordillera, Idaho-Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanciu, Adrian Christian

    Proposed mechanisms for the unusual seismicity ~100 km southeast of the contact between the Transylvanian Basin and the Eastern Carpathians in Romania have included tearing and rollback of a subducted slab of oceanic lithosphere and gravitational instability and delamination of continental lithosphere. We examined the upper mantle fabrics using shear wave splitting of SK(K)S phases recorded at four broadband seismic stations in the Transylvanian Basin. Our results indicate a regional NW-SE splitting trend, with measurements that reflect an abrupt change from this regional flow field in the vicinity of the Vrancea body to a NE-SW trend that is consistent with redirection of mantle flow. Crustal thickness measurements show 28-30 km in the western part of the Transylvanian Basin, 34-39 km at the contact with the Eastern Carpathians, and 40-45 km further east. These results, along with previous estimates, constrain the locus of the inferred Miocene suture between the southeastern-most portion of the Tisza-Dacia terrane and the East European Platform. The second convergent margin system represented here is in the North American Cordillera in Idaho and Oregon, where subduction and accretion of exotic terranes have modified the western margin of North America. We used teleseismic receiver functions from 85 broadband stations to analyze the geometry of the Salmon River suture zone, the western Idaho shear zone, and the Grouse Creek-Farmington zone boundary. Results show a clear break in crustal thickness from ~28 km beneath the accreted terranes to 36 km east of the surface expression of the WISZ. A strong mid-crustal converter at ~20 km depth is consistent with tectonic wedging during accretion of the Blue Mountains terranes. An eastern Moho offset of ~6 km is consistent with the Archean Grouse Creek-Farmington zone boundary. We used deep converted phases generated beneath the study area to image the mantle transition zone. We observe a continuous high amplitude P410s

  9. Fatty acids in berry lipids of six sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L., subspecies carpatica) cultivars grown in Romania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A systematic mapping of the phytochemical composition of different sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) fruit subspecies is still lacking. No data relating to the fatty acid composition of main lipid fractions from the berries of ssp. carpatica (Romania) have been previously reported. Results The fatty acid composition of the total lipids (oils) and the major lipid fractions (PL, polar lipids; FFA, free fatty acids; TAG, triacylglycerols and SE, sterol esters) of the oils extracted from different parts of six sea buckthorn berry subspecies (ssp. carpatica) cultivated in Romania were investigated using the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The dominating fatty acids in pulp/peel and whole berry oils were palmitic (23-40%), oleic (20-53%) and palmitoleic (11-27%). In contrast to the pulp oils, seed oils had higher amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (65-72%). The fatty acid compositions of TAGs were very close to the compositions of corresponding seed and pulp oils. The major fatty acids in PLs of berry pulp/peel oils were oleic (20-40%), palmitic (17-27%), palmitoleic (10-22%) and linoleic (10%-20%) acids, whereas in seeds PLs, PUFAs prevailed. Comparing with the other lipid fractions the SEs had the highest contents of saturated fatty acids (SFAs). The fatty acid profiles of the FFA fractions were relatively similar to those of TAGs. Conclusions All parts of the analyzed sea buckthorn berry cultivars (ssp. carpatica) exhibited higher oil content then the other European or Asiatic sea buckthorn subspecies. Moreover, the pulp/peel oils of ssp. carpatica were found to contain high levels of oleic acid and slightly lower amounts of linoleic and α-linolenic acids. The studied cultivars of sea buckthorn from Romania have proven to be potential sources of valuable oils. PMID:22995716

  10. Validation of EURO-CORDEX regional climate models in reproducing the variability of precipitation extremes in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Busuioc, Aristita

    2016-04-01

    EURO-CORDEX is the European branch of the international CORDEX initiative that aims to provide improved regional climate change projections for Europe. The main objective of this paper is to document the performance of the individual models in reproducing the variability of precipitation extremes in Romania. Here three EURO-CORDEX regional climate models (RCMs) ensemble (scenario RCP4.5) are analysed and inter-compared: DMI-HIRHAM5, KNMI-RACMO2.2 and MPI-REMO. Compared to previous studies, when the RCM validation regarding the Romanian climate has mainly been made on mean state and at station scale, a more quantitative approach of precipitation extremes is proposed. In this respect, to have a more reliable comparison with observation, a high resolution daily precipitation gridded data set was used as observational reference (CLIMHYDEX project). The comparison between the RCM outputs and observed grid point values has been made by calculating three extremes precipitation indices, recommended by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection Indices (ETCCDI), for the 1976-2005 period: R10MM, annual count of days when precipitation ≥10mm; RX5DAY, annual maximum 5-day precipitation and R95P%, precipitation fraction of annual total precipitation due to daily precipitation > 95th percentile. The RCMs capability to reproduce the mean state for these variables, as well as the main modes of their spatial variability (given by the first three EOF patterns), are analysed. The investigation confirms the ability of RCMs to simulate the main features of the precipitation extreme variability over Romania, but some deficiencies in reproducing of their regional characteristics were found (for example, overestimation of the mea state, especially over the extra Carpathian regions). This work has been realised within the research project "Changes in climate extremes and associated impact in hydrological events in Romania" (CLIMHYDEX), code PN II-ID-2011-2-0073, financed by the Romanian

  11. Comparing performances of heuristic and logistic regression models for a spatial landslide susceptibility assessment in Maramures, County, Northwestern Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mǎgut, F. L.; Zaharia, S.; Glade, T.; Irimuş, I. A.

    2012-04-01

    Various methods exist in analyzing spatial landslide susceptibility and classing the results in susceptibility classes. The prediction of spatial landslide distribution can be performed by using a variety of methods based on GIS techniques. The two very common methods of a heuristic assessment and a logistic regression model are employed in this study in order to compare their performance in predicting the spatial distribution of previously mapped landslides for a study area located in Maramureš County, in Northwestern Romania. The first model determines a susceptibility index by combining the heuristic approach with GIS techniques of spatial data analysis. The criteria used for quantifying each susceptibility factor and the expression used to determine the susceptibility index are taken from the Romanian legislation (Governmental Decision 447/2003). This procedure is followed in any Romanian state-ordered study which relies on financial support. The logistic regression model predicts the spatial distribution of landslides by statistically calculating regressive coefficients which describe the dependency of previously mapped landslides on different factors. The identified shallow landslides correspond generally to Pannonian marl and Quaternary contractile clay deposits. The study region is located in the Northwestern part of Romania, including the Baia Mare municipality, the capital of Maramureš County. The study focuses on the former piedmontal region situated to the south of the volcanic mountains Gutâi, in the Baia Mare Depression, where most of the landslide activity has been recorded. In addition, a narrow sector of the volcanic mountains which borders the city of Baia Mare to the north has also been included to test the accuracy of the models in different lithologic units. The results of both models indicate a general medium landslide susceptibility of the study area. The more detailed differences will be discussed with respect to the advantages and

  12. A case control study of risk factors associated with pulmonary tuberculosis in romania: experience at a clinical hospital of pneumology

    PubMed Central

    NDISHIMYE, PACIFIQUE; DOMOKOS, BIANCA; STILLO, JONATHAN; SEGHROUCHNI, FOUAD; MRABET, OULAYA; HOMORODEAN, DANIELA; POP, CARMEN MONICA; SADAK, ABDERRAHIM

    2017-01-01

    Background and aim Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major public health issue in Romania. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral risk factors for TB among hospitalized patients in Romania. Methods This is a case-control study conducted between March 1st 2014 and March 30th 2015 at Leon Daniello Clinical Hospital of Pneumology, Cluj Napoca. A total of 150 TB patients defined as “cases” were matched for age, sex and county of residence to 150 controls selected from patients attending the same hospital with respiratory diseases other than TB. Data collection was obtained through patient interviews using a structured questionnaire. Factors potentially associated with TB infection were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results Factors independently associated with TB were illiteracy (OR=2.42, 95% CI 1.09–5.37), unemployment (OR=2.08, 95% CI 1.23–3.53), low household income (OR=4.12, 95% CI 2.53–6.71), smoking (more than 20 cigarettes per day) (OR=2.12, 95% CI 1.20–3.74), poor knowledge of TB (OR=3.46, 95% CI 1.97–6.07), presence of TB patient in household (OR=4.35, 95% CI 1.42–13.36), prior TB treatment (OR=2.2, 95% CI 1.93–2.5) and diabetes (OR=3.32, 95% CI 1.36–8.08). Conclusion This study provided useful information that might help to develop and adapt effective policies for TB control in Romania. PMID:28246498

  13. PCR identification of five species from the Anopheles maculipennis complex (Diptera: Culicidae) in North-Eastern Romania.

    PubMed

    Ivanescu, Maria-Larisa; Acatrinei, Dumitru; Pavel, Ionuţ; Sulesco, Tatiana; Miron, Liviu

    2015-06-01

    The members of the Anopheles maculipennis complex have been incriminated for the transmission of the malaria in Europe, which was endemic until the middle of the century. The global warming and the intensification of the intercontinental travel constitute a risk of the re-emergence of the malaria in Europe, given the presence of the Anopheles vectors. The study has attempted the identification by using the PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) of the members of the Anopheles maculipennis complex from the North-eastern area of Romania from the city of Iaşi. In total there have been identified by using the PCR amplifying the ITS2 sequence of the ribosomal DNA, 217 specimens belonging to the complex of A. maculipennis among which: 58 A. atroparvus, 18 A. melanoon, 2 A. labranchiae, 52 A. maculipennis and 87 A. messeae. The ITS2 sequences of the ribosomal DNA have been compared to those of the species belonging to the A. maculipennis available in GenBank. The Species A. labranchiae is reported for the first time in Romania, being identified in the larval stage IV. The adaptation of a new species to the climatic conditions present in the North-eastern Romania, confirms the phenomenon of global warming and also the intensification of the travelling. As a result of the analysis of the A. labranchiae sequence, this one corresponds to the extent of 96% to the species from Italy, registered in GenBank, given the fact that a high number of the inhabitants of the municipality of Iaşi are working in this country.

  14. Nile River Delta, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The Nile River Delta of Egypt (30.0N, 31.0E) irrigated by the Nile River and its many distributaries, is some of the richest farm land in the world and home to some 45 million people, over half of Egypt's population. The capital city of Cairo is at the apex of the delta. Just across the river from Cairo can be seen the ancient three big pyramids and sphinx at Giza and the Suez Canal is just to the right of the delta.

  15. Hood River Production Master Plan.

    SciTech Connect

    O'Toole, Patty

    1991-07-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council's 1987 Columbia River Fish and Wildlife Program authorizes the development of artificial production facilities to raise chinook salmon and steelhead for enhancement in the Hood, Umatilla, Walla Walla, Grande Ronde and Imnaha rivers and elsewhere. On February 26, 1991 the Council agreed to disaggregate Hood River from the Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project, and instead, link the Hood River Master Plan (now the Hood River Production Plan) to the Pelton Ladder Project (Pelton Ladder Master Plan 1991).

  16. Geospatial and In-Situ Monitoring Data for Seismic Hazard Assessment in Vrancea Area, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, Maria

    Seismic hazard for almost half of the Romanian territory is determined by the Vrancea ac-tive seismic region, placed beneath the southern Carpathian Arc in Romania at conjunction of four tectonic blocks, which lie on the edge of the Eurasian plate. Vrancea zone is considered one of the most seismically active area in Europe, being characterized by strong intermediate depth seismicity in a very limited and well defined hypocentral region.Space-time anomalies of Earth's emitted radiation (radon in underground water and soil , thermal infrared in spec-tral range measured from satellite months to weeks before the occurrence of earthquakes etc.), ionospheric and electromagnetic anomalies have been interpreted, by several authors, as pre-seismic signals.Satellite remote sensing provides a systematic, synoptic framework for advancing scientific knowledge of the Earth complex system of geophysical phenomena which often lead to seismic hazards. Space-based geodetic measurements of the solid Earth with the Global Positioning System, combined with ground-based seismological measurements and satellite re-mote sensing information are yielding the principal data for modeling lithospheric processes and for accurately estimating the distribution of potentially damaging strong ground motions which is critical for earthquake engineering applications. Moreover, integrated with interfero-metric synthetic aperture radar, these measurements provide spatially continuous observations of deformation with sub-centimeter accuracy. Seismic and in situ monitoring, geodetic mea-surements, high-resolution digital elevation models (e.g. from InSAR, IKONOS and digital photogrammetry) and imaging spectroscopy (e.g. using ASTER, MODIS and Hyperion) are contributing significantly to seismic hazard risk assessment by revealing new insights in the understanding of the kinematics and dynamics of the complex plate boundary system and long-term deformation in relation with earthquake activity. Several

  17. The relationship between caves minerals and hypogene speleogenesis along the Cerna Valley (SW Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onac, B. P.; Sumrall, J.; Tamas, T.; Povara, I.; Veres, D.; Darmiceanu, V.; Lascu, C.

    2009-04-01

    Over 100 caves are known to develop in the Jurassic and Cretaceous limestone that outcrops on both sides of the Cerna Valley in southwestern Romania. High temperature anomalies are rather uncommon in the cave environment; however, in certain caves in the lower part of Cerna Valley one can measure air temperatures as high as 40°C. This situation is due to the presence of thermal water pooling or flowing through the caves or to the hot steam that rises along fractures from deeper thermal water pools. During the long evolution of the thermo-mineral activity along the Cerna Valley interaction has occurred on a wide scale between the cave host rock or/and cave sediments and the ascending hot steam or/and thermal solutions of all types (mainly sulfide-rich). The present work documents the products of these processes and record the occurrence of twenty-four secondary cave minerals (both of primarily or replacement origin) precipitated under particular cave environments. Among these, glauberite, apjonite, halotrichite, pickeringite, rapidcreekite, tamarugite, and darapskite are the most interesting. The mineral samples were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, electron microprobe, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscope analyses with the scope of linking the cave minerals with possible hypogene speleogenetic processes. The isotopic measurements (δ34S) performed on sulfate speleothems contribute valuable information on both minerals and caves origin. Apart from two minerals (i.e., calcite and gypsum), which were identified in every cave investigated so far, all the others fall into three distinct associations that have resulted from specific reactions under highly particular settings in Diana (sulfate-dominated association), Adam (phosphate-dominated), and Great Sălitrari (sulfate/phosphate/nitrate-rich association) caves. These three remarkable cave occurrences are presented along with morphological features that confirm the

  18. Fluid Evolution in the Nepheline Syenites of the Ditrau Alkaline Massif, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fall, A.; Bodnar, R. J.; Szabo, C.

    2004-12-01

    The Ditrau Alkaline Massif (Romania) is situated in the central part of the Eastern Carpathians, as an intrusion in the Bukovina nappe system of the Mesozoic crystalline zone. Nepheline syenites are the most abundant rocks occurring in the central and eastern part of the Massif, and representing the youngest intrusion of the complex. The nepheline syenite is composed of perthitic feldspars, nepheline, biotite, amphibole, pyroxene and titanite as primary minerals, and sodalite, cancrinite, calcite, analcite as secondary minerals formed at the expense of nepheline. Petrographic observations and fluid inclusion studies were performed on nepheline syenites in order to examine the effect of residual magmatic fluids on the alteration of nepheline to secondary minerals listed above. The alteration of nepheline to secondary minerals is obvious from textural relationships and comparison of the compositions of the minerals. Fluid inclusion studies provide evidence for the role of highly saline fluids in the incongruent transformation reactions (nepheline to sodalite and/or cancrinite and/or analcite). The fluids, in most cases, can be modeled by the H2O-NaCl system with various NaCl contents; however inclusions with more complex fluid (containing also K, Ca, CO3, etc. besides H2O and NaCl) composition are abundant in the nepheline. The alteration process is supported by the presence of fluid inclusions in cancrinite, showing lower salinity compared to those in nepheline. During the crystallization period of the nepheline syenites the rock was in equilibrium with a salty solution whose salinity increased with time, mostly by the loss of H2O to produce H2O-bearing minerals like amphiboles and micas. One possible interpretation of the fluid inclusions and textural observations is that nepheline alteration to sodalite, cancrinite and analcite was associated with increasing salinity of the fluids with time.

  19. Fluid evolution in the nepheline syenites of the Ditrău Alkaline Massif, Transylvania, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fall, András; Bodnar, Robert J.; Szabó, Csaba; Pál-Molnár, Elemér

    2007-05-01

    The Ditrău Alkaline Massif is an intrusion into the Bucovina nappe system that is part of the Mesozoic crystalline zone located in Transylvania, Romania, in the Eastern Carpathians. Nepheline syenites are the most abundant rocks in the central and eastern part of the Massif, and represent the last major intrusion of the complex. Fluid inclusions in nepheline, aegirine and albite were trapped at magmatic conditions on or below the H 2O-saturated nepheline syenite solidus at about 400-600 °C and 2.5-5 kbars. Early nepheline, and to a lesser extent albite, were altered by highly saline fluids to produce cancrinite, sodalite and analcime, during this process cancrinite also trapped fluid inclusions. The fluids, in most cases, can be modeled by the H 2O-NaCl system with varying salinity; however inclusions with more complex fluid composition (containing K, Ca, CO 3, etc., in addition to NaCl) are common. Raman spectroscopic analyses of daughter minerals confirm the presence of alkali-carbonate fluids in some of the earliest inclusions in nepheline, aegirine and albite. During crystallization, the melts exsolved a high salinity, carbonate-rich magmatic fluid that evolved to lower salinity as crystallization progressed. Phases that occur early in the paragenesis contain high-salinity inclusions while late phases contain low-salinity inclusions. The salinity trend is consistent with experimental data for the partitioning of chlorine between silicic melt and exsolved aqueous fluid at about 2.0 kbars. The activity of water ( aH 2O ) in the melt increases during crystallization, resulting in the formation of hydrous phases during late-stage crystallization of the nepheline syenites.

  20. Origin of mafic and ultramafic cumulates from the Ditrău Alkaline Massif, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pál-Molnár, Elemér; Batki, Anikó; Almási, Enikő; Kiss, Balázs; Upton, Brian G. J.; Markl, Gregor; Odling, Nicholas; Harangi, Szabolcs

    2015-12-01

    Mafic-ultramafic cumulates enclosed in gabbroic-dioritic rocks form part of the Mesozoic Ditrău Alkaline Massif in the Eastern Carpathians, Romania. The poikilitic olivine- and pyroxene-rich and nearly mono mineralic hornblendite rocks display typical cumulate textures with early crystallised olivine (Fo75-73), diopside and augite. In the early stages of their genesis the amphibole was intercumulus whilst in later stages it acquired cumulus status as the fractionating magma evolved. Using major and trace element compositions of minerals and whole-rock samples the origin of these cumulates is determined and the parental magma composition and depth of emplacement are calculated. Cumulus clinopyroxene has more primitive composition than intercumulus amphibole suggesting closed system fractionation for the evolution of poikilitic olivine- and pyroxene-rich cumulates. The evolution of the amphibole-rich mesocumulates is more clearly the result of closed system crystallisation dominated by the precipitation of clinopyroxene and amphibole cumulus crystals. Lamprophyre dykes of the Ditrău Alkaline Massif are proposed to reflect multiple basanitic parental magma batches from which the cumulus olivine and clinopyroxene crystallised. Relative to these dykes the calculated equilibrium melts for intercumulus amphibole in the cumulates was more primitive whilst that for the cumulus amphibole was more evolved. The calculated crystallisation temperature and pressure of ~ 1000-1050 °C and ~ 0.7 GPa, based on the composition of the amphiboles, indicate crystallisation at lower crustal depths. Rare earth element compositions are consistent with an intra-plate tectonic setting.

  1. Hurst exponent of very long birth time series in XX century Romania. Social and religious aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotundo, G.; Ausloos, M.; Herteliu, C.; Ileanu, B.

    2015-07-01

    The Hurst exponent of very long birth time series in Romania has been extracted from official daily records, i.e. over 97 years between 1905 and 2001 included. The series result from distinguishing between families located in urban (U) or rural (R) areas, and belonging (Ox) or not (NOx) to the orthodox religion. Four time series combining both criteria, (U,R) and (Ox, NOx), are also examined. A statistical information is given on these sub-populations measuring their XX-th century state as a snapshot. However, the main goal is to investigate whether the "daily" production of babies is purely noisy or is fluctuating according to some non trivial fractional Brownian motion, - in the four types of populations, characterized by either their habitat or their religious attitude, yet living within the same political regime. One of the goals was also to find whether combined criteria implied a different behavior. Moreover, we wish to observe whether some seasonal periodicity exists. The detrended fluctuation analysis technique is used for finding the fractal correlation dimension of such (9) signals. It has been first necessary, due to two periodic tendencies, to define the range regime in which the Hurst exponent is meaningfully defined. It results that the birth of babies in all cases is a very strongly persistent signal. It is found that the signal fractal correlation dimension is weaker (i) for NOx than for Ox, and (ii) or U with respect to R. Moreover, it is observed that the combination of U or R with NOx or OX enhances the UNOx, UOx, and ROx fluctuations, but smoothens the RNOx signal, thereby suggesting a stronger conditioning on religiosity rituals or rules.

  2. Fluid evolution in the Baia Mare epithermal gold/polymetallic district, Inner Carpathians, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grancea, Luminita; Bailly, Laurent; Leroy, Jacques; Banks, David; Marcoux, Eric; Milési, Jean; Cuney, Michel; André, Anne; Istvan, Dumitru; Fabre, Cécile

    2002-08-01

    The Baia Mare district (Romania) represents a complex segment of the Neogene/Quaternary, subduction-related, volcanic chain of the Carpathians. In this province, the calc-alkaline volcanism and associated mineralization are closely related to a major strike-slip fault and an underlying pluton. The ore deposits of the district have many features typical of low-sulfidation (or adularia-sericite) epithermal deposits. The combination of fluid-inclusion microthermometry, Raman spectroscopy, bulk crush-leach analysis, laser ablation-optical emission spectrometry (LA-OES) of individual fluid inclusions and stable isotope data has been used to characterize the ore-forming solutions involved with gold/polymetallic mineralization in three of the largest deposits. Ore fluids at Baia Sprie, Cavnic and Sasar deposits had temperatures of 320 to 150 °C and salinities in the range 0-21 wt% NaCl equiv. During phreatomagmatic activity, fracturing and periods of vein dilation, the pressure fluctuations may have caused boiling. The hydrothermal fluids were Na-K-Li-Ca chloride solutions with lesser amounts of SO4 and F. The Na/K ratios and the stable isotope compositions are consistent with equilibration of the fluids with country rocks at progressively lower temperatures. The halogen ratios (Br/Cl×103 in the range 0.13-1.21), together with sulfur isotopic systematics (δ34S=0.3-5.2 per mil), are consistent with a dominantly magmatic origin of the solutes, and probably of the ore fluids themselves.

  3. Rockmagnetism of a loess-paleosol deposit from the Black Sea shore (Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Necula, Cristian; Dimofte, Daniela; Panaiotu, Cristian George

    2015-04-01

    A detailed rock magnetic investigation of a new loess/paleosol deposit located on the Black Sea shore, near the village of Costinesti (Dobrogea Plateau, Romania) is presented. The studied section, around 12 m thick, has five paleosols and loess layers To investigate the climatic control on magnetic granulometry of soft magnetic minerals we use several grain-size and concentration-dependent proxies (magnetic susceptibility and its frequency dependence, anhysteretic remanent magnetization, isothermal remanent magnetization, hysteresis properties and FORC distributions) and an unmixing model for isothermal remanent magnetization curves. The contribution of hematite and goethite to the magnetic mineralogy of the bulk samples was determined analyzing high field (up to 8T) isothermal remanence acquisition curves after AF demagnetization. The palaeosol layers from the Costinesti deposits experienced significant pedogenic alteration, resulting in high amounts of ultrafine grained SP, grains at SP/SD threshold, stable SD grains and PSD magnetite /maghemite grains. The loess layers in the Costinesti sequence are dominated by MD and/or PSD oxidized magnetite probably of aeolian origin. The unmixing model for IRM curves shows the presence of two components peaking at ~ 21 mT and ~50mT. The first coercivity component is produced by pedogenesis during interglacial and interstadial periods. The second coercivity component is of aeolian origin, being dominant in loess layers. High -field remanence measurements show that hematite contribution is enhanced in paleosols indicating a pedogenic origin. Relative goethite contribution by contrast shows high values in loess and low contribution in paleosols pointing to an eolian origin of goethite in Romanian loess. A time series for magnetic susceptibility was generated using the Match-2.3 software (Lisiecki and Lisiecki, 2002) and the stack of 57 globally distributed benthic δ18O records as the target curve (Lisiecki and Raymo, 2005

  4. Spatial Soil Temperature and Moisture Monitoring Across the Transylvanian Plain, in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusu, Teodor; Weindorf, David; Haggard, Beatrix; Moraru, Paula Ioana; Sopterean, Mara Lucia

    2011-01-01

    The Transylvanian Plain, Romania is an important region for agronomic productivity. However, limited soils data and adoption of best management practices hinder land productivity. Soil temperatures of the Transylvanian Plain were evaluated using a set of twenty datalogging stations positioned throughout the plain. Soil temperatures were monitored at the surface and at 10, 30, and 50 cm depths, and soil moisture was monitored at 10 cm. Preliminary results indicate that most soils of the Transylvanian Plain will have a mesic temperature regime. However, differences in seasonal warming and cooling trends across the plain were noted. These have important implications for planting recommendations. Growing degree days (GDDs) are preferred over maturity ratings, because they can account for temperature anomalies. The crop being considered for this study was corn. The base temperature (BT) was set at 10oC, and the upper threshold was 30oC. Two methods were used to calculate GDDs; 1) minimum and maximum daily temperatures, and 2) 24 h of averaged temperature data. Growing degree days were run from 110-199 day of year (DOY) to represent approximate planting date to tasseling. The DOY that 694 accumulated growing degree days (AGDDs) was reached at each site was then analyzed to identify differences across the TP. Three sites failed to reach 694 AGDDs by DOY 199, and were excluded from comparisons to other results. Averaged values were used to create spline interpolation maps with ArcMap 9.2 (ESRI, Redlands, CA, USA). The southeastern portion of the TP was found to tassel a month earlier assuming a planting date of 109 DOY. Four DeKalb® corn hybrids were then selected based on GDDs to tasseling, drydown, drought tolerance, and insect resistance. With a better understanding of the GDD trends across the TP, more effective planting and harvesting could be accomplished by Romanian farmers to maximize agronomic production.

  5. Hydro-meteorological analysis of slope failures occurred in 2014 in the Ialomita Subcarpathians, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitu, Zenaida; Bogaard, Thom; Busuioc, Aristita; Burcea, Sorin; Sandric, Ionut; Adler, Mary-Jeanne

    2016-04-01

    This paper address a regional scale analysis of the rainfall induced landslides for 2014 storm events based on detailed hydro-meteorological data set in the Ialomita Subcarpathians. This area is located in the western part of the Curvature Subcarpathians, a complex geological and geomorphic unit in Romania. The high temporal frequency of landslide events from the last decades (1997, 1998, 2005, 2006, 2010, 2012 and 2014) leads us to consider that these processes play a major role in the evolution of this area's landscape where the most frequent landforms are: slumps, earth flows, mudflows and complex movements. The rainy period between April-August 2014 induced numerous flash-floods and landslides in this specific area that resulted to severe economic losses estimated to €8 million in Dambovita County. Spatially distributed rainfall during the main storm events estimated from adjusted radar-based precipitation was used to analysis the hydro-meteorological conditions that triggered or not landslides in the Ialomita Subcarpathians. Hydrological preconditions were assessed by hourly in situ soil moisture measurements at local scale and hydrological modelling at regional scale. ModClark semi distributed model implemented in HEC HMS software that integrates radar data was used to analysis catchment response to the main rainfall event that triggered the landslides in 2014. Analysis between rainfall, soil moisture conditions and direct runoff was performed for identifying the contribution of the hydro-meteorologic conditions to landsliding process in the Ialomita Subcarpathians. A detailed landslide inventory based on field mapping and visual interpretation of satellite and aerial images was completed with information from local authorities and mass media. Despite the limited number of landslide events, this study allows a detailed insight of understanding the influence of rainfall in landslide occurrence in this specific area with the aim of improving landslide

  6. Organochlorine pesticides in colostrums in case of normal and preterm labor (Iasi, Romania).

    PubMed

    Cioroiu, Mona; Tarcau, Doina; Mocanu, Raluca; Cucu-Man, Simona; Nechita, Bogdan; Luca, Maria

    2010-06-01

    Assessment of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in human body is important for human health because they have weak estrogenic or antiestrogenic effects and are considered endocrine disrupters. We used colostrum of women as indicator for levels of OCPs in human body for mothers with normal and preterm labor from eastern part of Romania. Sixty- three samples of colostrum were extracted by solid-phase extraction. Analyses were carried out using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). OCPs have been detected in all samples, with p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (gamma-HCH) being at the highest concentrations. Of the organochlorines measured in clostrum samples from women in preterm labor, median levels of DDTs (470 ng/g) and HCHs (99 ng/g) were higher than for the same compounds from women in normal labor (median of DDTs=268 ng/g and median of HCHs=96 ng/g). Normal labor had higher median concentrations of HCB (19.5 ng/g) versus preterm labor (14 ng/g). Statistical data show high Spearman correlation coefficients between various OCPs. We found a good correlation between alpha-, gamma-, beta- and delta- HCH isomers (p<0.001) for both normal and preterm labor. The most abundant target compound was p,p'-DDE (median value 96 ng/g, and 137 ng/g for mother with normal and preterm labor, respectively) in all colostrum samples. The estimated daily intakes of HCHs by infants exceeded corresponding Health Canada guidelines.

  7. Source properties of earthquake sequences in the South-Western Carpathians (Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Emilia; Otilia Placinta, Anica; Borleanu, Felix; Radulian, Mircea; Popa, Mihaela; Moldovan, Iren Adelina

    2015-04-01

    The crustal seismicity in Romania is concentrated in front of the Carpathians Arc bend (Vrancea region) and at the contact between the extra-Carpathian platform regions and Carpathians orogen. The region investigated in this paper is characterizing the contact of the western side of the South Carpathians with the Getic-Depression and with the Apuseni Mountains. Four earthquake sequences are analyzed: (1) the main shock of magnitude M = 4.5, followed by 40 aftershocks in 30 December 2011- 5 January 2012 close to Tg Jiu city, (2) a sequence of 14 events occurred on 24-31 March 2011 in the Haţeg region (main shock magnitude of M = 4.0), (3) a sequence of 35 events occurred on 8 - 11 September 2013 in the Haţeg region (main shock magnitude of M = 4.7) and (4) a sequence of 60 events occurred in the Caras-Severin area on 31 October - 15 December 2014 (main shock magnitude of M = 4.8). We apply empirical Green's function deconvolution in combination with cross-correlation analysis and spectral ratios techniques to determine the source parameters and relocate hypocenters. Despite the relative small size of the events, high-quality waveforms for pairs of co-located events are available in different sites. The new results, together with previous determinations, provide an useful database to investigate the source scaling properties in correlation with seismotectonics modeling. Finally, source characteristics (location, focal mechanism, clustering) are discussed in connection with the seismotectonics features all along the Carpathians and adjacent extra-Carpathians contact areas.

  8. Slow geomorphologic evolution of rock glaciers in marginal periglacial environment of Southern Carpathians (Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Necsoiu, M.; Onaca, A.; Ardelean, F.; Sirbu, F.; Magori, B.

    2015-12-01

    The development of remote sensing techniques in the last several decades now permits surveying areas that are difficult to access and allows capturing geomorphological processes that operate at low deformation rates. In marginal periglacial environments, where the kinematics of the rock glaciers are defined by slow flow, specific remote sensing techniques (e.g., optical image cross-correlation techniques or multitemporal interferometry) are preferred because they are capable of providing ground displacement accuracies on the order of a few mm. Recent multi-temporal image analysis of high-resolution optical and radar satellite imagery of the Retezat Mountains (in the southern Carpathian Mountains of Romania) rock glaciers revealed very low rates of deformation and confirmed that active rock glaciers still exist here. These findings were supported by geophysical investigations (electrical resistivity tomography and ground penetrating radar) and thermal monitoring, which confirmed the patchy distribution of permafrost within the investigated rock glaciers. Given the high depth of the active layer (between 5 and 10 m) and the limited thickness of the ground ice bodies, the permafrost in the Retezat Mountains was assumed to exist in marginal conditions. The sporadic permafrost from the alpine zone of the southern Carpathians is extremely sensitive to environmental changes and responds directly to air temperature fluctuations. As an example, geophysical investigations between 2007 and 2014 revealed significant ground ice disappearance from one of the studied rock glaciers (i.e., Pietrele) as a result of rising air temperature. Optical satellite data revealed that the disappearance of ground ice led to accelerated movement of this rock glacier after 2007. The variability of horizontal movement is strongly controlled by the ground thermal regime. The results confirm the hypothesis that permafrost is not in equilibrium with the present-day climate in the Romanian

  9. The concept of marketing in the public-private partnership in the medical system in Romania.

    PubMed

    Purcărea, V L; Coculescu, B I; Coculescu, E C

    2014-01-01

    During the transition period, the Romanian medical system, subject (like other areas) to a process of reform, had to go through a difficult path, not without obstacles (malpractice, underfunding, embezzlement scandals in the media etc.). Consequently, Romania has faced (and unfortunately still is still facing) the massive exodus of health professionals to countries where they can benefit from better working conditions and payment, and those who suffer from health care crisis are the patients. Reform means "the people in the system for the people", which requires a change of mindset within the medical staff, especially in the continuous professional development. However, to talk about the quality of the medical act requires that all those involved in the medical system should create appropriate conditions - i.e. advanced technical equipment and appropriate salaries. In addition, as underfunding is the main cause of failure in the health system, that management remains the only tool that can lead to the appropriate use of the existing resources and the quality of health services. Therefore, the idea of public-private partnership - which occurred as a challenge, especially after the EU accession - can be considered a solution designed to improve the quality and cost of health services. In other words, the cooperation of the private sector with the public authority means increasing the rigor of the medical equipment performance, fostering professional competition, and an increased attention to the patient, in a word: performance. Currently, more and more frequently, the management has studied to identify opportunities for innovation in health care services in an attempt to bring together patients and practitioners in the field by resorting to the identification of the ways they can receive health care services promptly, fairly and efficiently. Therefore, a clear and responsible design in the spirit of ethics and medical ethic will help the marketing manager solve many

  10. Trends in diabetes-related lower extremities amputations in Romania-A five year nationwide evaluation.

    PubMed

    Veresiu, Ioan Andrei; Iancu, Silvia Stefania; Bondor, Cosmina

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to perform a nationwide evaluation of the frequency, incidence and trends of diabetes-related LEA (lower extremities amputations) in Romania. We have retrospectively analysed DRG data (ICD 10 AM codes) from all hospitals in the country, over a 5 year period (2006-2010). Knowing the shortcomings of this approach, we have assumed that our study can serve as a platform for future comparisons. The total number of non-traumatic diabetes related LEA procedures was 24,312, they were performed in 16,873 patients with diabetes, 22.55% with type 1 diabetes, 70.26 with type 2 diabetes and 7.19% with non-specified diabetes at discharge. The total number of hospital admissions for these patients was 46,985. During the five years of the study there was an increase in the absolute number of major amputations (above the ankle), as well as of minor amputations. The rate of amputations decreased in type 1 diabetes, from baseline (2006): -8.15% in 2007, -25.83% in 2008, -23.43% in 2009, -27.71% in 2010, whereas it increased in type 2 diabetes in the respective years: 16.96%, 60.75%, 66.91%, and 104.64%, due to an increase in minor amputations and mainly in elderly people. Male: female amputations rate was 2:1 in type 1 diabetes patients and 2.4:1 in type 2 diabetes patients. This study, the first of its kind in the Romanian population, offers a starting point for future comparisons and identifies a target for preventive measures.

  11. Transylvanian Composite Total Petroleum System of the Transylvanian Basin Province, Romania, Eastern Europe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pawlewicz, Mark

    2005-01-01

    The Transylvanian Composite Total Petroleum System and the Transylvanian Neogene Suprasalt Gas Assessment Unit were identified in the Transylvanian Basin Province (4057), which lies entirely within the country of Romania. The assessment unit is composed of middle Miocene (Badenian) to Pliocene strata. Gas from the assessment unit is biogenic and originated from bacterial activity on dispersed organic matter in shales and siltstones. Gas migration is believed to be minimal, both vertically and laterally, with gases trapped in local stratigraphic traps and in structural traps (most likely domes and anticlinal folds created by salt diapirism) in the central part of the basin. For this reason, the gas fields also are concentrated in the central part of the basin. Reservoirs are isolated and composed of vertically stacked sandstones and siltstones sealed by shales and possibly by evaporite layers. Traps result from stratigraphic and facies changes within the entire assessment unit stratigraphic section. Some gas fields contain as much or more than a trillion cubic feet, but in most, the estimated resources are between 6 billion and 96 billion cubic feet. Petroleum exploration in the province is in the mature stage, which, combined with the geologic complexity of the region, is considered to limit future discoveries to a relatively few small fields. The undiscovered resources for the Transylvanian Basin Neogene Suprasalt Composite AU in the Transylvanian Hybrid Total Petroleum System (4057) are, at the mean, 2.083 trillion cubic feet of gas. No oil is produced in the basin. Rocks underlying the salt layers were not assessed for hydrocarbon potential.

  12. The impact of climatic and non-climatic factors on land surface temperature in southwestern Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roşca, Cristina Florina; Harpa, Gabriela Victoria; Croitoru, Adina-Eliza; Herbel, Ioana; Imbroane, Alexandru Mircea; Burada, Doina Cristina

    2016-09-01

    Land surface temperature is one of the most important parameters related to global warming. It depends mainly on soil type, discontinuous vegetation cover, or lack of precipitation. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between high LST, synoptic conditions and air masses trajectories, vegetation cover, and soil type in one of the driest region in Romania. In order to calculate the land surface temperature and normalized difference vegetation index, five satellite images of LANDSAT missions 5 and 7, covering a period of 26 years (1986-2011), were selected, all of them collected in the month of June. The areas with low vegetation density were derived from normalized difference vegetation index, while soil types have been extracted from Corine Land Cover database. HYSPLIT application was employed to identify the air masses origin based on their backward trajectories for each of the five study cases. Pearson, logarithmic, and quadratic correlations were used to detect the relationships between land surface temperature and observed ground temperatures, as well as between land surface temperature and normalized difference vegetation index. The most important findings are: strong correlation between land surface temperature derived from satellite images and maximum ground temperature recorded in a weather station located in the area, as well as between areas with land surface temperature equal to or higher than 40.0 °C and those with lack of vegetation; the sandy soils are the most prone to high land surface temperature and lack of vegetation, followed by the chernozems and brown soils; extremely severe drought events may occur in the region.

  13. The Conservation Value of Traditional Rural Landscapes: The Case of Woodpeckers in Transylvania, Romania

    PubMed Central

    Dorresteijn, Ine; Hartel, Tibor; Hanspach, Jan; von Wehrden, Henrik; Fischer, Joern

    2013-01-01

    Land use change is a major threat to global biodiversity. Forest species face the dual threats of deforestation and intensification of forest management. In regions where forests are under threat, rural landscapes that retain structural components of mature forests potentially provide valuable additional habitat for some forest species. Here, we illustrate the habitat value of traditional wood pastures for a woodpecker assemblage of six species in southern Transylvania, Romania. Wood pastures are created by long-term stable silvo-pastoral management practices, and are composed of open grassland with scattered large, old trees. Because of their demanding habitat requirements, woodpeckers share habitat with many other bird species, and have been considered as possible indicator species for bird species diversity. We first compared woodpecker assemblages between forests and wood pastures. Second, we grouped features of wood pastures into three spatial contexts and addressed how these features related to the occurrence of three woodpecker species that are formally protected. Woodpecker species composition, but not the number of species, differed between forests and wood pastures, with the green woodpecker occurring more commonly in wood pastures, and the lesser spotted woodpecker more commonly in forests. Within wood pastures, the intermediate context (especially surrounding forest cover) best explained the presence of the grey-headed and middle spotted woodpecker. By contrast, variables describing local vegetation structure and characteristics of the surrounding landscape did not affect woodpecker occurrence in wood pastures. In contrast to many other parts of Europe, in which several species of woodpeckers have declined, the traditional rural landscape of Transylvania continues to provide habitat for several woodpecker species, both in forests and wood pastures. Given the apparent habitat value of wood pastures for woodpeckers we recommend wood pastures be explicitly

  14. Paleomagnetism of the Upper Miocene volcanic rocks from the East Carpathians (Gurghiu Mountains, Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panaiotu, Cristian George; Visan, Madalina; Necula, Cristian; Dumitru, Anca; Strachinaru, Andrei; Panaiotu, Andrei; Dimofte, Daniela; Seghedi, Ioan

    2015-04-01

    We present recent paleomagnetic results obtained from the volcanic rocks from the Gurghiu Mountains (East Carpathians, Romania). The Gurghiu Mountains are part of the 160 km long volcanic chain from the East Carpathians erupted between 10 Ma and 0.2 Ma. According to the K-Ar ages the volcanic activity took place in the Gurghiu Mountains between 9 Ma and 6 Ma. We sampled 103 sites, but after detailed AF and thermal demagnetizations only 80 sites passed the reliability criteria for the paleosecular variation studies: number of samples minimum 5, precision parameter k > 50. Rockmagnetic measurements (field dependence of magnetic susceptibility, low and high temperature variation of magnetic susceptibility, hysteresis properties, FORC diagrams) have shown that the main ferromagnetic minerals are magnetite or Ti poor magnetite. To select the data set within the paleosecular variation limits we have applied either the standard latitude cut-off at 45° or the Vandamme criterion. The data set selected using the Vandamme criterion has 65 sites and using the latitude cut-off it has 70 sites. Both data sets passed the reversal test. The paleosecular variation express as the dispersion of the virtual geomagnetic poles is within the limits expected for the latitude of 45°N. The area-mean declination is around 0° and the inclination is around 60°, which suggest a negative inclination anomaly in agreement with the global data set. The geographic distribution of the magnetic polarity is in agreement with the K-Ar ages and the magnetic polarity time scale and support the gradual migration of volcanism from north to south between 9 Ma and 6 Ma in the Gurghiu Mountains. Possible tectonics implications of the new paleomagnetic data for the evolution of volcanic chain and the Transylvanian basin will be discussed. This work was supported by a grant of the Ministry of National Education, CNCS - UEFISCDI, project number PN-II-ID-PCE-2012-4-0177.

  15. Education and awareness regarding earthquakes and their consequences within the Cluj-Napoca SEISMOLAB, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brisan, Nicoleta; Stefanescu, Lucrina; Zaharia, Bogdan; Tataru, Dragos; Costin, Dan; Stefanie, Horatiu

    2014-05-01

    Education and awareness are efficient methods to mitigate the effects of natural disasters on communities. In this regard, the most receptive target group is the youth who have the potential to become vectors of information dissemination in their families and communities. In a country with significant seismic potential like Romania, the development of a Seismolab by means of an educational project is welcomed. The Seismolab operates within the Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering at "Babeş-Bolyai" University, Cluj-Napoca, and it hosts activities conducted with the students of the faculty and pupils from Cluj and other schools involved in the RoEduSeis project. The RoEduSeis Project is a research and education project meant to develop the practical skills of primary, secondary and high school students in the field of Earth Sciences. A major objective of the project pursues the development and validation of new practical training methods for both teachers and students in the field of Earth Sciences. In this context, the Seismolab serves this particular aim by activities such as: training of students and teachers on conducting analyses and processing seismological data obtained from the educational seismographs in the Romanian educational seismic network; hands-on activities for pupils using educational resources developed through the project; documentary 2D and 3D movies and round tables on the topic of earthquakes and other natural risks. The students of the faculty use the data bases within subject matters in the curricula such as: Management of natural risks and disasters, Natural hazards and risks, Management of emergency situations etc. The seismometer used within the Seismolab will be connected to the above-mentioned educational network and the interaction between all the schools involved in the project will be conducted by the means of an e-learning platform. The results of this cooperation will contribute to a better education and awareness

  16. The Conservation Value of Traditional Rural Landscapes: The Case of Woodpeckers in Transylvania, Romania.

    PubMed

    Dorresteijn, Ine; Hartel, Tibor; Hanspach, Jan; von Wehrden, Henrik; Fischer, Joern

    2013-01-01

    Land use change is a major threat to global biodiversity. Forest species face the dual threats of deforestation and intensification of forest management. In regions where forests are under threat, rural landscapes that retain structural components of mature forests potentially provide valuable additional habitat for some forest species. Here, we illustrate the habitat value of traditional wood pastures for a woodpecker assemblage of six species in southern Transylvania, Romania. Wood pastures are created by long-term stable silvo-pastoral management practices, and are composed of open grassland with scattered large, old trees. Because of their demanding habitat requirements, woodpeckers share habitat with many other bird species, and have been considered as possible indicator species for bird species diversity. We first compared woodpecker assemblages between forests and wood pastures. Second, we grouped features of wood pastures into three spatial contexts and addressed how these features related to the occurrence of three woodpecker species that are formally protected. Woodpecker species composition, but not the number of species, differed between forests and wood pastures, with the green woodpecker occurring more commonly in wood pastures, and the lesser spotted woodpecker more commonly in forests. Within wood pastures, the intermediate context (especially surrounding forest cover) best explained the presence of the grey-headed and middle spotted woodpecker. By contrast, variables describing local vegetation structure and characteristics of the surrounding landscape did not affect woodpecker occurrence in wood pastures. In contrast to many other parts of Europe, in which several species of woodpeckers have declined, the traditional rural landscape of Transylvania continues to provide habitat for several woodpecker species, both in forests and wood pastures. Given the apparent habitat value of wood pastures for woodpeckers we recommend wood pastures be explicitly

  17. Rapid fluctuations of the air and surface temperature in the city of Bucharest (Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheval, Sorin; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Hustiu, Mihaita-Cristinel

    2016-04-01

    Urban areas derive significant changes of the ambient temperature generating specific challenges for society and infrastructure. Extreme temperature events, heat and cold waves affect the human comfort, increase the health risk, and require specific building regulations and emergency preparedness, strongly related to the magnitude and frequency of the thermal hazards. Rapid changes of the temperature put a particular stress for the urban settlements, and the topic has been approached constantly in the scientific literature. Due to its geographical position in a plain area with a temperate climate and noticeable continental influence, the city of Bucharest (Romania) deals with high seasonal and daily temperature variations. However, rapid fluctuations also occur at sub-daily scale caused by cold or warm air advections or by very local effects (e.g. radiative heat exchange, local precipitation). For example, in the area of Bucharest, the cold fronts of the warm season may trigger temperature decreasing up to 10-15 centigrades / hour, while warm advections lead to increasing of 1-2 centigrades / hour. This study focuses on the hourly and sub-hourly temperature variations over the period November 2014 - February 2016, using air temperature data collected from urban sensors and meteorological stations of the national network, and land surface temperature data obtained from satellite remote sensing. The analysis returns different statistics, such as magnitude, intensity, frequency, simultaneous occurrence and areal coverage of the rapid temperature fluctuations. Furthermore, the generating factors for each case study are assessed, and the results are used to define some preliminary patterns and enhance the urban temperature forecast at fine scale. The study was funded by the Romanian Programme Partnership in Priority Domains, PN - II - PCCA - 2013 - 4 - 0509 - Reducing UHI effects to improve urban comfort and balance energy consumption in Bucharest (REDBHI).

  18. The concept of marketing in the public-private partnership in the medical system in Romania

    PubMed Central

    Purcărea, VL; Coculescu, BI; Coculescu, EC

    2014-01-01

    During the transition period, the Romanian medical system, subject (like other areas) to a process of reform, had to go through a difficult path, not without obstacles (malpractice, underfunding, embezzlement scandals in the media etc.). Consequently, Romania has faced (and unfortunately still is still facing) the massive exodus of health professionals to countries where they can benefit from better working conditions and payment, and those who suffer from health care crisis are the patients. Reform means “the people in the system for the people”, which requires a change of mindset within the medical staff, especially in the continuous professional development. However, to talk about the quality of the medical act requires that all those involved in the medical system should create appropriate conditions – i.e. advanced technical equipment and appropriate salaries. In addition, as underfunding is the main cause of failure in the health system, that management remains the only tool that can lead to the appropriate use of the existing resources and the quality of health services. Therefore, the idea of public-private partnership – which occurred as a challenge, especially after the EU accession - can be considered a solution designed to improve the quality and cost of health services. In other words, the cooperation of the private sector with the public authority means increasing the rigor of the medical equipment performance, fostering professional competition, and an increased attention to the patient, in a word: performance. Currently, more and more frequently, the management has studied to identify opportunities for innovation in health care services in an attempt to bring together patients and practitioners in the field by resorting to the identification of the ways they can receive health care services promptly, fairly and efficiently. Therefore, a clear and responsible design in the spirit of ethics and medical ethic will help the marketing manager

  19. Mackenzie River Delta, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Mackenzie River in the Northwest Territories, Canada, with its headstreams the Peace and Finley, is the longest river in North America at 4241 km, and drains an area of 1,805,000 square km. The large marshy delta provides habitat for migrating Snow Geese, Tundra Swans, Brant, and other waterfowl. The estuary is a calving area for Beluga whales. The Mackenzie (previously the Disappointment River) was named after Alexander Mackenzie who travelled the river while trying to reach the Pacific in 1789.

    The image was acquired on August 4, 2005, covers an area of 55.8 x 55.8 km, and is located at 68.6 degrees north latitude, 134.7 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  20. Santa Cruz River Options

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation summarizes qualitative research insights gained during development of a nonmarket valuation survey for changes to the Santa Cruz River in Southern Arizona. Qualitative research provides an important avenue for understanding how the public interprets valuation s...

  1. Merrimack River Watershed Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Listing of all communities included in each of the hydrologic unit code (HUC) 8, 10, and 12 boundaries for the Merrimack River Watershed and city locations for the EPA water quality monitoring stations.

  2. River basin management

    SciTech Connect

    Newsome, D.H.; Edwards, A.M.C.

    1984-01-01

    The quality of water is of paramount importance in the management of water resources - including marine waters. A quantitative knowledge of water quality and the factors governing it is required to formulate and implement strategies requiring an inter-disciplinary approach. The overall purpose of this conference was to bring together the latest work on water quality aspects of river basin management. These proceedings are structured on the basis of five themes: problems in international river basins; the contribution of river systems to estuarial and marine pollution; the setting of standards; monitoring; and practical water quality management including use of mathematical models. They are followed by papers from the workshop on advances in the application of mathematical modelling to water quality management, which represent some of the current thinking on the problems and concepts of river basin management.

  3. Detroit River habitat inventory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manny, Bruce A.

    2003-01-01

    This inventory complements a previous survey of habitat in Ontario waters of the Detroit River (OMNR,1993). It is a starting point for balanced and sustained use of the river for natural resource conservation and economic development. The objectives of the inventory were to: (1) locate candidate sites for protection and restoration of fish and wildlife habitat in Michigan waters of the Detroit River; (2) describe the ownership and size of each site, as well as its potential for habitat protection and restoration; and (3) subjectively assess the extent to which existing habitat along the river is productive of fish and wildlife and protected from land uses that have degraded or destroyed such habitat.

  4. Colorado River Delta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Colorado River ends its 2330 km journey in the Gulf of Mexico in Baja California. The heavy use of the river as an irrigation source for the Imperial Valley has dessicated the lower course of the river in Mexico such that it no longer consistently reaches the sea. Prior to the mid 20th century, the Colorado River Delta provided a rich estuarine marshland that is now essentially desiccated, but nonetheless is an important ecological resource.

    The image was acquired May 29, 2006, covers an area of 44.3 x 57.5 km, and is located at 32.1 degrees north latitude, 115.1 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  5. New England: Hudson River

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... and recreation area. The Catskills are part of the Appalachian chain. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion ... River location:  United States region:  Eastern United States Order:  13 ...

  6. New results concerning geophysical and geological-engineering data. Case study Telega, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maftei, Raluca-Mihaela; Rusu, Emil; Cristea, Paul; Manj, Valeriu; Avram, Ovidiu; Tudor, Elena; Porumbescu, Constantina; Ciurean, Roxana

    2010-05-01

    New results concerning geophysical and geological-engineering data. Case study Telega, Romania R.Maftei, E.Rusu, P.Cristea, V.Manj, R.Ciurean, O.Avram, E.Tudor, C.Porumbescu Geological Institute of Romania, Geohazard, Bucharest, Romania (mafteir@yahoo.com) Geophysical tests The geoelectric investigation (October-November 2009) outlines horizontally the sliding area, and vertically the elements of the landslide surface - position, depth, shape, and the bedrock's relief. The quantitative interpretation of the resistivity geoelectrical vertical tests, and the correlation with the geological structure identified 3 sliding surfaces, from which only the upper one (2-6m depth) was known before the stability works. There were localized the rainfall waters circulation and accumulation zones, areas with high sliding risk. Same results were obtained in sliding zones, been localized the principal elements of the landslides, with practical implications in land instability and estimation of the evolution of the destructive phenomena mechanisms. With this study we try to quantify the complex relationship between the natural factors that generate the terrain instability phenomena and the intensity of the socio-economic effects, at a regional and local scale, by correlating the engineering geology information and geophysical data. Recent seismic research program (September 2009) conceived for "La Butoi" landslide, Telega locality, aims to a specific monitoring of the dynamic deformations, more active in the central part of the landslide, with reference to the shallow seismic refraction information obtained in the 2004 - 2005 period. The investigations were performed on a seismic lines network, and two seismic boundaries, in the shallow seismic section, were exhibited. As a result, one can observe the curvature tendency of the first arrivals sin-phase for the end-off shot devices, setting off the velocity increasing regime with depth; relative high variations and irregularities of

  7. The rivers of civilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macklin, Mark G.; Lewin, John

    2015-04-01

    The hydromorphic regimes that underpinned Old World river-based civilizations are reviewed in light of recent research. Notable Holocene climatic changes varied from region to region, whilst the dynamics of floodplain environments were equally diverse, with river channel changes significantly affecting human settlement. There were longer-term trends in Holocene hydroclimate and multi-centennial length 'flood-rich' and 'flood-poor' episodes. These impacted on five identified flooding and settlement scenarios: (i) alluvial fans and aprons; (ii) laterally mobile rivers; (iii) rivers with well-developed levees and flood basins; (iv) river systems characterised by avulsions and floodouts; and (v) large river-fed wetlands. This gave a range of changes that were either more or less regular or incremental from year-to-year (and thus potentially manageable) or catastrophic. The latter might be sudden during a flood event or a few seasons (acute), or over longer periods extending over many decades or even centuries (chronic). The geomorphic and environmental impacts of these events on riparian societies were very often irreversible. Contrasts are made between allogenic and autogenic mechanism for imposing environmental stress on riverine communities and a distinction is made between channel avulsion and contraction responses. Floods, droughts and river channel changes can precondition as well as trigger environmental crises and societal collapse. The Nile system currently offers the best set of independently dated Holocene fluvial and archaeological records, and the contrasted effects of changing hydromorphological regimes on floodwater farming are examined. The persistence of civilizations depended essentially on the societies that maintained them, but they were also understandably resilient in some environments (Pharaonic Egypt in the Egyptian Nile), appear to have had more limited windows of opportunity in others (the Kerma Kingdom in the Nubian Nile), or required

  8. Synthetic River Valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R.; Pasternack, G. B.

    2011-12-01

    The description of fluvial form has evolved from anecdotal descriptions to artistic renderings to 2D plots of cross section or longitudinal profiles and more recently 3D digital models. Synthetic river valleys, artificial 3D topographic models of river topography, have a plethora of potential applications in fluvial geomorphology, and the earth sciences in general, as well as in computer science and ecology. Synthetic river channels have existed implicitly since approximately the 1970s and can be simulated from a variety of approaches spanning the artistic and numerical. An objective method of synthesizing 3D stream topography based on reach scale attributes would be valuable for sizing 3D flumes in the physical and numerical realms, as initial input topography for morphodynamic models, stream restoration design, historical reconstruction, and mechanistic testing of interactions of channel geometric elements. Quite simply - simulation of synthetic channel geometry of prescribed conditions can allow systematic evaluation of the dominant relationships between river flow and geometry. A new model, the control curve method, is presented that uses hierarchically scaled parametric curves in over-lapping 2D planes to create synthetic river valleys. The approach is able to simulate 3D stream geometry from paired 2D descriptions and can allow experimental insight into form-process relationships in addition to visualizing past measurements of channel form that are limited to two dimension descriptions. Results are presented that illustrate the models ability to simulate fluvial topography representative of real world rivers as well as how channel geometric elements can be adjusted. The testing of synthetic river valleys would open up a wealth of knowledge as to why some 3D attributes of river channels are more prevalent than others as well as bridging the gap between the 2D descriptions that have dominated fluvial geomorphology the past century and modern, more complete, 3D

  9. Rationing a river

    SciTech Connect

    Boslough, J.

    1981-06-01

    The emerging water crisis in the southwestern U.S. is examined. The Colorado River, a major water source for this region, has been allocated and diverted for irrigation, domestic, and other applications. Tunnels and aqueducts carry the water across deserts to various cities, which could not exist without this imported resource. By 1985, water demand in this region is expected to exceed supply. The river's increasing salt content further threatens the value of this dwindling resource. (2 maps, 7 photos)

  10. Paying for healthy rivers.

    PubMed

    Pigram, J J J

    2002-01-01

    Concerted efforts are being made at state and federal levels to restore Australia's rivers and waterways to a healthy condition. Yet, there is little consensus on what constitutes a "healthy river" and even less on how to achieve this, or how far to go towards restoration. Some advocate removal of storages and weirs along rivers to revert to some natural state. Others, particularly water users, question the trade-offs involved in leaving more water in the rivers and how the costs of restoration are to be met. At present it seems that the major share of the costs is borne by irrigators, with the wider community essentially enjoying a "free-ride". This situation is justified on the basis of the impactor pays principle whereby water diversions, primarily for irrigation, are held to have contributed most to degradation of the river systems. The altemative-beneficiary pays principle--is of more relevance where demands are made on resource users to mitigate environmental impacts or bring about environmental improvements, eg. healthy rivers, where the beneficiaries are the wider public and the general community. Many resource users are voluntarily undertaking action on private land to conserve biodiversity and achieve sustainability. In these circumstances, the cost-sharing principle should apply, with governments, interest groups and the community contributing to the investment required to attain the desired resource condition objectives.

  11. What Is To Be Expected from an Ethics Audit Integrated Within the Accreditation Process of Hospitals from Romania?

    PubMed Central

    AGHEORGHIESEI, Daniela Tatiana; ILIESCU, Liliana; GAVRILOVICI, Cristina; OPREA, Liviu

    2013-01-01

    Background We aimed to verify the issue of the ethics audit and its use in the system of accreditation of hospitals. It presents the results of a survey conducted among hospital managers from Romania. Methods: Our article highlights the results of the second part of a research carried out in 2012 on the pertinence and the structure of the ethics audit integrated within the accreditation process of hospitals, according the opinion of the 47 executives and managers involved in the quality management of Romania hospitals. The data have been gathered with the aid of the online questionnaire. Results: An ethics audit integrated within the accreditation process of hospitals should include primarily the respect of the patients’ rights, the good relations of the institutions with its patients and the respect of the moral rights of the employees. Conclusion: The usefulness of this study is due to the fact that it consults precisely those who should really contribute to the creation, application and monitoring of ethical policies and instruments necessary in every hospital which are permanently under the scrutiny of public opinion and confront themselves with the obligation to give a thorough account of their results and spending of the public resources. This study gain consistency as the relevant aspects that could form the structure of a hospital ethics audit are identified with the direct help of the managers responsible for implementing it. PMID:24427752

  12. Occurrence of ticks in the subcutaneous tissue of red foxes, Vulpes vulpes in Czech Republic and Romania.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, G; Juránková, J; Tăbăran, F A; Frgelecová, L; Forejtek, P; Matei, I A; Ionică, A M; Hodžić, A; Modrý, D; Mihalca, A D

    2017-02-01

    An extensive survey of parasites in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) was independently conducted in Romania and the Czech Republic. Carcasses were examined by necropsy, and small, dark nodules apparently containing ticks were noticed in the subcutaneous tissue of several foxes. Histopathological examination was performed using hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. Of the 91 foxes examined from the Czech Republic, 14 (15.4%) were harboring ticks in the subcutaneous tissue. In the majority of these cases, 1-3 nodules/fox were found, with a maximum of 31 nodules/fox. In Romania a single examined fox had subcutaneous ticks. All ticks collected from subcutaneous tissue were partially engorged adults. Based on morphological features, Ixodes ricinus, I. hexagonus, I. crenulatus and Dermacentor reticulatus were identified. The histopathological examination revealed chronic granulomatous panniculitis with peripheral fibrosis and intralesional presence of the ticks. Only few data are available regarding ticks localized in the subcutaneous tissue of any host. All the ticks were dead or already decomposed and it is evident that subcutaneous location does not represent an evolutionary advantage, as the detachment and finishing the life cycle is impossible.

  13. Assessing and monitoring the risk of land degradation in Baragan Plain, Romania, using spectral mixture analysis and Landsat imagery.

    PubMed

    Vorovencii, Iosif

    2016-07-01

    The fall of the communist regime in Romania at the end of 1989 and the ensuing transition to the market economy brought about many changes in the use of agricultural land. These changes combined with the action of climatic factors led, in most cases, to negative effects increasing the risk of degradation of agricultural land. This study aims to assess and monitor the risk of land degradation in Baragan Plain, Romania, for the period 1988-2011 using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Spectral Mixture Analysis (SMA). Each satellite image was classified through the Decision Tree Classifier (DTC) method; then, on the basis of certain threshold values, we obtained maps of land degradation and maps showing the passage from various classes of land use/land cover (LULC) to land degradation. The results indicate that during the intermediary periods there was an ascending and descending trend in the risk of land degradation determined by the interaction of climatic factors with the social-economic ones. For the entire period, the overall trend was ascending, the risk of land degradation increasing by around 4.60 % of the studied surface. Out of the climatic factors, high temperatures and, implicitly, drought were the most significant. The social-economic factors are the result of the changes which occurred after the fall of the communist regime, the most important being the fragmentation of agricultural land and the destruction of the irrigation system.

  14. Geographical distribution and prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies in questing Ixodes ricinus from Romania: a countrywide study.

    PubMed

    Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Mihalca, Andrei D; Dumitrache, Mirabela O; Gherman, Călin M; Magdaş, Cristian; Mircean, Viorica; Oltean, Miruna; Domşa, Cristian; Matei, Ioana A; Mărcuţan, Daniel I; Sándor, Attila D; D'Amico, Gianluca; Paştiu, Anamaria; Györke, Adriana; Gavrea, Raluca; Marosi, Béla; Ionică, Angela; Burkhardt, Etelka; Toriay, Hortenzia; Cozma, Vasile

    2013-09-01

    The paper reports the prevalence and geographical distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) and its genospecies in 12,221 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks collected at 183 locations from all the 41 counties of Romania. The unfed ticks were examined for the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. by PCR targeting the intergenic spacer 5S-23S. Reverse line blot hybridization (RLB) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis were performed for identification of B. burgdorferi genospecies. The overall prevalence of infection was 1.4%, with an average local prevalence between 0.75% and 18.8%. B. burgdorferi s.l. was found in ticks of 55 of the 183 localities. The overall prevalence B. burgdorferi s.l. in ticks in the infected localities was 3.8%. The total infection prevalence was higher in female ticks than in other developmental stages. Three Borrelia genospecies were detected. The most widely distributed genospecies was B. afzelii, followed by B. garinii and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.). The study is the first countrywide study and the first report of B. burgdorferi s.s. in Romania. The distribution maps show that higher prevalences were recorded in hilly areas, but Lyme borreliosis spirochetes were also present in forested lowlands, albeit with a lower prevalence.

  15. Statistical downscaling of sub-daily (6-hour) temperature in Romania, by means of artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birsan, Marius-Victor; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Cǎrbunaru, Felicia

    2016-04-01

    The role of statistical downscaling is to model the relationship between large-scale atmospheric circulation and climatic variables on a regional and sub-regional scale, making use of the predictions of future circulation generated by General Circulation Models (GCMs) in order to capture the effects of climate change on smaller areas. The study presents a statistical downscaling model based on a neural network-based approach, by means of multi-layer perceptron networks. Sub-daily temperature data series from 81 meteorological stations over Romania, with full data records are used as predictands. As large-scale predictor, the NCEP/NCAD air temperature data at 850 hPa over the domain 20-30E / 40-50N was used, at a spatial resolution of 2.5×2.5 degrees. The period 1961-1990 was used for calibration, while the validation was realized over the 1991-2010 interval. Further, in order to estimate future changes in air temperature for 2021-2050 and 2071-2100, air temperature data at 850 hPa corresponding to the IPCC A1B scenario was extracted from the CNCM33 model (Meteo-France) and used as predictor. This work has been realized within the research project "Changes in climate extremes and associated impact in hydrological events in Romania" (CLIMHYDEX), code PN II-ID-2011-2-0073, financed by the Romanian Executive Agency for Higher Education Research, Development and Innovation Funding (UEFISCDI).

  16. [Health assessment of river ecosystem in Haihe River Basin, China].

    PubMed

    Hao, Li-Xia; Sun, Ran-Hao; Chen, Li-Ding

    2014-10-01

    With the development of economy, the health of river ecosystem is severely threatened because of the increasing effects of human activities on river ecosystem. In this paper, the authors assessed the river ecosystem health in aspects of chemical integrity and biological integrity, using the criterion in water quality, nutrient, and benthic macroinvertebrates of 73 samples in Haihe River Basin. The research showed that the health condition of river ecosystem in Haihe River Basin was bad overall since the health situation of 72. 6% of the samples was "extremely bad". At the same time, the health situation in Haihe River Basin exhibited obvious regional gathering effect. We also found that the river water quality was closely related to human activities, and the eutrophication trend of water body was evident in Haihe River Basin. The biodiversity of the benthic animal was low and lack of clean species in the basin. The indicators such as ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were the key factors that affected the river ecosystem health in Haihe River Basin, so the government should start to curb the deterioration of river ecosystem health by controlling these nutrients indicators. For river ecosystem health assessment, the multi-factors comprehensive evaluation method was superior to single-factor method.

  17. Informe Especial: O Ensino e a Promocao do Portugues na Romenia (Special Report: The Teaching and Promotion of Portuguese in Romania).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ploae-Hanganu, Mariana

    1996-01-01

    This article reflects the most significant advances made in the teaching and promotion of Portuguese in Romania in the past 20 years. The Portuguese program at the University of Bucharest is described as are special courses given in commemoration of landmark dates in Portuguese history and special events celebrating Portuguese history and culture.…

  18. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Dnieper-Donets Basin and North Carpathian Basin Provinces, Ukraine, Romania, Moldova, and Poland, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, Timothy R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2016-11-30

    Using a geology-based methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 13 million barrels of oil and 2,643 billion cubic feet of natural gas in the Dnieper-Donets Basin and North Carpathian Basin Provinces of Ukraine, Romania, Moldova, and Poland.

  19. [Assessment of the epidemiological parameters of the most widespread viral diseases in the Socialist Republic of Romania and in Sibiu County for period 1967-1986].

    PubMed

    Cristea, A; Copelovici, Y; Pavel, A; Bardac, D; Deutsch, I; Cajal, N; Dobre, M

    1988-01-01

    Essential peculiarities of the kinetics of the morbidity evolution of most frequent virus diseases were explained using a determinant mathematical model. The main epidemiological parameters for the whole territory of the S.R. of Romania and of Sibiu County were evaluated for the 1967-1986 period.

  20. Overrepresented Minorities in Special Education in the United States and Romania: Comparison between African-American and Roma Populations in Disability Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Gabriela

    2008-01-01

    This manuscript briefly examines minority participation within the school population that is eligible for special education services--namely, African Americans in the United States and the Roma population in Romania. A large percentage of students from both minorities come to school unprepared to learn and they remain behind because of the…

  1. Comparison and validation of Logistic Regression and Analytic Hierarchy Process models of landslide susceptibility in monoclinic regions. A case study in Moldavian Plateau, N-E Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciprian Margarint, Mihai; Niculita, Mihai

    2014-05-01

    The regions with monoclinic geological structure are large portions of earth surface where the repetition of similar landform patterns is very distinguished, the scarps of cuestas being characterized by similar values of morphometrical variables. Landslides are associated with these scarps of cuestas and consequently, a very high value of landslide susceptibility can be reported on its surface. In these regions, landslide susceptibility mapping can be realized for the entire region, or for test areas, with accurate, reliable, and available datasets, concerning multi-temporal inventories and landslide predictors. Because of the similar geomorphologic and landslide distribution we think that if any relevance of using test areas for extrapolating susceptibility models is present, these areas should be targeted first. This study case try to establish the level of usability of landslide predictors influence, obtained for a 90 km2 sample located in the northern part of the Moldavian Plateau (N-E Romania), in other areas of the same physio-geographic region. In a first phase, landslide susceptibility assessment was carried out and validated using logistic regression (LR) approach, using a multiple landslide inventory. This inventory was created using ortorectified aerial images from 1978 and 2005, for each period being considered both old and active landslides. The modeling strategy was based on a distinctly inventory of depletion areas of all landslide, for 1978 phase, and on a number of 30 covariates extracted from topographical and aerial images (both from 1978 and 2005 periods). The geomorphometric variables were computed from a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) obtained by interpolation from 1:5000 contour data (2.5 m equidistance), at 10x10 m resolution. Distance from river network, distance from roads and land use were extracted from topographic maps and aerial images. By applying Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) the covariates with significance under 0.001 level

  2. Connectivity of the Tisza River System: trace element and isotopic constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherry, W.; Forray, F. L.; Lefticariu, L.

    2013-12-01

    At the watershed scale, a number of complex biogeochemical processes govern riverine geochemistry, and the use of multiple isotopic and trace element analyses has the potential to elucidate these dynamic processes. Such a study was undertaken within the Tisza River Basin (TRB) which is the largest river basin within the Carpathian Basin of Central Europe. The TRB stretches 157,186 km2 and encompasses Romania, Hungary, Serbia, Slovakia, and Ukraine. Geologically, the TRB covers the Pannonian Basin, the Eastern, Western and Southern Carpathians and the Apuseni Mountains. These units have a very complex geology and lithology. The formations range from igneous and metamorphic rocks to sediments, covering a time span from Paleozoic to Quaternary. Our study aimed to determine the influence of various bedrock lithologies on the water chemistry of tributaries and the impact of the biogeochemical and anthropogenic factors on the downstream chemical evolution of the rivers. Twenty-three sampling locations were chosen within the TRB based on the dominant bedrock lithology of the drainage area. In June of 2013, water and rock samples were collected from the Apuseni Mountains and the Southern Carpathians, sampling two main tributary systems - the Cris (Körös) and Mure (Maros) Rivers - and the Lower Tisa (Tisza) River. At each sampling location, field parameters (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, and specific conductivity) were measured and water samples were retrieved. Water samples were analyzed for alkalinity, major and minor cations (Fe, Al, Si, Mn, Cu, Sr, Cd, Ni, Zn, Ca, Mg, Na, Se, Pb, As, K) and anions (SO42-, NO3-, Cl-, F-, PO43-), as well as 87Sr/86Sr ratios, and δ2D and δ18O values. Tributaries drained primarily by carbonates tended to exhibit more of an effect on the downstream water chemistry compared to areas drained by silicate rocks, which had little effect on mainstem rivers. Additionally, δ2D and δ18O values (ranging from -80.53 to -41.97‰ for δ2D and

  3. 33 CFR 207.380 - Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls. 207.380 Section 207.380 Navigation and Navigable... Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls. (a)...

  4. 50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section... Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook... River salmon (except reaches above impassable natural falls, and Dworshak and Hells Canyon...

  5. The Colorado River

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) true-color image shows the passage of the Colorado River through several southwestern states. The river begins, in this image, in Utah at the far upper right, where Lake Powell is visible as dark pixels surrounded by the salmon-colored rocks of the Colorado Plateau. The Colorado flows southwest through Glen Canyon, to the Glen Canyon Dam, on the Utah-Arizona border. From there it flows south into Arizona, and then turns sharply west where the Grand Canyon of the Colorado cuts through the mountains. The Colorado flows west to the Arizona-Nevada (upper left) border, where it is dammed again, this time by the Hoover Dam. The dark-colored pixels surrounding the bend in the river are Lake Mead. The river flows south along the border of first Nevada and Arizona and then California and Arizona. The Colorado River, which begins in Rocky Mountain National Park in Colorado, empties into the Gulf of California, seen at the bottom center of this image.

  6. Sharing the rivers. Overview.

    PubMed

    Postel, S

    1996-01-01

    Globally, water use has more than tripled since 1950, and the answer to this rising demand generally has been to build more and bigger water supply projects, particularly dams and river diversions. As population and consumption levels grow, more and more rivers are being dammed, diverted, or overtapped to supply increasing volumes of water to cities, industries, and farms. Among these rivers are the Nile in northeast Africa, the Ganges in south Asia, the Amu Dar'ya and Syr Dar'ya in the Aral Sea basin, the Huang He (Yellow River) in China, and the Colorado. Subsequently, such massive change in the global aquatic environment generated deterioration, decline, and in some cases, collapse in aquatic systems. In addition, competition for water is increasing not only between the human economy and the natural environment, but also between and within countries. Water scarcity is a potential source of conflict. Forces such as the depletion of resources; population growth; and unequal distribution or access can create political conflicts. Achieving more sustainable patterns of water use, restoring and maintaining the integrity of river systems, and cooperation within and between countries will not only protect the aquatic environment, but also avert conflict.

  7. Integrated assessment of urban vulnerability and resilience. Case study: Targu Ocna town, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grozavu, Adrian; Bănică, Alexandru

    2015-04-01

    Vulnerability assessment frequently emphasizes the internal fragility of a system in relation to a given hazard, when compared to similar systems or to a reference standard. This internal fragility, either biophysical or structural, may affect the ability to predict, to prepare for and cope with or to recover from the manifestation of a risk phenomenon. Thus, the vulnerability is highly related to resilience and adaptability. There is no single methodology for vulnerability and resilience analysis, their assessment can only be made by identifying and integrating indicators which are compatible with the analysis level and the geographic, economic and social features of a certain area. An integrated model of evaluating vulnerability and resilience capacity is being proposed in this paper for Targu Ocna, a small mining settlement in the Eastern Carpathians of Romania, that became in the last years a tourist town and acts within the surrounding territory as a dynamic local pole. Methodologically, the following steps and operations were considered: identifying potential hazards, identifying elements at risk, identifying proper indicators and integrating them in order to evaluate the general vulnerability and resilience. The inventory of elements at risk (the number of people potentially affected, residential or other functionalities buildings, roads and other infrastructure elements etc.) was made based on General Urban Plan, topographic maps (scale 1:5000), ortophotos from 2003 and 2008 and field mapping and researches. Further on, several vulnerability indicators were identified and included within the analytical approach: dependency ratio, income, quality of the habitat and technical urban facilities, environment quality showing differentiated sensitivity. Issues such as preparedness and preventive measures (priority areas within the risk prevention plans), coping ability (networks' geometry and connectivity, emergency utilities and services accessibility) and the

  8. SHAKE modelling of seismic site effects based on data recorded in Bucharest City, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bala, A.; Ritter, J. R. R.; Hannich, D.; Balan, St.

    2009-04-01

    Within the NATO-funded Science for Peace Project 981882 "Site-effect analyses for the earthquake-endangered metropolis Bucharest, Romania" was obtained a complete and homogeneous dataset of soil-mechanic and elasto-dynamic parameters. Ten 50 m deep boreholes were drilled in the metropolitan area of Bucharest in order to obtain the necessary data (dynamic tests at cores and vertical seismic profiles) for a new and modern map with site effects related to earthquake wave amplification in the shallow sedimentary layers. Thick unconsolidated sedimentary layers in the area of Bucharest amplify the arriving seismic shear-waves causing severe destruction. Moreover the seismic site effects are not equally spreaded over the city area: during the earthquake of 27.10.2004 (Mw = 6), the PGA map of the horizontal component EW shows variations from 16 to 64 cm/s2 in the Bucharest area - roughly a circle of 20 km diameter. The 10 drillings and the Vp and Vs (seismic longitudinal and shear-wave velocities) measurements in the boreholes were done in the years 2006-2007 (Bala et al., 2007). Rock samples were taken from each borehole at different depths for laboratory tests to determine the geotechnical parameters of each sedimentary rock type at the sites. Thus a valuable data base is assembled which contains: Vp and Vs values for each sedimentary layer, density and geologic characteristics of each layer, which are the basic data for equivalent linear modelling of the site; other geotechnical parameters measured in the laboratory on the rock samples will permit further the nonlinear modelling of each site. Using the program SHAKE2000 we compute spectral acceleration functions at specific depths and transfer functions for the 1D models obtained from the in situ measurements. The acceleration response spectra correspond to the wave amplifications due to the package of sedimentary layers from 50 m depth (maximum depth) up to the surface, that are expected for a moderate real earthquake

  9. Multi-method chronological investigation of a Middle Paleolithic stratigraphic context in Eastern Transylvania, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veres, Daniel; Cosac, Marian; Muratoreanu, George; Niţǎ, Loredana; Schmidt, Christoph; Hambach, Ulrich; Hubay, Katalin; Alexandru, Radu; Cuculici, Roxana; Lucian Buzea, Dan; Dumitraşcu, Valentin

    2016-04-01

    The Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition is one of the crucial periods of change in the prehistory of Europe due to the full emergence, continent-wide, of modern human technologies, detrimental of Neanderthal survival. Knowledge about the transition is vast, however, the evidence for cultural and technological developments in the Carpathian - Lower Danube area is still rather sparse. Here we discuss latest results arising from an archaeological-chronological investigation of a Middle Paleolithic context within the Varghis karst, eastern Transylvania, Romania. Combining our results with these of previous excavations, we can distinguish several stages of habitation in the area comprising a rock shelter connected to a newly discovered filled-in cave entrance. Reanalysis of the deeper stratigraphy previously unexcavated shows that at least two main habitation levels have been preserved. In both levels, the bone assemblages (Bos/Bison, Capra, Canis lupus, Ursus spaeleus) directly associated with lithics point to human-accumulation of material. In order to augment the typological cultural considerations, we applied direct radiocarbon dating on bones from within the occupation layers and on scattered charcoal, for the latter following a two-step combustion protocol (1). Radiocarbon dating on bones suggests the lowermost occupation layer is >43.4 radiocarbon kyr BP old, whereas the preliminary infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) ages on the lowermost productive layer and above it indicate surprisingly old ages of ca. 120 kyr and respectively, ca. 70 kyr. Multiple-protocol dating of charcoal found within the two habitation layers produced ages >38 radiocarbon kyr BP, suggesting that the lowermost habitation layer unequivocally pertains to the Middle Paleolithic industries. For the upper productive layer, radiocarbon dating of charcoal found 20 cm above it produced a surprisingly young age of 17.4 radiocarbon kyr BP. However, as the carbon content of this sample was

  10. MIS 3 Climate Variability Revealed by Two Stalagmites from Northern and South-Western Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragusin, V.; Hoffmann, D.; Onac, B. P.; Isverceanu, E.

    2011-12-01

    We present two stable isotope records of climate variability from stalagmites in northern (#1152 from Pestera Izvorul Tausoarelor, Rodna Mountains) and south-western (#POM1 from Pestera Ascunsa, Mehedinti Mountains) Romania. Both cave entrances are located at over 1000 m asl in areas covered by mature beech forests, in continental temperate climate. Superimposed on the present-day climatic conditions are two different climate influences: Atlantic in the north and sub-mediterranean in the south-west. Both stalagmites were dated by means of uranium series on a Thermo Neptune MC-ICP-MS at Centro Nacional de Investigacion sobre la Evolucion Humana (Burgos, Spain) and samples for stable O and C stable isotopes were analysed on a Thermo Delta V IRMS at the Stable Isotope Laboratory, University of South Florida. For the stable isotopes profile, stalagmite 1152 was sampled at an average interval of 100 years , whereas POM1 was sampled at a 30 years interval. The two stalagmites reveal differences in isotopic signature response to climatic variability. When the POM1 δ18O profile is compared to the NGRIP δ18O, a lower variability of its values is evident. Even so, we are still able to distinguish structures similar to Greenland Interstadials (GIs) 7 and 8, the latter being composed of two distinct units. The stalagmite 1152 δ18O profile shows less variability although some of the peaks in the values could be correlated to GIs 4 through 12. The absolute values of these two records vary around an average of -7.5%, very close to the typical Holocene values from this part of Europe. This may point to an enhanced Mediterranean circulation towards the north during MIS 3. In return, the δ13C values of the two stalagmites are very different and point to large differences in the activity of plants and soil organisms. POM1 values, averaging -5 to -6%, indicate a C4 type vegetation in the area above the cave, that could belong to alpine meadows. This may document a lowering of the

  11. Climate change adaptation options for sustainable management of agriculture in the Eastern Lower Danube Plain, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovici, Elena-Ana; Sima, Mihaela; Balteanu, Dan; Dragota, Carmen-Sofia; Grigorescu, Ines; Kucsicsa, Gheorghe

    2013-04-01

    The current study was carried out within the FP7 ECLISE project in the Eastern Lower Danube Plain (Bărăgan Plain), one of the major agricultural areas in Romania. In this region, climate change signals are becoming more evident being predominantly characterized by increasing temperatures, decreasing of precipitations and intensification of extreme events in terms of frequency, intensity and duration. Over the past decades, the effects of extreme climatic phenomena on crop production have been ever more severe (very low outputs in the droughty years, significant crop losses during flooding periods, hailstorms, etc.). Concurrently, these effects have been the result of a whole range of complex interactions with other environmental, social, economic and political factors over the post-communist period. Using questionnaires survey for small individual households and large agricultural farms, focus group interviews and direct field observation, this study analyses the farmers' perception in terms of climate change, the impact of climate change on agriculture and how the farmers react and adapt to these changes. The current study have revealed that all farmers believe drought as being by far the most important climatic factor with major impact on agricultural production, followed by acid rains, hail storms and ground frost, facts evidenced also by the climatic diagnosis of the region. The majority of respondents have taken adaptation agricultural measures in response to changes in climate conditions (drought resistant seeds, modern technology to keep the moisture in the soil, etc.), but they consider that a national strategy for mitigating the effects of climate change would be more effective in this respect. Also, in order to correlate the farmers' perception of climate change and climatic factors, the authors used and processed a wide range of meteorological data (daily, monthly and annual from the most representative meteorological stations in the study-area), as

  12. Multi-level significance of vulnerability indicators. Case study: Eastern Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanga, I. C.; Grozavu, A.

    2012-04-01

    Vulnerability assessment aims, most frequently, to emphasize internal fragility of a system comparing to a reference standard, to similar systems or in relation to a given hazard. Internal fragility, either biophysical or structural, may affect the capacity to predict, to prepare for, to cope with or to recover from a disaster. Thus, vulnerability is linked to resilience and adaptive capacity. From local level to global one, vulnerability factors and corresponding indicators are different and their significance must be tested and validated in a well-structured conceptual and methodological framework. In this paper, the authors aim to show the real vulnerability of rural settlements in Eastern Romania in a multi-level approach. The research area, Tutova Hills, counts about 3421 sq.km and more than 200.000 inhabitants in 421 villages characterized by deficient accessibility, lack of endowments, subsistential agriculture, high pressure on natural environment (especially on forest and soil resources), poverty and aging process of population. Factors that could influence the vulnerability of these rural settlements have been inventoried and assigned into groups through a cluster analysis: habitat and technical urban facilities, infrastructure, economical, social and demographical indicators, environment quality, management of emergency situations etc. Firstly, the main difficulty was to convert qualitative variable in quantitative indicators and to standardize all values to make possible mathematical and statistical processing of data. Secondly, the great variability of vulnerability factors, their different measuring units and their high amplitude of variation require different method of standardization in order to obtain values between zero (minimum vulnerability) and one (maximum vulnerability). Final vulnerability indicators were selected and integrated in a general scheme, according to their significance resulted from an appropriate factor analysis: linear and

  13. Multidimensionality and scale in a landscape ethnoecological partitioning of a mountainous landscape (Gyimes, Eastern Carpathians, Romania)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Traditional habitat knowledge is an understudied part of traditional knowledge. Though the number of studies increased world-wide in the last decade, this knowledge is still rarely studied in Europe. We document the habitat vocabulary used by Csángó people, and determine features they used to name and describe these categories. Study area and methods Csángó people live in Gyimes (Carpathians, Romania). The area is dominated by coniferous forests, hay meadows and pastures. Animal husbandry is the main source of living. Data on the knowledge of habitat preference of 135 salient wild plant species were collected (2908 records, 44 interviewees). Data collected indoors were counterchecked during outdoor interviews and participatory field work. Results Csángós used a rich and sophisticated vocabulary to name and describe habitat categories. They distinguished altogether at least 142–148 habitat types, and named them by 242 habitat terms. We argue that the method applied and the questions asked (‘what kind of place does species X like?’) helped the often implicit knowledge of habitats to be verbalized more efficiently than usual in an interview. Habitat names were highly lexicalized and most of them were widely shared. The main features were biotic or abiotic, like land-use, dominant plant species, vegetation structure, successional stage, disturbance, soil characteristics, hydrological, and geomorphological features. Csángós often used indicator species (28, mainly herbaceous taxa) in describing habitats of species. To prevent reduction in the quantity and/or quality of hay, unnecessary disturbance of grasslands was avoided by the Csángós. This could explain the high number of habitats (35) distinguished dominantly by the type and severity of disturbance. Based on the spatial scale and topological inclusiveness of habitat categories we distinguished macro-, meso-, and microhabitats. Conclusions Csángó habitat categories were not organized

  14. Holocene landslide activity in Moldavian Plateau (NE Romania) based on archaeological evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niculita, Mihai; Ciprian Margarint, Mihai; Santangelo, Michele

    2016-04-01

    Landslides are widespread phenomena that contribute to shape the landscape. Assessing the time sequence of landslide activity during the Holocene can help (i) better frame the present day landslide distribution in the wider context of climate change and (ii) better define landslide hazard to take adequate mitigation measures to preserve the elements at risk such as archaeological heritage and currently used structures and infrastructures. Rigorous image interpretation criteria applied to the interpretation of remote sensing images can be a valuable tool to derive information on landslide spatial and temporal distribution. However, it only allows to broadly estimate the relative age of landslides based on their morphologic signature. In this work, we investigate the topological relations between landslides and archaeological sites for nine selected settlements in the Moldavian Plateau, situated on ridges and hillslopes. Landslides and sites were mapped using high resolution LIDAR DEMs and extensive field validation activities. Landslides were classified as very old (relict), old, and recent, according to their morphologic appearance. We argue the possibility of (i) assigning a relative age to the three main classes of landslides as they appear on the present day topography, and (ii) assessing the landslide activity during the Holocene. Using this information, we set up a model of landslide evolution during the Holocene for the Moldavian Plateau, NE Romania. Analysis of the landslide inventories revealed decreasing landslide size over time, and newer landslides tend to occur as reactivations of older landslides, partly remobilizing their deposits, and mostly causing retreat of their escarpments. Analysis of the spatial relationships of the archaeological sites with the landslide inventories revealed that the settlers exploited the natural inaccessible decametric escarpments of very old landslides as defensive measures, whereas retrogressive reactivation of such older

  15. Source parameters of intermediate-depth Vrancea (Romania) earthquakes from empirical Green's functions modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oth, Adrien; Wenzel, Friedemann; Radulian, Mircea

    2007-06-01

    Several source parameters (source dimensions, slip, particle velocity, static and dynamic stress drop) are determined for the moderate-size October 27th, 2004 ( MW = 5.8), and the large August 30th, 1986 ( MW = 7.1) and March 4th, 1977 ( MW = 7.4) Vrancea (Romania) intermediate-depth earthquakes. For this purpose, the empirical Green's functions method of Irikura [e.g. Irikura, K. (1983). Semi-Empirical Estimation of Strong Ground Motions during Large Earthquakes. Bull. Dis. Prev. Res. Inst., Kyoto Univ., 33, Part 2, No. 298, 63-104., Irikura, K. (1986). Prediction of strong acceleration motions using empirical Green's function, in Proceedings of the 7th Japan earthquake engineering symposium, 151-156., Irikura, K. (1999). Techniques for the simulation of strong ground motion and deterministic seismic hazard analysis, in Proceedings of the advanced study course seismotectonic and microzonation techniques in earthquake engineering: integrated training in earthquake risk reduction practices, Kefallinia, 453-554.] is used to generate synthetic time series from recordings of smaller events (with 4 ≤ MW ≤ 5) in order to estimate several parameters characterizing the so-called strong motion generation area, which is defined as an extended area with homogeneous slip and rise time and, for crustal earthquakes, corresponds to an asperity of about 100 bar stress release [Miyake, H., T. Iwata and K. Irikura (2003). Source characterization for broadband ground-motion simulation: Kinematic heterogeneous source model and strong motion generation area. Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 93, 2531-2545.] The parameters are obtained by acceleration envelope and displacement waveform inversion for the 2004 and 1986 events and MSK intensity pattern inversion for the 1977 event using a genetic algorithm. The strong motion recordings of the analyzed Vrancea earthquakes as well as the MSK intensity pattern of the 1977 earthquake can be well reproduced using relatively small strong motion

  16. Cl-rich hydrous mafic mineral assemblages in the Highiș massif, Apuseni Mountains, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonin, Bernard; Tatu, Mihai

    2016-08-01

    The Guadalupian (Mid-Permian) Highiș massif (Apuseni Mountains, Romania) displays a bimodal igneous suite of mafic (gabbro, diorite) and A-type felsic (alkali feldspar granite, albite granite, and hybrid granodiorite) rocks. Amphibole is widespread throughout the suite, and yields markedly high chlorine contents. Three groups are identified: Cl-rich potassic hastingsite (2.60-3.40 wt% Cl) within A-type felsic rocks and diorite, mildly Cl-rich pargasite to hornblende (0.80-1.90 wt% Cl) within gabbro, and low F-Cl hornblende within gabbro and hybrid granodiorite. Coexisting biotite is either Cl-rich within diorite, or F-Cl-poor to F-rich within A-type felsic rocks. Chlorine and fluorine are distributed in both mafic phases, according to the F-Fe and Cl-Mg avoidance rules. The low-Ti contents suggest subsolidus compositions. Cl-rich amphibole within diorite and A-type felsic rocks yields a restricted temperature range - from 575 °C down to 400 °C, whereas mildly Cl-rich amphibole within gabbro displays the highest range - from 675 to 360 °C. Temperatures recorded by Cl-rich biotite within diorite range from 590 to 410 °C. Biotite within A-type felsic rocks yields higher temperatures than amphibole: the highest values- from 640 to 540 °C - are recorded in low-F-Cl varieties, whereas the lowest values- from 535 to 500 °C - are displayed by F-rich varieties. All data point to halogen-rich hydrothermal fluids at upper greenschist facies conditions percolating through fractures and shear zones and pervasively permeating the whole Highiș massif, with F precipitating as interstitial fluorite and Cl incorporating into amphibole, during one, or possibly several, hydrothermal episodes that would have occurred during a ~ 150 My-long period of time extending from the Guadalupian (Mid-Permian) to the Albian (Mid-Cretaceous).

  17. Validation of MODIS and SEVIRI Active Fire Monitoring products over Western Romania. Case study: Arad County

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oanea, Lavinia; Alina Ristea, Mihaela

    2014-05-01

    At the national level, the issue of wildfire monitoring represents a long debated topic. However, in the present situation, fire management requires various improvements in terms of detection, monitoring and post-fire analysis. The objectives of this study are to validate the data provided by MODIS (Terra and Aqua) Active Fire Monitoring and SEVIRI (MSG) FIR (Active Fire Monitoring) satellite products, with wildfires field data from The Romanian General Inspectorate for Emergency Situations (IGSU) (1), to chart the efficiency of satellite products in locating fires and study their strengths and weaknesses using a SWOT analysis (2). This is the initial step of a larger project that aims to implement an online Geographic Information System for fire management that will ease wildfire data manipulation and facilitate the decision making process. In order to do so, the current study objectives must be achieved. Our general strategy is to determine the consistency of direct (field measurements) and indirect (satellite data) observations. Depending on the amount of field information, the fire characteristics (location, frequency, extension area, moment of occurrence, type of fire, and others) will be studied through a statistical analysis. The products show some peculiar restrictiveness like spatial and temporal resolution. Specifically, we will process and interpret satellite products to identify wildfires according to the data from IGSU using specialized software. The case study for the application of these procedures is a set of fire events from Arad county - Romania, that occurred between 2007 and 2013. In order to do so, it is important to compare results from different sensors with field information through various methods and to use only consistent results. The results will play an important role in achieving the above mentioned informational system, which will integrate field information, satellite data and values of parameters that influence the evolution of

  18. Local stakeholders' perception of landslide and flood risks in Iasi County, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciprian Margarint, Mihai; Niculita, Mihai; Rosu, Lucian

    2015-04-01

    Risk perception is an important issue for an efficient management and mitigation measures of natural hazards and theirs negative consequences on social and economic activity. At administrative unit scale (LAU2), local stakeholders play an effective role in case of an emergency situation, regarding the warning and alerting the population, collaboration with specialized institution and managing material assistance during and after the crisis. In addition they are among the best connoisseurs of local community and places, and consequently they could substantial help the national level forces during emergency situations. These issues argues the high degree of responsibilities assigned to Romanian mayors, and is reflected in the legislation in terms of evaluation of damages produced and the management of natural hazards, like landslide and floods. Also their degree of awareness can assess more accurately the collective perception against the individual one. In this work we have assessed the local stakeholders' perception for natural risks in general, and particularly for landslides and floods. We have tested the discrepancies of the specific risks perception and an assessment of correspondence between scientific outputs versus the subjective judgement the administrative decision makers. This approach was based on a questionnaire which was applied in the summer of 2014, to all 98 mayors from Iasi County, north-east Romania. It contained 12 questions structured in a specific mode, from general to particular. The assessment of the answers provided from the commune halls, was realized with integration in a GIS environment of codes assigned to each question, and the overlay with the scientific outputs regarding landslide occurrence and susceptibility and floods risk maps. The differences between the outputs of the questionnaires and the scientific outputs of landslide and flood risk was further analyzed and interpreted. There were registered large variations of answers and

  19. 76 FR 36447 - Safety Zone; Patuxent River, Patuxent River, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Patuxent River, Patuxent River, MD AGENCY... a temporary safety zone during the ``NAS Patuxent River Air Expo '11'', which consists of aerial practices, performance demonstrations and air shows, to be held over certain waters of the Patuxent...

  20. 33 CFR 117.734 - Navesink River (Swimming River).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Navesink River (Swimming River). 117.734 Section 117.734 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... (Swimming River). The Oceanic Bridge, mile 4.5, shall open on signal; except that, from December 1...

  1. 33 CFR 117.734 - Navesink River (Swimming River).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Navesink River (Swimming River). 117.734 Section 117.734 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... (Swimming River). The Oceanic Bridge, mile 4.5, shall open on signal; except that, from December 1...

  2. 33 CFR 117.734 - Navesink River (Swimming River).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Navesink River (Swimming River). 117.734 Section 117.734 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... (Swimming River). The Oceanic Bridge, mile 4.5, shall open on signal; except that, from December 1...

  3. 33 CFR 117.734 - Navesink River (Swimming River).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navesink River (Swimming River). 117.734 Section 117.734 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... (Swimming River). The Oceanic Bridge, mile 4.5, shall open on signal; except that, from December 1...

  4. 33 CFR 117.734 - Navesink River (Swimming River).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Navesink River (Swimming River). 117.734 Section 117.734 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... (Swimming River). The Oceanic Bridge, mile 4.5, shall open on signal; except that, from December 1...

  5. The Nile River

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of the northern portion of the Nile River was captured by MISR's nadir camera on January 30, 2001 (Terra orbit 5956). The Nile is the longest river in the world, extending for about 6700 kilometers from its headwaters in the highlands of eastern Africa. At the apex of the fertile Nile River Delta is the Egyptian capital city of Cairo. To the west are the Great Pyramids of Giza. North of here the Nile branches into two distributaries, the Rosetta to the west and the Damietta to the east. Also visible in this image is the Suez Canal, a shipping waterway connecting Port Said on the Mediterranean Sea with the Gulf of Suez. The Gulf is an arm of the Red Sea, and is located on the righthand side of the picture. Image credit: NASA/GSFC/LaRC/JPL, MISR Team.

  6. Delaware River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, Jeffrey M.

    1999-01-01

    Assessing the quality of water in every location of the Nation would not be practical. Therefore, NAWQA investigations are conducted within 59 selected areas called study units (fig. 1). These study units encompass important river and aquifer systems in the United States and represent the diverse geographic, waterresource, land-use, and water-use characteristics of the Nation. The Delaware River Basin is one of 15 study units in which work began in 1996. Water-quality sampling in the study unit will begin in 1999. This fact sheet provides a brief overview of the NAWQA program, describes the Delaware River Basin study unit, identifies the major water-quality issues in the basin, and documents the plan of study that will be followed during the study-unit investigation.

  7. Osmium in the rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, M. |; Wasserburg, G.J.

    1997-12-01

    There is a large uncertainty in our understanding of the behavior of osmium during weathering and transport into deep oceans and the osmium budget of the oceans. The problem stems chiefly from the lack of osmium data on the dissolved load in the rivers and in the estuaries. In this study, the concentration and isotopic composition of osmium have been determined in three North American rivers (the Mississippi, the Columbia, and the Connecticut) and one river draining central Europe and flowing into the Baltic Sea (the Vistula). Osmium concentration in the Mississippi and the Vistula is about 45 femto mol kg{sup -1}; it is about 14 and 15 femto mol kg{sup -1} for the Connecticut and the Columbia, respectively. The {sup 187}Os/{sup 186}Os ratios estimated for the Mississippi and the Vistula are 10.4 and 10.7, respectively. For the Connecticut and the Columbia {sup 187}Os/{sup 186}Os = 8.8 and 14.4, respectively. Of all the rivers examined, the Mississippi is by far the largest, supplying {approximately}1.6% of the total annual world river flow. Its osmium isotopic composition is identical to the upper Mississippi valley loesses indicating (1) congruent dissolution of the bedrock and (2) little or no impact of anthropogenic sources on the osmium isotopic composition of the dissolved load. The latter observation indicates that the upper limit of the anthropogenic input in the dissolved osmium load of the Mississippi outflow is about 250 g yr{sup -1}. While the osmium concentration of the Vistula is high the isotopic composition does not appear to have been affected by substantial pollution. The river data can be used to put limits on the mean residence time of osmium in the oceans ({bar {tau}}{sub Os}) and on the osmium budget of the oceans. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. Regional river sulfur runoff

    SciTech Connect

    Husar, R.B.; Husar, J.D.

    1985-01-20

    The water and sulfur runoff data for 54 large river basins were assembled, covering 65% of the nondesert land area of the world. The sulfur concentration ranges from 0.5 mg S/L for the West African rivers Niger and Volta to 100 mg S/L in the Colorado River; the world average is 3.2 mg S/L. The concentrations in central and eastern Europe as well as central and eastern North America exceed 8 mg S/L. The sulfur runoff density is also highest in the river basins over these industrialized regions, exceeding 2 g S/m/sup 2//yr. However, high sulfur runoff density in excess of 3 g S/m/sup 2//yr is also measured over the Pacific islands New Zealand and New Guinea and the archipelagos of Indonesia and the Philippines. The natural background sulfur runoff was estimated by assuming that South America, Africa, Australia, and the Pacific Islands are unperturbed by man and that the average river sulfur concentration is in the range 1--3 mg S/L. Taking these background concentration values, the man-induced sulfur runoff for Europe ranges between 2 and 8 times the natural flow, and over North America, man's contribution ranges between 1 and 5 times the natural runoff. The global sulfur flow from nondesert land to the oceans and the Caspian Sea is estimated as 131 Tg S/yr, of which 46--85 Tg S/yr is attributed to natural causes. The regional river sulfur runoff pattern discussed in this paper does not have enough spatial resolution to be directly applicable to studies of the environmental effects of man-induced sulfur flows. However, it points to the continental-size regions where those perturbations are most evident and to the magnitude of the perturbations as expressed in units of the natural flows.

  9. Regional river sulfur runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husar, Rudolf B.; Husar, Janja Djukic

    1985-01-01

    The water and sulfur runoff data for 54 large river basins were assembled, covering 65% of the nondesert land area of the world. The sulfur concentration ranges from 0.5 mg S/L for the West African rivers Niger and Volta to 100 mg S/L in the Colorado River; the world average is 3.2 mg S/L. The concentrations in central and eastern Europe as well as central and eastern North America exceed 8 mg S/L. The sulfur runoff density is also highest in the river basins over these industrialized regions, exceeding 2 g S/m2/yr. However, high sulfur runoff density in excess of 3 g S/m2/yr is also measured over the Pacific islands New Zealand and New Guinea and the archipelagos of Indonesia and the Philippines. The natural background sulfur runoff was estimated by assuming that South America, Africa, Australia, and the Pacific Islands are unperturbed by man and that the average river sulfur concentration is in the range 1-3 mg S/L. Taking these background concentration values, the man-induced sulfur runoff for Europe ranges between 2 and 8 times the natural flow, and over North America, man's contribution ranges between 1 and 5 times the natural runoff. The global sulfur flow from nondesert land to the oceans and the Caspian Sea is estimated as 131 Tg S/yr, of which 46-85 Tg S/yr is attributed to natural causes. The regional river sulfur runoff pattern discussed in this paper does not have enough spatial resolution to be directly applicable to studies of the environmental effects of man-induced sulfur flows. However, it points to the continental-size regions where those perturbations are most evident and to the magnitude of the perturbations as expressed in units of the natural flows.

  10. Exploring river pollution based on sediment analysis in the Upper Tisza region (Hungary).

    PubMed

    Balogh, Zsuzsanna; Harangi, Sándor; Gyulai, István; Braun, Mihály; Hubay, Katalin; Tóthmérész, Béla; Simon, Edina

    2017-02-01

    We assessed contamination in the Upper Tisza region (Hungary, Central Europe), analyzing the elemental concentrations in sediment cores of oxbows. Our hypothesis was that the metal contamination which occurred in the year 2000 and which came from the mining area in Transylvania (Romania) may be detected even 15 years after the contamination, based on the vertical profile of sediment cores. Sediment cores were collected from five oxbows, and the following elements were measured with microwave plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (MP-AES): Cu, Cr, Ba, Fe, Mn, Pb, Sr, and Zn. Among the oxbows studied, there was one protected oxbow, three were used for fishing, and one was contaminated with sewage. Our results indicated that the year of contamination is still observable in the vertical profile of the sediment cores. The pollution index (PI) was used to characterize the sediment enrichment of metal elements in the sediment cores. In the case of Cu, Pb, and Zn, the contamination which originated in the year 2000 was detected in the layers of the sediment cores. The contamination levels of Cu, Pb, and Zn were high or moderate in the studied oxbows. All oxbows were moderately contaminated by Mn, while a moderate level of contamination was found for Fe in the protected oxbow, one fishing oxbow, and the sewage-contaminated oxbow. In the fishing oxbows, a low level of contamination was found for Fe. The contamination level of Sr was low in the protected oxbow and in the two fishing oxbows, while in one of the fishing oxbows and in the sewage-contaminated oxbow, a moderate level of Sr contamination was found. The pollution index scores indicated that the contamination level for Ba and Cr was low in the sediment cores of the oxbows studied. Our results indicated that the contamination of the Tisza River from the mining area in Northern Romania has been continuous and is still ongoing.

  11. Charles River Crossing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-06

    piled shaft or precast concrete caissons can be used to construct the foundation. The pylons are then constructed in-situ using the slip form system...Bridge and River S treet Bridge (Figure 4) are e arth-filled, r einforced concrete arch bridges that cross over the Charles River, which flows between... concrete piers and spread footings set i nto gr anular s oils a nd c lay found unde rneath t he r iver be d s ettlement. It c arries bot h vehicular

  12. Applicability and economic efficiency of earthquake retrofit measures on existing buildings in Bucharest, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostenaru, M.

    2009-04-01

    The research discussed in this contribution contains two aspects: on one side the economic efficiency of seismic retrofit measures, and on the other their applicability. The research was limited to housing buildings. Bucharest, the capital of Romania, was the object of the research. Strong earthquakes affect Bucharest about three times in a century, the damaging earthquakes of the 20th century being in 1940 and 1977. Other strong earthquakes occurred in 1986 and 1990. Since it is a broad topic, first the building type was determined, which should serve further research. For this scope the building types of the 20th century, which are common in Bucharest, Romania, were investigated. For each building type reports have been written, which comprised the earthquake resilient features, the seismic defficiencies, the damage patterns and the retrofit measures. Each of these features was listed for elements of the building. A first result of the research was an integrated system in order to include latter aspects in the planning in the first steps. So already at the building survey attention has to be paid on how a building is subdivided in order to be able to determine the economic efficiency of the planned action. So were defined the `retrofit elements`. In a first step the characteristics were defined, through which these retrofit elements (for example column, wall part between two windows) can be recognised in the building survey. In a further one, which retrofit measures can be connected to these. Diagrams were built, in order to visualise these findings. For each retrofit element and the corresponding measure the costs were calculated. Also, these retrofit elements and the measures connected to them were modelled for the simulation with the structural software, so that the benefit of the measures could be determined. In the part which regarded the economic efficiency, benefits and costs of retrofit measures had to be compared, so the improvement in the rigidity

  13. Using bacterial and necrophagous insect dynamics for post-mortem interval estimation during cold season: Novel case study in Romania.

    PubMed

    Iancu, Lavinia; Carter, David O; Junkins, Emily N; Purcarea, Cristina

    2015-09-01

    Considering the biogeographical characteristics of forensic entomology, and the recent development of forensic microbiology as a complementary approach for post-mortem interval estimation, the current study focused on characterizing the succession of necrophagous insect species and bacterial communities inhabiting the rectum and mouth cavities of swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) carcasses during a cold season outdoor experiment in an urban natural environment of Bucharest, Romania. We monitored the decomposition process of three swine carcasses during a 7 month period (November 2012-May 2013) corresponding to winter and spring periods of a temperate climate region. The carcasses, protected by wire cages, were placed on the ground in a park type environment, while the meteorological parameters were constantly recorded. The succession of necrophagous Diptera and Coleoptera taxa was monitored weekly, both the adult and larval stages, and the species were identified both by morphological and genetic characterization. The structure of bacterial communities from swine rectum and mouth tissues was characterized during the same time intervals by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments. We observed a shift in the structure of both insect and bacterial communities, primarily due to seasonal effects and the depletion of the carcass. A total of 14 Diptera and 6 Coleoptera species were recorded on the swine carcasses, from which Calliphora vomitoria and C. vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Necrobia violacea (Coleoptera: Cleridae) and Thanatophilus rugosus (Coleoptera: Silphidae) were observed as predominant species. The first colonizing wave, primarily Calliphoridae, was observed after 15 weeks when the temperature increased to 13°C. This was followed by Muscidae, Fanniidae, Anthomyiidae, Sepsidae and Piophilidae. Families belonging to Coleoptera Order were observed at week 18 when temperatures raised above 18°C, starting with

  14. The occurrence of mycotoxins in wheat from western Romania and histopathological impact as effect of feed intake

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The goal of this study has been to evaluate the extent of mycotoxins contamination and their co-occurrence in wheat grain intended for animal feed. A total of 52 wheat samples were collected from the harvest of two consecutive years (2010, 2011) from two counties (Timis and Arad) located in Western Romania and the presence of ochratoxin A (OTA), deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZON) and fumonisins (FUMO) was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In order to evaluate the toxicological impact of mycotoxins, naturally contaminated wheat samples were administered in rats feed for one month. Results The mycotoxin with the highest incidence in wheat samples was DON due to agro-climatic conditions typical for the west part of Romania. DON was found in 73.08% of samples harvested in 2010 and the highest level of contamination was 3390 ppb. The incidence of DON in sample from 2011 was lower than those of 2010, with a frequency of occurrence of 19.23%. The occurrence of ZON was in the range 69.23–76.92%, with an average value of 187.74 ppb. The OTA content in wheat was below the maximum tolerable limit established by EU Commission regulation for feed legislation (250 ppb). For FUMO the lowest percentage of positive samples was registered (15.38% in wheat sample harvested in 2010 and 11.54% positive samples in 2011). With respect to the co-occurrence of Fusarium mycotoxins, the results proved that ZON was found as a co-contaminant together with DON, especially when climatic conditions for development of fungus are favorable (high air humidity). The differences recorded between investigated localities and their classifications according to the mycotoxin kind and year of harvest were carried out by principal components analysis (PCA). The histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluation performed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining technique as well as by assessing the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) revealed significant

  15. 3. ENVIRONMENT, FROM SOUTH, SHOWING RIVER ROAD RIDGE CARRYING CASSELMAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. ENVIRONMENT, FROM SOUTH, SHOWING RIVER ROAD RIDGE CARRYING CASSELMAN RIVER ROAD OVER CASSELMAN RIVER - River Road Bridge, Crossing Casselman River on Casselman River Road, Grantsville, Garrett County, MD

  16. Discover the Nile River

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Bordering on the Fantastic. As the longest river on earth, the Nile passes through 10 countries. Presented through a wide range of activities and a winning array of games, it's also unsurpassed at taking young minds into exploring the world of water, as well as natural and man made wonders.

  17. River on Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Thomas R.

    1972-01-01

    Presents controversy over damming of Wyoming's Upper Green River to supply water to the arid basins of eastern Wyoming. Possibilities of wildlife destruction, flooding of valley lands, and opposition to the construction of the Kendall Dam itself are enumerated together with legislative action to date. (BL)

  18. Savannah River Site Robotics

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    Meet Sandmantis and Frankie, two advanced robotic devices that are key to cleanup at Savannah River Site. Sandmantis cleans hard, residual waste off huge underground storage tanks. Frankie is equipped with unique satellite capabilities and sensing abilties that can determine what chemicals still reside in the tanks in a cost effective manner.

  19. Savannah River Site Robotics

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Meet Sandmantis and Frankie, two advanced robotic devices that are key to cleanup at Savannah River Site. Sandmantis cleans hard, residual waste off huge underground storage tanks. Frankie is equipped with unique satellite capabilities and sensing abilties that can determine what chemicals still reside in the tanks in a cost effective manner.

  20. The River Rock School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gereaux, Teresa Thomas

    1999-01-01

    In the early 1920s, the small Appalachian community of Damascus, Virginia, used private subscriptions and volunteer labor to build a 15-classroom school made of rocks from a nearby river and chestnut wood from nearby forests. The school building's history, uses for various community activities, and current condition are described. (SV)

  1. Amu Darya River

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... are losing arable land to soil salinization as a result of rising groundwater levels that accompany crop irrigation. As a consequence ... the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers, water volume in the Aral Sea has dropped by more than 80% since 1960. Increases in water input near the ...

  2. River Pollution: Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1983-01-01

    Describes a unit on river pollution and analytical methods to use in assessing temperature, pH, flow, calcium, chloride, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, dissolved nitrogen, detergents, heavy metals, sewage pollution, conductivity, and sediment cores. Suggests tests to be carried out and discusses significance of results. (JM)

  3. Colwater fish in rivers

    EPA Science Inventory

    A standard sampling protocol to assess the fish assemblages and abundances in large, coldwater rivers is most accurate and precise if consistent gears and levels of effort are used at each site. This requires thorough crew training, quality control audits, and replicate sampling...

  4. Nissitissit River Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweatman, Jon

    Prepared for the student participant, this manual guides a day's exploration of the Nissitissit River. The unit, one of several developed in conjunction with Project Exploration, has the broad goals of promoting--through experiential learning in a variety of environments outside the classroom--the student's self-confidence and ability to work…

  5. The Nation's Rivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolman, M. Gordon

    1971-01-01

    Illustrates difficulties in measuring long term changes in water temperature and content of dissolved oxygen, inorganic ions, radiation, pesticides, and trash and debris by reference to selected U. S. river systems. Concludes that observations to detect polluters may not provide data for assessing trends and trend reversals. (AL)

  6. Ecological River Basin Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Anthony Wayne

    Addressing the Seventh American Water Resources Conference, Washington, D. C., October, 1971, Anthony Wayne Smith, President, National Parks and Conservation Association, presents an expose on how rivers should be managed by methods which restores and preserve the natural life balances of the localities and regions through which they flow. The…

  7. Variation of dissolved organic carbon transported by two Chinese rivers: The Changjiang River and Yellow River.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Pan, Delu; Bai, Yan; He, Xianqiang; Wang, Difeng; Zhang, Lin

    2015-11-15

    Real-time monitoring of riverine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and the associated controlling factors is essential to coastal ocean management. This study was the first to simulate the monthly DOC concentrations at the Datong Hydrometric Station for the Changjiang River and at the Lijin Hydrometric Station for the Yellow River from 2000 to 2013 using a multilayer back-propagation neural network (MBPNN), along with basin remote-sensing products and river in situ data. The average absolute error between the modeled values and in situ values was 9.98% for the Changjiang River and 10.84% for the Yellow River. As an effect of water dilution, the variations of DOC concentrations in the two rivers were significantly negatively affected by discharge, with lower values reported during the wet season. Moreover, vegetation growth status and agricultural activities, represented by the gross primary product (GPP) and cropland area percent (CropPer) in the river basin, respectively, also significantly affected the DOC concentration in the Changjiang River, but not the Yellow River. The monthly riverine DOC flux was calculated using modeled DOC concentrations. In particular, the riverine DOC fluxes were affected by discharge, with 71.06% being reported for the Changjiang River and 90.71% for the Yellow River. Over the past decade, both DOC concentration and flux in the two rivers have not shown significant changes.

  8. Te-Rich argyrodite occurrence in Roşia Montană ore deposit, Apuseni Mountains, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailly, Laurent; Tămaş, Călin-Gabriel; Minuţ, Adrian

    2005-06-01

    A new argyrodite occurrence has been discovered in the Roşia Montană ore deposit located in the South Apuseni Mountains, Romania. Argyrodite is associated with common base metal sulfides and sulfosalts (galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, tetrahedrite ± alabandite, pyrite, and marcasite), tellurides (hessite, altaite, sylvanite) and rare electrum grains in the Ag-rich Cârnicel vein hosted by an extracraterial phreatomagmatic breccia within the Cârnic massif. SEM and EPMA analyses revealed that this argyrodite is Te-rich and a mean Ag 8.04Ge 0.9Te 2.07S 3.77 formula was calculated. This phase could be the germaniferous equivalent of the previously-described Te-rich canfieldite. To cite this article: L. Bailly et al., C. R. Geoscience 337 (2005).

  9. [The evolutionary characteristics of an influenza epidemic in a large urban center (B.) of Romania between 1988 and 1990].

    PubMed

    Busuioc, C; Ionescu, V; Murgoci, R; Stoicescu, A; Ticu, M; Velea, L; Cristescu, D

    1991-01-01

    The report presents the peculiar characteristics of influenza epidemics in a big urban centre (B.) of Romania, between 1988 and 1990, surveyed by clinical, epidemiological and laboratory methods. Among the peculiarities of the epidemics: the low rate of endemic morbidity, the seasonal and preseasonal peaks, the very high implication of infantile population in influenza A(H3N2), A(H1N1) and B virus circulation, as well as the high level of mass specific humoral protection against these viruses. Elements of epidemiologic prognosis are suggested for 1991. Opportunity of vaccine prophylaxis using WHO recommended virus strains of the three types: A(H3N2), A(H1N1) and B, for risk groups is discussed.

  10. Testing radon mitigation techniques in a pilot house from Băiţa-Ştei radon prone area (Romania).

    PubMed

    Cosma, Constantin; Papp, Botond; Cucoş Dinu, Alexandra; Sainz, Carlos

    2015-02-01

    This work presents the implementation and testing of several radon mitigation techniques in a pilot house in the radon prone area of Băiţa-Ştei in NW part of Romania. Radon diagnostic investigations in the pilot house showed that the main source of radon was the building sub-soil and the soil near the house. The applied techniques were based on the depressurization and pressurization of the building sub-soil, on the combination of the soil depressurization system by an electric and an eolian fans. Also, there was made an application of a radon barrier membrane and a testing by the combination of the radon membrane by the soil depressurization system. Finally, the better obtained remedial efficiency was about 85%.

  11. Active Sphagnum girgensohnii Russow Moss Biomonitoring of an Industrial Site in Romania: Temporal Variation in the Elemental Content.

    PubMed

    Culicov, Otilia A; Zinicovscaia, Inga; Duliu, O G

    2016-05-01

    The moss-bag transplant technique was used to investigate the kinetics of the accumulation of 38 elements in Sphagnum girgensohni moss samples in the highly polluted municipality of Baia Mare, Romania. The moss samples collected from the unpolluted Vitosha Mountain Natural Reserve, Bulgaria, were analyzed after 1, 2, 3, and 4 months of exposure, respectively. The ANOVA method was used to assay the statistical significance of the observed changes in elemental content, as determined by neutron activation analysis. The content of Zn, Se, As, Ag, Cd, and Sb increased steadily, while that of physiologically active K and Cl, as well as Rb and Cs, decreased exponentially. The study showed that an adequate application of the moss transplant technique in an urban environment should consider the exposure time as a critical parameter, since particular elements are depleted in the moss at sites with high atmospheric loading of metals.

  12. Active moss biomonitoring applied to an industrial site in Romania: relative accumulation of 36 elements in moss-bags.

    PubMed

    Culicov, O A; Mocanu, R; Frontasyeva, M V; Yurukova, L; Steinnes, E

    2005-09-01

    Active moss biomonitoring using the species Sphagnum girgensohnii was tested at a strongly polluted site in Romania (Baia Mare) according to a novel sampling design. Nine moss transplants from each of the two background areas (Dubna, Russia and Vitosha Mountain, Bulgaria) were deployed in parallel on balconies about 24 m above street level for 4 months. The samples were analyzed for 36 elements using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Based on the results obtained the sampling variability is discussed in relation to the analytical variability, and the relative uptake of the different elements is assessed. The moss-bags using Sphagnum girgensohnii demonstrate a high or a very high relative uptake for a majority of the 36 investigated elements, but the values depend on the initial element concentration in the moss. Moss leaves analyzed separately showed somewhat higher levels than stems for many elements. Practical considerations however still speak in favor of using the whole moss for transplants.

  13. Epidemiological aspects of the evolution of influenza infections in a large urban centre (B.) in Romania in 1988.

    PubMed

    Măgureanu, E; Busuioc, C; Ionescu, V; Guguianu, E; Stoicescu, A; Murgoci, R; Cristescu, D; Stoicescu, V

    1989-01-01

    The study describes the peculiarities of the influenza infection evolution, in 1988, in a large urban centre, B., in Romania, as they result from the active surveillance of the epidemiological process of influenza and other viral respiratory tract infections, by means of a complex methodology based on clinical-epidemiological and laboratory techniques. The low endemic morbidity, the evolution of these seasonally ascendant specific incidence, the endemic aspect of influenza infection being maintained as a consequence of its predominance in infants and children, the clinically mild form of the outbreaks, all these are specific elements of the epidemiologic impact in the surveyed territory. They are discussed in accordance with the results of laboratory tests (seroepidemiologic and diagnostic) that confirmed the permanent circulation of influenza virus types A(H1N1), A(H3N2) and B in all age groups.

  14. Adoption policy and evidence-based domestic adoption practice: a comparison of Romania, Ukraine, India, Guatemala, and Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Groza, Victor; Bunkers, Kelley M

    2014-01-01

    The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989), The Hague Convention on the Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption (The Hague Permanent Bureau, 1993), and the Guidelines for the Alternative Care of Children (2009) have provided a comprehensive, rights-based framework and guidance for developing domestic adoption and alternative, family based care programs. Domestic adoption is a critical component of any child-protection system and a core part of the range of alternative care options that the United Nations and other international organizations recommend be developed, resourced, and made accessible to children without parental care. This article uses data collected from adoptive parents' postadoption and governmental data in Romania, Ukraine, India, Guatemala, and Ethiopia to focus on domestic adoption in each of these countries. The article highlights both promising practices in domestic adoption as well as policies and practices that require additional research.

  15. Photographic estimation of wild boar damage to alpine grazing pastures in the Carpathian Mountains of central Romania.

    PubMed

    Engeman, Richard; Cattaruzza, Renate; Cattaruzza, Marco; Fischer, Justin

    2016-03-01

    Observations of wild boar damage to alpine grazing pastures in Romania's Carpathian Mountains were collected using photographs of the slopes from vantage points. We mapped the rooted areas and then used GIS software to estimate the relative proportions of the total grazing areas visible in the photographs that were damaged by wild boar. The amounts of damage from our two demonstration pastures were 11.2 and 13.5 %. Pastures are rented for summer grazing with grazing density monitored. Wild boar damage essentially decreases the economic benefit received for the cost of the grazing rights. This paper appears to be the first documentation of the very direct costs to livestock owners from significant wild boar rooting within rented pastures. The photographic method we present provides a quick and efficient means to quantify damage to alpine grazing pastures and may have broad application for mountainous areas where swine damage (or other disturbance) occurs and there is sufficient visibility of the damaged habitat.

  16. Actual Problems in Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy, International Conference Cluj/Napoca, Romania, May 25-27, 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Érdi, B.; Szenkovits, F.

    2007-05-01

    In 25--27 May 2006 an International Conference on Actual Problems in Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy was organized at Cluj-Napoca. The Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science of the Babeş-Bolyai University, the host of this conference, organized this scientific meeting in collaboration with the Loránd Eötvös University (Budapest, Hungary), Sapientia University (Miercuria Ciuc, Romania), Astronomical Institute of the Romanian Academy (Bucharest, Romania) and Institute for Space Science (Bucharest, Romania). The main topics covered by the meeting were: - Solar-System dynamics, stability, resonances, chaos; - Dynamics of populations in the Solar System: NEAs, MBAs, Centaurs, KBOs, TNOs: observations, orbits, theoretical models; - Galactic and extragalactic dynamics; - Problems, models, methods and techniques in contemporary celestial mechanics and dynamical astronomy. The conference was structured into seven sessions of oral presentations, a poster session and a round table discussion. Each of the seven main sessions began with an invited lecture. These lectures reviewed the following fields: the Sitnikov problem (R. Dvorak, Austria); the age of the asteroid families (Z. Knezevic, Serbia and Montenegro); stability of exoplanetary systems (B. Érdi, Hungary); Saari's conjecture (Diacu, Canada); integrability from direct and inverse standpoints (G. Bozis, Greece); stability of exact solutions in restricted many-body problems (E. Grebenicov, Russia); actual Romanian research in post-Newtonian dynamics (V. Mioc, Romania). Beside the invited lectures, the 21 oral presentations covered the most various domains of celestial mechanics and dynamical astronomy. Chaotic behaviour was a premier topic. It was approached and studied by analytical, geometrical and numerical methods in many astronomical problems: the restricted three-body problem (with examples in the Solar System), the Gylden's model and its generalizations, capture domain, resonances, etc

  17. Four new troglobiotic species of the genus Megalothorax Willem, 1900 (Collembola: Neelipleona) from the Carpathian Mountains (Slovakia, Romania).

    PubMed

    Papáč, Vladimír; Kováč, Lubomír

    2013-11-22

    Four new species of Megalothorax Willem, 1900 are described and illustrated: M. tatrensis sp. nov., M. carpaticus sp. nov., M. hipmani sp. nov. from caves in Slovakia and M. draco sp. nov. from the Drǎcoaia Cave in western Romania. The species represent troglobiotic forms exhibiting different level of troglomorphy involving such features as larger body, elongated foot complex, antennae, mucro and body chaetae. The most pronounced troglomorphy is observed in M. hipmani sp. nov. and M. draco sp. nov. Species descriptions are completed with comparative tables of chaetotaxy of antennae and legs. Diagnostic table for all congeners and dichotomous identification key to the world species are provided. Distribution records of other Megalothorax species in Slovakia are added.

  18. Model of the porphyry copper and polymetallic vein family of deposits - Applications in Slovakia, Hungary, and Romania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drew, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    A tectonic model useful in estimating the occurrence of undiscovered porphyry copper and polymetallic vein systems has been developed. This model is based on the manner in which magmatic and hydrothermal fluids flow and are trapped in fault systems as far-field stress is released in tectonic strain features above subducting plates (e.g. strike-slip fault systems). The structural traps include preferred locations for stock emplacement and tensional-shear fault meshes within the step-overs that localize porphyry- and vein-style deposits. The application of the model is illustrated for the porphyry copper and polymetallic vein deposits in the Central Slovakian Volcanic Field, Slovakia; the Ma??tra Mountains, Hungary; and the Apuseni Mountains, Romania.

  19. Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents of oregano (Origanum vulgare), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) from Romania.

    PubMed

    Spiridon, Iuliana; Colceru, Svetlana; Anghel, Narcis; Teaca, Carmen Alice; Bodirlau, Ruxanda; Armatu, Alice

    2011-10-01

    The study reported here presents a comparative screening of three medicinal plants including oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) having the same geographical origin, the Southeast region of Romania, and growing in the same natural conditions. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids for the extracts of these were determined. Furthermore, the total antioxidant capacity was also evaluated. It was found that Origanum vulgare and Melissa officinalis extracts present the most effective antioxidant capacity in scavenging DPPH radicals, while Lavandula angustifolia is less active. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify the components of extracts. Major phenolic acids identified in the analysed species were ferulic, rosmarinic, p-coumaric and caffeic, while predominant flavonoids were quercetin, apigenin kaempherol, which were present as glucosides.

  20. Locating Purity within Corruption Rumors: Narratives of HPV Vaccination Refusal in a Peri-urban Community of Southern Romania.

    PubMed

    Pop, Cristina A

    2016-12-01

    This article locates the symbolic construction of "corrupted purity"-as a key assertion in Romanian parents' HPV vaccination refusal narratives-within a multiplicity of entangled rumors concerning reproduction and the state. Romania's unsuccessful HPV vaccination campaign is not unique. However, the shifting discourses around purity and corruption-through which some parents conveyed anxieties about their daughters being targeted for the vaccine-place a particular twist on the Romanian case of resisting the HPV vaccination. Parental discourses took the form of clusters of rumors about state medicine's failure to provide adequate reproductive health care, additive-laden foods, and exposure to radioactive contamination. In these rumors, corruption becomes literally embodied, through ingestion, consumption, contact, or inoculation. Parental discourses about what is being injected into their daughters' pristine bodies express their uncertainty around navigating the unsettled post-socialist medical landscape.

  1. An Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous carbonate platform from the Vâlcan Mountains (Southern Carpathians, Romania): paleoenvironmental interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michetiuc, Mihai; Catincuţ, Camelia; Bucur, Ioan I.

    2012-02-01

    The results of a biostratigraphic and sedimentological study of the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous limestones cropping out in the southern sector of the Vâlcan Mountains in Romania are presented, including the definition of microfacies types, fossil assemblages and environmental interpretation. Six microfacies types (MFT 1-MFT 6) have been identified, each of them pointing to a specific depositional environment. The deposits are characteristic of a shallow carbonate platform. They contain normal marine or restricted marine facies deposited in low or high energy environments from the inner, middle and outer platform. The age attribution of these deposits (Late Jurassic to Berriasian-Valanginian-?Hauterivian, and Barremian) is based on foraminiferal and calcareous algae associations. The micropaleontological assemblage is exceptionally rich in the Vâlcan Mountains and brings new arguments for dating the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous limestones in this area.

  2. Atmospheric rivers in Antarctica?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukernik, M.; Lynch, A. H.

    2013-12-01

    Changes and variability in the surface mass balance signify one of the most puzzling questions of the present and future changes in Antarctica. In particular, understanding accumulation in the Eastern part of Antarctic continent presents a great challenge due to sparse and erratic observational network. Several previous publications reported an anomalously high precipitation in May 2009 in Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica. This anomaly, supported by weather station data from the Princess Elisabeth station, 71°057' S, 23°021' E, 1392m asl, 173 km inland, also corresponded to anomalously high meridional moisture transport across the Southern Ocean inland. Using data from the ERA-Interim reanalysis project and a modified definition for the polar regions, May 2009 event has been classified as an atmospheric river event. Atmospheric river events, traditionally defined in the midlatitudes, are particularly strong and narrow corridors of moisture in middle atmosphere that can result in intense precipitation events once they reach the coast. May 2009 event was the first atmospheric river identified as far south as the Antarctic continent. In this study we perform a detailed analysis of the May 2009 atmospheric river event utilizing data from ERA -Interim and Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model simulations. We assess the role of the large-scale atmospheric circulation, particularly the role of the Zonal Wave 3 anomaly. We also investigate the synoptic-scale development of a storm that led to anomalous precipitation event in East Antarctica. We assess the role of upper and lower level forcing with the help of the quasi-geostrophic omega equation. We believe that such in-depth analysis of the dynamics of an atmospheric river event is crucial for better understanding present and future accumulation in the East Antarctica.

  3. Lung Cancer Attributable to Indoor Radon Exposures in Two Radon--Prone Areas, Stei (Romania) and Torrelodones (Spain)

    SciTech Connect

    Dinu, Alexandra; Cosma, Constantin; Vasiliniuc, Stefan; Sainz, Carlos; Poncela, Luis Santiago Quindos

    2009-05-22

    Radon and radon progeny are present indoors, in houses and others dwellings, representing the most important contribution to dose from natural sources of radiation. Most studies have demonstrated an increased risk of lung cancer at high concentration of radon for both smokers and nonsmokers. For medium and low concentrations which are the typical residential radon levels, recent researches have also demonstrated increased risks of lung cancer for people exposed. The work presents a comparative analysis of the radon exposure data in the two radon--prone areas, Stei, Transylvania, (Romania), in the near of old Romanian uranium mines and in the granitic area of Torrelodones town, Sierra de Guadarrama (Spain). One important difference between the two studied areas is related to the houses built using uranium waste as construction material in Stei area. Measurements of indoor radon were performed in 280 dwellings (Romania) and 91 dwellings (Spain) by using nuclear track detectors, CR 39. The highest value measured in Stei area was 2650 Bq{center_dot}m{sup -3}. and 366 Bq{center_dot}m{sup -3} in the Spanish region. The results are compute with the BEIR VI report estimates using the age-duration model at an exposure rate below 2650 Bq{center_dot}m{sup -3}. A total of 233 lung cancer deaths were calculated in the Stei area for a period of 13 years (1994-2006), which is 116.82% higher than observed from the national statistics. In comparison, in Torrelodones area, a number of 276 deaths caused by lung cancer were estimated along a period of 13 years, which is 2.09 times higher than the number observed by authorities. This represents a significantly evidence that elevated risk can strongly be associated with cumulated radon exposure.

  4. Lung Cancer Attributable to Indoor Radon Exposures in Two Radon—Prone Areas, Ştei (Romania) and Torrelodones (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinu, Alexandra; Cosma, Constantin; Sainz, Carlos; Poncela, Luis Santiago Quindós; Vasiliniuc, Ştefan

    2009-05-01

    Radon and radon progeny are present indoors, in houses and others dwellings, representing the most important contribution to dose from natural sources of radiation. Most studies have demonstrated an increased risk of lung cancer at high concentration of radon for both smokers and nonsmokers. For medium and low concentrations which are the typical residential radon levels, recent researches have also demonstrated increased risks of lung cancer for people exposed. The work presents a comparative analysis of the radon exposure data in the two radon—prone areas, Ştei, Transylvania, (Romania), in the near of old Romanian uranium mines and in the granitic area of Torrelodones town, Sierra de Guadarrama (Spain). One important difference between the two studied areas is related to the houses built using uranium waste as construction material in Ştei area. Measurements of indoor radon were performed in 280 dwellings (Romania) and 91 dwellings (Spain) by using nuclear track detectors, CR 39. The highest value measured in Ştei area was 2650 Bqṡm-3. and 366 Bqṡm-3 in the Spanish region. The results are compute with the BEIR VI report estimates using the age-duration model at an exposure rate below 2650 Bqṡm-3. A total of 233 lung cancer deaths were calculated in the Ştei area for a period of 13 years (1994-2006), which is 116.82% higher than observed from the national statistics. In comparison, in Torrelodones area, a number of 276 deaths caused by lung cancer were estimated along a period of 13 years, which is 2.09 times higher than the number observed by authorities. This represents a significantly evidence that elevated risk can strongly be associated with cumulated radon exposure.

  5. The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) plays a minor role in the epidemiology of the domestic cycle of Trichinella in Romania.

    PubMed

    Imre, Kálmán; Pozio, Edoardo; Tonanzi, Daniele; Sala, Claudia; Ilie, Marius S; Imre, Mirela; Morar, Adriana

    2015-09-15

    Nematode worms of the genus Trichinella are zoonotic parasites with a worldwide distribution. The majority of the biomass of these nematodes circulates among wildlife, but when humans fail in the proper management of domestic animals and wildlife, Trichinella infections are transmitted from the sylvatic to the domestic environment. Such failures occur in Romania, where a high prevalence of Trichinella spiralis has been detected in domestic pigs. The aim of the present study was to provide data about the prevalence of Trichinella spp. infections in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) that are hunted in Romanian counties, in which the prevalences of Trichinella spp. infection in backyard and free-ranging pigs range from 0.17 to 2.5%, to determine the role played by this carnivore species in the transmission of the parasite to domestic cycle. A total of 121 animals from 45 hunting grounds of three counties were screened to detect Trichinella spp. larvae by the digestion method. Infections were detected in 26 (21.5%) foxes from 18 (40%) hunting grounds of the three counties (13/67 in Arad, 1/3 in Hunedoara, and 12/51 in Timiş). The mean larval density was 10.5 larvae per gram. Of the 25 successfully tested samples, the Trichinella larvae from 24 isolates were identified as T. britovi (96%), and the larvae from one isolate were identified as T. spiralis (4%). No mixed infections were recorded. The present results revealed that the red fox should be considered an important T. britovi reservoir in the sylvatic cycle; in contrast, the detection of only a single T. spiralis-positive isolate suggests that red foxes play a minor role in the epidemiology of the domestic cycle in the investigated area of western Romania.

  6. Dynamic reorganization of river basins.

    PubMed

    Willett, Sean D; McCoy, Scott W; Perron, J Taylor; Goren, Liran; Chen, Chia-Yu

    2014-03-07

    River networks evolve as migrating drainage divides reshape river basins and change network topology by capture of river channels. We demonstrate that a characteristic metric of river network geometry gauges the horizontal motion of drainage divides. Assessing this metric throughout a landscape maps the dynamic states of entire river networks, revealing diverse conditions: Drainage divides in the Loess Plateau of China appear stationary; the young topography of Taiwan has migrating divides driving adjustment of major basins; and rivers draining the ancient landscape of the southeastern United States are reorganizing in response to escarpment retreat and coastal advance. The ability to measure the dynamic reorganization of river basins presents opportunities to examine landscape-scale interactions among tectonics, erosion, and ecology.

  7. The Distributuion BSR and Multiple BSR Across The Danube Delta on the Offshore Romania and Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atgin, Orhan; Cifci, Gunay; Dondurur, Derman; Bialas, Jorg; Klaucke, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    Danube river which flows into the Black Sea is one of the world's biggest amount sediment transporter to the marine environment. Throughout long geological periods, Danube has formed many channel structures and the channel developments are still being continuened. Danube River has caused a lot of potential gas hydrate formations which spread over quite larger areas. Under the frame of SUGAR Project, high resolution multichannel seismic data were collected using the facilities of Seismic Laboratory (SeisLab) in the Institute of Marine Sciences and Technology of Dokuz Eylül University on board R/V Maria S. Merian in 2013. More then 2300 km Multichannel seismic reflection data acquired across the palaeo Danube delta to investigate BSR and potential gas hyrdate areas on the continental shelf where Danube river reaches to the Black Sea, BSR areas and potential gas hyrdates. Also, in relation with high sediment input, the effects of deltas on BSR's are aimed to research and several of inactive and partly buried channel systems could be mapped. There are large number of buried channel levee systems which seem to underlain by a continuous BSR indicating availability of free gas. There are also a significant reflector of inverted polarity was identified within a depth of about 100 m below seafloor. A very prominent BSR with reversed polarity is determined 200 ms TWT below seafloor on the eastern levee of the channel and simulate and crosscut the sediment layer. Three distinct BSRs as multiple BSR signature are observed on the high resolution multichannel seismic with a slightly varying dips. Multiple BSR's up to 5 BSRs are exist around river channels and paleochannels which have formed during different geological periods. In some paleochannel areas, high amount of sediment transportation causes dissolution of gashyrdate structures. At such areas seismic signals are being absorbed and structures which indicate dissolved gas are determined. In addition parasound data show

  8. Climate services for an urban area (Baia Mare City, Romania) with a focus on climate extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sima, Mihaela; Micu, Dana; Dragota, Carmen-Sofia; Mihalache, Sorin

    2013-04-01

    The Baia Mare Urban System is located in the north-western part of Romania, with around 200,000 inhabitants and represents one of the most important former mining areas in the country, whose socioeconomic profile and environmental conditions have greatly changed over the last 20 years during the transition and post-transition period. Currently the mining is closed in the area, but the historical legacy of this activity has implications in terms of economic growth, social and cultural developments and environmental quality. Baia Mare city lies in an extended depression, particularly sheltered by the mountain and hilly regions located in the north and respectively, in the south-south-eastern part of it, which explains the high frequency of calm conditions and low airstream channeling occurrences. This urban system has a typically moderate temperate-continental climate, subject to frequent westerly airflows (moist), which moderate the thermal regime (without depicting severe extremes, both positive and negative) and enhance the precipitation one (entailing a greater frequency of wet extremes). During the reference period (1971-2000), the climate change signal in the area is rather weak and not statistically significant. However, since the mid 1980s, the warming signal became more evident from the observational data (Baia Mare station), showing a higher frequency of dry spells and positive extremes. The modelling experiments covering the 2021-2050 time horizon using regional (RM5.1/HadRM3Q0/RCA3) and global (ARPEGE/HadCM3Q0/BCM/ECHAM5) circulation models carried out within the ECLISE FP7 project suggest an ongoing temperature rise, associated to an intensification of temperature and precipitation extremes. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate how the local authorities consider and include climate change in their activity, as well as in the development plans (e.g. territorial, economic and social development plans). Individual interviews have been

  9. A participatory approach of flood vulnerability assessment in the Banat Plain, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balteanu, Dan; Costache, Andra; Sima, Mihaela; Dumitrascu, Monica; Dragota, Carmen; Grigorescu, Ines

    2014-05-01

    The Banat Plain (western Romania) is a low, alluvial plain affected by neotectonic subsidence movements, being a critical region in terms of exposure to floods. The latest extreme event was the historic floods occcured in the spring of 2005, which caused significant economic damage in several rural communities. The response to 2005 floods has highlighted a number of weaknesses in the management of hazards, such as the deficiencies of the early warning system, people awareness or the inefficiency of some mitigation measures, besides the past structural measures which are obsolete. For a better understanding of the local context of vulnerability and communities resilience to floods, the quantitative assessment of human vulnerability to floods was supplemented with a participatory research, in which there were involved five rural settlements from the Banat Plain (comprising 15 villages and a population of over 12,000 inhabitants). Thus, in the spring of 2013, a questionnaire-based survey was conducted in approx. 100 households of the affected communities and structured interviews were held with local authorities, in the framework of VULMIN project, funded by the Ministry of National Education. The questionnaire was designed based on a pilot survey conducted in 2005, several months after the flood, and was focused on two major issues: a) perception of the local context of vulnerability to environmental change and extreme events; b) perception of human vulnerability to floods (personal experience, post-disaster rehabilitation, awareness, worrying and opinion on the measures aimed to prevent and mitigate the effects of flooding). The results were correlated with a number of specific variables of the households included in the sample, such as: household structure; income source; income level; location of the dwelling in relation to floodplains. In this way, we were able to draw general conclusions about the way in which local people perceive the extreme events, such as

  10. Prevalence and risk factors of Giardia duodenalis in dogs from Romania.

    PubMed

    Mircean, Viorica; Györke, Adriana; Cozma, Vasile

    2012-03-23

    The protozoan Giardia duodenalis is a mammalian-infecting parasite that produces diarrhoea and malabsorption in its hosts. A survey to investigate canine infections with G. duodenalis in Romania was undertaken between June 2008 and December 2009. The objectives of the study were to (i) estimate the prevalence of infection in different dog populations (kennels, shelters, shepherd, household) using microscopy and a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kit; (ii) to establish the level of agreement and characteristics of the tests; and (iii) to identify risk factors for infection by multivariate logistic regression models. Faecal samples were collected from 614 dogs aged from 1 month to 16 years (mean ± SD=2.88 ± 2.86 years). Each sample was tested for the presence of cysts using a flotation method with saturated sodium chloride solution and 416 out of 614 stool samples were further examined for the presence of G. duodenalis specific antigens using Giardia Microwell ELISA (SafePath™ Laboratories). Giardia cysts were identified in 8.5% of total dogs (52/614) and statistical significantly more frequently in dogs living in communities. The cysts prevalence according with dog populations was as follows: 7.2%(9/125) in kennel dogs; 16.5%(27/164 in shelter dogs; 4.3%(2/46) in shepherd dogs; 4.8%(4/84) in household dogs from urban areas; and 5.1%(10/195) in household dogs from rural areas. The overall prevalence of Giardia infection by ELISA was 34.6% (144/416). The prevalence was significantly higher in kennel dogs (50%; 13/26), shelter dogs (47.7%; 74/155) and shepherd dogs (40.5%; 17/42) than in household dogs from urban areas (34.1%; 15/44) and household dogs from rural areas (16.8%; 25/149). It was noticed poor agreement between microscopy and ELISA (k=0.19). The microscopy performed best, with an Youden Index of 0.74, a Se of 73.68% and a Sp of 100%. ELISA had 100% Sp, but only 19.44% Se. Young dogs (up to 12 months age) and living

  11. Tamarugite in the Steam-Condensate Alteration Paragenesis in Diana Cave (SW Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puscas, C. M.; Onac, B. P.; Effenberger, H. S.; Povară, I.

    2012-12-01

    The double-salt hydrate tamarugite [NaAl(SO4)2 6H2O] is an uncommon mineral in the cave environment, forming as a result of chemical reactions between water and bedrock only under very specific conditions. The Diana Cave hosts a unique tamarugite occurrence, the first one to be reported from a typical karst environment. The cave is located within the limits of Băile Herculane township in the Cerna Mountains, SW Romania. It consists of a 14 m long, westward-oriented single passage, developed along the Diana Fault. In 1974 a concrete-clad mine gallery was created to channel the thermal water (Diana 1+2 Spring) flowing through the cave to a pumping station. The spring's chemical and physical parameters fluctuated through time, averaging 51.98° C, discharge of 0.96 Ls-1, pH of 7.46, 5768.66 ppm TDS, 9303 μScm-1 conductivity, 5.02 salinity. The major chemical components of the thermo-mineral water in Diana Cave are, Na+ (1392.57 ppm), K+ (58.55 ppm), Ca2+ (725.16 ppm), Mg2+ (10.78 ppm), Cl- (3376.83 ppm), and SO42- (92.27 ppm), and H2S (24.05 ppm), with traces of Si, Fe2+, Br+, I-, and Li+. The general air circulation pattern within the cave is fairly simple: cold air from the outside sweeps into the cave along the floor, heats up at the contact with the thermo-mineral water, ascends, and exists the cave along the ceiling. At the contact with the cold walls of the Diana Cave, the hot steam condenses and gives rise to a rich and exotic sulfate-mineral paragenesis (including halotrichite-series minerals, gypsum, bassanite, anhydrite, epsomite, alunite, halite, native sulfur, etc.). The most exotic minerals precipitate at or below the contact between the Tithonic - Neocomian limestone and the overlaying Cretaceous shaly limestone, as a result of steam-condensate alteration. Minerogenetic mechanisms responsible for the peculiar sulfate mineral assemblage in Diana Cave are evaporation, oxidation, hydrolysis, double exchange reactions, and deposition from vapours or

  12. River-Corridor Habitat Dynamics, Lower Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    Intensive management of the Missouri River for navigation, flood control, and power generation has resulted in substantial physical changes to the river corridor. Historically, the Missouri River was characterized by a shifting, multithread channel and abundant unvegetated sandbars. The shifting channel provided a wide variety of hydraulic environments and large areas of connected and unconnected off-channel water bodies. Beginning in the early 1800s and continuing to the present, the channel of the Lower Missouri River (downstream from Sioux City, Iowa) has been trained into a fast, deep, single-thread channel to stabilize banks and maintain commercial navigation. Wing dikes now concentrate the flow, and revetments and levees keep the channel in place and disconnect it from the flood plain. In addition, reservoir regulation of the Missouri River upstream of Yankton, South Dakota, has substantially changed the annual hydrograph, sediment loads, temperature regime, and nutrient budgets. While changes to the Missouri River have resulted in broad social and economic benefits, they have also been associated with loss of river-corridor habitats and diminished populations of native fish and wildlife species. Today, Missouri River stakeholders are seeking ways to restore some natural ecosystem benefits of the Lower Missouri River without compromising traditional economic uses of the river and flood plain.

  13. 77 FR 30589 - SteelRiver Infrastructure Partners LP, SteelRiver Infrastructure Associates LLC, SteelRiver...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... Surface Transportation Board SteelRiver Infrastructure Partners LP, SteelRiver Infrastructure Associates LLC, SteelRiver Infrastructure Fund North America LP, and Patriot Funding LLC--Control Exemption--Patriot Rail Corp., et al. SteelRiver Infrastructure Partners LP (SRIP LP), SteelRiver...

  14. River networks as biodiversity hotlines.

    PubMed

    Décamps, Henri

    2011-05-01

    For several years, measures to insure healthy river functions and to protect biodiversity have focused on management at the scale of drainage basins. Indeed, rivers bear witness to the health of their drainage basins, which justifies integrated basin management. However, this vision should not mask two other aspects of the protection of aquatic and riparian biodiversity as well as services provided by rivers. First, although largely depending on the ecological properties of the surrounding terrestrial environment, rivers are ecological systems by themselves, characterized by their linearity: they are organized in connected networks, complex and ever changing, open to the sea. Second, the structure and functions of river networks respond to manipulations of their hydrology, and are particularly vulnerable to climatic variations. Whatever the scale considered, river networks represent "hotlines" for sharing water between ecological and societal systems, as well as for preserving both systems in the face of global change. River hotlines are characterized by spatial as well as temporal legacies: every human impact to a river network may be transmitted far downstream from its point of origin, and may produce effects only after a more or less prolonged latency period. Here, I review some of the current issues of river ecology in light of the linear character of river networks.

  15. Hood River Passive House

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, D.

    2013-03-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project.

  16. Ancient River revealed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recent flights of the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) mission aboard the space shuttle Endeavour discovered a previously unknown branch of an ancient river. The images, released at AGU's Spring Meeting, show the river channel buried under thousands of years worth of windblown sand in a region of North Africa's Sahara Desert near the Kufra Oasis in southeast Libya, centered at 23.3°N latitude, 22.9°E longitude. The image from the flight last October reveals a system of old, now inactive stream valleys, called “paleodrainage systems,” which carried running water northward across the Sahara during periods of wetter climate.

  17. River Mileages and Drainage Areas for Illinois Streams. Volume 2. Illinois River Basin.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    FOREST 50.2 MADISON STREET RIVER FOREST 50.5 IL PT 56 RIVER FOREST 51.0 C & NW RR RIVER FOREST 51.1 LAKE STREET RIVER FOREST 51.6 CHICAGO AVENUE RIVER ... FOREST 51.9 SILVER CREEK R RIVER FOREST 53.9 DAM S35v40NoRI2E RIVER FOREST 54.2 NORTH PUEBLO AVENUE RIVER FOREST 55.1 GRAND AVENUE RIVER FOREST 55.1...USGS GAGE 05530600 AT RIVER GROVE 451 415546 O75040 RIVER

  18. Red River of the North, Reconnaissance Report: Wild Rice River.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    Stations Along the Wild Rice River, October, 1977 to September, 1977 ... 30 7 Groundwater Quality of Eight Communities Within the Wild Rice River Subbasin...impair fish propagation (Upper Mississippi River Basin Commission, 1977; North Dakota Statewide 208 Water Quality Management Plan, 1978). The groundwater ...given to this reach not because of its stream fisheries, which only provide moderate amounts of northern pike, yellow perch , crappie, and several

  19. Chesapeake Bay, Potomac River

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The nation's capital lies astride the Potomac River (38.5N, 77.5W) at the head of the Potomac Estuary. Baltimore, MD, also in the scene, is connected to Washington by the Baltimore-Washington Parkway. The suburbs of both cities tend to cluster around the Washington and Baltimore Beltways. Most of the countryside in the eastern two-thirds of this scene is either heavily forested or is in farming, dairy operations or poultry production.

  20. Onilahy River, Madagascar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Near the southern tip of Madagascar, the Onilahy River (23.5S, 44E) drains a near barren landscape, the result of rapid deforestation for quick profits from the lumber industry with no regard to the environmental impact. At the turn of the century, the island was a lush tropical paradise with about 90 percent of the surface forested. Now, at the close of the century, only about 10 percent of the forests remain in inaccessible rugged terrain.