Science.gov

Sample records for bai province viet

  1. Viet Nam -- attractive plays in a new geological province

    SciTech Connect

    Canh, T.; Ha, D.V. ); Carstens, H.; Berstad, S. )

    1994-03-14

    Vietnam Oil and Gas Corp. (Petrovietnam) has, through 1993 and since the Vietnamese government first declared its new open door policy more than 6 years ago, issued 27 production sharing contracts to Asian, Australian, European, and North American companies. The most prospective part of Viet Nam's shallow water acreage is now being explored intensely. This acreage is concentrated in the Nam Con Son basin, the Cuu Long basin (previously known as the Mekong basin), the Malay-Thochusia basin (all off southern Viet Nam) and the Quang Ngai graben, the Song Hong basin, and the Red River delta (all off northern Viet Nam). With 6.3 million metric tons of crude oil pumped in 1993 from White Tiger (Bach Ho) field, and with Dragon (Rong) and Big Bear (Dai Hung) fields soon to be brought on stream, offshore Viet Nam is considered to be very attractive by the international oil industry, and the country's potential is still far from being fully appraised. The paper describes the exploration history of Viet Nam, sedimentary basins, play types, source rocks, and terms and conditions of licensing.

  2. Paragonimiasis in Sin Ho District, Lai Chau Province, Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Vien, C V; Phue, N C; Ha, L D; Tuan, L M; Van, N T; Pao, T C; Hoa, L T; Phoung, C T

    1997-01-01

    Forty-four cases of pulmonary paragonimiasis, two also with evidence of cerebral infection, were found in Sin Ho District in Northern Viet Nam. There were 30 males and 14 females, 2-30 years of age. The diagnosis was made by sputum examination. Pet dogs and wild dogs in the area were also found infected and the people often eat roasted crabs.

  3. Paragonimiasis in Sin Ho District, Lai Chau Province, Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Vien, C V; Phue, N C; Ha, L D; Tuan, L M; Van, N T; Pao, T C; Hoa, L T; Phoung, C T

    1997-01-01

    Forty-four cases of pulmonary paragonimiasis, two also with evidence of cerebral infection, were found in Sin Ho District in Northern Viet Nam. There were 30 males and 14 females, 2-30 years of age. The diagnosis was made by sputum examination. Pet dogs and wild dogs in the area were also found infected and the people often eat roasted crabs. PMID:9656347

  4. Improving antibiotic prescribing in Hai Phong Province, Viet Nam: the "antibiotic-dose" indicator.

    PubMed Central

    Chalker, J.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To improve the use and dosage of antibiotics prescribed at Commune Health Stations in Viet Nam, and in so doing find out whether antibiotic dosage can be easily and reliably measured as a drug-use indicator. METHODS: All commune health workers from the 217 commune health stations in Hai Phong Province, Viet Nam, were enlisted over an 18-month study period during 1994-96. The study design was a longitudinal time series, with each new district baseline acting as a rolling control. Each health station was monitored monthly by district supervisors. Two formal evaluations by doctors external to the study were compared with the supervisors' results. Basic medical equipment was provided three times over nine months, conditional on improvements in prescribing practices and adequate supervision of prescribing practices. FINDINGS: The supervisors' data showed that the percentage of encounters in which a patient was prescribed an antibiotic decreased from over 65% to around 45%. When antibiotics were given, the percentage of patients who received an adequate dose increased from under 30% to 98%. These changes were stable for 17 months after the intervention stopped. CONCLUSIONS: Such initiatives require the active collaboration of health personnel and civic leaders at every level. Conditional equipment donation was shown to be effective. A simple indicator measuring adequacy of antibiotic dose can be an effective tool to improve the use of antibiotics in a sustainable way. PMID:11357210

  5. Household survey in two provinces in Viet Nam estimates HIV prevalence in an urban and a rural population.

    PubMed

    Tuan, Nguyen Anh; Ha, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Diep, Vu Thi Bich; Thang, Pham Hong; Long, Nguyen Thanh; Huong, Phan Thi Thu; Duc, Bui Hoang; Wilson, David; Oelrichs, Robert; Hien, Nguyen Tran

    2008-08-01

    A household-based population study interviewed 2,553 women and 1,984 men aged 15-49 years in urban (Ho Chi Minh City) and rural (Thai Binh) provinces in Viet Nam between July and August 2005. The survey response rate was high--approximately 97% of households and 93% of adults overall, with a >92% acceptance of HIV testing among eligible adults. The unadjusted estimated population HIV prevalence was 0.3% (confidence interval [CI]: 0.1-0.6%) in Thai Binh and 0.7% (CI: 0.3-1.3) in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), compared with the national estimates and projections of 0.352% and 1.250%, respectively, for 2005. The ratio of male-to-female prevalence was 10.5:1 in Thai Binh and 1.3:1 in HCMC. A low level of men reported purchasing sex in the last 12 months (2.4%) and there were low self-reports of sexually transmitted infections in all adults (5%). A correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS prevention methods was high in both provinces (83%), although only 24.8% of women knew of the use of antiretroviral therapy to prevent vertical transmission of HIV. The observed population prevalence was consistent with recent projections in Thai Binh, although lower than expected in HCMC, indicating the substantial downward revisions of projected population HIV prevalence may need to be extended. The unequal sex prevalence ratio is consistent with the projected trends of increasing male-to-female sexual transmission in urban areas. The results and experience of this study will inform future population based surveys in Viet Nam and the broader Asian region. PMID:18724801

  6. Acknowledging the importance of BAI accounts.

    PubMed

    Levin, Steve

    2011-09-01

    For hospitals, balance after insurance (BAI) refers to revenue from uninsured patients and from patients with patient responsibility after insurance. BAI is a rapidly growing share of hospital revenue as a result of substitution from high-deductible commercial insurance plans-revenue that tends to convert to cash relatively easily and quickly-meaning that an increasing share of hospital cash flow is now due from the patient. Hospitals should make sure that their self-pay patients receive excellent customer service: It not only improves the likelihood of a greater yield, but also-perhaps more important-helps ensure customer loyalty and willingness to recommend the facility to others.

  7. Identifying factors for job motivation of rural health workers in North Viet Nam

    PubMed Central

    Dieleman, Marjolein; Cuong, Pham Viet; Anh, Le Vu; Martineau, Tim

    2003-01-01

    Background In Viet Nam, most of the public health staff (84%) currently works in rural areas, where 80% of the people live. To provide good quality health care services, it is important to develop strategies influencing staff motivation for better performance. Method An exploratory qualitative research was carried out among health workers in two provinces in North Viet Nam so as to identify entry points for developing strategies that improve staff performance in rural areas. The study aimed to determine the major motivating factors and it is the first in Viet Nam that looks at health workers' job perception and motivation. Apart from health workers, managers at national and at provincial level were interviewed as well as some community representatives. Results The study showed that motivation is influenced by both financial and non-financial incentives. The main motivating factors for health workers were appreciation by managers, colleagues and the community, a stable job and income and training. The main discouraging factors were related to low salaries and difficult working conditions. Conclusion Activities associated with appreciation such as performance management are currently not optimally implemented, as health workers perceive supervision as control, selection for training as unclear and unequal, and performance appraisal as not useful. The kind of non-financial incentives identified should be taken into consideration when developing HRM strategies. Areas for further studies are identified. PMID:14613527

  8. Participatory support to farmers in improving safety and health at work: building WIND farmer volunteer networks in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Tsuyoshi; Van, Vhu Nhu; Theu, Nguyen Van; Khai, Ton That; Kogi, Kazutaka

    2008-10-01

    The government of Viet Nam places a high priority on upgrading the quality of farmers' lives. Providing adequate occupational safety and health (OSH) protection for all farmers is an important challenge. The Ministry of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs (MOLISA) of Viet Nam trained WIND (Work Improvement in Neighbourhood Development) farmer volunteers. From 2004-2007, MOLISA in cooperation with ministries of health and agriculture trained 480 WIND farmer volunteers in selected 14 provinces. Trained farmer volunteers trained their neighbouring farmers and expanded their networks. The WIND training programme produced in Cantho, Viet Nam in 1996, was used as the core training methodology. The WIND action-checklist, good example photo-sheets, and other participatory training materials were designed for WIND farmer volunteers as practical training tools. The volunteers trained 7,922 farmers. The trained farmers implemented 28,508 improvements in materials handling, work posture, machine and electrical safety, working environments and control of hazardous chemicals, and welfare facilities. The provincial support committees organized follow-up workshops and strengthen the WIND farmer volunteer networks. The system of WIND farmer volunteers proved effective in extending practical OSH protection measures to farmers at grassroots level. The system of WIND farmer volunteers was adopted in the First National Programme on Labour Protection and OSH of Viet Nam as a practical means in OSH and is now further expanding within the framework of the National Programme.

  9. Participatory support to farmers in improving safety and health at work: building WIND farmer volunteer networks in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Tsuyoshi; Van, Vhu Nhu; Theu, Nguyen Van; Khai, Ton That; Kogi, Kazutaka

    2008-10-01

    The government of Viet Nam places a high priority on upgrading the quality of farmers' lives. Providing adequate occupational safety and health (OSH) protection for all farmers is an important challenge. The Ministry of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs (MOLISA) of Viet Nam trained WIND (Work Improvement in Neighbourhood Development) farmer volunteers. From 2004-2007, MOLISA in cooperation with ministries of health and agriculture trained 480 WIND farmer volunteers in selected 14 provinces. Trained farmer volunteers trained their neighbouring farmers and expanded their networks. The WIND training programme produced in Cantho, Viet Nam in 1996, was used as the core training methodology. The WIND action-checklist, good example photo-sheets, and other participatory training materials were designed for WIND farmer volunteers as practical training tools. The volunteers trained 7,922 farmers. The trained farmers implemented 28,508 improvements in materials handling, work posture, machine and electrical safety, working environments and control of hazardous chemicals, and welfare facilities. The provincial support committees organized follow-up workshops and strengthen the WIND farmer volunteer networks. The system of WIND farmer volunteers proved effective in extending practical OSH protection measures to farmers at grassroots level. The system of WIND farmer volunteers was adopted in the First National Programme on Labour Protection and OSH of Viet Nam as a practical means in OSH and is now further expanding within the framework of the National Programme. PMID:18840935

  10. Acknowledging the importance of BAI accounts.

    PubMed

    Levin, Steve

    2011-09-01

    For hospitals, balance after insurance (BAI) refers to revenue from uninsured patients and from patients with patient responsibility after insurance. BAI is a rapidly growing share of hospital revenue as a result of substitution from high-deductible commercial insurance plans-revenue that tends to convert to cash relatively easily and quickly-meaning that an increasing share of hospital cash flow is now due from the patient. Hospitals should make sure that their self-pay patients receive excellent customer service: It not only improves the likelihood of a greater yield, but also-perhaps more important-helps ensure customer loyalty and willingness to recommend the facility to others. PMID:21923047

  11. Land use changes assessment using spatial data: Case study in Cong river basin - Thai Nguyen City - Viet Nam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hieu

    Land use changes are being interested in most countries, especially in developing countries. Because land use changes always impacts on sustainable development not only in a region or a country but also in whole the world. Viet Nam is a developing country, in the last 10 years, land uses have rapidly changed in most provinces. Many of agriculture areas, forest areas have changed for various purposes as urban sprawl, establishing new industrial parks, public areas, mining and other land uses relate to human activities or economic function associated with a specific piece of land. Beside efficiencies of economic and society, then environment issues have been threatening serious pollution, are from land use changes. Remote sensing images application on studying land use changes, has been done in many countries around the world, and has brought high efficiencies. However, this application is still very new and limited in Viet Nam due to lacking of materials, tools, experts of remote sensing. This study used spatial data as Landsat TM images, SPOT5 images and land use planning maps to rapidly assess on happenings of land uses in the period 2000 -2010 in Cong river basin (Thai Nguyen City, Viet Nam), and to forecast the changes of land uses in the period 2010 - 2020. The results had a good accuracy and to be important references for authorities, policy makers in local land use.

  12. Using lot quality-assurance sampling and area sampling to identify priority areas for trachoma control: Viet Nam.

    PubMed Central

    Myatt, Mark; Mai, Nguyen Phuong; Quynh, Nguyen Quang; Nga, Nguyen Huy; Tai, Ha Huy; Long, Nguyen Hung; Minh, Tran Hung; Limburg, Hans

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To report on the use of lot quality-assurance sampling (LQAS) surveys undertaken within an area-sampling framework to identify priority areas for intervention with trachoma control activities in Viet Nam. METHODS: The LQAS survey method for the rapid assessment of the prevalence of active trachoma was adapted for use in Viet Nam with the aim of classifying individual communes by the prevalence of active trachoma among children in primary school. School-based sampling was used; school sites to be sampled were selected using an area-sampling approach. A total of 719 communes in 41 districts in 18 provinces were surveyed. FINDINGS: Survey staff found the LQAS survey method both simple and rapid to use after initial problems with area-sampling methods were identified and remedied. The method yielded a finer spatial resolution of prevalence than had been previously achieved in Viet Nam using semiquantitative rapid assessment surveys and multistage cluster-sampled surveys. CONCLUSION: When used with area-sampling techniques, the LQAS survey method has the potential to form the basis of survey instruments that can be used to efficiently target resources for interventions against active trachoma. With additional work, such methods could provide a generally applicable tool for effective programme planning and for the certification of the elimination of trachoma as a blinding disease. PMID:16283052

  13. Treatment Costs of Pneumonia, Meningitis, Sepsis, and Other Diseases among Hospitalized Children in Viet Nam

    PubMed Central

    Anh, Dang Duc; Tho, Le Huu; Kim, Soon Ae; Nyambat, Batmunkh; Kilgore, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the costs of treatment of children who present with the signs and symptoms of invasive bacterial diseases in Khanh Hoa province, Viet Nam. The study was an incidence-based cost-of-illness analysis from the health system perspective. The hospital costs included labour, materials and capital costs, both direct and indirect. Costs were determined for 980 children, with an average age of 12.67 months (standard deviation±11.38), who were enrolled in a prospective surveillance at the Khanh Hoa General Hospital during 2005-2006. Of them, 57% were male. By disease-category, 80% were suspected of having pneumonia, 8% meningitis, 3% very severe disease consistent with pneumococcal sepsis, and 9% other diseases. Treatment costs for suspected pneumonia, meningitis, very severe disease, and other diseases were US$ 31, US$ 57, US$ 73, and US$ 24 respectively. Costs ranged from US$ 24 to US$ 164 across different case-categories. Both type of disease and age of patient had statistically significant effects on treatment costs. The results showed that treatment costs for bacterial diseases in children were considerable and might differ by as much as seven times among invasive pneumococcal diseases. Changes in costs were sensitive to both age of patient and case-category. These cost-of-illness data will be an important component in the overall evidence base to guide the development of vaccine policy in Viet Nam. PMID:20941894

  14. 31 CFR 500.560 - Bank accounts of official representatives of foreign governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... representatives of foreign governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam. 500.560... governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam. Specific licenses are issued authorizing payments from accounts of official representatives of foreign governments in North Korea,...

  15. Globalization and the Governance of Education in Viet Nam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Jonathan D.

    2010-01-01

    In a globalizing world, local and global governance arrangements are increasingly interdependent, which produces harmonization in some instances and new tensions and contradictions in others. Analysis shows that successive waves of globalization have affected the governance of education in Viet Nam differently. It shows that the globalization of…

  16. Combiner L'Education Et Le Travail; Experiences en Asie et en Oceanie: Viet Nam (Combining Education and Work; Experiences in Asia and Oceania: Viet Nam).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vien, Hguyen Khac

    Educational policy in Viet Nam has closely followed the revolutionary movement. In the essentially democratic period from 1945 to 1960, Viet Nam created a nationwide 10-grade school system and fought illiteracy on a large scale. By 1960, as socialism began to predominate, especially in the North, traditional educational methods and values began to…

  17. Development and Validation of the Biophilic Attitudes Inventory (BAI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letourneau, Lawrence E.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the viability of an instrument called the Biophilic Attitudes Inventory (BAI), a pen-and-paper instrument intended to measure attitudes toward nature that, according to naturalist Edward O. Wilson, are rooted in an innate predisposition that humans possess to connect with other forms of life. Utilizing confirmatory factor…

  18. The use of a computerized database to monitor vaccine safety in Viet Nam.

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohammad; Canh, Gia Do; Clemens, John D.; Park, Jin-Kyung; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Minh, Tan Truong; Thiem, Dinh Vu; Tho, Huu Le; Trach, Duc Dang

    2005-01-01

    Health information systems to monitor vaccine safety are used in industrialized countries to detect adverse medical events related to vaccinations or to prove the safety of vaccines. There are no such information systems in the developing world, but they are urgently needed. A large linked database for the monitoring of vaccine-related adverse events has been established in Khanh Hoa province, Viet Nam. Data collected during the first 2 years of surveillance, a period which included a mass measles vaccination campaign, were used to evaluate the system. For this purpose the discharge diagnoses of individuals admitted to polyclinics and hospitals were coded according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 guidelines and linked in a dynamic population database with vaccination histories. A case-series analysis was applied to the cohort of children vaccinated during the mass measles vaccination campaign. The study recorded 107,022 immunizations in a catchment area with a population of 357,458 and confirmed vaccine coverage of 87% or higher for completed routine childhood vaccinations. The measles vaccination campaign immunized at least 86% of the targeted children aged 9 months to 10 years. No medical event was detected significantly more frequently during the 14 days after measles vaccination than before it. The experience in Viet Nam confirmed the safety of a measles vaccination campaign and shows that it is feasible to establish health information systems such as a large linked database which can provide reliable data in a developing country for a modest increase in use of resources. PMID:16193545

  19. Incense and ritual plant use in Southwest China: A case study among the Bai in Shaxi

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ritual and religious uses of plant-derived smoke are widespread throughout the world. Our research focuses on Southwest China, where the use of incense is very common. This study aims to document and analyze contemporary ritual plant uses by the Bai people of Shaxi Township (Jianchuan County, Dali Prefecture, Yunnan Province), including their related ethnobotanical knowledge, practices, and beliefs. Methods The present study builds on previous ethnobotanical research in Shaxi, which started in 2005. Interviews focusing on ritual plant use and associated beliefs were carried out with a total of 44 Bai informants in September 2009 and May and June 2010. The results are supplemented with information on the local religion collected from June to December 2010. All documented species were vouchered, and are deposited at the herbaria of Kunming Institute of Botany (KUN) and the University of Zurich (Z/ZT). Results A total of 17 species have been documented for use in incense. They are always used in mixtures and are either burned in the form of powders in a censer or as joss sticks. The smell of the smoke is the main criterion for the selection of the incense plants. Incense is burned for communication with spiritual entities at graves, temples, and cooking stoves, as well as for personal well-being. Cupressus funebris Endl., Gaultheria fragrantissima Wall., and Ligustrum sempervirens (Franch.) Lingelsh. are the most important incense species. Others serve as substitutes or are used to stretch incense powders. Conclusions In Shaxi the use of incense mixtures at the household and community level is regularly practiced for communication with ancestors, ghosts, and deities and in some cases to strengthen self-awareness. Some of the documented species are widely used in central Asia and Europe, hinting at the well documented knowledge exchange that occurred in Shaxi, which was a major hub along the influential Southern Silk Road. PMID:22165897

  20. Common perinatal mental disorders in northern Viet Nam: community prevalence and health care use

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Thach; La, Buoi thi; Kriitmaa, Kelsi; Rosenthal, Doreen; Tran, Tuan

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective To establish the prevalence of common perinatal mental disorders their determinants, and their association with preventive health care use among women in one rural and one urban province in northern Viet Nam. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of cohorts of pregnant women and mothers of infants recruited systematically in 10 randomly-selected communes. The women participated in psychiatrist-administered structured clinical interviews and separate structured interviews to assess sociodemographic factors, reproductive health, the intimate partner relationship, family violence and the use of preventive and psychiatric health care. Associations between these variables and perinatal mental disorders were explored through univariate analyses and multivariable logistic regression. Findings Among women eligible for the study (392), 364 (93%) were recruited. Of these, 29.9% (95% confidence interval, CI: 25.20–34.70) were diagnosed with a common perinatal mental disorder (CPMD). The frequency of such disorders during pregnancy and in the postpartum period was the same. Their prevalence was higher among women in rural provinces (odds ratio, OR: 2.17; 95% CI: 1.19–3.93); exposed to intimate partner violence (OR: 2.11; 95% CI: 1.12–3.96); fearful of other family members (OR: 3.36; 95% CI: 1.05–10.71) or exposed to coincidental life adversity (OR: 4.40; 95% CI: 2.44–7.93). Fewer women with a CPMD used iron supplements than women without a CPMD, but the results were not statistically significant (P = 0.05). None of the women studied had ever received mental health care. Conclusion Perinatal depression and anxiety are prevalent in women in northern Viet Nam. These conditions are predominantly determined by social factors, including rural residence, poverty and exposure to family violence. At present the needs of women with common perinatal mental disorders are unrecognized and not attended to and their participation in essential

  1. Promoting accountability in obstetric care: use of criteria-based audit in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Bailey, P E; Binh, H T; Bang, H T

    2010-01-01

    Audits can improve clinical and managerial practices, enhance the rational use of limited resources, and improve staff morale and motivation. Staff at five hospitals in Thanh Hoa and Quang Tri provinces (Viet Nam) used criteria-based audit (CBA) as a tool to improve the quality of emergency obstetric and newborn care. CBA compares current practice with standards based on the best available evidence and the local context. The audit cycle begins with a known problem, proceeds with an initial assessment and data collection, analysis of those data, formulation and implementation of an action plan, and a re-evaluation of the topic initially assessed. Teams found that clinical protocols for treating major obstetric complications were not followed, although, national guidelines had been issued in 2002. In an audit of facility organisation, staff addressed obstacles to the timely treatment of obstetric emergencies during off hours. In each audit, teams devised mechanisms to correct problems that resulted in significant improvements when the audit cycle was repeated. CBA improved adherence to national guidelines, improved record-keeping, heightened teamwork, and showed staff that they could identify and solve many of their own problems.

  2. Language Contact as Bilingual Contrast among Bai Language Users in Jianchuan County, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hefright, Brook Emerson

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation explores Bai language use in Jianchuan County, China. On the basis of interviews with 42 language users, transcripts of spontaneous conversation and elicited narratives, excerpts from Bai texts in an alphabetic orthography and Chinese characters, and six months of participant observation, I demonstrate how language users'…

  3. Mandatory helmet legislation and the print media in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Hill, Peter S; Ngo, Anh D; Khuong, Tuan A; Dao, Huong L; Hoang, Hanh T M; Trinh, Hang T; Nguyen, Lien T N; Nguyen, Phong H

    2009-07-01

    With motorcycle ownership high and rising in Viet Nam, and motorcycle riders vulnerable to both fatal and non-fatal injury, the re-introduction of mandatory helmet legislation in 2007 has been a priority for the Vietnamese government. The paper uses a qualitative analysis of web-based versions of the eight most popular newspapers in Viet Nam to track reporting over four phases of the implementation of the legislation, identifying codes and constructing the dominant themes of the media coverage. The study documents the justification and promotion of the legislation, and the mechanisms for preparing for its implementation at a national and local level, developing solutions and encouraging the replication of successful strategies. It records opposition and obstacles to helmet use, and concerns raised around the quality of helmets purchased. In return, the press notes the response of the market in innovative solutions to these problems. With the successful implementation of the legislation, the functions of the print media in promulgating and promoting the legislation, together with the reporting of ongoing resistance to the process, serve to enable a dialogue between the State and population around expressed concerns. In highlighting quality control of helmets as a key issue, the media have identified a potential ongoing role in monitoring the state's initiative in reducing the road toll from traumatic brain injury in motorcyclists. PMID:19540968

  4. [Spectral analysis of pottery-painting pigments from the Monarch Bai Tomb of Zhongli State].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu-Zhang; Zhang, Ju-Zhong; Zuo, Jian; Kan, Xu-Hang; Zhou, Qun

    2010-04-01

    Based on the analysis of Raman spectroscopy and XRD methods, the structures of different pigments on the painted pottery from the Monarch Bai Tomb of Zhongli State in the middle and late Spring and Autumn period at Shungdun Village, Bengbu City, Anhui Province were analyzed. The result shows that all the pigments, including red, yellow and black pigments, have been well preserved, and these three pigments were identified as cinnabar, goethite and carbon black respectively. Both Raman spectroscopy and XRD analysis show that the crystal composition of red pigments, cinnabar, is very pure without quartz crystal, the associated crystal of natural cinnabar, and at the same time the crystal size of cinnabar is possibly at the nanometer scale. It suggests that this red pigments perhaps were a synthetic material or processed and purified by our ancestors. The discovery of goethite shows that this mineral has been used as pigments as early as in the Spring and Autumn period. This is the earliest example that goethite was used as yellow pigments.

  5. [Principal component analysis of Y-chromosome haplotype distribution in 18 ethnic groups in Yunnan Province].

    PubMed

    Dong, Yong-Li; Yang, Zhi-Li; Shi, Hong; Gao, Lu; Lu, Jing; Cheng, Bao-Wen; Li, Kai-Yuan; Zan, Rui-Guang; Xiao, Chun-Jie

    2004-10-01

    Based on the historical records, 18 of the 26 ethnic groups in Yunnan Province are the descendant populations of three ancient tribes, Bai-Yue, Bai-Pu and Di-Qiang, linguistically belonging to the Daic, Austro-Asiatic and Tibeto-Burman, respectively. In order to trace the origins of these native ethnic groups, a total of 13 East Asian specific Y-chromosome biallelic markers were used to study the genetic structure of 20 local populations covering all the 18 ethnic groups in Yunnan Province. Haplotypes were analysis by PCR-RFLP method. Our results showed that H11 and H12 were the predominant haplotypes in the descendant populations of Bai-Yue tribe. H5, H6 and H8 were the dominant haplotypes in Di-Qiang descendants, and the frequencies of H6, H8 and H11 were very high in the descendant populations of Bai-Pu. To investigate relationships among 20 populations, a three dimensional PC analysis were performed based on the distribution of the 13 haplotypes. All populations were divided into two clusters in the PC plot. The first cluster was mainly composed by the descendant populations of Bai-Yue, and the second one was mainly composed by the descendants of Di-Qiang tribe. This result indicated that Bai-Yue and Di-Qiang's paternal lineage had different origins, which was in agreement with the historical documents and linguistic classification.

  6. The Scientific and Technical Revolution in the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vien, Nguyen Khac

    1979-01-01

    Discussed are the reasons for the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam's scientific backwardness. A development project which will enable this country to become a modern, economically self-sufficient country by the year 2000 is outlined. (BT)

  7. Control of malaria: a successful experience from Viet Nam.

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Le Q.; Vries, Peter J. de; Giao, Phan T.; Nam, Nguyen V.; Binh, Tran Q.; Chong, M. T.; Quoc, N. T. T. A.; Thanh, T. N.; Hung, L. N.; Kager, P. A.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To follow malaria prospectively in an ethnic minority commune in the south of Viet Nam with high malaria transmission and seasonal fluctuation, during malaria control interventions using insecticide-treated bednets (ITBNs) and early diagnosis and treatment (EDT) of symptomatic patients. METHODS: From 1994 onwards the following interventions were used: distribution of ITBNs to all households with biannual reimpregnation; construction of a health post and appointment of staff trained in microscopic diagnosis and treatment of malaria; regular supply of materials and drugs; annual cross-sectional malaria surveys with treatment of all parasitaemic subjects, and a programme of community involvement and health education. Surveys were held yearly at the end of the rainy season. During the surveys, demographic data were updated. Diagnosis and treatment of malaria were free of charge. Plasmodium falciparum infection was treated with artesunate and P. vivax infection with chloroquine plus primaquine. FINDINGS: The baseline survey in 1994 recorded 716 inhabitants. Of the children under 2 years of age, 37% were parasitaemic; 56% of children aged 2-10 years, and 35% of the remaining population were parasitaemic. P. falciparum accounted for 73-79% of these infections. The respective splenomegaly rates for the above-mentioned age groups were 20%, 56%, and 32%. In 1999, the proportion of parasitaemic subjects was 4%, 7% and 1%, respectively, of which P.falciparum contributed 56%. The splenomegaly rate was 0%, 5% and 2%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A combination of ITBNs and EDT, provided free of charge, complemented by annual diagnosis and treatment during malaria surveys and community involvement with health education successfully brought malaria under control. This approach could be applied to other regions in the south of Viet Nam and provides a sound basis for further studies in other areas with different epidemiological patterns of malaria. PMID:12219158

  8. South China sea off Viet Nam to see more exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-15

    British and Japanese operators are posed for exploration campaigns off southern Viet Nam. This paper reports that a 50-50 partnership of Lasmo International Ltd., London, and C. Itoh Exploration Co. of Japan signed a heads of agreement covering Block 04-2, and AEDC Vietnam Oil Development Co. and Teikoku Oil Co. acquired Block 05-3 under a production sharing contract. AEDC is a unit of AOC Energy Development Co., a subsidiary of Arabian Oil Co. (AOC) of Japan. Both tracts are in the Con Son basin in the South China Sea. Site is 15 km north of 500 million bbl Dai Hung (Big Bear) oil field for which state owned Petrovietnam is evaluating bids to place on production. A unit of the Royal Dutch/shell Group acquired a west offset, Block 10, early this year. The Lasmo-C. Itoh acreage is among five blocks offered in Vietnam's second round of offshore licensing. All are in the area that once was reserved entirely for Vietsovpetro, a partnership of Petrovietnam and the former Soviet Union.

  9. Incidence of postpartum infection after vaginal delivery in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Ngoc, Nguyen T N; Sloan, Nancy L; Thach, Tran S; Liem, Le K B; Winikoff, Beverly

    2005-06-01

    This study assessed the incidence of postpartum infection which is rarely clinically evaluated and is probably underestimated in developing countries. This prospective study identified infection after vaginal delivery by clinical and laboratory examinations prior to discharge from hospital and again at six weeks postpartum in Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam. Textbook definitions, physicians' diagnoses, symptomatic and verbal autopsy definitions were used for classifying infection. Logistic regression was used for determining associations of postpartum infection with socioeconomic and reproductive characteristics. In total, 978 consecutive, eligible consenting women were followed up at 42+/-7 (range 2-45) days postpartum (not associated with incidence). Ninety-eight percent took 'prophylactic' antibiotics. The most conservative estimate of the incidence of postpartum infection was 1.7%. The incidence of serious infection was 0.5%, but increased to 4.6% when verbal autopsy and symptomatic definitions were used. Postpartum infection, particularly serious infection, is greatly underestimated. Just preventing or treating infection could have a substantial impact on reducing maternal mortality in developing countries. PMID:16117363

  10. Development of pandemic influenza vaccine production capacity in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Hoa, L K; Hiep, L V; Be, L V

    2011-07-01

    The Institute of Vaccines and Medical Biologicals (IVAC), a state-owned vaccine manufacturer, initiated research into avian influenza vaccines in the early 1990 s in response to the threat of a highly pathogenic avian influenza pandemic. Successful results from laboratory studies on A(H5N1) influenza virus attracted seed funds and led to participation in the WHO technology transfer project to enhance influenza vaccine production in developing countries. IVAC's goal is to produce 500,000 doses of inactivated monovalent whole-virion influenza vaccine per year by 2012, and progressively increase capacity to more than 1 million doses to protect essential populations in Viet Nam in the event of an influenza pandemic. The WHO seed grants, supplemented by other international partner support, enabled IVAC to build in a very short time an influenza vaccine manufacturing plant under Good Manufacturing Practice and relevant biosafety standards, a waste treatment system and a dedicated chicken farm for high-quality eggs. Much of the equipment and instrumentation required for vaccine production has been installed and tested for functional operation. Staff have been trained on site and at specialized courses which provided comprehensive manuals on egg-based manufacturing processes and biosafety. Following process validation, clinical trials will start in 2011 and the first domestic influenza vaccine doses are expected in 2012.

  11. The promises and perils of hospital autonomy: reform by decree in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    London, Jonathan D

    2013-11-01

    This article investigates impacts of hospital autonomization in Viet Nam employing a "decision-space" framework that examines how hospitals have used their increased discretion and to what effect. Analysis suggests autonomization is associated with increased revenue, increasing staff pay, and greater investment in infrastructure and equipment. But autonomization is also associated with more costly and intensive treatment methods of uncertain contribution to the Vietnamese government's stated goal of quality healthcare for all. Impacts of autonomization in district hospitals are less striking. Despite certain limitations, the analysis generates key insights into early stages of hospital autonomization in Viet Nam.

  12. Biological effects of eukaryotic recombinant plasmid pReceiver-M61-BAI-1 transfection on T24 cells and HUVECs

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Da-Wei; Hu, Hai-Long; Sun, Yan; Tang, Yang; Lei, Ming-De; Liu, Li-Wei; Han, Rui-Fa; Wu, Chang-Li

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the biological effect on T24 cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) of transfection with brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor-1 (BAI-1). The recombinant plasmid pReceiver-M61-BAI-1 was transfected into human superficial bladder tumor cells (T24) and HUVECs, in parallel with the vector control. mRNA and protein expression levels of BAI-1 were then detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blotting, respectively. Cell apoptosis of T24 cells and HUVECs prior and subsequent to transfection with BAI-1 was analyzed by flow cytometric analysis. Proliferation of T24 cells and HUVECs prior and subsequent to transfection of BAI-1 was assessed by the MTT method. T24 cells and HUVECs transfected with pReceiver-M61-BA1-1 were classed as the experimental group; T24 cells and HUVECs transfected with p-Receiver-M61 were the control group. qPCR and western blotting methods confirmed that there was positive expression of BAI-1 in T24 cells and HUVECs transfected with pReceiver-M61-BAI-1, however BAI-1 was not expressed in T24 cells and HUVECs transfected with pReceiver-M61. The results of the MTT assay demonstrated that absorbance was markedly reduced in HUVECs at 12, 48 and 72 h subsequent to transfection with pReceiver-M61-BAI-1 when compared with that of the control group and in T24 cells transfected with p-Receiver-M61-BAI-1. Furthermore, flow cytometry results also indicated that the apoptotic rate of HUVECs transfected with p-Receiver-M61-BAI-1 was significantly increased compared with that of the control group and T24 cells transfected with p-Receiver-M61-BAI-1. BAI-1 was observed to markedly inhibit the proliferation of vascular endothelial cells in vitro, however, no direct inhibition by BAI-1 was observed in T24 cells. In conclusion, BAI-1 is suggested to be a potential novel therapautic target for the inhibition of tumor neovascularization. PMID:27356780

  13. Young single women using abortion in Hanoi, Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Belanger, D; Khuat Thu Hong

    1998-06-01

    This study describes the population characteristics among a hospital-based sample of single women who experienced an abortion in Hanoi, Viet Nam. Data were obtained from topical and in-depth interviews with women in two Hanoi hospitals, a district health center, and a private clinic in Hadong, a Hanoi suburb. The total sample consisted of 279 single women. 75% were residents of Hanoi. In-migrants had lived in Hanoi for an average of 4 years. Over 80% lived with their parents or relatives, of whom 60% lived in privately-owned housing. Nearly 20% lived alone. Nearly 40% had a college education; almost 50% had completed secondary school. The average monthly income was 358,000 dong. Over 95% had a boyfriend at the time of the survey. 33% had engaged in their first sexual intercourse within the prior year. The average duration between first sex and abortion was about 15 months. Among those with the first boyfriend, the interval was shorter (7 months). About 45% waited 6 months before having their first sexual intercourse; 38% waited 1 year. Among first abortion users, under 20% had ever used a contraceptive method. The few that had used contraception used it ineffectively. Almost 50% had never talked about sexuality with anyone. Over 93% believed that the pregnancy could have been avoided. Most desired high-quality printed information and a youth-specific health center. Qualitative findings revealed misconceptions about contraception. Following abortion, most did not want another unwanted pregnancy. The implications for policies and programs are identified.

  14. The Effect of Intermittent Antenatal Iron Supplementation on Maternal and Infant Outcomes in Rural Viet Nam: A Cluster Randomised Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hanieh, Sarah; Ha, Tran T.; Simpson, Julie A.; Casey, Gerard J.; Khuong, Nguyen C.; Thoang, Dang D.; Thuy, Tran T.; Pasricha, Sant-Rayn; Tran, Thach D.; Tuan, Tran; Dwyer, Terence; Fisher, Jane; Biggs, Beverley-Ann

    2013-01-01

    Background Anemia affects over 500 million women, and in pregnancy is associated with impaired maternal and infant outcomes. Intermittent antenatal iron supplementation is an attractive alternative to daily dosing; however, the impact of this strategy on infant outcomes remains unclear. We compared the effect of intermittent antenatal iron supplementation with daily iron supplementation on maternal and infant outcomes in rural Viet Nam. Methods and Findings This cluster randomised trial was conducted in Ha Nam province, Viet Nam. 1,258 pregnant women (<16 wk gestation) in 104 communes were assigned to daily iron–folic acid (IFA), twice weekly IFA, or twice weekly multiple micronutrient (MMN) supplementation. Primary outcome was birth weight. Mean birth weight was 3,148 g (standard deviation 416). There was no difference in the birth weights of infants of women receiving twice weekly IFA compared to daily IFA (mean difference [MD] 28 g; 95% CI −22 to 78), or twice weekly MMN compared to daily IFA (MD −36.8 g; 95% CI −82 to 8.2). At 32 wk gestation, maternal ferritin was lower in women receiving twice weekly IFA compared to daily IFA (geometric mean ratio 0.73; 95% CI 0.67 to 0.80), and in women receiving twice weekly MMN compared to daily IFA (geometric mean ratio 0.62; 95% CI 0.57 to 0.68), but there was no difference in hemoglobin levels. Infants of mothers who received twice weekly IFA had higher cognitive scores at 6 mo of age compared to those who received daily IFA (MD 1.89; 95% CI 0.23 to 3.56). Conclusions Twice weekly antenatal IFA or MMN did not produce a clinically important difference in birth weight, when compared to daily IFA supplementation. The significant improvement in infant cognitive outcomes at 6 mo of age following twice weekly antenatal IFA requires further exploration, and provides additional support for the use of intermittent, rather than daily, antenatal IFA in populations with low rates of iron deficiency. Trial registration

  15. Delivery cost of human papillomavirus vaccination of young adolescent girls in Peru, Uganda and Viet Nam

    PubMed Central

    Van Minh, Hoang; Odaga, John; Rout, Swampa Sarit; Ngoc, Diep Nguyen Thi; Menezes, Lysander; Araujo, Maria Ana Mendoza; LaMontagne, D Scott

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the incremental delivery cost of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of young adolescent girls in Peru, Uganda and Viet Nam. Methods Data were collected from a sample of facilities that participated in five demonstration projects for HPV vaccine delivery: school-based delivery was used in Peru, Uganda and Viet Nam; health-centre-based delivery was also used in Viet Nam; and integrated delivery, which involved existing health services, was also used in Uganda. Microcosting methods were used to guide data collection on the use of resources (i.e. staff, supplies and equipment) and data were obtained from government, demonstration project and health centre administrative records. Delivery costs were expressed in 2009 United States dollars (US$). Exclusively project-related expenses and the cost of the vaccine were excluded. Findings The economic delivery cost per vaccine dose ranged from US$ 1.44 for integrated outreach in Uganda to US$ 3.88 for school-based delivery in Peru. In Viet Nam, the lowest cost per dose was US$ 1.92 for health-centre-based delivery. Cost profiles revealed that, in general, the largest contributing factors were project start-up costs and recurrent personnel costs. The delivery cost of HPV vaccine was higher than published costs for traditional vaccines recommended by the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). Conclusion The cost of delivering HPV vaccine to young adolescent girls in Peru, Uganda and Viet Nam was higher than that for vaccines currently in the EPI schedule. The cost per vaccine dose was lower when delivery was integrated into existing health services. PMID:23940406

  16. Alcohol Use and HIV Risk Behaviors among Rural Adolescents in Khanh Hoa Province Viet Nam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaljee, L. M.; Genberg, B. L.; Minh, T. T.; Tho, L. H.; Thoa, L. T. K.; Stanton, B.

    2005-01-01

    Research suggests that youth are consuming more alcohol and at younger ages than in the past. Data also indicate that alcohol consumption is associated with participation in other risk behaviors including aggression and sexual behaviors. As part of a randomized control effectiveness trial for an HIV prevention program, 480 Vietnamese youth (15-20…

  17. The adhesion-GPCR BAI3, a gene linked to psychiatric disorders, regulates dendrite morphogenesis in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Lanoue, V; Usardi, A; Sigoillot, S M; Talleur, M; Iyer, K; Mariani, J; Isope, P; Vodjdani, G; Heintz, N; Selimi, F

    2013-01-01

    Adhesion-G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a poorly studied subgroup of the GPCRs, which have diverse biological roles and are major targets for therapeutic intervention. Among them, the Brain Angiogenesis Inhibitor (BAI) family has been linked to several psychiatric disorders, but despite their very high neuronal expression, the function of these receptors in the central nervous system has barely been analyzed. Our results, obtained using expression knockdown and overexpression experiments, reveal that the BAI3 receptor controls dendritic arborization growth and branching in cultured neurons. This role is confirmed in Purkinje cells in vivo using specific expression of a deficient BAI3 protein in transgenic mice, as well as lentivirus driven knockdown of BAI3 expression. Regulation of dendrite morphogenesis by BAI3 involves activation of the RhoGTPase Rac1 and the binding to a functional ELMO1, a critical Rac1 regulator. Thus, activation of the BAI3 signaling pathway could lead to direct reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton through RhoGTPase signaling in neurons. Given the direct link between RhoGTPase/actin signaling pathways, neuronal morphogenesis and psychiatric disorders, our mechanistic data show the importance of further studying the role of the BAI adhesion-GPCRs to understand the pathophysiology of such brain diseases. PMID:23628982

  18. Impact of Adverse Events Following Immunization in Viet Nam in 2013 on chronic hepatitis B infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Xi; Wiesen, Eric; Diorditsa, Sergey; Toda, Kohei; Duong, Thi Hong; Nguyen, Lien Huong; Nguyen, Van Cuong; Nguyen, Tran Hien

    2016-02-01

    Adverse Events Following Immunization in Viet Nam in 2013 led to substantial reductions in hepatitis B vaccination coverage (both the birth dose and the three-dose series). In order to estimate the impact of the reduction in vaccination coverage on hepatitis B transmission and future mortality, a widely-used mathematical model was applied to the data from Viet Nam. Using the model, we estimated the number of chronic infections and deaths that are expected to occur in the birth cohort in 2013 and the number of excessive infections and deaths attributable to the drop in immunization coverage in 2013. An excess of 90,137 chronic infections and 17,456 future deaths were estimated to occur in the 2013 birth cohort due to the drop in vaccination coverage. This analysis highlights the importance of maintaining high vaccination coverage and swiftly responding to reported Adverse Events Following Immunization in order to regain consumer confidence in the hepatitis B vaccine.

  19. Cross-sectional study of sexual behaviour and knowledge about HIV among urban, rural, and minority residents in Viet Nam.

    PubMed Central

    Bui, T. D.; Pham, C. K.; Pham, T. H.; Hoang, L. T.; Nguyen, T. V.; Vu, T. Q.; Detels, R.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in three districts of Quang Ninh province, Viet Nam, to find out what proportion of the people who lived there engaged in behaviour that put them at risk of becoming infected with HIV, and to measure their knowledge about HIV infection and AIDS. METHODS: The survey was conducted in a rural district, Yen Hung; a mountainous district inhabited primarily by ethnic minority groups, Binh Lieu; and an urban district, Ha Long. Participants aged 15-45 years were randomly selected from the general population to be interviewed. FINDINGS: A total of 630 people from 707 households were interviewed; 8% were not home despite repeated visits and 3% refused to participate. The prevalence of premarital intercourse ranged from 9% to 16% among married men and 4% to 7% among married women. Among single men the proportion who had ever had intercourse ranged from 6% to 16%. Fewer than 3% reported having ever had sex with a sex worker. The median number of extramarital sex partners was 1. Knowledge about HIV/AIDS was high in the urban and rural areas but low in the mountainous area. Being male and being 20-29 years old were associated with having multiple sex partners. CONCLUSION: The low prevalence of individuals reporting that they had had intercourse with sex workers and partners other than their spouse may explain the low rates of HIV infection among the heterosexual population; these rates are in contrast to the high rates of HIV infection found among injecting drug users. The association between having extramarital partners and being a younger man suggests that the tendency to have more sexual partners may increase in the future. If this happens, the potential for HIV to be spread through heterosexual sex will increase. PMID:11217661

  20. Early marriage and intimate partner violence among adolescents and young adults in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Hong Le, Minh Thi; Tran, Thach Duc; Nguyen, Huong Thanh; Fisher, Jane

    2014-03-01

    Research about the association between early marriage and intimate partner violence (IPV) in low-income countries has yielded conflicting evidence. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of and associations between early marriage, and IPV among adolescents and young adults in Viet Nam. Secondary analysis of data from the national Survey Assessment of Viet Namese Youth-Round II (SAVY-II) conducted in 2009-2010, which assessed a representative cohort of people aged 14 to 25 years recruited via a systematic household survey was undertaken. Prevalence was established using descriptive statistics. The association between early marriage and IPV was examined using multiple logistic regressions, adjusting for potential risk factors. Of 10,044 participants, 1,701 had ever married and were included in analyses. Early marriage (before age 18), and experiences of verbal, physical, or sexual IPV were more common among females than males. More young married men than women reported experiences of controlling behaviors by their partners. Early marriage, being illiterate, and exposure to sexual abuse were associated with experience of IPV among young females, but not among young males. Poverty and exposure to family violence was associated with IPV in both sexes. Addressing early marriage, low educational opportunities for girls, childhood sexual abuse, family violence, and poverty should be considered in strategies to reduce IPV in Viet Nam.

  1. Scintillation properties of Eu2+-doped KBa2I5 and K2BaI4

    DOE PAGES

    Stand, L.; Zhuravleva, M.; Chakoumakos, Bryan C.; Johnson, J.; Lindsey, Adam; Melcher, Charles L.

    2015-09-25

    We report two new ternary metal halide scintillators, KBa2I5 and K2BaI4, activated with divalent europium. Single crystal X-ray diffraction measurements confirmed that KBa2I5 has a monoclinic structure (P21/c) and that K2BaI4 has a rhombohedral structure (R3c). Differential scanning calorimetry showed singular melting and crystallization points, making these compounds viable candidates for melt growth. We grew 13 mm diameter single crystals of KBa2I5:Eu2+ and K2BaI4:Eu2+ in evacuated quartz ampoules via the vertical Bridgman technique. The optimal Eu2+ concentration was 4% for KBa2I5 and 7% for K2BaI4. The X-ray excited emissions at 444 nm for KBa2I5:Eu 4% and 448 nm for K2BaI4:Eumore » 7% arise from the 5d-4f radiative transition in Eu2+. KBa2I5:Eu 4% has a light yield of 90,000 photons/MeV, with an energy resolution of 2.4% and K2BaI4:Eu 7% has a light yield of 63,000 ph/MeV, with an energy resolution of 2.9% at 662 keV. Both crystals have an excellent proportional response to a wide range of gamma-ray energies.« less

  2. Antibiotic use and resistance in emerging economies: a situation analysis for Viet Nam

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial resistance is a major contemporary public health threat. Strategies to contain antimicrobial resistance have been comprehensively set forth, however in developing countries where the need for effective antimicrobials is greatest implementation has proved problematic. A better understanding of patterns and determinants of antibiotic use and resistance in emerging economies may permit more appropriately targeted interventions. Viet Nam, with a large population, high burden of infectious disease and relatively unrestricted access to medication, is an excellent case study of the difficulties faced by emerging economies in controlling antimicrobial resistance. Methods Our working group conducted a situation analysis of the current patterns and determinants of antibiotic use and resistance in Viet Nam. International publications and local reports published between 1-1-1990 and 31-8-2012 were reviewed. All stakeholders analyzed the findings at a policy workshop and feasible recommendations were suggested to improve antibiotic use in Viet Nam. Here we report the results of our situation analysis focusing on: the healthcare system, drug regulation and supply; antibiotic resistance and infection control; and agricultural antibiotic use. Results Market reforms have improved healthcare access in Viet Nam and contributed to better health outcomes. However, increased accessibility has been accompanied by injudicious antibiotic use in hospitals and the community, with predictable escalation in bacterial resistance. Prescribing practices are poor and self-medication is common – often being the most affordable way to access healthcare. Many policies exist to regulate antibiotic use but enforcement is insufficient or lacking. Pneumococcal penicillin-resistance rates are the highest in Asia and carbapenem-resistant bacteria (notably NDM-1) have recently emerged. Hospital acquired infections, predominantly with multi-drug resistant Gram-negative organisms

  3. Phylodynamics of Enterovirus A71-Associated Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Viet Nam

    PubMed Central

    Kühnert, Denise; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Lin, Xudong; Simenauer, Ari; Akopov, Asmik; Das, Suman R.; Stockwell, Timothy B.; Shrivastava, Susmita; Ngoc, Nghiem My; Uyen, Le Thi Tam; Tuyen, Nguyen Thi Kim; Thanh, Tran Tan; Hang, Vu Thi Ty; Qui, Phan Tu; Hung, Nguyen Thanh; Khanh, Truong Huu; Thinh, Le Quoc; Nhan, Le Nguyen Thanh; Van, Hoang Minh Tu; Viet, Do Chau; Tuan, Ha Manh; Viet, Ho Lu; Hien, Tran Tinh; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Thwaites, Guy; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Stadler, Tanja; Wentworth, David E.; Holmes, Edward C.; Van Doorn, H. Rogier

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is a major cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and is particularly prevalent in parts of Southeast Asia, affecting thousands of children and infants each year. Revealing the evolutionary and epidemiological dynamics of EV-A71 through time and space is central to understanding its outbreak potential. We generated the full genome sequences of 200 EV-A71 strains sampled from various locations in Viet Nam between 2011 and 2013 and used these sequence data to determine the evolutionary history and phylodynamics of EV-A71 in Viet Nam, providing estimates of the effective reproduction number (Re) of the infection through time. In addition, we described the phylogeography of EV-A71 throughout Southeast Asia, documenting patterns of viral gene flow. Accordingly, our analysis reveals that a rapid genogroup switch from C4 to B5 likely took place during 2012 in Viet Nam. We show that the Re of subgenogroup C4 decreased during the time frame of sampling, whereas that of B5 increased and remained >1 at the end of 2013, corresponding to a rise in B5 prevalence. Our study reveals that the subgenogroup B5 virus that emerged into Viet Nam is closely related to variants that were responsible for large epidemics in Malaysia and Taiwan and therefore extends our knowledge regarding its associated area of endemicity. Subgenogroup B5 evidently has the potential to cause more widespread outbreaks across Southeast Asia. IMPORTANCE EV-A71 is one of many viruses that cause HFMD, a common syndrome that largely affects infants and children. HFMD usually causes only mild illness with no long-term consequences. Occasionally, however, severe infection may arise, especially in very young children, causing neurological complications and even death. EV-A71 is highly contagious and is associated with the most severe HFMD cases, with large and frequent epidemics of the virus recorded worldwide. Although major advances have been made in the development of a

  4. Pesticide regulations and farm worker safety: the need to improve pesticide regulations in Viet Nam

    PubMed Central

    Connell, Des; Miller, Greg; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Agricultural pesticide use in Viet Nam has more than tripled since 1990. However, pesticide legislation and regulations have not been developed in response to this large increase in usage, as a result of which pesticides pose a serious threat to human health and the environment. This paper identifies the need to improve pesticide regulations in Viet Nam through a comparative analysis of pesticide regulations in Viet Nam and the United States of America, where the rate of acute poisoning among agricultural workers is much lower than in Viet Nam and where information pertaining to pesticide regulations is made accessible to the public. The analysis identified several measures that would help to improve Viet Nam’s pesticide regulations. These include enhancing pesticide legislation, clarifying the specific roles and active involvement of both the environmental and health sectors; performing a comprehensive risk–benefit evaluation of pesticide registration and management practices; improving regulations on pesticide suspension and cancellation, transport, storage and disposal; developing import and export policies and enhancing pesticide-related occupational safety programmes. PMID:22690037

  5. Towards a lifelong learning society through reading promotion: Opportunities and challenges for libraries and community learning centres in Viet Nam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Zakir

    2016-04-01

    The government of Viet Nam has made a commitment to build a Lifelong Learning Society by 2020. A range of related initiatives have been launched, including the Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization Centre for Lifelong Learning (SEAMEO CELLL) and "Book Day" - a day aimed at encouraging reading and raising awareness of its importance for the development of knowledge and skills. Viet Nam also aims to implement lifelong learning (LLL) activities in libraries, museums, cultural centres and clubs. The government of Viet Nam currently operates more than 11,900 Community Learning Centres (CLCs) and is in the process of both renovating and innovating public libraries and museums throughout the country. In addition to the work undertaken by the Viet Nam government, a number of enterprises have been initiated by non-governmental organisations and non-profit organisations to promote literacy and lifelong learning. This paper investigates some government initiatives focused on libraries and CLCs and their impact on reading promotion. Proposing a way forward, the paper confirms that Viet Nam's libraries and CLCs play an essential role in promoting reading and building a LLL Society.

  6. From research evidence to policy: Mental health care in Viet Nam.

    PubMed Central

    Harpham, T.; Tuan, T.

    2006-01-01

    PROBLEM: The use of evidence-based policy is gaining attention in developing countries. Frameworks to analyse the process of developing policy and to assess whether evidence is likely to influence policy-makers are now available. However, the use of evidence in policies on caring for people with mental illness in developing countries has rarely been analysed. APPROACH: This case study from Viet Nam illustrates how evidence can be used to influence policy. We summarize evidence on the burden of mental illness in Viet Nam and describe attempts to influence policy-makers. We also interviewed key stakeholders to ascertain their views on how policy could be affected. We then applied an analytical framework to the case study; this framework included an assessment of the political context in which the policy was developed, the links between organizations needed to influence policy, external influences on policy-makers and the nature of evidence required to influence policy-makers. LOCAL SETTING: The burden of mental illness among various population groups was large but there were few policies aimed at providing care for people with mental illness, apart from policies for providing hospital-based care for people with severe mental illness. RELEVANT CHANGES: The national plan proposes to incorporate screening for mental illness among women and children in order to implement early detection and treatment. LESSONS LEARNED: Evidence on the burden of mental ill-health in Viet Nam is patchy and research in this area is still relatively undeveloped. Nonetheless the policy process was influenced by the evidence from research because key links between organizations and policy-makers were established at an early stage, the evidence was regarded as rigorous and the timing was opportune. PMID:16917656

  7. Comparative profiling of gene expression in Camellia sinensis L. cultivar AnJiBaiCha leaves during periodic albinism.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ling; Xiong, Li-Gui; Deng, Ting-Ting; Wu, Yang; Li, Juan; Liu, Shuo-Qian; Huang, Jian-An; Liu, Zhong-Hua

    2015-04-25

    The AnJiBaiCha albino mutant tea cultivar has a reversible albino phenotype at low temperatures. Albino AnJiBaiCha leaves contain high levels of amino acids, which are important components affecting the quality of tea as a beverage. To examine the molecular mechanism of albinism and amino acid enrichment in AnJiBaiCha, we used the amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) technique to isolate genes that are differentially expressed during periodic albinism in AnJiBaiCha. A total of 127 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were successfully sequenced; among those, 60 TDFs showed high similarity to sequences with known functions, but 67 TDFs were not similar to any known genes. The identified transcripts include transcription factors, ubiquitination-related genes, chloroplast biogenesis genes, signal transduction genes, stress-related genes, cell cycle genes, and carbohydrate and energy metabolism genes. To validate the cDNA-AFLP results, quantitative real-time PCR was used to confirm the differential expression of six of the identified genes. The cDNA-AFLP and quantitative real-time PCR results correlated well, indicating that the cDNA-AFLP results are reliable. This study provides insights into the molecular mechanisms by which periodic albinism and amino acid accumulation take place in AnJiBaiCha.

  8. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of mitochondrial DNA HVS-I and HVS-II in Chinese Bai ethnic group.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng; Yin, Cai-Yong; Qian, Xiao-Qin; Fan, Han-Ting; Deng, Ya-Jun; Zhang, Yu-Dang; Meng, Hao-Tian; Shen, Chun-Mei; Yang, Chun-Hua; Jin, Rui; Zhu, Bo-Feng; Xu, Peng

    2015-03-01

    For forensic and population genetic purposes, a total of 125 unrelated volunteers' blood samples were collected from Chinese Bai ethnic minority group to analyze sequence variation of two hypervariable segments (HVS-I and HVS-II) in the mitochondrial DNA control region. Comparing the HVS-I and HVS-II sequences of the 125 Chinese Bais to the Anderson reference sequence, we found 86 polymorphic loci in HVS-I and 40 in HVS-II in mitochondrial DNA sequences of the Chinese Bai ethnic minority group, which defined 93 and 53 different haplotypes, respectively. Haplotype diversity and the mean pairwise differences were 0.992 ± 0.003 and 6.553 in HVS-I, and 0.877 ± 0.027 and 2.407 in HVS-II, respectively. We defined four macrohaplogroups R, M, N and D with the proportions ranging from 9.6% to 40.0%. With the analysis of the hypervariable domain from nucleotide 16 180-16 193 in HVS-I, our study revealed new haplotypes of sequence variations. In addition, the Fst metric, phylogenetic tree, and principal component analysis demonstrated a close genetic relationship between the Bai group and Chinese Han populations from South China, Changsha, and Guangdong. The results support that the Bai group is a multiorigin ethnic minority that has merged with the Chinese Han population.

  9. The adhesion GPCR BAI1 mediates macrophage ROS production and microbicidal activity against Gram-negative bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Billings, Emily A.; Lee, Chang Sup; Owen, Katherine A.; D’Souza, Ryan S.; Ravichandran, Kodi S.; Casanova, James E.

    2016-01-01

    The detection of microbes and initiation of an innate immune response occur through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are critical for the production of inflammatory cytokines and activation of the cellular microbicidal machinery. In particular, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the NADPH oxidase complex is a critical component of the macrophage bactericidal machinery. We previously characterized brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 (BAI1), a member of the adhesion family of G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide–binding protein)–coupled receptors (GPCRs), as a PRR that mediates the selective phagocytic uptake of Gram-negative bacteria by macrophages. We showed that BAI1 promoted phagosomal ROS production through activation of the Rho family guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) Rac1, thereby stimulating NADPH oxidase activity. Primary BAI1-deficient macrophages exhibited attenuated Rac GTPase activity and reduced ROS production in response to several Gram-negative bacteria, resulting in impaired microbicidal activity. Furthermore, in a peritoneal infection model, BAI1-deficient mice exhibited increased susceptibility to death by bacterial challenge because of impaired bacterial clearance. Together, these findings suggest that BAI1 mediates the clearance of Gram-negative bacteria by stimulating both phagocytosis and NADPH oxidase activation, thereby coupling bacterial detection to the cellular microbicidal machinery. PMID:26838550

  10. Structure and functional characterization of a bile acid 7α dehydratase BaiE in secondary bile acid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Bhowmik, Shiva; Chiu, Hsien-Po; Jones, David H; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Miller, Mitchell D; Xu, Qingping; Farr, Carol L; Ridlon, Jason M; Wells, James E; Elsliger, Marc-André; Wilson, Ian A; Hylemon, Phillip B; Lesley, Scott A

    2016-03-01

    Conversion of the primary bile acids cholic acid (CA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) to the secondary bile acids deoxycholic acid (DCA) and lithocholic acid (LCA) is performed by a few species of intestinal bacteria in the genus Clostridium through a multistep biochemical pathway that removes a 7α-hydroxyl group. The rate-determining enzyme in this pathway is bile acid 7α-dehydratase (baiE). In this study, crystal structures of apo-BaiE and its putative product-bound [3-oxo-Δ(4,6) -lithocholyl-Coenzyme A (CoA)] complex are reported. BaiE is a trimer with a twisted α + β barrel fold with similarity to the Nuclear Transport Factor 2 (NTF2) superfamily. Tyr30, Asp35, and His83 form a catalytic triad that is conserved across this family. Site-directed mutagenesis of BaiE from Clostridium scindens VPI 12708 confirm that these residues are essential for catalysis and also the importance of other conserved residues, Tyr54 and Arg146, which are involved in substrate binding and affect catalytic turnover. Steady-state kinetic studies reveal that the BaiE homologs are able to turn over 3-oxo-Δ(4) -bile acid and CoA-conjugated 3-oxo-Δ(4) -bile acid substrates with comparable efficiency questioning the role of CoA-conjugation in the bile acid metabolism pathway. PMID:26650892

  11. Comparative profiling of gene expression in Camellia sinensis L. cultivar AnJiBaiCha leaves during periodic albinism.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ling; Xiong, Li-Gui; Deng, Ting-Ting; Wu, Yang; Li, Juan; Liu, Shuo-Qian; Huang, Jian-An; Liu, Zhong-Hua

    2015-04-25

    The AnJiBaiCha albino mutant tea cultivar has a reversible albino phenotype at low temperatures. Albino AnJiBaiCha leaves contain high levels of amino acids, which are important components affecting the quality of tea as a beverage. To examine the molecular mechanism of albinism and amino acid enrichment in AnJiBaiCha, we used the amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) technique to isolate genes that are differentially expressed during periodic albinism in AnJiBaiCha. A total of 127 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were successfully sequenced; among those, 60 TDFs showed high similarity to sequences with known functions, but 67 TDFs were not similar to any known genes. The identified transcripts include transcription factors, ubiquitination-related genes, chloroplast biogenesis genes, signal transduction genes, stress-related genes, cell cycle genes, and carbohydrate and energy metabolism genes. To validate the cDNA-AFLP results, quantitative real-time PCR was used to confirm the differential expression of six of the identified genes. The cDNA-AFLP and quantitative real-time PCR results correlated well, indicating that the cDNA-AFLP results are reliable. This study provides insights into the molecular mechanisms by which periodic albinism and amino acid accumulation take place in AnJiBaiCha. PMID:25576956

  12. Long-term monitoring of Dzanga Bai forest elephants: forest clearing use patterns.

    PubMed

    Turkalo, Andrea K; Wrege, Peter H; Wittemyer, George

    2013-01-01

    Individual identification of the relatively cryptic forest elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis) at forest clearings currently provides the highest quality monitoring data on this ecologically important but increasingly threatened species. Here we present baseline data from the first 20 years of an individually based study of this species, conducted at the Dzanga Clearing, Central African Republic. A total of 3,128 elephants were identified over the 20-year study (1,244 adults; 675 females, 569 males). It took approximately four years for the majority of elephants visiting the clearing to be identified, but new elephants entered the clearing every year of the study. The study population was relatively stable, varying from 1,668 to 1,864 individuals (including juveniles and infants), with increasingly fewer males than females over time. The age-class distribution for females remained qualitatively unchanged between 1995 and 2010, while the proportion of adult males decreased from 20% to 10%, likely reflecting increased mortality. Visitation patterns by individuals were highly variable, with some elephants visiting monthly while others were ephemeral users with visits separated by multiple years. The number of individuals in the clearing at any time varied between 40 and 100 individuals, and there was little evidence of a seasonal pattern in this variation. The number of elephants entering the clearing together (defined here as a social group) averaged 1.49 (range 1-12) for males and 2.67 (range 1-14) for females. This collation of 20 years of intensive forest elephant monitoring provides the first detailed, long term look at the ecology of bai visitation for this species, offering insight to the ecological significance and motivation for bai use, social behavior, and threats to forest elephants. We discuss likely drivers (rainfall, compression, illegal killing, etc.) influencing bai visitation rates. This study provides the baseline for future demographic and behavioral

  13. Long-Term Monitoring of Dzanga Bai Forest Elephants: Forest Clearing Use Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Turkalo, Andrea K.; Wrege, Peter H.; Wittemyer, George

    2013-01-01

    Individual identification of the relatively cryptic forest elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis) at forest clearings currently provides the highest quality monitoring data on this ecologically important but increasingly threatened species. Here we present baseline data from the first 20 years of an individually based study of this species, conducted at the Dzanga Clearing, Central African Republic. A total of 3,128 elephants were identified over the 20-year study (1,244 adults; 675 females, 569 males). It took approximately four years for the majority of elephants visiting the clearing to be identified, but new elephants entered the clearing every year of the study. The study population was relatively stable, varying from 1,668 to 1,864 individuals (including juveniles and infants), with increasingly fewer males than females over time. The age-class distribution for females remained qualitatively unchanged between 1995 and 2010, while the proportion of adult males decreased from 20% to 10%, likely reflecting increased mortality. Visitation patterns by individuals were highly variable, with some elephants visiting monthly while others were ephemeral users with visits separated by multiple years. The number of individuals in the clearing at any time varied between 40 and 100 individuals, and there was little evidence of a seasonal pattern in this variation. The number of elephants entering the clearing together (defined here as a social group) averaged 1.49 (range 1–12) for males and 2.67 (range 1–14) for females. This collation of 20 years of intensive forest elephant monitoring provides the first detailed, long term look at the ecology of bai visitation for this species, offering insight to the ecological significance and motivation for bai use, social behavior, and threats to forest elephants. We discuss likely drivers (rainfall, compression, illegal killing, etc.) influencing bai visitation rates. This study provides the baseline for future demographic and behavioral

  14. A Self-Sustained Education System for a Developing Country: The Case of the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Dien Ngoc

    Viet Nam's average annual population growth rate is 2.6%, which accounts for a large youth population: 37.7% of the total population is under age 15, compared with an average of 20% in developed or newly industrialized countries. A free basic education for all children is almost impossible to provide. With consideration of the Vietnamese people's…

  15. Examining the Seven-Flag "Chieu Hoi" Pass: A Primary Document from the American War in Viet Nam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelmann, Ted

    2006-01-01

    During the Viet Nam war, U.S. military helicopters dropped "Chieu Hoi" (safe conduct) passes over suspected enemy locations to encourage enemy soldiers to surrender. This article presents a classroom activity that encourages students to examine a "Chieu Hoi" pass as a primary historical document, identify its various elements, and begin discussing…

  16. Towards a Lifelong Learning Society through Reading Promotion: Opportunities and Challenges for Libraries and Community Learning Centres in Viet Nam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossain, Zakir

    2016-01-01

    The government of Viet Nam has made a commitment to build a Lifelong Learning Society by 2020. A range of related initiatives have been launched, including the Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization Centre for Lifelong Learning (SEAMEO CELLL) and "Book Day"--a day aimed at encouraging reading and raising awareness of its…

  17. Effects of Social Class and School Conditions on Educational Enrollment and Achievement of Boys and Girls in Rural Viet Nam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Phuong L.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the effects of parental SES, school quality, and community factors on children's enrollment and achievement in rural areas in Viet Nam, using logistic regression and ordered logistic regression. Multivariate analysis reveals significant differences in educational enrollment and outcomes by level of household expenditures and…

  18. Taenia solium cysticercosis in a village in northern Viet Nam: seroprevalence study using an ELISA for detecting circulating antigen.

    PubMed

    Erhart, Annette; Dorny, Pierre; Van De, Nguyen; Vien, Ha Viet; Thach, Dang Cam; Toan, Nguyen Duy; Cong, Le Dinh; Geerts, Stanny; Speybroeck, Niko; Berkvens, Dirk; Brandt, Jef

    2002-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detecting circulating Taenia solium antigen was evaluated in Viet Nam; 12 of 210 people gave a positive result, including 5 persons with epilepsy. Cysticercosis was confirmed in 9 persons. Agreement between the ELISA, computerized tomography scanning and biopsy examination was high. PMID:12174775

  19. The Elimination of Illiteracy and the Use of Complementary Education in the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    To counteract the legacy of 80 years of colonial rule in North Viet Nam, President Ho Chi Minh outlined government objectives in the Declaration of Independence in 1945. Major objectives included combatting ignorance and illiteracy. To work toward these objectives, the government established a Department of Popular Education and encouraged…

  20. Experimental spatial sampling study of the real-time ultrasonic pulse-echo BAI-mode imaging technique.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiangtao; Morris, Scott A; O'Brien, William D

    2003-04-01

    The ultrasonic pulse-echo backscattered amplitude integral (BAI)-mode imaging technique has been developed to inspect the seal integrity of hermetically sealed, flexible food packages. With a focused 17.3-MHz transducer acquiring radio frequency (RF) echo data in a static rectilinear stop-and-go pattern, this technique was able to reliably detect channel defects as small as 38 microm in diameter and occasionally detect 6-microm-diameter channels. This contribution presents our experimental spatial sampling study of the BAI-mode imaging technique with a continuous zigzag scanning protocol that simulates a real-time production line inspection method in continuous motion. Two transducers (f/2 17.3 MHz and f/3 20.3 MHz) were used to acquire RF echo data in a zigzag raster pattern from plastic film samples bearing rectilinear point reflector arrays of varying grid spacings. The average BAI-value difference (deltaBAI) between defective and intact regions and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were used to assess image quality as a function of three spatial sampling variables: transducer spatial scanning step size, array sample grid spacing, and transducer -6-dB pulse-echo focal beam spot size. For a given grid size, the deltaBAI and CNR degraded as scanning step size in each spatial dimension increased. There is an engineering trade-off between the BAI-mode image quality and the transducer spatial sampling. The optimal spatial sampling step size has been identified to be between one and two times the -6-dB pulse-echo focal beam lateral diameter. PMID:12744399

  1. Survey of food-hygiene practices at home and childhood diarrhoea in Hanoi, Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Takanashi, Kumiko; Chonan, Yuko; Quyen, Dao To; Khan, Nguyen Cong; Poudel, Krishna C; Jimba, Masamine

    2009-10-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the potential factors of food-hygiene practices of mothers on the prevalence of diarrhoea among their children. Mothers who had children aged 6 months-5 years were recruited in a hamlet in Viet Nam. The food-hygiene practices included hand-washing, method of washing utensils, separation of utensils for raw and cooked food, and the location where foods were prepared for cooking. A face-to-face interview was conducted, and data on 206 mothers were analyzed. The risk of diarrhoea was significantly higher among children whose mothers prepared food for cooking somewhere other than the table (typically on the ground) compared to children whose mothers prepared food on the table (adjusted odds ratio = 2.85, 95% confidence interval 1.11-7.28). The results indicate that food-hygiene practices of mothers, such as avoiding preparing food for cooking on the ground, has a potential impact in preventing diarrhoea among children in Viet Nam.

  2. Survey of Food-hygiene Practices at Home and Childhood Diarrhoea in Hanoi, Viet Nam

    PubMed Central

    Takanashi, Kumiko; Chonan, Yuko; Quyen, Dao To; Khan, Nguyen Cong; Poudel, Krishna C.

    2009-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the potential factors of food-hygiene practices of mothers on the prevalence of diarrhoea among their children. Mothers who had children aged 6 months–5 years were recruited in a hamlet in Viet Nam. The food-hygiene practices included hand-washing, method of washing utensils, separation of utensils for raw and cooked food, and the location where foods were prepared for cooking. A face-to-face interview was conducted, and data on 206 mothers were analyzed. The risk of diarrhoea was significantly higher among children whose mothers prepared food for cooking somewhere other than the table (typically on the ground) compared to children whose mothers prepared food on the table (adjusted odds ratio=2.85, 95% confidence interval 1.11–7.28). The results indicate that food-hygiene practices of mothers, such as avoiding preparing food for cooking on the ground, has a potential impact in preventing diarrhoea among children in Viet Nam. PMID:19902795

  3. Stakeholder perceptions of a total market approach to family planning in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Drake, Jennifer Kidwell; Thi Thanh, Luu Huong; Suraratdecha, Chutima; Thi Thu, Ha Phan; Vail, Janet G

    2010-11-01

    Viet Nam has high modern contraceptive prevalence (68%), with most services received through the public sector. As the country transitions to middle-income status, Viet Nam's donors have ceased donations of contraceptive supplies, causing a large projected shortfall in the family planning budget. In response, the Ministry of Health has decided to prioritize free or subsidized contraceptives for poor and vulnerable groups, while enhancing social marketing and sales of contraceptives in the free market. To support planning for this "total market approach", a descriptive exploratory study was conducted with 38 public and private sector family planning stakeholders to gain their perceptions of the proposals. There was a high level of support for government leadership of public-private coordination and stewardship of the entire family planning system. Key information gaps were identified regarding how the reforms can promote equitable access to family planning and financial sustainability in pricing. The government's experience with this transition may yield valuable guidance for other settings. PMID:21111350

  4. Allele frequency of 19 autosomal STR loci in the Bai population from the southwestern region of mainland China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Hong, Yine; Li, Xiujiang; Yang, Jinmeng; Li, Lanjiang; Huang, Ying; Wang, Chuanchao; Li, Hui; Xu, Bingying

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate a 19 STR loci database using the Bai population from China. This multiplex amplification kit included 13 CODIS STR markers and six plus STR markers (D19S433, Penta E, D2S1338, Penta D, D6S1043, and D12S391) that were successfully analyzed by using 1158 DNA samples from the Bai population from the southwestern part of mainland China. These results indicate that this multiplex amplification kit may provide significant polymorphic information for kinship testing and relationship investigations.

  5. A Multicentre Molecular Analysis of Hepatitis B and Blood-Borne Virus Coinfections in Viet Nam

    PubMed Central

    Dunford, Linda; Carr, Michael J.; Dean, Jonathan; Nguyen, Linh Thuy; Ta Thi, Thu Hong; Nguyen, Binh Thanh; Connell, Jeff; Coughlan, Suzie; Nguyen, Hien Tran; Hall, William W.; Thi, Lan Anh Nguyen

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis B (HBV) infection is endemic in Viet Nam, with up to 8.4 million individuals estimated to be chronically infected. We describe results of a large, multicentre seroepidemiological and molecular study of the prevalence of HBV infection and blood-borne viral coinfections in Viet Nam. Individuals with varying risk factors for infection (n = 8654) were recruited from five centres; Ha Noi, Hai Phong, Da Nang, Khanh Hoa and Can Tho. A mean prevalence rate of 10.7% was observed and levels of HBsAg were significantly higher in injecting drug users (IDUs) (17.4%, n = 174/1000) and dialysis patients (14.3%, n = 82/575) than in lower-risk groups (9.4%; p<0.001). Coinfection with HIV was seen in 28% of HBV-infected IDUs (n = 49/174) and 15.2% of commercial sex workers (CSWs; n = 15/99). HCV infection was present in 89.8% of the HBV-HIV coinfected IDUs (n = 44/49) and 40% of HBV-HIV coinfected CSWs (n = 16/40). Anti-HDV was detected in 10.7% (n = 34/318) of HBsAg positive individuals. Phylogenetic analysis of HBV S gene (n = 187) showed a predominance of genotype B4 (82.6%); genotypes C1 (14.6%), B2 (2.7%) and C5 (0.5%) were also identified. The precore mutation G1896A was identified in 35% of all specimens, and was more frequently observed in genotype B (41%) than genotype C (3%; p<0.0001). In the immunodominant ‘a’ region of the surface gene, point mutations were identified in 31% (n = 58/187) of sequences, and 2.2% (n = 4/187) and 5.3% (n = 10/187) specimens contained the major vaccine escape mutations G145A/R and P120L/Q/S/T, respectively. 368 HBsAg positive individuals were genotyped for the IL28B SNP rs12979860 and no significant association between the IL28B SNP and clearance of HBsAg, HBV viral load or HBeAg was observed. This study confirms the high prevalence of HBV infection in Viet Nam and also highlights the significant levels of blood-borne virus coinfections, which have important implications for

  6. Comparison of Body Adiposity Index (BAI) and Body Mass Index (BMI) with Estimations of % Body Fat in Clinically Severe Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Geliebter, Allan; Atalayer, Deniz; Flancbaum, Louis; Gibson, Charlisa D.

    2012-01-01

    Body Adiposity Index (BAI), a new surrogate measure of body fat (hip circumference/[height1.5 -18]), has been proposed as an alternative to BMI. We compared BAI with BMI, and each of them with laboratory measures of body fat-derived from bioimpedance analysis (BIA), air displacement (ADP), and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in clinically severe obese (CSO) participants. Nineteen pre-bariatric surgery CSO, non-diabetic women were recruited (age=32.6±7.7 SD; BMI=46.5±9.0 kg/m2). Anthropometrics and body fat percentage (% fat) were determined from BIA, ADP, and DXA. Scatter plots with lines of equality and Bland-Altman plots were used to compare BAI and BMI with % fat derived from BIA, ADP, and DXA. BAI and BMI correlated highly with each other (r=0.90, p<0.001). Both BAI and BMI correlated significantly with % fat from BIA and ADP. BAI, however, did not correlate significantly with % fat from DXA (r=0.42, p=0.08) whereas BMI did (r=0.65, p=0.003). BMI was also the single best predictor of % fat from both BIA (r2=0.80, p<0.001) and ADP (r2=0.65, p<0.001). The regression analysis showed that the standard error of the estimate (SEE) or residual error around the regression lines was greater for BAI comparisons than for BMI comparisons with BIA, ADP, and DXA. Consistent with this, the Bland and Altman plots indicated wider 95% confidence intervals for BAI difference comparisons than for BMI difference comparisons with their respective means with BIA, ADP, and DXA. Thus, BAI does not appear to be an appropriate proxy for BMI in clinically severe obese (CSO) women. PMID:23592658

  7. Socialist Republic of Viet Nam [Population education in the countries of the region].

    PubMed

    Le-nang-an

    1982-06-01

    The government of the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam has recognized the importance of and the need for population education. This is a totally new area in Viet Nam, although in some isolated instances it has been included in subjects in the school curriculum. There are adequate infrastructural facilities from the national to the village level for all categories of general education, vocational education, and complementary education as well as for preservice and inservice training for educational personnel. In June 1981 the UN Fund for Population Activities Needs Assessment Mission made the following recommendations for the effective implementation of a population education program: a National Committee on Population Education should be established with the Minister or Vice Minister of Education as the chairperson; a separate Department or Unit of Population Education, with full time personnel, should be created in the Ministry of Education and should be responsible for project implementation; population education should be integrated with relevant subjects in general education, complementary education, and vocational education; external assistance should be provided for the development and production of different instructional materials in population education; population education should be integrated in the preserve training of primary, junior, and senior secondary teachers; population education should be developed as an area of specialization at the post university level in Teacher Training University No. 1 at Hanoi; the launching of the population education project should be preceded by training of high level officials from the Ministry of Education and the training of key personnel at the national and provincial levels through a national training course of about 10 days; selected project personnel and teacher educators should be given specialized training in population education; all the inspectors, administrators, and heads of primary, junior, senior, and

  8. Harm reduction and “Clean” community: can Viet Nam have both?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The findings of our research show that while police play multiple roles in the fight against drug-related crime, they often perceived their tasks – especially preventing and controlling drug use on the one hand, and supporting harm reduction on the other – as contradictory, and this creates tensions in their work and relations with their communities. Although they are leaders and implementers of harm reduction, not all police know about it, and some remain skeptical or perceive it as contradictory to their main task of fighting drugs. Methadone treatment is seen by some as in competition with their main task of coordinating conventional drug treatment in the rehabilitation center. The history of drug use and the evolution of discourses on drug use in Viet Nam have created these conflicting pressures on police, and thus created contradictory expectations and led to different views and attitudes of police regarding various harm reduction measures. This might aid understanding why, despite the comprehensive and progressive policies on HIV/AIDS and harm reduction in Viet Nam, it is not easy for police to actively and effectively support and be involved in harm reduction at the ground level. To promote the wider acceptance of harm reduction the concept of community safety must be expanded to include community health; harm reduction must be integrated into the “new society” movement; and laws and policies need further revision to reduce contradiction between current drug laws and HIV laws. Harm reduction guidelines for police and other actors need to be disseminated and supported, embodying better ways of working between sectors, and all sectors in the partnership require support for building capacity to contribute to the overall goal. PMID:22769430

  9. Dioxin reservoirs in southern Viet Nam--a legacy of Agent Orange.

    PubMed

    Dwernychuk, L Wayne; Cau, Hoang Dinh; Hatfield, Christopher T; Boivin, Thomas G; Hung, Tran Manh; Dung, Phung Tri; Thai, Nguyen Dinh

    2002-04-01

    In the isolated Aluoi Valley of central Viet Nam, very high levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were measured in soil, fish fat, duck fat, pooled human blood and breast milk samples collected from A So village between 1996 and 1999. The village was situated on a former military base occupied by US Special Forces between 1963 and 1966. TCDD was a contaminant of the herbicide "Agent Orange", aerially sprayed in the valley between 1965 and 1970, and stored at the A So base. Measured levels were lower near the sites of two other former US bases in the valley which had been occupied for shorter periods of time. In areas where Agent Orange had been applied by low-flying aircraft, levels of TCDD in soil, food and human samples were elevated, but lower than those near the three former US bases. We confirm the apparent food chain transfer of TCDD from contaminated soil to cultured fish pond sediments to fish and duck tissues, then to humans as measured in whole blood and breast milk. We theorize that the Aluoi Valley is a microcosm of southern Viet Nam, where numerous reservoirs of TCDD exist in the soil of former military installations south of the former demilitarized zone. Large quantities of Agent Orange were stored at many sites, used in ground and aerial applications, and spilled. TCDD, through various forms of soil disturbance, can be mobilized from these reservoirs after decades below the surface, and subsequently, introduced into the human food chain.

  10. Dioxin reservoirs in southern Viet Nam--a legacy of Agent Orange.

    PubMed

    Dwernychuk, L Wayne; Cau, Hoang Dinh; Hatfield, Christopher T; Boivin, Thomas G; Hung, Tran Manh; Dung, Phung Tri; Thai, Nguyen Dinh

    2002-04-01

    In the isolated Aluoi Valley of central Viet Nam, very high levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were measured in soil, fish fat, duck fat, pooled human blood and breast milk samples collected from A So village between 1996 and 1999. The village was situated on a former military base occupied by US Special Forces between 1963 and 1966. TCDD was a contaminant of the herbicide "Agent Orange", aerially sprayed in the valley between 1965 and 1970, and stored at the A So base. Measured levels were lower near the sites of two other former US bases in the valley which had been occupied for shorter periods of time. In areas where Agent Orange had been applied by low-flying aircraft, levels of TCDD in soil, food and human samples were elevated, but lower than those near the three former US bases. We confirm the apparent food chain transfer of TCDD from contaminated soil to cultured fish pond sediments to fish and duck tissues, then to humans as measured in whole blood and breast milk. We theorize that the Aluoi Valley is a microcosm of southern Viet Nam, where numerous reservoirs of TCDD exist in the soil of former military installations south of the former demilitarized zone. Large quantities of Agent Orange were stored at many sites, used in ground and aerial applications, and spilled. TCDD, through various forms of soil disturbance, can be mobilized from these reservoirs after decades below the surface, and subsequently, introduced into the human food chain. PMID:11993628

  11. Investigations into the safety and immunogenicity of a killed oral cholera vaccine developed in Viet Nam.

    PubMed Central

    Trach, D. D.; Cam, P. D.; Ke, N. T.; Rao, M. R.; Dinh, D.; Hang, P. V.; Hung, N. V.; Canh, D. G.; Thiem, V. D.; Naficy, A.; Ivanoff, B.; Svennerholm, A-M; Holmgren, J.; Clemens, J. D.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a killed oral cholera vaccine produced in Viet Nam, and to compare the Vietnamese vaccine with one that is licensed internationally. METHOD: Two-dose regimens of a locally produced, bivalent, anti-O1, anti-O139 killed oral whole-cell cholera vaccine (biv-WC) and of a commercially available, monovalent (anti-O1) oral recombinant B subunit-killed whole-cell cholera vaccine (rBS-WC) were compared in two trials in Viet Nam. In the first trial, 144 adults were randomized to biv-WC with or without buffer, rBS-WC with buffer, or placebo without buffer. In the second, 103 children aged 1-12 years were randomized to biv-WC without buffer, rBS-WC with buffer, or placebo without buffer. FINDINGS: No regimen was associated with significant side-effects. In adults, ca 60% of recipients of either vaccine exhibited at least fourfold serum anti-O1 vibriocidal antibody responses and ca 40% of recipients of biv-WC demonstrated anti-O139 vibriocidal responses. Both anti-O1 (ca 90% in each vaccine groupand anti-O139 (68% in the biv-WC group) vibriocidal responses occurred more frequently in children. The responses to biv-WC were unaffected by the receipt of buffer. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that biv-WC was safe and immunogenic, that it could be administered without buffer, and that it could elicit robust immune responses even in children, for whom the risk of endemic cholera is highest. PMID:11884967

  12. The brain-artefact interface (BAI): a challenge for archaeology and cultural neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Malafouris, Lambros

    2010-06-01

    Cultural neuroscience provides a new approach for understanding the impact of culture on the human brain (and vice versa) opening thus new avenues for cross-disciplinary collaboration with archaeology and anthropology. Finding new meaningful and productive unit of analysis is essential for such collaboration. But what can archaeological preoccupation with material culture and long-term change contribute to this end? In this article, I introduce and discuss the notion of the brain-artefact interface (BAI) as a useful conceptual bridge between neuroplastisty and the extended mind. I argue that a key challenge for archaeology and cultural neuroscience lies in the cross-disciplinary understanding of the processes by which our plastic enculturated brains become constituted within the wider extended networks of non-biological artefacts and cultural practices that delineate the real spatial and temporal boundaries of the human cognitive map.

  13. Study on pyrolysis gas in thermal extraction of Bai Yinhua lignite with industrial washing oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Y. M.; Lian, X. P.; Zhao, F. Y.; Xu, Y. Q.; Hu, Y. Q.; Yuan, Z. K.; Hao, X. R.

    2016-08-01

    Industrial washing oil as solvent, pyrolysis gas produced from Bai Yinhua lignite during thermal extraction was studied by gas chromatography. The effects of temperature and solvent coal ration on coal pyrolysis gas were investigated. The results showed that: Pyrolysis gas produced mainly in CO, CO2, O2, H2, CH4, and so on, in which the total amount of oxygen containing compounds nearly 40%, significant effects of deoxidation was achieved. The increase of heat extraction temperature can significantly increase the degree of bond breaking and the gas formation rate, the gas yield and the rate of oxygen increase significantly, while the gas yield increases with the decrease of the solvent coal ration.

  14. The brain–artefact interface (BAI): a challenge for archaeology and cultural neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Cultural neuroscience provides a new approach for understanding the impact of culture on the human brain (and vice versa) opening thus new avenues for cross-disciplinary collaboration with archaeology and anthropology. Finding new meaningful and productive unit of analysis is essential for such collaboration. But what can archaeological preoccupation with material culture and long-term change contribute to this end? In this article, I introduce and discuss the notion of the brain–artefact interface (BAI) as a useful conceptual bridge between neuroplastisty and the extended mind. I argue that a key challenge for archaeology and cultural neuroscience lies in the cross-disciplinary understanding of the processes by which our plastic enculturated brains become constituted within the wider extended networks of non-biological artefacts and cultural practices that delineate the real spatial and temporal boundaries of the human cognitive map. PMID:20123661

  15. Collision-induced basalt eruptions at Pleiku and Buôn Mê Thuột, south-central Viet Nam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoàng, Nguyễn; Flower, Martin F. J.; Chí, Cung Thu'ọ'ng; Xuân, Phạm Tích; Quý, Hoàng Văn; Sơn, Trần Thanh

    2013-09-01

    Neogene-Quaternary basalts occur as dispersed volcanic clusters in the vicinity of the Tethyan tectonic belt, possibly representing 'far-field' effects of the Early Tertiary collisions of Gondwana fragments with the southern margin of Eurasia. In Indochina, such a 'Diffuse Igneous Province' post-dates the 45-42 Ma 'hard' India-Asia collision and southeastward, collision induced (c. 30-17 Ma.), extrusion of Indochina. Extrusion was accommodated by left-lateral strike-slip shearing on the Ailao Shan-Red River Fault, coeval with seafloor spreading in the East Viet Nam (South China) Sea. The Indochina basalts mostly comprise shield-building tholeiites capped by small-volume undersaturated types, the latter often bearing mantle xenoliths and 'exotic' xenocrysts such as sapphire, zircon. They appeared at c. 17 Ma, more-or-less coinciding with the cessation of both continental extrusion and seafloor spreading. At this point extensional stress appears to have shifted westwards to continental Indochina, with magmatic activity appearing, characteristically, at 'pull-apart' basins. However, the relationship of mantle melting beneath this region to its geodynamic setting is controversial, being variously attributed to mantle plumes, extreme lithospheric stretching, and lateral asthenospheric displacement. There is little or no definitive evidence for regional mantle upwelling while lithosphere stretching alone appears to be insufficient to allow for melting, Here, we present geochemical and Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic (and paleomagnetic data), for cored sections from the Pleiku and Buon Mê Thuột plateaus in south-central Viet Nam, representative in most respects of the Indochina province as a whole. In the Pleiku shield olivine tholeiite flows are intercalated with quartz tholeiites while, in contrast, alkali basalts predominate over olivine tholeiite in the Buon Mê Thuột (BMT) shield. The first of these features (in Pleiku) probably reflects crustal wall-rock reaction while

  16. Seasonal variability of faecal indicator bacteria numbers and die-off rates in the Red River basin, North Viet Nam

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Huong Thi Mai; Le, Quynh Thi Phuong; Garnier, J.; Janeau, J.-L.; Rochelle-Newall, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Red River is the second largest river in Viet Nam and constitutes the main water source for a large percentage of the population of North Viet Nam. Here we present the results of an annual survey of Escherichia coli (EC) and Total Coliforms (TC) in the Red River basin, North Viet Nam. The objective of this work was to obtain information on faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) numbers over an annual cycle and, secondly, to determine the die-off rates of these bacterial indicators. Monthly observations at 10 stations from July 2013–June 2014 showed that TC and EC reached as high as 39100 cfu (colony forming units) 100 ml−1 and 15300 colonies 100 ml−1, respectively. We observed a significant seasonal difference for TC (p < 0.05) with numbers being higher during the wet season. In contrast, no significant seasonal difference was found for EC. The FIB die-off rates ranged from 0.01 d−1 to a maximum of 1.13 d−1 for EC and from 0.17 d−1 to 1.33 d−1 for TC. Die-off rates were significantly higher for free bacteria than for total (free + particle attached) bacteria, suggesting that particle attachment provided a certain level of protection to FIB in this system. PMID:26869451

  17. Seasonal variability of faecal indicator bacteria numbers and die-off rates in the Red River basin, North Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huong Thi Mai; Le, Quynh Thi Phuong; Garnier, J; Janeau, J-L; Rochelle-Newall, E

    2016-02-12

    The Red River is the second largest river in Viet Nam and constitutes the main water source for a large percentage of the population of North Viet Nam. Here we present the results of an annual survey of Escherichia coli (EC) and Total Coliforms (TC) in the Red River basin, North Viet Nam. The objective of this work was to obtain information on faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) numbers over an annual cycle and, secondly, to determine the die-off rates of these bacterial indicators. Monthly observations at 10 stations from July 2013-June 2014 showed that TC and EC reached as high as 39100 cfu (colony forming units) 100 ml(-1) and 15300 colonies 100 ml(-1), respectively. We observed a significant seasonal difference for TC (p < 0.05) with numbers being higher during the wet season. In contrast, no significant seasonal difference was found for EC. The FIB die-off rates ranged from 0.01 d(-1) to a maximum of 1.13 d(-1) for EC and from 0.17 d(-1) to 1.33 d(-1) for TC. Die-off rates were significantly higher for free bacteria than for total (free + particle attached) bacteria, suggesting that particle attachment provided a certain level of protection to FIB in this system.

  18. Seasonal variability of faecal indicator bacteria numbers and die-off rates in the Red River basin, North Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huong Thi Mai; Le, Quynh Thi Phuong; Garnier, J; Janeau, J-L; Rochelle-Newall, E

    2016-01-01

    The Red River is the second largest river in Viet Nam and constitutes the main water source for a large percentage of the population of North Viet Nam. Here we present the results of an annual survey of Escherichia coli (EC) and Total Coliforms (TC) in the Red River basin, North Viet Nam. The objective of this work was to obtain information on faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) numbers over an annual cycle and, secondly, to determine the die-off rates of these bacterial indicators. Monthly observations at 10 stations from July 2013-June 2014 showed that TC and EC reached as high as 39100 cfu (colony forming units) 100 ml(-1) and 15300 colonies 100 ml(-1), respectively. We observed a significant seasonal difference for TC (p < 0.05) with numbers being higher during the wet season. In contrast, no significant seasonal difference was found for EC. The FIB die-off rates ranged from 0.01 d(-1) to a maximum of 1.13 d(-1) for EC and from 0.17 d(-1) to 1.33 d(-1) for TC. Die-off rates were significantly higher for free bacteria than for total (free + particle attached) bacteria, suggesting that particle attachment provided a certain level of protection to FIB in this system. PMID:26869451

  19. Bay-annulated indigo (BAI) as an excellent electron accepting building block for high performance organic semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Yi; He, Bo; Pun, Andrew

    2016-04-19

    A novel electron acceptor based on bay-annulated indigo (BAI) was synthesized and used for the preparation of a series of high performance donor-acceptor small molecules and polymers. The resulting materials possess low-lying LUMO energy level and small HOMO-LUMO gaps, while their films exhibited high crystallinity upon thermal treatment, commensurate with high field effect mobilities and ambipolar transfer characteristics.

  20. Bay-annulated indigo (BAI) as an excellent electron accepting building block for high performance organic semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yi; He, Bo; Pun, Andrew

    2015-11-24

    A novel electron acceptor based on bay-annulated indigo (BAI) was synthesized and used for the preparation of a series of high performance donor-acceptor small molecules and polymers. The resulting materials possess low-lying LUMO energy level and small HOMO-LUMO gaps, while their films exhibited high crystallinity upon thermal treatment, commensurate with high field effect mobilities and ambipolar transfer characteristics.

  1. Structural and Functional Characterization of BaiA, An Enzyme Involved in Secondary Bile Acid Synthesis in Human Gut Microbe

    PubMed Central

    Bhowmik, Shiva; Jones, David H.; Chiu, Hsien-Po; Park, In-Hee; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Farr, Carol L.; Tien, Henry J.; Agarwalla, Sanjay; Lesley, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite significant influence of secondary bile acids on human health and disease, limited structural and biochemical information is available for the key gut microbial enzymes catalyzing its synthesis. Herein, we report apo- and co-factor bound crystal structures of BaiA2, a short chain dehydrogenase/reductase from Clostridium scindens VPI 12708 that represent the first protein structure of this pathway. The structures elucidated the basis of co-factor specificity and mechanism of proton relay. A conformational restriction involving Glu42 located in the co-factor binding site seems crucial in determining co-factor specificity. Limited flexibility of Glu42 results in imminent steric and electrostatic hindrance with 2′-phosphate group of NADP(H). Consistent with crystal structures, steady-state kinetic characterization performed with both BaiA2 and BaiA1, a close homolog with 92% sequence identity, revealed specificity constant (kcat/KM) of NADP+ at least an order of magnitude lower than NAD+. Substitution of Glu42 with Ala improved specificity towards NADP+ by 10- fold compared to wild type. The co-factor bound structure uncovered a novel nicotinamide-hydroxyl ion (NAD+-OH−) adduct contraposing previously reported adducts. The OH− of the adduct in BaiA2 is distal to C4 atom of nicotinamide and proximal to 2′-hydroxyl group of the ribose moiety. Moreover, it is located at intermediary distances between terminal functional groups of active site residues Tyr157 (2.7 Å) and Lys161 (4.5 Å). Based on these observations we propose an involvement of NAD+-OH− adduct in proton relay instead of hydride transfer as noted for previous adducts. PMID:23836456

  2. Collaborative activities and treatment outcomes in patients with HIV-associated tuberculosis in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Huyen, T T T; Nhung, N V; Shewade, H D; Hoa, N B; Harries, A D

    2016-03-21

    Contexte : Le programme national tuberculose (TB) au Viet Nam et à Ho Chi Minh ville (HCMC).Objectifs : Déterminer 1) au niveau national entre 2011 et 2013, la relation entre le test pour le virus de l'immunodéficience humaine (VIH), l'utilisation des interventions TB-VIH et les mauvais résultats du traitement de la TB parmi les patients TB-VIH, et 2) à HCMC en 2013, les caractéristiques des patients associées à un mauvais résultat.Schéma : Une étude écologique revoyant les données nationales agrégées et une étude de cohorte rétrospective dans HCMC.Résultats : Au niveau national, le test VIH est passé de 58% à 68% chez les patients tuberculeux et le traitement antirétroviral (ART) est passé chez les patients TB-VIH de 54% à 63% entre 2011 et 2013. Les mauvais résultats du traitement chez les patients TB-VIH ont augmenté de 24% à 27%, largement à cause des transferts (de 5% à 9%) et des décès. Les régions du Nord et des Highlands ont montré une faible utilisation des interventions TB-VIH. A HCMC, 303 (27%) patients TB-VIH sur 1110 ont eu un mauvais résultat avec un risque plus élevé observé parmi ceux qui avaient déjà eu un traitement de TB, ceux dont le diagnostic de VIH précédait l'apparition de la TB et ceux qui n'avaient jamais bénéficié du traitement par cotrimoxazole et de l'ART.Conclusion : En dépit de meilleurs taux de tests VIH et d'interventions TB-VIH, près de 26% des patients TB-VIH ont de mauvais résultats du traitement de la TB. Les facteurs de prédiction d'un risque plus élevé de mauvais résultats doivent être pris en compte si le Viet Nam souhaite mettre fin à l'épidémie de TB d'ici 2030.

  3. Management and treatment outcomes of patients enrolled in MDR-TB treatment in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Phuong, N T M; Nhung, N V; Hoa, N B; Thuy, H T; Takarinda, K C; Tayler-Smith, K; Harries, A D

    2016-03-21

    Contexte : La prise en charge de la tuberculose (TB) pharmacorésistante au Viet Nam a bénéficié d'une accélération considérable depuis 2009.Objectifs : Documenter le nombre annuel de patients enrôlés pour un traitement de TB multirésistante (TB-MDR) entre 2010 et 2014, et déterminer les caractéristiques et les résultats du traitement des patients qui l'out commencé entre 2010 et 2012.Schéma : Etude rétrospective de cohorte basée sur les rapports nationaux et les données du système national de données électroniques pour la TB pharmacorésistante.Résultats : Le nombre de patients enrôlés chaque année pour traitement de TB-MDR a augmenté de 97 en 2010 à 1522 en 2014. La majorité des patients étaient des hommes d'âge moyen qui avaient une atteinte pulmonaire et chez qui un protocole de retraitement avait échoué ; 77% d'entre eux avaient reçu au moins deux traitements de TB. De bons résultats (guérison et achèvement du traitement) ont été obtenus chez 73% des patients. Les résultats défavorables incluaient les sujets perdus de vue (12,5%), les décès (8%) et les échecs (6,3%). Avoir eu plus de deux traitements préalables et être positif pour le virus de l'immunodéficience humaine étaient associés à des résultats défavorables.Conclusion : Un nombre croissant de patients est traité pour TB-MDR chaque année dans le cadre du programme national de prise en charge au Viet Nam, avec de bons résultats. Cependant, il est nécessaire d'augmenter la détection des cas (actuellement seulement 30% des 5100 cas de TB-MDR estimés par an), de réduire la proportion de résultats défavorables et d'améliorer le suivi et l'évaluation.

  4. Highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) in ducks and in-contact chickens in backyard and smallholder commercial duck farms in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Henning, Joerg; Henning, Kate A; Morton, John M; Long, Ngo T; Ha, Nguyen T; Vu, Le T; Vu, Pham P; Hoa, Dong M; Meers, Joanne

    2011-09-01

    Scavenging ducks are thought to play an important role in the maintenance and transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus among domesticated and wild bird populations in South East Asia, but detailed field epidemiological results describing the infection status of domestic ducks and in-contact chickens have not been published. We conducted a longitudinal study, monitoring ducks and in-contact chickens in 80 flocks in the Mekong Delta of Viet Nam with bi-monthly testing from May 2007 until May 2008. Because H5 vaccination campaigns are conducted at regular intervals in poultry flocks in Viet Nam, both unvaccinated sentinel and H5 vaccinates were monitored. On each farm, a total of 10 birds were selected: 7 ducks (4 unvaccinated and 3 vaccinated) and 3 chickens (2 unvaccinated and 1 vaccinated) that were in close contact with the ducks. Blood samples were tested for H5 antibodies using the hemagglutination inhibition test, with H5 antibody titers ≥2(4) considered to indicate past exposure to H5 field or vaccine virus. Titers of vaccinated birds were analyzed for samples collected more than 3 weeks post-vaccination. Pooled oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs were assessed for H5 viral RNA using real-time PCR. Bird- and flock-level prevalences were estimated accounting for sampling fractions and clustering under the multi-stage sampling design with birds being sampled within flocks within villages in four different provinces. In total, serum and swab samples from 5409 birds-samplings were analyzed. Bird-level seroprevalence was 17.5% (95% CI: 14.1, 20.9) amongst unvaccinated ducks and 10.7% (95% CI: 7.4, 14.4) amongst unvaccinated in-contact chickens. Flock-level seroprevalence (proportion of flock-visits with at least one unvaccinated bird test positive) was 42.6% (95% CI: 38.0, 47.2) for ducks and 19.0% (95% CI: 13.6, 24.4) for chickens. Only 54.3% (95% CI: 39.2, 69.3) of vaccinated ducks and 55.5% (95% CI: 46.8, 64.2) of vaccinated in

  5. Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam [15 April 1992].

    PubMed

    1992-05-13

    This document reprints Viet Nam's 1992 Constitution, which "stipulates the political, economic, cultural, social, national defense, and security systems; the basic rights and duties of citizens; and the structure and the organizational and operational principles of various state agencies. It institutionalizes the system of relations by which the party is the leader, the people the master, and the state the manager." The first chapter outlines the country's political system, and chapter 2 describes the economic system. Chapter 3 deals with culture, education, science, and technology; while the fourth chapter covers national defense. Chapter 5 sets forth the fundamental rights and duties of citizens and provides that all human rights are respected and that citizens are equal before the law. Citizens also have the right to education and to health care, and discrimination against women is forbidden while pay equity is assured. This chapter also describes families as the "cells of society" and affords state protection to marriage and families while setting reciprocal standards of care for children and parents. Chapter 6 describes the duties and powers of the National Assembly, and chapter 7 those of the president of the state. Chapter 8 describes the role of the governments the executive organ of the National Assembly, and the ninth chapter details the work of People's Councils and People's Committees. Chapter 10 sets up the People's Courts and the People's Organs of Control, while the final chapter explains the legal force of the constitution and the amendment process.

  6. Supervisors and accomplices: extra-marital sex among migrant construction workers in Ha Noi, Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Thuy, Bui Thi Thanh; Kretchmar, Joshua

    2008-06-01

    This study examines the influence of social networks on the sexual relations of migrant construction workers in Ha Noi, Viet Nam. Research included observation and interviews with members of two different groups of workers. The first group, together with their employer (cai), came from the same village; the second group came from different villages. Of interest in the present study was how social relationships among workers and their employers influence extra-marital sexual activity. In the group where workers and their cai came from the same village of origin, fear of acquiring a bad reputation made these workers reluctant to seek sex services, since accounts of their behaviour were transmitted quickly home. In contrast, workers from the group who came from different villages often went out together to purchase sex. The absence of direct links to their villages of origin made it easier for these latter workers to conceal their activity. The implication of these findings for sexual safety and risk are discussed.

  7. Relative Importance of Different Attributes of Graphic Health Warnings on Tobacco Packages in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Giang, Kim Bao; Chung, Le Hong; Minh, Hoang Van; Kien, Vu Duy; Giap, Vu Van; Hinh, Nguyen Duc; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Manh, Pham Duc; Duc, Ha Anh; Yang, Jui-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Graphic health warnings (GHW) on tobacco packages have proven to be effective in increasing quit attempts among smokers and reducing initial smoking among adolescents. This research aimed to examine the relative importance of different attributes of graphic health warnings on tobacco packages in Viet Nam. A discrete choice experimental (DCE) design was applied with a conditional logit model. In addition, a ranking method was used to list from the least to the most dreadful GHW labels. With the results from DCE model, graphic type was shown to be the most important attribute, followed by cost and coverage area of GHW. The least important attribute was position of the GHW. Among 5 graphic types (internal lung cancer image, external damaged teeth, abstract image, human suffering image and text), the image of lung cancer was found to have the strongest influence on both smokers and non-smokers. With ranking method, the image of throat cancer and heart diseases were considered the most dreadful images. GHWs should be designed with these attributes in mind, to maximise influence on purchase among both smokers and non-smokers. PMID:27087187

  8. A prospective cohort study of dengue infection in schoolchildren in Long Xuyen, Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Tien, Nguyen Thi Kim; Luxemburger, Christine; Toan, Nguyen Trong; Pollissard-Gadroy, Laurence; Huong, Vu Thi Que; Van Be, Pham; Rang, Nguyen Ngoc; Wartel, Tram-Anh; Lang, Jean

    2010-09-01

    A dynamic school-based cohort of 2-15 year-olds was established in Long Xuyen, Viet Nam to provide epidemiological data for a dengue vaccine efficacy trial. Active surveillance of febrile episodes identified clinically-suspected dengue and acute and convalescent sera were collected. IgG seroconversion between annual seroprevalence surveys identified sub-clinical infections. In 2004, 2190 children were enrolled with 3239, 3146, and 3081 present each year from 2005 to 2007 consecutively. In all, 627 children had a total of 690 clinically-suspected dengue episodes (394 hospitalisations, 296 outpatients) with 284-310 (41.2-45.0%) laboratory-confirmed depending on testing. Dengue serotype 2 was predominant in 2004 and 2005, and serotype 1 in 2006 and 2007. The acute dengue disease incidence rate per 1000 person-years ranged from 16.9 in 2005 to 40.4 in 2007. The average annual incidence of primary dengue infection (IgG seroconversion in previously naïve children) was 11.4% and the symptomatic to asymptomatic primary infection ratio ranged from 1:3-1:6. Study withdrawal rate, a feasibility indicator for conducting efficacy trials, was low: 4.2% per year when excluding children who changed schools. Our 2004-2007 results confirm the high transmission of dengue in children in Long Xuyen and demonstrate the suitability of this study site for a large scale efficacy trial.

  9. Relative Importance of Different Attributes of Graphic Health Warnings on Tobacco Packages in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Giang, Kim Bao; Chung, Le Hong; Minh, Hoang Van; Kien, Vu Duy; Giap, Vu Van; Hinh, Nguyen Duc; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Manh, Pham Duc; Duc, Ha Anh; Yang, Jui-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Graphic health warnings (GHW) on tobacco packages have proven to be effective in increasing quit attempts among smokers and reducing initial smoking among adolescents. This research aimed to examine the relative importance of different attributes of graphic health warnings on tobacco packages in Viet Nam. A discrete choice experimental (DCE) design was applied with a conditional logit model. In addition, a ranking method was used to list from the least to the most dreadful GHW labels. With the results from DCE model, graphic type was shown to be the most important attribute, followed by cost and coverage area of GHW. The least important attribute was position of the GHW. Among 5 graphic types (internal lung cancer image, external damaged teeth, abstract image, human suffering image and text), the image of lung cancer was found to have the strongest influence on both smokers and non-smokers. With ranking method, the image of throat cancer and heart diseases were considered the most dreadful images. GHWs should be designed with these attributes in mind, to maximise influence on purchase among both smokers and non-smokers.

  10. Polymorphism of rs1044925 in the acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 gene and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The association of rs1044925 polymorphism in the acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1) gene and serum lipid profiles is not well known in different ethnic groups. Bai Ku Yao is a special subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The present study was carried out to clarify the association of rs1044925 polymorphism in the ACAT-1 gene and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 626 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 624 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of rs1044925 polymorphism in the ACAT-1 gene was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.01 for all). The frequency of A and C alleles was 79.0% and 21.0% in Bai Ku Yao, and 87.3% and 12.7% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The frequency of AA, AC and CC genotypes was 63.2%, 31.4% and 5.2% in Bai Ku Yao, and 75.6%, 23.2% and 1.1% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The levels of TC, LDL-C and ApoB in Bai Ku Yao but not in Han were different between the AA and AC/CC genotypes in females but not in males (P < 0.05 for all). The C allele carriers had lower serum TC, LDL-C and ApoB levels as compared with the C allele noncarriers. The levels of TC, LDL-C and ApoB in Bai Ku Yao but not in Han were correlated with genotypes in females but not in males (P < 0.05 for all). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with sex, age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and blood pressure in both ethnic groups (P < 0.05-0.001). Conclusions These results suggest that the polymorphism of rs1044925 in the ACAT-1 gene is mainly associated with female serum TC, LDL-C and

  11. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta +294T > C polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The association of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) +294T > C polymorphism and serum lipid levels is inconsistent in several previous studies. Bai Ku Yao is an isolated subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of PPARD +294T > C (rs2016520) polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 609 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 573 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the PPARD +294T > C polymorphism was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.001 for all). The frequency of T and C alleles was 77.50% and 22.50% in Bai Ku Yao, and 72.43% and 27.57% in Han (P < 0.01); respectively. The frequency of TT, TC and CC genotypes was 60.59%, 33.83% and 5.53% in Bai Ku Yao, and 52.18%, 40.50% and 7.32% in Han (P < 0.05); respectively. The subjects with CC genotype in Bai Ku Yao had higher serum LDL-C and ApoB levels and lower the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB than the subjects with TT and TC genotypes in females but not in males. The C allele carriers in Han had higher serum TC levels in males (P < 0.01) and ApoB levels in females (P < 0.05) than the C allele noncarriers. Serum TC and ApoB levels were correlated with genotypes in Han (P < 0.05 for each) but not in Bai Ku Yao. Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with sex, age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and blood pressure in both ethnic groups. Conclusions These results suggest that the association of PPARD +294T > C polymorphism and serum lipid levels is

  12. THIN-LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY IDENTIFICATION FOR RHUBARB AND PHELLODENDRI AMURENSIS CORTEX IN SHUANG-BAI CATAPLASM AND STUDY OF SKIN IRRITATION ASSAY.

    PubMed

    Tian, Y G; Qin, S M; Ding, L

    2015-01-01

    This paper aimed to raise a thin-layer chromatography (TLC) identification method for rhubarb and Phellodendri Amurensis Cortex and inspected skin irritation induced by them. It applied the TLC identification for Rhubarb and Phellodendri Amurensis Cortex in Shuang-bai cataplasm prescription. In this study six rabbits were divided into two groups to observe the skin irritation from Shuang-bai cataplasm on intact and defected skin. Another 36 were randomly divided into 6 groups to observe the acute toxicity from Shuang-bai cataplasm on intact and defected skin. Also 30 guinea pigs were divided into 3 groups to observe skin allergy to Shuang-bai cataplasm. The results showed that the average weight of the group of intact-skin rabbits was 2.026±0.10 kg and 2.427±0.023 kg after medication; the average weight of the group of defected-skin rabbits was 2.170±0.05 kg and 2.540±0.15 kg after medication; Shuang-bai cataplasm produced no irritation on intact or defected rabbit skin, no acute toxicity in rabbits and no allergy on the skin of guinea pigs. The skin allergy rate on guinea pigs of the medication group was 0 at each time quantum. Therefore, it can be concluded that this preparation produces no extreme skin irritation for rabbits, guinea pigs or human beings, and it can be safely put into practice.

  13. Effects of Huang Bai (Phellodendri Cortex) and Three Other Herbs on GnRH and GH Levels in GT1–7 and GH3 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sun Haeng; Kwak, Sung Chul; Kim, Dong Kwan; Park, Sang Woug; Kim, Hyun Soo; Kim, Young-Sik; Lee, Donghun; Lee, Ju Won; Lee, Chang Gon; Lee, Hae Kyung; Cho, Sung-Min; Shin, Yu Jeong; Lee, Jin Yong; Kim, Hocheol; Chang, Gyu Tae

    2016-01-01

    The present study was to evaluate the effects of Huang Bai, Zhi Mu, Mai Ya, and Xia Ku Cao on hormone using the GT1–7 and GH3 cells. The GT1–7 and GH3 cell lines were incubated with DW; DMSO; and 30, 100, or 300 μg/mL of one of the four extract solutions in serum-free media for 24 hours. The MTT assay was performed to determine the cytotoxicity of the four herbs. The GT1–7 and GH3 cells were incubated in DW, estradiol (GT1–7 only), or noncytotoxic herb solutions in serum-free medium for 24 hours. A quantitative RT-PCR and western blot were performed to measure the GnRH expression in GT1–7 cells and GH expression in GH3 cells. Huang Bai, Zhi Mu, Xia Ku Cao, and Mai Ya inhibited the GnRH mRNA expression in GT1–7 cells, whereas Huang Bai enhanced GH mRNA expression in GH3 cells. Additionally, Xia Ku Cao inhibited GnRH protein expression in GT1–7 cells and Huang Bai promoted GH protein expression in GH3 cells. The findings suggest that Huang Bai can delay puberty by inhibiting GnRH synthesis in the hypothalamus while also accelerating growth by promoting GH synthesis and secretion in the pituitary. PMID:26925153

  14. The changing flow regime and sediment load of the Red River, Viet Nam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Thi Phuong Quynh; Garnier, Josette; Gilles, Billen; Sylvain, Théry; Van Minh, Chau

    2007-02-01

    SummarySouth-East Asian Rivers contribute very significantly to the global sediment load to the ocean, hence to global biogeochemical cycles, and are subject to rapid changes owing to recent population and economic growth. The Red River system (Viet Nam and China) offers a good example of these changes. Previous estimates (before the year 1980) of the suspended matter loading of the Red River ranged from 100 to 170 × 10 6 t yr -1, i.e. from 640 to 1060 t km -2 yr -1. The strong dependence of suspended solid transport on hydrology results in a large year-to-year variability. Based on the available hydrological data from the period 1997-2004, and on a one-year survey of daily suspended matter of the three main tributaries of the Red River system in 2003, a simplified modeling approach, distinguishing between surface runoff and base flow, is established to estimate the mean suspended loading of the Red River under present conditions. The obtained value is 40 × 10 6 t yr -1, corresponding to a specific load of 280 t km -2 yr -1. It reflects a 70% decrease of the total suspended load since the impoundment of the Hoa Binh and Thac Ba reservoirs in the 1980s. Following the planned construction of two additional reservoirs, the model predicts a further reduction by 20% of the suspended load of the Red River, which might be compensated by an expected increase in suspended loading due to enhanced rainfall induced by climate change. Using measurements of the total phosphorus content of the suspended material in the different Red River tributaries, the present phosphorus delivery by the Red River can be estimated as 36 × 10 6 kgP yr -1.

  15. Group size of a permanent large group of agile mangabeys (Cercocebus agilis) at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    Devreese, Lieven; Huynen, Marie-Claude; Stevens, Jeroen M G; Todd, Angelique

    2013-01-01

    White-eyelid mangabeys (genus Cercocebus) live in groups of highly variable size. Because of their semi-terrestrial behaviour and preference for dense forest habitats, re-liable data on group size are scarce. During a 5-month study, we collected 17 group counts on a habituated group of agile mangabeys (C. agilis) at Bai Hokou in the Central African Republic. We found a stable group size of approximately 135 individuals. This permanent large grouping pattern is known to occur among several populations of white-eyelid mangabeys and is congruent with extreme group sizes reported in mandrills at Lopé in Gabon.

  16. Gauging the Acceptability of HIV Vaccines: An Exploratory Study Examining Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs among Injecting Drug Users in Viet Nam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, France

    2007-01-01

    In contrast to other countries in Southeast Asia, the HIV/ AIDS epidemic is in the initial stages in Viet Nam, although the rates have increased notably since 1997. This study examined attitudes towards the use of an HIV vaccine (when one becomes available) as a means for preventing the disease. Since injecting drug users are the great majority of…

  17. Aetiologies of Central Nervous System Infection in Viet Nam: A Prospective Provincial Hospital-Based Descriptive Surveillance Study

    PubMed Central

    Ho Dang Trung, Nghia; Le Thi Phuong, Tu; Wolbers, Marcel; Nguyen Van Minh, Hoang; Nguyen Thanh, Vinh; Van, Minh Pham; Thieu, Nga Tran Vu; Le Van, Tan; Song, Diep To; Le Thi, Phuong; Thi Phuong, Thao Nguyen; Van, Cong Bui; Tang, Vu; Ngoc Anh, Tuan Hoang; Nguyen, Dong; Trung, Tien Phan; Thi Nam, Lien Nguyen; Kiem, Hao Tran; Thi Thanh, Tam Nguyen; Campbell, James; Caws, Maxine; Day, Jeremy; de Jong, Menno D.; Van Vinh, Chau Nguyen; Van Doorn, H. Rogier; Tinh, Hien Tran; Farrar, Jeremy; Schultsz, Constance

    2012-01-01

    Background Infectious diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) remain common and life-threatening, especially in developing countries. Knowledge of the aetiological agents responsible for these infections is essential to guide empiric therapy and develop a rational public health policy. To date most data has come from patients admitted to tertiary referral hospitals in Asia and there is limited aetiological data at the provincial hospital level where most patients are seen. Methods We conducted a prospective Provincial Hospital-based descriptive surveillance study in adults and children at thirteen hospitals in central and southern Viet Nam between August 2007– April 2010. The pathogens of CNS infection were confirmed in CSF and blood samples by using classical microbiology, molecular diagnostics and serology. Results We recruited 1241 patients with clinically suspected infection of the CNS. An aetiological agent was identified in 640/1241 (52%) of the patients. The most common pathogens were Streptococcus suis serotype 2 in patients older than 14 years of age (147/617, 24%) and Japanese encephalitis virus in patients less than 14 years old (142/624, 23%). Mycobacterium tuberculosis was confirmed in 34/617 (6%) adult patients and 11/624 (2%) paediatric patients. The acute case fatality rate (CFR) during hospital admission was 73/617 (12%) in adults and to 42/624 (7%) in children. Conclusions Zoonotic bacterial and viral pathogens are the most common causes of CNS infection in adults and children in Viet Nam. PMID:22662232

  18. All-electron first principles calculations of the ground and some low-lying excited states of BaI.

    PubMed

    Miliordos, Evangelos; Papakondylis, Aristotle; Tsekouras, Athanasios A; Mavridis, Aristides

    2007-10-01

    The electronic structure of the heavy diatomic molecule BaI has been examined for the first time by ab initio multiconfigurational configuration interaction (MRCI) and coupled cluster (RCCSD(T)) methods. The effects of special relativity have been taken into account through the second-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess approximation. The construction of Omega(omega,omega) potential energy curves allows for the estimation of "experimental" dissociation energies (De) of the first few excited states by exploiting the accurately known De experimental value of the X2Sigma+ ground state. All states examined are of ionic character with a Mulliken charge transfer of 0.5 e- from Ba to I, and this is reflected to large dipole moments ranging from 6 to 11 D. Despite the inherent difficulties of a heavy system like BaI, our results are encouraging. With the exception of bond distances that on the average are calculated 0.05 A longer than the experimental ones, common spectroscopic parameters are in fair agreement with experiment, whereas De values are on the average 10 kcal/mol smaller. PMID:17850123

  19. Low density lipoprotein receptor gene Ava II polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several common genetic polymorphisms in the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) gene have associated with modifications of serum total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, but the results are not consistent in different populations. Bai Ku Yao is a special subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of LDL-R gene Ava Ⅱ polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 1024 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 792 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the LDL-R gene Ava Ⅱ polymorphism was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum TC, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-C, apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 and the ratio of ApoA1 to ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.01 for all). The frequency of A- and A+ alleles was 65.5% and 34.5% in Bai Ku Yao, and 80.7% and 19.3% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The frequency of A-A-, A-A+ and A+A+ genotypes was 42.6%, 45.9% and 11.5% in Bai Ku Yao, and 64.9%, 31.6% and 3.5% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. There was also significant difference in the genotypic frequencies between males and females in Bai Ku Yao (P <0.05), and in the genotypic and allelic frequencies between normal LDL-C (≤ 3.20 mmol/L) and high LDL-C (>3.20 mmol/L) subgroups in Bai Ku Yao (P < 0.05 for each) and between males and females in Han (P < 0.05 for each). The levels of LDL-C in males and TC and HDL-C in females were different among the three genotypes (P < 0.05 for all) in Bai Ku Yao, whereas the levels of HDL-C in males and HDL-C and ApoA1 in females were different among the three genotypes (P < 0.05-0.001) in Han. The subjects with A+A+ genotype had

  20. Association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism and serum lipid profiles is still controversial in diverse ethnics. Bai Ku Yao is an isolated subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The aim of the present study was to eveluate the association of MTHFR C677T polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 780 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 686 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the MTHFR C677T was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.05-0.001). The frequency of C and T alleles was 77.4% and 22.6% in Bai Ku Yao, and 60.9% and 39.1% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The frequency of CC, CT and TT genotypes was 58.7%, 37.3% and 4.0% in Bai Ku Yao, and 32.6%, 56.4% and 11.0% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The levels of TC and LDL-C in both ethnic groups were significant differences among the three genotypes (P < 0.05-0.01). The T allele carriers had higher serum TC and LDL-C levels than the T allele noncarriers. The levels of ApoB in Han were significant differences among the three genotypes (P < 0.05). The T allele carriers had higher serum ApoB levels as compared with the T allele noncarriers. The levels of TC, TG and LDL-C in Bai Ku Yao were correlated with genotypes (P < 0.05-0.001), whereas the levels of LDL-C in Han were associated with genotypes (P < 0.001). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with sex, age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and blood pressure in the both ethnic

  1. Food residue recycling by swine breeders in a developing economy: a case study in Da Nang, Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Kato, Takaaki; Pham, Dung Thi Xuan; Hoang, Hai; Xue, Yonghai; Tran, Quang Van

    2012-12-01

    This study provides a detailed description of food residue collection by swine breeders in Da Nang, Viet Nam. In January 2011, the study surveyed 30 swine breeders in two villages with respect to locations, methods, prices, quantities, and prospects for food residue collection. The sampled swine breeders regularly visited 55 locations in central Da Nang to collect raw food residue. They then transferred the food residue to their piggeries, boiled it, and fed it to their swine. A regression analysis revealed that the total amount of food residue collected by a farm depends on the number of swine in the farm and the number of collections made per day. Swine breeders in Da Nang were estimated to collect 26.3 metric tons of organic waste per day, which amounted to 4.1% of domestic waste collected by the local government. Among the sampled swine breeders, 93% answered that they would continue using food residue for the next five years.

  2. Roles of surface water areas for water and solute cycle in Hanoi city, Viet Nam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Takeshi; Kuroda, Keisuke; Do Thuan, An; Tran Thi Viet, Nga; Takizawa, Satoshi

    2013-04-01

    Hanoi city, the capital of Viet Nam, has developed beside the Red river. Recent rapid urbanization of this city has reduced a large number of natural water areas such as lakes, ponds and canals not only in the central area but the suburban area. Contrary, the urbanization has increased artificial water areas such as pond for fish cultivation and landscaping. On the other hand, the urbanization has induced the inflow of waste water from households and various kinds of factories to these water areas because of delay of sewerage system development. Inflow of the waste water has induced eutrophication and pollution of these water areas. Also, there is a possibility of groundwater pollution by infiltration of polluted surface water. However, the role of these water areas for water cycle and solute transport is not clarified. Therefore, this study focuses on the interaction between surface water areas and groundwater in Hanoi city to evaluate appropriate land development and groundwater resource management. We are carrying out three approaches: a) understanding of geochemical characteristics of surface water and groundwater, b) monitoring of water levels of pond and groundwater, c) sampling of soil and pond sediment. Correlation between d18O and dD of precipitation (after GNIP), the Red River (after GNIR) and the water samples of this study showed that the groundwater is composed of precipitation, the Red River and surface water that has evaporation process. Contribution of the surface water with evaporation process was widely found in the study area. As for groundwater monitoring, the Holocene aquifers at two sites were in unconfined condition in dry season and the groundwater levels in the aquifer continued to increase through rainy season. The results of isotopic analysis and groundwater level monitoring showed that the surface water areas are one of the major groundwater sources. On the other hand, concentrations of dissolved Arsenic (filtered by 0.45um) in the pore

  3. Force Protection Joint Experiment (FPJE) Battlefield Anti-Intrusion System (BAIS) sensors data analysis and filtering metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barngrover, C. M.; Laird, R. T.; Kramer, T. A.; Cruickshanks, J. R.; Cutler, S. H.

    2009-04-01

    The FPJE was an experiment to consider the best way to develop and evaluate a system of systems approach to Force Protection. It was sponsored by Physical Security Equipment Action Group (PSEAG) and Joint Program Manager - Guardian (JPM-G), and was managed by the Product Manager - Force Protection Systems (PM-FPS). The experiment was an effort to utilize existing technical solutions from all branches of the military in order to provide more efficient and effective force protection. The FPJE consisted of four separate Integration Assessments (IA), which were intended as opportunities to assess the status of integration, automation and fusion efforts, and the effectiveness of the current configuration and "system" components. The underlying goal of the FPJE was to increase integration, automation, and fusion of the many different sensors and their data to provide enhanced situational awareness and a common operational picture. One such sensor system is the Battlefield Anti-Intrusion System (BAIS), which is a system of seismic and acoustic unmanned ground sensors. These sensors were originally designed for employment by infantry soldiers at the platoon level to provide early warning of personnel and vehicle intrusion in austere environments. However, when employed around airfields and high traffic areas, the sensitivity of these sensors can cause an excessive number of detections. During the second FPJE-IA all of the BAIS detections and the locations of all Opposing Forces were logged and analyzed to determine the accuracy rate of the sensors. This analysis revealed that with minimal filtering of detections, the number of false positives and false negatives could be reduced substantially to manageable levels while using the sensors within extreme operational acoustic and seismic noise conditions that are beyond the design requirements.

  4. Supply- and Demand-Side Factors Influencing Utilization of Infant and Young Child Feeding Counselling Services in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phuong H; Kim, Sunny S; Nguyen, Tuan T; Tran, Lan M; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Frongillo, Edward A; Ruel, Marie T; Rawat, Rahul; Menon, Purnima

    2016-01-01

    Adequate utilization of services is critical to maximize the impact of counselling on infant and young child feeding (IYCF), but little is known about factors affecting utilization. Our study examined supply- and demand-side factors associated with the utilization of IYCF counselling services in Viet Nam. We used survey data from mothers with children <2y (n = 1,008) and health staff (n = 60) from the evaluation of a program that embedded IYCF counseling into the existing government health system. The frequency of never users, one-time users, repeat users, and achievers of the recommended minimum number of visits at health facilities were 45.1%, 13.0%, 28.4% and 13.5%, respectively. Poisson regression showed that demand-generation strategies, especially invitation cards, were the key factors determining one-time use (Prevalence ratio, PR 3.0, 95% CI: 2.2-4.2), repeated use (PR 3.2, 95% CI: 2.4-4.2), and achievement of minimum visits (PR 5.5, 95% CI: 3.6-8.4). Higher maternal education was associated with higher utilization both for one-time and repeated use. Being a farmer, belonging to an ethnic minority, and having a wasted child were associated with greater likelihood of achieving the minimum recommended number of visits, whereas child stunting or illness were not. Distance to health center was a barrier to repeated visits. Among supply-side factors, good counselling skills (PR: 1.3-1.8) was the most important factor associated with any service use, whereas longer employment duration and greater work pressure of health center staff were associated with lower utilization. Population attributable risk estimations showed that an additional 25% of the population would have achieved the minimum number of visits if exposed to three demand-generation strategies, and further increased to 49% if the health staff had good counseling skills and low work pressure. Our study provides evidence that demand-generation strategies are essential to increase utilization of facility

  5. Supply- and Demand-Side Factors Influencing Utilization of Infant and Young Child Feeding Counselling Services in Viet Nam

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Phuong H.; Kim, Sunny S.; Nguyen, Tuan T.; Tran, Lan M.; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Frongillo, Edward A.; Ruel, Marie T.; Rawat, Rahul; Menon, Purnima

    2016-01-01

    Adequate utilization of services is critical to maximize the impact of counselling on infant and young child feeding (IYCF), but little is known about factors affecting utilization. Our study examined supply- and demand-side factors associated with the utilization of IYCF counselling services in Viet Nam. We used survey data from mothers with children <2y (n = 1,008) and health staff (n = 60) from the evaluation of a program that embedded IYCF counseling into the existing government health system. The frequency of never users, one-time users, repeat users, and achievers of the recommended minimum number of visits at health facilities were 45.1%, 13.0%, 28.4% and 13.5%, respectively. Poisson regression showed that demand-generation strategies, especially invitation cards, were the key factors determining one-time use (Prevalence ratio, PR 3.0, 95% CI: 2.2–4.2), repeated use (PR 3.2, 95% CI: 2.4–4.2), and achievement of minimum visits (PR 5.5, 95% CI: 3.6–8.4). Higher maternal education was associated with higher utilization both for one-time and repeated use. Being a farmer, belonging to an ethnic minority, and having a wasted child were associated with greater likelihood of achieving the minimum recommended number of visits, whereas child stunting or illness were not. Distance to health center was a barrier to repeated visits. Among supply-side factors, good counselling skills (PR: 1.3–1.8) was the most important factor associated with any service use, whereas longer employment duration and greater work pressure of health center staff were associated with lower utilization. Population attributable risk estimations showed that an additional 25% of the population would have achieved the minimum number of visits if exposed to three demand-generation strategies, and further increased to 49% if the health staff had good counseling skills and low work pressure. Our study provides evidence that demand-generation strategies are essential to increase utilization of

  6. Supply- and Demand-Side Factors Influencing Utilization of Infant and Young Child Feeding Counselling Services in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phuong H; Kim, Sunny S; Nguyen, Tuan T; Tran, Lan M; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Frongillo, Edward A; Ruel, Marie T; Rawat, Rahul; Menon, Purnima

    2016-01-01

    Adequate utilization of services is critical to maximize the impact of counselling on infant and young child feeding (IYCF), but little is known about factors affecting utilization. Our study examined supply- and demand-side factors associated with the utilization of IYCF counselling services in Viet Nam. We used survey data from mothers with children <2y (n = 1,008) and health staff (n = 60) from the evaluation of a program that embedded IYCF counseling into the existing government health system. The frequency of never users, one-time users, repeat users, and achievers of the recommended minimum number of visits at health facilities were 45.1%, 13.0%, 28.4% and 13.5%, respectively. Poisson regression showed that demand-generation strategies, especially invitation cards, were the key factors determining one-time use (Prevalence ratio, PR 3.0, 95% CI: 2.2-4.2), repeated use (PR 3.2, 95% CI: 2.4-4.2), and achievement of minimum visits (PR 5.5, 95% CI: 3.6-8.4). Higher maternal education was associated with higher utilization both for one-time and repeated use. Being a farmer, belonging to an ethnic minority, and having a wasted child were associated with greater likelihood of achieving the minimum recommended number of visits, whereas child stunting or illness were not. Distance to health center was a barrier to repeated visits. Among supply-side factors, good counselling skills (PR: 1.3-1.8) was the most important factor associated with any service use, whereas longer employment duration and greater work pressure of health center staff were associated with lower utilization. Population attributable risk estimations showed that an additional 25% of the population would have achieved the minimum number of visits if exposed to three demand-generation strategies, and further increased to 49% if the health staff had good counseling skills and low work pressure. Our study provides evidence that demand-generation strategies are essential to increase utilization of facility

  7. Species classification and bioactive ingredients accumulation of BaiJiangCao based on characteristic inorganic elements analysis by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and multivariate analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wen-Lan, Li; Xue, Zhang; Xin-Xin, Yang; Shuai, Wang; Lin, Zhao; Huan-Jun, Zhao; Yong-Rui, Bao; Chen-Feng, Ji; Ning, Chen; Zheng, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patrinia scabiosaefolia Fisch and Patrinia villosa (Thunb.) Juss., two species herbs with the same Chinese name “BaiJiangCao”, are important ancient herbal medicines widely used for more than 2000 years. The clinical application of two species herb is confused due to the difficult identification. Objective: The objective was to authenticate the species of BaiJiangCao and analyze the accumulation of bioactive ingredients based on characteristic inorganic elements analysis. Materials and Methods: Content of 32 inorganic elements in BaiJiangCao from different habitats were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the characteristic inorganic elements were picked to distinguish the species of the herb by principal component analysis and cluster analysis. Contents of two bioactive ingredients, luteoloside, and oleanolic acid, in the samples, were also analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography method. Relationship between accumulation of bioactive ingredients and content of macroelements in BaiJiangCao was established by statistics. Results: A 4 macroelements (Na, Mg, K, Fe) in 32 determined inorganic elements were picked for characteristic inorganic elements. Content of Na, Mg, K and Fe showed positive correlations with that of luteoloside, content of Na, Mg showed positive correlations with that of oleanolic acid, but content of K and Fe showed negative correlations with that of oleanolic acid. Conclusion: It is for the first time to utilize the characteristic inorganic elements as an index to classify the herb species by the method of ICP-MS and multivariate analysis. And it is also the first report to investigate the influence of inorganic elements in herb on the accumulation of bioactive components which could affect the pharmacological efficacy of the herb medicine. And this method could also be utilized in research of corresponding aspects. PMID:26600721

  8. Assessing error sources for Landsat time series analysis for tropical test sites in Viet Nam and Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Michael; Verbesselt, Jan; Herold, Martin; Avitabile, Valerio

    2013-10-01

    Researchers who use remotely sensed data can spend half of their total effort analysing prior data. If this data preprocessing does not match the application, this time spent on data analysis can increase considerably and can lead to inaccuracies. Despite the existence of a number of methods for pre-processing Landsat time series, each method has shortcomings, particularly for mapping forest changes under varying illumination, data availability and atmospheric conditions. Based on the requirements of mapping forest changes as defined by the United Nations (UN) Reducing Emissions from Forest Degradation and Deforestation (REDD) program, the accurate reporting of the spatio-temporal properties of these changes is necessary. We compared the impact of three fundamentally different radiometric preprocessing techniques Moderate Resolution Atmospheric TRANsmission (MODTRAN), Second Simulation of a Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S) and simple Dark Object Subtraction (DOS) on mapping forest changes using Landsat time series data. A modification of Breaks For Additive Season and Trend (BFAST) monitor was used to jointly map the spatial and temporal agreement of forest changes at test sites in Ethiopia and Viet Nam. The suitability of the pre-processing methods for the occurring forest change drivers was assessed using recently captured Ground Truth and high resolution data (1000 points). A method for creating robust generic forest maps used for the sampling design is presented. An assessment of error sources has been performed identifying haze as a major source for time series analysis commission error.

  9. Development of Phaeocystis globosa blooms in the upwelling waters of the South Central coast of Viet Nam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hai, Doan-Nhu; Lam, Nguyen-Ngoc; Dippner, Joachim W.

    2010-11-01

    Blooms of haptophyte algae in the south central coastal waters of Viet Nam often occur in association with upwelling phenomenon during the southwest (SW) monsoon. Depending on the magnitude of the blooms, damage to aquaculture farms may occur. Based on two years of data on biology, oceanography, and marine chemistry, the present study suggests a conceptual model of the growth of the haptophyte Phaeocystis globosa. At the beginning of the bloom, low temperature and abundant nutrient supply, especially nitrate from rain and upwelling, favour bloom development. Diatoms utilize available nitrate and phosphate; subsequently, higher ammonium concentration allows P. globosa to grow faster than the diatoms. At the end of the Phaeocystis bloom, free cells may become available as food for a heterotrophic dinoflagellate species, Noctiluca scintillans. During and after the phytoplankton bloom, remineralization by bacteria reduces dissolved oxygen to a very low concentration at depth, and favors growth of nitrate-reducing bacteria.A Lagrangian Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) model, driven by a circulation model of the area, realistically simulates the transport of microalgae in surface waters during strong and weak SW monsoon periods, suggesting that it may be a good tool for early warning of HABs in Vietnamese coastal waters.

  10. Evidence for the Convergence Model: The Emergence of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1) in Viet Nam

    PubMed Central

    Saksena, Sumeet; Fox, Jefferson; Epprecht, Michael; Tran, Chinh C.; Nong, Duong H.; Spencer, James H.; Nguyen, Lam; Finucane, Melissa L.; Tran, Vien D.; Wilcox, Bruce A.

    2015-01-01

    Building on a series of ground breaking reviews that first defined and drew attention to emerging infectious diseases (EID), the ‘convergence model’ was proposed to explain the multifactorial causality of disease emergence. The model broadly hypothesizes disease emergence is driven by the co-incidence of genetic, physical environmental, ecological, and social factors. We developed and tested a model of the emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 based on suspected convergence factors that are mainly associated with land-use change. Building on previous geospatial statistical studies that identified natural and human risk factors associated with urbanization, we added new factors to test whether causal mechanisms and pathogenic landscapes could be more specifically identified. Our findings suggest that urbanization spatially combines risk factors to produce particular types of peri-urban landscapes with significantly higher HPAI H5N1 emergence risk. The work highlights that peri-urban areas of Viet Nam have higher levels of chicken densities, duck and geese flock size diversities, and fraction of land under rice or aquaculture than rural and urban areas. We also found that land-use diversity, a surrogate measure for potential mixing of host populations and other factors that likely influence viral transmission, significantly improves the model’s predictability. Similarly, landscapes where intensive and extensive forms of poultry production overlap were found at greater risk. These results support the convergence hypothesis in general and demonstrate the potential to improve EID prevention and control by combing geospatial monitoring of these factors along with pathogen surveillance programs. PMID:26398118

  11. Evidence for the Convergence Model: The Emergence of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1) in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Saksena, Sumeet; Fox, Jefferson; Epprecht, Michael; Tran, Chinh C; Nong, Duong H; Spencer, James H; Nguyen, Lam; Finucane, Melissa L; Tran, Vien D; Wilcox, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    Building on a series of ground breaking reviews that first defined and drew attention to emerging infectious diseases (EID), the 'convergence model' was proposed to explain the multifactorial causality of disease emergence. The model broadly hypothesizes disease emergence is driven by the co-incidence of genetic, physical environmental, ecological, and social factors. We developed and tested a model of the emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 based on suspected convergence factors that are mainly associated with land-use change. Building on previous geospatial statistical studies that identified natural and human risk factors associated with urbanization, we added new factors to test whether causal mechanisms and pathogenic landscapes could be more specifically identified. Our findings suggest that urbanization spatially combines risk factors to produce particular types of peri-urban landscapes with significantly higher HPAI H5N1 emergence risk. The work highlights that peri-urban areas of Viet Nam have higher levels of chicken densities, duck and geese flock size diversities, and fraction of land under rice or aquaculture than rural and urban areas. We also found that land-use diversity, a surrogate measure for potential mixing of host populations and other factors that likely influence viral transmission, significantly improves the model's predictability. Similarly, landscapes where intensive and extensive forms of poultry production overlap were found at greater risk. These results support the convergence hypothesis in general and demonstrate the potential to improve EID prevention and control by combing geospatial monitoring of these factors along with pathogen surveillance programs. PMID:26398118

  12. The proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 gene E670G polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Proprotein convertase subtilisin-like kexin type 9 (PCSK9) plays a key role in regulating plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. However, the association of E670G (rs505151) polymorphism in the PCSK9 gene and serum lipid levels is inconsistent in several previous studies. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of PCSK9 E670G polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 649 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 646 participants of Han were randomly selected from our previous samples. Genotypes of the PCSK9 E670G polymorphism were determined via polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results Serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-C, and apolipoprotein (Apo) AI were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.01 for all). The frequency of G allele was 2.00% in Bai Ku Yao and 4.80% in Han (P < 0.01). There was significant difference in the genotypic and allelic frequencies between Bai Ku Yao and Han (P < 0.01); between normal LDL-C (≤ 3.20 mmol/L) and high LDL-C subgroups (> 3.20 mmol/L, P < 0.01) in Bai Ku Yao; and between normal HDL-C (≥ 0.91 mmol/L) and low HDL-C (< 0.91 mmol/L, P < 0.05), between normal ApoAI (≥ 1.00 g/L) and low ApoAI (< 1.00 g/L, P < 0.05), or between normal ApoAI/ApoB ratio (≥ 1.00) and low ApoAI/ApoB ratio (< 1.00, P < 0.01) subgroups in Han. The G allele carriers in Han had higher serum HDL-C levels and the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB than the G allele noncarriers. The G allele carriers in Han had higher serum HDL-C and ApoAI levels than the G allele noncarriers in males (P < 0.05 for each), whereas the G allele carriers had lower serum ApoB levels and higher the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB than the G allele noncarriers in females (P < 0.05 for all). Serum HDL-C and Apo

  13. Geostatistical Approach to Estimating the Gold Ore Characteristics and Gold Reserves: A Case Study Daksa Area, Quang Nam Province, Viet Nam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan Truong, Xuan; Luong Le, Van; Quang Truong, Xuan

    2015-04-01

    Daksa gold deposit is the biggest gold deposits in Vietnam. The Daksa geological structure complicated, distributed mainly metamorphosed sedimentary NuiVu formation (PR3-?1nv2). The sulfide gold ore bodies distributed in quartz schist, quartz - biotite related to faut and distribution wing anticline. The gold ore bodies form circuits, network circuits, circuits lenses; fill the cup surface layer of the developing northeast - southwest; is the less than or west longitude north - SE. The results show that, Au and accompanying elements (Ag, Pb and Zn) have correlated pretty closely. All of its consistent with the logarithmic distribution standard, in accordance with the law of distribution of content mineral rare. The structure functions have nugget effect and spherical models with show that Au and accompanying elements special variation are changes. Au contents shown local anisotropy, no clearly anisotropy (K=1,17) and weakly anisotropy (K=1,4). Intensity mineralization of the ore bodies are quite high with demand spherical conversion coefficient ranging from 0.49 to 0.75 and from 0.66 to 0.97 (for other body). With nugget effects, ore bodies shown that it is consistent with mineralization in the ore bodies study, ore erasable, micro vein, infilling fractures in quartz vein. All of variogram presents local anisotropy, indicated gold mineralization at study area has least two-mineralization stages, consistent with the analysis of mineralography samples. By the results of the structure function study, the authors present the system optimization for exploration deposit and used to evaluate gold reserves by Ordinary Kriging. High accuracy of Kriging estimation results are expressed in the minimum Kriging variance, by compare the results calculated by some other methods (such as distance inverse weighting method, ..) and specially compare to the results of a some blocks have been exploited. Key words: Geostat and gold deposits VN. Daksa and gold mineralization. Geostat and gold mine Daksa.

  14. Where "Sign Language Studies" Has Led Us in Forty Years: Opening High School and University Education for Deaf People in Viet Nam through Sign Language Analysis, Teaching, and Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, James; Hoa, Nguyen Thi

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses how the Nippon Foundation-funded project "Opening University Education to Deaf People in Viet Nam through Sign Language Analysis, Teaching, and Interpretation," also known as the Dong Nai Deaf Education Project, has been implemented through sign language studies from 2000 through 2012. This project has provided deaf adults in…

  15. Trends in Second-Hand Tobacco Smoke Exposure Levels at Home among Viet Nam School Children Aged 13-15 and Associated Factors.

    PubMed

    Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh; Minh, Hoang Van; Giang, Kim Bao; Hai, Phan Thi; Huyen, Doan Thu; Linh, Nguyen Thuy; Van, Duong Khanh; Khue, Luong Ngoc

    2016-01-01

    Second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure at home, especially among children, is a serious issue in Viet Nam. During the past decade, much effort has been taken for tobacco control in the country, including various prgorammes aiming to reduce SHS exposure among adults and children. This article analysed trends and factors associated with SHS exposure at home among school children aged 13-15 in Viet Nam, using the Global Youth Tobacco Surveys conducted in 2007 and 2014. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods with logistic regression were applied. Overall, there was a significant reduction in the level of exposure, from 58.5% (95%CI: 57.6-59.3) in 2007 to 47.1% (95%CI: 45.4-48.8) in 2014. Of the associated factors, having one or both parents smoking was significantly associated with the highest odds of SHS exposure at home (OR=5.0; 95%CI: 4.2-6.1). Conversely, having a mother with a college or higher education level was found to be a protective factor (OR=0.5; 95%CI: 0.3-0.8). PMID:27087182

  16. Growth and population dynamics during early stages of the mangrove Kandelia candel in Halong Bay, North Viet Nam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thi Ha, Hoang; Duarte, Carlos M.; Tri, Nguyen Hoang; Terrados, Jorge; Borum, Jens

    2003-11-01

    Quantifying the dynamics of the early stages in the life cycle of mangroves is essential to predict the distribution, species composition and structure of mangrove forests, and their maintenance and recovery from perturbations. The growth and population dynamics of two stands of the mangrove Kandelia candel in Halong Bay (Viet Nam) were examined for 1 year. Growth was highly seasonal, with high growth rates and fast internode formation in the summer, dropping to extremely low growth during January-February, the coldest and driest months in the year. In addition, growth and internode formation rates showed important inter-annual variability during the last decade. The complete reproductive period required 7-8 months. Flower initiation was maximal in June and peak propagule maturity occurred in December-January. Only one mature propagule developed for every 67 and 127 inflorescence buds formed at Site 1 and Site 2, respectively. Kandelia candel propagules begun to sink 10 days after being released, and after 18 days all propagules had negative buoyancy. The propagules developed roots within 19-68 days, depending on whether they were held on the water or sediment, and were capable of long range dispersal, for 15-20% of them dispersed more than 100 m within 1 day. The median age of K. candel plants ranged between 8.7 and 5.6 years, with a density of 1900 and 470 plants ha -1, in Sites 1 and 2. Plant mortality was high, with 64 and 74% of the plants surviving after a year at Sites 1 and 2. Life expectancy (i.e. median age-at-death) of only 2.2 and 2.7 years at Sites 1 and 2, respectively, indicates that mortality of young K. candel plants was specially high. Recruitment occurred in early spring, and did not suffice to balance the mortality within the annual period examined. These results suggest that the K. candel stands in Halong Bay might be maintained by a few years of high recruitment which would compensate for generally high mortality rates.

  17. Xuan Bai Cheng Qi formula as an adjuvant treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease of the syndrome type phlegm-heat obstructing the lungs: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is used to treat AECOPD as adjunctive therapy. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the TCM formula Xuan Bai Cheng Qi as an adjuvant therapy for AECOPD patients with the syndrome type of phlegm-heat obstructing the lungs. Methods A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted. A total of 244 patients were divided into the intervention group (n = 122, treated with conventional medicine and Xuan Bai Cheng Qi) and the control group (n = 122, treated with conventional medicine and placebo). Total symptom scores (cough, phlegm, wheezing, chest congestion) before treatment and at 3, 5, 7, 10 days post-treatment were recorded. Lung function, arterial blood gas, serum inflammatory cytokines, oxidation/anti-oxidation index were observed before treatment and at the end of the 10-day treatment. Results A total of 242 patients completed the study. The full analysis set (FAS) population was 244 and the per-protocol analysis set (PPS) population was 229. After the 10-day treatment, symptom scores of the Xuan Bai Cheng Qi group were significantly lower over time compared with the control group (FAS: mean difference -1.84, 95% CI -2.66 to -1.03, P < .001; PPS: mean difference -1.87, 95% CI -2.71 to -1.03, P < .001). FEV1, FVC, and FEV1%pred were significantly higher over time in the Xuan Bai Cheng Qi group compared with those in the control group (day 10, FAS and PPS: P < .05). PaO2 and PaCO2 were significantly improved in the Xuan Bai Cheng Qi group (day 10, FAS and PPS: P < .05). Xuan Bai Cheng Qi was also found to ameliorate cytokine levels and oxidation/antioxidant index compared with placebo. There were no differences in safety variables and adverse events between the two groups. Conclusions Xuan Bai Cheng Qi formula appears to be a

  18. Catastrophic flood and forest cover change in the Huong river basin, central Viet Nam: a gap between common perceptions and facts.

    PubMed

    Tran, Phong; Marincioni, Fausto; Shaw, Rajib

    2010-11-01

    Recent catastrophic floods in Viet Nam have been increasingly linked to land use and forest cover change in the uplands. Despite the doubts that many scientists have expressed on such nexus, this common view prompted both positive forest protection/reforestation programs and often-unwarranted blame on upland communities for their forest management practices. This study discusses the disparity between public perceptions and scientific evidences relating the causes of catastrophic floods. The former was drawn on the results of a questionnaire and focus groups discussions with key informants of different mountainous communities, whereas the latter was based on GIS and remote sensing analysis of land cover change, including a statistical analysis of hydro-meteorological data of the Huong river basin in Viet Nam. Results indicate that there is a gap between the common beliefs and the actual relationship between the forest cover change and catastrophic floods. Undeniably, the studied areas showed significant changes in land cover over the period 1989-2008, yet, 71% of the variance of catastrophic flood level in the downstream areas appeared related to variance in rainfall. Evidences from this study showed that the overall increasing trends of catastrophic flooding in the Huong river basin was mainly due to climate variability and to the development of main roads and dyke infrastructures in the lowlands. Forest management policies and programs, shaped on the common assumption that forest degradation in the upland is the main cause of catastrophic flood in the downstream areas, should be reassessed to avoid unnecessary strain on upland people. PMID:20591559

  19. Prevalence of resistance to second-line tuberculosis drug among multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients in Viet Nam, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Huong Thi Giang; Bui, Quyen Thi Tu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) represents an emerging public health problem worldwide. According to the World Health Organization, an estimated 9.7% of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases are defined as XDR-TB globally. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of drug resistance to second-line TB drugs among MDR-TB cases detected in the Fourth National Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance Survey in Viet Nam. Methods Eighty clusters of TB cases were selected using a probability-proportion-to-size approach. To identify MDR-TB cases, drug susceptibility testing (DST) was performed for the four major first-line TB drugs. DST of second-line drugs (ofloxacin, amikacin, kanamycin, capreomycin) was performed on isolates from MDR-TB cases to identify pre-XDR and XDR cases. Results A total of 1629 smear-positive TB cases were eligible for culture and DST. Of those, DST results for first-line drugs were available for 1312 cases, and 91 (6.9%) had MDR-TB. Second-line DST results were available for 84 of these cases. Of those, 15 cases (17.9%) had ofloxacin resistance and 6.0% were resistant to kanamycin and capreomycin. Five MDR-TB cases (6.0%) met the criteria of XDR-TB. Conclusion This survey provides the first estimates of the proportion of XDR-TB among MDR-TB cases in Viet Nam and provides important information for local policies regarding second-line DST. Local policies and programmes that are geared towards TB prevention, early diagnosis and treatment with effective regimens are of high importance. PMID:27508089

  20. Factors associated with suboptimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy in Viet Nam: a cross-sectional study using audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Optimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is necessary for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). There have been relatively few systematic analyses of factors that promote or inhibit adherence to antiretroviral therapy among PLHIV in Asia. This study assessed ART adherence and examined factors associated with suboptimal adherence in northern Viet Nam. Methods Data from 615 PLHIV on ART in two urban and three rural outpatient clinics were collected by medical record extraction and from patient interviews using audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI). Results The prevalence of suboptimal adherence was estimated to be 24.9% via a visual analogue scale (VAS) of past-month dose-missing and 29.1% using a modified Adult AIDS Clinical Trial Group scale for on-time dose-taking in the past 4 days. Factors significantly associated with the more conservative VAS score were: depression (p < 0.001), side-effect experiences (p < 0.001), heavy alcohol use (p = 0.001), chance health locus of control (p = 0.003), low perceived quality of information from care providers (p = 0.04) and low social connectedness (p = 0.03). Illicit drug use alone was not significantly associated with suboptimal adherence, but interacted with heavy alcohol use to reduce adherence (p < 0.001). Conclusions This is the largest survey of ART adherence yet reported from Asia and the first in a developing country to use the ACASI method in this context. The evidence strongly indicates that ART services in Viet Nam should include screening and treatment for depression, linkage with alcohol and/or drug dependence treatment, and counselling to address the belief that chance or luck determines health outcomes. PMID:23537416

  1. Catastrophic flood and forest cover change in the Huong river basin, central Viet Nam: a gap between common perceptions and facts.

    PubMed

    Tran, Phong; Marincioni, Fausto; Shaw, Rajib

    2010-11-01

    Recent catastrophic floods in Viet Nam have been increasingly linked to land use and forest cover change in the uplands. Despite the doubts that many scientists have expressed on such nexus, this common view prompted both positive forest protection/reforestation programs and often-unwarranted blame on upland communities for their forest management practices. This study discusses the disparity between public perceptions and scientific evidences relating the causes of catastrophic floods. The former was drawn on the results of a questionnaire and focus groups discussions with key informants of different mountainous communities, whereas the latter was based on GIS and remote sensing analysis of land cover change, including a statistical analysis of hydro-meteorological data of the Huong river basin in Viet Nam. Results indicate that there is a gap between the common beliefs and the actual relationship between the forest cover change and catastrophic floods. Undeniably, the studied areas showed significant changes in land cover over the period 1989-2008, yet, 71% of the variance of catastrophic flood level in the downstream areas appeared related to variance in rainfall. Evidences from this study showed that the overall increasing trends of catastrophic flooding in the Huong river basin was mainly due to climate variability and to the development of main roads and dyke infrastructures in the lowlands. Forest management policies and programs, shaped on the common assumption that forest degradation in the upland is the main cause of catastrophic flood in the downstream areas, should be reassessed to avoid unnecessary strain on upland people.

  2. [An exploration of the training of medical talents in China for Ryukyu islands based on the Liu qiu bai wen (One Hundred Question of Ryukyu)].

    PubMed

    He, Lanping

    2014-09-01

    Ryukyu sent more than 20 batches of returned students to China for studying during the Ming and Qing Dynasties, many of whom were studying medicine. Liu qiu bai wen (One Hundred Question of Ryukyu) was the record of discussion between Cao Cunxin, a famous doctor of the Qing Dynasty, and the oversea disciples of Lü Fengyi from Ryukyu. However, it was not only a medical book, but also served as an important witness on overseas dissemination of TCM, and the fresh case of Chinese training medical talented persons for Ryukyu. Training Ryukyu medical students in the Qing Dynasty was good for the expansion of Chinese medicine in the Ryukyu, and promoted the development and social progress of the Ryukyu medicine and health, made a significant contribution to maintain the friendly relationship between the two countries. PMID:25579213

  3. Impacts on Breastfeeding Practices of At-Scale Strategies That Combine Intensive Interpersonal Counseling, Mass Media, and Community Mobilization: Results of Cluster-Randomized Program Evaluations in Bangladesh and Viet Nam

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Purnima; Nguyen, Phuong Hong; Saha, Kuntal Kumar; Tran, Lan Mai; Sanghvi, Tina; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Afsana, Kaosar; Haque, Raisul; Frongillo, Edward A.; Ruel, Marie T.; Rawat, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite recommendations supporting optimal breastfeeding, the number of women practicing exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) remains low, and few interventions have demonstrated implementation and impact at scale. Alive & Thrive was implemented over a period of 6 y (2009–2014) and aimed to improve breastfeeding practices through intensified interpersonal counseling (IPC), mass media (MM), and community mobilization (CM) intervention components delivered at scale in the context of policy advocacy (PA) in Bangladesh and Viet Nam. In Bangladesh, IPC was delivered through a large non-governmental health program; in Viet Nam, it was integrated into government health facilities. This study evaluated the population-level impact of intensified IPC, MM, CM, and PA (intensive) compared to standard nutrition counseling and less intensive MM, CM, and PA (non-intensive) on breastfeeding practices in these two countries. Methods and Findings A cluster-randomized evaluation design was employed in each country. For the evaluation sample, 20 sub-districts in Bangladesh and 40 communes in Viet Nam were randomized to either the intensive or the non-intensive group. Cross-sectional surveys (n ~ 500 children 0–5.9 mo old per group per country) were implemented at baseline (June 7–August 29, 2010, in Viet Nam; April 28–June 26, 2010, in Bangladesh) and endline (June 16–August 30, 2014, in Viet Nam; April 20–June 23, 2014, in Bangladesh). Difference-in-differences estimates (DDEs) of impact were calculated, adjusting for clustering. In Bangladesh, improvements were significantly greater in the intensive compared to the non-intensive group for the proportion of women who reported practicing EBF in the previous 24 h (DDE 36.2 percentage points [pp], 95% CI 21.0–51.5, p < 0.001; prevalence in intensive group rose from 48.5% to 87.6%) and engaging in early initiation of breastfeeding (EIBF) (16.7 pp, 95% CI 2.8–30.6, p = 0.021; 63.7% to 94.2%). In Viet Nam, EBF increases

  4. Genetic variant of V825I in the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 gene and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several genetic variants in the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) gene have associated with modifications of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and the susceptibility for coronary heart disease, but the findings are still controversial in diverse racial/ethnic groups. Bai Ku Yao is an isolated subgroup of the Yao minority in southern China. The present study was undertaken to detect the possible association of V825I (rs2066715) polymorphism in the ABCA1 gene and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 677 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 646 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism assay combined with gel electrophoresis were performed for the genotyping of V825I variant, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.01 for all). The frequency of G and A alleles was 57.4% and 42.6% in Bai Ku Yao, and 57.7% and 42.3% in Han (P > 0.05); respectively. The frequency of GG, GA and AA genotypes was 33.7%, 47.4% and 18.9% in Bai Ku Yao, and 33.4%, 48.6% and 18.0% in Han (P > 0.05); respectively. There was no difference in the genotypic and allelic frequencies between males and females in the both ethnic groups. The subjects with AA genotype in Bai Ku Yao had higher serum TC levels than the subjects with GG and GA genotypes (P < 0.05). The participants with AA genotype in Han had lower serum HDL-C and ApoAI levels than the participants with GG and GA genotypes (P < 0.05 for each), but these results were found in males but not in females. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that the levels of TC in Bai Ku Yao and HDL-C and ApoAI in male Han were correlated with genotypes (P < 0

  5. Tectonics and metallogenic provinces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guild, P.W.

    1983-01-01

    Various theories have been advanced to explain the well-known uneven distribution of metals and ore-deposit types in space and time. Primordial differences in the mantle, preferential concentration of elements in the crust, the prevalence of ore-forming processes at certain times and (or) places, and combinations of one or several of these factors have all been called upon to account for the "metallogenic provinces," which can be defined loosely as regions containing similar deposits of one or a group of metals or minerals. Because many, perhaps most, provinces have complex, multistage origins, the relative importance of inheritance vs. process is still controversial. In recent years the geographic relationship of many geologically young provinces to present-day plate-tectonic positions (accreting or consuming margins, intraplate structures, etc.) has been widely recognized, and the presumption is strong that older provinces had similar relationships to former plates. As most ore deposits resulted from a favorable conjunction of geological processes that are no longer operative, elucidation of their genesis requires reconstruction of the geologic history of the province, with particular emphasis on events coeval with mineralization. Tectonic analysis is an important aspect of this reconstruction; data from orbiting satellites have contributed greatly to this analysis, as the voluminous literature of the past decade testifies. Both the synoptic view of large areas and the ability to emphasize faint contrasts have revealed linear, curvilinear, and circular features not previously recognized from field studies. Some of these undoubtedly reflect basement structures that have contributed to the development, or limit the extent, of metallogenic provinces. Their recognition and delineation will be increasingly valuable to the assessment of resources available and as guides to exploration for the ores needed by future generations. ?? 1983.

  6. The harmony of family and the silence of women: sexual attitudes and practices among rural married women in northern Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Ha, Vu Song

    2008-06-01

    Women in Viet Nam have long had to face various sexual and reproductive health problems, ranging from abortion to reproductive tract infections (RTIs) and sexual coercion. These issues have increasingly been addressed by scholars in the fields of public health and social sciences through sexual and reproductive health research and in other ways. Despite this, there remains a lack of in-depth information on attitudes and practices regarding sex and sexuality of Vietnamese women today. This paper in part responds to the knowledge gap by reporting on findings from qualitative research on sexual attitudes and practices among rural married women in a Northern rural community, measured against the broader social and cultural context. Twenty-five women in total were interviewed; and two focus group discussions were conducted. The findings show that women generally believe that men are (or should be) the initiators in sexual relations. Many women feel reluctant to refuse sex to their husbands or communicate openly about sex and sexuality. However, this paper also demonstrates that women are not totally passive in sexual relations. Women in this study used a range of strategies to negotiate their sexual life, and sometimes 'silence' is used as a form of agency in order to maintain harmony and happiness within the family. PMID:18446561

  7. Bai-Hu-Jia-Ren-Shen-Tang Decoction Reduces Fatty Liver by Activating AMP-Activated Protein Kinase In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui-Kang; Hung, Tzu-Min; Huang, Hsiu-Chen; Lee, I-Jung; Chang, Chia-Chuan; Cheng, Jing-Jy; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Huang, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and associated conditions, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), are currently a worldwide health problem. In Asian traditional medicine, Bai-Hu-Jia-Ren-Shen-Tang (BHJRST) is widely used in diabetes patients to reduce thirst. However, whether it has a therapeutic effect on T2DM or NAFLD is not known. The aim of this study was to examine whether BHJRST had a lipid-lowering effect using a HuS-E/2 cell model of fatty liver induced by palmitate and in a db/db mouse model of dyslipidemia. Incubation of HuS-E/2 cells with palmitate markedly increased lipid accumulation and expression of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), which is involved in lipolysis. BHJRST significantly decreased lipid accumulation and increased ATGL levels and phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its primary downstream target, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), which are involved in fatty acid oxidation. Furthermore, after twice daily oral administration for six weeks, BHJRST significantly reduced hepatic fat accumulation in db/db mice, as demonstrated by increased hepatic AMPK and ACC phosphorylation, reduced serum triglyceride levels, and reduced hepatic total lipid content. The results show that BHJRST has a lipid-lowering effect in the liver that is mediated by activation of the AMPK signaling pathway. PMID:26508982

  8. Behavior of BaBr2, BaI2, and BaCl2 at high pressure as analogs to SiO2.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, T. J.; Stackhouse, S.; Diamond, M. R.; Godwal, B. K.; Jeanloz, R.

    2015-12-01

    Motivated by the expectation that giant and supergiant planets likely contain rocky components in their cores, we study analogs of the archetypal rock constituent, SiO2. The crystal structures of SiO2 under ultra-high pressures, greater than feasible experimental conditions, are believed to be documented by the high pressure structural sequence of AX2 compounds. Experimental and theoretical work agree on a high pressure transition to the cotunnite (orthorhombic) phase, with first-principles theory predicting that SiO2 transforms to the cotunnite structure at 750 GPa. However, the existence of a postcotunnite (monoclinic) phase as the final high pressure polymorph, suggested by X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments on ambient pressure cotunnite-structured AX2 compounds (e.g. PbCl2, SnCl2), has been challenged by density-functional theory (DFT) computations. This disagreement could perhaps be due to sensitivity in diamond-anvil cell (DAC) experiments to pressure gradients; conversely, it could perhaps arise from limitations of DFT. This study further explores both the experimental and theoretical sides of this debate, with an aim to resolve this discrepancy. We present synchrotron XRD data on the AX2 compounds BaCl2, BaBr2, and BaI2, compressed up to 70 GPa at room temperature in a DAC. Here we compare our experimentally observed crystallography and equations of state with results from our DFT simulations.

  9. Effect of periphyton community structure on heavy metal accumulation in mystery snail (Cipangopaludina chinensis): a case study of the Bai River, China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jingguo; Shan, Baoqing; Tang, Wenzhong

    2012-01-01

    The ratio of metal:P stoichiometry was used to identify the accumulation pathways of heavy metals (V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Cd, and Pb) from periphyton to snails Cipangopaludina chinensis Gray (C. chinensis) in the Bai River watershed. The results showed that periphyton communities were mainly composed of two types of algae, filamentous green algae and unicellular diatoms. The proportion of unicellular diatoms in the periphyton community is a key factor that influences metal accumulation in C. chinensis. The V, Cr, Co, Ni, and Cd content of C. chinensis increased steadily as the corresponding metal content of periphyton increased, but Cu and Pb in the snail did not increase in the periphyton. Mechanisms of V, Cr, and Ni accumulation were found to be related to the proportion of diatoms, while Cd and Pb accumulation were dependent on the physiological characteristics of C. chinensis. The accumulation of Cu in C. chinensis was closely related to their grazing behavior. The metal: P stoichiometry revealed that Cr, Ni, and Cd can reduce the potential ecological risks associated with increased P inputs to the ecosystem. V and Co were considered to be relatively safe, regardless of the periphyton P content. Finally, Pb may not be prone to transfer to higher trophic levels, and may pose the lowest ecological risks of the studied heavy metals, but Cu can cause potential ecological risks when eutrophication has occurred.

  10. Effect of periphyton community structure on heavy metal accumulation in mystery snail (Cipangopaludina chinensis): a case study of the Bai River, China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jingguo; Shan, Baoqing; Tang, Wenzhong

    2012-01-01

    The ratio of metal:P stoichiometry was used to identify the accumulation pathways of heavy metals (V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Cd, and Pb) from periphyton to snails Cipangopaludina chinensis Gray (C. chinensis) in the Bai River watershed. The results showed that periphyton communities were mainly composed of two types of algae, filamentous green algae and unicellular diatoms. The proportion of unicellular diatoms in the periphyton community is a key factor that influences metal accumulation in C. chinensis. The V, Cr, Co, Ni, and Cd content of C. chinensis increased steadily as the corresponding metal content of periphyton increased, but Cu and Pb in the snail did not increase in the periphyton. Mechanisms of V, Cr, and Ni accumulation were found to be related to the proportion of diatoms, while Cd and Pb accumulation were dependent on the physiological characteristics of C. chinensis. The accumulation of Cu in C. chinensis was closely related to their grazing behavior. The metal: P stoichiometry revealed that Cr, Ni, and Cd can reduce the potential ecological risks associated with increased P inputs to the ecosystem. V and Co were considered to be relatively safe, regardless of the periphyton P content. Finally, Pb may not be prone to transfer to higher trophic levels, and may pose the lowest ecological risks of the studied heavy metals, but Cu can cause potential ecological risks when eutrophication has occurred. PMID:23520840

  11. Dengue virus in sub-tropical northern and central Viet Nam: population immunity and climate shape patterns of viral invasion and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Rabaa, Maia A; Simmons, Cameron P; Fox, Annette; Le, Mai Quynh; Nguyen, Thuy Thi Thu; Le, Hai Yen; Gibbons, Robert V; Nguyen, Xuyen Thanh; Holmes, Edward C; Aaskov, John G

    2013-01-01

    Dengue virus transmission occurs in both epidemic and endemic cycles across tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Incidence is particularly high in much of Southeast Asia, where hyperendemic transmission plagues both urban and rural populations. However, endemicity has not been established in some areas with climates that may not support year-round viral transmission. An understanding of how dengue viruses (DENV) enter these environments and whether the viruses persist in inapparent local transmission cycles is central to understanding how dengue emerges in areas at the margins of endemic transmission. Dengue is highly endemic in tropical southern Vietnam, while increasingly large seasonal epidemics have occurred in northern Viet Nam over the last decade. We have investigated the spread of DENV-1 throughout Vietnam to determine the routes by which the virus enters northern and central regions of the country. Phylogeographic analysis of 1,765 envelope (E) gene sequences from Southeast Asia revealed frequent movement of DENV between neighboring human populations and strong local clustering of viral lineages. Long-distance migration of DENV between human population centers also occurred regularly and on short time-scales, indicating human-mediated viral invasion into northern Vietnam. Human populations in southern Vietnam were found to be the primary source of DENV circulating throughout the country, while central and northern Vietnam acted as sink populations, likely due to reduced connectedness to other populations in the case of the central regions and to the influence of temperature variability on DENV replication and vector survival and competence in the north. Finally, phylogeographic analyses suggested that viral movement follows a gravity model and indicates that population immunity and physical and economic connections between populations may play important roles in shaping patterns of DENV transmission.

  12. Dengue virus in sub-tropical northern and central Viet Nam: population immunity and climate shape patterns of viral invasion and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Rabaa, Maia A; Simmons, Cameron P; Fox, Annette; Le, Mai Quynh; Nguyen, Thuy Thi Thu; Le, Hai Yen; Gibbons, Robert V; Nguyen, Xuyen Thanh; Holmes, Edward C; Aaskov, John G

    2013-01-01

    Dengue virus transmission occurs in both epidemic and endemic cycles across tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Incidence is particularly high in much of Southeast Asia, where hyperendemic transmission plagues both urban and rural populations. However, endemicity has not been established in some areas with climates that may not support year-round viral transmission. An understanding of how dengue viruses (DENV) enter these environments and whether the viruses persist in inapparent local transmission cycles is central to understanding how dengue emerges in areas at the margins of endemic transmission. Dengue is highly endemic in tropical southern Vietnam, while increasingly large seasonal epidemics have occurred in northern Viet Nam over the last decade. We have investigated the spread of DENV-1 throughout Vietnam to determine the routes by which the virus enters northern and central regions of the country. Phylogeographic analysis of 1,765 envelope (E) gene sequences from Southeast Asia revealed frequent movement of DENV between neighboring human populations and strong local clustering of viral lineages. Long-distance migration of DENV between human population centers also occurred regularly and on short time-scales, indicating human-mediated viral invasion into northern Vietnam. Human populations in southern Vietnam were found to be the primary source of DENV circulating throughout the country, while central and northern Vietnam acted as sink populations, likely due to reduced connectedness to other populations in the case of the central regions and to the influence of temperature variability on DENV replication and vector survival and competence in the north. Finally, phylogeographic analyses suggested that viral movement follows a gravity model and indicates that population immunity and physical and economic connections between populations may play important roles in shaping patterns of DENV transmission. PMID:24340118

  13. Knowledge and Attitude Towards Tobacco Smoking among 13-15 Year-Old School Children in Viet Nam - Findings from GYTS 2014.

    PubMed

    Huong, Nguyen Thanh; Kien, Nguyen Trung; Giang, Kim Bao; Minh, Hoang Van; Hai, Phan Thi; Huyen, Doan Thu; Khue, Luong Ngoc; Linh, Nguyen Thuy; Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that smoking is a learnt behavior, often initiated during adolescence. This paper aims to describe tobacco-related knowledge, attitude and associations among school adolescents aged 13-15 with exposure to anti-smoking information. Using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in Viet Nam, 2014, knowledge was measured through 4 questions about tobacco use, and attitude was assessed through 3 questions on personal, social and environmental aspects. Students giving most anti-tobacco responses to all questions were considered as having correct knowledge or appropriate attitude or both. Access to anti-smoking information was determined by exposure to any media messages on tobacco control during the past 30 days and teaching in school about the danger of tobacco use during the past 12 months. A substantial percentage of students thought that being near others who smoke might be harmful to them and smoking is harmful to health (89.4% and 89.6% respectively). However, only 46.4% reported that it is definitely difficult to quit smoking and 66.9% thought that smoking for only 1 or 2 years, once stopped, is harmful to health. Slightly more than half of the respondents reported appropriate attitude that young smokers have fewer friends than others and smoking makes them less attractive and less comfortable at social events. Noticing anti-smoking messages in the media together with having lessons in school about the dangers of tobacco substantially increased the likelihood of having correct knowledge, appropriate attitude and both. Despite relatively high awareness about smoking harms, effective educational communication is still highly needed to improve the level of comprehensive knowledge and an appropriate attitude regarding tobacco use. PMID:27087181

  14. Molecular and morphological variation of Paragonimus westermani in Vietnam with records of new second intermediate crab hosts and a new locality in a northern province.

    PubMed

    Doanh, N Pham; Tu, A Luu; Bui, T Dung; Loan, T Ho; Nonaka, Nariaki; Horii, Yoichiro; Blair, David; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2016-10-01

    Paragonimus westermani is one of the most medically important lung flukes and is widely distributed in Asia. It exhibits considerable variation in morphological, genetic and biological features. In central provinces of Vietnam, a high prevalence of metacercariae of this species has been reported from the crab intermediate host, Vietopotamon aluoiense. In this study, we detected P. westermani metacercariae in two additional crab hosts, Donopotamon haii in Quang Tri Province, central Vietnam and Indochinamon tannanti in Yen Bai Province in the north. The latter is a new locality for P. westermani in a northern region of Vietnam where P. heterotremus is the only species currently known to cause human paragonimiasis. Paragonimus westermani metacercariae found in Vietnam showed considerable morphological variation but slight genetic variation based on DNA sequences from the nuclear ribosomal ITS2 region and the mitochondrial 16S gene. Co-infection of the same individual crabs with P. westermani and P. heterotremus and/or some other Paragonimus species was found frequently, suggesting potential for co-infection in humans. The findings of the present study emphasize the need for highly specific molecular and immunodiagnostic methods to differentially diagnose between P. westermani and P. heterotremus infections.

  15. Behavioral responses of one western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) group at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic, to tourists, researchers and trackers.

    PubMed

    Klailova, Michelle; Hodgkinson, Chloe; Lee, Phyllis C

    2010-09-01

    Gorilla tourism, widely perceived as a lucrative industry, is propelled by strong market demand with programs in five countries and for three of four gorilla subspecies. Human presence may negatively affect wild gorillas, potentially lowering immunity and increasing the likelihood of acquiring human-borne disease. Yet, behavioral impacts of humans on wild gorilla behavior remain largely unexplored, particularly for western lowland gorillas. We evaluate the impact of tourist presence, human observer numbers (tourists, trackers, and researchers), and human observer distance on the behavior of one habituated gorilla group at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic. Behavioral data were collected for more than 12 months from January 2007. Of silverback aggressive events, 39% (N=229) were human directed, but 65% were low-level soft barks. Adult females, and one in particular, were responsible for the highest number of aggressive events toward humans. Humans maintained closer proximity to the silverback when tourists were present, although tourist numbers had no significant impact on overall group activity budgets or rates of human-directed aggression. However, as research team size increased, group feeding rates decreased. Close observer-silverback distance correlated with a decrease in his feeding rates and an increase in human monitoring. He directed less aggression toward observers at distances >10 m, although observers spent 48.5% of time between 6 and 10 m of the silverback. We discuss gorilla personality as a factor in human-directed aggression. We explore whether the current 7 m distance limit governing gorilla tourism, based on disease transmission risks, is sufficient considering the potential behavioral stressor of close human presence. We recommend increasing minimum observation distance to >10 m where possible, decreasing observer group sizes, particularly after a visit consisting of maximum numbers and restricting tourist access to 1 visit/day. PMID:20806337

  16. Behavioral responses of one western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) group at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic, to tourists, researchers and trackers.

    PubMed

    Klailova, Michelle; Hodgkinson, Chloe; Lee, Phyllis C

    2010-09-01

    Gorilla tourism, widely perceived as a lucrative industry, is propelled by strong market demand with programs in five countries and for three of four gorilla subspecies. Human presence may negatively affect wild gorillas, potentially lowering immunity and increasing the likelihood of acquiring human-borne disease. Yet, behavioral impacts of humans on wild gorilla behavior remain largely unexplored, particularly for western lowland gorillas. We evaluate the impact of tourist presence, human observer numbers (tourists, trackers, and researchers), and human observer distance on the behavior of one habituated gorilla group at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic. Behavioral data were collected for more than 12 months from January 2007. Of silverback aggressive events, 39% (N=229) were human directed, but 65% were low-level soft barks. Adult females, and one in particular, were responsible for the highest number of aggressive events toward humans. Humans maintained closer proximity to the silverback when tourists were present, although tourist numbers had no significant impact on overall group activity budgets or rates of human-directed aggression. However, as research team size increased, group feeding rates decreased. Close observer-silverback distance correlated with a decrease in his feeding rates and an increase in human monitoring. He directed less aggression toward observers at distances >10 m, although observers spent 48.5% of time between 6 and 10 m of the silverback. We discuss gorilla personality as a factor in human-directed aggression. We explore whether the current 7 m distance limit governing gorilla tourism, based on disease transmission risks, is sufficient considering the potential behavioral stressor of close human presence. We recommend increasing minimum observation distance to >10 m where possible, decreasing observer group sizes, particularly after a visit consisting of maximum numbers and restricting tourist access to 1 visit/day.

  17. Stalk-dependent and Stalk-independent Signaling by the Adhesion G Protein-coupled Receptors GPR56 (ADGRG1) and BAI1 (ADGRB1).

    PubMed

    Kishore, Ayush; Purcell, Ryan H; Nassiri-Toosi, Zahra; Hall, Randy A

    2016-02-12

    The adhesion G protein-coupled receptors (aGPCRs) are a large yet poorly understood family of seven-transmembrane proteins. A defining characteristic of the aGPCR family is the conserved GAIN domain, which has autoproteolytic activity and can cleave the receptors near the first transmembrane domain. Several aGPCRs, including ADGRB1 (BAI1 or B1) and ADGRG1 (GPR56 or G1), have been found to exhibit significantly increased constitutive activity when truncated to mimic GAIN domain cleavage (ΔNT). Recent reports have suggested that the new N-terminal stalk, which is revealed by GAIN domain cleavage, can directly activate aGPCRs as a tethered agonist. We tested this hypothesis in studies on two distinct aGPCRs, B1 and G1, by engineering mutant receptors lacking the entire NT including the stalk (B1- and G1-SL, with "SL" indicating "stalkless"). These receptors were evaluated in a battery of signaling assays and compared with full-length wild-type and cleavage-mimicking (ΔNT) forms of the two receptors. We found that B1-SL, in multiple assays, exhibited robust signaling activity, suggesting that the membrane-proximal stalk region is not necessary for its activation. For G1, however, the results were mixed, with the SL mutant exhibiting robust activity in several signaling assays (including TGFα shedding, activation of NFAT luciferase, and β-arrestin recruitment) but reduced activity relative to ΔNT in a distinct assay (activation of SRF luciferase). These data support a model in which the activation of certain pathways downstream of aGPCRs is stalk-dependent, whereas signaling to other pathways is stalk-independent.

  18. Characterizing the relationship between temperature and mortality in tropical and subtropical cities: a distributed lag non-linear model analysis in Hue, Viet Nam, 2009–2013

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Tran Ngoc; Seposo, Xerxes T.; Duc, Nguyen Huu Chau; Thang, Tran Binh; An, Do Dang; Hang, Lai Thi Minh; Long, Tran Thanh; Loan, Bui Thi Hong; Honda, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Background The relationship between temperature and mortality has been found to be U-, V-, or J-shaped in developed temperate countries; however, in developing tropical/subtropical cities, it remains unclear. Objectives Our goal was to investigate the relationship between temperature and mortality in Hue, a subtropical city in Viet Nam. Design We collected daily mortality data from the Vietnamese A6 mortality reporting system for 6,214 deceased persons between 2009 and 2013. A distributed lag non-linear model was used to examine the temperature effects on all-cause and cause-specific mortality by assuming negative binomial distribution for count data. We developed an objective-oriented model selection with four steps following the Akaike information criterion (AIC) rule (i.e. a smaller AIC value indicates a better model). Results High temperature-related mortality was more strongly associated with short lags, whereas low temperature-related mortality was more strongly associated with long lags. The low temperatures increased risk in all-category mortality compared to high temperatures. We observed elevated temperature-mortality risk in vulnerable groups: elderly people (high temperature effect, relative risk [RR]=1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.11–1.83; low temperature effect, RR=2.0, 95% CI=1.13–3.52), females (low temperature effect, RR=2.19, 95% CI=1.14–4.21), people with respiratory disease (high temperature effect, RR=2.45, 95% CI=0.91–6.63), and those with cardiovascular disease (high temperature effect, RR=1.6, 95% CI=1.15–2.22; low temperature effect, RR=1.99, 95% CI=0.92–4.28). Conclusions In Hue, the temperature significantly increased the risk of mortality, especially in vulnerable groups (i.e. elderly, female, people with respiratory and cardiovascular diseases). These findings may provide a foundation for developing adequate policies to address the effects of temperature on health in Hue City. PMID:26781954

  19. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    PubMed

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate.

  20. Interior provinces in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Kirschner, C.E.; Fisher, M.A.; Bruns, T.R.; Stanley, R.G.

    1985-04-01

    Three types of interior provinces have been tested by exploratory drilling for their petroleum potential: three Tertiary nonmarine basins, two Jurassic and Cretaceous flysch and fold belts, and a Paleozoic thrust belt. Although the presence of hydrocarbons has not yet been demonstrated, the present data base is too limited to make a definitive assessment of hydrocarbon potential. During the 1983-84 field seasons, the authors acquired new gravity data and collected rock samples in and adjacent to the Yukon flats and the Nenana basins. These basins contain upper Tertiary, primarily nonmarine, sedimentary rock in extensional graben and half-graben complexes that are superimposed across preexisting terrane boundaries. The location and development of the basins result from strike-slip motion along the Tintina and Denali fault systems. Adjacent to the basins and within the fault systems are thick sections of nonmarine lower Tertiary coal-bearing rocks in deformed basin remnants. If these lower Tertiary rocks are present beneath the upper Tertiary fill, their greater depth and advanced maturation could enhance the hydrocarbon generative potential. Gravity modelling suggests the Tertiary fill is at least 3 km thick in the deeper parts of the basins and may be significantly thicker.

  1. Do canopy disturbances drive forest plantations into more natural conditions? — A case study from Can Gio Biosphere Reserve, Viet Nam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Juliane; Kautz, Markus; Fontalvo Herazo, Martha Liliana; Triet, Tran; Walther, Denny; Saint-Paul, Ulrich; Diele, Karen; Berger, Uta

    2013-11-01

    Large areas of mangrove forests were devastated in South Viet Nam during the second Indochina war. After its end in 1975, extensive reforestation with monocultures took place. Can Gio, one of the biggest replanted sites with about 20,000 ha of mangroves mainly Rhizophora apiculata, was declared a biosphere reserve by the UNESCO in 2000. Although this status now enables progressive forest dynamics, there are still drawbacks resulting from the unnatural character of the plantations. For example, the homogeneous size and age structure as well as the regular arrangement of the planted trees make larger forest stands more vulnerable to synchronized collapsing which can be triggered by stronger winds and storms. A transformation into a more natural forest characterized by a heterogeneous age and size structure and a mixed species composition is of urgent need to avoid a synchronized dieback. In this study we test the capability of natural canopy disturbances (e.g. lightning strikes) to facilitate this transformation.Canopy gaps created by lightning strikes were detected and quantified by remote sensing techniques. SPOT satellite images from the years 2003, 2005 and 2007 provided information about the spatial distribution, size, shape, and formation frequency of the gaps. Lightning strike gaps were identified based on their shape and size. They form small openings (mean: 0.025 ha) and their yearly probability of occurrence was determined to be approximately 0.012 per hectare. Selected gaps were surveyed in the field in 2008 to complement the remote sensing data and to provide information upon forest structure and regeneration.Simulation experiments were carried out with the individual-based KiWi mangrove model for quantifying the influence of different lightning regimes on the vertical and horizontal structure of the R. apiculata plantation. In addition, we conducted simulations with a natural and thus randomly generated forest to compare the structure of the two

  2. Fighting pollution in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Roodman, D M

    1999-01-01

    This article investigates the fighting solution strategies in Vietnam where complaints against factories violating national pollution standards are common. Based on history, the people in Vietnam have been suffering from pollution of all sorts including air, land, water and noise. Precisely, their interaction with one another has been affected by how they interact with the natural environment and community. This worsening situation in the country gave rise to public criticisms, a foot in a door that opens different forms of people participation in the decision-making of the government. Although factories were not so much affected with public criticisms, yet public pressure played a significant role in increasing the compliance of many companies. The strategy adopted in Vietnam may be a powerful force for protecting the Vietnamese against pollution.

  3. Helminth infections and risk factor analysis among residents in Eryuan county, Yunnan province, China.

    PubMed

    Steinmann, Peter; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Li, Yuan-Lin; Li, Hong-Jun; Chen, Shao-Rong; Yang, Zhong; Fan, Weng; Jia, Tie-Wu; Li, Lan-Hua; Vounatsou, Penelope; Utzinger, Jürg

    2007-10-01

    Whilst infections with soil-transmitted helminths are common across China, the public-health significance of Schistosoma japonicum and food-borne helminths is more focalized. Only few studies have investigated the local epidemiology of helminth infections in rural China, including risk factor analysis. We collected stool and blood samples from 3220 individuals, aged 5-88 years, from 35 randomly selected villages in Eryuan county, Yunnan province, China. Stool samples were subjected to the Kato-Katz technique and examined for helminth eggs. Blood samples were tested for Trichinella spp., S. japonicum and cysticerci-specific antibodies. Data on individual and family-level risk factors were collected using questionnaires. The prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides, Taenia spp., Trichuris trichiura and hookworms was 15.4%, 3.5%, 1.7% and 0.3%, respectively. The seroprevalence of Trichinella spp. was 58.8% and that of cysticercosis 18.5%. The egg positivity rate of S. japonicum in the 13 known endemic villages was 2.7%, and the corresponding seroprevalence was 49.5%. We observed a strong spatial heterogeneity in the families' economic status. S. japonicum infections were more prevalent among the Han than Bai nationality (odds ratio (OR)=3.77, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.97-7.23) and tobacco growers (OR=3.66, 95% CI=1.77-7.60) and was only found at elevations below 2150 m above sea level. A. lumbricoides and Taenia spp. infections were more prevalent at altitudes above 2150 m when compared to lower settings (OR=1.51, 95% CI=1.24-1.84 and OR=5.32, 95% CI=3.42-8.28, respectively). The opposite was found for T. trichiura (OR=0.31, 95% CI=0.14-0.70). Our findings can guide the design and spatial targeting of control interventions against helminth infections in Eryuan county.

  4. On the Prepuna biogeographic province: A nomenclatural clarification.

    PubMed

    Morrone, Juan J; Ezcurra, Cecilia

    2016-06-29

    The nomenclatural status of the Prepuna province sensu Cabrera (1951) and sensu Morrone (1999) is clarified. The Prepuna province sensu Cabrera (1951) is demoted to a district of the Monte province, stat. nov. The valid name of the Prepuna province sensu Morrone (1999) is Cuyan High Andean province Cabrera, 1971, stat. nov. Diagnoses of these areas are provided and their endemic taxa are listed.

  5. Income and health inequality across Canadian provinces.

    PubMed

    Safaei, Jalil

    2007-09-01

    This paper uses the aggregate data from the Public Use Microdata Files (PUMF) of Canadian National Population Health Survey to estimate income related health inequalities across the ten Canadian provinces. The unique features of the PUMF allow for a meaningful cross-provincial comparison of health indices and their measured inequalities. It concludes that health inequalities favouring the higher income people do exist in all provinces when health status is either self assessed or measured by the health utility index. Moreover, it finds considerable variations in measured health inequalities across the provinces with consistent rankings for certain provinces.

  6. Microbial provinces in the subseafloor.

    PubMed

    Schrenk, Matthew O; Huber, Julie A; Edwards, Katrina J

    2010-01-01

    The rocks and sediments of the oceanic subsurface represent a diverse mosaic of environments potentially inhabited by microorganisms. Understanding microbial ecosystems in subseafloor environments confounds standard ecological descriptions in part because we have difficulty elucidating and describing the scale of relevant processes. Habitat characteristics impact microbial activities and growth, which in turn affect microbial diversity, net production, and global biogeochemical cycles. Herein we provide descriptions of subseafloor microbial provinces, broadly defined as geologically and geographically coherent regions of the subseafloor that may serve as potential microbial habitats. The purpose of this review is to summarize and refine criteria for the definition and delineation of distinct subseafloor microbial habitats to aid in their exploration. This review and the criteria we outline aim to develop a unified framework to improve our understanding of subseafloor microbial ecology, enable quantification of geomicrobial processes, and facilitate their accurate assimilation into biogeochemical models. PMID:21141666

  7. On the Prepuna biogeographic province: A nomenclatural clarification.

    PubMed

    Morrone, Juan J; Ezcurra, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    The nomenclatural status of the Prepuna province sensu Cabrera (1951) and sensu Morrone (1999) is clarified. The Prepuna province sensu Cabrera (1951) is demoted to a district of the Monte province, stat. nov. The valid name of the Prepuna province sensu Morrone (1999) is Cuyan High Andean province Cabrera, 1971, stat. nov. Diagnoses of these areas are provided and their endemic taxa are listed. PMID:27395671

  8. An ethnobotanical survey on hormozgan province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Safa, Omid; Soltanipoor, Mohammad Amin; Rastegar, Soheil; Kazemi, Mahnaz; Nourbakhsh Dehkordi, Khadijeh; Ghannadi, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study is based on an ethnobotanical research project conducted in Hormozgan province that is located in south of Iran, bordering waters of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. This survey was carried out in order to recover the ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal knowledge of the residents of this province. They are using medicinal and functional plants for treating or preventing several diseases. Materials and Methods: Ethnobotanical data sheets were run with the native inhabitants and people of the province by arranging frequent field trips to different parts of the province and direct interviews with them especially those who were more familiar with the plants and their usage. Results: A total of 150 plant species belonging to 53 families were recorded for their ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal uses among the people of province. The records were developed by scientific names, family names, local names, medicinal parts used, different ways of their application, and traditional uses of the plants. There was high compliance in the use of plants in painful disorders, gastrointestinal, and dermatological diseases. Conclusion: This study revealed that the people of Hormozgan province have a rich knowledge of natural resources. The use and consumption of medicinal plants are still important parts of their life. Rational use of native medicinal plants may benefit and improve their living standards and quality of life. The results of this study can be used as a basis for selecting herbs for further pharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacognostical studies. PMID:25050260

  9. Customary Homicides in Diyarbakir Province.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Eyyup; Canturk, Nergis; Erkol, Zerrin; Kumral, Bahadir; Okumus, Ali M

    2015-09-01

    This study presents an analysis of the causes of so-called honor killings in the context of "customary homicide" and a discussion of preventive measures. Finalized case files of customary homicide between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 were retrospectively examined in Diyarbakir Province, Turkey. Of a total of 28 case victims, 17 (60.7%) were females and 11 (39.3%) were males. All perpetrators were male. There was a significant difference between male and female victims in terms of economic independence (p=0.000). A direct blood relationship or relationship by marriage (such as brother-in-law) was found to have a significant association with the gender of the victim (p<0.001). Multilevel educational activities targeting a transformation of the perception of women by society, replacement of patriarchal models with more modern attitudes, and encouragement of individuality may represent effective strategies that may help reduce the number of customary homicide, which represents a multifaceted problem. PMID:25921219

  10. Volcanoes and volcanic provinces - Martian western hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    The recognition of some Martian landforms as volcanoes is based on their morphology and geologic setting. Other structures, however, may exhibit classic identifying features to a varying or a less degree; these may be only considered provisionally as having a volcanic origin. Regional geologic mapping of the western hemisphere of Mars from Viking images has revealed many more probable volcanoes and volcanotectonic features than were recognized on Mariner 9 pictures. These abundant volcanoes have been assigned to several distinct provinces on the basis of their areal distribution. Although the Olympus-Tharsis region remains as the principle center of volcanism on Mars, four other important provinces are now also recognized: the lowland plains, Tempe Terra plateau, southern highlands (in the Phaethontis and Thaumasia quadrangles), and a probable ignimbrite province, situated along the highland-lowland boundary in Amazonis Planitia. Volcanoes in any one province vary in morphlogy, size, and age, but volcanoes in each province tend to have common characteristics that distinguish that particular group.

  11. Genetic Variation of 25 Y-Chromosomal and 15 Autosomal STR Loci in the Han Chinese Population of Liaoning Province, Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jun; Wang, Bao-jie

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the genetic characteristics of 25 Y-chromosomal and 15 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci in 305 unrelated Han Chinese male individuals from Liaoning Province using AmpFISTR® Yfiler® Plus and IdentifilerTM PCR amplification kits. Population comparison was performed between Liaoning Han population and different ethnic groups to better understand the genetic background of the Liaoning Han population. For Y-STR loci, the overall haplotype diversity was 0.9997 and the discrimination capacity was 0.9607. Gene diversity values ranged from 0.4525 (DYS391) to 0.9617 (DYS385). Rst and two multi-dimensional scaling plots showed that minor differences were observed when the Liaoning Han population was compared to the Jilin Han Chinese, Beijing Han Chinese, Liaoning Manchu, Liaoning Mongolian, Liaoning Xibe, Shandong Han Chinese, Jiangsu Han Chinese, Anhui Han Chinese, Guizhou Han Chinese and Liaoning Hui populations; by contrast, major differences were observed when the Shanxi Han Chinese, Yunnan Bai, Jiangxi Han Chinese, Guangdong Han Chinese, Liaoning Korean, Hunan Tujia, Guangxi Zhuang, Gansu Tibetan, Xishuangbanna Dai, South Korean, Japanese and Hunan Miao populations. For autosomal STR loci, DP ranged from 0.9621 (D2S1338) to 0.8177 (TPOX), with PE distributing from 0.7521 (D18S51) to 0.2988 (TH01). A population comparison was performed and no statistically significant differences were detected at any STR loci between Liaoning Han, China Dong, and Shaanxi Han populations. The results showed that the 25 Y-STR and 15 autosomal STR loci in the Liaoning Han population were valuable for forensic applications and human genetics, and Liaoning Han was an independent endogenous ethnicity with a unique subpopulation structure. PMID:27483472

  12. Geology and mineralization of the Wyoming Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hausel, W.D.; Edwards, B.R.; Graff, P.J.; ,

    1991-01-01

    The Wyoming Province is an Archean craton which underlies portions of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Utah, and much of Wyoming. The cratonic block consists of Archean age granite-gneiss with interspersed greenstone belts and related supracrustal terranes exposed in the cores of several Laramide uplifts. Resources found in the Province and in the adjacent accreted Proterozoic terrane include banded iron formation, Au, Pt, Pd, W, Sn, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, and diamonds. The Province shows many similarities to the mineral-rich cratons of the Canadian shield, the Rhodesian and Transvaal cratons of southern Africa, and the Pilbara and Yilgarn blocks of Western Australia, where much of the world's precious and strategic metal and gemstone resources are located.

  13. Response to Intervention (RTI) in the Province of Saskatchewan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp-Koo, Debra; Claypool, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Response to Intervention (RTI) is at a beginning stage in the Saskatchewan province as well as in other parts of Canada. One needs only to enter RTI and the names of any of the Canadian provinces into any widely used search engine to see the marked difference in the availability of information about RTI when the Canadian provinces and individual…

  14. Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infection, Guangdong Province, China, 20121

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xi; Huang, Qiong; Dun, Zhongjun; Huang, Wei; Wu, Shuyu; Liang, Junhua; Deng, Xiaoling

    2016-01-01

    We used active and passive surveillance to estimate nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infection during 2012 in Guangdong Province, China. Under passive surveillance, for every reported NTS infection, an estimated 414.8 cases occurred annually. Under active surveillance, an estimated 35.8 cases occurred. Active surveillance provides remarkable advantages in incidence estimate. PMID:26982074

  15. Spontaneously Settled Refugees in Northwestern Province, Zambia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freund, Paul J.; Kalumba, Katele

    1986-01-01

    Presents results of a socioeconomic survey and census of "spontaneously settled" Zairean and Angolan refugees in the Northwestern Province of Zambia. Finds refugees' difficulties to be caused by lack of a clear national policy and negative attitudes toward them, as well as Zambia's own deteriorating economic situation. (GC)

  16. Chikungunya outbreak in Guangdong Province, China, 2010.

    PubMed

    Wu, De; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Qiaoli; Zhong, Haojie; Ke, Changwen; Deng, Xiaoling; Guan, Dawei; Li, Hui; Zhang, Yonghui; Zhou, Huiqiong; He, Jianfeng; Li, Linghui; Yang, Xingfen

    2012-03-01

    A disease outbreak with dengue-like symptoms was reported in Guangdong Province, China, in October 2010. Testing results confirmed that the pathogen causing the outbreak was chikungunya virus. Phylogenic analysis indicated that this virus was a member of the Indian Ocean clade of the East/Center/South African subgroup of chikungunya virus.

  17. Livestock rabies outbreaks in Shanxi province, China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ye; Shi, Yanyan; Yu, Mingyang; Xu, Weidi; Gong, Wenjie; Tu, Zhongzhong; Ding, Laixi; He, Biao; Guo, Huancheng; Tu, Changchun

    2016-10-01

    Dogs play an important role in rabies transmission throughout the world. In addition to the severe human rabies situation in China, spillover of rabies virus from dogs in recent years has caused rabies outbreaks in sheep, cattle and pigs, showing that there is an increasing threat to other domestic animals. Two livestock rabies outbreaks were caused by dogs in Shanxi province, China from April to October in 2015, resulting in the deaths of 60 sheep, 10 cattle and one donkey. Brain samples from one infected bovine and the donkey were determined to be rabies virus (RABV) positive by fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The complete RABV N genes of the two field strains, together with those of two previously confirmed Shanxi dog strains, were amplified, sequenced and compared phylogenetically with published sequences of the N gene of RABV strains from Shanxi and surrounding provinces. All of the strains from Shanxi province grouped closely, sharing 99.6 %-100 % sequence identity, indicating the wide distribution and transmission of dog-mediated rabies in these areas. This is the first description of donkey rabies symptoms with phylogenetic analysis of RABVs in Shanxi province and surrounding regions. The result emphasizes the need for mandatory dog rabies vaccination and improved public education to eradicate dog rabies transmission. PMID:27422397

  18. Large igneous provinces and mass extinctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wignall, P. B.

    2001-03-01

    Comparing the timing of mass extinctions with the formation age of large igneous provinces reveals a close correspondence in five cases, but previous claims that all such provinces coincide with extinction events are unduly optimistic. The best correlation occurs for four consecutive mid-Phanerozoic examples, namely the end-Guadalupian extinction/Emeishan flood basalts, the end-Permian extinction/Siberian Traps, the end-Triassic extinction/central Atlantic volcanism and the early Toarcian extinction/Karoo Traps. Curiously, the onset of eruptions slightly post-dates the main phase of extinctions in these examples. Of the seven post-Karoo provinces, only the Deccan Traps coincide with a mass extinction, but in this case, the nature of the biotic crisis is best reconciled with the effects of a major bolide impact. Intraoceanic volcanism may also be implicated in a relatively minor end-Cenomanian extinction crisis, although once again the main phase of volcanism occurs after the crisis. The link between large igneous province formation and extinctions remains enigmatic; volume of extrusives and extinction intensity are unrelated and neither is there any apparent relationship with the rapidity of province formation. Violence of eruptions (proportions of pyroclastics) also appears unimportant. Six out of 11 provinces coincide with episodes of global warming and marine anoxia/dysoxia, a relationship that suggests that volcanic CO 2 emissions may have an important effect on global climate. Conversely, there is little, if any, geological evidence for cooling associated with continental flood basalt eruptions suggesting little long-term impact of SO 2 emissions. Large carbon isotope excursions are associated with some extinction events and intervals of flood basalt eruption but these are too great to be accounted for by the release of volcanic CO 2 alone. Thus, voluminous volcanism may in some circumstances trigger calamitous global environmental changes (runaway greenhouses

  19. Trend in Cataract Surgical Rate in Iran Provinces

    PubMed Central

    HASHEMI, Hassan; REZVAN, Farhad; KHABAZKHOOB, Mehdi; GILASI, Hamidreza; ETEMAD, Koroush; MAHDAVI, Alireza; ASGARI, Soheila

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine the trend of changes in Cataract Surgical Rate (CSR) in the provinces of Iran during 2006 to 2010 and identify high risk areas. Methods This report is part of the national Iranian CSR Study. The percentage change in CSR in 2010 compared to 2006 was conducted in each province, retrospectively. One hundred and ten centers were chosen from all provinces, to determine CSR in each, the weight of major (>3,000 annual surgeries) and minor (3,000 annual surgeries or less) centers was calculated based on the number of selected centers, and multiplied by the number of surgeries in each province. Results In eight provinces, CSR was decreased by 1-60%. One province (Booshehr) showed no change. Eighteen provinces had 2-79% increase. No 2006 data was available in three provinces. North Khorasan had the most decrease while Kerman had the most increase in CSR. Six of these 8 provinces had CSR>3,000 despite a decrease in 2010, but North Khorasan had CSR<3,000 over the whole 5 year period. In 4 provinces, CSR had a gap from 3,000 despite an ascending trend, and in two, the gap was quite considerable. Conclusion Although CSR has an improving trend in most provinces in Iran, it is decreasing in some provinces, and despite an already low CSR, the exacerbation continues. The growing population of over 50 year olds calls for prompt measures in such provinces. Even in improving provinces, some lag behind the minimum recommended by WHO, and the growth rate of the over 50 population reveals the necessity of immediate planning. PMID:25909063

  20. Ground-water provinces of Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, Robert

    1962-01-01

    As part of a study of the status of investigations and development of ground water in Brazil, made under the auspices of the United States International Cooperation Administration and with the cooperation of the Government of Brazil, the country was divided into seven ground-water provinces. The identification and delineation of the provinces were based on the regional distribution of the dominant geologic units which are known or inferred to have distinctive water-bearing characteristics. Three of the provinces, covering most of the country, are underlain by Precambrian crystalline rocks. Three others coincide in part with four extensive sedimentary basins--the Parnaiba or Maranhfio basin and the contiguous Sao Francisco basin in the northeast and east, the Amazon basin in the north and northwest, and the Paranfi basin in the south and southwest. In addition, the narrow, discontinuous coastal plain is considered as a province. the occurrence of ground water is discussed briefly, and pertinent data are given on the more important aquifers, together with information on some existing wells. Because of the widespread distribution of crystalline rocks of low permeability, it is difficult in many areas to develop large or even adequate ground-water supplies. In general, satisfactory supplies of water are available in most of the rest of the country. Some problems include the relative deficiency of rainfall in the northeast together with the occurrence, in parts of this region, of mineralized water in the crystalline rocks. Also, there is a potential problem of excessive lowering of water levels and interference among wells in the intensively developed area of the city of Sao Paulo.

  1. Curie surface of Borborema Province, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, Raphael T.; Vidotti, Roberta M.; Oksum, Erdinc

    2016-06-01

    The Curie surface interpreted from magnetic data through spatial frequency domain techniques is used to provide information on the thermal structure of Borborema Province. The Borborema Province is part of the neoproterozoic collision of an orogenic system situated between the São Francisco-Congo and São Luís-West Africa cratons, which formed the Gondwana Supercontinent. The Curie surface of Borborema Province varies from 18 to 59 km, which reveals the complexity in the crustal composition of the study area. The thermal structure shows different crustal blocks separated by the main shear zones, which corroborates the evolution model of allochthonous terranes. The Curie surface signature for the west portion of Pernambuco Shear Zone may indicate processes of mantle serpentinization, once the Curie isotherm is deeper than Mohorovic discontinuity. In this region, the amplitude of Bouguer anomaly decreases, which corroborates long wavelength anomaly observed in the magnetic anomaly. We interpreted this pattern as evidence of the Brasiliano-Pan-Africano's subduction/collision event. Earthquakes in the region are concentrated mainly in shallow Curie surface regions (less resistant crust) and in transition zones between warm and cold blocks. We calculated the horizontal gradient of the Curie depth to emphasize the signature of contact between the thermal blocks. These regions mark possible crustal discontinuities, and have high correlation with orogenic gold occurrence in the study area.

  2. Simulated water productivity in Gansu Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Jinyan; Sun, Zhongxiao; Wang, Zhan; Chen, Jiancheng; Li, Zhaohua

    Economic value of water and economic analysis of water use management in Gansu Province of China have attracted widespread public attention. With the socioeconomic development, research on water resources has become more important than before. In this study, we define "water productivity" as the changes of economic production outputs of sectoral activities in every cubic meter of water input, which is also the technical coefficient of water resource use in each sector. According to Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) framework, based on the Input-Output Table 2007 and water resources bulletin of Gansu Province, we introduced the water into the ORANI-G (A Generic Single-Country Computable General Equilibrium model) model through the nested constant elasticity of substitution (CES) production function to analyze the changes of economic productions caused by water supply changes. We then examined water productivity in different sectors. Empirical results showed that current water productivity is underestimated. Agricultural water productivity is lower than that of the secondary and tertiary industries, even although agricultural water use is the largest part of water use in Gansu Province, and therefore improving agricultural water productivity can greatly mitigate the water shortage. Simulation results indicate that industrial transformation and development of water-saving industries will also mitigate water scarcity. Moreover, sensitivity analysis shows that the empirical results are robust under different scenarios. The results also show that higher constant elasticity of substitution rate (CES) between water and other production factors will contribute to sustainable development.

  3. Accretion of the Archean Slave Province

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kusky, Timothy

    1988-01-01

    Detailed field studies of selected areas in the greenstone belts of the Slave Province of Canada were presented. This area was long cited as a type area by supporters of the (now generally abandoned) rift model of greenstone belts. It was shown that a plate tectonic interpretation accounted more successfully for the regional geology and identified four terranes that had experienced complex divergent and convergent histories between 2.7 and 3.4 Ga. A dismembered ophiolite was identified and a late episode of widespread granitic intrusion was recognized.

  4. Hydrocarbon charge modeling, Balingian Province, Sarawak, Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Swinburn, P. ); Burgisser, H. ); Yassin, J. )

    1994-07-01

    Generation, expulsion, and migration of oil and gas from Tertiary coal beds was modeled for a 2700 km[sup 2] area offshore Sarawak with Shell's integrated basin modeling software. The modeling was undertaken in response to the difficulty of predicting gas:oil, particularly in recent exploration wells. In the Balingian Province, oil and gas are produced from Miocene coastal plain clastics. Although all the hydrocarbons are thought to be sourced from the same type of land plant source rock, the gas:oil ratio varies considerably among the three producing fields and several undeveloped discoveries. Geochemical analyses of source-rock samples and oils strongly indicate that oils in the Balingian Province are sourced by coals and coaly shales found in the Oligocene and early Miocene coastal plain sequences. For these source rocks the main phase of oil generation is in the maturity range 0.8-1.1% VR equivalent. The burial history is well constrained by mapping regionally dated horizons and erosional surfaces. The temperature history suggests that from the late Oligocene to present, the heat flow was basically constant and fairly high due to sustained wrenching.

  5. Spontaneously settled refugees in Northwestern Province, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Freund, P J; Kalumba, K

    1986-01-01

    The UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) commissioned researchers from the University of Zambia to conduct a socioeconomic survey and census of "spontaneously settled" Zairean and Angolan refugees in the Northwestern Province of Zambia in 1982. The sample consisted of 188 Angolans, 201 Zaireans, and 2 South Africans. The difficulties experienced by refugees in Northwestern Province in achieving integration were related to a combination of factors including the lack of a clear national policy on refugees and refugee status, a national concern for maintaining security, the popular belief that aliens are responsible for an increasing crime rate, the desire by immigration officials for stricter laws to control alien infiltration, conflict between traditional and modern leaders, and Zambia's deteriorating economic situation. In spite of the problems described, the integration of refugees into existing communities is a desirable goal and should be encouraged. One should not assume that self-settling refugees are able to live with ethnic kin, receive assistance and hospitality, and thus are better off than those in camps. The Zambian case provides ample evidence that integration is not easy even with kin support, shared ethnicity, language, and historical connections. Moreover, given the fact that Zambia will continue to receive refugees it is vital that there is a well defined refugee policy and an administrative mechanism for implementing that policy at all levels. This will be particularly important in Zambia as it will undoubtedly continue to receive large influxes of refugees, from countries such as Namibia, Uganda, Angola, Mozambique, and South Africa.

  6. Spontaneously settled refugees in Northwestern Province, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Freund, P J; Kalumba, K

    1986-01-01

    The UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) commissioned researchers from the University of Zambia to conduct a socioeconomic survey and census of "spontaneously settled" Zairean and Angolan refugees in the Northwestern Province of Zambia in 1982. The sample consisted of 188 Angolans, 201 Zaireans, and 2 South Africans. The difficulties experienced by refugees in Northwestern Province in achieving integration were related to a combination of factors including the lack of a clear national policy on refugees and refugee status, a national concern for maintaining security, the popular belief that aliens are responsible for an increasing crime rate, the desire by immigration officials for stricter laws to control alien infiltration, conflict between traditional and modern leaders, and Zambia's deteriorating economic situation. In spite of the problems described, the integration of refugees into existing communities is a desirable goal and should be encouraged. One should not assume that self-settling refugees are able to live with ethnic kin, receive assistance and hospitality, and thus are better off than those in camps. The Zambian case provides ample evidence that integration is not easy even with kin support, shared ethnicity, language, and historical connections. Moreover, given the fact that Zambia will continue to receive refugees it is vital that there is a well defined refugee policy and an administrative mechanism for implementing that policy at all levels. This will be particularly important in Zambia as it will undoubtedly continue to receive large influxes of refugees, from countries such as Namibia, Uganda, Angola, Mozambique, and South Africa. PMID:12267853

  7. STATISTICAL SUMMARY: EMAP-ESTUARIES LOUISIANIAN PROVINCE - 1993

    EPA Science Inventory

    This statistical summmary of the ecological condition of the estuarine resources is based on the results of the 1993 Louisianian Province Demonstration Project. The population of estuarine resources with the Louisianian Province consists of all estuarine areas located along the c...

  8. Income and Well-Being across European Provinces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okulicz-Kozaryn, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The majority of studies investigate the effect of income on life satisfaction at either individual or country level. This study contributes with analysis at the (sub-national) province level across West European countries. I use a unique dataset Eurobarometer 44.2 Bis that is representative of province populations in a multilevel model. Provinces…

  9. Large igneous provinces linked to supercontinent assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Santosh, M.; Luo, Zhaohua; Hao, Jinhua

    2015-04-01

    Models for the disruption of supercontinents have considered mantle plumes as potential triggers for continental extension and the formation of large igneous provinces (LIPs). An alternative hypothesis of top-down tectonics links large volcanic eruptions to lithospheric delamination. Here we argue that the formation of several LIPs in Tarim, Yangtze, Lhasa and other terranes on the Eurasian continent was coeval with the assembly of the Pangean supercontinent, in the absence of plumes rising up from the mantle transition zone or super-plumes from the core-mantle boundary. The formation of these LIPs was accompanied by subduction and convergence of continents and micro-continents, with no obvious relation to major continental rifting or mantle plume activity. Our model correlates LIPs with lithospheric extension caused by asthenospheric flow triggered by multiple convergent systems associated with supercontinent formation.

  10. Maternal mortality in Yazd Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Karimi-Zarchi, Mojgan; Ghane-Ezabadi, Marzie; Vafaienasab, Mohammadreza; Dehghan, Ali; Ghasemi, Fateme; Zaidabadi, Mahbube; Zanbagh, Leila; Yazdian-Anari, Pouria; Teimoori, Soraya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Five hundred thousand maternal deaths occur each year worldwide, many of which are in developing countries. The maternal mortality rate is a measure that demonstrates the degree of adequacy of prenatal care and of economic and social conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and causes of pregnancy-related mortality rates in Yazd Province. Methods This cross-sectional study examined the maternal deaths related to pregnancy that were recorded in Yazd Province, Iran, from 2002 to 2011. All maternal deaths that occurred during pregnancy, during delivery, and 42 days after birth were analyzed in this study. The data were collected through a questionnaire, and both direct and indirect causes of maternal deaths were determined. Results Forty pregnancy-related deaths occurred in this period, and the maternal mortality rate was 20.8 deaths per 100,000 live births. The mean age of death in the mothers in this study was 29.17. Fifty-five percent of women of the women who died delivered their babies by cesarean section, and only 20% of them delivered their babies vaginally. Bleeding was the most common cause of maternal mortality (30%), and it was associated directly with maternal mortality. Furthermore 20% of the mothers died due to heart disease and cardiac complications, which were associated indirectly with maternal mortality. Conclusion Cesarean section and its complications were the main cause of death in many cases. Thus, providing a strategic plan to reduce the use of this procedure, educate mothers, and ensure adequate access to pre-maternal care and to care during pregnancy are the most important measures that can be taken to decrease the maternal mortality rate. PMID:27054003

  11. Magnetostratigraphy of the Etendeka Large Igneous Province, Namibia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodd, S. C.; Muxworthy, A. R.; Mac Niocaill, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Paraná - Etendeka large igneous province (≈ 135 Ma) has not been linked to a known mass extinction event, despite large igneous provinces being postulated as a cause. The reason why some large igneous provinces appear the cause of huge fluctuations in the global biosphere, an example being the link between Siberian trap volcanism and the Permo-Triassic boundary, while others seem to have only a minor effect is still debated. Establishing detailed histories of these large igneous provinces is important for understanding why such variations in effect may occur. Why does the volume of the province not reflect the magnitude of the effects seen? During the early Cretaceous, reversals of Earth's magnetic field were more frequent than at other times in Earth's history. Magnetostratigraphy is therefore a tool capable of providing high resolution constraints on the history and duration of the Paraná - Etendeka large igneous province volcanism. Detailed sampling of the Etendeka volcanic stratigraphy, followed by progressive demagnetisation of 893 specimens, yields 70 individual polarities gained from throughout the central volcanic succession. Correlation of the individual sections sampled reveals a minimum of 16 separate polarities are recorded. Subsequent links to the geomagnetic polarity timescale suggest a minimum province duration of > 1 Myrs, with no obvious period of short, high volume volcanism as is often suggested. A protracted duration (>1Myr) may therefore provide the reason why at least the Paraná - Etendeka appears to have no associated extinction event.

  12. Ghaba salt basin province and Fahud salt basin province, Oman; geological overview and total petroleum systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollastro, Richard M.

    1999-01-01

    Three Total Petroleum Systems each consisting of one assessment unit have been identified in the Ghaba and Fahud Salt Basin Provinces of north-central Oman. One Total Petroleum System and corresponding assessment unit, the North Oman Huqf/?Q??Haushi(!) Total Petroleum System (201401) and Ghaba- Makarem Combined Structural Assessment Unit (20140101), were identified for the Ghaba Salt Basin Province (2014). In the Fahud Salt Basin Province, however, two overlapping Total Petroleum Systems (TPS) were recognized: (1) the North Oman Huqf?Shu?aiba(!) TPS (201601); Fahud-Huqf Combined Structural Assessment Unit (20160101), and (2) the middle Cretaceous Natih(!) TPS (201602); Natih-Fiqa Structural/Stratigraphic Assessment Unit (20160201). The boundary for each Total Petroleum System also defines the boundary of the corresponding assessment unit and includes all trap styles and hydrocarbon-producing reservoirs within the petroleum system. In both the Ghaba and Fahud Salt Basin Provinces, hydrocarbons were generated from several deeply buried source rocks within the Infracambrian Huqf Supergroup. One general ?North Oman Huqf? type oil is dominant in the Fahud Salt Basin. Oils in the Ghaba Salt Basin are linked to at least two distinct Huqf source-rock units based on oil geochemistry: a general North Oman Huqf-type oil source and a more dominant ?questionable unidentified source? or ?Q?-type Huqf oil source. These two Huqf-sourced oils are commonly found as admixtures in reservoirs throughout northcentral Oman. Hydrocarbons generated from Huqf sources are produced from a variety of reservoir types and ages ranging from Precambrian to Cretaceous in both the Ghaba and Fahud Salt Basin Provinces. Clastic reservoirs of the Gharif and Al Khlata Formations, Haushi Group (middle Carboniferous to Lower Permian), dominate oil production in the Ghaba Salt Basin Province and form the basis for the Huqf/?Q??Haushi(!) TPS. In contrast, the Lower Cretaceous Shu?aiba and middle Cretaceous

  13. Ghaba salt basin province and Fahud salt basin province, Oman; geological overview and total petroleum systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollastro, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Three Total Petroleum Systems each consisting of one assessment unit have been identified in the Ghaba and Fahud Salt Basin Provinces of north-central Oman. One Total Petroleum System and corresponding assessment unit, the North Oman Huqf/`Q'? Haushi(!) Total Petroleum System (201401) and Ghaba-Makarem Combined Structural Assessment Unit (20140101), were identified for the Ghaba Salt Basin Province (2014). In the Fahud Salt Basin Province, however, two overlapping Total Petroleum Systems (TPS) were recognized: 1) the North Oman Huqf ? Shu'aiba(!) TPS (201601); Fahud-Huqf Combined Structural Assessment Unit (20160101), and 2) the Middle Cretaceous Natih(!) TPS (201602); Natih-Fiqa Structural/Stratigraphic Assessment Unit (20160201). The boundary for each Total Petroleum System also defines the boundary of the corresponding assessment unit and includes all trap styles and hydrocarbon producing reservoirs within the petroleum system. In both the Ghaba and Fahud Salt Basin Provinces, hydrocarbons were generated from several deeply-buried source rocks within the Infracambrian Huqf Supergroup. One general `North Oman Huqf' type oil is dominant in the Fahud Salt Basin. Oils in the Ghaba Salt Basin are linked to at least two distinct Huqf source-rock units based on oil geochemistry: a general North Oman Huqf-type oil source and a more dominant `questionable unidentified-source' or `Q'-type Huqf oil source. These two Huqf-sourced oils are commonly found as admixtures in reservoirs throughout north-central Oman. Hydrocarbons generated from Huqf sources are produced from a variety of reservoir types and ages ranging from Precambrian to Cretaceous in both the Ghaba and Fahud Salt Basin Provinces. Clastic reservoirs of the Gharif and Al Khlata Formations, Haushi Group (M. Carboniferous to L. Permian), dominate oil production in the Ghaba Salt Basin Province and form the basis for the Huqf/`Q' ? Haushi(!) TPS. In contrast, the Lower Cretaceous Shu'aiba and Middle Cretaceous

  14. Highlights from Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Although the extraction of mineral wealth has been the major influence in the history of Johannesburg and the surrounding Witwatersrand regions (with about 45% of all gold ever mined coming from there), the discovery of now-famous hominid fossils at the Sterkfontein Caves, and the convening of the world's largest-ever conference on environment and development, are setting a new stage for the future. The United Nations began the second Development and Environment Conference in Johannesburg on August 26, 2002. This meeting addresses the implementation of international goals to fight poverty and protect the global environment that were established at the first such conference held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. The Johannesburg summit involves about forty thousand participants, and perhaps 100 world leaders. One of several official opening ceremonies for the conference was held at the Sterkfontein Caves to recognize the outstanding universal value of the paleo-anthropological fossils found there.

    These views from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) highlight a number of the land use, vegetation, and geological features found within Gauteng Province (including the urban center of Johannesburg and the capital city Pretoria) and parts of the North West and Free State Provinces. The image on the right displays vegetation in red hues and is a false-color view utilizing data from MISR's near-infrared, red and blue bands. Both the natural-color view (left) and the false-color version were acquired by MISR's nadir camera on June 16, 2002. The urban areas appear as gray-colored pixels in the natural-color view, and exhibit colors corresponding with the relative abundance of vegetation found in the urban parts of this arid region.

    The mountains trending east-west near the center of the images extend from Pretoria in the east to Rustenberg in the west. These ranges, the Magaliesberg and Witwatersberg, separate the low-lying, hotter bushveld to the north from

  15. Petrology of greenstones in southern Wyoming Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Y.; Yuasa, T.; Ogasawara, Y.

    2006-12-01

    Archean greenstones occur in South Pass area and southern Wind River Canyon area in central Wyoming State, U.S.A. These two areas are near about 100 km away from each other and belong to the same sub- province named Wyoming greenstone province (WGP, composed of meta-mafic rocks and meta- sedimentary rocks) (Mueller et al., 1998). The South Pass area is one of the greenstone belts in the southern Wyoming Province and is located in the northwestern part of the WGP. The greenstones (15 km long) occur along the later Archean granitic batholith (Louis Lake batholith, 2.63 Ga) and are composed of meta-pillow lavas, meta diabasic rocks, meta-gabbroic rocks, meta basaltic tuffs, and other meta sediments. The meta diabasic rocks occur as dykes. Banded iron formation lies along the contact between these greenstones and the batholith. Several previous studies suggested that these greenstones were metamorphosed under conditions of amphibolite, and locally greenschist (Harper et al., 1985; Wilks and Harper, 1997; Frost et al., 2000). However we found evidence indicating limited distribution of the amphibolite facies zone which is restricted along the batholith. Greenstones in this area were regionally metamorphosed under low-grade and the amphibolite facies greenstones were formed by the thermal effects by the batholith. Many characteristics of the protolith are well preserved. The following textures are preserved; pillow lava structure, relic igneous augite grains in meta basaltic rocks, relic igneous brown hornblende grains in meta diabasic rocks, gabbroic textures, and some sedimentary textures. The pillow lavas (5-10 cm x 15-30 cm) are composed of pale green core and thin dark gray rim (about 0.5 cm wide) and the core domain is rich in carbonate. The southern Wind River Canyon area is located in the northern part of the WGP. Archean greenstones in this area are composed of meta pillow lavas, meta gabbroic rocks, and meta pelites. From south toward north, mafic rocks

  16. The gulf and peninsular province of the Californias

    SciTech Connect

    Dauphin, J.P.; Simoneit, B.R.T.

    1991-01-01

    This book is about the Gulf and Peninsular Province of the Californias: Geological and geophysical maps; Regional geophysics and geology; Physical oceanography, primary productivity, and sedimentology, and Hydrothermal processes.

  17. [The casuistics of nematodiases in man in Tula Province].

    PubMed

    Maksimova, T Iu; Bogachkina, S I; Oshevskaia, Z A

    1991-01-01

    Cases of human gongylonemiasis (G. pulchrum) and dirofilariasis (D. repens) in Tula Province are reported. It is assumed that the source of infection is local as the patients haven't migrated anywhere outside the region during several years.

  18. Ocean anoxia and large igneous provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhl, Micha; Bjerrum, Christian J.; Canfield, Donald E.; Korte, Christoph; Stemmerik, Lars; Frei, Robert

    2013-04-01

    Earth's history is marked by multiple events of ocean anoxia developing along continental margins and potentially into the open ocean realm. These events often coincide with the emplacement of large igneous provinces (LIPs) on continents, major perturbations of global geochemical cycles and marine (mass) extinction. The geographic and temporal extend and the intensity (ferruginous vs. euxinic) of anoxic conditions is often, however, poorly constraint. This complicates understanding of close coupling between Earth's physical, chemical and biological processes. We studied ocean redox change over two major mass extinction events in Earth history, the Permian-Triassic (at ~252 Ma) and Triassic-Jurassic (at ~201.3 Ma) mass extinctions. Both extinction events are marked by a major perturbation of the global exogenic carbon cycle (and associated major negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE)), likely initiated by carbon outgassing of the Siberian Traps and the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), respectively. We compare Permian-Triassic and Triassic-Jurassic ocean redox change along continental margins in different geographic regions (Permian-Triassic: Greenland, Svalbard, Iran; Triassic-Jurassic: UK, Austria) and discuss its role in marine mass extinction. We show strongly enhanced sedimentary redox-sensitive trace element concentrations (e.g. Mo) during both events. However, increased Permian-Triassic values are in all localities distinctly delayed relative to the associated negative CIE. Triassic-Jurassic values are only delayed in the oceanographically restricted western Germanic basin (UK) while increased Mo-values in the north-western Tethys Ocean (Austria) directly match the onset of the associated negative CIE. Speciation of iron [giving (Fe-HR/ Fe-T) and (Fe(Py)/ Fe-HR)] in the Triassic-Jurassic western Germanic basin (UK) however shows close coupling between the onset of the global carbon cycle perturbation and a shift to anoxic and even euxinic conditions

  19. Characterization of Arctic Highly Magnetic Domains - the Geophysical Expression of Inferred Large Igneous Province(s)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saltus, R. W.; Oakey, G.; Miller, E. L.; Jackson, R.

    2012-12-01

    The magnetic anomalies of the high arctic are dominated by a large domain (1000 x 1700 km; the High Arctic Magnetic High, HAMH) consisting of numerous high-amplitude magnetic high ridges with a complex set of orientations and by other smaller, but still fundamentally highly magnetic, domains. The magnetic potential anomaly field (also known as pseudogravity) of the HAMH shows a single large intensity high and underscores the crustal-scale thickness of this geophysical feature (which also forms a prominent anomaly on satellite magnetic maps). The seafloor morphology of this region includes the complex linear trends of the Alpha and Mendeleev ridges, but the magnetic expression of this domain extends beyond the complex bathymetry to include areas where Canada Basin sediments have covered the complex basement topography. The calculated magnetic effect of the bathymetric ridges matches some of the observed magnetic anomalies, but not others. We have analyzed and modeled the distinctive HAMH and other smaller magnetic high domains to generate estimates of their volume and to characterize the directionality of their component features. Complimentary processing and modeling of high arctic gravity anomalies allows characterization of the density component of these geophysical features. Spatially, the HAMH encompasses the Alpha and Mendeleev "ridges," that are considered to represent a major mafic igneous province. The term "Alpha-Mendeleev Large Igneous Province" is given to a domain mapped by tracing magnetic anomalies in a recent map published by AAPG (Grantz and others, 2009). On this map the province is described as "alkali basalt with ages between 120 and 90 Ma". New seismic and bathymetric data, collected as part of on-going research efforts for definition of extended continental shelf, are revealing new details about the Alpha ridge. One interesting development is the possible identification of a supervolcano that may represent a major locus of igneous activity. In

  20. Leaf-rolling sawflies (Hymenoptera, Pamphiliidae, Pamphiliinae) of Tianmushan Mountains, Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Akihiko; Wei, Mei-Cai

    2016-01-01

    Two species of Neurotoma, six species of Onycholyda, and five species of Pamphilius are recorded from Tianmushan, Zhejiang Province, China, and a key is given to these three genera and 13 species. Three new species, Onycholyda atra Shinohara & Wei, sp. nov. from Zhejiang Province, O. fulvicornis Shinohara, sp. nov. from Shaanxi Province and Zhejiang Province, and Pamphilius padus Shinohara, sp. nov. from Zhejiang Province, are described. New distribution records are: Onycholyda shaanxiana Shinohara, 1999, from Hubei Province, Zhejiang Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, O. subquadrata (Maa, 1944) from Zhejiang Province, O. tianmushana Shinohara & Xiao, 2006, from Hunan Province and Jiangxi Province, Pamphilius palliceps Shinohara & Xiao, 2006, from Anhui Province, P. lizejiani Shinohara in Shinohara & Wei, 2012, from Zhejiang Province, P. shengi Wei in Wei & Xiao, 1999, from Hubei Province and Zhejiang Province, and P. qinlingicus Wei in Wu & Wei, 2010, from Zhejiang Province. The larva of P. padus feeds on Padus obtusata (Rosaceae) and that of P. palliceps feeds on Rosa multiflora (Rosaceae), both singly making a leaf-roll. Rubus peltatus (Rosaceae) is recorded as a host plant of O. atra based on the observation of oviposition. PMID:27395926

  1. Sending our child to college. Heilongjiang province.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W

    1994-03-01

    An educational program for female farmers in Keshan County, Heilongjiang Province, originally limited to the topics of women's health care and family planning has not only improved health status, but has also helped increase income level among the participants. Keshan County is one of China's grain bases composed of seventeen townships with a total population of 460,000. The education program resulted from the health check-up for women conducted in 1985 which found 62.1% of local women with gynecological diseases, largely ignorant of health care, and too shy to visit doctors. A textbook was subsequently compiled on women's health care and family planning, and lectures were commenced on the topics. Lectures were soon expanded to cover health care for teenagers, newlyweds, pregnant women, young mothers, and middle-aged and elderly people. It was also found after some time that farmers wanted to be wealthier, to secure good educations for their children, and enjoy good health and longevity. Education topics were again expanded to include subjects relevant to farmers' income-production desires. These education sessions are now being replicated in most rural areas countrywide.

  2. [Tungiasis acquired in Chaco Province, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Menghi, C I; Comunale, E; Gatta, C L

    2009-01-01

    A four-year old girl and her mother were assisted at the Hospital de Clínicas for 0.7 cm wide papules with a black central core and a white hyperkeratotic halo of fourteen days of development. The girl presented these lesions on the second and fourth toe of one of her feet, and her mother on the ankle. Among the known antecedents were a trip to Chaco Province and their habit of walking barefooted. After the papule incision, both antiseptic treatment and cleaning of the lesion, were performed. The exudate extracted from the wound was sent to the Parasitology laboratory for diagnosis. With low-power amplification (100 X), portions of an arthropod with numerous characteristic Tunga penetrans eggs were identified. The patients received antibiotic therapy and tetanus immunization. Tungiasis, which originated in America, is a cutaneous parasitosis caused by Tunga penetrans. In endemic areas, it is advisable to wear shoes in order to avoid the penetration of the flea into the skin. The presence of this flea should be suspected whenever hyperkeratotic papules with a black central core appear, mainly in the sub and periungual areas, soles, ankles and/or heels of the feet. PMID:19831312

  3. The Caucasian oil and gas province

    SciTech Connect

    Adamia, S.H.; Akhvlediani, K.; Chabukiant, A. ); Kilasonia, V. )

    1991-08-01

    The Caucasus lies between the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov on the west and the Caspian Sea on the east. The main morphological elements of the Caucasus are the mountain ranges of Greater and Lesser Caucasus, which are divided by the Rioni (Colchis) and Kura intermontane troughs and the pre-Caucasian plain and Araks Depression. The tectonic features of the region result from its position between the Eurasian and Africa-Arabian plates. Two tectonic units of the highest order are distinguished within its limits, the young Scythian platform in the north and the Alpine fold belt in the south. Oil and gas deposits have been found only in the lowlands of the Caucasus, in the pre-Caucasian foreland, and within the Transcaucasian intermontane depressions. The North Caucasian province is made up of the Scythian platform and the marginal troughs of the Alpine Greater Caucasus. Oil and gas accumulations occur at all levels within the sedimentary cover from Triassic the Neogene. In the South Caspian oil and gas subprovince, oil and gas occurs within reservoirs range in age from Late Cretaceous to the Apsheronian stage of the Neogene. The Black Sea subprovince comprises the northwestern part of the sea and the western part of Georgia. The bulk of the explored oil reserves lies within the Neogene and Upper Cretaceous units. The potential in this region is associated with Jurassic terrigenous, Upper Cretaceous carbonate, and Paleogene terrigenous sediments.

  4. Tsunami damage in Aceh Province, Sumatra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The island of Sumatra suffered from both the rumblings of the submarine earthquake and the tsunamis that were generated on December 26, 2004. Within minutes of the quake, the sea surged ashore, bringing destruction to the coasts of northern Sumatra. This pair of natural-color images from Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) instrument shows a small area along the Sumatran coast in Aceh province where the tsunami smashed its way ashore. In this region, the wave cut a swath of near-total destruction 1.5 kilometers (roughly one mile) in most places, but penetrating farther in many others. Some of these deeper paths of destruction can be seen especially dramatically in the larger-area ETM+ images linked to above. (North is up in these larger images.) ETM+ collects data at roughly 30 meter resolution, complimenting sensors like NASA's MODIS (onboard both Terra and Aqua satellites) which observed this area at 250-meter resolution to give a wide view and ultra-high-resolution sensors like Space Imaging's IKONOS, which observed the same region at 4-meter resolution to give a detailed, smaller-area view. NASA images created by Jesse Allen, Earth Observatory, using data provided courtesy of the Landsat 7 Science Project Office

  5. Survey of premarital pregnancy in seven provinces.

    PubMed

    She, W

    1998-06-01

    This article provides data on premarital pregnancy by marriage cohort during 1946-91, and pregnancy outcomes (abortion or birth) in China. Data were obtained from the 1992 Premarital Pregnancy Survey conducted by the Population Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. The sample includes 10,234 married women aged 20-44 years from 7 provinces and municipalities: Shanghai, Shandong, Guangdong, Jilin, Sichuan, Shaanxi, and Ningxia. Premarital pregnancy increased steadily over time, especially during 1987-91. The trend was stable and consistent in rural areas. In urban areas, trends varied by cohort. Premarital pregnancy dipped substantially in the 1967-71 cohort, and somewhat in the 1957-61, 1977-81, and 1982-86 cohorts. Pregnancy outcomes in delivery of an infant rose on a stable basis over time, especially in rural areas. Abortion before marriage fluctuated widely by cohort. Abortions were particularly low in the 1967-71 cohort. Despite the lower premarital pregnancy level in 1957-61, abortion was relatively higher. Premarital pregnancy reflects cultural, social, political, and physiological contexts. The high abortion rate and the low premarital pregnancy rate were attributed to the famine in 1959-61 that swept across China. Low premarital pregnancy among the 1967-71 cohort is attributed to the strict moral standards adopted during the early part of the Cultural Revolution. A closer analysis of the 1957-61 cohort reveals that educational attainment is related to premarital pregnancy. Premarital pregnancy varies by residence and region. PMID:12293909

  6. Varicella vaccine uptake in Shandong province, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Aiqiang; Xu, Qing; Fang, Xueqiang; Bialek, Stephanie; Wang, Chengbin

    2012-01-01

    Varicella vaccine has been licensed in China for decade to be used as single dose in children aged ≥ 12 mo of age in private sector. Little data were available on varicella uptake to date in China yet. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Shandong Province in May 2011 to examine varicella vaccination coverage among children aged 16–40 mo and examine factors associated with varicella vaccine uptake. The overall coverage among children eligible for varicella vaccine was 62% (range 16.7–94.7% by county), much lower than the coverage of the eight vaccines included in the national immunization program (all above 97%). Though proximity to immunization services (< 5 km) was linked with higher vaccine uptake (62.6 vs. 37.4%, p = 0.02), county-level economic development (77.8, 61.0 and 47.1% for developed, sub-developed and developing regions, respectively, p < 0.001) played an even more important role in varicella vaccination. Moreover, there was little variation in coverage of vaccines included in the national immunization program along with county-level economic development. Even though varicella vaccine uptake is relatively high for use on a private basis, the vaccination coverage is not high enough to prevent epidemiology shift to adolescents and adults who are more prone to develop severe outcomes to varicella. Further enhancement on varicella vaccination coverage is necessary and inclusion to national immunization program seems to be a promising option for achieving and maintaining high coverage. PMID:22894966

  7. [Emergy analysis of ecological-economic system in Liaoning Province].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Wang, Qing; Li, Xiu-Juan; Song, Yang; Li, Guang-Jun

    2008-03-01

    By the methods of emergy analysis, this paper studied the emergy flow in the ecological-economic system in Liaoning Province in 1990-2005, and the relationships between the environmental stress caused by resources' input, output and consumption and the sustainable development of the Province. The results showed that in Liaoning Province, the non-renewable resources occupied over 74% of the total consumed emergy, and the realistic population in 2005 was 3.26 times higher than the supportable population. In 1990-2005, the emergy yield ratio decreased from 65.40 to 10.13, emergy loading ratio increased from 2.72 to 7.18, and emergy sustainable index decreased from 24.03 to 1.41. The rapid economic growth in Liaoning Province was chiefly supported by the consumption of vast non-renewable resources, which caused the pressure of economic development on ecosystem getting more and more intense, the economic development increasingly depending on exogenous resources, and the sustainable development of Liaoning ecological-economic system having a continuing decrease. To realize the sustainable development in Liaoning Province, the principles of reduction, reutilization and recycling should be taken as the guidelines for promoting the reuse of wastes and the closed fine circulation of resources to minimize the discharge of wastes. PMID:18533536

  8. Paleomagnetism of large igneous provinces: case-study from West Greenland, North Atlantic igneous province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riisager, Janna; Riisager, Peter; Pedersen, Asger Ken

    2003-09-01

    We present new paleomagnetic and multi-model stereo photogrammetry data from lava sequences in the West Greenland part of the North Atlantic igneous province (NAIP). The joint analyses of paleomagnetic and photogrammetric data yield a well-defined paleomagnetic pole located at Lat=73.6°N, Long=160.5°E ( N=44, α95=6.2°, K=13.1; age ˜61-55 Ma), which is statistically indistinguishable from a pole recently obtained for the Eurasian part of the NAIP on Faroe Islands [Riisager et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 201 (2002) 261-276]. Combining the two datasets we obtain a joint NAIP paleomagnetic pole in Greenland coordinates: Lat=71.1°N, Long=161.1°E ( N=87, α95=4.3°, K=13.6; age ˜61-54 Ma). The results presented here represent the first study in which photogrammetry profiles were photographed at the exact same locations where paleomagnetic fieldwork was carried out, and a direct flow-to-flow comparison of the two datasets is possible. Photogrammetry is shown to be particularly useful because of (i) highly precise dip/strike measurements and (ii) detailed 'field observations' that can be made in the laboratory. Highly precise determination of the structural attitude of well-exposed Kanisut Mb lava sequences demonstrates that their apparently reliable in-field dip/strike measurements typically are up to ˜6° wrong. Erroneous dip/strike readings are particularly problematic as they offset paleomagnetic poles without affecting their confidence limits. Perhaps more important for large igneous provinces is the recognition of a variable temporal relationship between consecutive lava flows. We demonstrate how correct interpretation of paleosecular variation, facilitated by the detailed photogrammetry analysis, is crucial for the rapidly emplaced Vaigat Formation lavas. Inaccurate tectonic correction, non-averaged paleosecular variation and unrecognized excursional directions may, perhaps, explain why coeval paleomagnetic poles from large igneous provinces are often

  9. Thermodynamic analysis of the province of Ravenna (Italy).

    PubMed

    Bastianoni, Simone; Marchettini, Nadia; Panzieri, Margherita; Ridolfi, Roberto

    2002-09-01

    This is a thermodynamic analysis of the Province of Ravenna (Italy) and its districts (Ravenna, Faenza and Lugo) and an evaluation of entropy waste production based on a balance sheet of greenhouse gases. The method used is energy analysis. The results show that the Province and Ravenna are characterized by a heavy exploitation of local non renewable resources, Faenza strikes a good balance between economic development and environment conservation and Lugo is less sustainable than the others. The greenhouse gas balance shows that the Province emits 10.5 times the quantity of greenhouse gases that it adsorbs and that the emissions reduction is required in the energy sector, which is responsible for 92% of the total. PMID:12407901

  10. The Mycetophagidae (Coleoptera) of the Maritime Provinces of Canada

    PubMed Central

    Majka, Christopher G.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The Mycetophagidae (hairy fungus beetles) of the Maritime Provinces of Canada are surveyed. Seven species in the genera Mycetophagus, Litargus, and Typhaea are found in the region. Six new provincial records are reported including Mycetophagus punctatus and Mycetophagus flexuosus, whichare newly recorded in the Maritime Provinces. The distribution of all species is mapped, colour habitus photographs of all species are figured, and an identification key to species is provided. The discussion notes that four of the species found in the region are apparently rare, possibly due to the history of forest management practices in the region; a situation similar to that of a significant proportion of other saproxylic beetles found in the Maritime Provinces. PMID:21594022

  11. The mycetophagidae (coleoptera) of the maritime provinces of Canada.

    PubMed

    Majka, Christopher G

    2010-01-01

    The Mycetophagidae (hairy fungus beetles) of the Maritime Provinces of Canada are surveyed. Seven species in the genera Mycetophagus, Litargus, and Typhaea are found in the region. Six new provincial records are reported including Mycetophagus punctatus and Mycetophagus flexuosus, whichare newly recorded in the Maritime Provinces. The distribution of all species is mapped, colour habitus photographs of all species are figured, and an identification key to species is provided. The discussion notes that four of the species found in the region are apparently rare, possibly due to the history of forest management practices in the region; a situation similar to that of a significant proportion of other saproxylic beetles found in the Maritime Provinces.

  12. Geological provinces of the near side of the moon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCauley, J.F.; Wilhelms, D.E.

    1971-01-01

    Systematic geologic mapping of the near side of the Moon has provided the basis for defining and delineating the major geological provinces of the near side. From the nature of the provinces and their distribution patterns a general historical sequence evolves. Five main surface-shaping periods are recognized: (1) one of intense early impact cratering; (2) another, probably overlapping the first, during which the impact basins were formed; (3) a prolonged period of varied terra volcanism; (4) a short period of mare volcanism that resulted in filling of the multiring basins; and (5) a period of diminishing volcanic activity continuing up to the time of formation of the last ray craters. ?? 1972.

  13. RTG resource book for western states and provinces: Final proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The Western Interstate Energy Board held a workshop and liaison activities among western states, provinces, and utilities on the formation of Regional Transmission Groups (RTGs). Purpose of the activities was to examine the policy implications for western states and provinces in the formation of RTGs in the West, the implications for western ratepayers and utilities of the RTG formation and potential impacts of RTGs on the western electricity system. The workshop contributed to fulfilling the transmission access and competition objectives of Title VII of the Energy Policy Act of 1992.

  14. Mafic volcaniclastic deposits in flood basalt provinces: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, P.-S.; Ukstins Peate, I.; McClintock, M. K.; Xu, Y. G.; Skilling, I. P.; White, J. D. L.; Houghton, B. F.

    2005-07-01

    Flood volcanic provinces are assumed generally to consist exclusively of thick lavas and shallow intrusive rocks (mostly sills), with any pyroclastic rocks limited to silicic compositions. However, mafic volcaniclastic deposits (MVDs) exist in many provinces, and the eruptions that formed such deposits are potentially meaningful in terms of potential atmospheric impacts and links with mass extinctions. The province where MVDs are the most voluminous—the Siberian Traps—is also the one temporally associated with the greatest Phanerozoic mass extinction. A lot remains to be learned about these deposits and eruptions before a convincing genetic link can be established, but as a first step, this contribution reviews in some detail the current knowledge on MVDs for the provinces in which they are better known, i.e. the North Atlantic Igneous Province (including Greenland, the Faeroe Islands, the British Isles, and tephra layers in the North Sea basin and vicinity), the Ontong Java plateau, the Ferrar, and the Karoo. We also provide a brief overview of what is known about MVDs in other provinces such as the Columbia River Basalts, the Afro-Arabian province, the Deccan Traps, the Siberian Traps, the Emeishan, and an Archean example from Australia. The thickest accumulations of MVDs occur in flood basalt provinces where they underlie the lava pile (Faeroes: > 1 km, Ferrar province: ≥ 400 m, Siberian Traps: 700 m). In the Faeroes case, the great thickness of MVDs can be attributed to accumulation in a local sedimentary basin, but in the Ferrar and Siberian provinces the deposits are widespread (> 3 × 10 5 km 2 for the latter). On the Ontong Java plateau over 300 m of MVDs occur in one drill hole without any overlying lavas. Where the volcaniclastic deposits are sandwiched between lavas, their thickness is much less. In most of the cases reviewed, primary MVDs are predominantly of phreatomagmatic origin, as indicated by the clast assemblage generally consisting of

  15. Some Environmental Consequences of Large Igneous Provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffin, M. F.

    2009-12-01

    The formation of large igneous provinces (LIPs)—continental flood basalts, ‘volcanic’ margins, and oceanic plateaus—may impact the atmosphere, oceans, and biosphere by rapidly releasing huge amounts of particulates, magmatic volatiles (CO2, SO2, Cl, F, etc.), and potentially volatiles (CO2, CH4, SO2, etc.) from intruded sediments (e.g., carbonates, organic-rich shales, evaporites). A key factor affecting the magnitude of volatile release is whether eruptions are subaerial or marine; hydrostatic pressure inhibits vesiculation and degassing of relatively soluble volatile components (H2O, S, Cl, F) in deep water submarine eruptions, although low solubility components (CO2, noble gases) are mostly degassed even at abyssal depths. Directly or indirectly, such injections may cause changes in the atmosphere/ocean system that can lead to perturbations of atmosphere/ocean chemistry, circulation, ecology, and biological productivity. These changes can be global in extent, particularly if environmental conditions were at or near a threshold state or tipping point. LIPs may have been responsible for some of the most dramatic and rapid changes in the global environment. For example, between ~145 and ~50 Ma, the global ocean was characterized by chemical and isotopic variations (especially in C and Sr isotope ratios, trace metal concentrations, and biocalcification), relatively high temperatures, high relative sea level, episodic deposition of black shales (oceanic anoxic events), high production of hydrocarbons, mass extinctions of marine organisms, and radiations of marine flora and fauna. Temporal correlations between the intense pulses of igneous activity associated with LIP formation and environmental changes suggest more than pure coincidence. The 1783-84 eruption of Laki on Iceland provides the only historical record of the type of volcanism that constructs transient LIPs. Although Laki produced a basaltic lava flow representing only ~1% of the volume of a typical

  16. Northeast Atlantic Igneous Province volcanic margin development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mjelde, R.; Breivik, A. J.; Faleide, J. I.

    2009-04-01

    Early Eocene continental breakup in the NE Atlantic Volcanic Province (NAIP) was associated with voluminous extrusive and intrusive magmatism, and initial seafloor spreading produced anomalously thick oceanic crust. Recent publications based on crustal-scale wide-angle seismic data show that there is a positive correlation between igneous crustal thickness (H) and average P-wave velocity (Vp) on all investigated margins in the NAIP. Vp can be used as a proxy for crustal composition, which can be related to the mode of mantle melting. A positive H-Vp correlation indicates that excessive mantle melting the first few million years after breakup was driven by an initial increased temperature that cools off as seafloor spreading develops, consistent with a mantle plume model. Variations in mantle composition can explain excess magmatism, but will generate a negative H-Vp correlation. Active mantle convection may increase the flux of mantle rocks through the melting zone above the rate of passive corner flow, which can also produce excessive magmatism. This would produce little H-Vp correlation, and place the curve lower than the passive flow melting curve in the diagram. We have compiled earlier published results with our own analyses of published and unpublished data from different groups to look for systematic variations in the mantle melting mode along the NAIP margins. Earlier studies (Holbrook et al., 2002, White et al, 2008) on the southeast Greenland conjugate system, indicate that the thick igneous crust of the southern NAIP (SE Greenland ? Hatton Bank) was dominated by increased mantle temperature only, while magmatism closer to the southern side of and including the Greenland-Iceland-Færøy Ridge (GIFR) was created by combined temperature increase and active mantle convection. Recent publications (Breivik et al., 2008, White et al, 2008) north of the GIFR for the Norway Basin segment, indicate temperature dominated magmatism between the Jan Mayen Fracture

  17. Magmatic systems of large continental igneous province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, Evgenii

    2014-05-01

    Large igneous provinces (LIPs) of the modern type are known from the middle Paleoproterozoic and have a great abundance in the Phanerozoic. The most researches considered their appearance with ascending of the mantle thermochemical superplumes which provided simultaneously eruption of the same type of lavas on the huge territories. Judging on presence among them different subprovinces, formation of concrete magmatic systems were linked with protuberances (secondary plumes) on the superplumes surfaces. We suggest that origin of such plumes was linked with local enrichment of upper part of the superplumes head beneath roofing by fluid components; it led to lowering of the plume material density and initiated ascending of the secondary plumes. As a result, their heads, where partial melting occurred, can reach the level of the upper crust as it follows from absence of lower-crustal rocks among xenoliths in basalts, although mantle xenoliths existed in them. Important feature of LIPs is presence of two major types of mafic lavas: (1) geochemical-enriched alkali Fe-Ti basalts and picrites, and (2) basalts of normal alkalinity (tholeiites) with different contents of TiO2. At that the first type of mafites are usually typical for lower parts of LIPs which initially developed as continental rifts, whereas the second type composed the upper part of the traps' cover. Magmatic systems of the LIPs are subdivided on three levels of different deep: (1) zones of magma generation, (2) areas of transitional magma chambers where large often layered intrusive bodies are formed, and (3) areas on surface where lava eruptions and subvolcanic intrusions occurred. All these levels are linked by feeder dykes. The least known element of the system is area of magma generation, and, especially, composition of melting substratum. Important information about it is contained in aforementioned mantle xenoliths in alkali basalts and basanites. They practically everywhere are represented by two

  18. Large-Scale Survey for Tickborne Bacteria, Khammouan Province, Laos.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Andrew J; Vongphayloth, Khamsing; Vongsouvath, Malavanh; Grandadam, Marc; Brey, Paul T; Newton, Paul N; Sutherland, Ian W; Dittrich, Sabine

    2016-09-01

    We screened 768 tick pools containing 6,962 ticks from Khammouan Province, Laos, by using quantitative real-time PCR and identified Rickettsia spp., Ehrlichia spp., and Borrelia spp. Sequencing of Rickettsia spp.-positive and Borrelia spp.-positive pools provided evidence for distinct genotypes. Our results identified bacteria with human disease potential in ticks in Laos. PMID:27532491

  19. Assessment of Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis in Two Provinces of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    TATAR, Dursun; SENOL, Gunes; ALPTEKIN, Serpil; GUNES, Ebru; AYDIN, Mert; GUNES, Ozdal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the main health issues in Turkey. Extrapulmonary TB cases have significant proportion comparing pulmonary TB cases. The aim of the study was to evaluate the extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) cases in two regions of Turkey, which have different demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, EPTB cases between 2000 and 2005 in Van and Izmir Provinces of Turkey were analyzed and compared for symptoms, age groups, vaccination status, diagnostic procedures and social-economical conditions within two provinces. Descriptive analytic methods were used. Results: Total of 397 EPTB cases were reviewed retrospectively in Izmir and Van provinces. Pleural TB was most often seen EPTB form (47.6% vs. 32.6%) and female/male ratio was similar in both groups. Patients were in older ages in Izmir Province. Chest pain (20% vs. 32%), cough (33% vs. 26%) and night sweatiness (29% vs. 36%) were leading complaints. Low BCG vaccination rate and higher childhood EPTB were found in Van group, in contrary elderly EPTB was more often in of Izmir group. Conclusion: Frequency of severe forms of EPTB is more often in younger ages in lower social economical condition areas. PMID:27141492

  20. Indians of Quebec and the Maritime Provinces (An Historical Review).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Giving the history of the Indians of Quebec and the maritime provinces (Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, the Prince Edward Island), this document covers the period from the arrival of European explorers in the New World to 1967. Reviewing the history of these Indians, sections are devoted to (1) colonization of Acadia, (2) colonization of Quebec, (3)…

  1. Farmers' Learning Strategies in the Province of Esfahan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karbasioun, Mostafa; Biemans, Harm; Mulder, Martin

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate changes in farming and to look at how farmers adapt to diverse changes in and around their farms in the province of Esfahan, Iran. It is part of a larger project aimed at developing a job competency profile for agricultural extension instructors (AEIs). One hundred and two farmers who had previously followed…

  2. Origins of large igneous provinces: Thermal or chemical? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korenaga, J.

    2010-12-01

    Large igneous provinces such as continental flood basalts and oceanic plateaus are commonly believed to be caused by massive thermal anomalies in the mantle, or more specifically, mantle plume heads possibly rising from the core-mantle boundary. The existence of such plume heads is more elusive than that of mantle plumes, because there is no currently ongoing formation of continental flood basalt or oceanic plateau, so potential evidence for plume heads must come from the detailed analysis of their fossil traces, i.e., their melting products represented as igneous crust. Compared to petrological and geochemical inference based on surface lavas, seismological studies on large igneous provinces have the advantage of probing the entire crustal section, thereby providing potentially more robust constraints on primary melt composition and the nature of the source mantle. In this talk, I will review the debates over the North Atlantic igneous province, which includes the Iceland hotspot, as well as discuss the prospects of studying oceanic plateaus for providing key information to resolve the origins of large igneous provinces.

  3. EMAP-VIRGINIAN PROVINCE FOUR YEAR ASSESSMENT (1990-1993)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessments with the four years (1990-93) of ecological condition data collected by the USEPA Environmntal Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) in estuaries of the Virginian Biogeographic Province (Cape Henry to Cape Cod) were presented. EMAP data were used to quantify, with ...

  4. [Epidemiology of caprine and ovine brucellosis in Formosa province, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Russo, Ana M; Mancebo, Orlando A; Monzón, Carlos M; Gait, Juan J; Casco, Rubén D; Torioni de Echaide, Susana M

    2016-01-01

    An epidemiological study of brucellosis was carried out in 516 goats and mixed flocks (goat/sheep) from the three agro-ecological regions of Formosa province, Argentina. Serum samples from a total of 25401 goats and 2453 sheeps were analyzed using buffered plate agglutination test (BPAT) and complement fixation test (CFT). Bacteriological and PCR analyses on milk samples from goats in three flocks with a history of brucellosis and recent abortions were also performed. Brucellosis was detected in four of the nine departments of the province with an overall prevalence of 2% and an intra-flock prevalence ranging between 1% and 40%. The proportion of infected flocks was 3.6%, 12% and 36% for the eastern, central and western regions, respectively. Brucella melitensis bv. 1 was isolated efrom goats for the first time in the province. The expected fragments of 827bp from the omp2ab gene (Brucella spp.) and 731bp from the insert IS711 (B. melitensis) were amplified by PCR. Detection of antibodies by BPAT and FCT in sheep cohabiting with goats suggests that infections could have been caused by B. melitensis, posing an additional risk to public health. Control and eradication programs for brucellosis should consider mixed flocks as a single epidemiological unit. The results indicate that brucellosis by B. melitensis bv1 is highly endemic in the central and western regions of Formosa province.

  5. [Epidemiology of caprine and ovine brucellosis in Formosa province, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Russo, Ana M; Mancebo, Orlando A; Monzón, Carlos M; Gait, Juan J; Casco, Rubén D; Torioni de Echaide, Susana M

    2016-01-01

    An epidemiological study of brucellosis was carried out in 516 goats and mixed flocks (goat/sheep) from the three agro-ecological regions of Formosa province, Argentina. Serum samples from a total of 25401 goats and 2453 sheeps were analyzed using buffered plate agglutination test (BPAT) and complement fixation test (CFT). Bacteriological and PCR analyses on milk samples from goats in three flocks with a history of brucellosis and recent abortions were also performed. Brucellosis was detected in four of the nine departments of the province with an overall prevalence of 2% and an intra-flock prevalence ranging between 1% and 40%. The proportion of infected flocks was 3.6%, 12% and 36% for the eastern, central and western regions, respectively. Brucella melitensis bv. 1 was isolated efrom goats for the first time in the province. The expected fragments of 827bp from the omp2ab gene (Brucella spp.) and 731bp from the insert IS711 (B. melitensis) were amplified by PCR. Detection of antibodies by BPAT and FCT in sheep cohabiting with goats suggests that infections could have been caused by B. melitensis, posing an additional risk to public health. Control and eradication programs for brucellosis should consider mixed flocks as a single epidemiological unit. The results indicate that brucellosis by B. melitensis bv1 is highly endemic in the central and western regions of Formosa province. PMID:26969324

  6. Peste des petits ruminants virus in Heilongjiang province, China, 2014.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingfei; Wang, Miao; Wang, Shida; Liu, Zaisi; Shen, Nan; Si, Wei; Sun, Gang; Drewe, Julian A; Cai, Xuehui

    2015-04-01

    During March 25-May 5, 2014, we investigated 11 outbreaks of peste des petits ruminants in Heilongjiang Province, China. We found that the most likely source of the outbreaks was animals from livestock markets in Shandong. Peste des petits ruminants viruses belonging to lineages II and IV were detected in sick animals. PMID:25811935

  7. Large-Scale Survey for Tickborne Bacteria, Khammouan Province, Laos

    PubMed Central

    Vongphayloth, Khamsing; Vongsouvath, Malavanh; Grandadam, Marc; Brey, Paul T.; Newton, Paul N.; Sutherland, Ian W.; Dittrich, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    We screened 768 tick pools containing 6,962 ticks from Khammouan Province, Laos, by using quantitative real-time PCR and identified Rickettsia spp., Ehrlichia spp., and Borrelia spp. Sequencing of Rickettsia spp.–positive and Borrelia spp.–positive pools provided evidence for distinct genotypes. Our results identified bacteria with human disease potential in ticks in Laos. PMID:27532491

  8. Peste des petits ruminants virus in Heilongjiang province, China, 2014.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingfei; Wang, Miao; Wang, Shida; Liu, Zaisi; Shen, Nan; Si, Wei; Sun, Gang; Drewe, Julian A; Cai, Xuehui

    2015-04-01

    During March 25-May 5, 2014, we investigated 11 outbreaks of peste des petits ruminants in Heilongjiang Province, China. We found that the most likely source of the outbreaks was animals from livestock markets in Shandong. Peste des petits ruminants viruses belonging to lineages II and IV were detected in sick animals.

  9. Special Education in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Peter R.; Matthews, Barbara S.

    The report is based on a study of special education in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The educational structure of the province is discussed in the first section, with information on administration and policy formation. Information on general education at the preschool, primary, and adult levels is presented along with an overview of special education…

  10. [Calculation of regional carbon emission: a case of Guangdong Province].

    PubMed

    Zhai, Shi-Yan; Wang, Zheng; Ma, Xiao-Zhe; Huang, Rui; Liu, Chang-Xin; Zhu, Yong-Bin

    2011-06-01

    By using IPCC carbon emission calculation formula (2006 edition), economy-carbon emission dynamic model, and cement carbon emission model, a regional carbon emission calculation framework was established, and, taking Guangdong Province as a case, its energy consumption carbon emission, cement production CO2 emission, and forest carbon sink values in 2008-2050 were predicted, based on the socio-economic statistical data, energy consumption data, cement production data, and forest carbon sink data of the Province. In 2008-2050, the cement production CO2 emission in the Province would be basically stable, with an annual carbon emission being 10-15 Mt C, the energy consumption carbon emission and the total carbon emission would be in inverse U-shape, with the peaks occurred in 2035 and 2036, respectively, and the carbon emission intensity would be decreased constantly while the forest carbon sink would have a fluctuated decline. It was feasible and reasonable to use the regional carbon emission calculation framework established in this paper to calculate the carbon emission in Guangdong Province. PMID:21941757

  11. Cancer epidemiology and trends in Sistan and Baluchestan province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rafiemanesh, Hosein; Mehtarpoor, Mojtaba; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Salehiniya, Hamid; Enayatrad, Mostafa; Khazaei, Salman

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cancer is the second leading cause of death in developing countries. In Iran, cancer is the third cause of death. The present study aimed at providing the incidence rates (crude and agestandardized) of different types of cancers in Sistan and Baluchestan province (Southeastern of Iran). Methods: Data were collected retrospectively reviewing all new cancer patients registered in Cancer Registry Center of Health Heputy for Sistan and Baluchestan province. Common cancers were defined based on the number of cases and standardized incidence rates. To compute the annual percentage change (APC), joinpoint 4.1.1.1 software was applied. Results: A total of 3535 cases of cancers registered during 2004-2009 were identified. Of these, 46.82% occurred in females and 53.18% in males. The most frequent cancer in women was breast cancer followed by esophagus, skin, colorectal and leukemia. The 5 most frequent cancers in men were stomach, skin, leukemia, esophagus and bladder. Joinpoint analyze showed a significant increasing trend for adjusted standard incidence rate (ASIR) for both sexes (p<0.05). Conclusion: According to The results of the present study and comparison to previous studies for other provinces in Iran, cancer incidence in Sistan and Baluchistan is less common but trends of cancers are increasing in Sistan and Baluchestan Province. It is necessary to have a comprehensive health policy for prevention and control of this problem. PMID:26793645

  12. Uranium provinces of North America; their definition, distribution, and models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finch, Warren Irvin

    1996-01-01

    Uranium resources in North America are principally in unconformity-related, quartz-pebble conglomerate, sandstone, volcanic, and phosphorite types of uranium deposits. Most are concentrated in separate, well-defined metallogenic provinces. Proterozoic quartz-pebble conglomerate and unconformity-related deposits are, respectively, in the Blind River?Elliot Lake (BRELUP) and the Athabasca Basin (ABUP) Uranium Provinces in Canada. Sandstone uranium deposits are of two principal subtypes, tabular and roll-front. Tabular sandstone uranium deposits are mainly in upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks in the Colorado Plateau Uranium Province (CPUP). Roll-front sandstone uranium deposits are in Tertiary rocks of the Rocky Mountain and Intermontane Basins Uranium Province (RMIBUP), and in a narrow belt of Tertiary rocks that form the Gulf Coastal Uranium Province (GCUP) in south Texas and adjacent Mexico. Volcanic uranium deposits are concentrated in the Basin and Range Uranium Province (BRUP) stretching from the McDermitt caldera at the Oregon-Nevada border through the Marysvale district of Utah and Date Creek Basin in Arizona and south into the Sierra de Pe?a Blanca District, Chihuahua, Mexico. Uraniferous phosphorite occurs in Tertiary sediments in Florida, Georgia, and North and South Carolina and in the Lower Permian Phosphoria Formation in Idaho and adjacent States, but only in Florida has economic recovery been successful. The Florida Phosphorite Uranium Province (FPUP) has yielded large quantities of uranium as a byproduct of the production of phosphoric acid fertilizer. Economically recoverable quantities of copper, gold, molybdenum, nickel, silver, thorium, and vanadium occur with the uranium deposits in some provinces. Many major epochs of uranium mineralization occurred in North America. In the BRELUP, uranium minerals were concentrated in placers during the Early Proterozoic (2,500?2,250 Ma). In the ABUP, the unconformity-related deposits were most likely formed

  13. Geographic Mapping of Crohn's Disease and Its Relation to Affluence in Jiangsu Province, an Eastern Coastal Province of China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Dong; Ren, Jianan; Wang, Gefei; Gu, Guosheng; Liu, Song; Wu, Xiuwen; Chen, Jun; Ren, Huajian; Hong, Zhiwu; Li, Jieshou

    2014-01-01

    Background. Geographical variation in the incidence of Crohn's disease (CD) has been reported in Europe and North American. However, there are no comparable data in mainland China. Methods. We retrospectively identified incident cases of CD patients registered in Jinling hospital during 2003 to 2012. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated for each area of Jiangsu province and a thematic map of CD was made according to the local SIR. The association between incidence and local economic status was revealed by correlation between SIR of CD and different local economic indicators. Results. A total of 653 CD patients (male-to-female ratio, 1.8 : 1) from Jiangsu province were included. A steady increase was observed in the number of CD patients over the period of observation. Disease map of SIR showed a pronounced geographic concentration of CD in the south part of Jiangsu province. Spearman correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between local SIR of CD and local economic indicators. Conclusions. There is a marked geographic variability in CD incidence across Jiangsu province. CD incidence in affluent areas seems to be higher than that in less affluent areas. Further multicenter population-based studies are needed to assess the real disease map of CD. PMID:24839438

  14. Research and implementation of good agricultural practice for traditional Chinese medicinal materials in Jilin Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Changtian; Yan, Zhengfei; Zhang, Lianxue; Li, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Jilin Province is one of the principal production bases of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in China with its typical preponderance in TCM resources, research and development power, and industrialization capacity. The province has 2,790 species of TCM materials in total. Over 20% of the TCM materials in common use are from Jilin Province. The province has established 36 good agricultural practice bases for 22 typical TCMs. The overall situation, in terms of collection, processing, and preparation, and the implementation of good agricultural practice of TCM materials in Jilin Province are summarized. PMID:25379000

  15. Atmospheric PCO₂ perturbations associated with the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province.

    PubMed

    Schaller, Morgan F; Wright, James D; Kent, Dennis V

    2011-03-18

    The effects of a large igneous province on the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (PCO₂) are mostly unknown. In this study, we estimate PCO₂ from stable isotopic values of pedogenic carbonates interbedded with volcanics of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) in the Newark Basin, eastern North America. We find pre-CAMP PCO₂ values of ~2000 parts per million (ppm), increasing to ~4400 ppm immediately after the first volcanic unit, followed by a steady decrease toward pre-eruptive levels over the subsequent 300 thousand years, a pattern that is repeated after the second and third flow units. We interpret each PCO₂ increase as a direct response to magmatic activity (primary outgassing or contact metamorphism). The systematic decreases in PCO₂ after each magmatic episode probably reflect consumption of atmospheric CO₂ by weathering of silicates, stimulated by fresh CAMP volcanics.

  16. Checklists of Parasites of Farm Fishes of Babylon Province, Iraq.

    PubMed

    Mhaisen, Furhan T; Al-Rubaie, Abdul-Razzak L

    2016-01-01

    Literature reviews of all references concerning the parasitic fauna of fishes in fish farms of Babylon province, middle of Iraq, showed that a total of 92 valid parasite species are so far known from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), and the silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) as well as from three freshwater fish species (Carassius auratus, Liza abu, and Heteropneustes fossilis) which were found in some fish farms of the same province. The parasitic fauna included one mastigophoran, three apicomplexans, 13 ciliophorans, five myxozoans, five trematodes, 45 monogeneans, five cestodes, three nematodes, two acanthocephalans, nine arthropods, and one mollusc. The common carp was found to harbour 81 species of parasites, the grass carp 30 species, the silver carp 28 species, L. abu 13 species, C. auratus one species, and H. fossilis one species. A host-parasite list for each fish species was also provided. PMID:27559480

  17. The Basin and Range Province in Utah, Nevada, and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nolan, Thomas B.

    1943-01-01

    In this report an attempt has been made to summarize and in places to interpret the published information that was available through 1938 on the geology of those parts of Nevada, California, and Utah that are included in the geologic province known as the Basin and Range province. This region includes most of the Great Basin, from which no water flows to the sea, as well as part of the drainage basin of the lower Colorado River. It is characterized by numerous parallel, linear mountain ranges that are separated from one another by wide valleys or topographic basins. All the major divisions of geologic time are represented by the rocks exposed in this region. The oldest are of pre-Cambrian age and crop out chiefly along the eastern and southern borders. They have been carefully studied at only a few localities, and the correlation and extent of the subdivision so far recognized is uncertain. There appear to be at least three series of pre-Cambrian rocks which are probably separated from one another by profound unconformities. Large masses of intrusive igneous rocks have been recognized only in the oldest series. During the Paleozoic era the region was a part of the Cordilleran geosyncline, and sediments were deposited during all of the major and most of the minor subdivisions of the era. There are thick and widespread accumulations of Cambrian and Ordovician strata, the maximum aggregate thickness possibly exceeding 23,000 feet. The eastern and western boundaries of the province were approximately those of the area of rapid subsidence within the geosyncline, though the axes of maximum subsidence oscillated back and forth during the two periods. The Silurian and Devonian seas, on the other hand, extended beyond the province and, possibly as a consequence, are represented by much thinner sections - of the order of 6,000 feet. At the end of the Devonian period the geosyncline was split by the emergence of a geanticline in western Nevada, and Mississippian and

  18. The east coast petroleum province: Science and society

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jordan, R.R.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Atlantic offshore, especially the mid-Atlantic, was an exciting exploration area from the 1970s into the 1980s. Much pioneering 'frontier' activity in both scientific and policy matters occurred in this area. Although production was not achieved, objective geological evidence indicates that the province does have potential. Major population centers of the mid-Atlantic area demand large amounts of energy and enormous amounts of crude and product are shipped through East Coast waters. Nevertheless, exploration has been shut down by moratoria, environmental concerns, and international pricing. It is suggested that the province will be revisited in the future and that the geologic and environmental information that has been generated at great cost should be preserved for use by the next generation of explorationists and policy-makers.

  19. [Evaluation of sustainable utilization of fishery resources in Guangdong Province].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zuo-Zhi; Lin, Zhao-Jin; Qiu, Yong-Song

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable utilization of fishery resources is the key for the sustainable development of fisheries, and its evaluation is a critical topic in the management of fisheries. Based on the theories of sustainable utilization, an index system suitable for the evaluation of the sustainable utilization of fishery resources in Guangdong Province was established, and a hierarchy and comprehensive grey evaluation model was adopted to evaluate this sustainable utilization in 1978-2007. In the study period, the utilization level of fishery resources in this province had an overall decrease, being the lowest in 1998, only 37.3% of that in 1978; but in the nearest 10 years, this utilization level had an increasing trend, with that in 2007 being 55.1% of 1978. The results of comprehensive evaluation were consistent with the observed facts, indicating that the model was feasible to evaluate the sustainable utilization of regional fishery resources.

  20. Supervolcanoes within an ancient volcanic province in Arabia Terra, Mars.

    PubMed

    Michalski, Joseph R; Bleacher, Jacob E

    2013-10-01

    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars, represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized Martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae possess a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulphur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas probably fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. The discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars.

  1. Demand Response in the West: Lessons for States and Provinces

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas C. Larson; Matt Lowry; Sharon Irwin

    2004-06-29

    OAK-B135 This paper is submitted in fulfillment of DOE Grant No. DE-FG03-015F22369 on the experience of western states/provinces with demand response (DR) in the electricity sector. Demand-side resources are often overlooked as a viable option for meeting load growth and addressing the challenges posed by the region's aging transmission system. Western states should work together with utilities and grid operators to facilitate the further deployment of DR programs which can provide benefits in the form of decreased grid congestion, improved system reliability, market efficiency, price stabilization, hedging against volatile fuel prices and reduced environmental impacts of energy production. This report describes the various types of DR programs; provides a survey of DR programs currently in place in the West; considers the benefits, drawbacks and barriers to DR; and presents lessons learned and recommendations for states/provinces.

  2. Supervolcanoes within an ancient volcanic province in Arabia Terra, Mars.

    PubMed

    Michalski, Joseph R; Bleacher, Jacob E

    2013-10-01

    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars, represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized Martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae possess a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulphur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas probably fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. The discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars. PMID:24091975

  3. Benthic foraminifera of the Panamanian Province: distribution and origins.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crouch, R.W.; Poag, C.W.

    1987-01-01

    Two hundred twenty-nine species of benthic foraminifera have been identified from 96 stations representing 33 localities on the eastern Pacific inner continental shelf, ranging from southern Peru to northern Baja California. Their distributions mark nearshore provincial boundaries that are nearly identical with those previously documented from the distribution of ostracodes and molluscs. Thirteen species are characteristic of the Panamanian Province, one is characteristic of the Chilean-Peruvian Province, and one is characteristic of the newly proposed Sonoran Subprovince. Seventeen species (7%) appear to be endemic to the eastern Pacific. Fifty-eight (25%) of the species recognized are disjunct from population centers in the western Pacific, 134 species (59%) are disjunct from modern assemblages of the Atlanto-Carribean region, and 40 species (17%) are disjunct from both the western Pacific and the Atlanto-Caribbean. The distribution of the remaining 57 species (25%) is poorly documented; we classify them as of unknown origin. -Authors

  4. Atmospheric PCO₂ perturbations associated with the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province.

    PubMed

    Schaller, Morgan F; Wright, James D; Kent, Dennis V

    2011-03-18

    The effects of a large igneous province on the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (PCO₂) are mostly unknown. In this study, we estimate PCO₂ from stable isotopic values of pedogenic carbonates interbedded with volcanics of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) in the Newark Basin, eastern North America. We find pre-CAMP PCO₂ values of ~2000 parts per million (ppm), increasing to ~4400 ppm immediately after the first volcanic unit, followed by a steady decrease toward pre-eruptive levels over the subsequent 300 thousand years, a pattern that is repeated after the second and third flow units. We interpret each PCO₂ increase as a direct response to magmatic activity (primary outgassing or contact metamorphism). The systematic decreases in PCO₂ after each magmatic episode probably reflect consumption of atmospheric CO₂ by weathering of silicates, stimulated by fresh CAMP volcanics. PMID:21330490

  5. Checklists of Parasites of Farm Fishes of Babylon Province, Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rubaie, Abdul-Razzak L.

    2016-01-01

    Literature reviews of all references concerning the parasitic fauna of fishes in fish farms of Babylon province, middle of Iraq, showed that a total of 92 valid parasite species are so far known from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), and the silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) as well as from three freshwater fish species (Carassius auratus, Liza abu, and Heteropneustes fossilis) which were found in some fish farms of the same province. The parasitic fauna included one mastigophoran, three apicomplexans, 13 ciliophorans, five myxozoans, five trematodes, 45 monogeneans, five cestodes, three nematodes, two acanthocephalans, nine arthropods, and one mollusc. The common carp was found to harbour 81 species of parasites, the grass carp 30 species, the silver carp 28 species, L. abu 13 species, C. auratus one species, and H. fossilis one species. A host-parasite list for each fish species was also provided. PMID:27559480

  6. Supervolcanoes Within an Ancient Volcanic Province in Arabia Terra, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michalski, Joseph. R.; Bleacher, Jacob E.

    2014-01-01

    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae display a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism, and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulfur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas likely fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. Discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars.

  7. Ground-water geology of Kordofan Province, Sudan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodis, Harry G.; Hassan, Abdulla; Wahadan, Lutfi

    1968-01-01

    For much of Kordofan Province, surface-water supplies collected and stored in hafirs, fulas, and tebeldi trees are almost completely appropriated for present needs, and water from wells must serve as the base for future economic and cultural development. This report describes the results of a reconnaissance hydrogeologic investigation of the Province and the nature and distribution of the ground-water resources with respect to their availability for development. Kordofan Province, in central Sudan, lies within the White Nile-Nile River drainage basin. The land surface is largely a plain of low relief; jebels (hills) occur sporadically, and sandy soils are common in most areas except in the south where clayey soils predominate. Seasonal rainfall, ranging from less than 100 millimeters in the north to about 800 millimeters in the south, occurs almost entirely during the summer months, but little runoff ever reaches the Nile or White Nile Rivers. The rocks beneath the surficial depsits (Pleistocene to Recent) in the Province comprise the basement complex (Precambrian), Nawa Series (upper Paleozoic), Nubian Series (Mesozoic), laterite (lower to middle Tertiary), and the Umm Ruwaba Series (Pliocene to Pleistocene). Perennial ground-water supplies in the Province are found chiefly in five hydrologic units, each having distinct geologic or hydrologic characteristics. These units occur in Nubian or Umm Ruwaba strata or both, and the sandstone and conglomerate beds form the :principal aquifers. The water is generally under slight artesian head, and the upper surface of the zone of saturation ranges from about 50 meters to 160 meters below land surface. The surficial deposits and basement rocks are generally poor sources of ground water in most of the Province. Supplies from such sources are commonly temporary and may dissipate entirely during the dry season. Locally, however, perennial supplies are obtained from the surficial deposits and from the basement rocks. Generally

  8. Patients' satisfaction evaluation with the health center of elis province.

    PubMed

    Karavida, Angeliki; Stamouli, Maria-Aggeliki; Balis, Charalampos

    2014-01-01

    Patient satisfaction related to the provided health services is a key indicator of the quality of the health sector. The SERVQUAL model was employed as a way of measuring the level of patient satisfaction with the services of the Health Center of Elis Province. Although certain aspects such as "Assurance" and "Empathy" meet the users' needs, improvements like a detailed medical record and an overhaul of the equipment need to be introduced. PMID:25000072

  9. The southeastern Dronning Maud Land province in East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mieth, Matthias; Jokat, Wilfried; Jacobs, Joachim; Ruppel, Antonia; Damaske, Detlef; Läufer, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Systematic airborne geophysical surveys conducted by the Alfred-Wegener-Institute over the last decades have investigated a significant part of Dronning Maud Land in East Antarctica and have revealed, amongst other findings, an aerogeophysical prominent province in southeastern Dronning Maud Land. Both its magnetic and gravity signature differs from those of the western and southwestern Dronning Maud Land, and we assume that it represents a distinct tectonic terrane. This province is characterized by a subdued magnetic anomaly field with elongated parallel positive anomalies, which are truncated by the Forster magnetic anomaly in the northwest, are flanked by the complex magnetic anomaly pattern of the Sør Rondane Mountains in the northeast, and continue presumably farther eastwards. Pronounced negative values of Bouguer gravity indicate thick continental crust of up to 50 km for this region in contrast to significantly higher values of Bouguer gravity in western and southwestern Dronning Maud Land. A few nunataks crop out within the northern portion of this province between the Wohlthat-Massiv and the Sør Rondane Mountains. In 2011 and 2012 collected rock samples from these nunataks and nearby moraines show a predominance of metasedimentary rocks of yet unknown age. Furthermore, undeformed late- to post-tectonic granitoids have been discovered within the southeastern DML province. The conclusions of these findings revise the speculation of a continuous suture zone connecting the Shackleton Range south of Coats Land in the west and the Lützow Holm Bay region in the east and supplement the hypotheses that East-Antarctica is rather a mosaic of different crustal fragments composed of Archaean nucleoids and of Proterozoic to Palaeozoic mobile belts, than to be primarily one stable craton.

  10. Northeast Basin and Range province active tectonics: An alternative view

    SciTech Connect

    Westaway, R. )

    1989-09-01

    Slip rates and slip vector azimuths on major active oblique normal faults are used to investigate whether circulation associated with the Yellowstone upwelling plume is driving tectonic deformation in the northeast Basin and Range province. Observed deformation is consistent with this suggestion; the plume is sheared to the southwest by motion of the North American plate. Testable predictions are made for structure and evolution of the region.

  11. HIV Infection--Guangdong Province, China, 1997-2007.

    PubMed

    2009-04-24

    In 2007, an estimated 700,000 persons in China were living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. An estimated 50,000 new HIV infections and 20,000 deaths related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) occurred in 2007, and an estimated 71% of persons with HIV infection were unaware of their HIV status. In 2007, 40.6% of those living with HIV had been infected through heterosexual transmission and 38.1% through injection-drug use. Guangdong Province in southeastern China is the country's most populous province, with an estimated 75.6 million permanent residents and 16.5 million migrants; the province has undergone rapid economic development. Since 1986, a case-based surveillance system (CBSS) in China has collected data on persons infected with HIV, including demographic characteristics and transmission categories. To assess recent trends in HIV infection in the province, the Guangdong Center for Disease Control, with technical assistance from CDC, analyzed CBSS data for the period 1997--2007. The results of that analysis indicated that the number of HIV cases increased from 102 in 1997 to 4,593 in 2007, although this increase resulted, in part, from expanded testing and surveillance. Among males classified by HIV transmission category, 82.1% of newly diagnosed infections were attributed to injection-drug use. Among females classified by HIV transmission category, 53.7% engaged in high-risk heterosexual conduct. Despite substantial methodologic limitations, these results can be useful to Guangdong public health agencies in targeting and evaluating HIV prevention, care, and treatment programs. PMID:19390507

  12. Patients' satisfaction evaluation with the health center of elis province.

    PubMed

    Karavida, Angeliki; Stamouli, Maria-Aggeliki; Balis, Charalampos

    2014-01-01

    Patient satisfaction related to the provided health services is a key indicator of the quality of the health sector. The SERVQUAL model was employed as a way of measuring the level of patient satisfaction with the services of the Health Center of Elis Province. Although certain aspects such as "Assurance" and "Empathy" meet the users' needs, improvements like a detailed medical record and an overhaul of the equipment need to be introduced.

  13. The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province extends into Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Hervé; Fornari, Michel; Marzoli, Andrea; García-Duarte, Raúl; Sempere, Thierry

    2014-02-01

    The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) is the largest continental flood basalt (CFB) province on Earth and was associated with the onset of fragmentation of the supercontinent Pangea at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. In order to clarify the extent of the CAMP in South America, we investigate basaltic remnants in southern Bolivia (Tarabuco, Entre Ríos and Camiri areas) by combining stratigraphic, geochronological (40Ar/39Ar data) and geochemical (major and trace element, Nd-Sr isotopes) approaches. Lava-flows reaching a total thickness up to 150 m and associated sills overlie syn-rift red beds assigned to the Triassic. The magmatic rocks consist of low-Ti tholeiites that are remarkably homogeneous in composition. Notably, their trace element and Nd-Sr isotopic compositions closely match those of CAMP basalts particularly those of southwest Brazil. 40Ar/39Ar dating failed to yield robust plateau ages but the best estimates of the crystallization age at 198.1 ± 1.5 and 199.2 ± 2.2 Ma are similar to those of CAMP basalts throughout the province. These Bolivian basalts, which may have covered an initial surface of ~ 30,000 km2, represent the known southernmost occurrence of the CAMP. They were erupted as a single pulse, more than 8000 km away from the northern edge of the province. We discuss the implications of such a huge elongated CFB for the current plume models and we suggest, as an alternative, that large-scale melting beneath the Pangea supercontinent due to mantle global warming could have triggered the emplacement of the CAMP.

  14. Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Isfahan Province.

    PubMed

    Nokhodian, Zary; Adibi, Peyman; Ataei, Behrooz

    2014-12-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a serious global health problem. It is estimated that 1.5-2.5 million people are suffering from this infection in Iran. A review on HBV infection prevalence in Isfahan, Iran is conducted in this article. It will help researchers for further studies and also will be helpful for control the infection. Medline, Embase, Ovid, Google Scholar, Scientific Information Database, Iranmedex, Magiran and Scientific Journal of Iran Blood Transfusion Organization and also students' thesis and projects of Isfahan and Kashan universities of medical sciences were searched for key words "HBV," "HBsAg," "prevalence," "Isfahan," "Esfahan," and "Kashan in titles and/or abstracts. Overall, 24 articles, including 4, 14, 5 and 1 were assessed in Isfahan province, and Isfahan, Kashan, and Foulad-shahr cities, respectively. The highest and lowest participants were 542705 and 73, respectively. The highest prevalence of HBsAg was reported in HIV-infected patients and the lowest one was seen in the thalassemic patients. We collected the articles about the prevalence of HBV in Isfahan to help researchers and determine prevalence HBV in Isfahan province. The similar studies in other province of Iran are necessary for marking decision. PMID:26622989

  15. The petrology of the Chyulu Hills Volcanic Province, southern Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Späth, A.; Le Roex, A. P.; Opiyo-Akech, N.

    2000-08-01

    The Quaternary Chyulu Hills Volcanic Province is located more than 100 km east of the Kenya Rift Valley. It consists of a large number of free-standing and coalesced volcanoes and cinder cones and numerous lava flows ranging in composition from nepheline-normative nephelinites, basanites, alkali basalts and hawaiites to orthopyroxene-normative subalkali basalts. In this paper, the authors briefly outline the geological setting of the Chyulu Hills Volcanic Province, present a classification scheme for its lavas and describe their petrography. Mineral chemistry data for selected olivine and clinopyroxene phenocrysts are presented together with the bulk rock major element compositions of selected samples. The petrography, phenocryst chemistry and bulk rock composition of the typically primitive Chyulu Hills lavas are consistent with a differentiation history dominated by olivine control. A process of delayed olivine fractionation, combined with limited mantle olivine accumulation, is proposed to explain the considerable compositional variability observed among olivine phenocryst cores. A trend of decreasing degree of silica-undersaturation from the oldest lavas, erupted in the northern Chyulu Hills, to progressively younger lavas in the southern part of the province is explained as a result of an age progressive decrease in the depth of melt generation and a coincident increase in the degree of melting.

  16. Petroleum systems of the Malay Basin Province, Malaysia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bishop, Michele G.

    2002-01-01

    The offshore Malay Basin province is a Tertiary oil and gas province composed of a complex of half grabens that were filled by lacustrine shales and continental clastics.These deposits were overlain by clastics of a large delta system that covered the basin.Delta progradation was interupted by transgressions of the South China Sea to the southeast, which finally flooded the basin to form the Gulf of Thailand.Oil and gas from the Oligocene to Miocene lacustrine shales and Miocene deltaic coals is trapped primarily in anticlines formed by inversion of the half grabens during the late Miocene.Hydrocarbon reserves that have been discovered amount to 12 billion barrels of oil equivalent.The U.S. Geological Survey assessment of the estimated quantities of conventional oil, gas and condensate that have the potential to be added to reserves by the year 2025 for this province is 6.3 billion barrels of oil equivalent (BBOE) (U. S. Geological Survey World Energy Assessment Team, 2000).

  17. alpha-thalassemia mutations in Khuzestan Province, Southwest Iran.

    PubMed

    Zandian, Khodamorad; Nateghi, Jamal; Keikhaie, Bijan; Pedram, Mohammad; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hadavi, Valeh; Oberkanins, Christian; Azarkeivan, Azita; Law, Hai-Yang; Najmabadi, Hossein

    2008-01-01

    Although alpha-thalassemia (alpha-thal) is the most common hereditary hemoglobin (Hb) disorder in Iran, no comprehensive data are so far available on the prevalence of the disease in the province of Khuzestan in Southwest Iran. This study investigates the spectrum of alpha-thal mutations in this region. One hundred and twenty-one subjects from Khuzestan Province, Iran, were initially tested for the three most common Iranian alpha-thal mutations (- alpha3.7, -alpha4.2, and --MED) by gap-polymerase chain reaction (gap-PCR). Reverse hybridization test strips and DNA sequencing were used to identify additional alpha-globin mutations. A total of 131 mutated alpha-globin alleles were identified in these patients. Of the 13 mutations that were detected in Khuzestan Province, Iran, the - alpha3.7 single gene deletion was the most frequently identified variant, representing 62.6% of the total; we also observed significant numbers of individuals with compound heterozygous mutations. On the basis of our results, we strongly recommend screening for the most common mutations to improve the molecular diagnosis of anemia in this region.

  18. Spatial and Statistical Analysis of Leptospirosis in Guilan Province, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nia, A. Mohammadi; Alimohammadi, A.; Habibi, R.; Shirzadi, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    The most underdiagnosed water-borne bacterial zoonosis in the world is Leptospirosis which especially impacts tropical and humid regions. According to World Health Organization (WHO), the number of human cases is not known precisely. Available reports showed that worldwide incidences vary from 0.1-1 per 100 000 per year in temperate climates to 10-100 per 100 000 in the humid tropics. Pathogenic bacteria that is spread by the urines of rats is the main reason of water and soil infections. Rice field farmers who are in contact with infected water or soil, contain the most burden of leptospirosis prevalence. In recent years, this zoonotic disease have been occurred in north of Iran endemically. Guilan as the second rice production province (average=750 000 000 Kg, 40% of country production) after Mazandaran, has one of the most rural population (Male=487 679, Female=496 022) and rice workers (47 621 insured workers) among Iran provinces. The main objectives of this study were to analyse yearly spatial distribution and the possible spatial clusters of leptospirosis to better understand epidemiological aspects of them in the province. Survey was performed during the period of 2009-2013 at rural district level throughout the study area. Global clustering methods including the average nearest neighbour distance, Moran's I and General G indices were utilized to investigate the annual spatial distribution of diseases. At the end, significant spatial clusters have been detected with the objective of informing priority areas for public health planning and resource allocation.

  19. The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province: Insights From Fragments of Pangea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hames, W.; McHone, J. G.; Renne, P.; Ruppel, C.

    A singular event in Earth's history occurred roughly 200 million years ago, as rifting of the largest and most recent supercontinent was joined by basaltic volcanism that formed the most extensive large igneous province (LIP) known. A profound and widespread mass extinction of terrestrial and marine genera occurred at about the same time, suggesting a causal link between the biological transitions of the Triassic-Jurassic boundary and massive volcanism. A series of stratigraphic, geochronologic, petrologic, tectonic, and geophysical studies have led to the identification of the dispersed remnants of this Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) on the rifted margins of four continents. Current discoveries are generally interpreted to indicate that CAMP magmatism occurred in a relative and absolute interval of geologic time that was brief, and point to mechanisms of origin and global environmental effects. Because many of these discoveries have occurred within the past several years, in this monograph we summarize new observations and provide an up-to-date review of the province

  20. Investigation of Vegetation Species in Desert Areas of Fars Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fozoni, L.; Fakhireh, A.

    2009-04-01

    The Fars province is located in the south of IRAN, with area of 122830Km2. This areas involved saline and alkaline soils. The aim of this research is investigation of salty lands and vegetation degradation for offering of sociable species for any area. Recognition studying of desert area in Fars province was identified using all available data and using GIS and RS technologies. In this study, main indicators have been appointed using Floristical-Fizionomicaly method. Vegetation per cent, growth form, density and altitude were considered as main indicators. More than 50 species of halophytes were collected and 25 plant types were identified in 17 zones of studied area. The main plant types were as follows: Hammada, Halocnemum-Aeluropus and Halocnemum-limonium. Ultimately, halophytes cover map was prepared. In the end of growth season, 50 soil samples from halophyte types in two horizons 0-30cm and 30-100cm were taken and tested. The result showed, the studied area, has saline lands surface and high salinity land with cover of 9000Km2. Keyword: Saline Soil, Alkaline Soil, Halophytes, Fars Province

  1. Prevalence of helminths in water buffaloes in Hunan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Li, F; Liu, W; Dai, R S; Tan, Y M; He, D S; Lin, R Q; Zhu, X Q

    2009-04-01

    The prevalence of helminths in the Asian water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) was investigated in Hunan Province, People's Republic of China between April 2005 and October 2007. A total of 359 adult buffaloes slaughtered at local abattoirs in 12 representative geographical locations in Hunan Province were examined for the presence of helminths. The worms were examined, counted and identified to species according to existing keys and descriptions. A total of 13 helminth species were found representing one phyla, two classes, eight families and nine genera. All buffaloes were infected by more than one helminth species. 61.8% of the examined buffaloes were infected with Haemonchus contortus, 44.7% with Fasciola hepatica, 24.9% with Fasciola hepatica, 23.5% with Homalogaster paloniae and 23.2% with Setaria labiatopapillosa, whereas the infection of adult buffaloes with cestodes was not detected in the present investigation. The results of the present investigation indicated that the prevalence of nematodes and trematodes in buffaloes is quite severe, some of which pose significant zoonotic public health problems (eg., schistosomiasis). It is imperative that integrated strategies and measures be taken to control helminth infections in buffaloes in Hunan Province and elsewhere.

  2. Development of Dynamically Optimized Wireless Transmission System for Wireless Sensor Networks in Highrise Apartment Building Heating Systems / Optimizētas Dinamiskās Bezvadu Sensoru Tīklu Pārraides Risinājuma Izstrāde Daudzstāvu Ēku Apkures Sistēmas Parametru Izgūšanai Un Vadībai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isakovs, V.; Kondratjevs, K.; Kunicina, N.; Freliha, B.; Zabasta, A.

    2015-08-01

    Smart meters will be at the centre of the integrated solutions, including interaction with other networks in the next decade. The developed solution for multi-apartment building ventilation and heating parameter monitoring aims to increase energy efficiency and optimal control of the existing system. Dynamic control of heat and ventilation systems, heat loss detection, calculation and mitigation, and individual heat energy accounting are difficult tasks to accomplish. This article deals with the data transmission system using battery powered ISM band radio transmitters. The temperature measurement sensors with cumulative temperature reading are used as sensor part for this solution. The offered approach to monitoring system is used for overall building and individual apartment monitoring. Data coding and antenna designs are explained for this particular application. Daudzstāvu ēkas, kuras nav sākotnēji plānotas integrācijai ar ēku vadības sistēmām, rada kompleksu problemātisko vidi modernizācijai. Vadu sensoru sistēmu uzstādīšana šādās ēkās kļūst nepraktiska vai pat neiespējama. Šī iemesla dēļ ir nepieciešamas efektīvas bezvadu sensoru sistēmas, kas spētu nodrošināt mērījumu nogādi, ņemot vērā daudzstāvu ēku specifiku. Rakstā tiek piedāvāts bezvadu sensoru tīkla risinājums efektīvai datu pārraidei siltumapgādes sistēmas parametru izgūšanai. Tiek izstrādāta un aprobēta specializētā virziena antena efektīvai radio telegrammu savākšanai no dzīvokļiem, nogādājot mērījumus datu koncentratoros. Ziņojumu telegrammu efektīvai pārraidei tiek piedāvāta datu kodēšanas kumulatīvā metode. Piedāvātais risinājums pielietojams gan jaunām, gan esošām ēkām. Izgūtie dati ir pielietojami siltuma apgādes sistēmas uzraudzībai, regulēšanai, kā arī individuālā siltuma patēriņa tarifikācijai.

  3. New Aerogeophysical exploration of the Gamburtsev Province (East Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraccioli, F.; Bell, R. E.; Studinger, M.; Damaske, D.; Jordan, T. A.; Corr, H.; Braaten, D. A.; Gogineni, P. S.; Fahnestock, M. A.; Finn, C.; Rose, K.

    2009-12-01

    The enigmatic Gamburstev Subglacial Mountains (GSM) in the interior of East Antarctica, have remained the least understood mountain range on earth, since their discovery some 50 years ago. An improved knowledge of the GSM region is however essential to underpin reconstructions of the Antarctic cryosphere and climate evolution. The GSM are a key nucleation site for the inception of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet approximately 34 Ma ago, and the adjacent Lambert Glacier played a pivotal role for ice sheet dynamics throughout the Neogene (23-0 Ma). The GSM province may also provide tectonic controls for major subglacial lakes flanking the range. In addition, the ice encasing the GSM province has been inferred to contain the oldest detailed climate record of the planet, a prime target for future deep ice core drilling. With the overarching aim of accomplishing the first systematic study of the cryosphere and lithosphere of the GSM province we launched a new geophysical exploration effort- AGAP (Antarctica’s Gamburtsev Province)-, a flagship programme of the International Polar Year. The aerogeophysical and seismology components of AGAP were accomplished by pooling resources from 7 nations. We deployed 2 Twin Otters, equipped with state-of-the art geophysical instrumentation and operating from two remote field camps on either side of Dome A. Over 120,000 line-km of new airborne radar, laser, aerogravity and aeromagnetic data survey were collected during the 2008/09 field campaign. Our grids of ice surface, ice thickness, subglacial topography, and gravity and magnetic anomalies provide a new geophysical foundation to analyse the GSM province, from the surface of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet down to mantle depths beneath the Precambrian shield. The anomalously high-elevation, alpine-type landscape of the GSM is now mapped with unprecedented detail. Two distinct branches of a subglacial rift system are imaged along the north-western and north-eastern margins of the

  4. Modeling inorganic nitrogen deposition in Guangdong province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhijiong; Wang, Shuisheng; Zheng, Junyu; Yuan, Zibing; Ye, Siqi; Kang, Daiwen

    2015-05-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen deposition is an essential component of acid deposition and serves as one of main sources of nitrogen of the ecosystem. Along with rapidly developed economy, it is expected that the nitrogen deposition in Guangdong province is considerably large, due to substantial anthropogenic reactive nitrogen lost to the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, one of the most developed region in China. However, characterization of chemical compositions of inorganic nitrogen (IN) deposition and quantification of nitrogen deposition fluxes in time and space in Guangdong province were seldom conducted, especially using a numerical modeling approach. In this study, we established a WRF/SMOKE-PRD/CMAQ model system and expanded 2006-based PRD regional emission inventories to Guangdong provincial ones, including SO2, NOx, VOC, PM10, PM2.5, and NH3 emissions for modeling nitrogen deposition in Guangdong province. Observations, including meteorological observed data, rainfall data, ground-level criteria pollutant measurements, satellite-derived data, and nitrogen deposition fluxes from field measurements were employed in the evaluation of model performance. Results showed that annual nitrogen deposition fluxes in the PRD region and Guangdong province were 31.01 kg N hm-1 a-1 and 26.03 kg N hm-1 a-1, dominated by NHx (including NH3 and NH,SUB>4,/SUB>+), with a percentage of 63% and 71% of the total deposition flux of IN, respectively. The ratio of dry deposition to wet deposition was approximately 2:1 in the PRD region and about 3:2 in the whole Guangdong province. IN deposition was mainly distributed in the PRD region, Chaozhou, and Maoming, which was similar to the spatial distributions of NOx and NH3 emissions. The spatial distributions of chemical compositions of IN deposition implied that NH3-N and NOx-N tended to deposit in places close to emission sources, while spatial distributions of aerosol NH4+ -N and NO3- -N usually exhibited broader deposition areas, along with

  5. A REMF's View of Viet Nam War Literature Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willson, David A.

    An academic librarian who is a Vietnam War veteran was inspired by the exemplary collection of Vietnam War literature at the Colorado State University Library to begin his own personal collection of mass market paperbacks dealing with the Vietnam War. Although Vietnam War fiction was common on the mass market racks in the mid 1980s, it has been…

  6. Teaching Wave Propagation and the Emergence of Viete's Formula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullerne, J. P.; Goekjian, M. C. Dunn

    2012-01-01

    The well-known result for the frequency of a simple spring-mass system may be combined with elementary concepts like speed = wavelength x frequency to obtain wave propagation speeds for an infinite chain of springs and masses (masses "m" held apart at equilibrium distance "a" by springs of stiffness "gamma"). These propagation speeds are dependent…

  7. Fish faunal provinces of the conterminous United States of America reflect historical geography and familial composition.

    PubMed

    Matamoros, Wilfredo A; Hoagstrom, Christopher W; Schaefer, Jacob F; Kreiser, Brian R

    2016-08-01

    Although the conterminous USA has a long history of ichthyological exploration, the description of biogeographical provinces has been ad hoc. In this study we quantitatively determined fish faunal provinces and interpreted them in the context of the geological history of North America. We also evaluated influences of major river basin occupancy and contemporary environmental factors on provincial patterns. Our data set comprised 794 native fishes, which we used to generate a presence and absence matrix for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) four-digit hydrologic units. Three nested data sets were analysed separately: primary freshwater families, continental freshwater families (including primary and secondary families) and all freshwater families (including primary, secondary and peripheral families). We used clustering analysis to delimit faunal breaks and one-way analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) to determine significance among clusters (i.e. provinces). We used an indicator-species analysis to identify species that contributed most to province delineations and a similarity-percentage (SIMPER) analysis to describe the relative influence of representatives from each category (i.e. primary, secondary, peripheral) on provincial boundaries. Lastly, we used a parsimony redundancy analysis to determine the roles of historical (i.e. major river basin) and contemporary environmental factors in shaping provinces. Analysis of the nested data sets revealed lessening provincial structure with inclusion of more families. There were 10 primary freshwater provinces, 9 continental freshwater provinces and 7 all freshwater provinces. Major basin occupancy, but not contemporary environmental factors, explained substantial variance in faunal similarities among provinces. However, provincial boundaries did not conform strictly to modern river basins, but reflected river-drainage connections of the Quaternary. Provinces represent broad-scale patterns of endemism and provide a starting point

  8. Fish faunal provinces of the conterminous United States of America reflect historical geography and familial composition.

    PubMed

    Matamoros, Wilfredo A; Hoagstrom, Christopher W; Schaefer, Jacob F; Kreiser, Brian R

    2016-08-01

    Although the conterminous USA has a long history of ichthyological exploration, the description of biogeographical provinces has been ad hoc. In this study we quantitatively determined fish faunal provinces and interpreted them in the context of the geological history of North America. We also evaluated influences of major river basin occupancy and contemporary environmental factors on provincial patterns. Our data set comprised 794 native fishes, which we used to generate a presence and absence matrix for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) four-digit hydrologic units. Three nested data sets were analysed separately: primary freshwater families, continental freshwater families (including primary and secondary families) and all freshwater families (including primary, secondary and peripheral families). We used clustering analysis to delimit faunal breaks and one-way analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) to determine significance among clusters (i.e. provinces). We used an indicator-species analysis to identify species that contributed most to province delineations and a similarity-percentage (SIMPER) analysis to describe the relative influence of representatives from each category (i.e. primary, secondary, peripheral) on provincial boundaries. Lastly, we used a parsimony redundancy analysis to determine the roles of historical (i.e. major river basin) and contemporary environmental factors in shaping provinces. Analysis of the nested data sets revealed lessening provincial structure with inclusion of more families. There were 10 primary freshwater provinces, 9 continental freshwater provinces and 7 all freshwater provinces. Major basin occupancy, but not contemporary environmental factors, explained substantial variance in faunal similarities among provinces. However, provincial boundaries did not conform strictly to modern river basins, but reflected river-drainage connections of the Quaternary. Provinces represent broad-scale patterns of endemism and provide a starting point

  9. Early to Middle Proterozoic Construction of the Mojave Province, Southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coleman, D.S.; Barth, A.P.; Wooden, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Zircon and monazite U-Pb geochronology of rocks in the western Mojave province of the southwest US reveals that the Proterozoic arc exposed there shares an intrusive and deformational history with rocks exposed further east in the Yavapai and Mazatzal belts after approximately 1780 Ma. Consequently, it seems likely that the Mojave province was contiguous with these other Laurentian provinces by that time. Isotopic and geochronologic data also suggest that Mojave province plutonic rocks inherit their distinctive isotopic compositions, at least in part, from an enriched lithospheric mantle source and interaction with sedimentary rocks containing Archean detritus.

  10. Amazonian volcanic activity at the Syrtis volcanic province, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platz, Thomas; Jodlowski, Piotr; Fawdon, Peter; Michael, Greg; Tanaka, Kenneth

    2014-05-01

    The Syrtis Major volcanic province, including the entire Syrtis Major Planum, is located near the Martian highland/lowland transitional zone west of Isidis Planitia. It covers ≡7.4×105 km2 and contains two low-shield volcanic edifices with N-S elongated calderas named Nili and Meroe Paterae. The estimated thickness of erupted material in the province ranges from approximately 0.5 km to 1.0 km with a total volume of about 1.6-3.2×105 km3 [1]. The timing of volcanic activity in the Syrtis Major volcanic province has been suggested to be restricted to the Hesperian Period [1-4]. In the geological map of Greeley and Guest [2], volcanic material of Syrtis Major was assigned an Hesperian age based on the density of observed craters larger than 5 km in diameter. Using the same crater density range, recent studies of Hiesinger et al. [1] and Tanaka et al. [3] and Tanaka et al. [4] assigned an Early Hesperian and Early to Late Hesperian age, respectively, for the entire province. In this study we mapped lava flows, lava channels, and major lava-flow margins and report model ages for lava-flow formation and caldera segments of Nili and Meroe Paterae. The objective of this ongoing survey is to better understand the eruption frequency of this volcanic province. In total, we mapped 67 lava flows, caldera segments, and intra-crater fillings of which 55 were dated. Crater size-frequency distributions (CSFD) were mapped on HRSC and CTX imagery using CraterTools [5]. CSFDs were analyzed and model ages determined in Craterstats [6] using the production and chronology functions of Ivanov [7] and Hartmann and Neukum [8], respectively. A detailed description of the utilization of the crater-counting technique and its limitations with respect to small-scale mapping is given in Platz et al. [9]. Model ages range between 838 Ma (Middle Amazonian) to 3.6 Ga (Late Hesperian). In our survey, a broad age peak occurs between 2 to 2.6 Ga, continuously declining thereafter. We note that

  11. Estimated cancer incidence and mortality in Hebei province, 2012

    PubMed Central

    He, Yutong; Liang, Di; Li, Daojuan; Zhai, Jingbo; Zhu, Junqing; Jin, Jing; Wen, Denggui

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study estimates the numbers of new cancer cases and cancer deaths in Hebei province using incidence and mortality data from 9 population-based cancer registries in 2012. Methods The data of new diagnosed cancer cases and cancer deaths in 2012 were collected from 9 population-based cancer registries of Hebei province in 2015. All the data met the National Central Cancer Registry of China (NCCR) criteria of data quality. The pooled data analysis was stratified by areas (urban/rural), gender, age group (0, 1.4, 5.9, 10.14, …, 85+) and cancer type. New cancer cases and deaths in Hebei province were estimated using age-specific rates and corresponding provincial population in 2012. The 10 most common cancers in different groups and the cumulative rates were calculated. Chinese population census in 2000 and Segi’s population were used for age-standardized incidence/mortality rates. Results All cancer registries covered 4,986,847 populations, 6.84% of Hebei provincial population (2,098,547 in urban and 2,888,300 in rural areas). The percentage of cases morphologically verified (MV%) and death certificate-only cases (DCO%) were 76.40% and 4.72%, respectively. The mortality to incidence rate ratio (M/I) was 0.64. In 2012, it is estimated that there were about 187,900 new diagnosed cancer cases and 119,800 cancer deaths in Hebei province. The incidence rate of cancer was 258.12/100,000 (275.75/100,000 in males, 239.78/100,000 in females), and the age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were 210.65/100,000 and 208.50/100,000, with the cumulative incidence rates (0.74 years old) of 24.46%. The cancer incidence and ASIRC were 256.99/100,000 and 211.32/100,000 in urban areas and 258.94/100,000 and 209.99/100,000 in rural areas, respectively. The cancer mortality rate was 164.63/100,000 (201.85/100,000 in males, 125.92/100,000 in females). Agestandardized mortality rates by Chinese

  12. Tectonic history of the Syria Planum province of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, K.L.; Davis, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    We attribute most of the development of extensive fractures in the Tharsis region to discrete tectonic provinces within the region, rather than to Tharsis as a single entity. One of these provinces is in Syria Planum. Faults and collapse structures in the Syria Planum tectonic province on Mars are grouped into 13 sets based on relative age, areal distribution, and morphology. According to superposition and fault crosscutting relations and crater counts we designate six distinct episodes of tectonic activity. Photoclinometric topographic profiles across 132 grabens and fault scarps show that Syria Planum grabens have widths (average of 2.5 km, and most range from 1 to 6 km) similar to lunar grabens, but the Martian grabens have slightly higher side walls (average abour 132 m) and gentler wall slopes (average of 9?? and range of 2??-25??) than lunar grabens (93 m high and 18?? slopes). Estimates of the amount of extension for individual grabens range from 20 to 350 m; most estimates of the thickness of the faulted layer range from 0.5 to 4.5 km (average is 1.5 km). This thickness range corresponds closely to the 0.8- to 3.6-km range in depth for pits, troughs, and canyons in Noctis Labyrinthus and along the walls of Valles Marineris. We propose that the predominant 1- to 1.5-km values obtained for both the thickness of the faulted layer and the depths of the pits, troughs, and theater heads of the canyons reflect the initial depth to the water table in this region, as governed by the depth to the base of ground ice. Maximum depths for these features may indicate lowered groundwater table depths and the base of ejecta material. -from Authors

  13. Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome, Shandong Province, China, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Hong-Ling; Zhao, Li; Zhai, Shenyong; Chi, Yuanyuan; Cui, Feng; Wang, Dongxu; Wang, Ling; Wang, Zhiyu; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Shoufeng; Liu, Yan; Yu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease in China. The incidence and clinical and laboratory characteristics of SFTS are not clearly defined. During May 22–October 2, 2011, a total of 24 patients with fever, thrombocytopenia, and leukopenia were clinically diagnosed as having SFTS in Yiyuan County, Shandong Province, China. We conducted laboratory tests for these SFTS patients. SFTS virus (SFTSV) infection was confirmed in 22 patients by using reverse transcription PCR and ELISA by acute-phase and convalescent-phase serum samples. Clinical and laboratory manifestations included fever (100%), gastrointestinal symptoms (91%), myalgia (55%), chills (41%), thrombocytopenia (100%), and leukopenia (95%). PMID:24378074

  14. Endometriosis in the north Italian province of South Tyrol.

    PubMed

    Steinkasserer, Martin; Engl, Bruno

    2009-11-01

    Here, we report regarding the health status and medical support for patients suffering from endometrioisis in South Tyrol, which is a politically autonomous province in the north of Italy containing three different ethnic groups. The health service is administered largely by the autonomous regional government. Because of the establishment of a centre for reproductive medicine and the introduction of laparoscopy as a prime surgery method, the gynaecological department of the hospital in Bruneck developed into a reference centre for diagnosis and surgical treatment for endometriosis. The planned future social, health care and insurance developments on local and national level regarding this illness will be discussed.

  15. Schistosoma mansoni-like infection in Phayao Province, Northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Attawibool, S; Bunnag, T; Thirachandra, S; Sinthuprama, K; Sornmani, S

    1983-12-01

    Schistosome ova were found in the serosa of colon mass of a 65-year old Thai woman from Dokkhumtai District, Phayao Province. On the basis of the shape and microscopic appearance of the ova, they probably belonged to those of Schistosoma mansoni complex. In follow-up study, no ova were found by faecal examinations and rectal biopsy. There are evidences suggesting the presence of two distinct mammalian strains in Thailand: Orientobilhorzia harinasutai, a schistosome of water buffalo in Southern region and Tricula bollingi schistosome, a rodent schistosome in Northern region. This case is believed to be the first human schistosome infection with mammalian strain of S. mansoni complex in Thailand.

  16. Spoligotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Different Provinces of China▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Haiyan; Liu, Zhiguang; Lv, Bing; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Jie; Zhao, Xiuqin; Liu, Jinghua; Wan, Kanglin

    2010-01-01

    A total of 2,346 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from 13 provinces in China were genotyped by spoligotyping. Two hundred seventy-eight spoligotypes were identified: 2,153 isolates were grouped into 85 clusters, and the remaining 193 isolates were orphans. Comparison with the SpolDB4.0 database revealed that 118 spoligotypes had shared international type numbers in the database and the other 160 were novel. These 160 novel spoligotypes were assigned to families and subfamilies using the SpotClust program. The most prevalent family was the Beijing family (74.08%), followed by the T family (14.11%). CAS family strains were found only in the Xinjiang and Tibet regions, while EAI family strains were found only in Fujian Province. In conclusion, the present study of the M. tuberculosis population in China demonstrated that Beijing family isolates are the most prevalent strains in China and that they exhibit geographical variation. Furthermore, many new spoligotypes were found in this study. PMID:20739484

  17. [Climate suitability for tea growing in Zhejiang Province].

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhi-Feng; Ye, Jian-Gang; Yang, Zai-Qiang; Sun, Rui; Hu, Bo; Li, Ren-Zhong

    2014-04-01

    It is important to quantitatively assess the climate suitability of tea and its response to climate change. Based on meteorological indices of tea growth and daily meteorological data from 1971 to 2010 in Zhejiang Province, three climate suitability models for single climate factors, including temperature, precipitation and sunshine, were established at a 10-day scale by using the fuzzy mathematics method, and a comprehensive climate suitability model was established with the geometric average method. The results indicated that the climate suitability was high in the tea growth season in Zhejiang Province, and the three kinds of climate suitability were all higher than 0.6. As for the single factor climate suitability, temperature suitability was the highest and sunshine suitability was the lowest. There were obvious inter-annual variations of tea climate suitability, with a decline trend in the 1970s, less variation in the 1980s, and an obvious incline trend after the 1990s. The change tendency of climate suitability for spring tea was similar with that of annual climate suitability, lower in the 1980s, higher in the 1970s and after the 1990s. However, the variation amplitude of the climate suitability for spring tea was larger. The climate suitability for summer tea and autumn tea showed a decline trend from 1971 to 2010.

  18. Phenolic characterization of malbec wines from mendoza province (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Fanzone, Martín; Peña-Neira, Alvaro; Jofré, Viviana; Assof, Mariela; Zamora, Fernando

    2010-02-24

    Malbec is a wine grape variety that is now mainly produced in Mendoza and considered to be the emblematic cultivar of Argentina. Forty-four phenolic compounds, including hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids and different flavonoids, were identified and quantified in 61 monovarietal Malbec wines from 11 geographical zones of Mendoza province, using a reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled to a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). Among non-flavonoids, gallic, cis-caftaric, trans-coutaric, and caffeic acids presented the higher concentrations in all of the samples, whereas trans-resveratrol glucoside was present at concentrations from 0.6 to 1.3 mg/L. For the flavonoids, (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin presented the higher concentrations among flavan-3-ols with a ratio (+)-catechin/(-)-epicatechin from 1.3 to 2.1. An astilbin derivative and quercetin presented the higher concentrations for flavonols, whereas malvidin-3-glucoside and its derivatives were the major anthocyanins. For the first time the phenolic composition of Malbec wines from Mendoza province has been characterized.

  19. [Experience with iodine prophylaxis in the province of Bolzano].

    PubMed

    Franzellin, F

    1998-01-01

    Since 1981 in the province of Bolzano a "free-choice" iodine prophylaxis with iodinated dietary salt has been implemented. An epidemiological survey carried out in 1982 in 3109 schoolchildren living in this region showed an incidence of endemic goiter grade 1B-3 (WHO classification) of 23.6 +/- 14.0% and an urinary iodine excretion of 10.2 +/- 8.0 micrograms/l (colorimetric analysis) compared to the values of 39.6 +/- 17.7 micrograms/l found in a similar population of schoolchildren living in a non goitrous urban area in Northern Italy (Padua). This program of iodine prophylaxis was advertised through the local mass media. A further epidemiological survey, performed in the whole province in the year 1990, involving 1046 schoolchildren, randomly selected, showed an average goiter incidence of 1.6 +/- 1.3% and a urinary iodine excretion of 137.1 +/- 104.4 micrograms/l (ICP-MS analysis) in comparison to the values of 182.6 +/- 131.7 micrograms/l seen in the schoolchildren of the town of Padua. During the period of iodine prophylaxis the content of iodine in the commercially available iodinated dietary salt was also estimated. In 1990 the average content was 31.0 mg/kg and in 1997 was 27.1 mg/kg. These data therefore confirm the usefulness of iodinated salt in the prophylaxis of endemic goiter.

  20. Helminth Parasites of Rhombomys opimus from Golestan Province, Northeast Iran

    PubMed Central

    Kamranrashani, B; Kia, EB; Mobedi, I; Mohebali, M; Zarei, Z; Mowlavi, Gh; Hajjaran, H; Abai, MR; Sharifdini, M; Kakooei, Z; Mirjalali, H; Charedar, S

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to determine the helminthic species occurring in great gerbil Rhombomys opimus collected from Maraveh Tappeh, Golestan Province, northeast Iran. Methods During 2010-2011, a total of 77 R. opimus were captured from rural areas of Maraveh Tappeh, Golestan Province, using Sherman live traps and examined for infectivity with any larva or adult stages of helminthic parasites. Results Overall, 63 R. opimus (81.8%) were found infected with different helminthic species. The rate of infectivity with each species was as follows: Trichuris rhombomidis 31.2%, Trichuris muris 32.5%, Trichuris spp. 10.4%, Syphacia muris 2.6%, Dipetalonema viteae (Acanthocheilonema viteae) 37.7%, Skrjabinotaenia lobata 15.6%, Hymenolepis (=Rodentolepis) nana fraterna 5.2%, and Taenia endothoracicus larva 1.3%. Conclusion R. opimus is host for several species of cestodes and nematodes in the study area. The high rate of infectivity with D. viteae indicates the susceptibility of these gerbils to this filarial nematode. Synchronous infections occurred up to four species of helminthes in one host. PMID:23682264

  1. A probe into reasons for international migration in Fujian Province.

    PubMed

    Zhu, G

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, the author discusses the extent of international migration from China's Fujian Province and considers the reasons behind the migration. The most recent estimates place China's overseas population at 22.1 million, 19 million (88%) of which are concentrated in Southeast Asia. According to the author's calculations, at least 7 million of the Chinese overseas population are of Fujian descent. Indonesia alone holds some 3.3 million Fujianese. Malaysia, Singapore, and the Philippines account for most of the remaining Fujianese overseas population. Having established the extent of international migration from the Fujian Province, the author attempts to establish the reasons behind it. The author first considers the historical origins of Fujianese international migration, from its early states (end century B.C.-17th century) to modern times *18-early 20th century) to the current period (1949-present). The author then examines the reasons behind the migration, primarily the social environment and individual behavior. Finally, the author provides categories of international migration, stressing that these categories often overlap or coincide. Most of the early migration was "spontaneous" -- essentially, an unplanned occurrence. During the modern period, most migration was "forced" by the contract labor system instituted by colonialists. Political and social upheaval also prompted "provoked" international migration. And following the Chinese Revolution, "free" migration allowed many to return home or to join relative abroad.

  2. The Rungwe Volcanic Province, Tanzania - A volcanological review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontijn, Karen; Williamson, David; Mbede, Evelyne; Ernst, Gerald G. J.

    2012-02-01

    The Rungwe Volcanic Province in SW Tanzania is a densely populated area that is considered volcanically active. As part of the East African Rift System, a significant control of tectonic activity seems to exist on the location and also potential destabilization of volcanic edifices. Three large volcanoes, Ngozi, Rungwe, and Kyejo, dominate the landscape and all show contrasting eruptive behaviour in the recent geological past. Kyejo volcano is a flow-dominated volcano that had a historic lava flow eruption. Lake sediment cores, drilled in Lakes Malawi, Masoko, Rukwa, and Tanganyika, provide a record of frequent explosive eruptions in the last few tens of thousands of years. In combination with on-land stratigraphic observations, they constrain the minimum eruptive frequency of especially Rungwe and Ngozi volcanoes. Both volcanoes had Plinian-style eruptions in the Holocene. The most striking documented Rungwe eruption, the ca. 4 ka Rungwe Pumice, is a rare case of a Plinian eruption in near-wind-free conditions. Furthermore, the Rungwe Pumice, just like any other Rungwe tephra deposit, does not show any evidence of pyroclastic density current deposits. Apart from explosive eruptions at a range of scales happening every few hundred years at Rungwe, the volcano also experienced at least two sector collapse events generating debris avalanches. All existing evidence shows that the Rungwe Volcanic Province is prone to future significant explosive eruptions. To further assess, quantify and mitigate volcanic hazard risks, extensive and systematic multidisciplinary geological research, and both volcanic and tectonic monitoring are needed.

  3. Adsorption of mercury on laterite from Guizhou Province, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaohong; Zhu, Lijun; Guo, Baiwei; He, Shouyang

    2008-01-01

    The adsorption behaviors of Hg(II) on laterite from Guizhou Province, China, were studied and the adsorption mechanism was discussed. The results showed that different mineral compositons in the laterite will cause differences in the adsorption capacity of laterite to Hg(II). Illite and non-crystalloids are the main contributors to enhancing the adsorption capacity of laterite to Hg(II). The pH of the solution is an important factor affecting the adsorption of Hg(II) on laterite. The alkalescent environment (pH 7-9) is favorable to the adsorption of Hg(II). The amount of adsorbed Hg(II) increases with increasing pH. When the pH reaches a certain value, the amount of the adsorbed Hg(II) will reach the maximum level. The amount of adsorbed Hg(II) decreases with increasing pH. The optimal pHs of laterite and kaolinite are 9 and 8, respectively. The optimal initial concentrations of Hg(II) on laterite and kaolinite are 250 and 200 microg/ml, respectively. The adsorption isotherms were described by the Langmuir model. The adsorption of Hg(II) on laterite is a quick process while that of Hg(II) on kaolinite is a slow reaction. Laterite from Guizhou Province is a promising environmental material which can be used in the removal of Hg(II) from wastewater. PMID:19202872

  4. Cataract Surgical Rate between 2006 and 2010 in Tehran Province

    PubMed Central

    HASHEMI, Hassan; KHABAZKHOOB, Mehdi; REZVAN, Farhad; ETEMAD, Koroush; GILASI, Hamidreza; ASGARI, Soheila; MAHDAVI, Alireza; SOROUSH, Sara; YEKTA, Abbasali; FOTOUHI, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Considering population aging in Iran and the importance of cataract surgery in the old age, this study was performed to show the cataract surgical rate (CSR) between 2006 and 2010 in Tehran Province. Methods: Eighteen centers were randomly selected from cataract surgery centers in Tehran. In each center, one week in every season was randomly selected and the number of cataract surgeries in the week was calculated. In total, 20 weeks were selected in each center in five years. Results: The CSR increased linearly from 8011 cases per 1,000,000 population in 2006 to 12465 cases per 1,000,000 population in 2010. As for patients below 40 years of age, the percentage of the male patients was more while after the age of 40 years, the percentage of the female patients was more in all age groups. At least 96.2% of the surgeries in each year were performed using the phacoemulsification method. From 2006 to 2010, the percentage of outpatient surgery increased from 48.7% to 72.5%. On the other hand, hospitalization for one night or more had a decreasing trend from 2006 to 2010. Conclusion: During 2006–2010, the CSR was acceptable in Tehran in comparison with other studies. However, attention should be paid to the increase in the population of the elderly people. Although more than 95% of the surgeries in the Province of Tehran are performed using the phacoemulsification method, the rate should increase to 100% in the eligible cases. PMID:26587494

  5. A probe into reasons for international migration in Fujian Province.

    PubMed

    Zhu, G

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, the author discusses the extent of international migration from China's Fujian Province and considers the reasons behind the migration. The most recent estimates place China's overseas population at 22.1 million, 19 million (88%) of which are concentrated in Southeast Asia. According to the author's calculations, at least 7 million of the Chinese overseas population are of Fujian descent. Indonesia alone holds some 3.3 million Fujianese. Malaysia, Singapore, and the Philippines account for most of the remaining Fujianese overseas population. Having established the extent of international migration from the Fujian Province, the author attempts to establish the reasons behind it. The author first considers the historical origins of Fujianese international migration, from its early states (end century B.C.-17th century) to modern times *18-early 20th century) to the current period (1949-present). The author then examines the reasons behind the migration, primarily the social environment and individual behavior. Finally, the author provides categories of international migration, stressing that these categories often overlap or coincide. Most of the early migration was "spontaneous" -- essentially, an unplanned occurrence. During the modern period, most migration was "forced" by the contract labor system instituted by colonialists. Political and social upheaval also prompted "provoked" international migration. And following the Chinese Revolution, "free" migration allowed many to return home or to join relative abroad. PMID:12284987

  6. Self-Burns in Fars Province, Southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Ali Akbar; Tohidinik, Hamid Reza; Zardosht, Mitra; Seyed Jafari, Seyed Morteza

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The alarming incidence of self- burning provoked to set up a multidisciplinary preventive program to decrease the incidence and complications of this harmful issue. This study investigated the incidence and the preventive measures in self-burn in Fars Province, southern Iran. METHODS This study was a longitudinal prospective design on trend of self-inflicted burn injuries in Fars province after setting up a regional multidisciplinary preventive plan (2009-2012). RESULTS From 18862 admitted patients, 388 (2%) committed self-burning. While the incidence showed a constant decrease in proportion of suicidal cases among all admitted patients (2.5% to 1.6%). The mean age of self-burning victims ranged from 28.3±10.8 to 30.3±11.7 years. The female victims comprised 67.4% of all suicidal burn patients (Female to male ratio: 2.18). The leading causes of suicide commitment were familial conflicts (75.6%) and psychological problems (16.7%) CONCLUSION It is crucial to continue the regional preventive programs and pave the way to set up national, and even international collaborations to alleviate relevant financial, social, cultural and infrastructural difficulties in order to have lower incidence for this dramatic issue. PMID:27308238

  7. Prevalence of OV infection in Yasothon Province, Northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Saengsawang, Phubet; Promthet, Supannee; Bradshaw, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrrini (OV), is the major cause of the high incidence of cholangiocarcinoma in Thailand. The prevalence of OV infection remains high in various parts of the country, especially in Northeast Thailand and particularly in wetland rural areas where a large proportion of the community work in agriculture and continue the traditional practice of eating raw or undercooked cyprinoid fish products. The national control program seems to have had little impact in many of these areas, and it has been difficult to make precise assessments of the overall effectiveness of the program. This paper is the first report of prospective research project designed to monitor the impact of the national control program in rural communities located in a northeastern province and at high risk of OV infection. The participants in this initial survey were 1,569 villagers, aged 20-65 years, living in two subdistricts of Yasothon Province. Stool examinations showed that 38.68% were infected with OV. Males were slightly more likely to be infected than females, but the difference was not statistically significant. Infection was found to be positively associated with age in both males and females. The preliminary data indicate that the population selected for study is suitable for the purpose of the monitoring project.

  8. Malaria in Zhejiang Province, China, from 2005 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hualiang; Yao, Linong; Zhang, Lingling; Zhang, Xuan; Lu, Qiaoyi; Yu, Kegen; Ruan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    To summarize the changing epidemiological characteristics of malaria in Zhejiang Province, China, we collected data on malaria from the Chinese Notifiable Disease Reporting System (NDRS) and analyzed them. A total of 2,738 malaria cases were identified in Zhejiang Province from 2005 to 2014, of which 2,018 were male and 720 were female. Notably, only 7% of malaria cases were indigenous and the other cases were all imported. The number of malaria cases increased from 2005 to 2007, peaked in 2007, and then decreased from 2007 to 2011. There were no indigenous cases from 2012 to 2014. Of all cases, 68% of cases contracted Plasmodium vivax, 27% of cases contracted P. falciparum, and two cases contracted P. malariae. About 88% of malaria cases during 2005–2011 occurred yearly between May and October, but the number of malaria cases in different months during 2012–2014 was similar. The median age was 33 years, and 1,892 cases occurred in persons aged 20–50 years. The proportion of businessmen increased and the proportion of migrant laborers decreased in recent years. The median time from illness onset to confirmation of malaria cases was 5 days and it decreased from 2005 to 2014. Some epidemiological characteristics of malaria have changed, and businessmen are the emphases to surveillance in every month. PMID:26078321

  9. Adsorption of mercury on laterite from Guizhou Province, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaohong; Zhu, Lijun; Guo, Baiwei; He, Shouyang

    2008-01-01

    The adsorption behaviors of Hg(II) on laterite from Guizhou Province, China, were studied and the adsorption mechanism was discussed. The results showed that different mineral compositons in the laterite will cause differences in the adsorption capacity of laterite to Hg(II). Illite and non-crystalloids are the main contributors to enhancing the adsorption capacity of laterite to Hg(II). The pH of the solution is an important factor affecting the adsorption of Hg(II) on laterite. The alkalescent environment (pH 7-9) is favorable to the adsorption of Hg(II). The amount of adsorbed Hg(II) increases with increasing pH. When the pH reaches a certain value, the amount of the adsorbed Hg(II) will reach the maximum level. The amount of adsorbed Hg(II) decreases with increasing pH. The optimal pHs of laterite and kaolinite are 9 and 8, respectively. The optimal initial concentrations of Hg(II) on laterite and kaolinite are 250 and 200 microg/ml, respectively. The adsorption isotherms were described by the Langmuir model. The adsorption of Hg(II) on laterite is a quick process while that of Hg(II) on kaolinite is a slow reaction. Laterite from Guizhou Province is a promising environmental material which can be used in the removal of Hg(II) from wastewater.

  10. Neotectonic provinces and joint orientations of northern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheidegger, A. E.; Schubert, C.

    The data on the stress field in northern South America are reviewed and complemented by new measurements. These data are based on the interpretation of orientations of joints, earthquake fault planes, and stylolites. The maximum tectonic pressure direction is constant throughout the mountain regions from the Colombia/Ecuador border to the Cordillera de la Costa in Venezuela. Its orientation is 130° to 151°, which is roughly normal to the strike of the eastern front of the Andes. This whole area ust therefore be considered as a single geotectonic province. In the anterior — i.e., from the Colombian Llanos to the Guayana Shield in Venezuela, again a consistent tectonic stress direction of 161° to 166°E is found; this, threfore, is a second tectonic province. Possibly, this direction represents the regular intraplate stress direction which is gradually rotated toward the Andes so as to become normal to its front. Finally, the maximum tectonic stress north directions north eof the Oca and ther Morón-El Pilar fault zones are quite varied, which may be an indication of the perturbations causedby the presence of the bondary between the South American and Caribbean tectonic plates.

  11. Genetic Characterization of Shigella flexneri Isolates in Guizhou Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shijun; Sun, Qiangzheng; Wei, Xiaoyu; Klena, John D.; Wang, Jianping; Liu, Ying; Tian, Kecheng; Luo, Xia; Ye, Changyun; Xu, Jianguo; Wang, Dingming; Tang, Guangpeng

    2015-01-01

    Shigella flexneri is one of the major etiologic causes of shigellosis in Guizhou Province, China. However, the genetic characteristics of circulating isolates are unknown. Phenotypic and molecular profiles of 60 S. flexneri isolates recovered in Guizhou between 1972 to 1982 and 2008 to 2010 were determined. Nine serotypes (1a, 2a, 3a, 1b, 2b, X, Y, 4av and Yv) were identified. Multi-locus sequence typing differentiated the isolates into 20 sequence types (STs); 18 were novel. Four STs, ST 129, ST 100, ST 126 and ST 18, were most abundant, accounting for 65% of the isolates. Thirty-nine NotI-pulsed field gel electrophoresis patterns (pulsotypes, PTs) were observed; eight PTs were represented by more than one isolate with six isolates sharing the PT 13 profile. Multi-locus variable-nucleotide tandem-repeat analysis recognized 44 different types (MTs); seven MTs were represented by more than one isolate and MT 1 was most commonly encountered. Correlation between genetic relationships and serotypes was observed among the isolates studied; the majority of isolates belonging to the same serotype from different years clustered together based on the molecular data. These clustered isolates were also from similar geographical origins. These results enhance our understanding of genetic relationships between S. flexneri in Guizhou Province and can be used to help understand the changing etiology of shigellosis in China. PMID:25617838

  12. Language Planning from below: The Case of the Xhariep District of the Free State Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    du Plessis, Theodorus

    2010-01-01

    The Xhariep District is the largest district municipality of the Free State Province of South Africa, covering 26% of the total land surface of this province. It comprises three local municipalities, namely Letsemeng, Kopanong and Mohokare and contains a total of 17 towns. The District is a multilingual area, with Afrikaans (37.1%) and Sotho…

  13. The Measurements of the Equity of Compulsory Education Finance in Zhejiang Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gang, Cheng; Tao, Lin; Qiaozhen, Lin; Qinghuan, Zhu

    2009-01-01

    Education equity is an important means for achieving social equity, but there are few empirical studies on education equity in Chinese academia owing to method limitations. This paper applies a new measurement method to the 2005/6 data of the elementary schools in Zhejiang province and argues that education finance reform in the province has…

  14. Malnutrition in China's Rural Boarding Schools: The Case of Primary Schools in Shaanxi Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Renfu; Shi, Yaojiang; Zhang, Linxiu; Liu, Chengfang; Rozelle, Scott; Sharbono, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to document the nature of boarding schools and empirically analyse the difference in nutrition intake and malnutrition status between boarding and non-boarding students in western rural China. By using two data sets on boarding schools and boarding students in Shaanxi Province, a representative province in western…

  15. Knowledge about HIV and AIDS among Young South Africans in the Capricorn District, Limpopo Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melwa, Irene T.; Oduntan, Olalekan A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the basic knowledge about HIV and AIDS among young South Africans in the Capricorn District of Limpopo Province, South Africa. Design: A questionnaire-based cohort study, involving data collection from senior high school students. Setting: Randomly selected high schools in the Capricorn District, Limpopo Province, South…

  16. Earthquakes clustering based on the magnitude and the depths in Molluca Province

    SciTech Connect

    Wattimanela, H. J.; Pasaribu, U. S.; Indratno, S. W.; Puspito, A. N. T.

    2015-12-22

    In this paper, we present a model to classify the earthquakes occurred in Molluca Province. We use K-Means clustering method to classify the earthquake based on the magnitude and the depth of the earthquake. The result can be used for disaster mitigation and for designing evacuation route in Molluca Province.

  17. Lack of MERS Coronavirus Neutralizing Antibodies in Humans, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Gierer, Stefanie; Hofmann-Winkler, Heike; Albuali, Waleed H.; Bertram, Stephanie; Al-Rubaish, Abdullah M.; Yousef, Abdullah A.; Al-Nafaie, Awatif N.; Al-Ali, Amein K.; Obeid, Obeid E.; Alkharsah, Khaled R.

    2013-01-01

    We used a lentiviral vector bearing the viral spike protein to detect neutralizing antibodies against Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in persons from the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. None of the 268 samples tested displayed neutralizing activity, which suggests that MERS-CoV infections in humans are infrequent in this province. PMID:24274664

  18. Study on Provincial Compulsory Education Financial Equity Based on School-Level Data from One Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gang, Cheng

    2009-01-01

    By applying the multivariable method to elementary school data in one western province, this study shows that per-student budgetary nonpersonnel expenditure in the province is the most unequal index in terms of horizontal equity. In terms of vertical equity, the equity effect of the "poor county" designation by the central or provincial…

  19. China Forest Aboveground Biomass Estimation by Fusion of Inventory and Remote Sensing Data: 1st results from Heilongjiang Province and Yunnan Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Y.; Li, Z.; Huang, G.; Sun, G.; Cheng, Z.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, G.

    2013-12-01

    Forests play an irreplaceable role in maintaining regional ecological environment, global carbon balance and mitigating global climate change. Forest aboveground biomass (AGB) is an important indicator of forest carbon stocks. Estimating forest aboveground biomass accurately could significantly reduce the uncertainties in terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycle. LIDAR provides accurate information on the vertical structure of forests (Lefsky et al., 2007; Naesset et al., 2004; Pang et al., 2008). Combining airborne LiDAR and spaceborne LiDAR for regional forest biomass retrieval could provide a more reliable and accurate quantitative information in regional forest biomass estimate (Boudreau et al., 2008; Nelson et al., 2009; Pang et al., 2011; Saatchi et al., 2011). The Heilongjiang Province and Yunnan Province are rich in forest resources and suffers intensive forest management activities for timber products. The Heilongjiang Province is typical in temperate forest and the Yunnan Province contains multiple forest types including tropical forest. These two provinces also have good ground inventory system with thousands of permanent field plots. Two campaign consists of in-situ measurement, airborne Lidar data and spaceborne data fusion were designed and implemented. First results show that i). Both spaceborne lidar and forest inventory data are useful for AGB mapping at province level. ii). The combination of spaceborne lidar and forest inventory data gave better biomass estimation with less bias. iii). A pixel level bias mapping was also proposed and gave spatial explicit map of estimation uncertainties. This method will be investigated further with more reference data and tested in other area.

  20. Crustal extension and transform faulting in the southern Basin Range Province. [California, Arizona, and Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liggett, M. A. (Principal Investigator); Childs, J. F.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Field reconnaissance and study of geologic literature guided by analysis of ERTS-1 MSS imagery have led to a hypothesis of tectonic control of Miocene volcanism, plutonism, and related mineralization in part of the Basin Range Province of southern Nevada and northwestern Arizona. The easterly trending right-lateral Las Vegas Shear Zone separates two volcanic provinces believed to represent areas of major east-west crustal extension. One volcanic province is aligned along the Colorado River south of the eastern termination of the Las Vegas Shear Zone; the second province is located north of the western termination of the shear zone in southern Nye County, Nevada. Geochronologic, geophysical, and structural evidence suggests that the Las Vegas Shear Zone may have formed in response to crustal extension in the two volcanic provinces in a manner similar to the formation of a ridge-ridge transform fault, as recognized in ocean floor tectonics.

  1. [Dynamics of recent cultivated land in Zhejiang Province and relevant driving factors].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-dong; Yu, Dong-sheng; Shi, Xue-zheng; Liu, Ying-an; Wang, Shi-hang; Zhang, Guang-xing; Liu, Yang

    2010-12-01

    Through the human-computer interactive interpretation of the 2000, 2005, and 2008 remote sensing images of Zhejiang Province with the help of RS and GIS techniques, the dynamic database of cultivated land change in the province in, 2000-2008 was established, and the driving factors of the cultivated land change were analyzed by ridge regression analysis. There was a notable cultivated land change in the province in 2000-2008. In 2000-2005 and 2005-2008, the annual cultivated land change in the province arrived -1.42% and -1.46%, respectively, and most of the cultivated land was changed into residential and industrial land. Non-agricultural population rate, real estate investment, urban green area, and orchard area were thought to be the main driving factors of the cultivated land change in Zhejiang Province, and even, in the developed areas of east China.

  2. Time series analysis of influenza incidence in Chinese provinces from 2004 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xin; Xiao, Jun; Deng, Jiang; Kang, Qiong; Zhang, Yanyu; Xu, Jinbo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Influenza as a severe infectious disease has caused catastrophes throughout human history, and every pandemic of influenza has produced a great social burden. We compiled monthly data of influenza incidence from all provinces and autonomous regions in mainland China from January 2004 to December 2011, comprehensively evaluated and classified these data, and then randomly selected 4 provinces with higher incidence (Hebei, Gansu, Guizhou, and Hunan), 2 provinces with median incidence (Tianjin and Henan), 1 province with lower incidence (Shandong), using time series analysis to construct an ARIMA model, which is based on the monthly incidence from 2004 to 2011 as the training set. We exerted the X-12-ARIMA procedure for modeling due to the seasonality these data implied. Autocorrelation function (ACF), partial autocorrelation function (PACF), and automatic model selection were to determine the order of the model parameters. The optimal model was decided by a nonseasonal and seasonal moving average test. Finally, we applied this model to predict the monthly incidence of influenza in 2012 as the test set, and the simulated incidence was compared with the observed incidence to evaluate the model's validity by the criterion of both percentage variability in regression analyses (R2) and root mean square error (RMSE). It is conceivable that SARIMA (0,1,1)(0,1,1)12 could simultaneously forecast the influenza incidence of the Hebei Province, Guizhou Province, Henan Province, and Shandong Province; SARIMA (1,0,0)(0,1,1)12 could forecast the influenza incidence in Gansu Province; SARIMA (3,1,1)(0,1,1)12 could forecast the influenza incidence in Tianjin City; and SARIMA (0,1,1)(0,0,1)12 could forecast the influenza incidence in Hunan Province. Time series analysis is a good tool for prediction of disease incidence. PMID:27367989

  3. Time series analysis of influenza incidence in Chinese provinces from 2004 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Song, Xin; Xiao, Jun; Deng, Jiang; Kang, Qiong; Zhang, Yanyu; Xu, Jinbo

    2016-06-01

    Influenza as a severe infectious disease has caused catastrophes throughout human history, and every pandemic of influenza has produced a great social burden. We compiled monthly data of influenza incidence from all provinces and autonomous regions in mainland China from January 2004 to December 2011, comprehensively evaluated and classified these data, and then randomly selected 4 provinces with higher incidence (Hebei, Gansu, Guizhou, and Hunan), 2 provinces with median incidence (Tianjin and Henan), 1 province with lower incidence (Shandong), using time series analysis to construct an ARIMA model, which is based on the monthly incidence from 2004 to 2011 as the training set. We exerted the X-12-ARIMA procedure for modeling due to the seasonality these data implied. Autocorrelation function (ACF), partial autocorrelation function (PACF), and automatic model selection were to determine the order of the model parameters. The optimal model was decided by a nonseasonal and seasonal moving average test. Finally, we applied this model to predict the monthly incidence of influenza in 2012 as the test set, and the simulated incidence was compared with the observed incidence to evaluate the model's validity by the criterion of both percentage variability in regression analyses (R) and root mean square error (RMSE). It is conceivable that SARIMA (0,1,1)(0,1,1)12 could simultaneously forecast the influenza incidence of the Hebei Province, Guizhou Province, Henan Province, and Shandong Province; SARIMA (1,0,0)(0,1,1)12 could forecast the influenza incidence in Gansu Province; SARIMA (3,1,1)(0,1,1)12 could forecast the influenza incidence in Tianjin City; and SARIMA (0,1,1)(0,0,1)12 could forecast the influenza incidence in Hunan Province. Time series analysis is a good tool for prediction of disease incidence. PMID:27367989

  4. Spatial distribution of pollutant emissions from crop residue burning in the Punjab and Sindh provinces of Pakistan: uncertainties and challenges.

    PubMed

    Irfan, Muhammad; Riaz, Muhammad; Arif, Muhammad Saleem; Shahzad, Sher Muhammad; Hussain, Sabir; Akhtar, Muhammad Javed; van den Berg, Leon; Abbas, Farhat

    2015-11-01

    Emissions of gaseous and particulate pollutants from burning of wheat straw, rice straw, cotton straw, and bagasse were studied for the two agricultural-activity-dominated provinces of Pakistan: the Punjab and Sindh. Emission estimates, inventory, and allocation maps indicated distinct patterns of pollutant emissions in the two provinces. Comparative pollutant emission analysis revealed that the Punjab province produced higher pollutants from agricultural biomass burning than Sindh province. Total emissions from these two provinces were estimated to be 16,084.04 Gg (16.08 Tg) for the year 2006/2007. Wheat straw was found to be the dominant source of CO, CO2, SO2, NOx, and EC emissions in the both provinces. However, for the emissions of CH4, NH3, EC, and OC, the Punjab and Sindh provinces differed markedly for the crop residue share in these pollutant emissions. Rice straw was found to be the largest contributor of CH4 (51%) and NH3 (65%) in Sindh province. When total emissions from biomass burning were considered at provincial level, wheat straw and bagasse were the major crop residues which accounted for 72 and 14% of pollutant emissions, respectively, in the Punjab province, whereas, in Sindh province, the order of crop residue contribution in total emission was as follows: wheat (59%) > bagasse (19%) > rice (14%) > cotton (7%). Emission inventory data of total pollutants per unit area under cultivation (Mg ha(-1)) revealed that Sindh province produced higher emissions per hectare for wheat straw, rice straw, and bagasse than the Punjab province.

  5. An Apollo 15 Mare Basalt Fragment and Lunar Mare Provinces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Graham; Burling, Trina Cox

    1996-01-01

    Lunar sample 15474,4 is a tiny fragment of olivine-augite vitrophyre that is a mare basalt. Although petroraphically distinct from all other Apollo 15 samples, it has been ignored since its first brief description. Our new petrographic and mineral chemical data show that the olivines and pyroxenes are distinct from those in other basalts. The basalt cooled and solidified extremely rapidly; some of the olivine might be cumulate or crystallized prior to extrusion. Bulk-chemical data show that the sample is probably similar to an evolved Apollo 15 olivine-normative basalt in major elements but is distinct in its rare earth element pattern. Its chemical composition and petrography both show that 15474,4 cannot be derived from other Apollo 15 mare basalts by shallow-level crystal fractionation. It represents a distinct extrusion of magma. Nonetheless, the chemical features that 15474,4 has in common with other Apollo 15 mare basalts, including the high FeO/Sc, the general similarity of the rare earth element pattern, and the common (and chondritic) TiO2/Sm ratio, emphasize the concept of a geochemical province at the Apollo 15 site that is distinct from basalts and provinces elsewhere. In making a consistent picture for the derivation of all of the Apollo 15 basalts, both the commonalities and the differences among the basalts must be explained. The Apollo 15 commonalities and differences suggest that the sources must have consisted of major silicate phases with the same composition but with varied amounts of a magma trapped from a contemporary magma ocean. They probably had a high olivine/pyroxene ratio and underwent small and reasonably consistent degrees of partial melting to produce the basalts. These inferences may be inconsistent with models that suggest greatly different depths of melting among basalts, primitive sources for the green glasses, or extensive olivine fractionation during ascent. An integrated approach to lunar mare provinces, of which the Apollo 15

  6. Paleomagnetism and Thermochronometry of the Grenville Province, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlop, D. J.

    2009-05-01

    The Grenville Province, a marginal orogen of the Canadian Precambrian Shield, extends through southern Ontario, Québec and Labrador, with equivalents in Fennoscandia. Before the Iapetus Ocean opened, the Canadian and Fennoscandian orogens were contiguous. Age-equivalent rocks in small exposures in the Appalachians, Texas and Mexico suggest that the subsurface extent of Grenvillia is comparable to that of the Superior Province, the Archean core of the Canadian Shield. It was therefore a substantial continent in its own right at the time it collided with the Superior, Southern and Nain Provinces. However, most of our paleomagnetic knowledge comes from a narrow zone on the (present-day) northern margin of Grenvillia, comprising the Grenville Front Tectonic Zone of reactivated rocks as old as Archean, the Central Gneiss Belt (CGB) with deeply buried and exhumed Proterozoic rocks, and the Central Medisedimentary Belt (CMB), containing a core of less deeply buried rocks where some pre-collisional paleomagnetic information has survived. 40Ar/39Ar thermochronometry has been vital in determining the age relationships of paleomagnetic overprints (often two, occasionally even three, in individual formations) and establishing the Grenville Track of the Laurentian APWP. Most 40Ar/39Ar mineral ages are in the 850 to 1000 Ma range but there is enough separation between key tiepoint poles to permit clockwise and counterclockwise alternatives for the Grenville "Loop". Of great interest are the short track segments defined by mean poles for different domains of the CGB and terranes of the CMB because these may record the sequence of assemblage and/or burial and uplift. Unfortunately the profound contrast between uplift ages of different CMB terranes, as indicated by their hornblende, mica and feldspar 40Ar/39Ar data, is not borne out by the relatively minor differences in mean poles for the same terranes. The "Grenville problem" is therefore still not laid to rest, and furthermore

  7. Goechemical and Hydrogeochemical Properties of Cappadocia Geothermal Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furkan Sener, Mehmet; Sener, Mehmet; Uysal, Tonguc

    2016-04-01

    In order to determine the geothermal resource potential of Niǧde, Nevşehir and Aksaray provinces in Central Anatolian Volcanic Province (CAVP), geothermal fluids, surface water, and alteration rock samples from the Cappadocia volcanic zone in Turkey were investigated for their geochemical and stable isotopic characteristics in light of published geological and tectonic studies. Accordingly, the Cappadocia Geothermal Province (CGP) has two different geothermal systems located along tectonic zones including five active and two potential geothermal fields, which are located between Tuzgölü Fault Zone and Keçiboyduran-Melendiz Fault and north of Keçiboyduran-Melendiz Fault. Based on water chemistry and isotope compositions, samples from the first area are characterized by Ca-Mg-HCO3 ve Ca-HCO3 type mineral poor waters and Ca-Na-SO4 and Ca-Mg-SO4 type for the cold waters and the hot waters, respectively, whereas hot waters from the second area are Na-Cl-HCO3 and Ca-Na-HCO3 type mineral poor waters. According to δ18O and δ2H isotope studies, the geothermal waters are fed from meteoric waters. Results of silica geothermometer indicate that the reservoir temperature of Dertalan, Melendiz Mount, Keçiboyduran Mount, Hasan Mount (Keçikalesi), Ziga, Acıgöl, and Derinkuyu geothermal waters are 150-173 oC, 88-117 oC, 91-120 oC, 94-122 oC, 131-156 oC, 157-179 oC; 152-174 oC and 102-130 oC, respectively. The REE composition of geothermal fluids, surface water, and mineral precipitates indicate that temperature has a strong effect on REE fractionation of the sampled fluids. Eu- and Ce- anomalies (Eu/Eu*, Ce/Ce*) are visible in several samples, which are related to the inheritance from the host reservoir rocks and redox-controlled fractionation of these elements during water-rock interactions. REE and Yttrium geochemistry results of altered rock samples and water samples, which were taken from same locations exhibited quite similar features in each system. Hence, it was

  8. Rapid environmental change during dynastic transitions in Yunnan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillman, Aubrey L.; Yu, JunQing; Abbott, Mark B.; Cooke, Colin A.; Bain, Daniel J.; Steinman, Byron A.

    2014-08-01

    Pollution and eutrophication of Chinese lakes are widely perceived to be 20th century phenomena. However, China has a long history of deforestation, agriculture, mineral resource extraction, and other anthropogenic activities that impact the environment. Here, we present a sediment record from Xing Yun Lake in the Yunnan Province of China that reveals significant alterations to the lake, its ecosystem, and its watershed beginning as early as 500 AD. A comprehensive suite of biogeochemical and isotopic proxies reveal several rapid transitions related to changes in agriculture and lake-level management that coincides with cultural and dynastic transitions. The deterioration of contemporary environmental conditions at Xing Yun arises from a long history of anthropogenic manipulation, eutrophication, and pollution of the lake and its watershed. This study highlights the importance of using historical records of industrial and agricultural activities, including landscape modification, in conjunction with records of climate change, to place present day environmental concerns into a long-term context.

  9. Helminth parasites of small mammals in Kerman province, southeastern Iran.

    PubMed

    Fasihi Harandi, Majid; Madjdzadeh, Seyed Massoud; Ahmadinejad, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    Fifty-one specimens of small mammals were collected from different locations of Kerman province, southeastern Iran during 2007 and 2009. They constitute six species of rodents (Meriones persicus, Meriones libycus, Tatera indica, Dryomys nitedula and Mus musculus), one species of Erinaceomorpha (Paraechinus hypomelas) and one species of hare (Lepus europeus). The rate of helminthic infection was 45.1 % among all trapped specimens. In 28 out of 51 hunted specimens no intestinal helminth parasite was found. Of all mammals examined, 15 (29.4 %) had nematodes, 5 (9.8 %) had cestodes, and 3 (5.9 %) were infected with Acanthocephala. Five different species of parasites were isolated: Trichuris muris, Moniliformis moniliformis, Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana, and Mastophorus muris. Results of the present study indicate the potential of small mammals in the transmission of zoonotic helminthic infection.

  10. Geology and tectonics of the Archean Superior Province, Canadian Shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, K. D.

    1986-01-01

    Superior Province consists mainly of Late Archean rocks with Middle Archean gneisses in the south, and possibly in the north. The Late Archean supracrustal sequences are of island arc and interarc affinity and are cut by abundant plutonic rocks, including early arc-related intrusions, late synorogenic intrusions, and post-orogenic plutons that are possibly the product of crustal melting caused by thermal blanketing of newly-thickened continental crust combined with high mantle heat flux. The contemporaneity of magmatic and deformational events along the lengths of the belts is consistent with a subduction-dominated tectonic regime for assembly of the Kenoran Orogen. Successive addition of volcanic arcs accompanied and followed by voluminous plutonism resulted in crustal thickening and stabilization of the Superior craton prior to uplift of Kapuskasing granulites, emplacement of the Matachewan diabase dykes, and Early Proterozoic marginal rifting.

  11. Rural sewage treatment processing in Yongjia County, Zhejiang Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W. H.; Kuan, T. H.

    2016-08-01

    Issues regarding water pollution in rural areas of China have garnered increased attention over the years. Further discussion on the circumstances and results of existing domestic sewage treatment methods may serve as an appropriate reference in solving these important issues. This article explored the current conditions of water contamination in rural areas of China, introduced the characteristics and effects of applicable sewage treatment technology, and summarized the results of the planning, installation, and operation of rural sewage treatment facilities in Yongjia County in Zhejiang Province. However, relying on a single technical design rule is not adequate for solving the practical problems that these villages face. Instead, methods of planning rural sewage treatment should be adapted to better suit local conditions and different residential forms. It is crucial, ultimately, for any domestic sewage treatment system in a rural area to be commissioned, engineered, and maintained by a market-oriented professional company.

  12. Hydrology of area 25, Eastern Region, Interior Coal Province, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zuehls, E.E.; Ryan, G.L.; Peart, D.B.; Fitzgerald, K.K.

    1981-01-01

    The eastern region of the Interior Coal Province has been divided into 11 hydrologic study areas. Area 25, located in west-central Illinois, includes the Spoon River and small tributaries to the Illinois River. Pennsylvanian age rocks underlie most of the study area. Illinois, with the largest reserves of bituminous coal, is second only to Montana in total coal reserves. Loess soils cover most of the study area. Agriculture is the dominant land use. Surface water provides 97% of all the water used. Precipitation averages 34 to 35 inches. Water-quality data has been collected at over 31 sites. Analysis for specific conductance, pH, alkalinity, iron, manganese, sulfate and many trace elements and other water-quality constituents have been completed. These data are available from computer storage through the National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE). (USGS)

  13. Natural radioactivity in soil in the Baluchistan province of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mujahid, S A; Hussain, S

    2010-08-01

    The measurements of natural radioactivity and the assessment of radiological hazards in the soil samples of Baluchistan province of Pakistan have been carried out using HPGe detector. The soil gas radon activities in these areas have also been measured using lucas cell technique. The measured activities of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were found in the range of 15-27, 20-37 and 328-648 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The calculated absorbed dose rate in air and the annual effective dose were in the range of 35-59 nGy h(-1) and 0.17-0.29 mSv, respectively. Radon activity in the soil gas was found in the range of 357-2476 Bq m(-3).

  14. Helminth parasites of small mammals in Kerman province, southeastern Iran.

    PubMed

    Fasihi Harandi, Majid; Madjdzadeh, Seyed Massoud; Ahmadinejad, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    Fifty-one specimens of small mammals were collected from different locations of Kerman province, southeastern Iran during 2007 and 2009. They constitute six species of rodents (Meriones persicus, Meriones libycus, Tatera indica, Dryomys nitedula and Mus musculus), one species of Erinaceomorpha (Paraechinus hypomelas) and one species of hare (Lepus europeus). The rate of helminthic infection was 45.1 % among all trapped specimens. In 28 out of 51 hunted specimens no intestinal helminth parasite was found. Of all mammals examined, 15 (29.4 %) had nematodes, 5 (9.8 %) had cestodes, and 3 (5.9 %) were infected with Acanthocephala. Five different species of parasites were isolated: Trichuris muris, Moniliformis moniliformis, Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana, and Mastophorus muris. Results of the present study indicate the potential of small mammals in the transmission of zoonotic helminthic infection. PMID:27065607

  15. International immigration, internal migration, and homicide in Canadian provinces.

    PubMed

    Andresen, Martin A

    2013-05-01

    The relationship between immigration and crime is politically charged and often fueled by the presence (or lack) of xenophobia. Many theoretical and empirical assessments of this relationship indicate that immigration does indeed lead to increased crime, but more recent (and very early) research investigating homicide calls this finding into question. The current analysis investigates the relationship between immigration and homicide using multiple measures of migration and Canadian provinces as the unit of analysis. It is found that the link between immigration and homicide is complex and dependent on the measure of migration used. Generally speaking, the results presented here are consistent with the more recent and very early research. Immigration, in and of itself, does not increase homicide. Rather it is the increase in the most criminogenic subpopulation that matters, that is young males.

  16. Quality assurance report. EMAP, Virginian province, 1990-1993

    SciTech Connect

    Strobel, C.J.; Valente, R.M.; Keith, D.; Summers, K.; LiVolsi, J.

    1995-09-01

    The report documents the results of Quality Assurance activities conducted in conjunction with sampling performed by EPA`s Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program`s Estuaries study (EMAP-Estuaries) in the Virginian Province from 1990 through 1993. This report discusses the results of Quality Assurance activities by indicator, data qualifier flags, data quality, and, where appropriate, discuss lessons learned, and proposes changes or solutions to improve data quality. A total of 446 Base Sampling Sites were scheduled for sampling over this period. Twenty one stations were eliminated due to inadequate water depth or logistical concerns. Some significant problems were encountered in the chemical analysis of sediment samples resulting in the deletion of some data from the database. The specific problems and a discussion of the data deleted or qualified are included in this report.

  17. Migration and Remittances: Evidence from a Poor Province in China*

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Zai; Li, Jiejin; Ma, Zhongdong

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines patterns of remittances among migrants from Guizhou province of China. Our research is motivated by three lines of theoretical arguments, namely the new economics of migration, a translocal perspective linking remittances and development, and the culture of remittances. Taking individual, household, and village-level characteristics into account, we estimated multilevel logistic models of the decision to remit and multilevel models of the amount of remittances. Our results show that migrant remittance behaviour is responsive to family needs as well as household economic position in the village.. Migrants who come from entrepreneurial households are more likely to remit a large amount than other types of households. We find some evidence of “culture of remittances” in these villages. Consistent with our expectations, migrants who are from villages with higher amount of average remittances are likely to remit a larger amount than otherwise. PMID:26146509

  18. Hydrology of area 18, Eastern Coal Province, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, V.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Eastern Coal Province is divided into 24 hydrologic reporting areas. This report describes the hydrology of area 18 which is located in the Cumberland River basin in central Tennessee near the southern end of the Province. Hydrologic information and sources are presented as text, tables, maps, and other illustrations designed to be useful to mine owners, operators, and consulting engineers in implementing permit applications that comply with the environmental requirements of the ' Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. ' Area 18 encompasses parts of three physiographic regions; from east to west the Cumberland Plateau, Highland Rim, and Central Basin. The Plateau is underlain by sandstones and shales, with thin interbedded coal beds, of Pennsylvanian age. The Highland Rim and Central Basin are underlain by limestone and dolomite of Mississippian age. Field and laboratory analyses of chemical and physical water-quality parameters of streamflow samples show no widespread water quality problems. Some streams, however, in the heavily mined areas have concentrations of sulfate, iron, manganese, and sediment above natural levels, and pH values below natural levels. Mine seepage and direct mine drainage were not sampled. Ground water occurs in and moves through fractures in the sandstones and shales and solution openings in the limestones and dolomites. Depth to water is variable, ranging from about 5 to 70 feet below land-surface in the limestones and dolomites, and 15 to 40 feet in the coal-bearing rocks. The quality of ground water is generally good. Locally, in coal-bearing rocks, acidic water and high concentrations of manganese, chloride, and iron have been detected. (USGS)

  19. Hemoglobinopathies in the Çukurova Region and Neighboring Provinces.

    PubMed

    Yuzbasioglu Ariyurek, Sedefgul; Yildiz, Sule Menziletoglu; Yalin, Ali Erdinc; Guzelgul, Figen; Aksoy, Kiymet

    2016-06-01

    To contribute to the creation of a mutation map of the region, we aimed to determine the mutation spectrum of thalassemias and abnormal hemoglobins (Hbs) in the Çukurova region and surrounding provinces. In this study, a total of 8135 samples from Adana, Hatay, Mersin, Konya and Kayseri provinces between 1993 and 2014 were analyzed. Complete blood cell (CBC) counts and Hb typing were carried out using automatic cell counters, cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), respectively. For the molecular analyses, genomic DNA was extracted using both manual and automated DNA extraction devices. Determination of Hb mutations were done by microarray, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) and gap-polymerase chain reaction (gap-PCR) methodologies. Samples were analyzed for abnormal Hb and thalassemia mutations. Out of 8135 samples, 1382 were observed to be carrying Hb mutations. It was identified that 826 mutation carriers included abnormal Hbs with a frequency of 59.7%, 416 carriers included β-thalassemia (β-thal) mutations with a frequency of 30.7% and 136 carriers included α-thalassemia (α-thal) mutations with a frequency of 9.9%. In this study, the most frequently observed abnormal Hb in the region was Hb S [β6(A3)Glu→Val (GTG > GAG), HBB: c.20T > A], whereas the most commonly observed mutations were the IVS-I-110 (G > A) (HBB: c.93-21G > A) point mutation in β-thal and the 3.7 kb deletion in α-thal. PMID:26984585

  20. Cancer registries in four provinces in Turkey: a case study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The burden of cancer affects all countries; while high-income countries have the capacity and resources to establish comprehensive cancer control programs, low and middle-income countries have limited resources to develop such programs. This paper examines factors associated with the development of cancer registries in four provinces in Turkey. It looks at the progress made by these registries, the challenges they faced, and the lessons learned. Other countries with similar resources can benefit from the lessons identified in this case study. Methods A mix of qualitative case study methods including key informant interviews, document review and questionnaires was used. Results This case study showed that surveillance systems that accurately report current cancer-related data are essential components of a country’s comprehensive cancer control program. At the initial stages, Turkey established one cancer registry with international support, which was used as a model for other registries. The Ministry of Health recognized the value of the registry data and its contribution to the country’s cancer control program and is supporting sustainability of these registries as a result. Conclusions This study demonstrates how Turkey was able to use resources from multiple sources to enhance its population based cancer registry system in four provinces. With renewed international interest in non-communicable diseases and cancer following the 2011 UN high-level meeting on NCDs, low- and middle- income countries can benefit from Turkey’s experience. Other countries can utilize lessons learned from Turkey as they address cancer burden and establish their own registries. PMID:23110989

  1. Death Portrait of Isfahan Province in Years 2007–2011

    PubMed Central

    Ferdosi, Masuod; Mohammadi Sefiddashti, Farzaneh; Aghdak, Pejman; Moradi, Reza; Mofid, Maryam; Rejalian, Farzaneh; Nemati, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: The rapid rise in noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) is one of the main health challenges affecting the global development in the present era. This raising challenge is a major threat to countries’ socioeconomic development as well as millions of people health. Methods: It was a retrospective study with analysis of reported death in Isfahan Province during a 5-year period from 2007 to 2011. Required data were collected from statistics provided by Deputy of Health in Kashan and Isfahan Universities of Medical Sciences in 2012. Excel software was used for data analysis. Results: During this period, the cardiovascular events, cancers and tumors, unintentional injuries, respiratory diseases, and prenatal mortality were the main reasons of mortality in Isfahan Province. The overall rate of cardiovascular events rose 5.10% in the 5-years of the study observation, and Khor – Biabanak was on the top of the list; while in cancer rating Khor – Biabanak, Golpayegan, and Khansar both stood at the outset (per 1,000 people). For injuries, the highest rate belonged to Golpayegan, Tiran-Kervan, and Chadegan. Meanwhile, for mental illnesses, the highest rate was observed in Khomeini Shahr. Moreover, the highest maternal and fetal mortality was reported in Fereydunshahr, Khor – Biabanak and Mobarakeh. Conclusions: Given the sharp rise of NCD, programs by health care system should be directed toward lifestyle modification while a proper framework should be determined to deal with these kinds of disease. Furthermore, optimal allocation of resources based on needs can provide better facilities for different cities. PMID:27563432

  2. Characterizing wetland change at landscape scale in Jiangsu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chi; Sheng, Sheng; Zhou, Wen; Cui, Lijuan; Liu, Maosong

    2011-08-01

    Human activities produced great impacts on wetlands worldwide. Taking Jiangsu Province, China, as a representative wetland region subject to extensive human activities, the aim of this study is to understand the conversion trajectory and spatial differentiation in wetland change from a multi-scale perspective. Based on multi-temporal Landsat images, it was found that the natural wetlands decreased by 11.2% from 1990 to 2006 in Jiangsu Province. Transition matrices showed that the conversion of natural wetlands to human-made wetlands (mostly aquaculture ponds) was the major form of natural wetland reduction, accounting for over 60% of the reduction. Percentage reduction and area reduc tion of natural wetlands were respectively quantified within different wetland cover zones using a moving window analysis. Average percentage reduction showed a decreasing tendency with increasing wetland cover. The high-cover and mid-cover zone presented the largest area reduction at the scales of 1-2 km and 4-8 km, respectively. Local hotspots of natural wetland reduction were mapped using the equal-interval and quantile classification schemes. The hotspots were mostly concentrated in the Lixiahe marshes and the coastal wetland areas. For the area reduction hotspots, the quantile classification presented larger area and more patches than the equal-interval classification; while an opposite result was shown for the percentage reduction hotspots. With respect to the discontinuous distribution of the natural wetlands, area reduction could be more appropriate to represent reduction hotspots than percentage reduction in the study area. These findings could have useful implications to wetland conservation.

  3. [Intestinal parasitoses detected in primary schoolchildren in the Van province].

    PubMed

    Taş Cengiz, Zeynep; Akbayram, Sinan; Ciçek, Mutalip; Yilmaz, Hasan

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out on school children in primary schools in the Van province in order to investigate the distribution of intestinal parasitoses. The study was conducted in 7-15 year-old primary schoolchildren during the years from 2003-2005. Stool specimens were taken from 2975 school children; of these, 1289 were female and 1686, male. The specimens were examined by native-Lugol, flotation and trichrome staining methods in the parasitology laboratory of the Health Research and Training Hospital, Yüzüncü Yil University. One or more parasite species were detected in 1916 (64.4%) stool specimens of 2975 children. Parasitosis was detected in 65.7% of females and in 63.4% of males. Blastocystis hominis, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba coli, Iodamoeba butschlii, Chilomastix mesnili, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba hartmanni, Enteromonas hominis, Retortamonas intestinalis, Dientamoeba fragilis, Trichomonas hominis, Ascaris lumbricoides, Hymenolepis nana, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and Fasciola hepatica were detected in 27.4%, 16.4%, 14.9%, 3.9%, 2.9%, 1.8%, 1.1%, 0.6%, 0.5%, 0.5%, 0.4%, 0.2%, 7.5%, 5.3%, 0.7%, 0.6% and 0.03% of the specimens, respectively. In conclusion, there are still high rates of intestinal parasitoses in school children in this region because care is not taken in hygiene and the socioeconomic status is low in the Van province. PMID:20101580

  4. Factors associated with preterm labor in Hormozgan province in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Roozbeh, Nasibeh; Moradi, Soheila; Soltani, Shirin; Zolfizadeh, Fatemeh; Hasani, Mehdi Tadris; Yabandeh, Asiyeh Pormehr

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Preterm labor is the main cause of infants’ death, and the main reason for undesirable consequences of pregnancy which still occur in some births, despite all of the interventions in this regard. The aim of this study was to evaluate every preterm birth and determine its maternal risk factors in Hormozgan province in 2013. Methods This case-control study was conducted in 2013 on the health and hospital records of 735 pregnant mothers with preterm labor (20–37 weeks) which were located in Bandar Abbas in southeast Iran. The sampling method would be multi-stage cluster sampling. The data collecting tool was a valid questionnaire by the Iran Ministry of Health and Medical Education, which included 5 components (demographic information, checking the current pregnancy of the mother, the maternal factors related to preterm labor in the previous pregnancy, evaluating the fetal factors associated with preterm labor in the current pregnancy and other additional information related to the factors associated with prematurity). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, regression and Chi-square tests Results The prevalence of preterm labor in Hormozgan province in 2013 was 5.5%. In our study and among the effective factors on preterm labor, revealed genital-urinary tract infections during pregnancy were (35.8%), PROM (30.3%), history of abortion (19.9%) and unplanned pregnancy (18.1%) in between pregnant women with preterm labor. Our study showed that most mothers had delivered in 33 to 37 weeks among the mothers who had preterm labor in 2013 (75%) and the statistic of very preterm labor (less than 32 weeks) in Hormozgan was 5%. Conclusion Identification of the prevalence and associated factors with preterm labor can reduce the mortality rate and infants’ complications of it in addition to help find a way to prevent this problem. PMID:27790344

  5. Assessing the Impacts of Wind Integration in the Western Provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sopinka, Amy

    Increasing carbon dioxide levels and the fear of irreversible climate change has prompted policy makers to implement renewable portfolio standards. These renewable portfolio standards are meant to encourage the adoption of renewable energy technologies thereby reducing carbon emissions associated with fossil fuel-fired electricity generation. The ability to efficiently adopt and utilize high levels of renewable energy technology, such as wind power, depends upon the composition of the extant generation within the grid. Western Canadian electric grids are poised to integrate high levels of wind and although Alberta has sufficient and, at times, an excess supply of electricity, it does not have the inherent generator flexibility required to mirror the variability of its wind generation. British Columbia, with its large reservoir storage capacities and rapid ramping hydroelectric generation could easily provide the firming services required by Alberta; however, the two grids are connected only by a small, constrained intertie. We use a simulation model to assess the economic impacts of high wind penetrations in the Alberta grid under various balancing protocols. We find that adding wind capacity to the system impacts grid reliability, increasing the frequency of system imbalances and unscheduled intertie flow. In order for British Columbia to be viable firming resource, it must have sufficient generation capability to meet and exceed the province's electricity self-sufficiency requirements. We use a linear programming model to evaluate the province's ability to meet domestic load under various water and trade conditions. We then examine the effects of drought and wind penetration on the interconnected Alberta -- British Columbia system given differing interconnection sizes.

  6. The province and heritage of mankind reconsidered: A new beginning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabrynowicz, J. I.

    1992-01-01

    The central problem of our time -- one that is shared by all races and nationalities -- is to discover the things, the qualities, and interest that people have in common so that durable institutions can be designed for mankind's survival. The 'common heritage of mankind' and the 'province of all mankind' are different legal concepts developed in international space law during the last quarter of a century. Since the initial appearance of these provisions, controversy has arisen regarding their intent and meaning as applied to a nation's right to explore and use a common environment such as space or the high seas and a nation's obligation to share benefits derived from those environments with the rest of the world. As can be expected, different interpretations are currently competing for acceptance. This is so, in part, because, in the case of the Outer Space Treaty, although a general principle was articulated, rules for acceptance and application of the principles were not. In the case of the Moon and Sea Treaties, although an effort has been made to clarify both meaning and application, the articulations are still too vague for legal certainty. This paper focuses on the fact that these concepts are already currently available tools for the advancement of both global and U.S. interests but, because of the labyrinthine legal arguments that have been generated and some assumptions being held, they are in danger of being lost as such tools. The tendency of many observers in the U.S. to confuse the concept of 'province of all mankind' and 'common heritage of mankind' and to assume that both are incompatible with U. S. commercial space interests is also addressed. It is suggested that reconsidering these provisions can yield positions compatible with U.S. interests and that it can and should actively seek the use of these provisions as a basis for global cooperation and commercial benefit.

  7. Hydrology of Area 3: Eastern Coal Province, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Herb, W.J.; Shaw, L.C.; Brown, D.E.

    1981-09-01

    The Eastern Coal Province is divided into 24 hydrologic reporting areas. The divisions are based upon hydrologic factors, location, size, and mining activity. Hydrologic units (drainage basins) or parts of units are combined to form each area. Area 3 is located in the northern part of the Eastern Coal Province in the lower Allegheny River basin and covers an area of 4077 square miles. Area reports are designed to be useful to mining companies, their consultants, and regulatory authorities by presenting information concerning existing hydrologic conditions and identifying additional sources of hydrologic information. The hydrology of the area is presented in the format of a brief text and accompanying illustration(s) on a single water-resource related topic. A special network was established to collect hydrologic data in coal-bearing areas. Seventy-three monitoring stations (synoptic sites) were established in Area 3. Water samples are collected at these sites two or three times annually. Samples are analyzed for specific conductance, pH, acidity, alkalinity, dissolved and total iron, dissolved and total manganese, dissolved sulfate, residue on evaporation, and other properties. Similar samples are collected at six gaging stations 6 to 9 times annually. Streams indicating acid-mine drainage were most common in the Redbank and Blacklick Creek basins, and the Conemaugh and lower Kiskiminetas River basins. Sixteen of the 73 synoptic sites had pH, acidity-alkalinity, total iron, total manganese, and dissolved sulfate which all were indicative of acid-mine drainage. When all synoptic sites in Area 3 were considered, there was a close relationship between specific conductance and dissolved solids. Sampling at other water-quality stations indicated that specific conductance, pH, iron, manganese, and sulfate can show considerable variability from stream to stream, and with time for a single stream. 29 references, 29 figures, 12 tables.

  8. Cancer incidence and mortality in Shandong province, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Zhentao; Lu, Zilong; Li, Yingmei; Zhang, Jiyu; Zhang, Gaohui; Chen, Xianxian; Chu, Jie; Ren, Jie; Liu, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Population-based cancer registration data in 2012 from all available cancer registries in Shandong province were collected by Shandong Center for Disease Control and Prevention (SDCDC). SDCDC estimated the numbers of new cancer cases and cancer deaths in Shandong province with compiled cancer incidence and mortality rates. Methods In 2015, there were 21 cancer registries submitted data of cancer incidence and deaths occurred in 2012. All the data were checked and evaluated based on the National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR) criteria of data quality. Qualified data from 15 registries were used for cancer statistics analysis as provincial estimation. The pooled data were stratified by area (urban/rural), gender, age group (0, 1.4, 5.9, 10.14, …, 85+ years) and cancer type. New cancer cases and deaths were estimated using age-specific rates and corresponding provincial population in 2012. The Chinese census data in 2000 and Segi’s population were applied for age-standardized rates. All the rates were expressed per 100,000 person-year. Results Qualified 15 cancer registries (4 urban and 11 rural registries) covered 17,189,988 populations (7,486,039 in urban and 9,703,949 in rural areas). The percentage of cases morphologically verified (MV%) and death certificate-only cases (DCO%) were 66.12% and 2.93%, respectively, and the mortality to incidence rate ratio (M/I) was 0.60. A total of 253,060 new cancer cases and 157,750 cancer deaths were estimated in Shandong province in 2012. The incidence rate was 263.86/100,000 (303.29/100,000 in males, 223.23/100,000 in females), the age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were 192.42/100,000 and 189.50/100,000 with the cumulative incidence rate (0.74 years old) of 22.07%. The cancer incidence, ASIRC and ASIRW in urban areas were 267.64/100,000, 195.27/100,000 and 192.02/100,000 compared to 262.32/100,000, 191.26/100,000 and 188.48/100,000 in

  9. Constructing the volcanic architecture of Kalkarindji, an ancient flood basalt province, using a multidisciplinary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, P.; Widdowson, M.; Kelley, S. P.; Mac Niocaill, C.; Murphy, D. T.

    2014-12-01

    The Kalkarindji Continental Flood Basalt Province (CFBP) is the oldest igneous province in the Phanerozoic. Erupted in the mid-Cambrian (505-510 Ma) [1], it is estimated volumes of lava up to 1.5 x 105 km3could have been erupted, making this similar in size to the better known Columbia River Basalts, USA. Relatively little is known about the province, due in part to its remote location, though large swathes remain well preserved (c. 50,000 km2). This study, based on rigorous field investigations, utilises 4 different analytical techniques to construct a volcanic architecture for the Kalkarindji basalts, drawing together these complimentary datasets to generate a series of detailed stratigraphies from around the province. Mineralogy and petrography form the basis while geochemical data aides in defining lava flow stratigraphies and distinguishing individual flow packages in disparate locations around the province. 40Ar/39Ar dating of key stratigraphic marker horizons support stratigraphical correlation across the province whilst the use of palaeomagnetism and magnetostratigraphy has allowed for correlation on a broader scale. Indications from this study point towards an unusual eruption among CFBPs in the Phanerozoic; a lack of tumescence, immediate subsidence of the lava pile following cessation of eruption; and, in the main sub-province, we map a simple volcanic structure thinning to the east from a single source. 1. L. M. Glass, D. Phillips, (2006). Geology. 34, 461-464.

  10. Seroepidemiologic Survey of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Tehran and Alborz Provinces of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Malmasi, Abdolali; Janitabar, Saeedeh; Mohebali, Mehdi; Akhoundi, Behnaz; Maazi, Nadi; Aramoon, Mehdi; Khorrami, Narges; Seifi, Hesam A

    2014-01-01

    Background: A two year seroepidemiological study was designed to find out the seroprevalence and risk factors of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) among stray and owned dogs in Tehran and Alborz Provinces of Iran. Methods: Blood samples of 602 dogs living in 11 counties of Tehran and Alborz Provinces were taken by venipuncture in 2008–2010. After separation of blood sera, anti-leishmanial antibodies were detected by direct agglutination test (DAT). Results: Overall, of the 408 and 194 serum samples collected randomly from dogs in 11 localities in Tehran and Alborz Provinces, 18/408 (4.41%) and 12/194 (6.18%) respectively were found positive. Among the localities, Shemiran in Tehran Province and Karaj In Alborz Province had the highest prevalence rates. No statistically significant differences were found between sex and living place but there was significant difference between living status (owned or stray) and CVL infection of dogs in Alborz Province (P= 0.018). The highest seroprevalence (7.5%) was found in dogs aged 3 to 5 years old. Only 20% of the seropositive dogs were symptomatic. Conclusion: Concerning possible human infections in Tehran and Alborz Provinces, both symptomatic and asymptomatic seropositive dogs should be considered as a risk. PMID:26114126

  11. [GIS-based analysis of the land suitability for manure application in the northeastern provinces].

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-xia; Li, Wei; Han, Wei; Yang, Ming; Dong, Yun-she; Lin, Chun-ye; Zhang, Feng-song; Xiong, Xiong

    2010-04-01

    As an important industrial and grain production base of China, livestock and poultry industry have been rapidly developed in the northeastern provinces. With the rapid increasing amount of animal production, how to handle the huge amount of animal manure has become a critical issue for local government. A quantitative analysis based on geographic information system (GIS) combining the biophysical, environmental, social and economic factors was applied to determine the land suitability for manure application in the northeastern provinces. The results show that a farmland area of 211942.7 km2, accounting for 78.9% of the cultivated land in three northeastern provinces, is estimated to be suitable for manure application. The suitable farmlands are mostly distributed in Heilongjiang and Jilin provinces. Proximity to residential area, water body and roads are identified as the primary factors influencing the manure application, while rainfall is the main factor to generate discrepancies in different areas. Furthermore, the future potential capacity for animal production in three provinces was forecasted based on the areas of suitable land and the population of existing livestock production. Among 36 cities of three provinces, the big variation is observed, Siping City is overproducing 1.813 million heads of pig unit at present, but Qiqihaer City still has the potential to rear 11.203 million heads of pig unit. Overall, eastern region of the study area holds the high potential for animal production with a surplus capacity of 2.842 million heads of pig unit, the potential of the typical mountain and forest areas is only 10% of eastern region, however. In contrast, in half of western region (central Liaoning province and central Jilin Province), their animal populations have exceeded the land carrying capacity. Therefore, we strongly suggest a site-specific animal production and manure application guide to achieve a sustainable development of livestock production in the

  12. Record of the Pacific Large Low Shear Velocity Province Upwellings Preserved in the Cretaceous Large Igneous Provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madrigal, P.; Gazel, E.; Flores, K. E.; Bizimis, M.; Jicha, B. R.

    2015-12-01

    As the surface expression of deep mantle dynamics, Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) are associated with the edges of large low shear velocity provinces (LLSVP) rooted at the core-mantle boundary. Instabilities in the LLSVP can cause periodic upwellings of material in the form of mantle plumes, which impact the lithosphere forming LIPs. However, the time frames of these massive lava outpourings are still uncertain. While continental LIPs are more readily accessible, oceanic LIPs have only been studied through drilling and sampling of fragments accreted to continental margins or island arcs, hence, they are relatively less understood. The impact of oceanic LIPs on oceanic biota is conspicuously recorded in global occurrences of black shale deposits that evidence episodes of anoxia and mass extinctions shortly after the formation of LIPs that ultimately can affect life on the entire planet. Our new geochemical and geochronological data of accreted Pacific LIPs found in the coasts of Nicoya Peninsula in Costa Rica record three LIP pulses possibly reflecting upwelling periods of the LLSVP at 140, 120 and 90 Ma. In order to test different models of origin of these LIPS, we created a complete reconstruction of the Pacific Plate configuration from the Mid-Jurassic to Upper-Cretaceous to show the existing correlation between upwelling pulses at edges of the Pacific LLSVP, oceanic anoxic events and the age from Pacific LIPs. We propose that since the formation of the Pacific plate at circa 175-180 Ma, a series of upwellings that interacted with mid-ocean ridge systems separated by 10-20 Ma have affected the planet periodically forming oceanic LIPs that still can be found today on the Pacific seafloor and accreted along the plate margins.

  13. The Circum-Hellas Volcanic Province, Mars: Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, David A.; Greeley, Ronald; Fergason, Robin L.; Kuzmin, Ruslan; McCord, Thomas B.; Combe, Jean-Phillipe; Head, James W.; Xiao, Long; Manfredi, Leon; Poulet, François; Pinet, Patrick; Baratoux, David; Plaut, Jeffrey J.; Raitala, Jouko; Neukum, Gerhard; the HRSC Co-Investigator Team

    2009-07-01

    Building on previous studies of volcanoes around the Hellas basin with new studies of imaging (High-Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC), Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE), Context Imager (CTX)), multispectral (HRSC, Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces et l'Activité (OMEGA)), topographic (Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA)) and gravity data, we define a new Martian volcanic province as the Circum-Hellas Volcanic Province (CHVP). With an area of >2.1 million km 2, it contains the six oldest central vent volcanoes on Mars, which formed after the Hellas impact basin, between 4.0 and 3.6 Ga. These volcanoes mark a transition from the flood volcanism that formed Malea Planum ˜3.8 Ga, to localized edifice-building eruptions. The CHVP volcanoes have two general morphologies: (1) shield-like edifices (Tyrrhena, Hadriaca, and Amphitrites Paterae), and (2) caldera-like depressions surrounded by ridged plains (Peneus, Malea, and Pityusa Paterae). Positive gravity anomalies are found at Tyrrhena, Hadriaca, and Amphitrites, perhaps indicative of dense magma bodies below the surface. The lack of positive-relief edifices and weak gravity anomalies at Peneus, Malea, and Pityusa suggest a fundamental difference in their formation, styles of eruption, and/or compositions. The northernmost volcanoes, the ˜3.7-3.9 Ga Tyrrhena and Hadriaca Paterae, have low slopes, well-channeled flanks, and smooth caldera floors (at tens of meters/pixel scale), indicative of volcanoes formed from poorly consolidated pyroclastic deposits that have been modified by fluvial and aeolian erosion and deposition. The ˜3.6 Ga Amphitrites Patera also has a well-channeled flank, but it and the ˜3.8 Ga Peneus Patera are dominated by scalloped and pitted terrain, pedestal and ejecta flow craters, and a general 'softened' appearance. This morphology is indicative not only of surface materials subjected to

  14. Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP): The Palisade Sill Connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghatak, A.; Basu, A. R.

    2012-12-01

    The extensively studied 200Ma Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) is considered to be the world's largest continental Large Igneous Province (LIP) covering up to 7 X 106 km2. This igneous province has been linked to the ~200Ma Mesozoic opening of the Central Atlantic Ocean. This opening fragmented the CAMP into several segments that occur on four different tectonic plates today. The CAMP related LIP is different from others in that it constitutes almost entirely of dikes and sills with sparse volcanic outflows. The 200 Ma Palisade Sill, exposed along the Hudson River in northeastern North America is an expression of the CAMP magmatism. On the basis of similar ages of eruption, Palisade Sill tholeiites have been correlated to other CAMP exposures in four continents. We provide an isotopic tracer study of the Palisade Sill basalts and relate them to low-Ti (<2 wt %) CAMP related tholeiites from North and South America, western Europe, and West Africa. We report Nd-Sr-Pb isotopic and multiple trace element data of 19 basalts and gabbros, 3 chilled margin basalts, and 4 sandstones spanning the entire length and thickness of the Palisade Sill in New York and New Jersey. These geochemical data are essential to understand the relationship between mantle geodynamic processes involved in the generation of the CAMP tholeiites prior to the formation of the of the Atlantic Ocean crust. The Palisade Sill basalts of this study yield the typical composition of low-Ti CAMP tholeiites with small LREE enrichments (LaN/SmN = 1.7 to 2.3), radiogenic Sr and negative ɛNd(I) values (87Sr/87Sr(I) = 0.70668 to 0.71037; ɛNd(I) = -0.64 to -3.8), and Pb-isotopic ratios (e.g. 206Pb/204Pb = 18.11 to 18.69) above the NHRL and subparallel to it. These geochemical data indicate the Palisade Sill basalts were derived from a slightly enriched OIB-like mantle source. Further, these rocks were derived by ~15% melting of a slightly depleted spinel peridotite with up to 20% contamination by the

  15. Evidence of Coxiella burnetii in Punjab province, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shabbir, Muhammad Zubair; Akram, Sidra; Hassan, Zia Ul; Hanif, Kashif; Rabbani, Masood; Muhammad, Javed; Chaudhary, Muhammad Hamid; Abbas, Tariq; Ghori, Muhammad Taslim; Rashid, Haroon; Jamil, Tariq; Islam, Zia-Ul-; Rasool, Haisem; Bano, Asghari; Ahmad, Arfan; Ali, Muhammad Asad; Yaqub, Tahir; McVey, Walt; Jayarao, Bhushan M

    2016-11-01

    Coxiella burnetii causes query (Q) fever, an important zoonotic disease with worldwide significance. The role of environment in the ecology of C. burnetti, and its influence on seroconversion in animals has not been elucidated in Pakistan. We carried out a cross-sectional study in Punjab province to (1) determine the prevalence and distribution of C. burnetii in soil using an ISIIII gene-based real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay, (2) analyze association between the occurrence of C. burnetii in soil and its predictors i.e. soil characteristics (macro- and micro-nutrients) and several likely risk factors including the seroconversion in small ruminants at places where its genome had or had not been detected, and (3) predict homology and genetic diversity of the identified strains using sequences originated from different hosts worldwide. A total of 2425 soil samples from nine districts of Punjab province were processed. C. burnetii DNA was detected in 47 samples (1.94%, 95% CI: ±0.55) originating from 35 villages of studied districts (7.22%, 95% CI: ±2.30). The highest prevalence was found in Attock (7.11%, 95% CI: ±3.36), followed by Lahore (4.83%, 95% CI: ±3.49), Sahiwal (4.70%, 95% CI: ±2.6), Dera Ghazi Khan (2.33%, 95% CI: ±2.02), Faisalabad (1.35%, 95% CI: ±1.18) and Sheikhupura (0.68%, 95% CI: ±0.94). The odds of detecting bacterial DNA in soil was increased with a unit increase in organic matter [2.511 (95% CI: 1.453-4.340), p=0.001] and sodium [1.013 (95% CI: 1.005-1.022), p=0.001], whereas, calcium [0.984 (95% CI: 0.975-0.994), p=0.002] and potassium [0.994 (95% CI: 0.990-0.999), p=0.011] had protective effect where a unit increase in each analyte decreased odds for its occurrence by 1.0% approximately. Likewise, for categorical variables (risk factors), the odds of detecting C. burnetii were higher at locations >500m away from a main road [1.95 (95% CI: 1.06-3.78), p=0.04]. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA

  16. The Tyrrhena-Malea Volcanic Province, Mars: Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D.; Greeley, R.; Ferguson, R.; Kuzmin, R.; McCord, T.; Combe, J.-P.; Head, J.; Xiao, L.; Manfredi, L.; Poulet, F.; Pinet, P.; Baratoux, D.; Plaut, J. J.; Raitala, J.; Neukum, G.

    2008-09-01

    Building on previous studies of volcanoes around the Hellas basin with new studies of imaging (HRSC, THEMIS, MOC, HiRISE, CTX), multispectral (HRSC, OMEGA), topographic (MOLA) and gravity data, we define a new Martian volcanic province as the Tyrrhena-Malea Volcanic Province (T-MVP). With an area of >2.1 million sq. km, it contains the six oldest central vent volcanoes on Mars, which formed after the Hellas impact basin, between 4.0 to 3.6 Ga. These volcanoes mark a transition from the flood volcanism that formed Malea Planum ~3.8 Ga, to localized point source eruptions. The T-MVP volcanoes have two general morphologies: 1) shieldlike edifices (Tyrrhena, Hadriaca, and Amphitrites Paterae), and 2) caldera-like depressions surrounded by ridged plains (Peneus, Malea, and Pityusa Paterae). Positive gravity anomalies are found at Tyrrhena, Hadriaca, and Amphitrites, perhaps indicative of dense magma bodies below the surface. The lack of shield-like edifices and weak gravity anomalies at Peneus, Malea, and Pityusa suggest a fundamental difference in their formation, styles of eruption, and/or compositions. The northernmost volcanoes, the ~3.7- 3.9 Ga Tyrrhena and Hadriaca Paterae, have low slopes, well-channeled flanks, and smooth caldera floors (at tens of meters/pixel scale), indicative of ash shields formed from poorly-consolidated pyroclastic deposits that have been modified by fluvial and aeolian erosion and deposition. The ~3.6 Ga Amphitrites Patera also has a well-channeled flank, but it and the ~3.8 Ga Peneus Patera are dominated by scalloped and pitted terrain, pedestal and ejecta flow craters, and a general `softened' appearance. This morphology is indicative not only of surface materials subjected to periglacial processes involving water ice, but also of a surface composed of easily eroded materials such as ash and dust. The southernmost volcanoes, the ~3.8 Ga Malea and Pityusa Paterae, have no channeled flanks, no scalloped and pitted terrain, and lack the

  17. Assessment of unconventional tight-gas resources of the Magallanes Basin Province, Chile, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Marra, Kristen R.

    2016-01-20

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed a technically recoverable mean resource of 8.3 trillion cubic feet of unconventional tight gas in the Zona Glauconitica of the Magallanes Basin Province, Chile.

  18. Near-infrared spectroscopy and pattern-recognition processing for classifying wines of two Italian provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Gordillo, B.; Mencaglia, Andrea A.; González-Miret, M. L.; Heredia, F. J.; Cichelli, A.

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents an experiment making use of the near-infrared spectrum for distinguishing the wines produced in two close provinces of Abruzzo region of Italy. A collection of 32 wines was considered, 18 of which were produced in the province of Chieti, while the other 14 were from the province of Teramo. A conventional dual-beam spectrophotometer was used for absorption measurements in the 1300-1900 nm spectroscopic range. Principal Component Analysis was used for explorative analysis. Score maps in the PC1-PC2 or PC2-PC3 spaces were obtained, which successfully grouped the wine samples in two distinct clusters, corresponding to Chieti and Teramo provinces, respectively. A modelling of dual-band spectroscopy was also proposed, making use of two LEDs for illumination and a PIN detector instead of the spectrometer. These data were processed using Linear Discriminant Analysis which demonstrated satisfactory classification results.

  19. Two new species of the Clubiona corticalis-group from Yunnan Province, China (Araneae, Clubionidae)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Pan-Long; Zheng, Guo; Zhang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The present paper describes two new Clubiona corticalis-group species collected from Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province of China: Clubiona submoralis sp. n. (♀♂) and Clubiona pollicaris sp. n. (♀♂). PMID:25931953

  20. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Timan-Pechora Basin Province, Russia, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, C.J.; Bird, K.J.; Charpentier, R.R.; Gautier, D.L.; Houseknecht, D.W.; Klett, T.R.; Moore, T.; Pawlewicz, M.J.; Pittman, J.; Tennyson, M.E.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Timan-Pechora Basin Province in Russia as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Oil and Gas Resource Appraisal program. Geologically, the Timan-Pechora Basin Province is a triangular-shaped cratonic block bounded by the northeast-southwest trending Ural Mountains and the northwest-southeast trending Timan Ridge. The northern boundary is shared with the South Barents Sea Province (fig.1). The Timan-Pechora Basin Province has a long history of oil and gas exploration and production. The first field was discovered in 1930 and, after 75 years of exploration, more than 230 fields have been discovered and more than 5,400 wells have been drilled. This has resulted in the discovery of more than 16 billion barrels of oil and 40 trillion cubic feet of gas.

  1. Application of multiple index development approaches to benthic invertebrate data from the Virginian Biogeographic Province

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benthic invertebrate indices have commonly been utilized to assess benthic invertebrate communities. These indices have been constructed using different techniques, but have shown different levels of application success. For example, the EMAP Virginian Province Index did not pe...

  2. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Lusitanian Basin Province, Portugal, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Le, Phuong A.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Paxton, Stanley T.

    2016-11-04

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 121 million barrels of oil and 212 billion cubic feet of gas in the Lusitanian Basin Province, Portugal.

  3. [Study of infestation of dogs with Echinococcus granulosus in the province of La Rioja, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Amaya, Juan C; Moreno, Nancy; Salmaso, Nancy; Bazan, Eduardo; Ricoy, Gerardo; Córdoba, Patricia; Santillan, Graciela I

    2016-01-01

    This work was conducted in the province of La Rioja, located in northwestern Argentina. The aim of this study was to estimate the percentage of dog feces showing the presence of antigens of Echinococcus sp. in different regions of the province. A total of 269 samples of dried canine stool were taken, which were analyzed by the copro-ELISA technique. The most affected area was zone IV, which had 30.5% of positive samples. Zone I corresponding to the Capital Department of the province had 12% of positivity. In other areas, the percentages ranged between 11.4% and 14.8%. This is the first study in the province of La Rioja on the existence of this disease in dogs. The lack of control strategies has allowed the spread of echinococcosis.

  4. Prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini-Like Fluke Infection in Ducks in Binh Dinh Province, Central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Dao, Thanh Thi Ha; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Nguyen, Thanh Thi Giang; Tran, Ha Thi Lam; Gabriël, Sarah; Smit, Suzanne; Le, Phap Ngoc; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    Following the first report of Opisthorchis viverrini infection in a domestic duck in Phu My District of Binh Dinh Province, Central Vietnam, many other cases were observed in the province. We determined the infection rate and intensity of O. viverrini infection in ducks in 4 districts of the province. A total of 178 ducks were randomly selected from 34 farms for examination of flukes in the liver and gall bladder. An infection rate of 34.3% (range 20.7-40.4% among districts) was found; the intensity of infection was 13.8 worms per infected duck (range 1-100). These findings show the role of ducks as a host for O. viverrini, duck genotype, which is sympatric with the human O. viverrini genotype in this province. It also stresses the need for investigations on the zoonotic potential and the life cycle of this parasite. PMID:27417094

  5. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Levant Basin Province, Eastern Mediterranean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 1.7 billion barrels of recoverable oil and a mean of 122 trillion cubic feet of recoverable gas in the Levant Basin Province using a geology based assessment methodology.

  6. Assessment of shale-gas resources of the Karoo Province, South Africa and Lesotho, Africa, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2016-07-08

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resource of 44.5 trillion cubic feet of shale gas in the Karoo Province of South Africa and Lesotho, Africa.

  7. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Red Sea Basin Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 5 billion barrels of undiscovered technically recoverable oil and 112 trillion cubic feet of recoverable gas in the Red Sea Basin Province using a geology-based assessment methodology.

  8. Assessment of unconventional tight-gas resources of the Magallanes Basin Province, Chile, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Marra, Kristen R.

    2016-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed a technically recoverable mean resource of 8.3 trillion cubic feet of unconventional tight gas in the Zona Glauconitica of the Magallanes Basin Province, Chile.

  9. Assessment of shale-gas resources of the Karoo Province, South Africa and Lesotho, Africa, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resource of 44.5 trillion cubic feet of shale gas in the Karoo Province of South Africa and Lesotho, Africa.

  10. [Study of infestation of dogs with Echinococcus granulosus in the province of La Rioja, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Amaya, Juan C; Moreno, Nancy; Salmaso, Nancy; Bazan, Eduardo; Ricoy, Gerardo; Córdoba, Patricia; Santillan, Graciela I

    2016-01-01

    This work was conducted in the province of La Rioja, located in northwestern Argentina. The aim of this study was to estimate the percentage of dog feces showing the presence of antigens of Echinococcus sp. in different regions of the province. A total of 269 samples of dried canine stool were taken, which were analyzed by the copro-ELISA technique. The most affected area was zone IV, which had 30.5% of positive samples. Zone I corresponding to the Capital Department of the province had 12% of positivity. In other areas, the percentages ranged between 11.4% and 14.8%. This is the first study in the province of La Rioja on the existence of this disease in dogs. The lack of control strategies has allowed the spread of echinococcosis. PMID:26774705

  11. Prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini-Like Fluke Infection in Ducks in Binh Dinh Province, Central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Dao, Thanh Thi Ha; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Nguyen, Thanh Thi Giang; Tran, Ha Thi Lam; Gabriël, Sarah; Smit, Suzanne; Le, Phap Ngoc; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Following the first report of Opisthorchis viverrini infection in a domestic duck in Phu My District of Binh Dinh Province, Central Vietnam, many other cases were observed in the province. We determined the infection rate and intensity of O. viverrini infection in ducks in 4 districts of the province. A total of 178 ducks were randomly selected from 34 farms for examination of flukes in the liver and gall bladder. An infection rate of 34.3% (range 20.7-40.4% among districts) was found; the intensity of infection was 13.8 worms per infected duck (range 1-100). These findings show the role of ducks as a host for O. viverrini, duck genotype, which is sympatric with the human O. viverrini genotype in this province. It also stresses the need for investigations on the zoonotic potential and the life cycle of this parasite. PMID:27417094

  12. Geologic implications of Paleozoic and Mesozoic paleontology and biostratigraphy, Blue Mountains province, Oregon and Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vallier, Tracy L.; Brooks, Howard C.

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains, besides the present review, seven papers on the biostratigraphy of pre-Tertiary rocks in the Blue Mountains province. Geologic implications of the faunal data are discussed in the context of terrane analyses. Most of the authors agree that the pre-Tertiary rocks of this province were formed in a complex island arc within a low-latitude faunal realm and subsequently moved northward and accreted to the North American continent. The use of different terrane names for parts of the Blue Mountains province by different authors may lead to some confusion. We suggest that future authors use the term "Blue Mountains island arc" for the pre-Tertiary province and, if there is a need for subdivision, that they use the terrane names proposed by Silberling and others (1984).

  13. A quantitative risk assessment of bovine theileriosis entering Luapula Province from Central Province in Zambia via live cattle imports from traditional and commercial production sectors.

    PubMed

    Makungu, C; Mwacalimba, K K

    2014-09-01

    Theileriosis or East Coast Fever (ECF) is an important livestock disease widespread in Zambia except for some provinces such as Luapula. This freedom status has been achieved due to strict livestock movement regulations that only authorise cattle imports from commercial farms implementing strict ECF control regimens. Recent increases in both the demand and price of beef in Zambia are stimulating a policy change towards a more inclusive inter-provincial trade in live cattle. This may also encourage the introduction of breeding cattle from high production pastoral sectors such as Central Province to stimulate the beef industry in disease free low production areas such as the Luapula Province. To estimate and compare the risks linked with those potential introductions of cattle from the traditional or commercial production sectors of the Central Province, a quantitative risk assessment model was developed. This risk comparison was necessary because the traditional livestock production sector accounts for over 79% of breeding cattle trade in Central Province but is characterised by minimalistic tick-borne disease control and a higher prevalence of ECF. We estimate that should the importation of breeding cattle from Central into Luapula Province be permitted, we could expect to import ECF by the introduction of infected animals at a median rate (5th and 95th percentiles) of every 0.44 years (0.12, 2.60), from the traditional sector compared to every 3.57 years (0.37, 103.6) from the commercial sector. Infected ticks would be expected to enter every 3.46 (0.66, 43.8) years via traditional cattle imports. These risks are strongly influenced by the prevalence of infection, performance of pre-transport screening tests, and the effectiveness of pre-transport tick cleansing. This assessment is expected to provide a model for tick borne disease risk assessments in similar settings, as well as inform ECF control, cattle trade, and stock movement policies in Zambia.

  14. A quantitative risk assessment of bovine theileriosis entering Luapula Province from Central Province in Zambia via live cattle imports from traditional and commercial production sectors.

    PubMed

    Makungu, C; Mwacalimba, K K

    2014-09-01

    Theileriosis or East Coast Fever (ECF) is an important livestock disease widespread in Zambia except for some provinces such as Luapula. This freedom status has been achieved due to strict livestock movement regulations that only authorise cattle imports from commercial farms implementing strict ECF control regimens. Recent increases in both the demand and price of beef in Zambia are stimulating a policy change towards a more inclusive inter-provincial trade in live cattle. This may also encourage the introduction of breeding cattle from high production pastoral sectors such as Central Province to stimulate the beef industry in disease free low production areas such as the Luapula Province. To estimate and compare the risks linked with those potential introductions of cattle from the traditional or commercial production sectors of the Central Province, a quantitative risk assessment model was developed. This risk comparison was necessary because the traditional livestock production sector accounts for over 79% of breeding cattle trade in Central Province but is characterised by minimalistic tick-borne disease control and a higher prevalence of ECF. We estimate that should the importation of breeding cattle from Central into Luapula Province be permitted, we could expect to import ECF by the introduction of infected animals at a median rate (5th and 95th percentiles) of every 0.44 years (0.12, 2.60), from the traditional sector compared to every 3.57 years (0.37, 103.6) from the commercial sector. Infected ticks would be expected to enter every 3.46 (0.66, 43.8) years via traditional cattle imports. These risks are strongly influenced by the prevalence of infection, performance of pre-transport screening tests, and the effectiveness of pre-transport tick cleansing. This assessment is expected to provide a model for tick borne disease risk assessments in similar settings, as well as inform ECF control, cattle trade, and stock movement policies in Zambia. PMID

  15. Women's income generation activities in Merowe Province, Northern State, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Pitamber, S; Osama, S

    1994-06-01

    Merowe province in rural northern Sudan has been divided into three local government council areas: Merowe, Karima, and Ed Debba. A government program was instituted to increase the welfare of residents and food production. A baseline survey of 490 respondents was conducted in order to ascertain how illiterate women viewed development in the area and to provide useful information for program design and implementation. Women from 24 villages were administered questionnaires, observed in their daily activities, and engaged in discussion in a local meeting place. Discussions were also held with members of the local Popular Committee. Demographic information was very sketchy about age, and 48% had no formal education in writing and reading. General reading and writing skills of the remainder were very poor. There were 500 female children and 502 male children, and the sex ratio varied among the 3 council areas. 52% were married and 14% were divorced or widowed and living with relatives. The average monthly income was from Ls. 700 to Ls. 3000 based on reports from only 59.3% of respondents. Most of the women had skills in food processing and 25.7% were skilled in handicrafts. Water was obtained primarily from local wells and not decontaminated before use. Pit latrines were the standard. One bathing facility was available in the compound for the entire council area. Health units were either in each village or within 20-30 minutes walk. Child mortality was 4.3% in Merowe province. 77 children 0-5 years old died out of a total of 1002 live births. Life expectancy was 41-50 years for women and 61-70 years for men. Cleanliness and healthful eating were observed. 58% owned no land; plots were under 5 feddans and usually half a feddan. 92.1% had no bank account and 90% had no experience with loans. 70.2% were indifferent about involvement in an income generation program. 26% were interested in part-time participation. Only 3.9% desired full-time participation. 8.6% said they

  16. Molecular biogeochemical provinces in the Atlantic Surface Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, B. P.; Flerus, R.; Schmitt-Kopplin, P.; Lechtenfeld, O. J.; Bracher, A.; Cooper, W.; Frka, S.; Gašparović, B.; Gonsior, M.; Hertkorn, N.; Jaffe, R.; Jenkins, A.; Kuss, J.; Lara, R. J.; Lucio, M.; McCallister, S. L.; Neogi, S. B.; Pohl, C.; Roettgers, R.; Rohardt, G.; Schmitt, B. B.; Stuart, A.; Theis, A.; Ying, W.; Witt, M.; Xie, Z.; Yamashita, Y.; Zhang, L.; Zhu, Z. Y.; Kattner, G.

    2010-12-01

    One of the most important aspects to understand marine organic carbon fluxes is to resolve the molecular mechanisms which convert fresh, labile biomolecules into semi-labile and refractory dissolved and particulate organic compounds in the ocean. In this interdisciplinary project, which was performed on a cruise with RV Polarstern, we carried out a detailed molecular characterisation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on a North-South transect in the Atlantic surface ocean in order to relate the data to different biological, climatic, oceanographic, and meteorological regimes as well as to terrestrial input from riverine and atmospheric sources. Our goal was to achieve a high resolution data set for the biogeochemical characterisation of the sources and reactivity of DOM. We applied ultrahigh resolution Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS), nutrient, trace element, amino acid, and lipid analyses and other biogeochemical measurements for 220 samples from the upper water column (0-200m) and eight deep profiles. Various spectroscopic techniques were applied continuously in a constant sample water flow supplied by a fish system and the moon pool. Radiocarbon dating enabled assessing DOC residence time. Bacterial abundance and production provided a metabolic context for the DOM characterization work and pCO2 concentrations. Combining molecular organic techniques and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) established an important link between organic and inorganic biogeochemical studies. Multivariate statistics, primarily based on FT-ICR-MS data for 220 samples, allowed identifying geographical clusters which matched ecological provinces proposed previously by Longhurst (2007). Our study demonstrated that marine DOM carries molecular information reflecting the “history” of ocean water masses. This information can be used to define molecular biogeochemical provinces and to improve our understanding of element fluxes in

  17. Malaria prevalence in Nias District, North Sumatra Province, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Syafruddin, Din; Asih, Puji BS; Wahid, Isra; Dewi, Rita M; Tuti, Sekar; Laowo, Idaman; Hulu, Waozidohu; Zendrato, Pardamean; Laihad, Ferdinand; Shankar, Anuraj H

    2007-01-01

    Background The Nias district of the North Sumatra Province of Indonesia has long been known to be endemic for malaria. Following the economic crisis at the end of 1998 and the subsequent tsunami and earthquake, in December 2004 and March 2005, respectively, the malaria control programme in the area deteriorated. The present study aims to provide baseline data for the establishment of a suitable malaria control programme in the area and to analyse the frequency distribution of drug resistance alleles associated with resistance to chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine. Methods Malariometric and entomology surveys were performed in three subdistricts. Thin and thick blood smears were stained with Giemsa and examined under binocular light microscopy. Blood blots on filter paper were also prepared for isolation of parasite and host DNA to be used for molecular analysis of band 3 (SAO), pfcrt, pfmdr1, dhfr, and dhps. In addition, haemoglobin measurement was performed in the second and third surveys for the subjects less than 10 years old. Results Results of the three surveys revealed an average slide positivity rate of 8.13%, with a relatively higher rate in certain foci. Host genetic analysis, to identify the Band 3 deletion associated with Southeast Asian Ovalocytosis (SAO), revealed an overall frequency of 1.0% among the 1,484 samples examined. One hundred six Plasmodium falciparum isolates from three sub-districts were successfully analysed. Alleles of the dhfr and dhps genes associated with resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, dhfr C59R and S108N, and dhps A437G and K540E, were present at frequencies of 52.2%, 82.5%, 1.18% and 1.18%, respectively. The pfmdr1 alleles N86Y and N1042D, putatively associated with mefloquine resistance, were present at 31.4% and 2%, respectively. All but one sample carried the pfcrt 76T allele associated with chloroquine resistance. Entomologic surveys identified three potential anopheline vectors in the area, Anopheles

  18. Assessment of Undiscovered Natural Gas Resources of the Sacramento Basin Province of California, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scheirer, Allegra Hosford; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Magoon, Leslie B.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a new assessment of undiscovered natural gas resources of the Sacramento Basin Province of California. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS mean estimates of undiscovered, technically recoverable resources are 534 billion cubic feet of natural gas and 323 thousand barrels of natural gas liquids in the Sacramento Basin Province. Additional undiscovered oil accumulations larger than 0.5 million barrels are considered unlikely.

  19. Geology and total petroleum systems of the Gulf of Guinea province of West Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.

    2006-01-01

    The Gulf of Guinea Province as defined by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) consists of the coastal and offshore areas of Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Togo, and Benin, and the western part of the coast of Nigeria, from the Liberian border east to the west edge of the Niger Delta. The province includes the Ivory Coast, Tano, Central, Saltpond, Keta, and Benin Basins and the Dahomey Embayment. The area has had relatively little hydrocarbon exploration since 1968, with only 33 small to moderate-sized oil and gas fields having been discovered prior to the USGS assessment. Most discoveries to 1995 have been located in water depths less than 500 m. Since 1995, only eight new offshore discoveries have been made, with four of the discoveries in the deep-water area of the province. Although as many as five total petroleum systems exist in the Gulf of Guinea Province, only one, the Cretaceous Composite Total Petroleum System, and its assessment unit, the Coastal Plain and Offshore Assessment Unit, had sufficient data to allow assessment. The province shows two important differences compared to the passive-margin basins south of the Niger Delta: (1) the influence of transform tectonics, and (2) the absence of evaporites and salt deformation. The province also lacks long-lived, large deltaic systems that typically result in rapid source rock burial and abundant high-quality hydrocarbon reservoirs. The USGS assessed the potential for undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in the Gulf of Guinea Province as part of its World Petroleum Assessment 2000, estimating a mean of 1,004 million barrels of conventional undiscovered oil, 10,071 billion cubic feet of gas, and 282 million barrels of natural gas liquids. Most of the hydrocarbon potential is postulated to be in the offshore, deeper waters of the province. Gas resources may be large, as well as accessible, in areas where the zone of hydrocarbon generation is relatively shallow.

  20. Geographical, spatial, and temporal distributions of multiple indoor air pollutants in four Chinese provinces

    SciTech Connect

    Yinlong Jin; Zheng Zhou; Gongli He

    2005-12-15

    Exposure to indoor air pollution from household energy use depends on fuel, stove, housing characteristics, and stove use behavior. Three important indoor air pollutants - respirable particles (RPM), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) were monitored for a total of 457 household-days in four poor provinces in China (Gansu, 129 household-days; Guizhou, 127 household-days; Inner Mongolia, 65 household-days; and Shaanxi, 136 household-days), in two time intervals during the heating season to investigate spatial and temporal patterns of pollution. The two provinces where biomass is the primary fuel (Inner Mongolia and Gansu) had the highest RPM concentrations (719 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in the single cooking/living/bedroom in Inner Mongolia in December and 351-661 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in different rooms and months in Gansu); lower RPM concentration were observed in the primarily coal-burning provinces of Guizhou and Shaanxi (202-352 {mu}g/m{sup 3} and 187-361 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in different rooms and months in Guizhou and Shaanxi, respectively). Inner Mongolia and Gansu also had higher CO concentrations. Among the two primarily coal-burning provinces, Guizhou had lower concentrations of CO than Shaanxi. In the two coal-burning provinces, SO{sub 2} concentrations were substantially higher in Shaanxi than in Guizhou. Relative concentrations in different rooms and provinces indicate that in the northern provinces heating is an important source of exposure to indoor pollutants from energy use. Day-to-day variability of concentrations within individual households, although substantial, was smaller than variation across households. The implications of the findings for designing environmental health interventions in each province are discussed. 21 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Molecular identification and seasonal infections of species of Fasciola in ruminants from two provinces in China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, W; Liu, J-M; Lu, K; Li, H; Duan, M-M; Feng, J-T; Hong, Y; Liu, Y-P; Zhou, Y; Tong, L-B; Lu, J; Zhu, C-G; Jin, Y-M; Cheng, G-F; Lin, J-J

    2016-05-01

    We determined the prevalence and seasonality of infections by Fasciola of goats and bovine species (cattle and water buffalo) in Hubei and Anhui provinces of China. Faecal samples were collected at 2- to 3-month intervals from 200 goats in Hubei province and from 152 bovine species in Anhui province. All faecal samples were examined for the presence of parasites. We determined the nucleotide sequences of the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of 39 Fasciola worms from Anhui province. The prevalence of Fasciola infection in goats ranged between 3.5 and 37.0%, with mean eggs per gram (EPG) ranging between 29.0 and 166.0. Prevalence and EPG exhibited downward trends over time with significant differences. The prevalence of Fasciola infection in cattle ranged between 13.3 and 46.2% (mean EPG, 36.4-100.0), and that of water buffalo ranged between 10.3 and 35.4% (mean EPG, 25.0-89.6), with a higher prevalence of infection and EPG from June to October compared with December to March. Analysis of ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequences revealed that F. hepatica and F. gigantica were present in all bovine species of Anhui province and that F. gigantica mainly infected water buffalo. This is the first demonstration of Fasciola infection in Hubei province and detection of F. hepatica and F. gigantica in Anhui province. The present study of Hubei province shows that mass treatment of livestock with closantel sodium injections in April and August/September controlled Fasciola infection effectively.

  2. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Dnieper-Donets Basin Province and Pripyat Basin Province, Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, using a geology-based assessment methodology, estimated mean volumes of technically recoverable, conventional, undiscovered petroleum resources at 84 million barrels of crude oil, 4.7 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 130 million barrels of natural gas liquids for the Dnieper-Donets Basin Province and 39 million barrels of crude oil, 48 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1 million barrels of natural gas liquids for the Pripyat Basin Province. The assessments are part of a program to estimate these resources for priority basins throughout the world.

  3. Study of an evaluation index system of well-off water conservancy in Yunnan Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C.; Wen, Z.; Shu, L.; Lu, C.; Gu, S.; Su, J.; He, M.; Xing, K.

    2015-05-01

    To achieve good water conservancy under the well-off society before 2020, the future water conservancy planning is undergoing in Yunnan Province. In this study, by analysing the research results of domestic relevant water evaluation index systems and combining this with the water conservancy construction key of Yunnan Province, an unique evaluation index system was proposed to evaluate the well-off water conservancy level of Yunnan Province. It is composed of three levels which are the target layer, criterion layer and index layer. And the criterion layer includes six systems, namely flood control and drought relief mitigation, reasonable allocation of water resources, highly effective water utilization, water source protection and river health security, water management and securing of water development. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was used to determine the weight of each index. According to the present situation of water development and the related water conservancy planning in Yunnan Province, the target value of each index and evaluation standards are put forward for Yunnan Province in 2020. The results show that the evaluation results are consistent with the actual condition of water development in Yunnan Province and can be used to examine the effects of well-off water conservancy planning.

  4. Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Gas Resources of the Eastern Oregon and Washington Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey Eastern Oregon and Washington Province Assessment Team, (compiler)

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geology-based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States, focusing on the distribution, quantity, and availability of oil and natural gas resources. The USGS has completed an assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Eastern Oregon and Washington Province of Oregon and Washington (USGS Province 5005). The province is a priority Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) province for the National Assessment because of its potential for oil and gas resources. The assessment of this province is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (stratigraphy, sedimentology, petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). In the Eastern Oregon and Washington Province, the USGS used this geologic framework to define one total petroleum system and two assessment units within the total petroleum system, and quantitatively estimated the undiscovered gas resources within each assessment unit.

  5. Chapter 41: Geology and petroleum potential of the West Greenland-East Canada Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West Greenland-East Canada Province as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal programme. The province lies in the offshore area between western Greenland and eastern Canada and includes Baffin Bay, Davis Strait, Lancaster Sound and Nares Strait west of and including part of Kane Basin. A series of major tectonic events led to the formation of several distinct structural domains that are the geological basis for defining five assessment units (AU) in the province, all of which are within the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Composite Petroleum System. Potential petroleum source rocks include strata of Ordovician, Lower and Upper Cretaceous, and Palaeogene ages. The five AUs defined for this study - the Eurekan Structures AU, NW Greenland Rifted Margin AU, NE Canada Rifted Margin AU, Baffin Bay Basin AU and the Greater Ungava Fault Zone AU - encompass the entire province and were assessed for undiscovered technically recoverable resources. The mean volumes of undiscovered resources for the West Greenland-East Canada Province are 10.7 ?? 109 barrels of oil, 75 ?? 1012 cubic feet of gas, and 1.7 ?? 109 barrels of natural gas liquids. For the part of the province that is north of the Arctic Circle, the estimated mean volumes of these undiscovered resources are 7.3 ?? 109 barrels of oil, 52 ?? 1012 cubic feet of natural gas, and 1.1 ?? 109 barrels of natural gas liquids. ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.

  6. Findings of the fertility survey in Beijing municipality and other five provinces.

    PubMed

    1988-12-01

    The findings of the 2nd Chinese Fertility Survey, conducted in Beijing Municipality and the provinces of Liaoning, Shandong, Guangdong, Guizhou, and Gansu, indicate progress in the postponement of age at 1st marriage as well as increasing marital stability. The divorce rate ranged from 0.2-0.6% in the areas studied. Median age at 1st marriage is 3 years higher among women 25-29 years of age than among women 45-49 years of age. Among these younger women, median age at 1st marriage now stands at 23 years in Beijing Municipality and Liaoning, Shandong, and Guangdong Provinces and at 21-22 years in Guizhou and Gansu Provinces. The average. At present, the average number of children born is 1.63 in Beijing Municipality, 1.97 in Liaoning Province, 2.19 in Shandong, 2.67 in Guangdong, 2.79 in Gansu, and 3.47 in Guizhou Province. All the women surveyed were able to cite 4-7 birth control methods and have themselves used 1-2 methods (a low of 1 method in Guizhou and Gansu Provinces to a high of 1.7 in Beijing). Overall, 70% of the women of childbearing age surveyed were using contraceptive method at present. The highest contraceptive prevalence rate (84%) exists in Beijing Municipality.

  7. The Kanin-Timan-Pechora province of Late Devonian intraplate magmatism (position and size)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanenko, V. I.

    2016-04-01

    Investigation of the distribution of basalts, dolerites, and tuffs in the Kanin-Timan-Pechora large igneous province was completed by generalization of data of geological surveys and analysis of the data of deep drilling. The province appears like a nonisometric ellipse and extends northwestward for a distance of nearly 850 km at the width of 250-500 km. Its area is nearly 285 000 km2. The area of the volcanic rocks is about 85 500 km2. The volume of eruptive material alone could be equal to 1000-1200 km3. The age of formation of the traps corresponds to the late period of activity of the process and was less than 7 mln. y. The formation of the province was result of the action of short-lived and low intensity plumes. But it was one of the episodes of the Late Devonian superplume event in the East European platform. The province is separated by an amagmatic area from neighboring magmatic provinces of the same age. The distance between borders of the provinces is 200-400 km.

  8. Rapid magma emplacement in the Karoo Large Igneous Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensen, Henrik; Corfu, Fernando; Polteau, Stéphane; Hammer, Øyvind; Planke, Sverre

    2012-04-01

    Understanding the dynamics of continental Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) relies on precise dating of basaltic rocks. LIP research has traditionally focused on dating lavas, often neglecting the volumetrically important sill intrusions in underlying sedimentary basins. Here we present U-Pb zircon (and baddeleyite) ages for fourteen new samples of Karoo LIP sills and dykes spaced by as much as 1100 km across the half million square kilometer Karoo Basin. The samples yield remarkably coherent ages ranging from 183.0 ± 0.5 to 182.3 ± 0.6 myr. Probability modeling indicates that basin scale emplacement took place within an interval of about 0.47 myrs (less than 0.90 myrs with 95% confidence), and could even have represented a single magma emplacement event. Combining the new ages with the estimated volume of sills in the Karoo Basin gives an emplacement rate of 0.78 km3/yr, which is higher than previous estimates. Upper crustal magma storage may account for these high rates. The results challenge the view that melt emplacement in a sedimentary basin is a prolonged process, support a scenario of pulsating catastrophic events within a narrow time frame, and strengthens the hypothesis linking LIPs and sill emplacement to global environmental crises.

  9. Regional geomorphology and history of Titan's Xanadu province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Radebaugh, J.; Lorenz, R.D.; Wall, S.D.; Kirk, R.L.; Wood, C.A.; Lunine, J.I.; Stofan, E.R.; Lopes, R M.C.; Valora, P.; Farr, T.G.; Hayes, A.; Stiles, B.; Mitri, G.; Zebker, H.; Janssen, M.; Wye, L.; LeGall, A.; Mitchell, K.L.; Paganelli, F.; West, R.D.; Schaller, E.L.; ,

    2011-01-01

    Titan's enigmatic Xanadu province has been seen in some detail with instruments from the Cassini spacecraft. The region contains some of the most rugged, mountainous terrain on Titan, with relief over 2000 m. Xanadu contains evolved and integrated river channels, impact craters, and dry basins filled with smooth, radar-dark material, perhaps sediments from past lake beds. Arcuate and aligned mountain chains give evidence of compressional tectonism, yet the overall elevation of Xanadu is puzzlingly low compared to surrounding sand seas. Lineations associated with mountain fronts and valley floors give evidence of extension that probably contributed to this regional lowering. Several locations on Xanadu's western and southern margins contain flow-like features that may be cryovolcanic in origin, perhaps ascended from lithospheric faults related to regional downdropping late in its history. Radiometry and scatterometry observations are consistent with a water–ice or water–ammonia–ice composition to its exposed, eroded, fractured bedrock; both microwave and visible to near-infrared (v-nIR) data indicate a thin overcoating of organics, likely derived from the atmosphere. We suggest Xanadu is one of the oldest terrains on Titan and that its origin and evolution have been controlled and shaped by compressional and then extensional tectonism in the icy crust and ongoing erosion by methane rainfall.

  10. An outbreak of canine aflatoxicosis in Gauteng Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Arnot, Luke F; Duncan, Neil M; Coetzer, Heleen; Botha, Christo J

    2012-01-01

    Sporadic outbreaks of aflatoxicosis occur in dogs when they consume contaminated dog food. During 2011, low-cost brands of pelleted dog food were contaminated with very high concentrations of aflatoxins. Approximately 100 dogs were presented to the Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital. Clinically, the dogs were depressed to collapsed and icteric, with haematemesis, melaena and haematochezia. The most common pathological findings were icterus, gastro-enterorrhagia and hepatosis. On histopathological examination, fatty hepatosis and bile duct proliferation were observed. A consistent, very characteristic finding was the presence of a blue-grey granular material within the bile ducts. A total of 124 samples of the dog food fed to the affected dogs was analysed to determine aflatoxin concentrations. Concentrations ranged from below the limit of quantification (< 5 μg/kg) to 4946 μg/kg and six samples were submitted to determine the ratio of aflatoxins in the feed. It is estimated that well over 220 dogs died in the Gauteng Province of South Africa as a result of this aflatoxin outbreak.

  11. Thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies in Thua Thien Hue Province, Central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hoa Van; Sanchaisuriya, Kanokwan; Nguyen, Dung; Phan, Hoa Thi Thuy; Siridamrongvattana, Sirivara; Sanchaisuriya, Pattara; Fucharoen, Supan; Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Schelp, Frank P

    2013-01-01

    A community-based assessment of thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies was conducted at the Thua Thien Hue Province, Central Vietnam. By cluster sampling, a total of 410 pregnant women attending the antenatal care service at 30 commune health centers were recruited consecutively from September 2011 to June 2012. Hemoglobin (Hb) analysis was performed using an automated Hb analyzer. α-Thalassemia (α-thal) genes were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques. Out of the 410 pregnant women, 2.7% carried α(0)-thal and 1.2% were β-thal carriers. One woman with the - -(THAI) deletion was also found. Among the females under survey, structural Hb variants with 3.2% Hb E [β26(B8)Glu→Lys, GAG>AAG; HBB: c.78G>C] and 3.7% Hb Constant Spring [Hb CS; α142, Term→Gln, TAA>CAA (α2); HBA2: c.427T>C] were found. Assessing the frequency of thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies by ethnicity, Kinh (Vietnamese) and ethnic minority groups, Hb CS with a high frequency of 24.0% was observed in the ethnic minority groups. These results provide basic population-based information, are useful not only for implementing measures for prevention and control of thalassemias in the region but also for studying the importance of thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies in ethnic minorities within Southeast Asia.

  12. Climatically driven biogeographic provinces of Late Triassic tropical Pangea

    PubMed Central

    Whiteside, Jessica H.; Grogan, Danielle S.; Olsen, Paul E.; Kent, Dennis V.

    2011-01-01

    Although continents were coalesced into the single landmass Pangea, Late Triassic terrestrial tetrapod assemblages are surprisingly provincial. In eastern North America, we show that assemblages dominated by traversodont cynodonts are restricted to a humid 6° equatorial swath that persisted for over 20 million years characterized by “semiprecessional” (approximately 10,000-y) climatic fluctuations reflected in stable carbon isotopes and sedimentary facies in lacustrine strata. More arid regions from 5–20°N preserve procolophonid-dominated faunal assemblages associated with a much stronger expression of approximately 20,000-y climatic cycles. In the absence of geographic barriers, we hypothesize that these variations in the climatic expression of astronomical forcing produced latitudinal climatic zones that sorted terrestrial vertebrate taxa, perhaps by excretory physiology, into distinct biogeographic provinces tracking latitude, not geographic position, as the proto-North American plate translated northward. Although the early Mesozoic is usually assumed to be characterized by globally distributed land animal communities due to of a lack of geographic barriers, strong provinciality was actually the norm, and nearly global communities were present only after times of massive ecological disruptions. PMID:21571639

  13. [Retrospective evaluation of brucellosis cases inhabiting in Mus province].

    PubMed

    Sit, Dede; Kadiroğlu, Ali Kemal; Kayabaşi, Hasan; Hoşoğlu, Salih

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the brucellosis patients inhabiting in Mus province, in Eastern Anatolia of Turkey, retrospectively. The mean age of the patients (n: 87) was 38.1 +/- 12.4 years, and 45% of them were female. The transmission route was the consumption of unpasteurized fresh cheese (in 85%), and unboiled milk (in 45%). The most common symptoms were recorded as chills (89%), fever (87%), and arthralgia (81%). Splenomegaly (71%) and hepatomegaly (63%) were the predominant physical examination signs. Diagnosis was made based on the clinical features and positive Rose-Bengal test result (93%), however, blood cultures could not be performed due to insufficient laboratory equipment. In 92% of the patients at least one complication has been detected indicating delayed admission to the hospital, while the most common complications were sacroileitis (79%) and spondylitis (44%). Streptomycin+doxycyclin, streptomycin+doxycyclin+ ciprofloxacin, and streptomycin+doxycyclin+ rifampicin combination therapies were used in 62%, 24% and 14% of the patients, respectively, for six weeks, resulting with complete cure. PMID:17001861

  14. Environmental Consequences of Rapid Urbanization in Zhejiang Province, East China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xuchao; Yue, Wenze; Xu, Honghui; Wu, Jingsheng; He, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Since reforms carried out in the late 1970s, China has experienced unprecedented rates of urban growth. Remote sensing data and surface observational data are used to investigate the urbanization process and related environmental consequences, focusing on extreme heat events and air pollution, in Zhejiang Province (ZJP, East China). Examination of satellite-measured nighttime light data indicates rapid urbanization in ZJP during the past decade, initially forming three urban clusters. With rapid urban sprawl, a significant Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect has emerged. During extreme heat events in summer, the UHI effect significantly exacerbates nocturnal heat stress in highly urbanized areas. Taking a long-term view, urbanization also causes additional hot days and hot degree days in urban areas. Urbanization also imposes a heavy burden on local and regional air quality in ZJP. Degraded visibility and an increase in haze days are observed at most meteorological stations, especially in the three urban clusters. The results show that urbanization has led to serious environmental problems in ZJP, not only on the city scale, but also on the regional scale. Maintaining a balance between the continuing process of urbanization and environmental sustainability is a major issue facing the local government. PMID:25019266

  15. Alaska: A twenty-first-century petroleum province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bird, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    Alaska, the least explored of all United States regions, is estimated to contain approximately 40% of total U.S. undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and natural-gas resources, based on the most recent U.S. Department of the Interior (U.S. Geological Survey and Minerals Management Service) estimates. Northern Alaska, including the North Slope and adjacent Beaufort and Chukchi continental shelves, holds the lion's share of the total Alaskan endowment of more than 30 billion barrels (4.8 billion m3) of oil and natural-gas liquids plus nearly 200 trillion cubic feet (5.7 trillion m3) of natural gas. This geologically complex region includes prospective strata within passive-margin, rift, and foreland-basin sequences. Multiple source-rock zones have charged several regionally extensive petroleum systems. Extensional and compressional structures provide ample structural objectives. In addition, recent emphasis on stratigraphic traps has demonstrated significant resource potential in shelf and turbidite systems in Jurassic to Tertiary strata. Despite robust potential, northern Alaska remains a risky exploration frontier - a nexus of geologic complexity, harsh economic conditions, and volatile policy issues. Its role as a major petroleum province in this century will depend on continued technological innovations, not only in exploration and drilling operations, but also in development of huge, currently unmarketable natural-gas resources. Ultimately, policy decisions will determine whether exploration of arctic Alaska will proceed.

  16. Proposed water-supply investigations in Sidamo Province, Ethiopia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phoenix, David A.

    1966-01-01

    The present report describes the results of an air and ground hydrologic reconnaissance of some 32,000 square kilometers in Sidamo Province of southern Ethiopia. Existing (1966) water resources developments, chiefly for livestock and village supplies, include surface reservoirs, a few drilled wells, several clusters of dug wells in the Mega area, several scattered springs, and the perennial Dawa Parma River. Surface-water reservoirs range from hand-dug ponds of a few hundred cubic meters capacity to large machine-constructed excavations built to hold 62,000 cubic meters of water. All the existing drilled wells tap saturated alluvium at depths of less than 120 meters. The dug wells tap water-bearing zones in tuffaceous lacustrine deposits or stream-channel alluvium generally at depths of less than 30 meters. The springs mostly rise from fractured Precambrian quartzite and individual discharges are all less than 75 liters per minute. The report also outlines the terms of reference for a longer term water-resources investigation of the region including staffing, housing and equipment requirements and other logistic support.

  17. Application of Telemedicine in Gansu Province of China

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Hui; Wang, Hongjing

    2016-01-01

    Telemedicine has become an increasingly popular option for long-distance health care and continuing education. As information and communication technology is underdeveloped in China, telemedicine develops slowly. At present, telemedicine consultation centers are situated mainly in developed cities, such as Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. In many less developed regions, such as northwest China, the conditions or related facilities are not available for the application of a better medical service. Accordingly, the aim of this paper was to introduce the construction and application of a telemedicine consultation center in Gansu Province in the northwest of China. In addition, the function of Gansu Provincial Telemedicine Consultation Center on emergency public events was introduced. As a whole, there was a great demand for telemedicine service in the local medical institutions. In the telemedicine consultation center, the telemedicine equipments and regulations were needed to be improved. The function of telemedicine service was not fully used, there was a large space to be applied and the publicity of telemedicine service was important. What is important was that telemedicine played a significance role in promoting the medical policy reform, improving the medical environment and launching the remote rescue in the emergency public events. This paper emphasizes the health care challenges of poor regions, and indicates how to share the high-quality medical service of provincial hospitals effectively and how to help residents in resource-poor environments. PMID:27332894

  18. Chronic arsenic toxicity in sheep of Kurdistan province, western Iran.

    PubMed

    Keshavarzi, Behnam; Seradj, Afsaneh; Akbari, Zahra; Moore, Farid; Shahraki, Alireza Rahmani; Pourjafar, Mehrdad

    2015-07-01

    After the detection of arsenic (As) toxicity in sheep from Ebrahim-abad and Babanazar villages in Kurdistan province, the concentration of this element in drinking water, cultivated soil, alfalfa hay, wool, and blood samples was evaluated. Total As concentrations ranged from 119 to 310 μg/L in drinking water, 46.70-819.20 mg/kg in soil 1.90-6.90 mg/kg in vegetation 1.56-10.79 mg/kg in sheep's wool, and 86.30-656 μg/L in blood samples. These very high As contents, in all parts of the biogeochemical cycle, exceed the recommended normal range for this element compared with a control area. Results indicate that As has moved through all compartments of the biogeochemical cycle by way of direct or indirect pathways. The present investigation illustrated decreased packed cell volume and hemoglobin in sheep from the As-contaminated zone. It was concluded that sheep from the contaminated areas suffer from anemia. Chronic As exposure of the liver was determined by liver function tests. For this purpose, blood aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were measured. The results show that serum ALT and AST activities are increased significantly (p < 0.01) in the sheep population exposed to As in the contaminated zone. Moreover, chronic As exposure causes injury to hepatocytes and damages the liver.

  19. Workplace bullying in nursing: The case of Azerbaijan province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Esfahani, Ali Nasr; Shahbazi, Gholamreza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Workplace bullying is a significant issue confronting the nursing profession both in Iran and internationally. This study examined workplace bullying among a group of Iranian nurses. Materials and Methods: The prevalence rate of bullying behavior among nurses was determined. Data were collected from 162 nurses who worked in four hospitals located in West Azerbaijan province, Iran. Results: Results showed that only 9% of nurses who participated in this study had frequently been exposed to bullying behavior, 22% had occasionally been bullied, and 69% had never been exposed to these behaviors during the last year. The most common type of workplace bullying experienced by nurses was verbal bullying. Forty percent of the nurses reported exposure to verbal bullying behavior frequently or occasionally. Conclusions: To be able to intervene with bullying behavior in the workplace, there is a need to pay greater attention to the problem by the entire range of managers, lawyers, industrial–organizational psychologists, counselors, social workers, and local authorities. PMID:25183984

  20. Breast cancer screening programme: experience from Eastern province, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al Mulhim, F A; Syed, A; Bagatadah, W A; Al Muhanna, A F

    2015-02-01

    Programmes for early diagnosis of breast cancer are lacking in most countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. This paper reviews a nongovernmental screening programme launched in October 2009 in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, in which 14 health centres were covered by 2 mobile mammography machines. Annual screening was offered to all women aged 40 years and above. Up to February 2014 a total of 8061 women were screened, an uptake rate of 15.0%. The recall rate was 7.9%. The number of cancers detected was 47, a cancer detection rate of 5.83 per 1000 women screened; 70.2% of the cancers detected had either no mass or the lesions were smaller than 2 cm. The mean age of women with cancer was 50.4 (SD 7.6) years. The screening parameters of our study correlated well with international standards. Despite the controversies regarding universal breast cancer screening, a national breast cancer screening programme for Saudi Arabia is needed. PMID:25876822

  1. Environmental consequences of rapid urbanization in zhejiang province, East china.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuchao; Yue, Wenze; Xu, Honghui; Wu, Jingsheng; He, Yue

    2014-07-11

    Since reforms carried out in the late 1970s, China has experienced unprecedented rates of urban growth. Remote sensing data and surface observational data are used to investigate the urbanization process and related environmental consequences, focusing on extreme heat events and air pollution, in Zhejiang Province (ZJP, East China). Examination of satellite-measured nighttime light data indicates rapid urbanization in ZJP during the past decade, initially forming three urban clusters. With rapid urban sprawl, a significant Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect has emerged. During extreme heat events in summer, the UHI effect significantly exacerbates nocturnal heat stress in highly urbanized areas. Taking a long-term view, urbanization also causes additional hot days and hot degree days in urban areas. Urbanization also imposes a heavy burden on local and regional air quality in ZJP. Degraded visibility and an increase in haze days are observed at most meteorological stations, especially in the three urban clusters. The results show that urbanization has led to serious environmental problems in ZJP, not only on the city scale, but also on the regional scale. Maintaining a balance between the continuing process of urbanization and environmental sustainability is a major issue facing the local government.

  2. Petroleum possibilities of Yukon-Koyukuk Province, Alaska: region 1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patton, William W.

    1971-01-01

    The Yukon-Koyukuk province covers 100,000 sq mi (259,000 sq km) along the west coast of Alaska, extending from the Brooks Range to the Yukon delta, but excluding the Seward Peninsula. It is essentially a vast tract of Cretaceous rocks locally veneered by Quaternary alluviated beds and volcanic rocks. The Cretaceous section contains a large volume of volcanic rocks, and most of the sedimentary sequence consists of first- and second-cycle volcanic debris. Above basal andesitic rocks is a 10,000-ft (3,048 m) section of graywacke and mudstone of Albian age, overlain by 10,000 ft or more of shallow-marine and nonmarine paralic sandstone, shale, conglomerate, and coal--dated as late Early and early Late Cretaceous. This part of the stratigraphic section may contain hydrocarbons but severe structural complications limit the possibilities to two belts, one in the north along the Kobuk River and the other a narrow northeast-southwest band extending 300 mi (483 km) from the Koyukuk Flats to the Yukon-Kuskokwim lowland.

  3. Upper Jurassic ramp carbonate and associated evaporite, Neuquen Province, Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Nickelsen, B.H.; Merrill, D.A.

    1986-05-01

    The Oxfordian La Manga Limestone (10-65 m) and overlying Auquilco Gypsum (315 m maximum thickness) crop out along the west flank of the Neuquen basin, Neuquen Province, Argentina (36/sup 0/40/sup 0/S lat.). The contact with the underlying Lotena Sandstone is gradational, and both formations are cut by the Late Jurassic Araucanian angular unconformity. Seven lithofacies have been identified within sections measured through the entire interval along the northeast to southwest trending, 30-km long Sierra de la Vaca Muerta ridge (38/sup 0/30'-39/sup 0/S). The La Manga Limestone is interpreted as a temperate ramp carbonate that developed over the Lotena Formation siliciclastic shelf. Interpretations of lithofacies from southwest to northeast are: behind-barrier subtidal lagoon with washovers; coral and red algae biostromes; ooid and peloid sand shoals; downslope wackestone and packstone mud mounds; and deep-water carbonate turbidites. A minor regression separates La Manga and Auquilco Formations. Lithofacies of the Auquilco Formation indicate a shallowing-up sequence comprised of initially deep (hundreds of meters) subaqueous evaporite deposition followed by shallow, subtidal carbonate peloidal and shell fragment grainstones and evaporites. Thickness of the subaqueous evaporite gives an order of magnitude estimate of Auquilco basin depths of a few hundred meters at most. The Neuquen basin has an intermediate proportion of carbonate in comparison to relatively carbonate-poor basins to the south and carbonate-rich basins to the north.

  4. Photovoltaic generating systems in rural schools in Neuquen Province, Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Lawand, T.A.; Campbell, J.

    1997-12-01

    During the period 1994-95, solar photovoltaic systems were installed at a number of schools in Neuquen Province, Argentina, by the Provincial electric utility, Ente Provincial de Energia del Neuquen. This was undertaken with funds provided by the Inter-American Development Bank. In all, there are 12 schools that have had photovoltaic generating systems installed. These generating systems are designed to provide electricity for the basic needs at the schools: primarily for lighting, and to operate small electrical appliances such as communication radios, televisions, VCR`s, AM/FM and short-wave radios. They do not provide enough energy to operate large consumption appliances such as washing machines, microwaves, refrigerators, power tools, etc. The program of provision of PV systems was supplemented with training on simple systems for cooking food or drying fruit, etc. These techniques are primarily intended for demonstration at the schools thus serving an educational role with the hope that they will be transmitted in time to the families of the students where the need is manifested the most.

  5. An impending water crisis in Canada's western prairie provinces

    PubMed Central

    Schindler, D. W.; Donahue, W. F.

    2006-01-01

    Canada is usually considered to be a country with abundant freshwater, but in its western prairie provinces (WPP), an area 1/5 the size of Europe, freshwater is scarce. European settlement of the WPP did not begin until the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Fortuitously, the period since European settlement appears to have been the wettest century of the past two millennia. The frequent, long periods of drought that characterized earlier centuries of the past two millennia were largely absent in the 20th century. Here, we show that climate warming and human modifications to catchments have already significantly reduced the flows of major rivers of the WPP during the summer months, when human demand and in-stream flow needs are greatest. We predict that in the near future climate warming, via its effects on glaciers, snowpacks, and evaporation, will combine with cyclic drought and rapidly increasing human activity in the WPP to cause a crisis in water quantity and quality with far-reaching implications. PMID:16606829

  6. Southern Mozambique basin: most promising hydrocarbon province offshore eat Africa

    SciTech Connect

    De Buyl, M.; Flores, G.

    1984-09-01

    Recent offshore acquisition of 12,800 km (8,000 mi) of seismic reflection data, with gravity and magnetic profiles encompassing the southern half of the Mozambique basin, reveals new facets of the subsurface geology. Integrated interpretation of these new geophysical data with old well information results in the development of depositional and tectonic models that positively establish the hydrocarbon potential of the basin. The recent comprehensive interpretation affords the following conclusions. (1) Significant oil shows accompany wet gas discoveries suggest that the South Mozambique basin is a mature province, as the hydrocarbon associations imply thermogenic processes. (2) Super-Karoo marine Jurassic sequences have been encountered in Nhamura-1 well onshore from the application of seismic stratigraphy and well correlation. (3) Steeply dipping reflectors truncated by the pre-Cretaceous unconformity testify to significant tectonic activity preceding the breakup of Gondwanaland. Hence, preconceived ideas about the depth of the economic basement and the absence of mature source rocks of pre-Cretaceous age should be revised. (4) Wildcats in the vicinity of ample structural closures have not been, in retrospect, optimally positioned nor drilled to sufficient depth to test the viability of prospects mapped along a major offshore extension of the East African rift system delineated by this new survey.

  7. Mid-Continent rift system: a frontier hydrocarbon province

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.K.; Kerr, S.D. Jr.

    1984-04-01

    The Mid-Continent rift system can be traced by the Mid-Continent geophysical anomaly (MGA) from the surface exposure of the Keweenawan Supergroup in the Lake Superior basin southwest in the subsurface through Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska, and Kansas. Outcrop and well penetrations of the late rift Keweenawan sedimentary rocks reveal sediments reflecting a characteristic early continental rift clastic sequence, including alluvial fans, deep organic-rich basins, and prograding fluvial plains. Sedimentary basins where these early rift sediments are preserved can be located by upward continuation of the aeromagnetic profiles across the rift trend and by gravity models. Studies of analog continental rifts and aulacogens show that these gravity models should incorporate (1) a deep mafic rift pillow body to create the narrow gravity high of the MGA, and (2) anomalously thick crust to account for the more regional gravity low. Preserved accumulations of rift clastics in central rift positions can then be modeled to explain the small scale notches which are found within the narrow gravity high. Indigenous oil in Keweenawan sediments in the outcrop area and coaly partings in the subsurface penetrations of the Keweenawan clastics support the analogy between these rift sediments and the exceptionally organic-rich sediments of the East African rift. COCORP data across the rift trend in Kansas show layered deep reflectors and large structures. There is demonstrable source, reservoir, and trap potential within the Keweenawan trend, making the Mid-Continent rift system a frontier hydrocarbon province.

  8. Mid-continent rift system: a frontier hydrocarbon province

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.K.; Kerr, S.D. Jr.

    1984-04-01

    The Mid-continent rift system can be traced by the Mid-continent geophysical anomaly (MGA) from the surface exposure of the Keweenawan Supergroup in the Lake Superior basin southwest in the subsurface through Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska, and Kansas. Outcrop and well penetrations of the late rift Keweenawan sedimentary rocks reveal sediments reflecting a characteristic early continental rift clastic sequence, including alluvial fans, deep organic-rich basins, and prograding fluvial plains. Sedimentary basins where these early rift sediments are preserved can be located by upward continuation of the aeromagnetic profiles across the rift trend and by gravity models. Studies of analog continental rifts and aulacogens show that these gravity models should incorporate (1) a deep mafic rift pillow body to create the narrow gravity high of the MGA, and (2) anomalously thick crust to account for the more regional gravity low. Preserved accumulations of rift clastics in central rift positions can then be modeled to explain the small scale notches which are found within the narrow gravity high. Indigenous oil in Keweenawan sediments in the outcrop area and coaly partings in the subsurface penetrations of the Keweenawan clastics support the analogy between these rift sediments and the exceptionally organic-rich sediments of the East African rift. COCORP data across the rift trend in Kansas show layered deep reflectors and large structures. There is demonstrable source, reservoir, and trap potential within the Keweenawan trend, making the Mid-Continent rift system a frontier hydrocarbon province.

  9. [Microcystin contamination of fish on Poyang Lake in Jiangxi province].

    PubMed

    Xu, Haibin; Sun, Ming; Sui, Haixia; Li, Jianping; Yan, Weixing

    2003-05-01

    In order to investigate the level of microcystin contamination of fish and its dynamic change in fish body, samples of freshwater as well as fish were collected from Poyang lake in Jiangxi province in July and October in 2000 respectively. Microcystin were tested for all samples via ELISA method. The results showed that: all freshwater samples collected in July and October contained blue-green alga and it has become a dominant alga. Microsystin content was higher in freshwater collected in October than that of in July. The average content level of microcystin in freshwater of river bank and Yongxiu river was 888.8 ng/ml, being ten times higher than that of water of Bang lake 1, Bang lake 2 and Big lake pool (83.6 pg/ml). The highest level of microcystin was 1036.9 pg/ml in freshwater of Yongxiu river. Microcystin could be detected in all samples of fish muscle and fish liver. The level of microcystin in muscle of fish collected in October was 1.2 to 2.0 times higher of that collected in July, and microcystin in liver of fish collected in October was 2.0 to 20 times higher of that collected in July. The average level of microcystin in fish liver in river bank and Yongxiu river was 27.2 ng/g, being significantly higher than that of in Bang lake1, Bang lake 2 and Big lake pool (2.8 ng/g).

  10. Indoor radon measurements in Erzurum province of Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durak, R.; Kiran, D.; Kavaz, E.; Ekinci, N.

    2016-04-01

    Indoor radon measurements were carried out in dwellings in Erzurum province during the winter months of February 2012 to early April 2012 and the summer months of July 2012 to early September 2012. Nuclear track detector LR-115 was used for the measurements. According to the results of investigations, it was understood that the indoor radon concentration averages in dwellings are in the range of 11 ± 6 Bq m-3 - 380 ± 91 Bq m-3 in winter season and 8 ± 3 Bq m-3 - 356 ± 64 Bq m-3 in summer season. We found that the 222Rn effective dose values in the studied dwellings in winter season range from 0.278 to 9.59 mSv y-1. Also, the 222Rn effective dose values in the studied dwellings in summer season range from 0.202 to 8.98 mSv y-1. These values are within the ICPR recommended values. The radon activity has not been found to vary with seasonal changes, but also with the age, the construction mode of houses, the ventilation conditions and with specific sites and geological materials.

  11. PEDIATRIC OCULAR TOXOCARIASIS IN JIANGSU PROVINCE, EASTERN CHINA.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Fang; Hua, Hai-Yong; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Ocular toxocariasis is caused by migration of a Toxocara larva through the posterior eye. We report the first case of pediatric ocular toxocariasis caused by T. canis in Jiangsu Province, eastern China. A 6-year-old girl presented to Suzhou Municipal Children's Hospital with a complaint of right eye redness, minimal white discharge, no photophobia, eye pain, visual impairment, fever or arthralgia. She was initially diagnosed as having conjunctivitis; however, a 2-month treatment with lomefloxacin 0.3% eye drops gave no improvements. The diagnosis was made based on medical history (contact with dogs), clinical features and detection of T. canis IgG antibodies with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Anthelmintic therapy with albendazole in combination with prednisolone resulted in improvement of the ocular symptoms. Ocular toxocariasis is rarely reported in China. However, the rapid economic development in China, could mean an increase in pet dogs with the potential increased risk of contracting toxocariasis if no control measures are taken. Disposal of pet litter, deworming of infected pets, complete cooking of meats, thorough rinsing of fruits and vegetables, and good hand-washing may help prevent human infections. Ocular toxocariasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with conjunctivitis that does not resolve with treatment. PMID:26513899

  12. An impending water crisis in Canada's western prairie provinces.

    PubMed

    Schindler, D W; Donahue, W F

    2006-05-01

    Canada is usually considered to be a country with abundant freshwater, but in its western prairie provinces (WPP), an area 1/5 the size of Europe, freshwater is scarce. European settlement of the WPP did not begin until the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Fortuitously, the period since European settlement appears to have been the wettest century of the past two millennia. The frequent, long periods of drought that characterized earlier centuries of the past two millennia were largely absent in the 20th century. Here, we show that climate warming and human modifications to catchments have already significantly reduced the flows of major rivers of the WPP during the summer months, when human demand and in-stream flow needs are greatest. We predict that in the near future climate warming, via its effects on glaciers, snowpacks, and evaporation, will combine with cyclic drought and rapidly increasing human activity in the WPP to cause a crisis in water quantity and quality with far-reaching implications.

  13. Seroprevalence of Human Fasciolosis in Pirabad, Lorestan Province, Western Iran

    PubMed Central

    KHEIRANDISH, Farnaz; KAYEDI, Mohammad Hassan; EZATPOUR, Behrouz; ANBARI, Khatere; KARIMI ROUZBAHANI, Hamid Reza; CHEGENI SHARAFI, Ali; ZENDEHDEL, Abolfazl; BIZHANI, Negar; ROKNI, Mohammad Bagher

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to perform seroepidemiological investigation for determining the status of human fasciolosis in Pirabad Village, Lorestan Province, western Iran. Methods: Blood samples were taken from residents of the village including 801 individuals. Sera were separated and stored at −20°C until used. The samples were analyzed using ELISA. Results: Anti-Fasciola antibodies were detected in 6 (0.7%) individuals. Difference between age, sex and drinking or swimming in the surface water with seropositivity to fasciolosis was not significant. Out of 7 shepherds, 1 (14.3%) was seropositive. Due to the small number of shepherds, comprehensive statistical inference in this regard cannot be done. Significant difference was detected between seropositivity to fasciolosis and consuming local freshwater vegetables during the last 6 months (P=0.001). Conclusion: Metacercariae carrying local freshwater plants might be the main source of contamination because consumption of these kinds of vegetables was confirmed by all participants. Awareness of local communities regarding the danger of freshwater plant consumption, through health education programs, will decrease the risk of infection. PMID:27095965

  14. Environmental consequences of rapid urbanization in zhejiang province, East china.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuchao; Yue, Wenze; Xu, Honghui; Wu, Jingsheng; He, Yue

    2014-07-01

    Since reforms carried out in the late 1970s, China has experienced unprecedented rates of urban growth. Remote sensing data and surface observational data are used to investigate the urbanization process and related environmental consequences, focusing on extreme heat events and air pollution, in Zhejiang Province (ZJP, East China). Examination of satellite-measured nighttime light data indicates rapid urbanization in ZJP during the past decade, initially forming three urban clusters. With rapid urban sprawl, a significant Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect has emerged. During extreme heat events in summer, the UHI effect significantly exacerbates nocturnal heat stress in highly urbanized areas. Taking a long-term view, urbanization also causes additional hot days and hot degree days in urban areas. Urbanization also imposes a heavy burden on local and regional air quality in ZJP. Degraded visibility and an increase in haze days are observed at most meteorological stations, especially in the three urban clusters. The results show that urbanization has led to serious environmental problems in ZJP, not only on the city scale, but also on the regional scale. Maintaining a balance between the continuing process of urbanization and environmental sustainability is a major issue facing the local government. PMID:25019266

  15. Application of Telemedicine in Gansu Province of China.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hui; Wang, Hongjing; Guo, Tiankang; Bao, Guoxian

    2016-01-01

    Telemedicine has become an increasingly popular option for long-distance health care and continuing education. As information and communication technology is underdeveloped in China, telemedicine develops slowly. At present, telemedicine consultation centers are situated mainly in developed cities, such as Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. In many less developed regions, such as northwest China, the conditions or related facilities are not available for the application of a better medical service. Accordingly, the aim of this paper was to introduce the construction and application of a telemedicine consultation center in Gansu Province in the northwest of China. In addition, the function of Gansu Provincial Telemedicine Consultation Center on emergency public events was introduced. As a whole, there was a great demand for telemedicine service in the local medical institutions. In the telemedicine consultation center, the telemedicine equipments and regulations were needed to be improved. The function of telemedicine service was not fully used, there was a large space to be applied and the publicity of telemedicine service was important. What is important was that telemedicine played a significance role in promoting the medical policy reform, improving the medical environment and launching the remote rescue in the emergency public events. This paper emphasizes the health care challenges of poor regions, and indicates how to share the high-quality medical service of provincial hospitals effectively and how to help residents in resource-poor environments. PMID:27332894

  16. Large Igneous Provinces, Sulfur Aerosols, and Initiation of Snowball Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macdonald, F. A.; Wordsworth, R. D.

    2015-12-01

    The events that led to the initiation of Snowball Earth remain poorly understood. Proposed scenarios include a methane addiction, a biological innovation that led to an increase in organic carbon burial and anaerobic remineralization, or an increase in global weatherability due to a paleogeography with a preponderance of low latitude continents, and the subareal implacement of large igneous provinces (LIPs) at the equator. The Franklin LIP was emplaced between 730 and 710 Ma and covers an area of over 2.25 Mkm2 with lavas, sills, and dikes extending over much of northern Laurentia from Alaska through northern Canada to Greenland and potentially to Siberia. The most precise geochronological constraints on the Franklin LIP overlap with the onset of the Sturtian Snowball Earth glaciation, which began between 717 and 716 Ma and marked the first glaciation in over 1 billion years. The Franklin LIP is the largest preserved Neoproterozoic LIP and one of the largest in Earth History. Additionally, it was emplaced at equatorial latitudes with associated sills that invaded epicontinental sulfur evaporite basins, potentially maximizing environmental effects. Here we explore the hypothesis that the Sturtian Snowball Earth was initiated in part by an increase in planetary albedo from the conversion of volcanic SO2/H2S emissions to tropospheric and stratospheric sulfate aerosols through a combination of geochemical and modeling studies.

  17. Hydrology of area 3, Eastern Coal Province, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herb, William J.; Shaw, L.C.; Brown, Deborah E.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrologic data are presented for area 3 of the Eastern Coal Province, 4,077 square miles of the lower Allegheny River basin in western Pennsylvania. Seventy-three streams were sampled three times during the 1979 and 1980 water years for specific conductance, pH, acidity, alkalinity, dissolved and total iron, dissolved and total manganese, dissolved sulfate, and dissolved solids. Benthic invertebrate populations were determined and botom material samples were analyzed for metals. Sixteen streams had pH, acidity, alkalinity, total iron, total manganese, and dissolved sulfate indicative of acid-mine drainage. These streams were most common in the Redbank and Blacklick Creek basins and in the Conemaugh and lower Kiskiminetas River basins. Benthic invertebrates were not found in 11 of 64 streams sampled. An additional 13 streams had low benthic invertebrate diversity indices. Low diversity indices were most common in the southern part of area 3. Low flow, mean flow, peak flow, and flow duration data are presented for gaging stations in area 3. Techniques for estimating these data for ungaged sites are presented and referenced. The functions of, and access to, the National Water Data Exchange, National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System, and Office of Water Data Coordination are explained. (USGS)

  18. Climatically driven biogeographic provinces of Late Triassic tropical Pangea.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, Jessica H; Grogan, Danielle S; Olsen, Paul E; Kent, Dennis V

    2011-05-31

    Although continents were coalesced into the single landmass Pangea, Late Triassic terrestrial tetrapod assemblages are surprisingly provincial. In eastern North America, we show that assemblages dominated by traversodont cynodonts are restricted to a humid 6° equatorial swath that persisted for over 20 million years characterized by "semiprecessional" (approximately 10,000-y) climatic fluctuations reflected in stable carbon isotopes and sedimentary facies in lacustrine strata. More arid regions from 5-20 °N preserve procolophonid-dominated faunal assemblages associated with a much stronger expression of approximately 20,000-y climatic cycles. In the absence of geographic barriers, we hypothesize that these variations in the climatic expression of astronomical forcing produced latitudinal climatic zones that sorted terrestrial vertebrate taxa, perhaps by excretory physiology, into distinct biogeographic provinces tracking latitude, not geographic position, as the proto-North American plate translated northward. Although the early Mesozoic is usually assumed to be characterized by globally distributed land animal communities due to of a lack of geographic barriers, strong provinciality was actually the norm, and nearly global communities were present only after times of massive ecological disruptions.

  19. Eruptive history of the Elysium Volcanic Province of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Scott, David H.

    1987-01-01

    New geologic mapping of the Elysium volcanic province at 1:2,000,000 scale and crater counts provide a basis for describing its overall eruptive history. Four stages are listed and described in order of their relative age. They are also distinguished by eruption style and location. Stage 1: Central volcanism at Hecates and Albor Tholi. Stage 2: Shield and complex volcanism at Elysium Mons and Elysium Fossae. Stage 3: Rille volcanism at Elysium Fossae and Utopia Planitia. Stage 4: Flood lava and pyroclastic eruptions at Hecates Tholus and Elysium Mons. Tectonic and channeling activity in the Elysium region is intimately associated with volcanism. Recent work indicates that isostatic uplift of Tharsis, loading by Elysium Mons, and flexural uplift of the Elysium rise produced the stresses responsible for the fracturing and wrinkle-ridge formation in the region. Coeval faulting and channel formation almost certainly occurred in the pertinent areas in Stages 2 to 4. Older faults east of the lava flows and channels on Hecates Tholus may be coeval with Stage 1.

  20. Chronic arsenic toxicity in sheep of Kurdistan province, western Iran.

    PubMed

    Keshavarzi, Behnam; Seradj, Afsaneh; Akbari, Zahra; Moore, Farid; Shahraki, Alireza Rahmani; Pourjafar, Mehrdad

    2015-07-01

    After the detection of arsenic (As) toxicity in sheep from Ebrahim-abad and Babanazar villages in Kurdistan province, the concentration of this element in drinking water, cultivated soil, alfalfa hay, wool, and blood samples was evaluated. Total As concentrations ranged from 119 to 310 μg/L in drinking water, 46.70-819.20 mg/kg in soil 1.90-6.90 mg/kg in vegetation 1.56-10.79 mg/kg in sheep's wool, and 86.30-656 μg/L in blood samples. These very high As contents, in all parts of the biogeochemical cycle, exceed the recommended normal range for this element compared with a control area. Results indicate that As has moved through all compartments of the biogeochemical cycle by way of direct or indirect pathways. The present investigation illustrated decreased packed cell volume and hemoglobin in sheep from the As-contaminated zone. It was concluded that sheep from the contaminated areas suffer from anemia. Chronic As exposure of the liver was determined by liver function tests. For this purpose, blood aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were measured. The results show that serum ALT and AST activities are increased significantly (p < 0.01) in the sheep population exposed to As in the contaminated zone. Moreover, chronic As exposure causes injury to hepatocytes and damages the liver. PMID:25943488

  1. Immunisation with BCG in the Maringue District, Sofala Province, Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Montenegro Agorostos Karagianis, Marina Margarida; Bufardeci, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated immunisation with Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) among newborns in 2011 in the Maringue District, Sofala Province, Mozambique, which includes seven health units. The study was motivated by the fact that in official reports, immunisation coverage was unreliable (more than 100%). Methods. The office of maternal-child health of the central Maringué-Sede health unit provided the number of live newborns in 2011 at the maternal clinics of the seven health units and an estimate of the number of home deliveries. From vaccination registers, we abstracted records of BCG vaccinations administered in the period 01/01/2011–30/06/2012 to children born in 2011. Results. The number of live newborns was 3,353. Overall, the number of BCG vaccinations administered was 2,893, with a coverage of 86.3%. Conclusion. In this study, we could only calculate an approximate coverage estimate, because of unavailability of adequate individual information. Recording practices should be changed in order to allow use of individual information and linkage across different information sources and thus a more precise vaccination coverage assessment. PMID:23738066

  2. Measles antibody in the children in Ubon Ratchathani province.

    PubMed

    Saipan, P; Jiwapaisarnpong, T; Pattanadilok, S; Loyha, Y; Janggajit, T

    2001-04-01

    Measles is a highly contagious disease, preventable by vaccine. Measles epidemics have been dramatically controlled since the introduction of live attenuated measles vaccine. Measles antibody is used as an indicator of previous natural infection or vaccination, and also as a marker of protective immunity. The authors determined measles IgG levels in 1,176 children in Ubon Ratchathani province by ELISA from September 1998 to January 1999. Two- hundred and sixty- five cases (22.5%) had antibodies below the protective level (< 320 mIU/ml). Antibodies were high during the neonatal period, then declined to below the protective level at 4-6 months of age, and were negative at age 7-11 months. An increase in antibody level after 1 year old might be the result of measles immunization at 9-12 months of age, then antibodies decreased to the lowest level at 3-5 years after immunization or 4-6 years of age. A second dose of immunization will increase the number of children who have antibodies above the protective level better than one dose of immunization and it is recommended to revaccinate at 4-6 years of age. There was no statistical difference of measles antibody between boys and girls in all age groups.

  3. Unravelling the Volcanological Complexities of a Flood Basalt Province: Volcanology, Paleomagnetism and Geochemistry, From the Deccan Volcanic Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jay, A. E.; Widdowson, M.; Self, S.; Mac Niocaill, C.

    2006-12-01

    The lavas of the Deccan Volcanic Province (DVP), India, were erupted across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary (KTB) and, as such, have been suggested as a candidate for causing the KTB mass extinction event. Understanding the development of such large outpourings of lava is essential to deducing their environmental impact. Detailed flow-by-flow logging was undertaken along four roads up the Mahabaleshwar Plateau, and a further three road sections to the north and south were investigated in order to study the volcanological style of this area of the DVP. Logging along the four roads which ascend the Mahabaleshwar Plateau was combined with detailed geochemical and paleomagnetic sampling and provides the first integrated study of its kind in the DVP. The logging demonstrated that almost all the lavas encountered were inflated pahoehoe sheet lobes. No `a'a flows were encountered and one rubbly pahoehoe flow may have been observed. Statistical analyses of XRF trace element data, and the occurrence of differing thicknesses and numbers of lava units between the paleomagnetic reversal horizon (Chron 29r/29n) and the top of the Ambenali Formation, suggest that individual sheet lobes are not greater than the width of the Plateau c. 20 km. This provides an explanation for the topography, up to 95 m in our study area, on the surface of the DVP at the time when the lavas were being erupted. As the sheet lobes were emplaced and inflated they left areas uncovered by lava, the topographic difference between these two areas could be many 10s of metres, and as this process occurred over the whole DVP the topographic differences could increase. As well as topography, this leads to other complexities. When later lavas in-fill these depressions it causes them to occur physically lower in the sequence than older lavas. This demonstrates that the previously held concept of large, flat-lying sheets lobes covering vast tracts of the province is not probable, as on the local scale tracing

  4. Transpressional tectonics vs. superposed deformation in the Rengali Province, eastern Indian shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Saibal; Misra, Surajit

    2014-05-01

    A primary concern in ancient transpressional shear zones is to demonstrate that the shortening and strike-slip components of deformation operated simultaneously. In the eastern Indian shield, ultrahigh grade granulite terrane of the Eastern Ghats Belt collided with the Archaean Indian craton around ~ 1 Ga. Subsequently, the northern boundary of the granulite belt was affected by a dextral strike-slip system that juxtaposed it against the Singhbhum Province. The strike-slip system is characterized by two WNW-ESE trending strands that enclose a multiply deformed (D1 to D3) intervening domain that is referred to as the Rengali Province. D1 and D2 represent a deformation continuum that operated under granulite / amphibolite facies conditions. Available zircon ages from amphibolite facies gneisses within the province indicate a late Archaean age for the D1-D2 deformation. In a granulite lens in the central part of the province, an early fabric-forming deformation (Dgr) is represented by cylindrical D1-D2 folding. D3 shortening was superimposed on D1-D2 folds in the surrounding lithologies of the province, generating complex non-cylindrical geometries. However, there is no evidence of D3 shortening strain within the granulites. Microstructures in the province-bounding D3 strike-slip shear zones indicate that mylonitization and dynamic recrystallization was associated with greenschist facies metamorphism. In quartzite bands within these shear zones, syn-D3 folds can be correlated with rotation of D1-D2 structures through the shortening zone of bounding dextral shears. Strain analyses and Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility studies in these quartzites indicate that post-D2 strain ellipsoids are characterized by sub-vertical axial planes and extrusion directions consistent with crustal shortening. Samples from high D3 strain zones are associated with sub-horizontal extrusion parallel to the inferred direction of strike-slip shearing, and have kinematic vorticity numbers

  5. Molecular characterization of the E gene of dengue virus type 1 isolated in Guangdong province, China, in 2006.

    PubMed

    Zheng, K; Zhou, H-Q; Yan, J; Ke, C-W; Maeda, A; Maeda, J; Takashima, I; Kurane, I; Ma, H; Xie, X-M

    2009-01-01

    We determined the genetic relationships and origin of the dengue virus (DENV) responsible for an outbreak of dengue fever (DF) in Guangdong province, China, in 2006. Five DENV type 1 (DENV-1) isolates were obtained from human serum samples collected from DF patients during the outbreak. The nucleotide sequences of the E (envelope) gene were compared with those of 48 previous DENV-1 isolates: 18 from Guangdong province, one from Fujian province, one from Zhejiang province, and 28 from other countries in the South Asian region. The results suggested that four DENV-1 isolates identified in Guangdong province in 2006 might be in general circulation there, although these DENV-1 viruses may have been originally introduced into the province from other countries. In contrast, one isolate from Guangzhou city in 2006, may have been introduced by a recently imported case from Cambodia.

  6. Far East: Offshore exploration and development continues strong

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    New fields are being added even while recent finds are brought on using floating production systems and gas pipelines. Intensive workover/redrilling continues in older onshore provinces. The paper discusses exploration, development, drilling and production in China, Indonesia, India, Malaysia, Thailand, Viet Nam, Pakistan, Myanmar, Brunei, and the Philippines, Cambodia, Bangladesh, Japan, Mongolia, and Taiwan are briefly mentioned.

  7. Hair arsenic levels and prevalence of arsenicosis in three Cambodian provinces.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Radzi, Rozhan Syariff Mohamed; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Nur, Amrizal Muhammad; Ismail, Aniza; Baguma, David; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Phan, Kongkea; Wong, Ming Hung; Sao, Vibol; Yasin, Mohamed Salleh Mohamed

    2013-10-01

    Natural, inorganic arsenic contamination of groundwater threatens the health of more than 100 million people worldwide, including residents of the densely populated river deltas of South and Southeast Asia. Contaminated groundwater from tube wells in Cambodia was discovered in 2001 leading to the detection of the first cases of arsenicosis in 2006. The most affected area was the Kandal Province. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of arsenicosis in Cambodia based on acceptable criteria, and to investigate the use of hair arsenic as a biomarker not only for arsenicosis-related signs but also for associated symptoms. A cross-sectional epidemiological study of 616 respondents from 3 purposely selected provinces within the Mekong River basin of Cambodia was conducted. The Kandal Province was chosen as a high arsenic-contaminated area, while the Kratie Province and Kampong Cham Province were chosen as moderate and low arsenic-contaminated areas, respectively. The most prevalent sign of arsenicosis was hypomelanosis with a prevalence of 14.5% among all respondents and 32.4% among respondents with a hair arsenic level of ≥1 μg/g. This was followed by hyperkeratosis, hyperpigmentation and mee's lines. Results also suggest a 1.0 μg/g hair arsenic level to be a practical cut off point for an indication of an arsenic contaminated individual. This hair arsenic level, together with the presence of one or more of the classical signs of arsenicosis, seems to be a practical criteria for a confirmed diagnosis. Based on these criteria, the overall prevalence of arsenicosis for all provinces was found to be 16.1%, with Kandal Province recording the highest prevalence of 35.5%. This prevalence is comparatively high when compared to that of other affected countries. The association between arsenicosis and the use of Chinese traditional medicine also needs further investigation. PMID:23759330

  8. Hair arsenic levels and prevalence of arsenicosis in three Cambodian provinces.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Radzi, Rozhan Syariff Mohamed; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Nur, Amrizal Muhammad; Ismail, Aniza; Baguma, David; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Phan, Kongkea; Wong, Ming Hung; Sao, Vibol; Yasin, Mohamed Salleh Mohamed

    2013-10-01

    Natural, inorganic arsenic contamination of groundwater threatens the health of more than 100 million people worldwide, including residents of the densely populated river deltas of South and Southeast Asia. Contaminated groundwater from tube wells in Cambodia was discovered in 2001 leading to the detection of the first cases of arsenicosis in 2006. The most affected area was the Kandal Province. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of arsenicosis in Cambodia based on acceptable criteria, and to investigate the use of hair arsenic as a biomarker not only for arsenicosis-related signs but also for associated symptoms. A cross-sectional epidemiological study of 616 respondents from 3 purposely selected provinces within the Mekong River basin of Cambodia was conducted. The Kandal Province was chosen as a high arsenic-contaminated area, while the Kratie Province and Kampong Cham Province were chosen as moderate and low arsenic-contaminated areas, respectively. The most prevalent sign of arsenicosis was hypomelanosis with a prevalence of 14.5% among all respondents and 32.4% among respondents with a hair arsenic level of ≥1 μg/g. This was followed by hyperkeratosis, hyperpigmentation and mee's lines. Results also suggest a 1.0 μg/g hair arsenic level to be a practical cut off point for an indication of an arsenic contaminated individual. This hair arsenic level, together with the presence of one or more of the classical signs of arsenicosis, seems to be a practical criteria for a confirmed diagnosis. Based on these criteria, the overall prevalence of arsenicosis for all provinces was found to be 16.1%, with Kandal Province recording the highest prevalence of 35.5%. This prevalence is comparatively high when compared to that of other affected countries. The association between arsenicosis and the use of Chinese traditional medicine also needs further investigation.

  9. Supercontinents, Plate Tectonics, Large Igneous Provinces and Deep Mantle Heterogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torsvik, T. H.; Steinberger, B.; Burke, K.; Smethurst, M. A.

    2008-12-01

    The formation and break-up of supercontinents is a spectacular demonstration of the Earth's dynamic nature. Pangea, the best-documented supercontinent, formed at the end of the Palaeozoic era (320 Ma) and its dispersal, starting in the Early Jurassic (190 Ma), was preceded by and associated with widespread volcanic activity, much of which produced Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs), but whether any of the heat or material involved in the generation of LIP rocks comes from greater depths has remained controversial. Two antipodal Large Low Shear wave Velocity Provinces with centre of mass somewhat south of the equator (African and Pacific LLSVPs), isolated within the faster parts of the deep mantle dominate all global shear- wave tomography models. We have tested eight global models and two D" models: They all show that deep- plume sourced hotspots and most reconstructed LIPs for the last 300 million years project radially downwards to the core-mantle-boundary near the edges of the LLSVPs showing that the plumes that made those hotspots and LIPS came only from those plume generation zones. This is a robust result because it is observed in multiple reference frames, i.e. fixed/moving hotspot and palaeomagnetic frames, and in the latter case whether the effect of True Polar Wander (TPW) is considered or not. Our observations show that the LLSVPs must have remained essentially stable in their present position for the last 300 million years. LIPs have erupted since the Archean and may all have been derived from the margins of LLSVPs but whether the African and Pacific LLSVPs have remained the same throughout Earth's history is less certain although analogous structures on Mars do indicate long-term stability on that planet. Deep mantle heterogeneities and the geoid have remained very stable for the last 300 million years, and the possibility is therefore open for speculating on links to Pangea assembly. In a numerical model, Zhong et al. (2007, EPSL) argued that Pangea

  10. Energy drinks consumption in male construction workers, Chonburi province.

    PubMed

    Pichainarong, Natchaporn; Chaveepojnkamjorn, Wisit; Khobjit, Pattama; Veerachai, Viroj; Sujirarat, Dusit

    2004-12-01

    This unmatched case-control study aimed to determine the relationship among caffeine drinks consumption known as "energy drinks consumption", drug dependence and related factors in male construction workers in Chonburi Province. It was conducted during December 15, 2001 and February 15, 2002. Data were collected using interview questionnaires. The logistic regression was used to control possible confounding factors. The subjects consisted of 186 cases who had consumed energy drinks for more than 3 months and 186 controls who had given up for more than 3 months. They were frequency/group matched by age group. There was statistically significant association among energy drinks consumption and overtime work, motivation from advertisements, positive attitude of energy drinks consumption, alcohol drinks, smoking and ex-taking Kratom behavior. Multivariate analyses revealed that only 5 factors were related to energy drinks consumption: marital status (OR = 1.88, 95%CI: 1.14, 3.11), overtime work (OR = 2.84, 95%CI: 1.73, 4.64), motivation from advertisements (OR = 2.72, 95%CI: 1.67, 4.42), positive attitude of energy drinks consumption (OR = 4.06, 95%CI: 1.65, 10.01) and ex-taking Kratom behavior (OR = 2.77, 95%CI: 1.19, 6.44). As a result, construction workers should be provided with the knowledge of energy drinks consumption, the effect of drug dependence behavior, and the advantages of safe and healthy food that is cheap, readily available, and rich in nutrients. PMID:15822540

  11. Hydrology of Area 7, Eastern Coal Province, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engelke, Morris J.; Roth, D.K.; ,

    1981-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey established 24 study areas in Eastern Appalachian Coal Province to appraise the hydrology and water resources from Alabama to Pennsylvania. Chemical, physical, biological, and streamflow data were collected from 138 synoptic sites in Area 7, eastern Ohio. The data are evaluated and presented in this report. Area 7 lies within the drainage basins of Muskingum Rivers and Duck and Willis Creeks in eastern Ohio. Walhounding, Tuscarawas, and Little Muskingum, and Muskingum Rivers and Wills and Duck Creeks are the major streams draining the study area. In Ohio, surface and subsurface coal mining has altered the environment. In areas where land has been reclaimed, the environmental stress expected to be temporary. Hydrologic problems related to coal mining are erosion and sedimentation which degrade water-quality. Based on available sediment data, suspended sediment concentration were highest in abandoned mine areas, followed by currently mined and reclaimed areas, and lowest in unmined areas. Low pH, high specific conductance, high concentrations of iron, sulfate and manganese, increased sediment yields, discoloration of streambeds, limited aquatic vegetation and animal life typify streams draining areas with abandoned mines. In abandoned mine areas, the specific conductance of water ranged from 800 to 2,300 micromhos; pH ranged from 2.8 to 5.8; dissolved-iron concentrations ranged from 1,000 to 85,000 micrograms per liter; dissolved-sulfate concentrations ranged from 14 to 1,200 milligrams per liter and dissolved-manganese concentration commonly exceeded 2,000 micrograms per liter. Red and yellow coloration on the streambeds were precipitates from the hydrolysis of iron, manganese, and sulfate minerals carried into the stream channel by increased sediment erosion from abandoned coal mines. Trace metal concentrations (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, and zinc) were generally low. Degradation of fish habitat

  12. A paleotsunami record from marshlands in West Aceh Province, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monecke, K.; Finger, W.; Kongko, W.; McAdoo, B.; Moore, A. L.; Sudrajat, S. U.

    2007-12-01

    Constraining the frequency and magnitude of large events in the Indian Ocean region is critical to assess and mitigate tsunami risk along this densely populated coastline in the future. As historical records of large tsunamis in the area are sparse, the geological record provides the best evidence of recurrence rates and size of ancient tsunamis. Based on sediment data from coastal marshland deposits we present a paleotsunami record for West Aceh Province, Indonesia, an area immediately adjacent to the seismic source that was severely affected by the December 2004 tsunami. The recent tsunami deposited a distinct, typically 10-20 cm thick sand sheet up to 2 km inland within a prograding beach ridge plain. Sediment cores from swales in between beach ridges revealed three older sand layers, up to 10 cm thick, and intercalated within organic-rich marshland deposits. At least two of the older sand layers can be followed for several hundred meters along shore normal transects. Coring sites of different transects can be laterally correlated by following pronounced older beach ridges running parallel to the shoreline. The three individual sand layers occur at different distances to the shoreline, with the youngest sand layer at ~500 m distance from the present coast and the oldest one between 1500 m to 2000 m inland within older beach ridge complexes. The spatial distributions as well as grain size trends suggest landward directed flows over a prograding beach ridge plain, which can be best explained by ancient tsunamis. Radiocarbon dating of these deposits indicate three events occurring around 1000 AD, between 1350AD-1550AD, and after 1800AD, with the latter potentially correlating with a historically reported event in 1907AD.

  13. Family planning for seasonal migrant workers in Adana Province, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yaser, Y

    1990-10-01

    A new project supported by the Pathfinder Fund to serve migrant farm workers has been developed in Adana Province, a populous region in southern Turkey. The economy their is primarily agricultural, with some heavy industry. As estimated 100,000 migrant workers are needed to planting and harvesting in this region. They make between $55-$60 a month, which is about 1/3 of the minimum age. Most migrant workers travel long distances to Adana where they live in tents. Living conditions are poor, with no running water or toilets. Malaria, gastroenteritis and intestinal parasites are endemic. Unofficial figures show that over 75% of school children have intestinal parasites. UNICEF has helped with vaccinations, maternal and health care, and powdered milk distribution. Most Turkish workers are covered by social security laws that provide health care for them. Almost non of the migrant workers are covered by social security. Surveys show that 80% of migrant workers desire 4 or more children, usually due to economic conditions, (i.e. labor for increased family income). The rates of miscarriage, morbidity and mortality are very high in August and September because pregnant women try to work until the very last day of the term. The pilot program in Adana increased the number of health centers per workers, as well as offering extended evening hours. Health clinic trailers were rotated as needed within the region. The program provided general health care, vaccinations, pre natal and post natal maternity care and a sharp focus on family planning. The year long pilot program was considered wildly successful. This was attributed, in large part, to the extended evening hours of the clinics as well as mobility of the trailers. Also, finances provided by the Fund were also crucial for implementation.

  14. [The Analysis of Traditional Lime Mortars from Zhejiang Province, China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-bin; Cui, Biao; Zhang, Bing-jian

    2016-01-01

    The components of ancient mortars have always been an important research field in historic building conservation. It has been well known that using traditional mortars in conservation projects have many advantages, such as compatibility and stability. So, developing new binding materials based on traditional mortar has become an international study hotspot. With China's economic development, the protection of ancient buildings also began to put on the agenda, but the understanding on Chinese traditional mortar is limited, and rare literatures are reported. In the present work, the authors investigate seven ancient city wall sites in Zhejiang Province in situ, and subsequently laboratory analysis were carried out on collected mortar samples. The characterizations of mortar samples were made by multi-density gauge, XRD, FTIR, TG-DSC and wet chemical analysis. The experimental results showed that: the main component of masonry mortars is calcium carbonate, the content between 75% - 90%, and they should be made from relatively pure lime mortar. The raw materials of mortar samples were mainly calcareous quick lime, and sample from Taizhou city also contained magnesium quick lime. There are four city walls were built by sticky-rice mortars. It suggests that the technology of adding the sticky rice soup into mortar was universal in the Ming Dynasties. These mortars have lower density between 1.2 and 1.9 g x cm(-3); this outcome should be the result of long-term natural erosion. We have also analyzed other chemical and physical characteristics of these masonry mortars. The results can afford the basic data for the future repairmen programs, development of new protective materials, and comparative study of mortars. PMID:27228774

  15. Linking mantle plumes, large igneous provinces and environmental catastrophes.

    PubMed

    Sobolev, Stephan V; Sobolev, Alexander V; Kuzmin, Dmitry V; Krivolutskaya, Nadezhda A; Petrunin, Alexey G; Arndt, Nicholas T; Radko, Viktor A; Vasiliev, Yuri R

    2011-09-15

    Large igneous provinces (LIPs) are known for their rapid production of enormous volumes of magma (up to several million cubic kilometres in less than a million years), for marked thinning of the lithosphere, often ending with a continental break-up, and for their links to global environmental catastrophes. Despite the importance of LIPs, controversy surrounds even the basic idea that they form through melting in the heads of thermal mantle plumes. The Permo-Triassic Siberian Traps--the type example and the largest continental LIP--is located on thick cratonic lithosphere and was synchronous with the largest known mass-extinction event. However, there is no evidence of pre-magmatic uplift or of a large lithospheric stretching, as predicted above a plume head. Moreover, estimates of magmatic CO(2) degassing from the Siberian Traps are considered insufficient to trigger climatic crises, leading to the hypothesis that the release of thermogenic gases from the sediment pile caused the mass extinction. Here we present petrological evidence for a large amount (15 wt%) of dense recycled oceanic crust in the head of the plume and develop a thermomechanical model that predicts no pre-magmatic uplift and requires no lithospheric extension. The model implies extensive plume melting and heterogeneous erosion of the thick cratonic lithosphere over the course of a few hundred thousand years. The model suggests that massive degassing of CO(2) and HCl, mostly from the recycled crust in the plume head, could alone trigger a mass extinction and predicts it happening before the main volcanic phase, in agreement with stratigraphic and geochronological data for the Siberian Traps and other LIPs. PMID:21921914

  16. Cretaceous gastropods: contrasts between tethys and the temperate provinces.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohl, N.F.

    1987-01-01

    During the Cretaceous Period, gastropod faunas show considerable differences in their evolution between the Tethyan Realm (tropical) and the Temperate Realms to the north and south. Like Holocene faunas, prosobranch, gastropods constitute the dominant part of Cretaceous marine snail faunas. Entomotaeneata and opisthobranchs usually form all of the remainder. In Tethyan faunas the Archaeogastropoda form a consistent high proportion of total taxa but less than the Mesogastropoda throughout the period. In contrast, the Temperate faunas beginning in Albian times show a decline in percentages of archaeogastropod taxa and a significant increase in the Neogastropoda, until they constitute over 50 percent of the taxa in some faunas. The neogastropods never attain high diversity in the Cretaceous of the Tethyan Realm and are judged to be of Temperate Realm origin. Cretaceous Tethyan gastropod faunas are closely allied to those of the 'corallien facies' of the Jurassic and begin the period evolutionarily mature and well diversified. Three categories of Tethyan gastropods are analyzed. The first group consists of those of Jurassic ancestry. The second group orginates mainly during the Barremian and Aptian, reaches a climax in diversification during middle Cretaceous time, and usually declines during the latest Cretaceous. The third group originates late in the Cretaceous and consists of taxa that manage to either survive the Cretaceous-Tertiary crisis or give rise to forms of prominence among Tertiary warm water faunas. Temperate Realm gastropod faunas are less diverse than those of Tethys during the Early Cretaceous. They show a steady increase in diversity, primarily among the Mesogastropoda and Neogastropoda. This trend culminates in latest Cretaceous times when the gastropod assemblages of the clastic provinces of the inner shelf contain an abundance of taxa outstripping that of any other part of the Cretaceous of either realm. Extinction at the Cretaceous

  17. Geology of the Konakpinar--Sarica area, Sivas Province, Turkey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barosh, Patrick James; Sermin, Salim; Gencel, Ilker; Sengun, Metin; Ekren, Frank

    1972-01-01

    The junction of several major structures and stratigraphic sequences is in the Konakpinar-Sarica area of central Turkey. Most of the area is underlain by Upper Jurassic to Cretaceous limeston and siltstone, early Tertiary sedimentary rock, and remnants of younger volcanic rocks and lacustrine deposits. The northeastern part of the area, however, is formed of serpentinite, of possible Cretaceous age, unconformably overlain by Upper Cretaceous conglomerate and siltstone that crop out extensively east of the area. The regional structure changes direction in the area. Folds and faults change across a northerly striking hinge line from northeast trends on the west to northwest trends on the east. A north-trending regional fault zone is a little east of the hinge line. The northern part of this fault zone and a northwest-striking fault, a possible thrust, east of it form the boundary between the two stratigraphic provinces. The area northeast of this boundary is cut by a series of vertical northwest-trending faults that are downdropped on the southwest. A large northeast-trending fault that is part of a broad fault zone that extends from the Mediterranean Sea northeastward to Divrigi is in the northwest corner of the area. Some thrust faults cut the Cretaceous rocks in the western part of the area; the Upper Jurassic limestone may be allochthonous. The only economic deposit known in the area is at the Otlukilise Iron Mine where iron is present in a sedimentary filling of sinkholesand as secondary replacement deposits in limestone at their borders. Minor deposits of chrome, copper, and coal also occur in the area.

  18. [The Analysis of Traditional Lime Mortars from Zhejiang Province, China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-bin; Cui, Biao; Zhang, Bing-jian

    2016-01-01

    The components of ancient mortars have always been an important research field in historic building conservation. It has been well known that using traditional mortars in conservation projects have many advantages, such as compatibility and stability. So, developing new binding materials based on traditional mortar has become an international study hotspot. With China's economic development, the protection of ancient buildings also began to put on the agenda, but the understanding on Chinese traditional mortar is limited, and rare literatures are reported. In the present work, the authors investigate seven ancient city wall sites in Zhejiang Province in situ, and subsequently laboratory analysis were carried out on collected mortar samples. The characterizations of mortar samples were made by multi-density gauge, XRD, FTIR, TG-DSC and wet chemical analysis. The experimental results showed that: the main component of masonry mortars is calcium carbonate, the content between 75% - 90%, and they should be made from relatively pure lime mortar. The raw materials of mortar samples were mainly calcareous quick lime, and sample from Taizhou city also contained magnesium quick lime. There are four city walls were built by sticky-rice mortars. It suggests that the technology of adding the sticky rice soup into mortar was universal in the Ming Dynasties. These mortars have lower density between 1.2 and 1.9 g x cm(-3); this outcome should be the result of long-term natural erosion. We have also analyzed other chemical and physical characteristics of these masonry mortars. The results can afford the basic data for the future repairmen programs, development of new protective materials, and comparative study of mortars.

  19. [Vibrational spectra of Caesious nephrite from Qinghai Province].

    PubMed

    Chen, Quan-li; Xu, Ya-lan; Ai, Su-jie; He, An-qi; Yin, Zuo-wei

    2014-08-01

    Qinghai caesious nephrite is discovered in the 1990s in the Golmud area of Qinghai Province. The conventional gemological testing methods, electron microprobe, infrared absorption spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used in this study to analyze the chemical composition and infrared spectra characteristics of the caesious nephrite, selected from the jade mine of Xiaozhaohuo river in Golmud area. The results show that, the gemological physical properties of the Qinghai caesious nephrite are similar to other origin nephrite. Electron microprobe analysis indicates that the MgO, CaO and SiO2 are the major and stable composition for the caesious nephrite. The content of MgO and CaO are 18. 572%-23.603% and 12.333%-12.807% respectively. Moreover, the content of SiO2 is 56.799%-59.926%. In addition, it also contains a higher content of FeOr(Wt%: 1.924%-8.699%) and an amount of Al2O3, TiO2 and Na2O. Infrared absorption and Raman spectra show that the Qinghai caesious nephrite has a characteristic spectral features of tremolite indicating it is mainly composed of tremolite. The different frequency of the infrared absorption bands is due to the difference of Mg--Fe2+ isomorphous substitutionand Fe2+ content of the caesious nephrite. Comprehensive analysis of chemical composition and vibrational spectroscopy indicate that the color of dark gray blue for the Qinghai nephrite is mainly related to its high content of FeOr, and the Fe is a main coloring element.

  20. Mars Geological Province Designations for the Interpretation of GRS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dohm, J. M.; Kerry, K.; Baker, V. R.; Boynton, W.; Maruyama, Shige; Anderson, R. C.

    2005-01-01

    elemental information, we have defined geologic provinces that represent significant windows into the geological evolution of Mars, unfolding the GEOMARS Theory and forming the basis for interpreting GRS data.

  1. Roots of Magmatic Systems of Large Continental Igneous Provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, E. V.

    2014-12-01

    It is consensus now that appearance of the large igneous provinces (LIP) is considered with ascending of mantle superplumes. It is evident that beneath LIPs was not exited magma oceans and adiabatic melting occurred in heads of protuberances on their surface (local, or secondary plumes), which can reach relatively shallow levels. The least known element of magmatic system is area of magma generation and meltedsources. Important information about it is contained in the mantle xenoliths in alkali basalts. They are represented by two series: (1) "green": spinel peridotite (maily lherzolite) and minor spinel pyroxenite (websterite), and (2) "black" (veins in the peridotite matrix): wehrlite, Al-Ti-augite and hornblende clinopyroxenite, hornblendite, phlogopitite, etc, which crystallized from fluid-saturated melts or high-density fluid. Very likely, that these fluids, enriched in Fe, Ti, alkalis and incompatible elements, were parts of intergranular material of original plume material and were released due to its decompression; evidently, they provided specific composition of plume-related melts. Both types of xenoliths represent material of plume head and accordingly - the melting substratum. One of problem of plume-related magmatism is coexisting of alkali and tholeiitic basalts, which origin often considered with different PT conditions. However, this situation can be explained another way. Because fluid components, acting jointly or separately, impregnated the peridotite matrix nonuniform, it led to heterogeneous composition of smelted magmas, and primary melts can have different composition even though be forming at similar PT conditions. According to Yoder and Tilley (1962), even small differences in SiO2 content lead to different ways in evolution of magmas due to critical plane of silica undersaturation. As a result, one magmas will develop to Ne enrichment (alkali basalts) and another - to silica direction (tholeiite basalts.

  2. Synchrony of the Central Atlantic magmatic province and the Triassic-Jurassic boundary climatic and biotic crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzoli, Andrea; Bertrand, Hervé; Knight, Kim B.; Cirilli, Simonetta; Buratti, Nicoletta; Vérati, Chrystèle; Nomade, Sébastien; Renne, Paul R.; Youbi, Nasrrddine; Martini, Rossana; Allenbach, Karin; Neuwerth, Ralph; Rapaille, Cédric; Zaninetti, Louisette; Bellieni, Giuliano

    2004-11-01

    The evolution of life on Earth is marked by catastrophic extinction events, one of which occurred ca. 200 Ma at the transition from the Triassic Period to the Jurassic Period (Tr-J boundary), apparently contemporaneous with the eruption of the world's largest known continental igneous province, the Central Atlantic magmatic province. The temporal relationship of the Tr-J boundary and the province's volcanism is clarified by new multidisciplinary (stratigraphic, palynologic, geochronologic, paleomagnetic, geochemical) data that demonstrate that development of the Central Atlantic magmatic province straddled the Tr-J boundary and thus may have had a causal relationship with the climatic crisis and biotic turnover demarcating the boundary.

  3. A ground-water reconnaissance of the Republic of Ghana, with a description of geohydrologic provinces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gill, H.E.

    1969-01-01

    This report gives a general summary of the availability and use of ground water and describes the occurrence of ground water in five major geohydrologic provinces lying in the eight administrative regions of Ghana. The identification and delineation of the geohydrologic provinces are based on their distinctive characteristics with respect to the occurrence and availability of ground water. The Precambrian province occupies the southern, western, and northern parts of Ghana and is underlain largely by intrusive crystalline and metasedimentary rocks. The Voltaian province includes that part of the Voltaian sedimentary basin in central Ghana and is underlain chiefly by consolidated sandstone, mudstone, and shale. Narrow discontinuous bands of consolidated Devonian and Jurassic sedimentary rocks near the coast constitute the Coastal Block Fault province. The Coastal Plain province includes semiconsolidated to unconsolidated sediments of Cretaceous to Holocene age that underlie coastal plain areas in southwestern and southeastern Ghana. The Alluvial province includes the Quaternary alluvial deposits in the principal river valleys and on the delta of the Volta River. Because of the widespread distribution of crystalline and consolidated sedimentary rocks of low permeability in the Precambrian, Voltaian, and Coastal Block Fault provinces, it is difficult to develop large or event adequate groundwater supplies in much of Ghana. On the other hand, small (1 to 50 gallons per minute) supplies of water of usable quality are available from carefully sited boreholes in most parts of the country. Also, moderate (50 to 200 gpm) supplies of water are currently (1964) obtained from small-diameter screened boreholes tapping sand and limestone aquifers in the Coastal Plain province in southwestern and southeastern Ghana, but larger supplies could be obtained through properly constructed boreholes. In the Alluvial province, unconsolidated deposits in the larger stream valleys that are

  4. [Characteristics of agricultural climate resources in three provinces of northeast China under global climate change].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-juan; Yang, Xiao-guang; Wang, Wen-feng; Li, Ke-nan; Zhang, Xiao-yu

    2009-09-01

    Based on the 1961-2007 weather data from 72 meteorological stations in three provinces of Northeast China, the change characteristics of agricultural climatic factors including yearly and temperature-defined growing season's mean air temperature, > or =10 degrees C accumulated temperature, precipitation, reference evapotranspiration, and sunshine hours were analyzed. In 1961-2007, the yearly mean air temperature in the three provinces had an increasing trend, with a rate of 0.38 degrees C x 10 a(-1). The > or =10 degrees C accumulated temperature in temperature-defined growing season also had an increasing trend, and the border of > or =10 degrees C accumulated temperature belt moved northward and eastward. The area of > or =3200 degrees C x d accumulated temperature increased by 2.2 x 10(4) km2. The belt of 2800-3200 degrees C x d moved northward about 0.85 degrees and eastward about 0.67 degrees, while that of 2400-2800 degrees C x d moved northward about 1.1 degrees. The sunshine hours decreased significantly, especially in the east part of Songnen Plain, central and west plains of Jilin Province, and west part of Liaohe River Plain. The area with sunshine hours > 2800 h decreased from 13.6 x 10(4) km2 to 4. 1 x 10(4) km2, and the zone with sunshine hours 2600-2800 h moved westward about 1.5 degrees. The average sunshine hour in temperature-defined growing season was 1174 h. Comparing with that in 1961-1980, the region with more sunshine hours in temperature-defined growing season in 1981-2007 narrowed significantly, and the zone with sunshine hours 1200-1400 h moved westward about 0.9 degrees. In 1961-2007, both the yearly and the temperature-defined growing season's precipitation decreased, and the yearly reference evapotranspiration increased in Heilongjiang Province and in the eastern mountain areas of Jilin Province but decreased in the central and west plains of Jilin Province and in Liaoning Province. Comparing with that in 1961-1980, the zone of

  5. Dynamic ocean provinces: a multi-sensor approach to global marine ecophysiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowell, M.; Campbell, J.; Moore, T.

    The concept of oceanic provinces or domains has existed for well over a century. Such systems, whether real or only conceptual, provide a useful framework for understanding the mechanisms controlling biological, physical and chemical processes and their interactions. Criteria have been established for defining provinces based on physical forcings, availability of light and nutrients, complexity of the marine food web, and other factors. In general, such classification systems reflect the heterogeneous nature of the ocean environment, and the effort of scientists to comprehend the whole system by understanding its various homogeneous components. If provinces are defined strictly on the basis of geospatial or temporal criteria (e.g., latitude zones, bathymetry, or season), the resulting maps exhibit discontinuities that are uncharacteristic of the ocean. While this may be useful for many purposes, it is unsatisfactory in that it does not capture the dynamic nature of fluid boundaries in the ocean. Boundaries fixed in time and space do not allow us to observe interannual or longer-term variability (e.g., regime shifts) that may result from climate change. The current study illustrates the potential of using fuzzy logic as a means of classifying the ocean into objectively defined provinces using properties measurable from satellite sensors (MODIS and SeaWiFS). This approach accommodates the dynamic variability of provinces which can be updated as each image is processed. We adopt this classification as the basis for parameterizing specific algorithms for each of the classes. Once the class specific algorithms have been applied, retrievals are then recomposed into a single blended product based on the "weighted" fuzzy memberships. This will be demonstrated through animations of multi-year time- series of monthly composites of the individual classes or provinces. The provinces themselves are identified on the basis of global fields of chlorophyll, sea surface temperature

  6. Lithospheric Deformation Along the Southern and Western Suture Zones of the Wyoming Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuyen, C.; Porritt, R. W.; O'Driscoll, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Wyoming Province is an Archean craton that played an early role in the construction and growth of the North American continent. This region, which encompasses the majority of modern day Wyoming and southern Montana, initially collided with other Archean blocks in the Paleoproterozoic (2.0-1.8 Ga), creating the Canadian Shield. From 1.8-1.68 Ga, the Yavapai Province crashed into the Wyoming Province, suturing the two together. The accretion of the Yavapai Province gave way to the Cheyenne Belt, a deformational zone that exists along the southern border of the Wyoming Province where earlier studies have found evidence for crustal imbrication and double a Moho. Current deformation within the Wyoming province is due to its interaction with the Yellowstone Hotspot, which is currently located in the northwest portion of the region. This study images the LAB along the western and southern borders of the Wyoming Province in order to understand how the region's Archean lithosphere has responded to deformation over time. These results shed light on the inherent strength of Archean cratonic lithosphere in general. We employ two methods for this study: common conversion point (CCP) stacking of S to P receiver functions and teleseismic and ambient Rayleigh wave dispersion. The former is used to image the LAB structure while the latter is used to create a velocity gradient for the region. Results from both of the methods reveal a notably shallower LAB depth to the west of the boundary. The shallower LAB west of the Wyoming Province is interpreted to be a result of lithospheric thinning due to the region's interaction with the Yellowstone Hotspot and post-Laramide deformation and extension of the western United States. We interpret the deeper LAB east of the boundary to be evidence for the Wyoming Province's resistance to lithospheric deformation from the hotspot and tectonic processes. CCP images across the Cheyenne Belt also reveal a shallower LAB under the western

  7. Biostratigraphy and geochronology of the late Cenozoic of Córdoba Province (central Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, Laura Edith

    2013-03-01

    In the last twenty years, several geological and stratigraphical studies have been undertaken in Córdoba Province, and they have provided useful bases for biostratigraphic work in the late Cenozoic. However, paleontological contributions have been limited to preliminary analyses of mammal assemblages, or specific discoveries. The aim of this work is to contribute to biostratigraphic knowledge of Argentina through the study of late Cenozoic mammals from Córdoba Province. Five localities have been analyzed: San Francisco, Miramar, Río Cuarto, Isla Verde, and Valle de Traslasierra. Through biostratigraphic analysis the first records of several taxa were established, and mammal assemblages with the description and correlation of the sedimentary strata were confirmed. Finally, three Assemblage Zones (Biozonas de Asociación) were proposed: 1) Neosclerocalyptus paskoensis-Equus (Amerhippus) assemblage zone with type area and profile based on the San Francisco locality, referred to the Lujanian (late Pleistocene-early Holocene), and comparable to the Equus (Amerhippus) neogeus Biozone of Buenos Aires Province; 2) Neosclerocalyptus ornatus-Catonyx tarijensis assemblage zone with type area and profile based on the San Francisco locality, referred to the Ensenadan (early Pleistocene) and comparable to the Mesotherium cristatum Biozone of Buenos Aires Province, and 3) Nonotherium hennigi-Propanochthus bullifer assemblage zone with type area and profile based on the Los Sauces river, Valle de Traslasierra, referred to the Montehermosan-Chapadmalalan interval (Pliocene), and comparable to the Trigodon gaudryi, Neocavia depressidens and/or Paraglyptodon chapadmalensis Biozones of Buenos Aires Province.

  8. Indicators for Environment Health Risk Assessment in the Jiangsu Province of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shujie; Wei, Zhengzheng; Liu, Wenliang; Yao, Ling; Suo, Wenyu; Xing, Jingjing; Huang, Bingzhao; Jin, Di; Wang, Jiansheng

    2015-09-01

    According to the framework of "Pressure-State-Response", this study established an indicator system which can reflect comprehensive risk of environment and health for an area at large scale. This indicator system includes 17 specific indicators covering social and economic development, pollution emission intensity, air pollution exposure, population vulnerability, living standards, medical and public health, culture and education. A corresponding weight was given to each indicator through Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Comprehensive risk assessment of the environment and health of 58 counties was conducted in the Jiangsu province, China, and the assessment result was divided into four types according to risk level. Higher-risk counties are all located in the economically developed southern region of Jiangsu province and relatively high-risk counties are located along the Yangtze River and Xuzhou County and its surrounding areas. The spatial distribution of relatively low-risk counties is dispersive, and lower-risk counties mainly located in the middle region where the economy is somewhat weaker in the province. The assessment results provide reasonable and scientific basis for Jiangsu province Government in formulating environment and health policy. Moreover, it also provides a method reference for the comprehensive risk assessment of environment and health within a large area (provinces, regions and countries). PMID:26371016

  9. Petroleum potential of the Amu Dar`ya Province, Western Uzbekistan and Eastern Turkmenistan

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, J.W.

    1995-05-01

    The Amu Dar`ya gas-oil province coincides with a Mesozoic and Cenozoic sag basin that developed on an intermontane depression filled largely by Permian-Triassic redbeds and volcanics. The stratigraphic section of the basin is divided into two parts by an extensive evaporite deposit of Kimmeridgian age. The section below the evaporite consists of Lower-Middle Jurassic clastic rocks overlain by reef-bearing carbonate rocks of Callovian and Oxfordian age. The upper Jurassic and Cretaceous-Paleogene section consists largely of clastic rocks. Structurally the province is a mosaic of highs and lows controlled by basement faults. The Kimmeridgian evaporite is a regional seal for numerous pools in the Callovian-Oxfordian carbonate rocks. In the border areas of the province where the evaporite is not present, the hydrocarbons have migrated farther upward to collect in Lower Cretaceous traps. Prospects for further discovery are excellent in most parts of the province, but are particularly favorable in carbonate reef buildups in the southeastern part of the province. 18 refs., 6 figs.

  10. U-series concentration in surface and ground water resources of Ardabil province.

    PubMed

    Hadad, Kamal; Doulatdar, Reza

    2008-01-01

    Hundred and sixteen water resources including springs, wells, rivers and lakes in Ardabil province, northwest of Iran, were sampled and analyzed. The analysis included chemical analyses, (222)Rn and (226)Ra levels as well as total Uranium contents. (222)Rn levels were determined only for hot springs. The concentrations of Radium and Uranium in all water resources of Ardabil province were determined by the collector chamber and fluorimetric methods, respectively. The Radium and Uranium concentrations ranged from 2.0 to 300 mBq L(-1) and from 1.4 to 280 ppb, respectively. Furthermore, the annual effective dose varied between 8 and 47 microS y(-1). The reason for variations of Radium and Uranium concentration is the diverse geological structures in Ardabil province. The aim of this study was to determine the level of natural radioactivity in all water resources of the Ardabil province and whether this radiation causes any danger to health. The hot springs were found to have high level of activities and some water resources in Meshkin-Shahr city had the highest activities among other cities in Ardabil province.

  11. Natural and artificial radioactivity distribution in soil of Fars Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Faghihi, R; Mehdizadeh, S; Sina, S

    2011-04-01

    Fars province is a large populated large province located in the southwest of Iran. This work presents a study of natural and radioactivity levels in soil samples of this province. For this purpose, 126 samples were gathered from different regions of the province and analysed by gamma spectroscopy to quantify radioactivity concentrations of radionuclides using a high-purity germanium detector and spectroscopy system. The results of this investigation show the average concentrations of 271 ± 28 Bq kg(-1), 6.37 ± 0.5 Bq kg(-1), 14.9 ± 0.9 Bq kg(-1) and 26.3 ± 1.9 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K, (137)Cs, (232)Th and (238)U in soil, respectively. Finally, baseline maps were established for the concentrations of each of the radionuclides in different regions. The absorbed dose rate and the annual effective dose (AED) were also calculated for the radionuclides according to the guidelines of UNSCEAR 2000. The average AED from the radioactivity content of soil in this province was found to be 39.9 ± 1.8 μSv.

  12. Prevalence of Balantidium coli infection in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China.

    PubMed

    Yin, De-Ming; Lv, Cong-Cong; Tan, Lei; Zhang, Tie-Niu; Yang, Cheng-Zhi; Liu, Yi; Liu, Wei

    2015-12-01

    Balantidium coli is a cosmopolitan parasitic-opportunistic pathogen that can be found throughout the world. However, little information is available about prevalence of B. coli in pigs in China. In the present study, the prevalence of B. coli in pigs was investigated in Hunan province, subtropical China, between January 2012 and August 2014. A total of 3925 diarrheic fecal samples from nine representative administrative regions in Hunan province, subtropical China, were examined for the presence of B. coli cysts and/or trophozoites using microscopy after sedimentation with water. The overall prevalence of B. coli in pigs was 36.9 % (1450/3925). The present survey revealed high circulation of B. coli in pigs in Hunan province, subtropical China, which poses potential threats to human health. The results of the present investigation have important implications for the control of B. coli infections in pigs in Hunan province, subtropical China. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive report of B. coli prevalence in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China.

  13. [Reserves and spatial distribution characteristics of soil organic carbon in Guangdong Province].

    PubMed

    Gan, Haihua; Wu, Shunhui; Fan, Xiudan

    2003-09-01

    Soil organic carbon is the main part of terrestrial carbon reservoir and important part of soil fertility. The spatial distribution and reserves of soil organic carbon are very important for studying soil carbon cycle. According to the data from the second soil survey, soil organic carbon reserves was estimated and its spatial distribution was analysed by using GIS technique. The results showed that the total amount of soil organic carbon is about 17.52 x 10(8) t. The carbon density of laterite, lateritic red soil and red soil in Guangdong Province is 8.83, 10.31, 9.15 kg.m-2, respectively; lower than the mean carbon density of China. The carbon density of yellow soil and rice soil is 12.08, 12.17 kg.m-2, respectively; higher than the mean carbon density of China. Soil carbon density is about 10.44 kg.m-2 in Guangdong. The spatial distribution characteristic of soil organic carbon density in Guangdong is that the carbon density in south Guangdong Province is higher than that in north Guangdong Province, in that soil organic carbon density in north and middle Guangdong Province is 5-10 kg.m-2 and in east Guangdong Province is 10-15 kg.m-2. Soil organic carbon density mostly vary among 5-15 kg.m-2. PMID:14733007

  14. Indicators for Environment Health Risk Assessment in the Jiangsu Province of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shujie; Wei, Zhengzheng; Liu, Wenliang; Yao, Ling; Suo, Wenyu; Xing, Jingjing; Huang, Bingzhao; Jin, Di; Wang, Jiansheng

    2015-09-07

    According to the framework of "Pressure-State-Response", this study established an indicator system which can reflect comprehensive risk of environment and health for an area at large scale. This indicator system includes 17 specific indicators covering social and economic development, pollution emission intensity, air pollution exposure, population vulnerability, living standards, medical and public health, culture and education. A corresponding weight was given to each indicator through Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Comprehensive risk assessment of the environment and health of 58 counties was conducted in the Jiangsu province, China, and the assessment result was divided into four types according to risk level. Higher-risk counties are all located in the economically developed southern region of Jiangsu province and relatively high-risk counties are located along the Yangtze River and Xuzhou County and its surrounding areas. The spatial distribution of relatively low-risk counties is dispersive, and lower-risk counties mainly located in the middle region where the economy is somewhat weaker in the province. The assessment results provide reasonable and scientific basis for Jiangsu province Government in formulating environment and health policy. Moreover, it also provides a method reference for the comprehensive risk assessment of environment and health within a large area (provinces, regions and countries).

  15. Prevalence of Balantidium coli infection in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China.

    PubMed

    Yin, De-Ming; Lv, Cong-Cong; Tan, Lei; Zhang, Tie-Niu; Yang, Cheng-Zhi; Liu, Yi; Liu, Wei

    2015-12-01

    Balantidium coli is a cosmopolitan parasitic-opportunistic pathogen that can be found throughout the world. However, little information is available about prevalence of B. coli in pigs in China. In the present study, the prevalence of B. coli in pigs was investigated in Hunan province, subtropical China, between January 2012 and August 2014. A total of 3925 diarrheic fecal samples from nine representative administrative regions in Hunan province, subtropical China, were examined for the presence of B. coli cysts and/or trophozoites using microscopy after sedimentation with water. The overall prevalence of B. coli in pigs was 36.9 % (1450/3925). The present survey revealed high circulation of B. coli in pigs in Hunan province, subtropical China, which poses potential threats to human health. The results of the present investigation have important implications for the control of B. coli infections in pigs in Hunan province, subtropical China. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive report of B. coli prevalence in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China. PMID:26318061

  16. [Reserves and spatial distribution characteristics of soil organic carbon in Guangdong Province].

    PubMed

    Gan, Haihua; Wu, Shunhui; Fan, Xiudan

    2003-09-01

    Soil organic carbon is the main part of terrestrial carbon reservoir and important part of soil fertility. The spatial distribution and reserves of soil organic carbon are very important for studying soil carbon cycle. According to the data from the second soil survey, soil organic carbon reserves was estimated and its spatial distribution was analysed by using GIS technique. The results showed that the total amount of soil organic carbon is about 17.52 x 10(8) t. The carbon density of laterite, lateritic red soil and red soil in Guangdong Province is 8.83, 10.31, 9.15 kg.m-2, respectively; lower than the mean carbon density of China. The carbon density of yellow soil and rice soil is 12.08, 12.17 kg.m-2, respectively; higher than the mean carbon density of China. Soil carbon density is about 10.44 kg.m-2 in Guangdong. The spatial distribution characteristic of soil organic carbon density in Guangdong is that the carbon density in south Guangdong Province is higher than that in north Guangdong Province, in that soil organic carbon density in north and middle Guangdong Province is 5-10 kg.m-2 and in east Guangdong Province is 10-15 kg.m-2. Soil organic carbon density mostly vary among 5-15 kg.m-2.

  17. Voluminous silicic eruptions during late Permian Emeishan igneous province and link to climate cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianghai; Cawood, Peter A.; Du, Yuansheng

    2015-12-01

    Silicic eruptive units can constitute a substantive component in flood-basalts-dominated large igneous provinces, but usually constitute only a small proportion of the preserved volume due to poor preservation. Thus, their environmental impact can be underestimated or ignored. Establishing the original volume and potential climate-sensitive gas emissions of silicic eruptions is generally lacking for most large igneous provinces. We present a case study for the ˜260 Ma Emeishan province, where silicic volcanic rocks are a very minor component of the preserved rock archive due to extensive erosion during the Late Permian. Modal and geochemical data from Late Permian sandstones derived from the province suggest that silicic volcanic rocks constituted some ˜30% by volume of the total eroded Emeishan volcanic source rocks. This volume corresponds to > 3 ×104 km3 on the basis of two independent estimate methods. Detrital zircon trace element and Hf isotopic data require the silicic source rocks to be formed mainly by fractional crystallization from associated basaltic magmas. Based on experimental and theoretical calculations, these basalt-derived ˜104 km3 silicic eruptions released ˜1017 g sulfur gases into the higher atmosphere and contribute to the contemporaneous climate cooling at the Capitanian-Wuchiapingian transition (˜260 Ma). This study highlights the potentially important impact on climate of silicic eruptions associated with large igneous province volcanism.

  18. High seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Li, Run-Cheng; Liu, Guo-Hua; Cong, Wei; Song, Hui-Qun; Yu, Xing-Long; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-04-01

    Chlamydia spp. are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria, which are responsible for significant public health problems in humans and have major economic impact on animals. In the present study, the seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China, was examined using indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). Antibodies to Chlamydia were detected in 747 of 1,191 (62.7%, 95% CI 60-65.5) serum samples (IHA titer ≥ 1:16). The Chlamydia seroprevalence ranged from 35% (95% CI 25.7-44.4) to 77.1% (95% CI 69.1-85.2) among different regions in Hunan province, and the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.01). In addition, the seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in sows was higher in summer (75.7%, 95% CI 71.3-80) and spring (63.2%, 95% CI 57.5-68.8) than in autumn (56.9%, 95% CI 51.5-62.3) and winter (48.6%, 95% CI 42-55.3), and the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.01). The results of the present investigation indicated the high seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China, which poses a potential risk for human infection with Chlamydia in this province. This is the first report of Chlamydia seroprevalence in sows over the last two decades in Hunan province, subtropical China.

  19. Maternal and child health in Yushu, Qinghai Province, China

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Surmang, Qinghai Province is a rural nomadic Tibetan region in western China recently devastated by the 2010 Yushu earthquake; little information is available on access and coverage of maternal and child health services. Methods A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in August 2004. 402 women of reproductive age (15-50) were interviewed regarding their pregnancy history, access to and utilization of health care, and infant and child health care practices. Results Women's access to education was low at 15% for any formal schooling; adult female literacy was <20%. One third of women received any antenatal care during their last pregnancy. Institutional delivery and skilled birth attendance were <1%, and there were no reported cesarean deliveries. Birth was commonly attended by a female relative, and 8% of women delivered alone. Use of unsterilized instrument to cut the umbilical cord was nearly universal (94%), while coverage for tetanus toxoid immunization was only 14%. Traditional Tibetan healers were frequently sought for problems during pregnancy (70%), the postpartum period (87%), and for childhood illnesses (74%). Western medicine (61%) was preferred over Tibetan medicine (9%) for preventive antenatal care. The average time to reach a health facility was 4.3 hours. Postpartum infectious morbidity appeared to be high, but only 3% of women with postpartum problems received western medical care. 64% of recently pregnant women reported that they were very worried about dying in childbirth. The community reported 3 maternal deaths and 103 live births in the 19 months prior to the survey. Conclusions While China is on track to achieve national Millennium Development Goal targets for maternal and child health, women and children in Surmang suffer from substantial health inequities in access to antenatal, skilled birth and postpartum care. Institutional delivery, skilled attendance and cesarean delivery are virtually inaccessible, and

  20. Formation conditions of the Rudny Altai metallogenic province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, M. S.

    2015-07-01

    The results of previous geological, petrochemical, and metallogenic surveys conducted from the 1960s to the 1990s provide the geological and tectonic basis of this study. The unique mineral deposits of the Rudny Altai metallogenic province were formed in the Middle Paleozoic (S2-C1) at the junction between different structures of the Altai-Mongolian terrane: the Alei-Charysh-Tigirek rift (in the north) with the Korgon-Markakol' island arc and Belaya Uba-Maimyr intra-arc trough (in the southwest). The Rudny Altai structural-formational zone that formed at the junction between these structures evolved as a magmatic arc and was characterized by the formation of granite-greenschist arches, volcanoplutonic magmatism and high heat and fluid flow (greenschist-facies metamorphism of Upper Silurian-Upper Devonian rocks and deposition of pyrite-bearing hydrothermal-sedimentary horizons, VMS and copper-VMS deposits and isolated base-metal ore bodies). The tectonomagmatic history of the Rudny Altai zone can be subdivided into several stages: Ludlow-Emsian, Late Emsian-Givetian, Frasnian-Early Famennian, Middle Famennian-Early Visean, and Late Visean-Serpukhovian. The island arc is represented by volcanic rocks of the andesite-dacite-rhyolite (early stage), basalt-rhyolite (Late Emsian-Eifelian), and basalt-andesite-rhyolite series (Late Visean). Volcanosedimentary strata (until the Givetian age) and turbidites up to 3-5 km thick were deposited in the interarc trough. Because of their metastable behavior, the volcanic rocks became actively involved in ion-exchange reactions with the formational waters, whereas the differences in hydraulic head between arches and troughs created favorable conditions for the transport of the metamorphic fluids, and the thermal gradient promoted thermodiffusion of divalent species of Mg, Pb, Zn, Cu, etc. toward the high-temperature zone and development of the high-Mg metamorphic-metasomatic alteration with a VMS-base-metal mineralization. As a

  1. Shaded Relief of South Africa, Northern Cape Province

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Located north of the Swartberg Mountains in South Africa's Northern Cape Province, this topographic image shows a portion of the Great Karoo region. Karoo is an indigenous word for 'dry thirst land.' The semi-arid area is known for its unique variety of flora and fauna. The topography of the area, with a total relief of 200 meters (650 feet), reveals much about the geologic history of the area. The linear features seen in the image are near-vertical walls of once-molten rock, or dikes, that have intruded the bedrock. The dikes are more resistant to weathering and, therefore, form the linear wall-like features seen in the image. In relatively flat arid areas such as this, small changes in the topography can have large impacts on the water resources and the local ecosystem. These data can be used by biologists to study the distribution and range of the different plants and animals. Geologists can also use the data to study the geologic history of this area in more detail.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data

  2. Controlling chromium slag pollution utilising scavengers: a case of Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changhao; Côté, Raymond P

    2015-04-01

    The problem of chromium slag pollution is a great challenge for China. It is now an urgent task for China to take effective measures to eliminate chromium slag pollution. This article examines the case of the treatment of chromium slag in Shandong Province and explores how chromium slag pollution can be eliminated in Shandong Province. It shows that the chromium slag stockpiled by the chemical plants was successfully utilised by local steel companies, who act as 'scavenger companies'. The driving mechanism, seeking a potential 'scavenger company' within the local region and the role of the local government on the case of Shandong Province are discussed. This article concludes that local steel companies can be utilised to effectively and efficiently treat the chromium slag while benefiting the steel companies. The local governments need to play multiple roles in solving the problem of chromium slag pollution. Seeking and identifying 'scavenger companies' within a region could be an important approach to reducing pollution within the region.

  3. Seroprevalence of foot-and-mouth disease in the southern provinces of Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Tum, Sothyra; Robertson, Ian Ducan; Edwards, John; Abila, Ronello; Morzaria, Subhash

    2015-03-01

    A serological surveillance study was conducted between March and June 2006 in the southern provinces of Cambodia to determine the prevalence and distribution of foot-and-mouth disease. Cattle and buffalo originating from eight provinces and 69 villages were sampled. The results revealed that the village level prevalence of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in the southern provinces of Cambodia was 87% with an overall individual animal prevalence of 30%. Three serotypes: O, A and Asia 1 were detected in this region with a prevalence of 28.5, 9.5 and 9.3%, respectively. However, as the antibody level to FMDV serotypes A and Asia 1 were generally low, it is likely that serotype O is responsible for most of the recent outbreaks of FMD in Cambodia. Seropositive animals were older than seronegative animals, especially with serotype O.

  4. Petroleum geology and resources of the Baykit High province, East Siberia, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2001-01-01

    The Baykit High province consists of two principal structural units?the Baykit regional high in the west, which occupies most of the province, and the Katanga structural saddle in the east. The province is on the western margin of the Siberian craton east of theYenisey Ridge foldbelt. The province is an exploration frontier and only a few prospects have been drilled. The oldest sedimentary rocks of the province, Riphean carbonate and clastic strata of Late Proterozoic age (1,650?650 million years old) that were deposited on the passive margin, cover the Archean?Lower Proterozoic basement. Basal Vendian (uppermost Proterozoic, 650?570 million years old) clastic rocks unconformably overlie various units of the Riphean and locally lie directly on the basement. Younger Vendian and lowermost Cambrian rocks are primarily dolomites. The Vendian/Cambrian boundary is con-formable, and its exact stratigraphic position has not been identified with certainty. The Lower Cambrian section is thick, and it consists of alternating beds of dolomite and evaporites (mostly salt). Middle and Upper Cambrian strata are composed of shale and dolomite. Ordovician-Silurian and upper Paleozoic rocks are thin, and they are present only in the northern areas of the province. Structural pattern of Riphean rocks differs substantially from that of Vendian-Cambrian rocks. A single total petroleum system (TPS) was identified in the Baykit High province. Discovered oil of the system is chiefly concentrated in Riphean carbonate reservoirs of the Yurubchen-Tokhom zone that is currently being explored and that has the Abstract 1 potential to become a giant field (or group of fields). The TPS also contains about 5 trillion cubic feet of discovered recover-able gas in clastic reservoir rocks at the base of the Vendian section. Petroleum source rocks are absent in the stratigraphic succession over most of the TPS area. Riphean organic-rich shales and carbonates that crop out in the Yenisey Ridge foldbelt

  5. Mine Land Reclamation and Eco-Reconstruction in Shanxi Province I: Mine Land Reclamation Model

    PubMed Central

    Bing-yuan, Hao; Li-xun, Kang

    2014-01-01

    Coal resource is the main primary energy in our country, while Shanxi Province is the most important province in resource. Therefore Shanxi is an energy base for our country and has a great significance in energy strategy. However because of the heavy development of the coal resource, the ecological environment is worsening and the farmland is reducing continuously in Shanxi Province. How to resolve the contradiction between coal resource exploitation and environmental protection has become the imperative. Thus the concept of “green mining industry” is arousing more and more attention. In this assay, we will talk about the basic mode of land reclamation in mine area, the engineering study of mine land reclamation, the comprehensive model study of mine land reclamation, and the design and model of ecological agricultural reclamation in mining subsidence. PMID:25050398

  6. Analysis of the Spatiotemporal Characteristics of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome in Hubei Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, H.; Ge, L.; Song, L.; Zhao, Q.

    2015-07-01

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome(HFRS) is a worldwide fulminant infectious disease. Since the first HFRS cases in Hubei Province were reported in 1957, the disease has spread across the province and Hubei has become one of seriously affected areas in China. However, the epidemic characteristics of HFRS are still not entirely clear. Therefore, a systematic investigation of spatial and temporal distribution pattern of HFRS system is needed. In order to facilitate better prevention and control of HFRS in Hubei Province, in this paper, a GIS spatiotemporal analysis and modeling tool was developed to analyze the spatiotemporal dynamics of the HFRS epidemic, as well as providinga comprehensive examination the dynamic pattern of HFRS in Hubei over the past 30 years (1980-2009), to determine spatiotemporal change trends and the causes of HFRS. This paper describes the experiments and their results.

  7. Water and food security in China: virtual water trade associated with crop trade between Chinese provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalin, C.; Hanasaki, N.; Qiu, H.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.

    2013-12-01

    China's water resources are under increasing pressure from socio-economic development, diet shifts and climate change. Water availability presents a significant spatial heterogeneity in the country. We use a general equilibrium welfare model and a linear programming optimization to model inter-provincial crop trade in China. We combine these trade simulations with province-scale estimates of Virtual Water Content of these crops, from the H08 hydrological model to build the domestic virtual water trade network of China. We find that there is a wide heterogeneity in water-use efficiency among Chines provinces, with a few of the least water efficient provinces using disproportionately high amounts of irrigation water versus rainwater for crop production. We study the food trade patterns and the virtual water flows and savings associated with it.

  8. Present-day deformation across the Basin and Range Province, western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thatcher, W.; Foulger, G.R.; Julian, B.R.; Svarc, J.; Quilty, E.; Bawden, G.W.

    1999-01-01

    The distribution of deformation within the Basin and Range province was determined from 1992, 1996, and 1998 surveys of a dense, 800-kilometer- aperture, Global Positioning System network, Internal deformation generally follows the pattern of Holocene fault distribution and is concentrated near the western extremity of the province, with lesser amounts focused near the eastern boundary. Little net deformation occurs across the central 500 kilometers of the network in western Utah and eastern Nevada. Concentration of deformation adjacent to the rigid Sierra Nevada block indicates that external plate-driving forces play an important role in driving deformation, modulating the extensional stress field generated by internal buoyancy forces that are due to lateral density gradients and topography near the province boundaries.

  9. Mine land reclamation and eco-reconstruction in Shanxi province I: mine land reclamation model.

    PubMed

    Bing-yuan, Hao; Li-xun, Kang

    2014-01-01

    Coal resource is the main primary energy in our country, while Shanxi Province is the most important province in resource. Therefore Shanxi is an energy base for our country and has a great significance in energy strategy. However because of the heavy development of the coal resource, the ecological environment is worsening and the farmland is reducing continuously in Shanxi Province. How to resolve the contradiction between coal resource exploitation and environmental protection has become the imperative. Thus the concept of "green mining industry" is arousing more and more attention. In this assay, we will talk about the basic mode of land reclamation in mine area, the engineering study of mine land reclamation, the comprehensive model study of mine land reclamation, and the design and model of ecological agricultural reclamation in mining subsidence.

  10. PREVALENCE OF DEMODEX ECTOPARASITES AMONG HUMANS IN ORDU PROVINCE IN TURKEY.

    PubMed

    Karaman, Ülkü; Kolören, Zeynep; Enginyurt, Özgür; Çolak, Cemil

    2016-03-01

    Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis are common ectoparasites in humans. Demodex parasite infestations have not been determined in the province of Ordu. We determined the prevalence of Demodex species among humans in Ordu Provience, Turkey. Seven hundred ninety-nine subjects (438 males and 361 females) aged ≥ 18 years living in the central districts of Ordu Province, Turkey, were selected using the World Health Organization cluster sampling method. A superficial skin biopsy of the face was obtained from each subject. Six hundred sixty-nine subjects (83.7%) had a Demodex parasite. Factors significantly associated with the presence of Demodex infestation were: female gender, employment in the private sector, people who only occasionally wash their face and district of residence. Since Demodex ectoparasites were common in Ordu Province, it is suggested that the diagnosis and treatment of this ectoparasite should be carried out in the hospitals of this region.

  11. Spatial analysis of dengue fever in Guangdong Province, China, 2001-2006.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunxiao; Liu, Qiyong; Lin, Hualiang; Xin, Benqiang; Nie, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Guangdong Province is the area most seriously affected by dengue fever in China. In this study, we describe the spatial distribution of dengue fever in Guangdong Province from 2001 to 2006 with the objective of informing priority areas for public health planning and resource allocation. Annualized incidence at a county level was calculated and mapped to show crude incidence, excess hazard, and spatial smoothed incidence. Geographic information system-based spatial scan statistics was conducted to detect the spatial distribution pattern of dengue fever incidence at the county level. Spatial scan cluster analyses suggested that counties around Guangzhou City and Chaoshan Region were at increased risk for dengue fever (P < .01). Some spatial clusters of dengue fever were found in Guangdong Province, which allowed intervention measures to be targeted for maximum effect.

  12. Magnetic anomalies in East Antarctica: a window on major tectonic provinces and their boundaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Golynsky, A.V.

    2007-01-01

    An analysis of aeromagnetic data compiled within the Antarctic Digital Magnetic Anomaly Project (ADMAP) yields significant new insight into major tectonic provinces of East Antarctica. Several previously unknown crustal blocks are imaged in the deep interior of the continent, which are interpreted as cratonic nuclei. These cratons are fringed by a large and continuous orogenic belt between Coats Land and Princess Elizabeth Land, with possible branches in the deeper interior of East Antarctica. Most of the crustal provinces and boundaries identified in this study are only in part exposed. More detailed analyses of these crustal provinces and their tectonic boundaries would require systematic acquisition of additional high-resolution magnetic data, because at present the ADMAP database is largely inadequate to address many remaining questions regarding Antarctica’s tectonic evolution.

  13. Mine land reclamation and eco-reconstruction in Shanxi province I: mine land reclamation model.

    PubMed

    Bing-yuan, Hao; Li-xun, Kang

    2014-01-01

    Coal resource is the main primary energy in our country, while Shanxi Province is the most important province in resource. Therefore Shanxi is an energy base for our country and has a great significance in energy strategy. However because of the heavy development of the coal resource, the ecological environment is worsening and the farmland is reducing continuously in Shanxi Province. How to resolve the contradiction between coal resource exploitation and environmental protection has become the imperative. Thus the concept of "green mining industry" is arousing more and more attention. In this assay, we will talk about the basic mode of land reclamation in mine area, the engineering study of mine land reclamation, the comprehensive model study of mine land reclamation, and the design and model of ecological agricultural reclamation in mining subsidence. PMID:25050398

  14. PREVALENCE OF DEMODEX ECTOPARASITES AMONG HUMANS IN ORDU PROVINCE IN TURKEY.

    PubMed

    Karaman, Ülkü; Kolören, Zeynep; Enginyurt, Özgür; Çolak, Cemil

    2016-03-01

    Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis are common ectoparasites in humans. Demodex parasite infestations have not been determined in the province of Ordu. We determined the prevalence of Demodex species among humans in Ordu Provience, Turkey. Seven hundred ninety-nine subjects (438 males and 361 females) aged ≥ 18 years living in the central districts of Ordu Province, Turkey, were selected using the World Health Organization cluster sampling method. A superficial skin biopsy of the face was obtained from each subject. Six hundred sixty-nine subjects (83.7%) had a Demodex parasite. Factors significantly associated with the presence of Demodex infestation were: female gender, employment in the private sector, people who only occasionally wash their face and district of residence. Since Demodex ectoparasites were common in Ordu Province, it is suggested that the diagnosis and treatment of this ectoparasite should be carried out in the hospitals of this region. PMID:27244957

  15. Deep seismic refraction experiment in northeast Brazil: New constraints for Borborema province evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Marcus Vinicius A. G. de; Berrocal, Jesus; Soares, José E. P.; Fuck, Reinhardt A.

    2015-03-01

    The Borborema Province of northeastern Brazil is a major Proterozoic crustal province that, until now, has never been explored using deep crustal seismic methods. Here are reported the first results obtained from a high-quality seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profile that has defined the internal seismic velocity structure and thickness of the crust in this region. Almost 400 recording stations were deployed in the Deep Seismic Refraction (DSR) experiment through an NW-SE ca. 900 km linear array and 19 shots were exploded at every 50 km along the line. Data from the 10 southeastern most shots of the seismic profile were processed in this work. The main features and geological structures crossed by the studied portion of the profile belong to the so-called Central Sub-province of the Borborema tectonic province. The crustal model obtained is compatible with a typical structure of extended crust. The model was essentially divided into three layers: upper crust, lower crust, and a half-space represented by the shallower portion of the mantle. The Moho is an irregular interface with depth ranging between 31.7 and 34.5 km, and beneath the Central Sub-province it varies from 31.5 to 33 km depth, where its limits are related to major crustal discontinuities. The distribution of velocities within the crust is heterogeneous, varying vertically from 5.7 to 6.3 km/s in the upper crust and from 6.45 to 6.9 km/s in the lower crust. From the average crustal velocity distribution it is evident that the Central Sub-province has seismic characteristics different from neighboring domains. The crust is relatively thin and crustal thickness variations in the profile are subtle due to stretching that occurred in the Cretaceous, during the fragmentation of Pangaea, opening of the South Atlantic Ocean and separation of South America from Africa.

  16. The Epidemic Characteristics and Changing Trend of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome in Hubei Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi-Hui; Ge, Liang; Liu, Li; Huo, Xi-Xiang; Xiong, Hai-Rong; Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Liu, Dong-Ying; Luo, Fan; Li, Jin-Lin; Ling, Jia-Xin; Chen, Wen; Liu, Jing; Hou, Wei; Zhang, Yun; Fan, Hong; Yang, Zhan-Qiu

    2014-01-01

    Background Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is caused by different hantaviruses within the Bunyaviridae family. HFRS is a fulminant, infectious disease that occurs worldwide and is endemic in all 31 provinces of China. Since the first HFRS case in Hubei Province was reported in 1957, the disease has spread across the province and Hubei has become one of the seriously affected areas in China with the greatest number of reported HFRS cases in the 1980's. However, the epidemic characteristics of HFRS in Hubei are still not entirely clear and long-term, systematic investigations of this epidemic area have been very limited. Methods The spatiotemporal distribution of HFRS was investigated using data spanning the years 1980 to 2009. The annual HFRS incidence, fatality rate and seasonal incidence between 1980 and 2009 were calculated and plotted. GIS-based spatial analyses were conducted to detect the spatial distribution and seasonal pattern of HFRS. A spatial statistical analysis, using Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic, was performed to identify clustering of HFRS. Results A total of 104,467 HFRS cases were reported in Hubei Province between 1980 and 2009. Incidence of and mortality due to HFRS declined after the outbreak in 1980s and HFRS cases have been sporadic in recent years. The locations and scale of disease clusters have changed during the three decades. The seasonal epidemic pattern of HFRS was characterized by the shift from the unimodal type (autumn/winter peak) to the bimodal type. Conclusions Socioeconomic development has great influence on the transmission of hantaviruses to humans and new epidemic characteristics have emerged in Hubei Province. It is necessary to reinforce preventative measures against HFRS according to the newly-presented seasonal variation and to intensify these efforts especially in the urban areas of Hubei Province. PMID:24658382

  17. The development and practices of Strategic Environmental Assessment in Shandong Province, China

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Shujun; Liu Jian; Ren Lijun; Zhang Kai; Wang Renqing

    2009-11-15

    Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), a newly-developed decision-making support tool, has been used in many developed and developing countries for predicting and evaluating potential environmental impact of policies, plans, and programs (PPPs), as well as for providing alternatives to avoid, mitigate, or compensate for these impacts. Unfortunately, due to the complexity and flexibility of SEA, to date there has been no consensus on a system which could be suitable for the contexts of different regions or countries. Different requirements and practices are observed in the different typical stages of SEA. Controversial areas include the appropriate indicators to apply in the early baseline setting stage, suitable methodologies for the impact assessment, and appropriate procedures for the SEA process. Given this, it is important to review and refine the SEA system specific to the context but informed by internationally agreed norms. As an illustration, this study reviews and proposes steps to refine the SEA system in Shandong Province, an economically powerful province of China, aiming to achieve sustainable development. Supported by the Environmental Impact Assessment Law of the People's Republic of China, Shandong Province employed SEA to reform the traditionally economy-oriented decision-making and incorporate consideration of environmental consequences into government deliberation on proposed PPPs. This paper illustrates the developmental process, procedures, and legal support for SEA in Shandong Province. By analyzing five SEA cases carried out by Shandong Province Environment Protection Bureau (SEPB) and Shandong University, problems in the SEA system were identified, and recommendations were made for improving the SEA system not only in Shandong Province but also other similar regions or countries.

  18. Incidence, mortality and survival of female breast cancer during 2003-2011 in Jiangsu province, China

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xinran; Han, Renqiang; Zhou, Jinyi; Yu, Hao; Yang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the incidence, mortality and survival status of female breast cancer in Jiangsu province of China. Methods Population-based cancer registry data in Jiangsu province were collected during 2003-2011. Crude rates, age-specific rates, age-standardized rates and annual percent changes of incidence and mortality were calculated to describe the epidemiologic characteristics and time trends. Patients diagnosed from 2003 to 2005 were chosen for analyzing the survival status of breast cancer. Results From 2003 to 2011, 17,605 females were diagnosed with breast cancer and 4,883 died in selected registry areas in Jiangsu province. The crude incidence rate was 25.18/100,000, and the age-standardized rates by Chinese population (ASRC) and by world population (ASRW) were 19.03/100,000 and 17.92/100,000, respectively. During the same period, the crude mortality rate was 6.98/100,000 and the ASRC and ASRW were 4.93/100,000 and 4.80/100,000, respectively. From 2003 to 2011, the incidence and mortality increased with annual percent change of 11.37% and 5.78%, respectively. For survival analysis, 1,392 patients in 7 areas were identified in 2003-2005 and finished 5 years of follow-up. Survival rates were found to decrease with survival years, the 5-year observed survival rate was 45.9% and the relative survival rate was 52.0%. We also found that the survival rate varied across the province, which was lower in the north and higher in the south of Jiangsu province. Conclusions Breast cancer has become a significant public health problem in Jiangsu province and China. More resources should be invested in primary prevention, earlier diagnosis and better health services in order to increase survival rates among Chinese females. PMID:27478317

  19. Prevalence of β-thalassemia trait and abnormal hemoglobins in Sanliurfa Province in southeast Turkey.

    PubMed

    Incebiyik, Adnan; Genc, Ahmet; Hilali, Nese Gul; Camuzcuoglu, Aysun; Camuzcuoglu, Hakan; Kilic, Avni; Vural, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Thalassemia is one of the most common hereditary disorders in Turkey, especially in the Mediterranean region of the country. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of the β-thalassemia (β-thal) trait and abnormal hemoglobins (Hbs) in couples who applied for premarital screening in Sanliurfa Province, in the southeastern region of Turkey, a province with the first reported incidence of β-thal and abnormal Hbs. In the present study, in order to detect the prevalence of the β-thal trait and abnormal Hbs in Sanliurfa Province, Turkey, a total of 37,962 couples who applied for premarital screening were analyzed. From January 2011 through March 2014, red blood cell (RBC) counts and Hb fractionation were carried out by a cell counter and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), respectively. The prevalence of β-thal with high Hb A2 (>3.5%) values was found at rates of 2.44% (n = 1853) in Sanliurfa Province. Additionally, the abnormal Hb rate was 1.57% (1193/75,924), and Hb S (HBB: c.20T > A), Hb C (HBB: c.19G > A) and Hb D-Punjab (HBB: c.364G > C) were reported as 0.50, 0.38 and 0.69, respectively. This study is the first to establish the frequency of β-thal and abnormal Hbs in Sanliurfa Province, which has the highest birth frequency. We report that the frequency of the β-thal trait is at a high-risk level compared to other cities in Turkey. Due to the high risk of β-thal in Sanliurfa Province, a premarital screening program would be of great value in informing parents about offspring with β-thal.

  20. Spread of Phlebotominae in temperate climates: province of Córdoba, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Visintin, Andrés Mario; Beranek, Mauricio Daniel; Amieva, Maria José; Rosa, Juan Ramón; Almirón, Walter Ricardo; Salomón, Oscar Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We report the presence of the competent vector for Leishmania spp, Migonemyia migonei, and the Evandromyia cortelezzii-sallesi complex south of its known distribution in the central temperate region of Argentina, in the province of Córdoba. The persistence of this phlebotomine in the northern border of the province, its association with a case of cutaneous leishmaniasis, and the new record in the outskirts of the city of Córdoba, the second most populated in the country, strengthens the need for regular vector surveillance and a case detection-sensitive health system in vulnerable regions, even in temperate climates.

  1. Evaluation of comprehensive environmental effect about coastal zone development activities in Liaoning Province and management advice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Wei; Cai, Yue-Yin; Sun, Yong-Guang; Ma, Hong-Wei

    2015-07-01

    Using spatial analysis function of Arcgis software, the present study investigated the building environment impact evaluation index system of coastal development in Liaoning Province. The factors of it included of current state of environmental quality, environmental impact of marine development and marine environmental disaster. Weighted factor analysis and comprehensive index method were utilized. At the end, comprehensive environment effect of coastal development in Liaoning Province were evaluated successfully. The result showed that the environmental effect of development activity were most serious, along the Zhao Jiatun coast in north of Zhimao bay and coast of Mianhua island in Dalian bay.

  2. Assessment of Undiscovered Petroleum Resources of the Laptev Sea Shelf Province, Russian Federation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, Timothy R.

    2007-01-01

    The Laptev Sea Shelf Province was assessed for undiscovered crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids/condensates resources (collectively referred to as petroleum) as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Circum-Arctic Oil and Gas Resource Appraisal. Using a geology-based methodology, the USGS estimates the mean undiscovered, conventional petroleum resources in the province to be approximately 9,300 million barrels of oil equivalent, including approximately 3,069 million barrels of crude oil, 32,252 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 861 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  3. Epidemiology of Cyclospora Species in Humans in Malatya Province in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Karaman, Ulku; Daldal, Nilgun; Ozer, Ali; Enginyurt, Ozgur; Erturk, Omer

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cyclospora species are rare among other Coccidia parasites and can cause recurrent gastroenteritis. Cyclospora spp. can infect reptiles, insects, rodents, and mammals. Objectives: The present study aimed to determine the epidemiology of Cyclospora spp. in Malatya province and its neighboring provinces. Patients and Methods: Totally, 2281 stool samples taken from patients with digestive system complaints who referred to the polyclinics affiliated with Inonu University, Faculty of Medicine in Malatya Province and its neighboring provinces, in 2006, and whose stool specimens were submitted to the parasitology department were examined. A questionnaire was developed to determine the epidemiology of Cyclospora spp. in the patients as the dependent variable of the study. All the participants signed an informed written consent. The samples were coated with Entellan™ after staining via acid-fast staining and were examined on an immersion microscope objective. The data are presented as mean, standard deviation, or number/percentage. The chi-square test was used for the statistical analyses. Statistically, a P value < 0.05 was accepted as meaningful. Results: The stool samples were examined via direct microscopic examination and acid-fast staining. Positivity was determined in 129 (5.7%) cases. In the overall assessment of the patients with respect to general body itching, rectal itching, allergy, immunosuppression plus cancer, shortness of breath, ulcerative colitis, diarrhea, abdominal pain, salivation, constipation, nausea, vomiting, growth retardation, and anemia, there was no significant relationship. However, in the statistical evaluations among the positive cases, the difference was found to be significant. Conclusions: The study was conducted in Malatya Province, but patients from the neighboring provinces were also included in the evaluation during the study. Of all the positive cases, 5.6% were those from Malatya Province and its surrounding areas

  4. Evolution of the Early Proterozoic Colorado province: Constraints from U-Pb geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, John C., Jr.; Bickford, M. E.; Premo, Wayne R.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Pallister, John S.

    1987-09-01

    The Colorado province represents an addition of a belt of rocks more than 500 km wide to the southern margin of the Archean Wyoming craton during the Early Proterozoic, between about 1790 and 1660 Ma. Correspondence in ages between metamorphism, deformation, and plutonism; association of volcanic rocks with comagmatic calc-alkalic plutons; and lack of older basement are all consistent with the interpretation that the rocks of the province are products of arc magmatism and cannibalistic sedimentation along a convergent margin at the southern edge of the craton. Note: Additional material for this article is Supplementary Data 8731, available on request from the GSA Documents Secretary (see footnote 1).

  5. Spread of Phlebotominae in temperate climates: province of Córdoba, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Visintin, Andrés Mario; Beranek, Mauricio Daniel; Amieva, Maria José; Rosa, Juan Ramón; Almirón, Walter Ricardo; Salomón, Oscar Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We report the presence of the competent vector for Leishmaniaspp, Migonemyia migonei, and theEvandromyia cortelezzii-sallesi complex south of its known distribution in the central temperate region of Argentina, in the province of Córdoba. The persistence of this phlebotomine in the northern border of the province, its association with a case of cutaneous leishmaniasis, and the new record in the outskirts of the city of Córdoba, the second most populated in the country, strengthens the need for regular vector surveillance and a case detection-sensitive health system in vulnerable regions, even in temperate climates. PMID:26814647

  6. Tertiary structural evolution of the southern Rhodope metamorphic province: a fundamental revision

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dinter, D.

    1994-01-01

    The Rhodope province is conventionally interpreted as a continental fragment that was caught between Apulia and Europe and deformed and metamorphosed in the hinterland of the Hellenic collisional orogen. Geologic mapping in the Strymon Valley region of northeastern Greece augmented by new U-Pb and 40Ar/ 39Ar geochronologic data support an alternative view that the southwestern Rhodope province represents the core of an Alpine collisional orogen that was extended and tectonically unroofed by a succession of three late Cenozoic low-angle normal fault systems that alternated in polarity.

  7. [Population projection and its principal components: the future model of population in the province of Alicante].

    PubMed

    Norman Mora, E

    1994-01-01

    "In this article we analyze the different demographic patterns defining the population in the province of Alicante [Spain]. The behaviour of the demographic factors in the past and in the present is studied here, and a series of models are put into practice in order to foresee the future pattern of population.... The result shows either the effect of a possible ageing in an already aged population, as is the case of the province of Alicante, or what the job market would have to endure if the above mentioned ageing took place, increased by the possibility of an inmigration of an older population." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE)

  8. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic sheep in Liaoning Province, northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Na; Li, Hongkui; He, Jianbin; Mu, Mingyang; Yang, Shuhua

    2013-02-01

    There is a lack of information regarding the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep from northeastern China. In the present study, serum samples from 566 domestic sheep were collected from Liaoning Province, northeastern China, to investigate the prevalence of T. gondii antibodies using an indirect hemagglutination antibody test. Twenty-five of 566 samples (4.4%) were seropositive at the cutoff of 1:64 serum dilution. No difference was found among 6 geographic regions (P > 0.05). This is the first report of T. gondii infection in sheep in Liaoning Province.

  9. The evolution and uptake of a drug information system: the case of a small Canadian province.

    PubMed

    Mensink, Naomi; Paterson, Grace

    2010-01-01

    In 2008 the province of PEI, Canada implemented a province-wide, web-based drug information system for the purpose of improving patient safety. An evaluation study using grounded theory examined the human and workflow impact. Results indicated a need for great attention to the details of change management during implementation, including: ensuring application quality of all informational and technical elements, just-in-time training and technical support, on-site preparation for changed workflow processes, and collaboration among all stakeholders throughout.

  10. Changes in Attitudes, Knowledge and Behavior Associated with Implementing a Comprehensive School Health Program in a Province of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldinger, Carmen; Zhang, Xin-Wei; Liu, Li-Qun; Pan, Xue-Dong; Yu, Sen-Hai; Jones, Jack; Kass, Jared

    2008-01-01

    After successful pilot projects, Zhejiang Province, China, decided to systematically scale-up health promoting schools (HPS) over the entire province of 47 million. This study describes the interventions and self-reported changes in attitudes, knowledge and behavior during the first phase of scaling-up. Group interviews were conducted with a…

  11. Assessment and recommendations for two sites with active and potential aquaculture production in Rift Valley and Coast Provinces, Kenya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Kenya has a long history of local fish consumption. The population in the Lake Victoria area (Rift Valley Province) Northwest of Nairobi and coastal communities (Coast Province) have historically included fish in their diet. Migration from villages to urban areas and increasing commerce has created ...

  12. New records of mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) from Neuquén and La Rioja provinces, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Grech, Marta; Visintin, Andrés; Laurito, Magdalena; Estallo, Elizabet; Lorenzo, Pablo; Roccia, Irene; Korin, Maximiliano; Goya, Facundo; Ludueña-Almeida, Francisco; Almirón, Walter

    2012-04-01

    The presence of Aedes aegypti is reported beyond its current limit of distribution in Argentina, in the city of Neuquén, Neuquén Province. Ovitraps were placed to collect Ae. aegypti eggs between December 2009 and April 2010. The geographical distribution of Culex eduardoi, Psorophora ciliata and Ps. cingulata is extended with new records from two provinces.

  13. East Scandinavian and Noril'sk plume mafic large igneous provinces of Pd-Pt ores: Geological and metallogenic comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrofanov, F. P.; Bayanova, T. B.; Korchagin, A. U.; Groshev, N. Yu.; Malitch, K. N.; Zhirov, D. V.; Mitrofanov, A. F.

    2013-09-01

    This paper compares the geological, geophysical, and isotopic geochemical data on the Paleoproterozoic East Scandinavian Pd-Pt province in the Baltic Shield and the Late Paleozoic Noril'sk Pd-Pt province in the Siberian Craton. Both provinces contain large magmatic PGE deposits: low-sulfide in the Baltic Shield and high-sulfide in the Siberian Craton. Multidisciplinary evidence shows that the East Scandinavian mafic large igneous province, which has a plume nature, is intracratonic and was not subjected to the crucial effect of subduction-related and other contamination processes, whereas the Noril'sk province is pericratonic with substantial crustal contamination of the intrusive processes. Low-sulfide Pd-Pt deposits dominate in the East Scandinavian province, while high-sulfide Ni-Cu-PGE deposits play the leading role in the Noril'sk province. The U-Pb, Sm-Nd, and Rb-Sr isotopic data indicate multistage and long-term (tens of millions of years) geological history of mafic large igneous provinces. The plume magmatism with specific geochemistry and metallogeny is probably related to lower mantle sources.

  14. Factors Influencing Performance among Primary and Secondary School Pupils in Western Province of Kenya: A Policy Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshiwani, George S.

    Analyses of the examination results for the Certificate of Primary Education, the Kenya Certificate of Education, and the Kenya Advanced Certificate of Education showed that academic achievement at the primary and secondary levels in the Western Province of Kenya is very poor, compared to the other provinces. To determine the school factors that…

  15. Petroleum Systems and Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas in the Raton Basin - Sierra Grande Uplift Province, Colorado and New Mexico - USGS Province 41

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higley, Debra K.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The USGS recently completed an assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Raton Basin-Sierra Grande Uplift Province of southeastern Colorado and northeastern New Mexico (USGS Province 41). The Cretaceous Vermejo Formation and Cretaceous-Tertiary Raton Formation have production and undiscovered resources of coalbed methane. Other formations in the province exhibit potential for gas resources and limited production. This assessment is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). The USGS used this geologic framework to define two total petroleum systems and five assessment units. All five assessment units were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered gas resources. Oil resources were not assessed because of the limited potential due to levels of thermal maturity of petroleum source rocks.

  16. Pando Province, Northern Bolivia, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Pando Province, Bolivia, and adjacent parts of Brazil and Peru are seen in this visualization of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation data covering part of the Amazon Basin. Most of this region is covered by tropical rainforest and is still largely unaltered by development, though new roads are providing increased access to the area, leading to changes in the landscape. SRTM data provide the first detailed three-dimensional look at the landforms of this region, and the Amazon Basin in its entirety, and will be particularly helpful in understanding the hydrologic patterns as environmental management becomes increasingly important.

    River drainage across this area flows generally east-northeast away from the nearby Andes Mountains. The most prominent river channels seen here are the Purus River in the northwest (upper left) and the Madre de Dios River, which crosses the south central (lower central) part of this view. The Beni and Mamore Rivers combine with the Madre de Dios in the eastern (right central) area to form the Madeira River, which flows northeast to eventually meet the Amazon River near Manaus.

    The Trans-Amazon Highway crosses the northern half of the scene, and subtle evidence of rainforest clear cutting, facilitated by this easy access, is apparent just north of the scene center, even at the low resolution of this display (740 m or 2428 feet). As seen here, clear cutting patterns in the rainforest typically show a pattern of parallel lines. SRTM mapped the shape of the Earths solid surface (not exclusively the ground surface), which includes to some degree land covers such as forests. Thus, SRTM data are capable of revealing deforestation patterns.

    For a smaller, annotated version of this image, please select Figure 1, below: [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (image size: 184k JPEG)

    A combination of visualization methods was used to produce this image, based on shading and color coding. A shade image was derived by

  17. Arecibo radar imagery of Mars: The major volcanic provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, John K.; Nolan, Michael C.; Husmann, Diana I.; Campbell, Bruce A.

    2012-08-01

    We present Earth-based radar images of Mars obtained with the upgraded Arecibo S-band (λ = 12.6 cm) radar during the 2005-2012 oppositions. The imaging was done using the same long-code delay-Doppler technique as for the earlier (pre-upgrade) imaging but at a much higher resolution (˜3 km) and, for some regions, a more favorable sub-Earth latitude. This has enabled us to make a more detailed and complete mapping of depolarized radar reflectivity (a proxy for small-scale surface roughness) over the major volcanic provinces of Tharsis, Elysium, and Amazonis. We find that vast portions of these regions are covered by radar-bright lava flows exhibiting circular polarization ratios close to unity, a characteristic that is uncommon for terrestrial lavas and that is a likely indicator of multiple scattering from extremely blocky or otherwise highly disrupted flow surfaces. All of the major volcanoes have radar-bright features on their shields, although the brightness distribution on Olympus Mons is very patchy and the summit plateau of Pavonis Mons is entirely radar-dark. The older minor shields (paterae and tholi) are largely or entirely radar-dark, which is consistent with mantling by dust or pyroclastic material. Other prominent radar-dark features include: the "fan-shaped deposits", possibly glacial, associated with the three major Tharsis Montes shields; various units of the Medusae Fossae Formation; a region south and west of Biblis Patera where "Stealth" deposits appear to obscure Tharsis flows; and a number of "dark-halo craters" with radar-absorbing ejecta blankets deposited atop surrounding bright flows. Several major bright features in Tharsis are associated with off-shield lava flows; these include the Olympus Mons basal plains, volcanic fields east and south of Pavonis Mons, the Daedalia Planum flows south of Arsia Mons, and a broad expanse of flows extending east from the Tharsis Montes to Echus Chasma. The radar-bright lava plains in Elysium are

  18. Groundwater quality in the San Diego Drainages Hydrogeologic Province, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    More than 40 percent of California's drinking water is from groundwater. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The San Diego Drainages Hydrogeologic Province (hereinafter referred to as San Diego) is one of the study units being evaluated. The San Diego study unit is approximately 3,900 square miles and consists of the Temecula Valley, Warner Valley, and 12 other alluvial basins (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). The study unit also consists of all areas outside defined groundwater basins that are within 3 kilometers of a public-supply well. The study unit was separated, based primarily on hydrogeologic settings, into four study areas: Temecula Valley, Warner Valley, Alluvial Basins, and Hard Rock (Wright and others, 2005). The sampling density for the Hard Rock study area, which consists of areas outside of groundwater basins, was much lower than for the other study areas. Consequently, aquifer proportions for the Hard Rock study area are not used to calculate the aquifer proportions shown by the pie charts. An assessment of groundwater quality for the Hard Rock study area can be found in Wright and Belitz, 2011. The temperatures in the coastal part of the study unit are mild with dry summers, moist winters, and an average annual rainfall of about 10 inches. The temperatures in the mountainous eastern part of the study unit are cooler than in the coastal part, with an annual precipitation of about 45 inches that occurs mostly in the winter. The primary aquifers consist of Quaternary-age alluvium and weathered bedrock in the Temecula Valley, Warner Valley, and Alluvial Basins study areas, whereas in the Hard Rock study area the primary aquifers consist mainly of fractured and

  19. Lithospheric Evolution of Magmas from the Northern Galapagos Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, M.; Geist, D.; Harpp, K. S.; Mittelstaedt, E. L.

    2010-12-01

    Volcanoes of the Northern Galapagos Providence (NGP) are crucial to understanding the interaction between the Galapagos Plume and the Galapagos Spreading Center (GSC). The NGP consists of five islands and nine volcanic lineaments, all located south of the GSC. Major and trace element compositions of seamounts within the NGP provide insight into the lithospheric evolution of magma within the province. The FLAMINGO cruise (June, 2010) dredged forty-seven localities in the NGP. Major element compositions were determined by XRF and microprobe analysis of submarine rocks and glasses. Crystallization as a function of pressure and temperature is modeled with MELTS and projections into ternary phase diagrams. The Wolf-Darwin Lineament (WDL) is divided into three groups for evaluation of the lavas’ petrology: Northern Wolf-Darwin lineament (that closest to the GSC including Darwin Island), Middle Wolf-Darwin lineament (MWDL, which includes Wolf Island), and Southern Wolf-Darwin lineament (that closest to the Galapagos Platform). Lavas from two other lineaments to the east of the WDL and around Pinta Island are assessed as well. Two parental compositions are modeled, one enriched and one depleted (K2O/TiO2 >0.23 as enriched and K2O/TiO2 =0.04 as depleted). CaO/Al2O3 and Al2O3 variations with Mg# vary considerably as a function of pressure. Magmas from most of the subregions of the NGP evolved by crystallization of olivine and plagioclase, with little CPX crystallization. This indicates that crystallization beneath these volcanoes is limited to pressures < 1 kb. In contrast, some MWDL magmas evolve by extensive crystallization of clinopyroxene-bearing assemblages, and our best pressure estimate is 3 kb. CPX crystallization is most likely due to polybaric crystal fractionation at the MWDL. Some of the NGP glasses are very rich in Al2O3, especially those of the MWDL, which peak at Al2O3 17.0 wt.% at Mg# of 59. The maximum Al2O3 of the other WDL subprovinces is 16.7 wt.%, at

  20. Mantle Redox Conditions in the North Atlantic Igneous Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heister, L. E.; Gras, M. A.; Lesher, C. E.

    2004-12-01

    The North Atlantic igneous province (NAIP) has long been viewed as a region of anomalous mantle upwelling related to plume activity, continental rifting, and a heterogeneous mantle source. Prior to continental rifting in the Tertiary, the northern portion of the region was the site of closure of the Iapetus ocean basin. This tectonic event may have contributed to heterogeneities within the upper mantle and altered its oxidation state relative to the ambient mantle. Vanadium has been shown to be a useful indicator of redox conditions due to its multiple valence states (e.g. [1-2]). In mantle minerals, vanadium becomes increasingly incompatible under more oxidizing conditions [3]. Because both scandium and vanadium are moderately incompatible during melting, the Sc/V ratio of primitive basalts can be used to investigate the oxidation state of the mantle [1-3]. We have examined the Sc/V ratios of primitive lavas from the mid-Atlantic ridge (MAR), Iceland, and the East Greenland margin to determine if there are spatial or temporal variations in the oxidation state of the NAIP mantle. The Sc/V ratios for MAR basalts are 0.13-0.20 (GEOROC chemical database); while Icelandic basalts range from 0.10-0.25 with an average of 0.16 (1 σ =0.05). The entire range of Sc/V ratios of the Paleogene East Greenland basalts is 0.07-0.17 with an average of 0.10 (1 σ = 0.05). The Sc/V ratios of Icelandic basalts are similar to MAR basalts, but the East Greenland lavas are distinctly lower than both the MAR and Iceland. The Sc/V ratio also can vary as a function of mean pressure of melting (i.e. spinel versus garnet lherzolite). To test the relative importance of melting systematics, source composition, and oxygen fugacity on the Sc/V systematics for NAIP basalts, we incorporated the oxygen-fugacity-dependent V mineral-melt partitioning data of [3] into the polybaric decompression melting model REEBOX [4]. The best-fit model parameters for the majority of the Iceland and MAR basalts

  1. Petrogenesis of the Late Cretaceous northern Alberta kimberlite province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eccles, D. Roy; Heaman, Larry M.; Luth, Robert W.; Creaser, Robert A.

    2004-09-01

    and/or basanite. Intra-field geochemical variations are also evident. The K4 pipe (Buffalo Head Hills), and Xena and Kendu pipes (Birch Mountains) are characterized by anomalous concentrations of incompatible elements relative to other northern Alberta kimberlite pipes, including chondrite-normalized rare-earth element distribution patterns that are less fractionated than the other kimberlite samples from the Buffalo Head Hills and Birch Mountains. The Xena pipe has similar major element chemical signatures and high-Al clinopyroxene similar to, or trending towards, the Mountain Lake pipes. In addition, K4 and Kendu have higher 87Sr/ 86Sr and lower ɛNd than Bulk Earth and plot in the bottom right quadrant of the Nd-Sr diagram. We suggest, therefore, that the K4 and Kendu pipes contain a contribution from old, LREE-enriched (low Sm/Nd) lithosphere that is absent from the other kimberlites, are affected by crustal contamination, or both. Based on xenocryst populations, the northern Alberta kimberlite province mantle is dominated by carbonate-saturated lherzolitic mantle. Higher levels of melt depletion characterize the Buffalo Head Hills mantle sample. Despite high diamondiferous to barren pipe ratios in the Buffalo Head Hills pipes, mineral indicators of high diamond potential, such as G10 garnet, diamond inclusion composition chrome spinels and high-sodium eclogitic garnet, are rare.

  2. [Flavivirus seroepidemiology in blood donors in Mersin province, Turkey].

    PubMed

    Tezcan, Seda; Kızıldamar, Serpil; Ulger, Mahmut; Aslan, Gönül; Tiftik, Naci; Ozkul, Aykut; Emekdaş, Gürol; Niedrig, Matthias; Ergünay, Koray

    2014-10-01

    Among the vector-borne flaviviruses, West Nile virus (WNV), tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and Dengue virus (DENV) constitute the most frequently-observed pathogens with significant public health impact in endemic regions throughout the globe. This seroepidemiological study was undertaken to investigate human exposure to DENV, WNV and TBEV, as well as other flaviviruses via various serological assays in the Mediterranean province of Mersin, Turkey, where scarce data is currently present for the circulation of these agent. A total of 920 sera were collected after informed consent from asymptomatic blood donors (all were male; age range: 18-63 yrs, mean age: 35.17 ± 9.56 yrs) were taken between August 2010 and April 2011. All samples were initially screened via a commercial ELISA kit for DENV IgM and IgG. Reactive samples were further evaluated via commercial indirect immunofluorescence tests (IIFTs) for yellow fever virus (YFV) IgG, TBEV IgG and via ELISA for WNV IgG. Moreover, presence of neutralizing antibodies were investigated in all reactive samples via plaque reduction neutralization (PRNT) assay for WNV, whose activity has been detected previously in the region. Samples interpreted as positive for TBEV IgG were further evaluated for specificity by TBEV PRNT assay. DENV IgM reactive samples were also assessed for NS1 antigens and IgM/IgG antibodies via a commercial immunochromatographic assay (ICA). DENV IgM and IgG antibodies were detected in 0.9% (8/920) and 16.6% (153/920) of the samples, respectively. One sample was simultaneously positive for IgM and IgG. WNV PRNT revealed positive results in 85.6% (137/160) of the reactive samples, which indicated frequent WNV exposure and frequent development of cross-reactions in the screening assay. Positive or borderline DENV IgM reactivity was identified in 0.43% (4/920) of the samples, which remained negative for NS1 antigen and antibodies in the ICA. Antibody specificity in two samples, positive for DENV

  3. Genome Sequences of the Novel Porcine Parvovirus 3, Identified in Guangxi Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Hui; Li, Xiangmin; Zhao, Zekai; An, Chunjing; Wan, Peng; Wu, Mengge; Chen, Huanchun

    2016-01-01

    Porcine parvovirus 3 is a novel parvovirus that infects pigs. Here, we report two genome sequences of porcine parvovirus 3 strains GX1 and GX2, which are highly prevalent in Guangxi province. It will help in understanding the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of the porcine parvovirus 3. PMID:26941135

  4. [Ecological security evaluation of Heilongjiang Province with pressure-state-response model].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Wei; Zhao, Qing-liang; Li, Song; Chang, Chein-chi

    2008-04-01

    The ecological security index (ESI) system including 27 indices for Heilongjiang Province was built up with the pressure-state-response (P-S-R) model. The weights of the indices were determined by analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and the ecological security status classification was evaluated by the ESI model for the years of 2000-2005. Then the development trend of ecological security from 2006 to 2010 was forecasted with the grey dynamic model. The results showed that the ecological security ranked the V grade in 2000 and the III grade in 2005, indicating the increase of ecological security. The forecasting results show that the ecological security will be the III grade for 2006, the II grade for 2007-2009, and the I grade for 2010 (ideal security). Thus it can be seen that the ecological security is ascending year by year, and the ecological environment quality is obviously improved with the implementation of eco-province construction since 2000. Through the effective facilitation of eco-province construction etc., the sustainable and healthy development of ecological security will be finally realized in Heilongjiang Province.

  5. Child Sexual Abuse in China: A Study of Adolescents in Four Provinces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, J.; Dunne, M.P.; Han, P.

    2004-01-01

    Objective:: Little is known about Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) in Chinese societies. This study examined CSA experiences and associations with demographic factors, self-reported health and risky behaviors among senior high school students in four provinces in central and northern China. Method:: Students in four schools in Hubei, Henan, Hebei, and…

  6. Total petroleum systems of the Illizi Province, Algeria and Libya; Tanezzuft-Illizi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.

    2000-01-01

    Undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources were assessed within a total petroleum system of the Illizi Province (2056) as part of the U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000. The Illizi Province is in eastern Algeria and a small portion of western Libya. The province and its total petroleum system coincide with the Illizi Basin. Although several total petroleum systems may exist within the Illizi Province, only one ?composite? total petroleum system is identified. This total petroleum system comprises a single assessment unit. The main source rocks are the Silurian Tanezzuft Formation (or lateral equivalents) and Middle to Upper Devonian mudstone. The total petroleum system was named after the oldest major source rock and the basin in which it resides. The estimated means of the undiscovered conventional petroleum volumes in the Tanezzuft-Illizi Total Petroleum System are 2,814 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 27,785 billion cubic feet of gas (BCFG), and 873 million barrels of natural gas liquids (MMBNGL)

  7. A new combination and two varieties of polystigmate Gomphonema (gomphonemaceae bacillariophyta) from Heilongjiang Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yawen; Shi, Zhixin; Bao, Wenmei; Wang, Quanxi

    2004-06-01

    The authors discribed a new polystigmate combination, Gomphonema turris Ehr. var. okamurae (Skv.) Fan et Bao. comb. nov., and two new varieties, Gomphonema turris Ehr. var. latum Fan et Wang. var. nov. and Gomphonema acuminatum var. obtusum Fan et Bao, var. nov., that were distinguished by frustule morphology under LM. The samples were collected from freshwater of Heilongjiang Province, China.

  8. Grammar of Kove: An Austronesian Language of the West New Britain Province, Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is a descriptive grammar of Kove, an Austronesian language spoken in the West New Britain Province of Papua New Guinea. Kove is primarily spoken in 18 villages, including some on the small islands north of New Britain. There are about 9,000 people living in the area, but many are not fluent speakers of Kove. The dissertation…

  9. Characteristics of Imported Malaria and Species of Plasmodium Involved in Shandong Province, China (2012-2014).

    PubMed

    Xu, Chao; Wei, Qing-Kuan; Li, Jin; Xiao, Ting; Yin, Kun; Zhao, Chang-Lei; Wang, Yong-Bin; Kong, Xiang-Li; Zhao, Gui-Hua; Sun, Hui; Liu, Xin; Huang, Bing-Cheng

    2016-08-01

    Malaria remains a serious public health problem in Shandong Province, China; therefore, it is important to explore the characteristics of the current malaria prevalence situation in the province. In this study, data of malaria cases reported in Shandong during 2012-2014 were analyzed, and Plasmodium species were confirmed by smear microscopy and nested-PCR. A total of 374 malaria cases were reported, 80.8% of which were reported from 6 prefectures. Of all cases, P. falciparum was dominant (81.3%), followed by P. vivax (11.8%); P. ovale and P. malariae together accounted for 6.4% of cases. Notably, for the first time since 2012, no indigenous case had been reported in Shandong Province, a situation that continued through 2014. Total 95.2% of cases were imported from Africa. The ratio of male/female was 92.5:1, and 96.8% of cases occurred in people 20-54 years of age. Farmers or laborers represented 77.5% of cases. No significant trends of monthly pattern were found in the reported cases. All patients were in good condition after treatment, except for 3 who died. These results indicate that imported malaria has increased significantly since 2012 in Shandong Province, especially for P. falciparum, and there is an emergence of species diversity. PMID:27658591

  10. [Integrated risk evaluation of multiple disasters affecting longyan yield in Fujian Province, East China].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Jin; Wang, Jia-Yi; Li, Li-Chun; Lin, Jing; Yang, Kai; Ma, Zhi-Guo; Xu, Zong-Huan

    2012-03-01

    In this study, an index system for the integrated risk evaluation of multiple disasters on the Longyan production in Fujian Province was constructed, based on the analysis of the major environmental factors affecting the Longyan growth and yield, and from the viewpoints of potential hazard of disaster-causing factors, vulnerability of hazard-affected body, and disaster prevention and mitigation capability of Longyan growth regions in the Province. In addition, an integrated evaluation model of multiple disasters was established to evaluate the risks of the major agro-meteorological disasters affecting the Longyan yield, based on the yearly meteorological data, Longyan planting area and yield, and other socio-economic data in Longyan growth region in Fujian, and by using the integral weight of risk indices determined by AHP and entropy weight coefficient methods. In the Province, the Longyan growth regions with light integrated risk of multiple disasters were distributed in the coastal counties (except Dongshan County) with low elevation south of Changle, the regions with severe and more severe integrated risk were mainly in Zhangping of Longyan, Dongshan, Pinghe, Nanjin, and Hua' an of Zhangzhou, Yongchun and Anxi of Quanzhou, north mountainous areas of Putian and Xianyou, Minqing, Minhou, Luoyuan, and mountainous areas of Fuzhou, and Fuan, Xiapu, and mountainous areas of Ninde, among which, the regions with severe integrated risk were in Dongshan, Zhangping, and other mountainous areas with high altitudes, and the regions with moderate integrated risk were distributed in the other areas of the Province.

  11. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Warrior Basin Province, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Black Warrior Basin Province Assessment Team: Hatch, Joseph R.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Crovelli, Robert A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2003-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 8.5 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas, a mean of 5.9 million barrels of undiscovered oil, and a mean of 7.6 million barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Black Warrior Basin Province.

  12. Becoming "Neuquino" in Mapuzugun: Teaching Mapuche Language and Culture in the Province of Neuquen, Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szulc, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the sense of belonging promoted by the current program of Educacion Intercultural Bilingue (EIB) of the province of Neuquen for Mapuche children, examining the design and implementation of this program. The analysis reveals how this program reinforces a hegemonic definition of Mapuche identity, which relegates Mapuche culture…

  13. Ethnobotanical studies and economic evaluation of medicinal plants in Taounate province (Northern Morocco).

    PubMed

    El-Hilaly, Jaouad; Hmammouchi, Mohamed; Lyoussi, Badiâa

    2003-06-01

    An ethnobotanical survey was carried out among the Taounate population in Northern Morocco to identify plants used in folk-medicine. Two distinct physiographic regions of the province, populated by two ethnic groups, were surveyed. Extensive investigation undertaken during the past 5 years has brought to light 102 medicinal plants belonging to 48 families. The scientific and vernacular names of plants, their ecological distribution, and the popular uses of the plant, the part of the plant used, the preparation and mode of administration are presented. Plants are widely used in indigenous pharmacopoeia to alleviate the common symptoms of cardiovascular (5.8%), gastrointestinal (24.9%), bronchopulmonary systems (9.8%), urogenital (12.2%) and skin (9.2%) diseases, and other disorders which are often associated with magic. The majority of medicinal plants grow in the wild (61%), while others are cultivated (37%) and some (1.9%) are domesticated. These plants are more abundant in the northern part (62%) of the province where they grow in forested areas. Among the 102 species inventoried, 13(12.7%) medicinal plants are widely commercialized in the region and exploited outside of the province. The data collected from 17 wholesalers, show the income derived from medicinal plants to be about USD 1,826,900 per year. This survey demonstrates that the medicinal plant sector in the province is a promising economic resource for developing this region, but it needs planned exploitation, and that the tribes should continue to master the folk-medicine.

  14. Alignment between High School Biology Curriculum Standard and the Standardised Tests of Four Provinces in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Qun; Liu, Enshan

    2012-01-01

    With the development and implementation of new curriculum standards, the field tests of education reform in senior high schools began in 2004 in four pilot provinces in mainland China. After five years of the reform, it is necessary to know how and to what extent the curriculum standard guides test classroom instruction. The present study was…

  15. Problem Solving Skills of People Doing Sporty Recreation Activities in Karaman Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birol, Sefa Sahan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine the problem solving skills of people who are doing sporty recreation activities in Karaman Province. A total of 143 people participated in this study (51 females and 92 males) Their age mean was 1.2168 ± 0.41350. Problem Solving Inventory, developed by Heppner and Peterson, was used to measure the problem solving…

  16. Assessing the spatial accessibility of hospital care in Sichuan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jay; Liu, Huiran; Wang, Xiuli; Xie, Hongmei; Delamater, Paul L

    2015-01-01

    Regional disparities in geographical access to hospital care are found throughout China. Understanding variations in the spatial accessibility of hospital care has the potential to provide decision support in healthcare planning. This study examines the hospital system in the Sichuan Province in China, which provides healthcare for more than 80 million people. We examine the impacts of accessibility characterisation via the conventional measurement approach by comparing the results to those derived using a floating catchment area approach. Employing a geographical information system based on population and hospital administrative data, we conducted a province-wide study of the spatial accessibility of hospital care in Sichuan Province, China. A shortest-path analysis and the enhanced two-step floating catchment area (E2SFCA) method were implemented. Substantial differences between these two approaches were found, including a roughly 15% difference in the total number of under-served areas. Generally, spatial accessibility was higher in the eastern regions of Sichuan. More than 5.5 million people were found to have limited access, with large variations across the province. These results indicate that the official method used by policy makers in China may not capture the true nature of spatial accessibility throughout the region. We recommend that the E2SFCA method be implemented for health services research in China, providing decision makers with more accurate information when setting healthcare policies.

  17. Decreasing prevalence and time trend of gastroschisis in 14 cities of Liaoning Province: 2006–2015

    PubMed Central

    Li, Na; Chen, Yan-Ling; Li, Jing; Li, Li-Li; Jiang, Cheng-Zhi; Zhou, Chen; Liu, Cai-Xia; Li, Da; Gong, Ting-Ting; Wu, Qi-Jun; Huang, Yan-Hong

    2016-01-01

    To identify trends in the prevalence of gastroschisis on the basis of a large population-based observation study with cases identified by the Liaoning Birth Defects Registry including 14 cities over the course of a 10-year period. Data were obtained from the aforementioned registry which was maintained by the Liaoning Women and Children’s Health Hospital, a comprehensive care institution as well as being responsible for the women’s and children’s health care guidance in this province. Gastroschisis prevalence, percent change, annual percent change (APC), and contribution rates of each city were calculated. We observed 747 cases of gastroschisis among 3,248,954 live births, for a prevalence of 2.30 per 10,000 births. The gastroschisis prevalence significantly decreased by 12.63% per year in Liaoning Province. Although the decreasing trends were observed in all these 14 cities, significant results were only observed in Shenyang (APC = −16.31%), Tieling (APC = −20.23%), and Chaoyang (APC = −13.50%). Notably, Tieling, Shenyang, and Yingkou were the three major cities which contributed almost 37.17% of the decreasing trend of gastroschisis in Liaoning Province. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that the prevalence of gastroschisis has been decreasing during the recent decade among 14 cities in Liaoning Province. PMID:27623985

  18. Seroprevalence of Q Fever, Brucellosis, and Bluetongue in Selected Provinces in Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Douangngeun, Bounlom; Theppangna, Watthana; Soukvilay, Vilayvahn; Senaphanh, Chanthana; Phithacthep, Kamphok; Phomhaksa, Souk; Yingst, Samuel; Lombardini, Eric; Hansson, Eric; Selleck, Paul W; Blacksell, Stuart D

    2016-09-01

    This study has determined the proportional seropositivity of two zoonotic diseases, Q fever and brucellosis, and bluetongue virus (BTV) which is nonzoonotic, in five provinces of Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR) (Loungphabang, Luangnumtha, Xayaboury, Xiengkhouang, and Champasak, and Vientiane Province and Vientiane capital). A total of 1,089 samples from buffalo, cattle, pigs, and goats were tested, with seropositivity of BTV (96.7%), Q fever (1.2%), and brucellosis (0.3%). The results of this survey indicated that Q fever seropositivity is not widely distributed in Lao PDR; however, Xayaboury Province had a cluster of seropositive cattle in seven villages in four districts (Botan, Kenthao, Paklaiy, and Phiang) that share a border with Thailand. Further studies are required to determine if Xayaboury Province is indeed an epidemiological hot spot of Q fever activity. There is an urgent need to determine the levels of economic loss and human health-related issues caused by Q fever, brucellosis, and BTV in Lao PDR.

  19. [Incidence of Toxoplasma gondii infections among children in the Kielce province].

    PubMed

    Patrzałek, M; Sieczko, W; Rezner, A

    1990-01-01

    Toxoplasma antibodies were investigated among 639 children inhabiting the province of Kielce. The percentage of seropositive children appeared high in newborns (58.4), then dropped to 1.48 in one-year-old infants and increased to 17.4 among 6-7 year old children. The percentage was significantly higher among country children.

  20. Provision of Educational Technology at Secondary School Level in North West Frontier Province Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akhtar, Sajjad Hayat

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The study looked into a descriptive research to evaluate the use of educational technology at secondary school level North West Frontier Province (Pakistan). The study has defined the availability, usefulness, problems, emerging trends and status of educational technology. The main focus of the study was the utilization and availability…

  1. The Timan-Pechora Basin province of northwest Arctic Russia; Domanik, Paleozoic total petroleum system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindquist, Sandra J.

    1999-01-01

    The Domanik-Paleozoic oil-prone total petroleum system covers most of the Timan-Pechora Basin Province of northwestern Arctic Russia. It contains nearly 20 BBOE ultimate recoverable reserves (66% oil). West of the province is the early Precambrian Eastern European craton margin. The province itself was the site of periodic Paleozoic tectonic events, culminating with the Hercynian Uralian orogeny along its eastern border. The stratigraphic record is dominated by Paleozoic platform and shelf-edge carbonates succeeded by Upper Permian to Triassic molasse siliciclastics that are locally present in depressions. Upper Devonian (Frasnian), deep marine shale and limestone source rocks ? with typically 5 wt % total organic carbon ? by middle Mesozoic time had generated hydrocarbons that migrated into reservoirs ranging in age from Ordovician to Triassic but most focused in Devonian and Permian rocks. Carboniferous structural inversions of old aulacogen borders, and Hercynian (Permian) to Early Cimmerian (Late Triassic to Early Jurassic) orogenic compression not only impacted depositional patterns, but also created and subsequently modified numerous structural traps within the province.

  2. Perceptions of and Attitudes towards Regional Varieties of Polish: Views from Two Polish Provinces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milobog, Magdalena; Garrett, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a study of perceptions and attitudes relating to regional varieties of Polish. The methodology followed folk linguistic approaches to attitudes research. Respondents in two Polish provinces were asked to draw on a map of Poland where they thought the main regional varieties of Polish were spoken, and then to name and…

  3. Examination of Students' Digital Gaming Habits at Secondary School Level in Elazig Province of Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikail, Tel

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the opinions of the secondary school students on digital games were examined. The research is a screening model research and has a descriptive feature. It was carried out with 521 secondary school students in Elazig (a province in eastern part of Turkey) [MSS1] in 2013. Almost all of the participants use computer. More than half of…

  4. Barriers to health care for Burmese migrants in Phang Nga province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Veerman, Richard; Reid, Tony

    2011-10-01

    The article describes barriers to health care experienced by Burmese migrants in a province of Thailand based on the experience of Medecins Sans Frontieres over the past three years. In addition to the barriers, the article makes suggestions for improving the conditions for the migrant workers.

  5. Infrastructure Availability in the Public Sector Schools: A Case Study of Sindh Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mujahid, Nooreen; Noman, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    This focus of this study is confined to primary and secondary education in Sindh province. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the facilities available at the primary and secondary schools especially within the context of rural and urban areas. This study investigates 48,865 Government schools in terms of efficient and well-organized…

  6. A Survey on Conflict Resolution Mechanisms in Public Secondary Schools: A Case of Nairobi Province, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramani, Ken; Zhimin, Liu

    2010-01-01

    The broad objective of the study was to determine various mechanisms applied in resolving conflicts within public secondary schools in Nairobi province. This study used descriptive and exploratory research design. A sample comprising of principals, representatives of Boards of Governors (BoG's), class teachers, students and education officers was…

  7. Structural provinces of the northeastern Brooks Range, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, W.K.; Hanks, C.L. )

    1990-07-01

    The dominant Cenozoic structures of the northeastern Brooks Range are anticlinoria with cores of sub-Mississippian rocks, reflecting a regional north-vergent duplex with a floor thrust in the sub-Mississippian sequence and a roof thrust in the Mississippian Kayak Shale. The number of horses forming each anticlinorium and the structural style of the overlying Mississippian and younger cover sequence varies regionally, providing a basis for dividing the northeastern Brooks Range into structural provinces. In the western province, each anticlinorium contains a single horse, and shortening above the Kayak Shale was accommodated mainly by detachment folds. To the north in the Sadlerochit Mountains, the Kayak Shale is depositionally discontinuous and rocks elsewhere separated by this detachment deformed together. In the eastern province, each anticlinorium contains multiple horses, and shortening above the Kayak Shale was accommodated largely by thrust duplication of Mississippian through Triassic rocks. In the narrow central province, the Devonian Okpilak batholith was detached from its roots, internally shortened along shear zones and by penetrative strain, and transported northward. Because the Kayak Shale is locally absent, the Mississippian and younger cover sequence deformed in part penetratively along with the batholith. 13 figs.

  8. Challenges to Early Childhood Education in Rural China: Lessons from the Hebei Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Bi Ying; Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth; Leng Ieong, Sylvia Sao; Guo, Haiying

    2016-01-01

    This research study examined the challenges faced by early childhood education (ECE) in rural China based on a qualitative study of 217 kindergarten classrooms in a large agricultural, rural province. This study utilised onsite teacher surveys, interviews, and observational field notes. This investigation's findings revealed important information…

  9. Entrepreneurship Policy for University Students: A Case Study of Zhejiang Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mei, Weihui

    2012-01-01

    Cultivating university students' entrepreneurial skills has become a worldwide common interest. Taking Zhejiang Province, China as a case, this paper firstly analyses the push and the pull forces of cultivating innovative and entrepreneurial talents. Then the contents of Zhejiang's entrepreneurship policy for university students are systematically…

  10. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the North Sakhalin Basin Province, Russia, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Wandrey, Craig J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Cook, Troy A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2011-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable, conventional petroleum resources for the North Sakhalin Basin Province of Russia. The mean volumes were estimated at 5.3 billion barrels of crude oil, 43.8 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 0.8 billion barrels of natural gas liquids.

  11. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Nile Delta Basin Province, Eastern Mediterranean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Cook, Troy A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 1.8 billion barrels of recoverable oil, 223 trillion cubic feet of recoverable gas, and 6 billion barrels of natural gas liquids in the Nile Delta Basin Province using a geology-based assessment methodology.

  12. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of six geologic provinces of China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of undiscovered conventional petroleum resources in six geologic provinces of China at 14.9 billion barrels of oil, 87.6 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1.4 billion barrels of natural-gas liquids.

  13. Characteristics of Imported Malaria and Species of Plasmodium Involved in Shandong Province, China (2012-2014)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chao; Wei, Qing-Kuan; Li, Jin; Xiao, Ting; Yin, Kun; Zhao, Chang-Lei; Wang, Yong-Bin; Kong, Xiang-Li; Zhao, Gui-Hua; Sun, Hui; Liu, Xin; Huang, Bing-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Malaria remains a serious public health problem in Shandong Province, China; therefore, it is important to explore the characteristics of the current malaria prevalence situation in the province. In this study, data of malaria cases reported in Shandong during 2012-2014 were analyzed, and Plasmodium species were confirmed by smear microscopy and nested-PCR. A total of 374 malaria cases were reported, 80.8% of which were reported from 6 prefectures. Of all cases, P. falciparum was dominant (81.3%), followed by P. vivax (11.8%); P. ovale and P. malariae together accounted for 6.4% of cases. Notably, for the first time since 2012, no indigenous case had been reported in Shandong Province, a situation that continued through 2014. Total 95.2% of cases were imported from Africa. The ratio of male/female was 92.5:1, and 96.8% of cases occurred in people 20-54 years of age. Farmers or laborers represented 77.5% of cases. No significant trends of monthly pattern were found in the reported cases. All patients were in good condition after treatment, except for 3 who died. These results indicate that imported malaria has increased significantly since 2012 in Shandong Province, especially for P. falciparum, and there is an emergence of species diversity. PMID:27658591

  14. Spatiotemporal urban land use changes in the Changzhutan Region of Hunan Province in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Changzhutan region in the north-central part of Hunan Province in China has experienced a rapid urbanization in the past few decades that has led to substantial changes in its environment. In 2007, the National Development and Reform Commission of China designated the metropolitan district of Ch...

  15. Anti-Smoking Practice in Hospitals: An Intercept Survey among Patients in Hubei Province, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Dunjin; Yan, Yaqiong; Yu, Huihong; Xia, Qinghua; Yang, Niannian; Zhang, Zhifeng; Zhu, Zhaoyang; Li, Fang; Gong, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine whether, in the opinion of patients selected in 13 hospitals of Hubei province, China, hospitals are smoke free. Patients were also asked whether their physicians had inquired about their smoking status. Design/methodology/approach: Patients were recruited through an intercept method (i.e. stopped by the…

  16. Tourism, Transnationality and Ethnolinguistic Vitality: The Welsh in the Chubut Province, Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ian

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to develop the concept of ethnolinguistic vitality by adopting a qualitative approach to vitality rather than the statistical approach traditionally used. Ten small-size focus group style interviews were held with members of the Welsh-Argentinean community in the Chubut Province in the south of Argentina in order to explore…

  17. Visceral Leishmaniasis in Rural Areas of Alborz Province of Iran and Implication to Health Policy.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Aliehsan; Mohebali, Mehdi; Kabir, Kourosh; Barati, Hojatallah; Soultani, Yousef; Keshavarz, Hossein; Akhoundi, Behnaz; Hajjaran, Homa; Reisi, Hosein

    2015-08-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or kala-azar mainly affects children in endemic areas. This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of VL using direct agglutination test (DAT) in children living in rural districts of Alborz Province located 30 km from Tehran capital city of Iran. Multi-stage cluster random sampling was applied. Blood samples were randomly collected from 1,007 children under 10 years of age in the clusters. A total of 37 (3.7%) of the studied population showed anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies with titers of ≥1:800. There was a significant association between positive sera and various parts of the rural areas of Alborz Province (P<0.002). Two children with anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies titers of ≥1:3,200 indicated kala-azar clinical features and treated with anti-leishmaniasis drugs in pediatric hospital. The findings of this study indicated that Leishmania infection is prevalent in rural areas of Alborz Province. Therefore, it is necessary to increase the awareness and alertness among physicians and public health managers, particularly in high-risk rural areas of the province in Iran.

  18. 75 FR 36347 - Determination of Pest-Free Areas in Mendoza Province, Argentina; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... Argentina asked that we recognize the Southern and Central Oases in the southern half of Mendoza Province as...), we are announcing the Administrator's determination that the Southern and Central Oases in the... determination remains unchanged, we will amend the list of pest-free areas to list Southern and Central Oases...

  19. First survey of helminths in adult goats in Hunan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Ma, J; He, S W; Li, H; Guo, Q C; Pan, W W; Wang, X J; Zhang, J; Liu, L Z; Liu, W; Liu, Y

    2014-06-01

    The objective of the present survey was to reveal the prevalence of helminths in adult goats in Hunan Province, the People's Republic of China. From July 2010 through February 2013, a total of 479 goats slaughtered in local abattoirs and markets were examined for the presence of helminths using a helminthological approach. Eighty-six percent of the examined goats were infected with at least one species of helminths. In total, 15 genera of helminths were found representing 2 phyla, 3 classes, 5 orders, and 11 families. Oesophago-stomum, Ostertagia and Haemonchus were the most prevailing nematode genera, Eurytrema was the predominant trematode genus detected, whereas the infection of adult goats with cestodes was not common, with Cysticercus tenuicollis being the most common genus. The worm burdens showed obvious seasonal variation in that nematodes and cestodes were abundant in summer and winter, and the trematodes peaked in winter, which was consistent with the seasonal precipitation of Hunan Province. The geographical distribution of helminths in goats ascended with altitude. Goats in the mountainous areas were more severely infected with helminths than goats in the hilly areas, whereas infection of goats with helminths was much less in the lake areas. The present investigation highlights the high prevalence of helminths in adult goats in Hunan Province, China, which provides baseline data for assessing the effectiveness of future prevention and controlling measures against helminth infection in adult goats in this province and elsewhere.

  20. [Dynamic changes of ecological footprint and ecological capacity in Fujian Province].

    PubMed

    Weng, Boqi; Wang, Yixiang; Huang, Yibin; Ying, Zhaoyang; Huang, Qinlou

    2006-11-01

    The analysis on the dynamic changes of ecological footprint and ecological capacity in Fujian Province showed that in 1999-2003, the ecological footprint per capita in the Province increased from 1.428 hm2 to 1.658 hm2, while the ecological capacity per capita decreased from 0.683 hm2 to 0.607 hm2, with an increased ecological deficit year after year. The contradiction between the ecological footprint and ecological capacity pricked up gradually, and the ecological environment was at risk. There existed a severe imbalance in the supply and demand of ecological footprint per capita. The main body of the demands was grassland and fossil fuel, accouting for 55.74% - 63.43% of the total, while their supply only occupied 0.77% - 0.82% and next to nothing of the ecological capacity per capita, respectively. As a whole, the ecological footprint per ten thousand yuan GDP declined in the five years, indicating that the resources use efficiency in the Province was improved gradually. Based on the analysis of the present situation of the economic development and resources distribution in the Province, the strategies on reducing ecological deficit were put forward.